Science.gov

Sample records for floral organ abnormalities

  1. Knockdown of NtMed8, a Med8-like gene, causes abnormal development of vegetative and floral organs in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Fengqing; Wei, He; Tong, Zhijun; Zhang, Xiaobo; Yang, Zemao; Lan, Tao; Duan, Yuanlin; Wu, Weiren

    2011-11-01

    Med8, a subunit of mediator complex, has proved to possess crucial functions in many organisms from yeast to human. In plant, the med8 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana displayed delayed anthesis and increased number of leaves during the vegetative period. However, the roles of Med8 in other flowering plants are still unknown. To investigate the function of Med8 ortholog in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.; named as NtMed8), we created transgenic tobacco plants with repressed NtMed8 expression mediated by RNA interference (RNAi). Compared with the wild type, the NtMed8-RNAi plants exhibited: more leaves with smaller but thicker blades; larger cells and vascular bundles with lower stomata density in leaves; swelled chloroplasts with thicker and lumen-enlarged thylakoids; weaker root system with fewer lateral roots; larger flowers and floral organs; flowering earlier under long day, but later under short day conditions; and male sterile with larger but less germinable pollens. In addition, quantitative RT-PCR indicated that NtMed8 is expressed in both vegetative and floral tissues. Subcellular localization analysis by transient expression of fusion protein in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves showed that NtMed8 was located in both plasma membrane and nucleus. These results suggest that NtMed8 plays important roles in both vegetative and reproductive development, and the function of Med8 appears to be, at least partially, conserved in flowering plants.

  2. UFO: an Arabidopsis gene involved in both floral meristem and floral organ development.

    PubMed

    Levin, J Z; Meyerowitz, E M

    1995-05-01

    We describe the role of the UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) gene in Arabidopsis floral development based on a genetic and molecular characterization of the phenotypes of nine ufo alleles. UFO is required for the proper identity of the floral meristem and acts in three different aspects of the process that distinguishes flowers from shoots. UFO is involved in establishing the whorled pattern of floral organs, controlling the determinacy of the floral meristem, and activating the APETALA3 and PISTILLATA genes required for petal and stamen identity. In many respects, UFO acts in a manner similar to LEAFY, but the ufo mutant phenotype also suggests an additional role for UFO in defining boundaries within the floral primordia or controlling cell proliferation during floral organ growth. Finally, genetic interactions that prevent flower formation and lead to the generation of filamentous structures implicate UFO as a member of a new, large, and diverse class of genes in Arabidopsis necessary for flower formation.

  3. UFO: an Arabidopsis gene involved in both floral meristem and floral organ development.

    PubMed Central

    Levin, J Z; Meyerowitz, E M

    1995-01-01

    We describe the role of the UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) gene in Arabidopsis floral development based on a genetic and molecular characterization of the phenotypes of nine ufo alleles. UFO is required for the proper identity of the floral meristem and acts in three different aspects of the process that distinguishes flowers from shoots. UFO is involved in establishing the whorled pattern of floral organs, controlling the determinacy of the floral meristem, and activating the APETALA3 and PISTILLATA genes required for petal and stamen identity. In many respects, UFO acts in a manner similar to LEAFY, but the ufo mutant phenotype also suggests an additional role for UFO in defining boundaries within the floral primordia or controlling cell proliferation during floral organ growth. Finally, genetic interactions that prevent flower formation and lead to the generation of filamentous structures implicate UFO as a member of a new, large, and diverse class of genes in Arabidopsis necessary for flower formation. PMID:7780306

  4. CHIMERIC FLORAL ORGANS1, encoding a monocot-specific MADS box protein, regulates floral organ identity in rice.

    PubMed

    Sang, Xianchun; Li, Yunfeng; Luo, Zengke; Ren, Deyong; Fang, Likui; Wang, Nan; Zhao, Fangming; Ling, Yinghua; Yang, Zhenglin; Liu, Yongsheng; He, Guanghua

    2012-10-01

    The control of floral organ identity by homeotic MADS box genes is well established in eudicots. However, grasses have highly specialized outer floral organs, and the identities of the genes that regulate the highly specialized outer floral organs of grasses remain unclear. In this study, we characterized a MIKC-type MADS box gene, CHIMERIC FLORAL ORGANS (CFO1), which plays a key role in the regulation of floral organ identity in rice (Oryza sativa). The cfo1 mutant displayed defective marginal regions of the palea, chimeric floral organs, and ectopic floral organs. Map-based cloning demonstrated that CFO1 encoded the OsMADS32 protein. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that CFO1/OsMADS32 belonged to a monocot-specific clade in the MIKC-type MADS box gene family. The expression domains of CFO1 were mainly restricted to the marginal region of the palea and inner floral organs. The floral organ identity gene DROOPING LEAF (DL) was expressed ectopically in all defective organs of cfo1 flowers. Double mutant analysis revealed that loss of DL function mitigated some of the defects of floral organs in cfo1 flowers. We propose that the CFO1 gene plays a pivotal role in maintaining floral organ identity through negative regulation of DL expression.

  5. DEFORMED FLORAL ORGAN1 (DFO1) regulates floral organ identity by epigenetically repressing the expression of OsMADS58 in rice (Oryza sativa).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ming; Wang, Yihua; Wang, Yunlong; Wang, Chunming; Ren, Yulong; Lv, Jia; Peng, Cheng; Wu, Tao; Liu, Kai; Zhao, Shaolu; Liu, Xi; Guo, Xiuping; Jiang, Ling; Terzaghi, William; Wan, Jianmin

    2015-06-01

    Floral organ identity in plants is controlled by floral homeotic A/B/C/D/E-class genes. In Arabidopsis thaliana, several epigenetic repressors that regulate these floral organ identity genes have been characterized. However, the roles of epigenetic factors in rice floral development have not been explored in detail. Here, we report the identification and functional characterization of a rice epigenetic repressor, DEFORMED FLORAL ORGAN1 (DFO1) gene, which causes abnormal floral morphology when mutated. We isolated dfo1 by mapping, and confirmed its function by rescue experiments, combined with genetic, cytological and molecular biological analysis. We showed that DFO1 is constitutively expressed and encodes a nuclear-localized protein. Mutation of DFO1 causes the ectopic expression of C-class genes in the dfo1-1 mutant, and overexpression of OsMADS58, a C-class gene, phenocopies the dfo1 mutants. In vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated that DFO1 interacts with the rice polycomb group (PcG) proteins (OsMSI1 and OsiEZ1). Remarkably, trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 27, a mark of epigenetic repression, is significantly reduced on OsMADS58 chromatin in the dfo1-1 mutant. Our results suggest that DFO1 functions in maintaining rice floral organ identity by cooperating with PcG proteins to regulate the H3K27me3-mediated epigenetic repression on OsMADS58. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. A Factor Linking Floral Organ Identity and Growth Revealed by Characterization of the Tomato Mutant unfinished flower development (ufd).

    PubMed

    Poyatos-Pertíñez, Sandra; Quinet, Muriel; Ortíz-Atienza, Ana; Yuste-Lisbona, Fernando J; Pons, Clara; Giménez, Estela; Angosto, Trinidad; Granell, Antonio; Capel, Juan; Lozano, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Floral organogenesis requires coordinated interactions between genes specifying floral organ identity and those regulating growth and size of developing floral organs. With the aim to isolate regulatory genes linking both developmental processes (i.e., floral organ identity and growth) in the tomato model species, a novel mutant altered in the formation of floral organs was further characterized. Under normal growth conditions, floral organ primordia of mutant plants were correctly initiated, however, they were unable to complete their development impeding the formation of mature and fertile flowers. Thus, the growth of floral buds was blocked at an early stage of development; therefore, we named this mutant as unfinished flower development (ufd). Genetic analysis performed in a segregating population of 543 plants showed that the abnormal phenotype was controlled by a single recessive mutation. Global gene expression analysis confirmed that several MADS-box genes regulating floral identity as well as other genes participating in cell division and different hormonal pathways were affected in their expression patterns in ufd mutant plants. Moreover, ufd mutant inflorescences showed higher hormone contents, particularly ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) and strigol compared to wild type. Such results indicate that UFD may have a key function as positive regulator of the development of floral primordia once they have been initiated in the four floral whorls. This function should be performed by affecting the expression of floral organ identity and growth genes, together with hormonal signaling pathways.

  7. A Factor Linking Floral Organ Identity and Growth Revealed by Characterization of the Tomato Mutant unfinished flower development (ufd)

    PubMed Central

    Poyatos-Pertíñez, Sandra; Quinet, Muriel; Ortíz-Atienza, Ana; Yuste-Lisbona, Fernando J.; Pons, Clara; Giménez, Estela; Angosto, Trinidad; Granell, Antonio; Capel, Juan; Lozano, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Floral organogenesis requires coordinated interactions between genes specifying floral organ identity and those regulating growth and size of developing floral organs. With the aim to isolate regulatory genes linking both developmental processes (i.e., floral organ identity and growth) in the tomato model species, a novel mutant altered in the formation of floral organs was further characterized. Under normal growth conditions, floral organ primordia of mutant plants were correctly initiated, however, they were unable to complete their development impeding the formation of mature and fertile flowers. Thus, the growth of floral buds was blocked at an early stage of development; therefore, we named this mutant as unfinished flower development (ufd). Genetic analysis performed in a segregating population of 543 plants showed that the abnormal phenotype was controlled by a single recessive mutation. Global gene expression analysis confirmed that several MADS-box genes regulating floral identity as well as other genes participating in cell division and different hormonal pathways were affected in their expression patterns in ufd mutant plants. Moreover, ufd mutant inflorescences showed higher hormone contents, particularly ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) and strigol compared to wild type. Such results indicate that UFD may have a key function as positive regulator of the development of floral primordia once they have been initiated in the four floral whorls. This function should be performed by affecting the expression of floral organ identity and growth genes, together with hormonal signaling pathways. PMID:27872633

  8. Sterility Caused by Floral Organ Degeneration and Abiotic Stresses in Arabidopsis and Cereal Grains

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Ashley R.; Zhao, Dazhong

    2016-01-01

    Natural floral organ degeneration or abortion results in unisexual or fully sterile flowers, while abiotic stresses lead to sterility after initiation of floral reproductive organs. Since normal flower development is essential for plant sexual reproduction and crop yield, it is imperative to have a better understanding of plant sterility under regular and stress conditions. Here, we review the functions of ABC genes together with their downstream genes in floral organ degeneration and the formation of unisexual flowers in Arabidopsis and several agriculturally significant cereal grains. We further explore the roles of hormones, including auxin, brassinosteroids, jasmonic acid, gibberellic acid, and ethylene, in floral organ formation and fertility. We show that alterations in genes affecting hormone biosynthesis, hormone transport and perception cause loss of stamens/carpels, abnormal floral organ development, poor pollen production, which consequently result in unisexual flowers and male/female sterility. Moreover, abiotic stresses, such as heat, cold, and drought, commonly affect floral organ development and fertility. Sterility is induced by abiotic stresses mostly in male floral organ development, particularly during meiosis, tapetum development, anthesis, dehiscence, and fertilization. A variety of genes including those involved in heat shock, hormone signaling, cold tolerance, metabolisms of starch and sucrose, meiosis, and tapetum development are essential for plants to maintain normal fertility under abiotic stress conditions. Further elucidation of cellular, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms about regulation of fertility will improve yield and quality for many agriculturally valuable crops. PMID:27790226

  9. Mutation at the tomato excessive number of floral organs (ENO) locus impairs floral meristem development, thus promoting an increased number of floral organs and fruit size.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Lozano, Antonia; Yuste-Lisbona, Fernando J; Pérez-Martín, Fernando; Pineda, Benito; Moreno, Vicente; Lozano, Rafael; Angosto, Trinidad

    2015-03-01

    A novel tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) mutant affected in reproductive development, excessive number of floral organs (eno), is described in this study. The eno plants yielded flowers with a higher number of floral organs in the three innermost floral whorls and larger fruits than those found in wild-type plants. Scanning-electron microscopy study indicated that the rise in floral organ number and fruit size correlates with an increased size of floral meristem at early developmental stages. It has been reported that mutation at the FASCIATED (FAS) gene causes the development of flowers with supernumerary organs; however, complementation test and genetic mapping analyses proved that ENO is not an allele of the FAS locus. Furthermore, expression of WUSCHEL (SlWUS) and INHIBITOR OF MERISTEM ACTIVITY (IMA), the two main regulators of floral meristem activity in tomato, is altered in eno but not in fas flowers indicating that ENO could exert its function in the floral meristem independently of FAS. Interestingly, the eno mutation delayed the expression of IMA leading to a prolonged expression of SlWUS, which would explain the greater size of floral meristem. Taken together, results showed that ENO plays a significant role in the genetic pathway regulating tomato floral meristem development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Origin of Floral Organ Identity Quartets.

    PubMed

    Ruelens, Philip; Zhang, Zhicheng; van Mourik, Hilda; Maere, Steven; Kaufmann, Kerstin; Geuten, Koen

    2017-02-01

    The origin of flowers has puzzled plant biologists ever since Darwin referred to their sudden appearance in the fossil record as an abominable mystery. Flowers are considered to be an assembly of protective, attractive, and reproductive male and female leaf-like organs. Their origin cannot be understood by a morphological comparison to gymnosperms, their closest relatives, which develop separate male or female cones. Despite these morphological differences, gymnosperms and angiosperms possess a similar genetic toolbox consisting of phylogenetically related MADS domain proteins. Using ancestral MADS domain protein reconstruction, we trace the evolution of organ identity quartets along the stem lineage of crown angiosperms. We provide evidence that current floral quartets specifying male organ identity, which consist of four types of subunits, evolved from ancestral complexes of two types of subunits through gene duplication and integration of SEPALLATA proteins just before the origin of flowering plants. Our results suggest that protein interaction changes underlying this compositional shift were the result of a gradual and reversible evolutionary trajectory. Modeling shows that such compositional changes may have facilitated the evolution of the perfect, bisexual flower. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  11. A developmental basis for stochasticity in floral organ numbers.

    PubMed

    Kitazawa, Miho S; Fujimoto, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Stochasticity ubiquitously inevitably appears at all levels from molecular traits to multicellular, morphological traits. Intrinsic stochasticity in biochemical reactions underlies the typical intercellular distributions of chemical concentrations, e.g., morphogen gradients, which can give rise to stochastic morphogenesis. While the universal statistics and mechanisms underlying the stochasticity at the biochemical level have been widely analyzed, those at the morphological level have not. Such morphological stochasticity is found in foral organ numbers. Although the floral organ number is a hallmark of floral species, it can distribute stochastically even within an individual plant. The probability distribution of the floral organ number within a population is usually asymmetric, i.e., it is more likely to increase rather than decrease from the modal value, or vice versa. We combined field observations, statistical analysis, and mathematical modeling to study the developmental basis of the variation in floral organ numbers among 50 species mainly from Ranunculaceae and several other families from core eudicots. We compared six hypothetical mechanisms and found that a modified error function reproduced much of the asymmetric variation found in eudicot floral organ numbers. The error function is derived from mathematical modeling of floral organ positioning, and its parameters represent measurable distances in the floral bud morphologies. The model predicts two developmental sources of the organ-number distributions: stochastic shifts in the expression boundaries of homeotic genes and a semi-concentric (whorled-type) organ arrangement. Other models species- or organ-specifically reproduced different types of distributions that reflect different developmental processes. The organ-number variation could be an indicator of stochasticity in organ fate determination and organ positioning.

  12. A developmental basis for stochasticity in floral organ numbers

    PubMed Central

    Kitazawa, Miho S.; Fujimoto, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Stochasticity ubiquitously inevitably appears at all levels from molecular traits to multicellular, morphological traits. Intrinsic stochasticity in biochemical reactions underlies the typical intercellular distributions of chemical concentrations, e.g., morphogen gradients, which can give rise to stochastic morphogenesis. While the universal statistics and mechanisms underlying the stochasticity at the biochemical level have been widely analyzed, those at the morphological level have not. Such morphological stochasticity is found in foral organ numbers. Although the floral organ number is a hallmark of floral species, it can distribute stochastically even within an individual plant. The probability distribution of the floral organ number within a population is usually asymmetric, i.e., it is more likely to increase rather than decrease from the modal value, or vice versa. We combined field observations, statistical analysis, and mathematical modeling to study the developmental basis of the variation in floral organ numbers among 50 species mainly from Ranunculaceae and several other families from core eudicots. We compared six hypothetical mechanisms and found that a modified error function reproduced much of the asymmetric variation found in eudicot floral organ numbers. The error function is derived from mathematical modeling of floral organ positioning, and its parameters represent measurable distances in the floral bud morphologies. The model predicts two developmental sources of the organ-number distributions: stochastic shifts in the expression boundaries of homeotic genes and a semi-concentric (whorled-type) organ arrangement. Other models species- or organ-specifically reproduced different types of distributions that reflect different developmental processes. The organ-number variation could be an indicator of stochasticity in organ fate determination and organ positioning. PMID:25404932

  13. Interactions between FLORAL ORGAN NUMBER4 and floral homeotic genes in regulating rice flower development.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Tao, Juhong; Chen, Mingjiao; Dreni, Ludovico; Luo, Zhijing; Hu, Yun; Liang, Wanqi; Zhang, Dabing

    2017-01-01

    The floral meristem (FM) is self-maintaining at the early stages of flower development, but it is terminated when a fixed number of floral organs are produced. The FLORAL ORGAN NUMBER4 (FON4; also known as FON2) gene, an ortholog of Arabidopsis CLAVATA3 (CLV3), is required for regulating FM size and determinacy in rice. However, its interactions with floral homeotic genes remain unknown. Here, we report the genetic interactions between FON4 and floral homeotic genes OsMADS15 (an A-class gene), OsMADS16 (also called SUPERWOMAN1, SPW1, a B-class gene), OsMADS3 and OsMADS58 (C-class genes), OsMADS13 (a D-class gene), and OsMADS1 (an E-class gene) during flower development. We observed an additive phenotype in the fon4 double mutant with the OsMADS15 mutant allele dep (degenerative palea). The effect on the organ number of whorl 2 was enhanced in fon4 spw1. Double mutant combinations of fon4 with osmads3, osmads58, osmads13, and osmads1 displayed enhanced defects in FM determinacy and identity, respectively, indicating that FON4 and these genes synergistically control FM activity. In addition, the expression patterns of all the genes besides OsMADS13 had no obvious change in the fon4 mutant. This work reveals how the meristem maintenance gene FON4 genetically interacts with C, D, and E floral homeotic genes in specifying FM activity in monocot rice.

  14. Ontogeny of floral organs in flax (Linum usitatissimum; Linaceae).

    PubMed

    Schewe, Lauren C; Sawhney, Vipen K; Davis, Arthur R

    2011-07-01

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum) is an important crop worldwide; however, a detailed study on flower development of this species is lacking. Here we describe the pattern of initiation and a program of key developmental events in flax flower ontogeny. This study provides important fundamental information for future research in various aspects of flax biology and biotechnology. Floral buds and organs were measured throughout development and examined using scanning electron microscopy. Floral organs were initiated in the following sequence: sepals, stamens and petals, gynoecium, and nectaries. The five sepals originated in a helical pattern, followed evidently by simultaneous initiation of five stamens and five petals, the former opposite of the sepals and the latter alternate to them. The gynoecium, with five carpels, was produced from the remaining, central region of the floral apex. Stamens at early stages were dominated by anther growth but filaments elongated rapidly shortly before anthesis. Early gynoecium development occurred predominantly in the ovary, and ovule initiation began prior to enclosure of carpels. A characteristic feature was the twisted growth of styles, accompanied by the differentiation of papillate stigmas. Petal growth lagged behind that of other floral organs, but petals eventually grew rapidly to enclose the inner whorls after style elongation. Flask-shaped nectaries bearing stomata developed on the external surface of the filament bases. This is the first detailed study on flax floral organ development and has established a key of 12 developmental stages, which should be useful to flax researchers.

  15. Genes and functions controlled by floral organ identity genes.

    PubMed

    Sablowski, Robert

    2010-02-01

    Floral organ identity genes specify the identity of floral organs in a manner analogous to the specification of body segments by Hox genes in animals. Different combinations of organ identity genes co-ordinate the expression of genes required for the development of each type of floral organ, from organ initiation until final differentiation. Here, I review what is known about the genes and functions subordinate to the organ identity genes. The sets of target genes change as organ development progresses and ultimately organ identity genes modify the expression of thousands of genes with a multitude of predicted functions, particularly in reproductive organs. However, genes involved in transcriptional control and hormone functions feature prominently among the early and direct targets. Functional analysis showed that control of organ-specific tissues and structures can be delegated to specialised intermediate regulators, but organ identity genes also fine-tune genes with general roles in shoot organ development, consistent with the notion that organ identity genes modify a core leaf-like developmental program. Future challenges include obtaining data with cellular resolution, predictive modelling of the regulatory network, and quantitative analysis of how organ identity genes and their targets control cell behaviour and ultimately organ shape.

  16. Epigenetic imbalance and the floral developmental abnormality of the in vitro-regenerated oil palm Elaeis guineensis.

    PubMed

    Jaligot, Estelle; Adler, Sophie; Debladis, Émilie; Beulé, Thierry; Richaud, Frédérique; Ilbert, Pascal; Finnegan, E Jean; Rival, Alain

    2011-12-01

    The large-scale clonal propagation of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is being stalled by the occurrence of the mantled somaclonal variation. Indeed, this abnormality which presents a homeotic-like conversion of male floral organs into carpelloid structures, hampers oil production since the supernumerary female organs are either sterile or produce fruits with poor oil yields. In the last 15 years, the prevailing point of view on the origin of the mantled floral phenotype has evolved from a random mutation event triggered by in vitro culture to a hormone-dependent dysfunction of gene regulation processes. In this review, we retrace the history of the research on the mantled variation in the light of the parallel advances made in the understanding of plant development regulation in model systems and more specifically in the role of epigenetic mechanisms. An overview of the current state of oil palm genomic and transcriptomic resources, which are key to any comparison with model organisms, is given. We show that, while displaying original characteristics, the mantled phenotype of oil palm is morphologically, and possibly molecularly, related to MADS-box genes mutants described in model plants. We also discuss the occurrence of comparable floral phenotypes in other palm species. Beyond its primary interest in the search for discriminating markers against an economically crippling phenotype, the study of the mantled abnormality also provides a unique opportunity to investigate the regulation of reproductive development in a perennial tropical palm. On the basis of recent results, we propose that future efforts should concentrate on the epigenetic regulation targeting MADS-box genes and transposable elements of oil palm, since both types of sequences are most likely to be involved in the mantled variant phenotype.

  17. Epigenetic imbalance and the floral developmental abnormality of the in vitro-regenerated oil palm Elaeis guineensis

    PubMed Central

    Jaligot, Estelle; Adler, Sophie; Debladis, Émilie; Beulé, Thierry; Richaud, Frédérique; Ilbert, Pascal; Finnegan, E. Jean; Rival, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Background The large-scale clonal propagation of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is being stalled by the occurrence of the mantled somaclonal variation. Indeed, this abnormality which presents a homeotic-like conversion of male floral organs into carpelloid structures, hampers oil production since the supernumerary female organs are either sterile or produce fruits with poor oil yields. Scope In the last 15 years, the prevailing point of view on the origin of the mantled floral phenotype has evolved from a random mutation event triggered by in vitro culture to a hormone-dependent dysfunction of gene regulation processes. In this review, we retrace the history of the research on the mantled variation in the light of the parallel advances made in the understanding of plant development regulation in model systems and more specifically in the role of epigenetic mechanisms. An overview of the current state of oil palm genomic and transcriptomic resources, which are key to any comparison with model organisms, is given. We show that, while displaying original characteristics, the mantled phenotype of oil palm is morphologically, and possibly molecularly, related to MADS-box genes mutants described in model plants. We also discuss the occurrence of comparable floral phenotypes in other palm species. Conclusions Beyond its primary interest in the search for discriminating markers against an economically crippling phenotype, the study of the mantled abnormality also provides a unique opportunity to investigate the regulation of reproductive development in a perennial tropical palm. On the basis of recent results, we propose that future efforts should concentrate on the epigenetic regulation targeting MADS-box genes and transposable elements of oil palm, since both types of sequences are most likely to be involved in the mantled variant phenotype. PMID:21224269

  18. UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS Controls Meristem Identity and Organ Primordia Fate in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, M. D.; Haughn, G. W.

    1995-01-01

    A novel gene that is involved in regulating flower initiation and development has been identified in Arabidopsis. This gene has been designated UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO), with five corresponding nuclear recessive alleles designated ufo[middot]1 to ufo[middot]5. Under short day-length conditions, ufo homozygotes generate more coflorescences than do the wild type, and coflorescences often appear apical to the first floral shoot, resulting in a period of inflorescence development in which regions of floral and coflorescence shoots are produced alternately. ufo enhances the phenotype of weak leafy alleles, and the double mutant Ufo-1 Apetala1-1 produces only coflorescence-like shoots, suggesting that these two genes control different aspects of floral initiation. Floral development was also altered in Ufo plants. Ufo flowers have an altered organ number in all whorls, and organs in the first, second, and third whorls exhibit variable homeotic transformations. Ufo single and double mutant phenotypes suggest that the floral changes result from reduction in class B floral homeotic gene expression and fluctuations in the expression boundaries of class C function and FLO10. Surprisingly, in situ hybridization analysis revealed no obvious differences in expression pattern or level in developing Ufo flowers compared with that of the wild type for any class B or C gene studied. We propose that UFO acts in concert with known floral initiation genes and regulates the domains of floral homeotic gene function. PMID:12242408

  19. UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS Controls Meristem Identity and Organ Primordia Fate in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, M. D.; Haughn, G. W.

    1995-09-01

    A novel gene that is involved in regulating flower initiation and development has been identified in Arabidopsis. This gene has been designated UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO), with five corresponding nuclear recessive alleles designated ufo[middot]1 to ufo[middot]5. Under short day-length conditions, ufo homozygotes generate more coflorescences than do the wild type, and coflorescences often appear apical to the first floral shoot, resulting in a period of inflorescence development in which regions of floral and coflorescence shoots are produced alternately. ufo enhances the phenotype of weak leafy alleles, and the double mutant Ufo-1 Apetala1-1 produces only coflorescence-like shoots, suggesting that these two genes control different aspects of floral initiation. Floral development was also altered in Ufo plants. Ufo flowers have an altered organ number in all whorls, and organs in the first, second, and third whorls exhibit variable homeotic transformations. Ufo single and double mutant phenotypes suggest that the floral changes result from reduction in class B floral homeotic gene expression and fluctuations in the expression boundaries of class C function and FLO10. Surprisingly, in situ hybridization analysis revealed no obvious differences in expression pattern or level in developing Ufo flowers compared with that of the wild type for any class B or C gene studied. We propose that UFO acts in concert with known floral initiation genes and regulates the domains of floral homeotic gene function.

  20. A dynamical phyllotaxis model to determine floral organ number.

    PubMed

    Kitazawa, Miho S; Fujimoto, Koichi

    2015-05-01

    How organisms determine particular organ numbers is a fundamental key to the development of precise body structures; however, the developmental mechanisms underlying organ-number determination are unclear. In many eudicot plants, the primordia of sepals and petals (the floral organs) first arise sequentially at the edge of a circular, undifferentiated region called the floral meristem, and later transition into a concentric arrangement called a whorl, which includes four or five organs. The properties controlling the transition to whorls comprising particular numbers of organs is little explored. We propose a development-based model of floral organ-number determination, improving upon earlier models of plant phyllotaxis that assumed two developmental processes: the sequential initiation of primordia in the least crowded space around the meristem and the constant growth of the tip of the stem. By introducing mutual repulsion among primordia into the growth process, we numerically and analytically show that the whorled arrangement emerges spontaneously from the sequential initiation of primordia. Moreover, by allowing the strength of the inhibition exerted by each primordium to decrease as the primordium ages, we show that pentamerous whorls, in which the angular and radial positions of the primordia are consistent with those observed in sepal and petal primordia in Silene coeli-rosa, Caryophyllaceae, become the dominant arrangement. The organ number within the outmost whorl, corresponding to the sepals, takes a value of four or five in a much wider parameter space than that in which it takes a value of six or seven. These results suggest that mutual repulsion among primordia during growth and a temporal decrease in the strength of the inhibition during initiation are required for the development of the tetramerous and pentamerous whorls common in eudicots.

  1. Comparative transcriptomics among floral organs of the basal eudicot Eschscholzia californica as reference for floral evolutionary developmental studies

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Molecular genetic studies of floral development have concentrated on several core eudicots and grasses (monocots), which have canalized floral forms. Basal eudicots possess a wider range of floral morphologies than the core eudicots and grasses and can serve as an evolutionary link between core eudicots and monocots, and provide a reference for studies of other basal angiosperms. Recent advances in genomics have enabled researchers to profile gene activities during floral development, primarily in the eudicot Arabidopsis thaliana and the monocots rice and maize. However, our understanding of floral developmental processes among the basal eudicots remains limited. Results Using a recently generated expressed sequence tag (EST) set, we have designed an oligonucleotide microarray for the basal eudicot Eschscholzia californica (California poppy). We performed microarray experiments with an interwoven-loop design in order to characterize the E. californica floral transcriptome and to identify differentially expressed genes in flower buds with pre-meiotic and meiotic cells, four floral organs at pre-anthesis stages (sepals, petals, stamens and carpels), developing fruits, and leaves. Conclusions Our results provide a foundation for comparative gene expression studies between eudicots and basal angiosperms. We identified whorl-specific gene expression patterns in E. californica and examined the floral expression of several gene families. Interestingly, most E. californica homologs of Arabidopsis genes important for flower development, except for genes encoding MADS-box transcription factors, show different expression patterns between the two species. Our comparative transcriptomics study highlights the unique evolutionary position of E. californica compared with basal angiosperms and core eudicots. PMID:20950453

  2. FON2 SPARE1 Redundantly Regulates Floral Meristem Maintenance with FLORAL ORGAN NUMBER2 in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Suzaki, Takuya; Ohneda, Masako; Toriba, Taiyo; Yoshida, Akiko; Hirano, Hiro-Yuki

    2009-01-01

    CLAVATA signaling restricts stem cell identity in the shoot apical meristem (SAM) in Arabidopsis thaliana. In rice (Oryza sativa), FLORAL ORGAN NUMBER2 (FON2), closely related to CLV3, is involved as a signaling molecule in a similar pathway to negatively regulate stem cell proliferation in the floral meristem (FM). Here we show that the FON2 SPARE1 (FOS1) gene encoding a CLE protein functions along with FON2 in maintenance of the FM. In addition, FOS1 appears to be involved in maintenance of the SAM in the vegetative phase, because constitutive expression of FOS1 caused termination of the vegetative SAM. Genetic analysis revealed that FOS1 does not need FON1, the putative receptor of FON2, for its action, suggesting that FOS1 and FON2 may function in meristem maintenance as signaling molecules in independent pathways. Initially, we identified FOS1 as a suppressor that originates from O. sativa indica and suppresses the fon2 mutation in O. sativa japonica. FOS1 function in japonica appears to be compromised by a functional nucleotide polymorphism (FNP) at the putative processing site of the signal peptide. Sequence comparison of FOS1 in about 150 domesticated rice and wild rice species indicates that this FNP is present only in japonica, suggesting that redundant regulation by FOS1 and FON2 is commonplace in species in the Oryza genus. Distribution of the FNP also suggests that this mutation may have occurred during the divergence of japonica from its wild ancestor. Stem cell maintenance may be regulated by at least three negative pathways in rice, and each pathway may contribute differently to this regulation depending on the type of the meristem. This situation contrasts with that in Arabidopsis, where CLV signaling is the major single pathway in all meristems. PMID:19834537

  3. The ABC model and the diversification of floral organ identity.

    PubMed

    Litt, Amy; Kramer, Elena M

    2010-02-01

    Broad studies of the ABC program across angiosperms have found that interactions between gene duplication, biochemical evolution, shifts in gene expression and modification of existing identity programs have been critical to the evolution of floral morphology. Several themes can be recognized in this context. First, the original concept of "A" function applies only very narrowly to Arabidopsis and its close relatives. Second, while many types of petaloid organs are associated with the expression of AP3/PI homologs, there is growing evidence that there are other genetic mechanisms for producing petaloidy, especially in first whorl organs. Third, pre-existing organ identity programs can be modified to yield novel organ types, often in association with gene duplications. Lastly, there are many aspects of ABC gene function outside the major model systems that remain a mystery, perhaps none more so than the C-terminal amino acid motifs that distinguish specific ABC gene lineages. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. FON1, an Arabidopsis gene that terminates floral meristem activity and controls flower organ number.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, H; Ma, H

    1997-01-01

    A novel gene that regulates floral meristem activity and controls floral organ number was identified in Arabidopsis and is designated FON1 (for FLORAL ORGAN NUMBER1). The fon1 mutants exhibit normal vegetative development and produce normal inflorescence meristems and immature flowers before stage 6. fon1 flowers become visibly different from wild-type flowers at stage 6, when the third-whorl stamen primordia have formed. The fon1 floral meristem functions longer than does that of the wild type: after the outer three-whorl organ primordia have initiated, the remaining central floral meristem continues to produce additional stamen primordia interior to the third whorl. Prolonged fon1 floral meristem activity also results in an increased number of carpels. The clavata (clv) mutations are known to affect floral meristem activity. We have analyzed the clv1 fon1, clv2 fon1, and clv3 fon1 double mutants. These double mutants all have similar phenotypes, with more stamens and carpels than either fon1 or clv single mutants. This indicates that FON1 and CLV genes function in different pathways to control the number of third- and fourth-whorl floral organs. In addition, to test for possible interactions between FON1 and other floral regulatory genes, we have constructed and analyzed the relevant double mutants. Our results suggest that FON1 does not interact with TERMINAL FLOWER1, APETALA1, APETALA2, or UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGAN. In contrast, normal LEAFY function is required for the expression of fon1 phenotypes. In addition, FON1 and AGAMOUS both seem to affect the domain of APETALA3 function, which also affects the formation of stamen-carpel chimera due to fon1 mutations. Finally, genetic analysis suggests that FON1 interacts with SUPERMAN, which also regulates floral meristem activity. PMID:9061945

  5. The UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS gene of Arabidopsis thaliana is an F-box protein required for normal patterning and growth in the floral meristem.

    PubMed

    Samach, A; Klenz, J E; Kohalmi, S E; Risseeuw, E; Haughn, G W; Crosby, W L

    1999-11-01

    Genetic and molecular studies have suggested that the UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) gene, from Arabidopsis thaliana, is expressed in all shoot apical meristems, and is involved in the regulation of a complex set of developmental events during floral development, including floral meristem and floral organ identity. Results from in situ hybridization using genes expressed early in floral development as probes indicate that UFO controls growth of young floral primordia. Transgenic constructs were used to provide evidence that UFO regulates floral organ identity by activating or maintaining transcription of the class B organ-identity gene APETALA 3, but not PISTILLATA. In an attempt to understand the biochemical mode of action of the UFO gene product, we show here that UFO is an F-box protein that interacts with Arabidopsis SKP1-like proteins, both in the yeast two-hybrid system and in vitro. In yeast and other organisms both F-box proteins and SKP1 homologues are subunits of specific ubiquitin E3 enzyme complexes that target specific proteins for degradation. The protein selected for degradation by the complex is specified by the F-box proteins. It is therefore possible that the role of UFO is to target for degradation specific proteins controlling normal growth patterns in the floral primordia, as well as proteins that negatively regulate APETALA 3 transcription.

  6. Unique morphological changes in plant pathogenic phytoplasma-infected petunia flowers are related to transcriptional regulation of floral homeotic genes in an organ-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Himeno, Misako; Neriya, Yutaro; Minato, Nami; Miura, Chihiro; Sugawara, Kyoko; Ishii, Yoshiko; Yamaji, Yasuyuki; Kakizawa, Shigeyuki; Oshima, Kenro; Namba, Shigetou

    2011-09-01

    Abnormal flowers are often induced by infection of certain plant pathogens, e.g. phytoplasma, but the molecular mechanisms underlying these malformations have remained poorly understood. Here, we show that infection with OY-W phytoplasma (Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris, onion yellows phytoplasma strain, line OY-W) affects the expression of the floral homeotic genes of petunia plants in an organ-specific manner. Upon infection with OY-W phytoplasma, floral morphological changes, including conversion to leaf-like structures, were observed in sepals, petals and pistils, but not in stamens. As the expression levels of homeotic genes differ greatly between floral organs, we examined the expression levels of homeotic genes in each floral organ infected by OY-W phytoplasma, compared with healthy plants. The expression levels of several homeotic genes required for organ development, such as PFG, PhGLO1 and FBP7, were significantly downregulated by the phytoplasma infection in floral organs, except the stamens, suggesting that the unique morphological changes caused by the phytoplasma infection might result from the significant decrease in expression of some crucial homeotic genes. Moreover, the expression levels of TER, ALF and DOT genes, which are known to participate in floral meristem identity, were significantly downregulated in the phytoplasma-infected petunia meristems, implying that phytoplasma would affect an upstream signaling pathway of floral meristem identity. Our results suggest that phytoplasma infection may have complex effects on floral development, resulting in the unique phenotypes that were clearly distinct from the mutant flower phenotypes produced by the knock-out or the overexpression of certain homeotic genes. © 2011 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Control of patterning, growth, and differentiation by floral organ identity genes.

    PubMed

    Sablowski, Robert

    2015-02-01

    In spite of the different morphologies of sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels, all these floral organs are believed to be modified versions of a ground-state organ similar to the leaf. Modifications of the ground-state developmental programme are orchestrated by different combinations of MADS-domain transcription factors encoded by floral organ identity genes. In recent years, much has been revealed about the gene regulatory networks controlled by the floral organ identity genes and about the genetic pathways that control leaf development. This review examines how floral organ identity is connected with the control of morphogenesis and differentiation of shoot organs, focusing on the model species Arabidopsis thaliana. Direct links have emerged between floral organ identity genes and genes involved in abaxial-adaxial patterning, organ boundary formation, tissue growth, and cell differentiation. In parallel, predictive models have been developed to explain how the activity of regulatory genes can be coordinated by intercellular signalling and constrained by tissue mechanics. When combined, these advances provide a unique opportunity for revealing exactly how leaf-like organs have been 'metamorphosed' into floral organs during evolution and showing crucial regulatory points in the generation of plant form.

  8. Generation of Novel Floral Traits Using a Combination of Floral Organ-Specific Promoters and a Chimeric Repressor in Torenia fournieri Lind.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Katsutomo; Yamaguchi, Hiroyasu; Kasajima, Ichiro; Narumi, Takako; Ohtsubo, Norihiro

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we attempted to develop a new biotechnological method for the efficient modification of floral traits. Because transcription factors play an important role in determining floral traits, chimeric repressors, which are generated by attaching a short transcriptional repressor domain to transcription factors, have been widely used as effective tools for modifying floral traits in many plant species. However, the overexpression of these chimeric repressors by the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter sometimes causes undesirable morphological alterations to other organs. We attempted simultaneously to generate new floral traits and avoid such quality loss by examining five additional floral organ-specific promoters, one Arabidopsis thaliana promoter and four Torenia fournieri promoters, for the expression of the chimeric repressor of Arabidopsis TCP3 (AtTCP3), whose overexpression drastically alters floral traits but also generates dwarf phenotypes and deformed leaves. We found that the four torenia promoters exhibited particularly strong activity in the petals but not in the leaves, and that the combination of these floral organ-specific promoters with the chimeric repressor of AtTCP3 caused changes in the color, color patterns and cell shapes of petals, whilst avoiding other unfavorable phenotypes. Interestingly, each promoter that we used in this study generated characteristic and distinguishable floral traits. Thus, the use of different floral organ-specific promoters with different properties enables us to generate diverse floral traits using a single chimeric repressor without changing the phenotypes of other organs. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. A LEAFY co-regulator encoded by UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS.

    PubMed

    Lee, I; Wolfe, D S; Nilsson, O; Weigel, D

    1997-02-01

    . Development of petals and stamens in Arabidopsis flowers requires the function of the organ-identity gene APETALA3 (AP3), whose RNA is expressed specifically in petal and stamen primordia. AP3 expression is positively regulated by the meristem-identity gene LEAFY (LFY), which is expressed ubiquitously in young flowers. It is unknown how the transition from ubiquitous expression of LFY to region-specific expression of AP3 is made. It has previously been proposed for Antirrhinum that another gene, FIMBRIATA (FIM), mediates between the LFY and AP3 orthologs, with the three genes acting in a simple regulatory hierarchy. FIM is activated later than the LFY ortholog, and its expression is more restricted than that of the LFY ortholog. . We have tested whether the model proposed for Antirrhinum applies to Arabidopsis, by creating transgenic plants in which the FIM ortholog UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) was expressed constitutively from the promoter of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S gene. In 35S::UFO flowers, AP3 was expressed precociously and ectopically, confirming that UFO is an upstream regulator of AP3. However, 35S::UFO could not restore petal and stamen development in lfy mutants, indicating that UFO can only function in the presence of LFY activity. The failure of 35S::UFO to rescue lfy mutants is consistent with our observation that UFO expression levels are not markedly changed in lfy mutants. . We conclude that UFO is not a simple mediator between meristem- and organ-identity genes, but is likely to be a partially dispensable co-regulator that acts together with LFY. The interplay between LFY and UFO provides a paradigm for how a global regulator such as LFY activates selected target genes only in restricted regions within its expression domain.

  10. Homeotic Genes and the ABCDE Model for Floral Organ Formation in Wheat.

    PubMed

    Murai, Koji

    2013-06-25

    Floral organ formation has been the subject of intensive study for over 20 years, particularly in the model dicot species Arabidopsis thaliana. These studies have led to the establishment of a general model for the development of floral organs in higher plants, the so-called ABCDE model, in which floral whorl-specific combinations of class A, B, C, D, or E genes specify floral organ identity. In Arabidopsis, class A, B, C, D, E genes encode MADS-box transcription factors except for the class A gene APETALA2. Mutation of these genes induces floral organ homeosis. In this review, I focus on the roles of these homeotic genes in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), particularly with respect to the ABCDE model. Pistillody, the homeotic transformation of stamens into pistil-like structures, occurs in cytoplasmic substitution (alloplasmic) wheat lines that have the cytoplasm of the related wild species Aegilops crassa. This phenomenon is a valuable tool for analysis of the wheat ABCDE model. Using an alloplasmic line, the wheat ortholog of DROOPING LEAF (TaDL), a member of the YABBY gene family, has been shown to regulate pistil specification. Here, I describe the current understanding of the ABCDE model for floral organ formation in wheat.

  11. Homeotic Genes and the ABCDE Model for Floral Organ Formation in Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Murai, Koji

    2013-01-01

    Floral organ formation has been the subject of intensive study for over 20 years, particularly in the model dicot species Arabidopsis thaliana. These studies have led to the establishment of a general model for the development of floral organs in higher plants, the so-called ABCDE model, in which floral whorl-specific combinations of class A, B, C, D, or E genes specify floral organ identity. In Arabidopsis, class A, B, C, D, E genes encode MADS-box transcription factors except for the class A gene APETALA2. Mutation of these genes induces floral organ homeosis. In this review, I focus on the roles of these homeotic genes in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), particularly with respect to the ABCDE model. Pistillody, the homeotic transformation of stamens into pistil-like structures, occurs in cytoplasmic substitution (alloplasmic) wheat lines that have the cytoplasm of the related wild species Aegilops crassa. This phenomenon is a valuable tool for analysis of the wheat ABCDE model. Using an alloplasmic line, the wheat ortholog of DROOPING LEAF (TaDL), a member of the YABBY gene family, has been shown to regulate pistil specification. Here, I describe the current understanding of the ABCDE model for floral organ formation in wheat. PMID:27137382

  12. Volatile organic compounds of Thai honeys produced from several floral sources by different honey bee species

    PubMed Central

    Pattamayutanon, Praetinee; Angeli, Sergio; Thakeow, Prodpran; Abraham, John; Disayathanoowat, Terd; Chantawannakul, Panuwan

    2017-01-01

    The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of four monofloral and one multifloral of Thai honeys produced by Apis cerana, Apis dorsata and Apis mellifera were analyzed by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The floral sources were longan, sunflower, coffee, wild flowers (wild) and lychee. Honey originating from longan had more VOCs than all other floral sources. Sunflower honey had the least numbers of VOCs. cis-Linalool oxide, trans-linalool oxide, ho-trienol, and furan-2,5-dicarbaldehyde were present in all the honeys studied, independent of their floral origin. Interestingly, 2-phenylacetaldehyde was detected in all honey sample except longan honey produced by A. cerana. Thirty-two VOCs were identified as possible floral markers. After validating differences in honey volatiles from different floral sources and honeybee species, the results suggest that differences in quality and quantity of honey volatiles are influenced by both floral source and honeybee species. The group of honey volatiles detected from A. cerana was completely different from those of A. mellifera and A. dorsata. VOCs could therefore be applied as chemical markers of honeys and may reflect preferences of shared floral sources amongst different honeybee species. PMID:28192487

  13. Volatile organic compounds of Thai honeys produced from several floral sources by different honey bee species.

    PubMed

    Pattamayutanon, Praetinee; Angeli, Sergio; Thakeow, Prodpran; Abraham, John; Disayathanoowat, Terd; Chantawannakul, Panuwan

    2017-01-01

    The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of four monofloral and one multifloral of Thai honeys produced by Apis cerana, Apis dorsata and Apis mellifera were analyzed by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The floral sources were longan, sunflower, coffee, wild flowers (wild) and lychee. Honey originating from longan had more VOCs than all other floral sources. Sunflower honey had the least numbers of VOCs. cis-Linalool oxide, trans-linalool oxide, ho-trienol, and furan-2,5-dicarbaldehyde were present in all the honeys studied, independent of their floral origin. Interestingly, 2-phenylacetaldehyde was detected in all honey sample except longan honey produced by A. cerana. Thirty-two VOCs were identified as possible floral markers. After validating differences in honey volatiles from different floral sources and honeybee species, the results suggest that differences in quality and quantity of honey volatiles are influenced by both floral source and honeybee species. The group of honey volatiles detected from A. cerana was completely different from those of A. mellifera and A. dorsata. VOCs could therefore be applied as chemical markers of honeys and may reflect preferences of shared floral sources amongst different honeybee species.

  14. Regulation of floral patterning and organ identity by Arabidopsis ERECTA-family receptor kinase genes.

    PubMed

    Bemis, Shannon M; Lee, Jin Suk; Shpak, Elena D; Torii, Keiko U

    2013-12-01

    Due to the lack of cell migration, plant organogenesis relies on coordinated cell proliferation, cell growth, and differentiation. A flower possesses a complex structure, with sepals and petals constituting the perianth, and stamens and pistils where male and female gametophytes differentiate. While advances have been made in our understanding of gene regulatory networks controlling flower development, relatively little is known of how cell-cell coordination influences floral organ specification. The Arabidopsis ERECTA (ER)-family receptor kinases, ER, ER-LIKE1 (ERL1), and ERL2, regulate inflorescence architecture, organ shape, and epidermal stomatal patterning. Here it is reported that ER-family genes together regulate floral meristem organization and floral organ identity. The stem cell marker CLAVATA3 exhibits misplaced expression in the floral meristems of the er erl1 erl2 mutant. Strikingly, homeotic conversion of sepals to carpels was observed in er erl1 erl2 flowers. Consistently, ectopic expression of AGAMOUS, which determines carpel identity, was detected in er erl1 erl2 flower primordia. Among the known downstream components of ER-family receptor kinases in stomatal patterning, YODA (YDA) is also required for proper floral patterning. YDA and the ER-family show complex, synergistic genetic interactions: er erl1 erl2 yda quadruple mutant plants become extremely small, callus-like masses. While a constitutively active YDA fully rescues stomatal clustering in er erl1 erl2, it only partially rescues er erl1 erl2 flower defects. The study suggests that ER-family signalling is crucial for ensuring proper expression domains of floral meristem and floral organ identity determinants, and further implies the existence of a non-canonical downstream pathway.

  15. Transcriptome-wide mining of the differentially expressed transcripts for natural variation of floral organ size in Physalis philadelphica

    PubMed Central

    He, Chaoying

    2012-01-01

    Natural phenotypic variation, a result of genetic variation, developed during evolution in response to environmental selections. Physalis philadelphica, known as tomatillo in the Solanaceae, is rich in floral and post-floral organ size diversity. However, its genetic variation is unknown. Here P. philadelphica was classified into three groups with large, intermediate, and small reproductive organ size, and a positive correlation was observed between floral organ and berry sizes. Through cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analyses, 263 differentially expressed transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were isolated from two accessions with different floral organ sizes. The genes encode various transcription factors, protein kinases, and enzymes, and they displayed multiple expression patterns during floral development, indicating a complexity in the genetic basis of phenotypic variation. Detailed expression analyses revealed that they were differentially expressed during floral and post-floral development, implying that they have roles in the development of flowers and fruits. Expression of three genes was further monitored in 26 accessions, and in particular the expression variation of Pp30, encoding an AP2-like transcription factor, correlates well with the observed phenotypic variations, which strongly supports an essential role for the gene in the natural variation of floral and post-floral organ size in Physalis. The results suggest that alteration in the expression pattern of a few key regulatory genes in the developmental process may be an important source of genetic variations that lead to natural variation in morphological traits. PMID:23081983

  16. Transcriptome-wide mining of the differentially expressed transcripts for natural variation of floral organ size in Physalis philadelphica.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Li, Zhichao; He, Chaoying

    2012-11-01

    Natural phenotypic variation, a result of genetic variation, developed during evolution in response to environmental selections. Physalis philadelphica, known as tomatillo in the Solanaceae, is rich in floral and post-floral organ size diversity. However, its genetic variation is unknown. Here P. philadelphica was classified into three groups with large, intermediate, and small reproductive organ size, and a positive correlation was observed between floral organ and berry sizes. Through cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analyses, 263 differentially expressed transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were isolated from two accessions with different floral organ sizes. The genes encode various transcription factors, protein kinases, and enzymes, and they displayed multiple expression patterns during floral development, indicating a complexity in the genetic basis of phenotypic variation. Detailed expression analyses revealed that they were differentially expressed during floral and post-floral development, implying that they have roles in the development of flowers and fruits. Expression of three genes was further monitored in 26 accessions, and in particular the expression variation of Pp30, encoding an AP2-like transcription factor, correlates well with the observed phenotypic variations, which strongly supports an essential role for the gene in the natural variation of floral and post-floral organ size in Physalis. The results suggest that alteration in the expression pattern of a few key regulatory genes in the developmental process may be an important source of genetic variations that lead to natural variation in morphological traits.

  17. Rice MADS6 interacts with the floral homeotic genes SUPERWOMAN1, MADS3, MADS58, MADS13, and DROOPING LEAF in specifying floral organ identities and meristem fate.

    PubMed

    Li, Haifeng; Liang, Wanqi; Hu, Yun; Zhu, Lu; Yin, Changsong; Xu, Jie; Dreni, Ludovico; Kater, Martin M; Zhang, Dabing

    2011-07-01

    AGAMOUS-LIKE6 (AGL6) genes play essential roles in flower development, but whether and how they work with floral organ identity genes remain less understood. Here, we describe interactions of the rice (Oryza sativa) AGL6 gene MADS6 with other rice floral homeotic genes in flower development. Genetic analyses revealed that MADS6 specifies the identity of the three inner whorls and floral meristem determinacy redundantly with SUPERWOMAN1/MADS16 (B-gene) or MADS3 (C-gene). MADS6 was shown to define carpel/ovule development and floral determinacy by interacting with MADS13 (D-gene) and control the palea and floral meristem identities together with the YABBY gene DROOPING LEAF. Expression analyses revealed that the transcript levels of six B-, C-, and E-class genes were reduced in mads6-1 at the early flower developmental stage, suggesting that MADS6 is a key regulator of early flower development. Moreover, MADS6 can directly bind to a putative regulatory motif on MADS58 (C-gene), and mads6-1 mads58 displayed phenotypes similar to that of mads6-1. These results suggest that MADS6 is a key player in specifying flower development via interacting with other floral homeotic genes in rice, thus providing new insights into the mechanism by which flower development is controlled.

  18. An ortholog of LEAFY in Jatropha curcas regulates flowering time and floral organ development

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Mingyong; Tao, Yan-Bin; Fu, Qiantang; Song, Yaling; Niu, Longjian; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Jatropha curcas seeds are an excellent biofuel feedstock, but seed yields of Jatropha are limited by its poor flowering and fruiting ability. Thus, identifying genes controlling flowering is critical for genetic improvement of seed yield. We isolated the JcLFY, a Jatropha ortholog of Arabidopsis thaliana LEAFY (LFY), and identified JcLFY function by overexpressing it in Arabidopsis and Jatropha. JcLFY is expressed in Jatropha inflorescence buds, flower buds, and carpels, with highest expression in the early developmental stage of flower buds. JcLFY overexpression induced early flowering, solitary flowers, and terminal flowers in Arabidopsis, and also rescued the delayed flowering phenotype of lfy-15, a LFY loss-of-function Arabidopsis mutant. Microarray and qPCR analysis revealed several flower identity and flower organ development genes were upregulated in JcLFY-overexpressing Arabidopsis. JcLFY overexpression in Jatropha also induced early flowering. Significant changes in inflorescence structure, floral organs, and fruit shape occurred in JcLFY co-suppressed plants in which expression of several flower identity and floral organ development genes were changed. This suggests JcLFY is involved in regulating flower identity, floral organ patterns, and fruit shape, although JcLFY function in Jatropha floral meristem determination is not as strong as that of Arabidopsis. PMID:27869146

  19. Perianth organization and intra-specific floral variability.

    PubMed

    Herrera, J; Arista, M; Ortiz, P L

    2008-11-01

    Floral symmetry and fusion of perianth parts are factors that contribute to fine-tune the match between flowers and their animal pollination vectors. In the present study, we investigated whether the possession of a sympetalous (fused) corolla and bilateral symmetry of flowers translate into decreased intra-specific variability as a result of natural stabilizing selection exerted by pollinators. Average size of the corolla and intra-specific variability were determined in two sets of southern Spanish entomophilous plant species. In the first set, taxa were paired by family to control for the effect of phylogeny (phylogenetically independent contrasts), whereas in the second set species were selected at random. Flower size data from a previous study (with different species) were also used to test the hypothesis that petal fusion contributes to decrease intra-specific variability. In the phylogenetically independent contrasts, floral symmetry was a significant correlate of intra-specific variation, with bilaterally symmetrical flowers showing more constancy than radially symmetrical flowers (i.e. unsophisticated from a functional perspective). As regards petal fusion, species with fused petals were on average more constant than choripetalous species, but the difference was not statistically significant. The reanalysis of data from a previous study yielded largely similar results, with a distinct effect of symmetry on variability, but no effect of petal fusion. The randomly-chosen species sample, on the other hand, failed to reveal any significant effect of either symmetry or petal fusion on intra-specific variation. The problem of low-statistical power in this kind of analysis, and the difficulty of testing an evolutionary hypothesis that involves phenotypic traits with a high degree of morphological correlation is discussed.

  20. Exploring potential new floral organ morphogenesis genes of Arabidopsis thaliana using systems biology approach

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Wenchuan; Huang, Junfeng; Liu, Yang; Rao, Jianan; Luo, Da; He, Miao

    2015-01-01

    Flowering is one of the important defining features of angiosperms. The initiation of flower development and the formation of different floral organs are the results of the interplays among numerous genes. But until now, just fewer genes have been found linked with flower development. And the functions of lots of genes of Arabidopsis thaliana are still unknown. Although, the quartet model successfully simplified the ABCDE model to elaborate the molecular mechanism by introducing protein-protein interactions (PPIs). We still don't know much about several important aspects of flower development. So we need to discriminate even more genes involving in the flower development. In this study, we identified seven differentially modules through integrating the weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) method to analyze co-expression network and PPIs using the public floral and non-floral expression profiles data of Arabidopsis thaliana. Gene set enrichment analysis was used for the functional annotation of the related genes, and some of the hub genes were identified in each module. The potential floral organ morphogenesis genes of two significant modules were integrated with PPI information in order to detail the inherent regulation mechanisms. Finally, the functions of the floral patterning genes were elucidated by combining the PPI and evolutionary information. It was indicated that the sub-networks or complexes, rather than the genes, were the regulation unit of flower development. We found that the most possible potential new genes underlining the floral pattern formation in A. thaliana were FY, CBL2, ZFN3, and AT1G77370; among them, FY, CBL2 acted as an upstream regulator of AP2; ZFN3 activated the flower primordial determining gene AP1 and AP2 by HY5/HYH gene via photo induction possibly. And AT1G77370 exhibited similar function in floral morphogenesis, same as ELF3. It possibly formed a complex between RFC3 and RPS15 in

  1. Programmed Cell Death in Floral Organs: How and Why do Flowers Die?

    PubMed Central

    ROGERS, HILARY J.

    2006-01-01

    • Background Flowers have a species-specific, limited life span with an irreversible programme of senescence, which is largely independent of environmental factors, unlike leaf senescence, which is much more closely linked with external stimuli. • Timing Life span of the whole flower is regulated for ecological and energetic reasons, but the death of individual tissues and cells within the flower is co-ordinated at many levels to ensure correct timing. Some floral cells die selectively during organ development, whereas others are retained until the whole organ dies. • Triggers Pollination is an important floral cell death trigger in many species, and its effects are mediated by the plant growth regulator (PGR) ethylene. In some species ethylene is a major regulator of floral senescence, but in others it plays a very minor role and the co-ordinating signals involved remain elusive. Other PGRs such as cytokinin and brassinosteroids are also important but their role is understood only in some specific systems. • Mechanisms In two floral cell types (the tapetum and the pollen-tube) there is strong evidence for apoptotic-type cell death, similar to that in animal cells. However, in petals there is stronger evidence for an autophagous type of cell death involving endoplasmic reticulum-derived vesicles and the vacuole. Proteases are important, and homologues to animal caspases, key regulators of animal cell death, exist in plants. However, their role is not yet clear. • Comparison with Other Organs There are similarities to cell death in other plant organs, and many of the same genes are up-regulated in both leaf and petal senescence; however, there are also important differences for example in the role of PGRs. • Conclusions Understanding gene regulation may help to understand cell death in floral organs better, but alone it cannot provide all the answers. PMID:16394024

  2. The floral organ number4 gene encoding a putative ortholog of Arabidopsis CLAVATA3 regulates apical meristem size in rice.

    PubMed

    Chu, Huangwei; Qian, Qian; Liang, Wanqi; Yin, Changsong; Tan, Hexin; Yao, Xuan; Yuan, Zheng; Yang, Jun; Huang, Hai; Luo, Da; Ma, Hong; Zhang, Dabing

    2006-11-01

    To understand the molecular mechanism regulating meristem development in the monocot rice (Oryza sativa), we describe here the isolation and characterization of three floral organ number4 (fon4) alleles and the cloning of the FON4 gene. The fon4 mutants showed abnormal enlargement of the embryonic and vegetative shoot apical meristems (SAMs) and the inflorescence and floral meristems. Likely due to enlarged SAMs, fon4 mutants produced thick culms (stems) and increased numbers of both primary rachis branches and floral organs. We identified FON4 using a map-based cloning approach and found it encodes a small putatively secreted protein, which is the putative ortholog of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) CLAVATA3 (CLV3) gene. FON4 transcripts mainly accumulated in the small group of cells at the apex of the SAMs, whereas the rice ortholog of CLV1 (FON1) is expressed throughout the SAMs, suggesting that the putative FON4 ligand might be sequestered as a possible mechanism for rice meristem regulation. Exogenous application of the peptides FON4p and CLV3p corresponding to the CLV3/ESR-related (CLE) motifs of FON4 and CLV3, respectively, resulted in termination of SAMs in rice, and treatment with CLV3p caused consumption of both rice and Arabidopsis root meristems, suggesting that the CLV pathway in limiting meristem size is conserved in both rice and Arabidopsis. However, exogenous FON4p did not have an obvious effect on limiting both rice and Arabidopsis root meristems, suggesting that the CLE motifs of Arabidopsis CLV3 and FON4 are potentially functionally divergent.

  3. Arabidopsis floral phytomer development: auxin response relative to biphasic modes of organ initiation

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, J. W.; Werr, W.

    2014-01-01

    In the Arabidopsis inflorescence meristem (IM), auxin is considered a prepatterning signal for floral primordia, whereas a centripetal mode of positional information for floral organ identity is inherent to the ABCE model. However, spatio-temporal patterns of organ initiation in each whorl at the earliest initiation stages are largely unknown. Evidence suggests that initial flower development occurs along an abaxial/adaxial axis and conforms to phytomer theory. Use of the founder cell marker DORNRÖSCHEN-LIKE (DRNL) as a tool in leafy, puchi, and apetala 1 cauliflower mutant backgrounds suggests that bract founder cells are marked at the IM periphery. The DRNL transcription domain in the wild-type IM is spatially discrete from DR5 expression, suggesting that bract initiation is independent of canonical auxin response. When bracts develop in lfy and puchi mutant floral primordia the initiation of lateral sepals precedes the specification of medial sepals compared with wild type, showing an interplay between bract and abaxial sepal founder cell recruitment. In the perianthia (pan) mutant background, DRNL expression indicates that a radial outer whorl arrangement derives from splitting of sepal founder cell populations at abaxial and adaxial positions. This splitting of incipient sepal primordia is partially dependent on PRESSED FLOWER (PRS) activity and implies that sepal specification is independent of WUSCHEL and CLAVATA3 expression, as both marker genes only regain activity in stage-2 flowers, when patterning of inner floral organs switches to a centripetal mode. The transition from an initially abaxial/adaxial into a centripetal patterning programme, and its timing represent an adaptive trait that possibly contributes to variation in floral morphology, especially unidirectional organ initiation. PMID:24744428

  4. Programmed cell death in floral organs: how and why do flowers die?

    PubMed

    Rogers, Hilary J

    2006-03-01

    Flowers have a species-specific, limited life span with an irreversible programme of senescence, which is largely independent of environmental factors, unlike leaf senescence, which is much more closely linked with external stimuli. Life span of the whole flower is regulated for ecological and energetic reasons, but the death of individual tissues and cells within the flower is co-ordinated at many levels to ensure correct timing. Some floral cells die selectively during organ development, whereas others are retained until the whole organ dies. Pollination is an important floral cell death trigger in many species, and its effects are mediated by the plant growth regulator (PGR) ethylene. In some species ethylene is a major regulator of floral senescence, but in others it plays a very minor role and the co-ordinating signals involved remain elusive. Other PGRs such as cytokinin and brassinosteroids are also important but their role is understood only in some specific systems. In two floral cell types (the tapetum and the pollen-tube) there is strong evidence for apoptotic-type cell death, similar to that in animal cells. However, in petals there is stronger evidence for an autophagous type of cell death involving endoplasmic reticulum-derived vesicles and the vacuole. Proteases are important, and homologues to animal caspases, key regulators of animal cell death, exist in plants. However, their role is not yet clear. There are similarities to cell death in other plant organs, and many of the same genes are up-regulated in both leaf and petal senescence; however, there are also important differences for example in the role of PGRs. Understanding gene regulation may help to understand cell death in floral organs better, but alone it cannot provide all the answers.

  5. Arabidopsis floral phytomer development: auxin response relative to biphasic modes of organ initiation.

    PubMed

    Chandler, J W; Werr, W

    2014-07-01

    In the Arabidopsis inflorescence meristem (IM), auxin is considered a prepatterning signal for floral primordia, whereas a centripetal mode of positional information for floral organ identity is inherent to the ABCE model. However, spatio-temporal patterns of organ initiation in each whorl at the earliest initiation stages are largely unknown. Evidence suggests that initial flower development occurs along an abaxial/adaxial axis and conforms to phytomer theory. Use of the founder cell marker DORNRÖSCHEN-LIKE (DRNL) as a tool in leafy, puchi, and apetala 1 cauliflower mutant backgrounds suggests that bract founder cells are marked at the IM periphery. The DRNL transcription domain in the wild-type IM is spatially discrete from DR5 expression, suggesting that bract initiation is independent of canonical auxin response. When bracts develop in lfy and puchi mutant floral primordia the initiation of lateral sepals precedes the specification of medial sepals compared with wild type, showing an interplay between bract and abaxial sepal founder cell recruitment. In the perianthia (pan) mutant background, DRNL expression indicates that a radial outer whorl arrangement derives from splitting of sepal founder cell populations at abaxial and adaxial positions. This splitting of incipient sepal primordia is partially dependent on PRESSED FLOWER (PRS) activity and implies that sepal specification is independent of WUSCHEL and CLAVATA3 expression, as both marker genes only regain activity in stage-2 flowers, when patterning of inner floral organs switches to a centripetal mode. The transition from an initially abaxial/adaxial into a centripetal patterning programme, and its timing represent an adaptive trait that possibly contributes to variation in floral morphology, especially unidirectional organ initiation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  6. Fusion within and between whorls of floral organs in Galipeinae (Rutaceae): structural features and evolutionary implications

    PubMed Central

    El Ottra, Juliana Hanna Leite; Pirani, José Rubens; Endress, Peter K.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Most genera of the neotropical Galipeinae (tribe Galipeeae, Rutoideae) exhibit several forms and degrees of fusion between the floral organs, including the union of petals into an apparently sympetalous corolla, the joining of the stamens among themselves and to the corolla, and the partial to complete connation of carpels. Though these and others floral traits are currently used in the circumscription of species in Galipeinae, few studies have shown in detail in which way (postgenital or congenital) and to what extent these fusions occur. To elucidate these anatomical conditions, a structural study of the flowers of the Galipeinae species was carried out. Methods Flowers of six species from three genera of Galipeinae were studied in their morphology, anatomy and development with stereomicroscopy, light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Key Results The floral tube is formed by synorganization of stamens with petals in all species, and exhibits three main patterns: (1) Conchocarpus heterophyllus and C. minutiflorus have a floral tube formed by marginal coherence/adherence of petals and filaments due to interwining trichomes (postgenital connection); (2) Erythrochiton brasiliensis has a tube formed by congenital fusion of petals and filaments; and (3) Galipea jasminiflora and Conchocarpus macrophyllus have a tube formed distally with the first pattern, and proximally with the second pattern. Although floral tubes seem to be homologous within Galipeinae, this is not true at the level of the family: the floral tube of Correa (from an only distantly related clade of the family) is formed by postgenital union of the petals representing a convergent structure. The gynoecium of the studied species of Galipeinae shows a great variability in the extent of fusion of carpel flanks. Even though different structures for the mature gynoecium were found in each genus, all genera show postgenitally fused carpel apices, which is related to the

  7. Differences in DNA Binding Specificity of Floral Homeotic Protein Complexes Predict Organ-Specific Target Genes.

    PubMed

    Smaczniak, Cezary; Muiño, Jose M; Chen, Dijun; Angenent, Gerco C; Kaufmann, Kerstin

    2017-08-01

    Floral organ identities in plants are specified by the combinatorial action of homeotic master regulatory transcription factors. However, how these factors achieve their regulatory specificities is still largely unclear. Genome-wide in vivo DNA binding data show that homeotic MADS domain proteins recognize partly distinct genomic regions, suggesting that DNA binding specificity contributes to functional differences of homeotic protein complexes. We used in vitro systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment followed by high-throughput DNA sequencing (SELEX-seq) on several floral MADS domain protein homo- and heterodimers to measure their DNA binding specificities. We show that specification of reproductive organs is associated with distinct binding preferences of a complex formed by SEPALLATA3 and AGAMOUS. Binding specificity is further modulated by different binding site spacing preferences. Combination of SELEX-seq and genome-wide DNA binding data allows differentiation between targets in specification of reproductive versus perianth organs in the flower. We validate the importance of DNA binding specificity for organ-specific gene regulation by modulating promoter activity through targeted mutagenesis. Our study shows that intrafamily protein interactions affect DNA binding specificity of floral MADS domain proteins. Differential DNA binding of MADS domain protein complexes plays a role in the specificity of target gene regulation. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  8. Control of reproductive floral organ identity specification in Arabidopsis by the C function regulator AGAMOUS.

    PubMed

    ÓMaoiléidigh, Diarmuid S; Wuest, Samuel E; Rae, Liina; Raganelli, Andrea; Ryan, Patrick T; Kwasniewska, Kamila; Das, Pradeep; Lohan, Amanda J; Loftus, Brendan; Graciet, Emmanuelle; Wellmer, Frank

    2013-07-01

    The floral organ identity factor AGAMOUS (AG) is a key regulator of Arabidopsis thaliana flower development, where it is involved in the formation of the reproductive floral organs as well as in the control of meristem determinacy. To obtain insights into how AG specifies organ fate, we determined the genes and processes acting downstream of this C function regulator during early flower development and distinguished between direct and indirect effects. To this end, we combined genome-wide localization studies, gene perturbation experiments, and computational analyses. Our results demonstrate that AG controls flower development to a large extent by controlling the expression of other genes with regulatory functions, which are involved in mediating a plethora of different developmental processes. One aspect of this function is the suppression of the leaf development program in emerging floral primordia. Using trichome initiation as an example, we demonstrate that AG inhibits an important aspect of leaf development through the direct control of key regulatory genes. A comparison of the gene expression programs controlled by AG and the B function regulators APETALA3 and PISTILLATA, respectively, showed that while they control many developmental processes in conjunction, they also have marked antagonistic, as well as independent activities.

  9. Transcriptomic analysis of floral organs from Phalaenopsis orchid by using oligonucleotide microarray.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Yu-Yun; Huang, Tian-Hsiang; Fu, Chih-Hsiung; Huang, Shi-Ching; Chen, Yi-Jun; Huang, Yueh-Min; Chen, Wen-Huei; Tsai, Wen-Chieh; Chen, Hong-Hwa

    2013-04-10

    Orchids are one of the most species rich of all angiosperm families. Their extraordinary floral diversity, especially conspicuous labellum morphology, makes them the successful species during evolution process. Because of the fine and delicate development of the perianth, orchid provides a rich subject for studying developmental biology. However, study on molecular mechanism underling orchid floral development is still in its infancy. In this study, we developed an oligomicroarray containing 14,732 unigenes based on the information of expressed sequence tags derived from Phalaenopsis orchids. We applied the oligomicroarray to compare transcriptome among different types of floral organs including sepal, petal and labellum. We discovered that 173, 11, and 285 unigenes were highly differentially expressed in sepal, petal, and labellum, respectively. These unigenes were annotated with Gene Ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways, and transcription factor family. Unigenes involved in energy metabolism, lipid metabolism, and terpenoid metabolism are significantly differentially distributed between labellum and two types of tepal (sepal and petal). Labellum-dominant unigenes encoding MADS-box and sepal-dominant unigenes encoding WRKY transcription factors were also identified. Further studies are required but data suggest that it will be possible to identify genes better adapted to sepal, petal and labellum function. The developed functional genomic tool will narrow the gap between approaches based on model organisms with plenty genomic resources and species that are important for developmental and evolutionary studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. DORNRÖSCHEN, DORNRÖSCHEN-LIKE, and PUCHI redundantly control floral meristem identity and organ initiation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Chandler, J W; Werr, W

    2017-06-15

    The biphasic floral transition in Arabidopsis thaliana involves many redundant intersecting regulatory networks. The related AP2 transcription factors DORNRÖSCHEN (DRN), DORNRÖSCHEN-LIKE (DRNL), and PUCHI individually execute well-characterized functions in diverse developmental contexts, including floral development. Here, we show that their combined loss of function leads to synergistic floral phenotypes, including reduced floral merosity in all whorls, which reflects redundant functions of all three genes in organ initiation rather than outgrowth. Additional loss of BLADE-ON-PETIOLE1 (BOP1) and BOP2 functions results in the complete conversion of floral meristems into secondary inflorescence shoots, demonstrating that all five genes define an essential regulatory network for establishing floral meristem identity, and we show that their functions converge to regulate LEAFY expression. Thus, despite their largely discrete spatiotemporal expression domains in the inflorescence meristem and early floral meristem, PUCHI, DRN, and DRNL interdependently contribute to cellular fate decisions. Auxin might represent one potential non-cell-autonomous mediator of their gene functions, because PUCHI, DRN, and DRNL all interact with auxin transport and biosynthesis pathways. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Identification and expression of floral organ homeotic genes from Alpinia oblongifolia (Zingiberaceae).

    PubMed

    Xia, Yong-Mei; Gao, Xue-Mei; Li, Qing-Jun

    2009-02-01

    Current understanding of the classical ABC model of floral development has provided a new set of characters to evaluate floral evolution. However, what is still lacking is a clear assessment of this genetic program across monocots. Here, to investigate the evolution of members of class A and B genes in monocots, we report the sequence characteristic and transcript expression of three new MADS-box genes in Alpinia oblongifolia Hayata. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis reveals that these genes are FUL-like and AP3-like. Therefore, they were termed AoFL1, AoFL2 and AoAP3. AoFL1 contains the FUL motif, but AoFL2 lacks this motif. Their expression revealed by in situ hybridization may reflect the ancestral function of FUL-like genes in the specification of inflorescence and floral meristems. The AoAP3 gene contains two conserved motifs, the PI-derived and paleoAP3 motifs. The AoAP3 transcripts located to the corolla and stamen, and hybridization signals were detected in the central whorl. These expression patterns suggest that the functions of homologous organ identity genes are diversified in A. oblongifolia. The implications of these findings on the conservation of homologous gene function are discussed.

