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Sample records for florida coastal waters

  1. Biogeochemical classification of South Florida's estuarine and coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Briceño, Henry O; Boyer, Joseph N; Castro, Joffre; Harlem, Peter

    2013-10-15

    South Florida's watersheds have endured a century of urban and agricultural development and disruption of their hydrology. Spatial characterization of South Florida's estuarine and coastal waters is important to Everglades' restoration programs. We applied Factor Analysis and Hierarchical Clustering of water quality data in tandem to characterize and spatially subdivide South Florida's coastal and estuarine waters. Segmentation rendered forty-four biogeochemically distinct water bodies whose spatial distribution is closely linked to geomorphology, circulation, benthic community pattern, and to water management. This segmentation has been adopted with minor changes by federal and state environmental agencies to derive numeric nutrient criteria. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 77 FR 74923 - Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Estuaries, Coastal Waters, and South Florida...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-18

    ... proposing numeric water quality criteria to protect ecological systems, aquatic life, and human health from... December 18, 2012 Part II Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR Part 131 Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Estuaries, Coastal Waters, and South Florida Inland Flowing Waters; Water Quality...

  3. New Kinorhyncha from Florida coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herranz, María; Sánchez, Nuria; Pardos, Fernando; Higgins, Robert P.

    2014-03-01

    Four new species of Kinorhynchs are described from the West Atlantic coast off Fort Pierce, Florida, USA. They are the following: Antygomonas gwenae n. sp., Echinoderes riceae n. sp., Echinoderes adrianovi n. sp. and Pycnophyes norenburgi n. sp. All species were collected at the same locality called "20 miles station." Samples were processed for standard granulometric data, yielding an estimated average particle diameter of 250 μm. The diagnostic characters and the general morphology of the new species are discussed in depth as well as the diversity and distribution of Kinorhyncha in the area.

  4. Water quality in the Georgia-Florida coastal plain, Georgia and Florida, 1992-96

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berndt, Marian P.; Hatzell, Hilda H.; Crandall, Christy A.; Turtora, Michael; Pittman, John R.; Oaksford, Edward T.

    1998-01-01

    This report is intended to summarize major findings that emerged between 1992 and 1995 from the water-quality assessment of the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain Study Unit and to relate these findings to water-quality issues of regional and national concern. The information is primarily intended for those who are involved in water-resource management. Yet, the information contained here may also interest those who simply wish to know more about the quality of water in the rivers and aquifers in the area where they live.

  5. CDOM PRODUCTION BY MANGROVE LEAF LITTER AND SARGASSUM COLONIES IN FLORIDA KEYS COASTAL WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have investigated the importance of leaf litter from red mangroves (Rhizophora mangle) and living Sargassum plants as sources of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) to the coastal ocean waters and coral reef system of the Florida Keys. The magnitude of UVB exposure t...

  6. Assessment of satellite derived diffuse attenuation coefficients and euphotic depths in south Florida coastal waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Optical data collected in coastal waters off South Florida and in the Caribbean Sea between January 2009 and December 2010 were used to evaluate products derived with three bio-optical inversion algorithms applied to MOIDS/Aqua, MODIS/Terra, and SeaWiFS satellite observations. Th...

  7. Assessment of satellite derived diffuse attenuation coefficients and euphotic depths in south Florida coastal waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Optical data collected in coastal waters off South Florida and in the Caribbean Sea between January 2009 and December 2010 were used to evaluate products derived with three bio-optical inversion algorithms applied to MOIDS/Aqua, MODIS/Terra, and SeaWiFS satellite observations. Th...

  8. CDOM PRODUCTION BY MANGROVE LEAF LITTER AND SARGASSUM COLONIES IN FLORIDA KEYS COASTAL WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have investigated the importance of leaf litter from red mangroves (Rhizophora mangle) and living Sargassum plants as sources of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) to the coastal ocean waters and coral reef system of the Florida Keys. The magnitude of UVB exposure t...

  9. Cyanobacterial blooms and biomagnification of the neurotoxin BMAA in South Florida coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, L.; Mash, D.

    2008-12-01

    Blooms of cyanobacteria have developed in Florida Bay, Biscayne Bay and other coastal waters of South Florida. It has recently been shown that virtually all cyanobacteria produce the potent neurotoxin, beta-N- methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA). Studies in Guam indicate that BMAA can biomagnify up the food chain from cyanobacteria to human food and humans. Recent studies in Guam and on human brains in North America suggest an association between BMAA and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). A variety of organisms from South Florida coastal waters are being analyzed for BMAA content to determine if BMAA is biomagnifying in these food chains and if it is a potential human health hazard. Some have extremely high concentrations of BMAA.

  10. Water quality of surficial aquifers in the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crandall, C.A.; Berndt, M.P.

    1996-01-01

    The National Water Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey established the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit in 1991. The ground-water study-unit survey was conducted in 1993 to provide a broad over-view of water quality in surficial aquifers. Three land resource provinces were included in the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study-unit survey: the Central Florida Ridge, the Coastal Flatwoods, and the Southern Coastal Plain. The U.S. Geological Survey sampled 37 wells in surficial aquifers, 18 in the Coastal Flatwoods and 19 in the Southern Coastal Plain. The Florida Department of Environmental Protection sampled 27 wells tapping surficial aquifers in the Central Florida Ridge as part of the background ground-water quality monitoring network from 1985 through 1989. The data were used to characterize water quality in surficial aquifers of the Central Florida Ridge. Results of the study-unit survey indicated that dissolved solids concentrations in ground water were mostly less than 100 mg/L (milligrams per liter). Higher medians of pH, specific conductance, and concentrations of calcium, bicarbonate, and dissolved solids were measured in samples from the Central Florida Ridge compared to the Southern Coastal Plain and Coastal Flatwoods, probably because of a greater percentage of carbonate minerals in aquifer materials. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary maximum contaminant level for iron of 300 ug/L (micrograms per liter) in drinking water was exceeded in 15 of 45 samples. Concentrations of nitrate as nitrogen were less than 3.0 mg/L in most samples (74 percent), indicating little or no influence from human activity. Only five samples (9 percent) had concentrations above 10 mg/L, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level for nitrate concentration in drinking water. Significantly lower median concentrations of nitrate were measured in samples from polyvinyl chloride monitoring wells with diameters less

  11. Winter mortality of common loons in Florida coastal waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forrester, Donald J.; Davidson, W.R.; Lange, R.E.; Stroud, R.K.; Alexander, L.L.; Franson, J.C.; Haseltine, S.D.; Littell, R.C.; Nesbitt, S.A.

    1997-01-01

    Diagnostic findings are presented for 434 common loons (Gavia imrner) found sick or dead on Florida beaches from 1970 through 1994, primarily during the months of December to April. The most commonly recognized problem was an emaciation syndrome (66%), followed by oiling (18%), aspergillosis (7%), trauma (5%) and miscellaneous disease entities (1%). The cause-of-death for 3% of the birds was not determined. Many of the carcasses examined (n = 173) were obtained during an epizootic which occurred from January to March of 1983 in which more than 13,000 loons were estimated to have died. An emaciation syndrome, characterized by severe atrophy of pectoral muscles, loss of body fat and hemorrhagic enteritis, was the primary finding in this epizootic. It was postulated to have a complex etiologic basis involving synergistic effects and energy costs of migration, molting and replacement of flight feathers, food resource changes, salt-loading, intestinal parasitism, environmental contaminants, and inclement weather.

  12. Advection within shallow pore waters of a coastal lagoon, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cable, J.E.; Martin, Jonathan B.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Lindenberg, Mary K.; Steward, Joel

    2004-01-01

    Ground water sources can be a significant portion of a local water budget in estuarine environments, particularly in areas with high recharge rates, transmissive aquifers, and permeable marine sediments. However, field measurements of ground water discharge are often incongruent with ground water flow modeling results, leaving many scientists unsure which estimates are accurate. In this study, we find that both measurements and model results are reasonable. The difference between estimates apparently results from the sources of water being measured and not the techniques themselves. In two locations in the Indian River Lagoon estuarine system, we found seepage meter rates similar to rates calculated from the geochemical tracers 222Rn and 226Ra. Ground water discharge rates ranged from 4 to 9 cm/d using seepage meters and 3 to 20 cm/d using 222Rn and 226Ra. In contrast, in comparisons to other studies where finite element ground water flow modeling was used, much lower ground water discharge rates of ∼0.05 to 0.15 cm/d were estimated. These low rates probably represent discharge of meteoric ground water from land-recharged aquifers, while the much higher rates measured with seepage meters, 222Rn, and 226Ra likely include an additional source of surface waters that regularly flush shallow (< 1 m depth) sediments. This resultant total flow of mixed land-recharged water and recirculated surface waters contributes to the total biogeochemical loading in this shallow estuarine environment.

  13. Origins and distribution of saline ground waters in the Floridan Aquifer in coastal southwest Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steinkampf, W.C.

    1982-01-01

    Twenty-three ground-water samples from the Floridan aquifer in coastal southwest Florida show that water quality deteriorates to the south and west. The waters grade from a fresh calcium magnesium bicarbonate sulfate type to a very saline sodium magnesium chloride type downgradient. Bromide-chloride and specific conductance ratios indicate that dilution of marine-like ground water is a signigicant mechanism in the evolution of the different water types found. Calcium, magnesium , and bicarbonate concentrations occur within a relatively narrow range and are primarily a function of mineral equilibria. Magnesium and strontium concentration distributions suggest several mineral-water interactions, including aragonite inversion, incongruent solution of magnesium calcite to a lower magnesian form, and dedolomitization. Sulfate concentrations increase downgradient and evince gypsum-anhydrite solution, particularly in the fresher waters. The extent to which each factor affects dissolved specie concentrations is a function of the location of the water in the flow system. (USGS)

  14. Impact of anthropogenic development on coastal ground-water hydrology in southeastern Florida, 1900-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Renken, Robert A.; Dixon, Joann; Koehmstedt, John A.; Ishman, Scott; Lietz, A.C.; Marella, Richard L.; Telis, Pamela A.; Rodgers, Jeff; Memberg, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Southeastern Florida is an area that has been subject to widely conflicting anthropogenic stress to the Everglades and coastal ecosystems. This stress is a direct consequence of the 20th century economic competition for limited land and water resources needed to satisfy agricultural development and its expansion, its displacement by burgeoning urban development, and the accompanying growth of the limestone mining industry. The development of a highly controlled water-management system designed to reclaim land for urban and agricultural development has severely impacted the extent, character, and vitality of the historic Everglades and coastal ecosystems. An extensive conveyance system of canals, levees, impoundments, surface- water control structures, and numerous municipal well fields are used to sustain the present-day Everglades hydrologic system, prevent overland flow from moving eastward and flooding urban and agricultural areas, maintain water levels to prevent saltwater intrusion, and provide an adequate water supply. Extractive mining activities expanded considerably in the latter part of the 20th century, largely in response to urban construction needs. Much of the present-day urban-agricultural corridor of southeastern Florida lies within an area that is no more than 15 feet above NGVD 1929 and formerly characterized by freshwater marsh, upland, and saline coastal wetland ecosystems. Miami- Dade, Broward, and Palm Beach Counties have experienced explosive population growth, increasing from less than 4,000 inhabitants in 1900 to more than 5 million in 2000. Ground-water use, the principal source of municipal supply, has increased from about 65 Mgal/d (million gallons per day) obtained from 3 well fields in 1930 to more than 770 Mgal/d obtained from 65 well fields in 1995. Water use for agricultural supply increased from 505 Mgal/d in 1953 to nearly 1,150 Mgal/d in 1988, but has since declined to 764 Mgal/d in 1995, partly as a result of displacement of the

  15. Land-margin ecosystem hydrologic data for the coastal Everglades, Florida, water years 1996-2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Gordon H.; Smith, Thomas J.; Balentine, Karen M.

    2014-01-01

    Mangrove forests and salt marshes dominate the landscape of the coastal Everglades (Odum and McIvor, 1990). However, the ecological effects from potential sea-level rise and increased water flows from planned freshwater Everglades restoration on these coastal systems are poorly understood. The National Park Service (NPS) proposed the South Florida Global Climate Change Project (SOFL-GCC) in 1990 to evaluate climate change and the effect from rising sea levels on the coastal Everglades, particularly at the marsh/mangrove interface or ecotone (Soukup and others, 1990). A primary objective of SOFL-GCC project was to monitor and synthesize the hydrodynamics of the coastal Everglades from the upstream freshwater marsh to the downstream estuary mangrove. Two related hypotheses were set forward (Nuttle and Cosby, 1993): 1. There exists hydrologic conditions (tide, local rainfall, and upstream water deliveries), which characterize the location of the marsh/mangrove ecotone along the marine and terrestrial hydrologic gradient; and 2. The marsh/mangrove ecotone is sensitive to fluctuations in sea level and freshwater inflow from inland areas. Hydrologic monitoring of the SOFL-GCC network began in 1995 after startup delays from Hurricane Andrew (August 1992) and organizational transfers from the NPS to the National Biological Survey (October 1993) and the merger with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Biological Research Division in 1996 (Smith, 2004). As the SOFL-GCC project progressed, concern by environmental scientists and land managers over how the diversion of water from Everglades National Park would affect the restoration of the greater Everglades ecosystem. Everglades restoration scenarios were based on hydrodynamic models, none of which included the coastal zone (Fennema and others, 1994). Modeling efforts were expanded to include the Everglades coastal zone (Schaffranek and others, 2001) with SOFL-GCC hydrologic data assisting the ecological modeling needs. In 2002

  16. Uranium distribution in the coastal waters and pore waters of Tampa Bay, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swarzenski, P.W.; Baskaran, M.

    2006-01-01

    The geochemical reactivity of uranium (238U) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), Fe, Mn, Ba, and V was investigated in the water column, pore waters, and across a river/estuarine mixing zone in Tampa Bay, Florida. This large estuary is impacted both by diverse anthropogenic activity and by extensive U-rich phosphatic deposits. Thus, the estuarine behavior of uranium may be examined relative to such known U enrichments and anthropogenic perturbations. Dissolved (< 0.45??m) uranium exhibited both removal and enrichment processes across the Alafia River/estuarine mixing zone relative to conservative mixing. Such non-conservative U behavior may be attributed to: i) physical mixing processes within the river; ii) U carrier phase reactivity; and/or iii) fluid exchange processes across sediment/water interface. In the bay proper, U concentrations were ?????2 to 3 times greater than those reported for other estuarine systems and are likely a result of erosional inputs from the extensive, underlying U-rich phosphatic deposits. Whereas dissolved U concentrations generally did not approach seawater values (13.6??nM) along the Alafia River salinity transect, water column U concentrations exceeded 16??nM in select regions of the bay. Within the hydrogeological framework of the bay, such enriched U may also be derived from advective fluid transport processes across the sediment/water interface, such as submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) or hyporheic exchange within coastal rivers. Pore water profiles of U in Tampa Bay show both a flux into and out of bottom sediments, and average, diffusive U pore water fluxes (Jdiff) ranged from - 82.0 to 116.6??mol d- 1. It is likely that negative U fluxes imply seawater entrainment or infiltration (i.e., submarine groundwater recharge), which may contribute to the removal of water column uranium. For comparison, a bay-wide, Ra-derived submarine groundwater discharge estimate for Tampa Bay (8??L m- 2 d- 1) yielded an average, advective

  17. Brevetoxin persistence in sediments and seagrass epiphytes of east Florida coastal waters

    PubMed Central

    Hitchcock, Gary L.; Fourqurean, James W.; Drake, Jeana L.; Mead, Ralph N.; Heil, Cynthia A.

    2012-01-01

    A bloom of Karenia brevis Davis developed in September 2007 near Jacksonville, Florida and subsequently progressed south through east Florida coastal waters and the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (ICW). Maximum cell abundances exceeded 106 cells L−1 through October in the northern ICW between Jacksonville and the Indian River Lagoon. The bloom progressed further south during November, and terminated in December 2007 at densities of 104 cells L−1 in the ICW south of Jupiter Inlet, Florida. Brevetoxins were subsequently sampled in sediments and seagrass epiphytes in July and August 2008 in the ICW. Sediment brevetoxins occurred at concentrations of 11–15 ng PbTx-3 equivalents (g dry wt sediment)−1 in three of five basins in the northern ICW during summer 2008. Seagrass beds occur south of the Mosquito Lagoon in the ICW. Brevetoxins were detected in six of the nine seagrass beds sampled between the Mosquito Lagoon and Jupiter Inlet at concentrations of 6–18 ng (g dry wt epiphytes)−1. The highest brevetoxins concentrations were found in sediments near Patrick Air Force Base at 89 ng (g dry wt sediment)−1. In general, brevetoxins occurred in either seagrass epiphytes or sediments. Blades of the resident seagrass species have a maximum life span of less than six months, so it is postulated that brevetoxins could be transferred between epibenthic communities of individual blades in seagrass beds. The occurrence of brevetoxins in east Florida coast sediments and seagrass epiphytes up to eight months after bloom termination supports observations from the Florida west coast that brevetoxins can persist in marine ecosystems in the absence of sustained blooms. Furthermore, our observations show that brevetoxins can persist in sediments where seagrass communities are absent. PMID:23762030

  18. Brevetoxin persistence in sediments and seagrass epiphytes of east Florida coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Hitchcock, Gary L; Fourqurean, James W; Drake, Jeana L; Mead, Ralph N; Heil, Cynthia A

    2012-01-01

    A bloom of Karenia brevis Davis developed in September 2007 near Jacksonville, Florida and subsequently progressed south through east Florida coastal waters and the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (ICW). Maximum cell abundances exceeded 10(6) cells L(-1) through October in the northern ICW between Jacksonville and the Indian River Lagoon. The bloom progressed further south during November, and terminated in December 2007 at densities of 10(4) cells L(-1) in the ICW south of Jupiter Inlet, Florida. Brevetoxins were subsequently sampled in sediments and seagrass epiphytes in July and August 2008 in the ICW. Sediment brevetoxins occurred at concentrations of 11-15 ng PbTx-3 equivalents (g dry wt sediment)(-1) in three of five basins in the northern ICW during summer 2008. Seagrass beds occur south of the Mosquito Lagoon in the ICW. Brevetoxins were detected in six of the nine seagrass beds sampled between the Mosquito Lagoon and Jupiter Inlet at concentrations of 6-18 ng (g dry wt epiphytes)(-1). The highest brevetoxins concentrations were found in sediments near Patrick Air Force Base at 89 ng (g dry wt sediment)(-1). In general, brevetoxins occurred in either seagrass epiphytes or sediments. Blades of the resident seagrass species have a maximum life span of less than six months, so it is postulated that brevetoxins could be transferred between epibenthic communities of individual blades in seagrass beds. The occurrence of brevetoxins in east Florida coast sediments and seagrass epiphytes up to eight months after bloom termination supports observations from the Florida west coast that brevetoxins can persist in marine ecosystems in the absence of sustained blooms. Furthermore, our observations show that brevetoxins can persist in sediments where seagrass communities are absent.

  19. Long time-series of turbid coastal water using AVHRR: An example from Florida Bay, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stumpf, R.P.; Frayer, M.L.

    1997-01-01

    The AVHRR can provide information on the reflectance of turbid case II water, permitting examination of large estuaries and plumes from major rivers. The AVHRR has been onboard several NOAA satellites, with afternoon overpasses since 1981, offering a long time-series to examine changes in coastal water. We are using AVHRR data starting in December 1989, to examine water clarity in Florida Bay, which has undergone a decline since the late 1980's. The processing involves obtaining a nominal reflectance for red light with standard corrections including those for Rayleigh and aerosol path radiances. Established relationships between reflectance and the water properties being measured in the Bay provide estimates of diffuse attenuation and light limitation for phytoplankton and seagrass productivity studies. Processing also includes monthly averages of reflectance and attenuation. The AVHRR data set describes spatial and temporal patterns, including resuspension of bottom sediments in the winter, and changes in water clarity. The AVHRR also indicates that Florida Bay has much higher reflectivity relative to attenuation than other southeastern US estuaries. ??2005 Copyright SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering.

  20. National water quality assessment of the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit; water withdrawals and treated wastewater discharges, 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marella, R.L.; Fanning, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    The Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit covers nearly 62,600 square miles along the southeastern United States coast in Georgia and Florida. In 1990, the estimated population of the study unit was 9.3 million, and included all or part of the cities of Atlanta, Jacksonville, Orlando, Tampa, and St. Petersburg. Estimated freshwater withdrawn in the study unit in 1990 was nearly 5,075 million gallons per day. Ground-water accounted for more than 57 percent of the water withdrawn during 1990 and the Floridan aquifer system provided nearly 91 percent of the total ground-water withdrawn. Surface-water accounted for nearly 43 percent of the water withdrawn in the study unit in 1990 with large amounts of withdrawals from the Altamaha River, Hillsborough River, the Ocmulgee River, the Oconee River, the St. Johns River, and the Suwannee River. Water withdrawn for public supply in the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit in 1990 totaled 1,139 million gallons per day, of which 83 percent was ground water and 17 percent was surface water. Self-supplied domestic withdrawals in the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit in 1990 totaled nearly 230 million gallons per day. Ground water supplied over 80 percent of the study units population for drining water purposes; nearly 5.8 million people were served by public supply and 1.8 million people were served by self-supplied systems. Water withdrawn for self-supplied domestic use in Georgia and Florida is derived almost exclusively from ground water, primarily because this source can provide the quantity and quality of water needed for drinking purposes. Nearly 1.7 million people served by public supply utilized surface water for their drinking water needs. Water withdrawn for self-supplied commercial-industrial uses in the study unit in 1990 totaled 862 million gallons per day, of which 93 percent was ground water and 7 percent was surface water. Water withdrawn for agriculture purposes in the study unit in 1990 totaled 1

  1. Development and evaluation of sediment quality guidelines for Florida coastal waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacDonald, Donald D.; Carr, R. Scott; Calder, Fred D.; Long, Edward R.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    1996-01-01

    The weight-of-evidence approach to the development of sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) was modified to support the derivation of biological effects-based SQGs for Florida coastal waters. Numerical SQGs were derived for 34 substances, including nine trace metals, 13 individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), three groups of PAHs, total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), seven pesticides and one phthalate ester. For each substance, a threshold effects level (TEL) and a probable effects level (PEL) was calculated. These two values defined three ranges of chemical concentrations, including those that were (1) rarely, (2) occasionally or (3) frequently associated with adverse effects. The SQGs were then evaluated to determine their degree of agreement with other guidelines (an indicator of comparability) and the percent incidence of adverse effects within each concentration range (an indicator of reliability). The guidelines also were used to classify (using a dichotomous system: toxic, with one or more exceedances of the PELs or non-toxic, with no exceedances of the TELs) sediment samples collected from various locations in Florida and the Gulf of Mexico. The accuracy of these predictions was then evaluated using the results of the biological tests that were performed on the same sediment samples. The resultant SQGs were demonstrated to provide practical, reliable and predictive tools for assessing sediment quality in Florida and elsewhere in the southeastern portion of the United States.

  2. Environmental impacts on the southern Florida coastal waters: a history of change in Florida Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brewster-Wingard, G. L.; Ishman, S. E.; Holmes, C. W.

    1998-01-01

    Analyses of four cores located in the northern transitional, eastern, and central portions of Florida Bay reveal historical patterns of change in salinity and seagrass distribution. Salinity and the distribution of seagrass beds are two critical issues for the restoration of Florida Bay. The distribution of benthic fauna in Bob Allen 6A and Russell Bank 19B cores illustrates changes in environmental parameters prior to 1900. Natural fluctuations occur in salinity, but the amplitude of those fluctuations was limited to a 15–20% shift about the mean. Subtle changes occur in the benthic fauna around 1910, but beginning around 1940, the pattern of salinity fluctuation departs substantially from the pre-1900 pattern. Post-1940, the salinity oscillates 40–60% about the mean. This pattern is seen in all indicators measured. Around 1970, a significant but short term decline occurred in salinity. The Taylor Creek T24 core from the northern transitional zone reflects changes in freshwater flow that have occurred during this century. The upper portion of the core records a significant increase in salinity, with a slight decrease occurring in recent years. The Pass Key 37 core represents an area of very high sedimentation rates; an increase in salinity occurs in the upper portion of the core. Natural fluctuations in seagrass distribution are inferred from the shifts in relative abundance of epiphytal species preserved in the cores. All four cores show an increase in epiphytes and therefore in seagrass coverage during this century. An increase also occurs in epiphytal species that can dwell on either Thalassia or macro-algal mats associated with Thalassia beds. These data suggest an increase in algal-mats has occurred during this century. The Bob Allen 6A core records an extensive period during the 1800's of little to no vegetative cover of the substrate based on the near absence of epiphytic species in that segment of the core. Following this period, the epiphytal species

  3. Environmental setting and factors that affect water quality in the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berndt, M.P.; Oaksford, E.T.; Darst, M.R.; Marella, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    The Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit covers an area of nearly 62,000 square miles in the southeastern United States, mostly in the Coastal Plain physiographic province. Land resource provinces have been designated based on generalized soil classifications. Land resource provinces in the study area include: the Coastal Flatwoods, the Southern Coastal Plain, the Central Florida Ridge, the Sand Hills, and the Southern Piedmont. The study area includes all or parts of seven hydrologic subregions: the Ogeechee-Savannah, the Altamaha- St.Marys, the Suwannee, the Ochlockonee, the St. Johns, the Peace-Tampa Bay, and the Southern Florida. The primary source of water for public supply in the study area is ground water from the Upper Floridan aquifer. In 1990, more than 90 percent of the 2,888 million gallons per day of ground water used came from this aquifer. The population of the study area was 9.3 million in 1990. The cities of Jacksonville, Orlando, St. Petersburg, Tallahassee, and Tampa, Florida, and parts of Atlanta and Savannah, Georgia, are located in the study area. Forest and agricultural areas are the most common land uses in the study area, accounting for 48 percent and 25 percent of the study area, respectively. Climatic conditions range from temperate in Atlanta, Georgia, where mean annual temperature is about 61.3 degrees Fahrenheit, to subtropical in Tampa, Florida, where mean annual temperature is about 72.4 degrees Fahrenheit. Long-term average precipitation (1961-90) ranges from 43.9 inches per year in Tampa, Florida, and 44.6 in Macon, Georgia, to 65.7 inches per year in Tallahassee, Florida. Floods in the study area result from frontal systems, hurricanes, tropical storms, or severe thunderstorms. Droughts are not common in the study area,especially in the Florida part of the study area due to extensive maritime exposure. The primary physical and cultural characteristics in the study area include physiography, soils and land resource provinces

  4. Methane Dynamics in two South Florida Mangrove Estuaries: Water-Air Fluxes and Export to the Coastal Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, D. T.; Reid, M. C.; Ferron Smith, S.

    2016-02-01

    Mangroves and other coastal wetland ecosystems are among the most carbon-rich ecosystems in the world (Donato et al., 2011). An important uncertainty in the carbon balances of these systems is the lateral transport of methane (CH4), an important greenhouse gas, from the pore waters of vegetated zones to the estuarine water column and subsequent flux to the atmosphere and/or transport to the coastal ocean. In this study we report longitudinal distributions of dissolved CH4 in two rivers of a mangrove-dominated estuary in South Florida over five consecutive days, and determine air-water fluxes of CH4, and CH4 export to the coastal ocean. Mean near-surface CH4 concentrations in the Shark and Harney Rivers were 110±52 and 167±45 nM, respectively, and the CH4 source was a combination of lateral mangrove inputs and export from upstream freshwater wetlands. Integrated air-water CH4 fluxes from the Shark and Harney were determined to be 9.24±0.7 and 14.0±1.0 µmol m-2 h-1, respectively. Methane fluxes to the atmosphere and the coastal ocean will be discussed within the context of the overall carbon budget of the coastal Everglades mangrove ecosystem. ReferencesD.C. Donato et al., (2011). Mangroves among the most carbon-rich forests in the tropics. Nature Geoscience 4, 293-297.

  5. Characterizing the Sources and Sinks of Methyl Halides in the Florida Everglades and Coastal Waters by Isotopic Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scully, N. M.; Jones, R. D.; Raffel, A.; Rice, A. L.

    2012-12-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the methyl halides, methyl chloride and methyl bromide, are produced in significant quantities by phytoplankton and by the photochemical oxidation of dissolved organic matter (DOM). However, we know little of the mechanisms responsible for the photochemical production of methyl halides and also the factors which affect the microbial formation and consumption in the surface waters. We are currently conducting laboratory experiments to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the photochemical and microbial formation and consumption of methyl chloride and methyl bromide in the Florida Everglades and coastal waters. We present data from laboratory experiments using a stable isotope spiking tracer method to quantify photochemical flux rates of methyl chloride and methyl bromide from wetland and estuarine water samples collected at FCE-LTER sites located in Taylor Slough and Florida Bay. These photochemical experiments include waters that span a wide range of halide and DOM concentrations. We use these results to estimate the net photochemical flux of methyl chloride and methyl bromide from the Florida Everglades. We have also conducted stable carbon isotope analysis of the methyl chloride. These experiments are being conducted to determine the carbon isotopic ratios (d13C) of methyl chloride produced from the photolysis of organic matter in natural waters and will provide an inventory of d13C values from one of the sources within the studied Everglades ecotones. This research was supported by the National Science Foundation Chemical Oceanography Program Award No. 1029710.

  6. Sensitivity of bacterioplankton nitrogen metabolism to eutrophication in sub-tropical coastal waters of Key West, Florida.

    PubMed

    Hoch, Matthew P; Dillon, Kevin S; Coffin, Richard B; Cifuentes, Luis A

    2008-05-01

    Expression of intracellular ammonium assimilation enzymes were used to assess the response of nitrogen (N) metabolism in bacterioplankton to N-loading of sub-tropical coastal waters of Key West, Florida. Specific activities of glutamine synthetase (GS) and total glutamate dehydrogenase (GDHT) were measured on the bacterial size fraction (<0.8 microm) to assess N-deplete versus N-replete metabolic states, respectively. Enzyme results were compared to concentrations of dissolved organic matter and nutrients and to the biomass and production of phytoplankton and bacteria. Concentrations of dissolved inorganic N (DIN), dissolved organic N (DON), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) positively correlated with specific activities of GDHT and negatively correlated with that of GS. Total dissolved N (TDN) concentration explained 81% of variance in bacterioplankton GDHT:GS activity ratio. The GDHT:GS ratio, TDN, DOC, and bacterial parameters decreased in magnitude along a tidally dynamic trophic gradient from north of Key West to south at the reef tract, which is consistent with the combined effects of localized coastal eutrophication and tidal exchange of seawater from the Southwest Florida Shelf and Florida Strait. The N-replete bacterioplankton north of Key West can regenerate ammonium which sustains primary production transported south to the reef. The range in GDHT:GS ratios was 5-30 times greater than that for commonly used indicators of planktonic eutrophication, which emphasizes the sensitivity of bacterioplankton N-metabolism to changes in N-bioavailability caused by nutrient pollution in sub-tropical coastal waters and utility of GDHT:GS ratio as an bioindicator of N-replete conditions.

  7. Effects of Hydrologic Restoration on the Residence Times and Water Quality of a Coastal Wetland in the Florida Everglades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandoval, E.; Price, R. M.; Melesse, A. M.; Whitman, D.

    2013-05-01

    The Everglades, located in southern Florida, is a dominantly freshwater coastal wetland ecosystem that has experienced many alterations and changes led by urbanization and water management practices with most cases resulting in decreased water flow across the system. The Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan, passed in 2000, has the final goal of restoring natural flow and clean water to the Everglades while also balancing flood control and water supply needs of the south Florida population with approximately 60 projects to be constructed and completed in the following 30 years. One way to assess the success of restoration projects is to observe long-term hydrological and geochemical changes as the projects undergo completion. The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of restoration on the water balance, flushing time, and water chemistry of Taylor Slough; one of the main natural waterways located within the coastal Everglades. A water balance equation was used to solve for groundwater-surface water exchange. The major parameters for the water balance equation (precipitation, evapotranspiration (ET), surface water storage, inflow and outflow) were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey and Everglades National Park databases via the Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN). Watershed flushing times were estimated as the surface water volume divided by the total outputs from the watershed. Both the water balance equation and water flushing time were calculated on a monthly time step from 2001 - 2011. Water chemistry of major ions and Total Nitrogen (TN) and Total Phosphorus (TP) was analyzed on water samples, 3-day composites collected every 18 hours from 2008 - 2012, and correlated with water flushing times. Stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen of water samples were obtained to support the dominant inputs of water into Taylor Slough as identified by the water budget equation. Results for flushing times varied between 3 and 78 days, with

  8. Occurrence and transport of Irgarol 1051 and its major metabolite in coastal waters from South Florida.

    PubMed

    Gardinali, Piero R; Plasencia, Manolo D; Maxey, Charles

    2004-12-01

    Irgarol 1051, a boosting antifouling agent often used to supplement copper based paints was found in surface waters from South Florida at stations collected from the Miami River, Biscayne Bay and selected areas of the Florida Keys. Concentrations of the herbicide ranged from below the method detection limit (1 ng/L) to as high as 182 ng/L in a canal system in Key Largo. The herbicide was present at 93% of the stations and often found in conjunction with its descyclopropyl metabolite (M1) previously reported to be the major degradation product of Irgarol under natural environmental conditions. The 90th percentile concentration calculated for all South Florida samples was 57.6 ng/L. Based on available data on the toxicity of Irgarol to algae and coral, only two stations (approximately 3%) ranked above the LC50 of 136 ng/L reported for the marine algae Naviculla pelliculosa and above the 100 ng/L level reported to reversibly inhibit photosynthesis of intact corals. However, a basic dissipation model for Irgarol using the Key Largo Harbor station as a point source indicated that concentrations of the herbicide decreased rapidly and concentrations below the MDL are observed within 2000 m of the source. No major coral based benthic habitats are documented for all the stations surveyed at distances that Irgarol may pose a substantial risk. However, other types of submerged vegetation like seagrasses are common around the marinas and the effects of Irgarol to such endpoints should be investigated further.

  9. Dynamics of marine bacterial community diversity of the coastal waters of the reefs, inlets, and wastewater outfalls of southeast Florida.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Alexandra M; Fleisher, Jay; Sinigalliano, Christopher; White, James R; Lopez, Jose V

    2015-06-01

    Coastal waters adjacent to populated southeast Florida possess different habitats (reefs, oceanic inlets, sewage outfalls) that may affect the composition of their inherent microbiomes. To determine variation according to site, season, and depth, over the course of 1 year, we characterized the bacterioplankton communities within 38 nearshore seawater samples derived from the Florida Area Coastal Environment (FACE) water quality survey. Six distinct coastal locales were profiled - the Port Everglades and Hillsboro Inlets, Hollywood and Broward wastewater outfalls, and associated reef sites using culture-independent, high-throughput pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA V4 region. More than 227,000 sequences helped describe longitudinal taxonomic profiles of marine bacteria and archaea. There were 4447 unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) identified with a mean OTU count of 5986 OTUs across all sites. Bacterial taxa varied significantly by season and by site using weighted and unweighted Unifrac, but depth was only supported by weighted Unifrac, suggesting a change due to presence/absence of certain OTUs. Abundant microbial taxa across all samples included Synechococcus, Pelagibacteraceae, Bacteroidetes, and various Proteobacteria. Unifrac analysis confirmed significant differences at inlet sites relative to reef and outfalls. Inlet-based bacterioplankton significantly differed in greater abundances of Rhodobacteraceae and Cryomorphaceae, and depletion of SAR406 sequences. This study also found higher counts of Firmicutes, Chloroflexi, and wastewater associated SBR1093 bacteria at the outfall and reef sites compared to inlet sites. This study profiles local bacterioplankton populations in a much broader context, beyond culturing and quantitative PCR, and expands upon the work completed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration FACE program. © 2015 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Dynamics of marine bacterial community diversity of the coastal waters of the reefs, inlets, and wastewater outfalls of southeast Florida

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Alexandra M; Fleisher, Jay; Sinigalliano, Christopher; White, James R; Lopez, Jose V

    2015-01-01

    Coastal waters adjacent to populated southeast Florida possess different habitats (reefs, oceanic inlets, sewage outfalls) that may affect the composition of their inherent microbiomes. To determine variation according to site, season, and depth, over the course of 1 year, we characterized the bacterioplankton communities within 38 nearshore seawater samples derived from the Florida Area Coastal Environment (FACE) water quality survey. Six distinct coastal locales were profiled – the Port Everglades and Hillsboro Inlets, Hollywood and Broward wastewater outfalls, and associated reef sites using culture-independent, high-throughput pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA V4 region. More than 227,000 sequences helped describe longitudinal taxonomic profiles of marine bacteria and archaea. There were 4447 unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) identified with a mean OTU count of 5986 OTUs across all sites. Bacterial taxa varied significantly by season and by site using weighted and unweighted Unifrac, but depth was only supported by weighted Unifrac, suggesting a change due to presence/absence of certain OTUs. Abundant microbial taxa across all samples included Synechococcus, Pelagibacteraceae, Bacteroidetes, and various Proteobacteria. Unifrac analysis confirmed significant differences at inlet sites relative to reef and outfalls. Inlet-based bacterioplankton significantly differed in greater abundances of Rhodobacteraceae and Cryomorphaceae, and depletion of SAR406 sequences. This study also found higher counts of Firmicutes, Chloroflexi, and wastewater associated SBR1093 bacteria at the outfall and reef sites compared to inlet sites. This study profiles local bacterioplankton populations in a much broader context, beyond culturing and quantitative PCR, and expands upon the work completed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration FACE program. PMID:25740409

  11. Hurricane Katrina induced nutrient runoff from an agricultural area to coastal waters in Biscayne Bay, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jia-Zhong; Kelble, Christopher R.; Fischer, Charles J.; Moore, Lloyd

    2009-09-01

    Water quality surveys conducted in Biscayne Bay, Florida, indicated enhanced nutrient input coupled with increased runoff as a result of precipitation associated with Hurricane Katrina. Nutrient concentrations before Katrina ranged from 0.06-24.2 μM (mean 3.3 μM) for nitrate and 0.01-0.18 μM (mean 0.1 μM) for soluble reactive phosphate. Five days after Katrina, nitrate concentrations ranged from 0.87-80.0 μM (mean 17.0 μM), with a bay-wide mean increase of 5.2-fold over pre-hurricane levels. Soluble reactive phosphate concentrations ranged from 0.07-0.62 μM (mean 0.2 μM), with a bay-wide mean increase of 2-fold over pre-hurricane levels. The maximum concentrations for both nitrate and soluble reactive phosphate were found at a water quality monitoring station near the mouth of Mowry Canal, which drains an agricultural area in the southern Biscayne Bay watershed near Homestead, Florida. At this station, nitrate and soluble reactive phosphate concentrations increased 7- and 10-fold, respectively. Storm-induced fertilizer runoff from this agricultural area caused a bay-wide increase in nutrient concentrations after Hurricane Katrina. Nutrient concentrations in the bay returned to pre-hurricane levels within three months after Hurricane Katrina, showing the resiliency of the Biscayne Bay ecosystem.

  12. Effect of sea-level rise on salt water intrusion near a coastal well field in southeastern Florida.

    PubMed

    Langevin, Christian D; Zygnerski, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A variable-density groundwater flow and dispersive solute transport model was developed for the shallow coastal aquifer system near a municipal supply well field in southeastern Florida. The model was calibrated for a 105-year period (1900 to 2005). An analysis with the model suggests that well-field withdrawals were the dominant cause of salt water intrusion near the well field, and that historical sea-level rise, which is similar to lower-bound projections of future sea-level rise, exacerbated the extent of salt water intrusion. Average 2005 hydrologic conditions were used for 100-year sensitivity simulations aimed at quantifying the effect of projected rises in sea level on fresh coastal groundwater resources near the well field. Use of average 2005 hydrologic conditions and a constant sea level result in total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration of the well field exceeding drinking water standards after 70 years. When sea-level rise is included in the simulations, drinking water standards are exceeded 10 to 21 years earlier, depending on the specified rate of sea-level rise.

  13. Effects of sea-level rise on salt water intrusion near a coastal well field in southeastern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langevin, Christian D.; Zygnerski, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A variable-density groundwater flow and dispersive solute transport model was developed for the shallow coastal aquifer system near a municipal supply well field in southeastern Florida. The model was calibrated for a 105-year period (1900 to 2005). An analysis with the model suggests that well-field withdrawals were the dominant cause of salt water intrusion near the well field, and that historical sea-level rise, which is similar to lower-bound projections of future sea-level rise, exacerbated the extent of salt water intrusion. Average 2005 hydrologic conditions were used for 100-year sensitivity simulations aimed at quantifying the effect of projected rises in sea level on fresh coastal groundwater resources near the well field. Use of average 2005 hydrologic conditions and a constant sea level result in total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration of the well field exceeding drinking water standards after 70 years. When sea-level rise is included in the simulations, drinking water standards are exceeded 10 to 21 years earlier, depending on the specified rate of sea-level rise.

  14. Net community production and dark community respiration in a Karenia brevis (Davis) bloom in West Florida coastal waters, USA

    PubMed Central

    Hitchcock, Gary L.; Kirkpatrick, Gary; Minnett, Peter; Palubok, Valeriy

    2013-01-01

    Oxygen-based productivity and respiration rates were determined in West Florida coastal waters to evaluate the proportion of community respiration demands met by autotrophic production within a harmful algal bloom dominated by Karenia brevis. The field program was adaptive in that sampling during the 2006 bloom occurred where surveys by the Florida Wildlife Research Institute indicated locations with high cell abundances. Net community production (NCP) rates from light-dark bottle incubations during the bloom ranged from 10 to 42 µmole O2 L−1 day−1 with highest rates in bloom waters where abundances exceeded 105 cells L−1. Community dark respiration (R) rates in dark bottles ranged from <10 to 70 µmole O2 L−1 day−1 over 24 h. Gross primary production derived from the sum of NCP and R varied from ca. 20 to 120 µmole O2 L−1 day−1. The proportion of GPP attributed to NCP varied with the magnitude of R during day and night periods. Most surface communities exhibited net autotrophic production (NCP > R) over 24 h, although heterotrophy (NCP < R) characterized the densest sample where K. brevis cell densities exceed 106 cells L−1. PMID:24179460

  15. Net community production and dark community respiration in a Karenia brevis (Davis) bloom in West Florida coastal waters, USA.

    PubMed

    Hitchcock, Gary L; Kirkpatrick, Gary; Minnett, Peter; Palubok, Valeriy

    2010-05-01

    Oxygen-based productivity and respiration rates were determined in West Florida coastal waters to evaluate the proportion of community respiration demands met by autotrophic production within a harmful algal bloom dominated by Karenia brevis. The field program was adaptive in that sampling during the 2006 bloom occurred where surveys by the Florida Wildlife Research Institute indicated locations with high cell abundances. Net community production (NCP) rates from light-dark bottle incubations during the bloom ranged from 10 to 42 µmole O2 L(-1) day(-1) with highest rates in bloom waters where abundances exceeded 10(5) cells L(-1). Community dark respiration (R) rates in dark bottles ranged from <10 to 70 µmole O2 L(-1) day(-1) over 24 h. Gross primary production derived from the sum of NCP and R varied from ca. 20 to 120 µmole O2 L(-1) day(-1). The proportion of GPP attributed to NCP varied with the magnitude of R during day and night periods. Most surface communities exhibited net autotrophic production (NCP > R) over 24 h, although heterotrophy (NCP < R) characterized the densest sample where K. brevis cell densities exceed 10(6) cells L(-1).

  16. Occurrence of IRGAROL 1051 in coastal waters from Biscayne Bay, Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Gardinali, Piero R; Plasencia, Manolo; Mack, Steve; Poppell, Charles

    2002-08-01

    Surface water samples from marinas, commercial ports and open bay areas collected from Biscayne Bay and the Miami River, Florida, USA, were analyzed for the occurrence of IRGAROL 1051 by GC/MS. The anifouling boosting herbicide was found in 80% (46/57) of the samples collected between March 1999 and September 2000. Concentrations within the bay range between non-detected (<1 ppt) and 61 ppt (ng/L) and were generally low compared with levels reported in European or Japanese waters. Aside from the elevated concentrations observed along the Miami River South Fork (61 ppt), the highest concentrations observed in the bay corresponded to marinas with high density of pleasure craft and restricted water circulation. In contrast, occurrence of IRGAROL 1051 along the commercial port or the cruise line terminal was generally lower (<1-2.2 ppt). Concentrations around Coconut Grove Marina were consistently higher (5-12 ppt) than the rest of the bay waters during the whole period of time surveyed.

  17. National Water Quality Assessment Program; preliminary assessment of nitrate distribution in ground water in the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit, 1972-90

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berndt, M.P.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has implemented the National Water Quality Assessment program to describe the quality of the surface- and ground- water resources in 60 large areas or study units in the Nation. The Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit was one of the first 20 selected for study when the full-scale program was implemented in 1991. The study unit has an area of about 54,000 square miles and is located on the south- eastern coast of the United States. The primary source of water supply in this study unit is ground-water from the Upper Floridan aquifer of the Floridan aquifer system. The Upper Floridan aquifer is unconfined or semiconfined in some parts of the study unit, but in other parts is confined by the overlying surficial aquifer system and other confining units. The surficial aquifer system is also used for water supply in some parts of the study unit. Three land-resource areas have been delineated in the study unit on the basis of generalized soil classifications: the Central Florida Ridge, Coastal Flatwoods, and Southern Coastal Plain. Predominant land use and land cover as classified in the 1970's, are forest, agriculture, wetlands, and urban. Nitrate data for water from the Upper Floridan aquifer and the surficial aquifer system were obtained from the National Water Information System data base of the U.S. Geological Survey for the years 1972- 90. In the Upper Floridan aquifer, the highest median nitrate (as nitrogen) concentrations (0.43 and 0.26 milligrams per liter) were in water samples from wells in agricultural and urban areas where the aquifer was unconfined or semiconfined. The maximum contaminant level for nitrate (as nitrogen) in drinking water of 10 milligrams per liter was exceeded in 25 of the 726 water samples from this aquifer. These 25 samples were from wells in urban areas. In water samples from the surficial aquifer system, the highest median nitrate concentration, 8.7 milligrams per liter, was for water samples from

  18. Coastal land loss in Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R.R. )

    1990-09-01

    Florida has approximately 593 mi of shoreline fronting on the Atlantic Ocean and Straits of Florida and approximately 673 mi of shoreline fronting on the Gulf of Mexico with an additional 5,000 mi of bay and estuary shoreline. Of a statewide total of 818.9 mi of open coast sandy beaches, 337.2 mi or 41.2% of the beaches are identified as erosion problem areas. These erosion problem areas include those beaches with a moderate or low erosion rate, but with a narrow width fronting a highly developed area, and those restored beaches with an active maintenance nourishment program. Of these erosion problem areas, 217.8 mi or 26.6% of the statewide beach length are areas of critical erosion; that is, segments of the shoreline where substantial development or recreation interests are threatened by the erosion processes. On a shorewide basis, the Atlantic Ocean beaches of Florida typically have historical erosion rates of between 0 and {minus}3 ft per year, while the Gulf of Mexico beaches typically have historical erosion rates of between 0 and {minus}2 ft per year. Many of the problem areas have shoreline erosion rates in the magnitude of between {minus}3 and {minus}5 ft per year. The most extreme erosion rates are occurring along the southern portion of St. Joseph Peninsula at Cape San Bias where the annual shoreline recession exceeds {minus}20 ft. Erosion conditions in Florida are most apparent as a result of storm tides and storm wave activity. Extreme meteorological events inflict significant erosion conditions in all beach areas of the state. Historical shoreline changes are often the cumulative effect of a number of storm events and their cycles of poststorm recovery. Erosion and damage from recent storms as well as efforts to mitigate storm damage have heightened the erosion problems and incited a public response through coastal construction regulation and beach management planning.

  19. Hydrology of the coastal springs ground-water basin and adjacent parts of Pasco, Hernando, and Citrus Counties, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knochenmus, Lari A.; Yobbi, Dann K.

    2001-01-01

    The coastal springs in Pasco, Hernando, and Citrus Counties, Florida consist of three first-order magnitude springs and numerous smaller springs, which are points of substantial ground-water discharge from the Upper Floridan aquifer. Spring flow is proportional to the water-level altitude in the aquifer and is affected primarily by the magnitude and timing of rainfall. Ground-water levels in 206 Upper Floridan aquifer wells, and surface-water stage, flow, and specific conductance of water from springs at 10 gaging stations were measured to define the hydrologic variability (temporally and spatially) in the Coastal Springs Ground-Water Basin and adjacent parts of Pasco, Hernando, and Citrus Counties. Rainfall at 46 stations and ground-water withdrawals for three counties, were used to calculate water budgets, to evaluate long-term changes in hydrologic conditions, and to evaluate relations among the hydrologic components. Predictive equations to estimate daily spring flow were developed for eight gaging stations using regression techniques. Regression techniques included ordinary least squares and multiple linear regression techniques. The predictive equations indicate that ground-water levels in the Upper Floridan aquifer are directly related to spring flow. At tidally affected gaging stations, spring flow is inversely related to spring-pool altitude. The springs have similar seasonal flow patterns throughout the area. Water-budget analysis provided insight into the relative importance of the hydrologic components expected to influence spring flow. Four water budgets were constructed for small ground-water basins that form the Coastal Springs Ground-Water Basin. Rainfall averaged 55 inches per year and was the only source of inflow to the Basin. The pathways for outflow were evapotranspiration (34 inches per year), runoff by spring flow (8 inches per year), ground-water outflow from upward leakage (11 inches per year), and ground-water withdrawal (2 inches per year

  20. Ground-water resources of coastal Citrus, Hernando, and southwestern Levy counties, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fretwell, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Ground water in the coastal parts of Citrus, Hernando, and Levy Counties is obtained almost entirely from the Floridan aquifer. The aquifer is unconfined near the coast and semiconfined in the ridge area. Transmissivity ranges from 20,000 feet squared per day in the ridge area to greater than 2,000,000 feet squared per day near major springs. Changes in the potentiometric surface of the aquifer are small between the wet and dry seasons. Water quality within the study area is generally very good except immediately adjacent to the coast where saltwater from the Gulf of Mexico poses a threat to freshwater supply. This threat can be compensated for by placing well fields a sufficient distance away from the zone of transition from saltwater to freshwater so as not to reduce or reverse the hydraulic gradient in that zone. Computer models are presently available to help predict the extent of influence of ground-water withdrawals in an area. These may be used as management tools in planning ground-water development of the area. (USGS)

  1. Evaluation of ground-water contribution to streamflow in coastal Georgia and adjacent parts of Florida and South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Priest, Sherlyn

    2004-01-01

    Stream-aquifer relations in the coastal area of Georgia and adjacent parts of Florida and South Carolina were evaluated as part of the Coastal Georgia Sound Science Initiative, the Georgia Environmental Protection Division's strategy to protect the Upper Floridan aquifer from saltwater intrusion. Ground-water discharge to streams was estimated using three methods: hydrograph separation, drought-streamflow measurements, and linear-regression analysis of streamflow duration. Ground-water discharge during the drought years of 1954, 1981, and 2000 was analyzed for minimum ground-water contribution to streamflow. Hydrograph separation was used to estimate baseflow at eight streamflow gaging stations during the 31-year period 1971?2001. Six additional streamflow gaging stations were evaluated using linear-regression analysis of flow duration to determine mean annual baseflow. The study area centers on three major river systems ? the Salkehatchie?Savannah?Ogeechee, Altamaha?Satilla?St Marys, and Suwannee ? that interact with the underlying ground-water system to varying degrees, largely based on the degree of incision of the river into the aquifer and on the topography. Results presented in this report are being used to calibrate a regional ground-water flow model to evaluate ground-water flow and stream-aquifer relations of the Upper Floridan aquifer. Hydrograph separation indicated decreased baseflow to streams during drought periods as water levels declined in the aquifer. Average mean annual baseflow ranged from 39 to 74 percent of mean annual streamflow, with a mean contribution of 58 percent for the period 1971?2001. In a wet year (1997), baseflow composed from 33 to 70 percent of mean annual streamflow. Drought-streamflow analysis estimated baseflow contribution to streamflow ranged from 0 to 24 percent of mean annual streamflow. Linear-regression analysis of streamflow duration estimated the Q35 (flow that is equaled or exceeded 35 percent of the time) as the most

  2. Climate change impact on the annual water balance in the northwest Florida coastal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizad, K.; Wang, D.; Alimohammadi, N.; Hagen, S. C.

    2012-12-01

    As the largest tributary to the Apalachicola River, the Chipola River originates in southern Alabama, flows through Florida Panhandle and ended to Gulf of Mexico. The Chipola watershed is located in an intermediate climate environment with aridity index around one. Watershed provides habitat for a number of threatened and endangered animal and plant species. However, climate change affects hydrologic cycle of Chipola River watershed at various temporal and spatial scales. Studying the effects of climate variations is of great importance for water and environmental management purposes in this catchment. This research is mainly focuses on assessing climate change impact on the partitioning pattern of rainfall from mean annual to inter-annual and to seasonal scales. At the mean annual scale, rainfall is partitioned into runoff and evaporation assuming negligible water storage changes. Mean annual runoff is controlled by both mean annual precipitation and potential evaporation. Changes in long term mean runoff caused by variations of long term mean precipitation and potential evaporation will be evaluated based on Budyko hypothesis. At the annual scale, rainfall is partitioned into runoff, evaporation, and storage change. Inter-annual variability of runoff and evaporation are mainly affected by the changes of mean annual climate variables as well as their inter-annual variability. In order to model and evaluate each component of water balance at the annual scale, parsimonious but reliable models, are developed. Budyko hypothesis on the existing balance between available water and energy supply is reconsidered and redefined for the sub-annual time scale and reconstructed accordingly in order to accurately model seasonal hydrologic balance of the catchment. Models are built in the seasonal time frame with a focus on the role of storage change in water cycle. Then for Chipola catchment, models are parameterized based on a sufficient time span of historical data and the

  3. Analysis of nutrients in the surface waters of the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit, 1970-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ham, L.K.; Hatzell, H.H.

    1996-01-01

    Aucilla River basin had the lowest. Median concentrations of nitrate and ammonia among all major basins were below USEPA guidelines. The median total-phosphorus concentrations for the following river basins exceeded the USEPA guideline-Hillsborough, St. Johns, Suwannee, Ochlockonee, Satilla, Altamaha, and Ogeechee. Although nutrient concentrations within the study unit were low, long-term increasing trends were found in all four nutrients. All 18 study-unit wide nitrate trends had increasing slopes ranging from less than 0.01 to 0.07 (mg/L)/yr. The range in slope for the 13 ammonia trends was -0.03 to 0.01 (mg/L)/yr with 6 increasing trends in the northern part of the study unit. Of the 17 total-phosphorus trends found in the study unit, 10 were found at sites where the median concentration exceeded the USEPA guideline. At these 10 sites, 4 sites had increasing trends with slopes ranging from less than 0.01 to 0.07 (mg/L)/yr, 5 sites had decreasing trends with slopes ranging from -0.01 to -0.24 (mg/L)/yr, and one site showed a seasonal concentration trend. Median nutrient concentrations were significantly different among the four land resource provinces-Southern Piedmont, Southern Coastal Plain, Coastal Flatwoods, and Central Florida Ridge. As a result, nutrient concentrations among basins with similar nutrient inputs but located within different land resource provinces are not expected to be the same due to differences in the combination of factors such as soil permeability, runoff rates, and stream channel slopes. This concept is an important consideration in designing a surface-water quality network within the study area. For the most part, the Coastal Flatwoods showed the lowest median nutrient concentrations and the Southern Coastal Plain had the highest median nutrient concentrations. Lower median nitrate concentrations in surface-water basins were associated with the forest/wetland land-use category and higher median concentrations of nitrate and ammonia with

  4. Sampling design and procedures for fixed surface-water sites in the Georgia-Florida coastal plain study unit, 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatzell, H.H.; Oaksford, E.T.; Asbury, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    The implementation of design guidelines for the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program has resulted in the development of new sampling procedures and the modification of existing procedures commonly used in the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey. The Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain (GAFL) study unit began the intensive data collection phase of the program in October 1992. This report documents the implementation of the NAWQA guidelines by describing the sampling design and procedures for collecting surface-water samples in the GAFL study unit in 1993. This documentation is provided for agencies that use water-quality data and for future study units that will be entering the intensive phase of data collection. The sampling design is intended to account for large- and small-scale spatial variations, and temporal variations in water quality for the study area. Nine fixed sites were selected in drainage basins of different sizes and different land-use characteristics located in different land-resource provinces. Each of the nine fixed sites was sampled regularly for a combination of six constituent groups composed of physical and chemical constituents: field measurements, major ions and metals, nutrients, organic carbon, pesticides, and suspended sediments. Some sites were also sampled during high-flow conditions and storm events. Discussion of the sampling procedure is divided into three phases: sample collection, sample splitting, and sample processing. A cone splitter was used to split water samples for the analysis of the sampling constituent groups except organic carbon from approximately nine liters of stream water collected at four fixed sites that were sampled intensively. An example of the sample splitting schemes designed to provide the sample volumes required for each sample constituent group is described in detail. Information about onsite sample processing has been organized into a flowchart that describes a pathway for each of

  5. Whiting events in SW Florida coastal waters: a case study using MODIS medium-resolution data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, Jacqueline; Hu, Chuanmin; Robbins, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Whitings, floating patches of calcium carbonate mud, have been found in both shallow carbonate banks and freshwater environments around the world. Although these events have been studied for many decades, much of their characteristics remain unknown. Recent sightings of whitings near Ten Thousand Islands, Florida suggest a phenomenon that has not previously been documented in this area. Using medium-resolution (250-m) data collected by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) from December 2010 to November 2013, we documented whiting events and their spatial and temporal patterns in this region. Classification rules were first established, and then applied to all 474 cloud-free and sun glint-free MODIS images. Whiting occurrences were found between 25°46′N and 25°20′N and less than 40 km from the southwest Florida coastline. Over the 3-year period, whiting occurrence peaked in spring and autumn and reached a minimum during the winter and summer months. Further field and laboratory research are needed to explain driving force(s) behind these events.

  6. Assigning Boundary Conditions to the Southern Inland and Coastal Systems (SICS) Model Using Results from the South Florida Water Management Model (SFWMM)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolfert, Melinda A.; Langevin, Christian D.; Swain, Eric D.

    2004-01-01

    The Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) requires the testing and evaluation of different water-management scenarios for southern Florida. As part of CERP, the South Florida Water Management District is using its regional hydrologic model, the South Florida Water Management Model (SFWMM), to evaluate different hydrologic scenarios. The SFWMM was designed specifically for the inland freshwater areas in southern Florida, and extends only slightly into Florida Bay. Thus, the U.S. Geological Survey developed the Southern Inland and Coastal Systems (SICS) model, which is an integrated surface-water and ground-water model designed to simulate flows, stages, and salinities in the southern Everglades and Florida Bay. Modifications to the SICS boundary conditions allow the local-scale SICS model to be linked to the regional-scale SFWMM. The linked model will be used to quantify the effects of restoration alternatives on flows, stages, and salinities in the SICS area. This report describes the procedure for linking the SICS model with the SFWMM. The linkage is shown to work by comparing the results of a linked 5-year simulation with the results from a simulation in which the model boundaries are assigned using field data. The surface-water module of the SICS model is driven by areal influences and lateral boundaries. The areal influences (wind, rainfall, and evapotranspiration) remain the same when the SICS model is modified to link to the SFWMM. Four types of lateral boundaries (discharge, water level, no flow, and salinity) are used in the SICS model. Two of three discharge boundaries (at Taylor Slough Bridge and C-111 Canal) in the current SICS model domain are converted to water-level boundaries to increase accuracy. The only change to the third discharge boundary (at Levee 31W) is that the flow data are derived from SFWMM model output instead of using measured field data flows. Three water-level boundaries are modified only by receiving their data from SFWMM

  7. Mercury accumulation in sharks from the coastal waters of southwest Florida.

    PubMed

    Rumbold, Darren; Wasno, Robert; Hammerschlag, Neil; Volety, Aswani

    2014-10-01

    As large long-lived predators, sharks are particularly vulnerable to exposure to methylmercury biomagnified through the marine food web. Accordingly, nonlethal means were used to collect tissues for determining mercury (Hg) concentrations and stable isotopes of carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) from a total of 69 sharks, comprising 7 species, caught off Southwest Florida from May 2010 through June 2013. Species included blacknose (Carcharhinus acronotus), blacktip (C. limbatus), bull (C. leucas), great hammerhead (Sphyrna mokarran), lemon (Negaprion brevirostris), sharpnose (Rhizoprionodon terraenovae), and tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier). The sharks contained Hg concentrations in their muscle tissues ranging from 0.19 mg/kg (wet-weight basis) in a tiger shark to 4.52 mg/kg in a blacktip shark. Individual differences in total length and δ(13)C explained much of the intraspecific variation in Hg concentrations in blacknose, blacktip, and sharpnose sharks, but similar patterns were not evident for Hg and δ(15)N. Interspecific differences in Hg concentration were evident with greater concentrations in slower-growing, mature blacktip sharks and lower concentrations in faster-growing, young tiger sharks than other species. These results are consistent with previous studies reporting age-dependent growth rate can be an important determinant of intraspecific and interspecific patterns in Hg accumulation. The Hg concentrations observed in these sharks, in particular the blacktip shark, also suggested that Hg may pose a threat to shark health and fitness.

  8. Radium-226 and radon-222 in the coastal waters of west Florida: high concentrations and atmospheric degassing

    SciTech Connect

    Fanning, K.A.; Breland, J.A. II; Byrne, R.H.

    1982-02-01

    On the central portion of the west Florida continental shelf, radionuclide activities show unusually wide variations: radium-226 activities up to 350 disintegrations per minute per 100 liters, radon-222 activities up to 1300 disintegrations per minute per 100 liters, and deficiencies of radon-222 as low as -- 10 disintegrations per minute per 100 liters. Florida's phosphate-rich strata seem to be the principal source of the radionuclides, with the transfer ocurring directly from sediments or indirectly in streams, ground-water flow, and geothermal springs. Winter storm fronts may enhance radon degassing in the shelf waters.

  9. MONITORING FLORIDA'S WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    GIS plays an important role as a management tool for the multi-dimensional Status Monitoring Network (SMN) program to monitor Florida's freshwater resources. By pulling together basin assessments, statistical analysis, surface water and groundwater analytical data, background is...

  10. Ground-water quality assessment of the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit; analysis of available information on nutrients, 1972-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berndt, M.P.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting an assessment of water quality in the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. An initial activity of the program is to compile and analyze existing water-quality data for nutrients in each study unit. Ground-water quality data were compiled from three data sources, the U.S. Geological Survey, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, and Georgia Geologic Survey. A total of 2,246 samples of ground water nutrient data for nitrogen and phosphorus species were compiled from these three data sources. Estimates of 1990 nitrogen and phosphorus inputs by county in the study area were calculated from livestock manure, fertilizers, septic tanks, and rainfall. Data for nitrate nitrogen concentrations in ground water were available from the greatest number of wells; samples from 1,233 wells were available in the U.S. Geological Survey, 820 wells from the Florida Department of Environmental Protection, and 680 wells from the Georgia Geologic Survey. The maximum contaminant level for nitrate nitrogen in drinking water of 10 milligrams per liter was exceeded in a higher percentage of samples from the U.S. Geological Survey, mostly because this data contained numerous samples near known contamination areas. The maximum contaminant level for nitrate nitrogen was exceeded in 3 percent of samples from Upper Floridan aquifer and 12 percent of samples from surficial aquifer system in U.S. Geological Survey data and less than 1 percent and 2 percent of samples from the Upper Floridan aquifer and surficial aquifer system, respectively, in Florida Department of Environmental Protection data. In Georgia Geologic Survey data, 1 percent of samples had concentrations of nitrate nitrogen exceeding 10 milligrams per liter. Nutrient concentration data were grouped into categories based on land use, hydrogeology (aquifer and confinement of the Upper Floridan aquifer), and land resource

  11. Swim Speed, Behavior, and Movement of North Atlantic Right Whales (Eubalaena glacialis) in Coastal Waters of Northeastern Florida, USA

    PubMed Central

    Hain, James H. W.; Hampp, Joy D.; McKenney, Sheila A.; Albert, Julie A.; Kenney, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    In a portion of the coastal waters of northeastern Florida, North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) occur close to shore from December through March. These waters are included within the designated critical habitat for right whales. Data on swim speed, behavior, and direction of movement – with photo-identification of individual whales – were gathered by a volunteer sighting network working alongside experienced scientists and supplemented by aerial observations. In seven years (2001–2007), 109 tracking periods or “follows” were conducted on right whales during 600 hours of observation from shore-based observers. The whales were categorized as mother-calf pairs, singles and non-mother-calf pairs, and groups of 3 or more individuals. Sample size and amount of information obtained was largest for mother-calf pairs. Swim speeds varied within and across observation periods, individuals, and categories. One category, singles and non mother-calf pairs, was significantly different from the other two – and had the largest variability and the fastest swim speeds. Median swim speed for all categories was 1.3 km/h (0.7 kn), with examples that suggest swim speeds differ between within-habitat movement and migration-mode travel. Within-habitat right whales often travel back-and-forth in a north-south, along-coast, direction, which may cause an individual to pass by a given point on several occasions, potentially increasing anthropogenic risk exposure (e.g., vessel collision, fishing gear entanglement, harassment). At times, mothers and calves engaged in lengthy stationary periods (up to 7.5 h) that included rest, nursing, and play. These mother-calf interactions have implications for communication, learning, and survival. Overall, these behaviors are relevant to population status, distribution, calving success, correlation to environmental parameters, survey efficacy, and human-impacts mitigation. These observations contribute important parameters to

  12. Swim speed, behavior, and movement of North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) in coastal waters of northeastern Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Hain, James H W; Hampp, Joy D; McKenney, Sheila A; Albert, Julie A; Kenney, Robert D

    2013-01-01

    In a portion of the coastal waters of northeastern Florida, North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) occur close to shore from December through March. These waters are included within the designated critical habitat for right whales. Data on swim speed, behavior, and direction of movement--with photo-identification of individual whales--were gathered by a volunteer sighting network working alongside experienced scientists and supplemented by aerial observations. In seven years (2001-2007), 109 tracking periods or "follows" were conducted on right whales during 600 hours of observation from shore-based observers. The whales were categorized as mother-calf pairs, singles and non-mother-calf pairs, and groups of 3 or more individuals. Sample size and amount of information obtained was largest for mother-calf pairs. Swim speeds varied within and across observation periods, individuals, and categories. One category, singles and non mother-calf pairs, was significantly different from the other two--and had the largest variability and the fastest swim speeds. Median swim speed for all categories was 1.3 km/h (0.7 kn), with examples that suggest swim speeds differ between within-habitat movement and migration-mode travel. Within-habitat right whales often travel back-and-forth in a north-south, along-coast, direction, which may cause an individual to pass by a given point on several occasions, potentially increasing anthropogenic risk exposure (e.g., vessel collision, fishing gear entanglement, harassment). At times, mothers and calves engaged in lengthy stationary periods (up to 7.5 h) that included rest, nursing, and play. These mother-calf interactions have implications for communication, learning, and survival. Overall, these behaviors are relevant to population status, distribution, calving success, correlation to environmental parameters, survey efficacy, and human-impacts mitigation. These observations contribute important parameters to conservation biology

  13. Two-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Simulation of Surface-Water Flow and Transport to Florida Bay through the Southern Inland and Coastal Systems (SICS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swain, Eric D.; Wolfert, Melinda A.; Bales, Jerad D.; Goodwin, Carl R.

    2004-01-01

    Successful restoration of the southern Florida ecosystem requires extensive knowledge of the physical characteristics and hydrologic processes controlling water flow and transport of constituents through extremely low-gradient freshwater marshes, shallow mangrove-fringed coastal creeks and tidal embayments, and near-shore marine waters. A sound, physically based numerical model can provide simulations of the differing hydrologic conditions that might result from various ecosystem restoration scenarios. Because hydrology and ecology are closely linked in southern Florida, hydrologic model results also can be used by ecologists to evaluate the degree of ecosystem restoration that could be achieved for various hydrologic conditions. A robust proven model, SWIFT2D, (Surface-Water Integrated Flow and Transport in Two Dimensions), was modified to simulate Southern Inland and Coastal Systems (SICS) hydrodynamics and transport conditions. Modifications include improvements to evapotranspiration and rainfall calculation and to the algorithms that describe flow through coastal creeks. Techniques used in this model should be applicable to other similar low-gradient marsh settings in southern Florida and elsewhere. Numerous investigations were conducted within the SICS area of southeastern Everglades National Park and northeastern Florida Bay to provide data and parameter values for model development and testing. The U.S. Geological Survey and the National Park Service supported investigations for quantification of evapotranspiration, vegetative resistance to flow, wind-induced flow, land elevations, vegetation classifications, salinity conditions, exchange of ground and surface waters, and flow and transport in coastal creeks and embayments. The good agreement that was achieved between measured and simulated water levels, flows, and salinities through minimal adjustment of empirical coefficients indicates that hydrologic processes within the SICS area are represented properly

  14. Isotopic evidence for dead fish maintenance of Florida red tides, with implications for coastal fisheries over both source regions of the West Florida shelf and within downstream waters of the South Atlantic Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, J. J.; Weisberg, R. H.; Lenes, J. M.; Chen, F. R.; Dieterle, D. A.; Zheng, L.; Carder, K. L.; Vargo, G. A.; Havens, J. A.; Peebles, E.; Hollander, D. J.; He, R.; Heil, C. A.; Mahmoudi, B.; Landsberg, J. H.

    2009-01-01

    Toxic Florida red tides of the dinoflagellate Kareniabrevis have downstream consequences of 500-1000 km spatial extent. Fish stocks, shellfish beds, and harmful algal blooms of similar species occupy the same continental shelf waters of the southeastern United States, amounting to economic losses of more than 25 million dollars in some years. Under the aegis of the Center for Prediction of Red tides, we are now developing coupled biophysical models of the conditions that lead to red tides and impacted coastal fisheries, from the Florida Panhandle to Cape Hatteras. Here, a nitrogen isotope budget of the coastal food web of the West Florida shelf (WFS) and the downstream South Atlantic Bight (SAB) reaffirms that diazotrophs are the initial nutrient source for onset of red tides and now identifies clupeid fish as the major recycled nutrient source for their maintenance. The recent isotope budget of WFS and SAB coastal waters during 1998-2001 indicates that since prehistoric times of Timacua Indian settlements along the Georgia coast during 1075, ∼50% of the nutrients required for large red tides of >1 μg chl l -1 of K.brevis have been derived from nitrogen-fixers, with the other half from decomposing dead sardines and herrings. During 2001, >90% of the harvest of WFS clupeids was by large ichthyotoxic red tides of >10 μg chl l -1 of K.brevis, rather than by fishermen. After onset of the usual red tides in summer of 2006 and 2007, the simulated subsequent fall exports of Florida red tides in September 2007 to North Carolina shelf waters replicate observations of just ∼1 μg chl l -1 on the WFS that year. In contrast, the earlier red tides of >10 μg chl l -1 left behind off West Florida during 2006, with less physical export, are instead 10-fold larger than those of 2007. Earlier, 55 fish kills were associated with these coastal red tides during September 2006, between Tampa and Naples. Yet, only six fish kills were reported there in September 2007. With little

  15. Polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane, and tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol in livers of small cetaceans stranded along Florida coastal waters, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Mafumi; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Takahashi, Atsushi; Loganathan, B.G.; Odell, D.K.; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Giesy, J.P.

    2000-06-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides were determined in the livers of bottlenose dolphins, Atlantic spotted dolphins, and pygmy sperm whales found stranded along the coastal waters of Florida, USA, during 1989 to 1994. The PCBs were the most predominant contaminants followed in order by DDTs, chlordanes, tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (TCPMe), tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol (TCPMOH), hexachlorobenzene, and hexachlorocyclohexane isomers. Among the cetaceans analyzed, organochlorine concentrations were greatest in bottlenose dolphins followed by Atlantic spotted dolphins and pygmy sperm whales. Hexa- and heptachlorobiphenyls were the predominant PCB congeners found in the livers of dolphins. Patterns of relative concentrations of PCB congeners varied among individual bottlenose dolphins. A few individuals contained predominant concentrations of octa- (CB-199, 196/201) and nonachlorobiphenyl (CB-206, 208) congeners, which suggested exposure to the highly chlorinated PCB formulation, Aroclor{reg_sign} 1268, a contaminant at a coastal site in Georgia bordering northern Florida. The estimated 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalents (TEQs) of coplanar PCBs in bottlenose dolphins were 170 to 18,000 pg/g, lipid weight (mean:5,400 pg/g) with mono-ortho congeners 118, 105, and 156 contributing more than 80% of the TEQs. The ratios of CB-169 to CB-126 in cetacean livers were linearly related to total PCB concentrations, which suggested a strong induction of microsomal monooxygenase enzymes in the liver. The hepatic concentrations of TCPMe and TCPMOH in bottlenose dolphins and Atlantic spotted dolphins were greater than those in the blubber of marine mammals of various regions, which suggested the presence of sources for these chemicals along the Atlantic coast of Florida.

  16. Municipal solid-waste disposal and ground-water quality in a coastal environment, west-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fernandez, Mario

    1983-01-01

    Solid waste is defined along with various methods of disposal and the hydrogeologic factors to be considered when locating land-fills is presented. Types of solid waste, composition, and sources are identified. Generation of municipal solid waste in Florida has been estimated at 4.5 pounds per day per person or about 7.8 million tons per year. Leachate is generated when precipitation and ground water percolate through the waste. Gases, mainly carbon dioxide and methane, are also produced. Leachate generally contains high concentrations of dissolved organic and inorganic matter. The two typical hydrogeologic conditions in west-central Florida are (1) permeable sand overlying clay and limestone and (2) permeable sand overlying limestone. These conditions are discussed in relation to leachate migration. Factors in landfill site selection are presented and discussed, followed by a discussion on monitoring landfills. Monitoring of landfills includes the drilling of test holes, measuring physical properties of the corings, installation of monitoring wells, and water-quality monitoring. (USGS)

  17. South Florida Coastal Sediment Ecological Risk Assessment.

    PubMed

    Julian, Paul

    2015-08-01

    This study evaluated the degree of sediment contamination in several South Florida estuaries. During the 2010 National Condition Assessment, Florida Fish and Wildlife Research Institute collected water column, sediment and biotic data from estuaries across the entire state of Florida. Sediments were analyzed for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, zinc and total polychlorinated biphenyls and were compared relative to empirically derived sediment quality guidelines. As a result of this data collection and assessment effort, it was determined that the degree of contamination with respect to sediment was low for all southern Florida estuaries assessed, except the Miami River which was determined to be considerably contaminated. However only one monitoring location was used to assess the Miami River, and as such should be viewed with caution. A low degree of contamination was determined for Biscayne Bay sediments, possibly indicating a recovery from its previously reported higher contaminant level.

  18. Water withdrawals in Florida, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marella, Richard L.

    2015-09-01

    The largest percentage of freshwater withdrawals was from the South Florida Water Management District (46 percent), followed by the St. Johns River Water Management District (20 percent), Southwest Florida Water Management District (19 percent), Northwest Florida Water Management District (9 percent), and Suwannee River Water Management District (6 percent). The South Florida Water Management District accounted for the largest percentage of freshwater withdrawals for public-supply use (46 percent), commercial-industrial-mining self-supplied use (24 percent), agricultural self-supplied use (59 percent), and recreational-landscape irrigation use (63 percent). The Northwest Florida Water Management District accounted for the largest percentage of freshwater withdrawals for power-generation use (44 percent), and the Southwest Florida Water Management District accounted for the largest percentage of saline-water withdrawals for power-generation use (58 percent).

  19. Simulating coastal to offshore interactions around the South Florida coastal seas and implications on management issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, H.; Kourafalou, V. H.; Hogan, P. J.; Smedstad, O.

    2008-12-01

    The South Florida coastal seas include shelf areas and shallow water bodies around ecologically fragile environments and Marine Protected Areas, such as Florida Bay, the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (around the largest coral reef system of the continental U.S.) and the Dry Tortugas Ecological Reserve. Man- made changes in the hydrology of the Everglades have caused dramatic degradation of the coastal ecosystem through discharge in Florida Bay. New management scenarios are under way to restore historical flows. The environmental impacts of the management propositions are examined with an inter-disciplinary, multi-nested modeling system. The HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) has been employed for the Regional Model for South Florida Coastal Seas (SoFLA-HYCOM, 1/25 degree resolution) and for the embedded, high resolution coastal Florida Keys model (FKEYS- HYCOM, 1/100 degree). Boundary conditions are extracted from GODAE products: the large scale North Atlantic model (ATL-HYCOM, 1/12 degree) and the intermediate scale Gulf of Mexico model (GOM-HYCOM, 1/25 degree). The study targets the impacts of large scale oceanic features on the coastal dynamics. Eddies that travel along the Loop Current/Florida Current front are known to be an important mechanism for the interaction of nearshore and offshore flows. The high resolution FKEYS simulations reveal both mescoscale and sub- mesoscale eddy passages during a targeted 2-year simulation period (2004-2005), forced with high resolution/high frequency atmospheric forcing. Eddies influence sea level changes in the vicinity of Florida Bay with possible implications on current and future flushing patterns. They also enable upwelling of cooler, nutrient-rich waters in the vicinity of the Reef Tract and they influence transport and recruitment pathways for coral fish larvae, as they carry waters of different properties (such as river-borne low-salinity/nutrient-rich waters from as far as the Mississippi River) and

  20. Mapping of Florida's Coastal and Marine Resources: Setting Priorities Workshop

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, Lisa; Wolfe, Steven; Raabe, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    The importance of mapping habitats and bioregions as a means to improve resource management has become increasingly clear. Large areas of the waters surrounding Florida are unmapped or incompletely mapped, possibly hindering proper management and good decisionmaking. Mapping of these ecosystems is among the top priorities identified by the Florida Oceans and Coastal Council in their Annual Science Research Plan. However, lack of prioritization among the coastal and marine areas and lack of coordination of agency efforts impede efficient, cost-effective mapping. A workshop on Mapping of Florida's Coastal and Marine Resources was sponsored by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP), and Southeastern Regional Partnership for Planning and Sustainability (SERPPAS). The workshop was held at the USGS Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC) in St. Petersburg, FL, on February 7-8, 2007. The workshop was designed to provide State, Federal, university, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) the opportunity to discuss their existing data coverage and create a prioritization of areas for new mapping data in Florida. Specific goals of the workshop were multifold, including to: * provide information to agencies on state-of-the-art technology for collecting data; * inform participants of the ongoing mapping programs in waters off Florida; * present the mapping needs and priorities of the State and Federal agencies and entities operating in Florida; * work with State of Florida agencies to establish an overall priority for areas needing mapping; * initiate discussion of a unified classification of habitat and bioregions; * discuss and examine the need to standardize terminology and data collection/storage so that data, in particular habitat data, can be shared; 9 identify opportunities for partnering and leveraging mapping efforts among agencies and entities; * identify impediments and organizational gaps that hinder collection

  1. Submarine groundwater discharge is an important net source of light and middle REEs to coastal waters of the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johannesson, Karen H.; Chevis, Darren A.; Burdige, David J.; Cable, Jaye E.; Martin, Jonathan B.; Roy, Moutusi

    2011-02-01

    Porewater (i.e., groundwater) samples were collected from multi-level piezometers across the freshwater-saltwater seepage face within the Indian River Lagoon subterranean estuary along Florida's (USA) Atlantic coast for analysis of the rare earth elements (REE). Surface water samples for REE analysis were also collected from the water column of the Indian River Lagoon as well as two local rivers (Eau Gallie River, Crane Creek) that flow into the lagoon within the study area. Concentrations of REEs in porewaters from the subterranean estuary are 10-100 times higher than typical seawater values (e.g., Nd ranges from 217 to 2409 pmol kg -1), with submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) at the freshwater-saltwater seepage face exhibiting the highest REE concentrations. The elevated REE concentrations for SGD at the seepage face are too high to be the result of simple, binary mixing between a seawater end-member and local terrestrial SGD. Instead, the high REE concentrations indicate that geochemical reactions occurring within the subterranean estuary contribute substantially to the REE cycle. A simple mass balance model is used to investigate the cycling of REEs in the Indian River Lagoon and its underlying subterranean estuary. Mass balance modeling reveals that the Indian River Lagoon is approximately at steady-state with respect to the REE fluxes into and out of the lagoon. However, the subterranean estuary is not at steady-state with respect to the REE fluxes. Specifically, the model suggests that the SGD Nd flux, for example, exported from the subterranean estuary to the overlying lagoon waters exceeds the combined input to the subterranean estuary from terrestrial SGD and recirculating marine SGD by, on average, ˜100 mmol day -1. The mass balance model also reveals that the subterranean estuary is a net source of light REEs (LREE) and middle REEs (MREE) to the overlying lagoon waters, but acts as a sink for the heavy REEs (HREE). Geochemical modeling and

  2. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (South Florida). SNOOK,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    FISHES, *MARINE BIOLOGY , ADULTS, RECREATION, SEASONS, COMMERCIAL FISHING, ECOLOGY , ENVIRONMENTS, REQUIREMENTS, PRESSURE, BRACKISH WATER, INSHORE...AREAS, STREAMS, TIDES, COASTAL REGIONS, DEGRADATION, HABITATS, ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT, ESTUARIES, FRESH WATER, OCEANS, INVERTEBRATES, HISTORY, LIFE( BIOLOGY ...LIMITATIONS, LOW LEVEL, LOW TEMPERATURE, POPULATION, SALTS, SWAMPS, PROFILES, YOUTH, DOCUMENTS, WATER, FISHERIES, FLORIDA, SOUTH(DIRECTION), TAXONOMY , LIFE CYCLES, REPRODUCTION(PHYSIOLOGY)

  3. Metagenomic Investigation of the Microbial Community Structure and Diversity for Sentinel Coral Reefs and Urbanized Coastal Waters in Southeast Florida, and Molecular Microbial Source Tracking to Characterize Potential LBSP Microbial Contaminant Influences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinigalliano, C. D.

    2016-02-01

    Coral reefs and recreational beaches provide critical ecosystem services. However, coastal waters of the Southeast Florida region receive anthropogenic discharges from highly urbanized watersheds via runoff, canals, coastal inlets, and treated wastewater outfalls. There is concern regarding the biological contaminants that enter the coastal zone from land-based sources, especially for viable pathogens and genetic elements that could confer virulence or resistance. Targeted molecular microbial source tracking (MST) by quantitative PCR allows the measurement of specific microbial contaminants such as host-specific fecal indicators. These fecal source markers can help track specific fecal contamination of public health concern in the coastal zone and may also help track exposure of coral reefs to such contamination. A range of pathogens associated with sewage/septic contamination have shown detrimental impact to coral communities, including changes to the biodiversity of coral microbiomes. High-throughput Next-Generation-Sequencing (NGS) and community genomic analysis can provide a comprehensive, culture-independent approach to investigate microbial community diversity in complex environmental samples. The combination of host-specific microbial source tracking by qPCR and metagenomic NGS can provide substantial enhancement to traditional methods of water quality assessment to better protect both environmental biodiversity and human health. Reported here is a multifaceted water quality assessment study of three coastal inlets, two treated wastewater outfalls, and four sentinel coral reef communities in the Southeast Florida coastal zone offshore of Miami-Dade and Broward Counties. This study utilized a combination of bi-monthly sampling for nutrients, fecal indicator bacteria, and human-source molecular source tracking to measure specific contaminants of ecosystem and public health concern. In addition, 16S metagenomic analysis using Illumina Next-Generation Sequencing

  4. Simulation of ground-water flow in coastal Georgia and adjacent parts of South Carolina and Florida-predevelopment, 1980, and 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Payne, Dorothy F.; Rumman, Malek Abu; Clarke, John S.

    2005-01-01

    A digital model was developed to simulate steady-state ground-water flow in a 42,155-square-mile area of coastal Georgia and adjacent parts of South Carolina and Florida. The model was developed to (1) understand and refine the conceptual model of regional ground-water flow, (2) serve as a framework for the development of digital subregional ground-water flow and solute-transport models, and (3) serve as a tool for future evaluations of hypothetical pumping scenarios used to facilitate water management in the coastal area. Single-density ground-water flow was simulated using the U.S. Geological Survey finite-difference code MODFLOW-2000 for mean-annual conditions during predevelopment (pre?1900) and the years 1980 and 2000. The model comprises seven layers: the surficial aquifer system, the Brunswick aquifer system, the Upper Floridan aquifer, the Lower Floridan aquifer, and the intervening confining units. A combination of boundary conditions was applied, including a general-head boundary condition on the top active cells of the model and a time-variable fixed-head boundary condition along part of the southern lateral boundary. Simulated heads for 1980 and 2000 conditions indicate a good match to observed values, based on a plus-or-minus 10-foot (ft) calibration target and calibration statistics. The root-mean square of residual water levels for the Upper Floridan aquifer was 13.0 ft for the 1980 calibration and 9.94 ft for the 2000 calibration. Some spatial patterns of residuals were indicated for the 1980 and 2000 simulations, and are likely a result of model-grid cell size and insufficiently detailed hydraulic-property and pumpage data in some areas. Simulated potentiometric surfaces for predevelopment, 1980, and 2000 conditions all show major flow system features that are indicated by estimated peotentiometric maps. During 1980?2000, simulated water levels at the centers of pumping at Savannah and Brunswick rose more than 20 ft and 8 ft, respectively, in

  5. Simulation of steady-state ground water and spring flow in the upper Floridan aquifer of coastal Citrus and Hernando Counties, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yobbi, D.K.

    1989-01-01

    A digital groundwater flow model was developed to approximate steady-state predevelopment flow conditions in the Upper Floridan aquifer of coastal west-central Florida. The aquifer is the major source of water and natural spring flow in the area. The aquifer was simulated as a one-layer system with constant vertical recharge and discharge rates. Calibrated transmissivities ranged from 8,640 sq ft/day in the northern part of the area to nearly 13,000,000 sq ft/day near large springs. Calibrated inflows were about 2,708 cu ft/sec; of this, about 2,565 cu ft/sec discharged as natural spring flow and 137 cu ft/sec discharged as upward leakage along the coast. The model was used to show how the system might respond to large manmade stresses. Withdrawal of 116 cu ft/sec from a hypothetical regional well field resulted in potentiometric-surface drawdowns ranging from 0.1 to 1.7 ft and declines of generally less than 0.2 ft along the coast. Total spring flow decreased 5%, and the effect on individual springs varied from 0.1 to 8.0%. Withdrawal of 62 cu ft/sec from the 4-sq-mi node at each spring resulted in six of seven springs to the south of the Chassahowitzka River contributing 50% of their flow to pumpage. Springs located north of the Chassahowitzka River contributed as much as 18% of their flow to pumpage. (USGS)

  6. Troubled waters: a Florida nightmare

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, W.

    1984-12-01

    Results of studies of pollution of groundwater in Florida are reported. Vast amounts of the underground water were found to be polluted with ethylene dibromide (EDB) used by Florida farmers since the 1950s as an insecticide. Pollution levels of water in the middle of the citrus belt were found to be as high as 775 ppB when 0.02 ppB has been set by the Florida Agriculture Department as the level for concern. EDB can be removed using activated charcoal filters, or new wells can tap aquifers separated from contaminated ones by beds of impermeable clay. Evidences of contamination of water in specific sites by cresote, sulfuric acid, and heavy metals such as lead and arsenic are mentioned.

  7. The role of ocean tides on groundwater-surface water exchange in a mangrove-dominated estuary: Shark River Slough, Florida Coastal Everglades, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Christopher G.; Price, René M.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Stalker, Jeremy C.

    2016-01-01

    Low-relief environments like the Florida Coastal Everglades (FCE) have complicated hydrologic systems where surface water and groundwater processes are intimately linked yet hard to separate. Fluid exchange within these lowhydraulic-gradient systems can occur across broad spatial and temporal scales, with variable contributions to material transport and transformation. Identifying and assessing the scales at which these processes operate is essential for accurate evaluations of how these systems contribute to global biogeochemical cycles. The distribution of 222Rn and 223,224,226Ra have complex spatial patterns along the Shark River Slough estuary (SRSE), Everglades, FL. High-resolution time-series measurements of 222Rn activity, salinity, and water level were used to quantify processes affecting radon fluxes out of the mangrove forest over a tidal cycle. Based on field data, tidal pumping through an extensive network of crab burrows in the lower FCE provides the best explanation for the high radon and fluid fluxes. Burrows are irrigated during rising tides when radon and other dissolved constituents are released from the mangrove soil. Flushing efficiency of the burrows—defined as the tidal volume divided by the volume of burrows— estimated for the creek drainage area vary seasonally from 25 (wet season) to 100 % (dry season) in this study. The tidal pumping of the mangrove forest soil acts as a significant vector for exchange between the forest and the estuary. Processes that enhance exchange of O2 and other materials across the sediment-water interface could have a profound impact on the environmental response to larger scale processes such as sea level rise and climate change. Compounding the material budgets of the SRSE are additional inputs from groundwater from the Biscayne Aquifer, which were identified using radium isotopes. Quantification of the deep groundwater component is not obtainable, but isotopic data suggest a more prevalent signal in the dry

  8. Design, revision, and application of ground-water flow models for simulation of selected water-management scenarios in the coastal area of Georgia and adjacent parts of South Carolina and Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, John S.; Krause, Richard E.

    2000-01-01

    Ground-water flow models of the Floridan aquifer system in the coastal area of Georgia and adjacent parts of South Carolina and Florida, were revised and updated to ensure consistency among the various models used, and to facilitate evaluation of the effects of pumping on the ground-water level near areas of saltwater contamination. The revised models, developed as part of regional and areal assessments of ground-water resources in coastal Georgia, are--the Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) model, the Glynn County area (Glynn) model, and the Savannah area (Savannah) model. Changes were made to hydraulic-property arrays of the RASA and Glynn models to ensure consistency among all of the models; results of theses changes are evidenced in revised water budgets and calibration statistics. Following revision, the three models were used to simulate 32 scenarios of hypothetical changes in pumpage that ranged from about 82 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) lower to about 438 Mgal/d higher, than the May 1985 pumping rate of 308 Mgal/d. The scenarios were developed by the Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Environmental Protection Division and the Chatham County-Savannah Metropolitan Planning Commission to evaluate water-management alternatives in coastal Georgia. Maps showing simulated ground-water-level decline and diagrams presenting changes in simulated flow rates are presented for each scenario. Scenarios were grouped on the basis of pumping location--entire 24-county area, central subarea, Glynn-Wayne-Camden County subarea, and Savannah-Hilton Head Island subarea. For those scenarios that simulated decreased pumpage, the water level at both Brunswick and Hilton Head Island rose, decreasing the hydraulic gradient and reducing the potential for saltwater contamination. Conversely, in response to scenarios of increased pumpage, the water level at both locations declined, increasing the hydraulic gradient and increasing the potential for saltwater contamination

  9. Inland and coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouw, Colleen; Greb, Steven

    2012-09-01

    Workshop for Remote Sensing of Coastal and Inland Waters;Madison, Wisconsin, 20-22 June 2012 Coastal and inland water bodies, which have great value for recreation, food supply, commerce, transportation, and human health, have been experiencing external pressure from direct human activities and climate change. Given their societal and economic value, understanding issues of water quality, water quantity, and the impact of environmental change on the ecological and biogeochemical functioning of these water bodies is of interest to a broad range of communities. Remote sensing offers one of the most spatially and temporally comprehensive tools for observing these waters. While there has been some success with remotely observing these water bodies, many challenges still remain, including algorithm performance, atmospheric correction, the relationships between optical properties and biogeochemical parameters, sufficient spatial and spectral resolution, and a lack of uncertainty estimates over the wide range of environmental conditions encountered across these coastal and inland water bodies.

  10. Land Cover Trends in the Southern Florida Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kambly, Steven; Moreland, Thomas R.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents an assessment of land use and land cover change in the Southern Florida Coastal Plain ecoregion for the period from 1973 to 2000. The ecoregion is one of 84 level III ecoregions defined by the Environmental Protection Agency; ecoregions have been designed to serve as a spatial framework for environmental resource management and denote areas that contain a geographically distinct assemblage of biotic and abiotic phenomena, including geology, physiography, vegetation, climate, soils, land use, wildlife, and hydrology. The Southern Florida Coastal Plain ecoregion covers an area of approximately 22,407 square kilometers [8,651 square miles] across the lower portion of the Florida peninsula, from Lake Okeechobee southward through the Florida Keys. It comprises flat plains with wet soils, marshland and swamp land cover with Everglades and palmetto prairie vegetation types.

  11. Geospatial characteristics of Florida's coastal and offshore environments: Coastal habitats, artificial reefs, wrecks, dumping grounds, harbor obstructions and offshore sand resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Demopoulos, Amanda W.J.; Foster, Ann M.; Jones, Michal L.; Gualtieri, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    The Geospatial Characteristics GeoPDF of Florida's Coastal and Offshore Environments is a comprehensive collection of geospatial data describing the political boundaries and natural resources of Florida. This interactive map provides spatial information on bathymetry, sand resources, coastal habitats, artificial reefs, shipwrecks, dumping grounds, and harbor obstructions. The map should be useful to coastal resource managers and others interested in marine habitats and submerged obstructions of Florida's coastal region. In particular, as oil and gas explorations continue to expand, the map may be used to explore information regarding sensitive areas and resources in the State of Florida. Users of this geospatial database will have access to synthesized information in a variety of scientific disciplines concerning Florida's coastal zone. This powerful tool provides a one-stop assembly of data that can be tailored to fit the needs of many natural resource managers. The map was originally developed to assist the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation, and Enforcement (BOEMRE) and coastal resources managers with planning beach restoration projects. The BOEMRE uses a systematic approach in planning the development of submerged lands of the Continental Shelf seaward of Florida's territorial waters. Such development could affect the environment. BOEMRE is required to ascertain the existing physical, biological, and socioeconomic conditions of the submerged lands and estimate the impact of developing these lands. Data sources included the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, BOEMRE, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Florida Geographic Data Library, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Florida Natural Areas Inventory, and the State of Florida, Bureau of Archeological Research. Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) compliant metadata are provided as attached xml files for all geographic information system (GIS) layers.

  12. Integrated conceptual ecological model and habitat indices for the southwest Florida coastal wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wingard, Georgiana L.; Lorenz, J. L.

    2014-01-01

    The coastal wetlands of southwest Florida that extend from Charlotte Harbor south to Cape Sable, contain more than 60,000 ha of mangroves and 22,177 ha of salt marsh. These coastal wetlands form a transition zone between the freshwater and marine environments of the South Florida Coastal Marine Ecosystem (SFCME). The coastal wetlands provide diverse ecosystem services that are valued by society and thus are important to the economy of the state. Species from throughout the region spend part of their life cycle in the coastal wetlands, including many marine and coastal-dependent species, making this zone critical to the ecosystem health of the Everglades and the SFCME. However, the coastal wetlands are increasingly vulnerable due to rising sea level, changes in storm intensity and frequency, land use, and water management practices. They are at the boundary of the region covered by the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP), and thus are impacted by both CERP and marine resource management decisions. An integrated conceptual ecological model (ICEM) for the southwest coastal wetlands of Florida was developed that illustrates the linkages between drivers, pressures, ecological process, and ecosystem services. Five ecological indicators are presented: (1) mangrove community structure and spatial extent; (2) waterbirds; (3) prey-base fish and macroinvertebrates; (4) crocodilians; and (5) periphyton. Most of these indicators are already used in other areas of south Florida and the SFCME, and therefore will allow metrics from the coastal wetlands to be used in system-wide assessments that incorporate the entire Greater Everglades Ecosystem.

  13. Remote Sensing Applications to Water Quality Management in Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehrter, J. C.; Schaeffer, B. A.; Hagy, J.; Spiering, B.; Barnes, B.; Hu, C.; Le, C.; McEachron, L.; Underwood, L. W.; Ellis, C.; Fisher, B.

    2013-12-01

    Optical datasets from estuarine and coastal systems are increasingly available for remote sensing algorithm development, validation, and application. With validated algorithms, the data streams from satellite sensors can provide unprecedented spatial and temporal data for local and regional coastal water quality management. Our presentation will highlight two recent applications of optical data and remote sensing to water quality decision-making in coastal regions of the state of Florida; (1) informing the development of estuarine and coastal nutrient criteria for the state of Florida and (2) informing the rezoning of the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. These efforts involved building up the underlying science to demonstrate the applicability of satellite data as well as an outreach component to educate decision-makers about the use, utility, and uncertainties of remote sensing data products. Scientific developments included testing existing algorithms and generating new algorithms for water clarity and chlorophylla in case II (CDOM or turbidity dominated) estuarine and coastal waters and demonstrating the accuracy of remote sensing data products in comparison to traditional field based measurements. Including members from decision-making organizations on the research team and interacting with decision-makers early and often in the process were key factors for the success of the outreach efforts and the eventual adoption of satellite data into the data records and analyses used in decision-making. Florida coastal water bodies (black boxes) for which remote sensing imagery were applied to derive numeric nutrient criteria and in situ observations (black dots) used to validate imagery. Florida ocean color applied to development of numeric nutrient criteria

  14. HYDROBIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE COASTAL LAGOONS AT HUGH TAYLOR BIRCH STATE RECREATION AREA, FORT LAUDERDALE, FLORIDA: A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brock, Robert J.

    1987-01-01

    The author presents initial results of an ongoing study of Southeast Florida coastal lagoon lakes. Objectives include presenting environmental conditions within and adjacent to the lagoons under a variety of hydrologic conditions and to determine water-quality changes in ground water and surface water and how these changes in water quality affect lagoonal biological communities within the lagoons.

  15. Geospatial characteristics of Florida's coastal and offshore environments: Distribution of important habitats for coastal and offshore biological resources and offshore sand resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Demopoulos, Amanda W.J.; Foster, Ann M.; Jones, Michal L.; Gualtieri, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    The Geospatial Characteristics GeoPDF of Florida's Coastal and Offshore Environments is a comprehensive collection of geospatial data describing the political boundaries and natural resources of Florida. This interactive map provides spatial information on bathymetry, sand resources, and locations of important habitats (for example, Essential Fish Habitats (EFH), nesting areas, strandings) for marine invertebrates, fish, reptiles, birds, and marine mammals. The map should be useful to coastal resource managers and others interested in marine habitats and submerged obstructions of Florida's coastal region. In particular, as oil and gas explorations continue to expand, the map can be used to explore information regarding sensitive areas and resources in the State of Florida. Users of this geospatial database will have access to synthesized information in a variety of scientific disciplines concerning Florida's coastal zone. This powerful tool provides a one-stop assembly of data that can be tailored to fit the needs of many natural resource managers. The map was originally developed to assist the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation, and Enforcement (BOEMRE) and coastal resources managers with planning beach restoration projects. The BOEMRE uses a systematic approach in planning the development of submerged lands of the Continental Shelf seaward of Florida's territorial waters. Such development could affect the environment. BOEMRE is required to ascertain the existing physical, biological, and socioeconomic conditions of the submerged lands and estimate the impact of developing these lands. Data sources included the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, BOEMRE, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Florida Geographic Data Library, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Florida Natural Areas Inventory, and the State of Florida, Bureau of Archeological Research. Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) compliant metadata are

  16. Sea water in coastal aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooper, Hilton Hammond

    1964-01-01

    Investigations in the coastal part of the Biscayne aquifer, a highly productive aquifer of limestone and sand in the Miami area, Florida, show that the salt-water front is dynamically stable as much as 8 miles seaward of the position computed according to the Ghyben-Herzberg principle. This discrepancy results, at least in part, from the fact that the salt water in the Biscayne aquifer is not static, as explanations of the dynamic balance commonly assume. Cross sections showing lines of equal fresh-water potential indicate that during periods of heavy recharge, the fresh-water head is high enough to cause the fresh water, the salt water, and the zone of diffusion between them to move seaward. When the fresh-water head is low, salt water in the lower part of the aquifer intrudes inland, but some of the diluted sea water in the zone of diffusion continues to flow seaward. Thus, salt water circulates inland from the floor of the sea through the lower part of the aquifer becoming progressively diluted with fresh water to a line along which there is no horizontal component of flow, after which it moves upward and returns to the sea. This cyclic flow is demonstrated by a flow net which is constructed by the use of horizontal gradients determined from the low-head equipotential diagram. The flow net shows that about seven-eights of the total discharge at the shoreline originates as fresh water in inland parts of the aquifer. The remaining one-eighth represents a return of sea water entering the aquifer through the floor of the sea.

  17. Water resources inventory of northwest Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dysart, J.E.; Pascale, C.A.; Trapp, Henry

    1977-01-01

    Water resources of the 16 counties of the northwest Florida appear adequate unitl at least 2020. In the 4 westernmost counties, the sand-and-gravel aquifer and streams combined could provide 2,200 to 3,600 million gallons per day of water. Streams outside these counties could provide 5,600 million gallons per day. The Floridan aquifer could provide 220 million gallons per day. Generally, water of quality suitable for most purposes is available throughout the area, although water in smaller streams and in the sand-and-gravel aquifer is acidic and locally contains excessive iron. Water in the upper part of the Floridan aquifer is generally fresh, but saline at depth and in some coastal areas. The quantity of water available in the study area is about 8,020 to 9,420 million gallons per day and projected needs for the year 2020 range from 2,520 to 4,130 million gallons per day. ' Approximate method ' flood-prone area maps cover most of the area. (Woodard-USGS)

  18. Coastal geophysical data collected in 2016 nearshore Cape Canaveral, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buster, Noreen A.; Miselis, Jennifer L.; Okano, Shinobu; Gayes, Paul T.; Hill, Jenna C.

    2017-01-01

    Geophysical data including multibeam bathymetry and backscatter, side scan sonar, and chirp subbottom were collected by Coastal Carolina University (CCU) Center for Marine and Wetland Studies (CMWS), Conway, South Carolina, in June 2016 in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center (SPCMSC) in the nearshore environment of Cape Canaveral, Florida. The goal of the effort was to broadly characterize the geology of the shelf to identify spatial linkages with previously measured coastal change and bathymetric variability (https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr20151180). This USGS Data Release includes the: 1) processed elevation point data (xyz) and digital elevation model (DEM), 2) processed images of backscatter and side scan sonar (SSS), and 3) chirp subbottom profile data (segy and jpg). For further information regarding data collection and/or processing please see the metadata associated with this data release.

  19. Hurricane Properties for KSC and Mid-Florida Coastal Sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Dale L.; Rawlins, Michael A.; Kross, Dennis A.

    2000-01-01

    Hurricane information and climatologies are needed at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Florida for launch operational planning purposes during the late summer and early fall Atlantic hurricane season. Also these results are needed to be used in estimating the potential magnitudes of hurricane and tropical storm impact on coastal Florida sites when passing within 50, 100 and 400 nm of that site. Roll-backs of the Space Shuttle and other launch vehicles, on pad, are very costly when a tropical storm approaches. A decision for the vehicle to roll-back or ride-out needs to be made. Therefore the historical Atlantic basin hurricane climatological properties were generated to be used for operational planning purposes and in the estimation of potential damage to launch vehicles, supporting equipment, buildings, etc.. The historical 1885-1998 Atlantic basin hurricane data were compiled and analyzed with respect to the coastal Florida site of KSC. Statistical information generated includes hurricane and tropical storm probabilities for path, maximum wind, and lowest pressure, presented for the areas within 50, 100 and 400 nm of KSC. These statistics are then compared to similar parametric statistics for the entire Atlantic basin.

  20. Florida Sunshine -- Natural Source for Heating Water

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2002-05-01

    This brochure, part of the State Energy Program (SEP) Stellar Project series, describes a utility solar hot water program in Lakeland, Florida. It is the first such utility-run solar hot water program in the country.

  1. Investigation of Carbon, Nutrients, and Groundwater Inputs in Coastal Florida Using Colored Dissolved Organic Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arellano, A. R.; Coble, P. G.; Conmy, R. N.; Marine Spectrochemistry Group

    2010-12-01

    Very few studies of the exchange of water between aquifers and the ocean have been conducted along the Florida coast. Progression of residential and agricultural development in coastal areas is leading to increased nutrients from fertilizers and wastewaters to groundwater. A portion of these nutrients ultimately is released to coastal surface waters. Groundwater mining has increased salt water intrusions in coastal aquifers which may further enhance nutrient fluxes to coastal surface waters. Nutrient concentration in coastal groundwater is sometimes higher than those in river water, counterbalancing for the lower mass flux of groundwater relative to surface waters. Nutrient and carbon inputs through groundwater in certain areas may play an important role in cycling and primary productivity in the coastal ocean. King’s Bay is a spring-fed watershed and manatee sanctuary located on the West Florida Shelf. Over the past 25 years, springs supplying groundwater to King’s Bay have shown a three-fold increase in nitrate concentration and increased invasion of nuisance algae. It has been challenging to track sources of both nutrients and other water quality parameters because there are multiple water supplies to King’s Bay. The goal of this project is to improve the estimate of water, nutrients, and carbon from groundwater discharge into the coastal zone. This paper will present preliminary results of high resolution fluorescence spectroscopy analyses of the various source water types in the King's Bay watershed, including deep and shallow aquifers, wells, springs, and surface water sources. Samples were obtained from various sites--5 springs, 27 wells, 12 surface, and 9 lakes and rivers-- within the King’s Bay area during one dry season. Lakes and rivers had the highest fluorescence intensities and showed similar composition, with the most red-shifted emission maxima. Second highest concentration was seen in some of the wells which had wide range in both

  2. EAARL Coastal Topography--Cape Canaveral, Florida, 2009: First Surface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonisteel-Cormier, J.M.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Plant, Nathaniel; Wright, C.W.; Nagle, D.B.; Serafin, K.S.; Klipp, E.S.

    2011-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived first-surface (FS) topography datasets were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Kennedy Space Center, FL. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the eastern Florida coastline beachface, acquired on May 28, 2009. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multispectral color-infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine aircraft, but the instrument was deployed on a Pilatus PC-6. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed

  3. Mysterious Black Water off Florida's Gulf Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In mid-December last year, a mysterious black water overtook the normally bluish green waters of Florida Bay. Over the course of the winter, the extent of the water grew to encompass an area as big as Lake Okeechobee, Florida, before subsiding over the last few weeks. These images taken by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS), flying aboard the Orbview-2 satellite, show the progression of the black water over the last three months. The affected water sits along the southeastern coast of Florida about fifty miles north of the Florida Keys. As of now, scientists do not know why the water appears black in satellite and aerial images or whether the water is harming the wildlife. They speculate that it could be due to an exotic algae bloom, an underwater fountain pushing up sediments from the ocean floor, or possibly chemical and sediment run-off from the nearby Shark River. Researchers at the Florida Marine Research Institute in St. Petersburg and the Mote Marine Research Institute in Sarasota are running tests to determine the chemical make-up of the water. No big fish kills have been reported in the area. But fishermen say the catch has been low this winter. In addition, the black water sits just north of the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary, which is home to one of the largest coral reef habitats in the United States. Toxic run-off from the Florida coastline and motor boats in the area have already destroyed many of Florida's reefs. Scientists are concerned that if the extent of the black water grows again, it could endanger these reefs. Information provided by the Naples Daily News. For up-to-date images of the area, view these SeaWiFS Images of Florida Bay. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  4. Water quality in southern Florida; Florida, 1996-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McPherson, Benjamin F.; Miller, Ronald L.; Haag, Kim H.; Bradner, Anne

    2000-01-01

    Major influences and findings for water quality and biology in southern Florida, including the Everglades, are described and illustrated. Samples were collected to determine total phosphorus, dissolved organic carbon, pesticides, mercury, nitrate, volatile organic carbon compounds, and radon-222. Water-management, agricultural, and land-use practices are discussed. Sixty-three species of fish in 26 families were collected; 43 native species, 10 exotic or nonnative species, and 10 species of marine fish that periodically inhabit canals and rivers were identified.

  5. 76 FR 28130 - Coastal Bank, Cocoa Beach, Florida; Notice of Appointment of Receiver

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Coastal Bank, Cocoa Beach, Florida; Notice of Appointment of Receiver Notice... sole Receiver for Coastal Bank, Cocoa Beach, Florida, (OTS No. 15445) on May 6, 2011. Dated: May 10...

  6. Nutrient inputs from the watershed and coastal eutrophication in the Florida Keys

    SciTech Connect

    LaPointe, B.E. ); Clark, M.W. )

    1992-12-01

    Widespread use of septic tanks in the Florida Keys increase the nutrient concentrations of limestone ground waters that discharge into shallow nearshore waters, resulting in coastal eutrophication. This study characterizes watershed nutrient inputs, transformations, and effects along a land-sea gradient stratified into four ecosystems that occur with increasing distance from land: manmade canal systems, seagrass meadows, patch reefs, and offshore bank reefs. Soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), the primary limiting nutrient, was significantly elevated in canal systems, while dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN; NH[sub 4][sup =] and NO[sub 3][sup [minus

  7. Harmful algal toxins of the Florida red tide (Karenia brevis): natural chemical stressors in South Florida coastal ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Pierce, R H; Henry, M S

    2008-10-01

    The Florida red tide is a descriptive name for high concentrations of the harmful marine alga, Karenia brevis. Although most prevalent along the south-west Florida coast, periodic blooms have occurred throughout the entire US and Mexico Gulf coasts and the Atlantic coast to North Carolina. This dinoflagellate produces a suite of polyether neurotoxins, called brevetoxins, that cause severe impacts to natural resources, as well as public health. These naturally produced biotoxins may represent one of the most common chemical stressors impacting South Florida coastal and marine ecosystems. Impacts include massive fish kills, marine mammal, sea turtle and sea bird mortalities, benthic community die-off and public health effects from shellfish contamination and inhalation of air-borne toxins. The primary mode of action is binding to voltage-gated sodium channels causing depolarization of nerve cells, thus interfering with nerve transmission. Other effects include immune depression, bronchial constriction and haemolysis. Parent algal toxins are synthesized within the unicellular organism, others are produced as metabolic products. Recent studies into the composition of brevetoxins in cells, water, air and organisms have shown PbTx-2 to be the primary intracellular brevetoxin that is converted over time to PbTx-3 when the cells are ruptured, releasing extracellular brevetoxins into the environment. Brevetoxins become aerosolized by bubble-mediated transport of extracellular toxins, the composition of which varies depending on the composition in the source water. Bivalved molluscs rapidly accumulate brevetoxins as they filter feed on K. brevis cells. However, the parent algal toxins are rapidly metabolized to other compounds, some of which are responsible for neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP). These results provide new insight into the distribution, persistence and impacts of red tide toxins to south-west Florida ecosystems.

  8. Harmful algal toxins of the Florida red tide (Karenia brevis): natural chemical stressors in South Florida coastal ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Henry, M. S.

    2009-01-01

    The Florida red tide is a descriptive name for high concentrations of the harmful marine alga, Karenia brevis. Although most prevalent along the south-west Florida coast, periodic blooms have occurred throughout the entire US and Mexico Gulf coasts and the Atlantic coast to North Carolina. This dinoflagellate produces a suite of polyether neurotoxins, called brevetoxins, that cause severe impacts to natural resources, as well as public health. These naturally produced biotoxins may represent one of the most common chemical stressors impacting South Florida coastal and marine ecosystems. Impacts include massive fish kills, marine mammal, sea turtle and sea bird mortalities, benthic community die-off and public health effects from shellfish contamination and inhalation of air-borne toxins. The primary mode of action is binding to voltage-gated sodium channels causing depolarization of nerve cells, thus interfering with nerve transmission. Other effects include immune depression, bronchial constriction and haemolysis. Parent algal toxins are synthesized within the unicellular organism, others are produced as metabolic products. Recent studies into the composition of brevetoxins in cells, water, air and organisms have shown PbTx-2 to be the primary intracellular brevetoxin that is converted over time to PbTx-3 when the cells are ruptured, releasing extracellular brevetoxins into the environment. Brevetoxins become aerosolized by bubble-mediated transport of extracellular toxins, the composition of which varies depending on the composition in the source water. Bivalved molluscs rapidly accumulate brevetoxins as they filter feed on K. brevis cells. However, the parent algal toxins are rapidly metabolized to other compounds, some of which are responsible for neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP). These results provide new insight into the distribution, persistence and impacts of red tide toxins to south-west Florida ecosystems. PMID:18758951

  9. Assessment of saltwater intrusion in southern coastal Broward County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merritt, M.L.

    1996-01-01

    Of the counties in southeastern Florida, Broward County has experienced some of the most severe effects of saltwater intrusion into the surficial Biscayne aquifer because, before 1950, most public water-supply well fields in the county were constructed near the principal early population centers located less than 5 miles from the Atlantic Ocean. The construction of major regional drainage canals in the early 20th century caused a lowering of the water table and a gradual inland movement of the saltwater front toward the well fields. The U.S. Geological Survey began field investigations of saltwater intrusion in the Biscayne aquifer of southeastern Broward County in 1939. As part of the present study, the positions of the saltwater front in 1945, 1969, and 1993 were estimated using chloride concentrations of water samples collected between 1939 and 1994 from various monitoring and exploratory wells. The data indicate that, between 1945 and 1993, the saltwater front has moved as much as 0.5 mile inland in parts of the study area. The position and movement of the saltwater front were simulated numerically to help determine which of the various hydrologic factors and water-management features characterizing the coastal subsurface environment and its alteration by man are of significance in increasing or decreasing the degree of saltwater intrusion. Two representational methods were applied by the selection and use of appropriate model codes. The SHARP code simulates the position of the saltwater front as a sharp interface, which implies that no transition zone (a zone in which a gradational change between freshwater and saltwater occurs) separates freshwater and saltwater. The Subsurface Waste Injection Program (SWIP) code simulates a two-fluid, variable-density system using a convective-diffusion approach that includes a representation of the transition zone that occurs between the freshwater and saltwater bodies. The models were applied to: (1) approximately

  10. Coastal Lake Record of Holocene Paleo-Storms from Northwest Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donoghue, J. F.; Coor, J. L.; Wang, Y.; Das, O.; Kish, S.; Elsner, J.; Hu, X. B.; Niedoroda, A. W.; Ye, M.

    2009-12-01

    The northwest Florida coast of the Gulf of Mexico has an unusually active storm history. Climate records for a study area in the mid-region of the Florida panhandle coast show that 29 hurricanes have made landfall within a 100-km radius during historic time. These events included 9 major storms (category 3 or higher). A longer-term geologic record of major storm impacts is essential for better understanding storm climatology and refining morphodynamic models. The Florida panhandle region contains a series of unique coastal lakes which are long-lived and whose bottom sediments hold a long-term record of coastal storm occurrence. The lakes are normally isolated from the open Gulf, protected behind a near-continuous dune barrier. Lake water is normally fresh to brackish. Lake bottom sediments consist of organic-rich muds. During major storms the dunes are breached and the lakes are temporarily open to marine water and the possibility of sandy overwash. Both a sedimentologic and geochemical signature is imparted to the lake sediments by storm events. Bottom sediment cores have been collected from the lakes. The cores have been subsampled and subjected to sedimentologic, stable isotopic and geochronologic analyses. The result is a sediment history of the lakes, and a record of storm occurrence during the past few millennia. The outcome is a better understanding of the long-term risk of major storms. The findings are being incorporated into a larger model designed to make reliable predictions of the effects of near-future climate change on natural coastal systems and on coastal infrastructure, and to enable cost-effective mitigation and adaptation strategies.

  11. Stable isotope analyses reveal the importance of seagrass beds as feeding areas for juvenile Myrophis punctatus (Angulliformes: Ophichthidae) inthe coastal waters of Florida

    EPA Science Inventory

    The feeding habits and habitats of the speckled worm eel Myrophis punctatus were studied on the mangrove edge of the Indian River Lagoon (Florida) using stomach contents and stable isotope analyses of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N). Stomach dietary analyses identified four tax...

  12. Stable isotope analyses reveal the importance of seagrass beds as feeding areas for juvenile Myrophis punctatus (Angulliformes: Ophichthidae) inthe coastal waters of Florida

    EPA Science Inventory

    The feeding habits and habitats of the speckled worm eel Myrophis punctatus were studied on the mangrove edge of the Indian River Lagoon (Florida) using stomach contents and stable isotope analyses of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N). Stomach dietary analyses identified four tax...

  13. Geospatial characteristics of Florida's coastal and offshore environments: Administrative and political boundaries and offshore sand resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Demopoulos, Amanda W.J.; Foster, Ann M.; Jones, Michal L.; Gualtieri, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    The Geospatial Characteristics Geopdf of Florida's Coastal and Offshore Environments is a comprehensive collection of geospatial data describing the political and natural resources of Florida. This interactive map provides spatial information on bathymetry, sand resources, military areas, marine protected areas, cultural resources, locations of submerged cables, and shipping routes. The map should be useful to coastal resource managers and others interested in the administrative and political boundaries of Florida's coastal and offshore region. In particular, as oil and gas explorations continue to expand, the map may be used to explore information regarding sensitive areas and resources in the State of Florida. Users of this geospatial database will find that they have access to synthesized information in a variety of scientific disciplines concerning Florida's coastal zone. This powerful tool provides a one-stop assembly of data that can be tailored to fit the needs of many natural resource managers.

  14. Water Resources Data, Florida, Water Year 2002, Volume 3B. Southwest Florida Ground Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kane, R.L.; Fletcher, W.L.

    2003-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2002 water year in Florida consist of continuous or daily discharges for 392 streams, periodic discharge for 15 streams, continuous daily stage for 191 streams, periodic stage for 13 streams, peak stage for 33 streams and peak discharge for 33 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 14 lakes, periodic elevations for 49 lakes; continuous ground-water levels for 418 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 1,287 wells, and quality-of-water data for 116 surface-water sites and 291 wells. The data for Southwest Florida include records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, water quality of lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3B contains records for continuous ground-water elevations for 125 wells; periodic ground-water elevations at 31 wells; miscellaneous ground-water elevations at 377 wells; and water quality at 46 ground-water sites. These data represent the national Water Data System records collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, state, and federal agencies in Florida.

  15. Water Resources Data, Florida, Water Year 2001, Volume 3B. Southwest Florida Ground Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoker, Y.E.; Kane, R.L.; Fletcher, W.L.

    2002-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2001 water year in Florida consist of continuous or daily discharges for 406 streams, periodic discharge for 12 streams, continuous daily stage for 142 streams, periodic stage for 12 streams, peak stage and discharge for 37 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 11 lakes, periodic elevations for 30 lakes; continuous ground-water levels for 424 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 1,426 wells, and quality-of-water data for 80 surface-water sites and 245 wells. The data for Southwest Florida include records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, water quality of lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3B contains records for continuous ground-water elevations for 128 wells; periodic ground-water elevations at 33 wells; miscellaneous ground-water elevations at 347 wells; and water quality at 25 ground-water sites. These data represent the national Water Data System records collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, state, and federal agencies in Florida.

  16. Water Resources Data, Florida, Water Year 2003, Volume 3B: Southwest Florida Ground Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kane, Richard L.; Fletcher, William L.; Lane, Susan L.

    2004-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2003 water year in Florida consist of continuous or daily discharges for 385 streams, periodic discharge for 13 streams, continuous daily stage for 255 streams, periodic stage for 13 streams, peak stage for 36 streams and peak discharge for 36 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 13 lakes, periodic elevations for 46 lakes; continuous ground-water levels for 441 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 1,227 wells, and quality-of-water data for 133 surface-water sites and 308 wells. The data for Southwest Florida include records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, water quality of lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3B contains records for continuous ground-water elevations for 128 wells; periodic ground-water elevations at 31 wells; miscellaneous ground-water elevations at 405 wells; and water quality at 32 ground-water sites. These data represent the national Water Data System records collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, state, and federal agencies in Florida.

  17. Water resources data Florida, water year 2004: Volume 3B: southwest Florida ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kane, Richard L.

    2004-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2004 water year in Florida consist of continuous or daily discharges for 405 streams, periodic discharge for 12 streams, continuous or daily stage for 159 streams, periodic stage for 19 streams, peak stage for 30 streams and peak discharge for 30 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 14 lakes, periodic elevations for 23 lakes; continuous ground-water levels for 408 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 1,188 wells, and quality-of-water data for 140 surface-water sites and 240 wells. The data for Southwest Florida include records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, water quality of lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3B contains records for continuous ground-water elevations for 98 wells; periodic ground-water elevations at 56 wells; miscellaneous ground-water elevations at 374 wells; and water quality at 25 ground-water sites. These data represent the national Water Data System records collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, state, and federal agencies in Florida.

  18. Water resources data, Florida, water year 2005. Volume 3B: Southwest Florida ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kane, Richard L.

    2005-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2005 water year in Florida consist of continuous or daily discharges for 429 streams, periodic discharge for 9 streams, continuous or daily stage for 218 streams, periodic stage for 5 streams, peak stage for 28 streams and peak discharge for 28 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 15 lakes, periodic elevations for 23 lakes; continuous ground-water levels for 401 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 1,098 wells, and quality-of-water data for 211 surface-water sites and 208 wells. The data for Southwest Florida include records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, water quality of lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3B contains records for continuous ground-water elevations for 108 wells; periodic ground-water elevations at 24 wells; miscellaneous ground-water elevations at 354 wells; and water quality at 2 ground-water sites. These data represent the national Water Data System records collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, state, and federal agencies in Florida.

  19. Water Resources Data, Florida, Water Year 2001, Volume 3A. Southwest Florida Surface Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoker, Y.E.; Kane, R.L.; Fletcher, W.L.

    2002-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2001 water year in Florida consist of continuous or daily discharges for 406 streams, periodic discharge for 12 streams, continuous daily stage for 142 streams, periodic stage for 12 streams, peak stage and discharge for 37 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 11 lakes, periodic elevations for 30 lakes; continuous ground-water levels for 424 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 1,426 wells, and quality-of-water data for 80 surface-water sites and 245 wells. The data for Southwest Florida include records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, water quality of lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3A contains continuous or daily discharge for 83 streams, periodic discharge for 10 streams, continuous or daily stage for 43 streams, peak stage and discharge for 8 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 2 lakes, periodic elevations for 26 lakes, and quality-of-water data for 37 surface-water sites. These data represent the national Water Data System records collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, state, and federal agencies in Florida.

  20. Water Resources Data, Florida, Water Year 2002, Volume 3A. Southwest Florida Surface Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kane, R.L.; Fletcher, W.L.

    2003-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2002 water year in Florida consist of continuous or daily discharges for 392 streams, periodic discharge for 15 streams, continuous daily stage for 191 streams, periodic stage for 13 streams, peak stage for 33 streams and peak discharge for 33 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 14 lakes, periodic elevations for 49 lakes; continuous ground-water levels for 418 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 1,287 wells, and quality-of-water data for 116 surface-water sites and 291 wells. The data for Southwest Florida include records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, water quality of lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3A contains continuous or daily discharge for 99 streams, periodic discharge for 11 streams, continuous or daily stage for 63 streams, peak stage and discharge for 7 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 2 lakes, periodic elevations for 26 lakes, and quality-of-water data for 59 surface-water sites. These data represent the national Water Data System records collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, state, and federal agencies in Florida.

  1. Water Resources Data, Florida, Water Year 2003, Volume 3A: Southwest Florida Surface Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kane, R.L.; Fletcher, W.L.

    2004-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2003 water year in Florida consist of continuous or daily discharges for 385 streams, periodic discharge for 13 streams, continuous daily stage for 255 streams, periodic stage for 13 streams, peak stage for 36 streams and peak discharge for 36 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 13 lakes, periodic elevations for 46 lakes; continuous ground-water levels for 441 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 1,227 wells, and quality-of-water data for 133 surface-water sites and 308 wells. The data for Southwest Florida include records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, water quality of lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3A contains continuous or daily discharge for 103 streams, periodic discharge for 7 streams, continuous or daily stage for 67 streams, periodic stage for 13 streams, peak stage and discharge for 8 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 2 lakes, periodic elevations for 26 lakes, and quality-of-water data for 62 surface-water sites. These data represent the national Water Data System records collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, state, and federal agencies in Florida.

  2. Water resources data, Florida, water year 2004, volume 3A: southwest Florida surface water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kane, Richard L.

    2004-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2004 water year in Florida consist of continuous or daily discharges for 405 streams, periodic discharge for 12 streams, continuous daily stage for 159 streams, periodic stage for 19 streams, peak stage for 30 streams and peak discharge for 30 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 14 lakes, periodic elevations for 23 lakes; continuous ground-water levels for 408 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 1,188 wells, and quality-of-water data for 140 surface-water sites and 240 wells. The data for Southwest Florida include records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, water quality of lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3A contains continuous or daily discharge for 104 streams, periodic discharge for 6 streams, continuous or daily stage for 36 streams, periodic stage for 14 streams, peak stage and discharge for 8 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 2 lakes, periodic elevations for 3 lakes, and quality-of-water data for 58 surface-water sites. These data represent the national Water Data System records collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, state, and federal agencies in Florida.