  12. Mutations in epidermis-specific HD-ZIP IV genes affect floral organ identity in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Kamata, Naoko; Okada, Hitomi; Komeda, Yoshibumi; Takahashi, Taku

    2013-08-01

    Development of the epidermis involves members of the class-IV homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-ZIP IV) transcription factors. The Arabidopsis HD-ZIP IV family consists of 16 members, among which PROTODERMAL FACTOR 2 (PDF2) and ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA MERISTEM LAYER 1 (ATML1) play an indispensable role in the differentiation of shoot epidermal cells; however, the functions of other HD-ZIP IV genes that are also expressed specifically in the shoot epidermis remain to be fully elucidated. We constructed double mutant combinations of these HD-ZIP IV mutant alleles and found that the double mutants of pdf2-1 with homeodomain glabrous1-1 (hdg1-1), hdg2-3, hdg5-1 and hdg12-2 produced abnormal flowers with sepaloid petals and carpelloid stamens in association with the reduced expression of the petal and stamen identity gene APETALA 3 (AP3). Expression of another petal and stamen identity gene PISTILATA (PI) was less affected in these mutants. We confirmed that AP3 expression in pdf2-1 hdg2-3 was normally induced at the initial stages of flower development, but was attenuated both in the epidermis and internal cell layers of developing flowers. As the expression of PDF2 and these HD-ZIP IV genes during floral organ formation is exclusively limited to the epidermal cell layer, these double mutations may have non-cell-autonomous effects on AP3 expression in the internal cell layers. Our results suggest that cooperative functions of PDF2 and other members of the HD-ZIP IV family in the epidermis are crucial for normal development of floral organs in Arabidopsis.

  13. Parallels between UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS and FIMBRIATA, genes controlling flower development in Arabidopsis and Antirrhinum.

    PubMed

    Ingram, G C; Goodrich, J; Wilkinson, M D; Simon, R; Haughn, G W; Coen, E S

    1995-09-01

    The unusual floral organs (ufo) mutant of Arabidopsis has flowers with variable homeotic organ transformations and inflorescence-like characteristics. To determine the relationship between UFO and previously characterized meristem and organ identity genes, we cloned UFO and determined its expression pattern. The UFO gene shows extensive homology with FIMBRIATA (FIM), a gene mediating between meristem and organ identity genes in Antirrhinum. All three UFO mutant alleles that we sequenced are predicted to produce truncated proteins. UFO transcripts were first detected in early floral meristems, before organ identity genes had been activated. At later developmental stages, UFO expression is restricted to the junction between sepal and petal primordia. Phenotypic, genetic, and expression pattern comparisons between UFO and FIM suggest that they are cognate homologs and play a similar role in mediating between meristem and organ identity genes. However, some differences in the functions and genetic interactions of UFO and FIM were apparent, indicating that changes in partially redundant pathways have occurred during the evolutionary divergence of Arabidopsis and Antirrhinum.

  14. HAWAIIAN SKIRT controls size and floral organ number by modulating CUC1 and CUC2 expression.

    PubMed

    González-Carranza, Zinnia H; Zhang, Xuebin; Peters, Janny L; Boltz, Veronique; Szecsi, Judit; Bendahmane, Mohammed; Roberts, Jeremy A

    2017-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana F-box gene HAWAIIAN SKIRT (HWS) affects organ growth and the timing of floral organ abscission. The loss-of-function hws-1 mutant exhibits fused sepals and increased organ size. To understand the molecular mechanisms of HWS during plant development, we mutagenized hws-1 seeds with ethylmethylsulphonate (EMS) and screened for mutations suppressing hws-1 associated phenotypes. We isolated the shs1/hws-1 (suppressor of hws-1) mutant in which hws-1 sepal fusion phenotype was suppressed. The shs1/hws-1 mutant carries a G→A nucleotide substitution in the MIR164 binding site of CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON 1 (CUC1) mRNA. CUC1 and CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON 2 (CUC2) transcript levels were altered in shs1, renamed cuc1-1D, and in hws-1 mutant. Genetic interaction analyses using single, double and triple mutants of cuc1-1D, cuc2-1D (a CUC2 mutant similar to cuc1-1D), and hws-1, demonstrate that HWS, CUC1 and CUC2 act together to control floral organ number. Loss of function of HWS is associated with larger petal size due to alterations in cell proliferation and mitotic growth, a role shared with the CUC1 gene.

  15. Mechanistic insight into a peptide hormone signaling complex mediating floral organ abscission

    PubMed Central

    Santiago, Julia; Brandt, Benjamin; Wildhagen, Mari; Hohmann, Ulrich; Hothorn, Ludwig A; Butenko, Melinka A; Hothorn, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Plants constantly renew during their life cycle and thus require to shed senescent and damaged organs. Floral abscission is controlled by the leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase (LRR-RK) HAESA and the peptide hormone IDA. It is unknown how expression of IDA in the abscission zone leads to HAESA activation. Here we show that IDA is sensed directly by the HAESA ectodomain. Crystal structures of HAESA in complex with IDA reveal a hormone binding pocket that accommodates an active dodecamer peptide. A central hydroxyproline residue anchors IDA to the receptor. The HAESA co-receptor SERK1, a positive regulator of the floral abscission pathway, allows for high-affinity sensing of the peptide hormone by binding to an Arg-His-Asn motif in IDA. This sequence pattern is conserved among diverse plant peptides, suggesting that plant peptide hormone receptors may share a common ligand binding mode and activation mechanism. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15075.001 PMID:27058169

  16. K-homology Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins Regulate Floral Organ Identity and Determinacy in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Cazorla, Encarnación; Ripoll, Juan José; Andújar, Alfonso; Bailey, Lindsay J.; Martínez-Laborda, Antonio; Yanofsky, Martin F.; Vera, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Post-transcriptional control is nowadays considered a main checking point for correct gene regulation during development, and RNA binding proteins actively participate in this process. Arabidopsis thaliana FLOWERING LOCUS WITH KH DOMAINS (FLK) and PEPPER (PEP) genes encode RNA-binding proteins that contain three K-homology (KH)-domain, the typical configuration of Poly(C)-binding ribonucleoproteins (PCBPs). We previously demonstrated that FLK and PEP interact to regulate FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), a central repressor of flowering time. Now we show that FLK and PEP also play an important role in the maintenance of the C-function during floral organ identity by post-transcriptionally regulating the MADS-box floral homeotic gene AGAMOUS (AG). Previous studies have indicated that the KH-domain containing protein HEN4, in concert with the CCCH-type RNA binding protein HUA1 and the RPR-type protein HUA2, facilitates maturation of the AG pre-mRNA. In this report we show that FLK and PEP genetically interact with HEN4, HUA1, and HUA2, and that the FLK and PEP proteins physically associate with HUA1 and HEN4. Taken together, these data suggest that HUA1, HEN4, PEP and FLK are components of the same post-transcriptional regulatory module that ensures normal processing of the AG pre-mRNA. Our data better delineates the roles of PEP in plant development and, for the first time, links FLK to a morphogenetic process. PMID:25658099

  17. A genetic screen for modifiers of UFO meristem activity identifies three novel FUSED FLORAL ORGANS genes required for early flower development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Levin, J Z; Fletcher, J C; Chen, X; Meyerowitz, E M

    1998-06-01

    In a screen to identify novel genes required for early Arabidopsis flower development, we isolated four independent mutations that enhance the Ufo phenotype toward the production of filamentous structures in place of flowers. The mutants fall into three complementation groups, which we have termed FUSED FLORAL ORGANS (FFO) loci. ffo mutants have specific defects in floral organ separation and/or positioning; thus, the FFO genes identify components of a boundary formation mechanism(s) acting between developing floral organ primordia. FFO1 and FFO3 have specific functions in cauline leaf/stem separation and in first- and third-whorl floral organ separation, with FFO3 likely acting to establish and FFO1 to maintain floral organ boundaries. FFO2 acts at early floral stages to regulate floral organ number and positioning and to control organ separation within and between whorls. Plants doubly mutant for two ffo alleles display additive phenotypes, indicating that the FFO genes may act in separate pathways. Plants doubly mutant for an ffo gene and for ufo, lfy, or clv3 reveal that the FFO genes play roles related to those of UFO and LFY in floral meristem initiation and that FFO2 and FFO3 may act to control cell proliferation late in inflorescence development.

  18. A genetic screen for modifiers of UFO meristem activity identifies three novel FUSED FLORAL ORGANS genes required for early flower development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed Central

    Levin, J Z; Fletcher, J C; Chen, X; Meyerowitz, E M

    1998-01-01

    In a screen to identify novel genes required for early Arabidopsis flower development, we isolated four independent mutations that enhance the Ufo phenotype toward the production of filamentous structures in place of flowers. The mutants fall into three complementation groups, which we have termed FUSED FLORAL ORGANS (FFO) loci. ffo mutants have specific defects in floral organ separation and/or positioning; thus, the FFO genes identify components of a boundary formation mechanism(s) acting between developing floral organ primordia. FFO1 and FFO3 have specific functions in cauline leaf/stem separation and in first- and third-whorl floral organ separation, with FFO3 likely acting to establish and FFO1 to maintain floral organ boundaries. FFO2 acts at early floral stages to regulate floral organ number and positioning and to control organ separation within and between whorls. Plants doubly mutant for two ffo alleles display additive phenotypes, indicating that the FFO genes may act in separate pathways. Plants doubly mutant for an ffo gene and for ufo, lfy, or clv3 reveal that the FFO genes play roles related to those of UFO and LFY in floral meristem initiation and that FFO2 and FFO3 may act to control cell proliferation late in inflorescence development. PMID:9611175

  19. KLUH/CYP78A5-dependent growth signaling coordinates floral organ growth in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Sven; Stransfeld, Lena; Adamski, Nikolai Maria; Breuninger, Holger; Lenhard, Michael

    2010-03-23

    Growth control in animals and plants involves mobile signals. Depending on their range of action, these signals coordinate the growth of cells within an organ or the growth of different organs in a larger, functionally integrated structure. In plants, flowers are such integrated structures, yet it remains poorly understood how growth of the constituent organs is coordinated to ensure their correct relative sizes. The cytochrome P450 KLUH/CYP78A5 and its homolog CYP78A7 promote organ growth via a non-cell-autonomous signal; however, the range of this signal and thus its developmental function are unknown. Here we use a system for the predictable generation of chimeric plants to determine the range of the KLUH-dependent signal. In contrast with the largely autonomous behavior of another tested growth-control gene, we find that KLUH activity extends beyond individual organs and flowers. Its overall activity is integrated across an inflorescence to determine final organ size, which is largely independent of the genotype of the individual organs. Thus, the KLUH-dependent signal appears to move beyond individual organs in a flower, providing a mechanism for coordinating their growth and ensuring floral symmetry as an important determinant of a plant's attractiveness to pollinators. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The FLORAL ORGAN NUMBER4 Gene Encoding a Putative Ortholog of Arabidopsis CLAVATA3 Regulates Apical Meristem Size in Rice1[W

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Huangwei; Qian, Qian; Liang, Wanqi; Yin, Changsong; Tan, Hexin; Yao, Xuan; Yuan, Zheng; Yang, Jun; Huang, Hai; Luo, Da; Ma, Hong; Zhang, Dabing

    2006-01-01

    To understand the molecular mechanism regulating meristem development in the monocot rice (Oryza sativa), we describe here the isolation and characterization of three floral organ number4 (fon4) alleles and the cloning of the FON4 gene. The fon4 mutants showed abnormal enlargement of the embryonic and vegetative shoot apical meristems (SAMs) and the inflorescence and floral meristems. Likely due to enlarged SAMs, fon4 mutants produced thick culms (stems) and increased numbers of both primary rachis branches and floral organs. We identified FON4 using a map-based cloning approach and found it encodes a small putatively secreted protein, which is the putative ortholog of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) CLAVATA3 (CLV3) gene. FON4 transcripts mainly accumulated in the small group of cells at the apex of the SAMs, whereas the rice ortholog of CLV1 (FON1) is expressed throughout the SAMs, suggesting that the putative FON4 ligand might be sequestered as a possible mechanism for rice meristem regulation. Exogenous application of the peptides FON4p and CLV3p corresponding to the CLV3/ESR-related (CLE) motifs of FON4 and CLV3, respectively, resulted in termination of SAMs in rice, and treatment with CLV3p caused consumption of both rice and Arabidopsis root meristems, suggesting that the CLV pathway in limiting meristem size is conserved in both rice and Arabidopsis. However, exogenous FON4p did not have an obvious effect on limiting both rice and Arabidopsis root meristems, suggesting that the CLE motifs of Arabidopsis CLV3 and FON4 are potentially functionally divergent. PMID:17012407

  1. UFO in the Arabidopsis inflorescence apex is required for floral-meristem identity and bract suppression.

    PubMed

    Hepworth, Shelley R; Klenz, Jennifer E; Haughn, George W

    2006-03-01

    The UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) gene of Arabidopsis encodes an F-box protein required for the determination of floral-organ and floral-meristem identity. Mutation of UFO leads to dramatic changes in floral-organ type which are well-characterized whereas inflorescence defects are more subtle and less understood. These defects include an increase in the number of secondary inflorescences, nodes that alternate between forming flowers and secondary inflorescences, and nodes in which a single flower is subtended by a bract. Here, we show how inflorescence defects correlate with the abnormal development of floral primordia and establish a temporal requirement for UFO in this process. At the inflorescence apex of ufo mutants, newly formed primordia are initially bract-like. Expression of the floral-meristem identity genes LFY and AP1 are confined to a relatively small adaxial region of these primordia with expression of the bract-identity marker FIL observed in cells that comprise the balance of the primordia. Proliferation of cells in the adaxial region of these early primordia is delayed by several nodes such that primordia appear "chimeric" at several nodes, having visible floral and bract components. However, by late stage 2 of floral development, growth of the bract generally ceases and is overtaken by development of the floral primordium. This abnormal pattern of floral meristem development is not rescued by expression of UFO from the AP1 promoter, indicating that UFO is required prior to AP1 activation for normal development of floral primordia. We propose that UFO and LFY are jointly required in the inflorescence meristem to both promote floral meristem development and inhibit, in a non-cell autonomous manner, growth of the bract.

  2. Rice MADS6 Interacts with the Floral Homeotic Genes SUPERWOMAN1, MADS3, MADS58, MADS13, and DROOPING LEAF in Specifying Floral Organ Identities and Meristem Fate[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haifeng; Liang, Wanqi; Hu, Yun; Zhu, Lu; Yin, Changsong; Xu, Jie; Dreni, Ludovico; Kater, Martin M.; Zhang, Dabing

    2011-01-01

    AGAMOUS-LIKE6 (AGL6) genes play essential roles in flower development, but whether and how they work with floral organ identity genes remain less understood. Here, we describe interactions of the rice (Oryza sativa) AGL6 gene MADS6 with other rice floral homeotic genes in flower development. Genetic analyses revealed that MADS6 specifies the identity of the three inner whorls and floral meristem determinacy redundantly with SUPERWOMAN1/MADS16 (B-gene) or MADS3 (C-gene). MADS6 was shown to define carpel/ovule development and floral determinacy by interacting with MADS13 (D-gene) and control the palea and floral meristem identities together with the YABBY gene DROOPING LEAF. Expression analyses revealed that the transcript levels of six B-, C-, and E-class genes were reduced in mads6-1 at the early flower developmental stage, suggesting that MADS6 is a key regulator of early flower development. Moreover, MADS6 can directly bind to a putative regulatory motif on MADS58 (C-gene), and mads6-1 mads58 displayed phenotypes similar to that of mads6-1. These results suggest that MADS6 is a key player in specifying flower development via interacting with other floral homeotic genes in rice, thus providing new insights into the mechanism by which flower development is controlled. PMID:21784949

  3. Digital Gene Expression Analysis Based on De Novo Transcriptome Assembly Reveals New Genes Associated with Floral Organ Differentiation of the Orchid Plant Cymbidium ensifolium

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fengxi; Zhu, Genfa

    2015-01-01

    Cymbidium ensifolium belongs to the genus Cymbidium of the orchid family. Owing to its spectacular flower morphology, C. ensifolium has considerable ecological and cultural value. However, limited genetic data is available for this non-model plant, and the molecular mechanism underlying floral organ identity is still poorly understood. In this study, we characterize the floral transcriptome of C. ensifolium and present, for the first time, extensive sequence and transcript abundance data of individual floral organs. After sequencing, over 10 Gb clean sequence data were generated and assembled into 111,892 unigenes with an average length of 932.03 base pairs, including 1,227 clusters and 110,665 singletons. Assembled sequences were annotated with gene descriptions, gene ontology, clusters of orthologous group terms, the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, and the plant transcription factor database. From these annotations, 131 flowering-associated unigenes, 61 CONSTANS-LIKE (COL) unigenes and 90 floral homeotic genes were identified. In addition, four digital gene expression libraries were constructed for the sepal, petal, labellum and gynostemium, and 1,058 genes corresponding to individual floral organ development were identified. Among them, eight MADS-box genes were further investigated by full-length cDNA sequence analysis and expression validation, which revealed two APETALA1/AGL9-like MADS-box genes preferentially expressed in the sepal and petal, two AGAMOUS-like genes particularly restricted to the gynostemium, and four DEF-like genes distinctively expressed in different floral organs. The spatial expression of these genes varied distinctly in different floral mutant corresponding to different floral morphogenesis, which validated the specialized roles of them in floral patterning and further supported the effectiveness of our in silico analysis. This dataset generated in our study provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying floral

  4. A Phalaenopsis variety with floral organs showing C class homeotic transformation and its revertant may enable Phalaenopsis as a potential molecular genetic material.

    PubMed

    Ejima, Chika; Kobayashi, Yuuki; Honda, Hiroaki; Shimizu, Noriko; Kiyohara, Shunsuke; Hamasaki, Ryota; Sawa, Shinichiro

    2011-01-01

    The Orchidaceae is one of the most famous garden plants, and improvement of the orchid is very important in horticulture field. However, molecular information is largely unknown. We found a Phalaenopsis variety harboring floral organs showing C class homeotic change. Column is composed of the anthers with the receptive stigmatic surface just underneath them in wild type. However the C class variety produced column with sepal or petal like structure at the abaxial side. This is the typical abnormality as C class mutants in plants. Further, wild type looking revertant was found from the meristem tissue cultured population. This result strongly indicates the existence of active transposable element in Phalaenopsis genome. This transposon may enable Phalaenopsis as a good material for molecular genetic analysis in Orchidaceae.

  5. Sub-functionalization to ovule development following duplication of a floral organ identity gene.

    PubMed

    Galimba, Kelsey D; Di Stilio, Verónica S

    2015-09-01

    Gene duplications result in paralogs that may be maintained due to the gain of novel functions (neo-functionalization) or the partitioning of ancestral function (sub-functionalization). Plant genomes are especially prone to duplication; paralogs are particularly widespread in the floral MADS box transcription factors that control organ identity through the ABC model of flower development. C class genes establish stamen and carpel identity and control floral meristem determinacy, and are largely conserved across the angiosperm phylogeny. Originally, an additional D class had been identified as controlling ovule identity; yet subsequent studies indicated that both C and D lineage genes more commonly control ovule development redundantly. The ranunculid Thalictrum thalictroides has two orthologs of the Arabidopsis thaliana C class gene AGAMOUS (AG), ThtAG1 and ThtAG2 (Thalictrum thalictroides AGAMOUS1/2). We previously showed that ThtAG1 exhibits typical C class function; here we examine the role of its paralog, ThtAG2. Our phylogenetic analysis shows that ThtAG2 falls within the C lineage, together with ThtAG1, and is consistent with previous findings of a Ranunculales-specific duplication in this clade. However, ThtAG2 is not expressed in stamens, but rather solely in carpels and ovules. This female-specific expression pattern is consistent with D lineage genes, and with other C lineage genes known to be involved in ovule identity. Given the divergent expression of ThtAG2, we tested the hypothesis that it has acquired ovule identity function. Molecular evolution analyses showed evidence of positive selection on ThtAG2-a pattern that supports divergence of function by sub-functionalization. Down-regulation of ThtAG2 by virus-induced gene silencing resulted in homeotic conversions of ovules into carpel-like structures. Taken together, our results suggest that, although ThtAG2 falls within the C lineage, it has diverged to acquire "D function" as an ovule identity gene

  6. Control of Reproductive Floral Organ Identity Specification in Arabidopsis by the C Function Regulator AGAMOUS[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Ó’Maoiléidigh, Diarmuid S.; Wuest, Samuel E.; Rae, Liina; Raganelli, Andrea; Ryan, Patrick T.; Kwaśniewska, Kamila; Das, Pradeep; Lohan, Amanda J.; Loftus, Brendan; Graciet, Emmanuelle; Wellmer, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The floral organ identity factor AGAMOUS (AG) is a key regulator of Arabidopsis thaliana flower development, where it is involved in the formation of the reproductive floral organs as well as in the control of meristem determinacy. To obtain insights into how AG specifies organ fate, we determined the genes and processes acting downstream of this C function regulator during early flower development and distinguished between direct and indirect effects. To this end, we combined genome-wide localization studies, gene perturbation experiments, and computational analyses. Our results demonstrate that AG controls flower development to a large extent by controlling the expression of other genes with regulatory functions, which are involved in mediating a plethora of different developmental processes. One aspect of this function is the suppression of the leaf development program in emerging floral primordia. Using trichome initiation as an example, we demonstrate that AG inhibits an important aspect of leaf development through the direct control of key regulatory genes. A comparison of the gene expression programs controlled by AG and the B function regulators APETALA3 and PISTILLATA, respectively, showed that while they control many developmental processes in conjunction, they also have marked antagonistic, as well as independent activities. PMID:23821642

  7. Ethylene-Dependent and -Independent Processes Associated with Floral Organ Abscission in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Sara E.; Bleecker, Anthony B.

    2004-01-01

    Abscission is an important developmental process in the life cycle of the plant, regulating the detachment of organs from the main body of the plant. This mechanism can be initiated in response to environmental cues such as disease or pathogen, or it can be a programmed shedding of organs that no longer provide essential functions to the plant. We have identified five novel dab (delayed floral organ abscission) mutants (dab1-1, dab2-1, dab3-1, dab3-2, and dab3-3) in Arabidopsis. These mutants each display unique anatomical and physiological characteristics and are governed by three independent loci. Scanning electron microscopy shows delayed development of the flattened fracture plane in some mutants and irregular elongation in the cells of the fracture plane in other mutants. The anatomical observations are also supported by breakstrength measurements that show high breakstrength associated with broken cells, moderate levels for the flattened fracture plane, and low levels associated with the initial rounding of cells. In addition, observations on the expression patterns in the abscission zone of cell wall hydrolytic enzymes, chitinase and cellulose, show altered patterns in the mutants. Last, we have compared these mutants with the ethylene-insensitive mutants etr1-1 and ein2-1 to determine if ethylene is an essential component of the abscission process and find that although ethylene can accelerate abscission under many conditions, the perception of ethylene is not essential. The role of the dab genes and the ethylene response genes during the abscission process is discussed. PMID:14701913

  8. The ASK1 gene regulates development and interacts with the UFO gene to control floral organ identity in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, D; Yang, M; Solava, J; Ma, H

    1999-09-01

    Normal flower development likely requires both specific and general regulators. We have isolated an Arabidopsis mutant ask1-1 (for -Arabidopsis skp1-like1-1), which exhibits defects in both vegetative and reproductive development. In the ask1-1mutant, rosette leaf growth is reduced, resulting in smaller than normal rosette leaves, and internodes in the floral stem are shorter than normal. Examination of cell sizes in these organs indicates that cell expansion is normal in the mutant, but cell number is reduced. In the mutant, the numbers of petals and stamens are reduced, and many flowers have one or more petals with a reduced size. In addition, all mutant flowers have short stamen filaments. Furthermore, petal/stamen chimeric organs are found in many flowers. These results indicate that the ASK1 gene affects the size of vegetative and floral organs. The ask1 floral phenotype resembles somewhat that of the Arabidopsis ufo mutants in that both genes affect whorls 2 and 3. We therefore tested for possible interactions between ASK1 and UFO by analyzing the phenotypes of ufo-2 ask1-1 double mutant plants. In these plants, vegetative development is similar to that of the ask1-1 single mutant, whereas the floral defects are more severe than those in either single mutant. Interior to the first whorl, the double mutant flowers have more sepals or sepal-like organs than are found in ufo-2, and less petals than ask1-1. Our results suggest that ASK1 interacts with UFO to control floral organ identity in whorls 2 and 3. This is very intriguing because ASK1 is very similar in sequence to the yeast SKP1 protein and UFO contains an F-box, a motif known to interact with SKP1 in yeast. Although the precise mechanism of ASK1 and UFO action is unknown, our results support the hypothesis that these two proteins physically interact in vivo. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. A novel allele of FILAMENTOUS FLOWER reveals new insights on the link between inflorescence and floral meristem organization and flower morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lugassi, Nitsan; Nakayama, Naomi; Bochnik, Rachel; Zik, Moriyah

    2010-06-28

    The Arabidopsis FILAMENTOUS FLOWER (FIL) gene encodes a YABBY (YAB) family putative transcription factor that has been implicated in specifying abaxial cell identities and thus regulating organ polarity of lateral organs. In contrast to double mutants of fil and other YAB genes, fil single mutants display mainly floral and inflorescence morphological defects that do not reflect merely a loss of abaxial identity. Recently, FIL and other YABs have been shown to regulate meristem organization in a non-cell-autonomous manner. In a screen for new mutations affecting floral organ morphology and development, we have identified a novel allele of FIL, fil-9 and characterized its floral and meristem phenotypes. The fil-9 mutation results in highly variable disruptions in floral organ numbers and size, partial homeotic transformations, and in defective inflorescence organization. Examination of meristems indicates that both fil-9 inflorescence and floral meristems are enlarged as a result of an increase in cell number, and deformed. Furthermore, primordia emergence from these meristems is disrupted such that several primordia arise simultaneously instead of sequentially. Many of the organs produced by the inflorescence meristems are filamentous, yet they are not considered by the plant as flowers. The severity of both floral organs and meristem phenotypes is increased acropetally and in higher growth temperature. Detailed analysis following the development of fil-9 inflorescence and flowers throughout flower development enabled the drawing of a causal link between multiple traits of fil-9 phenotypes. The study reinforces the suggested role of FIL in meristem organization. The loss of spatial and temporal organization of fil-9 inflorescence and floral meristems presumably leads to disrupted cell allocation to developing floral organs and to a blurring of organ whorl boundaries. This disruption is reflected in morphological and organ identity aberrations of fil-9 floral organs

  10. A novel allele of FILAMENTOUS FLOWER reveals new insights on the link between inflorescence and floral meristem organization and flower morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Arabidopsis FILAMENTOUS FLOWER (FIL) gene encodes a YABBY (YAB) family putative transcription factor that has been implicated in specifying abaxial cell identities and thus regulating organ polarity of lateral organs. In contrast to double mutants of fil and other YAB genes, fil single mutants display mainly floral and inflorescence morphological defects that do not reflect merely a loss of abaxial identity. Recently, FIL and other YABs have been shown to regulate meristem organization in a non-cell-autonomous manner. In a screen for new mutations affecting floral organ morphology and development, we have identified a novel allele of FIL, fil-9 and characterized its floral and meristem phenotypes. Results The fil-9 mutation results in highly variable disruptions in floral organ numbers and size, partial homeotic transformations, and in defective inflorescence organization. Examination of meristems indicates that both fil-9 inflorescence and floral meristems are enlarged as a result of an increase in cell number, and deformed. Furthermore, primordia emergence from these meristems is disrupted such that several primordia arise simultaneously instead of sequentially. Many of the organs produced by the inflorescence meristems are filamentous, yet they are not considered by the plant as flowers. The severity of both floral organs and meristem phenotypes is increased acropetally and in higher growth temperature. Conclusions Detailed analysis following the development of fil-9 inflorescence and flowers throughout flower development enabled the drawing of a causal link between multiple traits of fil-9 phenotypes. The study reinforces the suggested role of FIL in meristem organization. The loss of spatial and temporal organization of fil-9 inflorescence and floral meristems presumably leads to disrupted cell allocation to developing floral organs and to a blurring of organ whorl boundaries. This disruption is reflected in morphological and organ identity

  11. Transcription repressor HANABA TARANU controls flower development by integrating the actions of multiple hormones, floral organ specification genes, and GATA3 family genes in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaolan; Zhou, Yun; Ding, Lian; Wu, Zhigang; Liu, Renyi; Meyerowitz, Elliot M

    2013-01-01

    Plant inflorescence meristems and floral meristems possess specific boundary domains that result in proper floral organ separation and specification. HANABA TARANU (HAN) encodes a boundary-expressed GATA3-type transcription factor that regulates shoot meristem organization and flower development in Arabidopsis thaliana, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Through time-course microarray analyses following transient overexpression of HAN, we found that HAN represses hundreds of genes, especially genes involved in hormone responses and floral organ specification. Transient overexpression of HAN also represses the expression of HAN and three other GATA3 family genes, HANL2 (HAN-LIKE 2), GNC (GATA, NITRATE-INDUCIBLE, CARBON-METABOLISM-INVOLVED), and GNL (GNC-LIKE), forming a negative regulatory feedback loop. Genetic analysis indicates that HAN and the three GATA3 family genes coordinately regulate floral development, and their expression patterns are partially overlapping. HAN can homodimerize and heterodimerize with the three proteins encoded by these genes, and HAN directly binds to its own promoter and the GNC promoter in vivo. These findings, along with the fact that constitutive overexpression of HAN produces an even stronger phenotype than the loss-of-function mutation, support the hypothesis that HAN functions as a key repressor that regulates floral development via regulatory networks involving genes in the GATA3 family, along with genes involved in hormone action and floral organ specification.

  12. Floral variation and floral genetics in basal angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Soltis, Pamela S; Brockington, Samuel F; Yoo, Mi-Jeong; Piedrahita, Ana; Latvis, Maribeth; Moore, Michael J; Chanderbali, Andre S; Soltis, Douglas E

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in phylogeny reconstruction and floral genetics set the stage for new investigations of the origin and diversification of the flower. We review the current state of angiosperm phylogeny, with an emphasis on basal lineages. With the surprising inclusion of Hydatellaceae with Nymphaeales, recent studies support the topology of Amborella sister to all other extant angiosperms, with Nymphaeales and then Austrobaileyales as subsequent sisters to all remaining angiosperms. Notable modifications from most recent analyses are the sister relationships of Chloranthaceae with the magnoliids and of Ceratophyllaceae with eudicots. We review "trends" in floral morphology and contrast historical, intuitive interpretations with explicit character-state reconstructions using molecular-based trees, focusing on (1) the size, number, and organization of floral organs; (2) the evolution of the perianth; (3) floral symmetry; and (4) floral synorganization. We provide summaries of those genes known to affect floral features that contribute to much of floral diversity. Although most floral genes have not been investigated outside of a few model systems, sufficient information is emerging to identify candidate genes for testing specific hypotheses in nonmodel plants. We conclude with a set of evo-devo case studies in which floral genetics have been linked to variation in floral morphology.

  13. Characterization and Functional Analysis of Five MADS-Box B Class Genes Related to Floral Organ Identification in Tagetes erecta

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Ye; Zhang, Chunling; Sun, Yalin; Wang, Weining; Bao, Manzhu

    2017-01-01

    According to the floral organ development ABC model, B class genes specify petal and stamen identification. In order to study the function of B class genes in flower development of Tagetes erecta, five MADS-box B class genes were identified and their expression and putative functions were studied. Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses indicated that there were one PI-like gene—TePI, two euAP3-like genes—TeAP3-1 and TeAP3-2, and two TM6-like genes—TeTM6-1 and TeTM6-2 in T. erecta. Strong expression levels of these genes were detected in stamens of the disk florets, but little or no expression was detected in bracts, receptacles or vegetative organs. Yeast hybrid experiments of the B class proteins showed that TePI protein could form a homodimer and heterodimers with all the other four B class proteins TeAP3-1, TeAP3-2, TeTM6-1 and TeTM6-2. No homodimer or interaction was observed between the euAP3 and TM6 clade members. Over-expression of five B class genes of T. erecta in Nicotiana rotundifolia showed that only the transgenic plants of 35S::TePI showed altered floral morphology compared with the non-transgenic line. This study could contribute to the understanding of the function of B class genes in flower development of T. erecta, and provide a theoretical basis for further research to change floral organ structures and create new materials for plant breeding. PMID:28081202

  14. Characterization and Functional Analysis of Five MADS-Box B Class Genes Related to Floral Organ Identification in Tagetes erecta.

    PubMed

    Ai, Ye; Zhang, Chunling; Sun, Yalin; Wang, Weining; He, Yanhong; Bao, Manzhu

    2017-01-01

    According to the floral organ development ABC model, B class genes specify petal and stamen identification. In order to study the function of B class genes in flower development of Tagetes erecta, five MADS-box B class genes were identified and their expression and putative functions were studied. Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses indicated that there were one PI-like gene-TePI, two euAP3-like genes-TeAP3-1 and TeAP3-2, and two TM6-like genes-TeTM6-1 and TeTM6-2 in T. erecta. Strong expression levels of these genes were detected in stamens of the disk florets, but little or no expression was detected in bracts, receptacles or vegetative organs. Yeast hybrid experiments of the B class proteins showed that TePI protein could form a homodimer and heterodimers with all the other four B class proteins TeAP3-1, TeAP3-2, TeTM6-1 and TeTM6-2. No homodimer or interaction was observed between the euAP3 and TM6 clade members. Over-expression of five B class genes of T. erecta in Nicotiana rotundifolia showed that only the transgenic plants of 35S::TePI showed altered floral morphology compared with the non-transgenic line. This study could contribute to the understanding of the function of B class genes in flower development of T. erecta, and provide a theoretical basis for further research to change floral organ structures and create new materials for plant breeding.

  15. Functional analysis of B and C class floral organ genes in spinach demonstrates their role in sexual dimorphism

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Evolution of unisexual flowers entails one of the most extreme changes in plant development. Cultivated spinach, Spinacia oleracea L., is uniquely suited for the study of unisexual flower development as it is dioecious and it achieves unisexually by the absence of organ development, rather than by organ abortion or suppression. Male staminate flowers lack fourth whorl primordia and female pistillate flowers lack third whorl primordia. Based on theoretical considerations, early inflorescence or floral organ identity genes would likely be directly involved in sex-determination in those species in which organ initiation rather than organ maturation is regulated. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that sexual dimorphism occurs through the regulation of B class floral organ gene expression by experimentally knocking down gene expression by viral induced gene silencing. Results Suppression of B class genes in spinach resulted in the expected homeotic transformation of stamens into carpels but also affected the number of perianth parts and the presence of fourth whorl. Phenotypically normal female flowers developed on SpPI-silenced male plants. Suppression of the spinach C class floral organ identity gene, SpAG, resulted in loss of reproductive organ identity, and indeterminate flowers, but did not result in additional sex-specific characteristics or structures. Analysis of the genomic sequences of both SpAP3 and SpPI did not reveal any allelic differences between males and females. Conclusion Sexual dimorphism in spinach is not the result of homeotic transformation of established organs, but rather is the result of differential initiation and development of the third and fourth whorl primordia. SpAG is inferred to have organ identity and meristem termination functions similar to other angiosperm C class genes. In contrast, while SpPI and SpAP3 resemble other angiosperms in their essential functions in establishing stamen identity, they also appear to have

  16. Agave tequilana MADS genes show novel expression patterns in meristems, developing bulbils and floral organs.

    PubMed

    Delgado Sandoval, Silvia del Carmen; Abraham Juárez, María Jazmín; Simpson, June

    2012-03-01

    Agave tequilana is a monocarpic perennial species that flowers after 5-8 years of vegetative growth signaling the end of the plant's life cycle. When fertilization is unsuccessful, vegetative bulbils are induced on the umbels of the inflorescence near the bracteoles from newly formed meristems. Although the regulation of inflorescence and flower development has been described in detail for monocarpic annuals and polycarpic species, little is known at the molecular level for these processes in monocarpic perennials, and few studies have been carried out on bulbils. Histological samples revealed the early induction of umbel meristems soon after the initiation of the vegetative to inflorescence transition in A. tequilana. To identify candidate genes involved in the regulation of floral induction, a search for MADS-box transcription factor ESTs was conducted using an A. tequilana transcriptome database. Seven different MIKC MADS genes classified into 6 different types were identified based on previously characterized A. thaliana and O. sativa MADS genes and sequences from non-grass monocotyledons. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of the seven candidate MADS genes in vegetative, inflorescence, bulbil and floral tissues uncovered novel patterns of expression for some of the genes in comparison with orthologous genes characterized in other species. In situ hybridization studies using two different genes showed expression in specific tissues of vegetative meristems and floral buds. Distinct MADS gene regulatory patterns in A. tequilana may be related to the specific reproductive strategies employed by this species.

  17. Plant regeneration and floral bud formation from intact floral parts of African violet (Saintpaulia ionantha H. Wendl.) cultured in vitro.

    PubMed

    Daud, N; Taha, R M

    2008-04-01

    Intact immature flower buds of African violet (Saintpaulia ionantha H. Wendl.) were used as explant sources for in vitro studies. The effect of exogenous hormones, NAA and BAP on the indirect organogenesis of this species was observed. Callus was formed on the cut end (base) of pedicels of floral buds where they were in contact with the medium. When maintained on the same medium, callus was differentiated into adventitious shoots after 10 weeks in culture. MS media supplemented with 2.0 mg L(-1) NAA and 1.0 mg L(-1) BAP gave the highest number of sterile or vegetative floral buds from the surface of callus of the explants, but these buds failed to develop further. The floral buds were expanded as abnormal flowers. The floral structures were smaller in size compared to intact flowers. Petals (corolla) were white to purple in colour but did not form any reproductive organs, i.e., stamens or pistils. All sterile or vegetative floral buds and abnormal flowers survived for 3 months in culture but failed to reach anthesis.

  18. Modularity and intra-floral integration in metameric organisms: plants are more than the sum of their parts.

    PubMed

    Diggle, Pamela K

    2014-08-19

    Within-individual variation in virtually every conceivable morphological and functional feature of reiterated structures is a pervasive feature of plant phenotypes. In particular, architectural effects, regular, repeatable patterns of intra-individual variation in form and function that are associated with position are nearly ubiquitous. Yet, flowers also are predicted to be highly integrated. For animal-pollinated plants, the coordination of multiple organs within each flower is required to achieve the complex functions of pollinator attraction and orientation, pollen donation and pollen receipt. To the extent that pollinators may select for multiple independent functions, phenotypic integration within flowers may also be modular. That is, subsets of floral structures may be integrated but vary independently of other subsets of structures that are themselves integrated. How can phenotypic integration and modularity be understood within the context of architectural effects? This essay reviews recent research on patterns of floral integration and modularity and explores the potential for spatial and temporal changes in the selective environment of individual flowers to result in positional variation in patterns of morphological integration. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Modularity and intra-floral integration in metameric organisms: plants are more than the sum of their parts

    PubMed Central

    Diggle, Pamela K.

    2014-01-01

    Within-individual variation in virtually every conceivable morphological and functional feature of reiterated structures is a pervasive feature of plant phenotypes. In particular, architectural effects, regular, repeatable patterns of intra-individual variation in form and function that are associated with position are nearly ubiquitous. Yet, flowers also are predicted to be highly integrated. For animal-pollinated plants, the coordination of multiple organs within each flower is required to achieve the complex functions of pollinator attraction and orientation, pollen donation and pollen receipt. To the extent that pollinators may select for multiple independent functions, phenotypic integration within flowers may also be modular. That is, subsets of floral structures may be integrated but vary independently of other subsets of structures that are themselves integrated. How can phenotypic integration and modularity be understood within the context of architectural effects? This essay reviews recent research on patterns of floral integration and modularity and explores the potential for spatial and temporal changes in the selective environment of individual flowers to result in positional variation in patterns of morphological integration. PMID:25002698

  20. Regulation of Flowering Time and Floral Organ Identity by a MicroRNA and Its APETALA2-Like Target Genes

    PubMed Central

    Aukerman, Milo J.; Sakai, Hajime

    2003-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are ∼21-nucleotide noncoding RNAs that have been identified in both animals and plants. Although in animals there is direct evidence implicating particular miRNAs in the control of developmental timing, to date it is not known whether plant miRNAs also play a role in regulating temporal transitions. Through an activation-tagging approach, we demonstrate that miRNA 172 (miR172) causes early flowering and disrupts the specification of floral organ identity when overexpressed in Arabidopsis. miR172 normally is expressed in a temporal manner, consistent with its proposed role in flowering time control. The regulatory target of miR172 is a subfamily of APETALA2 (AP2) transcription factor genes. We present evidence that miR172 downregulates these target genes by a translational mechanism rather than by RNA cleavage. Gain-of-function and loss-of-function analyses indicate that two of the AP2-like target genes normally act as floral repressors, supporting the notion that miR172 regulates flowering time by downregulating AP2-like target genes. PMID:14555699

  1. Regulation of flowering time and floral organ identity by a MicroRNA and its APETALA2-like target genes.

    PubMed

    Aukerman, Milo J; Sakai, Hajime

    2003-11-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are approximately 21-nucleotide noncoding RNAs that have been identified in both animals and plants. Although in animals there is direct evidence implicating particular miRNAs in the control of developmental timing, to date it is not known whether plant miRNAs also play a role in regulating temporal transitions. Through an activation-tagging approach, we demonstrate that miRNA 172 (miR172) causes early flowering and disrupts the specification of floral organ identity when overexpressed in Arabidopsis. miR172 normally is expressed in a temporal manner, consistent with its proposed role in flowering time control. The regulatory target of miR172 is a subfamily of APETALA2 (AP2) transcription factor genes. We present evidence that miR172 downregulates these target genes by a translational mechanism rather than by RNA cleavage. Gain-of-function and loss-of-function analyses indicate that two of the AP2-like target genes normally act as floral repressors, supporting the notion that miR172 regulates flowering time by downregulating AP2-like target genes.

  2. Absence of cytoglobin promotes multiple organ abnormalities in aged mice

    PubMed Central

    Thuy, Le Thi Thanh; Van Thuy, Tuong Thi; Matsumoto, Yoshinari; Hai, Hoang; Ikura, Yoshihiro; Yoshizato, Katsutoshi; Kawada, Norifumi

    2016-01-01

    Cytoglobin (Cygb) was identified in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and pericytes of all organs; however, the effects of Cygb on cellular functions remain unclear. Here, we report spontaneous and age-dependent malformations in multiple organs of Cygb−/− mice. Twenty-six percent of young Cygb−/− mice (<1 year old) showed heart hypertrophy, cystic disease in the kidney or ovary, loss of balance, liver fibrosis and lymphoma. Furthermore, 71.3% (82/115) of aged Cygb−/− mice (1–2 years old) exhibited abnormalities, such as heart hypertrophy and cancer development in multiple organs; by contrast, 5.8% (4/68) of aged wild-type (WT) mice had abnormalities (p < 0.0001). Interestingly, serum and urine analysis demonstrated that the concentration of nitric oxide metabolites increased significantly in Cygb−/− mice, resulting in an imbalance in the oxidative stress and antioxidant defence system that was reversed by NG-monomethyl-L-arginine treatment. A senescent phenotype and evidence of DNA damage were found in primary HSCs and the liver of aged Cygb−/− mice. Moreover, compared with HSC+/+, HSC−/− showed high expression of Il-6 and chemokine mRNA when cocultured with mouse Hepa 1–6 cells. Thus, the absence of Cygb in pericytes provokes organ abnormalities, possibly via derangement of the nitric oxide and antioxidant defence system and through accelerated cellular senescence. PMID:27146058

  3. Absence of cytoglobin promotes multiple organ abnormalities in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Thuy, Le Thi Thanh; Van Thuy, Tuong Thi; Matsumoto, Yoshinari; Hai, Hoang; Ikura, Yoshihiro; Yoshizato, Katsutoshi; Kawada, Norifumi

    2016-05-05

    Cytoglobin (Cygb) was identified in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and pericytes of all organs; however, the effects of Cygb on cellular functions remain unclear. Here, we report spontaneous and age-dependent malformations in multiple organs of Cygb(-/-) mice. Twenty-six percent of young Cygb(-/-) mice (<1 year old) showed heart hypertrophy, cystic disease in the kidney or ovary, loss of balance, liver fibrosis and lymphoma. Furthermore, 71.3% (82/115) of aged Cygb(-/-) mice (1-2 years old) exhibited abnormalities, such as heart hypertrophy and cancer development in multiple organs; by contrast, 5.8% (4/68) of aged wild-type (WT) mice had abnormalities (p < 0.0001). Interestingly, serum and urine analysis demonstrated that the concentration of nitric oxide metabolites increased significantly in Cygb(-/-) mice, resulting in an imbalance in the oxidative stress and antioxidant defence system that was reversed by N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine treatment. A senescent phenotype and evidence of DNA damage were found in primary HSCs and the liver of aged Cygb(-/-) mice. Moreover, compared with HSC(+/+), HSC(-/-) showed high expression of Il-6 and chemokine mRNA when cocultured with mouse Hepa 1-6 cells. Thus, the absence of Cygb in pericytes provokes organ abnormalities, possibly via derangement of the nitric oxide and antioxidant defence system and through accelerated cellular senescence.

  4. Floral organ MADS-box genes in Cercidiphyllum japonicum (Cercidiphyllaceae): Implications for systematic evolution and bracts definition.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yupei; Wang, Yubing; Zhang, Dechun; Shen, Xiangling; Liu, Wen; Chen, Faju

    2017-01-01

    The dioecious relic Cercidiphyllum japonicum is one of two species of the sole genus Cercidiphyllum, with a tight inflorescence lacking an apparent perianth structure. In addition, its systematic place has been much debated and, so far researches have mainly focused on its morphology and chloroplast genes. In our investigation, we identified 10 floral organ identity genes, including four A-class, three B-class, two C-class and one D-class. Phylogenetic analyses showed that all ten genes are grouped with Saxifragales plants, which confirmed the phylogenetic place of C. japonicum. Expression patterns of those genes were examined by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR, with some variations that did not completely coincide with the ABCDE model, suggesting some subfunctionalization. As well, our research supported the idea that thebract actually is perianth according to our morphological and molecular analyses in Cercidiphyllum japonicum.

  5. Rice open beak is a negative regulator of class 1 knox genes and a positive regulator of class B floral homeotic gene.

    PubMed

    Horigome, Ayako; Nagasawa, Nobuhiro; Ikeda, Kyoko; Ito, Momoyo; Itoh, Jun-Ichi; Nagato, Yasuo

    2009-06-01

    Numerous genes are involved in the regulation of plant development, including those that regulate floral homeotic genes, We identified two recessive allelic rice mutants, open beak-1 (opb-1) and opb-2, which exhibited pleiotropic defects in leaf morphogenesis, inflorescence architecture, and floral organ identity. Abnormal cell proliferation was observed in the leaves and spikelets, and ectopic or overexpression of several class 1 knox genes was detected; thus, the abnormal cell proliferation in opb mutants is probably caused by ectopic class 1 knox gene expression. The opb mutants also had defects in floral organ identity, resulting in the development of mosaic organs, including gluminous lodicules, staminoid lodicules, and pistiloid stamens. These results, together with the reduced expression of a class B gene, indicate that OPB positively regulates the expression of class B genes. Map-based cloning revealed that OPB encodes a transcription factor that is orthologous to the Arabidopsis JAGGED gene and is expressed in leaf primordia, inflorescence meristem, rachis branch meristems, floral meristem, and floral organ primordia. Taken together, our data suggest that the OPB gene affects cellular proliferation and floral organ identity through the regulation of class 1 knox genes and floral homeotic genes.

  6. Genetic analysis of floral organ size in broccoli × cabbage via a mixed inheritance model of a major gene plus polygene.

    PubMed

    Shu, J S; Liu, Y M; Li, Z S; Zhang, L L; Fang, Z Y; Yang, L M; Zhuang, M; Zhang, Y Y; Lv, H H

    2016-04-07

    Broccoli and cabbage are important vegetable crops that produce hybrid seeds after insect pollination; the size of floral organs is crucial for this process. To investigate the genetic characteristics of floral organ sizes (corolla width, petal length and width, and lengths of stamen, anther, style, and stigma) and to improve the flower size and breeding efficiency of broccoli, we used multi-generation analysis of a major gene plus polygene model. Six populations obtained from a broccoli inbred line 93219 (small floral organs) and cabbage inbred line 195 (large floral organs) were used for the analysis. Corolla and petal width and stamen and anther length were controlled by the additive-dominance-epistasis polygene model. The heritability of these traits in BC1, BC2, and F2 generations was high (72.80-93.76%). Petal and stigma length were governed by the two major genes of additive-dominance-epistasis effects plus additive-dominance polygene model; the major gene heritability in the F2 generation were 79.17 and 65.77%, respectively. Style length was controlled by one major gene of additive-dominance effects plus additive-dominance-epistasis polygene model; the major gene heritability in BC1, BC2, and F2 were 40.60, 10.35, and 38.44%, respectively; the polygene heritability varied from 41.85 to 68.44%. Our results provide important genetic information for breeding, which could guide improvement of flower-related traits and lay the foundation for quantitative trait loci mapping of the flower-size traits in Brassica.

  7. Double-stranded RNA interference of a rice PI/GLO paralog, OsMADS2, uncovers its second-whorl-specific function in floral organ patterning.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Kalika; Vijayraghavan, Usha

    2003-12-01

    Unlike many eudicot species, grasses have duplicated PI/GLO-like genes. Functional analysis of one of the rice PI/GLO paralogs, OsMADS2, is reported here. Our data demonstrate its essential role in lodicule development and implicate the second PI/GLO paralog, OsMADS4, to suffice for stamen specification. We provide the first evidence for differential contributions of grass PI/GLO paralogs in patterning second- and third-whorl floral organs.

  8. GmAGL1, a MADS-Box Gene from Soybean, Is Involved in Floral Organ Identity and Fruit Dehiscence

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Yingjun; Wang, Tingting; Xu, Guangli; Yang, Hui; Zeng, Xuanrui; Shen, Yixin; Yu, Deyue; Huang, Fang

    2017-01-01

    MADS-domain proteins are important transcription factors involved in many aspects of plant reproductive development. In this study, a MADS-box gene, Glycine max AGAMOUS-LIKE1 (GmAGL1), was isolated from soybean flower. The transcript of GmAGL1 was expressed in flowers and pods of different stages in soybean and was highly expressed in carpels. GmAGL1 is a nucleus-localized transcription factor and can interact directly with SEP-like proteins in soybean flowers. Ectopic overexpression of GmAGL1 resulted in the absence of petals in Arabidopsis. Moreover, morphological changes in the valves were observed in 35S:GmAGL1 Arabidopsis fruits that dehisced before the seeds reached full maturity. GmAGL1 was found to be sufficient to activate the expression of Arabidopsis ALC, IND, STK, SEP1, and SEP3. Therefore, our data suggest that GmAGL1 may play important roles in both floral organ identity and fruit dehiscence. PMID:28232846

  9. Altered Expression of PERK Receptor Kinases in Arabidopsis Leads to Changes in Growth and Floral Organ Formation

    PubMed Central

    Haffani, Yosr Z; Silva-Gagliardi, Nancy F; Sewter, Sarah K; Grace Aldea, May; Zhao, Zhiying; Nakhamchik, Alina; Cameron, Robin K

    2006-01-01

    The proline-rich, extensin-like receptor kinase (PERK) family is characterized by a putative extracellular domain related to cell wall proteins, followed by a transmembrane domain and kinase domain. The original member, PERK1, was isolated from Brassica napus (BnPERK1) and 15 PERK1-related members were subsequently identified in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome. Ectopic expression and antisense suppression studies were performed using the BnPERK1 cDNA under the control of the 35S CaMV constitutive promoter and introduced into Arabidopsis. In the case of antisense suppression, the BnPERK1 cDNA shared sufficient sequence similarity to suppress several members of the At PERK family. In both sets of transgenic Arabidopsis, several heritable changes in growth and development were observed. Antisense BnPERK1 transgenic Arabidopsis showed various growth defects including loss of apical dominance, increased secondary branching, and floral organ defects. In contrast, Arabidopsis plants ectopically expressing BnPERK1 displayed a prolonged lifespan with increased lateral shoot production and seed set. Along with these phenotypic changes, aberrant deposits of callose and cellulose were also observed, suggestive of cell wall changes as a consequence of altered PERK expression. PMID:19516986

  10. Flower-specific expression of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens isopentenyltransferase gene results in radial expansion of floral organs in Petunia hybrida.

    PubMed

    Verdonk, Julian C; Shibuya, Kenichi; Loucas, Holly M; Colquhoun, Thomas A; Underwood, Beverly A; Clark, David G

    2008-09-01

    Biotechnology has the potential to modify commercially important traits of crops, such as fruit size and stress tolerance. To date, the floricultural industry has not profited significantly from these possibilities to manipulate, for example, flower size. Cytokinins are known to be involved in many aspects of plant development, including cell division. Increasing the amount of cytokinins has the potential to increase the size of an organ, such as the flower or the fruit. The Agrobacterium tumefaciens cytokinin biosynthesis gene isopentenyltransferase (ipt) has been shown to increase cytokinin levels when introduced into plants. Moreover, it has a dramatic effect on the vegetative development of plants. The expression of the ipt gene under the control of the flower-specific Arabidopsis APETALA3 promoter in petunia (Petunia hybrida) increases the flower size dramatically, but with no effect on vegetative development. The resulting transgenic plants produced flowers with larger corolla diameter and greater total floral fresh weight. This strategy has the potential for use in the production of ornamental crops with large flowers and crop species with larger fruit.

  11. GmAGL1, a MADS-Box Gene from Soybean, Is Involved in Floral Organ Identity and Fruit Dehiscence.

    PubMed

    Chi, Yingjun; Wang, Tingting; Xu, Guangli; Yang, Hui; Zeng, Xuanrui; Shen, Yixin; Yu, Deyue; Huang, Fang

    2017-01-01

    MADS-domain proteins are important transcription factors involved in many aspects of plant reproductive development. In this study, a MADS-box gene, Glycine max AGAMOUS-LIKE1 (GmAGL1), was isolated from soybean flower. The transcript of GmAGL1 was expressed in flowers and pods of different stages in soybean and was highly expressed in carpels. GmAGL1 is a nucleus-localized transcription factor and can interact directly with SEP-like proteins in soybean flowers. Ectopic overexpression of GmAGL1 resulted in the absence of petals in Arabidopsis. Moreover, morphological changes in the valves were observed in 35S:GmAGL1 Arabidopsis fruits that dehisced before the seeds reached full maturity. GmAGL1 was found to be sufficient to activate the expression of Arabidopsis ALC, IND, STK, SEP1, and SEP3. Therefore, our data suggest that GmAGL1 may play important roles in both floral organ identity and fruit dehiscence.

  12. Abnormal Brain Network Organization in Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Arienzo, Donatello; Leow, Alex; Brown, Jesse A; Zhan, Liang; GadElkarim, Johnson; Hovav, Sarit; Feusner, Jamie D

    2013-01-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is characterized by preoccupation with misperceived defects of appearance, causing significant distress and disability. Previous studies suggest abnormalities in information processing characterized by greater local relative to global processing. The purpose of this study was to probe whole-brain and regional white matter network organization in BDD, and to relate this to specific metrics of symptomatology. We acquired diffusion-weighted 34-direction MR images from 14 unmedicated participants with DSM-IV BDD and 16 healthy controls, from which we conducted whole-brain deterministic diffusion tensor imaging tractography. We then constructed white matter structural connectivity matrices to derive whole-brain and regional graph theory metrics, which we compared between groups. Within the BDD group, we additionally correlated these metrics with scores on psychometric measures of BDD symptom severity as well as poor insight/delusionality. The BDD group showed higher whole-brain mean clustering coefficient than controls. Global efficiency negatively correlated with BDD symptom severity. The BDD group demonstrated greater edge betweenness centrality for connections between the anterior temporal lobe and the occipital cortex, and between bilateral occipital poles. This represents the first brain network analysis in BDD. Results suggest disturbances in whole brain structural topological organization in BDD, in addition to correlations between clinical symptoms and network organization. There is also evidence of abnormal connectivity between regions involved in lower-order visual processing and higher-order visual and emotional processing, as well as interhemispheric visual information transfer. These findings may relate to disturbances in information processing found in previous studies. PMID:23322186

  13. Metabolic and transcriptomic signatures of rice floral organs reveal sugar starvation as a factor in reproductive failure under heat and drought stress.

    PubMed

    Li, Xia; Lawas, Lovely M F; Malo, Richard; Glaubitz, Ulrike; Erban, Alexander; Mauleon, Ramil; Heuer, Sigrid; Zuther, Ellen; Kopka, Joachim; Hincha, Dirk K; Jagadish, Krishna S V

    2015-10-01

    Heat and drought stress are projected to become major challenges to sustain rice (Oryza sativa L.) yields with global climate change. Both stresses lead to yield losses when they coincide with flowering. A significant knowledge gap exists in the mechanistic understanding of the responses of rice floral organs that determine reproductive success under stress. Our work connects the metabolomic and transcriptomic changes in anthers, pistils before pollination and pollinated pistils in a heat-tolerant (N22) and a heat-sensitive (Moroberekan) cultivar. Systematic analysis of the floral organs revealed contrasts in metabolic profiles across anthers and pistils. Constitutive metabolic markers were identified that can define reproductive success in rice under stress. Six out of nine candidate metabolites identified by intersection analysis of stressed anthers were differentially accumulated in N22 compared with Moroberekan under non-stress conditions. Sugar metabolism was identified to be the crucial metabolic and transcriptional component that differentiated floral organ tolerance or susceptibility to stress. While susceptible Moroberekan specifically showed high expression of the Carbon Starved Anthers (CSA) gene under combined heat and drought, tolerant N22 responded with high expression of genes encoding a sugar transporter (MST8) and a cell wall invertase (INV4) as markers of high sink strength.

  14. Nickel accumulation in leaves, floral organs and rewards varies by serpentine soil affinity

    PubMed Central

    Meindl, George A.; Bain, Daniel J.; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Serpentine soils are edaphically stressful environments that host many endemic plant species. In particular, serpentine soils are high in several heavy metals (e.g. nickel, cobalt and chromium) and these high heavy metal concentrations are thought, in part, to lead to varying levels of plant adaptation and soil affinities (i.e. endemic vs. non-endemic plant species). It is unclear, however, whether serpentine endemics vs. non-endemics differ with respect to heavy metal uptake into either vegetative or reproductive organs. Here, we use nickel as a model to determine whether plant heavy metal uptake varies with the level of endemism in several non-hyperaccumulating species. Under controlled greenhouse conditions, we grew seven plant species from the Brassicaceae family that vary in their degrees of affinity to serpentine soil from low (indifferent) to medium (indicator) and high (endemic) in soil that was nickel supplemented or not. We quantified nickel concentrations in leaves, pistils, anthers, pollen and nectar. While nickel concentrations did not vary across organs or affinities when grown in control soils, under conditions of nickel supplementation endemic species had the lowest tissue concentrations of nickel, particularly when considering leaves and pistils, compared with indifferent/indicator species. Species indifferent to serpentines incorporated higher concentrations of nickel into reproductive organs relative to leaves, but this was not the case for indicator species and endemics where nickel concentration was similar in these organs. Our findings suggest that endemic species possess the ability to limit nickel uptake into above-ground tissues, particularly in reproductive organs where it may interfere with survival and reproduction. Indifferent species accumulated significantly more nickel into reproductive organs compared with leaves, which may limit their reproductive potential relative to endemic species when growing on serpentine soils. Additional

  15. Relationship between the species-representative phenotype and intraspecific variation in Ranunculaceae floral organ and Asteraceae flower numbers

    PubMed Central

    Kitazawa, Miho S.; Fujimoto, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Phenotypic variation in floral morphologies contributes to speciation by testing various morphologies that might have higher adaptivity, leading eventually to phylogenetic diversity. Species diversity has been recognized, however, by modal morphologies where the variation is averaged out, so little is known about the relationship between the variation and the diversity. Methods We analysed quantitatively the intraspecific variation of the organ numbers within flowers of Ranunculaceae, a family which branched near the monocot–eudicot separation, and the numbers of flowers within the capitula of Asteraceae, one of the most diverse families of eudicots. We used four elementary statistical quantities: mean, standard deviation (s.d.), degree of symmetry (skewness) and steepness (kurtosis). Key Results While these four quantities vary among populations, we found a common relationship between s.d. and the mean number of petals and sepals in Ranunculaceae and number of flowers per capitulum in Asteraceae. The s.d. is equal to the square root of the difference between the mean and specific number, showing robustness: for example, 3 in Ficaria sepals, 5 in Ranunculus petals and Anemone tepals, and 13 in Farfugium ray florets. This square-root relationship was not applicable to Eranthis petals which show little correlation between the s.d. and mean, and the stamens and carpels of Ranunculaceae whose s.d. is proportional to the mean. The specific values found in the square-root relationship provide a novel way to find the species-representative phenotype among varied morphologies. Conclusions The representative phenotype is, in most cases, unique to the species or genus level, despite intraspecific differences of average phenotype among populations. The type of variation shown by the statistical quantities indicates not only the robustness of the morphologies but also how flowering plants changed during evolution among representative phenotypes that

  16. Micro-organisms behind the pollination scenes: microbial imprint on floral nectar sugar variation in a tropical plant community

    PubMed Central

    Canto, A.; Herrera, C. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Variation in the composition of floral nectar reflects intrinsic plant characteristics as well as the action of extrinsic factors. Micro-organisms, particularly yeasts, represent one extrinsic factor that inhabit the nectar of animal-pollinated flowers worldwide. In this study a ‘microbial imprint hypothesis’ is formulated and tested, in which it is proposed that natural community-wide variation in nectar sugar composition will partly depend on the presence of yeasts in flowers. Methods Occurrence and density of yeasts were studied microscopically in single-flower nectar samples of 22 animal-pollinated species from coastal xeric and sub-humid tropical habitats of the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico. Nectar sugar concentration and composition were concurrently determined on the same samples using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods. Key Results Microscopical examination of nectar samples revealed the presence of yeasts in nearly all plant species (21 out of 22 species) and in about half of the samples examined (51·8 % of total, all species combined). Plant species and individuals differed significantly in nectar sugar concentration and composition, and also in the incidence of nectar yeasts. After statistically controlling for differences between plant species and individuals, nectar yeasts still accounted for a significant fraction of community-wide variance in all nectar sugar parameters considered. Significant yeast × species interactions on sugar parameters revealed that plant species differed in the nectar sugar correlates of variation in yeast incidence. Conclusions The results support the hypothesis that nectar yeasts impose a detectable imprint on community-wide variation in nectar sugar composition and concentration. Since nectar sugar features influence pollinator attraction and plant reproduction, future nectar studies should control for yeast presence and examine the extent to which microbial signatures on nectar

  17. Micro-organisms behind the pollination scenes: microbial imprint on floral nectar sugar variation in a tropical plant community.

    PubMed

    Canto, A; Herrera, C M

    2012-11-01

    Variation in the composition of floral nectar reflects intrinsic plant characteristics as well as the action of extrinsic factors. Micro-organisms, particularly yeasts, represent one extrinsic factor that inhabit the nectar of animal-pollinated flowers worldwide. In this study a 'microbial imprint hypothesis' is formulated and tested, in which it is proposed that natural community-wide variation in nectar sugar composition will partly depend on the presence of yeasts in flowers. Occurrence and density of yeasts were studied microscopically in single-flower nectar samples of 22 animal-pollinated species from coastal xeric and sub-humid tropical habitats of the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico. Nectar sugar concentration and composition were concurrently determined on the same samples using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods. Microscopical examination of nectar samples revealed the presence of yeasts in nearly all plant species (21 out of 22 species) and in about half of the samples examined (51·8 % of total, all species combined). Plant species and individuals differed significantly in nectar sugar concentration and composition, and also in the incidence of nectar yeasts. After statistically controlling for differences between plant species and individuals, nectar yeasts still accounted for a significant fraction of community-wide variance in all nectar sugar parameters considered. Significant yeast × species interactions on sugar parameters revealed that plant species differed in the nectar sugar correlates of variation in yeast incidence. The results support the hypothesis that nectar yeasts impose a detectable imprint on community-wide variation in nectar sugar composition and concentration. Since nectar sugar features influence pollinator attraction and plant reproduction, future nectar studies should control for yeast presence and examine the extent to which microbial signatures on nectar characteristics ultimately have some influence on

  18. Organ-specific transcriptome profiling of metabolic and pigment biosynthesis pathways in the floral ornamental progenitor species Anthurium amnicola Dressler

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Anthurium amnicola Dressler possesses a number of desirable and novel ornamental traits such as a purple-colored upright spathe, profuse flowering, and floral scent, some of which have been introgressed into modern Anthurium cultivars. As a first step in identifying genes associated with these trai...

  19. The genome and transcriptome of Phalaenopsis yield insights into floral organ development and flowering regulation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian-Zhi; Lin, Chih-Peng; Cheng, Ting-Chi; Huang, Ya-Wen; Tsai, Yi-Jung; Cheng, Shu-Yun; Chen, Yi-Wen; Lee, Chueh-Pai; Chung, Wan-Chia; Chang, Bill Chia-Han; Chin, Shih-Wen; Lee, Chen-Yu; Chen, Fure-Chyi

    2016-01-01

    The Phalaenopsis orchid is an important potted flower of high economic value around the world. We report the 3.1 Gb draft genome assembly of an important winter flowering Phalaenopsis 'KHM190' cultivar. We generated 89.5 Gb RNA-seq and 113 million sRNA-seq reads to use these data to identify 41,153 protein-coding genes and 188 miRNA families. We also generated a draft genome for Phalaenopsis pulcherrima 'B8802,' a summer flowering species, via resequencing. Comparison of genome data between the two Phalaenopsis cultivars allowed the identification of 691,532 single-nucleotide polymorphisms. In this study, we reveal that the key role of PhAGL6b in the regulation of labellum organ development involves alternative splicing in the big lip mutant. Petal or sepal overexpressing PhAGL6b leads to the conversion into a lip-like structure. We also discovered that the gibberellin pathway that regulates the expression of flowering time genes during the reproductive phase change is induced by cool temperature. Our work thus depicted a valuable resource for the flowering control, flower architecture development, and breeding of the Phalaenopsis orchids.

  20. The Petunia Ortholog of Arabidopsis SUPERMAN Plays a Distinct Role in Floral Organ Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Hitoshi; Ferrario, Silvia; Angenent, Gerco C.; Kobayashi, Akira; Takatsuji, Hiroshi

    2004-01-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) SUPERMAN (SUP) plays a role in establishing a boundary between whorls 3 and 4 of flowers and in ovule development. We characterized a Petunia hybrida (petunia) homolog of SUP, designated PhSUP1, to compare with SUP. Genomic DNA of the PhSUP1 partially restored the stamen number and ovule development phenotypes of the Arabidopsis sup mutant. Two P. hybrida lines of transposon (dTph1) insertion mutants of PhSUP1 exhibited increased stamen number at the cost of normal carpel development, and ovule development was defective owing to aberrant growth of the integument. Unlike Arabidopsis sup mutants, phsup1 mutants also showed extra tissues connecting stamens, a petal tube and an ovary, and aberrancies in the development of anther and placenta. PhSUP1 transcripts occurred in the basal region of wild-type flowers around developing organ primordia in whorls 2 and 3 as well as in the funiculus of the ovule, concave regions of the placenta, and interthecal regions of developing anthers. Overexpression of PhSUP1 in P. hybrida resulted in size reduction of petals, leaves, and inflorescence stems. The shortening of inflorescence stems and petal tubes was primarily attributable to suppression of cell elongation, whereas a decrease in cell number was mainly responsible for the size reduction of petal limbs. PMID:15020746

  1. The petunia ortholog of Arabidopsis SUPERMAN plays a distinct role in floral organ morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Hitoshi; Ferrario, Silvia; Angenent, Gerco C; Kobayashi, Akira; Takatsuji, Hiroshi

    2004-04-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) SUPERMAN (SUP) plays a role in establishing a boundary between whorls 3 and 4 of flowers and in ovule development. We characterized a Petunia hybrida (petunia) homolog of SUP, designated PhSUP1, to compare with SUP. Genomic DNA of the PhSUP1 partially restored the stamen number and ovule development phenotypes of the Arabidopsis sup mutant. Two P. hybrida lines of transposon (dTph1) insertion mutants of PhSUP1 exhibited increased stamen number at the cost of normal carpel development, and ovule development was defective owing to aberrant growth of the integument. Unlike Arabidopsis sup mutants, phsup1 mutants also showed extra tissues connecting stamens, a petal tube and an ovary, and aberrancies in the development of anther and placenta. PhSUP1 transcripts occurred in the basal region of wild-type flowers around developing organ primordia in whorls 2 and 3 as well as in the funiculus of the ovule, concave regions of the placenta, and interthecal regions of developing anthers. Overexpression of PhSUP1 in P. hybrida resulted in size reduction of petals, leaves, and inflorescence stems. The shortening of inflorescence stems and petal tubes was primarily attributable to suppression of cell elongation, whereas a decrease in cell number was mainly responsible for the size reduction of petal limbs.

  2. Floral Genetic Architecture: An Examination of QTL Architecture Underlying Floral (Co)Variation Across Environments

    PubMed Central

    Brock, Marcus T.; Dechaine, Jennifer M.; Iniguez-Luy, Federico L.; Maloof, Julin N.; Stinchcombe, John R.; Weinig, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Genetic correlations are expected to be high among functionally related traits and lower between groups of traits with distinct functions (e.g., reproductive vs. resource-acquisition traits). Here, we explore the quantitative-genetic and QTL architecture of floral organ sizes, vegetative traits, and life history in a set of Brassica rapa recombinant inbred lines within and across field and greenhouse environments. Floral organ lengths were strongly positively correlated within both environments, and analysis of standardized G-matrices indicates that the structure of genetic correlations is ∼80% conserved across environments. Consistent with these correlations, we detected a total of 19 and 21 additive-effect floral QTL in the field and the greenhouse, respectively, and individual QTL typically affected multiple organ types. Interestingly, QTL × QTL epistasis also appeared to contribute to observed genetic correlations; i.e., interactions between two QTL had similar effects on filament length and two estimates of petal size. Although floral and nonfloral traits are hypothesized to be genetically decoupled, correlations between floral organ size and both vegetative and life-history traits were highly significant in the greenhouse; G-matrices of floral and vegetative traits as well as floral and life-history traits differed across environments. Correspondingly, many QTL (45% of those mapped in the greenhouse) showed environmental interactions, including approximately even numbers of floral and nonfloral QTL. Most instances of QTL × QTL epistasis for floral traits were environment dependent. PMID:20837996

  3. Reconstitution of 'floral quartets' in vitro involving class B and class E floral homeotic proteins.

    PubMed

    Melzer, Rainer; Theissen, Günter

    2009-05-01

    Homeotic MADS box genes encoding transcription factors specify the identity of floral organs by interacting in a combinatorial way. The 'floral quartet model', published several years ago, pulled together several lines of evidence suggesting that floral homeotic proteins bind as tetramers to two separated DNA sequence elements termed 'CArG boxes' by looping the intervening DNA. However, experimental support for 'floral quartet' formation remains scarce. Recently, we have shown that the class E floral homeotic protein SEPALLATA3 (SEP3) is sufficient to loop DNA in floral-quartet-like complexes in vitro. Here, we demonstrate that the class B floral homeotic proteins APETALA3 (AP3) and PISTILLATA (PI) do only weakly, at best, form floral-quartet-like structures on their own. However, they can be incorporated into such complexes together with SEP3. The subdomain K3 of SEP3 is of critical importance for the DNA-bound heterotetramers to be formed and is capable to mediate floral quartet formation even in the sequence context of AP3 and PI. Evidence is presented suggesting that complexes composed of SEP3, AP3 and PI form preferentially over other possible complexes. Based on these findings we propose a mechanism of how target gene specificity might be achieved at the level of floral quartet stability.

  4. APETALA2 negatively regulates multiple floral organ identity genes in Arabidopsis by recruiting the co-repressor TOPLESS and the histone deacetylase HDA19.