  3. Water resources data, Florida, water year 2005. Volume 3A: Southwest Florida surface water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kane, Richard L.; Dickman, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2005 water year in Florida consist of continuous or daily discharges for 429 streams, periodic discharge for 9 streams, continuous or daily stage for 218 streams, periodic stage for 5 streams, peak stage for 28 streams and peak discharge for 28 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 15 lakes, periodic elevations for 23 lakes; continuous ground-water levels for 401 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 1,098 wells, and quality-of-water data for 211 surface-water sites and 208 wells. The data for Southwest Florida include records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, water quality of lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3A contains records for continuous or daily discharge for 113 streams, periodic discharge for 4 streams, continuous or daily stage for 80 streams, periodic stage for 2 stream, peak stage and discharge for 8 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 3 lakes, continous or daily elevations for 3 lakes, and quality of water for 75 surface water sites. These data represent the national Water Data System records collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, state, and federal agencies in Florida.

  4. A geospatial framework for improving the vertical accuracy of elevation models in Florida's coastal Everglades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, H.; Zhang, C.; Sirianni, M.

    2016-12-01

    South Florida relies upon the health of the Everglades, the largest subtropical wetland in North America, as a vital source of water. Since the late 1800's, this imperiled ecosystem has been highly engineered to meet human needs of flood control and water use. The Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) was initiated in 2000 to restore original water flows to the Everglades and improve overall ecosystem health, while also aiming to achieve balance with human water usage. Due to subtle changes in the Everglades terrain, better vertical accuracy elevation data are needed to model groundwater and surface water levels that are integral to monitoring the effects of restoration under impacts such as sea-level rise. The current best available elevation datasets for the coastal Everglades include High Accuracy Elevation Data (HAED) and Florida Department of Emergency Management (FDEM) Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR). However, the horizontal resolution of the HAED data is too coarse ( 400 m) for fine scale mapping, and the LiDAR data does not contain an accuracy assessment for coastal Everglades' vegetation communities. The purpose of this study is to develop a framework for generating better vertical accuracy and horizontal resolution Digital Elevation Models in the Flamingo District of Everglades National Park. In the framework, field work is conducted to collect RTK GPS and total station elevation measurements for mangrove swamp, coastal prairies, and freshwater marsh, and the proposed accuracy assessment and elevation modeling methodology is integrated with a Geographical Information System (GIS). It is anticipated that this study will provide more accurate models of the soil substrate elevation that can be used by restoration planners to better predict the future state of the Everglades ecosystem.

  5. Water resources data for Florida water year 2004volume 1A. northeast Florida surface water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herrett, Thomas A.; Hess, Glen W.; House, Jon G.; Ruppert, Gregory P.; Courts, Mary-Lorraine

    2005-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2004 water year in Florida consist of continuous or daily discharge for 405 streams, periodic discharge for 12 streams, continuous or daily stage for 159 streams, periodic stage for 19 streams, peak stage and discharge for 30 streams; continuous or daily elevations for 14 lakes, periodic elevations for 23 lakes; continuous ground-water levels for 408 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 1,157 wells; quality-of-water data for 140 surface-water sites and 239 wells. The data for northeast Florida include continuous or daily discharge for 140 streams, periodic discharge for 4 streams, continuous or daily stage for 58 streams, periodic stage for 3 streams; peak stage and discharge for 0 streams; continuous or daily elevations for 10 lakes, periodic elevations for 20 lakes; continuous ground water levels for 50 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 522 wells; quality-of-water data for 40 surface-water sites and 66 wells. These data represent the National Water Data System records collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, State and Federal agencies in Florida.

  6. Water Resources Data, Florida, Water Year 2002, Volume 2A. South Florida Surface Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, C.; Woolverton, J.; Overton, K.

    2003-01-01

    Water resources data for 2002 water year in Florida consists of continuous or daily discharge for 392 streams, periodic discharge for 15 streams, continuous or daily stage for 191 streams, periodic stage for 13 stream, peak discharge for 33 streams, and peak stage for 33 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 14 lakes, periodic elevations for 49 lakes, continuous ground-water levels for 418 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 1287 wells, quality of water data for 116 surface-water sites, and 291 wells. The data for South Florida included continuous or daily discharge for 71 streams, continuous or daily stage for 49 streams, no peak stage discharge for streams, 1 continuous elevation for lake, continuous ground-water levels for 238 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 260 wells, water quality for 24 surface-water sites, and 159 wells. The data represent the National Water Data System records collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperation with local, state, and federal agencies in Florida.

  7. Water resources data, Florida, water year 2005. Volume 2A: south Florida surface water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, C.; Overton, K.

    2006-01-01

    Water resources data for 2005 water year in Florida consists of continuous or daily discharge for 429 streams, periodic discharge for 9 streams, continuous or daily stage for 218 streams, periodic stage for 5 stream, peak discharge for 28 streams, and peak stage for 28 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 15 lakes, periodic elevations for 23 lakes, continuous ground-water levels for 401 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 1,098 wells, quality of water data for 211 surface-water sites, and 208 wells. The data for South Florida included continuous or daily discharge for 91 streams, continuous or daily stage for 62 streams, no peak stage discharge for streams, 1 continuous elevation for lake, continuous ground-water levels for 248 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 187 wells, water quality for 54 surface-water sites, and 121 wells. These data represent the National Water Data System records collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, State, and Federal agencies in Florida.

  8. Water Resources Data, Florida, Water Year 2003 Volume 2A: South Florida Surface Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, C.; Woolverton, J.; Overton, K.

    2004-01-01

    Water resources data for 2003 water year in Florida consists of continuous or daily discharge for 385 streams, periodic discharge for 13 streams, continuous or daily stage for 255 streams, periodic stage for 13 stream, peak discharge for 36 streams, and peak stage for 36 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 13 lakes, periodic elevations for 46 lakes, continuous ground-water levels for 441 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 1227 wells, quality of water data for 133 surface-water sites, and 308 wells. The data for South Florida included continuous or daily discharge for 72 streams, continuous or daily stage for 50 streams, no peak stage discharge for streams, 1 continuous elevation for lake, continuous ground-water levels for 237 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 248 wells, water quality for 25 surface-water sites, and 161 wells. These data represent the National Water Data System records collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperation with local, state, and federal agencies in Florida.

  9. Water resources data-Florida water year 2004volume 2A: south Florida surface water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, C.; Woolverton, J.; Overton, K.

    2005-01-01

    Water resources data for 2004 water year in Florida consists of continuous or daily discharge for 405 streams, periodic discharge for 12 streams, continuous or daily stage for 159 streams, periodic stage for 19 stream, peak discharge for 30 streams, and peak stage for 30 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 14 lakes, periodic elevations for 23 lakes, continuous ground-water levels for 408 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 1188 wells, quality of water data for 140 surface-water sites, and 240 wells. The data for South Florida included continuous or daily discharge for 86 streams, continuous or daily stage for 54 streams, no peak stage discharge for streams, 1 continuous elevation for lake, continuous ground-water levels for 257 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 226 wells, water quality for 39 surface-water sites, and 149 wells. These data represent the National Water Data System records collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, State, and Federal agencies in Florida.

  10. Water Resources Data, Florida, Water Year 2001, Volume 2A. South Florida Surface Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, C.; Woolverton, J.; Overton, K.

    2002-01-01

    Water resources data for 2001 water year in Florida consists of continuous or daily discharge for 404 streams, periodic discharge for 15 streams, continuous or daily stage for 154 streams, periodic stage for 12 stream, peak discharge for 37 streams, and peak stage for 37 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 12 lakes, periodic elevations for 50 lakes, continuous ground-water levels for 426 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 1251 wells, quality of water data for 112 surface-water sites, and 235 wells. The data for South Florida included continuous or daily discharge for 89 streams, continuous or daily stage for 64 streams, no peak stage discharge for streams, 1 continuous elevation for lake, continuous ground-water levels for 244 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 255 wells, water quality for 32 surface-water sites, and 166 wells. The data represent the National Water Data System records collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperation with local, state, and federal agencies in Florida.

  11. Water Resources Data, Florida, Water Year 2001, Volume 2B. South Florida Ground Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prinos, S.; Overton, K.; Byrne, M.

    2002-01-01

    Water resources data for 2001 water year in Florida consists of continuous or daily discharge for 404 streams, periodic discharge for 15 streams, continuous or daily stage for 154 streams, periodic stage for 12 stream, peak discharge for 37 streams, and peak stage for 37 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 12 lakes, periodic elevations for 50 lakes, continuous ground-water levels for 426 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 1251 wells, quality of water data for 112 surface-water sites, and 235 wells. The data for South Florida included continuous or daily discharge for 89 streams, continuous or daily stage for 64 streams, no peak stage discharge for streams, 1 continuous elevation for lake, continuous ground-water levels for 244 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 255 wells, water quality for 32 surface-water sites, and 166 wells. The data represent the National Water Data System records collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperation with local, state, and federal agencies in Florida.

  12. Linkages between coastal runoff and the Florida Keys ecosystem: A study of a dark plume event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chuanmin; Muller-Karger, Frank E.; Vargo, Gabriel A.; Neely, Merrie Beth; Johns, Elizabeth

    2004-08-01

    Using data collected by satellite sensors, rain and river gauges, and ship surveys, we studied the development and wind-driven transport of a dark water plume from near Charlotte Harbor, Florida, to the Dry Tortugas in the Florida Keys in mid-October 2003. MODIS and SeaWiFS imagery showed that the patch contained an extensive (~5,500 km2) phytoplankton bloom that formed originally near the central coast of Florida. The data linked the bloom to high nutrient coastal runoff caused by heavy rainfall in June and August. Total N and P required for the bloom, which may contain some Karenia brevis cells, was estimated to be 2.3 × 107 and 1.5 × 106 moles, respectively. The dark color became increasingly dominated by colored dissolved organic matter, toward the Dry Tortugas, where CDOM absorption coefficients (0.08-0.12 m-1 at 400 nm) were 2-3 times higher than the surrounding shelf waters, while chlorophyll and inorganic nutrients decreased to negligible levels.

  13. Waterbird use of coastal impoundments and management implications in east-central Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breininger, David R.; Smith, Rebecca B.

    1990-01-01

    Monthly surveys were conducted on Kennedy Space Center for one year to determine densities of waterbirds within impounded salt marshes that were predominantly open water with little emergent vegetation. The objective was to assess the importance of these impoundments to waterbirds, particularly wading birds, which are species of special conservation concern. Water-level management for mosquito control and waterfowl provided habitat for an abundance of ducks, shorebirds, coots, and wading birds. Average densities throughout the year for these groups were 5.26, 412, 2.80, and 2.20 birds/ha, respectively. The majority of waterfowl were present during the winter. Shorebirds were most common during spring migration. Wading bird densities increased with declining water level. Due to the extensive alteration and development of coastal wetlands in central Florida, properly managed impoundments may provide important feeding areas for maintaining certain waterbird populations.

  14. Spatial and Temporal Variations of Dissolved Organic Matter in Florida Coastal Everglades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, M.; Maie, N.; Jaffe, R.

    2010-12-01

    The Florida Everglades is a coastal wetland, which is characterized by a freshwater to marine gradient ranging from freshwater marshes, through mangrove fringe to the seagrass dominated Florida Bay estuary. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in this system is am important biogeochemical component as most of the N and P are in an organic form. The dynamics of DOM in the Everglades is complex given its versatile sources and the effects of geomorphology, hydrology, water chemistry, and degradation processes on DOM composition and fate. Here we present long-term DOM characterization data (4 yrs) from monthly surface water samples collected at fourteen sampling stations within the Everglades. We applied a high throughput and sensitive spectroscopic method, namely Excitation Emission Matrix (EEM) fluorescence coupled with Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC) in an attempt to assess quantitative and qualitative variations of DOM on both spatial and temporal scales. Eight fluorescence components were modeled through PARAFAC with six humic-like and two protein-like components being identified. The results presented clear spatial clustering and seasonal variations. For example, freshwater marsh DOM was enriched in higher plant and soil-derived humic-like compounds, while estuarine sites were more enriched in algae- and microbial-derived humic-like and protein-like inputs. Coastal estuarine sites were significantly controlled by hydrology, while DOM dynamics in Florida Bay were seasonally driven by both primary productivity and hydrology. Peat-based sites could be clearly differentiated from marl-based sites based on EEM-PARAFAC data. Bulk DOC data and proxies like FI, SR, and a (254nm m-1)* displayed clear spatial and seasonal variations as well. This study highlights the use of optical properties monitoring and in particular EEM-PARAFAC as an effective technique to investigate the DOM dynamics in the aquatic ecosystems.

  15. Ecology and management of Sheoak (Casuarina spp.), an invader of coastal Florida, U.S.A.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Casuarina spp. are invasive weeds in Florida that threaten biological diversity and beach integrity of coastal habitats. The trees include three species and their hybrids that aggressively invade riverine and coastal areas. Of the three species, C. equisetifolia and C. glauca are highly salt tol...

  16. Changing land- and seascape environments at Cape Sable, a coastal wetland complex in south florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlaswinkel, B.; Wanless, H.; Rankey, E.

    2003-04-01

    Cape Sable, a large coastal wetland complex at the southern tip of the Florida peninsula (U.S.), is currently undergoing dramatic changes in land- and seascape in response to historical sea level rise. The rise in sea level is progressively inundating a low marl ridge that has separated interior freshwater marshes of the Everglades from marine waters, leading to rapid widening of both natural tidal creeks and constructed canals. The linear rate of widening (0.7 to 1.2 meter per year since 1922) reflects a system out of equilibrium, in which the channels are seeking to accommodate the volume of water in the tidal prism. Rising sea level has enlarged the tidal prism by expanding the intertidal zone into former low-lying uplands. Opening of the channels has resulted in the creation and erosive widening of secondary channels into adjacent wetlands, further enlarging the tidal prism and tendency to widening. In the vicinity of some tidal inlets, the shoreline has eroded over 310 meters (since 1922; an overall rate of 4.6 m/yr), although erosion occur in steps in response to hurricanes (category 5 hurricanes in 1935, 1960 and 1992). In addition to changing channel morphology and beach erosion, rising sea level has shifted the mangrove/ freshwater marsh ecotone boundary inland significantly. Continued sea-level rise will inundate the marl ridge and accelerate erosion and breakup of the Cape Sable beach shoreline. The coastal red mangrove wetland could possibly keep pace with accelerated sea level rise, but hurricane setbacks negate this effect in south Florida. Category 4 and 5 hurricanes devastate the red mangrove forests and set into motion a phase of root-peat substrate decay and subsidence which has caused stepwise loss of both coastal and interior forests during the past 70 years of rapidly rising sea level. Changes in the coastal wetland environments of south Florida, in which critical habitats are imminently threatened, are driven by nonlinear processes that

  17. Long-Term Observations of a Coastal Countercurrent on the Southeast Florida Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soloviev, A.

    2010-12-01

    Coastal circulation along the southeast Florida shelf is strongly related to the dynamics of the Florida Current as a part of the western boundary current system. We have conducted long-term observations with a mooring array deployed on the Ft. Lauderdale FL shelf. The array consists of a bottom ADCP mooring at 11 m isobath on the Dania Beach Shelf providing almost continuous observations since 1999 and a bottom ADCP mooring deployed on the Miami Terrace near Pompano Beach at 240 m isobath since 2007. There is a strong variability of the coastal current at this location on time scales ranging from hours to months, which is explained by the proximity to the Florida Current. An interesting feature revealed during these observations is an intermittent coastal countercurrent. This coastal countercurrent is seasonally modulated, reversing its direction during the summer season. The appearance of the countercurrent on the southeast Florida shelf and its relation to the Florida Current and undercurrent have not yet been completely understood. The possible physical mechanism behind this feature of the coastal circulation on the Southeast Florida shelf and practical applications are being discussed.

  18. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (South Florida). Reef-Building Corals.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    Invertebrates (South Florida) ft ELECTELO DEG 16 � REEF -BUILDING CORALS I a11 00 Coastal Ecology Group Fish and Wildlife Service Waterways Experiment...Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (South Florida) REEF -BUILDING CORALS by James W. Porter Zoology...histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (south Florida)-- reef -building corals . U.S. Fish Wildl. Serv. Biol. Rep. 82

  19. Mapping Porewater Salinity with Electromagnetic Methods in Shallow Coastal Environments: Tampa Bay, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwood, W. J.; Kruse, S. E.; Swarzenski, P. W.; Meunier, J. K.

    2004-05-01

    The feasibility of predicting porewater salinity based on surface electromagnetic and resistivity methods was assessed in the shallow coastal waters and wetlands of Tampa Bay, Florida. The most successful method combined an initial core or surface resistivity measurement with pore water samples in order to determine formation factors in the shallow marine sediment. Data were collected over broader areas of interest using Geonics, Inc. EM-31 and EM-34 electromagnetic instruments and the Advanced Geosciences, Inc. SuperSting R8 marine resistivity instrument. To map coastal porewater conductivities, the EM instruments were adapted for use in shallow marine waters (<1 meter). In such high-conductivity environments, interpretation of EM readings requires processing with layered models of terrain conductivity that include direct sampling data. Typically, nearby marine resistivity readings are necessary to distinguish between equivalent EM model solutions. Porewater conductivities estimated from the layered EM models and the resistivity-derived formation factors show very good agreement with measured pore water conductivities. The use of EM systems in very shallow waters has potential application in locating prospective submarine groundwater discharge in areas that are difficult to reach with conventional towed marine resistivity arrays. Electromagnetic and direct sampling data show that salt exclusion by mangroves significantly increases pore water conductivities, and hence terrain conductivity readings within 10m of a mangrove shoreline. Terrain conductivities fall off to background values within 15m of the mangrove shoreline. The marine EM-31 measurements were effective at sensing the magnitude and lateral extent of high and low salinity porewaters within wetlands and mangrove lined ditches and ponds, which may be useful for interdisciplinary studies of coastal ecosystems.

  20. Carbonate diagenesis in a high transmissivity coastal aquifer, Biscayne Aquifer, southeastern Florida, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maliva, R. G.; Missimer, T. M.; Walker, C. W.; Owosina, E. S.; Dickson, J. A. D.; Fallick, A. E.

    2001-09-01

    Cores collected through the Biscayne Aquifer (Plio-Pleistocene) in Hollywood, southeastern Florida, as part of the Hollywood Coastal Salinity Barrier Project provided an opportunity to examine the diagenesis of limestones and sandstones at the meteoric to marine water transition of one of the most transmissive aquifers in the world. The saline water front, and thus coastal mixing zone, has migrated landward approximately 1 km in the Hollywood area as the result of wellfield withdrawals. No changes in mineralogy (such as dolomitization), cement types and abundances, paragenetic sequence, or porosity are evident that can be correlated with the current or likely pre-development (wellfield withdrawals) location of the mixing zone. An approximately 2‰ downhole increase in calcite δ18O values is present in a core (HMW-6D) that penetrates the pre-development mixing zone, which may be related to either a down hole increase in salinity or to the interaction of meteoric waters with marine carbonate sediments during calcite cementation. The Biscayne Aquifer in Hollywood is currently a relatively quiescent diagenetic environment. The limited current diagenesis appears to consist of the dissolution of trace skeletal aragonite remaining in the aquifer, as suggested by a meteoric water Sr/Ca ratio similar to that of molluscan aragonite. It is proposed that a 'punctuated equilibria' model may be applicable to diagenesis in the Biscayne and other aquifers, in which limestones and sandstones entered a long period of diagenetic stasis after a period of relatively rapid textural and mineralogical stabilization.

  1. SICS: the Southern Inland and Coastal System interdisciplinary project of the USGS South Florida Ecosystem Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2011-01-01

    State and Federal agencies are working jointly on structural modifications and improved water-delivery strategies to reestablish more natural surface-water flows through the Everglades wetlands and into Florida Bay. Changes in the magnitude, duration, timing, and distribution of inflows from the headwaters of the Taylor Slough and canal C-111 drainage basins have shifted the seasonal distribution and extent of wetland inundation, and also contributed to the development of hypersaline conditions in nearshore embayments of Florida Bay. Such changes are altering biological and vegetative communities in the wetlands and creating stresses on aquatic habitat. Affected biotic resources include federally listed species such as the Cape Sable seaside sparrow, American crocodile, wood stork, and roseate spoonbill. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is synthesizing scientific findings from hydrologic process studies, collecting data to characterize the ecosystem properties and functions, and integrating the results of these efforts into a research tool and management model for this Southern Inland and Coastal System(SICS). Scientists from all four disciplinary divisions of the USGS, Biological Resources, Geology, National Mapping, and Water Resources are contributing to this interdisciplinary project.

  2. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls in a marine foodweb of coastal Florida.

    PubMed

    Johnson-Restrepo, Boris; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Addink, Rudolf; Adams, Douglas H

    2005-11-01

    Nine species of marine fish, including teleost fishes, sharks, and stingrays, and two species of marine mammals (dolphins) collected from Florida coastal waters were analyzed for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to evaluate biomagnification factors (BMF) of these contaminants in a coastal foodweb. In addition, bottlenose dolphins and bull sharks collected from the Florida coast during the 1990s and the 2000s were analyzed for evaluation of temporal trends in PBDE and PCB levels in coastal ecosystems. Mean concentrations of PBDEs in muscle tissues of teleost fishes ranged from 8.0 ng/g, lipid wt (in silver perch), to 88 ng/g, lipid wt (in hardhead catfish), with an overall mean concentration of 43 +/- 30 ng/g, lipid wt. Mean concentrations of PBDEs in muscle of sharks ranged from 37.8 ng/g, lipid wt, in spiny dogfish to 1630 ng/g, lipid wt, in bull sharks. Mean concentrations of PBDEs in the blubber of bottlenose dolphins and striped dolphins were 1190 +/- 1580 and 660 ng/g, lipid wt, respectively. Tetra-BDE 47 (2,2',4,4'-) was the major congener detected in teleost fishes and dolphin samples, followed by BDE-99, BDE-153, BDE-100, and BDE-154. In contrast, BDE-209 was the most abundant congener in sharks. Concentrations of PBDEs and PCBs in dolphins and sharks were 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than those in lower trophic-level fish species, indicating biomagnification of both of these contaminants in the marine foodweb. Based on the analysis of sharks and dolphins collected over a 10-year period, an exponential increase in the concentrations of PBDEs and PCBs has occurred in these marine predators. The doubling time of PBDE and PCB concentrations was estimated to be 2-3 years for bull sharks and 3-4 years for bottlenose dolphin.

  3. Interannual Variability in Carbon and Nitrogen Stable Isotopic Signatures of Size-Fractionated POM from the South Florida Coastal Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, S. L.; Anderson, W. T.; Jochem, F. J.; Fourqurean, J. W.

    2004-12-01

    Environmental conditions in South Florida coastal waters have been of local and national concern over the past 15 years. Attention has focused on the ecosystem impacts of salinity increases, seagrass die-off, increased algal bloom frequency, waste water influence, groundwater discharge, and exchange between Florida Bay, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Atlantic Ocean. Changes in water quality and productivity levels may be reflected in the isotopic signatures of coastal zone primary producers. Recent work with seagrasses in South Florida has demonstrated high seasonal and spatial variability in C and N isotopic signatures and decoupling between the two isotopic systems as they vary. To better understand the sources of seasonal and spatial fluctuation, size fractionated POM (particulate organic matter) samples have been collected on a quarterly basis since Sept. 2002. Fractions collected include >150μ m, 50-150μ m, and 0.1-50μ m using Nitex mesh sieves and a portable pump system deployed from a small boat at 10 sites around the Florida Keys and Florida Bay. It was hypothesized that planktonic groups respond more quickly to changes in water quality then seagrasses, and thus variations may be more clearly attributed to environmental parameters. Significant spatial and temporal variability is evident both within site between size fractions and between sites. Seasonal oscillations of up to 4‰ were observed in N isotopic values and 6‰ in C isotopic values of the 50-150μ m size fraction, which is dominated by diatoms and dinoflagellates. δ 13C values are depleted in the late winter/early spring sampling period possibly reflecting decreased productivity stress on available C pools. 13C depletion is generally coincident with δ 15N enrichment in the late winter/early spring, possibly demonstrating changes in DIN pools (NO3- and NH4+ concentrations) or changes in decomposition or denitrification rates. Broad groupings appear to separate Atlantic coral reef sites

  4. Visioning the Future: Scenarios Modeling of the Florida Coastal Everglades.

    PubMed

    Flower, Hilary; Rains, Mark; Fitz, Carl

    2017-08-04

    In this paper, we provide screening-level analysis of plausible Everglades ecosystem response by 2060 to sea level rise (0.50 m) interacting with macroclimate change (1.5 °C warming, 7% increase in evapotranspiration, and rainfall that either increases or decreases by 10%). We used these climate scenarios as input to the Ecological Landscape Model to simulate changes to seven interactive hydro-ecological metrics. Mangrove forest and other marine influences migrated up to 15 km inland in both scenarios, delineated by the saltwater front. Freshwater habitat area decreased by 25-30% under our two climate change scenarios and was largely replaced by mangroves and, in the increased rainfall scenario, open water as well. Significant mangroves drowned along northern Florida Bay in both climate change scenarios due to sea level rise. Increased rainfall of 10% provided significant benefits to the spatial and temporal salinity regime within the marine-influenced zone, providing a more gradual and natural adjustment for at-risk flora and fauna. However, increased rainfall also increased the risk of open water, due to water depths that inhibited mangrove establishment and reduced peat accumulation rates. We infer that ecological effects related to sea level rise may occur in the extreme front-edge of saltwater intrusion, that topography will control the incursion of this zone as sea level rises, and that differences in freshwater availability will have ecologically significant effects on ecosystem resilience through the temporal and spatial pattern of salinity changes.

  5. Florida Sunshine -- Natural Source for Heating Water (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-06-01

    DOE's State Energy Program published this case study in conjunction with the Florida Energy Office about Florida's experience with establishing the first utility-run solar hot water program in the country.

  6. Definition and interpretation of Holocene shorelines in the south Atlantic coastal zone, southeast Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Finkl, C.W. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    There is a wide variety of contemporary shorelines in southeastern Florida. Distinctive types range from rocky platforms, tidal flats, mangroves and marshes, to sand and gravel beaches. Because the natural sequence of shorelines in the urban coastal corridor from Miami to Palm Beach is partly obscured by dredge and fill operations initiated in the early 1920's, some coastal segments are subject to re-interpretation. Analysis of early aerial photographs, old coastal charts and bore log data indicates a much more complicated sequence of Recent coastlines than is generally appreciated. Before development, much of the coastal zone contained complicated networks of fresh-water marshes and lakes with lagoons, bays, and sounds lying behind extensively developed spits. The larger spits prograded southward (downdrift) forming long coastwise sounds that eventually led into fresh-water marshes such as Lake Mabel (now Port Everglades). When new inlets were cut to link the ICW with the sea, the spits were beheaded to form what are now called barrier islands. After subsequent inlet stabilization with inadequate sand bypassing, some spits became welded to the shore and others eroded away. Extension of boundaries marking the back sides of barriers landward into the marshes, to the position of the ICW, is not only an erroneous definition of barrier island width but dangerous for emergency (storm surge) planning because the barriers were never this wide. Beach ridge plains, ridge and swale topography, dune-covered limestone ridges, and some fossil reefs such as Key Biscayne have in addition been mistakenly identified as barrier islands.

  7. Water Use in Florida, 2005 and Trends 1950-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marella, Richard L.

    2008-01-01

    Water is among Florida's most valued resources. The State has more than 1,700 streams and rivers, 7,800 freshwater lakes, 700 springs, 11 million acres of wetlands, and underlying aquifers yielding quantities of freshwater necessary for both human and environmental needs (Fernald and Purdum, 1998). Although renewable, these water resources are finite, and continued growth in population, tourism, and agriculture will place increased demands on these water supplies. The permanent population of Florida in 2005 totaled 17.9 million, ranking fourth in the Nation (University of Florida, 2006); nearly 86 million tourists visited the State (Orlando Business Journal, 2006). In 2005, Florida harvested two-thirds of the total citrus production in the United States and ranked fifth in the Nation net farm income (Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, 2006). Freshwater is vital for sustaining Florida's population, economy, and agricultural production. Accurate estimates reflecting water use and trends in Florida are compiled in 5-year intervals by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) and the Northwest Florida, St. Johns River, South Florida, Southwest Florida, and Suwannee River Water Management Districts (Marella, 2004). This coordinated effort provides the necessary data and information for planning future water needs and resource management. The purpose of this fact sheet is to present the highlights of water use in Florida for 2005 along with some significant trends in withdrawals since 1950.

  8. Visualizing Water Quality Sampling-Events in Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolt, M. D.

    2015-07-01

    Water quality sampling in Florida is acknowledged to be spatially and temporally variable. The rotational monitoring program that was created to capture data within the state's thousands of miles of coastline and streams, and millions of acres of lakes, reservoirs, and ponds may be partly responsible for inducing the variability as an artifact. Florida's new dissolved-oxygen-standard methodology will require more data to calculate a percent saturation. This additional data requirement's impact can be seen when the new methodology is applied retrospectively to the historical collection. To understand how, where, and when the methodological change could alter the environmental quality narrative of state waters requires addressing induced bias from prior sampling events and behaviors. Here stream and coastal water quality data is explored through several modalities to maximize understanding and communication of the spatiotemporal relationships. Previous methodology and expected-retrospective calculations outside the regulatory framework are found to be significantly different, but dependent on the spatiotemporal perspective. Data visualization is leveraged to demonstrate these differences, their potential impacts on environmental narratives, and to direct further review and analysis.

  9. 76 FR 38592 - Phosphorus Water Quality Standards for Florida Everglades

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 131 Phosphorus Water Quality Standards for Florida Everglades AGENCY: Environmental... provisions of Florida's Water Quality Standards for Phosphorus in the Everglades Protection Area (Phosphorus... are not applicable water quality standards for purposes of the Clean Water Act. EPA is proposing...

  10. 77 FR 46298 - Phosphorus Water Quality Standards for Florida Everglades

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 131 RIN 2040-AF38 Phosphorus Water Quality Standards for Florida Everglades AGENCY... provisions of Florida's Water Quality Standards for Phosphorus in the Everglades Protection Area (Phosphorus... are not applicable water quality standards for purposes of the Clean Water Act. EPA is...

  11. Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (south Florida). Florida pompano. [Trachinotus carolinus

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, C.

    1986-04-01

    Florida pompano is a marine species that is especially common along the Florida coast. Florida pompano is an excellent food fish, so it supports an important commercial and recreational fishery. Larvae live in the open sea, but juveniles use waters along beaches as nursery grounds. Juvenile pompano eat planktonic but mostly benthic invertebrates. Adults feed on invertebrates and fish. Pompano prefer temperatures of 28 to 32/sup 0/C, and adults apparently prefer salinities of 28 to 37 ppt. Pompano died at dissolved oxygen concentrations of 2.5 ppM.

  12. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Florida): Spiny lobster. [Panulirus argus

    SciTech Connect

    Marx, J.M.; Herrnkind, W.F.

    1986-08-01

    The Florida spiny lobster (Panulirus argus) supports major commercial fisheries in south Florida and the Caribbean Sea. Its life history includes several life stages that live in the open ocean, inshore bays, and coastal reefs. The Florida population spawns along deeper offshore reefs in spring and early summer. Fate of locally spawned larvae is uncertain, but significant postlarval recruitment may originate from larvae spawned in foreign waters. After settlement in inshore vegetated habitats, juveniles reach legal harvestable size in about 2 years. The onset of maturity is coincident with a marked emigration offshore. Subsequent seasonal movements cued by reproductive activity and weather disturbances are pronounced. Excessive fishing has caused a decline in the size of the south Florida population and a corresponding reduction in total spawn. The relevance of spawn reduction is uncertain because of questions regarding larval origins and stock-recruitment relations. Water temperatures probably regulate population distribution and the seasonal dynamics of growth and reproduction. Postlarval recruitment is limited to high salinity inshore environments. Hydrodynamic stimuli and water circulation patterns play critical roles throughout the life cycle.

  13. Hydrocarbon Degradation and Sulfate Reduction in a Coastal Marsh of North Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Y.; Bugna, G. C.; Robinson, L.

    2001-05-01

    Hydrocarbon contamination of coastal waters has been an environmental concern for sometime. Coastal wetlands, which are rich in organic matter and microbial activities, have been considered natural systems that could degrade hydrocarbon in contaminated coastal waters. This study was initiated to investigate the potential of hydrocarbon degradation in a coastal salt marsh of North Florida with special reference to sulfate reduction. Freshly collected surface marsh sediments (0-20 cm) were incubated in a laboratory at ambient temperature (23.2° C) with the treatments of: 1) Control (i.e., no treatment), 2) +(crude) oil, 3) +NO3-1+oil, and 4) +MoO4-2+oil. Carbon dioxide evolution from the incubation was collected and analyzed for the total amount and the 13C signature. The NO3-1 and MoO4-2 treatments were intended to block the sulfate reduction activity. The results show that the indigenous organic matter and the crude oil have distinct δ 13C values of -19.8 and -27.6 \\permil, respectively, relative to PDB. Evolved CO2 concentrations and δ 13C values also indicate that microbial populations can adapt to the presence of anthropogenic hydrocarbons. Blocking of sulfate reducers by MoO4-2 addition started to reduce the carbon dioxide evolution rates after a 4-d incubation. After a 48-d incubation, the carbon dioxide evolution of the MoO4-2-treated samples was reduced to only 23 % of the non-MoO4-2-treated samples, indicating the increased significant role of sulfate reducers in digesting older soil organic matter and the hydrocarbons. T-tests also indicated that in NO3-1 treatment, δ 13C values significantly depleted (p=0.1) while CO2 concentration remained relatively constant. These indicate that while denitrifiers played a role in the degradation, the microbial population is predominantly composed of sulfate reducers. Salt marshes would be a much more significant source of CH4 if SO4-2 is suppressed. All MoO4-2-treated samples produced significant amount of methane

  14. Water-use computer programs for Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geiger, L.H.

    1984-01-01

    Using U.S. Geological Survey computer programs L149-L153, this report shows how to process water-use data for the functional water-use categories: public supply, rural supply, industrial self-supplied, irrigation, and thermo-electric power generation. The programs are used to selectively retrieve entries and list them in a format suitable for publication. Instructions are given for coding cards to produce tables of water-use data for each of the functional use categories. These cards contain entries that identify a particular water-use data-collection site in Florida. Entries on the cards include location information such as county code, water management district code, hydrologic unit code, and, where applicable, a site name and number. Annual and monthly pumpage is included. These entries are shown with several different headings; for example, surface water or ground water, freshwater or saline pumpages, or consumptive use. All the programs use a similar approach; however, the actual programs differ with each functional water-use category and are discussed separately. Data prepared for these programs can also be processed by the National Water-Use Data System. (USGS)

  15. Estimated water use in Florida, 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leach, Stanley D.; Healy, Henry G.

    1980-01-01

    During 1977, an average of 21,466 million gallons of water was withdrawn daily for use in Florida--an increase of 6,153 million gallons per day since 1970. The 1977 daily use was 14,812 million gallons of saline water and 6,654 million gallons of freshwater. Most of the saline water, largely surface water, was pumped from tidal estuaries. Only 107.6 million gallons per day of saline water--less than 1 percent--was obtained from wells. Thermoelectric power generation used virtually all the saline water, 14,738 million gallons per day, whereas all other industrial uses were only 73 million gallons of saline water per day. The freshwater supply was almost equally divided between ground water (53 percent) and surface water (47 percent). Of the total freshwater used, 43 percent was for irrigation--an average of 2,873 million gallons of freshwater daily on the average. The remaining daily use of freshwater was 21 percent for thermoelectric power generation, 19 percent for public supply; 14 percent for industrial use other than thermoelectric power generation; and 3 percent for domestic and rural use. Irrigation was also responsible for the greatest consumption during 1977, with 1,255 million gallons consumed daily which also includes 192 million gallons per day conveyance loss. (Kosco-USGS)

  16. Groundwater impacts during water shortages in the south Florida water management district

    SciTech Connect

    Wedderburn, L.A.; Knapp, M.S.; Burns, W.S.

    1985-01-01

    South Florida has historically experienced periods of below normal rainfall, without significant impacts on groundwater availability. However, rapidly increasing demands due to urbanization, intensification of agricultural land use, and the proximity of many public water supply wellfields to coastal saline water have contributed to recent water shortages. Analysis of conditions in the Floridan, Intermediate, and Surficial aquifer systems at selected locations indicate that reductions in water levels, as a result of increased development, have caused locally unstable conditions. This combined with other factors cause certain areas to be prone to water shortage emergencies although adequate resources may be available in other areas. In coastal areas the landward migration of the saltwater front into the surficial aquifers has been documented, and is the major concern in restricting water use. Where aquifers of low productivity are utilized, falling water levels have forced curtailment of supply due to well failure and the threat of vertical or lateral saline water intrusion. In the deeper artesian aquifers, the reduction of flowing head limits the ability to obtain water through free flowing wells. Recommended strategies to maximize yields from these aquifers during droughts include: (1) development of alternate sources, (2) reduction of high quality water demand through the use of reclaimed water and water conservation, (3) protection of present and future wellfield sites and their recharge areas, (4) land use controls to protect water quality and quantity, and (5) augmentation of groundwater supplies through artificial recharge during periods when supplies are abundant.

  17. Detection of coastal and submarine discharge on the Florida Gulf Coast with an airborne thermal-infrared mapping system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raabe, Ellen; Stonehouse, David; Ebersol, Kristin; Holland, Kathryn; Robbins, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Along the Gulf Coast of Florida north of Tampa Bay lies a region characterized by an open marsh coast, low topographic gradient, water-bearing limestone, and scattered springs. The Floridan aquifer system is at or near land surface in this region, discharging water at a consistent 70-72°F. The thermal contrast between ambient water and aquifer discharge during winter months can be distinguished using airborne thermal-infrared imagery. An airborne thermal-infrared mapping system was used to collect imagery along 126 miles of the Gulf Coast from Jefferson to Levy County, FL, in March 2009. The imagery depicts a large number of discharge locations and associated warm-water plumes in ponds, creeks, rivers, and nearshore waters. A thermal contrast of 6°F or more was set as a conservative threshold for identifying sites, statistically significant at the 99% confidence interval. Almost 900 such coastal and submarine-discharge locations were detected, averaging seven to nine per mile along this section of coast. This represents approximately one hundred times the number of previously known discharge sites in the same area. Several known coastal springs in Taylor and Levy Counties were positively identified with the imagery and were used to estimate regional discharge equivalent to one 1st-order spring, discharging 100 cubic feet per second or more, for every two miles of coastline. The number of identified discharge sites is a conservative estimate and may represent two-thirds of existing features due to low groundwater levels at time of overflight. The role of aquifer discharge in coastal and estuarine health is indisputable; however, mapping and quantifying discharge in a complex karst environment can be an elusive goal. The results of this effort illustrate the effectiveness of the instrument and underscore the influence of coastal springs along this stretch of the Florida coast.

  18. EAARL coastal topography—northwest Florida, post-Hurricane Katrina, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fredericks, Alexandra M.; Kranenburg, Christine; Doran, Kara

    2017-01-01

    These datasets, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, provide lidar-derived first-surface and bare-earth topography for a portion of northwest Florida. Elevation measurements were acquired by the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) in September 2005, immediately following Hurricane Katrina landfall.

  19. Potentiometric surface of Floridan aquifer, Southwest Florida Water Management District and adjacent areas, September 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryder, P.D.; Mills, L.R.; Laughlin, C.P.

    1978-01-01

    A potentiometric-surface map of the Southwest Florida Water Management District depicts the annual high water-level period. Potentiometric levels increased 15 to 30 feet between May 1977 and September 1977 in the citrus and farming sections of southeastern Hillsborough, northern Hardee, and southwestern Polk Counties. These areas are widely affected by pumpage for irrigation and have the greatest range in water-level fluctuations between the low and high water-level periods. Water-level rises in coastal, northern, and southern areas of the Water Management District ranged from 0 to 15 feet. (Woodard-USGS)

  20. Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment for Water Resources Planning in South Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irizarry-Ortiz, M. M.; Barnes, J. A.; Dessalegne-Agaze, T.; Trimble, P.; Obeysekera, J.

    2008-05-01

    The IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) concludes that the "warming of the climate system is unequivocal." The AR4 includes projections of climate change based on General Circulation Model (GCM) simulation results for a series of green-house gas emission scenarios. Volume II of the AR4 report discusses potential impacts of climate change, adaptation measures, and vulnerability of coastal systems and low-lying areas. However, these assessments are limited to potential regional scale impacts and are not detailed nor certain enough to provide meaningful guidance for water resources management and planning at local scales. South Florida is home to 7.5 million people and has one of the most heavily managed water control systems in the world. Given uncertainties in the IPCC predictions, key vulnerabilities must be identified and addressed. Due to its low topographic relief, the region is extremely vulnerable to sea-level rise (SLR) with implications for water supply and flood control management. Due to the extremely porous nature of the groundwater system, the main source for water supply in south Florida, saltwater intrusion into coastal wellfields is of concern. SLR also reduces the flood control capacity of coastal gravity structures with serious implications. Precipitation and evapotranspiration are very close in magnitude for south Florida. Changes to either of these components as a result of climate change have implications for water resources planning and management. The south Florida climate is largely influenced by teleconnections to ENSO, AMO, PDO. To the degree that GCMs capture these phenomena, meaningful projections can be made for south Florida. Given uncertainties in GCM predictions for the region, statistical or dynamic downscaling methods may not provide additional value. Therefore, until the state of the science can provide more consistent and meaningful predictions for the region, a wide range of scenarios must be considered and it becomes imperative

  1. Geohydrologic evaluation of a landfill in a coastal area, St Petersburg, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutchinson, C.B.; Stewart, Joseph W.

    1978-01-01

    The 250-acre Toytown landfill site is in a poorly-drained area in coastal Pinellas County, Florida. Average altitude of land surface at the landfill is less than 10 feet. About 1000 tons of solid waste and about 200,000 gallons of digested sewage sludge are disposed of daily at the landfill. The velocity of ground-water flow through the 23-foot thick surficial aquifer northeast from the landfill toward Old Tampa Bay probably ranges from 1 to 10 feet per year, and downward velocity through the confining bed is about 0.00074 foot per day. The horizontal and vertical flow velocities indicate that leachate moves slowly downgradient, and that leachate has not yet seeped through the confining bed after 12 years of landfill operation. Untreated surface run-off from the site averages about 15 inches per year, and ground-water outflow averages about 3.3 inches per year. The Floridan aquifer is used as a limited source of water for domestic supply in this area. (Woodard-USGS)

  2. Investigation of Coastal Hydrogeology Utilizing Geophysical and Geochemical Tools along the Broward County Coast, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reich, Christopher D.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Greenwood, W. Jason; Wiese, Dana S.

    2008-01-01

    Geophysical (CHIRP, boomer, and continuous direct-current resistivity) and geochemical tracer studies (continuous and time-series 222Radon) were conducted along the Broward County coast from Port Everglades to Hillsboro Inlet, Florida. Simultaneous seismic, direct-current resistivity, and radon surveys in the coastal waters provided information to characterize the geologic framework and identify potential groundwater-discharge sites. Time-series radon at the Nova Southeastern University National Coral Reef Institute (NSU/NCRI) seawall indicated a very strong tidally modulated discharge of ground water with 222Rn activities ranging from 4 to 10 disintegrations per minute per liter depending on tidal stage. CHIRP seismic data provided very detailed bottom profiles (i.e., bathymetry); however, acoustic penetration was poor and resulted in no observed subsurface geologic structure. Boomer data, on the other hand, showed features that are indicative of karst, antecedent topography (buried reefs), and sand-filled troughs. Continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) data showed slight variability in the subsurface along the coast. Subtle changes in subsurface resistivity between nearshore (higher values) and offshore (lower values) profiles may indicate either a freshening of subsurface water nearshore or a change in sediment porosity or lithology. Further lithologic and hydrologic controls from sediment or rock cores or well data are needed to constrain the variability in CRP data.

  3. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Florida): Spotted seatrout. [Cynoscion nebulosus

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.R.; Seaman, W. Jr.

    1986-08-01

    The spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus) is an estuarine-dependent species of sport and commercial importance. Populations do not exhibit great movement and tend to be isolated from each other in coastal bays of south Florida. Depending on temperature and salinity, spotted seatrout may spawn in the spring, summer, or fall. They mature when 200 to 250 mm long (SL), during their second and third summers of life. Fecundity may exceed 1,000,000 eggs. The buoyant eggs sink when salinity falls to 25 ppt. In the summer yound seatrout inhabit shallow, vegetated bays. Older individuals move to deeper waters in winter. Strong schooling behavior is exhibited. Longevity is about 9 years. From 1953 to 1982 commercial landings fell from 3.6 million to 2.5 million pounds annually. The best data on sport harvest and population dynamics are for the populations in extreme south Florida.

  4. Water use trends and demand projections in the Northwest Florida Water Management District

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marella, R.L.; Mokray, M.F.; Hallock-Solomon, Michael

    1998-01-01

    The Northwest Florida Water Management District is located in the western panhandle of Florida and encompasses about 11,200 square miles. In 1995, the District had an estimated population of 1.13 million, an increase of about 47 percent from the 1975 population of 0.77 million. Over 50 percent of the resident population lives within 10 miles of the coast. In addition, hundreds of thousands of visitors come to the coastal areas of the panhandle during the summer months for recreation or vacation purposes. Water withdrawn to meet demands for public supply, domestic self-supplied, commercial-industrial, agricultural irrigation, and recreational irrigation purposes in the District increased 18 percent (52 million gallons per day) between 1970 and 1995. The greatest increases were for public supply and domestic self-supplied (99 percent increase) and for agricultural irrigation (60 percent increase) between 1970 and 1995. In 1995, approximately 70 percent of the water withdrawn was from ground-water sources, with the majority of this from the Floridan aquifer system. The increasing water demands have affected water levels in the Floridan aquifer system, especially along the coastal areas. The Northwest Florida Water Management District is mandated under the Florida Statutes (Chapter 373) to protect and manage the water resources in this area of the State. The mandate requires that current and future water demands be met, while water resources and water-dependent natural systems are sustained. For this project, curve fitting and extrapolation were used to project most of the variables (population, population served by public supply, and water use) to the years 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015, and 2020. This mathematical method involves fitting a curve to historical population or water-use data and then extending this curve to arrive at future values. The population within the region is projected to reach 1,596,888 by the year 2020, an increase of 41 percent between 1995 and 2020

  5. Potentiometric surface of the Floridan Aquifer, Southwest Florida Water Management District and adjacent areas, September 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolansky, R.M.; Mills, L.R.; Woodham, W.M.; Laughlin, C.P.

    1978-01-01

    A September 1978 potentiometric-surface map depicts the annual high water-level period of the Floridan aquifer in the Southwest Florida Management District. Potentiometric levels increased 10 to 25 feet between May 1978 and September 1978, in the citrus and farming sections of southern Hillsborough, northern Hardee, southwestern Polk and Manatee Counties. These areas are widely affected by pumping for irrigation and have the greatest fluctuations in water-levels between the low and high water-level periods. Water-level rises in coastal, northern and southern areas of the Water Management District ranged from 0 to 10 feet. (Woodard-USGS)

  6. Potentiometric surface of the Floridan Aquifer, Southwest Florida Water Management District, September 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yobbi, D.K.; Woodham, W.M.; Laughlin, Charles P.

    1979-01-01

    A September 1979 potentiometric-surface map of the Southwest Florida Water Management District depicts the annual high water-level period. Potentiometric levels increased 1 to 20 feet between May 1979 and September 1979, in the citrus and farming sections of southern Hillsborough, northern Hardee, southwestern Polk, northwestern DeSoto, and Manatee Counties. Water levels in these areas are widely affected by pumping for irrigation and have the greatest range in fluctuations. Water-level increases ranged from 0 to 7 feet in coastal, northern, and southern areas of the Water Management District. Generally, potentiometric levels were higher than previous September levels due to heavy rains in August and September. (USGS)

  7. EAARL Coastal Topography—Louisiana, Alabama, and Florida, June 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, Joseph W.; Morgan, Karen L. M.; Doran, Kara

    2016-01-01

    This dataset, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, provides first and last return elevation data collected during a June 24, 2008 airborne lidar survey for the Chandeleur Islands, LA, Dauphin Island, AL, Santa Rosa Island, FL, and Bon Secour, AL. Elevation measurements were collected over the area using the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), a pulsed laser ranging system mounted onboard an aircraft to measure ground elevation, vegetation canopy, and coastal topography.

  8. Chloride concentrations in the coastal margin of the Floridan Aquifer, southwest Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Causseaux, K.W.; Fretwell, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    The Floridan aquifer is the principal source of freshwater supply in southwest Florida. The freshwater part of the aquifer is underlain by saltwater in lower formations and is bounded on the west by saltwater in the coastal parts of the aquifer. A zone of mixing lies between the saltwater and freshwater. The saltwater and freshwater boundaries are defined by chloride concentrations of 19,000 milligrams per liter on the coastward side and 250 milligrams per liter on the landward side. Lateral intrusion of saltwater can occur along the coast in areas where the hydraulic gradient declines and upconing can occur in inland areas of heavy ground-water withdrawals. Safeguards against saltwater intrusion in these areas are necessary because flushing of the aquifer is a very slow process. A network of chloride monitor wells is proposed for the zone of mixing in the upper producing zone of the floridan aquifer. Seventy wells were selected at 54 sites to monitor chloride concentrations along the 250-milligram-per-liter line of equal chloride concentration. One-fourth of the wells are located in areas of increasing chloride concentrations or heavy ground-water withdrawals and the remaining wells are intended to improve delineation of the interface and to monitor long-term changes in chloride concentrations. (USGS)

  9. MODIS water quality algorithms for northwest Florida estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    Synoptic and frequent monitoring of water quality parameters from satellite is useful for determining the health of aquatic ecosystems and development of effective management strategies. Northwest Florida estuaries are classified as optically-complex, or waters influenced by chlo...

  10. EAARL coastal topography-western Florida, post-Hurricane Charley, 2004: seamless (bare earth and submerged.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Wright, C. Wayne; Sallenger, A.H.; Brock, John C.; Yates, Xan

    2010-01-01

    Project Description These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived seamless (bare-earth and submerged) topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Coastal and Marine Geology Program (CMGP), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the western Florida coastline beachface, acquired post-Hurricane Charley on August 17 and 18, 2004. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multispectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then

  11. Lower survival probabilities for adult Florida manatees in years with intense coastal storms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langtimm, C.A.; Beck, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    The endangered Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) inhabits the subtropical waters of the southeastern United States, where hurricanes are a regular occurrence. Using mark-resighting statistical models, we analyzed 19 years of photo-identification data and detected significant annual variation in adult survival for a subpopulation in northwest Florida where human impact is low. That variation coincided with years when intense hurricanes (Category 3 or greater on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale) and a major winter storm occurred in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Mean survival probability during years with no or low intensity storms was 0.972 (approximate 95% confidence interval = 0.961-0.980) but dropped to 0.936 (0.864-0.971) in 1985 with Hurricanes Elena, Kate, and Juan; to 0.909 (0.837-0.951) in 1993 with the March "Storm of the Century"; and to 0.817 (0.735-0.878) in 1995 with Hurricanes Opal, Erin, and Allison. These drops in survival probability were not catastrophic in magnitude and were detected because of the use of state-of-the-art statistical techniques and the quality of the data. Because individuals of this small population range extensively along the north Gulf coast of Florida, it was possible to resolve storm effects on a regional scale rather than the site-specific local scale common to studies of more sedentary species. This is the first empirical evidence in support of storm effects on manatee survival and suggests a cause-effect relationship. The decreases in survival could be due to direct mortality, indirect mortality, and/or emigration from the region as a consequence of storms. Future impacts to the population by a single catastrophic hurricane, or series of smaller hurricanes, could increase the probability of extinction. With the advent in 1995 of a new 25- to 50-yr cycle of greater hurricane activity, and longer term change possible with global climate change, it becomes all the more important to reduce mortality and injury

  12. Climate Change: Vulnerability Assessment for Water Resources Management in South Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obeysekera, J.

    2008-12-01

    South Florida is home to over 7 million people and its population is projected to increase to over 10 million people by 2025 and possibly 12-15 million by 2050. Through Federal/State/Local partnerships, the Greater Everglades is being restored under numerous water resources management projects requiring large investments of time and money. Recent climate change projections as published in the most recent report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) have the potential to cause significant impacts on flood control and water supply functions of water resources management, and on existing and future ecosystem restoration projects in south Florida. More recent estimates of sea level rise for south Florida are much higher than those in the IPCC report and if such projections become a reality, consequences may be disastrous. It is extremely important to understand the extent of global projections for various emission scenarios, their ability to represent the climatology of local regions, and the potential vulnerabilities of both climate change and sea level rise on water resources management. Implications of natural variability of the climate and teleconnections in South Florida are understood with a reasonable degree of certainty. Recent emphasis on climate change due to human-induced impacts have generated new questions on the sustainability of coastal environments with a heightened concern for the success of large-scale environmental projects throughout South Florida. An assessment of the precipitation projections of the General Circulation Models (GCMs) shows that their ability to represent the landscape of Florida and predict historical climate patterns may be limited. In order to understand the vulnerability of the water management system in south Florida under changing precipitation and evapotranspiration patterns, a sensitivity analysis using a regional-scale, hydrologic simulation model was conducted. The results show the vulnerability of

  13. Satellite applications to a coastal inlet study, Clearwater Beach, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Y. H.; Smutz, M.; Ruth, B. E.; Brooks, H. K.

    1977-01-01

    Two sets of LANDSAT magnetic tapes were obtained and displayed on the screen of an IMAGE 100 computer. Spectral analysis was performed to produce various signatures, their extent and location. Subsequent ground truth observations and measurements were gathered by means of hydrographic surveys and low-altitude aerial photography for interpretation and calibration of the LANDSAT data. Finally, a coastal engineering assessment based on the LANDSAT data was made. Recommendations to the City of Clearwater regarding the navigational channel alignment and dredging practice are presented in the light of the inlet stability.

  14. ATM Coastal Topography-Florida 2001: Western Panhandle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yates, Xan; Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Klipp, Emily S.; Wright, C. Wayne

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived first surface (FS) topography were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the western Florida panhandle coastline, acquired October 2-4 and 7-10, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative scanning Lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning Lidar system that measures high-resolution topography of the land surface and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser-ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure topography of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of Lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight line definition, flight path plotting, Lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is routinely used

  15. ATM Coastal Topography-Florida 2001: Eastern Panhandle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yates, Xan; Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Klipp, Emily S.; Wright, C. Wayne

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived first surface (FS) topography were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the eastern Florida panhandle coastline, acquired October 2, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative scanning Lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning Lidar system that measures high-resolution topography of the land surface and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser-ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure topography of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of Lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight line definition, flight path plotting, Lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is routinely used to create

  16. Freshwater and Nutrient Fluxes to Coastal Waters of Everglades National Park - A Synthesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McPherson, Benjamin F.; Torres, Arturo E.

    2006-01-01

    Freshwater in the Everglades and the Big Cypress Swamp drains south and southwest into coastal regions where it mixes with seawater to create the salinity gradients characteristic of productive estuarine and marine systems. Studies in Florida Bay have shown that over the last 100-200 years, salinity and seagrass distributions have fluctuated substantially in response to natural climatic cycles. The timing of this change coincides at least in part with the canal construction and landscape alterations in the Everglades that have altered the quantity, timing, distribution, and quality of surface water that flows south into the coastal waters. Federal and State agencies have undertaken a massive Everglades restoration project that will require changes in water management throughout the Everglades, and this will affect water flows to the coastal region. A major concern involves how changes in water flow could affect salinity and nutrient availability in coastal waters.

  17. Estuaries and coastal waters need help

    SciTech Connect

    Levenson, H.

    1987-11-01

    For years, our marine environments-estuaries, coastal waters, and the open ocean-have been used extensively by coastal communities and industries for the disposal of various wastes. Historically, marine waste disposal has been relatively cheap and has solved some short-term waste-management problems; however, its consequences include a general trend toward environmental degradation, particularly in estuaries and coastal waters. Thus, without protective measures, the next few decades will witness degradation in many estuaries and some coastal waters around the country. The extent of current degradation varies greatly around the country. Although it is difficult to ascertain cause and effect relationships, enough evidence exists to conclude that the pollutants in question include disease-causing microorganisms, oxygen-demanding substances, particulate material, metals, and organic chemicals. Two statutes form the basis of most federal regulatory efforts to combat marine pollution: the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA) and the Clean Water Act (CWA). The MPRSA regulates the dumping of wastes in coastal and open-ocean waters, whereas the CWA has jurisdiction over pipeline discharges in all marine waters, wastes dumped in estuaries, and runoff. Many people consider that the passage and implementation of these two acts and their ensuing amendments established a statutory structure sufficient to protect the nation's waters from pollution. However, these provisions have not protected some estuaries and coastal waters from degradation.

  18. Component-specific dynamics of riverine mangrove CO2 efflux in the Florida coastal Everglades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Troxler, Tiffany G.; Barr, Jordan G.; Fuentes, Jose D.; Engel, Victor C.; Anderson, Gordon H.; Sanchez, Christopher; Lagomosino, David; Price, Rene; Davis, Stephen E.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon cycling in mangrove forests represents a significant portion of the coastal wetland carbon (C) budget across the latitudes of the tropics and subtropics. Previous research suggests fluctuations in tidal inundation, temperature and salinity can influence forest metabolism and C cycling. Carbon dioxide (CO2) from respiration that occurs from below the canopy is contributed from different components. In this study, we investigated variation in CO2 flux among different below-canopy components (soil, leaf litter, course woody debris, soil including pneumatophores, prop roots, and surface water) in a riverine mangrove forest of Shark River Slough estuary, Everglades National Park (Florida, USA). The range in CO2 flux from different components exceeded that measured among sites along the oligohaline-saline gradient. Black mangrove (Avicennia germinans) pneumatophores contributed the largest average CO2 flux. Over a narrow range of estuarine salinity (25–35 practical salinity units (PSU)), increased salinity resulted in lower CO2 flux to the atmosphere. Tidal inundation reduced soil CO2 flux overall but increased the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) observed in the overlying surface water upon flooding. Higher pCO2 in surface water is then subject to tidally driven export, largely as HCO3. Integration and scaling of CO2 flux rates to forest scale allowed for improved understanding of the relative contribution of different below-canopy components to mangrove forest ecosystem respiration (ER). Summing component CO2fluxes suggests a more significant contribution of below-canopy respiration to ER than previously considered. An understanding of below-canopy CO2 component fluxes and their contributions to ER can help to elucidate how C cycling will change with discrete disturbance events (e.g., hurricanes) and long-term change, including sea-level rise, and potential impact mangrove forests. As such, key controls on below-canopy ER must be taken into consideration when

  19. Stream habitat characteristics at selected sites in the Georgia-Florida coastal plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, L.J.; Turtora, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Habitat characterization is part of a multidisciplinary approach to water-quality assessment implemented by the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Habitat data were collected in the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit at 24 sites during 1993-95. Data were collected for habitat characteristics at three spatial scales: basin, segment, and reach. Basin data include physiography, land resource provinces, and land use, providing a description of the environmental setting at each site. Segment data include length, gradient, and sinuosity. A Kendall correlation analysis performed on segment characteristics and the log-of-basin area showed a correlation between segment gradient and the log-of-basin area and a correlation between sinuosity and segment length. Reach data consist of field-collected measurements of both instream and riparian habitats. Sand and detritus were the most common channel-bed substrates among the sampled sites. Measurements of channel width, water depth, and bank width and height were used to create cross-sectional profiles of each sampled area. Elevations of selected durations plotted on cross sections illustrated the percentage of time that the banks were inundated at each site. Sites were divided into two groups based on duration of bank inundation (less than or equal to 1 percent and greater than 1 percent). Bank woody vegetation was also sampled and a clustering algorithm known as Two-Way INdicator SPecies ANalysis (TWINSPAN) was used to analyze these data. TWINSPAN divided the sites into two groups based on their vegetation composition. A statistical comparison of the two types of site groups (duration of bank inundation and vegetation) was performed. The significant association between these groups was consistent with the hypothesis that inundation frequency affected riparian vegetation.

  20. EAARL Coastal Topography-Eastern Florida, Post-Hurricane Jeanne, 2004: First Surface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fredericks, Xan; Nayegandhi, Amar; Bonisteel-Cormier, J.M.; Wright, C.W.; Sallenger, A.H.; Brock, J.C.; Klipp, E.S.; Nagle, D.B.

    2010-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived first-surface (FS) topography datasets were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the eastern Florida coastline beachface, acquired post-Hurricane Jeanne (September 2004 hurricane) on October 1, 2004. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multispectral color-infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then processed using the

  1. Derivation of Ground Surface and Vegetation in a Coastal Florida Wetland with Airborne Laser Technology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raabe, Ellen A.; Harris, Melanie S.; Shrestha, Ramesh L.; Carter, William E.

    2008-01-01

    The geomorphology and vegetation of marsh-dominated coastal lowlands were mapped from airborne laser data points collected on the Gulf Coast of Florida near Cedar Key. Surface models were developed using low- and high-point filters to separate ground-surface and vegetation-canopy intercepts. In a non-automated process, the landscape was partitioned into functional landscape units to manage the modeling of key landscape features in discrete processing steps. The final digital ground surface-elevation model offers a faithful representation of topographic relief beneath canopies of tidal marsh and coastal forest. Bare-earth models approximate field-surveyed heights by + 0.17 m in the open marsh and + 0.22 m under thick marsh or forest canopy. The laser-derived digital surface models effectively delineate surface features of relatively inaccessible coastal habitats with a geographic coverage and vertical detail previously unavailable. Coastal topographic details include tidal-creek tributaries, levees, modest topographic undulations in the intertidal zone, karst features, silviculture, and relict sand dunes under coastal-forest canopy. A combination of laser-derived ground-surface and canopy-height models and intensity values provided additional mapping capabilities to differentiate between tidal-marsh zones and forest types such as mesic flatwood, hydric hammock, and oak scrub. Additional derived products include fine-scale shoreline and topographic profiles. The derived products demonstrate the capability to identify areas of concern to resource managers and unique components of the coastal system from laser altimetry. Because the very nature of a wetland system presents difficulties for access and data collection, airborne coverage from remote sensors has become an accepted alternative for monitoring wetland regions. Data acquisition with airborne laser represents a viable option for mapping coastal topography and for evaluating habitats and coastal change on marsh

  2. Water-management models in Florida from LANDSAT-1 data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higer, A. L.; Cordes, E. H.; Coker, A. E.; Rogers, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    ERTS-1 is described as a near real time, data relay system for south Florida water quantity and quality monitoring. An ecological model of the Shark River Slough in Everglades National Park is also presented.

  3. Water withdrawals, use, and trends in Florida, 1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marella, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    Total water withdrawn for use in Florida for 1985, in million gal/day, was 17,057 of which 6,259, or nearly 37%, was freshwater and 10,798 was saline. The majority of freshwater withdrawn was groundwater (64%) and the majority of saline water withdrawn was surface water (99%). Thermoelectric power generation accounted for more than 99% of saline water withdrawals. Agricultural irrigation accounted for the majority of freshwater withdrawals for both groundwater (41%) and surface water (60%) in 1985. Between 1975-85, Florida 's population increased by nearly 3 million people; tourism increased by nearly 13 million visitors; irrigated agricultural acreage increased by 70,000; freshwater used to support those activities increased by almost 388 million gal/day (excluding fresh surface-water withdrawals for thermoelectric power generation); and fresh groundwater withdrawals increased 718 million gal/day. Groundwater accounted for 64% of Florida 's total freshwater use , up from 51% in 1980 and 48% in 1975. Florida ranked sixth in the Nation in groundwater withdrawals for 1985 with more than 4 ,000 million gal/day withdrawn. Groundwater is the primary source of freshwater in Florida because it is readily available and generally is suitable for most uses. The Floridan aquifer system, which underlies the entire State, supplied the majority (62%) of groundwater in Florida for 1985. In contrast to groundwater, withdrawals of surface water declined between 1975-85. (USGS)

  4. The ecological condition of Gulf of Mexico resources from Perdido Key to Port St. Joe, Florida: Part II near-shelf coastal resources.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lisa M; Harvey, James E; Harwell, Linda C; Summers, J Kevin

    2007-04-01

    In 1999, the United States Environmental Protection Agency Gulf Ecology Division initiated a pilot study to assess the condition of nearshore coastal resources. Near-shelf areas associated with coastal beaches are susceptible to land based activities, but are not consistently monitored. Additionally, few or no marine water quality criteria exist for evaluating these waters. The goal of this pilot study was to assess the ecological condition of Gulf of Mexico near-shelf resources using a probability-based survey design. Data are used to generate a baseline assessment of condition in coastal nearshore areas and provide a comparative tool for evaluating future trends in condition. Water quality, sediment quality and benthic diversity data can provide a baseline assessment for managers to evaluate the potential for future problems such as nutrient over-enrichment, sediment contamination and degraded biological condition. We present results from a probability-based survey demonstration assessing near-shelf resources along the Florida panhandle.

  5. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (South Florida). Southern, Gulf, and Summer Flounders.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    caused by coastal development. Each profile has sections on taxonomy , life history, ecological role, environmental requirements, and economic importance...Florida)JU1998 E SOUTHERN, GULF, AND SUMMER FLO NDERS Coastal Ecology Group Fish and Wildlife Service Waterways Experiment Station U.S. Department of...Fish and Wildlife Service 1010 Gause Boulevard Slidell, LA 70458 Performed for Coastal Ecology Group U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Waterways Experiment

  6. Climate change and coastal environmental risk perceptions in Florida.

    PubMed

    Carlton, Stuart J; Jacobson, Susan K

    2013-11-30

    Understanding public perceptions of climate change risks is a prerequisite for effective climate communication and adaptation. Many studies of climate risk perceptions have either analyzed a general operationalization of climate change risk or employed a case-study approach of specific adaptive processes. This study takes a different approach, examining attitudes toward 17 specific, climate-related coastal risks and cognitive, affective, and risk-specific predictors of risk perception. A survey of 558 undergraduates revealed that risks to the physical environment were a greater concern than economic or biological risks. Perceptions of greater physical environment risks were significantly associated with having more pro-environmental attitudes, being female, and being more Democratic-leaning. Perceptions of greater economic risks were significantly associated with having more negative environmental attitudes, being female, and being more Republican-leaning. Perceptions of greater biological risks were significantly associated with more positive environmental attitudes. The findings suggest that focusing on physical environment risks maybe more salient to this audience than communications about general climate change adaptation. The results demonstrate that climate change beliefs and risk perceptions are multifactorial and complex and are shaped by individuals' attitudes and basic beliefs. Climate risk communications need to apply this knowledge to better target cognitive and affective processes of specific audiences, rather than providing simple characterizations of risks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Quality-assurance plan for water-quality activities in the North Florida Program Office, Florida District

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berndt, Marian P.; Katz, Brian G.

    2000-01-01

    In accordance with guidelines set forth by the Office of Water Quality in the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, a quality-assurance plan was created for use by the Florida District's North Florida Program Office in conducting water-quality activities. This plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the North Florida Program Office for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, and publication of water-quality data.

  8. Extending electromagnetic methods to map coastal pore water salinities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greenwood, Wm. J.; Kruse, S.; Swarzenski, P.

    2006-01-01

    The feasibility of mapping pore water salinity based on surface electromagnetic (EM) methods over land and shallow marine water is examined in a coastal wetland on Tampa Bay, Florida. Forward models predict that useful information on seabed conductivity can be obtained through <1.5 m of saline water, using floating EM-31 and EM-34 instruments from Geonics Ltd. The EM-31 functioned as predicted when compared against resistivity soundings and pore water samples and proved valuable for profiling in otherwise inaccessible terrain due to its relatively small size. Experiments with the EM-34 in marine water, however, did not reproduce the theoretical instrument response. The most effective technique for predicting pore water conductivities based on EM data entailed (1) computing formation factors from resistivity surveys and pore water samples at representative sites and (2) combining these formation factors with onshore and offshore EM-31 readings for broader spatial coverage. This method proved successful for imaging zones of elevated pore water conductivities/ salinities associated with mangrove forests, presumably caused by salt water exclusion by mangrove roots. These zones extend 5 to 10 m seaward from mangrove trunks fringing Tampa Bay. Modeling indicates that EM-31 measurements lack the resolution necessary to image the subtle pore water conductivity variations expected in association with diffuse submarine ground water discharge of fresher water in the marine water of Tampa Bay. The technique has potential for locating high-contrast zones and other pore water salinity anomalies in areas not accessible to conventional marine- or land-based resistivity arrays and hence may be useful for studies of coastal-wetland ecosystems. Copyright ?? 2005 National Ground Water Association.

  9. Fifteen Years of Stable Oxygen, Hydrogen, and Carbon Isotopic Data from the Surface Waters in South Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swart, P. K.; Price, R. M.

    2008-05-01

    The flow of water into the coastal zone of South Florida has been subject to significant anthropogenic modification over the past 100 years. Information on pre-anthropogenic conditions has been usually obtained from proxy indicators such as the oxygen isotope ratios contained in sedimentological archives such as corals and sediment cores. The current effort to restore water flows to historic conditions combined with a 10 year record of stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopic measurements from > 100 locations in the Everglades, Biscayne Bay, and the west coast and a > 15 year record from Florida Bay offers a unique opportunity to study the influence of changes in water management upon this proxy. Such information is important in assessing the veracity of previous oxygen isotopic interpretations as well as the influence of the restoration effort to influence water flows. Two of the significant findings are; 1) There has been a continual decline in the δ18O of the freshwater end-member reaching the western portion of Florida Bay suggesting a reduction a change in the hydrological status of this portion of Florida Bay; 2) there has been a decline in the δ13C of the dissolved inorganic carbon in all the coastal environments, which is ten times the rate of decline in the δ13C of the atmosphere originated from the burning of fossil fuel. These two examples suggest multiple influences upon the coastal ecosystem relating to anthropogenic activity.

  10. Landscape characteristics of Rhizophora mangle forests and propagule deposition in coastal environments of Florida (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sengupta, R.; Middleton, B.; Yan, C.; Zuro, M.; Hartman, H.

    2005-01-01

    Field dispersal studies are seldom conducted at regional scales even though reliable information on mid-range dispersal distance is essential for models of colonization. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential distance of dispersal of Rhizophora mangle propagules by comparing deposition density with landscape characteristics of mangrove forests. Propagule density was estimated at various distances to mangrove sources (R. mangle) on beaches in southwestern Florida in both high-and low-energy environments, either facing open gulf waters vs. sheltered, respectively. Remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems were used to identify source forests and to determine their landscape characteristics (forest size and distance to deposition area) for the regression analyses. Our results indicated that increasing density of propagules stranded on beaches was related negatively to the distance of the deposition sites from the nearest stands of R. mangle and that deposition was greatly diminished 2 km or more from the source. Measures of fragmentation such as the area of the R. mangle forests were related to propagule deposition but only in low-energy environments. Our results suggest that geographic models involving the colonization of coastal mangrove systems should include dispersal dynamics at mid-range scales, i.e., for our purposes here, beyond the local scale of the forest and up to 5 km distant. Studies of mangrove propagule deposition at various spatial scales are key to understanding regeneration limitations in natural gaps and restoration areas. Therefore, our study of mid-range propagule dispersal has broad application to plant ecology, restoration, and modeling. ?? Springer 2005.

  11. The Effect of Coastal Development on Storm Surge Flooding in Biscayne Bay, Florida, USA (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, K.; Liu, H.; Li, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Barrier islands and associated bays along the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts are a favorite place for both living and visiting. Many of them are vulnerable to storm surge flooding because of low elevations and constantly being subjected to the impacts of storms. The population increase and urban development along the barrier coast have altered the shoreline configuration, resulting in a dramatic change in the coastal flooding pattern in some areas. Here we present such a case based on numerical simulations of storm surge flooding caused by the1926 hurricane in the densely populated area surrounding Biscayne Bay in Miami, Florida. The construction of harbor and navigation channels, and the development of real estate and the roads connecting islands along Biscayne Bay have changed the geometry of Biscayne Bay since 1910s. Storm surge simulations show that the Port of Miami and Dodge Island constructed by human after 1950 play an important role in changing storm surge inundation pattern along Biscayne Bay. Dodge Island enhances storm surge and increases inundation in the area south of the island, especially at the mouth of Miami River (Downtown of Miami), and reduces storm surge flooding in the area north of the island, especially in Miami Beach. If the Hurricane Miami of 1926 happened today, the flooding area would be reduced by 55% and 20% in the Miami Beach and North Miami areas, respectively. Consequently, it would prevent 400 million of property and 10 thousand people from surge flooding according to 2010 U.S census and 2007 property tax data. Meanwhile, storm water would penetrate further inland south of Dodge Island and increase the flooding area by 25% in the Miami River and Downtown Miami areas. As a result, 200 million of property and five thousand people would be impacted by storm surge.

  12. EAARL Coastal Topography and Imagery-Naval Live Oaks Area, Gulf Islands National Seashore, Florida, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nagle, David B.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Yates, Xan; Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Klipp, Emily S.; Segura, Martha

    2010-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced color-infrared (CIR) imagery and elevation measurements of lidar-derived bare-earth (BE) topography, first-surface (FS) topography, and canopy-height (CH) datasets were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), St. Petersburg Science Center, St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), Gulf Coast Network, Lafayette, LA; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the Naval Live Oaks Area in Florida's Gulf Islands National Seashore, acquired June 30, 2007. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multispectral CIR camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area

  13. Effect of sea-level rise on future coastal groundwater resources in southern Florida, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langevin, Christian D.; Zygnerski, Michael R.; White, Jeremy T.; Hughes, Joseph D.

    2010-01-01

    An existing variable‐density groundwater flow and solute transport model, developed for the northern part of Broward County, Florida, was used to predict the effect of sealevel rise on future coastal groundwater resources. Using average annual conditions from 2005, simulations were performed for 100 years into the future using four different rates of sea‐level rise: 0, 24, 48, and 88 centimeters per century. Results from these predictive analyses suggest that the average concentration of groundwater withdrawn at the municipal well field will exceed the potable limit after 70, 60, 55, and 49 years, respectively, for the four simulations.

  14. Florida coastal ecological characterization: a socioeconomic study of the northwestern region. Volume I. Text

    SciTech Connect

    French, C.O.; Parsons, J.W.

    1983-08-01

    Data are compiled from existing sources on the social and economic characteristics of the Northwestern coastal region of Florida, which is made up of Escambia, Santa Rosa, Okaloosa, Walton, Bay, Gulf, and Franklin Counties. Described are the components and interrelationships among complex processes that include population and demographics characteristics, mineral production, multiple-use conflicts, recreation and tourism, agricultural production, sport and commercial fishing, transportation, industrial and residential development, and environmental issues and regulations. Energetics models of socioeconomic systems are also presented. 40 figures, 108 tables.

  15. Inverse modeling of surface-water discharge to achieve restoration salinity performance measures in Florida Bay, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swain, E.D.; James, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    The use of numerical modeling to evaluate regional water-management practices involves the simulation of various alternative water-delivery scenarios, which typically are designed intuitively rather than analytically. These scenario simulations are used to analyze how specific water-management practices affect factors such as water levels, flows, and salinities. In lieu of testing a variety of scenario simulations in a trial-and-error manner, an optimization technique may be used to more precisely and directly define good water-management alternatives. A numerical model application in the coastal regions of Florida Bay and Everglades National Park (ENP), representing the surface- and ground-water hydrology for the region, is a good example of a tool used to evaluate restoration scenarios. The Southern Inland and Coastal System (SICS) model simulates this area with a two-dimensional hydrodynamic surface-water model and a three-dimensional ground-water model, linked to represent the interaction of the two systems with salinity transport. This coastal wetland environment is of great interest in restoration efforts, and the SICS model is used to analyze the effects of alternative water-management scenarios. The SICS model is run within an inverse modeling program called UCODE. In this application, UCODE adjusts the regulated inflows to ENP while SICS is run iteratively. UCODE creates parameters that define inflow within an allowable range for the SICS model based on SICS model output statistics, with the objective of matching user-defined target salinities that meet ecosystem restoration criteria. Preliminary results obtained using two different parameterization methods illustrate the ability of the model to achieve the goals of adjusting the range and reducing the variance of salinity values in the target area. The salinity variance in the primary zone of interest was reduced from an original value of 0.509 psu2 to values 0.418 psu2 and 0.342 psu2 using different

  16. Using Lagrangian Coherent Structures to understand coastal water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorentino, L. A.; Olascoaga, M. J.; Reniers, A.; Feng, Z.; Beron-Vera, F. J.; MacMahan, J. H.

    2012-09-01

    The accumulation of pollutants near the shoreline can result in low quality coastal water with negative effects on human health. To understand the role of mixing by tidal flows in coastal water quality we study the nearshore Lagrangian circulation. Specifically, we reveal Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCSs), i.e., distinguished material curves which shape global mixing patterns and thus act as skeletons of the Lagrangian circulation. This is done using the recently developed geodesic theory of transport barriers. Particular focus is placed on Hobie Beach, a recreational subtropical marine beach located in Virginia Key, Miami, Florida. According to studies of water quality, Hobie Beach is characterized by high microbial levels. Possible sources of pollution in Hobie Beach include human bather shedding, dog fecal matter, runoff, and sand efflux at high tides. Consistent with the patterns formed by satellite-tracked drifter trajectories, the LCSs extracted from simulated currents reveal a Lagrangian circulation favoring the retention near the shoreline of pollutants released along the shoreline, which can help explain the low quality water registered at Hobie Beach.

  17. An Approach to Developing Numeric Water Quality Criteria for Coastal Waters Using the SeaWiFS Satellite Data Record

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Human activities on land increase nutrient loads to coastal waters, which can increase phytoplankton production and biomass and associated ecological impacts. Numeric nutrient water quality standards are needed to protect coastal waters from eutrophication impacts. The Environmental Protection Agency determined that numeric nutrient criteria were necessary to protect designated uses of Florida’s waters. The objective of this study was to evaluate a reference condition approach for developing numeric water quality criteria for coastal waters, using data from Florida. Florida’s coastal waters have not been monitored comprehensively via field sampling to support numeric criteria development. However, satellite remote sensing had the potential to provide adequate data. Spatial and temporal measures of SeaWiFS OC4 chlorophyll-a (ChlRS-a, mg m–3) were resolved across Florida’s coastal waters between 1997 and 2010 and compared with in situ measurements. Statistical distributions of ChlRS-a were evaluated to determine a quantitative reference baseline. A binomial approach was implemented to consider how new data could be assessed against the criteria. The proposed satellite remote sensing approach to derive numeric criteria may be generally applicable to other coastal waters. PMID:22192062

  18. Diurnal and seasonal variation of coastal carbonate system parameters in South Florida and the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yates, K.; Smiley, N. A.

    2010-12-01

    Assessing the impact of climate change and ocean acidification on coastal and marine ecosystems requires accurate characterization of its chemical and physical effects on the carbonate system in seawater. Very few data exist that characterize natural variations in coastal carbonate chemistry, limiting the development and validation of coastal climate change and ocean acidification models. We measured carbonate system parameters over diurnal cycles in shallow, coastal ecosystems of Florida Bay, Tampa Bay, Biscayne National Park, Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Tobago, and the Bahamas. Salinity, temperature, and dissolved oxygen were measured continuously, and seawater samples were collected every 4 hours throughout multiple 24-hour time periods. Total alkalinity and pH were measured using spectrophotometric techniques, dissolved inorganic carbon was measured via carbon coulometry, and remaining carbonate system parameters were calculated using CO2SYS. Seasonal variability was either determined from existing data sets, or modeled using salinity and temperature data collected from CTDs deployed at study locations or long-term monitoring sites. Results indicate that all carbonate system parameters showed distinct variation over diurnal timescales primarily due to productivity, respiration, and precipitation and dissolution of calcium carbonate. The average range of diurnal variation was up to 102% of the seasonal range of variability in carbonate chemistry. Our data indicate that use of seasonal data sets without careful consideration of diurnal variability (or vice versa) may impart significant error in calculation of annual carbon budgets and modeling carbon cycling in coastal ecosystems. Implications for modeling long-term impacts of ocean acidification in coastal ecosystems will be discussed.

  19. Sewage in ground water in the Florida Keys

    SciTech Connect

    Shinn, E.A.

    1995-12-31

    More than 24,000 septic tanks, 5,000 cesspools, and greater than 600 shallow disposal wells introduce sewage effluents into porous and permeable limestone underlying the Florida Keys. To porous and permeable limestone underlying the Florida Keys. To assess the fate of sewage nutrients, 21 2- to 20-m-deep wells were core drilled and completed as water-monitoring wells. The wells were sampled quarterly and analyzed for 17 parameters. including nutrients and bacteria. Nutrients (mainly NH4, - which is 30 to 40 times higher than in surface sea water) were detected in ground water beneath the Keys and offshore coral reefs. Highest levels were beneath reefs 5 to 8 km offshore. Ground waters were generally hypersaline and fecal bacteria (fecal coliform and streptococci) were detected in ground water beneath living coral reefs. Higher sea level on the Florida Bay side of the Keys is proposed as the mechanism for forcing ground water toward offshore coral reefs. Tidal pumping, which is more pronounced near the Keys, causes leakage of ground water where the sediment is thin. Areas lacking sediment cover consist of bare limestone bedrock or permeable coral reefs. These are the areas where coral diseases and algal growth have increased in recent years. Pollutants entering the ground water beneath the Florida Keys are likely to be transported seaward beneath impermeable Holocene sediments and may be upwelling through coral reefs and other hardbottom communities.

  20. DESIGNING A COMPREHENSIVE, INTEGRATED WATER RESOURCES MONITORING PROGRAM FOR FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Proceedings of the National Water Quality Monitoring Conference "Monitoring Critical Foundations to Protect Our Waters," 7-9 July 1998, Reno, NV.

    In late 1996, Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) initiated an effort to design a multi-tiered monitoring and...

  1. DESIGNING A COMPREHENSIVE, INTEGRATED WATER RESOURCES MONITORING PROGRAM FOR FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Proceedings of the National Water Quality Monitoring Conference "Monitoring Critical Foundations to Protect Our Waters," 7-9 July 1998, Reno, NV.

    In late 1996, Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) initiated an effort to design a multi-tiered monitoring and...

  2. Potentiometric surface of the Floridan Aquifer, Southwest Florida Water Management District, May 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yobbi, D.K.; Woodham, W.M.; Schiner, George R.

    1980-01-01

    A May 1980 potentiometric-surface map of the Southwest Florida Water Management District depicts the annual low water-level period. Potentiometric levels decreased 5 to 36 feet between September 1979 and May 1980, in the citrus and farming sections of southern Hillsborough, southwestern Polk, northwestern DeSoto , Hardee, and Manatee Counties. Water levels in these areas are widely affected by pumping for irrigation and have the greatest range in fluctuations. Water-level decreases ranged from 0 to 8 feet in coastal, northern, and southern areas of the Water Management District. Generally, potentiometric levels were lower than previous May levels except in the northernmost and southernmost counties where water levels were 1 to 5 feet higher. (USGS)

  3. Potentiometric surface of the Floridan Aquifer, Southwest Florida Water Management District, May 1981

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yobbi, D.K.; Woodham, W.M.; Schiner, George R.

    1981-01-01

    A May 1981 potentiometric-surface map of the Southwest Florida Water Management District depicts the annual low water-level period. Potentiometric levels decreased 10 to 45 feet between September 1980 and May 1981 in the citrus and farming sections of southern Hillsborough, northern Hardee, southwestern Polk, northwestern DeSoto, and Manatee Counties. Water levels in these areas are widely affected by pumping for irrigation and have the greatest range in fluctuations. Water-level decreases ranged from 0 to 1 feet in coastal, northern, and southern areas of the Water Management District. Water levels in all of the approximate 700 wells measured in May 1981 are lower than May 1980 because of the virtual absence of rainfall in April and May. (USGS)

  4. Water-resources activities in Florida, 1988-89

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glenn, Mildred E.

    1989-01-01

    This report contains summary statements of water resources activities in Florida conducted by the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with Federal, State , and local agencies during 1988. These activities are part of the Federal program of appraising the Nation 's water resources. Included are brief descriptions of the nature and scope of all active studies, summaries of significant results for 1988 and anticipated accomplishments during 1989. Water resources appraisals in Florida are highly diversified, ranging from hydrologic records networks to interpretive appraisals of water resources and applied research to develop investigative techniques. Thus, water-resources investigations range from basic descriptive water-availability studies for areas of low-intensity water development and management to sophisticated cause and effect studies in areas of high-intensity water development and management. The interpretive reports and records that are products of the investigations are a principal hydrologic foundation upon which the plans for development, management, and protection of Florida 's water resources may be used. Water data and information required to implement sound water-management programs in highly urbanized areas relate to the quantity and quality of storm runoff, sources of aquifer contamination, injection of wastes into deep strata, underground storage of freshwater, artificial recharge of aquifers, environmental effects of reuse of water, and effects of land development on changes in ground-and surface-water quality. In some parts of the State broad areas are largely rural. Future growth is anticipated in many of these. This report is intended to inform those agencies vitally interested in the water resources of Florida as to the current status and objectives of the U.S. Geological Survey cooperative program. The mission of this program is to collect, interpret, and publish information on water resources. Almost all of

  5. Transport of anomalous low-salinity waters from the Mississippi River flood of 1993 to the Straits of Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Paula S.; Lee, Thomas N.; Podesta, Guillermo P.

    1996-07-01

    Recent field studies in the southern Straits of Florida revealed the existence of Mississippi River outflow embedded in the Florida Current and adjacent coastal waters. Surface thermosalinograph measurements for the period of 10-13 September 1993 indicated a band of low-salinity water measuring approximately 40 km wide and 30 m in depth extending from south of Key West to Miami, a distance of 260 km. Surface salinity values as low as 31 psu were found. The estimated volume of the band is approximately 33.3 × 10 10 m 3 for the Key West to Miami region, thereby requiring roughly 1.2 × 10 10 m 3 of fresh water to mix with oceanic waters to produce this low-salinity band. The only nearby, dynamically viable, source for such a large volume of fresh water is the Mississippi River during its flood stage in 1993. The proposed transport mechanism for the transport of flood waters from the shelf in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico to the Straits of Florida is via the Loop Current through entrainment. Salinity records from offshore C-MAN towers indicate that the low-salinity band persisted off the lower Florida Keys for approximately 3 months. The variability in the flow field in the southern Straits occurs in a 30-70 day band due to the meandering of the Florida Current and the subsequent formation, and propagation, of cyclonic gyres off the Dry Tortugas. This variability in the flow field had a clear affect on the evolution of the low-salinity band, as observed by the salinity records from the C-MAN towers. Because the band traveled as a lens in the upper 30 m of the water column and because its evolution was highly dependent on the variability within the Gulf Stream System, it was a good indicator of the mixing and exchange of offshore waters with shallow waters of the Florida reef tract and Florida Bay.

  6. Potentiometric surface of the Floridan Aquifer, Southwest Florida Water Management District, September 1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, G.L.; Schiner, George R.

    1983-01-01

    Maps of the potentiometric surface of the Floridan aquifer in west-central Florida are prepared semiannually by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District. Maps for May and September show the potentiometric surface that is close to the annual low or high water level condition that usually occurs in May or September, respectively. The surface is mapped by determining the altitude of water levels in a network of wells and is represented on maps by contours that connect points of equal altitude. This report shows the potentiometric surface of the Floridan aquifer for September 1983. Data for the map were collected during September 12-23. The map represents water level conditions near the end of the summer rainy season when groundwater withdrawals for agricultural use are low. Water levels in most wells measured in September 1983 were higher than those measured in May 1983. September water levels averaged about 0.6 ft higher than May levels in areas north of Hillsborough County and about 7 ft higher in southern areas. Water level increases in the north ranged from zero to about 2 ft along coastal regions and from zero to about 5 ft in inland areas. Water level declines in the north ranged from zero to about 7 ft and occurred in scattered parts of all northern counties. In the south, water level increases ranged from zero to about 3 ft along coastal and extreme southern regions and from about 5 to 34 ft in other southern areas. The greatest water level increases occurred in southern Hillsborough County where irrigation pumpage contributes to large seasonal fluctuations. There were a few areas in Hillsborough and Pinellas Counties where September water levels showed declines ranging from about 1 to 3 ft when compared with May levels. (Lantz-PTT)

  7. Air-Water Gas Transfer in Coastal Waters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    OBJECTIVES In interdisciplinary field experiments the influence of wind forcing, short wind waves, and surfactants on the air-sea gas transfer in coastal...Physicochemical surface conditions ranged from coastal waters with high surfactant concentrations to very clean, deep blue waters close to the Bermuda islands...research project are only the beginning of a new interdisciplinary research area that merges chemistry , applied optics, fluid mechanics, and image

  8. Hydrologic Monitoring and Water Balance Modeling in West and Seven Palm Lake Drainages in the Florida Everglades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, J.; Whitman, D.; Price, R.

    2016-02-01

    In the Florida Everglades, sea level rise and reduced freshwater inputs have altered the hydrologic and chemical conditions in coastal estuaries. Brackish coastal groundwater discharge, an inland intrusion of submarine groundwater discharge, has been shown to occur seasonally along the coastal wetlands of the Everglades. This brackish groundwater is enriched in total phosphorus, the limiting nutrient in the Everglades. A major component of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan is to increase freshwater delivery to the southern coastal Everglades and adjacent bays, in an effort to restore a salinity and nutrient regime conducive for the development of submerged aquatic vegetation. This study is being conducted in the estuarine lakes of the Everglades that are connected to Florida Bay. Water quality in these lakes has diminished over time, potentially due to increased nutrient deliveries from coastal groundwater discharge. Current hydrologic and chemical conditions are being established within the lakes in order to gain a better understanding of the effects of restoration efforts through time. Water budgets are being constructed on daily, monthly and annual time steps to estimate the groundwater-surface water interaction term. In addition, hydrologic and topographic data from the Everglades Depth Estimation Network is being utilized in order to calculate water budgets for the lakes region spanning ten years prior to the study period. Water chemistry in the lakes and groundwater is also being monitored to determine the influence of groundwater-surface water exchange on salinity and nutrient conditions in the lakes. The results of this study can be used to assess the influence of restoration efforts on the hydrochemical conditions of downstream coastal areas affected by coastal groundwater discharge and sea level rise.

  9. Ground-water models as a management tool in Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutchinson, C.B.

    1984-01-01

    Highly sophisticated computer models provide powerful tools for analyzing historic data and for simulating future water levels, water movement, and water chemistry under stressed conditions throughout the ground-water system in Florida. Models that simulate the movement of heat and subsidence of land in response to aquifer pumping also have potential for application to hydrologic problems in the State. Florida, with 20 ground-water modeling studies reported since 1972, has applied computer modeling techniques to a variety of water-resources problems. Models in Florida generally have been used to provide insight to problems of water supply, contamination, and impact on the environment. The model applications range from site-specific studies, such as estimating contamination by wastewater injection at St. Petersburg, to a regional model of the entire State that may be used to assess broad-scale environmental impact of water-resources development. Recently, groundwater models have been used as management tools by the State regulatory authority to permit or deny development of water resources. As modeling precision, knowledge, and confidence increase, the use of ground-water models will shift more and more toward regulation of development and enforcement of environmental laws. (USGS)

  10. Remote Sensing of Suspended Sediments and Shallow Coastal Waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Rong-Rong; Kaufman, Yoram J.; Gao, Bo-Cai; Davis, Curtiss O.

    2002-01-01

    Ocean color sensors were designed mainly for remote sensing of chlorophyll concentrations over the clear open oceanic areas (case 1 water) using channels between 0.4 and 0.86 micrometers. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) launched on the NASA Terra and Aqua Spacecrafts is equipped with narrow channels located within a wider wavelength range between 0.4 and 2.5 micrometers for a variety of remote sensing applications. The wide spectral range can provide improved capabilities for remote sensing of the more complex and turbid coastal waters (case 2 water) and for improved atmospheric corrections for Ocean scenes. In this article, we describe an empirical algorithm that uses this wide spectral range to identifying areas with suspended sediments in turbid waters and shallow waters with bottom reflections. The algorithm takes advantage of the strong water absorption at wavelengths longer than 1 micrometer that does not allow illumination of sediments in the water or a shallow ocean floor. MODIS data acquired over the east coast of China, west coast of Africa, Arabian Sea, Mississippi Delta, and west coast of Florida are used in this study.

  11. Spatial variation in the accumulation of POPs and mercury in bottlenose dolphins of the Lower Florida Keys and the coastal Everglades (South Florida).

    PubMed

    Damseaux, France; Kiszka, Jeremy J; Heithaus, Michael R; Scholl, George; Eppe, Gauthier; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Lewis, Jennifer; Hao, Wensi; Fontaine, Michaël C; Das, Krishna

    2017-01-01

    The bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) is an upper trophic level predator and the most common cetacean species found in nearshore waters of southern Florida, including the Lower Florida Keys (LFK) and the Florida Coastal Everglades (FCE). The objective of this study was to assess contamination levels of total mercury (T-Hg) in skin and persistent organic pollutants (PCBs, PBDEs, DDXs, HCHs, HCB, Σ PCDD/Fs and Σ DL-PCBs) in blubber samples of bottlenose dolphins from LFK (n = 27) and FCE (n = 24). PCBs were the major class of compounds found in bottlenose dolphin blubber and were higher in individuals from LFK (Σ 6 PCBs LFK males: 13,421 ± 7730 ng g(-1) lipids, Σ 6 PCBs LFK females: 9683 ± 19,007 ng g(-1) lipids) than from FCE (Σ 6 PCBs FCE males: 5638 ng g(-1) ± 3627 lipids, Σ 6 PCBs FCE females: 1427 ± 908 ng g(-1) lipids). These levels were lower than previously published data from the southeastern USA. The Σ DL-PCBs were the most prevalent pollutants of dioxin and dioxin like compounds (Σ DL-PCBs LFK: 739 ng g(-1) lipids, Σ DL-PCBs FCE: 183 ng g(-1) lipids) since PCDD/F concentrations were low for both locations (mean 0.1 ng g(-1) lipids for LFK and FCE dolphins). The toxicity equivalences of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs expressed as TEQ in LFK and FCE dolphins is mainly expressed by DL-PCBs (81% LFK - 65% FCE). T-Hg concentrations in skin were significantly higher in FCE (FCE median 9314 ng g(-1) dw) compared to LFK dolphins (LFK median 2941 ng g(-1) dw). These concentrations are the highest recorded in bottlenose dolphins in the southeastern USA, and may be explained, at least partially, by the biogeochemistry of the Everglades and mangrove sedimentary habitats that create favourable conditions for the retention of mercury and make it available at high concentrations for aquatic predators. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Saltwater intrusion in the Floridan aquifer, coastal Citrus and Hernando Counties, Florida, 1975

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mills, L.R.; Ryder, Paul D.

    1977-01-01

    The coastal parts of Citrus and Hernando Counties, Fla., are undergoing extensive urban development along U.S. Highway 19. The Floridan aquifer, a thick sequence of limestone and dolomite , is the principal source of water supply for the coastal parts of these two counties. The construction of canals that penetrate the Floridan aquifer, deficient rainfall during 1964-75, and pumping of ground water, have caused saltwater to intrude the aquifer. A map shows the inland extend of that intrusion as of 1975. The report is based on field data collected in 1964, 1973, and 1975. (Woodard-USGS)

  13. Water-resources data for Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and Union Counties, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, William E.; Musgrove, Rufus H.; Menke, Clarence G.; Cagle, Joseph W.

    1964-01-01

    A study of the water resources of Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and Union counties, Florida (fig. 1), was made by the Water Resources Division of the U. S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Florida Geological Survey during the period 1957-61. The results of this study will be published by the Florida Geological Survey in the following reports by William E. Clark, Rufus H. Musgrove, Clarence G. Menke, and Joseph W. Cagle, Jr.: "Interim Report on the Water Resources of Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and Union Counties, Florida," "Water Resources of Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and Union Counties, Florida," and "Hydrology of Brooklyn Lake, near Keystone Heights, Florida."

  14. Water withdrawals, use, discharge, and trends in Florida, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Marella, R.L.

    1999-01-01

    The report summarizes the quantities of water withdrawn, consumed, and discharged in 1995, and indicates trends in water use. Overall, the report provides a basis for estimating water budgets and projecting future water needs. Data are presented on water withdrawals in Florida for each of the following water use categories: public supply, domestic self-supplied, commercial-industrial self-supplied (including mining uses), agricultural self-supplied (including irrigation and nonirrigation uses), recreational irrigation, and power generation. The only instream use of water presented in this report is for hydroelectric power generation. Within each category, withdrawal data are presented by source (ground or surface water), and where sufficient data are available, seasonal and historical patterns of water use are described. Data also are presented by county and water management district for each water use category. Information about specific public-supply water systems and domestic and industrial wastewater facilities is included in the appendixes.

  15. Water resources of Duval County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phelps, G.G.

    1994-01-01

    The report describes the hydrology and water resources of Duval County, the development of its water supplies, and water use within the county. Also included are descriptions of various natural features of the county (such as topography and geology), an explanation of the hydrologic cycle, and an interpretation of the relationship between them. Ground-water and surface-water resources and principal water-quality features within the county are also discussed. The report is intended to provide the general public with an overview of the water resources Of Duval County, and to increase public awareness of water issues. Information is presented in nontechnical language to enable the general reader to understand facts about water as a part of nature, and the problems associated with its development and use.

  16. Hydrologic Conditions in Northwest Florida: 2006 Water Year

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verdi, Richard Jay

    2007-01-01

    Introduction National data for streamflow, ground-water levels, and quality of water for the 2006 water year are accessible to the public on the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Site Information Management System (SIMS) website http://web10capp.er.usgs.gov/adr06_lookup/search.jsp. This fact sheet describes data and hydrologic conditions throughout northwest Florida during the 2006 water year (fig. 1), when record-low monthly streamflow conditions were reported at several streamgage locations. Prior to 1960, these data were published in various USGS Water-Supply Papers and included water-related data collected by the USGS during the water year (October 1 to September 30). In 1961, a series of annual reports, 'Water Resources Data-Florida,' was introduced that published surface-water data. In 1964, a similar report was introduced for the purposes of publishing water-quality data. In 1975, the reports were merged to a single volume and were expanded to publish data for surface water, water quality, and ground-water levels. Formal publication of the annual report series was discontinued at the end of the 2005 water year, upon activation of the SIMS website database.

  17. Water upwelling due to differential coastal heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubarenko, I.; Demchenko, N.

    2009-04-01

    Day heating / night cooling in coastal zone of large water bodies causes a specific water-exchange between coastal and off-shore regions. Experiments in 5m-long laboratory tank with inclined 2m-portion of the bottom (A=0.1, water depth in deep part D=15-20 cm) are reported, demonstrating a structure of fields of temperature and water currents under conditions of heating from the surface. In shallow regions at the top of incline, water temperature rises faster, so that horizontal temperature gradient between top and deep parts of the tank is established in some tens of minutes. The shape of the horizontal temperature profile at the surface is self-similar, with nearly constant temperature difference between top and deep parts (for fixed heat flux and bottom slope). Off-shore transport of warmer coastal waters is established in near-surface layer, with maximum of the current not at the surface, but obviously (1-3 cm) below it. The return (on-shore) flow is formed immediately below the off-shore flow, with its thickness twice larger and the speed twice smaller than that of the on-shore flow. Maximum speed of the return flow is observed at the depth of about 0.4 D. Further down, no significant currents were registered. This two-layered basin-wide exchange causes water upwelling along the inclined portion of the bottom. Simple analytical model is developed in order to explain the observed results. Using several analytic expressions for the dependency of water temperature from depth, time and horizontal co-ordinate, we analyze the field of the horizontal pressure gradient. For logarithmic and linear vertical temperature profiles, the horizontal pressure gradient in the basin has its maximum at the depth of about 0.4 D, what is in full agreement with the laboratory experiments. Thus, an upwelling along the inclined part of the bottom is caused by the basin-wide exchange of convective nature, where the driving element is the on-shore flow, arising due to thermally

  18. Hydrologic Conditions in Florida during Water Year 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verdi, Richard Jay; Tomlinson, Stewart A.; Irvin, Ronald B.; Fulcher, David L.

    2009-01-01

    Record-high and record-low hydrologic conditions occurred during water year 2007 (October 1, 2006 - September 30, 2007) based on analyses of precipitation, surface-water flows, lake elevations, and ground-water levels. For example, the streamgage at Suwannee River at White Springs in northwest Florida recorded an annual streamflow of 103 cubic feet per second during 2007, or about 6 percent of the period-of-record average since monitoring began in 1906. Lake Okeechobee in south Florida reached record-low elevations (8.82 feet on July 2) since monitoring began in 1912. Several wells throughout the State registered period-of-record lowest daily maximum water levels.

  19. The Biogeochemistry of Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter in Coastal Waters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    processes controlling the fate and distribution of DOM in coastal waters will allow detailed modeling of the fate of contaminants such as hydrophobic...The Biogeochemistry of Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter in Coastal Waters Robert F. Chen Environmental, Coastal and Ocean Sciences University of...coastal waters . Of particular interest is the fate of terrigenous and anthropogenic dissolved organic matter in marine systems. OBJECTIVES 1

  20. Sea-level rise science: informing and preparing Florida's coastal communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cimitile, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    As a low-lying peninsula surrounded by water, Florida faces tough decisions about long-range planning and development strategies to address impacts of climate change. In 2007, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) stated there is strong evidence that global average sea level will rise by ? to 2 feet in the next century due to continued thermal expansion and melting of ice on land.

  1. The use of remote sensing in solving Florida's geological and coastal engineering problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, H. K.; Ruth, B. E.; Wang, Y. H.; Ferguson, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    LANDSAT imagery and NASA high altitude color infrared (CIR) photography were used to select suitable sites for sanitary landfill in Volusia County, Florida and to develop techniques for preventing sand deposits in the Clearwater inlet. Activities described include the acquisition of imagery, its analysis by the IMAGE 100 system, conventional photointerpretation, evaluation of existing data sources (vegetation, soil, and ground water maps), site investigations for ground truth, and preparation of displays for reports.

  2. Modeling landscape dynamics and effects of sea-level rise on coastal wetlands of northwest Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, T.W.; Day, R.H.; Biagas, J.M.

    1997-06-01

    A research study to examine the ability to predict changes in coastal vegetation caused by sea level rise is very briefly summarized. A field survey was carried out on the northwest coast of Florida. A predictive elevation model was then generated from digitized US Geologic Survey 1:2400 hypsographic data using surface modeling techniques. Sea-level rise model simulations were generated to predict a likelihood index of habitat change and conversions under different scenarios. Maps were produced depicting location of the coastline and inland extent of salt marsh using a range of sea level rise rates through the year 2100. This modeling approach offers a technological tool to researchers and wetland managers for effective cumulative impact analysis of wetlands affected by sea-level rise.

  3. Remote sensing of ALGAL pigments to determine coastal phytoplankton dynamics in Florida Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, L.L.; Ambrosia, V.G.

    1997-06-01

    An important component of remote sensing of marine and coastal environments is the detection of phytoplankton to estimate biological activity. Traditionally the focus has been on detection of chlorophyll a, a photosynthetic pigment common to all algal groups. Recent advances in remote sensing instrumentation, in particular the development of hyperspectral imaging sensors, allow detection of additional algal pigments that include taxonomically significant photosynthetic and photoprotective accessory pigments. We are working with the hyperspectral imaging sensor AVIRIS (the Airborne Visible-Infrared Imaging Spectrometer) to characterize phytoplankton blooms in Florida Bay. Our data analysis focuses on intersection of image data (and image-derived spectral data) with our in-house library of algal pigment signatures.

  4. PHOTOCHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL DEGRADATION OF CDOM IN WATERS FROM SELECTED COASTAL REGIONS OF THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biological and photochemical degradation of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) were investigated in controlled experiments using waters from southeastern U.S. estuaries, from the Mississippi River plume and Gulf of Mexico, and from the coastal shelf region in the Florida Key...

  5. PHOTOCHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL DEGRADATION OF CDOM IN WATERS FROM SELECTED COASTAL REGIONS OF THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biological and photochemical degradation of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) were investigated in controlled experiments using waters from southeastern U.S. estuaries, from the Mississippi River plume and Gulf of Mexico, and from the coastal shelf region in the Florida Key...

  6. Simulation of submarine ground water discharge to a marine estuary: Biscayne Bay, Florida.

    PubMed

    Langevin, Christian D

    2003-01-01

    Variable density ground water flow models are rarely used to estimate submarine ground water discharge because of limitations in computer speed, data availability, and availability of a simulation tool that can minimize numerical dispersion. This paper presents an application of the SEAWAT code, which is a combined version of MODFLOW and MT3D, to estimate rates of submarine ground water discharge to a coastal marine estuary. Discharge rates were estimated for Biscayne Bay, Florida, for the period from January 1989 to September 1998 using a three-dimensional, variable density ground water flow and transport model. Hydrologic stresses in the 10-layer model include recharge, evapotranspiration, ground water withdrawals from municipal wellfields, interactions with surface water (canals in urban areas and wetlands in the Everglades), boundary fluxes, and submarine ground water discharge to Biscayne Bay. The model was calibrated by matching ground water levels in monitoring wells, baseflow to canals, and the position of the 1995 salt water intrusion line. Results suggest that fresh submarine ground water discharge to Biscayne Bay may have exceeded surface water discharge during the 1989, 1990, and 1991 dry seasons, but the average discharge for the entire simulation period was only approximately 10% of the surface water discharge to the bay. Results from the model also suggest that tidal canals intercept fresh ground water that might otherwise have discharged directly to Biscayne Bay. This application demonstrates that regional scale variable density models are potentially useful tools for estimating rates of submarine ground water discharge.

  7. Simulation of Submarine Ground Water Discharge to a Marine Estuary: Biscayne Bay, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langevin, C.D.

    2003-01-01

    Variable density ground water flow models are rarely used to estimate submarine ground water discharge because of limitations in computer speed, data availability, and availability of a simulation tool that can minimize numerical dispersion. This paper presents an application of the SEAWAT code, which is a combined version of MODFLOW and MT3D, to estimate rates of submarine ground water discharge to a coastal marine estuary. Discharge rates were estimated for Biscayne Bay, Florida, for the period from January 1989 to September 1998 using a three-dimensional, variable density ground water flow and transport model. Hydrologic stresses in the 10-layer model include recharge, evapotranspiration, ground water withdrawals from municipal wellfields, interactions with surface water (canals in urban areas and wetlands in the Everglades), boundary fluxes, and submarine ground water discharge to Biscayne Bay. The model was calibrated by matching ground water levels in monitoring wells, baseflow to canals, and the position of the 1995 salt water intrusion line. Results suggest that fresh submarine ground water discharge to Biscayne Bay may have exceeded surface water discharge during the 1989, 1990, and 1991 dry seasons, but the average discharge for the entire simulation period was only ???10% of the surface water discharge to the bay. Results from the model also suggest that tidal canals intercept fresh ground water that might otherwise have discharged directly to Biscayne Bay. This application demonstrates that regional scale variable density models are potentially useful tools for estimating rates of submarine ground water discharge.

  8. Development of MODIS data-based algorithm for retrieving sea surface temperature in coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiao; Deng, Zhiqiang

    2017-06-01

    A new algorithm was developed for retrieving sea surface temperature (SST) in coastal waters using satellite remote sensing data from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard Aqua platform. The new SST algorithm was trained using the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) method and tested using 8 years of remote sensing data from MODIS Aqua sensor and in situ sensing data from the US coastal waters in Louisiana, Texas, Florida, California, and New Jersey. The ANN algorithm could be utilized to map SST in both deep offshore and particularly shallow nearshore waters at the high spatial resolution of 1 km, greatly expanding the coverage of remote sensing-based SST data from offshore waters to nearshore waters. Applications of the ANN algorithm require only the remotely sensed reflectance values from the two MODIS Aqua thermal bands 31 and 32 as input data. Application results indicated that the ANN algorithm was able to explaining 82-90% variations in observed SST in US coastal waters. While the algorithm is generally applicable to the retrieval of SST, it works best for nearshore waters where important coastal resources are located and existing algorithms are either not applicable or do not work well, making the new ANN-based SST algorithm unique and particularly useful to coastal resource management.

  9. Coastal ground water at risk - Saltwater contamination at Brunswick, Georgia and Hilton Head Island, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krause, Richard E.; Clarke, John S.

    2001-01-01

    IntroductionSaltwater contamination is restricting the development of ground-water supply in coastal Georgia and adjacent parts of South Carolina and Florida. The principal source of water in the coastal area is the Upper Floridan aquifer—an extremely permeable and high-yielding aquifer—which was first developed in the late 1800s. Pumping from the aquifer has resulted in substantial ground-water-level decline and subsequent saltwater intrusion of the aquifer from underlying strata containing highly saline water at Brunswick, Georgia, and with encroachment of sea-water into the aquifer at the northern end of Hilton Head Island, South Carolina. The saltwater contamination at these locations has constrained further development of the Upper Floridan aquifer in the coastal area and has created competing demands for the limited supply of freshwater. The Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Georgia Environmental Protection Division (GaEPD) has restricted permitted withdrawal of water from the Upper Floridan aquifer in parts of the coastal area (including the Savannah and Brunswick areas) to 1997 rates, and also has restricted additional permitted pumpage in all 24 coastal area counties to 36 million gallons per day above 1997 rates. These actions have prompted interest in alternative management of the aquifer and in the development of supplemental sources of water supply including those from the shallower surficial and upper and lower Brunswick aquifers and from the deeper Lower Floridan aquifer.

  10. Seasonal and spatial distribution patterns of finfish and selected invertebrates in coastal lagoons of northeastern Florida, 2002-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turtora, Michael; Schotman, Elizabeth M.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a survey of juvenile fisheries resources, in cooperation with the St. Johns River Water Management District and Volusia County, to establish baseline data on spatial and temporal distribution patterns of estuarine fish. The survey was conducted from November 2001 to March 2005 and the baseline data established for the survey in the Northern Coastal Basins were collected from January 2002 to December 2004. The study area included the bar-built estuaries ranging from just north of St. Augustine, Florida, south to Ponce de Leon Inlet. Sampling protocols developed by the Florida Fish and Wildlife Research Institute for their statewide Fisheries Independent Monitoring (FIM) program were replicated to allow for comparability with FIM program results. Samples were collected monthly from randomly selected stations based on a geographically stratified design. Finfish and selected invertebrates were collected using a 21.3-meter center-bag seine with a 3-millimeter mesh, and a 6.1-meter otter trawl with a 3-millimeter mesh liner. Total estimated fish and selected invertebrate densities were similar to estimates from FIM projects in adjacent areas and were characterized by similar dominant species. Preliminary analysis indicates that observed species distribution patterns were mainly a function of proximity to the three inlets within the study area. The two regions encompassing the northern Tolomato River and the Tomoka River and Basin are farthest from inlets and appear to function as oligohaline nursery areas. Those two areas had the greatest estimated densities of shellfish and juvenile sciaenid (drum) species associated with oligohaline waters (for example, Micropogonias undulatus, Sciaenops ocellatus and Cynoscion nebulosus). Samples near inlets, and between the two northern inlets, had greater estimated densities of species limited to euhaline waters, including juvenile clupeids collected at relatively high abundance and species of

  11. Water withdrawals, use, discharge, and trends in Florida, 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marella, R.L.

    1999-01-01

    In 1995, the total amount of water withdrawn in Florida was nearly 18,200 million gallons per day (Mgal/d), of which 60 percent was saline and 40 percent was freshwater. Ground water accounted for 60 percent of freshwater withdrawals and surface water accounted for the remaining 40 percent. Ninety-three percent of the 14.15 million people in Florida relied on ground water for their drinking water needs in 1995. Almost all (99.9 percent) saline water withdrawals were from surface water. Public supply accounted for 43 percent of ground water withdrawn in 1995, followed by agricultural self-supplied (35 percent), commercial-industrial self-supplied (including mining) (10 percent), domestic self-supplied (7 percent), recreational irrigation (4.5 percent), and power generation (0.5 percent). Agricultural self-supplied accounted for 60 percent of fresh surface water withdrawn in 1995, followed by power generation (21 percent), commercial-industrial self-supplied (9 percent), public supply (7 percent), and recreational irrigation (3 percent). Almost all of saline water withdrawn was used for power generation. The largest amount of freshwater was withdrawn in Palm Beach County and the largest amount of saline water was withdrawn in Hillsborough County. Significant withdrawals (more than 200 Mgal/d) of fresh ground water occurred in Dade, Broward, Polk, Orange, and Palm Beach Counties. Significant withdrawals (more than 200 Mgal/d) of fresh surface water occurred in Palm Beach, Hendry, and St. Lucie Counties. The South Florida Water Management District accounted for the largest amount of freshwater withdrawn (nearly 50 percent). About 57 percent of the total ground water withdrawn was from the Floridan aquifer system; 20 percent was from the Biscayne aquifer. Most of the surface water used in Florida was from managed and maintained canal systems or large water bodies. Major sources of fresh surface water include the Caloosahatchee River, Deer Point Lake, Hillsborough River

  12. Water withdrawals, use, discharge, and trends in Florida, 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marella, Richard L.

    2004-01-01

    In 2000, the estimated amount of water withdrawn in Florida was 20,148 million gallons per day (Mgal/d), of which 59 percent was saline and 41 percent was fresh. Ground water accounted for 62 percent of freshwater withdrawals and surface water accounted for the remaining 38 percent. Ninety-two percent of the 15.98 million people in Florida relied on ground water for their drinking water needs in 2000. Almost all of the saline water withdrawals (99.9 percent) were from surface water. Public supply accounted for 43 percent of ground water withdrawn in 2000, followed by agricultural self-supplied (39 percent), commercial-industrial self-supplied (including mining) (8.5 percent), recreational irrigation (4.5 percent), domestic self-supplied (4 percent), and power generation (1 percent). Agricultural self-supplied accounted for 62 percent of fresh surface water withdrawn in 2000, followed by power generation (20 percent), public supply (8 percent), recreational irrigation (6 percent), and commercial-industrial self-supplied (4 percent). Almost all of saline water withdrawn was used for power generation. The largest amount of freshwater was withdrawn in Palm Beach County and the largest amount of saline water was withdrawn in Hillsborough County. Significant withdrawals (more than 200 Mgal/d) of fresh ground water occurred in Miami-Dade, Polk, Orange, Palm Beach, Broward, and Collier Counties. Significant withdrawals (more than 200 Mgal/d) of fresh surface water occurred in Palm Beach, Hendry, and Escambia Counties. The South Florida Water Management District accounted for the largest amount of freshwater withdrawn (49 percent). About 62 percent of the total ground water withdrawn was from the Floridan aquifer system; 17 percent was from the Biscayne aquifer. Most of the surface water used in Florida was from managed and maintained canal systems or large water bodies. Major sources of fresh surface water include the Caloosahatchee River, Deer Point Lake, Hillsborough

  13. Application of FTLOADDS to Simulate Flow, Salinity, and Surface-Water Stage in the Southern Everglades, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, John D.; Swain, Eric D.; Wolfert, Melinda A.; Langevin, Christian D.; James, Dawn E.; Telis, Pamela A.

    2007-01-01

    The Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan requires numerical modeling to achieve a sufficient understanding of coastal freshwater flows, nutrient sources, and the evaluation of management alternatives to restore the ecosystem of southern Florida. Numerical models include a regional water-management model to represent restoration changes to the hydrology of southern Florida and a hydrodynamic model to represent the southern and western offshore waters. The coastal interface between these two systems, however, has complex surface-water/ground-water and freshwater/saltwater interactions and requires a specialized modeling effort. The Flow and Transport in a Linked Overland/Aquifer Density Dependent System (FTLOADDS) code was developed to represent connected surface- and ground-water systems with variable-density flow. The first use of FTLOADDS is the Southern Inland and Coastal Systems (SICS) application to the southeastern part of the Everglades/Florida Bay coastal region. The need to (1) expand the domain of the numerical modeling into most of Everglades National Park and the western coastal area, and (2) better represent the effect of water-delivery control structures, led to the application of the FTLOADDS code to the Tides and Inflows in the Mangroves of the Everglades (TIME) domain. This application allows the model to address a broader range of hydrologic issues and incorporate new code modifications. The surface-water hydrology is of primary interest to water managers, and is the main focus of this study. The coupling to ground water, however, was necessary to accurately represent leakage exchange between the surface water and ground water, which transfers substantial volumes of water and salt. Initial calibration and analysis of the TIME application produced simulated results that compare well statistically with field-measured values. A comparison of TIME simulation results to previous SICS results shows improved capabilities, particularly in the

  14. Hydrologic conditions in Florida during Water Year 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verdi, Richard J.; Holt, Sandra L.; Irvin, Ronald B.; Fulcher, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Record-high and record-low hydrologic conditions occurred during water year 2008 (October 1, 2007-September 30, 2008). Record-low levels were caused by a continuation of the 2007 water year drought conditions into the 2008 water year and persisting until summer rainfall. The gage at the Santa Fe River near Fort White site recorded record-low monthly mean discharges in October and November 2007. The previous records for this site were set in 1956 and 2002, respectively. Record-high conditions in northeast and northwest Florida were caused by the rainfall and runoff associated with Tropical Storm Fay. For example, St. Mary's River near Macclenny recorded a new record-high monthly mean discharge in August 2008. The previous record for this site was set in 1945. Lake Okeechobee in south Florida reached new minimum monthly mean lake levels since monitoring began in 1912 from October to March during the 2008 water year. Some wells throughout northwest and south Florida registered period-of-record lowest daily maximum water levels.

  15. Investigation of Colored Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) Optical Properties, Nutrients, and Salinity in Coastal Florida: Springshed to Estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arellano, Ana Rosa

    Optical parameters measured via absorption spectroscopy and high-resolution fluorescence spectroscopy were used to characterize dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the springshed of Kings Bay, a spring-fed estuary located on Florida's Springs Coast. Over the past 40 years, springs supplying groundwater to Kings Bay have shown an increase in nitrate concentration. The overall goal of this project was to fingerprint wells and spring sites with elevated nitrogen concentrations using CDOM optical properties and establish relationships between nutrient and optical parameters. Samples were obtained from various sites: springs, Kings Bay surface (KBS), wells, coastal waters in and at the mouth of Crystal River (Coast) and lakes and rivers (LNR), during dry and wet seasons. The relationships between the environmental parameters and traditional optical parameters which provide insight into source characteristics were analyzed. Excitation emission matrix spectroscopy (EEMS) provided information about the concentration and chemical nature of organic matter in the study area. CDOM optical properties combined with salinity clearly separated the sources of fixed nitrogen in the Bay. Northern springs with elevated dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentration had lower salinities and showed a presence of protein peaks. CDOM concentration was negatively correlated with total nitrogen (TN) and DIN, which suggests that these are subjected to anthropogenic influences. Humic peaks dominated the composition of the southern springs. CDOM concentrations were much higher than in the northern springs and there was a positive correlation between CDOM and both TN and DIN. These findings suggest that the fixed nitrogen in the southern springs is naturally occurring organic matter and the low concentrations may partially be a result of subsurface mixing of saltwater and freshwater in the aquifer. Thus, hypothesis testing showed that there was a significant difference between northern and

  16. Measuring mercury in coastal fog water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-04-01

    Mercury, a heavy metal neurotoxin, accumulates in sea life, in some cases reaching levels that make seafood unsafe for humans to eat. How mercury gets into aquatic organisms is debated, but part of the pathway could include mercury carried in precipitation, including rain, snow, and fog. The contribution of mercury in fog water in particular is not well known, especially in foggy coastal areas such as coastal California. To learn more, Weiss-Penzias et al. measured total mercury and monomethyl mercury concentrations in fog water and rainwater samples taken from four locations around Monterey Bay, California, during spring and summer 2011. They found that the mean monomethyl mercury concentrations in their fog water samples were about 34 times higher than the mean concentrations in their rainwater samples. Therefore, the authors believe that fog is an important, previously unrecognized source of mercury to coastal ecosystems. They also explored potential sources of mercury, finding that biotically formed monomethyl mercury from oceanic upwelling may contribute to monomethyl mercury in fog. (Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2011GL050324, 2012)

  17. Molecular Families Associated with Optical Properties in the Florida Coastal Everglades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, S.; Jaffe, R.; Cawley, K.; Dittmar, T.; Stubbins, A.

    2016-02-01

    Optical properties are efficiently-measured proxies for dissolved organic matter (DOM) composition, source and/or reactivity. However, the molecular signature of DOM associated with such optical parameters remains poorly defined. The Florida coastal Everglades is a subtropical wetland with diverse vegetation (e.g., sawgrass prairies, mangrove forests, seagrass meadows, etc.) and DOM sources (e.g., terrestrial, microbial and marine). As such, the Everglades is an excellent model system from which to draw samples to allow classically-defined optical properties to be linked to molecular properties of the DOM pool. Here, we characterized a suite of seasonally- and spatially-collected DOM samples using optical measurements (EEM-PARAFAC, SUVA(254), S(275-295), S(350-400), SR, FI, freshness index and HIX) and ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS). Spearman's rank correlations between FTICR-MS signal intensities of individual molecular formulae and optical properties determined which molecular formulae were associated with each PARAFAC component and optical index. The molecular families that tracked with the optical indices were generally in agreement with conventional biogeochemical interpretations. Therefore, although they represent only a small portion of the bulk DOM pool, absorbance and fluorescence measurements are indeed appropriate proxies for the aquatic cycling of both optically-active and associated optically-inactive DOM in coastal wetlands.

  18. Water-resources investigations, Collier County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klein, Howard

    1980-01-01

    Early water-resources investigations in Collier County, Fla., were related to saltwater intrusion in Naples. With the advent of canal drainage and land reclamation farther inland, investigations were directed at effects of canals on water resources and the environment. High on the list of investigative needs are: (1) areal and vertical delineation of the shallow aquifer, the prime source of freshwater; (2) delineation of areas of poor quality ground water and the sources of the poor quality; (3) establishment of network of hydrologic data stations; and (4) determination of the relation between canals and the shallow aquifer. (USGS)

  19. USING SPARROW MODEL RESULTS TO ASSIST WITH COASTAL WATER ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Coastal Assessment (NCA) has proposed a national strategy for research and monitoring in support of coastal water assessment that involves three tiers: Problem Characterization (Tier 1), involving probabilistic surveys to document broad-scale response properties; D...

  20. USING SPARROW MODEL RESULTS TO ASSIST WITH COASTAL WATER ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Coastal Assessment (NCA) has proposed a national strategy for research and monitoring in support of coastal water assessment that involves three tiers: Problem Characterization (Tier 1), involving probabilistic surveys to document broad-scale response properties; D...

  1. Water withdrawals, use, and trends in Florida, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marella, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, the total amount of water withdrawn in Florida was estimated to be 14,988 million gallons per day (Mgal/d). Saline water accounted for 8,589 Mgal/d (57 percent) and freshwater accounted for 6,399 Mgal/d (43 percent). Groundwater accounted for 4,166 Mgal/d (65 percent) of freshwater withdrawals, and surface water accounted for the remaining 2,233 Mgal/d (35 percent). Surface water accounted for nearly all (99.9 percent) saline-water withdrawals. An additional 659 Mgal/d of reclaimed wastewater was used in Florida during 2010. Freshwater withdrawals were greatest in Palm Beach County (707 Mgal/d), and saline-water withdrawals were greatest in Hillsborough County (1,715 Mgal/d). Fresh groundwater provided drinking water (public supplied and self-supplied) for 17.33 million people (92 percent of Florida’s population), and fresh surface water provided drinking water for 1.47 million people (8 percent). The statewide public-supply gross per capita use for 2010 was 134 gallons per day, whereas the statewide public-supply domestic per capita use was 85 gallons per day. The majority of groundwater withdrawals (almost 62 percent) in 2010 were obtained from the Floridan aquifer system, which is present throughout most of the State. The majority of fresh surface-water withdrawals (56 percent) came from the southern Florida hydrologic unit subregion and is associated with Lake Okeechobee and the canals in the Everglades Agricultural Area of Glades, Hendry, and Palm Beach Counties, as well as the Caloosahatchee River and its tributaries in the agricultural areas of Collier, Glades, Hendry, and Lee Counties. Overall, agricultural irrigation accounted for 40 percent of the total freshwater withdrawals (ground and surface), followed by public supply with 35 percent. Public supply accounted for 48 percent of groundwater withdrawals, followed by agricultural self-supplied (34 percent), commercial-industrial-mining self-supplied (7 percent), recreational

  2. Barnacles as biomonitors of metal contamination in coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reis, Pedro A.; Salgado, Maria Antónia; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2011-07-01

    The use of barnacles as biomonitors of metal contamination in coastal waters worldwide is reviewed as a critique compilation of the reported studies and presents resume-tables of available data for future reference. The barnacle body reflects both short and long-term metal level environmental variations and the metal bioaccumulation occurs mainly in their granules (relatively inactive pools). The barnacle body is considered as good biomonitoring material and different barnacle species could bioaccumulate metal concentration ranges of 40-153,000 μg/g of Zn, 20-22,230 μg/g de Fe, 1.5-21,800 μg/g of Cu, 5.9-4742 μg/g of Mn, 0.1-1000 μg/g of Pb, 0.7-330 μg/g of Cd, 0.4-99 μg/g of Ni and 0.2-49 μg/g of Cr. However, as the plates ('shells') of barnacle exoskeletons can be affected by metal levels in coastal waters, mainly in their composition and morphology, they are not considered good biomonitoring material. Despite this, the use of a specific barnacle species or group of species in a specific region must firstly be carefully validated and the interpretation of the contaminant bioaccumulation levels should involve specific environmental variations of the region, physiological parameters of the barnacle species and the relationship between the potential toxicity of the contaminant for the environment and their significance for the barnacle species. Barnacles, particularly a widespread cosmopolitan species such as Amphibalanus amphitrite, have a great potential as biomonitors of anthropogenic contamination in coastal waters and have been used worldwide, including Europe (United Kingdom, Turkey, Poland, Croatia, Spain and Portugal), Asia (India and China), Oceania (Australia), North America (Florida, Massachusetts and Mexico) and South America (Brazil). The use of barnacle species as biomonitors of metal contamination in coastal waters is considered an important and valuable tool to evaluate and predict the ecological quality of an ecosystem.