    PubMed

    Krogan, Naden T; Hogan, Kendra; Long, Jeff A

    2012-11-01

    The development and coordination of complex tissues in eukaryotes requires precise spatial control of fate-specifying genes. Although investigations of such control have traditionally focused on mechanisms of transcriptional activation, transcriptional repression has emerged as being equally important in the establishment of gene expression territories. In the angiosperm flower, specification of lateral organ fate relies on the spatial regulation of the ABC floral organ identity genes. Our understanding of how the boundaries of these expression domains are controlled is not complete. Here, we report that the A-class organ identity gene APETALA2 (AP2), which is known to repress the C-class gene AGAMOUS, also regulates the expression borders of the B-class genes APETALA3 and PISTILLATA, and the E-class gene SEPALLATA3. We show that AP2 represses its target genes by physically recruiting the co-repressor TOPLESS and the histone deacetylase HDA19. These results demonstrate that AP2 plays a broad role in flower development by controlling the expression domains of numerous floral organ identity genes.

  5. A conserved microRNA module exerts homeotic control over Petunia hybrida and Antirrhinum majus floral organ identity.

    PubMed

    Cartolano, Maria; Castillo, Rosa; Efremova, Nadia; Kuckenberg, Markus; Zethof, Jan; Gerats, Tom; Schwarz-Sommer, Zsuzsanna; Vandenbussche, Michiel

    2007-07-01

    It is commonly thought that deep phylogenetic conservation of plant microRNAs (miRNAs) and their targets indicates conserved regulatory functions. We show that the blind (bl) mutant of Petunia hybrida and the fistulata (fis) mutant of Antirrhinum majus, which have similar homeotic phenotypes, are recessive alleles of two homologous miRNA-encoding genes. The BL and FIS genes control the spatial restriction of homeotic class C genes to the inner floral whorls, but their ubiquitous early floral expression patterns are in contradiction with a potential role in patterning C gene expression. We provide genetic evidence for the unexpected function of the MIRFIS and MIRBL genes in the center of the flower and propose a dynamic mechanism underlying their regulatory role. Notably, Arabidopsis thaliana, a more distantly related species, also contains this miRNA module but does not seem to use it to confine early C gene expression to the center of the flower.

  6. Floral development and floral phyllotaxis in Anaxagorea (Annonaceae).

    PubMed

    Endress, Peter K; Armstrong, Joseph E

    2011-10-01

    Background and Aims Anaxagorea is the phylogenetically basalmost genus in the large tropical Annonaceae (custard apple family) of Magnoliales, but its floral structure is unknown in many respects. The aim of this study is to analyse evolutionarily interesting floral features in comparison with other genera of the Annonaceae and the sister family Eupomatiaceae. Methods Live flowers of Anaxagorea crassipetala were examined in the field with vital staining, liquid-fixed material was studied with scanning electron microscopy, and microtome section series were studied with light microscopy. In addition, herbarium material of two other Anaxagorea species was cursorily studied with the dissecting microscope. Key Results Floral phyllotaxis in Anaxagorea is regularly whorled (with complex whorls) as in all other Annonaceae with a low or medium number of floral organs studied so far (in those with numerous stamens and carpels, phyllotaxis becoming irregular in the androecium and gynoecium). The carpels are completely plicate as in almost all other Annonaceae. In these features Anaxagorea differs sharply from the sister family Eupomatiaceae, which has spiral floral phyllotaxis and ascidiate carpels. Flat stamens and the presence of inner staminodes differ from most other Annonaceae and may be plesiomorphic in Anaxagorea. However, the inner staminodes appear to be non-secretory in most Anaxagorea species, which differs from inner staminodes in other families of Magnoliales (Eupomatiaceae, Degeneriacae, Himantandraceae), which are secretory. Conclusions Floral phyllotaxis in Anaxagorea shows that there is no signature of a basal spiral pattern in Annonaceae and that complex whorls are an apomorphy not just for a part of the family but for the family in its entirety, and irregular phyllotaxis is derived. This and the presence of completely plicate carpels in Anaxagorea makes the family homogeneous and distinguishes it from the closest relatives in Magnoliales.

  7. Overexpression of AtDOF4.7, an Arabidopsis DOF Family Transcription Factor, Induces Floral Organ Abscission Deficiency in Arabidopsis1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Peng-Cheng; Tan, Feng; Gao, Xin-Qi; Zhang, Xiu-Qing; Wang, Gao-Qi; Xu, Heng; Li, Li-Juan; Chen, Jia; Wang, Xue-Chen

    2010-01-01

    After flower pollination, a programmed process called abscission occurs in which unwanted floral organs are actively shed from the main plant body. We found that a member of the DOF (for DNA binding with one finger) transcription factor family, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) DOF4.7, was expressed robustly in the abscission zone. The Arabidopsis 35S::AtDOF4.7 lines with constitutive expression of AtDOF4.7 exhibited an ethylene-independent floral organ abscission deficiency. In these lines, anatomical analyses showed that the formation of the abscission zone was normal. However, dissolution of the middle lamella failed to separate between the cell walls. AtDOF4.7 was identified as a nucleus-localized transcription factor. This protein had both in vitro and in vivo binding activity to typical DOF cis-elements in the promoter of an abscission-related polygalacturonase (PG) gene, PGAZAT. Overexpression of AtDOF4.7 resulted in down-regulation of PGAZAT. AtDOF4.7 interacted with another abscission-related transcription factor, Arabidopsis ZINC FINGER PROTEIN2. Taken together, our results suggest that AtDOF4.7 participates in the control of abscission as part of the transcription complex that directly regulates the expression of cell wall hydrolysis enzymes. PMID:20466844

  8. Recognition of floral homeotic MADS domain transcription factors by a phytoplasmal effector, phyllogen, induces phyllody

    PubMed Central

    Maejima, Kensaku; Iwai, Ryo; Himeno, Misako; Komatsu, Ken; Kitazawa, Yugo; Fujita, Naoko; Ishikawa, Kazuya; Fukuoka, Misato; Minato, Nami; Yamaji, Yasuyuki; Oshima, Kenro; Namba, Shigetou

    2014-01-01

    Plant pathogens alter the course of plant developmental processes, resulting in abnormal morphology in infected host plants. Phytoplasmas are unique plant-pathogenic bacteria that transform plant floral organs into leaf-like structures and cause the emergence of secondary flowers. These distinctive symptoms have attracted considerable interest for many years. Here, we revealed the molecular mechanisms of the floral symptoms by focusing on a phytoplasma-secreted protein, PHYL1, which induces morphological changes in flowers that are similar to those seen in phytoplasma-infected plants. PHYL1 is a homolog of the phytoplasmal effector SAP54 that also alters floral development. Using yeast two-hybrid and in planta transient co-expression assays, we found that PHYL1 interacts with and degrades the floral homeotic MADS domain proteins SEPALLATA3 (SEP3), APETALA1 (AP1) and CAULIFLOWER (CAL). This degradation of MADS domain proteins was dependent on the ubiquitin–proteasome pathway. The expression of floral development genes downstream of SEP3 and AP1 was disrupted in 35S::PHYL1 transgenic plants. PHYL1 was genetically and functionally conserved among other phytoplasma strains and species. We designate PHYL1, SAP54 and their homologs as members of the phyllody-inducing gene family of ‘phyllogens’. PMID:24597566

  9. Recognition of floral homeotic MADS domain transcription factors by a phytoplasmal effector, phyllogen, induces phyllody.

    PubMed

    Maejima, Kensaku; Iwai, Ryo; Himeno, Misako; Komatsu, Ken; Kitazawa, Yugo; Fujita, Naoko; Ishikawa, Kazuya; Fukuoka, Misato; Minato, Nami; Yamaji, Yasuyuki; Oshima, Kenro; Namba, Shigetou

    2014-05-01

    Plant pathogens alter the course of plant developmental processes, resulting in abnormal morphology in infected host plants. Phytoplasmas are unique plant-pathogenic bacteria that transform plant floral organs into leaf-like structures and cause the emergence of secondary flowers. These distinctive symptoms have attracted considerable interest for many years. Here, we revealed the molecular mechanisms of the floral symptoms by focusing on a phytoplasma-secreted protein, PHYL1, which induces morphological changes in flowers that are similar to those seen in phytoplasma-infected plants. PHYL1 is a homolog of the phytoplasmal effector SAP54 that also alters floral development. Using yeast two-hybrid and in planta transient co-expression assays, we found that PHYL1 interacts with and degrades the floral homeotic MADS domain proteins SEPALLATA3 (SEP3), APETALA1 (AP1) and CAULIFLOWER (CAL). This degradation of MADS domain proteins was dependent on the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. The expression of floral development genes downstream of SEP3 and AP1 was disrupted in 35S::PHYL1 transgenic plants. PHYL1 was genetically and functionally conserved among other phytoplasma strains and species. We designate PHYL1, SAP54 and their homologs as members of the phyllody-inducing gene family of 'phyllogens'. © 2014 The Authors.The Plant Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Trace concentrations of imazethapyr (IM) affect floral organs development and reproduction in Arabidopsis thaliana: IM-induced inhibition of key genes regulating anther and pollen biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Qian, Haifeng; Li, Yali; Sun, Chongchong; Lavoie, Michel; Xie, Jun; Bai, Xiaocui; Fu, Zhengwei

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how herbicides affect plant reproduction and growth is critical to develop herbicide toxicity model and refine herbicide risk assessment. Although our knowledge of herbicides toxicity mechanisms at the physiological and molecular level in plant vegetative phase has increased substantially in the last decades, few studies have addressed the herbicide toxicity problematic on plant reproduction. Here, we determined the long-term (4-8 weeks) effect of a chiral herbicide, imazethapyr (IM), which has been increasingly used in plant crops, on floral organ development and reproduction in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. More specifically, we followed the effect of two IM enantiomers (R- and S-IM) on floral organ structure, seed production, pollen viability and the transcription of key genes involved in anther and pollen development. The results showed that IM strongly inhibited the transcripts of genes regulating A. thaliana tapetum development (DYT1: DYSFUNCTIONAL TAPETUM 1), tapetal differentiation and function (TDF1: TAPETAL DEVELOPMENT AND FUNCTION1), and pollen wall formation and developments (AMS: ABORTED MICROSPORES, MYB103: MYB DOMAIN PROTEIN 103, MS1: MALE STERILITY 1, MS2: MALE STERILITY 2). Since DYT1 positively regulates 33 genes involved in cell-wall modification (such as, TDF1, AMS, MYB103, MS1, MS2) that can catalyze the breakdown of polysaccharides to facilitate anther dehiscence, the consistent decrease in the transcription of these genes after IM exposure should hamper anther opening as observed under scanning electron microscopy. The toxicity of IM on anther opening further lead to a decrease in pollen production and pollen viability. Furthermore, long-term IM exposure increased the number of apurinic/apyrimidinic sites (AP sites) in the DNA of A. thaliana and also altered the DNA of A. thaliana offspring grown in IM-free soils. Toxicity of IM on floral organs development and reproduction was generally higher in the presence of the R

  11. Genetic Enhancer Analysis Reveals that FLORAL ORGAN NUMBER2 and OsMADS3 Cooperatively Regulate Maintenance and Determinacy of the Flower Meristem in Rice.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Yukiko; Tanaka, Wakana; Sakamoto, Tomoaki; Kurata, Tetsuya; Hirano, Hiro-Yuki

    2017-03-22

    Meristems such as the shoot apical meristem and flower meristem (FM) act as a reservoir of stem cells, which reproduce themselves and supply daughter cells for the differentiation of lateral organs. In Oryza sativa (rice), FLORAL ORGAN NUMBER2 (FON2) gene, which is similar to Arabidopsis CLAVATA3, is involved in meristem maintenance. In fon2 mutants, the numbers of floral organs are increased due to an enlargement of the FM. To identify new factors regulating meristem maintenance in rice, we performed a genetic screening of mutants that enhanced the fon2 mutation, and found a mutant line (2B-424) in which pistil number was dramatically increased. By using a map-based approach and next-generation sequencing, we found that the line 2B-424 had a complete loss-of-function mutation (a large deletion) in OsMADS3, a class C MADS-box gene that is known to be involved in stamen specification. Disruption of OsMADS3 in the fon2 mutant by CRISPR-Cas9 technology caused a flower phenotype similar to that of 2B-424, confirming that the gene responsible for enhancement of fon2 was OsMADS3. Morphological analysis showed that the fon2 and osmads3 mutations synergistically affected pistil development and FM determinacy. We also found that whorl 3 was duplicated in mature flowers and the FM was enlarged at an early developmental stage in severe osmads3 single mutants. These findings suggest that OsMADS3 is involved not only in FM determinacy in late flower development but also in FM activity in early flower development.

  12. Determination of floral organ identity by Arabidopsis MADS domain homeotic proteins AP1, AP3, PI, and AG is independent of their DNA-binding specificity.

    PubMed Central

    Riechmann, J L; Meyerowitz, E M

    1997-01-01

    The MADS domain homeotic proteins APETALA1 (AP1), APETALA3 (AP3), PISTILLATA (PI), and AGAMOUS (AG) combinatorially specify the identity of Arabidopsis floral organs. AP1/AP1, AG/AG, and AP3/PI dimers bind to similar CArG box sequences; thus, differences in DNA-binding specificity among these proteins do not seem to be the origin of their distinct organ identity properties. To assess the overall contribution that specific DNA binding could make to their biological specificity, we have generated chimeric genes in which the amino-terminal half of the MADS domain of AP1, AP3, PI, and AG was substituted by the corresponding sequences of human SRF and MEF2A proteins. In vitro DNA-binding assays reveal that the chimeric proteins acquired the respective, and distinct, DNA-binding specificity of SRF or MEF2A. However, ectopic expression of the chimeric genes reproduces the dominant gain-of-function phenotypes exhibited by plants ectopically expressing the corresponding Arabidopsis wild-type genes. In addition, both the SRF and MEF2 chimeric genes can complement the pertinent ap1-1, ap3-3, pi-1, or ag-3 mutations to a degree similar to that of AP1, AP3, PI, and AG when expressed under the control of the same promoter. These results indicate that determination of floral organ identity by the MADS domain homeotic proteins AP1, AP3, PI, and AG is independent of their DNA-binding specificity. In addition, the DNA-binding experiments show that either one of the two MADS domains of a dimer can be sufficient to confer a particular DNA-binding specificity to the complex and that sequences outside the amino-terminal basic region of the MADS domain can, in some cases, contribute to the DNA-binding specificity of the proteins. Images PMID:9243505

  13. Molecular Mechanisms of Floral Boundary Formation in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hongyang; Huang, Tengbo

    2016-01-01

    Boundary formation is a crucial developmental process in plant organogenesis. Boundaries separate cells with distinct identities and act as organizing centers to control the development of adjacent organs. In flower development, initiation of floral primordia requires the formation of the meristem-to-organ (M–O) boundaries and floral organ development depends on the establishment of organ-to-organ (O–O) boundaries. Studies in this field have revealed a suite of genes and regulatory pathways controlling floral boundary formation. Many of these genes are transcription factors that interact with phytohormone pathways. This review will focus on the functions and interactions of the genes that play important roles in the floral boundaries and discuss the molecular mechanisms that integrate these regulatory pathways to control the floral boundary formation. PMID:26950117

  14. The ABC model of floral development.

    PubMed

    Irish, Vivian

    2017-09-11

    Flowers are organized into concentric whorls of sepals, petals, stamens and carpels, with each of these floral organ types having a unique role in reproduction (Figure 1). Sepals enclose and protect the flower bud, while petals can be large and showy so as to attract pollinators (or people!). Stamens produce pollen grains that contain male gametes, while the carpels contain the ovules that when fertilized will produce the seeds. While the size, shape, number and elaboration of each of these organ types can be quite different, the same general organization of four floral organ types arranged in concentric whorls exists across all flowering plant (angiosperm) species. As I shall explain in this Primer, the 'ABC model' is a simple and satisfying explanation for how this conserved floral architecture is genetically specified. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Regulatory mechanisms for floral homeotic gene expression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhongchi; Mara, Chloe

    2010-02-01

    Proper regulation of floral homeotic gene (or ABCE gene) expression ensures the development of floral organs in the correct number, type, and precise spatial arrangement. This review summarizes recent advances on the regulation of floral homeotic genes, highlighting the variety and the complexity of the regulatory mechanisms involved. As flower development is one of the most well characterized developmental processes in higher plants, it facilitates the discovery of novel regulatory mechanisms. To date, mechanisms for the regulation of floral homeotic genes range from transcription to post-transcription, from activators to repressors, and from microRNA- to ubiquitin-mediated post-transcriptional regulation. Region-specific activation of floral homeotic genes is dependent on the integration of a flower-specific activity provided by LEAFY (LFY) and a region- and stage-specific activating function provided by one of the LFY cofactors. Two types of regulatory loops, the feed-forward and the feedback loop, provide properly timed gene activation and subsequent maintenance and refinement in proper spatial and temporal domains of ABCE genes. Two different microRNA/target modules may have been independently recruited in different plant species to regulate C gene expression. Additionally, competition among different MADS box proteins for common interacting partners may represent a mechanism in whorl boundary demarcation. Future work using systems approaches and the development of non-model plants will provide integrated views on floral homeotic gene regulation and insights into the evolution of morphological diversity in flowering plants. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Floral glycerolipid profiles in homeotic mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yuki; Liu, Yu-Chi; Lin, Ying-Chen

    2014-08-08

    Flowers have distinct glycerolipid composition, yet its floral organ-specific profile remains elusive in Arabidopsis whose flowers are too tiny to dissect different floral organs. Here, we employed known floral homeotic mutants agamous-1 (ag-1) and apetala3-3 (ap3-3) to facilitate sample preparation enriched in different floral organs. The result of analysis on different polar glycerolipid classes and their fatty acid composition demonstrated that flowers of ap3-3 and ag-1 have distinct glycerolipid composition from that of wild type. Moreover, distinct set of glycerolipid biosynthetic genes is expressed in these mutants by qRT-PCR gene expression analysis. These data suggest that glycerolipid profile is distinct among different floral organs of Arabidopsis thaliana. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Building beauty: the genetic control of floral patterning

    SciTech Connect

    Lohmann, J. U., and Weigel, D.

    2002-02-01

    OAK-B135 Floral organ identity is controlled by combinatorial action of homeotic genes expressed in different territories within the emerging flower. This review discusses recent progress in our understanding of floral homeotic genes, with an emphasis on how their region-specific expression is regulated.

  18. Deficiency in a Very-Long-Chain Fatty Acid β-Ketoacyl-Coenzyme A Synthase of Tomato Impairs Microgametogenesis and Causes Floral Organ Fusion1[W

    PubMed Central

    Smirnova, Anna; Leide, Jana; Riederer, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Previously, it was shown that β-ketoacyl-coenzyme A synthase ECERIFERUM6 (CER6) is necessary for the biosynthesis of very-long-chain fatty acids with chain lengths beyond C28 in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruits and C26 in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaves and the pollen coat. CER6 loss of function in Arabidopsis resulted in conditional male sterility, since pollen coat lipids are responsible for contact-mediated pollen hydration. In tomato, on the contrary, pollen hydration does not rely on pollen coat lipids. Nevertheless, mutation in SlCER6 impairs fertility and floral morphology. Here, the contribution of SlCER6 to the sexual reproduction and flower development of tomato was addressed. Cytological analysis and cross-pollination experiments revealed that the slcer6 mutant has male sterility caused by (1) hampered pollen dispersal and (2) abnormal tapetum development. SlCER6 loss of function provokes a decrease of n- and iso-alkanes with chain lengths of C27 or greater and of anteiso-alkanes with chain lengths of C28 or greater in flower cuticular waxes, but it has no impact on flower cuticle ultrastructure and cutin content. Expression analysis confirmed high transcription levels of SlCER6 in the anther and the petal, preferentially in sites subject to epidermal fusion. Hence, wax deficiency was proposed to be the primary reason for the flower fusion phenomenon in tomato. The SlCER6 substrate specificity was revisited. It might be involved in elongation of not only linear but also branched very-long-chain fatty acids, leading to production of the corresponding alkanes. SlCER6 implements a function in the sexual reproduction of tomato that is different from the one in Arabidopsis: SlCER6 is essential for the regulation of timely tapetum degradation and, consequently, microgametogenesis. PMID:23144186

  19. Deficiency in a very-long-chain fatty acid β-ketoacyl-coenzyme a synthase of tomato impairs microgametogenesis and causes floral organ fusion.

    PubMed

    Smirnova, Anna; Leide, Jana; Riederer, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Previously, it was shown that β-ketoacyl-coenzyme A synthase ECERIFERUM6 (CER6) is necessary for the biosynthesis of very-long-chain fatty acids with chain lengths beyond C₂₈ in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruits and C₂₆ in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaves and the pollen coat. CER6 loss of function in Arabidopsis resulted in conditional male sterility, since pollen coat lipids are responsible for contact-mediated pollen hydration. In tomato, on the contrary, pollen hydration does not rely on pollen coat lipids. Nevertheless, mutation in SlCER6 impairs fertility and floral morphology. Here, the contribution of SlCER6 to the sexual reproduction and flower development of tomato was addressed. Cytological analysis and cross-pollination experiments revealed that the slcer6 mutant has male sterility caused by (1) hampered pollen dispersal and (2) abnormal tapetum development. SlCER6 loss of function provokes a decrease of n- and iso-alkanes with chain lengths of C₂₇ or greater and of anteiso-alkanes with chain lengths of C₂₈ or greater in flower cuticular waxes, but it has no impact on flower cuticle ultrastructure and cutin content. Expression analysis confirmed high transcription levels of SlCER6 in the anther and the petal, preferentially in sites subject to epidermal fusion. Hence, wax deficiency was proposed to be the primary reason for the flower fusion phenomenon in tomato. The SlCER6 substrate specificity was revisited. It might be involved in elongation of not only linear but also branched very-long-chain fatty acids, leading to production of the corresponding alkanes. SlCER6 implements a function in the sexual reproduction of tomato that is different from the one in Arabidopsis: SlCER6 is essential for the regulation of timely tapetum degradation and, consequently, microgametogenesis.

  20. Identification and molecular characterization of an IDA-like gene from litchi, LcIDL1, whose ectopic expression promotes floral organ abscission in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Peiyuan; Li, Caiqin; Liu, Xuncheng; Xia, Rui; Zhao, Minglei; Li, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    Unexpected abscission of flowers or fruits is a major limiting factor for crop productivity. Key genes controlling abscission in plants, especially in popular fruit trees, are largely unknown. Here we identified a litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) IDA-like (INFLORESCENCE DEFICIENT IN ABSCISSION-like) gene LcIDL1 as a potential key regulator of abscission. LcIDL1 encodes a peptide that shows the closest homology to Arabidopsis IDA, and is localized in cell membrane and cytoplasm. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression level of LcIDL1 accumulated gradually following flower abscission, and it was obviously induced by fruit abscission-promoting treatments. Transgenic plants expressing LcIDL1 in Arabidopsis revealed a role of LcIDL1 similar to IDA in promoting floral organ abscission. Moreover, ectopic expression of LcIDL1 in Arabidopsis activated the expression of abscission-related genes. Taken together, our findings provide evidence that LcIDL1 may act as a key regulator in control of abscission. PMID:27845425

  1. Virus-induced gene silencing of PEAM4 affects floral morphology by altering the expression pattern of PsSOC1a and PsPVP in pea.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhe-Hao; Jia, Fei-Fei; Hu, Jiang-Qin; Pang, Ji-Liang; Xu, Lei; Wang, Li-Lin

    2014-01-15

    pea-MADS4 (PEAM4) regulates floral morphology in Pisum sativum L., however, its molecular mechanisms still remain unclear. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a recently developed reverse genetic approach that facilities an easier and more rapid study of gene functions. In this study, the PEAM4 gene was effectively silenced by VIGS using a pea early browning virus (PEBV) in wild type pea JI992. The infected plants showed abnormal phenotypes, as the floral organs, especially the sepals and petals changed in both size and shape, which made the corolla less closed. The petals changed in morphology and internal symmetry with, the stamens reduced and carpel dehisced. Larger sepals and longer tendrils with small cauline leaves appeared, with some sepals turning into bracts, and secondary inflorescences with fused floral organs were formed, indicating a flower-to-inflorescence change. The infected plants also displayed a delayed and prolonged flowering time. The PEAM4-VIGS plants with altered floral morphology were similar to the pim (proliferating inflorescence meristem) mutant and also mimicked the phenotypes of ap1 mutants in Arabidopsis. The expression pattern of the homologous genes PsSOC1a and PsSVP, which were involved in flowering time and florescence morphological control downstream of PEAM4, were analyzed by real-time RT-PCR and mRNA in situ hybridization. PsSOC1a and PsSVP were ectopically expressed and enhanced in the floral meristems from PEAM4-silenced plants. Our data suggests that PEAM4 may have a similar molecular mechanism as AtAP1, which inhibits the expression of PsSOC1a and PsSVP in the floral meristem from the early stages of flower development. As such, in this way PEAM4 plays a crucial role in maintaining floral organ identity and flower development in pea. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Overexpression of AtAP1M3 regulates flowering time and floral development in Arabidopsis and effects key flowering-related genes in poplar.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhong; Ye, Meixia; Su, Xiaoxing; Liao, Weihua; Ma, Huandi; Gao, Kai; Lei, Bingqi; An, Xinmin

    2015-08-01

    APETALA1 plays a crucial role in the transition from vegetative to reproductive phase and in floral development. In this study, to determine the effect of AP1 expression on flowering time and floral organ development, transgenic Arabidopsis and poplar overexpressing of AtAP1M3 (Arabidopsis AP1 mutant by dominant negative mutation) were generated. Transgenic Arabidopsis with e35Spro::AtAP1M3 displayed phenotypes with delayed-flowering compared to wild-type and flowers with abnormal sepals, petals and stamens. In addition, transgenic Arabidopsis plants exhibited reduced growth vigor compared to the wild-type plants. Ectopic expression of AtAP1M3 in poplar resulted in up- or down-regulation of some endogenous key flowering-related genes, including floral meristems identity gene LFY, B-class floral organ identity genes AP3 and PI, flowering pathway integrator FT1 and flower repressors TFL1 and SVP. These results suggest that AtAP1M3 regulates flowering time and floral development in plants.

  3. Do Plants Eavesdrop on Floral Scent Signals?

    PubMed

    Caruso, Christina M; Parachnowitsch, Amy L

    2016-01-01

    Plants emit a diverse array of volatile organic compounds that can function as cues to other plants. Plants can use volatiles emitted by neighbors to gain information about their environment, and respond by adjusting their phenotype. Less is known about whether the many different volatile signals that plants emit are all equally likely to function as cues to other plants. We review evidence for the function of floral volatile signals and conclude that plants are as likely to perceive and respond to floral volatiles as to other, better-studied volatiles. We propose that eavesdropping on floral volatile cues is particularly likely to be adaptive because plants can respond to these cues by adjusting traits that directly affect pollination and mating.

  4. Isolation and characterization of a floral homeotic gene in Fraxinus nigra causing earlier flowering and homeotic alterations in transgenic Arabidopsis

    Treesearch

    Jun Hyung Lee; Paula M. Pijut

    2017-01-01

    Reproductive sterility, which can be obtained by manipulating floral organ identity genes, is an important tool for gene containment of genetically engineered trees. In Arabidopsis, AGAMOUS (AG) is the only C-class gene responsible for both floral meristem determinacy and floral organ identity, and its mutations produce...

  5. Molecular and genetic analyses of the silky1 gene reveal conservation in floral organ specification between eudicots and monocots.

    PubMed

    Ambrose, B A; Lerner, D R; Ciceri, P; Padilla, C M; Yanofsky, M F; Schmidt, R J

    2000-03-01

    The degree to which the eudicot-based ABC model of flower organ identity applies to the other major subclass of angrosperms, the monocots, has yet to be fully explored. We cloned silky1 (si1), a male sterile mutant of Zea mays that has homeotic conversions of stamens into carpels and lodicules into palea/lemma-like structures. Our studies indicate that si1 is a monocot B function MADS box gene. Moreover, the si1 zag1 double mutant produces a striking spikelet phenotype where normal glumes enclose reiterated palea/lemma-like organs. These studies indicate that B function gene activity is conserved among monocots as well as eudicots. In addition, they provide compelling developmental evidence for recognizing lodicules as modified petals and, possibly, palea and lemma as modified sepals.

  6. The floral transcriptome of ylang ylang (Cananga odorata var. fruticosa) uncovers biosynthetic pathways for volatile organic compounds and a multifunctional and novel sesquiterpene synthase

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Jingjing; Kim, Mi Jung; Dhandapani, Savitha; Tjhang, Jessica Gambino; Yin, Jun-Lin; Wong, Limsoon; Sarojam, Rajani; Chua, Nam-Hai; Jang, In-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    The pleasant fragrance of ylang ylang varieties (Cananga odorata) is mainly due to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by the flowers. Floral scents are a key factor in plant–insect interactions and are vital for successful pollination. C. odorata var. fruticosa, or dwarf ylang ylang, is a variety of ylang ylang that is popularly grown in Southeast Asia as a small shrub with aromatic flowers. Here, we describe the combined use of bioinformatics and chemical analysis to discover genes for the VOC biosynthesis pathways and related genes. The scented flowers of C. odorata var. fruticosa were analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and a total of 49 VOCs were identified at four different stages of flower development. The bulk of these VOCs were terpenes, mainly sesquiterpenes. To identify the various terpene synthases (TPSs) involved in the production of these essential oils, we performed RNA sequencing on mature flowers. From the RNA sequencing data, four full-length TPSs were functionally characterized. In vitro assays showed that two of these TPSs were mono-TPSs. CoTPS1 synthesized four products corresponding to β-thujene, sabinene, β-pinene, and α-terpinene from geranyl pyrophosphate and CoTPS4 produced geraniol from geranyl pyrophosphate. The other two TPSs were identified as sesqui-TPSs. CoTPS3 catalysed the conversion of farnesyl pyrophosphate to α-bergamotene, whereas CoTPS2 was found to be a multifunctional and novel TPS that could catalyse the synthesis of three sesquiterpenes, β-ylangene, β-copaene, and β-cubebene. Additionally, the activities of the two sesqui-TPSs were confirmed in planta by transient expression of these TPS genes in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves by Agrobacterium-mediated infiltration. PMID:25956881

  7. Abscission of flowers and floral organs is closely associated with alkalization of the cytosol in abscission zone cells.

    PubMed

    Sundaresan, Srivignesh; Philosoph-Hadas, Sonia; Riov, Joseph; Belausov, Eduard; Kochanek, Betina; Tucker, Mark L; Meir, Shimon

    2015-03-01

    In vivo changes in the cytosolic pH of abscission zone (AZ) cells were visualized using confocal microscopic detection of the fluorescent pH-sensitive and intracellularly trapped dye, 2',7'-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF), driven by its acetoxymethyl ester. A specific and gradual increase in the cytosolic pH of AZ cells was observed during natural abscission of flower organs in Arabidopsis thaliana and wild rocket (Diplotaxis tenuifolia), and during flower pedicel abscission induced by flower removal in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill). The alkalization pattern in the first two species paralleled the acceleration or inhibition of flower organ abscission induced by ethylene or its inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), respectively. Similarly, 1-MCP pre-treatment of tomato inflorescence explants abolished the pH increase in AZ cells and pedicel abscission induced by flower removal. Examination of the pH changes in the AZ cells of Arabidopsis mutants defective in both ethylene-induced (ctr1, ein2, eto4) and ethylene-independent (ida, nev7, dab5) abscission pathways confirmed these results. The data indicate that the pH changes in the AZ cells are part of both the ethylene-sensitive and -insensitive abscission pathways, and occur concomitantly with the execution of organ abscission. pH can affect enzymatic activities and/or act as a signal for gene expression. Changes in pH during abscission could occur via regulation of transporters in AZ cells, which might affect cytosolic pH. Indeed, four genes associated with pH regulation, vacuolar H(+)-ATPase, putative high-affinity nitrate transporter, and two GTP-binding proteins, were specifically up-regulated in tomato flower AZ following abscission induction, and 1-MCP reduced or abolished the increased expression.

  8. Abscission of flowers and floral organs is closely associated with alkalization of the cytosol in abscission zone cells

    PubMed Central

    Sundaresan, Srivignesh; Philosoph-Hadas, Sonia; Riov, Joseph; Belausov, Eduard; Kochanek, Betina; Tucker, Mark L.; Meir, Shimon

    2015-01-01

    In vivo changes in the cytosolic pH of abscission zone (AZ) cells were visualized using confocal microscopic detection of the fluorescent pH-sensitive and intracellularly trapped dye, 2’,7’-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF), driven by its acetoxymethyl ester. A specific and gradual increase in the cytosolic pH of AZ cells was observed during natural abscission of flower organs in Arabidopsis thaliana and wild rocket (Diplotaxis tenuifolia), and during flower pedicel abscission induced by flower removal in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill). The alkalization pattern in the first two species paralleled the acceleration or inhibition of flower organ abscission induced by ethylene or its inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), respectively. Similarly, 1-MCP pre-treatment of tomato inflorescence explants abolished the pH increase in AZ cells and pedicel abscission induced by flower removal. Examination of the pH changes in the AZ cells of Arabidopsis mutants defective in both ethylene-induced (ctr1, ein2, eto4) and ethylene-independent (ida, nev7, dab5) abscission pathways confirmed these results. The data indicate that the pH changes in the AZ cells are part of both the ethylene-sensitive and -insensitive abscission pathways, and occur concomitantly with the execution of organ abscission. pH can affect enzymatic activities and/or act as a signal for gene expression. Changes in pH during abscission could occur via regulation of transporters in AZ cells, which might affect cytosolic pH. Indeed, four genes associated with pH regulation, vacuolar H+-ATPase, putative high-affinity nitrate transporter, and two GTP-binding proteins, were specifically up-regulated in tomato flower AZ following abscission induction, and 1-MCP reduced or abolished the increased expression. PMID:25504336

  9. The ERECTA receptor kinase regulates Arabidopsis shoot apical meristem size, phyllotaxy and floral meristem identity.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Tali; Moreau, Fanny; Kutsher, Yaarit; Fletcher, Jennifer C; Carles, Cristel C; Eshed Williams, Leor

    2014-02-01

    In plants, the shoot apical meristem (SAM) serves as a reservoir of pluripotent stem cells from which all above ground organs originate. To sustain proper growth, the SAM must maintain homeostasis between the self-renewal of pluripotent stem cells and cell recruitment for lateral organ formation. At the core of the network that regulates this homeostasis in Arabidopsis are the WUSCHEL (WUS) transcription factor specifying stem cell fate and the CLAVATA (CLV) ligand-receptor system limiting WUS expression. In this study, we identified the ERECTA (ER) pathway as a second receptor kinase signaling pathway that regulates WUS expression, and therefore shoot apical and floral meristem size, independently of the CLV pathway. We demonstrate that reduction in class III HD-ZIP and ER function together leads to a significant increase in WUS expression, resulting in extremely enlarged shoot meristems and a switch from spiral to whorled vegetative phyllotaxy. We further show that strong upregulation of WUS in the inflorescence meristem leads to ectopic expression of the AGAMOUS homeotic gene to a level that switches cell fate from floral meristem founder cell to carpel founder cell, suggesting an indirect role for ER in regulating floral meristem identity. This work illustrates the delicate balance between stem cell specification and differentiation in the meristem and shows that a shift in this balance leads to abnormal phyllotaxy and to altered reproductive cell fate.

  10. The ERECTA receptor kinase regulates Arabidopsis shoot apical meristem size, phyllotaxy and floral meristem identity

    PubMed Central

    Mandel, Tali; Moreau, Fanny; Kutsher, Yaarit; Fletcher, Jennifer C.; Carles, Cristel C.; Williams, Leor Eshed

    2014-01-01

    In plants, the shoot apical meristem (SAM) serves as a reservoir of pluripotent stem cells from which all above ground organs originate. To sustain proper growth, the SAM must maintain homeostasis between the self-renewal of pluripotent stem cells and cell recruitment for lateral organ formation. At the core of the network that regulates this homeostasis in Arabidopsis are the WUSCHEL (WUS) transcription factor specifying stem cell fate and the CLAVATA (CLV) ligand-receptor system limiting WUS expression. In this study, we identified the ERECTA (ER) pathway as a second receptor kinase signaling pathway that regulates WUS expression, and therefore shoot apical and floral meristem size, independently of the CLV pathway. We demonstrate that reduction in class III HD-ZIP and ER function together leads to a significant increase in WUS expression, resulting in extremely enlarged shoot meristems and a switch from spiral to whorled vegetative phyllotaxy. We further show that strong upregulation of WUS in the inflorescence meristem leads to ectopic expression of the AGAMOUS homeotic gene to a level that switches cell fate from floral meristem founder cell to carpel founder cell, suggesting an indirect role for ER in regulating floral meristem identity. This work illustrates the delicate balance between stem cell specification and differentiation in the meristem and shows that a shift in this balance leads to abnormal phyllotaxy and to altered reproductive cell fate. PMID:24496620

  11. A flower is born: an update on Arabidopsis floral meristem formation.

    PubMed

    Denay, Grégoire; Chahtane, Hicham; Tichtinsky, Gabrielle; Parcy, François

    2017-02-01

    In Arabidopsis, floral meristems appear on the flanks of the inflorescence meristem. Their stereotypic development, ultimately producing the four whorls of floral organs, is essentially controlled by a network coordinating growth and cell-fate determination. This network integrates hormonal signals, transcriptional regulators, and mechanical constraints. Mechanisms regulating floral meristem formation have been studied at many different scales, from protein structure to tissue modeling. In this paper, we review recent findings related to the emergence of the floral meristem and floral fate determination and examine how this field has been impacted by recent technological developments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Yeasts in floral nectar: a quantitative survey

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Carlos M.; de Vega, Clara; Canto, Azucena; Pozo, María I.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims One peculiarity of floral nectar that remains relatively unexplored from an ecological perspective is its role as a natural habitat for micro-organisms. This study assesses the frequency of occurrence and abundance of yeast cells in floral nectar of insect-pollinated plants from three contrasting plant communities on two continents. Possible correlations between interspecific differences in yeast incidence and pollinator composition are also explored. Methods The study was conducted at three widely separated areas, two in the Iberian Peninsula (Spain) and one in the Yucatán Peninsula (Mexico). Floral nectar samples from 130 species (37–63 species per region) in 44 families were examined microscopically for the presence of yeast cells. For one of the Spanish sites, the relationship across species between incidence of yeasts in nectar and the proportion of flowers visited by each of five major pollinator categories was also investigated. Key Results Yeasts occurred regularly in the floral nectar of many species, where they sometimes reached extraordinary densities (up to 4 × 105 cells mm−3). Depending on the region, between 32 and 44 % of all nectar samples contained yeasts. Yeast cell densities in the order of 104 cells mm−3 were commonplace, and densities >105 cells mm−3 were not rare. About one-fifth of species at each site had mean yeast cell densities >104 cells mm−3. Across species, yeast frequency and abundance were directly correlated with the proportion of floral visits by bumble-bees, and inversely with the proportion of visits by solitary bees. Conclusions Incorporating nectar yeasts into the scenario of plant–pollinator interactions opens up a number of intriguing avenues for research. In addition, with yeasts being as ubiquitous and abundant in floral nectars as revealed by this study, and given their astounding metabolic versatility, studies focusing on nectar chemical features should carefully control for the presence

  13. Removal of floral microbiota reduces floral terpene emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peñuelas, Josep; Farré-Armengol, Gerard; Llusia, Joan; Gargallo-Garriga, Albert; Rico, Laura; Sardans, Jordi; Terradas, Jaume; Filella, Iolanda

    2014-10-01

    The emission of floral terpenes plays a key role in pollination in many plant species. We hypothesized that the floral phyllospheric microbiota could significantly influence these floral terpene emissions because microorganisms also produce and emit terpenes. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing the effect of removing the microbiota from flowers. We fumigated Sambucus nigra L. plants, including their flowers, with a combination of three broad-spectrum antibiotics and measured the floral emissions and tissular concentrations in both antibiotic-fumigated and non-fumigated plants. Floral terpene emissions decreased by ca. two thirds after fumigation. The concentration of terpenes in floral tissues did not decrease, and floral respiration rates did not change, indicating an absence of damage to the floral tissues. The suppression of the phyllospheric microbial communities also changed the composition and proportion of terpenes in the volatile blend. One week after fumigation, the flowers were not emitting β-ocimene, linalool, epoxylinalool, and linalool oxide. These results show a key role of the floral phyllospheric microbiota in the quantity and quality of floral terpene emissions and therefore a possible key role in pollination.

  14. Removal of floral microbiota reduces floral terpene emissions

    PubMed Central

    Peñuelas, Josep; Farré-Armengol, Gerard; Llusia, Joan; Gargallo-Garriga, Albert; Rico, Laura; Sardans, Jordi; Terradas, Jaume; Filella, Iolanda

    2014-01-01

    The emission of floral terpenes plays a key role in pollination in many plant species. We hypothesized that the floral phyllospheric microbiota could significantly influence these floral terpene emissions because microorganisms also produce and emit terpenes. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing the effect of removing the microbiota from flowers. We fumigated Sambucus nigra L. plants, including their flowers, with a combination of three broad-spectrum antibiotics and measured the floral emissions and tissular concentrations in both antibiotic-fumigated and non-fumigated plants. Floral terpene emissions decreased by ca. two thirds after fumigation. The concentration of terpenes in floral tissues did not decrease, and floral respiration rates did not change, indicating an absence of damage to the floral tissues. The suppression of the phyllospheric microbial communities also changed the composition and proportion of terpenes in the volatile blend. One week after fumigation, the flowers were not emitting β-ocimene, linalool, epoxylinalool, and linalool oxide. These results show a key role of the floral phyllospheric microbiota in the quantity and quality of floral terpene emissions and therefore a possible key role in pollination. PMID:25335793

  15. Expression of floral MADS-box genes in basal angiosperms: implications for the evolution of floral regulators.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangtae; Koh, Jin; Yoo, Mi-Jeong; Kong, Hongzhi; Hu, Yi; Ma, Hong; Soltis, Pamela S; Soltis, Douglas E

    2005-09-01

    The ABC model of floral organ identity is based on studies of Arabidopsis and Antirrhinum, both of which are highly derived eudicots. Most of the genes required for the ABC functions in Arabidopsis and Antirrhinum are members of the MADS-box gene family, and their orthologs are present in all major angiosperm lineages. Although the eudicots comprise 75% of all angiosperms, most of the diversity in arrangement and number of floral parts is actually found among basal angiosperm lineages, for which little is known about the genes that control floral development. To investigate the conservation and divergence of expression patterns of floral MADS-box genes in basal angiosperms relative to eudicot model systems, we isolated several floral MADS-box genes and examined their expression patterns in representative species, including Amborella (Amborellaceae), Nuphar (Nymphaeaceae) and Illicium (Austrobaileyales), the successive sister groups to all other extant angiosperms, plus Magnolia and Asimina, members of the large magnoliid clade. Our results from multiple methods (relative-quantitative RT-PCR, real-time PCR and RNA in situ hybridization) revealed that expression patterns of floral MADS-box genes in basal angiosperms are broader than those of their counterparts in eudicots and monocots. In particular, (i) AP1 homologs are generally expressed in all floral organs and leaves, (ii) AP3/PI homologs are generally expressed in all floral organs and (iii) AG homologs are expressed in stamens and carpels of most basal angiosperms, in agreement with the expectations of the ABC model; however, an AG homolog is also expressed in the tepals of Illicium. The broader range of strong expression of AP3/PI homologs is inferred to be the ancestral pattern for all angiosperms and is also consistent with the gradual morphological intergradations often observed between adjacent floral organs in basal angiosperms.

  16. Expression of floral identity genes in Clianthus maximus during mass inflorescence abortion and floral development.

    PubMed

    Song, Jiancheng; Clemens, John; Jameson, Paula E

    2011-06-01

    Clianthus maximus is a leguminous perennial with an unusual order of floral organ insertion, and inflorescences produced year round that nearly all abort except during a limited time in autumn. This study aimed to determine at what point in floral organ differentiation abortion occurred and whether the expression of the floral identity genes underlies this cessation in flower development. Inflorescences were harvested across an annual cycle and flower development was examined by light and scanning electron microscopy. Expression of the C. maximus-equivalents of LEAFY (LFY), APETALA1 (AP1), PISTILLATA (PI) and AGAMOUS (AG) was monitored simultaneously by quantitative, reverse transcriptase PCR. Only those inflorescences formed in autumn proceeded to anthesis. Organogenesis had not begun in inflorescences that aborted. The C. maximus-equivalents of AP1, PI and AG were expressed in sepals, petals, carpels and stamens, as expected from the ABC model of floral organ identity specification; furthermore, the order of expression of the three genes reflected the unusual pattern of organ differentiation. Low expression of LFY and AP1 was observed during inflorescence abortion. Predictions of gene expression based on the ABC model were upheld despite the unusual mass abortion of inflorescences and the non-standard pattern of organ formation. The lack of expression of LFY and AP1 in inflorescences may have been the cause of inflorescence abortion.

  17. The OCL3 promoter from Sorghum bicolor directs gene expression to abscission and nutrient-transfer zones at the bases of floral organs.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Krishna K; Roche, Dominique J; Clemente, Tom E; Ge, Zhengxiang; Carman, John G

    2014-09-01

    During seed fill in cereals, nutrients are symplasmically unloaded to vascular parenchyma in ovules, but thereafter nutrient transport is less certain. In Zea mays, two mechanisms of nutrient passage through the chalaza and nucellus have been hypothesized, apoplasmic and symplasmic. In a recent study, nutrients first passed non-selectively to the chalazal apoplasm and were then selectively absorbed by the nucellus before being released to the endosperm apoplasm. This study reports that the promoter of OUTER CELL LAYER3 (PSbOCL3) from Sorghum bicolor (sorghum) directs gene expression to chalazal cells where the apoplasmic barrier is thought to form. The aims were to elucidate PSbOCL3 expression patterns in sorghum and relate them to processes of nutrient pathway development in kernels and to recognized functions of the homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) IV transcription factor family to which the promoter belongs. PSbOCL3 was cloned and transformed into sorghum as a promoter-GUS (β-glucuronidase) construct. Plant tissues from control and transformed plants were then stained for GUS, and kernels were cleared and characterized using differential interference contrast microscopy. A symplasmic disconnect between the chalaza and nucellus during seed fill is inferred by the combination of two phenomena: differentiation of a distinct nucellar epidermis adjacent to the chalaza, and lysis of GUS-stained chalazal cells immediately proximal to the nucellar epidermis. Compression of the GUS-stained chalazal cells during kernel maturation produced the kernel abscission zone (closing layer). The results suggest that the HD-Zip IV transcription factor SbOCL3 regulates kernel nutrition and abscission. The latter is consistent with evidence that members of this transcription factor group regulate silique abscission and dehiscence in Arabidopsis thaliana. Collectively, the findings suggest that processes of floral organ abscission are conserved among angiosperms and may in some

  18. Chromosomal abnormalities in infertile men referred to iran blood transfusion organization research center.

    PubMed

    Frouzandeh, Mahjoubi; Saeideh, Soleimani; Sanaz, Mantegy

    2010-10-01

    The prevalence of somatic chromosomal abnormalities in infertile male individuals has been reported to vary in different literatures. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of chromosomal aberrations among infertile men referred to the Cytogenetic Laboratory of Iran Blood Transfusion Organization Research Centre (IBTO). Chromosomal analysis was performed on phytohemag-glutinin (PHA)-stimulated peripheral lymphocyte cultures of 1052 infertile men using standard cytogenetic methods. The study took place during 1997 to 2007. Total chromosome alterations were revealed in 161 (15.30%) infertile men. The most prevalent chromosomal abnormality in the infertile men was 47, XXY, that was seen in 94 (58.38%) men while one of them had a mosaic karyotype: mos 47, XX[54]/47,XXY[18]/46,XY[9]. In 37 (22.98%) cases, structural aberrations were detected. There were 30 (18.63%) cases of sex reversal. Cytogenetic studies of these patients showed increased chromosomal abnormalities in infertile men in comparison with that of the normal population, justifying the need for cytogenetic analysis of men with idiopathic infertility.

  19. The tomato floral homeotic protein FBP1-like gene, SlGLO1, plays key roles in petal and stamen development

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xuhu; Hu, Zongli; Yin, Wencheng; Yu, Xiaohui; Zhu, Zhiguo; Zhang, Jianling; Chen, Guoping

    2016-01-01

    MADS-box transcription factors play important role in plant growth and development, especially floral organ identities. In our study, a MADS-box gene SlGLO1- tomato floral homeotic protein FBP1-like gene was isolated. Its tissue-specific expression profile analysis showed that SlGLO1 was highly expressed in petals and stamens. RNAi (RNA interference) repression of SlGLO1 resulted in floral organ abnormal phenotypes, including green petals with shorter size, and aberrant carpelloid stamens. SlGLO1-silenced lines are male sterile. Total chlorophyll content was increased and chlorophyll biosynthetic genes were significantly up-regulated in SlGLO1-silenced petals and stamens. Furthermore, B-class genes expression analysis indicated that the repressed function of SlGLO1 led to the enhanced expression of TAP3 and the down-regulation of TPI in the petals and stamens, while the expression of TM6 was reduced in petals and increased in stamens and carpels of SlGLO1-RNAi plants. Additionally, pollen grains of transgenic lines were aberrant and failed to germinate and tomato pollen-specific genes were down-regulated by more than 90% in SlGLO1-silenced lines. These results suggest that SlGLO1 plays important role in regulating plant floral organ and pollen development in tomato. PMID:26842499

  20. The tomato floral homeotic protein FBP1-like gene, SlGLO1, plays key roles in petal and stamen development.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xuhu; Hu, Zongli; Yin, Wencheng; Yu, Xiaohui; Zhu, Zhiguo; Zhang, Jianling; Chen, Guoping

    2016-02-04

    MADS-box transcription factors play important role in plant growth and development, especially floral organ identities. In our study, a MADS-box gene SlGLO1- tomato floral homeotic protein FBP1-like gene was isolated. Its tissue-specific expression profile analysis showed that SlGLO1 was highly expressed in petals and stamens. RNAi (RNA interference) repression of SlGLO1 resulted in floral organ abnormal phenotypes, including green petals with shorter size, and aberrant carpelloid stamens. SlGLO1-silenced lines are male sterile. Total chlorophyll content was increased and chlorophyll biosynthetic genes were significantly up-regulated in SlGLO1-silenced petals and stamens. Furthermore, B-class genes expression analysis indicated that the repressed function of SlGLO1 led to the enhanced expression of TAP3 and the down-regulation of TPI in the petals and stamens, while the expression of TM6 was reduced in petals and increased in stamens and carpels of SlGLO1-RNAi plants. Additionally, pollen grains of transgenic lines were aberrant and failed to germinate and tomato pollen-specific genes were down-regulated by more than 90% in SlGLO1-silenced lines. These results suggest that SlGLO1 plays important role in regulating plant floral organ and pollen development in tomato.

  1. Polarity in the early floral meristem of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Thoma, Rahere; Chandler, John William

    2015-01-01

    The diversity of angiosperm flowers depends on organ meristy and position. However, the signaling pathways that establish polarity and positional information remain largely unelucidated. Use of the founder-cell marker DORNRÖSCHEN-LIKE (DRNL) in Arabidopsis has recently highlighted the importance of the abaxial-adaxial axis for early floral development. We have extended the use of DRNL::GFP to further characterize floral organogenesis in genotypes that are altered in floral organ meristy or position, including ettin (ett-3) and blade-on-petiole (bop)1-11 bop2-4 double mutants. The creation of supernumery sepals by the splitting of sepal founder-cell populations along an ab-/adaxial axis strengthens the importance of the ab-/adaxial developmental axis in early floral meristem development. Furthermore, we confirm the dependency of the wildtype sequence of sepal initiation on bract suppression and demonstrate that supernumery stamens derive from the imprecise resolution of a ring of DRNL expression. Expression of DRNL in apetala1 (ap1-1) and ap2-8 mutants reflect the altered whorl structure and show that these homeotic genes function upstream of DRNL. Analyzing the dynamism of early floral meristem ontogeny at a fine temporal and spatial resolution in Arabidopsis can reveal mechanisms of organogenesis and is applicable to other species with differing floral body plans in a comparative evolutionary context.

  2. Dermatoses among floral shop workers.

    PubMed

    Thiboutot, D M; Hamory, B H; Marks, J G

    1990-01-01

    Concern about the increasing incidence of hand dermatitis in floral shop workers in the United States and its possible association to the plant Alstroemeria, a flower that has become popular since its introduction in 1981, prompted investigation of the prevalence and cause of hand dermatitis in a sample of floral workers. Fifty-seven floral workers were surveyed, and 15 (26%) reported hand dermatitis within the previous 12 months. Sixteen floral workers (eight with dermatitis) volunteered to be patch tested to the North American Contact Dermatitis Group Standard and Perfume Trays, a series of eight pesticides and 20 plant allergens. Of four of seven floral designers and arrangers who reported hand dermatitis, three reacted positively to patch tests to tuliposide A, the allergen in Alstroemeria. Patch test readings for all other plant extracts were negative. A positive reading for a test to one pesticide, difolatan (Captafol), was noted, the relevance of which is unknown.

  3. Persistent organic pollutants and abnormal geometry of the left ventricle in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Sjöberg Lind, Ylva; Lind, Lars; Salihovic, Samira; van Bavel, Bert; Lind, P Monica

    2013-08-01

    Established risk factors for left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) are hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. However, as these risk factors explain only part of the variation in left ventricular mass, we investigated whether persistent organic pollutants (POPs) might also play a role in LVH, because exposure to polychlorinated biphenyl 126 induced cardiac growth in rats. In the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS), left ventricular mass index (LVMI), relative wall thickness (RWT), and geometric groups of LVH, were determined by echocardiography and 21 POPs were measured by high-resolution chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) in 1016 individuals aged 70 years. All individuals with a history of myocardial infarction were excluded from analysis (n = 72). Several of the POPs were related to abnormal left ventricular geometry before adjustment for established risk factors, but lost in significance following adjustment. However, the pesticide hexachlorobenzene (HCB) levels were significantly related to RWT, and concentric left ventricular remodeling, also following adjustment for sex, blood pressure, antihypertensive treatment, diabetes, and BMI (P <0.0001). In this cross-sectional study, circulating levels of HCB were related to increased wall thickness of the left ventricle and concentric left ventricular remodeling, independently of LVH risk factors, suggesting a role of this environmental contaminant in abnormal growth of the left ventricle.

  4. EEG abnormalities in clinically diagnosed brain death organ donors in Iranian tissue bank.

    PubMed

    Tavakoli, Seyed Amir Hossein; Khodadadi, Abbas; Azimi Saein, Amir Reza; Bahrami-Nasab, Hasan; Hashemi, Behnam; Tirgar, Niloufar; Nozary Heshmati, Behnaz

    2012-01-01

    Brain death is defined as the permanent, irreversible and concurrent loss of all brain and brain stem functions. Brain death diagnosis is based on clinical criteria and it is not routine to use paraclinical studies. In some countries, electroencephalogram (EEG) is performed in all patients for the determination of brain death while there is some skepticism in relying on EEG as a confirmatory test for brain death diagnosis. In this study, we assessed the validity of EEG and its abnormalities in brain death diagnosis. In this retrospective study, we used 153 EEGs from medical records of 89 brain death patients in organ procurement unit of the Iranian Tissue Bank admitted during 2002-2008. We extracted and analyzed information including EEGs, which were examined by a neurologist for waves, artifacts and EEG abnormalities. The mean age of the patients was 27.2±12.7 years. The most common cause of brain death was multiple traumas due to accident (65%). The most prevalent artifact was electrical transformer. 125 EEGs (82%) were isoelectric (ECS) and seven EEGs (5%) were depictive of some cerebral activity which upon repeat EEGs, they showed ECS patterns too. There was no relationship between cause of brain death and cerebral activity in EEGs of the patients. In this study, we could confirm ECS patterns in all brain death patients whose status had earlier been diagnosed clinically. Considering the results of this study, it seems sensible to perform EEG as a final confirmatory test as an assurance to the patients' families.

  5. Transcriptional signatures of ancient floral developmental genetics in avocado (Persea americana; Lauraceae).

    PubMed

    Chanderbali, André S; Albert, Victor A; Leebens-Mack, Jim; Altman, Naomi S; Soltis, Douglas E; Soltis, Pamela S

    2009-06-02

    The debate on the origin and evolution of flowers has recently entered the field of developmental genetics, with focus on the design of the ancestral floral regulatory program. Flowers can differ dramatically among angiosperm lineages, but in general, male and female reproductive organs surrounded by a sterile perianth of sepals and petals constitute the basic floral structure. However, the basal angiosperm lineages exhibit spectacular diversity in the number, arrangement, and structure of floral organs, whereas the evolutionarily derived monocot and eudicot lineages share a far more uniform floral ground plan. Here we show that broadly overlapping transcriptional programs characterize the floral transcriptome of the basal angiosperm Persea americana (avocado), whereas floral gene expression domains are considerably more organ specific in the model eudicot Arabidopsis thaliana. Our findings therefore support the "fading borders" model for organ identity determination in basal angiosperm flowers and extend it from the action of regulatory genes to downstream transcriptional programs. Furthermore, the declining expression of components of the staminal transcriptome in central and peripheral regions of Persea flowers concurs with elements of a previous hypothesis for developmental regulation in a gymnosperm "floral progenitor." Accordingly, in contrast to the canalized organ-specific regulatory apparatus of Arabidopsis, floral development may have been originally regulated by overlapping transcriptional cascades with fading gradients of influence from focal to bordering organs.

  6. Transcriptional signatures of ancient floral developmental genetics in avocado (Persea americana; Lauraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Chanderbali, André S.; Albert, Victor A.; Leebens-Mack, Jim; Altman, Naomi S.; Soltis, Douglas E.; Soltis, Pamela S.

    2009-01-01

    The debate on the origin and evolution of flowers has recently entered the field of developmental genetics, with focus on the design of the ancestral floral regulatory program. Flowers can differ dramatically among angiosperm lineages, but in general, male and female reproductive organs surrounded by a sterile perianth of sepals and petals constitute the basic floral structure. However, the basal angiosperm lineages exhibit spectacular diversity in the number, arrangement, and structure of floral organs, whereas the evolutionarily derived monocot and eudicot lineages share a far more uniform floral ground plan. Here we show that broadly overlapping transcriptional programs characterize the floral transcriptome of the basal angiosperm Persea americana (avocado), whereas floral gene expression domains are considerably more organ specific in the model eudicot Arabidopsis thaliana. Our findings therefore support the “fading borders” model for organ identity determination in basal angiosperm flowers and extend it from the action of regulatory genes to downstream transcriptional programs. Furthermore, the declining expression of components of the staminal transcriptome in central and peripheral regions of Persea flowers concurs with elements of a previous hypothesis for developmental regulation in a gymnosperm “floral progenitor.” Accordingly, in contrast to the canalized organ-specific regulatory apparatus of Arabidopsis, floral development may have been originally regulated by overlapping transcriptional cascades with fading gradients of influence from focal to bordering organs. PMID:19451627

  7. Positron Emission Tomography Reveals Abnormal Topological Organization in Functional Brain Network in Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Xiangzhe; Zhang, Yanjun; Feng, Hongbo; Jiang, Donglang

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated alterations in the topological organization of structural brain networks in diabetes mellitus (DM). However, the DM-related changes in the topological properties in functional brain networks are unexplored so far. We therefore used fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) data to construct functional brain networks of 73 DM patients and 91 sex- and age-matched normal controls (NCs), followed by a graph theoretical analysis. We found that both DM patients and NCs had a small-world topology in functional brain network. In comparison to the NC group, the DM group was found to have significantly lower small-world index, lower normalized clustering coefficients and higher normalized characteristic path length. Moreover, for diabetic patients, the nodal centrality was significantly reduced in the right rectus, the right cuneus, the left middle occipital gyrus, and the left postcentral gyrus, and it was significantly increased in the orbitofrontal region of the left middle frontal gyrus, the left olfactory region, and the right paracentral lobule. Our results demonstrated that the diabetic brain was associated with disrupted topological organization in the functional PET network, thus providing functional evidence for the abnormalities of brain networks in DM. PMID:27303259

  8. A spatial dissection of the Arabidopsis floral transcriptome by MPSS

    PubMed Central

    Peiffer, Jason A; Kaushik, Shail; Sakai, Hajime; Arteaga-Vazquez, Mario; Sanchez-Leon, Nidia; Ghazal, Hassan; Vielle-Calzada, Jean-Philippe; Meyers, Blake C

    2008-01-01

    Background We have further characterized floral organ-localized gene expression in the inflorescence of Arabidopsis thaliana by comparison of massively parallel signature sequencing (MPSS) data. Six libraries of RNA sequence tags from immature inflorescence tissues were constructed and matched to their respective loci in the annotated Arabidopsis genome. These signature libraries survey the floral transcriptome of wild-type tissue as well as the floral homeotic mutants, apetala1, apetala3, agamous, a superman/apetala1 double mutant, and differentiated ovules dissected from the gynoecia of wild-type inflorescences. Comparing and contrasting these MPSS floral expression libraries enabled demarcation of transcripts enriched in the petals, stamens, stigma-style, gynoecia, and those with predicted enrichment within the sepal/sepal-petals, petal-stamens, or gynoecia-stamens. Results By comparison of expression libraries, a total of 572 genes were found to have organ-enriched expression within the inflorescence. The bulk of characterized organ-enriched transcript diversity was noted in the gynoecia and stamens, whereas fewer genes demonstrated sepal or petal-localized expression. Validation of the computational analyses was performed by comparison with previously published expression data, in situ hybridizations, promoter-reporter fusions, and reverse transcription PCR. A number of well-characterized genes were accurately delineated within our system of transcript filtration. Moreover, empirical validations confirm MPSS predictions for several genes with previously uncharacterized expression patterns. Conclusion This extensive MPSS analysis confirms and supplements prior microarray floral expression studies and illustrates the utility of sequence survey-based expression analysis in functional genomics. Spatial floral expression data accrued by MPSS and similar methods will be advantageous in the elucidation of more comprehensive genetic regulatory networks governing

  9. Gibberellin as a factor in floral regulatory networks.

    PubMed

    Mutasa-Göttgens, Effie; Hedden, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) function not only to promote the growth of plant organs, but also to induce phase transitions during development. Their involvement in flower initiation in long-day (LD) and biennial plants is well established and there is growing insight into the mechanisms by which floral induction is achieved. The extent to which GAs mediate the photoperiodic stimulus to flowering in LD plants is, with a few exceptions, less clear. Despite evidence for photoperiod-enhanced GA biosynthesis in leaves of many LD plants, through up-regulation of GA 20-oxidase gene expression, a function for GAs as transmitted signals from leaves to apices in response to LD has been demonstrated only in Lolium species. In Arabidopsis thaliana, as one of four quantitative floral pathways, GA signalling has a relatively minor influence on flowering time in LD, while in SD, in the absence of the photoperiod flowering pathway, the GA pathway assumes a major role and becomes obligatory. Gibberellins promote flowering in Arabidopsis through the activation of genes encoding the floral integrators SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (SOC1), LEAFY (LFY), and FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) in the inflorescence and floral meristems, and in leaves, respectively. Although GA signalling is not required for floral organ specification, it is essential for the normal growth and development of these organs. The sites of GA production and action within flowers, and the signalling pathways involved are beginning to be revealed.

  10. Stamen Abscission Zone Transcriptome Profiling Reveals New Candidates for Abscission Control: Enhanced Retention of Floral Organs in Transgenic Plants Overexpressing Arabidopsis ZINC FINGER PROTEIN21[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Suqin; Lashbrook, Coralie C.

    2008-01-01

    Organ detachment requires cell separation within abscission zones (AZs). Physiological studies have established that ethylene and auxin contribute to cell separation control. Genetic analyses of abscission mutants have defined ethylene-independent detachment regulators. Functional genomic strategies leading to global understandings of abscission have awaited methods for isolating AZ cells of low abundance and very small size. Here, we couple laser capture microdissection of Arabidopsis thaliana stamen AZs and GeneChip profiling to reveal the AZ transcriptome responding to a developmental shedding cue. Analyses focus on 551 AZ genes (AZ551) regulated at the highest statistical significance (P ≤ 0.0001) over five floral stages linking prepollination to stamen shed. AZ551 includes mediators of ethylene and auxin signaling as well as receptor-like kinases and extracellular ligands thought to act independent of ethylene. We hypothesized that novel abscission regulators might reside in disproportionately represented Gene Ontology Consortium functional categories for cell wall modifying proteins, extracellular regulators, and nuclear-residing transcription factors. Promoter-β-glucuronidase expression of one transcription factor candidate, ZINC FINGER PROTEIN2 (AtZFP2), was elevated in stamen, petal, and sepal AZs. Flower parts of transgenic lines overexpressing AtZFP2 exhibited asynchronous and delayed abscission. Abscission defects were accompanied by altered floral morphology limiting pollination and fertility. Hand-pollination restored transgenic fruit development but not the rapid abscission seen in wild-type plants, demonstrating that pollination does not assure normal rates of detachment. In wild-type stamen AZs, AtZFP2 is significantly up-regulated postanthesis. Phenotype data from transgene overexpression studies suggest that AtZFP2 participates in processes that directly or indirectly influence organ shed. PMID:18192438

  11. A comparison of floral integration between selfing and outcrossing species: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Fornoni, Juan; Ordano, Mariano; Pérez-Ishiwara, Rubén; Boege, Karina; Domínguez, César A

    2016-02-01

    Floral integration is thought to be an adaptation to promote cross-fertilization, and it is often assumed that it increases morphological matching between flowers and pollinators, increasing the efficiency of pollen transfer. However, the evidence for this role of floral integration is limited, and recent studies have suggested a possible positive association between floral integration and selfing. Although a number of explanations exist to account for this inconsistency, to date there has been no attempt to examine the existence of an association between floral integration and mating system. This study hypothesized that if pollinator-mediated pollen movement among plants (outcrossing) is the main factor promoting floral integration, species with a predominantly outcrossing mating system should present higher levels of floral integration than those with a predominantly selfing mating system. A phylogenetically informed meta-analysis of published data was performed in order to evaluate whether mating system (outcrossing vs. selfing) accounts for the variation in floral integration among 64 species of flowering plants. Morphometric floral information was used to compare intra-floral integration among traits describing sexual organs (androecium and gynoecium) and those corresponding to the perianth (calix and corolla). The analysis showed that outcrossing species have lower floral integration than selfing species. This pattern was caused by significantly higher integration of sexual traits than perianth traits, as integration of the latter group remained unchanged across mating categories. The results suggest that the evolution of selfing is associated with concomitant changes in intra-floral integration. Thus, floral integration of sexual traits should be considered as a critical component of the selfing syndrome. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email

  12. A comparison of floral integration between selfing and outcrossing species: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fornoni, Juan; Ordano, Mariano; Pérez-Ishiwara, Rubén; Boege, Karina; Domínguez, César A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Floral integration is thought to be an adaptation to promote cross-fertilization, and it is often assumed that it increases morphological matching between flowers and pollinators, increasing the efficiency of pollen transfer. However, the evidence for this role of floral integration is limited, and recent studies have suggested a possible positive association between floral integration and selfing. Although a number of explanations exist to account for this inconsistency, to date there has been no attempt to examine the existence of an association between floral integration and mating system. This study hypothesized that if pollinator-mediated pollen movement among plants (outcrossing) is the main factor promoting floral integration, species with a predominantly outcrossing mating system should present higher levels of floral integration than those with a predominantly selfing mating system. Methods A phylogenetically informed meta-analysis of published data was performed in order to evaluate whether mating system (outcrossing vs. selfing) accounts for the variation in floral integration among 64 species of flowering plants. Morphometric floral information was used to compare intra-floral integration among traits describing sexual organs (androecium and gynoecium) and those corresponding to the perianth (calix and corolla). Key Results The analysis showed that outcrossing species have lower floral integration than selfing species. This pattern was caused by significantly higher integration of sexual traits than perianth traits, as integration of the latter group remained unchanged across mating categories. Conclusions The results suggest that the evolution of selfing is associated with concomitant changes in intra-floral integration. Thus, floral integration of sexual traits should be considered as a critical component of the selfing syndrome. PMID:26578721

  13. Disrupted Nodal and Hub Organization Account for Brain Network Abnormalities in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Koshimori, Yuko; Cho, Sang-Soo; Criaud, Marion; Christopher, Leigh; Jacobs, Mark; Ghadery, Christine; Coakeley, Sarah; Harris, Madeleine; Mizrahi, Romina; Hamani, Clement; Lang, Anthony E.; Houle, Sylvain; Strafella, Antonio P.

    2016-01-01

    The recent application of graph theory to brain networks promises to shed light on complex diseases such as Parkinson’s disease (PD). This study aimed to investigate functional changes in sensorimotor and cognitive networks in Parkinsonian patients, with a focus on inter- and intra-connectivity organization in the disease-associated nodal and hub regions using the graph theoretical analyses. Resting-state functional MRI data of a total of 65 participants, including 23 healthy controls (HCs) and 42 patients, were investigated in 120 nodes for local efficiency, betweenness centrality, and degree. Hub regions were identified in the HC and patient groups. We found nodal and hub changes in patients compared with HCs, including the right pre-supplementary motor area (SMA), left anterior insula, bilateral mid-insula, bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and right caudate nucleus. In general, nodal regions within the sensorimotor network (i.e., right pre-SMA and right mid-insula) displayed weakened connectivity, with the former node associated with more severe bradykinesia, and impaired integration with default mode network regions. The left mid-insula also lost its hub properties in patients. Within the executive networks, the left anterior insular cortex lost its hub properties in patients, while a new hub region was identified in the right caudate nucleus, paralleled by an increased level of inter- and intra-connectivity in the bilateral DLPFC possibly representing compensatory mechanisms. These findings highlight the diffuse changes in nodal organization and regional hub disruption accounting for the distributed abnormalities across brain networks and the clinical manifestations of PD. PMID:27891090

  14. Expression of EGFP and NPTII protein is not associated with organ abnormalities in deceased transgenic cloned cattle.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Wu, Qian; Cui, Huiting; Li, Qinghe; Zhao, Yiqiang; Luo, Juan; Liu, Qiuyue; Sun, Xiuzhu; Tang, Bo; Zhang, Lei; Dai, Yunping; Li, Ning

    2008-12-01

    Both enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) and neomycin phosphotransferase type II enzyme (NPTII) are widely used in transgenic studies, but their side effects have not been extensively investigated. In this study, we evaluated the expression profiles of the two marker genes and the relationship between their expression and organ abnormalities. Eight transgenic cloned cattle were studied, four harboring both EGFP and NPTII, and four harboring only the NPTII gene. Four age-matched cloned cattle were used as controls. EGFP and NPTII expression were measured and detected by Q-PCR, Western blot, ELISA, and RIA in heart, liver, and lungs, and the values ranged from 0.3 to 5 microg/g. The expression profiles exhibited differential or mosaic pattern between the organs, the pathologic symptoms of which were identified, but were similar to those of age-matched cloned cattle. All data indicated that the expression of EGFP and NPTII is not associated with organ abnormalities in transgenic cloned cattle.

  15. Floral visitation and reproductive traits of Stamenoid petals, a naturally occurring floral homeotic variant of Capsella bursa-pastoris (Brassicaceae).

    PubMed

    Ziermann, Janine; Ritz, Markus S; Hameister, Steffen; Abel, Christian; Hoffmann, Matthias H; Neuffer, Barbara; Theissen, Günter

    2009-11-01

    Homeotic changes played a considerable role during the evolution of flowers, but how floral homeotic mutants initially survive in nature has remained enigmatic. To better understand the evolutionary potential of floral homeotic mutants, we established as a model system Stamenoid petals (Spe), a natural variant of Capsella bursa-pastoris (Brassicaceae). In the flowers of Spe plants, petals are transformed into stamens, whereas all other floral organs are unaffected. In contrast with most other homeotic mutants, the Spe variant occurs in relatively stable populations in the wild. In order to determine how the profound change in floral architecture influences plant performance in the wild, we performed common garden experiments running over 3 years. Here, we show that Spe and wild-type plants attract the same assemblage of floral visitors: mainly hoverflies, wild bees and thrips. However, floral visitation is about twice as frequent in wild-type plants as in Spe plants. Nevertheless, the numbers of seeds per fruit were about the same in both variants. Wild-type plants produced more flowers, fruits and seeds per plant than Spe plants, whereas the germination capacity of Spe seeds was higher than that of the wild-type. Determination of volatile composition revealed monoterpenes and 3,4-dimethylbenzaldehyde, which were detected only in wild-type flowers, presumably because they are produced only by petals. Our data indicate that the similar fitness of Spe and wild-type C. bursa-pastoris in the field results from complex compensation between plant architecture and germination capacity. In contrast, flower structure and floral visitation are only of minor importance, possibly because C. bursa-pastoris is mainly self-pollinating.