  3. Coastal and Estuarine Waters: Light Behavior. Coastal and Estuarine Waters: Optical Sensors and Remote Sensing.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article summarizes the use of remote sensing techniques and technology to monitor coastal and estuarine waters. These waters are rich in mineral particles stirred up from the seabed by tides and waves and dissolved organic matter transported by rivers. The majority of the li...

  4. Coastal and Estuarine Waters: Light Behavior. Coastal and Estuarine Waters: Optical Sensors and Remote Sensing.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article summarizes the use of remote sensing techniques and technology to monitor coastal and estuarine waters. These waters are rich in mineral particles stirred up from the seabed by tides and waves and dissolved organic matter transported by rivers. The majority of the li...

  5. Evaluation of sewage source and fate on southeast Florida coastal reefs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carrie, Futch J.; Griffin, Dale W.; Banks, K.; Lipp, E.K.

    2011-01-01

    Water, sponge and coral samples were collected from stations impacted by a variety of pollution sources and screened for human enteric viruses as conservative markers for human sewage. While human enteroviruses and adenoviruses were not detected, noroviruses (NoV; human genogroups I and II) were detected in 31% of samples (especially in sponge tissue). Stations near inlets were the only ones to show multiple sample types positive for NoV. Fecal indicator bacteria and enteric viruses were further evaluated at multiple inlet stations on an outgoing tide. Greatest indicator concentrations and highest prevalence of viruses were found at the mouth of the inlet and offshore in the inlet plume. Results suggest that inlets moving large volumes of water into the coastal zone with tides may be an important source of fecal contaminants. Efforts to reduce run-off or unintended release of water into the Intracoastal Waterway may lower contaminants entering sensitive coastal areas. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Public water supplies of selected municipalities in Florida, 1975

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, H.G.

    1977-01-01

    Water use by 169 municipalities and 5 county water systems in Florida as of December 1975 is summarized. Included in the listing, by city or system, are water use data, sewage data, and chemical analyses of raw and treated water. In addition, miscellaneous public supply data for three small communities and municipalities (population generally less than 5,000) and historical public supply pumpage for selected municipalities for 1945, 1947, 1956, 1965 and 1970-74 are tabulated. Also included is a list of reports published in 1970-75 relating to hydrology, geology, and water resources of the areas where the cities are located. The demand for freshwater for municipal use in Florida increased sharply during 1970-75. Statewide ground-water use for municipal supply increased from 759 mgd in 1970 to 976 mgd in 1975 and surface-water use has increased from 125 mgd in 1970 to 166 mgd in 1975. The 28 percent increase in ground-water use and the 33 percent increase in surface-water use reflects the continuing rapid population growth and the accompanying expanding economic activity in the State. (Woodard-USGS)

  7. Coastal water monitoring using a vertical profiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong Guk; Seo, Seongbong; Park, Young-Gyu; Min, Hong Sik

    2017-04-01

    Using a profiler system, the Aqualog, composed of a moored wire and a carrier in which a CTD was installed, we have been monitoring coastal water in Korea since August 2016. With this monitoring system, we were able to observe rapid warming of surface water that resulted in large damage to fish farms. The profiles showed that the warming was associated with low salinity water due to the fresh water discharge from the Yangtze River. We also observed change in water properties due to a typhoon. Along the Korean coast there are many aquafarms, which are becoming more vulnerable to environmental change. With the data from the profiler we would be able to help the aquafarms to sustain.

  8. Water Withdrawals, Use, and Trends in Florida, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marella, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the total amount of water withdrawals in Florida was estimated at 18,359 million gallons per day (Mgal/d). Saline water accounted for 11,486 Mgal/d (63 percent), and freshwater accounted for 6,873 Mgal/d (37 percent). Groundwater accounted for 4,247 Mgal/d (62 percent) of freshwater withdrawals, and surface water accounted for the remaining 2,626 Mgal/d (38 percent). Surface water accounted for nearly all (99.9 percent) saline-water withdrawals. An additional 660 Mgal/d of reclaimed wastewater was used in Florida during 2005. The largest amount of freshwater was withdrawn from Palm Beach County, and the largest amount of saline water was withdrawn from Pasco County. Fresh groundwater provided drinking water (public supplied and self-supplied) for 16.19 million people (90 percent of Florida's population), and fresh surface water provided drinking water for 1.73 million people (10 percent). The majority of groundwater withdrawals (nearly 60 percent) in 2005 was obtained from the Floridan aquifer system which is present throughout the entire State. The majority of fresh surface-water withdrawals (59 percent) came from the southern Florida hydrologic unit subregion and is associated with Lake Okeechobee and the canals in the Everglades Agricultural Area of Glades, Hendry, and Palm Beach Counties, as well as the Caloosahatchee River and its tributaries in the agricultural areas of Collier, Glades, Hendry, and Lee Counties. Overall, agricultural irrigation accounted for 40 percent of the total freshwater withdrawals (ground and surface), followed by public supply with 37 percent. Public supply accounted for 52 percent of groundwater withdrawals, followed by agricultural self-supplied (31 percent), ommercial-industrial-mining self-supplied (8.5 percent), recreational irrigation and domestic self-supplied (4 percent each), and power generation (0.5 percent). Agricultural self-supplied accounted for 56 percent of fresh surface-water withdrawals, followed by power

  9. The Carbon Budget of Coastal Waters of Eastern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najjar, R.; Boyer, E. W.; Burdige, D.; Butman, D. E.; Cai, W. J.; Canuel, E. A.; Chen, R. F.; Friedrichs, M. A.; Griffith, P. C.; Herrmann, M.; Kemp, W. M.; Kroeger, K. D.; Mannino, A.; McCallister, S. L.; McGillis, W. R.; Mulholland, M. R.; Salisbury, J.; Signorini, S. R.; Tian, H.; Tzortziou, M.; Vlahos, P.; Wang, A. Z.; Zimmerman, R. C.; Pilskaln, C. H.

    2015-12-01

    Observations and the output of numerical and statistical models are synthesized to construct a carbon budget of the coastal waters of eastern North America. The domain extends from the head of tide to (roughly) the continental shelf break and from southern Florida to southern Nova Scotia. The domain area is 2% tidal wetlands, 19% estuarine open water, and 78% shelf water. Separate budgets are constructed for inorganic and organic carbon; for tidal wetlands, estuaries, and shelf waters; and for three main subregions: the Gulf of Maine, the Mid-Atlantic Bight, and the South Atlantic Bight. Net primary production for the study region is about 150 Tg C yr-1, with 12% occurring in tidal wetlands and 7% in estuaries. Though respiration and photosynthesis are nearly balanced in most systems and regions, tidal wetlands and shelf waters are each found to be net autotrophic whereas estuaries are net heterotrophic. The domain as a whole is a sink of 5 Tg C yr-1 of atmospheric CO2, with tidal wetlands and shelf waters taking up 10 Tg C yr-1 (split roughly equally) and estuaries releasing 5 Tg C yr-1 to the atmosphere. Carbon burial is about 3 Tg C yr-1, split roughly equally among tidal wetlands, estuaries, and shelf waters. Rivers supply 6-7 Tg C yr-1 to estuaries, about 2/3 of which is organic. Tidal wetlands supply an additional 4 Tg C yr-1 to estuaries, about half of which is organic. Carbon in organic and inorganic forms is exported from estuaries to shelf waters and from shelf waters to the open ocean. In summary, tidal wetlands and estuaries, though small in area, contribute substantially to the overall carbon budget of the region.

  10. Water-management model in Florida from LANDSAT-1 data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higer, A. L.; Cordes, E. H.; Coker, A. E.; Rogers, R. H.

    1975-01-01

    A prototype data acquisition and dissemination network and its effectiveness in improving and/or solving hydrologic problems in southern Florida are evaluated. The network utilized LANDSAT MSS imagery and in situ monitoring by LANDSAT-DCS. Results show water level and rain fall measurements were collected and disseminated in less than two hours, a significant improvement over conventional methods which took up to two months. Improved network performance has also aided the development of water budgets and water distribution to the people, funa, and flora in the area. Imagery from LANDSAT was also found to enhance the utility of ground measurements.

  11. Water-management model in Florida from LANDSAT-1 data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higer, A. L.; Cordes, E. H.; Coker, A. E.; Rogers, R. H.

    1975-01-01

    A prototype data acquisition and dissemination network and its effectiveness in improving and/or solving hydrologic problems in southern Florida are evaluated. The network utilized LANDSAT MSS imagery and in situ monitoring by LANDSAT-DCS. Results show water level and rain fall measurements were collected and disseminated in less than two hours, a significant improvement over conventional methods which took up to two months. Improved network performance has also aided the development of water budgets and water distribution to the people, funa, and flora in the area. Imagery from LANDSAT was also found to enhance the utility of ground measurements.

  12. TNT Degradation by Natural Microbial Assemblages at Frontal Boundaries Between Water Masses in Coastal Ecosystems (ER-2124 Interim Report)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-26

    relatively high organic mangrove lagoon water and lower organic open ocean water. In nature, this may occur with tidal flushing or from a rain event...During this first year of sampling in the Florida Keys, USA, we found that mixing experiments between mangrove lagoon water and open ocean Gulf of...they to migrate from mangrove-dominated lagoon systems to adjacent coastal waterways in tropical ecosystems. Understanding the relationships between

  13. Water resources of Okaloosa County and adjacent areas, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trapp, Henry; Pascale, C.A.; Foster, J.B.

    1977-01-01

    Okaloosa County, in the northwest Florida panhandle, uses the Floridan aquifer for water supply, although it also has abundant surface water and ground water in the surficial sand-and-gravel aquifer. Water levels have declined locally more than 90 feet in the upper limestone of the Floridan aquifer. The Floridan aquifer is overlain by the Pensacola clay confining bed, and the Bucatunna Clay subdivides it into two limestone units. Water in the upper limestone is generally of good quality. The lower limestone probably contains saline water. Average daily stream discharge is about 2,500 million gallons. Stream discharge does not diminish excessively during droughts, owing to high base runoff. Water levels in the Floridan aquifer will decline as long as pumping increases in the present areas of withdrawal. The decline could be alleviated by redistribution of pumping, artificial recharge, and the use of the sand-and-gravel aquifer or streams. (Woodard-USGS)

  14. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (south Florida)

    SciTech Connect

    Jory, D.E.; Iversen, E.S. . Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences)

    1989-08-01

    Black, red, and Nassau groupers (Mycteroperca bonaci, Epinephelus morio, and E. striatus, respectively) are widely distributed on rocky bottoms and reefs along the south Florida coast. They are the most valuable marine finfish group in Florida, comprising about 25% of the total value of landings in 1984. The three species can be distinguished by morphometric, meristic, and body color characteristics. Younger fish are typically found in shallow, inshore grass beds, and larger, older fish are generally restricted to deep waters. The three species are protogynous hermaphrodites. Sexual transition can occur at any length over about 300 mm SL. An offshore movement apparently coincides with the onset of sexual maturity. Spawning aggregations have been observed throughout the year, but occur mostly between late spring and early summer. Fecundity estimates range from about 800,000 to 5,000,000 eggs per female. Both the eggs and the larvae are planktonic. Their early life history is poorly known. Larvae probably leave the plankton and become benthic at around 20--30 mm SL. Growth rates range from about 2 to 10 mm/month. The three species are unspecialized carnivores, feeding on a variety of fishes, crustaceans, and mollusks. Interspecific competition for food and shelter may be common because of the overlap in distribution, habitat, size, and food habitats. For the three species, a number of predators and parasites have been reported. Both the black and red groupers have been implicated in ciguatera poisonings in south Florida. 70 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Florida

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Florida in Color and Stereo     View Larger ... 9, 2000 during Terra orbit 1650. The image at the top is a color view acquired by the vertical (nadir) camera. It has been reoriented so ... provides a three-dimensional effect when viewed using red/blue glasses with the red filter placed over the left eye. This stereoscopic ...

  16. Fluctuations of ground-water levels in Lee County, Florida, in 1975 water year

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Donnell, T. H.

    1977-01-01

    During the 1975 water year, rainfall was about average at Page Field, Florida, and from 20-25 percent below average at Lehigh Acres and Sanibel Island. Water levels were monitored in 57 observation wells in Lee County, Florida. Of the 23 wells that tap the water-table aquifer, one record high and 5 record low water levels were established. Record low water levels were established in 5 of 20 wells that tap the sandstone aquifer and in 1 of 10 wells that tap the upper Hawthorn aquifer. A record high water level was established in 1 of 3 wells that tap the lower Hawthorn aquifer. (Woodard-USGS)

  17. Regional Jurassic geologic framework of Alabama coastal waters area and adjacent Federal waters area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mink, R.M.; Bearden, B.L.; Mancini, E.A.

    1989-01-01

    To date, numerous Jurassic hydrocarbon fields and pools have been discovered in the Cotton Valley Group, Haynesville Formation, Smackover Formation and Norphlet Formation in the tri-state area of Mississippi, Alabama and Florida, and in Alabama State coastal waters and adjacent Federal waters area. Petroleum traps are basement highs, salt anticlines, faulted salt anticlines and extensional faults associated with salt movement. Reservoirs include continental and marine sandstones, limestones and dolostones. Hydrocarbon types are oil, condensate and natural gas. The onshore stratigraphic and structural information can be used to establish a regional geologic framework for the Jurassic for the State coastal waters and adjacent Federal waters areas. Evaluation of the geologic information along with the hydrocarbon data from the tri-state area indicates that at least three Jurassic hydrocarbon trends (oil, oil and gas condensate, and deep natural gas) can be identified onshore. These onshore hydrocarbon trends can be projected into the Mobile area in the Central Gulf of Mexico and into the Pensacola, Destin Dome and Apalachicola areas in the Eastern Gulf of Mexico. Substantial reserves of natural gas are expected to be present in Alabama State waters and the northern portion of the Mobile area. Significant accumulations of oil and gas condensate may be encountered in the Pensacola, Destin Dome, and Apalachicola areas. ?? 1989.

  18. Semiannual water-table and potentiometric surface for two water-yielding zones in the surficial aquifer, 1975-79, Naples area, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchmiller, Robert C.

    1982-01-01

    Potable ground water in the Naples area along the coastal ridge of western Collier County, Florida, is available from two principal sources--the water-table zone and the pumped zone, both within the surficial aquifer. The primary source of public supply is from the pumped zone, locally known as the Coastal Ridge aquifer. Water levels in wells in the pumped zone respond rapidly to pumpage and usually indicate a cone of depression in most of the highly urbanized Naples area. The cone of depression caused by pumpage has created significant water-level differences between the water-table zone and pumped zone. Water-level differences in the two zones from 1975 to 1979 frequently exceed 10 feet. The maps have been drawn to be representative of hydrologic conditions in both zones for the wet and dry seasons from 1975-79. (USGS)

  19. Water Foundations Teachers Guide. The Science of Florida's Water Resources: Lesson Plans for Teachers and Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This document features lesson plans for teachers and students on Florida's water resources. The guide is divided into four grade levels: K-2, 3-5, 6-8, and 9-12. Each grade level includes objectives, guides, and five lesson plans. K-2 lesson plans include: (1) "We Are Water"; (2) "Why Water is Extra Special"; (3) "Water's…

  20. Mississippi waters reaching South Florida reefs under no flood conditions: synthesis of observing and modeling system findings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Hénaff, Matthieu; Kourafalou, Vassiliki H.

    2016-03-01

    In August 2014, in situ measurements revealed an intense salinity drop impacting South Florida coral reefs, between Pulley Ridge (Southwest Florida Shelf) and the Florida Keys. The low salinity waters had a surface signal of 32 (down from 35.2) and extended over a 15-20-m deep lens. Satellite observations showed that this abrupt drop in salinity was due to a southeastward export of Mississippi River waters from the Northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM), revealing strong interaction between coastal and oceanic flows. Unlike previous events of marked long-distance Mississippi water export, this episode is not associated with Mississippi flooding conditions, which makes it a unique study case. We have developed a high-resolution (~2 km) comprehensive hydrodynamic numerical model of the GoM to study the conditions that controlled the 2014 Mississippi River water export episode. It is based on the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) and assimilates remotely sensed altimetry and sea surface temperature observations, to ensure that the simulated upper-ocean is realistic. This regional model has a detailed representation of coastal physics (especially river plume dynamics) and employs high-frequency river discharge and atmospheric forcing. The combined use of the simulation and observations reveals a unique pathway that brought Mississippi waters first eastward along the Northern GoM continental shelf, under prevailing winds and the presence of an anticyclonic Loop Current eddy, then southward along the edge of the West Florida Shelf, before reaching the deep GoM. Unlike usually observed, the offshore advection of Mississippi River waters thus took place far from the Delta area, which is another specificity of the 2014 episode. Finally, in the Florida Straits, Mississippi waters were advected from the deep ocean to the continental shelf under the influence of both deep sea (particularly a cyclonic Loop Current frontal eddy) and shelf flows (wind-induced Ekman transport). The

  1. Input of urban nitrogen to coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorensen, L. L.; Barthelmie, R.; Pryor, S.; Bilde, M.; Ingemansson, O.

    2003-04-01

    The project described is a pilot study to make first estimates of the contribution of urban emissions to nitrogen (N) deposition to coastal waters. The overall objective is to estimate the transport and deposition of N gases emitted in the city of Copenhagen to the coastal waters of the Øresund. Traffic emissions are increasingly recognised as a source of nitrogen gases which contribute to urban pollution affecting human health and visibility by contributing both reduced and oxidised forms of nitrogen where co-emitted pollutants (such as ammonia NH3 and nitric acid HNO3) may react to increase the aerosol burden. While net agricultural emissions of NH3 are larger, they are mainly concentrated in spring and summer whereas urban emissions are a year-round phenomena and in winter mixed layer depths are lower concentrating pollutants in the boundary-layer. First estimates are that emissions from Copenhagen are up to 2.5% of Denmark's total NH3 emissions. Detailed NH3 measurements are being conducted on the Chemistry Building at Copenhagen University using Risø's Wet Effluent Diffusion Denuders which have very low detection limits (~0.1 ppb) and provide good time resolution (~ minutes). The measurements indicate a strong correlation between NH3 and nitrogen oxides (NOx), with diurnal emission patterns strongly indicative of traffic emissions. Measurements are also being conducted at Barseback approximately 20 km from Copenhagen across the Øresund. Measurements from a mast installed just outside (2 km) of Copenhagen harbour are being used to characterise the wind and turbulence conditions of the Øresund. The presence of the city can be detected in the turbulence intensity. Sector average turbulence intensity at 10 m height is up to 17% in easterly sectors and around 10% from overwater directions. This implies that the presence of Copenhagen increases turbulence potentially increasing deposition to coast waters. The data collected will be used to provide first

  2. Water-management models in Florida from ERTS-1 data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higer, A. L. (Principal Investigator); Rogers, R. H.; Coker, A. E.; Cordes, E. H.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The usefullness of ERTS 1 to improving the overall effectiveness of collecting and disseminating data was evaluated. ERTS MSS imagery and in situ monitoring by DCS were used to evaluate their separate and combined capabilities. Twenty data collection platforms were established in southern Florida. Water level and rainfall measurements were collected and disseminated to users in less than 2 hours, a significant improvement over conventional techniques requiring 2 months. ERTS imagery was found to significantly enhance the utility of ground measurements. Water stage was correlated with water surface areas from imagery in order to obtain water stage-volume relations. Imagery provided an economical basis for extrapolating water parameters from the point samples to unsampled data and provided a synoptic view of water mass boundaries that no amount of ground sampling or monitoring could provide.

  3. The Gulf of Mexico Coastal Ocean Observing System: Building an MBON for the Florida Keys.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, M.; Stoessel, M. M.; Currier, R. D.

    2016-02-01

    The Gulf of Mexico Coastal Ocean Observing System Regional Association (GCOOS-RA) Data Portal was designed to aggregate regional data and to serve it to the public through standards-based services in useful and desirable forms. These standards are established and sanctioned for use by the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) Program Office with inputs from experts on the Integrated Ocean Observation Committee and the RA informatics community. In 2012, with considerable input from staff from Ocean Biogeographical Information System USA (OBIS-USA), IOOS began to develop and adopt standards for serving biological datasets. GCOOS-RA applied these standards the following year and began serving fisheries independent data through an GCOOS ERDDAP server. In late 2014, GCOOS-RA partnered with the University of South Florida in a 5-year Marine Biodiversity Observing Network (MBON) Project sponsored by NOAA, NASA and BOEM. Work began in 2015. GCOOS' primary role is to aggregate, organize and serve data that are useful to an MBON for the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. GCOOS, in collaboration with Axiom Data Science, will produce a decision support system (DSS) for stakeholders such as NOAA National Marine Sanctuaries Program managers. The datasets to be managed include environmental observations from: field surveys, fixed platforms, and satellites; GIS layers of: bathymetry, shoreline, sanctuary boundaries, living marine resources and habitats; outputs from ocean circulation models and ecosystem models (e.g., Ecopath/Ecosim) and Environmental DNA. Additionally, the DSS may be called upon to perform analyses, compute indices of biodiversity and present results in tabular, graphic and fused forms in an interactive setting. This presentation will discuss our progress to date for this challenging work in data integration.

  4. Effects of a coastal golf complex on water quality, periphyton, and seagrass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, M.A.; Boustany, R.G.; Dantin, D.D.; Quarles, R.L.; Moore, J.C.; Stanley, R.S.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide baseline information on the effects of a golf course complex on water quality, colonized periphyton, and seagrass meadows in adjacent freshwater, near-coastal, and wetland areas. The chemical and biological impacts of the recreational facility, which uses reclaimed municipal wastewater for irrigation, were limited usually to near-field areas and decreased seaward during the 2-year study. Concentrations of chromium, copper, and organochlorine pesticides were below detection in surface water, whereas mercury, lead, arsenic, and atrazine commonly occurred at all locations. Only mercury and lead exceeded water quality criteria. Concentrations of nutrients and chlorophyll a were greater in fairway ponds and some adjacent coastal areas relative to reference locations and Florida estuaries. Periphyton ash free dry weight and pigment concentrations statistically differed but not between reference and non-reference coastal areas. Biomass of Thalassia testudinum (turtle grass) was approximately 43% less in a meadow located adjacent to the golf complex (P < 0.05). The results of the study suggest that the effects of coastal golf courses on water quality may be primarily localized and limited to peripheral near-coastal areas. However, this preliminary conclusion needs additional supporting data. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  5. Specific absorption and backscatter coefficient signatures in southeastern Atlantic coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostater, Charles R., Jr.

    1998-12-01

    Measurements of natural water samples in the field and laboratory of hyperspectral signatures of total absorption and reflectance were obtained using long pathlength absorption systems (50 cm pathlength). Water was sampled in Indian River Lagoon, Banana River and Port Canaveral, Florida. Stations were also occupied in near coastal waters out to the edge of the Gulf Stream in the vicinity of Kennedy Space Center, Florida and estuarine waters along Port Royal Sound and along the Beaufort River tidal area in South Carolina. The measurements were utilized to calculate natural water specific absorption, total backscatter and specific backscatter optical signatures. The resulting optical cross section signatures suggest different models are needed for the different water types and that the common linear model may only appropriate for coastal and oceanic water types. Mean particle size estimates based on the optical cross section, suggest as expected, that particle size of oceanic particles are smaller than more turbid water types. The data discussed and presented are necessary for remote sensing applications of sensors as well as for development and inversion of remote sensing algorithms.

  6. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- A group of white pelicans spend a few moments relaxing in the water near the Vehicle Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center. Found from British Columbia south to western Ontario, California and the Texas coast, white pelicans winter from Florida south to Panama. They prefer marshy lakes and coastal regions, and winter chiefly in coastal lagoons. White pelicans are one of 310 species of birds that inhabit the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with KSC. The marshes and open water of the refuge also provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-01-08

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- A group of white pelicans spend a few moments relaxing in the water near the Vehicle Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center. Found from British Columbia south to western Ontario, California and the Texas coast, white pelicans winter from Florida south to Panama. They prefer marshy lakes and coastal regions, and winter chiefly in coastal lagoons. White pelicans are one of 310 species of birds that inhabit the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with KSC. The marshes and open water of the refuge also provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds.

  7. Passive microwave sensing of coastal area waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, B. M.

    1980-01-01

    A technique to remotely measure sea-surface temperature and salinity was demonstrated during the 1970's with a dual-frequency microwave radiometer system developed at the NASA Langley Research Center. Accuracies in temperature of 1 C and 1 part per thousand in salinity were obtained using state-of-the-art radiometers. Several aircraft programs for the measurement of coastal area waters demonstrating the application of the microwave radiometer system are discussed. Improvements of the microwave radiometer system during the 1980's and the design and development of new radiometer systems at other frequencies are outlined and related to potential applications.

  8. Everglades restoration and water quality challenges in south Florida.

    PubMed

    Perry, William B

    2008-10-01

    This paper provides background information and a brief overview of water quality issues for the rest of the papers in this volume that are concerned with Everglades restoration. The Everglades of Florida have been diminished over 50% of their former extent. The Everglades are no longer a free-flowing wetland ecosystem, but are now subject to a complicated system of water management that is regulated primarily for flood control and consumptive use. Attempts to restore a more natural hydropattern to the remaining undeveloped Everglades are made more difficult by the natural extremes in rainfall, flat landscape, highly porous geology, and inaccessibility of the remaining natural areas. The Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) seeks ecosystem restoration by adding water storage capacity, reducing groundwater seepage, improving regulatory delivery and timing of water to avoid environmental damage, and where feasible, improving the quality of water to be used for Everglades restoration. Water quality issues that currently exist for south Florida include eutrophication (especially phosphorus), mercury, and contaminants from agricultural production and the urban environment. Lands once in agricultural production that will be converted back to wetlands or will become reservoirs may contribute to the water quality concerns. Stormwater runoff from managed lands that will be used for restoration purposes will also present water quality challenges. The state continues to seek water quality improvement with a number of pollution reduction programs, and CERP attempts to improve water quality without sacrificing even more natural areas; however providing water quality sufficient for use in recovery of remaining Everglades wetlands and estuaries will remain a daunting challenge.

  9. Water level observations in mangrove swamps during two hurricanes in Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krauss, K.W.; Doyle, T.W.; Doyle, T.J.; Swarzenski, C.M.; From, A.S.; Day, Richard H.; Conner, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the effectiveness of mangroves in suppressing water level heights during landfall of tropical storms and hurricanes. Recent hurricane strikes along the Gulf Coast of the United States have impacted wetland integrity in some areas and hastened the need to understand how and to what degree coastal forested wetlands confer protection by reducing the height of peak water level. In recent years, U.S. Geological Survey Gulf Coast research projects in Florida have instrumented mangrove sites with continuous water level recorders. Our ad hoc network of water level recorders documented the rise, peak, and fall of water levels (?? 0.5 hr) from two hurricane events in 2004 and 2005. Reduction of peak water level heights from relatively in-line gages associated with one storm surge event indicated that mangrove wetlands can reduce water level height by as much as 9.4 cm/km inland over intact, relatively unchannelized expanses. During the other event, reductions were slightly less for mangroves along a river corridor. Estimates of water level attenuation were within the range reported in the literature but erred on the conservative side. These synoptic data from single storm events indicate that intact mangroves may support a protective role in reducing maximum water level height associated with surge.

  10. Evaluation of the effects of sea-level change and coastal canal management on saltwater intrusion in the Biscayne aquifer of south Florida, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, J. D.; Sifuentes, D. F.; White, J.

    2015-12-01

    Sea-level increases are expected to have an effect on the position of the freshwater-saltwater interface in the Biscayne aquifer in south Florida as a result of the low topographic relief of the area and high rates of groundwater withdrawal from the aquifer. To study the effects that future sea-level increases will have on saltwater intrusion in the Biscayne aquifer in Broward County, Florida, a three-dimensional, variable-density, groundwater-flow and transport model was developed. The model was calibrated to observed groundwater heads and chloride concentrations for a 62-year period that includes historic increases in sea level, development of a surface-water management system to control flooding, and increases in groundwater withdrawals as the area transitioned from agricultural to urban land uses. Sensitivity analyses indicate that downward leakage of saltwater from coastal canals and creeks was the primary source of saltwater to the Biscayne aquifer during the last 62-years in areas where the surface-water system is not actively managed and is tidally influenced. In areas removed from the coastal canals and creeks or under active surface-water management, historic groundwater withdrawals were the primary cause of saltwater intrusion into the aquifer. Simulation of future conditions suggests that possible increases in sea level will result in additional saltwater intrusion. Model scenarios suggest that additional saltwater intrusion will be greatest in areas where coastal canals and creeks were historically the primary source of seawater. Future saltwater intrusion in those areas, however, may be reduced by relocation of salinity-control structures.

  11. Mysterious Black Water off Florida's Gulf Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    An unusually wide swath of significant snow cover resulted from a series of winter storms moving northeastward across the central United States during January 29-31, 2002. Total snowfall accumulations across the Great Plains, Midwest, and Great Lakes regions were as high as 6-18 inches. Along the southeastern edge of the heavy snow band, significant freezing rain resulted in a 1-3 inch coating of ice across parts of Oklahoma, Kansas, and Missouri. This was one of the worst ice storms in Oklahoma history, downing 4,000 electric power poles and causing loss of power to a quarter of a million homes and businesses. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Terra satellite produced an image of the area on February 1, 2002. In visible wavelengths (above, top) the ice appears transluscent, in contrast to the bright white snow and darker ground. The ice is visible as a thick black stripe along the lower right edge of the medium gray snow in the near infrared image (above, lower). Because water absorbs near-infrared light so strongly, bare ground is actually brighter than the snow in this image. full resolution image (1.1 MB JPEG) A clear, dry wind from the north blew southward across the Great Lakes yesterday, picking up moisture from the lakes and pushing it high into the air. The resulting cloud formation can be seen in this image of United States taken on February 4, 2002, by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFs) aboard the OrbView-2 satellite. The cloud formation stretches across Indiana, Ohio, and northeastern Pennsylvania before stopping abruptly at central and southern Appalachian Mountains. A band of snowfall can also be seen lying across southern Nebraska, Oklahoma, Iowa, and Michegan. The crisp, straight boundaries of the snow are easily discernable in the image. In general, clouds appear streaky and uneven on a satellite image, and snow cover appears solid with definable borders. MODIS image courtesy University of

  12. Chemical characteristics of water in the surficial aquifer system, Broward County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howie, Barbara

    1987-01-01

    Water quality data was collected in 1981 and 1982 during the drilling of test holes at 27 sites throughout Broward County, Florida. Determinations were made for the following physical properties and chemical constituents: pH, alkalinity, specific conductance, major ions, selected nutrients and dissolved iron, aluminum, and manganese. Determinations for the trace elements-arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, zinc, selenium, and mercury-were made at 14 wells. Water in the surficial aquifer system between the coastal ridge and the conservation areas is potable and usually is a calcium bicarbonate type for the first 140 ft or more below land surface. Between depths of 140 and 230 ft, groundwater generally grades into a mixed-ion water type. In some areas, diluted seawater occurs beneath the mixed water zone. Dissolved iron concentrations between the coastal ridge and the conservation areas are variable but generally exceed 1,000 micrograms/L. Beneath the conservation areas and the western edge of Broward County, groundwater in the first 100 ft below land surface generally is either a calcium bicarbonate type or a mixed-ion type. At depths between 100 and 200 ft, diluted residual seawater occurs, except along the far western edge of the county. Residual seawater is least diluted in the north. Dissolved iron concentrations generally are between 300 and 1 ,000 micrograms/L but increase to the east of the conservation areas. Other findings of the investigation include: (1) groundwater in some areas west of the coastal ridge probably would be suitable for most domestic, agricultural, and industrial uses if it were treated for carbonate hardness; (2) groundwater in much of Broward County is chemically altered by natural softening and magnesium enrichment (natural softening increases to the west and is very pronounced beneath the far western edge of the county); and (3) there is evidence of mineralized water from the conservation areas mixing with groundwater east of the

  13. Remote Sensing of Coastal and Inland Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Keukelaere, L.; Sterckx, S.; Adriaensen, S.; Knaeps, E.

    2016-02-01

    The new generation of satellites (e.g. Landsat 8, HyspIRI, Sentinel 2 and Sentinel 3 …) contain sensors that enable monitoring at increased spatial and/or spectral resolution. This opens a wide range of new opportunities, amongst others improved observation of coastal and inland waters. Algorithms for the pre-processing of these images and the derivation of Level 2 products for these waters need to take into account the specific nature of these environments, with adjacency effects of the nearby land and complex interactions of the optially active substances with varying degrees of turbidity. Here a new atmospheric correction algorithm, OPERA, is presented which can deal with these highly complex environments and which is sensor generic. OPERA accounts for the contribution of adjacency effects and provides surface reflectances for both land and water targets. OPERA is extended with a level 2 water algorithm providing TSM and turbidity estimates for a wide variety of water types. The algorithm is based on a multi wavelength switching approach using shorter wavelengths in low turbid waters and long NIR and SWIR wavelengths for highly and extremely turbid waters. Results are shown for Landsat-8, Sentinel-2 and MERIS for a variety of scenes, validated with field aeronet and turbidity data.

  14. Water-use data by category, county, and water management district in Florida, 1950-90

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marella, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    The population for Florida in 1990 was estimated at 12.94 million, an increase of nearly 10.17 million (370 percent) from the population of 2.77 million in 1950. Consequently, water use (fresh and saline) in Florida increased nearly 510 percent (15,175 million gallons per day) between 1950 and 1990. The resident population of the State is projected to surpass 20 million by the year 2020. Through the cooperation of the Florida Department of Environ- mental Protection and the U.S. Geologial Survey, water-use data for the period between 1950 and 1990 has been consolidated into one publication. This report aggregates and summarizes the quantities of water withdrawn annually for all water-use categories (public supply, self-supplied domestic, self-supplied commercial-industrial, agriculture, and thermoelectric power generation), by counties, and water management districts in Florida from 1950 through 1990. Total water withdrawn in Florida increased from 2,923 million gallons per day in 1950 to 17,898 million gallons per day in 1990. Surface- water withdrawals during 1950 totaled 2,333 million gallons per day but were not differentiated between fresh and saline, therefore, comparisons between fresh and saline water were made beginning with 1955 data. Freshwater withdrawals increased 245 percent between 1955 and 1990. Saline water withdrawals increased more than 1,500 percent between 1955 and 1990. In 1955, more than 47 percent of the fresh- water used was withdrawn from ground-water sources and 53 percent was withdrawn from surface-water sources. In 1990, nearly 62 percent of the fresh- water withdrawn was from ground-water sources, while 38 percent was withdrawn from surface-water sources. The steady increase in ground-water withdrawals since the 1950's primarily is a result of the ability to drill and pump water more economically from large, deep wells and the reliability of both the quality and quantity of water from these wells. Water withdrawn for public supply in

  15. Photochemical Transformations of the Structural and Optical Properties of Marine Colored Dissolved Organic Material in Coastal Waters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-30

    characterization of CDOM in fresh to marine transition zones in South Florida (with Rod Zika (RSMAS, UM)); 2) set up instrumentation and accumulate water...results from recent ONR-funded cruises at the 2002 Ocean Sciences meeting. APPROACH In collaboration with Dr. Rod Zika and Eliete Zanardi...laboratory in collaboration with Dr. Bob Chen, U. Mass. Boston and Rod Zika , RSMAS. Field studies and sampling of local salt marshes and coastal waters

  16. Semi-analytical Model for Estimating Absorption Coefficients of Optically Active Constituents in Coastal Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.; Cui, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The objectives of this paper are to validate the applicability of a multi-band quasi-analytical algorithm (QAA) in retrieval absorption coefficients of optically active constituents in turbid coastal waters, and to further improve the model using a proposed semi-analytical model (SAA). The ap(531) and ag(531) semi-analytically derived using SAA model are quite different from the retrievals procedures of QAA model that ap(531) and ag(531) are semi-analytically derived from the empirical retrievals results of a(531) and a(551). The two models are calibrated and evaluated against datasets taken from 19 independent cruises in West Florida Shelf in 1999-2003, provided by SeaBASS. The results indicate that the SAA model produces a superior performance to QAA model in absorption retrieval. Using of the SAA model in retrieving absorption coefficients of optically active constituents from West Florida Shelf decreases the random uncertainty of estimation by >23.05% from the QAA model. This study demonstrates the potential of the SAA model in absorption coefficients of optically active constituents estimating even in turbid coastal waters. Keywords: Remote sensing; Coastal Water; Absorption Coefficient; Semi-analytical Model

  17. Water Use and Quality Footprints of Biofuel Crops in Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, S.; Hendricks, G.; Helsel, Z.; Knowles, J.

    2013-12-01

    The use of biofuel crops for future energy needs will require considerable amounts of water inputs. Favorable growing conditions for large scale biofuel production exist in the sub-tropical environment of South Florida. However, large-scale land use change associated with biofuel crops is likely to affect the quantity and quality of water within the region. South Florida's surface and ground water resources are already stressed by current allocations. Limited data exists to allocate water for growing the energy crops as well as evaluate the accompanying hydrologic and water quality impacts of large-scale land use changes. A three-year study was conducted to evaluate the water supply and quality impacts of three energy crops: sugarcane, switchgrass, and sweet sorghum (with a winter crop). Six lysimeters were used to collect the data needed to quantify crop evapotranspiration (ETc), and nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) levels in groundwater and discharge (drainage and runoff). Each lysimeter (4.85 x 3.65 x 1.35 m) was equipped to measure water input, output, and storage. The irrigation, runoff, and drainage volumes were measured using flow meters. Groundwater samples were collected bi-weekly and drainage/runoff sampling was event based; samples were analyzed for nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) species. Data collected over the three years revealed that the average annual ETc was highest for sugarcane (1464 mm) followed by switchgrass and sweet sorghum. Sweet sorghum had the highest total N (TN) concentration (7.6 mg/L) in groundwater and TN load (36 kg/ha) in discharge. However, sweet sorghum had the lowest total P (TP) concentration (1.2 mg/L) in groundwater and TP load (9 kg/ha) in discharge. Water use footprint for ethanol (liter of water used per liter of ethanol produced) was lowest for sugarcane and highest for switchgrass. Switchgrass had the highest P-load footprint for ethanol. No differences were observed for the TN load footprint for ethanol. This is the

  18. Source, use, and disposition of water in Florida, 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leach, S.D.

    1983-01-01

    An average of 21,206 million gallons of water was withdrawn for use in Florida each day for the combined use for public supplies , rural domestic and livestock, industrial self-supplied, irrigation, and thermoelectric power generation. This amount, broken down into 7,309 millions gallons per day of freshwater and 13,897 million gallons per day of saline water, indicates an increase of more than 40 percent for all uses during the 10-year period 1970-80. The largest user of freshwater in Florida was for irrigation--2,997 million gallons per day which also is responsible for the greatest consumption, 1,530 million gallons on the average each day or about half the water applied. The remaining use of freshwater amounted to 1,859 million gallons per day for thermoelectric power generation (which also used about 13.7 billion gallons per day of saline water); 1,361 million gallons per day of public supply; 797 million gallons per day for industrial use other than thermoelectric power generation; and 310 million gallons per day, on the average, for rural domestic and livestock use. (USGS)

  19. Summary of hydraulic properties of the Floridan Aquifer system in coastal Georgia and adjacent parts of South Carolina and Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, John S.; Leeth, David C.; Taylor-Harris, DaVette; Painter, Jaime A.; Labowski, James L.

    2005-01-01

    Hydraulic-property data for the Floridan aquifer system and equivalent clastic sediments in a 67-county area of coastal Georgia and adjacent parts of South Carolina and Florida were evaluated to provide data necessary for development of ground-water flow and solute-transport models. Data include transmissivity at 324 wells, storage coefficient at 115 wells, and vertical hydraulic conductivity of 72 core samples from 27 sites. Hydraulic properties of the Upper Floridan aquifer vary greatly in the study area due to the heterogeneity (and locally to anisotropy) of the aquifer and to variations in the degree of confinement provided by confining units. Prominent structural features in the areathe Southeast Georgia Embayment, the Beaufort Arch, and the Gulf Troughinfluence the thickness and hydraulic properties of the sediments comprising the Floridan aquifer system. Transmissivity of the Upper Floridan aquifer and equivalent updip units was compiled for 239 wells and ranges from 530 feet squared per day (ft2/d) at Beaufort County, South Carolina, to 600,000 ft2/d in Coffee County, Georgia. In carbonate rock settings of the lower Coastal Plain, transmissivity of the Upper Floridan aquifer generally is greater than 20,000 ft2/d, with values exceeding 100,000 ft2/d in the southeastern and southwestern parts of the study area (generally coinciding with the area of greatest aquifer thickness). Transmissivity of the Upper Floridan aquifer generally is less than 10,000 ft2/d in and near the upper Coastal Plain, where the aquifer is thin and consists largely of clastic sediments, and in the vicinity of the Gulf Trough, where the aquifer consists of low permeability rocks and sediments. Large variability in the range of transmissivity in Camden and Glynn Counties, Georgia, and Nassau County, Florida, demonstrates the anisotropic distribution of hydraulic properties that may result from fractures or solution openings in the carbonate rocks. Storage coefficient of the Upper

  20. Hydrogeology and quality of ground water in Orange County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adamski, James C.; German, Edward R.

    2004-01-01

    Ground water is the main source of water supply in central Florida and is critical for aquatic habitats and human consumption. To provide a better understanding for the conservation, development, and management of the water resources of Orange County, Florida, a study of the hydrogeologic framework, water budget, and ground-water quality characteristics was conducted from 1998 through 2002. The study also included extensive analyses of the surface-water resources, published as a separate report. An increase in population from about 264,000 in 1960 to 896,000 in 2000 and subsequent urban growth throughout this region has been accompanied by a substantial increase in water use. Total ground-water use in Orange County increased from about 82 million gallons per day in 1965 to about 287 million gallons per day in 2000. The hydrogeology of Orange County consists of three major hydrogeologic units: the surficial aquifer system, the intermediate confining unit, and the Floridan aquifer system. Data were compiled from 634 sites to construct hydrogeologic maps and sections of Orange County. Water-level elevations measured in 23 wells tapping the surficial aquifer system ranged from about 10.6 feet in eastern Orange County to 123.8 feet above NGVD 29 in northwestern Orange County from March 2000 through September 2001. Water levels also were measured in 14 wells tapping the Upper Floridan aquifer. Water levels fluctuate over time from seasonal and annual variations in rainfall; however, water levels in a number of wells tapping the Upper Floridan aquifer have declined over time. Withdrawal of ground water from the aquifers by pumping probably is causing the declines because the average annual precipitation rate has not changed substantially in central Florida since the 1930s, although yearly rates can vary. A generalized water budget was computed for Orange County from 1991 to 2000. Average rates for the 10-year period for the following budget components were computed based

  1. Review and annotated bibliography of benthic studies in coastal and estuarine areas of Florida with a selected compilation of worldwide benthic methodological references and southeastern United States benthic taxonomic references

    SciTech Connect

    Mahadevan, S.; Sprinkel, J.; Heatwole, D.; Wooding, D.H.

    1984-08-01

    Benthic ecology, the study of bottom dwelling flora and fauna, flourished in the state of Florida in the last two decades. The abundance and diversity of benthic habitats in and around the state and the pressures of water use and waterfront development have both contributed to the advancement of research in this field. Almost 75% of the research on benthic habitats and organisms conducted in the last decade was done to either evaluate or mitigate an environmental problem. A reasonable compilation of the majority of benthic studies conducted in Florida's waters was not available to date; this report is an attempt to do so, at least for the coastal and estuarine areas of Florida.

  2. Determining discharge-coefficient ratings for selected coastal control structures in Broward and Palm Beach counties, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillis, G.M.; Swain, E.D.

    1998-01-01

    Discharges through 10 selected coastal control structures in Broward and Palm Beach Counties, Florida, are presently computed using the theoretical discharge-coefficient ratings developed from scale modeling, theoretical discharge coefficients, and some field calibrations whose accuracies for specific sites are unknown. To achieve more accurate discharge-coefficient ratings for the coastal control structures, field discharge measurements were taken with an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler at the coastal control structures under a variety of flow conditions. These measurements were used to determine computed discharge-coefficient ratings for the coastal control structures under different flow regimes: submerged orifice flow, submerged weir flow, free orifice flow, and free weir flow. Theoretical and computed discharge-coefficient ratings for submerged orifice and weir flows were determined at seven coastal control structures, and discharge ratings for free orifice and weir flows were determined at three coastal control structures. The difference between the theoretical and computed discharge-coefficient ratings varied from structure to structure. The theoretical and computed dischargecoefficient ratings for submerged orifice flow were within 10 percent at four of seven coastal control structures; however, differences greater than 20 percent were found at two of the seven structures. The theoretical and computed discharge-coefficient ratings for submerged weir flow were within 10 percent at three of seven coastal control structures; however, differences greater than 20 percent were found at four of the seven coastal control structures. The difference between theoretical and computed discharge-coefficient ratings for free orifice and free weir flows ranged from 5 to 32 percent. Some differences between the theoretical and computed discharge-coefficient ratings could be better defined with more data collected over a greater distribution of measuring conditions.

  3. Impact of Willow Invasion on Vegetation Water and Carbon Exchange in the Florida Everglades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budny, M. L.; Benscoter, B.

    2014-12-01

    Southern coastal willow (Salix caroliniana) is native to the Florida Everglades, commonly found on drier landforms like levees and tree islands. Shortened periods of inundation due to water management have led to the encroachment and expansion of these shrubs in sawgrass (Cladium jamaicense) marsh communities. The broadleaf willow is morphologically and physiologically different from the graminoid sedge sawgrass, with possible consequence for microhabitat conditions and ecosystem function. Willow is often assumed to have greater rates of transpiration, thereby affecting wetland water management, and may have concurrent differences in photosynthesis and carbon exchange. However, the ecophysiological impact of the willow invasion has not been quantified. We assessed differences in plant water and carbon exchange between willow and sawgrass at Blue Cypress Conservation Area, an impounded sawgrass peatland within the St. John's River Water Management District (SJRWMD). Plant transpiration and net CO2 exchange (photosynthesis and autotrophic respiration) were measured on fully expanded, non-damaged leaves of sawgrass and willow using a portable infrared gas analyzer (LI-6400XT, LI-COR, Lincoln, NE, U.S.A.). The results obtained from this study will provide a better understanding of ecophysiological changes that occur within marsh communities with shrub expansion, which will have cascading impacts on soil accretion and turnover, microclimate, and water quality Understanding the implications of willow expansion will improve landscape models of wetland water and carbon exchange as well as inform water management decisions.

  4. Hurricane storm surge and amphibian communities in coastal wetlands of northwestern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gunzburger, M.S.; Hughes, W.B.; Barichivich, W.J.; Staiger, J.S.

    2010-01-01

    Isolated wetlands in the Southeastern United States are dynamic habitats subject to fluctuating environmental conditions. Wetlands located near marine environments are subject to alterations in water chemistry due to storm surge during hurricanes. The objective of our study was to evaluate the effect of storm surge overwash on wetland amphibian communities. Thirty-two wetlands in northwestern Florida were sampled over a 45-month period to assess amphibian species richness and water chemistry. During this study, seven wetlands were overwashed by storm surge from Hurricane Dennis which made landfall 10 July 2005 in the Florida panhandle. This event allowed us to evaluate the effect of storm surge overwash on water chemistry and amphibian communities of the wetlands. Specific conductance across all wetlands was low pre-storm (<100 ??S/cm), but increased post-storm at the overwashed wetlands (x?? = 7,613 ??S/cm). Increased specific conductance was strongly correlated with increases in chloride concentrations. Amphibian species richness showed no correlation with specific conductance. One month post-storm we observed slightly fewer species in overwashed compared with non-overwashed wetlands, but this trend did not continue in 2006. More species were detected across all wetlands pre-storm, but there was no difference between overwashed and non-overwashed wetlands when considering all amphibian species or adult anurans and larval anurans separately. Amphibian species richness did not appear to be correlated with pH or presence of fish although the amphibian community composition differed between wetlands with and without fish. Our results suggest that amphibian communities in wetlands in the southeastern United States adjacent to marine habitats are resistant to the effects of storm surge overwash. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  5. Evaluation of sewage source and fate on southeast Florida coastal reefs.

    PubMed

    Futch, J Carrie; Griffin, Dale W; Banks, Kenneth; Lipp, Erin K

    2011-11-01

    Water, sponge and coral samples were collected from stations impacted by a variety of pollution sources and screened for human enteric viruses as conservative markers for human sewage. While human enteroviruses and adenoviruses were not detected, noroviruses (NoV; human genogroups I and II) were detected in 31% of samples (especially in sponge tissue). Stations near inlets were the only ones to show multiple sample types positive for NoV. Fecal indicator bacteria and enteric viruses were further evaluated at multiple inlet stations on an outgoing tide. Greatest indicator concentrations and highest prevalence of viruses were found at the mouth of the inlet and offshore in the inlet plume. Results suggest that inlets moving large volumes of water into the coastal zone with tides may be an important source of fecal contaminants. Efforts to reduce run-off or unintended release of water into the Intracoastal Waterway may lower contaminants entering sensitive coastal areas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Factors controlling elevated lead concentrations in water samples from aquifer systems in Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, B.G.; Berndt, M.P.; Bullen, T.D.; Hansard, P.

    1999-07-01

    This report presents results of detailed statistical analyses of total and dissolved Pb concentrations in water samples collected from the major aquifer systems in Florida for the FGWQMN [Florida Ground Water Quality Monitoring Network] to determine the influence of anthropogenic factors on elevated Pb concentrations. In addition, Pb isotopic data are presented for water samples collected from a subset of 13 wells in the monitoring network, samples of aquifer material, rainfall, and Pb counterweights. The Pb-isotope data provide a better understanding of the relative contributions of anthropogenic and natural sources of Pb in ground water samples from Florida`s major aquifer systems.

  7. Water resources and effects of development in Hernando County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fretwell, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    In spite of the hill and valley terrain in the Brooksville Ridge area of Hernando County, Florida, little surface drainage occurs within the county. Recharge to the Floridan aquifer system occurs as infiltration of precipitation within the county or as ground-water flow from Sumter County to the east and Pasco County to the south. Discharge is principally to the Gulf of Mexico, but some ground water flows north into Citrus County before it reaches the Gulf. The Floridan aquifer system is generally unconfined. Water quality is generally good except near the coast where high chloride occurs. Water from the Floridan aquifer system accounted for 87 percent of the water used for irrigation, industry, and rural and public supply in 1982. Sixty-seven percent of this water was used by industry. Rock mining, the major industry, used 99 percent of the industrial water. The anticipated increase in population in the county between 1982 and 2000 will increase demand for water primarily from public water-supply systems. This higher demand will cause about a 1 percent reduction in flow from Weeki Wachee Springs, but little change in lake levels or saltwater intrusion will occur if the projected additional supplies are developed far enough inland from the coast. (USGS)

  8. 75 FR 45579 - Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes and Flowing Waters; Supplemental Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ..., ``Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes and Flowing Waters.'' This supplemental notice... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 131 RIN 2040-AF11 Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes and Flowing Waters; Supplemental Notice of Data Availability and Request for Comment AGENCY: Environmental...

  9. Analysis for water level data for Everglades National Park, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchanan, T.J.; Hartwell, J.H.

    1972-01-01

    Stage-duration curves were developed for five gaging stations in Everglades National Park, Florida. Four of the five curves show similar characteristics with an increase in the slope when the water level is below land surface. Monthly stage-duration curves, developed for one of the stations, reflect the seasonal trends of the water level. Recession curves were prepared for the same five stations. These curves represent the average water-level decline during periods of little or no rainfall. They show the decline in level at the end of 10, 20, and 60 days for any given initial stage. A family of curves was also prepared to give the recession from various initial stages for any period up to 60 days.

  10. Water Quality Modeling System for Coastal Archipelagos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuomi, L.; Miettunen, E.; Lukkari, K.; Puttonen, I.; Ropponen, J.; Tikka, K.; Piiparinen, J.; Lignell, R.

    2016-02-01

    Coastal seas are encountering pressures from eutrophication, fishing, ship emissions and coastal construction. Sustainable development and use of these areas require science-based guidance with high quality data and efficient tools. Our study area, the Archipelago Sea, is located in the northern part of the semi-enclosed and brackish water Baltic Sea. It is a shallow, topographically heterogeneous and eutrophic sub-basin, covered with thousands of small islands and islets. The catchment area is 8950 km2and has ca. 500 000 inhabitants. We are developing a modeling system that can be used by local authorities and in ministry level decision making to evaluate the environmental impacts that may result from decisions and changes made both in the watershed and in the coastal areas. The modeling system consists of 3D hydrodynamic model COHERENS and water quality model FICOS, both applied to the area with high spatial resolution. Models use river discharge and nutrient loading data supplied by watershed model VEMALA and include loading from multiple point sources located in the Archipelago Sea. An easy-to-use interface made specifically to answer the end-user needs, includes possibility to modify the nutrient loadings and perform model simulations to selected areas and time periods. To ensure the quality and performance of the modeling system, comprehensive measurement dataset including hydrographic, nutrient, chlorophyll-a and bottom sediment data, was gathered based on monitoring and research campaigns previously carried out in the Archipelago Sea. Verification showed that hydrodynamic model was able to simulate surface temperature and salinity fields and their seasonal variation with good accuracy in this complex area. However, the dynamics of the deeper layers need to be improved, especially in areas that have sharp bathymetric gradients. The preliminary analysis of the water quality model results showed that the model was able to reproduce the basic characteristics of

  11. Water resources of the Waccasassa River Basin and adjacent areas, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, G.F.; Snell, L.J.

    1978-01-01

    This map report was prepared in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District which, with the Waccasassa River Basin Board, had jurisdiction over waters within the Waccasassa River basin, the coastal areas adjacent to the basin, and other adjacent areas outside the basin. New water management district boundaries, effective January 1977, place most of the Waccasassa River basin in the Suwannee River Water Management District. The purpose of the report is to provide water information for consideration in land-use and water development which is accelerating, especially in the northeastern part of the study area. It is based largely on existing data in the relatively undeveloped area. Of the total area included in the topographic drainage basin for the Waccasassa River about 72 percent is in Levy County, 18 percent in Alachua County, 9 percent in Gilchrist County, and 1 percent in Marion County. The elongated north-south drainage basin is approximately 50 mi in length, averages 13 mi in width, and lies between the Suwannee River, the St. Johns River, and the Withlacoochee River basins. (Woodard-USGS)

  12. CLASSIFYING COASTAL WATERS:CURRENT NECESSITY AND HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal ecosystems are ecologically and commercially valuable, productive habitats that are experiencing escalating compromises of their structural and functional integrity. The Clean Water Act (USC 1972) requires identification of impaired water bodies and determination of the c...

  13. CLASSIFYING COASTAL WATERS:CURRENT NECESSITY AND HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal ecosystems are ecologically and commercially valuable, productive habitats that are experiencing escalating compromises of their structural and functional integrity. The Clean Water Act (USC 1972) requires identification of impaired water bodies and determination of the c...

  14. Can Humic Water Discharge Counteract Eutrophication in Coastal Waters?

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Agneta; Jurgensone, Iveta; Rowe, Owen F.; Simonelli, Paolo; Bignert, Anders; Lundberg, Erik; Karlsson, Jan

    2013-01-01

    A common and established view is that increased inputs of nutrients to the sea, for example via river flooding, will cause eutrophication and phytoplankton blooms in coastal areas. We here show that this concept may be questioned in certain scenarios. Climate change has been predicted to cause increased inflow of freshwater to coastal areas in northern Europe. River waters in these areas are often brown from the presence of high concentrations of allochthonous dissolved organic carbon (humic carbon), in addition to nitrogen and phosphorus. In this study we investigated whether increased inputs of humic carbon can change the structure and production of the pelagic food web in the recipient seawater. In a mesocosm experiment unfiltered seawater from the northern Baltic Sea was fertilized with inorganic nutrients and humic carbon (CNP), and only with inorganic nutrients (NP). The system responded differently to the humic carbon addition. In NP treatments bacterial, phytoplankton and zooplankton production increased and the systems turned net autotrophic, whereas the CNP-treatment only bacterial and zooplankton production increased driving the system to net heterotrophy. The size-structure of the food web showed large variations in the different treatments. In the enriched NP treatments the phytoplankton community was dominated by filamentous >20 µm algae, while in the CNP treatments the phytoplankton was dominated by picocyanobacteria <5 µm. Our results suggest that climate change scenarios, resulting in increased humic-rich river inflow, may counteract eutrophication in coastal waters, leading to a promotion of the microbial food web and other heterotrophic organisms, driving the recipient coastal waters to net-heterotrophy. PMID:23637807

  15. Can humic water discharge counteract eutrophication in coastal waters?

    PubMed

    Andersson, Agneta; Jurgensone, Iveta; Rowe, Owen F; Simonelli, Paolo; Bignert, Anders; Lundberg, Erik; Karlsson, Jan

    2013-01-01

    A common and established view is that increased inputs of nutrients to the sea, for example via river flooding, will cause eutrophication and phytoplankton blooms in coastal areas. We here show that this concept may be questioned in certain scenarios. Climate change has been predicted to cause increased inflow of freshwater to coastal areas in northern Europe. River waters in these areas are often brown from the presence of high concentrations of allochthonous dissolved organic carbon (humic carbon), in addition to nitrogen and phosphorus. In this study we investigated whether increased inputs of humic carbon can change the structure and production of the pelagic food web in the recipient seawater. In a mesocosm experiment unfiltered seawater from the northern Baltic Sea was fertilized with inorganic nutrients and humic carbon (CNP), and only with inorganic nutrients (NP). The system responded differently to the humic carbon addition. In NP treatments bacterial, phytoplankton and zooplankton production increased and the systems turned net autotrophic, whereas the CNP-treatment only bacterial and zooplankton production increased driving the system to net heterotrophy. The size-structure of the food web showed large variations in the different treatments. In the enriched NP treatments the phytoplankton community was dominated by filamentous >20 µm algae, while in the CNP treatments the phytoplankton was dominated by picocyanobacteria <5 µm. Our results suggest that climate change scenarios, resulting in increased humic-rich river inflow, may counteract eutrophication in coastal waters, leading to a promotion of the microbial food web and other heterotrophic organisms, driving the recipient coastal waters to net-heterotrophy.

  16. Water resources of the Myakka River basin area, southwest Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Joyner, Boyd F.; Sutcliffe, Horace

    1976-01-01

    Ground water in the Myakka River basin area of southwest Floria is obtained from a water-table aquifer and from five zones in an artesian aquifer. Wells in the water-table aquifer yield generally less than 50 gpm and dissolved solids concentration is less than 500 mg/liter except in coastal areas and the peninsula southwest of the Myakka River estuary. Wells in the Venice area that tap zone 1 usually yield less than 30 gmp. The quality of water is good except in the peninsula area. Zone 2 is the most highly developed aquifer in the heavily populated coastal areas. Wells yield as much as 200 gpm. In most areas, water is of acceptable quality. Wells that tap zone 3 yield as much as 500 gmp. Fluoride concentration ranges from 1 to 3.5 mg/liter. Zone 4 yields as much as 1,500 gpm to large diameter wells. Except in the extreme northeastern part of the area water from zone 4 usually contains high concentrations of fluoride and sulfate. Zone 5 is the most productive aquifer in the area, but dissolved solids concentrations usually are too high for public supply except in the extreme northeast. Surface water derived from natural drainage is of good quality except for occasional high color in summer. Most of the streams in the Myakka River basin area have small drainage basins, are of short channel length, and do not yield high volumes of flow. During the dry season, streamflow is maintained by groundwater discharge, and, as a result, chloride, sulfate, and dissolved solids concentrations and the hardness of the water are above drinking water standards for some streams. (Woodard-USGS)

  17. Environmental Conditions in Coastal Waters Near Panama City, Florida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-08-01

    Shell Island. Shores of the nearby Gulf of Mexico are lined with beautiful white sand beaches which extend over 100 miles (160 km) eastward and westward...out to sea; southeasterly winds divert it toward Panama City Beach, while northwesterly winds divert it toward the shores of Shell Island. Heavy seas...con- taining numerous shell fragments. Median diameter of this coarser material is 0.3 to 0.5 millimetres. Fines now in residence along local beaches

  18. Response of ground-water levels of flood control operations in three basins, south-eastern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pitt, William A.J.

    1974-01-01

    Three basins in southeastern Florida were investigated to determine the changes in ground-water levels and canal flows that occurred in response to operation of coastal water-control structures in each canal. All three basins are underlain by the Biscayne aquifer. They are, Snapper Creek Canal basin, where the Biscayne aquifer is of high permeability; the Snake Creek Canal basin, where the aquifer is of moderate permeability; and the Pompano-Cypress Canal basin, where the aquifer is of low permeability. In each basin, drainage is a function of permeability; thus, where the permeability of the aquifer is high, drainage is excellent. The coastal water-conrol structures are intended to afford flood protection in the three basins. In general the control operation criteria for flood control in newly developing areas in southeastern Florida do not provide adequate protection from flooding because of the time required for the aquifer to respond to changes in the controls. Adequate protection would require increasing the density of secondary drainage canals, but this could achieved only by reducing the quantity of water available for recharging those segments of the Biscayne aquifer adjacent to the canals. (Woodrad-USGS)

  19. Diversity of Salmonella Isolates from Central Florida Surface Waters

    PubMed Central

    McEgan, Rachel; Chandler, Jeffrey C.; Goodridge, Lawrence D.

    2014-01-01

    Identification of Salmonella serotypes is important for understanding the environmental diversity of the genus Salmonella. This study evaluates the diversity of Salmonella isolates recovered from 165 of 202 Central Florida surface water samples and investigates whether the serotype of the environmental Salmonella isolates can be predicted by a previously published multiplex PCR assay (S. Kim, J. G. Frye, J. Hu, P. J. Fedorka-Cray, R. Gautom, and D. S. Boyle, J. Clin. Microbiol. 44:3608–3615, 2006, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00701-06). Multiplex PCR was performed on 562 Salmonella isolates (as many as 36 isolates per water sample) to predict serotypes. Kauffmann-White serogrouping was used to confirm multiplex PCR pattern groupings before isolates were serotyped, analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and assayed for antimicrobial susceptibility. In 41.2% of the Salmonella-positive water samples, all Salmonella isolates had identical multiplex PCR patterns; in the remaining 58.8%, two or more multiplex PCR patterns were identified. Within each sample, isolates with matching multiplex PCR patterns had matching serogroups. The multiplex patterns of 495 isolates (88.1%) did not match any previously reported pattern. The remaining 68 isolates matched reported patterns but did not match the serotypes for those patterns. The use of the multiplex PCR allowed the number of isolates requiring further analysis to be reduced to 223. Thirty-three Salmonella enterica serotypes were identified; the most frequent included serotypes Muenchen, Rubislaw, Anatum, Gaminara, and IV_50:z4,z23:−. A majority (141/223) of Salmonella isolates clustered into one genotypic group. Salmonella isolates in Central Florida surface waters are serotypically, genotypically, and phenotypically (in terms of antimicrobial susceptibility) diverse. While isolates could be grouped as different or potentially the same using multiplex PCR, the multiplex PCR pattern did not predict the Salmonella

  20. Source, use, and disposition of water in Florida, 1975

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leach, Stanley D.

    1978-01-01

    On the average, 18,420 million gallons of water was withdrawn for use in Florida each day in 1975--an increase of 3,107 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) rate since 1970. The 1975 daily total was made up of 11,502 million gallons of saline water and 6,918 million gallons of freshwater. The saline water supply, largely surface water, was pumped from tidal estuaries. Only 95.3 Mgal/d--less than 1 percent--was obtained from wells. The freshwater supply was almost equally divided between surface water (52 percent) and ground water (48 percent). Virtually all the saline water was used for thermoelectric power generation. Only 63 Mgal/d of saline water was used for all other industrial purposes. The largest user of the freshwater was for irrigation--2,868 Mgal/d. The remaining use of freshwater amounted to 1,698 Mgal/d for thermoelectric power generation; 1 ,146 Mgal/d for public supply; 940 Mgal/d for industrial use other than thermoelectric power generation; and 266 Mgal/d for rural domestic and livestock use. Irrigation, the largest user of freshwater, also is responsible for the greatest consumption, 1,332 Mgal/d or about half the water applied. Included in the quantity of water consumed by irrigation is that part of the conveyance loss made up of evapotranspiration--estimated at 109 Mgal/d. The remainder of the conveyance loss is returned to the ground water reservoir for reuse by seepage from the canals. (Woodard-USGS)

  1. Predicting water table response to rainfall events, central Florida.

    PubMed

    van Gaalen, J F; Kruse, S; Lafrenz, W B; Burroughs, S M

    2013-01-01

    A rise in water table in response to a rainfall event is a complex function of permeability, specific yield, antecedent soil-water conditions, water table level, evapotranspiration, vegetation, lateral groundwater flow, and rainfall volume and intensity. Predictions of water table response, however, commonly assume a linear relationship between response and rainfall based on cumulative analysis of water level and rainfall logs. By identifying individual rainfall events and responses, we examine how the response/rainfall ratio varies as a function of antecedent water table level (stage) and rainfall event size. For wells in wetlands and uplands in central Florida, incorporating stage and event size improves forecasting of water table rise by more than 30%, based on 10 years of data. At the 11 sites studied, the water table is generally least responsive to rainfall at smallest and largest rainfall event sizes and at lower stages. At most sites the minimum amount of rainfall required to induce a rise in water table is fairly uniform when the water table is within 50 to 100 cm of land surface. Below this depth, the minimum typically gradually increases with depth. These observations can be qualitatively explained by unsaturated zone flow processes. Overall, response/rainfall ratios are higher in wetlands and lower in uplands, presumably reflecting lower specific yields and greater lateral influx in wetland sites. Pronounced depth variations in rainfall/response ratios appear to correlate with soil layer boundaries, where corroborating data are available. © 2012, The Author(s). Groundwater © 2012, National Ground Water Association.

  2. 77 FR 39949 - Effective Date for the Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes and Flowing Waters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 131 RIN 2040-AF41 Effective Date for the Water Quality Standards for the State of... of the July 6, 2012, effective date of the ``Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes... Information Does this action apply to me? Citizens concerned with water quality in Florida may be interested...

  3. Estimation of water surface elevations for the Everglades, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palaseanu, Monica; Pearlstine, Leonard

    2008-07-01

    The Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN) is an integrated network of real-time water-level monitoring gages and modeling methods that provides scientists and managers with current (2000-present) online water surface and water depth information for the freshwater domain of the Greater Everglades. This integrated system presents data on a 400-m square grid to assist in (1) large-scale field operations; (2) integration of hydrologic and ecologic responses; (3) supporting biological and ecological assessment of the implementation of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP); and (4) assessing trophic-level responses to hydrodynamic changes in the Everglades. This paper investigates the radial basis function multiquadric method of interpolation to obtain a continuous freshwater surface across the entire Everglades using radio-transmitted data from a network of water-level gages managed by the US Geological Survey (USGS), the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD), and the Everglades National Park (ENP). Since the hydrological connection is interrupted by canals and levees across the study area, boundary conditions were simulated by linearly interpolating along those features and integrating the results together with the data from marsh stations to obtain a continuous water surface through multiquadric interpolation. The absolute cross-validation errors greater than 5 cm correlate well with the local outliers and the minimum distance between the closest stations within 2000-m radius, but seem to be independent of vegetation or season.

  4. Estimation of water surface elevations for the Everglades, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palaseanu, Monica; Pearlstine, Leonard

    2008-01-01

    The Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN) is an integrated network of real-time water-level monitoring gages and modeling methods that provides scientists and managers with current (2000–present) online water surface and water depth information for the freshwater domain of the Greater Everglades. This integrated system presents data on a 400-m square grid to assist in (1) large-scale field operations; (2) integration of hydrologic and ecologic responses; (3) supporting biological and ecological assessment of the implementation of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP); and (4) assessing trophic-level responses to hydrodynamic changes in the Everglades.This paper investigates the radial basis function multiquadric method of interpolation to obtain a continuous freshwater surface across the entire Everglades using radio-transmitted data from a network of water-level gages managed by the US Geological Survey (USGS), the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD), and the Everglades National Park (ENP). Since the hydrological connection is interrupted by canals and levees across the study area, boundary conditions were simulated by linearly interpolating along those features and integrating the results together with the data from marsh stations to obtain a continuous water surface through multiquadric interpolation. The absolute cross-validation errors greater than 5 cm correlate well with the local outliers and the minimum distance between the closest stations within 2000-m radius, but seem to be independent of vegetation or season.

  5. Water conditioning and whooping crane survival after release in Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Nicolich, Jane M.; Nesbitt, S.A.; Hatfield, J.S.; Ellis, D.H.; Olsen, G.H.

    2001-01-01

    About 50% of the whooping cranes (Grus americana) released in Florida die within the first year of release. Most of these deaths and those in subsequent years result from bobcat (Lynx rufus) predation. Choosing release sites in open marshes away from bobcat habitat has improved survival. We hypothesized that exposure to ponds (water conditioning) at the rearing site would encourage birds to roost in deeper water marshes after release and such exposure would thereby reduce bobcat predation. In this study, we moved young birds (ca 50 days of age) to netted pens with large (15-m diameter), deep 30-60 cm) naturally vegetated ponds. We randomly assigned the costume-reared whooping cranes into 2 equal-sized groups at fledging. Some groups were placed in pens with a pond (experimental or ponded groups) and the others we reared without additional water exposure (control groups). All birds in the pens with ponds used the water. At night, they roosted at a depth of 36-46 cm. During the day, the birds used the ponds as well as other areas of the pen. We released 3 pairs of water-conditioned and control cohorts, 1 set in 1995 and 2 in 1996. No obvious behavioral differences were noted between the cohorts released in those years. Controls survived as expected (about 60% first year survival). The water-conditioned birds had much higher survival the first year (85%) and continued to survive better for the next 3 years.

  6. Simulation of integrated surface-water/ground-water flow and salinity for a coastal wetland and adjacent estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langevin, C.; Swain, E.; Wolfert, M.

    2005-01-01

    The SWIFT2D surface-water flow and transport code, which solves the St Venant equations in two dimensions, was coupled with the SEAWAT variable-density ground-water code to represent hydrologic processes in coastal wetlands and adjacent estuaries. A sequentially coupled time-lagged approach was implemented, based on a variable-density form of Darcy's Law, to couple the surface and subsurface systems. The integrated code also represents the advective transport of salt mass between the surface and subsurface. The integrated code was applied to the southern Everglades of Florida to quantify flow and salinity patterns and to evaluate effects of hydrologic processes. Model results confirm several important observations about the coastal wetland: (1) the coastal embankment separating the wetland from the estuary is overtopped only during tropical storms, (2) leakage between the surface and subsurface is locally important in the wetland, but submarine ground-water discharge does not contribute large quantities of freshwater to the estuary, and (3) coastal wetland salinities increase to near seawater values during the dry season, and the wetland flushes each year with the onset of the wet season. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Above-Water Radiometry in Shallow Coastal Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooker, Stanford B.; Zibordi, Giuseppe; Berthon, Jean-François; Brown, James W.

    2004-07-01

    Above- and in-water radiometric data were collected from two coastal platforms: a small boat and an oceanographic tower. The above-water data were processed with and without a correction for bidirectional effects (Q02 and S95, respectively). An intercomparison of water-leaving radiances over a wide range of environmental conditions showed (a) total uncertainties across the blue-green domain were to within 4%, (b) a convergence of the Q02 method with the in-water method (average Q02 intercomparisons were to within 4%), and (c) chlorophyll a concentrations derived from Q02 reflectances and the OC4V4 (Ocean Color 4 Version 4) algorithm agreed with independent high-performance liquid-chromatography determinations to within approximately 32%.

  8. Use of MODIS Terra Imagery to Estimate Surface Water Quality Standards, Using Lake Thonotosassa, Florida, as a Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreno, Max J.; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Rickman, Douglas L.

    2010-01-01

    Lake Thonotosassa is a highly eutrophied lake located in an area with rapidly growing population in the Tampa Bay watershed, Florida. The Florida Administrative Code has designated its use for "recreation, propagation and maintenance of a healthy, well-balanced population of fish and wildlife." Although this lake has been the subject of efforts to improve water quality since 1970, overall water quality has remained below the acceptable state standards, and has a high concentration of nutrients. This condition is of great concern to public health since it has favored episodic blooms of Cyanobacteria. Some Cyanobacterial species release toxins that can reach humans through drinking water, fish consumption, and direct contact with contaminated water. The lake has been historically popular for fishing and water sports, and its overflow water drains into the Hillsborough River, the main supply of municipal water for the City of Tampa, this explains why it has being constantly monitored in situ for water quality by the Environmental Protection Commission of Hillsborough County (EPC). Advances in remote sensing technology, however, open the possibility of facilitating similar types of monitoring in this and similar lakes, further contributing to the implementation of surveillance systems that would benefit not just public health, but also tourism and ecosystems. Although traditional application of this technology to water quality has been focused on much larger coastal water bodies like bays and estuaries, this study evaluates the feasibility of its application on a 46.6 km2 freshwater lake. Using surface reflectance products from Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Terra, this study evaluates associations between remotely sensed data and in situ data from the EPC. The parameters analyzed are the surface water quality standards used by the State of Florida and general indicators of trophic status.

  9. Discharge, water temperature, and water quality of Warm Mineral Springs, Sarasota County, Florida: A retrospective analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Metz, Patricia A.

    2016-09-27

    in inland areas, and upward flow toward the surface in coastal areas, such as at Warm Mineral Springs. Warm Mineral Springs is located in a discharge area. Changes in water use in the region have affected the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer. Historical increase in groundwater withdrawals resulted in a 10- to 20-foot regional decline in the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer by May 1975 relative to predevelopment levels and remained at approximately that level in May 2007 in the area of Warm Mineral Springs. Discharge measurements at Warm Mineral Springs (1942–2014) decreased from about 11–12 cubic feet per second in the 1940s to about 6–9 cubic feet per second in the 1970s and remained at about that level for the remainder of the period of record. Similarity of changes in regional water use and discharge at Warm Mineral Springs indicates that basin-scale changes to the groundwater system have affected discharge at Warm Mineral Springs. Water temperature had no significant trend in temperature over the period of record, 1943–2015, and outliers were identified in the data that might indicate inconsistencies in measurement methods or locations.Within the regional groundwater basin, Warm Mineral Springs is influenced by deep Upper Floridan aquifer flow paths that discharge toward the coast. Associated with these flow paths, the groundwater temperatures increase with depth and toward the coast. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that a source of warm groundwater to Warm Mineral Springs is likely the permeable zone of the Avon Park Formation within the Upper Floridan aquifer at a depth of about 1,400 to 1,600 feet, or deeper sources. The permeable zone contains saline groundwater with water temperatures of at least 95 degrees Fahrenheit.The water quality of Warm Mineral Springs, when compared with other springs in Florida had the highest temperature and the greatest mineralized content. Warm Mineral Springs water is

  10. Florida coastal ecological characterization: a socioeconomic study of the Northwestern Region. Volume II. Data appendix. Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    French, C.O.; Parsons, J.W.

    1983-08-01

    Data are compiled from existing sources on the social and economic characteristics of the Northwestern coastal region of Florida, which is made up of Escambia, Santa Rosa, Okaloosa, Walton, Bay, Gulf, and Franklin Counties. Described are the components and interrelationships among complex processes that include population and demographics characteristics, mineral production, multiple-use conflicts, recreation and tourism, agricultural production, sport and commercial fishing, transportation, industrial and residential development, and environmental issues and regulations. Energetics models of socioeconomic systems are also presented. This volume contains appendices presenting data on public utilities, transportation, recreation and tourism, mineral and oil production, and environmental issues and regulations. 31 figures, 187 tables.

  11. Florida coastal ecological characterization: a socioeconomic study of the southwestern region. Volume II. Data appendix, Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    French, C.O.; Parsons, J.W.

    1983-08-01

    Data are compiled from existing sources on the social and economic characteristics of the southwestern coastal region of Florida, which is made up of Charlotte, Collier, DeSoto, Hillsborough, Lee, Manatee, Monroe, Pasco, Pinellas, and Sarasota Counties. Described are the components and interrelationships among complex processes that include population and demographics characteristics, mineral production, multiple-use conflicts, recreation and tourism, agricultural production, sport and commercial fishing, transportation, industrial and residential development, and environmental issues and regulations. Energetics models of socioeconomic systems are also presented. This volume contains appendices presenting data on land use, public utilities, transportation, recreation and tourism. 21 figures, 141 tables.

  12. Water resources of the Ochlockonee River area, Northwest Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pascale, Charles A.; Wagner, Jeffry R.

    1982-01-01

    The Ochlockonee River area, in the northwest Florida panhandle, receives an average of 57 inches of rainfall per year. Water use in 1975 averaged 11.4 million gallons per day. Much of the rainfall that is not lost to evaporation enters the surficial sand aquifer, seeps to streams, or enters the water-bearing zone of the upper confining unit above the Floridan aquifer. The water-bearing zone of the upper confining unit is important for rural domestic supplies, storage of water and recharge to the Floridan aquifer. The Floridan aquifer underlies all the area and is the principal source of municipal supplies. The potentiometric surface of the upper part of the Floridan aquifer ranges from about 50 feet higher than that of the middle and lower part of the aquifer in southwestern Gadsden County to about 10 feet higher in southeastern Gadsden County. Saline water occurs naturally at relatively shallow depths within the Floridan aquifer. Stream discharge is about 1,000 million gallons per day; minimum discharge is about 285 million gallons per day. The chemical quality of most streams in the study area is acceptable for most uses. (USGS)

  13. Sediment Surface Elevation Changes in Relation to Groundwater Hydrologic Variation in the Coastal Florida Everglades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith III, T. J.; Cahoon, D.

    2002-05-01

    Mangrove forests dominate the downstream end of the Greater Florida Everglades. Restoration of the Everglades has concentrated on surface water flow. We measured rates of sediment (surface) elevation change and soil accretion in relation to both surface and groundwater elevation at six sites in the lower Everglades, including freshwater marsh and mangrove habitats. Three sites were located along the two major distributaries of the Everglades: Shark River and Lostmans River. Accretion was negligible in upstream, freshwater marsh sites and greatest in downstream mangrove forest sites. Sediment elevation changes were substantial at all sites. More importantly, the pattern of sediment elevation change differed from upstream to downstream, and was different between downstream sites on each river. The rate of sediment elevation change was related to the rate of groundwater elevation change at many, but not all, sites. For freshwater sites, as groundwater elevation increased, sediment elevation decreased, an unexpected finding. For downstream, mangrove sites, a weak positive relationship was found whereby increasing groundwater elevations lead to increasing sediment surface elevation. Important seasonal patterns also appear to be present indicating that subsurface processes (root growth, decomposition, water storage) may play important roles in marsh / mangrove surface elevation. If restoration of freshwater sheetflow in the upstream Everglades leads to increased groundwater elevations in the downstream system, mangrove forests may be able to keep even with current rates of sea level rise.

  14. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Florida): Reef-building tube worm

    SciTech Connect

    Zale, A.V.; Merrifield, S.G. )

    1989-12-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, morphology, distribution, life history, habitats, and environmental requirements of coastal species of fishes and aquatic invertebrates. They are designed to assist in environmental impact assessment. The reef-building tube worm is an ecologically and geologically significant invertebrate inhabiting the coastal zone of southeastern Florida. The reefs constructed by the worms retain beach sediments, protect shorelines from storm damage, and are the basis for an elaborate marine community of fishes and invertebrates. The reefs provide substrate, shelter, and food in the relatively inhospitable surf zone. Reef-building tube worms require stable settlement substrates within sandy beam habitats and intense turbulence to maintain suspension of sand grains and other particles for tube building. 37 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Remotely Sensed Optical Water Quality for Water Quality Assessment and Seagrass Protection in Florida's Big Bend Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, P. R.; Hu, C.; Cannizarro, J.; Yarbro, L. A.; English, D. C.; Magley, W.; Charbonneau, M.; Barnes, B.

    2012-12-01

    Florida's Big Bend coastal region contains the second largest contiguous seagrass bed in the continental US. Approximately 250,000 ha of seagrass have been mapped in the region, but the total area of offshore seagrass beds might be several times greater. The Suwannee River drains a largely agricultural watershed (26,000 km2) in Georgia and Florida, and its discharge (x= 280 m3/s) affects water clarity over most of the Big Bend seagrass beds. Seagrass density, species composition and areal extent were severely affected by discharge associated with tropical cyclones in 2004 and 2005, focusing attention on this important resource and the near- and far-field impacts of the Suwannee River discharge. The Lower Suwannee River also has been identified by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection as an impaired water body due to high nitrogen and algal biomass. This project attempts to improve water quality and to protect Big Bend seagrasses by making remotely sensed optical water quality data more accessible to managers and stakeholders involved in the process of regulating nutrient loads in the Suwannee River and to provide data to assess effectiveness of management actions. To accomplish these goals, we have developed and tested new algorithms for retrieval of Kd, chlorophyll, and CDOM from Modis imagery, created a time series of optical water quality (OWQ) for the Suwannee River Estuary (SRE), and related seagrass gains and losses to annual variations in optical water quality. During two years of bimonthly ground-truth cruises, chlorophyll concentrations, Aph, Ad, and Acdom in the SRE were 0.3-38.3 mgm-3, 0.013-1.056, 0.013-0.735, and 0.042-7.24, respectively. For most locations and most cruises, CDOM was the dominant determinant of Kd. In the Modis time series, Kd488 estimates (calculated using the Quasi-Analytic Algorithm of Lee et al. 2006) covaried with Suwannee River discharge between 2002 and 2011 with an overall r2 value of 0.64. This relationship is

  16. West Adriatic Coastal Water Excursions into the East Adriatic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-15

    than twoweeks, theWAC eddies and filaments grew freely and had enough time to reach middle east Adriatic waters. Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM...simplified channel model suggests that the presence of the escarpment is a critical factor for producing cross-basin exchange of the coastal current following

  17. A Citizen's Guide to Coastal Water Resource Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Jim; Miller, Todd

    More people than ever are using coastal waters for recreation and business activities and living along the shores. This puts more pressure on natural resources and creates more conflicts between the people using the resources. This guidebook is designed to help citizens develop an understanding of how coastal management works. Four chapters in…

  18. Estimating ground-water inflow to lakes in central Florida using the isotope mass-balance approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sacks, Laura A.

    2002-01-01

    The isotope mass-balance approach was used to estimate ground-water inflow to 81 lakes in the central highlands and coastal lowlands of central Florida. The study area is characterized by a subtropical climate and numerous lakes in a mantled karst terrain. Ground-water inflow was computed using both steady-state and transient formulations of the isotope mass-balance equation. More detailed data were collected from two study lakes, including climatic, hydrologic, and isotopic (hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratio) data. For one of these lakes (Lake Starr), ground-water inflow was independently computed from a water-budget study. Climatic and isotopic data collected from the two lakes were similar even though they were in different physiographic settings about 60 miles apart. Isotopic data from all of the study lakes plotted on an evaporation trend line, which had a very similar slope to the theoretical slope computed for Lake Starr. These similarities suggest that data collected from the detailed study lakes can be extrapolated to the rest of the study area. Ground-water inflow computed using the isotope mass-balance approach ranged from 0 to more than 260 inches per year (or 0 to more than 80 percent of total inflows). Steady-state and transient estimates of ground-water inflow were very similar. Computed ground-water inflow was most sensitive to uncertainty in variables used to calculate the isotopic composition of lake evaporate (isotopic compositions of lake water and atmospheric moisture and climatic variables). Transient results were particularly sensitive to changes in the isotopic composition of lake water. Uncertainty in ground-water inflow results is considerably less for lakes with higher ground-water inflow than for lakes with lower ground-water inflow. Because of these uncertainties, the isotope mass-balance approach is better used to distinguish whether ground-water inflow quantities fall within certain ranges of values, rather than for precise

  19. Species profiles: Life history and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Florida): King mackerel and Spanish mackerel. [Scomberomorus cavalla; Scomberomorus maculatus

    SciTech Connect

    Godcharles, M.F.; Murphy, M.D.

    1986-06-01

    This Species Profile on king and Spanish mackerel summarizes the taxonomy, morphology, distribution, life history, fishery descriptions, ecological role, and environmental requirements of these coastal pelagic fish to assist environmental impact assessment. King and Spanish mackerel support major commercial and sport fisheries in south Florida. In 1974 to 1983, Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic commercial landings of king mackerel declined from 10.4 to 4.3 million lb.; Spanish mackerel have fluctuated between 4.9 to 17.4 million lb. Both inhabit coastal waters, but Spanish mackerel are generally found closer to beaches and in outer estuarine waters. Both species feed principally on estuarine-dependent species. They are highly migratory, exhibiting seasonal migrations to winter feeding grounds off south Florida and summer spawning/feeding grounds in the northern Gulf of Mexico and off the Atlantic coast of the Southeastern US. Spawning occurs from March/April through September/October between the middle and Outer Continental Shelf (35 to 183 mi) for king mackerel and the inner shelf (12 to 34 mi) for Spanish mackerel. King mackerel reach sexual maturity in their 3rd and 4th years and Spanish, between their 2nd and 3rd. Female king mackerel live longer and grow larger and faster than males. Spanish mackerel live to 8 years; females also grow faster than males. King and Spanish mackerel feed principally on schooling fishes. Larvae and juveniles of both species are prey to little tunny and dolphin; adults are prey for sharks and bottlenose dolphin. Temperature and salinity are important factors regulating mackerel distribution.

  20. Water quality of the Boca Raton canal system and effects of the Hillsboro Canal inflow, southeastern Florida, 1990-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenzie, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    The City of Boca Raton in southeastern Palm Beach County, Florida, is an urban residential area that has sustained a constant population growth with subsequent increase in water use. The Boca Raton network of canals is controlled to provide for drainage of excess water, to maintain proper coastal ground-water levels to prevent saltwater intrusion, and to recharge the surficial aquifer system from which the city withdraws potable water. Most of the water supplied to the Boca Raton canal system and the surficial aquifer system, other than rainfall and runoff, is pumped from the Hillsboro Canal. The Biscayne aquifer, principal hydrogeologic unit of the surficial aquifer system, is highly permeable and there is a close relation between water levels in the canals and the aquifer. The amount of water supplied by seepage from the conservation areas is unknown. Because the Hillsboro Canal flows from Lake Okeechobee and Water Conservation Areas 1 and 2, which are places of more highly mineralized ground water and surface water, the canal is a possible source of contamination. Water samples were collected at 10 canal sites during wet and dry seasons and analyzed for major inorganic ions and related characteristics, nutrients, and trace elements. All concentrations were generally within or less than the drinking-water standards established by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection. The high concentrations of sodium and chloride that were detected in samples from the Boca Raton canal system are probably from the more mineralized water of the Hillsboro Canal. Other water-quality data, gathered from various sources from 1982 through 1991, did not indicate any significant changes nor trends. The effects of the Hillsboro Canal on the water quality of the Boca Raton canal system are indicated by increased concentrations of sodium, chloride, dissolved solids, and total organic carbon. Concentrations of the constituents in the canal water generally decrease with distance

  1. The west-central Florida inner shelf and coastal system: A geologic conceptual overview and introduction to the special issue

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hine, A.C.; Brooks, G.R.; Davis, R.A.; Duncan, D.S.; Locker, S.D.; Twichell, D.C.; Gelfenbaum, G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides an overview for this special publication on the geologic framework of the inner shelf and coastal zone of west-central Florida. This is a significant geologic setting in that it lies at the center of an ancient carbonate platform facing an enormous ramp that has exerted large-scale control on coastal geomorphology, the availability of sediments, and the level of wave energy. In order to understand the Holocene geologic history of this depositional system, a regional study defined by natural boundaries (north end of a barrier island to the apex of a headland) was undertaken by a group of government and university coastal geologists using a wide variety of laboratory and field techniques. It is the purpose of this introductory paper to define the character of this coastal/inner shelf system, provide a historical geologic perspective and background of environmental information, define the overall database, present the collective objectives of this regional study, and very briefly present the main aspects of each contribution. Specific conclusions are presented at the end of each paper composing this volume. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. 75 FR 4173 - Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes and Flowing Waters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... drinking water, some of which have been associated with serious human illnesses such as bladder cancer... lying areas of central Florida. As noted above, EPA used best available science and data related to... nutrients identified in four canal regions to best represent the necessary criteria to protect these highly...

  3. Water-Level Changes in Aquifers of the Atlantic Coastal Plain, Predevelopment to 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    dePaul, Vincent T.; Rice, Donald E.; Zapecza, Otto S.

    2008-01-01

    Georgia, where water levels had declined approximately 140 and 200 ft from prepumping conditions, respectively. Within the Upper Floridan aquifer, decline was most pronounced in the coastal areas of Georgia and northern Florida where ground-water withdrawals were at their highest. These areas included Savannah, Jesup, and Brunswick, Ga., as well as the St. Marys, Ga. and Fernandina Beach, Fla., area. Regional water levels had declined by 80 ft near Brunswick and Fernandina Beach to as much as 160 ft near Savannah. Since 1980, water levels in many areas have continued to fall; however, in some places the rate at which levels declined has slowed. Conservation measures have served to limit withdrawals in affected areas, moderating or stabilizing water-level decline, and in some cases, resulting in substantial recovery. In other cases, increases in ground-water pumpage have resulted in continued rapid decline in water levels. From 1980 to 2000, water levels across the regional Upper, Middle, and Lower Potomac aquifers continued to decline across large parts of Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina, and water levels had stabilized or recovered throughout much of Long Island and New Jersey. Substantial water-level recovery had also occurred in east-central New Jersey in the Peedee-Severn and Black Creek-Matawan aquifers and in east-central North Carolina in the Castle Hayne-Piney Point aquifer. Substantial declines from about 1980 to about 2000 occurred in the Peedee-Severn aquifer in southern New Jersey, the Beaufort-Aquia aquifer in southern Maryland, and the Black Creek-Matawan and Upper Potomac aquifers in central and southern parts of the coastal plain in North Carolina. From 1980 to about 2000, water levels within the regional Upper Floridan aquifer had generally stabilized in response to shifting withdrawal patterns and reductions in pumpage at many places within the coastal region. Ground-water levels had stabilized and recovered at the ma

  4. Water resources of Lincoln County coastal area, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frank, F.J.; Laenen, Antonius

    1976-01-01

    Water supplies for all municipalities in Lincoln County currently (1975) are obtained from surface-water sources. Because of rapid economic development of the coastal area, it is expected that additional water will be needed in the future. Additional water can be supplied (1) by reservoirs on major streams; (2) by the expansion, in some locations, of present surface-water facilities on small streams; and (3) locally, by an additional small volume of supplemental water from ground-water sources.

  5. Florida

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... home of the Kennedy Space Center. The large body of water in the middle of the land area is Lake Okeechobee. On the western (Gulf ... light is invisible to the human eye. The high reflectance of plants in this part of the electromagnetic spectrum, displayed here in shades ...

  6. Five new species of yeasts from fresh water and marine habitats in the Florida Everglades.

    PubMed

    Fell, Jack W; Statzell-Tallman, Adele; Scorzetti, Gloria; Gutiérrez, Marcelo H

    2011-03-01

    Yeast populations in the Shark River Slough of the Florida Everglades, USA, were examined during a 3-year period (2002-2005) at six locations ranging from fresh water marshes to marine mangroves. Seventy-four described species (33 ascomycetes and 41 basidiomycetes) and an approximately equal number of undescribed species were isolated during the course of the investigation. Serious human pathogens, such as Candida tropicalis, were not observed, which indicates that their presence in coastal waters is due to sources of pollution. Some of the observed species were widespread throughout the fresh water and marine habitats, whereas others appeared to be habitat restricted. Species occurrence ranged from prevalent to rare. Five representative unknown species were selected for formal description. The five species comprise two ascomycetes: Candida sharkiensis sp. nov. (CBS 11368(T)) and Candida rhizophoriensis sp. nov. (CBS 11402(T)) (Saccharomycetales, Metschnikowiaceae), and three basidiomycetes: Rhodotorula cladiensis sp. nov. (CBS 10878(T)) in the Sakaguchia clade (Cystobasidiomycetes), Rhodotorula evergladiensis sp. nov. (CBS 10880(T)) in the Rhodosporidium toruloides clade (Microbotryomycetes, Sporidiobolales) and Cryptococcus mangaliensis sp. nov. (CBS 10870(T)) in the Bulleromyces clade (Agaricomycotina, Tremellales).

  7. Phytoplankton Communities in Louisiana coastal waters and the continental shelf

    EPA Science Inventory

    Louisiana coastal waters and the adjacent continental shelf receive large freshwater and nutrient inputs from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers, creating favorable conditions for increased phytoplankton productivity. To examine inshore-offshore patterns in phytoplankton comm...

  8. Phytoplankton Communities in Louisiana coastal waters and the continental shelf

    EPA Science Inventory

    Louisiana coastal waters and the adjacent continental shelf receive large freshwater and nutrient inputs from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers, creating favorable conditions for increased phytoplankton productivity. To examine inshore-offshore patterns in phytoplankton comm...

  9. Water resources and effects of development in Pasco County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fretwell, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    Ninety-nine percent of the 79.72 million gal/d of water used in Pasco County, Florida is groundwater from the Upper Floridan aquifer. In addition, 53.5 million gal/d is exported for use in Pinellas County. Chemical quality of the water generally falls within recommended limits for drinking water except near the coast. A groundwater flow model was used to predict drawdowns in water levels under five different development plans for west Pasco County. One of these plans was incorporated in an estimated groundwater development plan for 2035 for Pasco, Pinellas, and part of Hillsborough County. Reduction in evapotranspiration accounts for nearly all the water required for each development plan. Two plans showed less effect in drawdown and potential of saltwater intrusion than the other three. For the overall groundwater development plan for Pasco, Pinellas, and parts of Hillsborough Counties, the average potentiometric surface in 2035 would be from 8 ft higher to 20 ft lower than the average 1976-77 potentiometric surface. Reductions in head would increase the potential for infiltration of contaminants in areas where surficial materials are thin, sinkhole development in sinkhole prone areas, and upconing and lateral intrusion of saltwater. The potential for dewatering the surficial aquifer is great in the Cross Bar Ranch and Cypress Creek well-field areas. Evapotranspiration of groundwater would be reduced by 19% between 1976-77 and 2035. Exchange of water between the rivers and the aquifers will be reduced by 13%. Springflow will be reduced by 6%, and three springs will cease to flow. Model boundary inflow and outflow also will be reduced. (USGS)

  10. Historic topographic sheets to satellite imagery—A methodology for evaluating coastal change in Florida's Big Bend tidal marsh

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raabe, Ellen A.; Streck, Amy E.; Stumpf, Richard P.

    2004-01-01

    This open-file report details the methodology used to rectify, digitize, and mosaic nineteen 19th century topographic sheets on the marsh-dominated Big Bend Gulf coast of Florida. Historic charts of tidal marshes in Florida's Big Bend were prepared in a digital grid-based format for comparison with modern features derived from 1995 satellite imagery. The chart-by-chart rectification process produced a map accuracy of ± 8 m. An effort was made to evaluate secondary map features, such as tree islands, but changes during the intervening years exceed standard surveying errors and rendered the analysis ineffective. A map, at 1:300,000 comparing historic and modern features, is provided to illustrate major changes along the coastline. Shoreline erosion is exceeded by the inland migration of the intertidal zone onto adjoining coastal forest lands. While statements of mapping accuracy are provided in the text, graphic representation of changes in the intertidal zone may be inexact at any given location. Thus caution is advised for site-specific applications. Maps and digital files provided should be used to visualize overall trends and regional anomalies, and not used to critically assess features at a particular location. Final product includes mosaic of historic coastal features and comparison to modern features.

  11. Energy-water nexus analysis of enhanced water supply scenarios: a regional comparison of Tampa Bay, Florida, and San Diego, California.

    PubMed

    Mo, Weiwei; Wang, Ranran; Zimmerman, Julie B

    2014-05-20

    Increased water demand and scarce freshwater resources have forced communities to seek nontraditional water sources. These challenges are exacerbated in coastal communities, where population growth rates and densities in the United States are the highest. To understand the current management dilemma between constrained surface and groundwater sources and potential new water sources, Tampa Bay, Florida (TB), and San Diego, California (SD), were studied through 2030 accounting for changes in population, water demand, and electricity grid mix. These locations were chosen on the basis of their similar populations, land areas, economies, and water consumption characters as well as their coastal locations and rising contradictions between water demand and supply. Three scenarios were evaluated for each study area: (1) maximization of traditional supplies; (2) maximization of seawater desalination; and (3) maximization of nonpotable water reclamation. Three types of impacts were assessed: embodied energy, greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, and energy cost. SD was found to have higher embodied energy and energy cost but lower GHG emission than TB in most of its water infrastructure systems because of the differences between the electricity grid mixes and water resources of the two regions. Maximizing water reclamation was found to be better than increasing either traditional supplies or seawater desalination in both regions in terms of the three impact categories. The results further imply the importance of assessing the energy-water nexus when pursuing demand-side control targets or goals as well to ensure that the potentially most economical options are considered.

  12. Connectivity of the South Florida Coral Reef Ecosystem to Upstream Waters of the Western Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johns, E. M.; Smith, R. H.; Lamkin, J. T.; Birbriezca, L. C.; Vasquez-Yeomans, L.; Cordero, E. S.

    2008-05-01

    The coastal waters of south Florida, including the coral reefs of NOAA's Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (FKNMS), are directly connected by means of strong ocean currents with upstream waters of the western Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico. The Caribbean Current and the Loop Current provide a rapid conduit for transport from Mexican and Belizean coral reefs, located off the eastern shore of the Yucatan Peninsula, to nearshore regions of northern Cuba, Florida, and the Bahamas. Interdisciplinary cruise data collected in August 2002, March 2006 and January 2007 aboard the NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter, in combination with satellite-tracked surface drifter trajectories and remote sensing imagery, clearly show the highly variable and dynamic nature of the regional current regimes and provide a means of quantifying the potential pathways and transport rates of the coastal waters and their biological and chemical constituents from one region to another. Results from these cruises and ancillary data show that the study areas are connected with rapid transport time scales, and that frontal eddies and gyres play an important role in establishing the time and length scales of this connectivity. Such direct physical connectivity between the coral reef biota of these geographically separated spawning grounds via ocean currents may have an important influence on the degree of biological connectivity between regional larval populations. Initial analyses of ichthyoplankton surveys and inshore collections along the Yucatan mesoamerican reef suggest large scale variability in both local recruitment and large scale spatial distribution. Despite strong northward flowing currents, inshore collections indicate that local recruitment in some areas is strongly influenced by small scale circulation patterns. However, the distribution of spawning aggregations along the Yucatan coast suggests a larger role for the Caribbean Current. Determining the interactions between the larger scale

  13. Mercury Concentrations in Feathers of Adult and Nestling Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) from Coastal and Freshwater Environments of Florida.

    PubMed

    Rumbold, Darren G; Miller, Karl E; Dellinger, Timothy A; Haas, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    We determined mercury (Hg) concentrations in feathers of osprey (Pandion haliaetus), both nestlings (n = 95) and adults (n = 110), across peninsular Florida and the Florida Keys during February-August 2014. Feathers plucked from nestlings, aged 3-7 weeks, contained Hg concentrations that ranged from 0.338 to 45.79 mg/kg and averaged 6.92 ± 7.58 mg/kg (mean ± 1SD). Feathers shed from adults contained significantly higher concentrations ranging from 0.375 to 93.65 mg/kg, with an average of 17.8 ± 16.1 mg/kg. These levels were in the upper range of previously reported feather Hg concentrations of osprey and clearly show that Florida continues to have Hg hotspots that are elevated compared with many other regions. While these concentrations did not exceed levels previously reported in osprey from heavily Hg contaminated areas that showed no evidence of reproductive impairments, we cannot rule out potential individual-level effects to highly exposed nestlings after fledging. Mercury concentrations in nestlings were highest in coastal habitats of Collier and Monroe counties, where ongoing declines in osprey populations also have been documented.

  14. Ground Water Atlas of the United States: Segment 6, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, James A.

    1990-01-01

    The four States-Alabama, Florida, Georgia, and South Carolina-that comprise Segment 6 of this Atlas are located adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean or the Gulf of Mexico, or both. These States are drained by numerous rivers and streams, the largest being the Tombigbee, Alabama, Chattahoochee, Suwannee, St. Johns, Altamaha, and Savannah Rivers. These large rivers and their tributaries supply water to cities such as Columbia, S.C., Atlanta, Ga., and Birmingham, Ala. However, the majority of the population, particularly in the Coastal Plain which comprises more than one-half of the four-State area, depends on ground water as a source of water supply. The aquifers that contain the water are mostly composed of consolidated to unconsolidated sedimentary rocks, but also include hard, crystalline rocks in parts of three of the States. This chapter describes the geology and hydrology of each of the principal aquifers throughout the four-State area. Precipitation is the source of all the water in the four States of Segment 6. Average annual precipitation (1951-80) ranges from about 48 inches per year over a large part of central South Carolina and Georgia to about 80 inches per year in mountainous areas of northeastern Georgia and western South Carolina. (fig. 1) In general, precipitation is greatest in the mountains (because of their orographic effect) and near the coast, where water vapor, which has been evaporated primarily from the ocean and the gulf, is picked up by prevailing winds and subsequently condenses and falls as precipitation when reaching the shoreline. Much of the precipitation either flows directly into rivers and stream as overland runoff or indirectly as baseflow discharging from aquifers where the water has been stored for a short time. Accordingly, the areal distribution of average annual runoff from 1951 to 1980 (fig. 2) directly reflects that of average annual precipitation during the same period: runoff is greater in mountainous areas and near the coast

  15. Water column and sediment nitrogen and phosphorus distribution patterns in the Florida Keys, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szmant, A. M.; Forrester, A.

    1996-03-01

    Measurements of the distribution patterns of nutrients (ammonium, nitrate, orthophosphate, total N and total P) and chlorophyll concentrations were conducted under an interdisciplinary program known as SEAKEYS, initiated because of concern that anthropogenic nutrients may be impacting Florida coral reefs. Samples were collected along transects that extended from passes or canals to 0.5 km offshore of the outermost reefs. Seven of the transects were either in the Biscayne National Park (BNP) and Key Largo (upper keys) or Seven Mile Bridge/Looe Key (upper part of lower keys) areas, which have the best present-day reef development; the two in the middle keys off Long Key were in an area of minimal reef development where passes allow estuarine Florida Bay water to flow onto the Florida reef platform. Off the upper keys, water column concentrations of N and chl a were elevated near marinas and canals (1 μM NO3, 1 μg/l chl a), but returned to oligotrophic levels (e.g., chl a ⩽ 0.25 μg/l; NO3 ⩽ 0.25 μM; NH4 ⩽ 0.10 μM) within 0.5 km of shore. Phosphorus concentrations, however, were often higher offshore ⩾ 0.2 μM PO4). Sediment interstitial nutrient concentrations decreased from inshore to the offshore reef areas (e.g., ⩾ 100 μM NH4 inshore to ⩽ 50 μM NH4 offshore) and were comparable to those of some presumably pristine coastal and reef carbonate sediments. Sediment bulk N was higher nearshore and decreased steeply offshore ( ⩾ 60 μg-at N/gm sediment to ⩽ 20 μg-at N/gm sediment, respectively); bulk P concentrations (⩽ 6 μg- at P/gm sediment) varied little or exhibited the reverse pattern. Sediment N:P ratios were consistently lower offshore (1 10 vs. 20 40 nearshore). Higher offshore P concentrations are attributed to periodic upwelling along the shelf edge. In the middle keys water column nutrients and chl a concentrations were both higher than those in the upper keys, and there was less of an inshore-offshore decrease than that noted in the

  16. Coastal Water Protection the Navy Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hura, Myron; And Others

    1976-01-01

    This article describes procedures taken by the U.S. Navy to minimize the environmental import and pollution in harbors and coastal areas resulting from ships, aircraft and shore-based Navel operations. (SL)

  17. Coastal Water Protection the Navy Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hura, Myron; And Others

    1976-01-01

    This article describes procedures taken by the U.S. Navy to minimize the environmental import and pollution in harbors and coastal areas resulting from ships, aircraft and shore-based Navel operations. (SL)

  18. Saline-water intrusion related to well construction in Lee County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boggess, Durward Hoye; Missimer, T.M.; O'Donnell, T. H.

    1977-01-01

    Ground water is the principle source of water supply in Lee County, Florida where an estimated 30,000 wells have been drilled since 1990. These wells ranges in depth from about 10 to 1,240 feet and tap the water table aquifer or one or more of the artesian water-bearing units or zones in the Tamiami Formation, the upper part of the Hawthorn Formation, the lower part of the Hawthorn Formation and the Tampa Limestone and the Suwannee Limestone. Before 1968, nearly all wells were constructed with galvanized or black iron pipe. Many of these wells are sources of saline-water intrusion into freshwater-bearing zones. The water-bearing zones in the lower part of the Hawthorn Formation, Tampa Limestone, and Suwannee Limestone are artesian-they have higher water levels and usually contain water with a higher concentration of dissolved solids than do the aquifers occurring at shallower depths. The water from these deeper aquifers generally range in dissolved solids concentration from about 1,500 to 2,400 mg/L, and in chloride from about 500 to 1,00 mg/L. A maximum chloride concentration of 15,200 mg/L has been determined. Few of the 3,00 wells estimated to have been drilled to these zones contain sufficient casing to prevent upward flow into overlaying water-bearing zones. Because of water-level differentials, upward movement and lateral intrusion of saline water occurs principally into the upper part of the Hawthorn Formation where the chloride concentrations in water unaffected by saline-water intrusion ranges from about 80 to 150 mg/L. Where intrusion from deep artesian zones has occurred, the chloride concentration in water from the upper part of the Hawthorn Formation ranges from about 300 to more than 2,100 mg/L Surface discharges of the saline water from wells tapping the lower part of the Hawthorn Formation and the Suwannee Limestone also had affected the water-table aquifer which normally contains water with 10 to 50 mg/L of chloride. In one area, the chloride

  19. Utilizing Depth of Colonization of Seagrasses to Develop Numeric Water Quality Criteria for Florida Estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    US EPA is working with state and local partners in Florida to develop numeric water quality criteria to protect estuaries from nutrient pollution. Similar to other nutrient management programs in Florida, EPA is considering status of seagrass habitats as an indicator of biologic...

  20. Utilizing Depth of Colonization of Seagrasses to Develop Numeric Water Quality Criteria for Florida Estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    US EPA is working with state and local partners in Florida to develop numeric water quality criteria to protect estuaries from nutrient pollution. Similar to other nutrient management programs in Florida, EPA is considering status of seagrass habitats as an indicator of biologic...

  1. Modeled Sea Level Rise Impacts on Coastal Ecosystems at Six Major Estuaries on Florida's Gulf Coast: Implications for Adaptation Planning.

    PubMed

    Geselbracht, Laura L; Freeman, Kathleen; Birch, Anne P; Brenner, Jorge; Gordon, Doria R

    2015-01-01

    The Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM) was applied at six major estuaries along Florida's Gulf Coast (Pensacola Bay, St. Andrews/Choctawhatchee Bays, Apalachicola Bay, Southern Big Bend, Tampa Bay and Charlotte Harbor) to provide quantitative and spatial information on how coastal ecosystems may change with sea level rise (SLR) and to identify how this information can be used to inform adaption planning. High resolution LiDAR-derived elevation data was utilized under three SLR scenarios: 0.7 m, 1 m and 2 m through the year 2100 and uncertainty analyses were conducted on selected input parameters at three sites. Results indicate that the extent, spatial orientation and relative composition of coastal ecosystems at the study areas may substantially change with SLR. Under the 1 m SLR scenario, total predicted impacts for all study areas indicate that coastal forest (-69,308 ha; -18%), undeveloped dry land (-28,444 ha; -2%) and tidal flat (-25,556 ha; -47%) will likely face the greatest loss in cover by the year 2100. The largest potential gains in cover were predicted for saltmarsh (+32,922 ha; +88%), transitional saltmarsh (+23,645 ha; na) and mangrove forest (+12,583 ha; +40%). The Charlotte Harbor and Tampa Bay study areas were predicted to experience the greatest net loss in coastal wetlands The uncertainty analyses revealed low to moderate changes in results when some numerical SLAMM input parameters were varied highlighting the value of collecting long-term sedimentation, accretion and erosion data to improve SLAMM precision. The changes predicted by SLAMM will affect exposure of adjacent human communities to coastal hazards and ecosystem functions potentially resulting in impacts to property values, infrastructure investment and insurance rates. The results and process presented here can be used as a guide for communities vulnerable to SLR to identify and prioritize adaptation strategies that slow and/or accommodate the changes underway.

  2. Water quality of Tampa Bay, Florida, June 1972-May 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goetz, Carole L.; Goodwin, Carl R.

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of the water quality of Tampa Bay, Florida, was initiated in 1970 to provide background information to evaluate the effects of widening and deepening the ship channel to the port of Tampa. This report provides results of water-quality sampling in the bay from 1972 to 1976, prior to dredging. Measurements of temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, turbidity, specific conductance, biochemical oxygen demand, and total organic carbon were made as well as measurements for several nutrient, metal, and pesticide parameters. Many parameters were measured at as many as three points in the vertical. These data indicate that Tampa Bay is well-mixed vertically with little density stratification. Time histories of average temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, turbidity, specific conductance and nutrient values within four subareas of Tampa Bay are given to reveal seasonal or other trends during the period of record. Temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, turbidity, specific conductance, nutrient, biochemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon, and metal data are also presented as areal distributions. Nutrient concentrations were generally higher in Hillsborough Bay than in other sub-areas of Tampa Bay. Biochemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon, and total organic nitrogen distribution patterns show regions of highest concentrations to be along bay shorelines near population centers. Of the metals analyzed, all were present in concentrations of less than 1 milligram per liter. (USGS)

  3. Citizens' guides to ocean and coastal law: Guide to laws regulating coastal water pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The pamphlet is intended to help citizens, like those participating in water quality monitoring programs, who want to understand the complex nature of state, federal, and local laws that apply to the chief sources of coastal water pollution: point source pollution--pollution discharged from pipes which require state and federal permits; and nonpoint source pollution--generally unregulated runoff from agricultural operations and urban land uses, timber harvesting (silviculture), and construction activities. The pamphlet explains the legal standards and penalties established by coastal water quality laws so that citizens can better participate in the implementation and enforcement of these laws.

  4. Water-Quality Assessment of Southern Florida - Wastewater Discharges and Runoff

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marella, Richard L.

    1998-01-01

    Nearly 800 million gallons per day of treated wastewater was discharged in the Southern Florida National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) study unit in 1990, most to the Atlantic Ocean (44 percent) and to deep, saline aquifers (25 percent). About 9 percent was discharged to fresh surface waters and about 22 percent to shallow ground water, of which septic tanks accounted for 9 percent. Runoff from agricultural and urban lands, though not directly measured, is a large source of wastewater in southern Florida.

  5. Water-quality assessment of southern Florida; an overview of available information on surface-and ground-water quality and ecology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haag, K.H.; Miller, R.L.; Bradner, L.A.; McCulloch, D.S.

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes water-quality conditions, issues of concern, and management efforts underway in southern Florida. The report is designed to provide a conceptual framework for the Southern Florida National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) study that began in 1994. The report makes reference to the most important water-quality literature pertaining to southern Florida, to water-quality studies that are underway or planned, and to topics which are of high priority in the study unit. These topics include: the availability and suit ability of water for competing demands; nutrient enrichment of the Everglades; transport, degradation, and effects of pesticides; and the sources and cycling of mercury in the ecosystem. The report also includes a retrospective analysis and conceptual presentation of nutrient loading, which is a high priority for the national NAWQA Program and for regional water-quality managers. Nutrient contributions from point and nonpoint sources are estimated for nine basins in the study area and are discussed in relation to land use. Fertilizer is the dominant source of phosphorus in eight basins and the dominant source of nitrogen in at least five basins. Atmospheric sources of nitrogen contribute more than 20 percent of the total nitrogen input to all basins and are the dominant source of nitrogen input to Lake Okeechobee and the Everglades. Nutrient loads are also estimated in selected canal and river outflows in southern Florida to provide a spatial overview of the magnitude of nutrient loading to coastal waters. Annual phosphorus loads from the Peace River are the highest in the study unit; annual phosphorus loads from the Caloosahatchee River and the major Palm Beach canals are also high, compared to other parts of southern Florida. Estimated annual loads of phosphorus from parts of the Big Cypress Basin and the S-12 water-control structures of the Tamiami Canal are low compared with estimated phosphorus loads in outflows in the northern

  6. Evaluation of a Florida coastal golf complex as a local and watershed source of bioavailable contaminants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lewis, Michael A., Robert L. Quarles, Darrin D. Dantin and James C. Moore. 2004. Evaluation of a Coastal Golf Complex as a Local and Watershed Source of Bioavailable Contaminants. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 48(3-4):254-262. (ERL,GB 1183).

    Contaminant fate in coastal areas impacte...

  7. Evaluation of a Florida coastal golf complex as a local and watershed source of bioavailable contaminants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lewis, Michael A., Robert L. Quarles, Darrin D. Dantin and James C. Moore. 2004. Evaluation of a Coastal Golf Complex as a Local and Watershed Source of Bioavailable Contaminants. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 48(3-4):254-262. (ERL,GB 1183).

    Contaminant fate in coastal areas impacte...

  8. Sub-kilometer length scales in coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackwell, Shelley M.; Moline, Mark A.; Schaffner, Andrew; Garrison, Thomas; Chang, Grace

    2008-02-01

    Patchiness or spatial variability is ubiquitous in marine systems. With increasing anthropogenic impacts to coastal resources and coastal systems being disproportionately large contributors to ocean productivity, identifying the spatial scales of this patchiness, particularly in coastal waters, is of critical importance to understand coastal ecosystem dynamics. The current work focuses on fine scale structure in three coastal regions. More specifically, we utilize variogram analyses to identify sub-kilometer scales of variability in biological and physical parameters measured by an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) in the Mid-Atlantic Bight, Monterey Bay, and in San Luis Obispo Bay between 2001 and 2004. Critical scales of variability in density, turbidity, fluorescence, and bioluminescence are examined as a function of depth and distance offshore. Furthermore, the effects of undersampling are assessed using predictive error analysis. Results indicate the presence of scales of variability ranging from 10s to 100s of meters and provide valuable insight for sampling design and resource allocation for future studies.

  9. Ant Distribution in Relation to Ground Water in North Florida Pine Flatwoods

    PubMed Central

    Tschinkel, Walter R.; Murdock, Tyler; King, Joshua R.; Kwapich, Christina

    2012-01-01

    Longleaf pine savannas are one of the most threatened ecosystems in the world, yet are understudied. Ants are a functionally important and diverse group of insects in these ecosystems. It is largely unknown how local patterns of species diversity and composition are determined through the interaction of this dominant animal group with abiotic features of longleaf pine ecosystems. Here we describe how an important abiotic variable, depth to water table, relates to ant species distributions at local scales. Pitfall trapping studies across habitat gradients in the Florida coastal plains longleaf pine flatwoods showed that the ant community changed with mild differences in habitat. In this undulating landscape, elevation differences were less than 2 m, and the depth to the water table ranged from < 20 cm to 1.2 m. The plant species composing the ground cover were zoned in response to depth to water, and shading by canopy trees increased over deeper water tables. Of the 27 ant species that were analyzed, depending on the statistical test, seven or eight were significantly more abundant over a deep water table, eight to ten over a shallow one, and nine to eleven were not significantly patterned with respect to depth to water. Ant species preferring sites with shallow groundwater also preferred the shadier parts of the sites, while those preferring sites with deeper groundwater preferred the sunnier parts of the sites. This suggests that one group of species prefers hot-dry conditions, and the other cooler-moist. Factor analysis and abundance-weighted mean site characteristics generally confirmed these results. These results show that ant communities in this region respond to subtle differences in habitat, but whether these differences arise from founding preferences, survival, competition, or some combination of these is not known. PMID:23445122

  10. Occurrence of fecal indicator bacteria in surface waters and the subsurface aquifer in Key Largo, Florida.

    PubMed Central

    Paul, J H; Rose, J B; Jiang, S; Kellogg, C; Shinn, E A

    1995-01-01

    Sewage waste disposal facilities in the Florida Keys include septic tanks and individual package plants in place of municipal collection facilities in most locations. In Key Largo, both facilities discharge into the extremely porous Key Largo limestone. To determine whether there was potential contamination of the subsurface aquifer and nearby coastal surface waters by such waste disposal practices, we examined the presence of microbial indicators commonly found in sewage (fecal coliforms, Clostridium perfringens, and enterococci) and aquatic microbial parameters (viral direct counts, bacterial direct counts, chlorophyll a, and marine vibriophage) in injection well effluent, monitoring wells that followed a transect from onshore to offshore, and surface waters above these wells in two separate locations in Key Largo in August 1993 and March 1994. Effluent and waters from onshore shallow monitoring wells (1.8- to 3.7-m depth) contained two or all three of the fecal indicators in all three samples taken, whereas deeper wells (10.7- to 12.2-m depth) at these same sites contained few or none. The presence of fecal indicators was found in two of five nearshore wells (i.e., those that were < or = 1.8 miles [< or = 2.9 km] from shore), whereas offshore wells (> or = 2.1 to 5.7 miles [< or = 3.4 to 9.2 km] from shore) showed little sign of contamination. Indicators were also found in surface waters in a canal in Key Largo and in offshore surface waters in March but not in August. Collectively, these results suggest that fecal contamination of the shallow onshore aquifer, parts of the nearshore aquifer, and certain surface waters has occurred.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7793943

  11. Ant distribution in relation to ground water in north Florida pine flatwoods.

    PubMed

    Tschinkel, Walter R; Murdock, Tyler; King, Joshua R; Kwapich, Christina

    2012-01-01

    Longleaf pine savannas are one of the most threatened ecosystems in the world, yet are understudied. Ants are a functionally important and diverse group of insects in these ecosystems. It is largely unknown how local patterns of species diversity and composition are determined through the interaction of this dominant animal group with abiotic features of longleaf pine ecosystems. Here we describe how an important abiotic variable, depth to water table, relates to ant species distributions at local scales. Pitfall trapping studies across habitat gradients in the Florida coastal plains longleaf pine flatwoods showed that the ant community changed with mild differences in habitat. In this undulating landscape, elevation differences were less than 2 m, and the depth to the water table ranged from < 20 cm to 1.2 m. The plant species composing the ground cover were zoned in response to depth to water, and shading by canopy trees increased over deeper water tables. Of the 27 ant species that were analyzed, depending on the statistical test, seven or eight were significantly more abundant over a deep water table, eight to ten over a shallow one, and nine to eleven were not significantly patterned with respect to depth to water. Ant species preferring sites with shallow groundwater also preferred the shadier parts of the sites, while those preferring sites with deeper groundwater preferred the sunnier parts of the sites. This suggests that one group of species prefers hot-dry conditions, and the other cooler-moist. Factor analysis and abundance-weighted mean site characteristics generally confirmed these results. These results show that ant communities in this region respond to subtle differences in habitat, but whether these differences arise from founding preferences, survival, competition, or some combination of these is not known.

  12. Estimated water use in the Southwest Florida Water Management District and adjacent areas, 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duerr, A.D.; Trommer, J.T.

    1981-01-01

    Water-use data for 1980 are summarized in this report for 16 counties in the Southwest Florida Water Management District. Data include total use of ground water and surface water for each of five water-use categories. The 1980 withdrawals for each category were as follows: 290 million gallons per day for public supply, 63 million gallons per day for rural, 325 million gallons per day for industry, 416 million gallons per day for irrigation, and 6,605 million gallons per day for thermoelectric power generation. Withdrawals totaled 7,699 million gallons per day and included 983 million gallons per day of ground water and 6,716 million gallons per day of surface water. Excluding thermoelectric power generation, all water withdrawn was freshwater except 38 million gallons per day of saline ground water withdrawn for industrial use in Hillsborough County. (USGS)

  13. U.S. Geological Survey water resources activities in Florida, 1985-86

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glenn, M. E.

    1986-01-01

    This report contains summary statements of water resources activities in Florida conducted by the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with Federal, State , and local agencies during 1985-86. These activities are part of the Federal program of appraising the Nation 's water resources. Water resources appraisals in Florida are highly diversified, ranging from hydrologic records networks to interpretive appraisals of water resources and applied research to develop investigative techniques. Thus, water resource investigations range from basic descriptive water-availability studies for areas of low-intensity water development and management to sophisticated cause and effect studies in areas of high-intensity water development and management. The interpretive reports and records that are products of the investigations are a principal hydrologic foundation upon which the plans for development, management, and protection of Florida 's water resources may be based. (Lantz-PTT)

  14. Mississippi Waters Reaching South Florida Reefs Under No Flood Conditions: Synthesis of Observing and Modeling System Findings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Henaff, M.; Kourafalou, V.

    2016-02-01

    In August 2014, in situ measurements revealed an intense salinity drop impacting South Florida coral reefs. Satellite observations showed that this drop in salinity was due to a southeastward export of Mississippi waters from the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Unlike previous events of long-distance Mississippi water export, this episode is not marked by Mississippi flooding conditions, which makes it a unique study case.We have developed a high-resolution ( 2 km) numerical model of the Gulf of Mexico to study the conditions that controlled the 2014 Mississippi water export episode. It is based on the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM), which has a detailed representation of coastal physics (especially river plume dynamics) and employs high frequency river discharge and atmospheric forcing. In addition, it assimilates remotely sensed altimetry and sea surface temperature observations. The simulation reveals a unique pathway that brought Mississippi waters along the Northern Gulf continental shelf, before reaching the deep Gulf. In the Florida Straits, Mississippi waters were advected from the deep ocean to the continental shelf under the influence of both deep sea (frontal dynamics of the local western boundary current) and shelf flows (wind-induced Ekman transport). The combined use of a regional, data-assimilative nested simulation and available observations followed best practices recommended under the Coastal Ocean and Shelf Seas Task Team of the GODAE (Global Data Assimilation Experiment) OceanView initiative. It allowed identifying key processes and features that characterize the unique episode of Mississippi River waters export of 2014, and helped analyze the wide range of processes affecting the connectivity at both the local and basin scale in the Gulf of Mexico.

  15. Altitude of water table, surficial aquifer, Palm Beach County, Florida, April 24-26, 1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Wesley L.

    1985-01-01

    Water levels in Palm Beach County, Florida, were measured in April 1984 to determine the altitude of the water table in the surficial aquifer. A total of 104 wells and 50 surface-water measurement sites were used to contour the altitude of the water table at 2 and 4-foot intervals. The water-level measurements made in April represent low-water levels near the end of south Florida 's dry season. Contours of the water table at this time ranged from 22 feet above sea level in the north-central part of the county to 2 feet near the coast. (USGS)

  16. Factors limiting regeneration of Quercus alba and Cornus florida in formerly cultivated coastal plain sites, South Carolina.

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Joseph, M., Jr.; Jones, Robert, H.