  16. Floral homeotic genes are targets of gibberellin signaling in flower development.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hao; Ito, Toshiro; Zhao, Yuanxiang; Peng, Jinrong; Kumar, Prakash; Meyerowitz, Elliot M

    2004-05-18

    Gibberellins (GAs) are a class of plant hormones involved in the regulation of flower development in Arabidopsis. The GA-deficient ga1-3 mutant shows retarded growth of all floral organs, especially abortive stamen development that results in complete male sterility. Until now, it has not been clear how GA regulates the late-stage development of floral organs after the establishment of their identities within floral meristems. Various combinations of null mutations of DELLA proteins can gradually rescue floral defects in ga1-3. In particular, the synergistic effect of rga-t2 and rgl2-1 can substantially restore flower development in ga1-3. We find that the transcript levels of floral homeotic genes APETALA3 (AP3), PISTILLATA (PI), and AGAMOUS (AG) are immediately upregulated in young flowers of ga1-3 upon GA treatment. Using a steroid-inducible activation of RGA, we further demonstrated that these floral homeotic genes are transcriptionally repressed by RGA activity in young flowers whereas the expression of LEAFY (LFY) and APETALA1 (AP1) is not substantially affected. In addition, we observed the partial rescue of floral defects in ga1-3 by overexpression of AG. Our results indicate that GA promotes the expression of floral homeotic genes by antagonizing the effects of DELLA proteins, thereby allowing continued flower development.

  17. Geraniales flowers revisited: evolutionary trends in floral nectaries.

    PubMed

    Jeiter, Julius; Weigend, Maximilian; Hilger, Hartmut H

    2017-02-01

    The detailed relationships in Geraniales in their current circumscription have only recently been clarified. The disparate floral morphologies and especially the nectaries of the corresponding group have consequently not previously been studied in a phylogenetic context. The present study investigates floral and especially nectary morphology and structure for representatives of 12 of the 13 currently accepted genera in the five families of the Geraniales. Flowers were studied using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The data demonstrate the derivation of even the most disparate floral morphologies from a basic pentamerous and pentacyclic organization, with an obdiplostemonous androecium and receptacular nectaries associated with the antesepalous stamens. Divergent morphologies are explained by modifications of merosity (tetramerous flowers), symmetry (several transitions to zygomorphic flowers) and elaboration of the nectaries into variously shaped outgrowths and appendages, especially in Francoaceae. The divergent development of nectar glands ultimately leads to either a reduction in their number (to one in some Geraniaceae and Melianthaceae) or their total loss (some Vivianiaceae). Floral morphology of the Geraniales shows a high degree of similarity, despite the variation in overall floral appearance and nectary morphology. A hypothesis on the transformation of the nectaries within the Geraniales is presented. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. A Bibliography of Floral Design Books for Visual Artists, Teachers of Floral Designing, and Librarians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rittner, Stephen

    This work begins with a brief history of floral design. While floral art is often anonymously created, functional in purpose, and transient in nature, this document argues for validity of floral design as an art form. The bibliography of 617 works excludes non-design books, while presenting a wide range and variety of recent and past floral art…

  19. Drought and leaf herbivory influence floral volatiles and pollinator attraction

    Treesearch

    Laura A. Burkle; Justin B. Runyon

    2016-01-01

    The effects of climate change on species interactions are poorly understood. Investigating the mechanisms by which species interactions may shift under altered environmental conditions will help form a more predictive understanding of such shifts. In particular, components of climate change have the potential to strongly influence floral volatile organic...

  20. Evolutionary trends in the floral transcriptome: insights from one of the basalmost angiosperms, the water lily Nuphar advena (Nymphaeaceae).

    PubMed

    Yoo, Mi-Jeong; Chanderbali, André S; Altman, Naomi S; Soltis, Pamela S; Soltis, Douglas E

    2010-11-01

    Current understanding of floral developmental genetics comes primarily from the core eudicot model Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we explore the floral transcriptome of the basal angiosperm, Nuphar advena (water lily), for insights into the ancestral developmental program of flowers. We identify several thousand Nuphar genes with significantly upregulated floral expression, including homologs of the well-known ABCE floral regulators, deployed in broadly overlapping transcriptional programs across floral organ categories. Strong similarities in the expression profiles of different organ categories in Nuphar flowers are shared with the magnoliid Persea americana (avocado), in contrast to the largely organ-specific transcriptional cascades evident in Arabidopsis, supporting the inference that this is the ancestral condition in angiosperms. In contrast to most eudicots, floral organs are weakly differentiated in Nuphar and Persea, with staminodial intermediates between stamens and perianth in Nuphar, and between stamens and carpels in Persea. Consequently, the predominantly organ-specific transcriptional programs that characterize Arabidopsis flowers (and perhaps other eudicots) are derived, and correlate with a shift towards morphologically distinct floral organs, including differentiated sepals and petals, and a perianth distinct from stamens and carpels. Our findings suggest that the genetic regulation of more spatially discrete transcriptional programs underlies the evolution of floral morphology. © 2010 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Convergence of the 26S proteasome and the REVOLUTA pathways in regulating inflorescence and floral meristem functions in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenzhen; Wang, Hua; Luo, Dexian; Zeng, Minhuan; Huang, Hai; Cui, Xiaofeng

    2011-01-01

    The 26S proteasome is a large multisubunit proteolytic complex, regulating growth and development in eukaryotes by selective removal of short-lived regulatory proteins. Here, it is shown that the 26S proteasome and the transcription factor gene REVOLUTA (REV) act together in maintaining inflorescence and floral meristem (IM and FM) functions. The characterization of a newly identified Arabidopsis mutant, designated ae4 (asymmetric leaves1/2 enhancer4), which carries a mutation in the gene encoding the 26S proteasome subunit, RPN2a, is reported. ae4 and rev have minor defects in phyllotaxy structure and meristem initiation, respectively, whereas ae4 rev demonstrated strong developmental defects. Compared with the rev single mutant, an increased percentage of ae4 rev plants exhibited abnormal vegetative shoot apical and axillary meristems. After flowering, ae4 rev first gave rise to a few normal-looking flowers, and then flowers with reduced numbers of all types of floral organs. In late reproductive development, instead of flowers, the ae4 rev IM produced numerous filamentous structures, which contained cells seen only in the floral organs, and then carpelloid organs. In situ hybridization revealed that expression of the WUSCHEL and CLAVATA3 genes was severely down-regulated or absent in the late appearing ae4 rev primordia, but the genes were strongly expressed in top-layer cells of inflorescence tips. Double mutant plants combining rev with other 26S proteasome subunit mutants, rpn1a and rpn9a, resembled ae4 rev, suggesting that the 26S proteasome might act as a whole in regulating IM and FM functions.

  2. Dissection of floral pollination syndromes in Petunia.

    PubMed

    Stuurman, Jeroen; Hoballah, Maria Elena; Broger, Larissa; Moore, James; Basten, Christopher; Kuhlemeier, Cris

    2004-11-01

    Animal-mediated pollination is essential in the reproductive biology of many flowering plants and tends to be associated with pollination syndromes, sets of floral traits that are adapted to particular groups of pollinators. The complexity and functional convergence of various traits within pollination syndromes are outstanding examples of biological adaptation, raising questions about their mechanisms and origins. In the genus Petunia, complex pollination syndromes are found for nocturnal hawkmoths (P. axillaris) and diurnal bees (P. integrifolia), with characteristic differences in petal color, corolla shape, reproductive organ morphology, nectar quantity, nectar quality, and fragrance. We dissected the Petunia syndromes into their most important phenotypic and genetic components. They appear to include several distinct differences, such as cell-growth and cell-division patterns in the basal third of the petals, elongation of the ventral stamens, nectar secretion and nectar sugar metabolism, and enzymatic differentiation in the phenylpropanoid pathway. In backcross-inbred lines of species-derived chromosome segments in a transposon tagging strain of P. hybrida, one to five quantitative trait loci were identified for each syndrome component. Two loci for stamen elongation and nectar volume were confirmed in introgression lines and showed large allelic differences. The combined data provide a framework for a detailed understanding of floral syndromes from their developmental and molecular basis to their impact on animal behavior. With its molecular genetic tools, this Petunia system provides a novel venue for a pattern of adaptive radiation that is among the most characteristic of flowering plants.

  3. Floral colleters in Pleurothallidinae (Epidendroideae: Orchidaceae).

    PubMed

    Cardoso-Gustavson, Poliana; Campbell, Lisa M; Mazzoni-Viveiros, Solange C; de Barros, Fábio

    2014-04-01

    The term colleter is applied to trichomes or emergences positioned close to developing vegetative and floral meristems that secrete a sticky, mucilaginous, and/or lipophilic exudate. Several ecological functions are attributed to these glands, but none are exclusive to colleters. Patterns of morphology and distribution of colleters may be valuable for systematics and phylogeny, especially concerning problematic and large groups such as the subtribe Pleurothallidinae, and are also essential to understand the evolution of these glands in Orchidaceae as a whole. We used scanning electron and light microscopy to examine the structure and occurrence of trichomes on bracts and sepals and in the invaginations of the external ovary wall (IEOW) in flowers in several developmental stages from species in seven genera. The exudate was composed of polysaccharides, lipophilic, and phenolic compounds. Colleters were secretory only during the development of floral organs, except for the glands in the IEOW that were also active in flowers at anthesis. After the secretory phase, fungal hyphae were found penetrating senescent trichomes. Trichome-like colleters seem to be a widespread character in Epidendroideae, and digitiform colleters are possibly the common type in this subfamily. Mucilage from IEOW colleters may aid in the establishment of symbiotic fungi necessary for seed germination. The presence of colleters in the IEOW may be a case of homeoheterotopy, in which extrafloral nectaries that produce simple sugar-based secretions (as in other orchid species) have changed to glands that produce secretions with complex polysaccharides, as in Pleurothallidinae.

  4. Identification of major quantitative trait loci underlying floral pollination syndrome divergence in Penstemon

    PubMed Central

    Wessinger, Carolyn A.; Hileman, Lena C.; Rausher, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    Distinct floral pollination syndromes have emerged multiple times during the diversification of flowering plants. For example, in western North America, a hummingbird pollination syndrome has evolved more than 100 times, generally from within insect-pollinated lineages. The hummingbird syndrome is characterized by a suite of floral traits that attracts and facilitates pollen movement by hummingbirds, while at the same time discourages bee visitation. These floral traits generally include large nectar volume, red flower colour, elongated and narrow corolla tubes and reproductive organs that are exerted from the corolla. A handful of studies have examined the genetic architecture of hummingbird pollination syndrome evolution. These studies find that mutations of relatively large effect often explain increased nectar volume and transition to red flower colour. In addition, they suggest that adaptive suites of floral traits may often exhibit a high degree of genetic linkage, which could facilitate their fixation during pollination syndrome evolution. Here, we explore these emerging generalities by investigating the genetic basis of floral pollination syndrome divergence between two related Penstemon species with different pollination syndromes—bee-pollinated P. neomexicanus and closely related hummingbird-pollinated P. barbatus. In an F2 mapping population derived from a cross between these two species, we characterized the effect size of genetic loci underlying floral trait divergence associated with the transition to bird pollination, as well as correlation structure of floral trait variation. We find the effect sizes of quantitative trait loci for adaptive floral traits are in line with patterns observed in previous studies, and find strong evidence that suites of floral traits are genetically linked. This linkage may be due to genetic proximity or pleiotropic effects of single causative loci. Interestingly, our data suggest that the evolution of floral traits

  5. Identification of major quantitative trait loci underlying floral pollination syndrome divergence in Penstemon.

    PubMed

    Wessinger, Carolyn A; Hileman, Lena C; Rausher, Mark D

    2014-08-05

    Distinct floral pollination syndromes have emerged multiple times during the diversification of flowering plants. For example, in western North America, a hummingbird pollination syndrome has evolved more than 100 times, generally from within insect-pollinated lineages. The hummingbird syndrome is characterized by a suite of floral traits that attracts and facilitates pollen movement by hummingbirds, while at the same time discourages bee visitation. These floral traits generally include large nectar volume, red flower colour, elongated and narrow corolla tubes and reproductive organs that are exerted from the corolla. A handful of studies have examined the genetic architecture of hummingbird pollination syndrome evolution. These studies find that mutations of relatively large effect often explain increased nectar volume and transition to red flower colour. In addition, they suggest that adaptive suites of floral traits may often exhibit a high degree of genetic linkage, which could facilitate their fixation during pollination syndrome evolution. Here, we explore these emerging generalities by investigating the genetic basis of floral pollination syndrome divergence between two related Penstemon species with different pollination syndromes--bee-pollinated P. neomexicanus and closely related hummingbird-pollinated P. barbatus. In an F2 mapping population derived from a cross between these two species, we characterized the effect size of genetic loci underlying floral trait divergence associated with the transition to bird pollination, as well as correlation structure of floral trait variation. We find the effect sizes of quantitative trait loci for adaptive floral traits are in line with patterns observed in previous studies, and find strong evidence that suites of floral traits are genetically linked. This linkage may be due to genetic proximity or pleiotropic effects of single causative loci. Interestingly, our data suggest that the evolution of floral traits

  6. Abnormal topological organization of the white matter network in Mandarin speakers with congenital amusia.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanxin; Chen, Xizhuo; Zhong, Suyu; Cui, Zaixu; Gong, Gaolang; Dong, Qi; Nan, Yun

    2016-05-23

    Congenital amusia is a neurogenetic disorder that mainly affects the processing of musical pitch. Brain imaging evidence indicates that it is associated with abnormal structural and functional connections in the fronto-temporal region. However, a holistic understanding of the anatomical topology underlying amusia is still lacking. Here, we used probabilistic diffusion tensor imaging tractography and graph theory to examine whole brain white matter structural connectivity in 31 Mandarin-speaking amusics and 24 age- and IQ-matched controls. Amusics showed significantly reduced global connectivity, as indicated by the abnormally decreased clustering coefficient (Cp) and increased normalized shortest path length (λ) compared to the controls. Moreover, amusics exhibited enhanced nodal strength in the right inferior parietal lobule relative to controls. The co-existence of the lexical tone deficits was associated with even more deteriorated global network efficiency in amusics, as suggested by the significant correlation between the increments in normalized shortest path length (λ) and the insensitivity in lexical tone perception. Our study is the first to reveal reduced global connectivity efficiency in amusics as well as an increase in the global connectivity cost due to the co-existed lexical tone deficits. Taken together these results provide a holistic perspective on the anatomical substrates underlying congenital amusia.

  7. Abnormal topological organization of the white matter network in Mandarin speakers with congenital amusia

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yanxin; Chen, Xizhuo; Zhong, Suyu; Cui, Zaixu; Gong, Gaolang; Dong, Qi; Nan, Yun

    2016-01-01

    Congenital amusia is a neurogenetic disorder that mainly affects the processing of musical pitch. Brain imaging evidence indicates that it is associated with abnormal structural and functional connections in the fronto-temporal region. However, a holistic understanding of the anatomical topology underlying amusia is still lacking. Here, we used probabilistic diffusion tensor imaging tractography and graph theory to examine whole brain white matter structural connectivity in 31 Mandarin-speaking amusics and 24 age- and IQ-matched controls. Amusics showed significantly reduced global connectivity, as indicated by the abnormally decreased clustering coefficient (Cp) and increased normalized shortest path length (λ) compared to the controls. Moreover, amusics exhibited enhanced nodal strength in the right inferior parietal lobule relative to controls. The co-existence of the lexical tone deficits was associated with even more deteriorated global network efficiency in amusics, as suggested by the significant correlation between the increments in normalized shortest path length (λ) and the insensitivity in lexical tone perception. Our study is the first to reveal reduced global connectivity efficiency in amusics as well as an increase in the global connectivity cost due to the co-existed lexical tone deficits. Taken together these results provide a holistic perspective on the anatomical substrates underlying congenital amusia. PMID:27211239

  8. Reduced transcription of a LEAFY-like gene in Alstroemeria sp. cultivar Green Coral that cannot develop floral meristems.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Masayo; Yamagishi, Masumi; Kanno, Akira

    2012-04-01

    Alstroemeria sp. cv. Green Coral has numerous bracts instead of flowers, and its cyme structures are repeated eternally. Observations of the development and morphology of inflorescence in cv. Green Coral revealed that transition from inflorescence to floral meristem was restricted. We isolated and characterized floral meristem identity genes LEAFY-like (AlsLFY) and SQUAMOSA-like (AlsSQa and AlsSQb) genes from Alstroemeria ligtu. In situ hybridization results indicated that AlsSQa and AlsSQb were expressed in the dome-shaped floral meristems and all floral organ primordia in A. ligtu. Transcripts of AlsLFY accumulated early in the dome-shaped floral meristems; the signals were restricted later to the outer region of the floral meristem. These results indicate that AlsLFY, AlsSQa, and AlsSQb function as floral meristem identity genes. Expression profiles of AlsLFY, AlsSQa, AlsSQb, and other MADS-box genes were compared between A. ligtu and cv. Green Coral. AlsLFY, AlsDEFa, and AlsAGL6 transcripts were not detected at the shoot apices of cv. Green Coral but were detected in A. ligtu. The early induction and accumulation of AlsLFY transcripts in the inflorescence meristem of A. ligtu prior to development of the floral meristem suggest that downregulation of AlsLFY is likely to restrict the inflorescence-to-floral meristem transition in cv. Green Coral.

  9. Genomic Approach to Study Floral Development Genes in Rosa sp.

    PubMed Central

    Chauvet, Aurélie; Maene, Marion; Pécrix, Yann; Yang, Shu-Hua; Jeauffre, Julien; Thouroude, Tatiana; Boltz, Véronique; Martin-Magniette, Marie-Laure; Janczarski, Stéphane; Legeai, Fabrice; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Vergne, Philippe; Le Bris, Manuel; Foucher, Fabrice; Bendahmane, Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Cultivated for centuries, the varieties of rose have been selected based on a number of flower traits. Understanding the genetic and molecular basis that contributes to these traits will impact on future improvements for this economically important ornamental plant. In this study, we used scanning electron microscopy and sections of meristems and flowers to establish a precise morphological calendar from early rose flower development stages to senescing flowers. Global gene expression was investigated from floral meristem initiation up to flower senescence in three rose genotypes exhibiting contrasted floral traits including continuous versus once flowering and simple versus double flower architecture, using a newly developed Affymetrix microarray (Rosa1_Affyarray) tool containing sequences representing 4765 unigenes expressed during flower development. Data analyses permitted the identification of genes associated with floral transition, floral organs initiation up to flower senescence. Quantitative real time PCR analyses validated the mRNA accumulation changes observed in microarray hybridizations for a selection of 24 genes expressed at either high or low levels. Our data describe the early flower development stages in Rosa sp, the production of a rose microarray and demonstrate its usefulness and reliability to study gene expression during extensive development phases, from the vegetative meristem to the senescent flower. PMID:22194838

  10. Abnormal Characteristics of Low Molecular Weight Organic Acids in Surface Water of the Jiaozhou Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, H.; Liu, Z.; Yang, G.; Sun, L.

    2012-12-01

    Organic acids are important components of dissolved organic matter in sea water. Generally, in oxic sea water, the concentrations of low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs), such as formate, acetate and lactate are too low to be analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) directly. Our recent study of Jiaozhou Bay, Shandong, China showed that the concentrations of LMWOAs in the surface sea water were high enough to be quantified by HPLC. In the surface sea water of the bay, three typical LMWOAs----formate, acetate and lactate were identified. Concentrations of formate, lactate and acetate ranged from 1.97 to 5.29μmol/L, 5.79 to 12.77μmol/L and 1.97 to 7.23 μmol/L, respectively. The concentrations of all three organic acids varied dramatically in different areas of the bay. Low concentrations usually occurred in the central region and high concentrations usually occurred along coastal area. The contribution of LMWOAs to dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was significantly higher than published data. On average, total organic acid (TOA, considered as total concentration of the three identified organic acids) accounted for more than 20% of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the surface water of the Bay. The high concentrations of LMWOAs and their unusual high contribution to DOC were attributed to human activities such as sewage discharge, aquaculture and etc. along the coastal area.

  11. Pleiotropy and the evolution of floral integration.

    PubMed

    Smith, Stacey D

    2016-01-01

    Floral traits often show correlated variation, both within and across species. One explanation for this pattern of floral integration is that different elements of floral phenotypes are controlled by the same genes, that is, that the genetic architecture is pleiotropic. Recent studies from a range of model systems suggest that the pleiotropy is common among the loci responsible for floral divergence. Moreover, the effects of allelic substitutions at these loci are overwhelmingly aligned with direction of divergence, suggesting that the nature of the pleiotropic effects was adaptive. Molecular genetic studies have revealed the functional basis for some of these effects, although much remains to be discovered with respect to the molecular, biochemical and developmental mechanisms underlying most quantitative trait loci (QTL) responsible for floral differences. Developing a detailed understanding of the nature of pleiotropic mutations and their phenotypic consequences is crucial for modeling how the genetic architecture of trait variation influences the tempo and trajectory of floral evolution.

  12. Recurrent modification of floral morphology in heterantherous Solanum reveals a parallel shift in reproductive strategy

    PubMed Central

    Vallejo-Marín, Mario; Walker, Catriona; Friston-Reilly, Philip; Solís-Montero, Lislie; Igic, Boris

    2014-01-01

    Floral morphology determines the pattern of pollen transfer within and between individuals. In hermaphroditic species, the spatial arrangement of sexual organs influences the rate of self-pollination as well as the placement of pollen in different areas of the pollinator's body. Studying the evolutionary modification of floral morphology in closely related species offers an opportunity to investigate the causes and consequences of floral variation. Here, we investigate the recurrent modification of flower morphology in three closely related pairs of taxa in Solanum section Androceras (Solanaceae), a group characterized by the presence of two morphologically distinct types of anthers in the same flower (heteranthery). We use morphometric analyses of plants grown in a common garden to characterize and compare the changes in floral morphology observed in parallel evolutionary transitions from relatively larger to smaller flowers. Our results indicate that the transition to smaller flowers is associated with a reduction in the spatial separation of anthers and stigma, changes in the allometric relationships among floral traits, shifts in pollen allocation to the two anther morphs and reduced pollen : ovule ratios. We suggest that floral modification in this group reflects parallel evolution towards increased self-fertilization and discuss potential selective scenarios that may favour this recurrent shift in floral morphology and function. PMID:25002701

  13. [Expression of CFL gene during differentiation of floral and vegetative buds in cucumber cotyledonary nodes cultured in vitro].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Lin; Pang, Ji-Liang; Liang, Hai-Man; Zhu, Mu-Yuan

    2004-12-01

    CFL gene, a LFY homologue, was cloned from cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). In this paper, in situ hybridization was performed to analyze the expression pattern of CFL gene at the stage of floral and vegetative buds differentiation in cucumber cotyledonary nodes cultured in vitro. The results showed that at the stage of floral differentiation, CFL gene was strongly expressed in primordia, floral organ primordia, and each whirl of floral organs at the early stage of their formation, but weakly expressed or not expressed in floral organs after their formation (Fig. 2). At the stage of vegetative bud differentiation, CFL gene was strongly expressed in meristem, leaf primordium and young leaves, and no apparent expression signal was detected in mature tissues (Fig. 3). The results suggest that the expression of CFL gene be necessary for the differentiation and formation of floral and vegetative primordias, and it plays an important role in floral and vegetative development in cucumber. The results also indicate that CFL gene involving in mitosis initiation, mitosis controlling, and transformation of vegetative meristem to floral meristem.

  14. Interactions of OsMADS1 with Floral Homeotic Genes in Rice Flower Development.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yun; Liang, Wanqi; Yin, Changsong; Yang, Xuelian; Ping, Baozhe; Li, Anxue; Jia, Ru; Chen, Mingjiao; Luo, Zhijing; Cai, Qiang; Zhao, Xiangxiang; Zhang, Dabing; Yuan, Zheng

    2015-09-01

    During reproductive development, rice plants develop unique flower organs which determine the final grain yield. OsMADS1, one of SEPALLATA-like MADS-box genes, has been unraveled to play critical roles in rice floral organ identity specification and floral meristem determinacy. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying interactions of OsMADS1 with other floral homeotic genes in regulating flower development remains largely elusive. In this work, we studied the genetic interactions of OsMADS1 with B-, C-, and D-class genes along with physical interactions among their proteins. We show that the physical and genetic interactions between OsMADS1 and OsMADS3 are essential for floral meristem activity maintenance and organ identity specification; while OsMADS1 physically and genetically interacts with OsMADS58 in regulating floral meristem determinacy and suppressing spikelet meristem reversion. We provided important genetic evidence to support the neofunctionalization of two rice C-class genes (OsMADS3 and OsMADS58) during flower development. Gene expression profiling and quantitative RT-PCR analyses further revealed that OsMADS1 affects the expression of many genes involved in floral identity and hormone signaling, and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-PCR assay further demonstrated that OsMADS17 is a direct target gene of OsMADS1. Taken together, these results reveal that OsMADS1 has diversified regulatory functions in specifying rice floral organ and meristem identity, probably through its genetic and physical interactions with different floral homeotic regulators. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Association of Accessory Auricular Tissue With Solid Organ Abnormalities and Its Effect on Auditory and Vestibular Function.

    PubMed

    Jenny, Hillary E; Massenburg, Benjamin B; Weissler, E Hope; Taub, Peter J

    2017-04-01

    Accessory auricular tissue is a common congenital anomaly ranging from an accessory skin appendage to a separate pinna. The association between auditory or vestibular dysfunction and accessory auricular tissue is debated, and little is known about related solid organ abnormalities. We examine the prevalence of accessory auricular tissue, its association between solid organ abnormalities and auditory/vestibular dysfunction, and its management. A retrospective cohort study was performed using the 2000 to 2012 HCUP kids' inpatient database. Live newborns with a diagnosis of accessory auricle were included. Of the 19,638,453 births recorded between 2000 and 2012, 0.13% had accessory auricular tissue (n = 25,802); 11.8% underwent excision or destruction of the tissue during birth admission. Newborns with this diagnosis were more likely to receive auditory and vestibular testing (5% vs 4.2%, P < 0.001; 5.5% vs 5%, P < 0.001) and to be diagnosed with abnormal auditory function (1.2% vs 0.5%, P < 0.001) and hearing loss (0.09% vs 0.02%, P < 0.001). Diagnosis of auditory impairment had a 3-fold higher odds of surgical management during birth stay (odds ratio, 3.12; 95% confidence interval, 1.826-5.339). Although none were diagnosed with vestibular dysfunction, patients with accessory auricular tissue were 1.5-fold to 3-fold more likely to have cardiac malformations and 4-fold more likely to have renal anomalies. Newborns with accessory auricular tissue more frequently undergo auditory and vestibular testing during birth stay. Auditory dysfunction, cardiac malformations, and renal anomalies are more frequently diagnosed in patients with accessory auricular tissue. However, none were diagnosed with vestibular impairment, bringing into question the necessity of vestibular testing.

  16. Molecular interactions of orthologues of floral homeotic proteins from the gymnosperm Gnetum gnemon provide a clue to the evolutionary origin of 'floral quartets'.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-Qiang; Melzer, Rainer; Theissen, Günter

    2010-10-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that the identity of floral organs in angiosperms is specified by multimeric transcription factor complexes composed of MADS-domain proteins. These bind to specific cis-regulatory elements ('CArG-boxes') of their target genes involving DNA-loop formation, thus constituting 'floral quartets'. Gymnosperms, angiosperms' closest relatives, contain orthologues of floral homeotic genes, but when and how the interactions constituting floral quartets were established during evolution has remained unknown. We have comprehensively studied the dimerization and DNA-binding of several classes of MADS-domain proteins from the gymnosperm Gnetum gnemon. Determination of protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions by yeast two-hybrid, in vitro pull-down and electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed complex patterns of homo- and heterodimerization among orthologues of floral homeotic class B, class C and class E proteins and B(sister) proteins. Using DNase I footprint assays we demonstrate that both orthologues of class B with C proteins, and orthologues of class C proteins alone, but not orthologues of class B proteins alone can loop DNA in floral quartet-like complexes. This is in contrast to class B and class C proteins from angiosperms, which require other factors such as class E floral homeotic proteins to 'glue' them together in multimeric complexes. Our findings suggest that the evolutionary origin of floral quartet formation is based on the interaction of different DNA-bound homodimers, does not depend on class E proteins, and predates the origin of angiosperms. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. The far-upstream regulatory region of RFL is required for its precise spatial-temporal expression for floral development in rice.

    PubMed

    Lou, Sulin; Chen, Shuifu; Zhao, Xiucai; Chen, Letian; Zhang, Jian; Fu, Hongxiang; Liu, Yao-Guang; Chen, Yuanling

    2017-01-01

    A rice mutant aberrant floral organ 1 (afo1) was identified, showing increased floral organ number, aberrant floral organ identity and loss of floral meristem determinacy. A disruption of sequence integrity at 6292-bp upstream of RFL by a T-DNA insertion led to varied RFL expression patterns in floral meristem and floret in afo1 and caused the mutant phenotype. The LEAFY (LFY) transcription factor and its homologs affect many aspects of plant development, especially floral development. RICE FLORICAULA/LEAFY (RFL), the rice ortholog of LFY, has complicated expression patterns and different functions in floral development. However, the mechanisms regulating the spatial-temporal expression of RFL remain largely unknown. Here, we describe a rice aberrant floral organ 1 (afo1) mutant that was produced by a T-DNA insertion at 6292-bp upstream of the start codon of RFL. This insertion altered the expression of RFL in floral meristem (FM) and floret. The in situ hybridization result showed that, when florets appear, RFL was expressed almost exclusively at the palea/lemma adaxial base adjacent to lodicules in the wild-type panicle. However, in afo1 florets, RFL mRNA signals were detected in the region between lodicule and stamen, and strong signals persisted in FM. The altered pattern of RFL expression in afo1 resulted in enlarged FMs, more floral organs, aberrant floral organ identity, and loss of FM determinacy. Transformation of rice with an RFL construct driven by the 6292-bp upstream genomic sequence re-built the mutant phenotype similar to afo1. The results suggest that the far-upstream region of RFL may contain potential cis element(s) that are critical to define the precise spatial-temporal expression pattern of RFL for its function in floral development.

  18. Floral gene resources from basal angiosperms for comparative genomics research.

    PubMed

    Albert, Victor A; Soltis, Douglas E; Carlson, John E; Farmerie, William G; Wall, P Kerr; Ilut, Daniel C; Solow, Teri M; Mueller, Lukas A; Landherr, Lena L; Hu, Yi; Buzgo, Matyas; Kim, Sangtae; Yoo, Mi-Jeong; Frohlich, Michael W; Perl-Treves, Rafael; Schlarbaum, Scott E; Bliss, Barbara J; Zhang, Xiaohong; Tanksley, Steven D; Oppenheimer, David G; Soltis, Pamela S; Ma, Hong; DePamphilis, Claude W; Leebens-Mack, James H

    2005-03-30

    The Floral Genome Project was initiated to bridge the genomic gap between the most broadly studied plant model systems. Arabidopsis and rice, although now completely sequenced and under intensive comparative genomic investigation, are separated by at least 125 million years of evolutionary time, and cannot in isolation provide a comprehensive perspective on structural and functional aspects of flowering plant genome dynamics. Here we discuss new genomic resources available to the scientific community, comprising cDNA libraries and Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) sequences for a suite of phylogenetically basal angiosperms specifically selected to bridge the evolutionary gaps between model plants and provide insights into gene content and genome structure in the earliest flowering plants. Random sequencing of cDNAs from representatives of phylogenetically important eudicot, non-grass monocot, and gymnosperm lineages has so far (as of 12/1/04) generated 70,514 ESTs and 48,170 assembled unigenes. Efficient sorting of EST sequences into putative gene families based on whole Arabidopsis/rice proteome comparison has permitted ready identification of cDNA clones for finished sequencing. Preliminarily, (i) proportions of functional categories among sequenced floral genes seem representative of the entire Arabidopsis transcriptome, (ii) many known floral gene homologues have been captured, and (iii) phylogenetic analyses of ESTs are providing new insights into the process of gene family evolution in relation to the origin and diversification of the angiosperms. Initial comparisons illustrate the utility of the EST data sets toward discovery of the basic floral transcriptome. These first findings also afford the opportunity to address a number of conspicuous evolutionary genomic questions, including reproductive organ transcriptome overlap between angiosperms and gymnosperms, genome-wide duplication history, lineage-specific gene duplication and functional divergence, and

  19. Genome-wide transcriptome profiling provides insights into floral bud development of summer-flowering Camellia azalea.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhengqi; Li, Jiyuan; Li, Xinlei; Wu, Bin; Wang, Jiangying; Liu, Zhongchi; Yin, Hengfu

    2015-05-15

    The transition from vegetative to reproductive growth in woody perennials involves pathways controlling flowering timing, bud dormancy and outgrowth in responses to seasonal cues. However little is known about the mechanism governing the adaptation of signaling pathways to environmental conditions in trees. Camellia azalea is a rare species in this genus flowering during summer, which provides a unique resource for floral timing breeding. Here we reported a comprehensive transcriptomics study to capture the global gene profiles during floral bud development in C. azalea. We examined the genome-wide gene expression between three developmental stages including floral bud initiation, floral organ differentiation and bud outgrowth, and identified nine co-expression clusters with distinctive patterns. Further, we identified the differential expressed genes (DEGs) during development and characterized the functional properties of DEGs by Gene Ontology analysis. We showed that transition from floral bud initiation to floral organ differentiation required changes of genes in flowering timing regulation, while transition to floral bud outgrowth was regulated by various pathways such as cold and light signaling, phytohormone pathways and plant metabolisms. Further analyses of dormancy associated MADS-box genes revealed that SVP- and AGL24- like genes displayed distinct expression patterns suggesting divergent roles during floral bud development.

  20. Floral evolution in the Annonaceae: hypotheses of homeotic mutations and functional convergence.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Richard M K

    2010-08-01

    The recent publication of hypotheses explaining the homeotic control of floral organ identity together with the availability of increasingly comprehensive and well-resolved molecular phylogenies presents an ideal opportunity for reassessing current knowledge of floral diversity and evolution in the Annonaceae. This review summarizes currently available information on selected aspects of floral structure and function, including: changes in the number of perianth whorls and the number of perianth parts per whorl; the evolution of sympetaly; the diversity and evolution of pollination chambers (with a novel classification of seven main structural forms of floral chamber based on the different arrangement, size and shape of petals); the evolution of perianth glands; floral unisexuality and hypotheses explaining the unexpectedly high frequency of occurrence of androdioecy; the origin and possible function of inner and outer staminodes; the evolution of stamen connective diversity and theca septation; and the origin of 'true' syncarpy and functionally equivalent extragynoecial compita. In each case, current ideas on the origin, evolution and function are discussed. The information presented in this review enables two main conclusions to be drawn. The first is that changes in the homeotic control of floral organ identity may have had a profound impact on floral structure in several disparate lineages in the family. This is most obvious in Fenerivia, in which a centrifugal shift of floral organ identity has occurred, and in Dasymaschalon, in which a reverse (centripetal) shift has occurred. Other genera that have gained or lost entire perianth whorls are likely to have undergone similar homeotic changes. Attention is also drawn to the extensive functional convergence in Annonaceae flowers, with widespread homoplasy in many characters that have previously been emphasized in higher-level classifications.

  1. Inherited phenotype instability of inflorescence and floral organ development in homeotic barley double mutants and its specific modification by auxin inhibitors and 2,4-D

    PubMed Central

    Šiukšta, Raimondas; Vaitkūnienė, Virginija; Kaselytė, Greta; Okockytė, Vaiva; Žukauskaitė, Justina; Žvingila, Donatas; Rančelis, Vytautas

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Barley (Hordeum vulgare) double mutants Hv-Hd/tw2, formed by hybridization, are characterized by inherited phenotypic instability and by several new features, such as bract/leaf-like structures, long naked gaps in the spike, and a wide spectrum of variations in the basic and ectopic flowers, which are absent in single mutants. Several of these features resemble those of mutations in auxin distribution, and thus the aim of this study was to determine whether auxin imbalances are related to phenotypic variations and instability. The effects of auxin inhibitors and 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) on variation in basic and ectopic flowers were therefore examined, together with the effects of 2,4-D on spike structure. Methods The character of phenotypic instability and the effects of auxin inhibitors and 2,4-D were compared in callus cultures and intact plants of single homeotic Hv-tw2 and Hv-Hooded/Kap (in the BKn3 gene) mutants and alternative double mutant lines: offspring from individual plants in distal hybrid generations (F9–F10) that all had the same BKn3 allele as determined by DNA sequencing. For intact plants, two auxin inhibitors, 9-hydroxyfluorene-9-carboxylic acid (HFCA) and p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid (PCIB), were used. Key Results Callus growth and flower/spike structures of the Hv-tw2 mutant differed in their responses to HFCA and PCIB. An increase in normal basic flowers after exposure to auxin inhibitors and a decrease in their frequencies caused by 2,4-D were observed, and there were also modifications in the spectra of ectopic flowers, especially those with sexual organs, but the effects depended on the genotype. Exposure to 2,4-D decreased the frequency of short gaps and lodicule transformations in Hv-tw2 and of long naked gaps in double mutants. Conclusions The effects of auxin inhibitors and 2,4-D suggest that ectopic auxin maxima or deficiencies arise in various regions of the inflorescence/flower primordia. Based

  2. Critical Roles of Vacuolar Invertase in Floral Organ Development and Male and Female Fertilities Are Revealed through Characterization of GhVIN1-RNAi Cotton Plants1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Seed number and quality are key traits determining plant fitness and crop yield and rely on combined competence in male and female fertilities. Sucrose metabolism is central to reproductive success. It remains elusive, though, how individual sucrose metabolic enzymes may regulate the complex reproductive processes. Here, by silencing vacuolar invertase (VIN) genes in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) reproductive organs, we revealed diverse roles that VIN plays in multiple reproductive processes. A set of phenotypic and genetic studies showed significant reductions of viable seeds in GhVIN1-RNAi plants, attributed to pollination failure and impaired male and female fertilities. The former was largely owing to the spatial mismatch between style and stamen and delayed pollen release from the anthers, whereas male defects came from poor pollen viability. The transgenic stamen exhibited altered expression of the genes responsible for starch metabolism and auxin and jasmonic acid signaling. Further analyses identified the reduction of GhVIN expression in the seed coat as the major cause for the reduced female fertility, which appeared to disrupt the expression of some key genes involved in trehalose and auxin metabolism and signaling, leading to programmed cell death or growth repression in the filial tissues. Together, the data provide an unprecedented example of how VIN is required to synchronize style and stamen development and the formation of male and female fertilities for seed development in a crop species, cotton. PMID:26969720

  3. Air pollution modifies floral scent trails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFrederick, Quinn S.; Kathilankal, James C.; Fuentes, Jose D.

    Floral hydrocarbons provide essential signals to attract pollinators. As soon as they are emitted to the atmosphere, however, hydrocarbons are destroyed by chemical reactions involving pollutants such as ozone. It is therefore likely that increased air pollution interferes with pollinator attracting hydrocarbon signals. To test this hypothesis, a Lagrangian diffusion model was used to determine the position of air parcels away from hydrocarbon sources and to estimate the rate of chemical destruction of hydrocarbons as air parcels moved across the landscape. The hydrocarbon compounds linalool, β-myrcene, and β-ocimene were chosen because they are known to be common scents released from flowers. The suppressed ambient abundances of volatile organic compounds were determined in response to increased regional levels of ozone, hydroxyl, and nitrate radicals. The results indicate that the documented increases in air pollution concentrations, from pre-industrial to present times, can lead to reductions in volatile compound concentrations insects detect as they pollinate flowers. For highly reactive volatiles the maximum downwind distance from the source at which pollinators can detect the scents may have changed from kilometers during pre-industrial times to <200 m during the more polluted conditions of present times. The increased destruction of floral signals in polluted air masses may have important implications for both pollinators and signaling plants. When patches of flowers are further apart than the visual range of pollinators, such as in fragmented landscapes, the loss of scent signals may mean that pollinators spend more time searching for patches and less time foraging. This decrease in pollinator foraging efficiency will simultaneously decrease the pollinator's reproductive output and the amount of pollen flow in flowering plants.

  4. A Floral Transcriptome for Hippeastrum (Amaryllidaceae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two transcriptomes have been constructed from floral tissue of two Hippeastrum (Amaryllidaceae) species, H. brasilianum (Traub & J.L.Doran) Dutilh and H. papilio (Ravenna) Van Scheepan. The former has fragrant flowers, while flowers of the latter do not produce floral fragrance. RNA was isolated a...

  5. Divergence of the Floral A-Function between an Asterid and a Rosid Species[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Heijmans, Klaas; Rozier, Frédérique; Zethof, Jan; Chamot, Sophy

    2017-01-01

    The ABC model is widely used as a genetic framework for understanding floral development and evolution. In this model, the A-function is required for the development of sepals and petals and to antagonize the C-function in the outer floral whorls. In the rosid species Arabidopsis thaliana, the AP2-type AP2 transcription factor represents a major A-function protein, but how the A-function is encoded in other species is not well understood. Here, we show that in the asterid species petunia (Petunia hybrida), AP2B/BLIND ENHANCER (BEN) confines the C-function to the inner petunia floral whorls, in parallel with the microRNA BLIND. BEN belongs to the TOE-type AP2 gene family, members of which control flowering time in Arabidopsis. In turn, we demonstrate that the petunia AP2-type REPRESSOR OF B-FUNCTION (ROB) genes repress the B-function (but not the C-function) in the first floral whorl, together with BEN. We propose a combinatorial model for patterning the B- and C-functions, leading to the homeotic conversion of sepals into petals, carpels, or stamens, depending on the genetic context. Combined with earlier results, our findings suggest that the molecular mechanisms controlling the spatial restriction of the floral organ identity genes are more diverse than the well-conserved B and C floral organ identity functions. PMID:28646074

  6. The relationship between nectaries and floral architecture: a case study in Geraniaceae and Hypseocharitaceae.

    PubMed

    Jeiter, Julius; Hilger, Hartmut H; Smets, Erik F; Weigend, Maximilian

    2017-09-14

    Flowers of Geraniaceae and Hypseocharitaceae are generally considered as morphologically simple. However, previous studies indicated complex diversity in floral architecture including tendencies towards synorganization. Most of the species have nectar-rewarding flowers which makes the nectaries a key component of floral organization and architecture. Here, the development of the floral nectaries is studied and placed into the context of floral architecture. Seven species from Geraniaceae and one from Hypseocharitaceae were investigated using scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy. Samples were prepared and processed using standard protocols. The development of the nectary glands follows the same trajectory in all species studied. Minor differences occur in the onset of nectarostomata development. The most striking finding is the discovery that a short anthophore develops via intercalary growth at the level of the nectary glands. This anthophore lifts up the entire flower apart from the nectary gland itself and thus plays an important role in floral architecture, especially in the flowers of Pelargonium. Here, the zygomorphic flowers show a particularly extensive receptacular growth, resulting in the formation of a spur-like receptacular cavity ('inner spur'). The nectary gland is hidden at the base of the cavity. Various forms of compartmentalization, culminating in the 'revolver flower' of Geranium maderense, are described. Despite the superficial similarity of the flowers in Geraniaceae and Hypseocharitaceae, there is broad diversity in floral organization and floral architecture. While the receptacular origin of the spur-like cavity in Pelargonium had already been described, anthophore formation via intercalary growth of the receptacle in the other genera had not been previously documented. In the context of the most recent phylogenies of the families, an evolutionary series for the floral architecture is proposed, underscoring the importance of

  7. Abnormal intermediate filament organization alters mitochondrial motility in giant axonal neuropathy fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Lowery, Jason; Jain, Nikhil; Kuczmarski, Edward R.; Mahammad, Saleemulla; Goldman, Anne; Gelfand, Vladimir I.; Opal, Puneet; Goldman, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    Giant axonal neuropathy (GAN) is a rare disease caused by mutations in the GAN gene, which encodes gigaxonin, an E3 ligase adapter that targets intermediate filament (IF) proteins for degradation in numerous cell types, including neurons and fibroblasts. The cellular hallmark of GAN pathology is the formation of large aggregates and bundles of IFs. In this study, we show that both the distribution and motility of mitochondria are altered in GAN fibroblasts and this is attributable to their association with vimentin IF aggregates and bundles. Transient expression of wild-type gigaxonin in GAN fibroblasts reduces the number of IF aggregates and bundles, restoring mitochondrial motility. Conversely, silencing the expression of gigaxonin in control fibroblasts leads to changes in IF organization similar to that of GAN patient fibroblasts and a coincident loss of mitochondrial motility. The inhibition of mitochondrial motility in GAN fibroblasts is not due to a global inhibition of organelle translocation, as lysosome motility is normal. Our findings demonstrate that it is the pathological changes in IF organization that cause the loss of mitochondrial motility. PMID:26700320

  8. Abnormal intermediate filament organization alters mitochondrial motility in giant axonal neuropathy fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Lowery, Jason; Jain, Nikhil; Kuczmarski, Edward R; Mahammad, Saleemulla; Goldman, Anne; Gelfand, Vladimir I; Opal, Puneet; Goldman, Robert D

    2016-02-15

    Giant axonal neuropathy (GAN) is a rare disease caused by mutations in the GAN gene, which encodes gigaxonin, an E3 ligase adapter that targets intermediate filament (IF) proteins for degradation in numerous cell types, including neurons and fibroblasts. The cellular hallmark of GAN pathology is the formation of large aggregates and bundles of IFs. In this study, we show that both the distribution and motility of mitochondria are altered in GAN fibroblasts and this is attributable to their association with vimentin IF aggregates and bundles. Transient expression of wild-type gigaxonin in GAN fibroblasts reduces the number of IF aggregates and bundles, restoring mitochondrial motility. Conversely, silencing the expression of gigaxonin in control fibroblasts leads to changes in IF organization similar to that of GAN patient fibroblasts and a coincident loss of mitochondrial motility. The inhibition of mitochondrial motility in GAN fibroblasts is not due to a global inhibition of organelle translocation, as lysosome motility is normal. Our findings demonstrate that it is the pathological changes in IF organization that cause the loss of mitochondrial motility.

  9. Abnormal organization of white matter network in patients with no dementia after ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lin; Wang, Defeng; Chu, Winnie C W; Liu, Shangping; Xiong, Yunyun; Wang, Yilong; Wang, Yongjun; Wong, Lawrence K S; Mok, Vincent C T

    2013-01-01

    Structural changes after ischemic stroke could affect information communication extensively in the brain network. It is likely that the defects in the white matter (WM) network play a key role in information interchange. In this study, we used graph theoretical analysis to examine potential organization alteration in the WM network architecture derived from diffusion tensor images from subjects with no dementia and experienced stroke in the past 5.4-14.8 months (N = 47, Mini-Mental Screening Examination, MMSE range 18-30), compared with a normal control group with 44 age and gender-matched healthy volunteers (MMSE range 26-30). Region-wise connectivity was derived from fiber connection density of 90 different cortical and subcortical parcellations across the whole brain. Both normal controls and patients with chronic stroke exhibited efficient small-world properties in their WM structural networks. Compared with normal controls, topological efficiency was basically unaltered in the patients with chronic stroke, as reflected by unchanged local and global clustering coefficient, characteristic path length, and regional efficiency. No significant difference in hub distribution was found between normal control and patient groups. Patients with chronic stroke, however, were found to have reduced betweenness centrality and predominantly located in the orbitofrontal cortex, whereas increased betweenness centrality and vulnerability were observed in parietal-occipital cortex. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score of patient is correlated with the betweenness centrality of right pallidum and local clustering coefficient of left superior occipital gyrus. Our findings suggest that patients with chronic stroke still exhibit efficient small-world organization and unaltered topological efficiency, with altered topology at orbitofrontal cortex and parietal-occipital cortex in the overall structural network. Findings from this study could help in

  10. [Prevalence of target organ damage and metabolic abnormalities in resistant hypertension].

    PubMed

    Armario, Pedro; Oliveras, Anna; Hernández Del Rey, Raquel; Ruilope, Luis Miguel; De La Sierra, Alejandro

    2011-10-15

    Patients with resistant hypertension (RH) are relatively frequently visited in specialized units of hypertension. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of target organ damage, central obesity and metabolic syndrome in a cohort of patients with RH consecutively included in the Register of Resistant Hypertension of the Spanish Society of Hypertension (SHE-LELHA). Cross-sectional, multicenter epidemiologic study in usual clinical practice conditions. Patients with clinical diagnosis of resistant hypertension, that is, office systolic and diastolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mm Hg and/or ≥ 90 mm Hg, respectively, despite a prescribed therapeutic schedule with an appropriate combination of three or more full-dose antihypertensive drugs, including a diuretic, were consecutively recruited from specialized hypertension units spread through Spain. Demographic and anthropometric characteristics as well as cardiovascular risk factors and associated conditions were recorded, and all the subjects underwent 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Left ventricular hypertrophy was considered as a left ventricular mass index ≥ 125 g/m(2) in males and ≥ 110 g/m(2) in females. Left atrial enlargement was defined as an indexed left atrium diameter ≥ 26 mm/m(2). Microalbuminuria was defined as a urinary albumin/creatinine ratio ≥ 22 mg/g in males and ≥ 31 mg/g in females. 513 patients were included, aged 64±11 years old, 47% women. Central obesity was present in 65.7% (CI 95% 61.6-69.9), 38.6% (CI 95% 34.4-42.8) had diabetes and 63.7% (CI 95% 59.4-67.9) had metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy and left atrial enlargement, determined by echocardiography was 57.1% (CI 95% 50.8-63.5) and 10.0% (CI 95% 6.3-13.7) respectively. Microalbuminuria was found in 46.6% (CI 95% 41.4-51.8) of the subjects. Patients with metabolic syndrome were significantly older (65.4±11 and 62.5±12 years; P=.0052), presented a higher prevalence of diabetes

  11. The Arabidopsis floral meristem identity genes AP1, AGL24 and SVP directly repress class B and C floral homeotic genes.

    PubMed

    Gregis, Veronica; Sessa, Alice; Dorca-Fornell, Carmen; Kater, Martin M

    2009-11-01

    During the initial stages of flower development, floral meristems increase in size without the formation of floral organs. When a critical meristem size is reached, the floral meristem begins to develop the floral organs. The first stages of flower development are characterized by the expression of genes such as Apetala 1 (AP1), cauliflower (CAL), AGAMOUS-LIKE 24 (AGL24) and short vegetative phase (SVP). We have shown that AP1, AGL24 and SVP act redundantly to control the identity of the floral meristem and to repress expression of class B, C and E genes. Recently, it was shown that class E gene repression was direct and established by two independent pathways. We show here that repression of class B and C genes is also directly established by a co-repressor complex that comprises LEUNIG (LUG), SEUSS (SEU) and the MADS box dimers AP1-AGL24 and AP1-SVP. Furthermore, we show that the distantly related suppressor of overexpression of CO 1 (SOC1) MADS box gene can complement for the loss of AGL24 and SVP activity; however, under normal conditions, this transcription factor does not play a role during the early stages of flower development.

  12. Central nervous system cryptococcosis in solid organ transplant recipients: clinical relevance of abnormal neuroimaging findings

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Nina; Lortholary, Olivier; Dromer, Françoise; Alexander, Barbara D.; Gupta, Krishan L.; John, George T.; del Busto, Ramon; Klintmalm, Goran B.; Somani, Jyoti; Lyon, G. Marshall; Prusell, Kenneth; Stosor, Valentina; Muňoz, Patricia; Limaye, Ajit P.; Kalil, Andre C.; Pruett, Timothy L.; Garcia-Diaz, Julia; Humar, Atul; Houston, Sally; House, Andrew A.; Wray, Dannah; Orloff, Susan; Dowdy, Lorraine A.; Fisher, Robert A.; Heitman, Joseph; Wagener, Marilyn M.; Husain, Shahid

    2009-01-01

    Background Prognostic implications of cryptococcal antigen and outcomes associated with CNS cryptococcal lesions in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients have not been fully defined. Methods Patients were derived form a cohort of 122 SOT recipients with cryptococcosis in a multicenter study from 1999–2006. Results CNS cryptococcosis was documented in 61 patients. Serum or CSF antigen titers did not correlate with mortality at 90 days or CSF sterilization at 2 weeks. CNS lesions were identified in 16 patients and included leptomeningeal lesions in 8, parenchymal lesions in 6 and hydrocephalus in 2. Overall, 13/16 CNS lesions were present at the time of diagnosis. One parenchymal and 2 hydrocephalus lesions however, developed after diagnosis and fulfilled the criteria for immune reconstitution syndrome (IRS). CSF antigen titers were higher with meningeal vs. parenchymal lesions, and hydrocephalus (p=0.015). Mortality was 50% (3/6) for patients with parenchymal, 12.5% (1/8) for those with leptomeningeal, and 0/3 for patients with hydrocephalus. Mortality was 31% (4/13) for patients with CNS lesions at baseline and 0/3 in those with new onset lesions. Conclusions Despite a greater antigen titer with meningeal lesions, outcomes tended to be worse with parenchymal compared to meningeal lesions or hydrocephalus. New onset CNS lesions may represent IRS and appeared to be associated with better outcome. PMID:18791444

  13. Severe abnormalities in the reproductive organs of mice caused by chemical substances contained in heavy oil.

    PubMed

    Nishimoto, Sogo; Yamawaki, Manami; Akiyama, Koichi; Kakinuma, Yoshimi; Kitamura, Shin-Ichi; Sugahara, Takuya

    2009-04-01

    It is well known that heavy oil pollution results in various negative impacts on the marine environment. Although there is a low possibility of direct exposure to heavy oil, the chemical substances contained in heavy oil may be released into the environment and accumulated by marine organisms which in turn can be taken by humans via the food chain. In this study, we examined the biological risk of heavy oil extract using the common mouse, whose genetic backgrounds and immune system are well known and relatively homologous to humans. Water-soluble fraction (WSF) was extracted from heavy oil with water and the extract orally administrated to female or male mice for 7 days. In the WSF administrated group, cystoma-like formation was observed in the ovary in approximately 80% of female mice. On the other hand, we found that the prostate gland size in male mice was markedly reduced in comparison with male control mice. Continuous administration of WSF for 28 days resulted in continued hypertrophy of the cystoma around the ovary and atrophy in the prostate gland. In addition, it was revealed that chemical substances within WSF have estrogenic activity. A major component of heavy oil, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), is known to present estrogenic activity. It is likely that the cystoma-like formation in female mice and atrophy of prostate gland in male resulted of estrogenic substances present in the WSF which might be the PAHs.

  14. Extreme divergence in floral scent among woodland star species (Lithophragma spp.) pollinated by floral parasites

    PubMed Central

    Friberg, Magne; Schwind, Christopher; Raguso, Robert A.; Thompson, John N.

    2013-01-01

    Backgrounds and Aims A current challenge in coevolutionary biology is to understand how suites of traits vary as coevolving lineages diverge. Floral scent is often a complex, variable trait that attracts a suite of generalized pollinators, but may be highly specific in plants specialized on attracting coevolved pollinating floral parasites. In this study, floral scent variation was investigated in four species of woodland stars (Lithophragma spp.) that share the same major pollinator (the moth Greya politella, a floral parasite). Three specific hypotheses were tested: (1) sharing the same specific major pollinator favours conservation of floral scent among close relatives; (2) selection favours ‘private channels’ of rare compounds particularly aimed at the specialist pollinator; or (3) selection from rare, less-specialized co-pollinators mitigates the conservation of floral scent and occurrence of private channels. Methods Dynamic headspace sampling and solid-phase microextraction were applied to greenhouse-grown plants from a common garden as well as to field samples from natural populations in a series of experiments aiming to disentangle the genetic and environmental basis of floral scent variation. Key Results Striking floral scent divergence was discovered among species. Only one of 69 compounds was shared among all four species. Scent variation was largely genetically based, because it was consistent across field and greenhouse treatments, and was not affected by visits from the pollinating floral parasite. Conclusions The strong divergence in floral scents among Lithophragma species contrasts with the pattern of conserved floral scent composition found in other plant genera involved in mutualisms with pollinating floral parasites. Unlike some of these other obligate pollination mutualisms, Lithophragma plants in some populations are occasionally visited by generalist pollinators from other insect taxa. This additional complexity may contribute to the

  15. Extreme divergence in floral scent among woodland star species (Lithophragma spp.) pollinated by floral parasites.

    PubMed

    Friberg, Magne; Schwind, Christopher; Raguso, Robert A; Thompson, John N

    2013-04-01

    A current challenge in coevolutionary biology is to understand how suites of traits vary as coevolving lineages diverge. Floral scent is often a complex, variable trait that attracts a suite of generalized pollinators, but may be highly specific in plants specialized on attracting coevolved pollinating floral parasites. In this study, floral scent variation was investigated in four species of woodland stars (Lithophragma spp.) that share the same major pollinator (the moth Greya politella, a floral parasite). Three specific hypotheses were tested: (1) sharing the same specific major pollinator favours conservation of floral scent among close relatives; (2) selection favours 'private channels' of rare compounds particularly aimed at the specialist pollinator; or (3) selection from rare, less-specialized co-pollinators mitigates the conservation of floral scent and occurrence of private channels. Dynamic headspace sampling and solid-phase microextraction were applied to greenhouse-grown plants from a common garden as well as to field samples from natural populations in a series of experiments aiming to disentangle the genetic and environmental basis of floral scent variation. Striking floral scent divergence was discovered among species. Only one of 69 compounds was shared among all four species. Scent variation was largely genetically based, because it was consistent across field and greenhouse treatments, and was not affected by visits from the pollinating floral parasite. The strong divergence in floral scents among Lithophragma species contrasts with the pattern of conserved floral scent composition found in other plant genera involved in mutualisms with pollinating floral parasites. Unlike some of these other obligate pollination mutualisms, Lithophragma plants in some populations are occasionally visited by generalist pollinators from other insect taxa. This additional complexity may contribute to the diversification in floral scent found among the Lithophragma

  16. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of the critical floral genes in hickory (Carya cathayensis Sarg.).

    PubMed

    Shen, Chen; Xu, Yingwu; Huang, Jianqin; Wang, Zhengjia; Qiu, Jiani; Huang, Youjun

    2014-10-01

    The full ORFs of three floral genes in hickory (Carya cathayensis Sarg.), CcAGL24 (the AGAMOUS-LIKE24 homolog), CcSOC1 (the SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1 homolog) and CcAP1 (the APETALA1 homolog) are derived using a 5' RACE PCR protocol. Through sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis, it is demonstrated that the three genes belong to the MADS-Box family. According to the evolutionary trees of the three genes, the homologous genes from the same family cluster well together, while those from different orders doesn't match evolutionary regularity of individual organisms. The result of Quantitative RT-PCR analysis shows that the transcriptional levels of the three genes are up-regulated in early stage and down-regulated in late stage in pistillate floral development. However, it takes different time to reach respective expression peak among the three genes. In staminate floral development, the transcription trend of the three genes is up-regulated, subsequently down-regulated, and then up-regulated again. Nevertheless, those trajectories, peaks, expression levels, inflection points are different in pistillate floral development. The result suggests that their functions are different in between pistillate and staminate floral development. The probable ordinal site of the three genes in the flowering network from top down is CcAGL24, CcSOC1, and CcAP1, which is identical to that in herbaceous plants. Moreover, several adverse environmental factors trigger several negative genes and then confine the development of staminate floral buds. Our results suggest the possible relationship among the three critical floral genes and their functions throughout the floral development in hickory.

  17. Detection and learning of floral electric fields by bumblebees.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Dominic; Whitney, Heather; Sutton, Gregory; Robert, Daniel

    2013-04-05

    Insects use several senses to forage, detecting floral cues such as color, shape, pattern, and volatiles. We report a formerly unappreciated sensory modality in bumblebees (Bombus terrestris), detection of floral electric fields. These fields act as floral cues, which are affected by the visit of naturally charged bees. Like visual cues, floral electric fields exhibit variations in pattern and structure, which can be discriminated by bumblebees. We also show that such electric field information contributes to the complex array of floral cues that together improve a pollinator's memory of floral rewards. Because floral electric fields can change within seconds, this sensory modality may facilitate rapid and dynamic communication between flowers and their pollinators.

  18. Diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome: an organic disorder with structural abnormalities in the jejunal epithelial barrier.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Cristina; Lobo, Beatriz; Pigrau, Marc; Ramos, Laura; González-Castro, Ana Maria; Alonso, Carmen; Guilarte, Mar; Guilá, Meritxell; de Torres, Ines; Azpiroz, Fernando; Santos, Javier; Vicario, María

    2013-08-01

    Recently, the authors demonstrated altered gene expression in the jejunal mucosa of diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome patients (IBS-D); specifically, the authors showed that genes related to mast cells and the intercellular apical junction complex (AJC) were expressed differently than in healthy subjects. The aim of the authors here was to determine whether these alterations are associated with structural abnormalities in AJC and their relationship with mast cell activation and IBS-D clinical manifestations. A clinical assessment and a jejunal biopsy were obtained in IBS-D patients (n=45) and healthy subjects (n=30). Mucosal mast cell number and activation were determined by quantifying CD117(+) cells/hpf and tryptase expression, respectively. Expression and distribution of AJC specific proteins were evaluated by western blot and confocal microscopy. AJC ultrastructure was assessed by transmission electron microscopy. Compared with healthy subjects, IBS-D patients exhibited: (a) increased mast cell counts and activation; (b) increased protein expression of claudin-2, reduced occludin phosphorylation and enhanced redistribution from the membrane to the cytoplasm; and (c) increased myosin kinase expression, reduced myosin phosphatase and, consequently, enhanced phosphorylation of myosin. These molecular alterations were associated with ultrastructural abnormalities at the AJC, specifically, perijunctional cytoskeleton condensation and enlarged apical intercellular distance. Moreover, AJC structural alterations positively correlated both with mast cell activation and clinical symptoms. The jejunal mucosa of IBS-D patients displays disrupted apical junctional complex integrity associated with mast cell activation and clinical manifestations. These results provide evidence for the organic nature of IBS-D, a heretofore model disease of functional gastrointestinal disorders.

  19. The N-Terminus of the Floral Arabidopsis TGA Transcription Factor PERIANTHIA Mediates Redox-Sensitive DNA-Binding

    PubMed Central

    Gutsche, Nora; Zachgo, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    The Arabidopsis TGA transcription factor (TF) PERIANTHIA (PAN) regulates the formation of the floral organ primordia as revealed by the pan mutant forming an abnormal pentamerous arrangement of the outer three floral whorls. The Arabidopsis TGA bZIP TF family comprises 10 members, of which PAN and TGA9/10 control flower developmental processes and TGA1/2/5/6 participate in stress-responses. For the TGA1 protein it was shown that several cysteines can be redox-dependently modified. TGA proteins interact in the nucleus with land plant-specific glutaredoxins, which may alter their activities posttranslationally. Here, we investigated the DNA-binding of PAN to the AAGAAT motif under different redox-conditions. The AAGAAT motif is localized in the second intron of the floral homeotic regulator AGAMOUS (AG), which controls stamen and carpel development as well as floral determinacy. Whereas PAN protein binds to this regulatory cis-element under reducing conditions, the interaction is strongly reduced under oxidizing conditions in EMSA studies. The redox-sensitive DNA-binding is mediated via a special PAN N-terminus, which is not present in other Arabidopsis TGA TFs and comprises five cysteines. Two N-terminal PAN cysteines, Cys68 and Cys87, were shown to form a disulfide bridge and Cys340, localized in a C-terminal putative transactivation domain, can be S-glutathionylated. Comparative land plant analyses revealed that the AAGAAT motif exists in asterid and rosid plant species. TGA TFs with N-terminal extensions of variable length were identified in all analyzed seed plants. However, a PAN-like N-terminus exists only in the rosids and exclusively Brassicaceae homologs comprise four to five of the PAN N-terminal cysteines. Redox-dependent modifications of TGA cysteines are known to regulate the activity of stress-related TGA TFs. Here, we show that the N-terminal PAN cysteines participate in a redox-dependent control of the PAN interaction with a highly conserved

  20. The N-Terminus of the Floral Arabidopsis TGA Transcription Factor PERIANTHIA Mediates Redox-Sensitive DNA-Binding.

    PubMed

    Gutsche, Nora; Zachgo, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    The Arabidopsis TGA transcription factor (TF) PERIANTHIA (PAN) regulates the formation of the floral organ primordia as revealed by the pan mutant forming an abnormal pentamerous arrangement of the outer three floral whorls. The Arabidopsis TGA bZIP TF family comprises 10 members, of which PAN and TGA9/10 control flower developmental processes and TGA1/2/5/6 participate in stress-responses. For the TGA1 protein it was shown that several cysteines can be redox-dependently modified. TGA proteins interact in the nucleus with land plant-specific glutaredoxins, which may alter their activities posttranslationally. Here, we investigated the DNA-binding of PAN to the AAGAAT motif under different redox-conditions. The AAGAAT motif is localized in the second intron of the floral homeotic regulator AGAMOUS (AG), which controls stamen and carpel development as well as floral determinacy. Whereas PAN protein binds to this regulatory cis-element under reducing conditions, the interaction is strongly reduced under oxidizing conditions in EMSA studies. The redox-sensitive DNA-binding is mediated via a special PAN N-terminus, which is not present in other Arabidopsis TGA TFs and comprises five cysteines. Two N-terminal PAN cysteines, Cys68 and Cys87, were shown to form a disulfide bridge and Cys340, localized in a C-terminal putative transactivation domain, can be S-glutathionylated. Comparative land plant analyses revealed that the AAGAAT motif exists in asterid and rosid plant species. TGA TFs with N-terminal extensions of variable length were identified in all analyzed seed plants. However, a PAN-like N-terminus exists only in the rosids and exclusively Brassicaceae homologs comprise four to five of the PAN N-terminal cysteines. Redox-dependent modifications of TGA cysteines are known to regulate the activity of stress-related TGA TFs. Here, we show that the N-terminal PAN cysteines participate in a redox-dependent control of the PAN interaction with a highly conserved

  1. Accessibility, constraint, and repetition in adaptive floral evolution.

    PubMed

    Wessinger, Carolyn A; Hileman, Lena C

    2016-11-01

    Adaptive phenotypic evolution is shaped by natural selection on multiple organismal traits as well as by genetic correlations among traits. Genetic correlations can arise through pleiotropy and can bias the production of phenotypic variation to certain combinations of traits. This phenomenon is referred to as developmental bias or constraint. Developmental bias may accelerate or constrain phenotypic evolution, depending on whether selection acts parallel or in opposition to genetic correlations among traits. We discuss examples from floral evolution where genetic correlations among floral traits contribute to rapid, coordinated evolution in multiple floral organ phenotypes and suggest future research directions that will explore the relationship between the genetic basis of adaptation and the pre-existing structure of genetic correlations. On the other hand, natural selection may act perpendicular to a strong genetic correlation, for example when two traits are encoded by a subset of the same genes and natural selection favors change in one trait and stability in the second trait. In such cases, adaptation is constrained by the availability of genetic variation that can influence the focal trait with minimal pleiotropic effects. Examples from plant diversification suggest that the origin of certain adaptations depends on the prior evolution of a gene copy with reduced pleiotropic effects, generated through the process of gene duplication followed by subfunctionalization or neofunctionalization. A history of gene duplication in some developmental pathways appears to have allowed particular flowering plant linages to have repeatedly evolved adaptations that might otherwise have been developmentally constrained. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Separable roles of UFO during floral development revealed by conditional restoration of gene function.

    PubMed

    Laufs, Patrick; Coen, Enrico; Kronenberger, Jocelyne; Traas, Jan; Doonan, John

    2003-02-01

    The UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) gene is required for several aspects of floral development in Arabidopsis including specification of organ identity in the second and third whorls and the proper pattern of primordium initiation in the inner three whorls. UFO is expressed in a dynamic pattern during the early phases of flower development. Here we dissect the role of UFO by ubiquitously expressing it in ufo loss-of-function flowers at different developmental stages and for various durations using an ethanol-inducible expression system. The previously known functions of UFO could be separated and related to its expression at specific stages of development. We show that a 24- to 48-hour period of UFO expression from floral stage 2, before any floral organs are visible, is sufficient to restore normal petal and stamen development. The earliest requirement for UFO is during stage 2, when the endogenous UFO gene is transiently expressed in the centre of the wild-type flower and is required to specify the initiation patterns of petal, stamen and carpel primordia. Petal and stamen identity is determined during stages 2 or 3, when UFO is normally expressed in the presumptive second and third whorl. Although endogenous UFO expression is absent from the stamen whorl from stage 4 onwards, stamen identity can be restored by UFO activation up to stage 6. We also observed floral phenotypes not observed in loss-of-function or constitutive gain-of-function backgrounds, revealing additional roles of UFO in outgrowth of petal primordia.

  3. Multimodal Floral Signals and Moth Foraging Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Riffell, Jeffrey A.; Alarcón, Ruben

    2013-01-01

    Background Combinations of floral traits – which operate as attractive signals to pollinators – act on multiple sensory modalities. For Manduca sexta hawkmoths, how learning modifies foraging decisions in response to those traits remains untested, and the contribution of visual and olfactory floral displays on behavior remains unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings Using M. sexta and the floral traits of two important nectar resources in southwestern USA, Datura wrightii and Agave palmeri, we examined the relative importance of olfactory and visual signals. Natural visual and olfactory cues from D. wrightii and A. palmeri flowers permits testing the cues at their native intensities and composition – a contrast to many studies that have used artificial stimuli (essential oils, single odorants) that are less ecologically relevant. Results from a series of two-choice assays where the olfactory and visual floral displays were manipulated showed that naïve hawkmoths preferred flowers displaying both olfactory and visual cues. Furthermore, experiments using A. palmeri flowers – a species that is not very attractive to hawkmoths – showed that the visual and olfactory displays did not have synergistic effects. The combination of olfactory and visual display of D. wrightii, however – a flower that is highly attractive to naïve hawkmoths – did influence the time moths spent feeding from the flowers. The importance of the olfactory and visual signals were further demonstrated in learning experiments in which experienced moths, when exposed to uncoupled floral displays, ultimately chose flowers based on the previously experienced olfactory, and not visual, signals. These moths, however, had significantly longer decision times than moths exposed to coupled floral displays. Conclusions/Significance These results highlight the importance of specific sensory modalities for foraging hawkmoths while also suggesting that they learn the floral displays as

  4. Glucose Metabolism during Resting State Reveals Abnormal Brain Networks Organization in the Alzheimer’s Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Montes, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to study the abnormal patterns of brain glucose metabolism co-variations in Alzheimer disease (AD) and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) patients compared to Normal healthy controls (NC) using the Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database. The local cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRgl) in a set of 90 structures belonging to the AAL atlas was obtained from Fluro-Deoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography data in resting state. It is assumed that brain regions whose CMRgl values are significantly correlated are functionally associated; therefore, when metabolism is altered in a single region, the alteration will affect the metabolism of other brain areas with which it interrelates. The glucose metabolism network (represented by the matrix of the CMRgl co-variations among all pairs of structures) was studied using the graph theory framework. The highest concurrent fluctuations in CMRgl were basically identified between homologous cortical regions in all groups. Significant differences in CMRgl co-variations in AD and MCI groups as compared to NC were found. The AD and MCI patients showed aberrant patterns in comparison to NC subjects, as detected by global and local network properties (global and local efficiency, clustering index, and others). MCI network’s attributes showed an intermediate position between NC and AD, corroborating it as a transitional stage from normal aging to Alzheimer disease. Our study is an attempt at exploring the complex association between glucose metabolism, CMRgl covariations and the attributes of the brain network organization in AD and MCI. PMID:23894356

  5. Annual research review: Growth connectomics--the organization and reorganization of brain networks during normal and abnormal development.