    2003-01-01

    Riley, J.M. Jr., and R.H.Jones. 2003. Factors limiting regeneration of Quercus alba and Cornus florida in formerly cultivated coastal plain sites, South Carolina. For. Ecol., and Mgt. 177:571-586. To determine the extent that resources, conditions, and herbivoryy limit regeneration of Quercus alba L. and Cornus florida L. in formerly cultivated coastal plain uplands, we planted seedlings of the two species in two pine and one pine-hardwood forest understory and three adjacent clearcuts. Soil carbon and moisture, available nitrogen and phosphorous, and gap light index (GLI) were measured next to each seedling. Over two growing seasons, stem and leaf herbivory were estimated and survival was recorded. At the end of 2 years, all surviving stems were harvested to determine total leaf area and 2-year biomass growth. Survival to the end of the study was not significantly different between clearcuts and understories. However, clearcuts led to significantly greater biomass growth and leaf area for both Q. alba and C. florida. Soil moisture and available nutrients were also greater in the clearcuts. Using separate multiple linear (growth) or logistic (survival) regressions for each combination of three sites, two cutting treatments and two species, we found that soil moisture significantly affected survival in 12.5% and biomass growth in 8.3% of the regressions. Light availability significantly impacted biomass growth in 16.7% of the regressions. Stem and leaf herbivory had very little impact on survival (8.3%), but when combined, these two factors significantly impacted leaf area or biomass growth in 33.3% of the regressions. Seedling responses were highly variable, and no regression model accounted for more that 70.0% of this variation. In our study, stand-scalevariation in seedling responses (especially the difference between clearcut and understory) was much greater than within-stand variation. Of the within stand factors measured, herbivory was clearly the most

  17. Salinity Assessment, Change, and Impact on Plant Stress / Canopy Water Content (CWC) in Florida Bay using Remote Sensing and GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selch, Donna

    Human activities in the past century have caused a variety of environmental problems in South Florida. In 2000, Congress authorized the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP), a $10.5-billion mission to restore the South Florida ecosystem. Environmental projects in CERP require salinity monitoring in Florida Bay to provide measures of the effects of restoration on the Everglades ecosystem. However current salinity monitoring cannot cover large areas and is costly, time-consuming, and labor-intensive. The purpose of this dissertation is to model salinity, detect salinity changes, and evaluate the impact of salinity in Florida Bay using remote sensing and geospatial information sciences (GIS) techniques. The specific objectives are to: 1) examine the capability of Landsat multispectral imagery for salinity modeling and monitoring; 2) detect salinity changes by building a series of salinity maps using archived Landsat images; and 3) assess the capability of spectroscopy techniques in characterizing plant stress / canopy water content (CWC) with varying salinity, sea level rise (SLR), and nutrient levels. Geographic weighted regression (GWR) models created using the first three imagery components with atmospheric and sun glint corrections proved to be more correlated (R2 = 0.458) to salinity data versus ordinary least squares (OLS) regression models (R2 = 0.158) and therefore GWR was the ideal regression model for continued Florida Bay salinity assessment. J. roemerianus was also examined to assess the coastal Everglades where salinity modeling is important to the water-land interface. Multivariate greenhouse studies determined the impact of nutrients to be inconsequential but increases in salinity and sea level rise both negatively affected J. roemerianus. Field spectroscopic data was then used to ascertain correlations between CWC and reflectance spectra using spectral indices and derivative analysis. It was determined that established spectral indices (max

  18. 77 FR 64336 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Florida

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    ... of Florida is revising its Public Water System Supervision Program by adopting the Lead and Copper... and Copper Rule Short Term Revisions. EPA reviewed the application using the federal statutory...

  19. Imaging the Stratification and Tidal Dynamics of a Saltwater-Freshwater Interface Using Continuous Shallow Electrical Resistivity Techniques in the Karst Coastal Biscayne Aquifer, South Florida.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stalker, J. C.; Whitman, D.; Price, R. M.

    2008-05-01

    Shallow ground resistivity was used to image the saline-freshwater mixing zone in the subsurface due to saltwater intrusion at a site less than 2 kilometers from the coastline of Biscayne Bay, an estuary in South Florida. Resistivity arrays have several advantages when applied to coastal groundwater environments. Experiments can be set up to measure several depths by varying the electrode spacing. Additionally Resistivity techniques can be used to resolve multiple changes in lithology and compositions making them ideal for saltwater intrusion studies. Miami-Dade county and adjoining the Biscayne Bay are underlain by the karst Biscayne aquifer system where the freshwater aquifer is in direct contact with the saline bay system. Saltwater intrusion has been a continuous problem since anthropogenic alteration of the hydrological system occurred to manage flood control and promote agriculture. To better understand the nature and dynamics of the saltwater intrusion in the near coastal shallow subsurface, a Supersting 28-electrode resistivity unit, configured in a Wenner array, was used to produce a 2D image of the freshwater/brackish water/saltwater stratification, and was deployed in a continuous data collection mode to observe the movement of the saltwater mixing zone through a tidal cycle. Results show at a depth of 9m below the surface there is a 2m meter thick freshwater layer above the brackish/saltwater mixing zone. In addition, the continuous imaging of the mixing zone over a tidal cycle shows a fluctuation landward and seaward of the mixing zone as the tide floods and ebbs. This technique provides an efficient tool for detection and characterization of the saltwater/freshwater mixing zone in shallow coastal aquifers and lends new insight to the stratification and thicknesses of the fresh and saline layers. In addition the detection of cyclical tidal movement and an estimate of its magnitude will aid in the understanding of the mixing zone geochemistry and

  20. Temporal and spatial change in coastal ecosystems using remote sensing: Example with Florida Bay, USA, emphasizing AVHRR imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Stumpf, R.P.; Frayer, M.L.

    1997-06-01

    Florida Bay, at the southern tip of Florida, USA, has undergone dramatic changes in recent years. Following seagrass dieoffs starting in the late 1980`s, both algal blooms and high turbidity (the latter from resuspended sediments) have been reported as more common in the Bay. Remotely sensed data, particularly from the AVHRR (advanced very high resolution radiometer), can provide information on conditions prior to the start of monitoring programs as well as provide additional spatial detail on water clarity and particulate loads in this estuary . The AVHRR record currently available to us consists of over 600 usable scenes from December, 1989. Comparisons with field data have provided relationships with light attenuation, total suspended solids, and other turbidity measures. The imagery shows the seasonal change in turbidity resulting from high winds associated with winter cold fronts. Over the seven-year record, areas of clear water have decreased in the north-central Bay, while expanding in the southwestern Bay.

  1. Analytical characterization of selective benthic flux components in estuarine and coastal waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Jeffrey N.

    2011-01-01

    Benthic flux is the rate of flow across the bed of a water body, per unit area of bed. It is forced by component mechanisms, which interact. For example, pressure gradients across the bed, forced by tide, surface gravity waves, density gradients, bed–current interaction, turbulence, and terrestrial hydraulic gradients, drive an advective benthic flux of water and constituents between estuarine and coastal waters, and surficial aquifers. Other mechanisms also force benthic flux, such as chemical gradients, bioturbation, and dispersion. A suite of component mechanisms force a total benthic flux at any given location, where each member of the suite contributes a component benthic flux. Currently, the types and characteristics of component interactions are not fully understood. For example, components may interact linearly or nonlinearly, and the interaction may be constructive or destructive. Benthic flux is a surface water–groundwater interaction process. Its discharge component to a marine water body is referred to, in some literature, as submarine groundwater discharge. Benthic flux is important in characterizing water and constituent budgets of estuarine and coastal systems. Analytical models to characterize selective benthic flux components are reviewed. Specifically, these mechanisms are for the component associated with the groundwater tidal prism, and forced by surface gravity wave setup, surface gravity waves on a plane bed, and the terrestrial hydraulic gradient. Analytical models are applied to the Indian River Lagoon, Florida; Great South Bay, New York; and the South Atlantic Bight in South Carolina and portions of North Carolina.

  2. Multiple Stressors: Lessons from Louisiana Coastal Waters (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabalais, N. N.

    2013-12-01

    Coastal Louisiana is a Mississippi River-dominated landscape driven by the long-term (millennia) and short-term (decades to hundreds of years) changes in materials flux, nature and human activities. The results are a highly productive coastal landscape and nearshore coastal waters that support rich natural and non-renewable resources. The ecosystem and socio-economic systems are intimately linked. Several factors have led to the demise of many of the healthy features of this coastal system, including long-term changes in the landscape of the Mississippi River basin watershed, alterations to the structure and flow of the Mississippi River and its tributaries, coastal landscape alterations leading to loss of productive marshes and protective barrier islands, increases in nitrogen and phosphorus loads to the coastal ocean and their detrimental effects, and reduction in the sediments delivered by the river. Increases in population and extraction of living resources and oil and gas reserves continue to drive many actions taken in the coastal landscape and waters. As a result, Louisiana is in a state of major disrepair (to be charitable) and needs thoughtful consideration of restoration actions taken in the river basin and within the coastal landscape. The first thought is to cause no further harm. The second is to proceed acknowledging that human and natural forces (particularly climate change, rising sea level and changing global economies) must be taken into account. Thirdly, a broader consideration of the river basin and coastal landscapes, their interconnectivity, and ecosystem health and social welfare must be taken into account.

  3. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (South Florida). King Mackerel and Spanish Mackerel.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    Oo . i ..." -.. -.,..-- %-’ ." .Z ;’ - ,. -..,..,-. • * % .. . .- QI pelagic sharks , little tunny, and erel have been reported as far north 0 dolphins...and Prochaska 1976). rarely are they observed in waters ’ Sharks sometimes interfere with gill cooler than 18 OC. net sets by eating mackerel caught in...the mesh. The most common shark spe- The arrival of king mackerel off ""’"" cies are the tiger shark , Galeocerdo west central Florida in the spring

  4. Surface water and groundwater interactions in coastal wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ling; Xin, Pei; Shen, Chengji

    2014-05-01

    Salt marshes are an important wetland system in the upper intertidal zone, interfacing the land and coastal water. Dominated by salt-tolerant plants, these wetlands provide essential eco-environmental services for maintaining coastal biodiversity. They also act as sediment traps and help stabilize the coastline. While they play an active role in moderating greenhouse gas emissions, these wetlands have become increasingly vulnerable to the impact of global climate change. Salt marshes are a complex hydrological system characterized by strong, dynamic interactions between surface water and groundwater, which underpin the wetland's eco-functionality. Bordered with coastal water, the marsh system undergoes cycles of inundation and exposure driven by the tide. This leads to dynamic, complex pore-water flow and solute transport in the marsh soil. Pore-water circulations occur at different spatial and temporal scales with strong link to the marsh topography. These circulations control solute transport between the marsh soil and the tidal creek, and ultimately affect the overall nutrient exchange between the marsh and coastal water. The pore-water flows also dictate the soil aeration conditions, which in turn affect marsh plant growth. This talk presents results and findings from recent numerical and experimental studies, focusing on the pore-water flow behaviour in the marsh soil under the influence of tides and density-gradients.

  5. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (South Florida). WHITE MULLET.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-01

    1 Spawning ................................................. 1 Larvae and Juveniles ............... ........................ 3...W = weight in grams: F = * 95.5449W-12947552.After their first year, white mullet are rarely collected north of Larvae and Juveniles Florida (Anderson...gulf and Atlantic coasts are separate popula- tions (Rivas 1980). GROWTH CHARACTERISTICS 244- - Using larvae and juveniles col- - _0 lected in Georgia

  6. The ecological classification of coastal wet longleaf pine (pinus palustris) of Florida from reference conditions

    Treesearch

    George L. McCaskill; Jose. Shibu

    2012-01-01

    Tropical storms, fire, and urbanization have produced a heavily fragmented forested landscape along Florida’s Gulf coast. The longleaf pine forest, one of the most threatened ecosystems in the US, makes up a major part of this fragmented landscape. These three disturbance regimes have produced a mosaic of differently-aged pine patches of single or two cohort structures...

  7. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates, North Atlantic, Mid-Atlantic, South Atlantic, South Florida, Gulf of Mexico, Pacific Southwest and Pacific Northwest.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    west Florida coast generally flow northward. The mean winter air temperature is 210C (700F), and the mean summer temperature is 32°C (89°F). Annual...Bay is characterized by mild to cool temperatures and moderate humidity controlled by oceanic winds and air masses. The central California coastal...summer the minimum water temperature is 100C (500F) and the maximum about 180C (640F). The climate of the region is controlled by oceanic winds and air

  8. Spatial variation in sediment-water exchange of phosphorus in Florida Bay: AMP as a model organic compound.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao-Lan; Zhang, Jia-Zhong

    2010-10-15

    Dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) has been recognized as dominant components in total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) pools in many coastal waters, and its exchange between sediment and water is an important process in biogeochemical cycle of phosphorus. Adenosine monophosphate (AMP) was employed as a model DOP compound to simulate phosphorus exchange across sediment-water interface in Florida Bay. The sorption data from 40 stations were fitted to a modified Freundlich equation and provided a detailed spatial distribution both of the sediment's zero equilibrium phosphorus concentration (EPC(0-T)) and of the distribution coefficient (K(d-T)) with respect to TDP. The K(d-T) was found to be a function of the index of phosphorus saturation (IPS), a molar ratio of the surface reactive phosphorus to the surface reactive iron oxide content in the sediment, across the entire bay. However, the EPC(0-T) was found to correlate to the contents of phosphorus in the eastern bay only. Sediment in the western bay might act as a source of the phosphorus in the exchange process due to their high EPC(0-T) and low K(d-T), whereas sediments in the eastern bay might act as a sink because of their low EPC(0-T) and high K(d-T). These results strongly support the hypothesis that both phosphorus and iron species in calcareous marine sediments play a critical role in governing the sediment-water exchange of both phosphate and DOP in the coastal and estuarine ecosystems.

  9. Human influences on water quality in Great Lakes coastal wetlands.

    PubMed

    Morrice, John A; Danz, Nicholas P; Regal, Ronald R; Kelly, John R; Niemi, Gerald J; Reavie, Euan D; Hollenhorst, Tom; Axler, Richard P; Trebitz, Anett S; Cotter, Anne M; Peterson, Gregory S

    2008-03-01

    A better understanding of relationships between human activities and water chemistry is needed to identify and manage sources of anthropogenic stress in Great Lakes coastal wetlands. The objective of the study described in this article was to characterize relationships between water chemistry and multiple classes of human activity (agriculture, population and development, point source pollution, and atmospheric deposition). We also evaluated the influence of geomorphology and biogeographic factors on stressor-water quality relationships. We collected water chemistry data from 98 coastal wetlands distributed along the United States shoreline of the Laurentian Great Lakes and GIS-based stressor data from the associated drainage basin to examine stressor-water quality relationships. The sampling captured broad ranges (1.5-2 orders of magnitude) in total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN), dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), total suspended solids (TSS), chlorophyll a (Chl a), and chloride; concentrations were strongly correlated with stressor metrics. Hierarchical partitioning and all-subsets regression analyses were used to evaluate the independent influence of different stressor classes on water quality and to identify best predictive models. Results showed that all categories of stress influenced water quality and that the relative influence of different classes of disturbance varied among water quality parameters. Chloride exhibited the strongest relationships with stressors followed in order by TN, Chl a, TP, TSS, and DIN. In general, coarse scale classification of wetlands by morphology (three wetland classes: riverine, protected, open coastal) and biogeography (two ecoprovinces: Eastern Broadleaf Forest [EBF] and Laurentian Mixed Forest [LMF]) did not improve predictive models. This study provides strong evidence of the link between water chemistry and human stress in Great Lakes coastal wetlands and can be used to inform management efforts to improve water

  10. Ground-water recharge in Escambia and Santa Rosa Counties, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grubbs, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    Ground water is a major component of Florida's water resources, accounting for 90 percent of all public-supply and self-supplied domestic water withdrawals, and 58 percent of self-supplied commercial-industrial and agricultural withdrawals of freshwater (Marella, 1992). Ground-water is also an important source of water for streams, lakes, and wetlands in Florida. Because of their importance, a good understanding of these resources is essential for their sound development, use, and protection. One area in which our understanding is lacking is in characterizing the rate at which ground water in aquifers is recharged, and how recharge rates vary geographically. Ground-water recharge (recharge) is the replenishment of ground water by downward infiltration of water from rainfall, streams, and other sources (American Society of Civil Engineers, 1987, p. 222). The recharge rates in many areas of Florida are unknown, of insufficient accuracy, or mapped at scales that are too coarse to be useful. Improved maps of recharge rates will result in improved capabilities for managing Florida's ground-water resources. In 1989, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation, began a study to delineate high-rate recharge areas in several regions of Florida (Vecchioli and others, 1990). This study resulted in recharge maps that delineated areas of high (greater than 10 inches per year) and low (0 to 10 inches per year) recharge in three counties--Okaloosa, Pasco, and Volusia Counties--at a scale of 1:100,000. This report describes the results of a similar recharge mapping study for Escambia and Santa Rosa Counties (fig. 1), in which areas of high- and low-rates of recharge to the sand-and-gravel aquifer and Upper Floridan aquifer are delineated. The study was conducted in 1992 and 1993 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Florida Department of Environmental Protection.

  11. Planning for Water Resources of South Florida: A system dynamics modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, S.

    2006-12-01

    With enormous growth in population, changes in land use, substantial agriculture activity, and need to protect vital environmental resources such as Everglades, south Florida presents a very challenging case for water resources planning. Working with stakeholders to meet challenges of water resources planning in south Florida, we are exploring important questions: (a) What are some major changes in terms of population growth, land use, water demand, and water availability that can be expected in south Florida in the short and long term?; (b) What would be the major hydrologic effects of climate variability and change on south Florida's water system?; (c) How could Florida's water system adapt to anticipated population growth, urban sprawl, and climate change?; and (d) What are the most promising (cost effective) policies for south Florida's water management in response to growth and climate change? We are developing a decision support (DS) framework, using system dynamics modeling approach, to evaluate and compare different short and long term water management policies. Besides climate information, the integrated DS framework considers other major factors that influence water demand and availability including: demographic changes, land use changes, economy, and environment. We analyze how increased or better use of climate information can lead to better, more cost-effective decisions for sustainable management of water resources. Using games/scenarios involving decision makers, we evaluate cost-effectiveness of different policy choices for short and long term water management in the region. We evaluate policies based on both demand side management through efficiency and conservation (low flow appliances, xeriscaping, pricing) and supply side management (desalination, water reuse). The outcome is a framework for exploring cost-effectiveness of alternative water management policies. The research advances work on water resources planning considering the impacts of

  12. Timescales for nitrate contamination of spring waters, northern Florida, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katz, B.G.; Böhlke, J.K.; Hornsby, H.D.

    2001-01-01

    Residence times of groundwater, discharging from springs in the middle Suwannee River Basin, were estimated using chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), tritium (3H), and tritium/helium-3 (3H/3He) age-dating methods to assess the chronology of nitrate contamination of spring waters in northern Florida. During base-flow conditions for the Suwannee River in 1997-1999, 17 water samples were collected from 12 first, second, and third magnitude springs discharging groundwater from the Upper Floridan aquifer. Extending age-dating techniques, using transient tracers to spring waters in complex karst systems, required an assessment of several models [piston-flow (PFM), exponential mixing (EMM), and binary-mixing (BMM)] to account for different distributions of groundwater age. Multi-tracer analyses of four springs yielded generally concordant PFM ages of around 20 ?? 2 years from CFC-12, CFC-113, 3H, and 3He, with evidence of partial CFC-11 degradation. The EMM gave a reasonable fit to CFC-113, CFC-12, and 3H data, but did not reproduce the observed 3He concentrations or 3H/3He ratios, nor did a combination PFM-EMM. The BMM could reproduce most of the multi-tracer data set only if both endmembers had 3H concentrations not much different from modern values. CFC analyses of 14 additional springs yielded apparent PFM ages from about 10 to 20 years from CFC-113, with evidence of partial CFC-11 degradation and variable CFC-12 contamination. While it is not conclusive, with respect to the age distribution within each spring, the data indicate that the average residence times were in the order of 10-20 years and were roughly proportional to spring magnitude. Applying similar models to recharge and discharge of nitrate based on historical nitrogen loading data yielded contrasting trends for Suwanee County and Lafayette County. In Suwanee County, spring nitrate trends and nitrogen isotope data were consistent with a peak in fertilizer input in the 1970s and a relatively high overall ratio of

  13. Associations Between the Molecular and Optical Properties of Dissolved Organic Matter in the Florida Everglades, a Model Coastal Wetland System

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Sasha; Jaffé, Rudolf; Cawley, Kaelin; Dittmar, Thorsten; Stubbins, Aron

    2015-01-01

    Optical properties are easy-to-measure proxies for dissolved organic matter (DOM) composition, source, and reactivity. However, the molecular signature of DOM associated with such optical parameters remains poorly defined. The Florida coastal Everglades is a subtropical wetland with diverse vegetation (e.g., sawgrass prairies, mangrove forests, seagrass meadows) and DOM sources (e.g., terrestrial, microbial, and marine). As such, the Everglades is an excellent model system from which to draw samples of diverse origin and composition to allow classically-defined optical properties to be linked to molecular properties of the DOM pool. We characterized a suite of seasonally- and spatially-collected DOM samples using optical measurements (EEM-PARAFAC, SUVA254, S275−295, S350−400, SR, FI, freshness index, and HIX) and ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS). Spearman's rank correlations between FTICR-MS signal intensities of individual molecular formulae and optical properties determined which molecular formulae were associated with each PARAFAC component and optical index. The molecular families that tracked with the optical indices were generally in agreement with conventional biogeochemical interpretations. Therefore, although they represent only a small portion of the bulk DOM pool, absorbance, and fluorescence measurements appear to be appropriate proxies for the aquatic cycling of both optically-active and associated optically-inactive DOM in coastal wetlands. PMID:26636070

  14. Associations between the molecular and optical properties of dissolved organic matter in the Florida Everglades, a model coastal wetland system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Sasha; Jaffe, Rudolf; Cawley, Kaelin; Dittmar, Thorsten; Stubbins, Aron

    2015-11-01

    Optical properties are easy-to-measure proxies for dissolved organic matter (DOM) composition, source and reactivity. However, the molecular signature of DOM associated with such optical parameters remains poorly defined. The Florida coastal Everglades is a subtropical wetland with diverse vegetation (e.g., sawgrass prairies, mangrove forests, seagrass meadows) and DOM sources (e.g., terrestrial, microbial and marine). As such, the Everglades is an excellent model system from which to draw samples of diverse origin and composition to allow classically-defined optical properties to be linked to molecular properties of the DOM pool. We characterized a suite of seasonally- and spatially-collected DOM samples using optical measurements (EEM-PARAFAC, SUVA254, S275-295, S350-400, SR, FI, freshness index and HIX) and ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS). Spearman’s rank correlations between FTICR-MS signal intensities of individual molecular formulae and optical properties determined which molecular formulae were associated with each PARAFAC component and optical index. The molecular families that tracked with the optical indices were generally in agreement with conventional biogeochemical interpretations. Therefore, although they represent only a small portion of the bulk DOM pool, absorbance and fluorescence measurements appear to be appropriate proxies for the aquatic cycling of both optically-active and associated optically-inactive DOM in coastal wetlands.

  15. Palynological reconstruction of environmental changes in coastal wetlands of the Florida Everglades since the mid-Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Qiang; Liu, Kam-biu; Platt, William J.; Rivera-Monroy, Victor H.

    2015-05-01

    Palynological, loss-on-ignition, and X-ray fluorescence data from a 5.25 m sediment core from a mangrove forest at the mouth of the Shark River Estuary in the southwestern Everglades National Park, Florida were used to reconstruct changes occurring in coastal wetlands since the mid-Holocene. This multi-proxy record contains the longest paleoecological history to date in the southwestern Everglades. The Shark River Estuary basin was formed 5700 cal yr BP in response to increasing precipitation. Initial wetlands were frequently-burned short-hydroperiod prairies, which transitioned into long-hydroperiod prairies with sloughs in which peat deposits began to accumulate continuously about 5250 cal yr BP. Our data suggest that mangrove communities started to appear after 3800 cal yr BP; declines in the abundance of charcoal suggested gradual replacement of fire-dominated wetlands by mangrove forest over the following 2650 yr. By 1150 cal yr BP, a dense Rhizophora mangle dominated mangrove forest had formed at the mouth of the Shark River. The mangrove-dominated coastal ecosystem here was established at least 2000 yr later than has been previously estimated.

  16. Associations Between the Molecular and Optical Properties of Dissolved Organic Matter in the Florida Everglades, a Model Coastal Wetland System.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Sasha; Jaffé, Rudolf; Cawley, Kaelin; Dittmar, Thorsten; Stubbins, Aron

    2015-01-01

    Optical properties are easy-to-measure proxies for dissolved organic matter (DOM) composition, source, and reactivity. However, the molecular signature of DOM associated with such optical parameters remains poorly defined. The Florida coastal Everglades is a subtropical wetland with diverse vegetation (e.g., sawgrass prairies, mangrove forests, seagrass meadows) and DOM sources (e.g., terrestrial, microbial, and marine). As such, the Everglades is an excellent model system from which to draw samples of diverse origin and composition to allow classically-defined optical properties to be linked to molecular properties of the DOM pool. We characterized a suite of seasonally- and spatially-collected DOM samples using optical measurements (EEM-PARAFAC, SUVA254, S275-295, S350-400, SR, FI, freshness index, and HIX) and ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS). Spearman's rank correlations between FTICR-MS signal intensities of individual molecular formulae and optical properties determined which molecular formulae were associated with each PARAFAC component and optical index. The molecular families that tracked with the optical indices were generally in agreement with conventional biogeochemical interpretations. Therefore, although they represent only a small portion of the bulk DOM pool, absorbance, and fluorescence measurements appear to be appropriate proxies for the aquatic cycling of both optically-active and associated optically-inactive DOM in coastal wetlands.

  17. Stakeholder perspectives on land-use strategies for adapting to climate-change-enhanced coastal hazards: Sarasota, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frazier, Tim G.; Wood, Nathan; Yarnal, Brent

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable land-use planning requires decision makers to balance community growth with resilience to natural hazards. This balance is especially difficult in many coastal communities where planners must grapple with significant growth projections, the persistent threat of extreme events (e.g., hurricanes), and climate-change-driven sea level rise that not only presents a chronic hazard but also alters the spatial extent of sudden-onset hazards such as hurricanes. We examine these stressors on coastal, long-term land-use planning by reporting the results of a one-day community workshop held in Sarasota County, Florida that included focus groups and participatory mapping exercises. Workshop participants reflected various political agendas and socioeconomic interests of five local knowledge domains: business, environment, emergency management and infrastructure, government, and planning. Through a series of alternating domain-specific focus groups and interactive plenary sessions, participants compared the county 2050 comprehensive land-use plan to maps of contemporary hurricane storm-surge hazard zones and projected storm-surge hazard zones enlarged by sea level rise scenarios. This interactive, collaborative approach provided each group of domain experts the opportunity to combine geographically-specific, scientific knowledge on natural hazards and climate change with local viewpoints and concerns. Despite different agendas, interests, and proposed adaptation strategies, there was common agreement among participants for the need to increase community resilience to contemporary hurricane storm-surge hazards and to explore adaptation strategies to combat the projected, enlarged storm-surge hazard zones.

  18. The inorganic carbon distribution in Irish coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrath, Triona; Cave, Rachel; McGovern, Evin; Kivimae, Caroline

    2014-05-01

    Despite their relatively small surface area, coastal and shelf waters play a crucial role in the global climate through their influence on major biogeochemical cycles. Due to growing concern about ocean acidification as a result of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations, measurements of inorganic carbon parameters (dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), total alkalinity (TA), pH and pCO2) have been made with increasing regularity over the past two decades. While it is clear that open ocean surface waters are acidifying at a fairly uniform rate ( -0.02 pH units per decade), less is known about changes in coastal waters due to the high complexity and spatial variability in these regions. Large spatial and temporal variability in coastal CO2 parameters is mainly due to nutrient inputs, biological activity, upwelling and riverine inputs of alkalinity and inorganic and organic carbon. The inorganic carbon system in Irish coastal waters is presented here, gathered from 9 surveys around the Irish coastline between 2009 and 2013. There are striking contrasts in the CO2 system between different areas, largely attributed to the bedrock composition of the nearby rivers. Freshwater end-member concentrations of TA, calculated from TA-salinity relationships in outer estuarine and nearshore coastal water, were supported by riverine TA data from the Irish Environmental Protection Agency. A large portion of Ireland is covered with limestone bedrock and as a result, many of the rivers have extremely high TA (>5000μmol/kg) due to the carbonate mineral content of the underlying bedrock. While such high TA has resulted in elevated pH and calcium carbonate saturation states in some coastal waters, (e.g. Galway Bay and Dublin Bay), the high TA in other areas was accompanied by particularly high DIC (e.g. River Shannon on the west coast), resulting in lower pH and aragonite/calcite saturation states and even CO2 degassing in the Shannon estuary. Due to non-limestone lithology in many parts

  19. Comparative phylogeography of black mangroves (Avicennia germinans) and red mangroves (Rhizophora mangle) in Florida: Testing the maritime discontinuity in coastal plants.

    PubMed

    Hodel, Richard G J; Cortez, Maria B de Souza; Soltis, Pamela S; Soltis, Douglas E

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies of the comparative phylogeography of coastal and marine species in the southeastern United States revealed that phylogenetically diverse taxa share a phylogeographic break at the southern tip of Florida (the maritime discontinuity). These studies have focused nearly exclusively on animals; few coastal plant species in Florida have been analyzed phylogeographically. We investigated phylogeographic patterns of black mangroves (Avicennia germinans) and red mangroves (Rhizophora mangle), two coastal trees that occur on both coasts of the peninsula of Florida. We sampled and genotyped 150 individuals each of A. germinans and R. mangle, using eight microsatellite loci per species. We used observed and expected heterozygosity to quantify genetic diversity in each sampling location and allele frequencies to identify putative phylogeographic breaks and measure gene flow using BayesAss and Migrate-n. We tested the hypothesis that both species would exhibit a phylogeographic break at the southern tip of Florida. We did not find any significant phylogeographic breaks in either species. Rhizophora mangle exhibits greater genetic structure than A. germinans, contrary to expectations based on propagule dispersal capability. However, directional gene flow from the Gulf to the Atlantic was more pronounced in R. mangle, indicating that the Gulf Stream may affect genetic patterns in R. mangle more than in A. germinans. The high dispersal capability of these species may lead to high genetic connectivity between sampling locations and little geographic structure. We also identified several locations that, based on genetic data, should be the focus of conservation efforts. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  20. EAARL Coastal Topography-Western Florida, Post-Hurricane Charley, 2004: First Surface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Wright, C. Wayne; Sallenger, A.H.; Brock, John C.; Yates, Xan; Klipp, Emily S.

    2009-01-01

    This DVD contains lidar-derived first-surface (FS) topography GIS datasets of a portion of the western Florida coastline beachface, acquired post-Hurricane Charley on August 16 and 18, 2004. Click on a tile number (1 - 68) to view the corresponding 1-meter-resolution images and links to each data directory. Click on the red tile in the index map to view the 3-meter-resolution mosaic and link to the corresponding directory.

  1. Mercury concentrations in red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus, from estuarine and offshore waters of Florida.

    PubMed

    Adams, Douglas H; Onorato, Gregory V

    2005-03-01

    Dorsal muscle tissue from 712 red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus, from Florida waters were analyzed for total mercury content. Mercury levels detected in these red drum varied but in most study areas were usually lower than regulatory threshold guidelines. Total mercury levels in individual fish from all study areas ranged from 0.020 to 3.6 ppm (wet weight). Total mercury levels detected in red drum from the Florida Keys-Florida Bay area were often higher than those in fish from all other estuarine study areas. Positive relationships between total mercury levels and fish size (length and weight) and fish age were observed in most Florida study areas, indicating that mercury levels tend to increase over time as red drum grow. The majority of large, mature red drum examined contained mercury levels greater than the 0.5-ppm threshold level set by the Florida Department of Health (DOH). Approximately 94% of all adult red drum from offshore waters adjacent to Tampa Bay contained mercury levels greater than or equal to the 0.5-ppm threshold level, and 64% contained levels greater than or equal to the DOH 1.5-ppm "no consumption" level. All fish from this area with mercury levels greater than 1.5 ppm were large individuals (670 mm SL). Eight percent of legal-size red drum from Florida waters contained total mercury levels greater than or equal to the 0.5-ppm threshold level. The majority (52%) of these legal-size fish greater than or equal to 0.5 ppm were from the Florida Keys-Florida Bay area. In the Florida recreational fishery, the current maximum size limit for this species is an effective filter that prevents humans from consuming those red drum with the greatest likelihood of containing high mercury levels.

  2. Simulation of the soil water balance of an undeveloped prairie in west-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bidlake, W.R.; Boetcher, P.F.

    1996-01-01

    A one-dimensional numerical model was developed to simulate the soil water balance of a densely vegetated prairie site in west-central Florida. Transient simulations of the soil water balance were performed using field-measured soil and vegetation properties. Simulated and measured soil water content generally agreed to within 0.04; however, simulated water storage and recharge were sensitive to air-entry soil-water pressure potential and depth to the water table.

  3. Preliminary evaluation of the water-supply potential of the spring-river system in the Weeki Wachee area and the Lower Withlacoochee River, west-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sinclair, William C.

    1978-01-01

    Coastal springs and seeps, including Rainbow Springs, a tributary of Withlacoochee River, discharge as much as a billion gallons of water per day to low-lying coastal swamps and estuarine marshes along the Guld Coast of Citrus and Hernando Counties, Florida. Although Weeki Wachee Spring has long been regarded as an obvious source of freshwater supply, long-term diversion of large volumes of water from Weeki Wachee River will cause encroachment of brackish water throughout the residential canals in the lower reach of the river to about 4.4 miles below Weeki Wachee Spring. Weeki Wachee Spring is analogous to a flowering well tapping an artesian aquifer. Flow characteristics of Withlacoochee River and Rainbow Springs indicate that about 600 cubic feet per second is available on a perennial basis, disregarding the downstream requirements for control of saltwater encroachment. (Woodard-USGS)

  4. Water quality, pesticide occurrence, and effects of irrigation with reclaimed water at golf courses in Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swancar, Amy

    1996-01-01

    Reuse of treated wastewater for golf course irrigation is an increasingly popular water management option in Florida, where growth has put stress on potable water supplies. Surface water, ground water, and irrigation water were sampled at three pairs of golf courses quarterly for one year to determine if pesticides were present, and the effect of irrigation with treated effluent on ground-water quality, with an emphasis on interactions of effluent with pesticides. In addition to the six paired golf courses, which were in central Florida, ground water was sampled for pesticides and other constituents at three more golf courses in other parts of the State. This study was the first to analyze water samples from Florida golf courses for a broad range of pesticides. Statistical methods based on the percentage of data above detection limits were used to determine the effects of irrigation with reclaimed water on ground-water quality. Shallow ground water at golf courses irrigated with treated effluent has higher concentrations of chloride, lower concentrations of bicarbonate, and lower pH than ground water at golf courses irrigated with water from carbonate aquifers. There were no statistically significant differences in nutrient concentrations in ground water between paired golf courses grouped by irrigation water type at a 95 percent confidence level. The number of wells where pesticides occurred was significantly higher at the paired golf courses using ground water for irrigation than at ones using reclaimed water. However, the limited occurrences of individual pesticides in ground water make it difficult to correlate differences in irrigation- water quality with pesticide migration to the water table. At some of the golf courses, increased pesticide occurrences may be associated with higher irrigation rates, the presence of well-drained soils, and shallow depths to the surficial aquifer. Pesticides used by golf courses for turf grass maintenance were detected in

  5. GOLF COURSES AS A SOURCE OF COASTAL CONTAMINATION AND TOXICITY: A FLORIDA EXPERIENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chemical and biological impacts of two coastal golf courses that receive wastewater spray irrigation were determined during a two-year period. A variety of techniques were used to assess the spatial and temporal variability of contaminant levels and their bioavailability in t...

  6. Water conservation quantities vs customer opinion and satisfaction with water efficient appliances in Miami, Florida.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mengshan; Tansel, Berrin

    2013-10-15

    During 2006-2007, Miami-Dade County, Florida, USA, provided incentives for low income and senior residents in single family homes for retrofitting with high efficiency fixtures. The participating residences were retrofitted with high-efficiency toilets, showerheads, and aerators. In 2012, a telephone survey was conducted to evaluate the satisfaction of the participants and the associated effects on water conservation practices. This study evaluates the attitudes and opinions of the participants relative to water use efficiency measures and the actual reduction in water consumption characteristics of the participating households. The participant characteristics were analyzed to identify correlations between the socio-demographic factors, program satisfaction and actual water savings. Approximately 65.5% of the survey respondents reported changes in their water use habits and 76.6% reported noticeable reduction in their water bills. The analyses showed that the satisfaction levels of the participants were closely correlated with the actual water savings. The results also showed that satisfaction level along with water saving potential (i.e., implementation of water efficiency devices) or change of water use habits has provided positive synergistic effect on actual water savings. The majority of the participants surveyed (81.3-89.1%) reported positive attitudes for water conservation incentive program and the benefits of the high efficiency fixtures.

  7. Restricted dispersal in a continuously distributed marine species: common bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus in coastal waters of the western North Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Rosel, P E; Hansen, L; Hohn, A A

    2009-12-01

    The marine environment provides an opportunity to examine population structure in species with high dispersal capabilities and often no obvious barriers to genetic exchange. In coastal waters of the western North Atlantic, common bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, are a highly mobile species with a continuous distribution from New York to Florida. We examine if the highly mobile nature coupled with no obvious geographic barriers to movement in this region result in a large panmictic population. Mitochondrial control region sequences and 18 microsatellite loci indicate dolphins are partitioning the habitat both latitudinally and longitudinally. A minimum of five genetically differentiated populations were identified among 404 samples collected in the range of New Jersey to northern Florida using both genetic marker types, some inhabiting nearshore coastal waters and others utilizing inshore estuarine waters. The genetic results reject the hypothesis of a single stock of coastal bottlenose dolphins put forth after the 1987-1988 epizootic that caused a large-scale die-off of dolphins and suggest instead the disease vector was transferred from one population to the next as a result of seasonal migratory movements of some populations. These coastal Atlantic populations also differ significantly from bottlenose dolphin samples collected in coastal waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico, implying a long-term barrier to movement between the two basins.

  8. Chemical characteristics of water in the surficial aquifer system, Dade County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sonntag, W.H.

    1987-01-01

    Geohydrologic test drilling was conducted throughout Dade County to describe the chemical characteristics of water from geohydrologic units in the surficial aquifer system. Water quality analysis of samples collected from the test wells completed in central Dade County indicates that the Biscayne aquifer (unit A), the upper clastic unit of the Tamiami Formation (unit B), and parts of a limestone, sandstone, and sand unit of the Tamiami Formation (unit C) have been effectively flushed of residual seawater, and contain primarily calcium bicarbonate groundwater. The lower parts of unit C and the lower clastic unit of the Tamiami Formation (unit D) primarily contain calcium-sodium bicarbonate or sodium bicarbonate type water. An analysis of variance test indicates that water in units A and B is not significantly (0.05 probability level) different in composition. Mean concentrations of dissolved solids, sodium, and chloride are significantly different between units A and C, whereas mean concentrations of dissolved solids, calcium, sodium, and chloride are significantly different between units A and D. Groundwater in the surficial aquifer system in northwestern Dade County is more mineralized than groundwater that occurs elsewhere in the county (except in coastal areas affected by saltwater). An analysis of variance test indicates that mean concentrations of dissolved solids, sodium, and chloride at sites in northwestern Dade County, developed in units A and C, are significantly different from the mean concentrations of these constituents at sites throughout the rest of the county. Water in this part of the surficial aquifer system is similar to highly mineralized water found in western Broward County. However, in northwestern Dade County, the groundwater has been diluted to a greater extent by less mineralized recharge water. Overall, groundwater in the four major geohydrologic units of the surficial aquifer system of Dade County is suitable for most uses. Maximum

  9. Remote Sensing Applications to Water Quality Management in Florida

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increasingly, optical datasets from estuarine and coastal systems are becoming available for remote sensing algorithm development, validation, and application. With validated algorithms, the data streams from satellite sensors can provide unprecedented spatial and temporal data ...

  10. Remote Sensing Applications to Water Quality Management in Florida

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increasingly, optical datasets from estuarine and coastal systems are becoming available for remote sensing algorithm development, validation, and application. With validated algorithms, the data streams from satellite sensors can provide unprecedented spatial and temporal data ...

  11. Simulation of the effects of proposed tide gates on circulation, flushing, and water quality in residential canals, Cape Coral Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goodwin, Carl R.

    1991-01-01

    Decades of dredging and filling of Florida's low-lying coastal wetlands have produced thousands of miles of residential tidal canals and adjacent waterfront property. Typically, these canals are poorly flushed, and over time, accumulated organic-rich bottom materials, contribute to an increasingly severe degraded water quality. One-dimensional hydrodynamic and constituent-transport models were applied to two dead-end canal systems to determine the effects of canal system interconnection using tide gates on water circulation and constituent flushing. The model simulates existing and possible future circulation and flushing conditions in about 29 miles of the approximately 130 miles of tidally influenced canals in Cape Coral, located on the central west coast of peninsular Florida. Model results indicate that tidal water-level differences between the two canal systems can be converted to kinetic energy, in the form of increased water circulation, but the use of one-way tide gate interconnections. Computations show that construction of from one to four tide gates will cause replacement of a volume of water equivalent to the total volume of canals in both systems in 15 to 9 days, respectively. Because some canals flush faster than others, 47 and 21 percent of the original canal water will remain in both systems 50 days after start of operation of one and four tide gates, respectively. Some of the effects that such increased flushing are expected to have include reduced density stratification and associated dissolved-oxygen depletion in canal bottom waters, increased localized reaeration, and more efficient discharge of stormwater runoff entering the canals.

  12. The ecological condition of Gulf of Mexico resources from Perdido Key to Port St. Joe, Florida, USA: part I. coastal beach resources.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lisa M; Didonato, Eva M; Harwell, Linda C; Nestlerode, Janet A; Summers, J Kevin

    2007-05-01

    Using the approach established by EPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP), a shoreline monitoring survey was conducted in August and September 1999, encompassing the Florida Panhandle from Perdido Key, Florida to Port St. Joe, Florida. The objective of this survey was to demonstrate the use of a probabilistic survey for monitoring and estimating the condition of swimmable beach areas. Thirty stations were sampled using a probabilistic sampling design. Hydrographic data were collected in addition to samples for water chemistry. Bacterial indicators, enterococci and fecal coliforms, were enumerated from the water according to the EPA Beaches Environmental Assessment Closure and Health (BEACH) Program and Florida state guidelines. Additional criteria for site condition included the presence or absence of primary and secondary dunes, anthropogenic debris and vegetation. Based on EMAP evaluation guidelines and Florida state criteria, a baseline assessment of the condition of the Gulf of Mexico beach resources surveyed is presented.

  13. Linking integrated water resources management and integrated coastal zone management.

    PubMed

    Rasch, P S; Ipsen, N; Malmgren-Hansen, A; Mogensen, B

    2005-01-01

    Some of the world's most valuable aquatic ecosystems such as deltas, lagoons and estuaries are located in the coastal zone. However, the coastal zone and its aquatic ecosystems are in many places under environmental stress from human activities. About 50% of the human population lives within 200 km of the coastline, and the population density is increasing every day. In addition, the majority of urban centres are located in the coastal zone. It is commonly known that there are important linkages between the activities in the upstream river basins and the environment conditions in the downstream coastal zones. Changes in river flows, e.g. caused by irrigation, hydropower and water supply, have changed salinity in estuaries and lagoons. Land use changes, such as intensified agricultural activities and urban and industrial development, cause increasing loads of nutrients and a variety of chemicals resulting in considerable adverse impacts in the coastal zones. It is recognised that the solution to such problems calls for an integrated approach. Therefore, the terms Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) and Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) are increasingly in focus on the international agenda. Unfortunately, the concepts of IWRM and ICZM are mostly being developed independently from each other by separate management bodies using their own individual approaches and tools. The present paper describes how modelling tools can be used to link IWRM and ICZM. It draws a line from the traditional sectoral use of models for the Istanbul Master Planning and assessment of the water quality and ecological impact in the Bosphorus Strait and the Black Sea 10 years ago, to the most recent use of models in a Water Framework Directive (WFD) context for one of the selected Pilot River Basins in Denmark used for testing of the WFD Guidance Documents.

  14. U.S. Geological Survey programs in Florida, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1999-01-01

    The safety, health, and economic well-being of Florida?s citizens are important to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), which is involved in water-related, geologic, biological, land use, and mapping issues in many parts of the State. The USGS office in Tallahassee acts as the liaison for all studies conducted by USGS scientists in Florida. Water resources activities are conducted not only from the office in Tallahassee, but also from offices in Miami, Tampa, and Altamonte Springs (Orlando). Scientists in these offices investigate surface water, ground water and water quality in Florida, working in cooperation with other Federal, State and local agencies and organizations. The USGS Center for Coastal Geology and Regional Marine Studies was established in St. Petersburg in 1988, in cooperation with the University of South Florida. The Center conducts a wide variety of research on mineral resources and on coastal and regional marine problems, including coastal erosion, climate change, wetlands deterioration, and coastal pollution. A USGS mapping office is located in St. Petersburg. Also, the Earth Science Information Center (ESIC) in Tallahassee provides USGS information to customers and directs inquiries to the appropriate USGS office or State agency on earth science topics, particularly those related to cartography, geography, aerial photography, and digital data. Biologists at the USGS Florida Caribbean Science Center, located in Gainesville, conduct biological and ecosystem studies in Florida, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands.

  15. Application of Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO) Imagery for Coastal and Ocean Protection - A Case Study from Florida

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aircraft remote sensing of freshwater ecosystems offers federal and state monitoring agencies an ability to meet their assessment requirements by rapidly acquiring information on ecosystem responses to environmental change for water bodies that are below the resolution of space...

  16. Application of Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO) Imagery for Coastal and Ocean Protection - A Case Study from Florida

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aircraft remote sensing of freshwater ecosystems offers federal and state monitoring agencies an ability to meet their assessment requirements by rapidly acquiring information on ecosystem responses to environmental change for water bodies that are below the resolution of space...

  17. Mapping water quality and substrate cover in optically complex coastal and reef waters: an integrated approach.

    PubMed

    Phinn, S R; Dekker, A G; Brando, V E; Roelfsema, C M

    2005-01-01

    Sustainable management of coastal and coral reef environments requires regular collection of accurate information on recognized ecosystem health indicators. Satellite image data and derived maps of water column and substrate biophysical properties provide an opportunity to develop baseline mapping and monitoring programs for coastal and coral reef ecosystem health indicators. A significant challenge for satellite image data in coastal and coral reef water bodies is the mixture of both clear and turbid waters. A new approach is presented in this paper to enable production of water quality and substrate cover type maps, linked to a field based coastal ecosystem health indicator monitoring program, for use in turbid to clear coastal and coral reef waters. An optimized optical domain method was applied to map selected water quality (Secchi depth, Kd PAR, tripton, CDOM) and substrate cover type (seagrass, algae, sand) parameters. The approach is demonstrated using commercially available Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper image data over a coastal embayment exhibiting the range of substrate cover types and water quality conditions commonly found in sub-tropical and tropical coastal environments. Spatially extensive and quantitative maps of selected water quality and substrate cover parameters were produced for the study site. These map products were refined by interactions with management agencies to suit the information requirements of their monitoring and management programs.

  18. Surface-Water and Ground-Water Interactions in the Central Everglades, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harvey, Judson W.; Newlin, Jessica T.; Krest, James M.; Choi, Jungyill; Nemeth, Eric A.; Krupa, Steven L.

    2004-01-01

    Recharge and discharge are hydrological processes that cause Everglades surface water to be exchanged for subsurface water in the peat soil and the underlying sand and limestone aquifer. These interactions are thought to be important to water budgets, water quality, and ecology in the Everglades. Nonetheless, relatively few studies of surface water and ground water interactions have been conducted in the Everglades, especially in its vast interior areas. This report is a product of a cooperative investigation conducted by the USGS and the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) aimed at developing and testing techniques that would provide reliable estimates of recharge and discharge in interior areas of WCA-2A (Water Conservation Area 2A) and several other sites in the central Everglades. The new techniques quantified flow from surface water to the subsurface (recharge) and the opposite (discharge) using (1) Darcy-flux calculations based on measured vertical gradients in hydraulic head and hydraulic conductivity of peat; (2) modeling transport through peat and decay of the naturally occurring isotopes 224Ra and 223Ra (with half-lives of 4 and 11 days, respectively); and (3) modeling transport and decay of naturally occurring and 'bomb-pulse' tritium (half-life of 12.4 years) in ground water. Advantages and disadvantages of each method for quantifying recharge and discharge were compared. In addition, spatial and temporal variability of recharge and discharge were evaluated and controlling factors identified. A final goal was to develop appropriately simplified (that is, time averaged) expressions of the results that will be useful in addressing a broad range of hydrological and ecological problems in the Everglades. Results were compared with existing information about water budgets from the South Florida Water Management Model (SFWMM), a principal tool used by the South Florida Water Management District to plan many of the hydrological aspects of the

  19. CLASSIFYING COASTAL WATERS: HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE AND CURRENT FOCUS ON AQUATIC STRESSORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal ecosystems are ecologically and commercially productive habitats that are experiencing significant impacts associated with accelerated population growth in coastal zones. The Clean Water Act requires identification of impaired water bodies and determination of the causes ...

  20. Phytoplankton community composition in nearshore coastal waters of Louisiana

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phytoplankton community compositions within near-shore coastal and estuarine waters of Louisiana were characterized by relative abundance, biovolume, and taxonomic identification to genus and species when possible. The range of total nitrogen was 0.5 to 1.3 mg L-1 and total phos...

  1. The use of satellites in environmental monitoring of coastal waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philpot, W.; Klemas, V.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of using satellites in an operational system for monitoring the type, concentration, location, drift, and dispersion of pollutants in coastal waters is evaluated. Visible, microwave, and thermal infrared sensing are considered. Targets to be detected include photosynthetic pigments, iron acid waste, and sewage sludge.

  2. Phosphorus in drainage waters of the Atlantic Coastal Plain

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Atlantic Coastal Plain region has had a long history of experimental and applied efforts to exclude phosphorus (P) from drainage waters. Early research focusing upon the chemical controls of soil and sediment P has given way to field studies aimed at refining our understanding of hydrologic path...

  3. Phytoplankton community composition in nearshore coastal waters of Louisiana

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phytoplankton community compositions within near-shore coastal and estuarine waters of Louisiana were characterized by relative abundance, biovolume, and taxonomic identification to genus and species when possible. The range of total nitrogen was 0.5 to 1.3 mg L-1 and total phos...

  4. Acidification of subsurface coastal waters enhanced by eutrophication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Wei-Jun; Hu, Xinping; Huang, Wei-Jen; Murrell, Michael C.; Lehrter, John C.; Lohrenz, Steven E.; Chou, Wen-Chen; Zhai, Weidong; Hollibaugh, James T.; Wang, Yongchen; Zhao, Pingsan; Guo, Xianghui; Gundersen, Kjell; Dai, Minhan; Gong, Gwo-Ching

    2011-11-01

    Human inputs of nutrients to coastal waters can lead to the excessive production of algae, a process known as eutrophication. Microbial consumption of this organic matter lowers oxygen levels in the water. In addition, the carbon dioxide produced during microbial respiration increases acidity. The dissolution of atmospheric carbon dioxide in ocean waters also raises acidity, a process known as ocean acidification. Here, we assess the combined impact of eutrophication and ocean acidification on acidity in the coastal ocean, using data collected in the northern Gulf of Mexico and the East China Sea--two regions heavily influenced by nutrient-laden rivers. We show that eutrophication in these waters is associated with the development of hypoxia and the acidification of subsurface waters, as expected. Model simulations, using data collected from the northern Gulf of Mexico, however, suggest that the drop in pH since pre-industrial times is greater than that expected from eutrophication and ocean acidification alone. We attribute the additional drop in pH--of 0.05 units--to a reduction in the ability of these carbon dioxide-rich waters to buffer changes in pH. We suggest that eutrophication could increase the susceptibility of coastal waters to ocean acidification.

  5. Simulation of the water-table altitude in the Biscayne Aquifer, southern Dade County, Florida, water years 1945-89

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merritt, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    A digital model of the flow system in the highly permeable surficial aquifer of southern Dade County, Florida, was constructed for the purposes of better understanding processes that influence the flow system and of supporting the construction of a subregional model of the transport of brackish water from a flowing artesian well. Problems that needed resolution in this endeavor included the development of methods to represent the influence of flowing surface water in seasonally inundated wetlands and the influence of a network of controlled canals developed in stages during the simulation time period (water years 1945-89). An additional problem was the general lack of natural aquifer boundaries near the boundaries of the study area. The model construction was based on a conceptual description of the Biscayne aquifer developed from the results of previous U.S. Geological Survey investigations. Modifications were made to an existing three- dimensional finite-difference simulator of ground- water flow to enable an upper layer of the grid to represent seasonally occurring overland sheetflow in a series of transient simulations of water levels from 1945 to 1989. A rewetting procedure was developed for the simulator that permitted resaturation of cells in this layer when the wet season recurred. An "equivalent hydraulic conductivity" coefficient was assigned to the overland flow layer that was analogous, subject to various approximations, to the use of the Manning equation. The surficial semiconfining peat and marl layers, levees, canals, and control structures were also represented as part of the model grid with the appropriate choices of hydraulic coefficient values. For most of the Biscayne aquifer grid cells, the value assigned to hydraulic conductivity for model calibration was 30,000 feet per day and the value assigned to porosity was 20 percent. Boundary conditions were specified near data sites having long-term records of surface-water stages or water

  6. Identification and bioactive potential of marine microorganisms from selected Florida coastal areas.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Anna; Martin, Glenroy D A

    2017-01-26

    The ocean, with its rich untapped chemical biodiversity, continues to serve as a source of potentially new therapeutic agents. The evaluation of the diversity of cultivable microorganisms from the marine sponge Halichondria panicea and ocean sediment samples were examined and their potential as sources of antimicrobial and antiproliferative agents were investigated. The marine sponge and sediments were collected at different depths (0.9-6 meters) and locations in Florida, including Florida Keys, Port St. Joe in Pensacola, Pensacola Bay, Pensacola Beach, and Fort Pickens. Twenty-one cultivatable isolates were grouped according to their morphology and identified using 16S rRNA molecular taxonomy. The bacterial community identified consisted of members belonging to the Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria (Alpha- and Gamma-classes) and Firmicutes phylogeny. Seven of the microbes exhibited mild to significant cytotoxic activities against five microbial indicators but no significant cytotoxic activities were observed against the pancreatic (PANC-1) nor the multidrug-resistant ovarian cancer cell lines (NCI/ADR). This work reaffirms the phyla Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria as sources of potential bioactive natural product candidates for drug discovery and development.

  7. 77 FR 29271 - Effective Date for the Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes and Flowing Waters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-17

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 131 RIN 2040-AF41 Effective Date for the Water Quality Standards for the State of... 6, 2012, effective date of the ``Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes and... proposal, EPA is requesting comment on extending the effective date for the ``Water Quality Standards for...

  8. Evolution of a Man-Made Plume in Coastal Waters

    SciTech Connect

    Steinmaus, Karen L.; Bowles, Jeff; Woodruff, Dana L.; Donato, Tim; Rhea, William J.; Snyder, W. A.; Korwan, Daniel R.; Miller, Lee M.; Petrie, Gregg M.; Maxwell, Adam R.; Hibler, Lyle F.

    2006-12-19

    The ability to understand the biogeophysical parameters that create ocean color in coastal waters is fundamental to the ability to exploit remote sensing for coastal applications. This article describes an experiment in which a controlled quantity of a single inorganic material with known absorption and scattering properties was released into a coastal environment. The plume experiment was conducted in conjunction with a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) field collection campaign in and around Sequim Bay on the Strait of Juan de Fuca in Washington State. The objective of the field campaign was to identify and characterize features in the near shore environment from the standpoint of quantifying environmental parameters to improve operational planning in littoral regions. The aerial component of the mission involved imagery acquisitions from the NRL's PHILLS hyperspectral sensor, and two commercial IR cameras. Coincident satellite data was obtained from commercial sources. Ground truth activities included atmospheric profiles, ground, surface water, and in-water spectral measurements, panels for radiometric calibration, water column water optics, water samples and profiles from support vessels, in-situ tide and weather measurements, and beach and intertidal transects and surveys (via scientific dive teams). This field collection campaign provided a unique opportunity for a multisensor data collection effort in littoral regions, to identify and characterize features from multiple platforms (satellite, aerial, water surface and subsurface) and sensors. Data from this mission is being used as input to both radiative transfer and ocean transport models, for characterizing the water column and the near-shore, and quantitatively estimating circulation and transport in coastal environments.

  9. Trade-offs between Biofuels Energy Production, Land Use and Water Use in Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Fidler, Michal; Capece, John; Hanlon, Edward; Alsharif, Kamal

    2014-02-11

    Objective of the presentation is to document land use and water use implications of biomass production to demonstrate the overall resources implications associated with bioethanol production for Florida’s transportation sector needs. Rationale for using biofuels (BF) is explained, so are advantages & challenges of BF production and use. Land use changes (LUC) in Florida are presented and consequences outlined. It is documented that Florida’s agricultural land is a very limited resource, with only 0.43 ac/person comparing to the global average of 1.71 ac/person. The direct relation of increased biofuels production causing increased water use is explained. Favorable climate, water resources, advanced research, traditional leading agricultural role, minor oil reserves, no refineries and increasing energy demands are the main reasons why Florida considers pursuing BF production in large scale. Eight various bioethanol crops produced in Florida were considered in this study (Miscanthus, Switchgrass, Sweet Sorghum, Corn, Elephantgrass, Sugarcane, Energycane, Eucalyptus). Biomass yield and bioethanol yield of these crops are documented. Bioethanol needs of Florida are estimated and related land requirements for the needed bioethanol production calculated. Projections for various bioethanol blends (E15 to E85) are then presented. Finally, water demand for biofuels production is quantified. It is concluded that land use requirement for production of all ethanol in E85 fuel blend in Florida is roughly the same as the total available ag land in Florida for the best yielding biofuels crops (energycane, eucalyptus). Water demand for production of all ethanol needed for E100 would increase current overall water consumption in Florida between 65% and 100% for the most common biofuels crops. Vehicular energy is only 33% of Floridians energy consumption, so even all Florida’s agricultural land was given up for biofuels, it would still produce only 33% of Florida’s total

  10. Depth to water table, recharge areas, drainage basins, and relief of Duval County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Causey, L.V.

    1975-01-01

    This 3-sheet map report depicts hydrologic systems of surface water and groundwater in Duval County, Florida. The maps are from 1:20,000 and 1:62,500 quadrangles, U.S. Geological Survey. Symbols and colors describe water levels, groundwater recharge, drainage areas, and topography. (Woodard-USGS)

  11. GPS Monitoring of Cattle Location Near Water Features in South Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A study was conducted to quantify the amount of time spent by grazing cattle near or in water locations (wetlands, ditches, and water troughs) across seasons of a cow-calf production ranch in South Florida. Prolonged hot summers in these regions can cause physiological heat stress in cattle and driv...

  12. Monitoring Ground-Water Quality in Coastal Ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colman, John A.; Masterson, John P.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The Cape Cod National Seashore (CACO) extends along more than 70 km of Atlantic Ocean open-beach coastline and includes three large saltwater bays - Wellfleet Harbor, Nauset Marsh, and Pleasant Bay (fig. 1). CACO encompasses about 18,000 ha of uplands, lakes, wetlands, and tidal lands (Godfrey and others, 1999) including most habitats typical of the sandy coast in National seashores and parks extending southward from Massachusetts to Florida. In 1995, CACO was selected by the National Park Service (NPS) as a prototype park typifying the Atlantic and Gulf Coast biogeographic region for long-term coastal ecosystem monitoring. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is currently (2007) assisting the NPS in the development of protocols for a Long-Term Coastal Ecosystem Monitoring Program at the CACO in Massachusetts. The overall purpose of the monitoring program is to characterize both natural and human-induced change in the biological resources of the CACO, over a time scale of decades, in the context of a changing global ecosystem.

  13. Surface-water and ground-water features, Clay County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bentley, C.B.

    1977-01-01

    Clay County is a rapidly growing area in northeastern Florida. Surface water largely is undeveloped except for recreational use. Black Creek is the largest fresh-water stream in the country and has an average discharge of about 515 cubic feet per second. However, excessive color, iron concentration, hardness, and pH often make the water objectionable for many asses. Water from the lakes and streams in the Etonia Creek basin in southwestern Clay County generally is of good chemical quality. Ground water occurs in the county in a water-table aquifer, secondary artesian aquifers, and the Floridan aquifer. Large withdrawals of water from the Floridan aquifer since the 1940's, especially in nearby metropolitan Jacksonville, have caused a decline of the potentiometric surface of up to 30 feet in the northeast corner of Clay County to less than 5 feet in the western part. The rate of decline in recent years at Orange Park has been about 0.7 of a foot per year. Ground water in the county generally is of good chemical quality and is suitable for most uses. (Woodard-USGS)

  14. Recent measurements of the spectral backward-scattering coefficient in coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maffione, Robert A.; Dana, David R.

    1997-02-01

    The backward scattering coefficient bb was measured in various coastal waters with fixed-angle backscattering sensors developed by the authors. Measurements were made at four discrete wavelengths covering the spectral range 440 to 675 nm. A power law spectral dependence of bb due to scattering by particles was investigated of the form bbp((lambda) ) equals bbp ((lambda) 0) ((lambda) 0/(lambda) )(gamma , where the superscript p denotes particle scattering and (lambda) is the wavelength. The exponent (gamma) depends on the particle size distribution and composition of particles. Extensive measurements in Monterey Bay, California, showed that 0.1 waters generally below 10 m. For the upper 10 m, 0.7 waters near Panama City, Florida, (gamma) for the upper 10 m was found to be in the range, 0.9 water, 0.9 waters of East Sound, Washington, 0 waters measured.

  15. On the disposal of contaminated milk in coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Elliott, A J; Wilkins, B T; Mansfield, P

    2001-10-01

    Estimates have been made of the reduction in dissolved oxygen levels in coastal waters that would result from the disposal of contaminated milk following a radiological accident. Two contrasting sites were chosen: the Bristol Channel near Hinkley Point and the coast of Cumbria near Sellafield. The results suggest that the dilution would be sufficiently strong near Hinkley Point, due to vigorous tidal mixing, that the impact on the DO levels of the coastal waters would be negligible. However, at both Sellafield and Heysham the disposal of milk could result in a reduction of the DO by 1-2 mg l(-1). In contrast to shallow estuarine waters, the recovery of oxygen levels due to the effects of re-aeration through surface gas exchange is unlikely to be significant due to the depth of the coastal waters. However, the recovery of the dissolved oxygen levels to ambient conditions following the completion of the discharge would occur on a time scale of about 17 days due to mixing of the DO deficit plume into the surrounding waters.

  16. Studying ground water under Delmarva coastal bays using electrical resistivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manheim, Frank T.; Krantz, David E.; Bratton, John F.