    PubMed

    Vértes, Petra E; Bullmore, Edward T

    2015-03-01

    We first give a brief introduction to graph theoretical analysis and its application to the study of brain network topology or connectomics. Within this framework, we review the existing empirical data on developmental changes in brain network organization across a range of experimental modalities (including structural and functional MRI, diffusion tensor imaging, magnetoencephalography and electroencephalography in humans). We discuss preliminary evidence and current hypotheses for how the emergence of network properties correlates with concomitant cognitive and behavioural changes associated with development. We highlight some of the technical and conceptual challenges to be addressed by future developments in this rapidly moving field. Given the parallels previously discovered between neural systems across species and over a range of spatial scales, we also review some recent advances in developmental network studies at the cellular scale. We highlight the opportunities presented by such studies and how they may complement neuroimaging in advancing our understanding of brain development. Finally, we note that many brain and mind disorders are thought to be neurodevelopmental in origin and that charting the trajectory of brain network changes associated with healthy development also sets the stage for understanding abnormal network development. We therefore briefly review the clinical relevance of network metrics as potential diagnostic markers and some recent efforts in computational modelling of brain networks which might contribute to a more mechanistic understanding of neurodevelopmental disorders in future. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  6. Annual Research Review: Growth connectomics – the organization and reorganization of brain networks during normal and abnormal development

    PubMed Central

    Vértes, Petra E; Bullmore, Edward T

    2015-01-01

    Background We first give a brief introduction to graph theoretical analysis and its application to the study of brain network topology or connectomics. Within this framework, we review the existing empirical data on developmental changes in brain network organization across a range of experimental modalities (including structural and functional MRI, diffusion tensor imaging, magnetoencephalography and electroencephalography in humans). Synthesis We discuss preliminary evidence and current hypotheses for how the emergence of network properties correlates with concomitant cognitive and behavioural changes associated with development. We highlight some of the technical and conceptual challenges to be addressed by future developments in this rapidly moving field. Given the parallels previously discovered between neural systems across species and over a range of spatial scales, we also review some recent advances in developmental network studies at the cellular scale. We highlight the opportunities presented by such studies and how they may complement neuroimaging in advancing our understanding of brain development. Finally, we note that many brain and mind disorders are thought to be neurodevelopmental in origin and that charting the trajectory of brain network changes associated with healthy development also sets the stage for understanding abnormal network development. Conclusions We therefore briefly review the clinical relevance of network metrics as potential diagnostic markers and some recent efforts in computational modelling of brain networks which might contribute to a more mechanistic understanding of neurodevelopmental disorders in future. PMID:25441756

  7. Mouse organ coefficient and abnormal sperm rate analysis with exposure to tap water and source water in Nanjing reach of Yangtze River.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rongfei; Zhang, Liujun; Jiang, Dongsheng; Zheng, Kai; Cui, Yibin; Li, Mei; Wu, Bing; Cheng, Shupei

    2014-05-01

    Organ coefficients (including kidney, testis, liver and spleen coefficient) and abnormal sperm rate were used in our study to reflect the exposure to the Yangzte River water. The concentrations of total dissolved metals and semi-volatile organic compounds in tap and source water were measured by ICP-OES and GC-MS, respectively. After mice were fed with purified water (CK), Nanjing tap water (NJT) and Nanjing source water (NJS) for 90 day, the individual and organs (including kidney, testis, liver and spleen) of each mouse were weighted. And abnormal sperm types (such as hook less, banana-like form, amorphous, folded and two tails) were determined by microscope. The results showed that significant differences of liver coefficient between experimental group (NJT, NJS) and control group (CK) were observed; furthermore liver coefficient is positive correlation with the concentrations of total dissolved metals. However, no significant differences of abnormal sperm rates between experimental group (NJT, NJS) and control group (CK) were noted. So liver coefficient might be more sensitive than other organ coefficients to reflect the exposure to tap water and source water, while abnormal sperm rate could not be used to reveal the exposure to them.

  8. Evolution of meiosis timing during floral development

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, M. O.

    1999-01-01

    Meiosis divides the haploid and diploid portions of the life cycle in all sexual organisms. In angiosperms meiosis occurs during flower development, the duration of which varies widely among species and is affected by environmental conditions within species. For 36 species representing 13 angiosperm families, we determined the time at which meiosis ceased in the anthers as a fraction of the total time from floral primordium initiation (beginning of development) to flower opening (end). It was found that this fraction, rather than being continuously distributed among species, occurred in three discrete classes despite wide variations within and among species in absolute developmental durations. Each species was characterized by a single timing class. For all species within a given timing class, therefore, the durations before and after the end of microsporocyte meiosis existed in constant ratio. Each timing class was found in phylogenetically distant species; conversely, a plant family often contained more than one class. Timing class was not related to ploidy level, inflorescence architecture, pollination syndrome or mating system. These findings show that either the durations before and after microsporocyte meiosis are regulated by the same exogenous process, or one duration determines the other. They further imply that the underlying developmental processes have evolved in a limited number of ways among flowering plants.

  9. Soil fungal effects on floral signals, rewards, and aboveground interactions in an alpine pollination web.

    PubMed

    Becklin, Katie M; Gamez, Guadalupe; Uelk, Bryan; Raguso, Robert A; Galen, Candace

    2011-08-01

    Plants interact with above- and belowground organisms; the combined effects of these interactions determine plant fitness and trait evolution. To better understand the ecological and evolutionary implications of multispecies interactions, we explored linkages between soil fungi, pollinators, and floral larcenists in Polemonium viscosum (Polemoniaceae). Using a fungicide, we experimentally reduced fungal colonization of krummholz and tundra P. viscosum in 2008-2009. We monitored floral signals and rewards, interactions with pollinators and larcenists, and seed set for fungicide-treated and control plants. Fungicide effects varied among traits, between interactions, and with environmental context. Treatment effects were negligible in 2008, but stronger in 2009, especially in the less-fertile krummholz habitat. There, fungicide increased nectar sugar content and damage by larcenist ants, but did not affect pollination. Surprisingly, fungicide also enhanced seed set, suggesting that direct resource costs of soil fungi exceed indirect benefits from reduced larceny. In the tundra, fungicide effects were negligible in both years. However, pooled across treatments, colonization by mycorrhizal fungi in 2009 correlated negatively with the intensity and diversity of floral volatile organic compounds, suggesting integrated above- and belowground signaling pathways. Fungicide effects on floral rewards in P. viscosum link soil fungi to ecological costs of pollinator attraction. Trait-specific linkages to soil fungi should decouple expression of sensitive and buffered floral phenotypes in P. viscosum. Overall, this study demonstrates how multitrophic linkages may lead to shifting selection pressures on interaction traits, restricting the evolution of specialization.

  10. AGAMOUS Terminates Floral Stem Cell Maintenance in Arabidopsis by Directly Repressing WUSCHEL through Recruitment of Polycomb Group Proteins[W

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xigang; Kim, Yun Ju; Müller, Ralf; Yumul, Rae Eden; Liu, Chunyan; Pan, Yanyun; Cao, Xiaofeng; Goodrich, Justin; Chen, Xuemei

    2011-01-01

    Floral stem cells produce a defined number of floral organs before ceasing to be maintained as stem cells. Therefore, floral stem cells offer an ideal model to study the temporal control of stem cell maintenance within a developmental context. AGAMOUS (AG), a MADS domain transcription factor essential for the termination of floral stem cell fate, has long been thought to repress the stem cell maintenance gene WUSCHEL (WUS) indirectly. Here, we uncover a role of Polycomb Group (PcG) genes in the temporally precise repression of WUS expression and termination of floral stem cell fate. We show that AG directly represses WUS expression by binding to the WUS locus and recruiting, directly or indirectly, PcG that methylates histone H3 Lys-27 at WUS. We also show that PcG acts downstream of AG and probably in parallel with the known AG target KNUCKLES to terminate floral stem cell fate. Our studies identify core components of the network governing the temporal program of floral stem cells. PMID:22028461

  11. Floral gene resources from basal angiosperms for comparative genomics research

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Victor A; Soltis, Douglas E; Carlson, John E; Farmerie, William G; Wall, P Kerr; Ilut, Daniel C; Solow, Teri M; Mueller, Lukas A; Landherr, Lena L; Hu, Yi; Buzgo, Matyas; Kim, Sangtae; Yoo, Mi-Jeong; Frohlich, Michael W; Perl-Treves, Rafael; Schlarbaum, Scott E; Bliss, Barbara J; Zhang, Xiaohong; Tanksley, Steven D; Oppenheimer, David G; Soltis, Pamela S; Ma, Hong; dePamphilis, Claude W; Leebens-Mack, James H

    2005-01-01

    Background The Floral Genome Project was initiated to bridge the genomic gap between the most broadly studied plant model systems. Arabidopsis and rice, although now completely sequenced and under intensive comparative genomic investigation, are separated by at least 125 million years of evolutionary time, and cannot in isolation provide a comprehensive perspective on structural and functional aspects of flowering plant genome dynamics. Here we discuss new genomic resources available to the scientific community, comprising cDNA libraries and Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) sequences for a suite of phylogenetically basal angiosperms specifically selected to bridge the evolutionary gaps between model plants and provide insights into gene content and genome structure in the earliest flowering plants. Results Random sequencing of cDNAs from representatives of phylogenetically important eudicot, non-grass monocot, and gymnosperm lineages has so far (as of 12/1/04) generated 70,514 ESTs and 48,170 assembled unigenes. Efficient sorting of EST sequences into putative gene families based on whole Arabidopsis/rice proteome comparison has permitted ready identification of cDNA clones for finished sequencing. Preliminarily, (i) proportions of functional categories among sequenced floral genes seem representative of the entire Arabidopsis transcriptome, (ii) many known floral gene homologues have been captured, and (iii) phylogenetic analyses of ESTs are providing new insights into the process of gene family evolution in relation to the origin and diversification of the angiosperms. Conclusion Initial comparisons illustrate the utility of the EST data sets toward discovery of the basic floral transcriptome. These first findings also afford the opportunity to address a number of conspicuous evolutionary genomic questions, including reproductive organ transcriptome overlap between angiosperms and gymnosperms, genome-wide duplication history, lineage-specific gene duplication and

  12. High Prevalence of Chronic Pituitary and Target-Organ Hormone Abnormalities after Blast-Related Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Charles W.; Pagulayan, Kathleen F.; Petrie, Eric C.; Mayer, Cynthia L.; Colasurdo, Elizabeth A.; Shofer, Jane B.; Hart, Kim L.; Hoff, David; Tarabochia, Matthew A.; Peskind, Elaine R.

    2011-01-01

    Studies of traumatic brain injury from all causes have found evidence of chronic hypopituitarism, defined by deficient production of one or more pituitary hormones at least 1 year after injury, in 25–50% of cases. Most studies found the occurrence of posttraumatic hypopituitarism (PTHP) to be unrelated to injury severity. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) and hypogonadism were reported most frequently. Hypopituitarism, and in particular adult GHD, is associated with symptoms that resemble those of PTSD, including fatigue, anxiety, depression, irritability, insomnia, sexual dysfunction, cognitive deficiencies, and decreased quality of life. However, the prevalence of PTHP after blast-related mild TBI (mTBI), an extremely common injury in modern military operations, has not been characterized. We measured concentrations of 12 pituitary and target-organ hormones in two groups of male US Veterans of combat in Iraq or Afghanistan. One group consisted of participants with blast-related mTBI whose last blast exposure was at least 1 year prior to the study. The other consisted of Veterans with similar military deployment histories but without blast exposure. Eleven of 26, or 42% of participants with blast concussions were found to have abnormal hormone levels in one or more pituitary axes, a prevalence similar to that found in other forms of TBI. Five members of the mTBI group were found with markedly low age-adjusted insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels indicative of probable GHD, and three had testosterone and gonadotropin concentrations consistent with hypogonadism. If symptoms characteristic of both PTHP and PTSD can be linked to pituitary dysfunction, they may be amenable to treatment with hormone replacement. Routine screening for chronic hypopituitarism after blast concussion shows promise for appropriately directing diagnostic and therapeutic decisions that otherwise may remain unconsidered and for markedly facilitating recovery and rehabilitation. PMID

  13. Effects of Floral Scents and Their Dietary Experiences on the Feeding Preference in the Blowfly, Phormia regina

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Toru; Tamotsu, Miwako; Yamaoka, Ryohei; Ozaki, Mamiko

    2015-01-01

    The flowers of different plant species have diverse scents with varied chemical compositions. Hence, every floral scent does not uniformly affect insect feeding preferences. The blowfly, Phormia regina, is a nectar feeder, and when a fly feeds on flower nectar, its olfactory organs, antennae, and maxillary palps are exposed to the scent. Generally, feeding preference is influenced by food flavor, which relies on both taste and odor. Therefore, the flies perceive the sweet taste of nectar and the particular scent of the flower simultaneously, and this olfactory information affects their feeding preference. Here, we show that the floral scents of 50 plant species have various effects on their sucrose feeding motivation, which was evaluated using the proboscis extension reflex (PER). Those floral scents were first categorized into three groups, based on their effects on the PER threshold sucrose concentration, which indicates whether a fly innately dislikes, ignores, or likes the target scent. Moreover, memory of olfactory experience with those floral scents during sugar feeding influenced the PER threshold. After feeding on sucrose solutions flavored with floral scents for 5 days, the scents did not consistently show the previously observed effects. Considering such empirical effects of scents on the PER threshold, we categorized the effects of the 50 tested floral scents on feeding preference into 16 of all possible 27 theoretical types. We then conducted the same experiments with flies whose antennae or maxillary palps were ablated prior to PER test in a fly group naïve to floral scents and prior to the olfactory experience during sugar feeding in the other fly group in order to test how these organs were involved in the effect of the floral scent. The results suggested that olfactory inputs through these organs play different roles in forming or modifying feeding preferences. Thus, our study contributes to an understanding of underlying mechanisms associated with

  14. Regulation of APETALA3 floral homeotic gene expression by meristem identity genes.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Rebecca S; Hill, Theresa A; Tan, Queenie K-G; Irish, Vivian F

    2002-05-01

    The Arabidopsis APETALA3 (AP3) floral homeotic gene is required for specifying petal and stamen identities, and is expressed in a spatially limited domain of cells in the floral meristem that will give rise to these organs. Here we show that the floral meristem identity genes LEAFY (LFY) and APETALA1 (AP1) are required for the activation of AP3. The LFY transcription factor binds to a sequence, with dyad symmetry, that lies within a region of the AP3 promoter required for early expression of AP3. Mutation of this region abolishes LFY binding in vitro and in yeast one hybrid assays, but has no obvious effect on AP3 expression in planta. Experiments using a steroid-inducible form of LFY show that, in contrast to its direct transcriptional activation of other floral homeotic genes, LFY acts in both a direct and an indirect manner to regulate AP3 expression. This LFY-induced expression of AP3 depends in part on the function of the APETALA1 (AP1) floral homeotic gene, since mutations in AP1 reduce LFY-dependent induction of AP3 expression. LFY therefore appears to act through several pathways, one of which is dependent on AP1 activity, to regulate AP3 expression.

  15. The Emission of the Floral Scent of Four Osmanthus fragrans Cultivars in Response to Different Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jianxin; Hou, Dan; Zhang, Chao; Bao, Zhiyi; Zhao, Hongbo; Hu, Shaoqing

    2017-03-08

    Floral scent is an important part of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from plants, and is influenced by many environmental and endogenous factors. To investigate the influence of temperature on the emission of the floral scent of Osmanthus fragrans, the number of chemical compounds and their relative release amounts from four cultivars of O. fragrans under different temperature treatments, were identified using the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) technique and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in this study. Results revealed that the numbers and release amounts of floral scent components were significantly influenced by different temperatures, and depend on different cultivars and different types of compounds. Overall, most cultivars had the largest number of chemical compounds in 19 °C and the numbers of chemical compounds decreased with the increase or decrease in the temperature. Alcohols and ketones were the two main kinds of compounds responding to temperature change. The response of a specific chemical compound to temperature change was different in four cultivars. Generally, linalool, α-ionone, β-ionone, and γ-decalactone accounted for the highest proportion in the nine main compounds, and changes of these four chemical compounds to different temperatures had obvious contributions to the floral scent of O. fragrans. The results obtained provide evidence that temperatures can greatly influence the emission of floral scent.

  16. Experimental manipulation of floral scent bouquets restructures flower-visitor interactions in the field.

    PubMed

    Larue, Anne-Amélie C; Raguso, Robert A; Junker, Robert R

    2016-03-01

    A common structural feature of natural communities is the non-random distribution of pairwise interactions between organisms of different trophic levels. For plant-animal interactions, it is predicted that both stochastic processes and functional plant traits that facilitate or prevent interactions are responsible for these patterns. However, unbiased manipulative field experiments that rigorously test the effects of individual traits on community structure are lacking. We address this gap by manipulating floral scent bouquets in the field. Manipulation of floral scent bouquets led to quantitative as well as qualitative restructuring of flower-visitor networks, making them more generalized. Olfactometer trials confirmed both positive and negative responses to scent bouquets. Our results clearly show that the distribution of insect visitors to the two abundant study plant species reflects the insects' species-specific preferences for floral scents, rather than for visual or morphological floral traits. Thus, floral scents may be of major importance in partitioning flower-visitor interactions. Integrating experimental manipulations of plant traits with field observations of interaction patterns thus represents a promising approach for revealing the processes that structure species assemblages in natural communities. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2015 British Ecological Society.

  17. Floral Development in the Tribe Cedreleae (Meliaceae, Sub-family Swietenioideae): Cedrela and Toona

    PubMed Central

    Gouvêa, Cantídio Fernando; Dornelas, Marcelo Carnier; Rodriguez, Adriana Pinheiro Martinelli

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Floral development of Cedrela and Toona, the genera comprising the basal tribe Cedreleae of the sub-family Swietenioideae of Meliaceae, is described. The focus was on three endangered, ecologically and economically important species: Cedrela fissilis, Cedrela odorata and Toona ciliata. The aims of the study were to characterize the patterns of floral development in the tribe and to establish apomorphic and plesiomorphic floral characters in relation to other taxa within the family based on the current molecular phylogeny of Meliaceae. Methods A detailed floral structural and developmental study was completed using both scanning electron microscopy and visualization of microtome sections with a light microscope. Key Results Twelve floral developmental stages were identified. The initial development of the pentamerous flowers of both Toona and Cedrela is strikingly similar. The morphological differences observed between them are due to differential patterns of organ elongation and adnation/connation occurring late in development. Additionally, the formation of functionally male and female flowers was found to occur at specific positions within the inflorescence. Conclusions Due to the basal position of the tribe Cedreleae in the phylogeny of Meliaceae, functionally either male or female pentamerous flowers and the presence of (at least partially) free stamens may be considered plesiomorphic traits within the family. In contrast, sympetaly and the absence of nectaries in Cedrela species are synapomorphies. PMID:17981877

  18. Herbivory and floral signaling: phenotypic plasticity and tradeoffs between reproduction and indirect defense.

    PubMed

    Schiestl, Florian P; Kirk, Heather; Bigler, Laurent; Cozzolino, Salvatore; Desurmont, Gaylord A

    2014-07-01

    Plant defense against herbivores may compromise attraction of mutualists, yet information remains limited about the mechanisms underlying such signaling tradeoffs. Here, we investigated the effects of foliar herbivory by two herbivore species on defense compounds, floral signaling, pollinator and parasitoid attraction, and seed production. Herbivory generally reduced the quantity of many floral volatile organic compounds VOCs) in Brassica rapa. By contrast, floral color, flower diameter, and plant height remained unaffected. The decreased amounts of floral volatiles led to reduced attractiveness of flowers to pollinators, but increased the attractiveness of herbivore-infested plants to parasitoids. Plants infested with the native butterfly Pieris brassicae produced more flowers during early flowering, effectively compensating for the lower olfactory attractiveness. Herbivory by the invasive Spodoptera littoralis increased the amounts of glucobrassicanapin, and led to delayed flowering. These plants tended to attract fewer pollinators and to produce fewer seeds. Our study indicates a tradeoff between pollinator attraction and indirect defense (parasitoid attraction), which can be mitigated by reduced floral VOC emission and production of more early flowers. We suggest that this compensatory mechanism is specific to plant-herbivore associations with a coevolutionary history.

  19. Floral nectaries in Sapindaceae s.s.: morphological and structural diversity, and their systematic implications.

    PubMed

    Solís, Stella M; Zini, Lucía M; González, Valeria V; Ferrucci, María S

    2017-04-10

    We investigated the morphology and structure of the floral nectary in 11 Neotropical genera belonging to the subfamilies Dodonaeoideae and Paullinioideae (Sapindaceae) from southern South America representing three tribes (Dodonaeaeae, Paullinieae, and Melicocceae), in relation to other floral traits in species with contrasting morphological flower characteristics. Nectary organization was analyzed under light, stereoscopic, and scanning electron microscopes; Diplokeleba floribunda N.E. Br. was also observed using transmission electron microscopy. Our comparative data may contribute to the understanding of floral nectary evolution and systematic value in this family. The nectaries were studied in both staminate and pistillate flowers. All the floral nectaries are typical of Sapindaceae: extrastaminal, receptacular, structured, and persistent. The anatomical analysis revealed a differentiated secretory parenchyma and an inner non-secretory parenchyma; the nectary is supplied by phloem traces and, less frequently, by phloem and xylem traces. Nectar is secreted through nectarostomata of anomocytic type. The anatomical analysis showed the absence of nectary in the three morphs of Dodonaea viscosa flowers. Nectary ultrastructure is described in D. floribunda. In this species, the change in nectary color is related to progressive accumulation of anthocyanins during the functional phase. We found relatively small variation in the nectary structural characteristics compared with large variation in nectary morphology. The latter aspect agreed with the main infrafamilial groupings revealed by recent phylogenetic studies, so it is of current valuable systematic importance for Sapindaceae. In representatives of Paullinieae, the reduction of the floral nectary to 4-2 posterior lobes should be interpreted as a derived character state.

  20. Selection toward shorter flowers by butterflies whose probosces are shorter than floral tubes.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Daniel; Erhardt, Andreas

    2008-09-01

    Darwin's meticulous observations on the function of floral shape led to his famous prediction of a long-tongued pollinator, which he believed to be the evolutionary trigger for the long-spurred flowers of the Madagascar star orchid. Although tubular flowers are common, long tubes or spurs are an exception, suggesting that selection maintaining short flowers is widespread. Using the butterfly-pollinated carnation Dianthus carthusianorum and two butterfly species differing in proboscis length (Melanargia galathea and Inachis io) as model organisms, we experimentally demonstrate a reduction in pollinator efficiency with an increasing difference between proboscis length and floral tube length. Such a relationship is a prerequisite for the evolution of floral shape in response to pollinator morphology.

  1. Advertising to the enemy: enhanced floral fragrance increases beetle attraction and reduces plant reproduction.

    PubMed

    Theis, Nina; Adler, Lynn S

    2012-02-01

    Many organisms face challenges in avoiding predation while searching for mates. For plants, emitting floral fragrances to advertise reproductive structures could increase the attraction of detrimental insects along with pollinators. Very few studies have experimentally evaluated the costs and benefits of fragrance emission with explicit consideration of how plant fitness is affected by both pollinators and florivores. To determine the reproductive consequences of increasing the apparency of reproductive parts, we manipulated fragrance, pollination, and florivores in the wild Texas gourd, Cucurbita pepo var. texana. With enhanced fragrance we found an increase in the attraction of florivores, rather than pollinators, and a decrease in seed production. This study is the first to demonstrate that enhanced floral fragrance can increase the attraction of detrimental florivores and decrease plant reproduction, suggesting that florivory as well as pollination has shaped the evolution of floral scent.

  2. The smell of environmental change: Using floral scent to explain shifts in pollinator attraction1

    PubMed Central

    Burkle, Laura A.; Runyon, Justin B.

    2017-01-01

    As diverse environmental changes continue to influence the structure and function of plant–pollinator interactions across spatial and temporal scales, we will need to enlist numerous approaches to understand these changes. Quantitative examination of floral volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is one approach that is gaining popularity, and recent work suggests that floral VOCs hold substantial promise for better understanding and predicting the effects of environmental change on plant–pollinator interactions. Until recently, few ecologists were employing chemical approaches to investigate mechanisms by which components of environmental change may disrupt these essential mutualisms. In an attempt to make these approaches more accessible, we summarize the main field, laboratory, and statistical methods involved in capturing, quantifying, and analyzing floral VOCs in the context of changing environments. We also highlight some outstanding questions that we consider to be highly relevant to making progress in this field. PMID:28690928

  3. Epigenetic Mechanisms Are Critical for the Regulation of WUSCHEL Expression in Floral Meristems1

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Xiuwei; He, Zishan; Guo, Lin; Liu, Xigang

    2015-01-01

    The floral meristem (FM), which develops from the inflorescence meristem upon completion of the floral transition, terminates after producing a defined number of floral organs. This is in contrast to the shoot apical meristem, which is active throughout the entire life span of plants. WUSCHEL (WUS) encodes a homeodomain-containing protein and plays a critical role in shoot apical meristem, inflorescence meristem, and FM establishment and maintenance as well as FM determinacy. Although many genes have been implicated in FM determinacy through the regulation of WUS expression, precisely how these genes are coordinated to regulate WUS and consequently dictate FM fate remains unclear. Emerging lines of evidence indicate that epigenetic mechanisms, such as histone modification, chromatin remodeling, noncoding RNAs, and DNA methylation, play vital roles in meristem maintenance and termination. Here, recent findings demonstrating the involvement of the epigenetic network in the regulation of WUS expression in the context of FM determinacy are summarized and discussed. PMID:25829464

  4. Appetitive floral odours prevent aggression in honeybees

    PubMed Central

    Nouvian, Morgane; Hotier, Lucie; Claudianos, Charles; Giurfa, Martin; Reinhard, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Honeybees defend their colonies aggressively against intruders and release a potent alarm pheromone to recruit nestmates into defensive tasks. The effect of floral odours on this behaviour has never been studied, despite the relevance of these olfactory cues for the biology of bees. Here we use a novel assay to investigate social and olfactory cues that drive defensive behaviour in bees. We show that social interactions are necessary to reveal the recruiting function of the alarm pheromone and that specific floral odours—linalool and 2-phenylethanol—have the surprising capacity to block recruitment by the alarm pheromone. This effect is not due to an olfactory masking of the pheromone by the floral odours, but correlates with their appetitive value. In addition to their potential applications, these findings provide new insights about how honeybees make the decision to engage into defence and how conflicting information affects this process. PMID:26694599

  5. Appetitive floral odours prevent aggression in honeybees.

    PubMed

    Nouvian, Morgane; Hotier, Lucie; Claudianos, Charles; Giurfa, Martin; Reinhard, Judith

    2015-12-22

    Honeybees defend their colonies aggressively against intruders and release a potent alarm pheromone to recruit nestmates into defensive tasks. The effect of floral odours on this behaviour has never been studied, despite the relevance of these olfactory cues for the biology of bees. Here we use a novel assay to investigate social and olfactory cues that drive defensive behaviour in bees. We show that social interactions are necessary to reveal the recruiting function of the alarm pheromone and that specific floral odours-linalool and 2-phenylethanol-have the surprising capacity to block recruitment by the alarm pheromone. This effect is not due to an olfactory masking of the pheromone by the floral odours, but correlates with their appetitive value. In addition to their potential applications, these findings provide new insights about how honeybees make the decision to engage into defence and how conflicting information affects this process.

  6. Genetic and phenotypic analysis of shoot apical and floral meristem development

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The shoot apical and floral meristems (SAM and FM, respectively) of Arabidopsis thaliana contain reservoirs of self-renewing stem cells that function as sources of progenitor cells for organ formation during development. The primary SAM produces all of the aerial structures of the adult plant, where...

  7. The smell of environmental change: Using floral scent to explain shifts in pollinator attraction

    Treesearch

    Laura A. Burkle; Justin B. Runyon

    2017-01-01

    As diverse environmental changes continue to influence the structure and function of plant-pollinator interactions across spatial and temporal scales, we will need to enlist numerous approaches to understand these changes. Quantitative examination of floral volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is one approach that is gaining popularity, and recent work suggests that...

  8. Specialist Osmia bees forage indiscriminately among hybridizing Balsamorhiza floral hosts

    Treesearch

    James H. Cane

    2011-01-01

    Pollinators, even floral generalists (=polyleges), typically specialize during individual foraging bouts, infrequently switching between floral hosts. Such transient floral constancy restricts pollen flow, and thereby gene flow, to conspecific flowers in mixed plant communities. Where incipient flowering species meet, however, weak cross-fertility and often similar...

  9. Retail Florist: Selling the Floral Product, Maintenance and Delivery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale.

    This retail florist unit guide is provided to help teachers teach units on sales of floral products and maintenance and delivery in a floral shop. Topics covered in the selling unit are basic mathematics; taxable items; sales etiquette; types of floral products; telephone etiquette; order form information; wire service regulations; care of floral…

  10. Retail Florist: Selling the Floral Product, Maintenance and Delivery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale.

    This retail florist unit guide is provided to help teachers teach units on sales of floral products and maintenance and delivery in a floral shop. Topics covered in the selling unit are basic mathematics; taxable items; sales etiquette; types of floral products; telephone etiquette; order form information; wire service regulations; care of floral…

  11. Floral scent emitted by white and coloured morphs in orchids.

    PubMed

    Dormont, L; Delle-Vedove, R; Bessière, J-M; Schatz, B

    2014-04-01

    Polymorphism of floral signals, such as colour and odour, is widespread in flowering plants and often considered to be adaptive, reflecting various pollinator preferences for particular floral traits. Several authors have recently hypothesized that particular associations exist between floral colour and scent, which would result from shared biochemistry between these two floral traits. In this study, we compared the chemical composition of floral volatiles emitted by white- and purple-flowered morphs of three different orchid species, including two food-deceptive species (Orchis mascula and Orchis simia) and a food-rewarding species (Anacamptis coriophora fragrans). We found clear interspecific differences in floral odours. As expected from their pollination strategy, the two deceptive orchids showed high inter-individual variation of floral volatiles, whereas the food-rewarding A. c. fragrans showed low variation of floral scent. Floral volatiles did not differ overall between white- and coloured-flowered morphs in O. mascula and A. c. fragrans, while O. simia exhibited different volatile profiles between the two colour morphs. However, a detailed analysis restricted to benzenoid compounds (which are associated with the production of floral anthocyanin pigments) showed that white inflorescences emitted more volatiles of the shikimic pathway than coloured ones, both for O. mascula and O. simia. These results are consistent with the current hypothesis that shared biochemistry creates pleiotropic links between floral colour and scent. Whether intraspecific variation of floral signals actually affects pollinator attraction and influences the reproductive success of these orchids remains to be determined.

  12. A novel role of BELL1-like homeobox genes, PENNYWISE and POUND-FOOLISH, in floral patterning.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lifeng; Patibanda, Varun; Smith, Harley M S

    2009-02-01

    Flowers are determinate shoots comprised of perianth and reproductive organs displayed in a whorled phyllotactic pattern. Floral organ identity genes display region-specific expression patterns in the developing flower. In Arabidopsis, floral organ identity genes are activated by LEAFY (LFY), which functions with region-specific co-regulators, UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) and WUSCHEL (WUS), to up-regulate homeotic genes in specific whorls of the flower. PENNYWISE (PNY) and POUND-FOOLISH (PNF) are redundant functioning BELL1-like homeodomain proteins that are expressed in shoot and floral meristems. During flower development, PNY functions with a co-repressor complex to down-regulate the homeotic gene, AGAMOUS (AG), in the outer whorls of the flower. However, the function of PNY as well as PNF in regulating floral organ identity in the central whorls of the flower is not known. In this report, we show that combining mutations in PNY and PNF enhance the floral patterning phenotypes of weak and strong alleles of lfy, indicating that these BELL1-like homeodomain proteins play a role in the specification of petals, stamens and carpels during flower development. Expression studies show that PNY and PNF positively regulate the homeotic genes, APETALA3 and AG, in the inner whorls of the flower. Moreover, PNY and PNF function in parallel with LFY, UFO and WUS to regulate homeotic gene expression. Since PNY and PNF interact with the KNOTTED1-like homeodomain proteins, SHOOTMERISTEMLESS (STM) and KNOTTED-LIKE from ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA2 (KNAT2) that regulate floral development, we propose that PNY/PNF-STM and PNY/PNF-KNAT2 complexes function in the inner whorls to regulate flower patterning events.

  13. Histone acetylation accompanied with promoter sequences displaying differential expression profiles of B-class MADS-box genes for phalaenopsis floral morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chia-Chi; Wu, Pei-Shan; Chen, Tien-Chih; Yu, Chun-Wei; Tsai, Wen-Chieh; Wu, Keqiang; Wu, Wen-Luan; Chen, Wen-Huei; Chen, Hong-Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Five B-class MADS-box genes, including four APETALA3 (AP3)-like PeMADS2∼5 and one PISTILLATA (PI)-like PeMADS6, specify the spectacular flower morphology in orchids. The PI-like PeMADS6 ubiquitously expresses in all floral organs. The four AP3-like genes, resulted from two duplication events, express ubiquitously at floral primordia and early floral organ stages, but show distinct expression profiles at late floral organ primordia and floral bud stages. Here, we isolated the upstream sequences of PeMADS2∼6 and studied the regulatory mechanism for their distinct gene expression. Phylogenetic footprinting analysis of the 1.3-kb upstream sequences of AP3-like PeMADS2∼5 showed that their promoter regions have sufficiently diverged and contributed to their subfunctionalization. The amplified promoter sequences of PeMADS2∼6 could drive beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene expression in all floral organs, similar to their expression at the floral primordia stage. The promoter sequence of PeMADS4, exclusively expressed in lip and column, showed a 1.6∼3-fold higher expression in lip/column than in sepal/petal. Furthermore, we noted a 4.9-fold increase in histone acetylation (H3K9K14ac) in the translation start region of PeMADS4 in lip as compared in petal. All these results suggest that the regulation via the upstream sequences and increased H3K9K14ac level may act synergistically to display distinct expression profiles of the AP3-like genes at late floral organ primordia stage for Phalaenopsis floral morphogenesis.

  14. SUPERMAN, a regulator of floral homeotic genes in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Bowman, J L; Sakai, H; Jack, T; Weigel, D; Mayer, U; Meyerowitz, E M

    1992-03-01

    We describe a locus, SUPERMAN, mutations in which result in extra stamens developing at the expense of the central carpels in the Arabidopsis thaliana flower. The development of superman flowers, from initial primordium to mature flower, is described by scanning electron microscopy. The development of doubly and triply mutant strains, constructed with superman alleles and previously identified homeotic mutations that cause alterations in floral organ identity, is also described. Essentially additive phenotypes are observed in superman agamous and superman apetala2 double mutants. The epistatic relationships observed between either apetala3 or pistillata and superman alleles suggest that the SUPERMAN gene product could be a regulator of these floral homeotic genes. To test this, the expression patterns of AGAMOUS and APETALA3 were examined in superman flowers. In wild-type flowers, APETALA3 expression is restricted to the second and third whorls where it is required for the specification of petals and stamens. In contrast, in superman flowers, APETALA3 expression expands to include most of the cells that would normally constitute the fourth whorl. This ectopic APETALA3 expression is proposed to be one of the causes of the development of the extra stamens in superman flowers. The spatial pattern of AGAMOUS expression remains unaltered in superman flowers as compared to wild-type flowers. Taken together these data indicate that one of the functions of the wild-type SUPERMAN gene product is to negatively regulate APETALA3 in the fourth whorl of the flower. In addition, superman mutants exhibit a loss of determinacy of the floral meristem, an effect that appears to be mediated by the APETALA3 and PISTILLATA gene products.

  15. Functional conservation and diversification of class E floral homeotic genes in rice (Oryza sativa).

    PubMed

    Cui, Rongfeng; Han, Jiakun; Zhao, Suzhen; Su, Kunmei; Wu, Feng; Du, Xiaoqiu; Xu, Qijiang; Chong, Kang; Theissen, Günter; Meng, Zheng

    2010-03-01

    Mutant analyses in different eudicotyledonous flowering plants demonstrated that SEPALLATA-like MADS-box genes are required for the specification of sepals, petals, stamens and carpels, and for floral determinacy, thus defining class E floral organ identity genes. SEP-like genes encode MADS-domain transcription factors and constitute an angiosperm-specific gene clade whose members show remarkably different degrees of redundancy and sub-functionalization within eudicots. To better understand the evolutionary dynamics of SEP-like genes throughout the angiosperms we have knocked down SEP-like genes of rice (Oryza sativa), a distant relative of eudicots within the flowering plants. Plants affected in both OsMADS7 and OsMADS8 show severe phenotypes including late flowering, homeotic changes of lodicules, stamens and carpels into palea/lemma-like organs, and a loss of floral determinacy. Simultaneous knockdown of the four rice SEP-like genes OsMADS1, OsMADS5, OsMADS7 and OsMADS8, leads to homeotic transformation of all floral organs except the lemma into leaf-like organs. This mimics the phenotype observed with the sep1 sep2 sep3 sep4 quadruple mutant of Arabidopsis. Detailed analyses of the spatial and temporal mRNA expression and protein interaction patterns corresponding to the different rice SEP-like genes show strong similarities, but also gene-specific differences. These findings reveal conservation of SEP-like genes in specifying floral determinacy and organ identities since the separation of eudicots and monocots about 150 million years ago. However, they indicate also monocot-specific neo- and sub-functionalization events and hence underscore the evolutionary dynamics of SEP-like genes. Moreover, our findings corroborate the view that the lodicules of grasses are homologous to eudicot petals.

  16. An Activated Form of UFO Alters Leaf Development and Produces Ectopic Floral and Inflorescence Meristems

    PubMed Central

    Risseeuw, Eddy; Venglat, Prakash; Xiang, Daoquan; Komendant, Kristina; Daskalchuk, Tim; Babic, Vivijan; Crosby, William; Datla, Raju

    2013-01-01

    Plants are unique in their ability to continuously produce new meristems and organ primordia. In Arabidopsis, the transcription factor LEAFY (LFY) functions as a master regulator of a gene network that is important for floral meristem and organ specification. UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) is a co-activator of LEAFY and is required for proper activation of APETALA3 in the floral meristem during the specification of stamens and petals. The ufo mutants display defects in other parts of the flower and the inflorescence, suggestive of additional roles. Here we show that the normal determinacy of the developing Arabidopsis leaves is affected by the expression of a gain-of-function UFO fusion protein with the VP16 transcriptional activator domain. In these lines, the rosette and cauline leaf primordia exhibit reiterated serration, and upon flowering produce ectopic meristems that develop into flowers, bract leaves and inflorescences. These striking phenotypes reveal that developing leaves maintain the competency to initiate flower and inflorescence programs. Furthermore, the gain-of-function phenotypes are dependent on LFY and the SEPALLATA (SEP) MADS-box transcription factors, indicative of their functional interactions with UFO. The findings of this study also suggest that UFO promotes the establishment of the lateral meristems and primordia in the peripheral zone of the apical and floral meristems by enhancing the activity of LFY. These novel phenotypes along with the mutant phenotypes of UFO orthologs in other plant species suggest a broader function for UFO in plants. PMID:24376756

  17. An activated form of UFO alters leaf development and produces ectopic floral and inflorescence meristems.

    PubMed

    Risseeuw, Eddy; Venglat, Prakash; Xiang, Daoquan; Komendant, Kristina; Daskalchuk, Tim; Babic, Vivijan; Crosby, William; Datla, Raju

    2013-01-01

    Plants are unique in their ability to continuously produce new meristems and organ primordia. In Arabidopsis, the transcription factor LEAFY (LFY) functions as a master regulator of a gene network that is important for floral meristem and organ specification. UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) is a co-activator of LEAFY and is required for proper activation of APETALA3 in the floral meristem during the specification of stamens and petals. The ufo mutants display defects in other parts of the flower and the inflorescence, suggestive of additional roles. Here we show that the normal determinacy of the developing Arabidopsis leaves is affected by the expression of a gain-of-function UFO fusion protein with the VP16 transcriptional activator domain. In these lines, the rosette and cauline leaf primordia exhibit reiterated serration, and upon flowering produce ectopic meristems that develop into flowers, bract leaves and inflorescences. These striking phenotypes reveal that developing leaves maintain the competency to initiate flower and inflorescence programs. Furthermore, the gain-of-function phenotypes are dependent on LFY and the SEPALLATA (SEP) MADS-box transcription factors, indicative of their functional interactions with UFO. The findings of this study also suggest that UFO promotes the establishment of the lateral meristems and primordia in the peripheral zone of the apical and floral meristems by enhancing the activity of LFY. These novel phenotypes along with the mutant phenotypes of UFO orthologs in other plant species suggest a broader function for UFO in plants.

  18. Passion fruit flowers: Kunitz trypsin inhibitors and cystatin differentially accumulate in developing buds and floral tissues.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Keitty R B; Botelho-Júnior, Sylvio; Domingues, Dalvania P; Machado, Olga L T; Oliveira, Antônia E A; Fernandes, Kátia V S; Madureira, Herika C; Pereira, Telma N S; Jacinto, Tânia

    2011-11-01

    In order to better understand the physiological functions of protease inhibitors (PIs) the PI activity in buds and flower organs of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims) was investigated. Trypsin and papain inhibitory activities were analyzed in soluble protein extracts from buds at different developmental stages and floral tissues in anthesis. These analyses identified high levels of inhibitory activity against both types of enzymes at all bud stages. Intriguingly, the inhibitory activity against both proteases differed remarkably in some floral tissues. While all organs tested were very effective against trypsin, only sepal and petal tissues exhibited strong inhibitory activity against papain. The sexual reproductive tissues (ovary, stigma-style and stamen) showed either significantly lower activity against papain or practically none. Gelatin-SDS-PAGE assay established that various trypsin inhibitors (TIs) homogenously accumulated in developing buds, although some were differentially present in floral organs. The N-terminal sequence analysis of purified inhibitors from stamen demonstrated they had homology to the Kunitz family of serine PIs. Western-blot analysis established presence of a ∼60 kDa cystatin, whose levels progressively increased during bud development. A positive correlation between this protein and strong papain inhibitory activity was observed in buds and floral tissues, except for the stigma-style. Differences in temporal and spatial accumulation of both types of PIs in passion fruit flowers are thus discussed in light of their potential roles in defense and development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Expression of floral MADS-box genes in Sinofranchetia chinensis (Lardizabalaceae): implications for the nature of the nectar leaves

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jin; Zhang, Jian; Shan, Hongyan; Chen, Zhiduan

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims The perianths of the Lardizabalaceae are diverse. The second-whorl floral organs of Sinofranchetia chinensis (Lardizabalaceae) are nectar leaves. The aim of this study was to explore the nature of this type of floral organ, and to determine its relationship to nectar leaves in other Ranunculales species, and to other floral organs in Sinofranchetia chinensis. Methods Approaches of evolutionary developmental biology were used, including 3′ RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) for isolating floral MADS-box genes, phylogenetic analysis for reconstructing gene evolutionary history, in situ hybridization and tissue-specific RT-PCR for identifying gene expression patterns and SEM (scanning electron microscopy) for observing the epidermal cell morphology of floral organs. Key Results Fourteen new floral MADS-box genes were isolated from Sinofranchetia chinensis and from two other species of Lardizabalaceae, Holboellia grandiflora and Decaisnea insignis. The phylogenetic analysis of AP3-like genes in Ranunculales showed that three AP3 paralogues from Sinofranchetia chinensis belong to the AP3-I, -II and -III lineages. In situ hybridization results showed that SIchAP3-3 is significantly expressed only in nectar leaves at the late stages of floral development, and SIchAG, a C-class MADS-box gene, is expressed not only in stamens and carpels, but also in nectar leaves. SEM observation revealed that the adaxial surface of nectar leaves is covered with conical epidermal cells, a hallmark of petaloidy. Conclusions The gene expression data imply that the nectar leaves in S. chinensis might share a similar genetic regulatory code with other nectar leaves in Ranunculales species. Based on gene expression and morphological evidence, it is considered that the nectar leaves in S. chinensis could be referred to as petals. Furthermore, the study supports the hypothesis that the nectar leaves in some Ranunculales species might be derived from stamens. PMID

  20. Micromorphology of the Labellum and Floral Spur of Cryptocentrum Benth. and Sepalosaccus Schltr. (Maxillariinae: Orchidaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Kevin L.; Stpiczyńska, Malgorzata

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Gross vegetative and floral morphology, as well as modern molecular techniques, indicate that Cryptocentrum Benth. and Sepalosaccus Schltr. are related to Maxillaria Ruiz & Pav. However, they differ from Maxillaria in their possession of floral spurs and, in this respect, are atypical of Maxillariinae. The labellar micromorphology of Maxillaria, unlike that of the other two genera, has been extensively studied. In the present report, the labellar micromorphology of Cryptocentrum and Sepalosaccus is compared with that of Maxillaria and, for the first time, the micromorphology of the floral spur as found in Maxillariinae is described. Methods Labella and dissected floral spurs of Cryptocentrum and Sepalosaccus were examined using light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Key Results In each case, the labellum consists of a papillose mid-lobe (epichile), a cymbiform region (hypochile) and, proximally, a spur, which is pronounced in Cryptocentrum but short and blunt in Sepalosaccus. The inner epidermal surface of the spur of Cryptocentrum is glabrous or pubescent, and the bicellular hairs, where present, are unlike any hitherto described for Maxillariinae. Similar but unicellular hairs also occur in the floral spur of Sepalosaccus, whereas the glabrous epidermis lining the spur of C. peruvianum contains putative nectar pores. Conclusions The labellar micromorphology of Cryptocentrum and Sepalosaccus generally resembles that of Maxillaria. The floral spur of Cryptocentrum displays two types of organization in that the epidermal lining may be glabrous (possibly with nectar pores) or pubescent. This may have taxonomic significance and perhaps reflects physiological differences relating to nectar secretion. The trichomes found within the spurs of Cryptocentrum and Sepalosaccus more closely resemble the hairs of certain unrelated, nectariferous orchid taxa than those found in the largely nectarless genus Maxillaria, and this further

  1. Circadian Rhythms in Floral Scent Emission

    PubMed Central

    Fenske, Myles P.; Imaizumi, Takato

    2016-01-01

    To successfully recruit pollinators, plants often release attractive floral scents at specific times of day to coincide with pollinator foraging. This timing of scent emission is thought to be evolutionarily beneficial to maximize resource efficiency while attracting only useful pollinators. Temporal regulation of scent emission is tied to the activity of the specific metabolic pathways responsible for scent production. Although floral volatile profiling in various plants indicated a contribution by the circadian clock, the mechanisms by which the circadian clock regulates timing of floral scent emission remained elusive. Recent studies using two species in the Solanaceae family provided initial insight into molecular clock regulation of scent emission timing. In Petunia hybrida, the floral volatile benzenoid/phenylpropanoid (FVBP) pathway is the major metabolic pathway that produces floral volatiles. Three MYB-type transcription factors, ODORANT 1 (ODO1), EMISSION OF BENZENOIDS I (EOBI), and EOBII, all of which show diurnal rhythms in mRNA expression, act as positive regulators for several enzyme genes in the FVBP pathway. Recently, in P. hybrida and Nicotiana attenuata, homologs of the Arabidopsis clock gene LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY) have been shown to have a similar role in the circadian clock in these plants, and to also determine the timing of scent emission. In addition, in P. hybrida, PhLHY directly represses ODO1 and several enzyme genes in the FVBP pathway during the morning as an important negative regulator of scent emission. These findings facilitate our understanding of the relationship between a molecular timekeeper and the timing of scent emission, which may influence reproductive success. PMID:27148293

  2. Circadian Rhythms in Floral Scent Emission.

    PubMed

    Fenske, Myles P; Imaizumi, Takato

    2016-01-01

    To successfully recruit pollinators, plants often release attractive floral scents at specific times of day to coincide with pollinator foraging. This timing of scent emission is thought to be evolutionarily beneficial to maximize resource efficiency while attracting only useful pollinators. Temporal regulation of scent emission is tied to the activity of the specific metabolic pathways responsible for scent production. Although floral volatile profiling in various plants indicated a contribution by the circadian clock, the mechanisms by which the circadian clock regulates timing of floral scent emission remained elusive. Recent studies using two species in the Solanaceae family provided initial insight into molecular clock regulation of scent emission timing. In Petunia hybrida, the floral volatile benzenoid/phenylpropanoid (FVBP) pathway is the major metabolic pathway that produces floral volatiles. Three MYB-type transcription factors, ODORANT 1 (ODO1), EMISSION OF BENZENOIDS I (EOBI), and EOBII, all of which show diurnal rhythms in mRNA expression, act as positive regulators for several enzyme genes in the FVBP pathway. Recently, in P. hybrida and Nicotiana attenuata, homologs of the Arabidopsis clock gene LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY) have been shown to have a similar role in the circadian clock in these plants, and to also determine the timing of scent emission. In addition, in P. hybrida, PhLHY directly represses ODO1 and several enzyme genes in the FVBP pathway during the morning as an important negative regulator of scent emission. These findings facilitate our understanding of the relationship between a molecular timekeeper and the timing of scent emission, which may influence reproductive success.

  3. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Role of SUPERMAN in maintaining Arabidopsis floral whorl boundaries.

    PubMed

    Sakai, H; Medrano, L J; Meyerowitz, E M

    1995-11-09

    The Arabidopsis gene SUPERMAN (SUP) is necessary for the proper spatial development of reproductive floral tissues. Recessive mutations cause extra stamens to form interior to the normal third whorl stamens, at the expense of fourth whorl carpel development. The mutant phenotype is associated with the ectopic expression of the B function genes, AP3 and PI, in the altered floral region, closer to the centre of the flower than in the wild type, and ap3 sup and pi sup double mutants exhibit a phenotype similar to ap3 and pi single mutants. These findings led to SUP being interpreted as an upstream negative regulator of the B function organ-identity genes, acting in the fourth whorl, to establish a boundary between stamen and carpel whorls. Here we show, using molecular cloning and analysis, that it is expressed in the third whorl and acts to maintain this boundary in developing flowers. The putative SUPERMAN protein contains one zinc-finger and a region resembling a basic leucine zipper motif, suggesting a function in transcriptional regulation.

  5. Experimental hepatic necrosis: Studies on coagulation abnormalities, plasma clearance, and organ distribution of 125I-labelled fibrinogen

    PubMed Central

    Rake, M. O.; Flute, P. T.; Pannell, G.; Shilkin, K. B.; Williams, Roger

    1973-01-01

    Studies in the rat with hepatic necrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride showed that the abnormalities in one-stage coagulation tests and the increased catabolism of fibrinogen were similar to those found in man with acute viral or drug-induced hepatic necrosis. Determination of the distribution of the radioactive label shows that excessive deposition was maximal in the liver but also occurred in the spleen. The appearance is delayed by heparin but accelerated by tranexamic acid. ImagesFig 1Fig 2 PMID:4729927

  6. Antennal responses to floral scents in the butterfly Heliconius melpomene.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Susanna; Dobson, Heidi E M

    2003-10-01

    Floral scent, together with visual floral cues, are important signals to adult butterflies searching for food-rewarding plants. To identify which compounds in a floral scent are more attractive and, thus, of biological importance to foraging butterflies, we applied electrophysiological methods. Antennal responses of male and female adults of the tropical butterfly Heliconius melpomene L. (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Heliconiinae) to individual compounds of natural floral scents and synthetic floral scent mixtures were investigated using gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD). The natural floral scents included those of two tropical plant species, Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae) and Warszewiczia coccinea (Vahl) Kl. (Rubiaceae), and two temperate species, Buddleja davidii Franchet (Loganiaceae) and Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. (Asteraceae). The two synthetic floral scent mixtures contained many of the compounds found in the natural scents, but all in equal quantities. Compounds both present in relatively high abundance in the floral scents and detected exclusively in the floral parts of the plant, such as linalool, linalool oxide (furanoid) I and II, oxoisophoroneoxide, and phenylacetaldehyde, elicited the strongest antennal responses, suggesting that they may reflect adaptations by the plant to attract butterfly pollinators. However, other compounds also present in high abundance in the floral scent, but detected in the vegetative as well as floral plant parts, either elicited strong antennal responses, such as trans-beta-ocimene and benzaldehyde, or failed to elicit antennal responses, such as the sesquiterpenes beta-caryophyllene and alpha-humulene from L. camara. The most volatile monoterpene alkenes in the synthetic scent mixtures elicited only low or no responses. Furthermore, the overall antennal responses were stronger in females than in males. The findings suggest that several floral scent volatiles, especially those of exclusively floral

  7. Congenital Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... while you are pregnant. Combination of Genetic and Environmental Problems Some congenital abnormalities may occur if there is a genetic tendency for the condition combined with exposure to certain environmental influences within the womb during critical stages of ...

  8. Unsaturated hydrocarbons with fruity and floral odors.

    PubMed

    Anselmi, C; Centini, M; Fedeli, P; Paoli, M L; Sega, A; Scesa, C; Pelosi, P

    2000-04-01

    Hydrocarbons usually do not exhibit odors of interest or well-defined character. However, certain cyclic alkenes have been associated with typical and pleasant notes, such as fruity, green, and floral. One of the best known examples is represented by the isomeric megastigmatrienes, endowed with a pleasant smell of tropical fruits. From the structures of these odorants, 24 analogues and homologues, most of them cyclic alkenes, but including also some open-chain alkenes, have been synthesized to define structural parameters related to the characteristic odors of these compounds. The number and position of double bonds, the substitution on the ring, and the size of the ring are the variables taken into account. Most of the new compounds present a mainly fruity character, associated in several cases with floral and green notes, producing an overall sensation described as "tropical fruit".

  9. Contributions of iridescence to floral patterning.

    PubMed

    Whitney, Heather M; Kolle, Mathias; Alvarez-Fernandez, Ruben; Steiner, Ullrich; Glover, Beverley J

    2009-05-01

    The Hibiscus trionum flower is distinctly patterned, with white petals each with a patch of red pigment at the base, producing a 'bulls-eye' pattern on the whole flower. The red pigmented patches are also iridescent, due to the presence of a series of overlying cuticular striations that act as a diffraction grating. We have previously reported that scanning electron microscopy revealed a sharply defined difference between the surface structure overlying the pigmented patch and that over the rest of the petal, with the diffraction grating only present over the pigmented region. Here we show that differences in petal surface structure overlie differences in pigment color in three other species, in a range of different patterns. Floral patterns have previously been shown to be advantageous in pollinator attraction, and we discuss whether emphasis of pigment patterns by structural color may increase floral recognition by pollinators.

  10. Transcriptome of the floral transition in Rosa chinensis 'Old Blush'.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xuelian; Yu, Chao; Luo, Le; Wan, Huihua; Zhen, Ni; Xu, Tingliang; Tan, Jiongrui; Pan, Huitang; Zhang, Qixiang

    2017-02-23

    The floral transition plays a vital role in the life of ornamental plants. Despite progress in model plants, the molecular mechanisms of flowering regulation remain unknown in perennial plants. Rosa chinensis 'Old Blush' is a unique plant that can flower continuously year-round. In this study, gene expression profiles associated with the flowering transition were comprehensively analyzed during floral transition in the rose. According to the transcriptomic profiles, 85,663 unigenes and 1,637 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, among which 32 unigenes were involved in the circadian clock, sugar metabolism, hormone, and autonomous pathways. A hypothetical model for the regulation of floral transition was proposed in which the candidate genes function synergistically the floral transition process. Hormone contents and biosynthesis and metabolism genes fluctuated during the rose floral transition process. Gibberellins (GAs) inhibited rose floral transition, the content of GAs gradually decreased and GA2ox and SCL13 were upregulated from vegetative (VM) meristem to floral meristem (FM). Auxin plays an affirmative part in mediating floral transition, auxin content and auxin-related gene expression levels were gradually upregulated during the floral transition of the rose. However, ABA content and ABA signal genes were gradually downregulated, suggesting that ABA passively regulates the rose floral transition by participating in sugar signaling. Furthermore, sugar content and sugar metabolism genes increased during floral transition in the rose, which may be a further florigenic signal that activates floral transition. Additionally, FRI, FY, DRM1, ELIP, COP1, CO, and COL16 are involved in the circadian clock and autonomous pathway, respectively, and they play a positively activating role in regulating floral transition. Overall, physiological changes associated with genes involved in the circadian clock or autonomous pathway collectively regulated the

  11. Semen-Like Floral Scents and Pollination Biology of a Sapromyophilous Plant Stemona japonica (Stemonaceae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Gao; Jürgens, Andreas; Shao, Lidong; Liu, Yang; Sun, Weibang; Xia, Chengfeng

    2015-03-01

    By emitting scent resembling that of organic material suitable for oviposition and/or consumption by flies, sapromyophilous flowers use these flies as pollinators. To date, intensive scent analyses of such flowers have been restricted to Apocynaceae, Annonaceae, and Araceae. Recent studies have suggested that the wide range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from sapromyophilous flowers play an important role in attracting saprophagous flies by mimicking different types of decomposing substrates (herbivore and carnivore feces, carrion, and the fruiting bodies of fungi, etc.). In this study, we report the flower visitors and the floral VOCs of Stemona japonica (Blume) Miquel, a species native to China. The flowers do not produce rewards, and pollinators were not observed consuming pollen, thus suggesting a deceptive pollination system. Headspace samples of the floral scent were collected via solid-phase micro-extraction and analysed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Main floral scent compounds were 1-pyrroline (59.2%), 2-methyl-1-butanol (27.2%), and 3-methyl-1-butanol (8.8%), and resulted in a semen-like odor of blooming flowers. The floral constituents of S. japonica were significantly different from those found in previous sapromyophilous plants. An olfaction test indicated that 1-pyrroline is responsible for the semen-like odor in S. japonica flowers. Main flower visitors were shoot flies of the genus Atherigona (Muscidae). Bioassays using a mixture of all identified floral volatiles revealed that the synthetic volatiles can attract Atherigona flies in natural habitats. Our results suggest that the foul-smelling flowers of S. japonica may represent a new type of sapromyophily through scent mimicry.

  12. In planta localisation patterns of MADS domain proteins during floral development in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Urbanus, Susan L; de Folter, Stefan; Shchennikova, Anna V; Kaufmann, Kerstin; Immink, Richard GH; Angenent, Gerco C

    2009-01-01

    Background MADS domain transcription factors play important roles in various developmental processes in flowering plants. Members of this family play a prominent role in the transition to flowering and the specification of floral organ identity. Several studies reported mRNA expression patterns of the genes encoding these MADS domain proteins, however, these studies do not provide the necessary information on the temporal and spatial localisation of the proteins. We have made GREEN FLUORESCENT PROTEIN (GFP) translational fusions with the four MADS domain proteins SEPALLATA3, AGAMOUS, FRUITFULL and APETALA1 from the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and analysed the protein localisation patterns in living plant tissues by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Results We unravelled the protein localisation patterns of the four MADS domain proteins at a cellular and subcellular level in inflorescence and floral meristems, during development of the early flower bud stages, and during further differentiation of the floral organs. The protein localisation patterns revealed a few deviations from known mRNA expression patterns, suggesting a non-cell autonomous action of these factors or alternative control mechanisms. In addition, we observed a change in the subcellular localisation of SEPALLATA3 from a predominantly nuclear localisation to a more cytoplasmic localisation, occurring specifically during petal and stamen development. Furthermore, we show that the down-regulation of the homeodomain transcription factor WUSCHEL in ovular tissues is preceded by the occurrence of both AGAMOUS and SEPALLATA3 proteins, supporting the hypothesis that both proteins together suppress WUSCHEL expression in the ovule. Conclusion This approach provides a highly detailed in situ map of MADS domain protein presence during early and later stages of floral development. The subcellular localisation of the transcription factors in the cytoplasm, as observed at certain stages during

  13. Floral associations of cyclocephaline scarab beetles.

    PubMed

    Moore, Matthew Robert; Jameson, Mary Liz

    2013-01-01

    The scarab beetle tribe Cyclocephalini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) is the second largest tribe of rhinoceros beetles, with nearly 500 described species. This diverse group is most closely associated with early diverging angiosperm groups (the family Nymphaeaceae, magnoliid clade, and monocots), where they feed, mate, and receive the benefit of thermal rewards from the host plant. Cyclocephaline floral association data have never been synthesized, and a comprehensive review of this ecological interaction was necessary to promote research by updating nomenclature, identifying inconsistencies in the data, and reporting previously unpublished data. Based on the most specific data, at least 97 cyclocephaline beetle species have been reported from the flowers of 58 plant genera representing 17 families and 15 orders. Thirteen new cyclocephaline floral associations are reported herein. Six cyclocephaline and 25 plant synonyms were reported in the literature and on beetle voucher specimen labels, and these were updated to reflect current nomenclature. The valid names of three unavailable plant host names were identified. We review the cyclocephaline floral associations with respect to inferred relationships of angiosperm orders. Ten genera of cyclocephaline beetles have been recorded from flowers of early diverging angiosperm groups. In contrast, only one genus, Cyclocephala, has been recorded from dicot flowers. Cyclocephaline visitation of dicot flowers is limited to the New World, and it is unknown whether this is evolutionary meaningful or the result of sampling bias and incomplete data. The most important areas for future research include: (1) elucidating the factors that attract cyclocephalines to flowers including floral scent chemistry and thermogenesis, (2) determining whether cyclocephaline dicot visitation is truly limited to the New World, and (3) inferring evolutionary relationships within the Cyclocephalini to rigorously test vicarance hypotheses

  14. Floral Associations of Cyclocephaline Scarab Beetles

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Matthew Robert; Jameson, Mary Liz

    2013-01-01

    The scarab beetle tribe Cyclocephalini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) is the second largest tribe of rhinoceros beetles, with nearly 500 described species. This diverse group is most closely associated with early diverging angiosperm groups (the family Nymphaeaceae, magnoliid clade, and monocots), where they feed, mate, and receive the benefit of thermal rewards from the host plant. Cyclocephaline floral association data have never been synthesized, and a comprehensive review of this ecological interaction was necessary to promote research by updating nomenclature, identifying inconsistencies in the data, and reporting previously unpublished data. Based on the most specific data, at least 97 cyclocephaline beetle species have been reported from the flowers of 58 plant genera representing 17 families and 15 orders. Thirteen new cyclocephaline floral associations are reported herein. Six cyclocephaline and 25 plant synonyms were reported in the literature and on beetle voucher specimen labels, and these were updated to reflect current nomenclature. The valid names of three unavailable plant host names were identified. We review the cyclocephaline floral associations with respect to inferred relationships of angiosperm orders. Ten genera of cyclocephaline beetles have been recorded from flowers of early diverging angiosperm groups. In contrast, only one genus, Cyclocephala, has been recorded from dicot flowers. Cyclocephaline visitation of dicot flowers is limited to the New World, and it is unknown whether this is evolutionary meaningful or the result of sampling bias and incomplete data. The most important areas for future research include: 1) elucidating the factors that attract cyclocephalines to flowers including floral scent chemistry and thermogenesis, 2) determining whether cyclocephaline dicot visitation is truly limited to the New World, and 3) inferring evolutionary relationships within the Cyclocephalini to rigorously test vicarance hypotheses

  15. The floral transcriptomes of four bamboo species (Bambusoideae; Poaceae): support for common ancestry among woody bamboos.

    PubMed

    Wysocki, William P; Ruiz-Sanchez, Eduardo; Yin, Yanbin; Duvall, Melvin R

    2016-05-20

    Next-generation sequencing now allows for total RNA extracts to be sequenced in non-model organisms such as bamboos, an economically and ecologically important group of grasses. Bamboos are divided into three lineages, two of which are woody perennials with bisexual flowers, which undergo gregarious monocarpy. The third lineage, which are herbaceous perennials, possesses unisexual flowers that undergo annual flowering events. Transcriptomes were assembled using both reference-based and de novo methods. These two methods were tested by characterizing transcriptome content using sequence alignment to previously characterized reference proteomes and by identifying Pfam domains. Because of the striking differences in floral morphology and phenology between the herbaceous and woody bamboo lineages, MADS-box genes, transcription factors that control floral development and timing, were characterized and analyzed in this study. Transcripts were identified using phylogenetic methods and categorized as A, B, C, D or E-class genes, which control floral development, or SOC or SVP-like genes, which control the timing of flowering events. Putative nuclear orthologues were also identified in bamboos to use as phylogenetic markers. Instances of gene copies exhibiting topological patterns that correspond to shared phenotypes were observed in several gene families including floral development and timing genes. Alignments and phylogenetic trees were generated for 3,878 genes and for all genes in a concatenated analysis. Both the concatenated analysis and those of 2,412 separate gene trees supported monophyly among the woody bamboos, which is incongruent with previous phylogenetic studies using plastid markers.

  16. The emergence of core eudicots: new floral evidence from the earliest Late Cretaceous.

    PubMed

    Friis, Else Marie; Pedersen, Kaj Raunsgaard; Crane, Peter R

    2016-12-28

    Eudicots, the most diverse of the three major clades of living angiosperms, are first recognized in the latest Barremian-earliest Aptian. All Early Cretaceous forms appear to be related to species-poor lineages that diverged before the rise of core eudicots, which today comprise more than 70% of angiosperm species. Here, we report the discovery of a well-preserved flower, Caliciflora mauldinensis, from the earliest Late Cretaceous, with unequivocal core eudicot features, including five sepals, five petals and two whorls of stamens borne on the rim of a floral cup containing three free carpels. Pollen is tricolporate. Carpels mature into follicular fruitlets. This character combination suggests a phylogenetic position among rosids, but more specific assignment is precluded by complex patterns of character evolution among the very large number of potentially relevant extant taxa. The whorled floral organization is consistent with ideas that this stable pattern evolved early and was a prerequisite for more integrated patterns of floral architecture that evolved later. However, limited floral synorganization in Caliciflora and all earlier eudicot flowers recognized so far, calls into question hypotheses that substantial diversification of core eudicots had already occurred by the end of the Early Cretaceous.

  17. The emergence of core eudicots: new floral evidence from the earliest Late Cretaceous

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Kaj Raunsgaard; Crane, Peter R.

    2016-01-01

    Eudicots, the most diverse of the three major clades of living angiosperms, are first recognized in the latest Barremian–earliest Aptian. All Early Cretaceous forms appear to be related to species-poor lineages that diverged before the rise of core eudicots, which today comprise more than 70% of angiosperm species. Here, we report the discovery of a well-preserved flower, Caliciflora mauldinensis, from the earliest Late Cretaceous, with unequivocal core eudicot features, including five sepals, five petals and two whorls of stamens borne on the rim of a floral cup containing three free carpels. Pollen is tricolporate. Carpels mature into follicular fruitlets. This character combination suggests a phylogenetic position among rosids, but more specific assignment is precluded by complex patterns of character evolution among the very large number of potentially relevant extant taxa. The whorled floral organization is consistent with ideas that this stable pattern evolved early and was a prerequisite for more integrated patterns of floral architecture that evolved later. However, limited floral synorganization in Caliciflora and all earlier eudicot flowers recognized so far, calls into question hypotheses that substantial diversification of core eudicots had already occurred by the end of the Early Cretaceous. PMID:28003443

  18. De novo Sequencing and Comparative Transcriptomics of Floral Development of the Distylous Species Lithospermum multiflorum

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, James I.

    2016-01-01

    Genes controlling the morphological, micromorphological, and physiological components of the breeding system distyly have been hypothesized, but many of the genes have not been investigated throughout development of the two floral morphs. To this end, the present study is an examination of comparative transcriptomes from three stages of development for the floral organs of the morphs of Lithospermum multiflorum. Transcriptomes of flowers of the two morphs, from various stages of development, were sequenced using an Illumina HiSeq 2000. The floral transcriptome of L. multiflorum was assembled, and differential gene expression (DE) was identified between morphs, throughout development. Additionally, Gene Ontology (GO) terms for DE genes were determined. Fewer genes were DE early in development compared to later in development, with more genes highly expressed in the gynoecium of the SS morph and the corolla and androecium of the LS morph. A reciprocal pattern was observed later in development, and many more genes were DE during this latter stage. During early development, DE genes appear to be involved in growth and floral development, and during later development, DE genes seem to affect physiological functions. Interestingly, many genes involved in response to stress were identified as DE between morphs. PMID:28066486

  19. Using phylogenetics to detect pollinator-mediated floral evolution

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Stacey DeWitt

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The development of comparative phylogenetic methods has provided a powerful toolkit for addressing adaptive hypotheses, and researchers have begun to apply these methods to test the role of pollinators in floral evolution and diversification. One approach is to reconstruct the history of both floral traits and pollination systems to determine if floral trait change is spurred by shifts in pollinators. Looking across multiple shifts, it is also possible to test for significant correlations between floral evolution and pollinators using parsimony, likelihood and Bayesian methods for discrete characters or using statistical comparative methods for continuous characters. Evolutionary shifts in pollinators and floral traits may cause changes in diversification rates, and new methods are available for simultaneously studying character evolution and diversification rates. Relatively few studies have yet applied formal comparative methods to understanding how pollinators affect floral evolution across the phylogeny, and fruitful directions for future applications are discussed. PMID:20497346

  20. Using phylogenetics to detect pollinator-mediated floral evolution.

    PubMed

    DeWitt Smith, Stacey

    2010-10-01

    The development of comparative phylogenetic methods has provided a powerful toolkit for addressing adaptive hypotheses, and researchers have begun to apply these methods to test the role of pollinators in floral evolution and diversification. One approach is to reconstruct the history of both floral traits and pollination systems to determine if floral trait change is spurred by shifts in pollinators. Looking across multiple shifts, it is also possible to test for significant correlations between floral evolution and pollinators using parsimony, likelihood and Bayesian methods for discrete characters or using statistical comparative methods for continuous characters. Evolutionary shifts in pollinators and floral traits may cause changes in diversification rates, and new methods are available for simultaneously studying character evolution and diversification rates. Relatively few studies have yet used formal comparative methods to elucidate how pollinators affect floral evolution across the phylogeny, and fruitful directions for future applications are discussed. © The Authors (2010). Journal compilation © New Phytologist Trust (2010).

  1. Floral scents repel facultative flower visitors, but attract obligate ones

    PubMed Central

    Junker, Robert R.; Blüthgen, Nico

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Biological mutualisms rely on communication between partners, but also require protective measures against exploitation. Animal-pollinated flowers need to attract pollinators but also to avoid conflicts with antagonistic consumers. The view of flower visitors as mutualistic and antagonistic agents considers primarily the plants' interest. A classification emphasizing the consumer's point of view, however, may be more useful when considering animal's adaptations to flower visits which may include a tolerance against defensive floral scent compounds. Methods In a meta-analysis covering 18 studies on the responses of animals to floral scents, the animals were assigned to the categories of obligate and facultative flower visitors which considers their dependency on floral resources. Their responses on floral scents were compared. Key Results On average, obligate flower visitors, often corresponding to pollinators, were attracted to floral scent compounds. In contrast, facultative and mainly antagonistic visitors were strongly repelled by floral scents. The findings confirm that floral scents have a dual function both as attractive and defensive cues. Conclusions Whether an animal depends on floral resources determines its response to these signals, suggesting that obligate flower visitors evolved a tolerance against primarily defensive compounds. Therefore, floral scent bouquets in conjunction with nutritious rewards may solve the conflicting tasks of attracting mutualists while repelling antagonists. PMID:20228087

  2. Evolution of floral morphology and pollination system in Bignonieae (Bignoniaceae).

    PubMed

    Alcantara, Suzana; Lohmann, Lúcia G

    2010-05-01

    The radiation of angiosperms is associated with shifts among pollination modes that are thought to have driven the diversification of floral forms. However, the exact sequence of evolutionary events that led to such great diversity in floral traits is unknown for most plant groups. Here, we characterize the patterns of evolution of individual floral traits and overall floral morphologies in the tribe Bignonieae (Bignoniaceae). We identified 12 discrete traits that are associated with seven floral types previously described for the group and used a penalized likelihood tree of the tribe to reconstruct the ancestral states of those traits at all nodes of the phylogeny of Bignonieae. In addition, evolutionary correlations among traits were conducted using a maximum likelihood approach to test whether the evolution of individual floral traits followed the correlated patterns of evolution expected under the "pollination syndrome" concept. The ancestral Bignonieae flower presented an Anemopaegma-type morphology, which was followed by several parallel shifts in floral morphologies. Those shifts occurred through intermediate stages resulting in mixed floral morphologies as well as directly from the Anemopaegma-type morphology to other floral types. Positive and negative evolutionary correlations among traits fit patterns expected under the pollination syndrome perspective, suggesting that interactions between Bignonieae flowers and pollinators likely played important roles in the diversification of the group as a whole.

  3. Behavioural ecology: bees associate warmth with floral colour.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Adrian G; Whitney, Heather M; Arnold, Sarah E J; Glover, Beverley J; Chittka, Lars

    2006-08-03

    Floral colour signals are used by pollinators as predictors of nutritional rewards, such as nectar. But as insect pollinators often need to invest energy to maintain their body temperature above the ambient temperature, floral heat might also be perceived as a reward. Here we show that bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) prefer to visit warmer flowers and that they can learn to use colour to predict floral temperature before landing. In what could be a widespread floral adaptation, plants may modulate their temperature to encourage pollinators to visit.

  4. Identification and characterization of three orchid MADS-box genes of the AP1/AGL9 subfamily during floral transition.

    PubMed

    Yu, H; Goh, C J

    2000-08-01

    Gene expressions associated with in vitro floral transition in an orchid hybrid (Dendrobium grex Madame Thong-In) were investigated by differential display. One clone, orchid transitional growth related gene 7 (otg7), encoding a new MADS-box gene, was identified to be specifically expressed in the transitional shoot apical meristem (TSAM). Using this clone as a probe, three orchid MADS-box genes, DOMADS1, DOMADS2, and DOMADS3, were subsequently isolated from the TSAM cDNA library. Phylogenetic analyses show that DOMADS1 and DOMADS2 are new members of the AGL2 subfamily and SQUA subfamily, respectively. DOMADS3 contains the signature amino acids as with the members in the independent OSMADS1 subfamily separated from the AGL2 subfamily. All three of the DOMADS genes were expressed in the TSAM during floral transition and later in mature flowers. DOMADS1 RNA was uniformly expressed in both of the inflorescence meristem and the floral primordium and later localized in all of the floral organs. DOMADS2 showed a novel expression pattern that has not been previously characterized for any other MADS-box genes. DOMADS2 transcript was expressed early in the 6-week-old vegetative shoot apical meristem in which the obvious morphological change to floral development had yet to occur. It was expressed throughout the process of floral transition and later in the columns of mature flowers. The onset of DOMADS3 transcription was in the early TSAM at the stage before the differentiation of the first flower primordium. Later, DOMADS3 transcript was only detectable in the pedicel tissues. Our results suggest that the DOMADS genes play important roles in the process of floral transition.

  5. Inflorescence abnormalities occur with overexpression of Arabidopsis lyrata FT in the fwa mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Kawanabe, Takahiro; Fujimoto, Ryo

    2011-10-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana is a quantitative long-day plant with the timing of the floral transition being regulated by both endogenous signals and multiple environmental factors. fwa is a late-flowering mutant, and this phenotype is due to ectopic FWA expression caused by hypomethylation at the FWA locus. The floral transition results in the activation of the floral development process, the key regulators being the floral meristem identity genes, AP1 (APETALA1) and LFY (LEAFY). In this study, we describe inflorescence abnormalities in plants overexpressing the Arabidopsis lyrata FT (AlFT) and A. thaliana FWA (AtFWA) genes simultaneously. The inflorescence abnormality phenotype was present in only a proportion of plants. All plants overexpressing both AlFT and AtFWA flowered earlier than fwa, suggesting that the inflorescence abnormality and earlier flowering time are caused independently. The inflorescence abnormality phenotype was similar to that of the double mutant of ap1 and lfy, and AP1 and LFY genes were down-regulated in the abnormal inflorescences. From these results, we suggest that not only does ectopic AtFWA expression inhibit AtFT/AlFT function to delay flowering but that overexpression of AtFWA and AlFT together inhibits AP1 and LFY function to produce abnormal inflorescences. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Action plan for responses to abnormal conditions in Hanford Site radioactive waste tanks with high organic content. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, K.D.

    1993-07-01

    This action plan describes the criteria and the organizational responsibilities required for ensuring that waste storage tanks with high organic contents are maintained in a safe condition at the Hanford Site. In addition, response actions are outlined for (1) prevention or mitigation of excessive temperatures; or (2) a material release from any waste tank with high organic content. Other response actions may be defined by Westinghouse Hanford Company Systems Engineering if a waste tank parameter goes out of specification. Trend analysis indicates the waste tank parameters have seasonal variations, but are otherwise stable.

  7. Major transcriptome reprogramming underlies floral mimicry induced by the rust fungus Puccinia monoica in Boechera stricta.

    PubMed

    Cano, Liliana M; Raffaele, Sylvain; Haugen, Riston H; Saunders, Diane G O; Leonelli, Lauriebeth; MacLean, Dan; Hogenhout, Saskia A; Kamoun, Sophien

    2013-01-01

    Pucciniamonoica is a spectacular plant parasitic rust fungus that triggers the formation of flower-like structures (pseudoflowers) in its Brassicaceae host plant Boecherastricta. Pseudoflowers mimic in shape, color, nectar and scent co-occurring and unrelated flowers such as buttercups. They act to attract insects thereby aiding spore dispersal and sexual reproduction of the rust fungus. Although much ecological research has been performed on P. monoica-induced pseudoflowers, this system has yet to be investigated at the molecular or genomic level. To date, the molecular alterations underlying the development of pseudoflowers and the genes involved have not been described. To address this, we performed gene expression profiling to reveal 256 plant biological processes that are significantly altered in pseudoflowers. Among these biological processes, plant genes involved in cell fate specification, regulation of transcription, reproduction, floral organ development, anthocyanin (major floral pigments) and terpenoid biosynthesis (major floral volatile compounds) were down-regulated in pseudoflowers. In contrast, plant genes involved in shoot, cotyledon and leaf development, carbohydrate transport, wax biosynthesis, cutin transport and L-phenylalanine metabolism (pathway that results in phenylethanol and phenylacetaldehyde volatile production) were up-regulated. These findings point to an extensive reprogramming of host genes by the rust pathogen to induce floral mimicry. We also highlight 31 differentially regulated plant genes that are enriched in the biological processes mentioned above, and are potentially involved in the formation of pseudoflowers. This work illustrates the complex perturbations induced by rust pathogens in their host plants, and provides a starting point for understanding the molecular mechanisms of pathogen-induced floral mimicry.

  8. Major Transcriptome Reprogramming Underlies Floral Mimicry Induced by the Rust Fungus Puccinia monoica in Boechera stricta

    PubMed Central

    Haugen, Riston H.; Saunders, Diane G. O.; Leonelli, Lauriebeth; MacLean, Dan; Hogenhout, Saskia A.; Kamoun, Sophien

    2013-01-01

    Pucciniamonoica is a spectacular plant parasitic rust fungus that triggers the formation of flower-like structures (pseudoflowers) in its Brassicaceae host plant Boecherastricta. Pseudoflowers mimic in shape, color, nectar and scent co-occurring and unrelated flowers such as buttercups. They act to attract insects thereby aiding spore dispersal and sexual reproduction of the rust fungus. Although much ecological research has been performed on P. monoica-induced pseudoflowers, this system has yet to be investigated at the molecular or genomic level. To date, the molecular alterations underlying the development of pseudoflowers and the genes involved have not been described. To address this, we performed gene expression profiling to reveal 256 plant biological processes that are significantly altered in pseudoflowers. Among these biological processes, plant genes involved in cell fate specification, regulation of transcription, reproduction, floral organ development, anthocyanin (major floral pigments) and terpenoid biosynthesis (major floral volatile compounds) were down-regulated in pseudoflowers. In contrast, plant genes involved in shoot, cotyledon and leaf development, carbohydrate transport, wax biosynthesis, cutin transport and L-phenylalanine metabolism (pathway that results in phenylethanol and phenylacetaldehyde volatile production) were up-regulated. These findings point to an extensive reprogramming of host genes by the rust pathogen to induce floral mimicry. We also highlight 31 differentially regulated plant genes that are enriched in the biological processes mentioned above, and are potentially involved in the formation of pseudoflowers. This work illustrates the complex perturbations induced by rust pathogens in their host plants, and provides a starting point for understanding the molecular mechanisms of pathogen-induced floral mimicry. PMID:24069397

  9. Leukocyte abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Gabig, T G

    1980-07-01

    Certain qualitative abnormalities in neutrophils and blood monocytes are associated with frequent, severe, and recurrent bacterial infections leading to fatal sepsis, while other qualitative defects demonstrated in vitro may have few or no clinical sequelae. These qualitative defects are discussed in terms of the specific functions of locomotion, phagocytosis, degranulation, and bacterial killing.

  10. Floral Morphology and Development in Quillajaceae and Surianaceae (Fabales), the Species-poor Relatives of Leguminosae and Polygalaceae

    PubMed Central

    Bello, M. A.; Hawkins, J. A.; Rudall, P. J.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Molecular phylogenies have suggested a new circumscription for Fabales to include Leguminosae, Quillajaceae, Surianaceae and Polygalaceae. However, recent attempts to reconstruct the interfamilial relationships of the order have resulted in several alternative hypotheses, including a sister relationship between Quillajaceae and Surianaceae, the two species-poor families of Fabales. Here, floral morphology and ontogeny of these two families are investigated to explore evidence of a potential relationship between them. Floral traits are discussed with respect to early radiation in the order. Method Floral buds of representatives of Quillajaceae and Surianaceae were dissected and observed using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Key Results Quillajaceae and Surianaceae possess some common traits, such as inflorescence morphology and perianth initiation, but development and organization of their reproductive whorls differ. In Quillaja, initiation of the diplostemonous androecium is unidirectional, overlapping with the petal primordia. In contrast, Suriana is obdiplostemonous, and floral organ initiation is simultaneous. Independent initiation of five carpels is common to both Quillaja and Suriana, but subsequent development differs; the antesepalous carpels of Quillaja become fused proximally and exhibit two rows of ovules, and in Suriana the gynoecium is apocarpous, gynobasic, with antepetalous biovulate carpels. Conclusions Differences in the reproductive development and organization of Quillajaceae and Surianaceae cast doubt on their potential sister relationship. Instead, Quillaja resembles Leguminosae in some floral traits, a hypothesis not suggested by molecular-based phylogenies. Despite implicit associations of zygomorphy with species-rich clades and actinomorphy with species-poor families in Fabales, this correlation sometimes fails due to high variation in floral symmetry. Studies considering specific derived clades and

  11. Floral morphology and development in Quillajaceae and Surianaceae (Fabales), the species-poor relatives of Leguminosae and Polygalaceae.

    PubMed

    Bello, M A; Hawkins, J A; Rudall, P J

    2007-12-01

    Molecular phylogenies have suggested a new circumscription for Fabales to include Leguminosae, Quillajaceae, Surianaceae and Polygalaceae. However, recent attempts to reconstruct the interfamilial relationships of the order have resulted in several alternative hypotheses, including a sister relationship between Quillajaceae and Surianaceae, the two species-poor families of Fabales. Here, floral morphology and ontogeny of these two families are investigated to explore evidence of a potential relationship between them. Floral traits are discussed with respect to early radiation in the order. Floral buds of representatives of Quillajaceae and Surianaceae were dissected and observed using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Quillajaceae and Surianaceae possess some common traits, such as inflorescence morphology and perianth initiation, but development and organization of their reproductive whorls differ. In Quillaja, initiation of the diplostemonous androecium is unidirectional, overlapping with the petal primordia. In contrast, Suriana is obdiplostemonous, and floral organ initiation is simultaneous. Independent initiation of five carpels is common to both Quillaja and Suriana, but subsequent development differs; the antesepalous carpels of Quillaja become fused proximally and exhibit two rows of ovules, and in Suriana the gynoecium is apocarpous, gynobasic, with antepetalous biovulate carpels. Differences in the reproductive development and organization of Quillajaceae and Surianaceae cast doubt on their potential sister relationship. Instead, Quillaja resembles Leguminosae in some floral traits, a hypothesis not suggested by molecular-based phylogenies. Despite implicit associations of zygomorphy with species-rich clades and actinomorphy with species-poor families in Fabales, this correlation sometimes fails due to high variation in floral symmetry. Studies considering specific derived clades and reproductive biology could address more precise

  12. Floral morphology and development in Quillajaceae and Surianaceae (Fabales), the species-poor relatives of Leguminosae and Polygalaceae.

    PubMed

    Bello, M A; Hawkins, J A; Rudall, P J

    2008-06-01

    Molecular phylogenies have suggested a new circumscription for Fabales to include Leguminosae, Quillajaceae, Surianaceae and Polygalaceae. However, recent attempts to reconstruct the interfamilial relationships of the order have resulted in several alternative hypotheses, including a sister relationship between Quillajaceae and Surianaceae, the two species-poor families of Fabales. Here, floral morphology and ontogeny of these two families are investigated to explore evidence of a potential relationship between them. Floral traits are discussed with respect to early radiation in the order. Floral buds of representatives of Quillajaceae and Surianaceae were dissected and observed using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Quillajaceae and Surianaceae possess some common traits, such as inflorescence morphology and perianth initiation, but development and organization of their reproductive whorls differ. In Quillaja, initiation of the diplostemonous androecium is unidirectional, overlapping with the petal primordia. In contrast, Suriana is obdiplostemonous, and floral organ initiation is simultaneous. Independent initiation of five carpels is common to both Quillaja and Suriana, but subsequent development differs; the antesepalous carpels of Quillaja become fused proximally and exhibit two rows of ovules, and in Suriana the gynoecium is apocarpous, gynobasic, with antepetalous biovulate carpels. Differences in the reproductive development and organization of Quillajaceae and Surianaceae cast doubt on their potential sister relationship. Instead, Quillaja resembles Leguminosae in some floral traits, a hypothesis not suggested by molecular-based phylogenies. Despite implicit associations of zygomorphy with species-rich clades and actinomorphy with species-poor families in Fabales, this correlation sometimes fails due to high variation in floral symmetry. Studies considering specific derived clades and reproductive biology could address more precise

  13. Spatial and temporal expression of the orchid floral homeotic gene DOMADS1 is mediated by its upstream regulatory regions.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hao; Yang, Shu Hua; Goh, Chong Jin

    2002-05-01

    The orchid floral homeotic gene, DOMADSI, is a marker gene specifically expressed in the transitional shoot apical meristem during floral transition in Dendrobium Madame Thong-In. DOMADSI is not detectable in vegetative tissues except a weak expression in the stem. Its transcript is uniformly localized in both of the inflorescence meristem and floral primordia, and later expressed in almost all of the floral organs. We isolated and sequenced a 3.5 kb DOMADSI promoter fragment upstream of the transcription start site, demonstrating the location of several putative DNA-binding sites, through which MADS-box and class I knox genes may modulate the DOMADSI expression. To gain insight into the molecular basis of the regulation of DOMADS1, deletion analysis of the DOMADSI::beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene fusions was performed by means of the stable orchid transformation systems. The study shows that the full-length upstream promoter sequence confers the same spatial and temporal GUS staining pattern as that of the distribution of DOMADSI RNA during orchid development. We also identified the distinct cis-acting regulatory regions required for the control of DOMADS1 expression in vegetative and reproductive tissues, as well as the shoot apical meristem during floral transition.

  14. Comparative Transcriptome Reveals Benzenoid Biosynthesis Regulation as Inducer of Floral Scent in the Woody Plant Prunus mume

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Kai; Yang, Weiru; Zhou, Yuzhen; Zhang, Jie; Li, Yushu; Ahmad, Sagheer; Zhang, Qixiang

    2017-01-01

    Mei (Prunus mume) is a peculiar woody ornamental plant famous for its inviting fragrance in winter. However, in this valuable plant, the mechanism behind floral volatile development remains poorly defined. Therefore, to explore the floral scent formation, a comparative transcriptome was conducted in order to identify the global transcripts specifying flower buds and blooming flowers of P. mume. Differentially expressed genes were identified between the two different stages showing great discrepancy in floral volatile production. Moreover, according to the expression specificity among the organs (stem, root, fruit, leaf), we summarized one gene cluster regulating the benzenoid floral scent. Significant gene changes were observed in accordance with the formation of benzenoid, thus pointing the pivotal roles of genes as well as cytochrome-P450s and short chain dehydrogenases in the benzenoid biosynthetic process. Further, transcription factors like EMISSION OF BENZENOID I and ODORANT I performed the same expression pattern suggesting key roles in the management of the downstream genes. Taken together, these data provide potential novel anchors for the benzenoid pathway, and the insight for the floral scent induction and regulation mechanism in woody plants. PMID:28344586

  15. Floral Mass per Area and Water Maintenance Traits Are Correlated with Floral Longevity in Paphiopedilum (Orchidaceae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng-Ping; Yang, Ying-Jie; Yang, Qiu-Yun; Zhang, Wei; Brodribb, Tim J; Hao, Guang-You; Hu, Hong; Zhang, Shi-Bao

    2017-01-01

    Floral longevity (FL) determines the balance between pollination success and flower maintenance. While a longer floral duration enhances the ability of plants to attract pollinators, it can be detrimental if it negatively affects overall plant fitness. Longer-lived leaves display a positive correlation with their dry mass per unit area, which influences leaf construction costs and physiological functions. However, little is known about the association among FL and floral dry mass per unit area (FMA) and water maintenance traits. We investigated whether increased FL might incur similar costs. Our assessment of 11 species of Paphiopedilum (slipper orchids) considered the impact of FMA and flower water-maintenance characteristics on FL. We found a positive relationship between FL and FMA. Floral longevity showed significant correlations with osmotic potential at the turgor loss and bulk modulus of elasticity but not with FA. Neither the size nor the mass per area was correlated between leaves and flowers, indicating that flower and leaf economic traits evolved independently. Therefore, our findings demonstrate a clear relationship between FL and the capacity to maintain water status in the flower. These economic constraints also indicate that extending the flower life span can have a high physiological cost in Paphiopedilum.

  16. Multi-organ abnormalities and mTORC1 activation in zebrafish model of multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seok-Hyung; Scott, Sarah A; Bennett, Michael J; Carson, Robert P; Fessel, Joshua; Brown, H Alex; Ess, Kevin C

    2013-06-01

    Multiple Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency (MADD) is a severe mitochondrial disorder featuring multi-organ dysfunction. Mutations in either the ETFA, ETFB, and ETFDH genes can cause MADD but very little is known about disease specific mechanisms due to a paucity of animal models. We report a novel zebrafish mutant dark xavier (dxa(vu463) ) that has an inactivating mutation in the etfa gene. dxa(vu463) recapitulates numerous pathological and biochemical features seen in patients with MADD including brain, liver, and kidney disease. Similar to children with MADD, homozygote mutant dxa(vu463) zebrafish have a spectrum of phenotypes ranging from moderate to severe. Interestingly, excessive maternal feeding significantly exacerbated the phenotype. Homozygous mutant dxa(vu463) zebrafish have swollen and hyperplastic neural progenitor cells, hepatocytes and kidney tubule cells as well as elevations in triacylglycerol, cerebroside sulfate and cholesterol levels. Their mitochondria were also greatly enlarged, lacked normal cristae, and were dysfunctional. We also found increased signaling of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) with enlarged cell size and proliferation. Treatment with rapamycin partially reversed these abnormalities. Our results indicate that etfa gene function is remarkably conserved in zebrafish as compared to humans with highly similar pathological, biochemical abnormalities to those reported in children with MADD. Altered mTORC1 signaling and maternal nutritional status may play critical roles in MADD disease progression and suggest novel treatment approaches that may ameliorate disease severity.

  17. Novel and conserved microRNAs in soybean floral whorls.

    PubMed

    Kulcheski, F R; Molina, L G; da Fonseca, G C; de Morais, G L; de Oliveira, L F V; Margis, R

    2016-01-10

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) correspond to a class of endogenous small non-coding RNAs (19-24 nt) that regulates the gene expression, through mRNA target cleavage or translation inhibition. In plants, miRNAs have been shown to play pivotal roles in a wide variety of metabolic and biological processes like plant growth, development, and response to biotic and abiotic stress. Soybean is one of the most important crops worldwide, due to the production of oil and its high protein content. The reproductive phase is considered the most important for soybean yield, which is mainly intended to produce the grains. The identification of miRNAs is not yet saturated in soybean, and there are no studies linking them to the different floral organs. In this study, three different mature soybean floral whorls were used in the construction of sRNA libraries. The sequencing of petal, carpel and stamen libraries generated a total of 10,165,661 sequences. Subsequent analyses identified 200 miRNAs sequences, among which, 41 were novel miRNAs, 80 were conserved soybean miRNAs, 31 were new antisense conserved soybean miRNAs and 46 were soybean miRNAs isoforms. We also found a new miRNA conserved in other plant species, and finally one miRNA-sibling of a soybean conserved miRNA. Conserved and novel miRNAs were evaluated by RT-qPCR. We observed a differential expression across the three whorls for six miRNAs. Computational predicted targets for miRNAs analyzed by RT-qPCR were identified and present functions related to reproductive process in plants. In summary, the increased accumulation of specific and novel miRNAs in different whorls indicates that miRNAs are an important part of the regulatory network in soybean flower.

  18. Is floral morphology a good predictor of floral visitors to Antirrhineae (snapdragons and relatives)?

    PubMed

    Guzmán, Beatriz; Gómez, José María; Vargas, Pablo

    2017-03-17

    The association between plants and flower visitors has been historically proposed as a main factor driving the evolutionary change of both flower and pollinator phenotypes. The considerable diversity in floral morphology within the tribe Antirrhineae has been traditionally related to pollinator types. We used empirical data on the flower visitors from 59 Antirrhineae taxa from the literature and our own field surveys, which provide an opportunity to test whether flower phenotypes are reliable predictors of visitors and pollinator niches (i.e., a particular guild of pollinators that comprise a realized niche for the plant). The degree of adjustment between eight key floral traits and actual visitors was explored by testing the predictive value (PV) of inferred pollinator syndromes (i.e., suites of floral traits that characterize groups of plant species related to pollination). Actual visitors and inferred pollinator niches (categorization of visitors' association using a modularity algorithm) were also explored using Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). The bee pollinator niche is correctly classified (92.5% accuracy) for flowers with dull corolla colour, without nectar guides, as the most important predictor. Both predictive value and statistical classification prove useful in classifying Antirrhineae taxa and the bee pollinator niche, mostly as a consequence of the high proportion of genera (18 of 21) and taxa (48 of 59 species and subspecies) with occluded corollas primarily visited by bees. Our predictive approach rendered a high Positive Predictive Value (PPV) of floral traits in the diagnosis of visitors/pollinator niches (c. 62 to 66%). In particular, a high PPV was found for bees as both visitors (91.5%) and forming pollinator niches (81.3%). In addition, LDA showed that four pollinator niches (generalist, hummingbird, moth and particularly bees) are well defined based on floral traits. The greater number of species visited by bees irrespective of pollinator

  19. 36 CFR 12.10 - Floral and commemorative tributes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Floral and commemorative tributes. 12.10 Section 12.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL CEMETERY REGULATIONS § 12.10 Floral and commemorative tributes. The placement on a...

  20. Ozone degrades floral scent and reduces pollinator attraction to flowers.

    PubMed

    Farré-Armengol, Gerard; Peñuelas, Josep; Li, Tao; Yli-Pirilä, Pasi; Filella, Iolanda; Llusia, Joan; Blande, James D

    2016-01-01

    In this work we analyzed the degradation of floral scent volatiles from Brassica nigra by reaction with ozone along a distance gradient and the consequences for pollinator attraction. For this purpose we used a reaction system comprising three reaction tubes in which we conducted measurements of floral volatiles using a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS) and GC-MS. We also tested the effects of floral scent degradation on the responses of the generalist pollinator Bombus terrestris. The chemical analyses revealed that supplementing air with ozone led to an increasing reduction in the concentrations of floral volatiles in air with distance from the volatile source. The results revealed different reactivities with ozone for different floral scent constituents, which emphasized that ozone exposure not only degrades floral scents, but also changes the ratios of compounds in a scent blend. Behavioural tests revealed that floral scent was reduced in its attractiveness to pollinators after it had been exposed to 120 ppb O3 over a 4.5 m distance. The combined results of chemical analyses and behavioural responses of pollinators strongly suggest that high ozone concentrations have significant negative impacts on pollination by reducing the distance over which floral olfactory signals can be detected by pollinators.

  1. Air pollutants degrade floral scents and increase insect foraging times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuentes, Jose D.; Chamecki, Marcelo; Roulston, T.'ai; Chen, Bicheng; Pratt, Kenneth R.

    2016-09-01

    Flowers emit mixtures of scents that mediate plant-insect interactions such as attracting insect pollinators. Because of their volatile nature, however, floral scents readily react with ozone, nitrate radical, and hydroxyl radical. The result of such reactions is the degradation and the chemical modification of scent plumes downwind of floral sources. Large Eddy Simulations (LES) are developed to investigate dispersion and chemical degradation and modification of floral scents due to reactions with ozone, hydroxyl radical, and nitrate radical within the atmospheric surface layer. Impacts on foraging insects are investigated by utilizing a random walk model to simulate insect search behavior. Results indicate that even moderate air pollutant levels (e.g., ozone mixing ratios greater than 60 parts per billion on a per volume basis, ppbv) substantially degrade floral volatiles and alter the chemical composition of released floral scents. As a result, insect success rates of locating plumes of floral scents were reduced and foraging times increased in polluted air masses due to considerable degradation and changes in the composition of floral scents. Results also indicate that plant-pollinator interactions could be sensitive to changes in floral scent composition, especially if insects are unable to adapt to the modified scentscape. The increase in foraging time could have severe cascading and pernicious impacts on the fitness of foraging insects by reducing the time devoted to other necessary tasks.

  2. FORMOSA controls cell division and expansion during floral development in Antirrhinum majus.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Benarroch, Luciana; Causier, Barry; Weiss, Julia; Egea-Cortines, Marcos

    2009-05-01

    Control of organ size is the product of coordinated cell division and expansion. In plants where one of these pathways is perturbed, organ size is often unaffected as compensation mechanisms are brought into play. The number of founder cells in organ primordia, dividing cells, and the period of cell proliferation determine cell number in lateral organs. We have identified the Antirrhinum FORMOSA (FO) gene as a specific regulator of floral size. Analysis of cell size and number in the fo mutant, which has increased flower size, indicates that FO is an organ-specific inhibitor of cell division and activator of cell expansion. Increased cell number in fo floral organs correlated with upregulation of genes involved in the cell cycle. In Arabidopsis the AINTEGUMENTA (ANT) gene promotes cell division. In the fo mutant increased cell number also correlates with upregulation of an Antirrhinum ANT-like gene (Am-ANT) in inflorescences that is very closely related to ANT and shares a similar expression pattern, suggesting that they may be functional equivalents. Increased cell proliferation is thought to be compensated for by reduced cell expansion to maintain organ size. In Arabidopsis petal cell expansion is inhibited by the BIGPETAL (BPE) gene, and in the fo mutant reduced cell size corresponded to upregulation of an Antirrhinum BPE-like gene (Am-BPE). Our data suggest that FO inhibits cell proliferation by negatively regulating Am-ANT, and acts upstream of Am-BPE to coordinate floral organ size. This demonstrates that organ size is modulated by the organ-specific control of both general and local gene networks.

  3. Natural selection on floral volatile production in Penstemon digitalis

    PubMed Central

    Parachnowitsch, Amy L.; Burdon, Rosalie C. F.; Raguso, Robert A.; Kessler, André

    2013-01-01

    Natural selection is thought to have shaped the evolution of floral scent; however, unlike other floral characters, we have a rudimentary knowledge of how phenotypic selection acts on scent. We found that floral scent was under stronger selection than corolla traits such as flower size and flower color in weakly scented Penstemon digitalis. Our results suggest that to understand evolution in floral phenotypes, including scent in floral selection, studies are crucial. For P. digitalis, linalool was the direct target of selection in the scent bouquet. Therefore, we determined the enantiomeric configuration of linalool because interacting insects may perceive the enantiomers differentially. We found that P. digitalis produces only (S)-(+)-linalool and, more interestingly, it is also taken up into the nectar. Because the nectar is scented and flavored with (S)-(+)-linalool, it may be an important cue for pollinators visiting P. digitalis flowers. PMID:23221753

  4. Nickel accumulation by Streptanthus polygaloides (Brassicaceae) reduces floral visitation rate.

    PubMed

    Meindl, George A; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

    2014-02-01

    Hyperaccumulation is the phenomenon whereby plants take up and sequester in high concentrations elements that generally are excluded from above-ground tissues. It largely is unknown whether the metals taken up by these plants are transferred to floral rewards (i.e., nectar and pollen) and, if so, whether floral visitation is affected. We grew Streptanthus polygaloides, a nickel (Ni) hyperaccumulator, in short-term Ni supplemented soils and control soils to determine whether Ni is accumulated in floral rewards and whether floral visitation is affected by growth in Ni-rich soils. We found that while supplementation of soils with Ni did not alter floral morphology or reward quantity (i.e., anther size or nectar volume), Ni did accumulate in the nectar and pollen-filled anthers-providing the first demonstration that Ni is accumulated in pollinator rewards. Further, S. polygaloides grown in Ni-supplemented soils received fewer visits per flower per hour from both bees and flies (both naïve to Ni-rich floral resources in the study area) relative to plants grown in control soils, although the probability a plant was visited initially was unaffected by Ni treatment. Our findings show that while Ni-rich floral rewards decrease floral visitation, floral visitors are not completely deterred, so some floral visitors may collect and ingest potentially toxic resources from metal-hyperaccumulating plants. In addition to broadening our understanding of the effects of metal accumulation on ecological interactions in natural populations, these results have implications for the use of insect-pollinated plants in phytoremediation.

  5. Floral symmetry affects speciation rates in angiosperms.

    PubMed Central

    Sargent, Risa D.

    2004-01-01

    Despite much recent activity in the field of pollination biology, the extent to which animal pollinators drive the formation of new angiosperm species remains unresolved. One problem has been identifying floral adaptations that promote reproductive isolation. The evolution of a bilaterally symmetrical corolla restricts the direction of approach and movement of pollinators on and between flowers. Restricting pollinators to approaching a flower from a single direction facilitates specific placement of pollen on the pollinator. When coupled with pollinator constancy, precise pollen placement can increase the probability that pollen grains reach a compatible stigma. This has the potential to generate reproductive isolation between species, because mutations that cause changes in the placement of pollen on the pollinator may decrease gene flow between incipient species. I predict that animal-pollinated lineages that possess bilaterally symmetrical flowers should have higher speciation rates than lineages possessing radially symmetrical flowers. Using sister-group comparisons I demonstrate that bilaterally symmetric lineages tend to be more species rich than their radially symmetrical sister lineages. This study supports an important role for pollinator-mediated speciation and demonstrates that floral morphology plays a key role in angiosperm speciation. PMID:15156918

  6. Floral Volatiles in Parasitic Plants of the Orobanchaceae. Ecological and Taxonomic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Tóth, Peter; Undas, Anna K.; Verstappen, Francel; Bouwmeester, Harro

    2016-01-01

    The holoparasitic broomrapes, Orobanche spp. and Phelipanche spp. (Orobanchaceae), are root parasites that completely depend on a host plant for survival and reproduction. There is considerable controversy on the taxonomy of this biologically and agronomically important family. Flowers of over 25 parasitic Orobanchaceae and a number of close, parasitic and non-parasitic, relatives emitted a complex blend of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), consisting of over 130 VOCs per species. Floral VOC blend-based phylogeny supported the known taxonomy in internal taxonomic grouping of genus and eliminated the uncertainty in some taxonomical groups. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis suggested separation of the broomrapes into two main groups parasitizing annual and perennial hosts, and for the annual hosts, into weedy and non-weedy broomrapes. We conclude that floral VOCs are a significant tool in species identification and possibly even in defining new species and can help to improve controversial taxonomy in the Orobanchaceae. PMID:27014329

  7. Predicting evolution of floral traits associated with mating system in a natural plant population.

    PubMed

    Kleunen, M; Ritland, K

    2004-11-01

    Evolution of floral traits requires that they are heritable, that they affect fitness, and that they are not constrained by genetic correlations. These prerequisites have only rarely been examined in natural populations. For Mimulus guttatus, we found by using the Riska-method that corolla width, anther length, ovary length and number of red dots on the corolla were heritable in a natural population. Seed production (maternal fitness) was directly positively affected by corolla width and anther size, and indirectly so by ovary length and number of red dots on the corolla. The siring success (paternal fitness), as estimated from allozyme data, was directly negatively affected by anther-stigma separation, and indirectly so by the corolla length-width ratio. Genetic correlations, estimated with the Lynch-method, were positive between floral size measures. We predict that larger flowers with larger reproductive organs, which generally favour outcrossing, will evolve in this natural population of M. guttatus.

  8. Immunological Evidence of Thaumatin-Like Proteins during Tobacco Floral Differentiation 1

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Luc; Arró, Montserrat; Hoebeke, Johan; Meeks-Wagner, D. Ry; Van, Kiem Tran Thanh

    1992-01-01

    Tobacco proteins that share homology with thaumatin, a sweet protein of Thaumatococcus daniellii Benth., are produced in various physiological situations such as pathogenesis-related stress or water deficit stress. Using purified polyclonal anti-thaumatin antibodies, we have detected other thaumatin-like proteins in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum var Samsun) that have been related with floral differentiation. Thaumatin-like proteins with apparent molecular masses of 42.6, 31.6, and 26.3 kilodaltons were found in immature and mature flower organs in vivo, and others of 46.7, 41.7, and 27.5 kilodaltons were exclusively detected in thin cell layer explants forming flowers. In situ immunolocalization revealed their synthesis in newly differentiated floral meristems, in tracheids, and in parenchyma cells. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7 PMID:16668633

  9. Distinct regulation in inflorescence carbohydrate metabolism according to grapevine cultivars during floral development.

    PubMed

    Sawicki, Mélodie; Jacquens, Lucile; Baillieul, Fabienne; Clément, Christophe; Vaillant-Gaveau, Nathalie; Jacquard, Cédric

    2015-07-01

    Carbohydrate metabolism is important in plant sexual reproduction because sugar contents are determining factors for both flower initiation and floral organ development. In woody plants, flowering represents the most energy-consuming step crucial to reproductive success. Nevertheless, in these species, the photosynthesis performed by flowers supplies the carbon required for reproduction. In grapevine (Vitis vinifera), the inflorescence has a specific status because this organ imports carbohydrates at the same time as it exports photoassimilates. In this study, fluctuations in carbohydrate metabolism were monitored by analyzing gas exchanges, photosynthetic electron transport capacity, carbohydrate contents and some activities of carbohydrate metabolism enzymes, in the inflorescences of Pinot noir and Gewurztraminer, two cultivars with a different sensitivity to coulure phenomenon. Our results showed that photosynthetic activity and carbohydrate metabolism are clearly different and differently regulated during the floral development in the two cultivars. Indeed, the regulation of the linear electron flow and the cyclic electron flow is not similar. Moreover, the regulation of PSII activity, with a higher Y(NPQ)/Y(NO) ratio in Gewurztraminer, can be correlated with the higher protection of the photosynthetic chain and consequently with the higher yield under optimal conditions of this cultivar. At least, our results showed a higher photosynthetic activity and a better protection of PSI in Pinot noir during the floral development. © 2015 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  10. Spatiotemporal expression of duplicate AGAMOUS orthologues during floral development in Phalaenopsis.

    PubMed

    Song, In-Ja; Nakamura, Toru; Fukuda, Tatsuya; Yokoyama, Jun; Ito, Takuro; Ichikawa, Hiroaki; Horikawa, Yoh; Kameya, Toshiaki; Kanno, Akira

    2006-06-01

    The AGAMOUS (AG) family of MADS-box genes plays important roles in controlling the development of the reproductive organs of flowering plants. To understand the molecular mechanisms behind the floral development in the orchid, we isolated and characterized two AG-like genes from Phalaenopsis that we denoted PhalAG1 and PhalAG2. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that PhalAG1 and PhalAG2 fall into different phylogenetic positions in the AG gene family as they belong to the C- and D-lineages, respectively. Reverse transcription-polymerase chair reaction (RT-PCR) analyses showed that PhalAG1 and PhalAG2 transcripts were detected in flower buds but not in vegetative organs. Moreover, in situ hybridization experiments revealed that PhalAG1 and PhalAG2 hybridization signals were observed in the lip, column, and ovule during the floral development of Phalaenopsis, with little difference between the expression patterns of the two genes. These results suggest that both AG-like genes in Phalaenopsis act redundantly with each other in floral development.

  11. Functional analyses of a flavonol synthase-like gene from Camellia nitidissima reveal its roles in flavonoid metabolism during floral pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xing-Wen; Fan, Zheng-Qi; Chen, Yue; Zhu, Yu-Lin; Li, Ji-Yuan; Yin, Heng-Fu

    2013-09-01

    The flavonoids metabolic pathway plays central roles in floral coloration, in which anthocyanins and flavonols are derived from common precursors, dihydroflavonols. Flavonol synthase (FLS) catalyses dihydroflavonols into flavonols, which presents a key branch of anthocyanins biosynthesis. The yellow flower of Camellia nitidissima Chi. is a unique feature within the genus Camellia, which makes it a precious resource for breeding yellow camellia varieties. In this work, we characterized the secondary metabolites of pigments during floral development of C. nitidissima and revealed that accumulation of flavonols correlates with floral coloration. We first isolated CnFLS1 and showed that it is a FLS of C. nitidissima by gene family analysis. Second, expression analysis during floral development and different floral organs indicated that the expression level of CnFLS1 was regulated by developmental cues, which was in agreement with the accumulating pattern of flavonols. Furthermore, over-expression of CnFLS1 in Nicotiana tabacum altered floral colour into white or light yellow, and metabolic analysis showed significant increasing of flavonols and reducing of anthocyanins in transgenic plants. Our work suggested CnFLS1 plays critical roles in yellow colour pigmentation and is potentially a key point of genetic engineering toward colour modification in Camellia.

  12. Determination of Arabidopsis floral meristem identity by AGAMOUS.

    PubMed

    Mizukami, Y; Ma, H

    1997-03-01

    Determinate growth of floral meristems in Arabidopsis requires the function of the floral regulatory gene AGAMOUS (AG). Expression of AG mRNA in the central region of floral meristems relies on the partially overlapping functions of the LEAFY (LFY) and APETALA1 (AP1) genes, which promote initial floral meristem identity. Here, we provide evidence that AG function is required for the final definition of floral meristem identity and that constitutive AG function can promote, independent of LFY and AP1 functions, the determinate floral state in the center of reproductive meristems. Loss-of-function analysis showed that the indeterminate central region of the ag mutant floral meristem undergoes conversion to an inflorescence meristem when long-day-dependent flowering stimulus is removed. Furthermore, gain-of-function analysis demonstrated that ectopic AG function results in precocious flowering and the formation of terminal flowers at apices of both the primary inflorescence and axillary branches of transgenic Arabidopsis plants in which AG expression is under the control of the 35S promoter from cauliflower mosaic virus. Similar phenotypes were also observed in lfy ap1 double mutants carrying a 35S-AG transgene. Together, these results indicate that AG is a principal developmental switch that controls the transition of meristem activity from indeterminate to determinate.

  13. Floral colour versus phylogeny in structuring subalpine flowering communities

    PubMed Central

    McEwen, Jamie R.; Vamosi, Jana C.

    2010-01-01

    The relative number of seeds produced by competing species can influence the community structure; yet, traits that influence seed production, such as pollinator attraction and floral colour, have received little attention in community ecology. Here, we analyse floral colour using reflectance spectra that include near-UV and examined the phylogenetic signal of floral colour. We found that coflowering species within communities tended to be more divergent in floral colour than expected by chance. However, coflowering species were not phylogenetically dispersed, in part due to our finding that floral colour is a labile trait with a weak phylogenetic signal. Furthermore, while we found that locally rare and common species exhibited equivalent floral colour distances from their coflowering neighbours, frequent species (those found in more communities) exhibited higher colour distances from their coflowering neighbours. Our findings support recent studies, which have found that (i) plant lineages exhibit frequent floral colour transitions; and (ii) traits that influence local population dynamics contribute to community structure. PMID:20484236

  14. Biotechnological Advancements for Improving Floral Attributes in Ornamental Plants

    PubMed Central

    Noman, Ali; Aqeel, Muhammad; Deng, Jianming; Khalid, Noreen; Sanaullah, Tayyaba; Shuilin, He

    2017-01-01

    Developing new ornamental cultivars with improved floral attributes is a major goal in floriculture. Biotechnological approach together with classical breeding methods has been used to modify floral color, appearance as well as for increasing disease resistance. Transgenic strategies possess immense potential to produce novel flower phenotypes that are not found in nature. Adoption of Genetic engineering has supported the idea of floral trait modification. Ornamental plant attributes like floral color, fragrance, disease resistance, and vase life can be improved by means of genetic manipulation. Therefore, we witness transgenic plant varieties of high aesthetic and commercial value. This review focuses on biotechnological advancements in manipulating key floral traits that contribute in development of diverse ornamental plant lines. Data clearly reveals that regulation of biosynthetic pathways related to characteristics like pigment production, flower morphology and fragrance is both possible and predictable. In spite of their great significance, small number of genetically engineered varieties of ornamental plants has been field tested. Today, novel flower colors production is regarded as chief commercial benefit obtained from transgenic plants. But certain other floral traits are much more important and have high commercial potential. Other than achievements such as novel architecture, modified flower color, etc., very few reports are available regarding successful transformation of other valuable horticultural characteristics. Our review also summarized biotechnological efforts related to enhancement of fragrance and induction of early flowering along with changes in floral anatomy and morphology. PMID:28473834

  15. Biotechnological Advancements for Improving Floral Attributes in Ornamental Plants.

    PubMed

    Noman, Ali; Aqeel, Muhammad; Deng, Jianming; Khalid, Noreen; Sanaullah, Tayyaba; Shuilin, He

    2017-01-01

    Developing new ornamental cultivars with improved floral attributes is a major goal in floriculture. Biotechnological approach together with classical breeding methods has been used to modify floral color, appearance as well as for increasing disease resistance. Transgenic strategies possess immense potential to produce novel flower phenotypes that are not found in nature. Adoption of Genetic engineering has supported the idea of floral trait modification. Ornamental plant attributes like floral color, fragrance, disease resistance, and vase life can be improved by means of genetic manipulation. Therefore, we witness transgenic plant varieties of high aesthetic and commercial value. This review focuses on biotechnological advancements in manipulating key floral traits that contribute in development of diverse ornamental plant lines. Data clearly reveals that regulation of biosynthetic pathways related to characteristics like pigment production, flower morphology and fragrance is both possible and predictable. In spite of their great significance, small number of genetically engineered varieties of ornamental plants has been field tested. Today, novel flower colors production is regarded as chief commercial benefit obtained from transgenic plants. But certain other floral traits are much more important and have high commercial potential. Other than achievements such as novel architecture, modified flower color, etc., very few reports are available regarding successful transformation of other valuable horticultural characteristics. Our review also summarized biotechnological efforts related to enhancement of fragrance and induction of early flowering along with changes in floral anatomy and morphology.

  16. A de novo floral transcriptome reveals clues into Phalaenopsis orchid flower development.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian-Zhi; Lin, Chih-Peng; Cheng, Ting-Chi; Chang, Bill Chia-Han; Cheng, Shu-Yu; Chen, Yi-Wen; Lee, Chen-Yu; Chin, Shih-Wen; Chen, Fure-Chyi

    2015-01-01

    Phalaenopsis has a zygomorphic floral structure, including three outer tepals, two lateral inner tepals and a highly modified inner median tepal called labellum or lip; however, the regulation of its organ development remains unelucidated. We generated RNA-seq reads with the Illumina platform for floral organs of the Phalaenopsis wild-type and peloric mutant with a lip-like petal. A total of 43,552 contigs were obtained after de novo assembly. We used differentially expressed gene profiling to compare the transcriptional changes in floral organs for both the wild-type and peloric mutant. Pair-wise comparison of sepals, petals and labellum between peloric mutant and its wild-type revealed 1,838, 758 and 1,147 contigs, respectively, with significant differential expression. PhAGL6a (CUFF.17763), PhAGL6b (CUFF.17763.1), PhMADS1 (CUFF.36625.1), PhMADS4 (CUFF.25909) and PhMADS5 (CUFF.39479.1) were significantly upregulated in the lip-like petal of the peloric mutant. We used real-time PCR analysis of lip-like petals, lip-like sepals and the big lip of peloric mutants to confirm the five genes' expression patterns. PhAGL6a, PhAGL6b and PhMADS4 were strongly expressed in the labellum and significantly upregulated in lip-like petals and lip-like sepals of peloric-mutant flowers. In addition, PhAGL6b was significantly downregulated in the labellum of the big lip mutant, with no change in expression of PhAGL6a. We provide a comprehensive transcript profile and functional analysis of Phalaenopsis floral organs. PhAGL6a PhAGL6b, and PhMADS4 might play crucial roles in the development of the labellum in Phalaenopsis. Our study provides new insights into how the orchid labellum differs and why the petal or sepal converts to a labellum in Phalaenopsis floral mutants.

  17. Floral adaptation to local pollinator guilds in a terrestrial orchid

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Mimi; Gross, Karin; Schiestl, Florian P.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Studies of local floral adaptation in response to geographically divergent pollinators are essential for understanding floral evolution. This study investigated local pollinator adaptation and variation in floral traits in the rewarding orchid Gymnadenia odoratissima, which spans a large altitudinal gradient and thus may depend on different pollinator guilds along this gradient. Methods Pollinator communities were assessed and reciprocal transfer experiments were performed between lowland and mountain populations. Differences in floral traits were characterized by measuring floral morphology traits, scent composition, colour and nectar sugar content in lowland and mountain populations. Key Results The composition of pollinator communities differed considerably between lowland and mountain populations; flies were only found as pollinators in mountain populations. The reciprocal transfer experiments showed that when lowland plants were transferred to mountain habitats, their reproductive success did not change significantly. However, when mountain plants were moved to the lowlands, their reproductive success decreased significantly. Transfers between populations of the same altitude did not lead to significant changes in reproductive success, disproving the potential for population-specific adaptations. Flower size of lowland plants was greater than for mountain flowers. Lowland plants also had significantly higher relative amounts of aromatic floral volatiles, while the mountain plants had higher relative amounts of other floral volatiles. The floral colour of mountain flowers was significantly lighter compared with the lowland flowers. Conclusions Local pollinator adaptation through pollinator attraction was shown in the mountain populations, possibly due to adaptation to pollinating flies. The mountain plants were also observed to receive pollination from a greater diversity of pollinators than the lowland plants. The different floral

  18. The internal meristem layer (L3) determines floral meristem size and carpel number in tomato periclinal chimeras.

    PubMed Central

    Szymkowiak, E J; Sussex, I M

    1992-01-01

    Cell-cell interactions are important during plant development. We have generated periclinal chimeras between plants that differ in the number of carpels per flower to determine the roles of cells occupying specific positions in the floral meristem in determining the number of carpels initiated. Intraspecific chimeras were generated between tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) expressing the mutation fasciated, which causes an increased number of floral organs per whorl, and tomato wild type for fasciated. Interspecific chimeras were generated between tomato and L. peruvianum, which differ in number of carpels per flower. In both sets of chimeras, carpel number as well as the size of the floral meristem during carpel initiation were not determined by the genotype of cells in the outer two layers of the meristem (L1 and L2) but were determined by the genotype of cells occupying the inner layer (L3) of the meristem. We concluded from these experiments that during floral organ initiation, cells in certain layers of the meristem respond to information supplied to them from other cells in the meristem. PMID:1392610

  19. Why Do Floral Perfumes Become Different? Region-Specific Selection on Floral Scent in a Terrestrial Orchid

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Karin; Sun, Mimi; Schiestl, Florian P.

    2016-01-01

    Geographically structured phenotypic selection can lead to adaptive divergence. However, in flowering plants, such divergent selection has rarely been shown, and selection on floral signals is generally little understood. In this study, we measured phenotypic selection on display size, floral color, and floral scent in four lowland and four mountain populations of the nectar-rewarding terrestrial orchid Gymnadenia odoratissima in two years. We also quantified population differences in these traits and pollinator community composition. Our results show positive selection on display size and positive, negative, or absence of selection on different scent compounds and floral color. Selection on the main scent compounds was consistently stronger in the lowlands than in the mountains, and lowland plants emitted higher amounts of most of these compounds. Pollinator community composition also differed between regions, suggesting different pollinators select for differences in floral volatiles. Overall, our study is the first to document consistent regional differences in selection on floral scent, suggesting this pattern of selection is one of the evolutionary forces contributing to regional divergence in floral chemical signaling. PMID:26886766

  20. Floral nectar composition of Peganum harmala L.

    PubMed

    Movafeghi, A; Abedini, M; Fathiazad, F; Aliasgharpour, M; Omidi, Y

    2009-01-01

    Chemical composition of the floral nectar of Peganum harmala, a herbaceous medicinal perennial of the family Zygophyllaceae, was analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography technique. The nectar sugar detection experiments resulted in 33.1, 39.8 and 27.4%, respectively, for fructose, glucose and sucrose, upon which the nectar was classified as hexose rich. In addition, 11 proteinaceous amino acids were recognised and quantified in the nectar. Concentration of the insects' favoured amino acid, prolin, was markedly high. Furthermore, among four detected alkaloids, harmalol and harmine as the two beta-carboline derivatives were identified. These findings may confer a better understanding upon outcrossing processes and favour the plant-pollinator relationships.

  1. Molecular evolution and patterns of duplication in the SEP/AGL6-like lineage of the Zingiberales: a proposed mechanism for floral diversification.

    PubMed

    Yockteng, Roxana; Almeida, Ana M R; Morioka, Kelsie; Alvarez-Buylla, Elena R; Specht, Chelsea D

    2013-11-01

    The diversity of floral forms in the plant order Zingiberales has evolved through alterations in floral organ morphology. One striking alteration is the shift from fertile, filamentous stamens to sterile, laminar (petaloid) organs in the stamen whorls, attributed to specific pollination syndromes. Here, we examine the role of the SEPALLATA (SEP) genes, known to be important in regulatory networks underlying floral development and organ identity, in the evolution of development of the diverse floral organs phenotypes in the Zingiberales. Phylogenetic analyses show that the SEP-like genes have undergone several duplication events giving rise to multiple copies. Selection tests on the SEP-like genes indicate that the two copies of SEP3 have mostly evolved under balancing selection, probably due to strong functional restrictions as a result of their critical role in floral organ specification. In contrast, the two LOFSEP copies have undergone differential positive selection, indicating neofunctionalization. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, gene expression from RNA-seq data, and in situ hybridization analyses show that the recovered genes have differential expression patterns across the various whorls and organ types found in the Zingiberales. Our data also suggest that AGL6, sister to the SEP-like genes, may play an important role in stamen morphology in the Zingiberales. Thus, the SEP-like genes are likely to be involved in some of the unique morphogenetic patterns of floral organ development found among this diverse order of tropical monocots. This work contributes to a growing body of knowledge focused on understanding the role of gene duplications and the evolution of entire gene networks in the evolution of flower development.

  2. Floral Evolution of Philodendron Subgenus Meconostigma (Araceae)

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Letícia Loss; Calazans, Luana Silva Braucks; de Morais, Érica Barroso; Mayo, Simon Joseph; Schrago, Carlos Guerra; Sakuragui, Cassia Mônica

    2014-01-01

    Elucidating the evolutionary patterns of flower and inflorescence structure is pivotal to understanding the phylogenetic relationships of Angiosperms as a whole. The inflorescence morphology and anatomy of Philodendron subgenus Meconostigma, belonging to the monocot family Araceae, has been widely studied but the evolutionary relationships of subgenus Meconostigma and the evolution of its flower characters have hitherto remained unclear. This study examines gynoecium evolution in subgenus Meconostigma in the context of an estimated molecular phylogeny for all extant species of subgenus Meconostigma and analysis of ancestral character reconstructions of some gynoecial structures. The phylogenetic reconstructions of all extant Meconostigma species were conducted under a maximum likelihood approach based on the sequences of two chloroplast (trnk and matK) and two nuclear (ETS and 18S) markers. This topology was used to reconstruct the ancestral states of seven floral characters and to elucidate their evolutionary pattern in the Meconostigma lineage. Our phylogeny shows that Meconostigma is composed of two major clades, one comprising two Amazonian species and the other all the species from the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado biomes with one Amazonian species. The common ancestor of the species of subgenus Meconostigma probably possessed short stylar lobes, long stylar canals, a stylar body, a vascular plexus in the gynoecium and druses in the stylar parenchyma but it is uncertain whether raphide inclusions were present in the parenchyma. The ancestral lineage also probably possessed up to 10 ovary locules. The evolution of these characters seems to have occurred independently in some lineages. We propose that the morphological and anatomical diversity observed in the gynoecial structures of subgenus Meconostigma is the result of an ongoing process of fusion of floral structures leading to a reduction of energy wastage and increase in stigmatic surface. PMID:24586972

  3. Floral evolution of Philodendron subgenus Meconostigma (Araceae).

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Letícia Loss; Calazans, Luana Silva Braucks; de Morais, Érica Barroso; Mayo, Simon Joseph; Schrago, Carlos Guerra; Sakuragui, Cassia Mônica

    2014-01-01

    Elucidating the evolutionary patterns of flower and inflorescence structure is pivotal to understanding the phylogenetic relationships of Angiosperms as a whole. The inflorescence morphology and anatomy of Philodendron subgenus Meconostigma, belonging to the monocot family Araceae, has been widely studied but the evolutionary relationships of subgenus Meconostigma and the evolution of its flower characters have hitherto remained unclear. This study examines gynoecium evolution in subgenus Meconostigma in the context of an estimated molecular phylogeny for all extant species of subgenus Meconostigma and analysis of ancestral character reconstructions of some gynoecial structures. The phylogenetic reconstructions of all extant Meconostigma species were conducted under a maximum likelihood approach based on the sequences of two chloroplast (trnk and matK) and two nuclear (ETS and 18S) markers. This topology was used to reconstruct the ancestral states of seven floral characters and to elucidate their evolutionary pattern in the Meconostigma lineage. Our phylogeny shows that Meconostigma is composed of two major clades, one comprising two Amazonian species and the other all the species from the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado biomes with one Amazonian species. The common ancestor of the species of subgenus Meconostigma probably possessed short stylar lobes, long stylar canals, a stylar body, a vascular plexus in the gynoecium and druses in the stylar parenchyma but it is uncertain whether raphide inclusions were present in the parenchyma. The ancestral lineage also probably possessed up to 10 ovary locules. The evolution of these characters seems to have occurred independently in some lineages. We propose that the morphological and anatomical diversity observed in the gynoecial structures of subgenus Meconostigma is the result of an ongoing process of fusion of floral structures leading to a reduction of energy wastage and increase in stigmatic surface.

  4. The evolution of floral scent and olfactory preferences in pollinators: coevolution or pre-existing bias?

    PubMed

    Schiestl, Florian P; Dötterl, Stefan

    2012-07-01

    Coevolution is thought to be a major factor in shaping plant-pollinator interactions. Alternatively, plants may have evolved traits that fitted pre-existing preferences or morphologies in the pollinators. Here, we test these two scenarios in the plant family of Araceae and scarab beetles (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae) as pollinators. We focused on floral volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and production/detection of VOCs by scarab beetles. We found phylogenetic structure in the production/detection of methoxylated aromatics in scarabs, but not plants. Within the plants, most of the compounds showed a well-supported pattern of correlated evolution with scarab-beetle pollination. In contrast, the scarabs showed no correlation between VOC production/detection and visitation to Araceae flowers, with the exception of the VOC skatole. Moreover, many VOCs were found in nonpollinating beetle groups (e.g., Melolonthinae) that are ancestors of pollinating scarabs. Importantly, none of the tested VOCs were found to have originated in pollinating taxa. Our analysis indicates a Jurassic origin of VOC production/detection in scarabs, but a Cretaceous/Paleocene origin of floral VOCs in plants. Therefore, we argue against coevolution, instead supporting the scenario of sequential evolution of floral VOCs in Araceae driven by pre-existing bias of pollinators. © 2012 The Author(s).

  5. Floral evolution and phylogeny of the Dialioideae, a diverse subfamily of tropical legumes.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Erin; Herendeen, Patrick S; Lewis, Gwilym P; Bruneau, Anne

    2017-07-01

    The Dialioideae is an early diverging clade of caesalpinioid legumes containing approximately 85 species in 17 genera. Dialioideae floral morphology is highly variable and may provide clues to caesalpinioid evolution, but a well-resolved phylogeny is needed. Here, we have carried out a comprehensive morphological study of 78 Dialioideae and four outgroup species. For all available Dialioideae DNA samples, the plastid rpS16 and trnL introns were sequenced. A combined phylogenetic analysis using the parsimony criterion was completed on a reduced taxon set for which both molecular and morphological data were available. Highly supported clades from the strict consensus tree of this analysis were then used to constrain the nodes of a second analysis on an expanded taxon set with missing molecular data for some taxa. Several new, highly supported relationships have been discovered at the species and genus levels. The loss of the antepetalous stamen whorl was found to be a synapomorphy for most of the clade. A high degree of organ loss is common in the Dialioideae and often results in a bilaterally symmetrical flower. The absence of consistent morphological features in the Dialioideae, coupled with the small size of each florally diagnosed genus, suggests a lack of canalization in the floral evolution in early diverging legume lineages. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  6. Floral volatiles in a sapromyiophilous plant and their importance in attracting house fly pollinators.

    PubMed

    Zito, Pietro; Dötterl, Stefan; Sajeva, Maurizio

    2015-04-01

    Floral scent in sapromyiophilous plants often consists of complex blends with not only fetid (e.g., sulfides) but also sweet (e.g., terpenoids) volatile organic compounds, and a recent study suggests that both groups of compounds are involved in pollinator attraction. However, little is known about the number and identity of compounds involved in pollinator attraction in these deceptive plants that mimic breeding sites of fly pollinators. In the present paper, we studied flower volatiles of sapromyiophilous Periploca laevigata and their capability to elicit biological responses in one of the pollinator species, Musca domestica. Floral volatiles were collected by dynamic headspace and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and electrophysiological (GC/EAD) and behavioral assays (two choice olfactometer) were conducted. In the floral scent of P. laevigata, we detected 44 compounds, of which indole, β-caryophyllene, and germacrene D, as well as dimethyl trisulfide, which was present in trace amounts, were electrophysiologically active in the antennae of M. domestica. However, when we evaluated in behavioral experiments the attractiveness of the electrophysiologically active compounds (complete mixture against partial mixtures or against single compounds), we found that indole was the only attractive compound for the flies.

  7. [The use of floral resources by Visitors on Sparattosperma leucanthum (Vell.) K. Schum. (Bignoniaceae)].

    PubMed

    Polatto, Leandro P; Alves, Valter V

    2008-01-01

    Aiming to estimate the rate of exploitation of the floral resources of Sparattosperma leucanthum (Vell.) K. Schum. as well as the interaction with their floral visitors in the pollination, the number of visits by flower was sampled, according to the type of visitation, the collected resource and the visitor's behavior during the forage for flowers. The floral visitors were grouped into seven guilds, organized in decreasing order of benefit to the S. leucanthum flower's pollination: effective pollinator, occasional pollinator, endogamic pollinator, generalist visitor, thievery visitor, thievery-pillager ant and pillager visitor. The total of 48.2 +/- 8.84 visits were recorded by flower. Nearly 50% of the visits resulted in nectar thief or pillage, which posed some problems to the reproduction of S. leucanthum, such as the drop in the attractiveness to pollinators and the harm to the flower's reproductive tissues. Trigona spinipes (Fabr.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) was considered the most harmful species owing to the high frequency of pillage and forage. Bombus sp1, however, was probably the species that pollinated S. lecanthum flowers the most, making use of the crossed pollination.

  8. Subtle proteome differences identified between post-dormant vegetative and floral peach buds.

    PubMed

    Prassinos, Constantinos; Rigas, Stamatis; Kizis, Dimosthenis; Vlahou, Antonia; Hatzopoulos, Polydefkis

    2011-05-01

    Proper development of deciduous tree species, including peach, is accomplished through an annual growth cycle. Freezing avoidance during winter is necessary for tree survival and is achieved by the enclosure of meristems in floral and vegetative buds. To elucidate the role of developmentally regulated protein networks in bud break, proteins of the two bud-types were extracted and analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). Of the 1107 protein spots that were picked, 475 were identified and annotated assembling the peach bud proteome reference map. The majority of these proteins are involved in stress-response, detoxification, defense, carbohydrate metabolism and energy production. The protein profiles of both bud-types bear high similarity, whereas only 11 proteins were differentially expressed. These proteins were mainly involved in carbon-nitrogen homeostasis/metabolism and certain developmental processes to sustain rapid growth of the newly emerging organs. Among these are enzymes that differentially regulate the levels of H(2)O(2) between floral and vegetative buds, potentially promoting sequential bud-break. Distinct Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinase (NDPK) variants in floral and vegetative buds were detected suggesting the potential role of NDPKs in H(2)O(2)-mediated signaling for post-dormant bud break. This study provides data towards a better understanding of dormancy release and bud break. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Floral reflectance, color, and thermoregulation: what really explains geographic variation in thermal acclimation ability of ectotherms?

    PubMed

    Lacey, Elizabeth P; Lovin, Mary E; Richter, Scott J; Herington, Dean A

    2010-03-01

    Adaptive phenotypic plasticity in thermally sensitive traits, that is, thermal acclimation, generally increases with increasing latitude and altitude. The presumed explanation is that high-latitude/altitude organisms have evolved greater acclimation ability because of exposure to greater temperature fluctuations. Using a conceptual model of the thermal environment during the reproductive season, we tested this hypothesis against an alternative that plasticity is greater because of increased exposure to specific temperatures that strongly select for thermal acclimation. We examined geographic variation in floral reflectance/color plasticity among 29 European populations of a widespread perennial herb, Plantago lanceolata. Individuals partially thermoregulate reproduction through temperature-sensitive plasticity in floral reflectance/color. Plasticity was positively correlated with latitude and altitude. Path analyses support the hypothesis that the thermal environment mediates these geographic effects. Plasticity declined as seasonal temperature range increased, and it increased as duration of the growing season shortened and as the proportion of time exposed to temperatures favoring thermoregulation increased. Data provide evidence that floral reflectance/color plasticity is adaptive and that it has evolved in response not to the magnitude of temperature variation during the reproductive season but rather to the relative exposure to low temperatures, which favor thermoregulation.

  10. Why are orchid flowers so diverse? Reduction of evolutionary constraints by paralogues of class B floral homeotic genes

    PubMed Central

    Mondragón-Palomino, Mariana; Theißen, Günter

    2009-01-01

    Background The nearly 30 000 species of orchids produce flowers of unprecedented diversity. However, whether specific genetic mechanisms contributed to this diversity is a neglected topic and remains speculative. We recently published a theory, the ‘orchid code’, maintaining that the identity of the different perianth organs is specified by the combinatorial interaction of four DEF-like MADS-box genes with other floral homeotic genes. Scope Here the developmental and evolutionary implications of our theory are explored. Specifically, it is shown that all frequent floral terata, including all peloric types, can be explained by monogenic gain- or-loss-of-function mutants, changing either expression of a DEF-like or CYC-like gene. Supposed dominance or recessiveness of mutant alleles is correlated with the frequency of terata in both cultivation and nature. Our findings suggest that changes in DEF- and CYC-like genes not only underlie terata but also the natural diversity of orchid species. We argue, however, that true changes in organ identity are rare events in the evolution of orchid flowers, even though we review some likely cases. Conclusions The four DEF paralogues shaped floral diversity in orchids in a dramatic way by modularizing the floral perianth based on a complex series of sub- and neo-functionalization events. These genes may have eliminated constraints, so that different kinds of perianth organs could then evolve individually and thus often in dramatically different ways in response to selection by pollinators or by genetic drift. We therefore argue that floral diversity in orchids may be the result of an unprecedented developmental genetic predisposition that originated early in orchid evolution. PMID:19141602

  11. Why are orchid flowers so diverse? Reduction of evolutionary constraints by paralogues of class B floral homeotic genes.

    PubMed

    Mondragón-Palomino, Mariana; Theissen, Günter

    2009-08-01

    The nearly 30 000 species of orchids produce flowers of unprecedented diversity. However, whether specific genetic mechanisms contributed to this diversity is a neglected topic and remains speculative. We recently published a theory, the 'orchid code', maintaining that the identity of the different perianth organs is specified by the combinatorial interaction of four DEF-like MADS-box genes with other floral homeotic genes. Here the developmental and evolutionary implications of our theory are explored. Specifically, it is shown that all frequent floral terata, including all peloric types, can be explained by monogenic gain- or-loss-of-function mutants, changing either expression of a DEF-like or CYC-like gene. Supposed dominance or recessiveness of mutant alleles is correlated with the frequency of terata in both cultivation and nature. Our findings suggest that changes in DEF- and CYC-like genes not only underlie terata but also the natural diversity of orchid species. We argue, however, that true changes in organ identity are rare events in the evolution of orchid flowers, even though we review some likely cases. The four DEF paralogues shaped floral diversity in orchids in a dramatic way by modularizing the floral perianth based on a complex series of sub- and neo-functionalization events. These genes may have eliminated constraints, so that different kinds of perianth organs could then evolve individually and thus often in dramatically different ways in response to selection by pollinators or by genetic drift. We therefore argue that floral diversity in orchids may be the result of an unprecedented developmental genetic predisposition that originated early in orchid evolution.

  12. Characterization of candidate class A, B and E floral homeotic genes from the perianthless basal angiosperm Chloranthus spicatus (Chloranthaceae).

    PubMed

    Li, Gui-Sheng; Meng, Zheng; Kong, Hong-Zhi; Chen, Zhi-Duan; Theissen, Günter; Lu, An-Min

    2005-09-01

    The classic ABC model explains the activities of each class of floral homeotic genes in specifying the identity of floral organs. Thus, changes in these genes may underlay the origin of floral diversity during evolution. In this study, three MADS-box genes were isolated from the perianthless basal angiosperm Chloranthus spicatus. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses revealed that they are AP1-like, AP3-like and SEP3-like genes, and hence these genes were termed CsAP1, CsAP3 and CsSEP3, respectively. Due to these assignments, they represent candidate class A, class B and class E genes, respectively. Expression patterns suggest that the CsAP1, CsAP3 and CsSEP3 genes function during flower development of C. spicatus. CsAP1 is expressed broadly in the flower, which may reflect the ancestral function of SQUA-like genes in the specification of inflorescence and floral meristems rather than in patterning of the flower. CsAP3 is exclusively expressed in male floral organs, providing the evidence that AP3-like genes have ancestral function in differentiation between male and female reproductive organs. CsSEP3 expression is not detectable in spike meristems, but its mRNA accumulates throughout the flower, supporting the view that SEP-like genes have conserved expression pattern and function throughout angiosperm. Studies of synonymous vs nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions indicate that these genes have not evolved under changes in evolutionary forces. All the data above suggest that the genes may have maintained at least some ancestral functions despite the lack of perianth in the flowers of C. spicatus.

  13. Floral Reward, Advertisement and Attractiveness to Honey Bees in Dioecious Salix caprea

    PubMed Central

    Dötterl, Stefan; Glück, Ulrike; Jürgens, Andreas; Woodring, Joseph; Aas, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    In dioecious, zoophilous plants potential pollinators have to be attracted to both sexes and switch between individuals of both sexes for pollination to occur. It often has been suggested that males and females require different numbers of visits for maximum reproductive success because male fertility is more likely limited by access to mates, whereas female fertility is rather limited by resource availability. According to sexual selection theory, males therefore should invest more in pollinator attraction (advertisement, reward) than females. However, our knowledge on the sex specific investment in floral rewards and advertisement, and its effects on pollinator behaviour is limited. Here, we use an approach that includes chemical, spectrophotometric, and behavioural studies i) to elucidate differences in floral nectar reward and advertisement (visual, olfactory cues) in dioecious sallow, Salix caprea, ii) to determine the relative importance of visual and olfactory floral cues in attracting honey bee pollinators, and iii) to test for differential attractiveness of female and male inflorescence cues to honey bees. Nectar amount and sugar concentration are comparable, but sugar composition varies between the sexes. Olfactory sallow cues are more attractive to honey bees than visual cues; however, a combination of both cues elicits the strongest behavioural responses in bees. Male flowers are due to the yellow pollen more colourful and emit a higher amount of scent than females. Honey bees prefer the visual but not the olfactory display of males over those of females. In all, the data of our multifaceted study are consistent with the sexual selection theory and provide novel insights on how the model organism honey bee uses visual and olfactory floral cues for locating host plants. PMID:24676333

  14. Floral reward, advertisement and attractiveness to honey bees in dioecious Salix caprea.

    PubMed

    Dötterl, Stefan; Glück, Ulrike; Jürgens, Andreas; Woodring, Joseph; Aas, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    In dioecious, zoophilous plants potential pollinators have to be attracted to both sexes and switch between individuals of both sexes for pollination to occur. It often has been suggested that males and females require different numbers of visits for maximum reproductive success because male fertility is more likely limited by access to mates, whereas female fertility is rather limited by resource availability. According to sexual selection theory, males therefore should invest more in pollinator attraction (advertisement, reward) than females. However, our knowledge on the sex specific investment in floral rewards and advertisement, and its effects on pollinator behaviour is limited. Here, we use an approach that includes chemical, spectrophotometric, and behavioural studies i) to elucidate differences in floral nectar reward and advertisement (visual, olfactory cues) in dioecious sallow, Salix caprea, ii) to determine the relative importance of visual and olfactory floral cues in attracting honey bee pollinators, and iii) to test for differential attractiveness of female and male inflorescence cues to honey bees. Nectar amount and sugar concentration are comparable, but sugar composition varies between the sexes. Olfactory sallow cues are more attractive to honey bees than visual cues; however, a combination of both cues elicits the strongest behavioural responses in bees. Male flowers are due to the yellow pollen more colourful and emit a higher amount of scent than females. Honey bees prefer the visual but not the olfactory display of males over those of females. In all, the data of our multifaceted study are consistent with the sexual selection theory and provide novel insights on how the model organism honey bee uses visual and olfactory floral cues for locating host plants.

  15. Enzymatic production and emission of floral scent volatiles in Jasminum sambac.

    PubMed

    Bera, Paramita; Mukherjee, Chiranjit; Mitra, Adinpunya

    2017-03-01

    Floral scent composed of low molecular weight volatile organic compounds. The sweet fragrance of any evening blooming flower is dominated by benzenoid and terpenoid volatile compounds. Floral scent of Jasminum sambac (Oleaceae) includes three major benzenoid esters - benzylacetate, methylbenzoate, and methylsalicylate and three major terpene compounds viz. (E)-β-ocimene, linalool and α-farnesene. We analyzed concentrations and emission rates of benzenoids and terpenoids during the developmental stages of J. sambac flower. In addition to spatial emission from different floral parts, we studied the time-course mRNA accumulations of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and the two representative genes of terpenoid pathway, namely 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR) and terpene synthase (TPS). Further, in vitro activities of several enzymes of phenylpropanoid/benzenoid pathway viz., PAL and acetyl-coenzyme A: benzylalcohol acetyltransferase (BEAT), S-adenosyl-l-methionine: benzoic acid carboxyl methyl transferase (BAMT) and S-adenosyl-l-methionine: salicylic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (SAMT) were studied. All the above enzyme activities along with the in vitro activities of DXR and TPS were found to follow a certain rhythm as observed in the emission of different benzenoid and terpenoid compounds. Linalool emission peaked after petal opening and coincided with maximal expression of JsTPS gene as evidenced from RT-PCR analyses (semi-quantitative). The maximum transcript accumulation of this gene was observed in flower petals, indicating that the petals of J. sambac flower play an important role as a major contributor of volatile precursors. The transcripts accumulation of JsDXR and JsTPS in different developmental stages and in different floral part showed that emissions of terpenoid volatiles in J. sambac flower are partially regulated at transcription levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 36 CFR 12.10 - Floral and commemorative tributes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... INTERIOR NATIONAL CEMETERY REGULATIONS § 12.10 Floral and commemorative tributes. The placement on a grave... statue, vigil light, or other commemorative object on a grave, or the securing or attaching of any...

  17. 36 CFR 12.10 - Floral and commemorative tributes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... INTERIOR NATIONAL CEMETERY REGULATIONS § 12.10 Floral and commemorative tributes. The placement on a grave... statue, vigil light, or other commemorative object on a grave, or the securing or attaching of any...

  18. 36 CFR 12.10 - Floral and commemorative tributes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... INTERIOR NATIONAL CEMETERY REGULATIONS § 12.10 Floral and commemorative tributes. The placement on a grave... statue, vigil light, or other commemorative object on a grave, or the securing or attaching of any...

  19. 36 CFR 12.10 - Floral and commemorative tributes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... INTERIOR NATIONAL CEMETERY REGULATIONS § 12.10 Floral and commemorative tributes. The placement on a grave... statue, vigil light, or other commemorative object on a grave, or the securing or attaching of any...

  20. How scent and nectar influence floral antagonists and mutualists.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Danny; Kallenbach, Mario; Diezel, Celia; Rothe, Eva; Murdock, Mark; Baldwin, Ian T

    2015-07-01

    Many plants attract and reward pollinators with floral scents and nectar, respectively, but these traits can also incur fitness costs as they also attract herbivores. This dilemma, common to most flowering plants, could be solved by not producing nectar and/or scent, thereby cheating pollinators. Both nectar and scent are highly variable in native populations of coyote tobacco, Nicotiana attenuata, with some producing no nectar at all, uncorrelated with the tobacco's main floral attractant, benzylacetone. By silencing benzylacetone biosynthesis and nectar production in all combinations by RNAi, we experimentally uncouple these floral rewards/attractrants and measure their costs/benefits in the plant's native habitat and experimental tents. Both scent and nectar increase outcrossing rates for three, separately tested, pollinators and both traits increase oviposition by a hawkmoth herbivore, with nectar being more influential than scent. These results underscore that it makes little sense to study floral traits as if they only mediated pollination services.

  1. 16. DETAIL VIEW OF ORNAMENTAL UPPER PORTAL STRUT AND FLORAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. DETAIL VIEW OF ORNAMENTAL UPPER PORTAL STRUT AND FLORAL MOTIF GUSSETS OF SOUTH BRIDGE PORTAL. FACING SOUTHWEST. - Coverts Crossing Bridge, Spanning Mahoning River along Township Route 372 (Covert Road), New Castle, Lawrence County, PA

  2. Characterization of SpAPETALA3 and SpPISTILLATA, B class floral identity genes in Spinacia oleracea, and their relationship to sexual dimorphism.

    PubMed

    Pfent, Catherine; Pobursky, Kevin J; Sather, D Noah; Golenberg, Edward M

    2005-03-01

    Floral organ identity B class genes are generally recognized as being required for development of petals and stamens in angiosperm flowers. Spinach flowers are distinguished in their complete absence of petals in both sexes, and the absence of a developed stamen whorl in female flowers. As such, we hypothesized that differential expression of B class floral identity genes is integral to the sexual dimorphism in spinach flowers. We isolated two spinach orthologs of Arabidopsis B class genes by 3' and 5' RACE. Homology assignments were tested by comparisons of percent amino acid identities, searches for diagnostic consensus amino acid residues, conserved motifs, and phylogenetic groupings. In situ hybridization studies demonstrate that both spinach B class genes are expressed throughout the male floral meristem in early stages, and continue to be expressed in sepal primordia in reduced amounts at later stages of development. They are also highly expressed in the third whorl primordia when they arise and continue to be expressed in these tissues through the development of mature anthers. In contrast, neither gene can be detected in any stage in female flowers by in situ analyses, although northern blot experiments indicate low levels of SpAP3 within the inflorescence. The early, strong expressions of both B class floral identity genes in male floral primordia and their absence in female flowers demonstrate that B class gene expression precedes the origination of third whorl primordia (stamen) in males and is associated with the establishment of sexual floral dimorphism as it initiates in the first (sepal) whorl. These observations suggest that regulation of B class floral identity genes has a role in the development of sexual dimorphism and dioecy in spinach rather than being a secondary result of organ abortion.

  3. Transcriptome Analysis of Floral Buds Deciphered an Irregular Course of Meiosis in Polyploid Brassica rapa

    PubMed Central

    Braynen, Janeen; Yang, Yan; Wei, Fang; Cao, Gangqiang; Shi, Gongyao; Tian, Baoming; Zhang, Xiaowei; Jia, Hao; Wei, Xiaochun; Wei, Zhenzhen

    2017-01-01

    Polyploidy is a fundamental process in plant evolution. Understanding the polyploidy-associated effects on plant reproduction is essential for polyploid breeding program. In the present study, our cytological analysis firstly demonstrated that an overall course of meiosis was apparently distorted in the synthetic polyploid Brassica rapa in comparison with its diploid progenitor. To elucidate genetic basis of this irregular meiosis at a molecular level, the comparative RNA-seq analysis was further used to investigate differential genetic regulation of developing floral buds identified at meiosis between autotetraploid and diploid B. rapa. In total, compared to its diploid counterparts, among all 40,927 expressed genes revealed, 4,601 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the floral buds of autotetraploid B. rapa, among which 288 DEGs annotated were involved in meiosis. Notably, DMC1 identified as one previously known meiosis-specific gene involved in inter-homologous chromosome dependent repair of DNA double stranded breaks (DSBs), was significantly down-regulated in autotetraploid B. rapa, which presumably contributed to abnormal progression during meiosis I. Although certain DEGs associated with RNA helicase, cell cycling, and somatic DNA repair were up-regulated after genome duplication, genes associated with meiotic DSB repair were significantly down-regulated. Furthermore, the expression of randomly selected DEGs by RNA-seq analysis was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR analysis in both B. rapa and Arabidopsis thaliana. Our results firstly account for adverse effects of polyploidy on an entire course of meiosis at both cytological and transcriptomic levels, and allow for a comprehensive understanding of the uniformity and differences in the transcriptome of floral buds at meiosis between diploid and polyploid B. rapa as well. PMID:28553302

  4. Transcriptome Analysis of Floral Buds Deciphered an Irregular Course of Meiosis in Polyploid Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Braynen, Janeen; Yang, Yan; Wei, Fang; Cao, Gangqiang; Shi, Gongyao; Tian, Baoming; Zhang, Xiaowei; Jia, Hao; Wei, Xiaochun; Wei, Zhenzhen

    2017-01-01

    Polyploidy is a fundamental process in plant evolution. Understanding the polyploidy-associated effects on plant reproduction is essential for polyploid breeding program. In the present study, our cytological analysis firstly demonstrated that an overall course of meiosis was apparently distorted in the synthetic polyploid Brassica rapa in comparison with its diploid progenitor. To elucidate genetic basis of this irregular meiosis at a molecular level, the comparative RNA-seq analysis was further used to investigate differential genetic regulation of developing floral buds identified at meiosis between autotetraploid and diploid B. rapa. In total, compared to its diploid counterparts, among all 40,927 expressed genes revealed, 4,601 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the floral buds of autotetraploid B. rapa, among which 288 DEGs annotated were involved in meiosis. Notably, DMC1 identified as one previously known meiosis-specific gene involved in inter-homologous chromosome dependent repair of DNA double stranded breaks (DSBs), was significantly down-regulated in autotetraploid B. rapa, which presumably contributed to abnormal progression during meiosis I. Although certain DEGs associated with RNA helicase, cell cycling, and somatic DNA repair were up-regulated after genome duplication, genes associated with meiotic DSB repair were significantly down-regulated. Furthermore, the expression of randomly selected DEGs by RNA-seq analysis was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR analysis in both B. rapa and Arabidopsis thaliana. Our results firstly account for adverse effects of polyploidy on an entire course of meiosis at both cytological and transcriptomic levels, and allow for a comprehensive understanding of the uniformity and differences in the transcriptome of floral buds at meiosis between diploid and polyploid B. rapa as well.

  5. Transcriptome Profiling of Wheat Inflorescence Development from Spikelet Initiation to Floral Patterning Identified Stage-Specific Regulatory Genes1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Nan; Song, Gaoyuan; Guan, Jiantao; Chen, Kai; Jia, Meiling; Huang, Dehua; Wu, Jiajie; Zhang, Lichao; Kong, Xiuying; Geng, Shuaifeng

    2017-01-01

    Early reproductive development in cereals is crucial for final grain number per spike and hence the yield potential of the crop. To date, however, no systematic analyses of gene expression profiles during this important process have been conducted for common wheat (Triticum aestivum). Here, we studied the transcriptome profiles at four stages of early wheat reproductive development, from spikelet initiation to floral organ differentiation. K-means clustering and stage-specific transcript identification detected dynamically expressed homeologs of important transcription regulators in spikelet and floral meristems that may be involved in spikelet initiation, floret meristem specification, and floral organ patterning, as inferred from their homologs in model plants. Small RNA transcriptome sequencing discovered key microRNAs that were differentially expressed during wheat inflorescence development alongside their target genes, suggesting that miRNA-mediated regulatory mechanisms for floral development may be conserved in cereals and Arabidopsis. Our analysis was further substantiated by the functional characterization of the ARGONAUTE1d (AGO1d) gene, which was initially expressed in stamen primordia and later in the tapetum during anther maturation. In agreement with its stage-specific expression pattern, the loss of function of the predominantly expressed B homeolog of AGO1d in a tetraploid durum wheat mutant resulted in smaller anthers with more infertile pollens than the wild type and a reduced grain number per spike. Together, our work provides a first glimpse of the gene regulatory networks in wheat inflorescence development that may be pivotal for floral and grain development, highlighting potential targets for genetic manipulation to improve future wheat yields. PMID:28515146

  6. Towards a comprehensive integration of morphological and genetic studies of floral development.

    PubMed

    Buzgo, Matyas; Soltis, Douglas E; Soltis, Pamela S; Ma, Hong

    2004-04-01

    Floral developmental genetics has exploded as a discipline. In addition to the rich genetic database for well-established models (Arabidopsis, Antirrhinum, Zea), numerous species have become the focus of floral genomic and genetic initiatives. Extensive documentation of the developmental morphology of Arabidopsis flowers has facilitated the linkage of genes and morphology. Complete developmental series also need to be assembled for emerging systems of molecular studies of floral genes. We address issues of homology assessment in floral structures, emphasize the need for assembling a complete floral developmental series for each species studied molecularly and genetically, stress the importance of a common set of terminology, and suggest a set of 'landmarks' to designate major events in floral development. We compare the floral developmental series of three species with different floral morphologies and propose a consensus of developmental stages to facilitate comparison of gene expression patterns. Taxa occupying key phylogenetic positions offer great potential for generating hypotheses about the regulation of floral development.

  7. Behavioral foraging responses by the butterfly Heliconius melpomene to Lantana camara floral scent.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Susanna; Dobson, Heidi E M

    2003-10-01

    Floral color has been shown to influence flower selection by butterflies, but few studies have investigated the role of floral scent. In this study, adults of Heliconius melpomene L. (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Heliconiinae) were tested in two-choice bioassays to investigate their ability to distinguish floral scent of the butterfly pollinated plant Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae) from other plant scents. The relative importance of floral scent vs. color was also studied. Butterfly foraging behavior was measured as probing with proboscis. This probing, on floral models varying in scent and color, was timed. When given a choice of floral and vegetative scents of L. camara, newly emerged butterflies preferred floral scent, indicating an innate response to floral scents. When butterflies were conditioned to L. camara floral scent by offering the scent with yellow color and sugar water, yellow color elicited stronger feeding responses than did the floral scent. However, the floral scent of L. camara was preferred to that of the novel species Philadelphus coronarius L. (Hydrangiaceae). The floral scent of L. camara was dominated by tepenoid compounds, while that of P. coronarius by fatty acid derivatives, thus demonstrating totally different compositions. It is concluded that, while H. melpomene butterflies often use visual floral traits when selecting which flowers to visit, floral scents elicit behavioral responses that initiate and maintain foraging on flowers.

  8. The corona of the daffodil Narcissus bulbocodium shares stamen-like identity and is distinct from the orthodox floral whorls.

    PubMed

    Waters, Mark T; Tiley, Anna M M; Kramer, Elena M; Meerow, Alan W; Langdale, Jane A; Scotland, Robert W

    2013-05-01

    The structural homology of the daffodil corona has remained a source of debate throughout the history of botany. Over the years it has been separately referred to as a modified petal stipule, stamen and tepal. Here we provide insights from anatomy and molecular studies to clarify the early developmental stages and position of corona initiation in Narcissus bulbocodium. We demonstrate that the corona initiates as six separate anlagen from hypanthial tissue between the stamens and perianth. Scanning electron microscope images and serial sections demonstrate that corona initiation occurs late in development, after the other floral whorls are fully developed. To define more precisely the identity of the floral structures, daffodil orthologues of the ABC floral organ identity genes were isolated and expression patterns were examined in perianth, stamens, carpel, hypanthial tube and corona tissue. Coupled with in situ hybridisation experiments, these analyses showed that the expression pattern of the C-class gene NbAGAMOUS in the corona is more similar to that of the stamens than that of the tepals. In combination, our results demonstrate that the corona of the daffodil N. bulbocodium exhibits stamen-like identity, develops independently from the orthodox floral whorls and is best interpreted as a late elaboration of the region between the petals and stamens associated with epigyny and the hypanthium. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Transcriptome profile analysis of floral sex determination in cucumber.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tao; Qin, Zhiwei; Zhou, Xiuyan; Feng, Zhuo; Du, Yalin

    2010-07-15

    Cucumber has been widely studied as a model for floral sex determination. In this investigation, we performed genome-wide transcriptional profiling of apical tissue of a gynoecious mutant (Csg-G) and the monoecious wild-type (Csg-M) of cucumber in an attempt to isolate genes involved in sex determination, using the Solexa technology. The profiling analysis revealed numerous changes in gene expression attributable to the mutation, which resulted in the down-regulation of 600 genes and the up-regulation of 143 genes. The Solexa data were confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed that the differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in biogenesis, transport and organization of cellular component, macromolecular and cellular biosynthesis, localization, establishment of localization, translation and other processes. Furthermore, the expression of some of these genes depended upon the tissue and the developmental stage of the flowers of gynoecious mutant. The results of this study suggest two important concepts, which govern sex determination in cucumber. First, the differential expression of genes involved in plant hormone signaling pathways, such as ACS, Asr1, CsIAA2, CS-AUX1 and TLP, indicate that phytohormones and their crosstalk might play a critical role in the sex determination. Second, the regulation of some transcription factors, including EREBP-9, may also be involved in this developmental process.

  10. [Floral anatomy of Peristethium leptostachyum (Loranthaceae)].

    PubMed

    Robles, Alejandra; Raz, Lauren; Marquínez, Xavier

    2016-03-01

    Peristethium leptostachyum is a hemiparasite species of the family Loranthaceae, distributed in Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela and Panama. Previously treated as Struthanthus leptostachyus, the species was recently transferred to Peristethium together with other species of Cladocolea and Struthanthus. The present research describes the inflorescence and floral morphoanatomy of Peristethium leptostachyum, detailing the structure of the androecium and gynoecium and the processes of microgametogenesis and megagametogenesis, thus allowing comparison with Struthanthus and Cladocolea. Flowering material was collected in February and August 2012, in Santa María, Boyacá, Colombia. Histological sections were prepared and stained with astrablue-fuchsin and floral dissections were performed under a stereomicroscope. Peristethium leptostachyum shares inflorescence characters with Cladocolea (determinate inflorescence, ebracteate terminal flower), but also with Struthanthus (pairs of triads along the axis, deciduous bracts and actinomorphic flowers). The flowers of P. leptostachyum from Santa María are clearly hermaphrodites with androecium and gynoecium fully developed. This observation contradicts the description by Kuijt who reported this species to be dioecious. The androecium was observed to be similar to that of Struthanthus vulgaris, with a glandular tapetum and simultaneous microsporogenesis; in contrast, Cladocolea loniceroides has a periplasmodial tapetum and successive microsporogenesis. The gynoecium of P. leptostachyum, like that of Cladocolea, Struthanthus and Phthirusa, has a unilocular ovary with a mamelon and arquesporial tissue isoriented towards the style, which in turn is solid and amyliferous. Peristethium leptostachyum is similar to Cladocolea loniceroides and differs from Strutanthus vulgaris in presenting multiple embryo sacs and an unlignified pelvis (hipostase). The presence of a solid stylar canal is proposed as a synapomorphy of the

  11. Floral development of Berberidopsis beckleri - can an additional species of the Berberidopsidaceae add evidence to floral evolution in the core eudicots?

    PubMed

    Ronse De Craene, Louis P

    2017-03-01

    Berberidopsis beckleri is one of three species of the family Berberidopsidaceae. The flower of Berberidopsis is unusual for core eudicots in being spiral with an undifferentiated perianth. In a previous study of the sister species B. corallina , it was suggested that Berberidopsidaceae represent a prototype for the origin of the bipartite perianth and pentamery in core eudicots. The floral development of B. beckleri was investigated with a scanning electron microscope and compared with previous studies on B. corallina and Aextoxicon punctatum of Berberidopsidales. Flowers are inserted at the end of short shoots, which are not distinguishable from a pedicel. The initiation of perianth parts is highly predictable and spiral with a divergence angle of 137·5°, in a progression of a variable number of bracts to weakly differentiated sepaloid and petaloid tepals. The androecium most often consists 11 stamens arising in a rapid sequence. Compared with B. corallina , the number of perianth parts and stamens is more variable and there is no evidence of an alternation of shorter and longer plastochrons leading to a whorled arrangement. However, the gynoecium is generally pentamerous and arises from five primordia. The carpels are laterally connected into massive intercarpellary ridges on which ovules are initiated. The position of Streptothamnus within Berberidopsidaceae is questioned. It is demonstrated that the floral development of Berberidopsis beckleri lies within a gradient from spiral flowers without perianth differentiation leading to flowers with differentiated sepals and petals. The arrangement of flowers in compact inflorescences in B. corallina and Aextoxicon leads to a more stabilized arrangement of organs in whorls. The inherent variability of the flower of Berberidopsis is well correlated with the limited canalization of flowers in taxa at the base of the core eudicots and could act as a prototype for the current eudicot floral Bauplan.

  12. Floral adaptation and diversification under pollen limitation

    PubMed Central

    Harder, Lawrence D.; Aizen, Marcelo A.

    2010-01-01

    Pollen limitation (PL) of seed production creates unique conditions for reproductive adaptation by angiosperms, in part because, unlike under ovule or resource limitation, floral interactions with pollen vectors can contribute to variation in female success. Although the ecological and conservation consequences of PL have received considerable attention in recent times, its evolutionary implications are poorly appreciated. To identify general influences of PL on reproductive adaptation compared with those under other seed-production limits and their implications for evolution in altered environments, we derive a model that incorporates pollination and post-pollination aspects of PL. Because PL always favours increased ovule fertilization, even when population dynamics are not seed limited, it should pervasively influence selection on reproductive traits. Significantly, under PL the intensity of inbreeding does not determine whether outcrossing or autonomous selfing can evolve, although it can affect which response is most likely. Because the causes of PL are multifaceted in both natural and anthropogenically altered environments, the possible outcrossing solutions are diverse and context dependent, which may contribute to the extensive variety of angiosperm reproductive characteristics. Finally, the increased adaptive options available under PL may be responsible for positive global associations between it and angiosperm diversity. PMID:20047878

  13. Gain of 11q/cyclin D1 overexpression is an essential early step in skin cancer development and causes abnormal tissue organization and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Burnworth, B; Popp, S; Stark, H-J; Steinkraus, V; Bröcker, E B; Hartschuh, W; Birek, C; Boukamp, P

    2006-07-27

    Non-melanoma skin cancers, in particular keratoacanthomas (KAs) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), have become highly frequent tumor types especially in immune-suppressed transplant patients. Nevertheless, little is known about essential genetic changes. As a paradigm of 'early' changes, that is, changes still compatible with tumor regression, we studied KAs by comparative genomic hybridization and show that gain of chromosome 11q is not only one of the most frequent aberration (8/18), but in four tumors also the only aberration. Furthermore, 11q gain correlated with amplification of the cyclin D1 locus (10/14), as determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and overexpression of cyclin D1 protein (25/31), as detected by immunohistochemistry. For unraveling the functional consequence, we overexpressed cyclin D1 in HaCaT skin keratinocytes. These cells only gained little growth advantage in conventional and in organotypic co-cultures. However, although the control vector-transfected cells formed a well-stratified and orderly differentiated epidermis-like epithelium, they showed deregulation of tissue architecture with an altered localization of proliferation and impaired differentiation. The most severe phenotype was seen in a clone that additionally upregulated cdk4 and p21. These cells lacked terminal differentiation, exhibited a more autonomous growth in vitro and in vivo and even formed tumors in two injection sites with a growth pattern resembling that of human KAs. Thus, our results identify 11q13 gain/cyclin D1 overexpression as an important step in KA formation and point to a function that exceeds its known role in proliferation by disrupting tissue organization and thereby allowing abnormal growth.

  14. Validation of Aintegumenta as a gene to modify floral size in ornamental plants.

    PubMed

    Manchado-Rojo, María; Weiss, Julia; Egea-Cortines, Marcos

    2014-10-01

    The gene AINTEGUMENTA (AtANT) is an APETALA2 transcription factor in Arabidopsis activating growth downstream of auxin signalling. Lateral organ size is positively correlated with ANT expression in Arabidopsis. We tested the use of AtANT as a tool to modify floral size in two different plants used as model organisms and ornamental crops, Petunia × hybrida and Antirrhinum majus. Petunia plants expressing PhANT RNAi showed a decrease in PhANT expression correlated with smaller petal limbs. In contrast Petunia plants overexpressing AtANT had larger petal limbs. Petal tube length was less affected in down-regulation of PhANT or overexpression of AtANT. Overexpression of AtANT in Antirrhinum caused increased flower size via increased petal limb width and tube length. Down-regulation of PhANT showed an effect on cell size while overexpression of AtANT in Petunia and Antirrhinum caused significant increases in cell expansion that could explain the differences in floral organ size. The endogenous expression levels of PhANT and AmANT tended to be higher in the limb than in the tube in both Antirrhinum and Petunia. AtANT overexpression caused significant AmANT up-regulation in Antirrhinum limbs but not of PhANT in Petunia, indicating differences in the regulatory network. The differential effect of AtANT on limb and tube in Petunia and Antirrhinum correspond to phenotypic differences observed in natural variation in the corresponding genus indicating a relation between the phenotypic space of a genus and the effect of modified ANT levels, validating ANT as a gene to modify floral size.

  15. Interpreting lemma and palea homologies: a point of view from rice floral mutants

    PubMed Central

    Lombardo, Fabien; Yoshida, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to eudicot flowers which typically exhibit sepals and petals at their periphery, the flowers of grasses are distinguished by the presence of characteristic outer organs. In place of sepals, grasses have evolved the lemma and the palea, two bract-like structures that partially or fully enclose the inner reproductive organs. With little morphological similarities to sepals, whether the lemma and palea are part of the perianth or non-floral organs has been a longstanding debate. In recent years, comparative studies of floral mutants as well as the availability of whole genome sequences in many plant species have provided strong arguments in favor of the hypothesis of lemma and palea being modified sepals. In rice, a feature of the palea is the bending of its lateral region into a hook-shaped marginal structure. This allows the palea to lock into the facing lemma region, forming a close-fitting lemma–palea enclosure. In this article, we focus on the rice lemma and palea and review some of the key transcription factors involved in their development and functional specialization. Alternative interpretations of these organs are also addressed. PMID:25741351

  16. ULTRAPETALA1 and LEAFY pathways function independently in specifying identity and determinacy at the Arabidopsis floral meristem.

    PubMed

    Engelhorn, Julia; Moreau, Fanny; Fletcher, Jennifer C; Carles, Cristel C

    2014-11-01

    The morphological variability of the flower in angiosperms, combined with its relatively simple structure, makes it an excellent model to study cell specification and the establishment of morphogenetic patterns. Flowers are the products of floral meristems, which are determinate structures that generate four different types of floral organs before terminating. The precise organization of the flower in whorls, each defined by the identity and number of organs it contains, is controlled by a multi-layered network involving numerous transcriptional regulators. In particular, the AGAMOUS (AG) MADS domain-containing transcription factor plays a major role in controlling floral determinacy in Arabidopsis thaliana in addition to specifying reproductive organ identity. This study aims to characterize the genetic interactions between the ULTRAPETALA1 (ULT1) and LEAFY (LFY) transcriptional regulators during flower morphogenesis, with a focus on AG regulation. Genetic and molecular approaches were used to address the question of redundancy and reciprocal interdependency for the establishment of flower meristem initiation, identity and termination. In particular, the effects of loss of both ULT1 and LFY function were determined by analysing flower developmental phenotypes of double-mutant plants. The dependency of each factor on the other for activating developmental genes was also investigated in gain-of-function experiments. The ULT1 and LFY pathways, while both activating AG expression in the centre of the flower meristem, functioned independently in floral meristem determinacy. Ectopic transcriptional activation by ULT1 of AG and AP3, another gene encoding a MADS domain-containing flower architect, did not depend on LFY function. Similarly, LFY did not require ULT1 function to ectopically determine floral fate. The results indicate that the ULT1 and LFY pathways act separately in regulating identity and determinacy at the floral meristem. In particular, they independently

  17. ULTRAPETALA1 and LEAFY pathways function independently in specifying identity and determinacy at the Arabidopsis floral meristem

    PubMed Central

    Engelhorn, Julia; Moreau, Fanny; Fletcher, Jennifer C.; Carles, Cristel C.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims The morphological variability of the flower in angiosperms, combined with its relatively simple structure, makes it an excellent model to study cell specification and the establishment of morphogenetic patterns. Flowers are the products of floral meristems, which are determinate structures that generate four different types of floral organs before terminating. The precise organization of the flower in whorls, each defined by the identity and number of organs it contains, is controlled by a multi-layered network involving numerous transcriptional regulators. In particular, the AGAMOUS (AG) MADS domain-containing transcription factor plays a major role in controlling floral determinacy in Arabidopsis thaliana in addition to specifying reproductive organ identity. This study aims to characterize the genetic interactions between the ULTRAPETALA1 (ULT1) and LEAFY (LFY) transcriptional regulators during flower morphogenesis, with a focus on AG regulation. Methods Genetic and molecular approaches were used to address the question of redundancy and reciprocal interdependency for the establishment of flower meristem initiation, identity and termination. In particular, the effects of loss of both ULT1 and LFY function were determined by analysing flower developmental phenotypes of double-mutant plants. The dependency of each factor on the other for activating developmental genes was also investigated in gain-of-function experiments. Key Results The ULT1 and LFY pathways, while both activating AG expression in the centre of the flower meristem, functioned independently in floral meristem determinacy. Ectopic transcriptional activation by ULT1 of AG and AP3, another gene encoding a MADS domain-containing flower architect, did not depend on LFY function. Similarly, LFY did not require ULT1 function to ectopically determine floral fate. Conclusions The results indicate that the ULT1 and LFY pathways act separately in regulating identity and determinacy at the

  18. Non-Additive Effects of Genotypic Diversity Increase Floral Abundance and Abundance of Floral Visitors

    PubMed Central

    Genung, Mark A.; Lessard, Jean-Philippe; Brown, Claire B.; Bunn, Windy A.; Cregger, Melissa A.; Reynolds, Wm. Nicholas; Felker-Quinn, Emmi; Stevenson, Mary L.; Hartley, Amanda S.; Crutsinger, Gregory M.; Schweitzer, Jennifer A.; Bailey, Joseph K.

    2010-01-01

    Background In the emerging field of community and ecosystem genetics, genetic variation and diversity in dominant plant species have been shown to play fundamental roles in maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem function. However, the importance of intraspecific genetic variation and diversity to floral abundance and pollinator visitation has received little attention. Methodology/Principal Findings Using an experimental common garden that manipulated genotypic diversity (the number of distinct genotypes per plot) of Solidago altissima, we document that genotypic diversity of a dominant plant can indirectly influence flower visitor abundance. Across two years, we found that 1) plant genotype explained 45% and 92% of the variation in flower visitor abundance in 2007 and 2008, respectively; and 2) plant genotypic diversity had a positive and non-additive effect on floral abundance and the abundance of flower visitors, as plots established with multiple genotypes produced 25% more flowers and received 45% more flower visits than would be expected under an additive model. Conclusions/Significance These results provide evidence that declines in genotypic diversity may be an important but little considered factor for understanding plant-pollinator dynamics, with implications for the global decline in pollinators due to reduced plant diversity in both agricultural and natural ecosystems. PMID:20090850

  19. Non-additive effects of genotypic diversity increase floral abundance and abundance of floral visitors.

    PubMed

    Genung, Mark A; Lessard, Jean-Philippe; Brown, Claire B; Bunn, Windy A; Cregger, Melissa A; Reynolds, W M Nicholas; Felker-Quinn, Emmi; Stevenson, Mary L; Hartley, Amanda S; Crutsinger, Gregory M; Schweitzer, Jennifer A; Bailey, Joseph K

    2010-01-14

    In the emerging field of community and ecosystem genetics, genetic variation and diversity in dominant plant species have been shown to play fundamental roles in maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem function. However, the importance of intraspecific genetic variation and diversity to floral abundance and pollinator visitation has received little attention. Using an experimental common garden that manipulated genotypic diversity (the number of distinct genotypes per plot) of Solidago altissima, we document that genotypic diversity of a dominant plant can indirectly influence flower visitor abundance. Across two years, we found that 1) plant genotype explained 45% and 92% of the variation in flower visitor abundance in 2007 and 2008, respectively; and 2) plant genotypic diversity had a positive and non-additive effect on floral abundance and the abundance of flower visitors, as plots established with multiple genotypes produced 25% more flowers and received 45% more flower visits than would be expected under an additive model. These results provide evidence that declines in genotypic diversity may be an important but little considered factor for understanding plant-pollinator dynamics, with implications for the global decline in pollinators due to reduced plant diversity in both agricultural and natural ecosystems.

  20. Flowering mechanisms, pollination strategies and floral scent analyses of syntopically co-flowering Homalomena spp. (Araceae) on Borneo.

    PubMed

    Hoe, Y C; Gibernau, M; Maia, A C D; Wong, S Y

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the flowering mechanisms and pollination strategies of seven species of the highly diverse genus Homalomena (Araceae) were investigated in native populations of West Sarawak, Borneo. The floral scent compositions were also recorded for six of these species. The selected taxa belong to three out of four complexes of the section Cyrtocladon (Hanneae, Giamensis and Borneensis). The species belonging to the Hanneae complex exhibited longer anthesis (53-62 h) than those of the Giamensis and Borneensis complexes (ca. 30 h). Species belonging to the Hanneae complex underwent two floral scent emission events in consecutive days, during the pistillate and staminate phases of anthesis. In species belonging to the Giamensis and Borneensis complexes, floral scent emission was only evident to the human nose during the pistillate phase. A total of 33 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were detected in floral scent analyses of species belonging to the Hanneae complex, whereas 26 VOCs were found in samples of those belonging to the Giamensis complex. The floral scent blends contained uncommon compounds in high concentration, which could ensure pollinator discrimination. Our observations indicate that scarab beetles (Parastasia gestroi and P. nigripennis; Scarabaeidae, Rutelinae) are the pollinators of the investigated species of Homalomena, with Chaloenus schawalleri (Chrysomelidae, Galeuricinae) acting as a secondary pollinator. The pollinators utilise the inflorescence for food, mating opportunities and safe mating arena as rewards. Flower-breeding flies (Colocasiomyia nigricauda and C. aff. heterodonta; Diptera, Drosophilidae) and terrestrial hydrophilid beetles (Cycreon sp.; Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae) were also frequently recovered from inflorescences belonging to all studied species (except H. velutipedunculata), but they probably do not act as efficient pollinators. Future studies should investigate the post-mating isolating barriers among syntopically co

  1. Floral Morphogenesis: Stochastic Explorations of a Gene Network Epigenetic Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Aldana, Maximino; Benítez, Mariana; Cortes-Poza, Yuriria; Espinosa-Soto, Carlos; Hartasánchez, Diego A.; Lotto, R. Beau; Malkin, David; Escalera Santos, Gerardo J.; Padilla-Longoria, Pablo

    2008-01-01

    In contrast to the classical view of development as a preprogrammed and deterministic process, recent studies have demonstrated that stochastic perturbations of highly non-linear systems may underlie the emergence and stability of biological patterns. Herein, we address the question of whether noise contributes to the generation of the stereotypical temporal pattern in gene expression during flower development. We modeled the regulatory network of organ identity genes in the Arabidopsis thaliana flower as a stochastic system. This network has previously been shown to converge to ten fixed-point attractors, each with gene expression arrays that characterize inflorescence cells and primordial cells of sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels. The network used is binary, and the logical rules that govern its dynamics are grounded in experimental evidence. We introduced different levels of uncertainty in the updating rules of the network. Interestingly, for a level of noise of around 0.5–10%, the system exhibited a sequence of transitions among attractors that mimics the sequence of gene activation configurations observed in real flowers. We also implemented the gene regulatory network as a continuous system using the Glass model of differential equations, that can be considered as a first approximation of kinetic-reaction equations, but which are not necessarily equivalent to the Boolean model. Interestingly, the Glass dynamics recover a temporal sequence of attractors, that is qualitatively similar, although not identical, to that obtained using the Boolean model. Thus, time ordering in the emergence of cell-fate patterns is not an artifact of synchronous updating in the Boolean model. Therefore, our model provides a novel explanation for the emergence and robustness of the ubiquitous temporal pattern of floral organ specification. It also constitutes a new approach to understanding morphogenesis, providing predictions on the population dynamics of cells with different

  2. Are tetraploids more successful? Floral signals, reproductive success and floral isolation in mixed-ploidy populations of a terrestrial orchid.

    PubMed

    Gross, Karin; Schiestl, Florian P

    2015-02-01

    Polyploidization, the doubling of chromosome sets, is common in angiosperms and has a range of evolutionary consequences. Newly formed polyploid lineages are reproductively isolated from their diploid progenitors due to triploid sterility, but also prone to extinction because compatible mating partners are rare. Models have suggested that assortative mating and increased reproductive fitness play a key role in the successful establishment and persistence of polyploids. However, little is known about these factors in natural mixed-ploidy populations. This study investigated floral traits that can affect pollinator attraction and efficiency, as well as reproductive success in diploid and tetraploid Gymnadenia conopsea (Orchidaceae) plants in two natural, mixed-ploidy populations. Ploidy levels were determined using flow cytometry, and flowering phenology and herbivory were also assessed. Reproductive success was determined by counting fruits and viable seeds of marked plants. Pollinator-mediated floral isolation was measured using experimental arrays, with pollen flow tracked by means of staining pollinia with histological dye. Tetraploids had larger floral displays and different floral scent bouquets than diploids, but cytotypes differed only slightly in floral colour. Significant floral isolation was found between the two cytotypes. Flowering phenology of the two cytotypes greatly overlapped, and herbivory did not differ between cytotypes or was lower in tetraploids. In addition, tetraploids had higher reproductive success compared with diploids. The results suggest that floral isolation and increased reproductive success of polyploids may help to explain their successful persistence in mixed-ploidy populations. These factors might even initiate transformation of populations from pure diploid to pure tetraploid. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email

  3. Are tetraploids more successful? Floral signals, reproductive success and floral isolation in mixed-ploidy populations of a terrestrial orchid

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Karin; Schiestl, Florian P.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Polyploidization, the doubling of chromosome sets, is common in angiosperms and has a range of evolutionary consequences. Newly formed polyploid lineages are reproductively isolated from their diploid progenitors due to triploid sterility, but also prone to extinction because compatible mating partners are rare. Models have suggested that assortative mating and increased reproductive fitness play a key role in the successful establishment and persistence of polyploids. However, little is known about these factors in natural mixed-ploidy populations. This study investigated floral traits that can affect pollinator attraction and efficiency, as well as reproductive success in diploid and tetraploid Gymnadenia conopsea (Orchidaceae) plants in two natural, mixed-ploidy populations. Methods Ploidy levels were determined using flow cytometry, and flowering phenology and herbivory were also assessed. Reproductive success was determined by counting fruits and viable seeds of marked plants. Pollinator-mediated floral isolation was measured using experimental arrays, with pollen flow tracked by means of staining pollinia with histological dye. Key Results Tetraploids had larger floral displays and different floral scent bouquets than diploids, but cytotypes differed only slightly in floral colour. Significant floral isolation was found between the two cytotypes. Flowering phenology of the two cytotypes greatly overlapped, and herbivory did not differ between cytotypes or was lower in tetraploids. In addition, tetraploids had higher reproductive success compared with diploids. Conclusions The results suggest that floral isolation and increased reproductive success of polyploids may help to explain their successful persistence in mixed-ploidy populations. These factors might even initiate transformation of populations from pure diploid to pure tetraploid. PMID:25652914

  4. Floral thermogenesis: An adaptive strategy of pollination biology in Magnoliaceae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruohan; Zhang, Zhixiang

    2015-01-01

    Floral thermogenesis plays a crucial role in pollination biology, especially in plant-pollinator interactions. We have recently explored how thermogenesis is related to pollinator activity and odour release in Magnolia sprengeri. By analyzing flower temperatures, emission of volatiles, and insect visitation, we found that floral blends released during pistillate and staminate stages were similar and coincided with sap beetle visitation. Thus, odour mimicry of staminate-stage flowers may occur during the pistillate stage and may be an adaptive strategy of Magnolia species to attract pollinators during both stages, ensuring successful pollination. In addition to the biological significance of floral thermogenesis in Magnolia species, we explored the underlying regulatory mechanisms via profiling miRNA expression in M. denudata flowers during thermogenic and non-thermogenic stages. We identified 17 miRNAs that may play regulatory roles in floral thermogenesis. Functional annotation of their target genes indicated that these miRNAs regulate floral thermogenesis by influencing cellular respiration and light reactions. These findings increase our understanding of plant-pollinator interactions and the regulatory mechanisms in thermogenic plants.

  5. Floral Nectar Guide Patterns Discourage Nectar Robbing by Bumble Bees

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Anne S.; Brent, Joshua; Papaj, Daniel R.; Dornhaus, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Floral displays are under selection to both attract pollinators and deter antagonists. Here we show that a common floral trait, a nectar guide pattern, alters the behavior of bees that can act opportunistically as both pollinators and as antagonists. Generally, bees access nectar via the floral limb, transporting pollen through contact with the plant’s reproductive structures; however bees sometimes extract nectar from a hole in the side of the flower that they or other floral visitors create. This behavior is called “nectar robbing” because bees may acquire the nectar without transporting pollen. We asked whether the presence of a symmetric floral nectar guide pattern on artificial flowers affected bumble bees’ (Bombus impatiens) propensity to rob or access nectar “legitimately.” We discovered that nectar guides made legitimate visits more efficient for bees than robbing, and increased the relative frequency of legitimate visits, compared to flowers lacking nectar guides. This study is the first to show that beyond speeding nectar discovery, a nectar guide pattern can influence bees’ flower handling in a way that could benefit the plant. PMID:23418475

  6. Floral thermogenesis: An adaptive strategy of pollination biology in Magnoliaceae

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ruohan; Zhang, Zhixiang

    2015-01-01

    Floral thermogenesis plays a crucial role in pollination biology, especially in plant–pollinator interactions. We have recently explored how thermogenesis is related to pollinator activity and odour release in Magnolia sprengeri. By analyzing flower temperatures, emission of volatiles, and insect visitation, we found that floral blends released during pistillate and staminate stages were similar and coincided with sap beetle visitation. Thus, odour mimicry of staminate-stage flowers may occur during the pistillate stage and may be an adaptive strategy of Magnolia species to attract pollinators during both stages, ensuring successful pollination. In addition to the biological significance of floral thermogenesis in Magnolia species, we explored the underlying regulatory mechanisms via profiling miRNA expression in M. denudata flowers during thermogenic and non-thermogenic stages. We identified 17 miRNAs that may play regulatory roles in floral thermogenesis. Functional annotation of their target genes indicated that these miRNAs regulate floral thermogenesis by influencing cellular respiration and light reactions. These findings increase our understanding of plant–pollinator interactions and the regulatory mechanisms in thermogenic plants. PMID:26844867

  7. Floral nectar guide patterns discourage nectar robbing by bumble bees.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Anne S; Brent, Joshua; Papaj, Daniel R; Dornhaus, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Floral displays are under selection to both attract pollinators and deter antagonists. Here we show that a common floral trait, a nectar guide pattern, alters the behavior of bees that can act opportunistically as both pollinators and as antagonists. Generally, bees access nectar via the floral limb, transporting pollen through contact with the plant's reproductive structures; however bees sometimes extract nectar from a hole in the side of the flower that they or other floral visitors create. This behavior is called "nectar robbing" because bees may acquire the nectar without transporting pollen. We asked whether the presence of a symmetric floral nectar guide pattern on artificial flowers affected bumble bees' (Bombus impatiens) propensity to rob or access nectar "legitimately." We discovered that nectar guides made legitimate visits more efficient for bees than robbing, and increased the relative frequency of legitimate visits, compared to flowers lacking nectar guides. This study is the first to show that beyond speeding nectar discovery, a nectar guide pattern can influence bees' flower handling in a way that could benefit the plant.

  8. Down-Regulation of TM29, a Tomato SEPALLATA Homolog, Causes Parthenocarpic Fruit Development and Floral Reversion1

    PubMed Central

    Ampomah-Dwamena, Charles; Morris, Bret A.; Sutherland, Paul; Veit, Bruce; Yao, Jia-Long

    2002-01-01

    We have characterized the tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) MADS box gene TM29 that shared a high amino acid sequence homology to the Arabidopsis SEP1, 2, and 3 (SEPALLATA1, 2, and 3) genes. TM29 showed similar expression profiles to SEP1, with accumulation of mRNA in the primordia of all four whorls of floral organs. In addition, TM29 mRNA was detected in inflorescence and vegetative meristems. To understand TM29 function, we produced transgenic tomato plants in which TM29 expression was down-regulated by either cosuppression or antisense techniques. These transgenic plants produced aberrant flowers with morphogenetic alterations in the organs of the inner three whorls. Petals and stamens were green rather than yellow, suggesting a partial conversion to a sepalloid identity. Stamens and ovaries were infertile, with the later developing into parthenocarpic fruit. Ectopic shoots with partially developed leaves and secondary flowers emerged from the fruit. These shoots resembled the primary transgenic flowers and continued to produce parthenocarpic fruit and additional ectopic shoots. Based on the temporal and spatial expression pattern and transgenic phenotypes, we propose that TM29 functions in floral organ development, fruit development, and maintenance of floral meristem identity in tomato. PMID:12376628

  9. Diesel exhaust rapidly degrades floral odours used by honeybees.

    PubMed

    Girling, Robbie D; Lusebrink, Inka; Farthing, Emily; Newman, Tracey A; Poppy, Guy M

    2013-10-03

    Honeybees utilise floral odours when foraging for flowers; we investigated whether diesel exhaust pollution could interrupt these floral odour stimuli. A synthetic blend of eight floral chemicals, identified from oilseed rape, was exposed to diesel exhaust pollution. Within one minute of exposure the abundances of four of the chemicals were significantly lowered, with two components rendered undetectable. Honeybees were trained to recognise the full synthetic odour mix; altering the blend, by removing the two chemicals rendered undetectable, significantly reduced the ability of the trained honeybees to recognize the altered odour. Furthermore, we found that at environmentally relevant levels the mono-nitrogen oxide (NOx) fraction of the exhaust gases was a key facilitator of this odour degradation. Such changes in recognition may impact upon a honeybee's foraging efficiency and therefore the pollination services that they provide.

  10. Hormonal changes during flower development in floral tissues of Lilium.

    PubMed

    Arrom, L; Munné-Bosch, S

    2012-08-01

    Much effort has been focussed on better understanding the key signals that modulate floral senescence. Although ethylene is one of the most important regulators of floral senescence in several species, Lilium flowers show low sensitivity to ethylene; thus their senescence may be regulated by other hormones. In this study we have examined how (1) endogenous levels of hormones in various floral tissues (outer and inner tepals, androecium and gynoecium) vary throughout flower development, (2) endogenous levels of hormones in such tissues change in cut versus intact flowers at anthesis, and (3) spray applications of abscisic acid and pyrabactin alter flower longevity. Results show that floral tissues behave differently in their hormonal changes during flower development. Cytokinin and auxin levels mostly increased in tepals prior to anthesis and decreased later during senescence. In contrast, levels of abscisic acid increased during senescence, but only in outer tepals and the gynoecium, and during the latest stages. In addition, cut flowers at anthesis differed from intact flowers in the levels of abscisic acid and auxins in outer tepals, salicylic acid in inner tepals, cytokinins, gibberellins and jasmonic acid in the androecium, and abscisic acid and salicylic acid in the gynoecium, thus showing a clear differential response between floral tissues. Furthermore, spray applications of abscisic acid and pyrabactin in combination accelerated the latest stages of tepal senescence, yet only when flower senescence was delayed with Promalin. It is concluded that (1) floral tissues differentially respond in their endogenous variations of hormones during flower development, (2) cut flowers have drastic changes in the hormonal balance not only of outer and inner tepals but also of androecium and gynoecium, and (3) abscisic acid may accelerate the progression of tepal senescence in Lilium.

  11. Floral homeotic C function genes repress specific B function genes in the carpel whorl of the basal eudicot California poppy (Eschscholzia californica).

    PubMed

    Yellina, Aravinda L; Orashakova, Svetlana; Lange, Sabrina; Erdmann, Robert; Leebens-Mack, Jim; Becker, Annette

    2010-12-01

    The floral homeotic C function gene AGAMOUS (AG) confers stamen and carpel identity and is involved in the regulation of floral meristem termination in Arabidopsis. Arabidopsis ag mutants show complete homeotic conversions of stamens into petals and carpels into sepals as well as indeterminacy of the floral meristem. Gene function analysis in model core eudicots and the monocots rice and maize suggest a conserved function for AG homologs in angiosperms. At the same time gene phylogenies reveal a complex history of gene duplications and repeated subfunctionalization of paralogs. EScaAG1 and EScaAG2, duplicate AG homologs in the basal eudicot Eschscholzia californica show a high degree of similarity in sequence and expression, although EScaAG2 expression is lower than EScaAG1 expression. Functional studies employing virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) demonstrate that knock down of EScaAG1 and 2 function leads to homeotic conversion of stamens into petaloid structures and defects in floral meristem termination. However, carpels are transformed into petaloid organs rather than sepaloid structures. We also show that a reduction of EScaAG1 and EScaAG2 expression leads to significantly increased expression of a subset of floral homeotic B genes. This work presents expression and functional analysis of the two basal eudicot AG homologs. The reduction of EScaAG1 and 2 functions results in the change of stamen to petal identity and a transformation of the central whorl organ identity from carpel into petal identity. Petal identity requires the presence of the floral homeotic B function and our results show that the expression of a subset of B function genes extends into the central whorl when the C function is reduced. We propose a model for the evolution of B function regulation by C function suggesting that the mode of B function gene regulation found in Eschscholzia is ancestral and the C-independent regulation as found in Arabidopsis is evolutionarily derived.

  12. Synthesis and odour properties of floral smelling compounds.

    PubMed

    Anselmi, C; Centini, M; Sega, A; Napolitano, E; Pelosi, P; Scesa, C

    1996-04-01

    Synopsis To provide further information on the relationships between chemical structure and floral odour, here we report the synthesis and the odour evaluation of some spirane derivatives, designed as conformational models of our previously described floral odorants. One of the new compounds (5-methyl-benzo[1,3]dioxole-2-spiro-1-cyclohexane), in particular, is endowed with a particularly pleasant odour of white flowers, can be easily prepared from commercial products and is more stable than other odorants of the same class; these characteristics make this odorant suitable for being used as an additive in perfumery and cosmetics.

  13. Crosstalk between Photoreceptor and Sugar Signaling Modulates Floral Signal Transduction

    PubMed Central

    Matsoukas, Ianis G.

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decade, integrated genetic, cellular, proteomic and genomic approaches have begun to unravel the surprisingly crosstalk between photoreceptors and sugar signaling in regulation of floral signal transduction. Although a number of physiological factors in the pathway have been identified, the molecular genetic interactions of some components are less well understood. The further elucidation of the crosstalk mechanisms between photoreceptors and sugar signaling will certainly contribute to our better understanding of the developmental circuitry that controls floral signal transduction. This article summarizes our current knowledge of this crosstalk, which has not received much attention, and suggests possible directions for future research. PMID:28659814

  14. Crosstalk between Photoreceptor and Sugar Signaling Modulates Floral Signal Transduction.

    PubMed

    Matsoukas, Ianis G

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decade, integrated genetic, cellular, proteomic and genomic approaches have begun to unravel the surprisingly crosstalk between photoreceptors and sugar signaling in regulation of floral signal transduction. Although a number of physiological factors in the pathway have been identified, the molecular genetic interactions of some components are less well understood. The further elucidation of the crosstalk mechanisms between photoreceptors and sugar signaling will certainly contribute to our better understanding of the developmental circuitry that controls floral signal transduction. This article summarizes our current knowledge of this crosstalk, which has not received much attention, and suggests possible directions for future research.

  15. Floral mimicry: a fascinating yet poorly understood phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Roy; Widmer

    1999-08-01

    Flowers of different species that resemble each other are not necessarily mimics. For mimicry to be occurring, the similarity must be adaptive. Unfortunately, no case of floral mimicry has ever been fully verified and it is important that we move beyond these perceived similarities to testing whether they are truly adaptive. Here we explain the differences between Batesian and Müllerian floral mimicry, illustrate what should be done to test mimicry hypotheses, and discuss how interspecific pollen transfer influences the evolution of mimicry.

  16. The Floral Nectary of Hymenaea stigonocarpa (Fabaceae, Caesalpinioideae): Structural Aspects During Floral Development

    PubMed Central

    Paiva, Elder Antonio Sousa; Machado, Silvia Rodrigues

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Considering that few studies on nectary anatomy and ultrastructure are available for chiropterophilous flowers and the importance of Hymenaea stigonocarpa in natural ‘cerrado’ communities, the present study sought to analyse the structure and cellular modifications that take place within its nectaries during the different stages of floral development, with special emphasis on plastid dynamics. Methods For the structural and ultrastructural studies the nectary was processed as per usual techniques and studied under light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Histochemical tests were employed to identify the main metabolites on nectary tissue and secretion samples. Key Results The floral nectary consists of the inner epidermis of the hypanthium and vascularized parenchyma. Some evidence indicates that the nectar release occurs via the stomata. The high populations of mitochondria, and their juxtaposition with amyloplasts, seem to be related to energy needs for starch hydrolysis. Among the alterations observed during the secretory phase, the reduction in the plastid stromatic density and starch grain size are highlighted. When the secretory stage begins, the plastid envelope disappears and a new membrane is formed, enclosing this region and giving rise to new vacuoles. After the secretory stage, cellular structures named ‘extrastomatic bodies’ were observed and seem to be related to the nectar resorption. Conclusions Starch hydrolysis contributes to nectar formation, in addition to the photosynthates derived directly from the phloem. In these nectaries, the secretion is an energy-requiring process. During the secretion stage, some plastids show starch grain hydrolysis and membrane rupture, and it was observed that the region previously occupied by this organelle continued to be reasonably well defined, and gave rise to new vacuoles. The extrastomatic bodies appear to be related to the resorption of uncollected nectar. PMID

  17. Tomato Flower Abnormalities Induced by Low Temperatures Are Associated with Changes of Expression of MADS-Box Genes1

    PubMed Central

    Lozano, Rafael; Angosto, Trinidad; Gómez, Pedro; Payán, Carmen; Capel, Juan; Huijser, Peter; Salinas, Julio; Martínez-Zapater, José M.

    1998-01-01

    Flower and fruit development in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were severely affected when plants were grown at low temperatures, displaying homeotic and meristic transformations and alterations in the fusion pattern of the organs. Most of these homeotic transformations modified the identity of stamens and carpels, giving rise to intermediate organs. Complete homeotic transformations were rarely found and always affected organs of the reproductive whorls. Meristic transformations were also commonly observed in the reproductive whorls, which developed with an excessive number of organs. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that meristic transformations take place very early in the development of the flower and are related to a significant increase in the floral meristem size. However, homeotic transformations should occur later during the development of the organ primordia. Steady-state levels of transcripts corresponding to tomato MADS-box genes TM4, TM5, TM6, and TAG1 were greatly increased by low temperatures and could be related to these flower abnormalities. Moreover, in situ hybridization analyses showed that low temperatures also altered the stage-specific expression of TM4. PMID:9576778

  18. Context- and scale-dependent effects of floral CO2 on nectar foraging by Manduca sexta

    PubMed Central

    Goyret, Joaquín; Markwell, Poppy M.; Raguso, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Typically, animal pollinators are attracted to flowers by sensory stimuli in the form of pigments, volatiles, and cuticular substances (hairs, waxes) derived from plant secondary metabolism. Few studies have addressed the extent to which primary plant metabolites, such as respiratory carbon dioxide (CO2), may function as pollinator attractants. Night-blooming flowers of Datura wrightii show transient emissions of up to 200 ppm above-ambient CO2 at anthesis, when nectar rewards are richest. Their main hawkmoth pollinator, Manduca sexta, can perceive minute variation (0.5 ppm) in CO2 concentration through labial pit organs whose receptor neurons project afferents to the antennal lobe. We explored the behavioral responses of M. sexta to artificial flowers with different combinations of CO2, visual, and olfactory stimuli using a laminar flow wind tunnel. Responses in no-choice assays were scale-dependent; CO2 functioned as an olfactory distance-attractant redundant to floral scent, as each stimulus elicited upwind tracking flights. However, CO2 played no role in probing behavior at the flower. Male moths showed significant bias in first-approach and probing choice of scented flowers with above-ambient CO2 over those with ambient CO2, whereas females showed similar bias only in the presence of host plant (tomato) leaf volatiles. Nevertheless, all males and females probed both flowers regardless of their first choice. While floral CO2 unequivocally affects male appetitive responses, the context-dependence of female responses suggests that they may use floral CO2 as a distance indicator of host plant quality during mixed feeding-oviposition bouts on Datura and Nicotiana plants. PMID:18212123

  19. Flower power: its association with bee power and floral functional morphology in papilionate legumes

    PubMed Central

    Córdoba, Silvina A.; Cocucci, Andrea A.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims A test was made of the hypothesis that papilionate legume flowers filter pollinators according to their ability to exert strength to open flowers to access rewards. In addition, interactions with pollen vectors were expected to explain the structural complexity of the architecture of these flowers since operative flower strength may be determined by a combination of morphological traits which form part of an intrafloral functional module. Methods Six papilionate species were studied: Collaea argentina, Desmodium uncinatum, Galactia latisiliqua, Lathyrus odoratus, Spartium junceum and Tipuana tipu. Measurements were made of the strength needed to open keels and the strength that pollinators were capable of exerting. Morphological traits of all petals were also measured to determine which of them could be either mutually correlated or correlated with operative strength and moment of strength and participated in a functional module. Key Results It was observed that pollinators were capable in all cases of exerting forces higher and often several times higher than that needed to access floral rewards, and no association could be detected between floral operative strength and strength exerted by the corresponding pollinators. On the other hand, strong and significant correlations were found among morphometric traits and, of these, with operative strength and moment. This was particularly evident among traits of the keel and the wings, presumably involved in the functioning of the floral moveable mechanism. Conclusions Though visitors are often many times stronger than the operative strength of the flowers they pollinate, exceptionally weak bees such as Apis mellifera cannot open the strongest flowers. On the other hand, strong correlations among certain petal morphometric traits (particularly between the keel and wings) give support to the idea that an intrafloral module is associated with the functioning of the mechanism of these legume flowers. In

  20. Pathogen effects on vegetative and floral odours mediate vector attraction and host exposure in a complex pathosystem.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Lori; De Moraes, Consuelo M; Stephenson, Andrew G; Mescher, Mark C; van der Putten, Wim

    2012-12-01

    Pathogens can alter host phenotypes in ways that influence interactions between hosts and other organisms, including insect disease vectors. Such effects have implications for pathogen transmission, as well as host exposure to secondary pathogens, but are not well studied in natural systems, particularly for plant pathogens. Here, we report that the beetle-transmitted bacterial pathogen Erwinia tracheiphila - which causes a fatal wilt disease - alters the foliar and floral volatile emissions of its host (wild gourd, Cucurbita pepo ssp. texana) in ways that enhance both vector recruitment to infected plants and subsequent dispersal to healthy plants. Moreover, infection by Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), which also occurs at our study sites, reduces floral volatile emissions in a manner that discourages beetle recruitment and therefore likely reduces the exposure of virus-infected plants to the lethal bacterial pathogen - a finding consistent with our previous observation of dramatically reduced wilt disease incidence in ZYMV-infected plants.

  1. The AP2-like gene NsAP2 from water lily is involved in floral organogenesis and plant height.

    PubMed

    Luo, Huolin; Chen, Sumei; Jiang, Jiafu; Teng, Nianjun; Chen, Yu; Chen, Fadi

    2012-07-01

    APETALA2 (AP2) genes are ancient and widely distributed among the seed plants, and play an important role during the plant life cycle, acting as key regulators of many developmental processes. In this study, an AP2 homologue, NsAP2, was characterized from water lily (Nymphaea sp. cv. 'Yellow Prince') and is believed to be rather primitive in the evolution of the angiosperms. In situ RNA hybridization showed that NsAP2 transcript was present in all regions of the floral primordium, but had the highest level in the emerging floral organ primordium. After the differentiation of floral organs, NsAP2 was strongly expressed in sepals and petals, while low levels were found in stamens and carpels. The NsAP2 protein was suggested to be localized in the cell nucleus by onion transient expression experiment. Overexpression of NsAP2 in Arabidopsis led to more petal numbers, and Arabidopsis plants expressing NsAP2 exhibited higher plant height, which may be a result of down-regulated expression of GA2ox2 and GA2ox7. Our results indicated that the NsAP2 protein may function in flower organogenesis in water lily, and it is a promising gene for plant height improvement.

  2. The polycomb group gene EMF2B is essential for maintenance of floral meristem determinacy in rice.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Liza J; Khanday, Imtiyaz; Johnson, Cameron; Guiderdoni, Emmanuel; An, Gynheung; Vijayraghavan, Usha; Sundaresan, Venkatesan

    2014-12-01

    Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) represses the transcriptional activity of target genes through trimethylation of lysine 27 of histone H3. The functions of plant PRC2 have been chiefly described in Arabidopsis, but specific functions in other plant species, especially cereals, are still largely unknown. Here we characterize mutants in the rice EMF2B gene, an ortholog of the Arabidopsis EMBRYONIC FLOWER2 (EMF2) gene. Loss of EMF2B in rice results in complete sterility, and mutant flowers have severe floral organ defects and indeterminacy that resemble loss-of-function mutants in E-function floral organ specification genes. Transcriptome analysis identified the E-function genes OsMADS1, OsMADS6 and OsMADS34 as differentially expressed in the emf2b mutant compared with wild type. OsMADS1 and OsMADS6, known to be required for meristem determinacy in rice, have reduced expression in the emf2b mutant, whereas OsMADS34 which interacts genetically with OsMADS1 was ectopically expressed. Chromatin immunoprecipitation for H3K27me3 followed by quantitative (q)RT-PCR showed that all three genes are presumptive targets of PRC2 in the meristem. Therefore, in rice, and possibly other cereals, PRC2 appears to play a major role in floral meristem determinacy through modulation of the expression of E-function genes. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. A conserved function for Arabidopsis SUPERMAN in regulating floral-whorl cell proliferation in rice, a monocotyledonous plant.

    PubMed

    Nandi, A K; Kushalappa, K; Prasad, K; Vijayraghavan, U

    2000-02-24

    Studies of floral organ development in two dicotyledonous plants, Arabidopsis thaliana and Antirrhinum majus, have shown that three sets of genes (A, B and C) can pattern sepals, petals, stamens and carpels [1] [2]. Mechanisms that define boundaries between these floral whorls are unclear, however. The Arabidopsis gene SUPERMAN (SUP), which encodes a putative transcription factor, maintains the boundary between stamens and carpels [3] [4] [5], possibly by regulating cell proliferation. By overexpressing SUP cDNA in rice, we examined whether its effects on whorl boundaries are conserved in a divergent monocotyledonous species. High-level ectopic SUP expression in transgenic rice resulted in juvenile death or dwarf plants with decreased axillary growth. Plants with lower levels of SUP RNA were vegetatively normal, but the flowers showed ubiquitous ventral carpel expansion. This was often coupled with reduced stamen number, or occurrence of third-whorl stamen-carpel mosaic organs. Additionally, proliferation of second-whorl ventral cells produced adventitious lodicules, and flowers lost the asymmetry that is normally inherent to this whorl. We predict that SUP is a conserved regulator of floral whorl boundaries and that it affects cell proliferation.

  4. Floral closure induced by pollination in gynodioecious Cyananthus delavayi (Campanulaceae): effects of pollen load and type, floral morph and fitness consequences

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Yang; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Zhi-Min; Sun, Hang

    2011-01-01

    Background and aims Pollination-induced floral changes, which have been widely documented in flowering plants, have been assumed to enhance the plant's reproductive success. However, our understanding of the causes and consequences of these changes is still limited. Using an alpine gynodioecious species, Cyananthus delavayi, we investigated the factors affecting floral closure and estimated the fitness consequences of floral closure. Methods The timings of floral closure and fertilization were determined. The effects of pollen load, pollen type (cross- or self-pollen) and floral morph (female or perfect flower) on the occurrence of floral closure were examined. Ovule fertilization and seed production were examined to investigate the causes and consequences of floral closure. Flowers were manipulated to prevent closing to detect potential benefits for female fitness. Key Results Floral closure, which could be induced by a very low pollen load, occurred within 4–7 h after pollination, immediately following fertilization. The proportion of closed flowers was influenced by pollen load and floral morph, but not by pollen type. Floral closure was more likely to occur in flowers with a higher proportion of fertilized ovules, but there was no significant difference in seed production between closed and open flowers. Those flowers in which closure was induced by natural pollination had low fruit set and seed production. Additionally, seed production was not influenced by closing-prevented manipulation when sufficient pollen deposition was received. Conclusions The occurrence of floral closure may be determined by the proportion of fertilized ovules, but this response can be too sensitive to ensure sufficient pollen deposition and can, to some extent, lead to a cost in female fitness. These results implied that the control of floral receptivity by the recipient flowers does not lead to an optimal fitness gain in C. delavayi. PMID:21900256

  5. How scent and nectar influence floral antagonists and mutualists

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Danny; Kallenbach, Mario; Diezel, Celia; Rothe, Eva; Murdock, Mark; Baldwin, Ian T

    2015-01-01

    Many plants attract and reward pollinators with floral scents and nectar, respectively, but these traits can also incur fitness costs as they also attract herbivores. This dilemma, common to most flowering plants, could be solved by not producing nectar and/or scent, thereby cheating pollinators. Both nectar and scent are highly variable in native populations of coyote tobacco, Nicotiana attenuata, with some producing no nectar at all, uncorrelated with the tobacco's main floral attractant, benzylacetone. By silencing benzylacetone biosynthesis and nectar production in all combinations by RNAi, we experimentally uncouple these floral rewards/attractrants and measure their costs/benefits in the plant's native habitat and experimental tents. Both scent and nectar increase outcrossing rates for three, separately tested, pollinators and both traits increase oviposition by a hawkmoth herbivore, with nectar being more influential than scent. These results underscore that it makes little sense to study floral traits as if they only mediated pollination services. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07641.001 PMID:26132861

  6. Related allopolyploids display distinct floral pigment profiles and transgressive pigments.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Elizabeth W; Berardi, Andrea E; Smith, Stacey D; Litt, Amy

    2017-01-01

    Both polyploidy and shifts in floral color have marked angiosperm evolution. Here, we investigate the biochemical basis of the novel and diverse floral phenotypes seen in allopolyploids in Nicotiana (Solanaceae) and examine the extent to which the merging of distinct genomes alters flavonoid pigment production. We analyzed flavonol and anthocyanin pigments from Nicotiana allopolyploids of different ages (N. tabacum, 0.2 million years old; several species from Nicotiana section Repandae, 4.5 million years old; and five lines of first-generation synthetic N. tabacum) as well as their diploid progenitors. Allopolyploid floral pigment profiles tend not to overlap with their progenitors or related allopolyploids, and allopolyploids produce transgressive pigments that are not present in either progenitor. Differences in floral color among N. tabacum accessions seems mainly to be due to variation in cyanidin concentration, but changes in flavonol concentrations among accessions are also present. Competition for substrates within the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway to make either flavonols or anthocyanins may drive the differences seen among related allopolyploids. Some of the pigment differences observed in allopolyploids may be associated with making flowers more visible to nocturnal pollinators. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  7. Retail Flower Shop Salesperson and Floral Designer. Student's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This document consists of the student manual for a course in retail flower shop sales and floral design for use in vocational education courses in high schools in South Carolina. The guide consists of 22 learning modules that incorporate the subject matter needed by workers in these jobs. Each learning module consists of an introduction,…

  8. Floral and ecological isolation between Aquilegia formosa and Aquilegia pubescens

    SciTech Connect

    Hodges, S.A.; Arnold, M.L.

    1994-03-29

    Habitat preference and pollination syndrome have been suggested as major factors in reproductive isolation among plant species. The columbine genus Aquilegia contains species that have been used as classic examples of reproductive isolation due to ecological and floral factors. In this analysis Aquilegia formosa, Aquilegia pubescens, and natural hybrid populations between these two species were assayed for genetic and morphological variation. Clinal variation was evident for three {open_quotes}random amplified polymorphic DNA{close_quotes} loci and five morphological characters along a transect extending from a lower altitude A. formosa population, through an intermediate hybrid population, to a higher altitude A. pubescens population. Similar clinal variation was also discovered for a transect that included A. formosa-like, hybrid, and A. pubescens-like populations at a single elevation. The change in the frequency of both sets of markers was closely associated with change in habitat. The molecular markers indicate the presence of bidirectional introgression between these two species. In contrast, there was apparently selection against introgression of four of the five alternate floral characters. Selection against the incorporation of floral characters from one species into the other species was suggested by the introgression of the DNA markers with little or no introgression of the four floral characters. These findings suggest the importance of adaptations associated with both pollination syndromes and habitat preference on species integrity.

  9. Patterns and development of floral asymmetry in Senna (Leguminosae, Cassiinae).

    PubMed

    Marazzi, Brigitte; Endress, Peter K

    2008-01-01

    The buzz-pollinated genus Senna (Leguminosae) is outstanding for including species with monosymmetric flowers and species with diverse asymmetric, enantiomorphic (enantiostylous) flowers. To recognize patterns of homology, we dissected the floral symmetry character complex and explored corolla morphology in 60 Senna species and studied floral development of four enantiomorphic species. The asymmetry morph of a flower is correlated with the direction of spiral calyx aestivation. We recognized five patterns of floral asymmetry, resulting from different combinations of six structural elements: deflection of the carpel, deflection of the median abaxial stamen, deflection or modification in size of one lateral abaxial stamen, and modification in shape and size of one or both lower petals. Prominent corolla asymmetry begins in the earl-stage bud (unequal development of lower petals). Androecium asymmetry begins either in the midstage bud (unequal development of thecae in median abaxial stamen; twisting of androecium) or at anthesis (stamen deflection). Gynoecium asymmetry begins in early bud (primordium off the median plane, ventral slit laterally oriented) or midstage to late bud (carpel deflection). In enantiostylous flowers, pronouncedly concave and robust petals of both monosymmetric and asymmetric corollas likely function to ricochet and direct pollen flow during buzz pollination. Occurrence of particular combinations of structural elements of floral symmetry in the subclades is shown.

  10. Active pollination favours sexual dimorphism in floral scent

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Tomoko; Kawakita, Atsushi; Goto, Ryutaro; Svensson, Glenn P.; Kato, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    Zoophilous flowers often transmit olfactory signals to attract pollinators. In plants with unisexual flowers, such signals are usually similar between the sexes because attraction of the same animal to both male and female flowers is essential for conspecific pollen transfer. Here, we present a remarkable example of sexual dimorphism in floral signal observed in reproductively highly specialized clades of the tribe Phyllantheae (Phyllanthaceae). These plants are pollinated by species-specific, seed-parasitic Epicephala moths (Gracillariidae) that actively collect pollen from male flowers and pollinate the female flowers in which they oviposit; by doing so, they ensure seeds for their offspring. We found that Epicephala-pollinated Phyllanthaceae plants consistently exhibit major qualitative differences in scent between male and female flowers, often involving compounds derived from different biosynthetic pathways. In a choice test, mated female Epicephala moths preferred the scent of male flowers over that of female flowers, suggesting that male floral scent elicits pollen-collecting behaviour. Epicephala pollination evolved multiple times in Phyllantheae, at least thrice accompanied by transition from sexual monomorphism to dimorphism in floral scent. This is the first example in which sexually dimorphic floral scent has evolved to signal an alternative reward provided by each sex, provoking the pollinator's legitimate altruistic behaviour. PMID:24266037

  11. Quantitative trait loci for floral morphology in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed Central

    Juenger, T; Purugganan, M; Mackay, T F

    2000-01-01

    A central question in biology is how genes control the expression of quantitative variation. We used statistical methods to estimate genetic variation in eight Arabidopsis thaliana floral characters (fresh flower mass, petal length, petal width, sepal length, sepal width, long stamen length, short stamen length, and pistil length) in a cosmopolitan sample of 15 ecotypes. In addition, we used genome-wide quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping to evaluate the genetic basis of variation in these same traits in the Landsberg erecta x Columbia recombinant inbred line population. There was significant genetic variation for all traits in both the sample of naturally occurring ecotypes and in the Ler x Col recombinant inbred line population. In addition, broad-sense genetic correlations among the traits were positive and high. A composite interval mapping (CIM) analysis detected 18 significant QTL affecting at least one floral character. Eleven QTL were associated with several floral traits, supporting either pleiotropy or tight linkage as major determinants of flower morphological integration. We propose several candidate genes that may underlie these QTL on the basis of positional information and functional arguments. Genome-wide QTL mapping is a promising tool for the discovery of candidate genes controlling morphological development, the detection of novel phenotypic effects for known genes, and in generating a more complete understanding of the genetic basis of floral development. PMID:11063709

  12. Trapping noctuid moths with synthetic floral volatile lures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Male and female noctuid moths were collected from plastic bucket traps that were baited with different synthetic floral chemicals and placed in peanut fields. Traps baited with phenylacetaldehyde, benzyl acetate, and a blend of phenylacetaldehyde, benzyl acetate, and benzaldehyde collected more soyb...

  13. Retail Flower Shop Salesperson and Floral Designer. Student's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This document consists of the student manual for a course in retail flower shop sales and floral design for use in vocational education courses in high schools in South Carolina. The guide consists of 22 learning modules that incorporate the subject matter needed by workers in these jobs. Each learning module consists of an introduction,…

  14. Transcriptional control of floral anthocyanin pigmentation in monkeyflowers (Mimulus).

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yao-Wu; Sagawa, Janelle M; Frost, Laura; Vela, James P; Bradshaw, Harvey D

    2014-12-01

    A molecular description of the control of floral pigmentation in a multi-species group displaying various flower color patterns is of great interest for understanding the molecular bases of phenotypic diversification and pollinator-mediated speciation. Through transcriptome profiling, mutant analyses and transgenic experiments, we aim to establish a 'baseline' floral anthocyanin regulation model in Mimulus lewisii and to examine the different ways of tinkering with this model in generating the diversity of floral anthocyanin patterns in other Mimulus species. We find one WD40 and one bHLH gene controlling anthocyanin pigmentation in the entire corolla of M. lewisii and two R2R3-MYB genes, PELAN and NEGAN, controlling anthocyanin production in the petal lobe and nectar guide, respectively. The autoregulation of NEGAN might be a critical property to generate anthocyanin spots. Independent losses of PELAN expression (via different mechanisms) explain two natural yellow-flowered populations of M. cardinalis (typically red-flowered). The NEGAN ortholog is the only anthocyanin-activating MYB expressed in the M. guttatus flowers. The mutant lines and transgenic tools available for M. lewisii will enable gene-by-gene replacement experiments to dissect the genetic and developmental bases of more complex floral color patterns, and to test hypotheses on phenotypic evolution in general. © 2014 The Authors. © 2014 The Authors New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. Transcriptional control of floral anthocyanin pigmentation in monkeyflowers (Mimulus)

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yao-Wu; Sagawa, Janelle M.; Frost, Laura; Vela, James P.; Bradshaw, Harvey D.

    2014-01-01

    Summary A molecular description of the control of floral pigmentation in a multi-species group displaying various flower color patterns is of great interest for understanding the molecular bases of phenotypic diversification and pollinator-mediated speciation. Through transcriptome profiling, mutant analyses, and transgenic experiments, we aim to establish a ‘baseline’ floral anthocyanin regulation model in Mimulus lewisii and to examine the different ways of tinkering with this model in generating the diversity of floral anthocyanin patterns in other Mimulus species. We find one WD40 and one bHLH gene controlling anthocyanin pigmentation in the entire corolla of M. lewisii, and two R2R3-MYB genes, PELAN and NEGAN, controlling anthocyanin production in the petal lobe and nectar guide, respectively. The autoregulation of NEGAN might be a critical property to generate anthocyanin spots. Independent losses of PELAN expression (via different mechanisms) explain two natural yellow-flowered populations of M. cardinalis (typically red-flowered). The NEGAN ortholog is the only anthocyanin-activating MYB expressed in the M. guttatus flowers. The mutant lines and transgenic tools available for M. lewisii will enable gene-by-gene replacement experiments to dissect the genetic and developmental bases of more complex floral color patterns, and to test hypotheses on phenotypic evolution in general. PMID:25103615

  16. Eugenol synthase genes in floral scent variation in Gymnadenia species.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Alok K; Schauvinhold, Ines; Pichersky, Eran; Schiestl, Florian P

    2014-12-01

    Floral signaling, especially through floral scent, is often highly complex, and little is known about the molecular mechanisms and evolutionary causes of this complexity. In this study, we focused on the evolution of "floral scent genes" and the associated changes in their functions in three closely related orchid species of the genus Gymnadenia. We developed a benchmark repertoire of 2,571 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in Gymnadenia odoratissima. For the functional characterization and evolutionary analysis, we focused on eugenol synthase, as eugenol is a widespread and important scent compound. We obtained complete coding complementary DNAs (cDNAs) of two copies of putative eugenol synthase genes in each of the three species. The proteins encoded by these cDNAs were characterized by expression and testing for activity in Escherichia coli. While G. odoratissima and Gymnadenia conopsea enzymes were found to catalyze the formation of eugenol only, the Gymnadenia densiflora proteins synthesize eugenol, as well as a smaller amount of isoeugenol. Finally, we showed that the eugenol and isoeugenol producing gene copies of G. densiflora are evolutionarily derived from the ancestral genes of the other species producing only eugenol. The evolutionary switch from production of one to two compounds evolved under relaxed purifying selection. In conclusion, our study shows the molecular bases of eugenol and isoeugenol production and suggests that an evolutionary transition in a single gene can lead to an increased complexity in floral scent emitted by plants.

  17. Floral Structure of Kirkia (Kirkiaceae) and its Position in Sapindales

    PubMed Central

    Bachelier, Julien B.; Endress, Peter K.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims The monogeneric Kirkiaceae (Sapindales) were formerly placed as Kirkioideae in Simaroubaceae. However, recent molecular phylogenetic studies indicate that they are not in Simaroubaceae and they appear to be sister to the clade of Anacardiaceae plus Burseraceae. Such affinity was never considered or discussed since the first description of Kirkia. The present study is the first detailed analysis of the floral structure of a representative of Kirkiaceae and the first comparison with other sapindalean families, especially Anacardiaceae and Burseraceae. Methods Floral structure of Kirkia wilmsii was studied using transversal and longitudinal microtome section series, scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy. Key Results The flowers of Kirkia wilmsii are morphologically bisexual but functionally unisexual. They are polysymmetric, isomerous (tetramerous) and haplostemonous. The ovary is syncarpous and entirely synascidiate. The floral apex forms a hemispherical protrusion on top of the ovary. The styles are free but postgenitally united and apically form a stigmatic head with a compitum. Each carpel is uniovulate (biovulate in a few other species) and ovules are crassinucellar, bitegmic and slightly campylotropous. The micropyle is formed by both integuments and is unusually long. The unusual two radially disposed locules in each carpel in the former genus Pleiokirkia can be explained developmentally by the two offset and tightly contiguous lateral placentae. Conclusions Paralleling the molecular results, a suite of floral features supports the position of Kirkiaceae close to the Anacardiaceae–Burseraceae clade, and not in Simaroubaceae. PMID:18687798

  18. The dilemma of being a fragrant flower: the major floral volatile attracts pollinators and florivores in the euglossine-pollinated orchid Dichaea pendula.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Carlos E P; Peñaflor, Maria Fernanda G V; Bento, José Maurício S; Salvador, Marcos José; Sazima, Marlies

    2016-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) mediate both mutualistic and antagonistic plant-animal interactions; thus, the attraction of mutualists and antagonists by floral VOCs constitutes an important trade-off in the evolutionary ecology of angiosperms. Here, we evaluate the role of VOCs in mediating communication between the plant and its mutualist and antagonist floral visitors. To assess the evolutionary consequences of VOC-mediated signalling to distinct floral visitors, we studied the reproductive ecology of Dichaea pendula, assessing the effects of florivores on fruit set, the pollination efficiency of pollinators and florivores, the floral scent composition and the attractiveness of the major VOC to pollinators and florivores. The orchid depends entirely on orchid-bees for sexual reproduction, and the major florivores, the weevils, feed on corollas causing self-pollination, triggering abortion of 26.4 % of the flowers. Floral scent was composed of approximately 99 % 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol, an unusual floral VOC attractive to pollinators and florivores. The low fruit set from natural pollination (5.6 %) compared to hand cross-pollination (45.5 %) and low level of pollinator visitation [0.02 visits (flower hour)(-1)] represent the limitations to pollination. Our research found that 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol mediates both mutualistic and antagonistic interactions, which could result in contrary evolutionary pressures on novo-emission. The scarcity of pollinators, not florivory, was the major constraint to fruit set. Our results suggest that, rather than anti-florivory adaptations, adaptations to enhance pollinator attraction and cross-pollination might be the primary drivers of the evolution of VOC emission in euglossine-pollinated flowers.

  19. Transcriptome Analysis for Abnormal Spike Development of the Wheat Mutant dms

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xin-Xin; Li, Qiao-Yun; Shen, Chun-Cai; Duan, Zong-Biao; Yu, Dong-Yan; Niu, Ji-Shan; Ni, Yong-Jing; Jiang, Yu-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Background Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) spike development is the foundation for grain yield. We obtained a novel wheat mutant, dms, characterized as dwarf, multi-pistil and sterility. Although the genetic changes are not clear, the heredity of traits suggests that a recessive gene locus controls the two traits of multi-pistil and sterility in self-pollinating populations of the medium plants (M), such that the dwarf genotype (D) and tall genotype (T) in the progeny of the mutant are ideal lines for studies regarding wheat spike development. The objective of this study was to explore the molecular basis for spike abnormalities of dwarf genotype. Results Four unigene libraries were assembled by sequencing the mRNAs of the super-bulked differentiating spikes and stem tips of the D and T plants. Using integrative analysis, we identified 419 genes highly expressed in spikes, including nine typical homeotic genes of the MADS-box family and the genes TaAP2, TaFL and TaDL. We also identified 143 genes that were significantly different between young spikes of T and D, and 26 genes that were putatively involved in spike differentiation. The result showed that the expression levels of TaAP1-2, TaAP2, and other genes involved in the majority of biological processes such as transcription, translation, cell division, photosynthesis, carbohydrate transport and metabolism, and energy production and conversion were significantly lower in D than in T. Conclusions We identified a set of genes related to wheat floral organ differentiation, including typical homeotic genes. Our results showed that the major causal factors resulting in the spike abnormalities of dms were the lower expression homeotic genes, hormonal imbalance, repressed biological processes, and deficiency of construction materials and energy. We performed a series of studies on the homeotic genes, however the other three causal factors for spike abnormal phenotype of dms need further study. PMID:26982202

  20. Characterizing Floral Symmetry in the Core Goodeniaceae with Geometric Morphometrics

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Andrew G.; Fitz Gerald, Jonathan N.; Menz, John; Shepherd, Kelly A.; Howarth, Dianella G.; Jabaily, Rachel S.

    2016-01-01

    Core Goodeniaceae is a clade of ~330 species primarily distributed in Australia. Considerable variation in flower morphology exists within this group and we aim to use geometric morphometrics to characterize this variation across the two major subclades: Scaevola sensu lato (s.l.) and Goodenia s.l., the latter of which was hypothesized to exhibit greater variability in floral symmetry form. We test the hypothesis that floral morphological variation can be adequately characterized by our morphometric approach, and that discrete groups of floral symmetry morphologies exist, which broadly correlate with subjectively determined groups. From 335 images of 44 species in the Core Goodeniaceae, two principal components were computed that describe >98% of variation in all datasets. Increasing values of PC1 ventralize the dorsal petals (increasing the angle between them), whereas increasing values of PC2 primarily ventralize the lateral petals (decreasing the angle between them). Manipulation of these two morphological “axes” alone was sufficient to recreate any of the general floral symmetry patterns in the Core Goodeniaceae. Goodenia s.l. exhibits greater variance than Scaevola s.l. in PC1 and PC2, and has a significantly lower mean value for PC1. Clustering clearly separates fan-flowers (with dorsal petals at least 120° separated) from the others, whereas the distinction between pseudo-radial and bilabiate clusters is less clear and may form a continuum rather than two distinct groups. Transitioning from the average fan-flower to the average non-fan-flower is described almost exclusively by PC1, whereas PC2 partially describes the transition between bilabiate and pseudo-radial morphologies. Our geometric morphometric method accurately models Core Goodeniaceae floral symmetry diversity. PMID:27148960

  1. Characterizing Floral Symmetry in the Core Goodeniaceae with Geometric Morphometrics.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Andrew G; Fitz Gerald, Jonathan N; Menz, John; Shepherd, Kelly A; Howarth, Dianella G; Jabaily, Rachel S

    2016-01-01

    Core Goodeniaceae is a clade of ~330 species primarily distributed in Australia. Considerable variation in flower morphology exists within this group and we aim to use geometric morphometrics to characterize this variation across the two major subclades: Scaevola sensu lato (s.l.) and Goodenia s.l., the latter of which was hypothesized to exhibit greater variability in floral symmetry form. We test the hypothesis that floral morphological variation can be adequately characterized by our morphometric approach, and that discrete groups of floral symmetry morphologies exist, which broadly correlate with subjectively determined groups. From 335 images of 44 species in the Core Goodeniaceae, two principal components were computed that describe >98% of variation in all datasets. Increasing values of PC1 ventralize the dorsal petals (increasing the angle between them), whereas increasing values of PC2 primarily ventralize the lateral petals (decreasing the angle between them). Manipulation of these two morphological "axes" alone was sufficient to recreate any of the general floral symmetry patterns in the Core Goodeniaceae. Goodenia s.l. exhibits greater variance than Scaevola s.l. in PC1 and PC2, and has a significantly lower mean value for PC1. Clustering clearly separates fan-flowers (with dorsal petals at least 120° separated) from the others, whereas the distinction between pseudo-radial and bilabiate clusters is less clear and may form a continuum rather than two distinct groups. Transitioning from the average fan-flower to the average non-fan-flower is described almost exclusively by PC1, whereas PC2 partially describes the transition between bilabiate and pseudo-radial morphologies. Our geometric morphometric method accurately models Core Goodeniaceae floral symmetry diversity.

  2. Influences of floral composition and environment on plant biomarkers across a Cretaceous landscape (Big Cedar Ridge)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, R. T.; Diefendorf, A. F.; Wing, S. L.; McInerney, F. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Late Cretaceous fossil site at Big Cedar Ridge (BCR; late Campanian, 72.7 Ma), located in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, USA, contains a flora preserved in situ in a volcanic ash tuff over an organic-rich paleosol. The BCR flora is irregularly but extensively exposed along a ~4 km north-south transect and records a lowland flora that grew on a coastal delta on the western shore of the Cretaceous Interior Seaway (Meeteetse Formation). The transect spans a diverse landscape and a range of environmental gradients from very carbon-rich, swampy soils in the southern portion to less carbon-rich in the north; the landscape is also intersected by multiple inactive channel cuts that were filling with sediment and organic matter at the time of ash deposition. Recently Wing and others (2012, Ecological Monographs) described the composition of the local plant community at high resolution across the entire landscape, including identification and quantification of cover and richness for >122 taxonomic morphotypes, for each of 100 sites along the transect. Big Cedar Ridge captures an important time in the ecological development of plant communities: the site preserves ferns, gymnosperms, and angiosperms in 'fern thicket' floral assemblages, which are rare today, as well as disturbed habitats with abundant herbaceous 'dicot' angiosperms. During the Late Cretaceous angiosperms were globally increasing in abundance, displacing other plant groups as vegetational dominants. This setting allows for a novel analysis of plant biomarkers in the context of floral diversity, abundance, and landscape heterogeneity. We quantified leaf waxes (n-alkyl lipids), plant-derived terpenoids, bacterial hopanes, carbon isotope values (including bulk and compound-specific), and percent total organic carbon of the underlying paleosol for 36 sites along the transect in order to assess the influence of floral composition and soil environment on biomarker distributions and preservation. We compare lipid

  3. Floral and vegetative cues in oil-secreting and non-oil-secreting Lysimachia species

    PubMed Central

    Schäffler, I.; Balao, F.; Dötterl, S.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Unrelated plants pollinated by the same group or guild of animals typically evolve similar floral cues due to pollinator-mediated selection. Related plant species, however, may possess similar cues either as a result of pollinator-mediated selection or as a result of sharing a common ancestor that possessed the same cues or traits. In this study, visual and olfactory floral cues in Lysimachia species exhibiting different pollination strategies were analysed and compared, and the importance of pollinators and phylogeny on the evolution of these floral cues was determined. For comparison, cues of vegetative material were examined where pollinator selection would not be expected. Methods Floral and vegetative scents and colours in floral oil- and non-floral oil-secreting Lysimachia species were studied by chemical and spectrophotometric analyses, respectively, compared between oil- and non-oil-secreting species, and analysed by phylogenetically controlled methods. Key Results Vegetative and floral scent was species specific, and variability in floral but not vegetative scent was lower in oil compared with non-oil species. Overall, oil species did not differ in their floral or vegetative scent from non-oil species. However, a correlation was found between oil secretion and six floral scent constituents specific to oil species, whereas the presence of four other floral compounds can be explained by phylogeny. Four of the five analysed oil species had bee-green flowers and the pattern of occurrence of this colour correlated with oil secretion. Non-oil species had different floral colours. The colour of leaves was similar among all species studied. Conclusions Evidence was found for correlated evolution between secretion of floral oils and floral but not vegetative visual and olfactory cues. The cues correlating with oil secretion were probably selected by Macropis bees, the specialized pollinators of oil-secreting Lysimachia species, and may have

  4. Developmental robustness by obligate interaction of class B floral homeotic genes and proteins.

    PubMed

    Lenser, Thorsten; Theissen, Günter; Dittrich, Peter

    2009-01-01

    DEF-like and GLO-like class B floral homeotic genes encode closely related MADS-domain transcription factors that act as developmental switches involved in specifying the identity of petals and stamens during flower development. Class B gene function requires transcriptional upregulation by an autoregulatory loop that depends on obligate heterodimerization of DEF-like and GLO-like proteins. Because switch-like behavior of gene expression can be displayed by single genes already, the functional relevance of this complex circuitry has remained enigmatic. On the basis of a stochastic in silico model of class B gene and protein interactions, we suggest that obligate heterodimerization of class B floral homeotic proteins is not simply the result of neutral drift but enhanced the robustness of cell-fate organ identity decisions in the presence of stochastic noise. This finding strongly corroborates the view that the appearance of this regulatory mechanism during angiosperm phylogeny led to a canalization of flower development and evolution.

  5. Evolution of DNA-Binding Sites of a Floral Master Regulatory Transcription Factor

    PubMed Central

    Muiño, Jose M.; de Bruijn, Suzanne; Pajoro, Alice; Geuten, Koen; Vingron, Martin; Angenent, Gerco C.; Kaufmann, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Flower development is controlled by the action of key regulatory transcription factors of the MADS-domain family. The function of these factors appears to be highly conserved among species based on mutant phenotypes. However, the conservation of their downstream processes is much less well understood, mostly because the evolutionary turnover and variation of their DNA-binding sites (BSs) among plant species have not yet been experimentally determined. Here, we performed comparative ChIP (chromatin immunoprecipitation)-seq experiments of the MADS-domain transcription factor SEPALLATA3 (SEP3) in two closely related Arabidopsis species: Arabidopsis thaliana and A. lyrata which have very similar floral organ morphology. We found that BS conservation is associated with DNA sequence conservation, the presence of the CArG-box BS motif and on the relative position of the BS to its potential target gene. Differences in genome size and structure can explain that SEP3 BSs in A. lyrata can be located more distantly to their potential target genes than their counterparts in A. thaliana. In A. lyrata, we identified transposition as a mechanism to generate novel SEP3 binding locations in the genome. Comparative gene expression analysis shows that the loss/gain of BSs is associated with a change in gene expression. In summary, this study investigates the evolutionary dynamics of DNA BSs of a floral key-regulatory transcription factor and explores factors affecting this phenomenon. PMID:26429922

  6. Morph-specific selection on floral traits in a polymorphic plant.

    PubMed

    Vanhoenacker, Didrik; Toräng, P; Agren, J; Ehrlén, J

    2010-06-01

    Correlations between phenotypic traits are common in many organisms, but the relative importance of nonadaptive mechanisms and selection for the evolution and maintenance of such correlations are poorly understood. In polymorphic species, morphs may evolve quantitative differences in additional characters as a result of morph-specific selection. The perennial rosette herb Primula farinosa is polymorphic for scape length. The short-scaped morph is less damaged by grazers and seed predators but is more strongly pollen limited than the long-scaped morph. We examined whether morph-specific differences in biotic interactions are associated with differences in selection on two other traits affecting floral display (number of flowers and petal size) and on one trait likely to affect pollination efficiency (corolla tube width) in three P. farinosa populations. Differences in selection between morphs were detected in one population. In this population, selection for more flowers and larger petals was stronger in the short-scaped than in the long-scaped morph, and although there was selection for narrower corolla tubes in the short-scaped morph, no statistically significant selection on corolla tube width could be detected in the long-scaped morph. In the study populations, the short-scaped morph produced more and larger flowers and wider corolla tubes. Current morph-specific selection was thus only partly consistent with trait differences between morphs. The results provide evidence of morph-specific selection on traits associated with floral display and pollination efficiency, respectively.

  7. Identification of floral genes for sex determination in Calamus palustris Griff. by using suppression subtractive hybridization.

    PubMed

    Ng, C Y; Wickneswari, R; Choong, C Y

    2014-08-07

    Calamus palustris Griff. is an economically important dioecious rattan species in Southeast Asia. However, dioecy and onset of flowering at 3-4 years old render uncertainties in desired female:male seedling ratios to establish a productive seed orchard for this rattan species. We constructed a subtractive library for male floral tissue to understand the genetic mechanism for gender determination in C. palustris. The subtractive library produced 1536 clones with 1419 clones of high quality. Reverse Northern screening showed 313 clones with differential expression, and sequence analyses clustered them into 205 unigenes, including 32 contigs and 173 singletons. The subtractive library was further validated with reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. Homology identification classified the unigenes into 12 putative functional proteins with 83% unigenes showing significant match to proteins in databases. Functional annotations of these unigenes revealed genes involved in male flower development, including MADS-box genes, pollen-related genes, phytohormones for flower development, and male flower organ development. Our results showed that the male floral genes may play a vital role in sex determination in C. palustris. The identified genes can be exploited to understand the molecular basis of sex determination in C. palustris.

  8. LEUNIG_HOMOLOG and LEUNIG perform partially redundant functions during Arabidopsis embryo and floral development.

    PubMed

    Sitaraman, Jayashree; Bui, Minh; Liu, Zhongchi

    2008-06-01

    Transcription corepressors play important roles in animal and plant development. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), LEUNIG (LUG) and LEUNIG_HOMOLOG (LUH) encode two highly homologous proteins that are similar to the animal and fungal Gro/Tup1-type corepressors. LUG was previously shown to form a putative corepressor complex with another protein, SEUSS (SEU), and to repress the transcription of AGAMOUS in floral organ identity specification. However, the function of LUH is completely unknown. Here, we show that single luh loss-of-function mutants develop normal flowers, but lug; luh double mutants are embryo lethal, uncovering a previously unknown function of LUG and LUH in embryonic development. In addition, luh/+ enhances the floral phenotype of lug, revealing a minor role of LUH in flower development. Functional diversification between LUH and LUG is evidenced by the inability of 35S::LUH overexpression to rescue lug mutants and by the opposite expression trends of LUG and LUH in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. The luh-1 mutation does not enhance the defect of seu in flower development, but LUH could directly interact with SEU in yeast. We propose a model that explains the complex relationships among LUH, LUG, and SEU. As most eukaryotes have undergone at least one round of whole-genome duplication during evolution, gene duplication and functional diversification are important issues to consider in uncovering gene function. Our study provides important insights into the complexity in the relationship between two highly homologous paralogous genes.

  9. An Arabidopsis F-box protein acts as a transcriptional co-factor to regulate floral development.

    PubMed

    Chae, Eunyoung; Tan, Queenie K-G; Hill, Theresa A; Irish, Vivian F

    2008-04-01

    Plants flower in response to both environmental and endogenous signals. The Arabidopsis LEAFY (LFY) transcription factor is crucial in integrating these signals, and acts in part by activating the expression of multiple floral homeotic genes. LFY-dependent activation of the homeotic APETALA3 (AP3) gene requires the activity of UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO), an F-box component of an SCF ubiquitin ligase, yet how this regulation is effected has remained unclear. Here, we show that UFO physically interacts with LFY both in vitro and in vivo, and this interaction is necessary to recruit UFO to the AP3 promoter. Furthermore, a transcriptional repressor domain fused to UFO reduces endogenous LFY activity in plants, supporting the idea that UFO acts as part of a transcriptional complex at the AP3 promoter. Moreover, chemical or genetic disruption of proteasome activity compromises LFY-dependent AP3 activation, indicating that protein degradation is required to promote LFY activity. These results define an unexpected role for an F-box protein in functioning as a DNA-associated transcriptional co-factor in regulating floral homeotic gene expression. These results suggest a novel mechanism for promoting flower development via protein degradation and concomitant activation of the LFY transcription factor. This mechanism may be widely conserved, as homologs of UFO and LFY have been identified in a wide array of plant species.

  10. Evolution and Expression Patterns of CYC/TB1 Genes in Anacyclus: Phylogenetic Insights for Floral Symmetry Genes in Asteraceae

    PubMed Central

    Bello, María A.; Cubas, Pilar; Álvarez, Inés; Sanjuanbenito, Guillermo; Fuertes-Aguilar, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Homologs of the CYC/TB1 gene family have been independently recruited many times across the eudicots to control aspects of floral symmetry The family Asteraceae exhibits the largest known diversification in this gene paralog family accompanied by a parallel morphological floral richness in its specialized head-like inflorescence. In Asteraceae, whether or not CYC/TB1 gene floral symmetry function is preserved along organismic and gene lineages is unknown. In this study, we used phylogenetic, structural and expression analyses focused on the highly derived genus Anacyclus (tribe Anthemidae) to address this question. Phylogenetic reconstruction recovered eight main gene lineages present in Asteraceae: two from CYC1, four from CYC2 and two from CYC3-like genes. The species phylogeny was recovered in most of the gene lineages, allowing the delimitation of orthologous sets of CYC/TB1 genes in Asteraceae. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that in Anacyclus three of the four isolated CYC2 genes are more highly expressed in ray flowers. The expression of the four AcCYC2 genes overlaps in several organs including the ligule of ray flowers, as well as in anthers and ovules throughout development. PMID:28487706

  11. Genetic interactions of the unfinished flower development (ufd) mutant support a significant role of the tomato UFD gene in regulating floral organogenesis.

    PubMed

    Poyatos-Pertíñez, Sandra; Quinet, Muriel; Ortíz-Atienza, Ana; Bretones, Sandra; Yuste-Lisbona, Fernando J; Lozano, Rafael

    2016-09-01

    Genetic interactions of UFD gene support its specific function during reproductive development of tomato; in this process, UFD could play a pivotal role between inflorescence architecture and flower initiation genes. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is a major vegetable crop that also constitutes a model species for the study of plant developmental processes. To gain insight into the control of flowering and floral development, a novel tomato mutant, unfinished flower development (ufd), whose inflorescence and flowers were unable to complete their normal development was characterized using double mutant and gene expression analyses. Genetic interactions of ufd with mutations affecting inflorescence fate (uniflora, jointless and single flower truss) were additive and resulted in double mutants displaying the inflorescence structure of the non-ufd parental mutant and the flower phenotype of the ufd mutant. In addition, ufd mutation promotes an earlier inflorescence meristem termination. Taken together, both results indicated that UFD is not involved in the maintenance of inflorescence meristem identity, although it could participate in the regulatory system that modulates the rate of meristem maturation. Regarding the floral meristem identity, the falsiflora mutation was epistatic to the ufd mutation even though FALSIFLORA was upregulated in ufd inflorescences. In terms of floral organ identity, the ufd mutation was epistatic to macrocalyx, and MACROCALYX expression was differently regulated depending on the inflorescence developmental stage. These results suggest that the UFD gene may play a pivotal role between the genes required for flowering initiation and inflorescence development (such as UNIFLORA, FALSIFLORA, JOINTLESS and SINGLE FLOWER TRUSS) and those required for further floral organ development such as the floral organ identity genes.

  12. Turned on by heat: differential expression of FT and LFY-like genes in Narcissus tazetta during floral transition

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Deepu; Flaishman, Moshe A.

    2013-01-01

    In Narcissus tazetta, a monocotyledonous bulbous geophyte, floral initiation and differentiation occur within the bulb during the quiescent period in summer, when ambient temperatures are relatively high and the bulb is located underground with no foliage or roots. In many plant species, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and its homologues are considered powerful promoters of flowering. The Narcissus FT gene homologue (NtFT) was isolated, and organ-specific expression patterns of NtFT during the annual cycle and reproductive development under different temperature regimes were analysed using quantitative reverse transcription–PCR (qRT–PCR) and RNA in situ hybridization. During floral induction, NtFT was not expressed in bulb scales, roots, or foliage leaves, but it was detected inside the bulb in the apical meristem and leaf primordia. The expression of another key flowering gene, NLF, the LEAFY homologue in N. tazetta, was also observed only in meristem and leaf primordia within the bulbs; however, its expression did not coincide with that of NtFT during meristem transition to reproductive stage. Under high temperatures (25–30 °C) in the dark, NtFT expression occurred simultaneously with floral induction timing, indicating that floral induction is affected by high temperatures but not by photoperiod or vernalization. Monitoring the apical meristem of Narcissus in February–August of two growing seasons under ambient and controlled storage conditions showed that transition to flowering is temperature dependent and varies between years. Lack of NtFT and NLF expression in foliage leaves suggests that flower initiation control in Narcissus differs from that in common model plants. PMID:23833196

  13. Turned on by heat: differential expression of FT and LFY-like genes in Narcissus tazetta during floral transition.

    PubMed

    Noy-Porat, Tal; Cohen, Doron; Mathew, Deepu; Eshel, Amram; Kamenetsky, Rina; Flaishman, Moshe A

    2013-08-01

    In Narcissus tazetta, a monocotyledonous bulbous geophyte, floral initiation and differentiation occur within the bulb during the quiescent period in summer, when ambient temperatures are relatively high and the bulb is located underground with no foliage or roots. In many plant species, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and its homologues are considered powerful promoters of flowering. The Narcissus FT gene homologue (NtFT) was isolated, and organ-specific expression patterns of NtFT during the annual cycle and reproductive development under different temperature regimes were analysed using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) and RNA in situ hybridization. During floral induction, NtFT was not expressed in bulb scales, roots, or foliage leaves, but it was detected inside the bulb in the apical meristem and leaf primordia. The expression of another key flowering gene, NLF, the LEAFY homologue in N. tazetta, was also observed only in meristem and leaf primordia within the bulbs; however, its expression did not coincide with that of NtFT during meristem transition to reproductive stage. Under high temperatures (25-30 °C) in the dark, NtFT expression occurred simultaneously with floral induction timing, indicating that floral induction is affected by high temperatures but not by photoperiod or vernalization. Monitoring the apical meristem of Narcissus in February-August of two growing seasons under ambient and controlled storage conditions showed that transition to flowering is temperature dependent and varies between years. Lack of NtFT and NLF expression in foliage leaves suggests that flower initiation control in Narcissus differs from that in common model plants.

  14. The ERECTA, CLAVATA and class III HD-ZIP Pathways Display Synergistic Interactions in Regulating Floral Meristem Activities.

    PubMed

    Landau, Udi; Asis, Lior; Eshed Williams, Leor

    2015-01-01

    In angiosperms, the production of flowers marks the beginning of the reproductive phase. At the emergence of flower primordia on the flanks of the inflorescence meristem, the WUSCHEL (WUS) gene, which encodes a homeodomain transcription factor starts to be expressed and establishes de novo stem cell population, founder of the floral meristem (FM). Similarly to the shoot apical meristem a precise spatial and temporal expression pattern of WUS is required and maintained through strict regulation by multiple regulatory inputs to maintain stem cell homeostasis. However, following the formation of a genetically determined fixed number of floral organs, this homeostasis is shifted towards organogenesis and the FM is terminated. In here we performed a genetic study to test how a reduction in ERECTA, CLAVATA and class III HD-ZIP pathways affects floral meristem activity and flower development. We revealed strong synergistic phenotypes of extra flower number, supernumerary whorls, total loss of determinacy and extreme enlargement of the meristem as compared to any double mutant combination indicating that the three pathways, CLV3, ER and HD-ZIPIII distinctively regulate meristem activity and that they act in parallel. Our findings yield several new insights into stem cell-driven development. We demonstrate the crucial requirement for coupling floral meristem termination with carpel formation to ensure successful reproduction in plants. We also show how regulation of meristem size and alternation in spatial structure of the meristem serve as a mechanism to determine flower organogenesis. We propose that the loss of FM determinacy due to the reduction in CLV3, ER and HD-ZIPIII activity is genetically separable from the AGAMOUS core mechanism of meristem termination.

  15. The ERECTA, CLAVATA and class III HD-ZIP Pathways Display Synergistic Interactions in Regulating Floral Meristem Activities

    PubMed Central

    Landau, Udi; Asis, Lior; Eshed Williams, Leor

    2015-01-01

    In angiosperms, the production of flowers marks the beginning of the reproductive phase. At the emergence of flower primordia on the flanks of the inflorescence meristem, the WUSCHEL (WUS) gene, which encodes a homeodomain transcription factor starts to be expressed and establishes de novo stem cell population, founder of the floral meristem (FM). Similarly to the shoot apical meristem a precise spatial and temporal expression pattern of WUS is required and maintained through strict regulation by multiple regulatory inputs to maintain stem cell homeostasis. However, following the formation of a genetically determined fixed number of floral organs, this homeostasis is shifted towards organogenesis and the FM is terminated. In here we performed a genetic study to test how a reduction in ERECTA, CLAVATA and class III HD-ZIP pathways affects floral meristem activity and flower development. We revealed strong synergistic phenotypes of extra flower number, supernumerary whorls, total loss of determinacy and extreme enlargement of the meristem as compared to any double mutant combination indicating that the three pathways, CLV3, ER and HD-ZIPIII distinctively regulate meristem activity and that they act in parallel. Our findings yield several new insights into stem cell-driven development. We demonstrate the crucial requirement for coupling floral meristem termination with carpel formation to ensure successful reproduction in plants. We also show how regulation of meristem size and alternation in spatial structure of the meristem serve as a mechanism to determine flower organogenesis. We propose that the loss of FM determinacy due to the reduction in CLV3, ER and HD-ZIPIII activity is genetically separable from the AGAMOUS core mechanism of meristem termination. PMID:25946150

  16. Abnormal Head Position

    MedlinePlus

    ... an ocular cause. Can a longstanding head turn lead to any permanent problems? Yes, a significant abnormal ... cause permanent tightening of neck muscles that can lead to chronic neck ache or headache. An abnormal ...

  17. Skeletal limb abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003170.htm Skeletal limb abnormalities To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Skeletal limb abnormalities refers to a variety of bone structure problems ...

  18. Tooth - abnormal colors

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003065.htm Tooth - abnormal colors To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Abnormal tooth color is any color other than white to yellowish- ...

  19. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  20. The effect of polyploidy and hybridization on the evolution of floral colour in Nicotiana (Solanaceae)

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Elizabeth W.; Arnold, Sarah E. J.; Chittka, Lars; Le Comber, Steven C.; Verity, Robert; Dodsworth, Steven; Knapp, Sandra; Kelly, Laura J.; Chase, Mark W.; Baldwin, Ian T.; Kovařík, Aleš; Mhiri, Corinne; Taylor, Lin; Leitch, Andrew R.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Speciation in angiosperms can be accompanied by changes in floral colour that may influence pollinator preference and reproductive isolation. This study investigates whether changes in floral colour can accompany polyploid and homoploid hybridization, important processes in angiosperm evolution. Methods Spectral reflectance of corolla tissue was examined for 60 Nicotiana (Solanaceae) accessions (41 taxa) based on spectral shape (corresponding to pigmentation) as well as bee and hummingbird colour perception in order to assess patterns of floral colour evolution. Polyploid and homoploid hybrid spectra were compared with those of their progenitors to evaluate whether hybridization has resulted in floral colour shifts. Key Results Floral colour categories in Nicotiana seem to have arisen multiple times independently during the evolution of the genus. Most younger polyploids displayed an unexpected floral colour, considering those of their progenitors, in the colour perception of at least one pollinator type, whereas older polyploids tended to resemble one or both of their progenitors. Conclusions Floral colour evolution in Nicotiana is weakly constrained by phylogeny, and colour shifts do occur in association with both polyploid and homoploid hybrid divergence. Transgressive floral colour in N. tabacum has arisen by inheritance of anthocyanin pigmentation from its paternal progenitor while having a plastid phenotype like its maternal progenitor. Potentially, floral colour evolution has been driven by, or resulted in, pollinator shifts. However, those polyploids that are not sympatric (on a regional scale) with their progenitor lineages are typically not divergent in floral colour from them, perhaps because of a lack of competition for pollinators. PMID:25979919

  1. Arranging the bouquet of disease: floral traits and the transmission of plant and animal pathogens.

    PubMed

    McArt, Scott H; Koch, Hauke; Irwin, Rebecca E; Adler, Lynn S

    2014-05-01

    Several floral microbes are known to be pathogenic to plants or floral visitors such as pollinators. Despite the ecological and economic importance of pathogens deposited in flowers, we often lack a basic understanding of how floral traits influence disease transmission. Here, we provide the first systematic review regarding how floral traits attract vectors (for plant pathogens) or hosts (for animal pathogens), mediate disease establishment and evolve under complex interactions with plant mutualists that can be vectors for microbial antagonists. Attraction of floral visitors is influenced by numerous phenological, morphological and chemical traits, and several plant pathogens manipulate floral traits to attract vectors. There is rapidly growing interest in how floral secondary compounds and antimicrobial enzymes influence disease establishment in plant hosts. Similarly, new research suggests that consumption of floral secondary compounds can reduce pathogen loads in animal pollinators. Given recent concerns about pollinator declines caused in part by pathogens, the role of floral traits in mediating pathogen transmission is a key area for further research. We conclude by discussing important implications of floral transmission of pathogens for agriculture, conservation and human health, suggesting promising avenues for future research in both basic and applied biology. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  2. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... PROBLEMS Abnormal Uterine Bleeding • What is a normal menstrual cycle? • When is bleeding abnormal? • At what ages is ... treat abnormal bleeding? •Glossary What is a normal menstrual cycle? The normal length of the menstrual cycle is ...

  3. 21. On the left is the Butte Floral Co. It ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. On the left is the Butte Floral Co. It was built sometime before 1884, and housed the offices of the Daily Intermountain and the Butte Miner. The building was remodeled in 1906, and a green-glazed brick facade with three ogee-arched was added. There is a wide wooden cornice, with a band of egg-and-dart molding. The parapet is castellated. Adjacent to the Floral Co. is the Mantle and Bielenberg Building, constructed in 1891. Interesting features include the large arched entrance and romanesque-arched windows on the third floor. The original cornice has been removed. - Butte Historic District, Bounded by Copper, Arizona, Mercury & Continental Streets, Butte, Silver Bow County, MT

  4. Multicomponent floral signals elicit selective foraging in bumblebees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gegear, Robert J.

    2005-06-01

    Flower constancy, or the tendency of individual pollinators to visit sequentially a single flower type even when other equally rewarding types are available, has important implications for animal-pollinated plants. Yet, the proximal reason for the behaviour still remains poorly understood. Here I show that bumblebees visiting equally rewarding flowers that differ in size and odour are more flower constant and less efficient (visited fewer flowers per minute) than bees visiting flowers that differ in size only and odour only. These results are consistent with the view that flower constancy in pollinators is related to their inability to perceive, process or recall multicomponent floral signals. I discuss these findings in the context of pollinator behavioural mechanisms and the evolution of floral diversity.

  5. Natural selection on floral morphology can be influenced by climate

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Diane R.; Powers, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Climate has the potential to influence evolution, but how it influences the strength or direction of natural selection is largely unknown. We quantified the strength of selection on four floral traits of the subalpine herb Ipomopsis sp. in 10 years that differed in precipitation, causing extreme temporal variation in the date of snowmelt in the Colorado Rocky Mountains. The chosen floral traits were under selection by hummingbird and hawkmoth pollinators, with hawkmoth abundance highly variable across years. Selection for flower length showed environmental sensitivity, with stronger selection in years with later snowmelt, as higher water resources can allow translation of pollination success into fitness based on seed production. Selection on corolla width also varied across years, favouring narrower corolla tubes in two unusual years with hawkmoths, and wider corollas in another late snowmelt year. Our results illustrate how changes in climate could alter natural selection even when the primary selective agent is not directly influenced. PMID:25972465

  6. Caffeine in floral nectar enhances a pollinator's memory of reward.

    PubMed

    Wright, G A; Baker, D D; Palmer, M J; Stabler, D; Mustard, J A; Power, E F; Borland, A M; Stevenson, P C

    2013-03-08

    Plant defense compounds occur in floral nectar, but their ecological role is not well understood. We provide evidence that plant compounds pharmacologically alter pollinator behavior by enhancing their memory of reward. Honeybees rewarded with caffeine, which occurs naturally in nectar of Coffea and Citrus species, were three times as likely to remember a learned floral scent as were honeybees rewarded with sucrose alone. Caffeine potentiated responses of mushroom body neurons involved in olfactory learning and memory by acting as an adenosine receptor antagonist. Caffeine concentrations in nectar did not exceed the bees' bitter taste threshold, implying that pollinators impose selection for nectar that is pharmacologically active but not repellent. By using a drug to enhance memories of reward, plants secure pollinator fidelity and improve reproductive success.

  7. Patterning and evolution of floral structures - marking time.

    PubMed

    McKim, Sarah; Hay, Angela

    2010-08-01

    The diversity of flowering structures dazzles the eye, dominates the landscape, and invites evolutionary questions regarding the development of such variety. Comparative work in a number of genetically tractable plant species has addressed how diverse floral architectures develop, and started to reveal the balance between conservation and divergence of the patterning mechanisms responsible for when and where flowers form on a plant. We highlight findings from Petunia where conserved LFY/UFO function is under species-specific regulation, and a novel mechanism involving WOX homeodomain proteins for modulating cyme development in diverse nightshades. We also draw attention to recent findings in Arabidopsis of miRNA and chromatin-based timing mechanisms controlling floral development, and illustrate how genetic studies in Arabidopsis relatives can reveal how evolutionary changes in such mechanisms generate diversity in form.

  8. Climate effects on phytoplankton floral composition in Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, L. W.; Adolf, J. E.; Mallonee, M. E.; Miller, W. D.; Gallegos, C. L.; Perry, E. S.; Johnson, J. M.; Sellner, K. G.; Paerl, H. W.

    2015-09-01

    Long-term data on floral composition of phytoplankton are presented to document seasonal and inter-annual variability in Chesapeake Bay related to climate effects on hydrology. Source data consist of the abundances of major taxonomic groups of phytoplankton derived from algal photopigments (1995-2004) and cell counts (1985-2007). Algal photopigments were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and analyzed using the software CHEMTAX to determine the proportions of chlorophyll-a (chl-a) in major taxonomic groups. Cell counts determined microscopically provided species identifications, enumeration, and dimensions used to obtain proportions of cell volume (CV), plasma volume (PV), and carbon (C) in the same taxonomic groups. We drew upon these two independent data sets to take advantage of the unique strengths of each method, using comparable quantitative measures to express floral composition for the main stem bay. Spatial and temporal variability of floral composition was quantified using data aggregated by season, year, and salinity zone. Both time-series were sufficiently long to encompass the drought-flood cycle with commensurate effects on inputs of freshwater and solutes. Diatoms emerged as the predominant taxonomic group, with significant contributions by dinoflagellates, cryptophytes, and cyanobacteria, depending on salinity zone and season. Our analyses revealed increased abundance of diatoms in wet years compared to long-term average (LTA) or dry years. Results are presented in the context of long-term nutrient over-enrichment of the bay, punctuated by inter-annual variability of freshwater flow that strongly affects nutrient loading, chl-a, and floral composition. Statistical analyses generated flow-adjusted diatom abundance and showed significant trends late in the time series, suggesting current and future decreases of nutrient inputs may lead to a reduction of the proportion of biomass comprised by diatoms in an increasingly diverse

  9. Morphology of Floral Papillae in Maxillaria Ruiz & Pav. (Orchidaceae)

    PubMed Central

    DAVIES, K. L.; TURNER, M. P.

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims The labellar papillae and trichomes of Maxillaria Ruiz & Pav. show great diversity. Although papillae also occur upon other parts of the flower (e.g. column and anther cap), these have not yet been studied. Labellar trichomes of Maxillaria are useful in taxonomy, but hitherto the taxonomic value of floral papillae has not been assessed. The aim of this paper is to describe the range of floral papillae found in Maxillaria and to determine whether papillae are useful as taxonomic characters. • Methods Light microscopy, histochemistry, low‐vacuum scanning and transmission electron microscopy. • Key Results A total of 75 taxa were studied. Conical papillae with rounded or pointed tips were the most common. The column and anther cap usually bear conical, obpyriform or villiform papillae, whereas those around the stigmatic surface and at the base of the anther are often larger and swollen. Labellar papillae show greater diversity, and may be conical, obpyriform, villiform, fusiform or clavate. Papillae may also occur on multiseriate trichomes that perhaps function as pseudostamens. Labellar papillae contain protein but most lack lipid. The occurrence of starch, however, is more variable. Many papillae contain pigment or act as osmophores, thereby attracting insects. Rewards such as nectar or a protein‐rich, wax‐like, lipoidal substance may be secreted by papillae onto the labellar surface. Some papillae may have a protective role in preventing desiccation. Species of diverse vegetative morphology may have identical floral papillae, whereas others of similar vegetative morphology may not. • Conclusions Generally, floral papillae in Maxillaria have little taxonomic value. Nevertheless, the absence of papillae from members of the M. cucullata alliance, the occurrence of clavate papillae with distended apices in the M. rufescens alliance and the presence of papillose trichomes in some species may yet prove to be useful. PMID:14630691

  10. miR172 regulates stem cell fate and defines the inner boundary of APETALA3 and PISTILLATA expression domain in Arabidopsis floral meristems

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Li; Kim, YunJu; Dinh, Theresa T.; Chen, Xuemei

    2009-01-01

    Summary In Arabidopsis, two floral homeotic genes APETALA2 (AP2) and AGAMOUS (AG) specify the identities of perianth and reproductive organs, respectively, in flower development. The two genes act antagonistically to restrict each other to their proper domains of action within the floral meristem. In addition to AG, which antagonizes AP2, miR172, a microRNA, serves as a negative regulator of AP2. In this study, we showed that AG and miR172 have distinct functions in flower development and that they largely act independently in the negative regulation of AP2. We uncovered functions of miR172-mediated repression of AP2 in the regulation of floral stem cells and in the delineation of the expression domain of another class of floral homeotic genes. Given the antiquity of miR172 in land plants, our findings have implications for the recruitment of a microRNA in the building of a flower in evolution. PMID:17573799

  11. Transcript and metabolite signature of maize source leaves suggests a link between transitory starch to sucrose balance and the autonomous floral transition

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the nature of floral inductive cues in day-neutral plants that are insensitive to photoperiod variations and, therefore, rely on endogenous signals to initiate reproductive growth. The INDETERMINATE1 (ID1) transcription factor is a key regulator of the transition to flowering in day-neutral maize. The ID1 gene is expressed exclusively in developing leaves, where it controls the production or transmission of leaf-derived florigenic signals. Florigen-producing source leaves were compared with mature leaves of late-flowering id1 plants, and metabolite and gene expression differences associated with the floral transition in maize were observed. While id1 mutants have a similar capacity for photosynthesis to wild-type siblings, id1 source leaves show quantitative differences in carbohydrate allocation prior to the floral transition stage, with a marked increase in sucrose and other soluble sugars, accompanied by a decrease in tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle organic acids. Importantly, source leaves of autonomous-flowering maize are typified by a higher transitory starch to sucrose ratio and a transcript profile enriched for sucrose synthesis and starch metabolism-related gene function. Finally, similar changes in transitory starch and sucrose are not observed in teosinte, the tropical progenitor of maize that requires short-day photoperiods to induce flowering. Together, these data define a transcript and metabolite signature associated with the autonomous floral transition in temperate maize leaves. PMID:22791826

  12. Transcript and metabolite signature of maize source leaves suggests a link between transitory starch to sucrose balance and the autonomous floral transition.

    PubMed

    Coneva, Viktoriya; Guevara, David; Rothstein, Steven J; Colasanti, Joseph

    2012-09-01

    Little is known about the nature of floral inductive cues in day-neutral plants that are insensitive to photoperiod variations and, therefore, rely on endogenous signals to initiate reproductive growth. The INDETERMINATE1 (ID1) transcription factor is a key regulator of the transition to flowering in day-neutral maize. The ID1 gene is expressed exclusively in developing leaves, where it controls the production or transmission of leaf-derived florigenic signals. Florigen-producing source leaves were compared with mature leaves of late-flowering id1 plants, and metabolite and gene expression differences associated with the floral transition in maize were observed. While id1 mutants have a similar capacity for photosynthesis to wild-type siblings, id1 source leaves show quantitative differences in carbohydrate allocation prior to the floral transition stage, with a marked increase in sucrose and other soluble sugars, accompanied by a decrease in tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle organic acids. Importantly, source leaves of autonomous-flowering maize are typified by a higher transitory starch to sucrose ratio and a transcript profile enriched for sucrose synthesis and starch metabolism-related gene function. Finally, similar changes in transitory starch and sucrose are not observed in teosinte, the tropical progenitor of maize that requires short-day photoperiods to induce flowering. Together, these data define a transcript and metabolite signature associated with the autonomous floral transition in temperate maize leaves.

  13. Pollinators exert natural selection on flower size and floral display in Penstemon digitalis.

    PubMed

    Parachnowitsch, Amy L; Kessler, André

    2010-10-01

    • A major gap in our understanding of floral evolution, especially micro-evolutionary processes, is the role of pollinators in generating patterns of natural selection on floral traits. Here we explicitly tested the role of pollinators in selecting floral traits in a herbaceous perennial, Penstemon digitalis. • We manipulated the effect of pollinators on fitness through hand pollinations and compared phenotypic selection in open- and hand-pollinated plants. • Despite the lack of pollen limitation in our population, pollinators mediated selection on floral size and floral display. Hand pollinations removed directional selection for larger flowers and stabilizing selection on flower number, suggesting that pollinators were the agents of selection on both of these traits. • We reviewed studies that measured natural selection on floral traits by biotic agents and generally found stronger signatures of selection imposed by pollinators than by herbivores and co-flowering plant species. © The Authors (2010). Journal compilation © New Phytologist Trust (2010).

  14. The evolution of floral biology in basal angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Endress, Peter K

    2010-02-12

    In basal angiosperms (including ANITA grade, magnoliids, Choranthaceae, Ceratophyllaceae) almost all bisexual flowers are dichogamous (with male and female functions more or less separated in time), and nearly 100 per cent of those are protogynous (with female function before male function). Movements of floral parts and differential early abscission of stamens in the male phase are variously associated with protogyny. Evolution of synchronous dichogamy based on the day/night rhythm and anthesis lasting 2 days is common. In a few clades in Magnoliales and Laurales heterodichogamy has also evolved. Beetles, flies and thrips are the major pollinators, with various degrees of specialization up to large beetles and special flies in some large-flowered Nymphaeaceae, Magnoliaceae, Annonaceae and Aristolochiaceae. Unusual structural specializations are involved in floral biological adaptations (calyptras, inner staminodes, synandria and food bodies, and secretory structures on tepals, stamens and staminodes). Numerous specializations that are common in monocots and eudicots are absent in basal angiosperms. Several families are poorly known in their floral biology.

  15. The evolution of floral biology in basal angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    Endress, Peter K.

    2010-01-01

    In basal angiosperms (including ANITA grade, magnoliids, Choranthaceae, Ceratophyllaceae) almost all bisexual flowers are dichogamous (with male and female functions more or less separated in time), and nearly 100 per cent of those are protogynous (with female function before male function). Movements of floral parts and differential early abscission of stamens in the male phase are variously associated with protogyny. Evolution of synchronous dichogamy based on the day/night rhythm and anthesis lasting 2 days is common. In a few clades in Magnoliales and Laurales heterodichogamy has also evolved. Beetles, flies and thrips are the major pollinators, with various degrees of specialization up to large beetles and special flies in some large-flowered Nymphaeaceae, Magnoliaceae, Annonaceae and Aristolochiaceae. Unusual structural specializations are involved in floral biological adaptations (calyptras, inner staminodes, synandria and food bodies, and secretory structures on tepals, stamens and staminodes). Numerous specializations that are common in monocots and eudicots are absent in basal angiosperms. Several families are poorly known in their floral biology. PMID:20047868

  16. Architectural effects mimic floral sexual dimorphism in Solanum (Solanaceae).

    PubMed

    Diggle, Pamela K; Miller, Jill S

    2004-12-01

    Factors underlying apparent floral sexual dimorphism were examined in six species of andromonoecious Solanum section Lasiocarpa (Solanaceae). Both multivariate and univariate analyses show that hermaphroditic flowers are significantly larger than staminate flowers for all features measured. Thus, flowers could be characterized as sexually size dimorphic. However, when size variation due to flower position (architecture) is controlled experimentally, differences between the floral genders for the nongynoecial characters disappear; there is no difference in corolla or androecium size. Staminate flowers appear to be generally smaller than hermaphroditic flowers, not because of any difference related to primary sexual function, but because they tend to occur in the distal regions of each inflorescence. In contrast, significant differences between hermaphroditic and staminate flowers for primary female traits (ovary, style, and stigma) remain after controlling for position: the two floral types are truly dimorphic for these characters. We show that consideration of architectural effects can direct and refine hypotheses concerning the evolution of andromonoecy. More generally, if architectural effects on flower size are common among taxa with unisexual flowers, then these effects may contribute to the common perception of size dimorphism in taxa with unisexual flowers.

  17. Floral anatomy of Paepalanthoideae (Eriocaulaceae, Poales) and their Nectariferous structures.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Michele Marcelino; Scatena, Vera Lucia

    2007-01-01

    Eriocaulaceae (Poales) is currently divided in two subfamilies: Eriocauloideae, which comprises two genera and Paepalanthoideae, with nine genera. The floral anatomy of Actinocephalus polyanthus, Leiothrix fluitans, Paepalanthus chlorocephalus, P. flaccidus and Rondonanthus roraimae was studied here. The flowers of these species of Paepalanthoideae are unisexual, and form capitulum-type inflorescences. Staminate and pistillate flowers are randomly distributed in the capitulum and develop centripetally. This work aims to establish a floral nomenclature for the Eriocaulaceae to provide more information about the taxonomy and phylogeny of the family. Light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and chemical tests were used to investigate the floral structures. Staminate and pistillate flowers are trimerous (except in P. flaccidus, which presents dimerous flowers), and the perianth of all species is differentiated into sepals and petals. Staminate flowers present an androecium with scale-like staminodes (not in R. roraimae) and fertile stamens, and nectariferous pistillodes. Pistillate flowers present scale-like staminodes (except for R. roraimae, which presents elongated and vascularized staminodes), and a gynoecium with a hollow style, ramified in stigmatic and nectariferous portions. The scale-like staminodes present in the species of Paepalanthoideae indicate a probable reduction of the outer whorl of stamens present in species of Eriocauloideae. Among the Paepalanthoideae genera, Rondonanthus, which is probably basal, shows vascularized staminodes in their pistillate flowers. The occurrence of nectariferous pistillodes in staminate flowers and that of nectariferous portions of the style in pistillate flowers of Paepalanthoideae are emphasized as nectariferous structures in Eriocaulaceae.

  18. The effect of pollination on floral fragrance in thistles.

    PubMed

    Theis, Nina; Raguso, Robert A

    2005-11-01

    We investigated postpollination changes in fragrance composition and emission rates, as well as pollinator discrimination in hand-pollinated flower heads of two thistle species: Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) and sandhill thistle (C. repandum). Following pollination, neither species emitted any novel compounds that could function as repellents. Scent emission rates declined in pollinated plants of both species by approximately 89% within 48 hr. This decline was evident in all 13 scent components of C. arvense. Apis mellifera, the dominant pollinator in the study population of C. arvense, was nearly three times more likely to visit an unpollinated rather than a pollinated flower head. A more complex pattern was observed for C. repandum, whose scent comprised 42 compounds. Quantities of aromatic and sesquiterpenoid volatiles declined after pollination, whereas two classes of scent compounds, fatty acid derivatives and monoterperpenoids, continued to be emitted. In C. repandum, discrimination against pollinated flower heads by Papilio palamedes (its primary pollinator) was not as marked. Unpollinated control plants of both species maintained moderate levels of scent production throughout this experiment, demonstrating that senescence and floral advertisement may be delayed until pollination has occurred. We expect postpollination changes in floral scent contribute to communication between plants with generalized pollinator spectra and their floral visitors. This study provides the first field study of such a phenomenon outside of orchids.

  19. A STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF SUBSTITUENTS AND OF SOLVENT ON THE REACTIVITY OF THE NORMAL AND ABNORMAL POSITIONS OF UNSYMMETRICAL ORGANIC EPOXIDES

    DTIC Science & Technology

    EPITAXIAL GROWTH, * REACTION KINETICS, *SOLVATION, *STYRENES, *SUBSTITUTION REACTIONS , ALCOHOLS , ALKYL RADICALS, AMIDES, BUTANOLS, CHEMICAL REACTIONS ...CHLORIDES, ETHANOLS, FLUORIDES, CARBINOLS, METHYL RADICALS, MOLECULAR STRUCTURE, NUCLEAR ISOMERS, ORGANIC SOLVENTS, OXIDES, PENTANOLS, SYNTHESIS.

  20. Phosphatidic acid is a major phospholipid class in reproductive organs of Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Yunus, Ian Sofian; Cazenave-Gassiot, Amaury; Liu, Yu-chi; Lin, Ying-Chen; Wenk, Markus R; Nakamura, Yuki

    2015-01-01

    Phospholipids are the crucial components of biological membranes and signal transduction. Among different tissues, flower phospholipids are one of the least characterized features of plant lipidome. Here, we report that floral reproductive organs of Arabidopsis thaliana contain high levels of phosphatidic acid (PA), a known lipid second messenger. By using floral homeotic mutants enriched with specific floral organs, lipidomics study showed increased levels of PA species in ap3-3 mutant with enriched pistils. Accompanied gene expression study for 7 diacylglycerol kinases and 11 PA phosphatases revealed distinct floral organ specificity, suggesting an active phosphorylation/dephosphorylation between PA and diacylglycerol in flowers. Our results suggest that PA is a major phospholipid class in floral reproductive organs of A. thaliana. PMID:26179579

  1. Phosphatidic acid is a major phospholipid class in reproductive organs of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Yunus, Ian Sofian; Cazenave-Gassiot, Amaury; Liu, Yu-Chi; Lin, Ying-Chen; Wenk, Markus R; Nakamura, Yuki

    2015-01-01

    Phospholipids are the crucial components of biological membranes and signal transduction. Among different tissues, flower phospholipids are one of the least characterized features of plant lipidome. Here, we report that floral reproductive organs of Arabidopsis thaliana contain high levels of phosphatidic acid (PA), a known lipid second messenger. By using floral homeotic mutants enriched with specific floral organs, lipidomics study showed increased levels of PA species in ap3-3 mutant with enriched pistils. Accompanied gene expression study for 7 diacylglycerol kinases and 11 PA phosphatases revealed distinct floral organ specificity, suggesting an active phosphorylation/dephosphorylation between PA and diacylglycerol in flowers. Our results suggest that PA is a major phospholipid class in floral reproductive organs of A. thaliana.

  2. Flower-visitor selection on floral integration in three contrasting populations of Lonicera implexa.

    PubMed

    Lázaro, Amparo; Santamaría, Luis

    2016-02-01

    Geographic differences in flower visitor assemblages might lead to among-population differences in the magnitude and pattern of floral integration. However, the role of current pollinator visitation in shaping the magnitude and pattern of floral trait correlations is still controversial. We used individual-level data on floral morphology, flower visitation, and fitness to assess if floral integration (at flower and floral-module level) and the covariance structure of floral traits varied among three populations of Lonicera implexa differing in the importance of long-tongue (hawk moths) and short-tongue (bees and small beetles) pollinators; and to assess whether this variation was related to the selection pressures exerted by flower visitors. Short-tongue pollinators preferentially visited plants with floral traits that enhanced flower accessibility; consequently, there was directional selection for accessibility (integration at floral-module level) in the populations where they dominated or codominated. In the population with both short- and long-tongue pollinators, disruptive selection on corolla width and directional selection against whole-flower integration was also found. Dominance by long-tongue pollinators (hawk moths) resulted in disruptive selection on whole-flower integration. Overall, the conflicting selection pressures that were found matched among-population differences in covariance structure: populations with short-tongue pollinators showed correlations between corolla-tube width and other floral traits that were absent in the population pollinated primarily by hawk moths. Conflicting selection on floral integration mediated by floral visitors can occur even in nearby populations of a species with restricted floral morphology. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  3. Floral polymorphism and the fitness implications of attracting pollinating and florivorous insects

    PubMed Central

    de Jager, Marinus L.; Ellis, Allan G.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Floral polymorphism is frequently attributed to pollinator-mediated selection. Multiple studies, however, have revealed the importance of non-pollinating visitors in floral evolution. Using the polymorphic annual daisy Ursinia calenduliflora, this study investigated the importance of different insect visitors, and their effects on fitness, in the maintenance of floral polymorphism. Methods The spatial structure of a discrete floral polymorphism was characterized based on the presence/absence of anthocyanin floret spots in U. calenduliflora. A 3-year observational study was then conducted in polymorphic populations to investigate differences in visitation rates of dominant visitors to floral morphs. Experiments were performed to explore the floral preference of male and female Megapalpus capensis (the dominant insect visitor) and their effectiveness as pollinators. Next, floral damage by antagonistic florivores and the reproductive success of the two floral morphs were surveyed in multiple populations and years. Key Results Floral polymorphism in U. calenduliflora was structured spatially, as were insect visitation patterns. Megapalpus capensis males were the dominant visitors and exhibited strong preference for the spotted morph in natural and experimental observations. While this may indicate potential fitness benefits for the spotted morph, female fitness did not differ between floral morphs. However, as M. capensis males are very efficient at exporting U. calenduliflora pollen, their preference may likely increase the reproductive fitness of the spotted morph through male fitness components. The spotted morph, however, also suffered significantly greater costs due to ovule predation by florivores than the spotless morph. Conclusions The results suggest that pollinators and florivores may potentially exert antagonistic selection that could contribute to the maintenance of floral polymorphism across the range of U. calenduliflora. The relative

  4. Floral abundance, richness, and spatial distribution drive urban garden bee communities.

    PubMed

    Plascencia, M; Philpott, S M

    2017-10-01

    In urban landscapes, gardens provide refuges for bee diversity, but conservation potential may depend on local and landscape features. Foraging and population persistence of bee species, as well as overall pollinator community structure, may be supported by the abundance, richness, and spatial distribution of floral resources. Floral resources strongly differ in urban gardens. Using hand netting and pan traps to survey bees, we examined whether abundance, richness, and spatial distribution of floral resources, as well as ground cover and garden landscape surroundings influence bee abundance, species richness, and diversity on the central coast of California. Differences in floral abundance and spatial distribution, as well as urban cover in the landscape, predicted different bee community variables. Abundance of all bees and of honeybees (Apis mellifera) was lower in sites with more urban land cover surrounding the gardens. Honeybee abundance was higher in sites with patchy floral resources, whereas bee species richness and bee diversity was higher in sites with more clustered floral resources. Surprisingly, bee species richness and bee diversity was lower in sites with very high floral abundance, possibly due to interactions with honeybees. Other studies have documented the importance of floral abundance and landscape surroundings for bees in urban gardens, but this study is the first to document that the spatial arrangement of flowers strongly predicts bee abundance and richness. Based on these findings, it is likely that garden managers may promote bee conservation by managing for floral connectivity and abundance within these ubiquitous urban habitats.

  5. Heritability of floral volatiles and pleiotropic responses to artificial selection in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Zu, Pengjuan; Blanckenhorn, Wolf U; Schiestl, Florian P

    2016-02-01

    The evolution of the vast diversity of floral volatiles is little understood, although they serve fundamental functions, such as pollinator attraction and herbivore deterrence. Floral volatiles are often species specific, yet highly variable and sensitive to environmental factors. To date, nothing is known about the heritability of floral volatiles, and whether individual compounds can evolve independently or solely in concert with the whole volatile bouquet. We conducted bi-directional artificial selection on four target floral volatiles to estimate heritability and correlated pleiotropic responses in the wild turnip (Brassica rapa). The realized heritability of the four target volatiles ranged from 20% to 45%. The average narrow-sense heritability of all 13 analyzed floral volatiles was 18% based on parent-offspring regressions. There were pleiotropic effects of the selected floral volatile compounds on other constituents of the floral scent bouquet, on flowering time and on some morphological traits. We found that the whole floral scent bouquet changed, even when there was selection only on single compounds, with the overall phenotypic covariance being unaffected. Our study demonstrates that floral scent can evolve rapidly under phenotypic selection, but with additional correlated responses in traits that are not direct targets of selection. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. Macroevolutionary patterns of ultraviolet floral pigmentation explained by geography and associated bioclimatic factors.

    PubMed

    Koski, Matthew H; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

    2016-07-01

    Selection driven by biotic interactions can generate variation in floral traits. Abiotic selection, however, also contributes to floral diversity, especially with respect to patterns of pigmentation. Combining comparative studies of floral pigmentation and geography can reveal the bioclimatic factors that may drive macroevolutionary patterns of floral color. We create a molecular phylogeny and measure ultraviolet (UV) floral pattern for 177 species in the Potentilleae tribe (Rosaceae). Species are similar in flower shape and visible color but vary in UV floral pattern. We use comparative approaches to determine whether UV pigmentation variation is associated with geography and/or bioclimatic features (UV-B, precipitation, temperature). Floral UV pattern was present in half of the species, while others were uniformly UV-absorbing. Phylogenetic signal was detected for presence/absence of pattern, but among patterned species, quantitative variation in UV-absorbing area was evolutionarily labile. Uniformly UV-absorbing species tended to experience higher UV-B irradiance. Patterned species occurring at higher altitudes had larger UV-absorbing petal areas, corresponding with low temperature and high UV exposure. This analysis expands our understanding of the covariation of UV-B irradiance and UV floral pigmentation from within species to that among species, and supports the view that abiotic selection is associated with floral diversification among species.

  7. Reproduction and survival of a solitary bee along native and exotic floral resource gradients.

    PubMed

    Palladini, Jennifer D; Maron, John L

    2014-11-01

    Native bee abundance has long been assumed to be limited by floral resources. This paradigm has been established in large measure because more bees are often found in areas supporting greater floral abundance. This could result from attraction to resource-rich sites as well as greater local demographic performance in sites supporting high floral abundance; however, demographic performance is usually unknown. Factors other than floral resources such as availability of nest sites, pressure from natural enemies, or whether floral resources are from a mixed native or mostly monodominant exotic assemblage might influence survival or fecundity and hence abundance. We examined how the survival and fecundity of the native solitary bee Osmia lignaria varied along a gradient in floral resource abundance. We released bees alongside a nest block at 27 grassland sites in Montana (USA) that varied in floral abundance and the extent of invasion by exotic forbs. We monitored nest construction and the fate of offspring within each nest. The number of nests established was positively related to native forb abundance and was negatively related to exotic forb species richness. Fecundity was positively related to native forb species richness; however, offspring mortality caused by the brood parasite Tricrania stansburyi was significantly greater in native-dominated sites. These results suggest that native floral resources can positively influence bee populations, but that the relationship between native floral resources and bee population performance is not straightforward. Rather, bees may face a trade-off between high offspring production and low offspring survival in native-dominated sites.

  8. Ecological relationship between floral thermogenesis and pollination in Nelumbo lutea (Nelumbonaceae).

    PubMed

    Dieringer, Gregg; Leticia Cabrera, R; Mottaleb, Mohammad

    2014-02-01

    Floral thermogenesis is an unusual floral trait with a well-documented physiological process, and yet, there is limited understanding of how this trait influences plant reproduction. The current study was undertaken to gain a better understanding of how floral thermogenesis in Nelumbo lutea impacts pollinator attraction and consequent plant reproduction. We conducted field studies on floral thermogenesis and thermoregulation, flower sexual development, floral visitation patterns, breeding system, pollen transfer dynamics, and floral scent production. The most abundant visitors to the thermoregulatory flowers included the Phoridae (Diptera), Chrysomelidae (Coleoptera), and Hymenoptera. Chrysomelid beetles, particularly Diabrotica, were frequent visitors to both first-day female- and second-day bisexual-phase flowers, while phorid flies were most common in bisexual-phase flowers. Pollen transfer experiments indicated that Diabrotica was equally effective in depositing pollen on stigmas, as were the less frequent, but pollen-loaded halictid bees. Flowers received a taxonomically wide assemblage of floral visitors and appear adapted to attract beetles, primarily Chrysomelidae and medium-sized bees. This study is the first to provide strong support that beetles can comprise the dominant portion of floral visitors and are as effective in pollen transfer as bees. Thermogenesis aids in dispersing the main floral scent component-1,4-dimethoxybenzene-attracting both chrysomelids and bees, while thermoregulation causes chrysomelid beetles to actively seek out new flowers for evening residence. This search behavior likely results in chrysomelids affecting cross-pollination.

  9. Duplication and diversification in the APETALA1/FRUITFULL floral homeotic gene lineage: implications for the evolution of floral development.

    PubMed Central

    Litt, Amy; Irish, Vivian F

    2003-01-01

    Phylogenetic analyses of angiosperm MADS-box genes suggest that this gene family has undergone multiple duplication events followed by sequence divergence. To determine when such events have taken place and to understand the relationships of particular MADS-box gene lineages, we have identified APETALA1/FRUITFULL-like MADS-box genes from a variety of angiosperm species. Our phylogenetic analyses show two gene clades within the core eudicots, euAP1 (including Arabidopsis APETALA1 and Antirrhinum SQUAMOSA) and euFUL (including Arabidopsis FRUITFULL). Non-core eudicot species have only sequences similar to euFUL genes (FUL-like). The predicted protein products of euFUL and FUL-like genes share a conserved C-terminal motif. In contrast, predicted products of members of the euAP1 gene clade contain a different C terminus that includes an acidic transcription activation domain and a farnesylation signal. Sequence analyses indicate that the euAP1 amino acid motifs may have arisen via a translational frameshift from the euFUL/FUL-like motif. The euAP1 gene clade includes key regulators of floral development that have been implicated in the specification of perianth identity. However, the presence of euAP1 genes only in core eudicots suggests that there may have been changes in mechanisms of floral development that are correlated with the fixation of floral structure seen in this clade. PMID:14573491

  10. Floral variation and environmental heterogeneity in a tristylous clonal aquatic of the Pantanal wetlands of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Leme da Cunha, Nicolay; Fischer, Erich; Lorenz-Lemke, Aline P.; Barrett, Spencer C. H.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims The balance between stochastic forces and frequency-dependent mating largely governs style morph frequencies in heterostylous populations. In clonal species, deviations from equal morph ratios often result from founder events and unfavourable conditions for sexual reproduction. The aim of this study was to investigate whether different flooding regimes, because of their influence on sexual vs. clonal reproduction, are associated with regional variation in morph frequencies and floral trait differentiation in populations of the clonal, tristylous, aquatic Eichhornia azurea (Pontederiaceae) in the Pantanal wetlands of Brazil. Methods Style morph frequencies were sampled from 73 populations distributed across four flooding regimes differing in depth and duration. Measurements of flower size, sex-organ dimension, pollen size and pollen production were made in selected populations, and pollinator assemblages and their functional traits were recorded. Key Results Most populations of E. azurea were tristylous (78 %), but the majority exhibited uneven morph ratios. The frequency of the mid-styled morph was significantly lower than that of the long- and short-styled morphs. Morph evenness was positively associated with population size but not with flooding regime. There were significant phenotypic differences among flooding regimes for all floral traits, including populations with reduced flower size, sex-organ length and smaller pollen. Pollinator assemblages varied with flood duration. Conclusions The similar morph structure and evenness of populations, regardless of flooding regime, suggest that sexual reproduction and clonal dispersal are sufficiently common to prevent the signature of founder events from dominating in a region. However, the pervasive occurrence of biased morph ratios in most populations suggests that many are in a non-equilibrium state. The reduced frequency of the mid-styled morph in trimorphic and dimorphic populations may be

  11. Tracing the evolution of the floral homeotic B- and C-function genes through genome synteny.

    PubMed

    Causier, Barry; Castillo, Rosa; Xue, Yongbiao; Schwarz-Sommer, Zsuzsanna; Davies, Brendan

    2010-11-01

    The evolution of the floral homeotic genes has been characterized using phylogenetic and functional studies. It is possible to enhance these studies by comparing gene content and order between species to determine the evolutionary history of the regulatory genes. Here, we use a synteny-based approach to trace the evolution of the floral B- and C-function genes that are required for specification of the reproductive organs. Consistent with previous phylogenetic studies, we show that the euAP3-TM6 split occurred after the monocots and dicots diverged. The Arabidopsis TM6 and papaya euAP3 genes are absent from the respective genomes, and we have detected loci from which these genes were lost. These data indicate that either the TM6 or the euAP3 lineage genes can be lost without detriment to flower development. In contrast, PI is essential for male reproductive organ development; yet, contrary to predictions, complex genomic rearrangements have resulted in almost complete breakdown of synteny at the PI locus. In addition to showing the evolution of B-function genes through the prediction of ancestral loci, similar reconstructions reveal the origins of the C-function AG and PLE lineages in dicots, and show the shared ancestry with the monocot C-function genes. During our studies, we found that transposable elements (TEs) present in sequenced Antirrhinum genomic clones limited comparative studies. A pilot survey of the Antirrhinum data revealed that gene-rich regions contain an unusually high degree of TEs of very varied types, which will be an important consideration for future genome sequencing efforts.

  12. Tracing the Evolution of the Floral Homeotic B- and C-Function Genes through Genome Synteny

    PubMed Central

    Causier, Barry; Castillo, Rosa; Xue, Yongbiao; Schwarz-Sommer, Zsuzsanna; Davies, Brendan

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of the floral homeotic genes has been characterized using phylogenetic and functional studies. It is possible to enhance these studies by comparing gene content and order between species to determine the evolutionary history of the regulatory genes. Here, we use a synteny-based approach to trace the evolution of the floral B- and C-function genes that are required for specification of the reproductive organs. Consistent with previous phylogenetic studies, we show that the euAP3–TM6 split occurred after the monocots and dicots diverged. The Arabidopsis TM6 and papaya euAP3 genes are absent from the respective genomes, and we have detected loci from which these genes were lost. These data indicate that either the TM6 or the euAP3 lineage genes can be lost without detriment to flower development. In contrast, PI is essential for male reproductive organ development; yet, contrary to predictions, complex genomic rearrangements have resulted in almost complete breakdown of synteny at the PI locus. In addition to showing the evolution of B-function genes through the prediction of ancestral loci, similar reconstructions reveal the origins of the C-function AG and PLE lineages in dicots, and show the shared ancestry with the monocot C-function genes. During our studies, we found that transposable elements (TEs) present in sequenced Antirrhinum genomic clones limited comparative studies. A pilot survey of the Antirrhinum data revealed that gene-rich regions contain an unusually high degree of TEs of very varied types, which will be an important consideration for future genome sequencing efforts. PMID:20566474

  13. Invasion of a dominant floral resource: effects on the floral community and pollination of native plants.

    PubMed

    Goodell, Karen; Parker, Ingrid M

    2017-01-01

    sites, suggesting little impact of competition for pollinators on its population demography. Negative effects on pollination of native plants by this copiously flowering invader appeared to be mediated by increases in total flower density that were not matched by increases in pollinator density. The strength of impact was modulated across native species by their floral traits and reproductive ecology. © 2016 The Authors. Ecology, published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc., on behalf of the Ecological Society of America.

  14. Variation in the strength of association among pollination systems and floral traits: evolutionary changes in the floral traits of Bornean gingers (Zingiberaceae).

    PubMed

    Sakai, Shoko; Kawakita, Atsushi; Ooi, Kazuyuki; Inoue, Tamiji

    2013-03-01

    Diversification of floral traits in angiosperms is often attributed to have been driven by adaptations to pollinators. Nevertheless, phylogenetic studies on the relationships among evolutionary changes in floral traits and pollination systems are still limited. We examined the relationships between floral trait changes and pollinator shifts in Bornean gingers (Zingiberaceae). These plants have strongly zygomorphic flowers pollinated by spiderhunter birds, bees of the genus Amegilla, and halictid bees. • We identified pollination systems through field observations and recorded petal color, quantity of floral rewards, and seven measures of flower morphology in 28 ginger species. Phylogenetic trees were constructed from nucleotide sequences of the matK and ITS regions. We examined the correlations between the evolution of pollination systems and floral traits using phylogenetically independent contrasts. • Significant association was found between pink color and spiderhunter pollination, orange and Amegilla pollination, and yellow and white and halictid pollination. Sugar production was higher in spiderhunter-pollinated species and lower in halictid-pollinated. Meanwhile, there was a significant association only for a subset of the floral morphological characters measured. Floral tube length, which is often thought to evolve to match the lengths of pollinator probing apparatuses, did not show any correlation. • There is considerable variation in the strength of association among pollination systems and floral traits. Lack of significant correlation in some traits could partly be explained by floral functions other than pollination, such as adaptations to prevent herbivore damage to the ovules. Further studies on these factors may improve understanding of plant-pollinator interactions.

  15. Sequence evolution and sex-specific expression patterns of the C class floral identity gene, SpAGAMOUS, in dioecious Spinacia oleracea L.

    PubMed

    Sather, D Noah; York, Amber; Pobursky, Kevin J; Golenberg, Edward M

    2005-10-01

    Development in dioecious cultivated spinach, Spinacia oleracea, is distinguished by the absence of alternative reproductive organ primordia in male and female flowers. Given the highly derived floral developmental program in spinach, we wished to characterize a spinach C class floral identity gene and to determine the patterns of sequence evolution as well as compare the spatial and temporal expression patterns with those of AGAMOUS. The isolated cDNA sequence clusters phylogenetically within the AGAMOUS/FARINELLI C class clade. In comparison with the SLM1 sequence from the related Silene latifolia, amino acid replacements are highly conservative and non-randomly distributed, being predominantly found in hinge regions or on exposed surfaces