    2004-01-01

    Fresh ground water is widely distributed in subsurface sediments below the coastal bays of the Delmarva Peninsula (Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia). These conditions were revealed by nearly 300 km of streamer resistivity surveys, utilizing a towed multichannel cable system. Zones of high resistivity displayed by inversion modeling were confirmed by vibradrilling investigations to correspond to fresh ground water occurrences. Fresh water lenses extended from a few hundred meters up to 2 km from shore. Along the western margins of coastal bays in areas associated with fine-grained surficial sediments, high-resistivity layers were widespread and were especially pronounced near tidal creeks. Fresh ground water layers were less common along the eastern barrier-bar margins of the bays, where sediments were typically sandy. Mid-bay areas in Chincoteague Bay, Maryland, did not show evidence of fresh water. Indian River Bay, Delaware, showed complex subsurface salinity relationships, including an area with possible hypersaline brines. The new streamer resistivity system paired with vibradrilling in these investigations provides a powerful approach to recovering information required for extension of hydrologic modeling of shallow coastal aquifer systems into offshore areas.

  17. A Screening-Level Hydroeconomic Model of South Florida Water Resources System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirchi, A.; Watkins, D. W., Jr.; Flaxman, M.; Wiesmann, D.

    2014-12-01

    South Florida's water resources management is characterized by system-wide tradeoffs associated with maintaining the ecological integrity of natural environments such as the Everglades while meeting the water demands of the agricultural sector and growing urban areas. As these tradeoffs become more pronounced due to pressures from climate change, sea level rise, and population growth, it will be increasingly challenging for policy makers and stakeholders to reach consensus on water resources management objectives and planning horizons. A hydroeconomic optimization model of south Florida's water resources system is developed to incorporate the value of water for preserving ecosystem services alongside water supplies to the Everglades Agricultural Area and urban areas. Results of this screening-level network flow model facilitate quantitative analysis and provide insights for long-term adaptive management strategies for the region's water resources.

  18. Occurrence and concentration of caffeine in Oregon coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez del Rey, Zoe; Granek, Elise F; Sylvester, Steve

    2012-07-01

    Caffeine, a biologically active drug, is recognized as a contaminant of freshwater and marine systems. We quantified caffeine concentrations in Oregon's coastal ocean to determine whether levels correlated with proximity to caffeine pollution sources. Caffeine was analyzed at 14 coastal locations, stratified between populated areas with sources of caffeine pollution and sparsely populated areas with no major caffeine pollution sources. Caffeine concentrations were measured in major water bodies discharging near sampling locations. Caffeine in seawater ranged from below the reporting limit (8.5 ng/L) to 44.7 ng/L. Caffeine occurrence and concentrations in seawater did not correspond with pollution threats from population density and point and non-point sources, but did correspond with storm event occurrence. Caffeine concentrations in rivers and estuaries draining to the coast ranged from below the reporting limit to 152.2 ng/L. This study establishes the occurrence of caffeine in Oregon's coastal waters, yet relative importance of sources, seasonal variability, and processes affecting caffeine transport into the coastal ocean require further research.

  19. Water-management models in Florida from ERTS-1 data. [Everglades National Park

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higer, A. L.; Coker, A. E.; Cordes, E. H.

    1974-01-01

    A prototype multiparameter data acquisition network, installed and operated by the U.S. Geological Survey is a viable approach for obtaining near real-time data needed to solve hydrologic problems confronting nearly 2.5 million residents of south Florida. Selected water quantity and quality data obtained from ground stations are transmitted for relay via ERTS-1 to NASA receiving stations in virtual real time. This data relay system has been very reliable and, by coupling the ground information with ERTS imagery, a modeling technique is available for water resource management in south Florida. An ecological model has been designed for the Shark River Slough in Everglades National Park.

  20. H.R. 73: A Bill to protect the ecologically fragile coastal resources of south Florida by prohibiting offshore oil and gas activities and by cancelling Federal leases in the area of the Outer Continental Shelf adjacent to the south Florida coast. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First session

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This document contains H.R. 73, A Bill to protect the ecologically fragile coastal resources of south Florida by prohibiting offshore oil and gas activities and by cancelling Federal leases in the area of the Outer Continental Shelf adjacent to south Florida. This Bill was introduced in the House of Representatives, 104th Congress, First Session, January 4, 1995.

  1. Ecology of coliphages in southern California coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Reyes, V C; Jiang, S C

    2010-08-01

    This study aims to investigate the ecology of coliphages, an important microbial pollution indicator. Specifically, our experiments address (i) the ability of environmental Escherichia coli (E. coli) to serve as hosts for coliphage replication, and (ii) the temporal and spatial distribution of coliphages in coastal waters. Water samples from three locations in California's Newport Bay watershed were tested for the presence of coliphages every 2 weeks for an entire year. A total of nine E. coli strains isolated from various sources served as hosts for coliphage detection. Coliphage occurrence was significantly different between freshwater, estuarine and coastal locations and correlated with water temperature, salinity and rainfall in the watershed. The coliphages isolated on the environmental hosts had a broad host-range relative to the coliphages isolated on an E. coli strain from sewage and a US EPA recommended strain for coliphage detection. Coliphage occurrence was related to the temperature, rainfall and salinity within the bay. The adaptation to a broad host-range may enable the proliferation of coliphages in the aquatic environment. Understanding the seasonal variation of phages is useful for establishing a background level of coliphage presence in coastal waters. The broad host-range of coliphages isolated on the environmental E. coli host calls for investigation of coliphage replication in the aquatic environment.

  2. Water Column Variability in Coastal Regions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    amount of sunlight available. Phytoplankton blooms in the Bay occur almost always during quarter phases of the moon , and not during the new moon ...of sunshine and cloud cover in both RI and Hong Kong. Water column stratification varies with the phase of the moon due to differences in neap and

  3. Analysis of bathymetric surveys to identify coastal vulnerabilities at Cape Canaveral, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, David M.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Hansen, Mark E.

    2015-10-07

    The purpose of this work is to describe an updated bathymetric dataset collected in 2014 and compare it to previous datasets. The updated data focus on the bathymetric features and sediment transport pathways that connect the offshore regions to the shoreline and, therefore, are related to the protection of other portions of the coastal environment, such as dunes, that support infrastructure and ecosystems. Previous survey data include National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) National Ocean Service (NOS) hydrographic survey from 1956 and a USGS survey from 2010 that is augmented with NOS surveys from 2006 and 2007. The primary result of this analysis is documentation and quantification of the nature and rates of bathymetric changes that are near (within about 2.5 km) the current Cape Canaveral shoreline and interpretation of the impact of these changes on future erosion vulnerability.

  4. Baseline coastal oblique aerial photographs collected from Pensacola, Florida, to Breton Islands, Louisiana, February 7, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, Karen L.M.; Krohn, M. Dennis; Doran, Kara; Guy, Kristy K.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts baseline and storm response photography missions to document and understand the changes in vulnerability of the Nation's coasts to extreme storms (Morgan, 2009). On February 7, 2012, the USGS conducted an oblique aerial photographic survey from Pensacola, Fla., to Breton Islands, La., aboard a Piper Navajo Chieftain at an altitude of 500 feet (ft) and approximately 1,000 ft offshore. This mission was flown to collect baseline data for assessing incremental changes since the last survey, and the data can be used in the assessment of future coastal change. The photographs provided here are Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) images. The photograph locations are an estimate of the position of the aircraft and do not indicate the location of the feature in the images (see the Navigation Data page). These photos document the configuration of the barrier islands and other coastal features at the time of the survey. The header of each photo is populated with time of collection, Global Positioning System (GPS) latitude, GPS longitude, GPS position (latitude and longitude), keywords, credit, artist (photographer), caption, copyright, and contact information using EXIFtools (Subino and others, 2012). Photographs can be opened directly with any JPEG-compatible image viewer by clicking on a thumbnail on the contact sheet. Table 1 provides detailed information about the assigned location, name, data, and time the photograph was taken along with links to the photograph. In addition to the photographs, a Google Earth Keyhole Markup Language (KML) file is provided and can be used to view the images by clicking on the marker and then clicking on either the thumbnail or the link above the thumbnail. The KML files were created using the photographic navigation files (see the Photos and Maps page).

  5. Gopher Tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) Densities in Coastal Scrub and Slash Pine Flatwoods in Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breininger, David R.; Schmalzer, Paul A.; Hinkle, C. Ross

    1994-01-01

    Densities of gopher tortoises were compared with habitat characteristics in scrub and in flatwood habitats on the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Tortoises were distributed widely among habitat types and did not have higher densities in well-drained (oak-palmetto) than in poorly-drained (saw palmetto) habitats. Fall densities of tortoises ranged from a mean of 2.7 individuals/ha in disturbed habitat to 0.0 individuals/ha in saw palmetto habitat. Spring densities of tortoises ranged from a mean of 2.5 individuals/ha in saw palmetto habitat to 0.7 individuals/ha in oak-palmetto habitat. Densities of tortoises were correlated positively with the percent herbaceous cover, an indicator of food resources. Plots were divided into three burn classes; these were areas burned within three years, burned four to seven years, and unburned for more than seven years prior to the study. Relationships between densities of tortoises and time-since-fire classes were inconsistent.

  6. Gopher Tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) Densities in Coastal Scrub and Slash Pine Flatwoods in Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breininger, David R.; Schmalzer, Paul A.; Hinkle, C. Ross

    1994-01-01

    Densities of gopher tortoises were compared with habitat characteristics in scrub and in flatwood habitats on the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Tortoises were distributed widely among habitat types and did not have higher densities in well-drained (oak-palmetto) than in poorly-drained (saw palmetto) habitats. Fall densities of tortoises ranged from a mean of 2.7 individuals/ha in disturbed habitat to 0.0 individuals/ha in saw palmetto habitat. Spring densities of tortoises ranged from a mean of 2.5 individuals/ha in saw palmetto habitat to 0.7 individuals/ha in oak-palmetto habitat. Densities of tortoises were correlated positively with the percent herbaceous cover, an indicator of food resources. Plots were divided into three burn classes; these were areas burned within three years, burned four to seven years, and unburned for more than seven years prior to the study. Relationships between densities of tortoises and time-since-fire classes were inconsistent.

  7. Using an environmental public health tracking biomonitoring study to validate safe water restoration efforts in Florida.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Melissa; DuClos, Chris; Kintziger, Kristina; Gray, Albert; Bonometti, Mary Ann

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic is a carcinogen when consumed over many years and is the type of arsenic that is associated with well water. Private wells in many central Florida counties have been found to contain levels of arsenic above 10 μg/L, which is the maximum contaminant level (MCL) established by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The purpose of this study was to test whether individuals living in homes with arsenic levels above the MCL who use bottled water or have a point of use (POU) filter on their main source of water in the house (eg, kitchen sink) are ingesting unsafe levels of arsenic through other unfiltered water sources in the home. Case-control study of residents with private wells above (case) and below (control) the MCL for arsenic in drinking water (10 μg/L) conducted between April and July 2013. Residents with private wells living in Hernando County, Florida, where nearly 400 unique wells of 1200 tested have been found to have elevated arsenic levels (targeted sampling). Participants with elevated water arsenic levels were referred to the Florida Safe Water Restoration Program for assistance in obtaining bottled water vouchers and/or POU filters. Creatinine-corrected total urinary arsenic levels and information on water use and consumption behaviors, dietary intake, and other possible exposure sources. Total urinary arsenic levels were similar for cases using POU filters or bottled water when compared with controls (geometric means of 7.17 and 7.19 μg/L, respectively). The current practice used by the Florida Safe Water Restoration Program of supplying POU filters or bottled water to households with arsenic levels in private wells between 10 and 50 μg/L appears to be sufficient to protect residents from arsenic exposure through tap water.

  8. Post-Hurricane Katrina coastal oblique aerial photographs collected from Panama City, Florida, to Lakeshore, Mississippi, and the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana, August 31, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, Karen L. M.; DeWitt, Nancy T.

    2017-04-03

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of the National Assessment of Storm-Induced Coastal Change Hazards project, conducts baseline and storm-response photography missions to document and understand the changes in vulnerability of the Nation's coasts to extreme storms. On August 31, 2005, the USGS conducted an oblique aerial photographic survey from Panama City, Florida, to Lakeshore, Mississippi, and the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana, aboard a Piper Navajo Chieftain aircraft at an altitude of 500 feet and approximately 1,000 feet offshore. This mission was flown to collect post-Hurricane Katrina data, which can be used to assess incremental changes in the beach and nearshore area and can be used to assess future coastal change.The photographs in this report are Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) images. These photographs document the state of the barrier islands and other coastal features at the time of the survey.

  9. Summary of data from onsite and laboratory analyses of surface water and marsh porewater from South Florida Water Management District Water Conservation Areas, the Everglades, South Florida, March 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reddy, Michael M.; Gunther, Charmaine D.

    2012-01-01

    This report presents results of chemical analysis for samples collected during March, 1995, as part of a study to quantify the interaction of aquatic organic material (referred to here as dissolved organic carbon with dissolved metal ions). The work was done in conjunction with the South Florida Water Management District, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Geological Survey South Florida Ecosystems Initiative, and the South Florida National Water Quality Assessment Study Unit. Samples were collected from surface canals and from marsh sites. Results are based on onsite and laboratory measurements for 27 samples collected at 10 locations. The data file contains sample description, dissolved organic carbon concentration and specific ultraviolet absorbance, and additional analytical data for samples collected at several sites in the Water Conservation Areas, the Everglades, south Florida.

  10. Environmental control on aerobic methane oxidation in coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinle, Lea; Maltby, Johanna; Engbersen, Nadine; Zopfi, Jakob; Bange, Hermann; Elvert, Marcus; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Kock, Annette; Lehmann, Moritz; Treude, Tina; Niemann, Helge

    2016-04-01

    Large quantities of methane are produced in anoxic sediments of continental margins and may be liberated to the overlying water column, where some of it is consumed by aerobic methane oxidizing bacteria (MOB). Aerobic methane oxidation (MOx) in the water column is consequently the final sink for methane before its release to the atmosphere, where it acts as a potent greenhouse gas. In the context of the ocean's contribution to atmospheric methane, coastal seas are particularly important accounting >75% of global methane emission from marine systems. Coastal oceans are highly dynamic, in particular with regard to the variability of methane and oxygen concentrations as well as temperature and salinity, all of which are potential key environmental factors controlling MOx. To determine important environmental controls on the activity of MOBs in coastal seas, we conducted a two-year time-series study with measurements of physicochemical water column parameters, MOx activity and the composition of the MOB community in a coastal inlet in the Baltic Sea (Boknis Eck Time Series Station, Eckernförde Bay - E-Bay). In addition, we investigated the influence of temperature and oxygen on MOx during controlled laboratory experiments. In E-Bay, hypoxia developed in bottom waters towards the end of the stratification period. Constant methane liberation from sediments resulted in bottom water methane accumulations and supersaturation (with respect to the atmospheric equilibrium) in surface waters. Here, we will discuss the factors impacting MOx the most, which were (i) perturbations of the water column (ii) temperature and (iii) oxygen concentration. (i) Perturbations of the water column caused by storm events or seasonal mixing led to a decrease in MOx, probably caused by replacement of stagnant water with a high standing stock of MOB by 'new' waters with a lower abundance of methanotrophs. b) An increase in temperature generally led to higher MOx rates. c) Even though methane was

  11. Water and nitrogen management effects on water and nitrogen fluxes in Florida Flatwoods.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, Gregory S; Shukla, Sanjay

    2011-01-01

    The effects of water and fertilizer best management practices (BMPs) have not been quantified for groundwater nitrogen (N) beneath seepage irrigated vegetable fields with shallow water table environments. This effect was evaluated by a 3-yr study conducted in the Flatwoods of south Florida for watermelon ( cv. Mardi Gras and Tri-X 313) and tomato ( cv. BHN 586) using three treatments of water and inorganic fertilizer N (N) rates: (i) high fertilizer and water rates with seepage irrigation (HR), (ii) recommended fertilizer and water rates (BMP) with seepage irrigation (RR); and (iii) RR with subsurface drip irrigation (RR-SD). These treatments were implemented on six hydraulically isolated plots. The N rate treatments for high (HR) and recommended (RR and RR-SD) were based on a grower survey and BMP recommendations, respectively. Water applied, water table depth, and soil moisture content were regularly monitored for each treatment. Plant, soil, and groundwater N sampling and analyses were conducted for each season of the 3-yr study. The average water applied in HR (187 cm) was greater than RR (172 cm) and RR-SD (94 cm). Soil N maintained in crop beds for HR was significantly higher than RR and RR-SD. Soil solution analyses showed that N leached beneath HR (112 mg L) was greater ( = 0.053) than RR (76 mg L) and RR-SD (88 mg L). Shallow groundwater concentrations of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (NH-N + NO-N) were higher ( = 0.02) in HR (37 mg L) compared with RR (15 mg L) and RR-SD (19 mg L). Decreased N and water table levels can improve groundwater quality by reducing N leachate in shallow water table environments with seepage irrigated vegetable production systems.

  12. Pathogenic Human Viruses in Coastal Waters

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Dale W.; Donaldson, Kim A.; Paul, John H.; Rose, Joan B.

    2003-01-01

    This review addresses both historical and recent investigations into viral contamination of marine waters. With the relatively recent emergence of molecular biology-based assays, a number of investigations have shown that pathogenic viruses are prevalent in marine waters being impacted by sewage. Research has shown that this group of fecal-oral viral pathogens (enteroviruses, hepatitis A viruses, Norwalk viruses, reoviruses, adenoviruses, rotaviruses, etc.) can cause a broad range of asymptomatic to severe gastrointestinal, respiratory, and eye, nose, ear, and skin infections in people exposed through recreational use of the water. The viruses and the nucleic acid signature survive for an extended period in the marine environment. One of the primary concerns of public health officials is the relationship between the presence of pathogens and the recreational risk to human health in polluted marine environments. While a number of studies have attempted to address this issue, the relationship is still poorly understood. A contributing factor to our lack of progress in the field has been the lack of sensitive methods to detect the broad range of both bacterial and viral pathogens. The application of new and advanced molecular methods will continue to contribute to our current state of knowledge in this emerging and important field. PMID:12525429

  13. Pathogenic human viruses in coastal waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffin, Dale W.; Donaldson, Kim A.; Paul, J.H.; Rose, Joan B.

    2003-01-01

    This review addresses both historical and recent investigations into viral contamination of marine waters. With the relatively recent emergence of molecular biology-based assays, a number of investigations have shown that pathogenic viruses are prevalent in marine waters being impacted by sewage. Research has shown that this group of fecal-oral viral pathogens (enteroviruses, hepatitis A viruses, Norwalk viruses, reoviruses, adenoviruses, rotaviruses, etc.) can cause a broad range of asymptomatic to severe gastrointestinal, respiratory, and eye, nose, ear, and skin infections in people exposed through recreational use of the water. The viruses and the nucleic acid signature survive for an extended period in the marine environment. One of the primary concerns of public health officials is the relationship between the presence of pathogens and the recreational risk to human health in polluted marine environments. While a number of studies have attempted to address this issue, the relationship is still poorly understood. A contributing factor to our lack of progress in the field has been the lack of sensitive methods to detect the broad range of both bacterial and viral pathogens. The application of new and advanced molecular methods will continue to contribute to our current state of knowledge in this emerging and

  14. Phosphorus fractionation and distribution in sediments from wetlands and canals of a water conservation area in the Florida Everglades

    Treesearch

    Qingren Wang; Yuncong Li; Ying. Ouyang

    2011-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) fractionation and distribution in sediments are of great concern in the Florida Everglades ecosystem because potential eutrophication of surface waters usually results from P external loading and stability. Intact core sediment samples were collected to a depth of 35 cm from wetlands and canals across Water Conservation Area 3 (WCA‐3) of the Florida...

  15. On the interpretation of coastal aquifer water level trends and water balances: A precautionary note

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Leanne K.; Werner, Adrian D.; Simmons, Craig T.

    2012-11-01

    SummaryThe changes in seawater volumes caused by seawater intrusion are often neglected in coastal aquifer management studies. The conditions under which this can result in significant water balance errors are not well understood. Interface movements also influence temporal trends in coastal aquifer water levels, but there is little guidance on this effect. In this study, we use steady-state, sharp-interface, analytic modelling to generate idealised relationships between seawater volume, freshwater volume and water levels. The approach assumes quasi-equilibrium conditions, which are evaluated using a selection of transient, dispersive simulations. The results demonstrate that seawater volume changes can influence significantly coastal aquifer water level trends, relative to the corresponding non-coastal aquifer situation, particularly within deep aquifers with high hydraulic conductivity and low net recharge. It is also shown that seawater volume changes can be a significant component of coastal aquifer water balances, e.g., relative to freshwater discharge to the sea, especially within deep aquifers characterised by low hydraulic conductivity and low freshwater discharge. Transient simulations show that steady-state conditions are a reasonable approximation for a range of transient seawater intrusion situations, including two of the three cases considered in this analysis. We conclude that changes in seawater volumes should be included routinely in coastal aquifer water balances. Also, temporal trends in coastal aquifer water levels may not provide an adequate measure of freshwater storage trends. It follows that the assessment of coastal aquifer condition should consider groundwater levels relative to the hydraulic head imposed by the ocean, accounting for density effects.

  16. Hyrdology and water budget for a forested atlantic coastal plain watershed, South Carolina

    Treesearch

    Scott V. Harder; Devendra M. Amatya; Timothy J. Callahan; Carl C. Trettin; Jon Hakkila

    2007-01-01

    Increases in timber demand and urban development in the Atlantic Coastal Plain over the past decade have motivated studies on the hydrology, water quality, and sustainable management of coastal plain watersheds. However, studies on baseline water budgets are limited for the low-lying, forested watersheds of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. The purpose of this study was to...

  17. Hydrology and water budget for a forested atlantic coastal plain watershed, South Carolina

    Treesearch

    Scott V. Harder; Devendra M Amatya; Callahan Timothy J.; Carl C. Trettin; Hakkila Jon

    2007-01-01

    Increases in timber demand and urban development in the Atlantic Coastal Plain over the past decade have motivated studies on the hydrology, water quality, and sustainable management of coastal plain watersheds. However, studies on baseline water budgets are limited for the low-lying, forested watersheds of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. The purpose of this study was to...

  18. Development and application of a new comprehensive image-based classification scheme for coastal and benthic environments along the southeast Florida continental shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makowski, Christopher

    The coastal (terrestrial) and benthic environments along the southeast Florida continental shelf show a unique biophysical succession of marine features from a highly urbanized, developed coastal region in the north (i.e. northern Miami-Dade County) to a protective marine sanctuary in the southeast (i.e. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary). However, the establishment of a standard bio-geomorphological classification scheme for this area of coastal and benthic environments is lacking. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis and answer the research question of whether new parameters of integrating geomorphological components with dominant biological covers could be developed and applied across multiple remote sensing platforms for an innovative way to identify, interpret, and classify diverse coastal and benthic environments along the southeast Florida continental shelf. An ordered manageable hierarchical classification scheme was developed to incorporate the categories of Physiographic Realm, Morphodynamic Zone, Geoform, Landform, Dominant Surface Sediment, and Dominant Biological Cover. Six different remote sensing platforms (i.e. five multi-spectral satellite image sensors and one high-resolution aerial orthoimagery) were acquired, delineated according to the new classification scheme, and compared to determine optimal formats for classifying the study area. Cognitive digital classification at a nominal scale of 1:6000 proved to be more accurate than autoclassification programs and therefore used to differentiate coastal marine environments based on spectral reflectance characteristics, such as color, tone, saturation, pattern, and texture of the seafloor topology. In addition, attribute tables were created in conjugation with interpretations to quantify and compare the spatial relationships between classificatory units. IKONOS-2 satellite imagery was determined to be the optimal platform for applying the hierarchical classification scheme

  19. Bidirectional reflectance function in coastal waters: modeling and validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilerson, Alex; Hlaing, Soe; Harmel, Tristan; Tonizzo, Alberto; Arnone, Robert; Weidemann, Alan; Ahmed, Samir

    2011-11-01

    The current operational algorithm for the correction of bidirectional effects from the satellite ocean color data is optimized for typical oceanic waters. However, versions of bidirectional reflectance correction algorithms, specifically tuned for typical coastal waters and other case 2 conditions, are particularly needed to improve the overall quality of those data. In order to analyze the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of case 2 waters, a dataset of typical remote sensing reflectances was generated through radiative transfer simulations for a large range of viewing and illumination geometries. Based on this simulated dataset, a case 2 water focused remote sensing reflectance model is proposed to correct above-water and satellite water leaving radiance data for bidirectional effects. The proposed model is first validated with a one year time series of in situ above-water measurements acquired by collocated multi- and hyperspectral radiometers which have different viewing geometries installed at the Long Island Sound Coastal Observatory (LISCO). Match-ups and intercomparisons performed on these concurrent measurements show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the algorithm currently in use at all wavelengths.

  20. Diurnal changes in ocean color in coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnone, Robert; Vandermeulen, Ryan; Ladner, Sherwin; Ondrusek, Michael; Kovach, Charles; Yang, Haoping; Salisbury, Joseph

    2016-05-01

    Coastal processes can change on hourly time scales in response to tides, winds and biological activity, which can influence the color of surface waters. These temporal and spatial ocean color changes require satellite validation for applications using bio-optical products to delineate diurnal processes. The diurnal color change and capability for satellite ocean color response were determined with in situ and satellite observations. Hourly variations in satellite ocean color are dependent on several properties which include: a) sensor characterization b) advection of water masses and c) diurnal response of biological and optical water properties. The in situ diurnal changes in ocean color in a dynamic turbid coastal region in the northern Gulf of Mexico were characterized using above water spectral radiometry from an AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET -WavCIS CSI-06) site that provides up to 8-10 observations per day (in 15-30 minute increments). These in situ diurnal changes were used to validate and quantify natural bio-optical fluctuations in satellite ocean color measurements. Satellite capability to detect changes in ocean color was characterized by using overlapping afternoon orbits of the VIIRS-NPP ocean color sensor within 100 minutes. Results show the capability of multiple satellite observations to monitor hourly color changes in dynamic coastal regions that are impacted by tides, re-suspension, and river plume dispersion. Hourly changes in satellite ocean color were validated with in situ observation on multiple occurrences during different times of the afternoon. Also, the spatial variability of VIIRS diurnal changes shows the occurrence and displacement of phytoplankton blooms and decay during the afternoon period. Results suggest that determining the temporal and spatial changes in a color / phytoplankton bloom from the morning to afternoon time period will require additional satellite coverage periods in the coastal zone.

  1. Seagrass restoration enhances "blue carbon" sequestration in coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Greiner, Jill T; McGlathery, Karen J; Gunnell, John; McKee, Brent A

    2013-01-01

    Seagrass meadows are highly productive habitats that provide important ecosystem services in the coastal zone, including carbon and nutrient sequestration. Organic carbon in seagrass sediment, known as "blue carbon," accumulates from both in situ production and sedimentation of particulate carbon from the water column. Using a large-scale restoration (>1700 ha) in the Virginia coastal bays as a model system, we evaluated the role of seagrass, Zosteramarina, restoration in carbon storage in sediments of shallow coastal ecosystems. Sediments of replicate seagrass meadows representing different age treatments (as time since seeding: 0, 4, and 10 years), were analyzed for % carbon, % nitrogen, bulk density, organic matter content, and ²¹⁰Pb for dating at 1-cm increments to a depth of 10 cm. Sediment nutrient and organic content, and carbon accumulation rates were higher in 10-year seagrass meadows relative to 4-year and bare sediment. These differences were consistent with higher shoot density in the older meadow. Carbon accumulation rates determined for the 10-year restored seagrass meadows were 36.68 g C m⁻² yr⁻¹. Within 12 years of seeding, the restored seagrass meadows are expected to accumulate carbon at a rate that is comparable to measured ranges in natural seagrass meadows. This the first study to provide evidence of the potential of seagrass habitat restoration to enhance carbon sequestration in the coastal zone.

  2. Hydrogeomorphic and Anthropogenic Influences on Water Quality, Habitat, and Fish of Great Lakes Coastal Wetlands

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Lakes coastal wetlands represent a dynamic interface between coastal watersheds and the open lake. Compared to the adjacent lakes, these wetlands have generally warmer water, reduced wave energy, shallow bathymetry, higher productivity, and structurally complex vegetated h...

  3. Hydrogeomorphic and Anthropogenic Influences on Water Quality, Habitat, and Fish of Great Lakes Coastal Wetlands

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Lakes coastal wetlands represent a dynamic interface between coastal watersheds and the open lake. Compared to the adjacent lakes, these wetlands have generally warmer water, reduced wave energy, shallow bathymetry, higher productivity, and structurally complex vegetated h...

  4. Development of a coastal information system for the management of Jeddah coastal waters in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayerle, R.; Al-Subhi, A.; Fernández Jaramillo, J.; Salama, A.; Bruss, G.; Zubier, K.; Runte, K.; Turki, A.; Hesse, K.; Jastania, H.; Ladwig, N.; Mudarris, M.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents results of the development and application of a web-based information system, Jeddah CIS, for assisting decision makers in the management of Jeddah coastal waters, in Saudi Arabia. The system will support coastal planning, management of navigation and tackle pollution due to accidents. The system was developed primarily to nowcast in quasi-real time and to deliver short-term forecasts of water levels, current velocities and waves with high spatial and temporal resolution for the area near Jeddah. Therefor it will hasten response when adverse weather conditions prevail. The Jeddah-CIS integrates sensors transmitting in real time, meteorological, oceanographic and water quality parameters and operational models for flow and waves. It also provides interactive tools using advanced visualization techniques to facilitate dissemination of information. The system relies on open source software and has been designed to facilitate the integration of additional components for enhanced information processing, data evaluation and generation of higher water level, current velocity and wave for the general public. Jeddah-CIS has been operational since 2013. Extensions of the system to speed operations and improving the accuracy of the predictions to the public are currently underway.

  5. Remote sensing of water clarity and suspended sediments in coastal waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stumpf, R.P.

    1992-01-01

    Processing of data for estimation of suspended sediment concentrations and water clarity in turbid coastal water requires three components: (1) correction of raw data to water reflectance; (2) establishment of appropriate general models relating reflectance characteristics to materials in the water; and (3) determination of the coefficients of the models appropriate for the area under study. This paper presents equations and procedures appropriate for this processing. It provides example coefficients and data for the NOAA advanced very high resolution radiometer, which is the most appropriate sensor for investigating larger estuaries and turbid coastal systems until the launch of an ocean color imager (SeaWiFS) in late 1993.

  6. Toward a better guard of coastal water safety-Microbial distribution in coastal water and their facile detection.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yunxuan; Qiu, Ning; Wang, Guangyi

    2017-02-16

    Prosperous development in marine-based tourism has raised increasing concerns over the sanitary quality of coastal waters with potential microbial contamination. The World Health Organization has set stringent standards over a list of pathogenic microorganisms posing potential threats to people with frequent coastal water exposure and has asked for efficient detection procedures for pathogen facile identification. Inspection of survey events regarding the occurrence of marine pathogens in recreational beaches in recent years has reinforced the need for the development of a rapid identification procedure. In this review, we examine the possibility of recruiting uniform molecular assays to identify different marine pathogens and the feasibility of appropriate biomarkers, including enterochelin biosynthetic genes, for general toxicity assays. The focus is not only on bacterial pathogens but also on other groups of infectious pathogens. The ultimate goal is the development of a handy method to more efficiently and rapidly detect marine pathogens.

  7. Seasonal Variation in Sea Turtle Density and Abundance in the Southeast Florida Current and Surrounding Waters.

    PubMed

    Bovery, Caitlin M; Wyneken, Jeanette

    2015-01-01

    Assessment and management of sea turtle populations is often limited by a lack of available data pertaining to at-sea distributions at appropriate spatial and temporal resolutions. Assessing the spatial and temporal distributions of marine turtles in an open system poses both observational and analytical challenges due to the turtles' highly migratory nature. Surface counts of marine turtles in waters along the southern part of Florida's east coast were made in and adjacent to the southeast portion of the Florida Current using standard aerial surveys during 2011 and 2012 to assess their seasonal presence. This area is of particular concern for sea turtles as interest increases in offshore energy developments, specifically harnessing the power of the Florida Current. While it is understood that marine turtles use these waters, here we evaluate seasonal variation in sea turtle abundance and density over two years. Density of sea turtles observed within the study area ranged from 0.003 turtles km-2 in the winter of 2011 to 0.064 turtles km-2 in the spring of 2012. This assessment of marine turtles in the waters off southeast Florida quantifies their in-water abundance across seasons in this area to establish baselines and inform future management strategies of these protected species.

  8. Bio-optical water quality dynamics observed from MERIS in Pensacola Bay, Florida

    EPA Science Inventory

    Observed bio-optical water quality data collected from 2009 to 2011 in Pensacola Bay, Florida were used to develop empirical remote sensing retrieval algorithms for chlorophyll a (Chla), colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), and suspended particulate matter (SPM). Time-series ...

  9. Bio-optical water quality dynamics observed from MERIS in Pensacola Bay, Florida

    EPA Science Inventory

    Observed bio-optical water quality data collected from 2009 to 2011 in Pensacola Bay, Florida were used to develop empirical remote sensing retrieval algorithms for chlorophyll a (Chla), colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), and suspended particulate matter (SPM). Time-series ...

  10. Spatio-temporal analysis of wildfire ignitions in the St. Johns River Water Management District, Florida

    Treesearch

    Marc G. Genton; David T. Butry; Marcia L. Gumpertz; Jeffrey P. Prestemon

    2006-01-01

    We analyse the spatio-temporal structure of wildfire ignitions in the St. Johns River Water Management District in north-eastern Florida. We show, using tools to analyse point patterns (e.g. the L-function), that wildfire events occur in clusters. Clustering of these events correlates with irregular distribution of fire ignitions, including lightning...

  11. Compartment-based hydrodynamics and water quality modeling of a NorthernEverglades Wetland, Florida, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The last remaining large remnant of softwater wetlands in the US Florida Everglades lies within the Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge. However, Refuge water quality today is impacted by pumped stormwater inflows to the eutrophic and mineral-enriched 100-km c...

  12. Compartment-based hydrodynamics and water quality modeling of a NorthernEverglades Wetland, Florida, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The last remaining large remnant of softwater wetlands in the US Florida Everglades lies within the Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge. However, Refuge water quality today is impacted by pumped stormwater inflows to the eutrophic and mineral-enriched 100-km c...

  13. Particulate Trace Metal Composition in Coastal Waters Surrounding Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiann, K. T.; Huang, K. C.; Hsieh, A. C.

    2016-02-01

    Coastal zones are dynamic environments where materials are transported from the land and where biomass is the most abundant, feeding on the terrestrial nutrients supplied. Therefore, compositions of particulate matter in coastal waters are complex. We collected size-fractionated particulate matter from Taiwan's coastal waters and determine trace metal concentrations, along with some key parameters that allow for the assessment of contribution of particulate matter from different sources. Al content in the particles is used to derive a mineralogical contribution (largely terrestrial) in the particle samples, based on the fact that Al concentrations in common clay minerals and in biota are 2-3 orders of magnitude different. Thereafter, trace metal concentrations in biotic particles can be derived after subtracting contribution from mineral particles (using a reference trace metal concentration in mineral phase), and the results can be compared directly. In the four size classes of particulate matter we collected (0.4-10 µm, 10-60 µm, 60-153 µm, and >153 µm), Al concentration, i.e. mineralogical contribution, decreased with increasing size. The derived biotic trace metal concentrations in near-shore coastal waters showed large variations in different size fractions. Biotic Cd concentrations increased with increasing particle size, implying bioaccumulation along the food chain. For Pb, higher concentrations were mostly associated with smaller size fractions. This may suggest the particle-reactive characteristics applied here for biotic particles. For other elements of biological and environmental significance, such as Cu, Ni, and Zn, their bulk particulate concentrations were relatively constant regardless sample locations and size fraction, but large variations in the biotic contents were found among different size fractions, as well as among samples collected from different locations with various extent of anthropogenic influence.

  14. A spatial analysis of cultural ecosystem service valuation by regional stakeholders in Florida: a coastal application of the social values for ecosystem services (SolVES) tool

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coffin, Alisa W.; Swett, Robert A.; Cole, Zachary D.

    2012-01-01

    Livelihoods and lifestyles of people throughout the world depend on essential goods and services provided by marine and coastal ecosystems. However, as societal demand increases and available ocean and coastal space diminish, better methods are needed to spatially and temporally allocate ocean and coastal activities such as shipping, energy production, tourism, and fishing. While economic valuation is an important mechanism for doing so, cultural ecosystem services often do not lend themselves to this method. Researchers from the U.S. Geological Survey are working collaboratively with the Florida Sea Grant College Program to map nonmonetary values of cultural ecosystem services for a pilot area (Sarasota Bay) in the Gulf of Mexico. The research seeks to close knowledge gaps about the attitudes and perceptions, or nonmonetary values, held by coastal residents toward cultural ecosystem services, and to adapt related, terrestrial-based research methods to a coastal setting. A critical goal is to integrate research results with coastal and marine spatial planning applications, thus making them relevant to coastal planners and managers in their daily efforts to sustainably manage coastal resources. Using information about the attitudes and preferences of people toward places and uses in the landscape, collected from value and preference surveys, the USGS SolVES 2.0 tool will provide quantitative models to relate social values, or perceived nonmonetary values, assigned to locations by survey respondents with the underlying environmental characteristics of those same locations. Project results will increase scientific and geographic knowledge of how Sarasota Bay residents value their area’s cultural ecosystem services.

  15. Inland-coastal water interaction: Remote sensing application for shallow-water quality and algal blooms modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melesse, Assefa; Hajigholizadeh, Mohammad; Blakey, Tara

    2017-04-01

    In this study, Landsat 8 and Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWIFS) sensors were used to model the spatiotemporal changes of four water quality parameters: Landsat 8 (turbidity, chlorophyll-a (chl-a), total phosphate, and total nitrogen) and Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWIFS) (algal blooms). The study was conducted in Florda bay, south Florida and model outputs were compared with in-situ observed data. The Landsat 8 based study found that, the predictive models to estimate chl-a and turbidity concentrations, developed through the use of stepwise multiple linear regression (MLR), gave high coefficients of determination in dry season (wet season) (R2 = 0.86(0.66) for chl-a and R2 = 0.84(0.63) for turbidity). Total phosphate and TN were estimated using best-fit multiple linear regression models as a function of Landsat TM and OLI,127 and ground data and showed a high coefficient of determination in dry season (wet season) (R2 = 0.74(0.69) for total phosphate and R2 = 0.82(0.82) for TN). Similarly, the ability of SeaWIFS for chl-a retrieval from optically shallow coastal waters by applying algorithms specific to the pixels' benthic class was evaluated. Benthic class was determined through satellite image-based classification methods. It was found that benthic class based chl-a modeling algorithm was better than the existing regionally-tuned approach. Evaluation of the residuals indicated the potential for further improvement to chl-a estimation through finer characterization of benthic environments. Key words: Landsat, SeaWIFS, water quality, Florida bay, Chl-a, turbidity

  16. U.S. Geological Survey reports on the water resources of Florida, 1886-1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoy, N.D.; Simmons, James D.; Claiborne, Maude

    1981-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has released a listing of its reports on water resources in Florida for the period 1886-1980. Most of the reports contained in the listing were prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with numerous public agencies in Florida. The compilation has a full bibliographic list of reports, arranged alphabetically by senior author. In addition, the reports are indexed by geographic areas and by subject. Only two lines are used for each entry in the indexed portions, the complete reference being given only in the bibliographic list. (USGS)

  17. Hydrogeology, ground-water movement, and subsurface storage in the Floridan aquifer system in southern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, Frederick W.

    1989-01-01

    The Floridan aquifer system of southern Florida is composed chiefly of carbonate rocks that range in age from early Miocene to Paleocene. The top of the aquifer system in southern Florida generally is at depths ranging from 500 to 1,000 feet, and the average thickness is about 3,000 feet. It is divided into three general hydrogeologic units: (1) the Upper Floridan aquifer, (2) the middle confining unit, and (3) the Lower Floridan aquifer. The Upper Floridan aquifer contains brackish ground water, and the Lower Floridan aquifer contains salty ground water that compares chemically to modern seawater. Zones of high permeability are present in the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers. A thick, cavernous dolostone in the Lower Floridan aquifer, called the Boulder Zone, is one of the most permeable carbonate units in the world (transmissivity of about 2.5 x 107 feet squared per day). Ground-water movement in the Upper Floridan aquifer is generally southward from the area of highest head in central Florida, eastward to the Straits of Florida, and westward to the Gulf of Mexico. Distributions of natural isotopes of carbon and uranium generally confirm hydraulic gradients in the Lower Floridan aquifer. Groundwater movement in the Lower Floridan aquifer is inland from the Straits of Florida. The concentration gradients of the carbon and uranium isotopes indicate that the source of cold saltwater in the Lower Floridan aquifer is seawater that has entered through the karat features on the submarine Miami Terrace near Fort Lauderdale. The relative ages of the saltwater suggest that the rate of inland movement is related in part to rising sea level during the Holocene transgression. Isotope, temperature, and salinity anomalies in waters from the Upper Floridan aquifer of southern Florida suggest upwelling of saltwater from the Lower Floridan aquifer. The results of the study support the hypothesis of circulating relatively modern seawater and cast doubt on the theory that the

  18. Pesticides in Ground Water of the Maryland Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Denver, Judith M.; Ator, Scott W.

    2006-01-01

    Selected pesticides are detectable at low levels (generally less than 0.1 microgram per liter) in unconfined ground water in many parts of the Maryland Coastal Plain. Samples were recently collected (2001-04) from 47 wells in the Coastal Plain and analyzed for selected pesticides and degradate compounds (products of pesticide degradation). Most pesticide degradation occurs in the soil zone before infiltration to the water table, and degradates of selected pesticides were commonly detected in ground water, often at higher concentrations than their respective parent compounds. Pesticides and their degradates often occur in ground water in mixtures of multiple compounds, reflecting similar patterns in usage. All measured concentrations in ground water were below established standards for drinking water, and nearly all were below other health-based guidelines. Although drinking-water standards and guidelines are typically much higher than observed concentrations in ground water, they do not exist for many detected compounds (particularly degradates), or for mixtures of multiple compounds. The distribution of observed pesticide compounds reflects known usage patterns, as well as chemical properties and environmental factors that affect the fate and transport of these compounds in the environment. Many commonly used pesticides, such as glyphosate, pendimethalin, and 2,4-D were not detected in ground water, likely because they were sorbed onto organic matter or degraded in the soil zone. Others that are more soluble and (or) persistent, like atrazine, metolachlor, and several of their degradates, were commonly detected in ground water where they have been used. Atrazine, for example, an herbicide used primarily on corn, was most commonly detected in ground water on the Eastern Shore (where agriculture is common), particularly where soils are well drained. Conversely, dieldrin, an insecticide previously used heavily for termite control, was detected only on the Western

  19. Baseline coastal oblique aerial photographs collected from Breton Island, Louisiana, to the Alabama-Florida border, July 13, 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, Karen L.M.; Westphal, Karen A.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts baseline and storm response photography missions to document and understand the changes in vulnerability of the Nation's coasts to extreme storms. On July 13, 2013, the USGS conducted an oblique aerial photographic survey from Breton Island, Louisiana, to the Alabama-Florida border, aboard a Cessna 172 flying at an altitude of 500 feet (ft) and approximately 1,000 ft offshore. This mission was flown to collect baseline data for assessing incremental changes since the last survey, and the data can be used in the assessment of future coastal change. The images provided here are Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) images. ExifTtool was used to add the following to the header of each photo: time of collection, Global Positioning System (GPS) latitude, GPS longitude, keywords, credit, artist (photographer), caption, copyright, and contact information. The photograph locations are an estimate of the position of the aircraft and do not indicate the location of any feature in the images (see the Navigation Data page). These photographs document the configuration of the barrier islands and other coastal features at the time of the survey. Pages containing thumbnail images of the photographs, referred to as contact sheets, were created in 5-minute segments of flight time. These segements can be found on the Photos and Maps page. Photographs can be opened directly with any JPEG-compatible image viewer by clicking on a thumbnail on the contact sheet. Table 1 provides detailed information about the GPS location, name, date, and time each of the 1242 photographs taken along with links to each photograph. The photography is organized into segments, also referred to as contact sheets, and represent approximately 5 minutes of flight time. (Also see the Photos and Maps page). In addition to the photographs, a Google Earth Keyhole Markup Language (KML) file is provided and can be used to view the images by clicking on the marker and then

  20. Hydrology and water quality of East Lake Tohopekaliga, Osceola County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schiffer, Donna M.

    1987-01-01

    East Lake Tohopekaliga, one of the major lakes in central Florida, is located in the upper Kissimmee River basin in north-east Osceola County. It is one of numerous lakes in the upper basin used for flood control, in addition to recreation and some irrigation of surrounding pasture. This report is the fourth in a series of lake reconnaissance studies in the Kissimmee River basin prepared in cooperation with the South Florida Water Management District. The purpose of the report is to provide government agencies and the public with a brief summary of the lake 's hydrology and water quality. Site information is given and includes map number, site name, location, and type of data available (specific conductivity, pH, alkalinity, turbidity, color, dissolved oxygen, hardness, dissolved chlorides, dissolved sodium, dissolved calcium, dissolved magnesium, dissolved potassium, nitrogen, ammonia, nitrates, carbon and phosphorus). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) maintained a lake stage gaging station on East Lake Tohopekaliga from 1942 to 1968. The South Florida Water Management District has recorded lake stage since 1963. Periodic water quality samples have been collected from the lake by the South Florida Water Management District and USGS. Water quality and discharge data have been collected for one major tributary to the lake, Boggy Creek. Although few groundwater data are available for the study area, results of previous studies of the groundwater resources of Osceola County are included in this report. To supplement the water quality data for East Lake Tohopekaliga, water samples were collected at selected sites in November 1982 (dry season) and in August 1983 (rainy season). Samples were taken at inflow points, and in the lake, and vertical profiles of dissolved oxygen and temperature were measured in the lake. A water budget from an EPA report on the lake is also included. (Lantz-PTT)

  1. Echolocation by the harbour porpoise: life in coastal waters

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Lee A.; Wahlberg, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    The harbor porpoise is one of the smallest and most widely spread of all toothed whales. They are found abundantly in coastal waters all around the northern hemisphere. They are among the 11 species known to use high frequency sonar of relative narrow bandwidth. Their narrow biosonar beam helps isolate echoes from prey among those from unwanted items and noise. Obtaining echoes from small objects like net mesh, net floats, and small prey is facilitated by the very high peak frequency around 130 kHz with a wavelength of about 12 mm. We argue that such echolocation signals and narrow band auditory filters give the harbor porpoise a selective advantage in a coastal environment. Predation by killer whales and a minimum noise region in the ocean around 130 kHz may have provided selection pressures for using narrow bandwidth high frequency biosonar signals. PMID:23596420

  2. Echolocation by the harbour porpoise: life in coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Miller, Lee A; Wahlberg, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    The harbor porpoise is one of the smallest and most widely spread of all toothed whales. They are found abundantly in coastal waters all around the northern hemisphere. They are among the 11 species known to use high frequency sonar of relative narrow bandwidth. Their narrow biosonar beam helps isolate echoes from prey among those from unwanted items and noise. Obtaining echoes from small objects like net mesh, net floats, and small prey is facilitated by the very high peak frequency around 130 kHz with a wavelength of about 12 mm. We argue that such echolocation signals and narrow band auditory filters give the harbor porpoise a selective advantage in a coastal environment. Predation by killer whales and a minimum noise region in the ocean around 130 kHz may have provided selection pressures for using narrow bandwidth high frequency biosonar signals.

  3. Environmental Controls on Aerobic Methane Oxidation in Coastal Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinle, L.; Maltby, J.; Engbersen, N.; Zopfi, J.; Bange, H. W.; Elvert, M.; Hinrichs, K. U.; Kock, A.; Lehmann, M. F.; Treude, T.; Niemann, H.

    2015-12-01

    Large quantities of the greenhouse gas CH4 are produced in anoxic sediments of continental margins and may be liberated to the overlying water column, and later into the atmosphere. Indeed, coastal seas account for more than 75% of global oceanic CH4 emissions. Yet, aerobic CH4 oxidizing bacteria (MOB) consume an important part of CH4 in the water column, thus mitigating CH4 release to the atmosphere. Coastal oceans are highly dynamic systems, in particular with regard to the variability of temperature, salinity and oxygen concentrations, all of which are potential key environmental factors controlling MOx. To determine the most important controlling factors, we conducted a two-year time-series study with measurements of CH4, MOx, the composition of the MOB community, and physicochemical water column parameters in a coastal inlet in the Baltic Sea (Eckernförde(E-) Bay, Boknis Eck Time Series Station). In addition, we investigated the influence of temperature and oxygen on MOx during controlled laboratory experiments. In E-Bay, seasonal stratification leads to hypoxia in bottom waters towards the end of the stratification period. Methane is produced year-round in the sediments, resulting in accumulation of methane in bottom waters, and supersaturation (with respect to the atmospheric equilibrium) in surface waters. Here, we will discuss the factors impacting MOx the most, which were a) perturbations of the water column caused by storm events, currents or seasonal mixing, b) temperature and c) oxygen concentration. a) Perturbations of the water column led to a sharp decrease in MOx within hours, probably caused by replacement of 'old' water with a high standing stock of MOB by 'new' waters with a lower abundance of MOB. b) An increase in temperature generally led to higher MOx rates. c) Even though CH4 was abundant at all depths, MOx was highest in bottom waters (1-5 nM/d), which usually contain the lowest O2 concentrations. Lab-based experiments with adjusted O2

  4. Potentiometric surface of the Floridan Aquifer, Southwest Florida Water Management District, May 1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, G.L.; Schiner, George R.

    1983-01-01

    Maps of the potentiometric surface of the Floridan aquifer in west-central Florida are prepared semiannually by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District. Maps for May and September show, respectively, the potentiometric surface of the normally expected annual low and high water level conditions. This report shows the potentiometric surface of the Floridan aquifer for May 1983. Water level measurements were made during May 16-27. The map represents water level conditions when groundwater withdrawals for agricultural use are high, before the beginning of the summer rainy season. Therefore, the potentiometric surface is near its lowest level for the year. (Lantz-PTT)

  5. Hydrologic, geologic, and water-quality data, Ochlockonee River basin area, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pascale, Charles A.; Wagner, Jeffrey R.; Sohm, James E.

    1978-01-01

    This report presents hydrologic, geologic, and water-quality data collected within the Ochlockonee River basin area, in the panhandle of northwest Florida. The data are presented in graphs and tables. Surface-water data include streamflow measurements and analyses of water collected at 58 sites; ground-water data include descriptions of 360 wells and core holes, analyses of water and hydrographs of selected wells, lithologic logs of 131 wells and test borings, and natural-gamma logs of selected wells ranging in depth from 110 to 1,346 feet. Rainfall and municipal pumpage data also are compiled. Maps show the location of the data-collection sites. (Woodard-USGS)

  6. Potentiometric surface of the Floridan aquifer, southwest Florida Water Management District, September 1981

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yobbi, D.K.; Schiner, G.R.

    1982-01-01

    A September 1981 potentiometric-surface map of the Southwest Florida Water Management District depicts the annual high water-level period. Water levels in most wells measured in September 1981 are equal to or higher than in May 1981. Levels averaged about 26 feet higher in the southern part of the area and 5 feet in the north. In the agricultural sections of southern Hillsborough, Hardee, southwestern Polk, northwestern De Soto, and Manatee Counties, water levels increased 10 to 46 feet. From September 1980 to September 1981, water levels ranged from a decrease of 11 feet in Citrus County to an increase of 9 feet in southern Hillsborough County. (USGS)

  7. Estimation of turbidity in coastal waters using satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulshreshtha, Anuj; Shanmugam, Palanisamy

    2016-05-01

    The assessment of water clarity of any regional water body is particularly important from ecological and water quality perspectives, especially in the regions which are highly influenced by sediment run-off and seasonal fluctuations in turbidity. The ocean colour remote sensing has played a significant role in monitoring the turbidity level in marine and inland water bodies. However, algorithms to accurately estimate the turbidity in such optically complex waters are scarce or limited by high level of uncertainty due to various issues. The present study proposes a simple, two band algorithm to estimate turbidity in both turbid and clear waters. It was found that the band ratio of remote sensing reflectance (Rrs(670)/Rrs(670)+Rrs(555)) represents the proxy of TSS (Total suspended sediment) and therefore, positively correlates to turbidity. The new algorithm is based on the assumption that light reflected in these two vital bands contains the essential information regarding the total suspended matter in the water column. The statistical results showed that the percent mean relative error between the predicted turbidity and the measured turbidity was within +/-20%. To further demonstrate the robustness of the present algorithm, the spatial grid contours for the measured and the predicted turbidity was generated for the month of January 2014, August 2013 and May 2012 for the coastal waters in Bay of Bengal (Point Calimere, located in the southeast coast of India). The close consistency between the predicted and measured turbidity spatial patterns revealed that the present algorithm can be applied with high confidence to predict turbidity in both coastal and inland waters.

  8. Metropolitan Water Availability Forecasting Methods and Applications in South Florida

    EPA Science Inventory

    The availability of adequate fresh water is fundamental to the sustainable management of water infrastructures that support both urban needs and agricultural uses in human society. Recent drought events in the U.S. have threatened drinking water supplies for communities in Maryl...

  9. Municipal water supplies in Lee County, Florida, 1974

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Donnell, T. H.

    1977-01-01

    In 1974 the total pumpage for Lee County, Fla., municipal supplies reached 5,700 Mgal (million gallons annually), an increase of 54 percent over 1970 levels. Pumpage from individual sources included: Caloosahatchee River, 1,312 Mgal; water-table aquifer, 2,171 Mgal; the water-bearing zone in the Tamiami Formation, 340 Mgal; the water-bearing zone in the upper part of the Hawthorn Formation, 1,399 Mgal; the saline water zones in the lower part of the Hawthorn Formation and the Suwannee Limestone, 483 Mgal. Among the various sources, the water-table aquifer showed the greatest increase in municipal pumpage over 1970 levels (60 percent) while the saline zones in the lower part of the Hawthorn Formation and Suwannee Limestone showed the least (40 percent). Intensive pumpage from the water bearing zone in the upper part of the Hawthorn Formation has caused a progressive decline in water levels in wells tapping that zone. The quality of fresh ground water in areas unaffected by intrusion of saline water, generally meets all the recommended limits of the Environmental Protection Agency. The chemical treatment processes utilized by water plants in the county are generally effective in producing finished water that meets EPA preliminary drinking water standards. (Woodard-USGS)

  10. Metropolitan Water Availability Forecasting Methods and Applications in South Florida

    EPA Science Inventory

    The availability of adequate fresh water is fundamental to the sustainable management of water infrastructures that support both urban needs and agricultural uses in human society. Recent drought events in the U.S. have threatened drinking water supplies for communities in Maryl...

  11. Estimation of diffuse attenuation of ultraviolet light in optically shallow Florida Keys waters from MODIS measurements

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diffuse attenuation of solar light (Kd, m−1) determines the percentage of light penetrating the water column and available for benthic organisms. Therefore, Kd can be used as an index of water quality for coastal ecosystems that are dependent on photosynthesis, such as the coral ...

  12. Estimation of diffuse attenuation of ultraviolet light in optically shallow Florida Keys waters from MODIS measurements

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diffuse attenuation of solar light (Kd, m−1) determines the percentage of light penetrating the water column and available for benthic organisms. Therefore, Kd can be used as an index of water quality for coastal ecosystems that are dependent on photosynthesis, such as the coral ...

  13. Water resources of southeastern Florida, with special reference to geology and ground water of the Miami area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, Garald G.; Ferguson, G.E.; Love, S.K.

    1955-01-01

    The circulation of water, in any form, from the surface of the earth to the atmosphere and back again is called the hydrologic cycle. A comprehensive study of the water resources of any area must, therefore, include data on the climate of the area. The humid subtropical climate of southeast Florida is characterized by relatively high temperatures, alternating semi-annual wet and dry season, and usually light put persistent winds. The recurrence of drought in an area having relatively large rainfall such as southeastern Florida indicates that the agencies that remove water are especially effective. Two of the most important of the agencies associated with climate are evaporation and transpiration, or 'evapotranspiraton'. Evaporation losses from permanent water areas are believed to average between 40 and 45 inches per year. Over land areas indirect methods much be used to determine losses by evapotranspiration; necessarily, there values are not precise. Because of their importance in the occurrence and movement of both surface and ground waters, detailed studies were made of the geology and geomorphology of southern Florida. As a result of widespread crustal movements, southern Florida emerged from the sea in later Pliocene time and probably was slightly tilted to the west. At the beginning of the Pleistocene the continent emerged still farther as a result of the lowering of sea level attending the first widespread glaciation. During this epoch, south Florida may have stood several hundred feet above sea level. During the interglacial ages the sea repeatedly flooded southern Florida. The marine members of the Fort Thompson formation in the Lake Okeechobee-Everglades depression and the Calossahatchee River Valley apparently are the deposits of the interglacial invasions by the sea. The fresh-water marls, sands, and organic deposits of the Fort Thompson formation appear to have accumulated during glacial ages when seas level was low and the area was a land surface

  14. St. Augustine Inlet, Florida: Application of the Coastal Modeling System. Report 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    support of this study, as well as study review, were provided by Jacksonville District personnel Jason Engle and Lori Hadley . Peer reviews of this...level gauge. Figure 4 shows the location of the three fixed instrument suites. Measured ocean water level is a main driver of the circulation during...River. This horizontal current profiling provided time series measurements for comparison to the calculated current velocity in the CMS circulation

  15. First account of apochlorotic diatoms from mangrove waters in Florida.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Michele V; Hannah, Fiona; Rogerson, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    From January to December 2004, monthly samples were collected from the mangrove salt marsh of J.U. Lloyd State Park, Florida, to examine the spatial and temporal distributions of heterotrophic diatoms in this subtropical region. Four non-pigmented (i.e. apochlorotic), heterotrophic diatom morphotypes were isolated from mangrove neuston and plankton sites. Colorless diatoms were numerically significant in neuston during the fall and winter months and counts peaked at 174 x 10³ cells/L in December. Heterotrophic diatoms were most prevalent in mangrove plankton in October and averaged 55.5 x 10³ cells/L. Valve morphology was detailed for mangrove morphotypes (I, II, V, and VI). However, only one type (I) was named with confidence (Nitzschia leucosigma). The other three types failed to conform closely to published diagnostic features suggesting that either characters are more variable than accepted or these types were new species. Growth responses to changes in salinity and irradiance were detailed in the laboratory. All morphotypes were euryhaline, tolerating salinities between 10% and 40%; N. leucosigma was most salt tolerant and grew from 10% to 60%. Maximum growth was achieved between 20% and 40%. Growth was not significantly different for heterotrophic diatoms during light and dark treatments or for diatoms grown with or without bacteria.

  16. Assessment of coastal water quality at Bakkhali, West Bengal (India).

    PubMed

    Singh, Shiv; Bhadurfi, Bhaskar; Banerjee, Prasanta Kumar; Datta, Siddhartha

    2012-04-01

    Spatial variations of some physico-chemical water quality of the coastal water of a segment of Bakkhali (Bay of Bengal) were studied between the months of November 2009 and February 2010 before 12:00 a.m. The studies were carried out at three coastal sites of Bakkhali Beach (south extreme point, middle point and far north point, about 1.2 km along the shore) which is influenced by anthropogenic input from land-based sources. The site receives domestic, agricultural and industrial wastes. The water is being used for fishing, transportation of goods and by people for several purposes. The banks of the estuarine channels have traditionally been preferred locations for human settlement. Considering the various uses of this coastal segment, between Bakkhali to Haldia, the studies related to water quality monitoring were carried out. The pH, temperature, turbidity, salinity, TDS and conductivity vary in range of 8.24 - 8.65, 27.5 degrees C-31.5 degrees C, 480 NTU - 808 NTU, 21.6 PSU-30.0 PSU, 676 mg/L -934 mg/L and 1.72 mS/cm -1.97 mS/ cm respectively. Dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) concentrations at different sites vary within a narrow range 6.05 mg/L - 8.1 mg/L and 1.05 mg/L - 3.0 mg/L respectively. Chemical oxygen demand concentrations vary in a wide range of 170 mg/L - 812 mg/L. The bacterial count at the sampling site varied from 76-150 CFU.

  17. 76 FR 79604 - Effective Date for the Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes and Flowing Waters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-22

    ..., identified by Docket ID No. EPA-HQ-OW- 2009-0596, by one of the following methods: 1. http://www.regulations... FR 75762, and codified at 40 CFR 131.43. The final inland waters rule established numeric nutrient... designated uses. More specifically, the numeric nutrient criteria translate Florida's narrative...

  18. Land use, water use, streamflow characteristics, and water-quality characteristics of the Charlotte Harbor inflow area, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hammett, K.M.

    1990-01-01

    Charlotte Harbor is a 270-square-mile estuarine system in west-central Florida. It is being subjected to increasing environmental stress by rapid population growth and development. By 2020, population in the inflow area may double, which will result in increased demands for freshwater and increased waste loads. The Charlotte Harbor inflow area includes about 4,685 square miles. The Myakka, the Peace, and the Caloosahatchee are the major rivers emptying into the harbor. About 70 percent of the land in these three river basins is used for agriculture and range. In the coastal basin around Charlotte Harbor, about 50 percent of the total land area is devoted to commercial or residential uses. Water use in the inflow area is about 565 million gallons per day, of which 59 percent is used for irrigation, 26 percent for industry, 11 percent for public supply, and 4 percent for rural supply. Total freshwater inflow from the three major rivers, the coastal area, and rainfall directly into Charlotte Harbor averages between 5,700 and 6,100 cubic feet per second, which is more than 3,500 million gallons per day. A trend analysis of about 50 years of streamflow data shows a statistically significant decreasing trend for the Peace River stations at Bartow, Zolfo Springs, and Arcadia. No significant trend has been observed in the Myakka or the Caloosahatchee River data. In the Peace River, the decrease in flow may be related to a long-term decline in the potentiometric surface of the underlying Floridan aquifer system, which resulted from ground-water withdrawals. It is not possible to determine whether the trend will continue. However, if it does continue at the same rate, then, except for brief periods of storm runoff, the Peace River at Zolfo Springs could be dry year-round in about 100 years. Of the 114 facilities permitted to discharge domestic or industrial effluent to waters tributary to Charlotte Harbor, 88 are in the Peace River basin. Phosphate ore and citrus processing

  19. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebr