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Sample records for florida tomato vegetables

  1. New ilarvirus species in south Florida tomatoes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tomato necrotic streak virus (TomNSV) is a novel ilarvirus discovered infecting tomatoes in south Florida starting in fall 2013. It was found during surveys of vegetable fields for Tomato spotted wilt virus, Groundnut ringspot virus and Tomato chlorotic spot virus because all four viruses induce sim...

  2. Emerging tomato viruses in Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) causes crop losses worldwide. This tospovirus is well-known for disease epidemics in vegetable, ornamental and peanut crops in the southeastern U.S. Two other tospoviruses have recently emerged in south Florida. Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV) was first detected in ...

  3. A novel M RNA reassortant of Groundnut ringspot virus and Tomato chlorotic spot virus infecting vegetables in Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV) was recently identified using serology and nucleocapsid gene sequence from tomato plants with severe tospovirus symptoms in south Florida, which extends the geographic range of this virus from South America and South Africa to now include North America. Full genome s...

  4. Solanaceous vegetables in Florida infected with a novel M RNA reassortant of Groundnut ringspot virus and Tomato chlorotic spot virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We recently identified Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV) using serology and nucleocapsid gene sequence from tomato plants with severe tospovirus symptoms in south Florida. This extends the geographic range of this virus from South America and South Africa to now include North America. Full genome se...

  5. Vegetable viruses emerging in Florida and the Caribbean region

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) and a natural Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV) reassortant (LGMTSG) with GRSV S and L RNAs and a TCSV M RNA have recently emerged and joined previously established Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) as economically important vegetable pathogens in south Florida. TCSV...

  6. 78 FR 77604 - Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This proposed rule would increase the assessment rate established for the Florida Tomato Committee (Committee) for... tomatoes grown in Florida. Assessments upon Florida tomato handlers are used by the Committee to fund...

  7. 78 FR 28120 - Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 966 Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Decreased Assessment Rate AGENCY... the assessment rate established for the Florida Tomato Committee (Committee) for the 2012-13 and... order, Florida tomato handlers are subject to assessments, which provide funds to administer the order...

  8. 77 FR 43709 - Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ... per 25-pound carton of tomatoes handled. The Committee locally administers the marketing order which... fiscal periods from $0.0275 to $0.037 per 25-pound carton of tomatoes. The Florida tomato marketing order... assessment rate of $0.037 per 25-pound carton of tomatoes. In comparison, last year's budgeted expenditures...

  9. 78 FR 9307 - Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 966 Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Decreased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Interim rule with request for comments. SUMMARY: This rule decreases the assessment... the marketing order which regulates the handling of tomatoes grown in Florida. Assessments upon...

  10. Detection and characterization of tomato viruses: A case study of emerging tospoviruses in Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A unique strain of Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV), which has undergone genome reassortment with, and contains the medium RNA segment of, Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) emerged in solanaceous vegetables in south Florida in late 2009. A typical (non-reassorted) strain of TCSV was reported from t...

  11. Current status of Tomato chlorotic spot virus in Florida and the Caribbean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Damaging outbreaks of Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV), an emerging thrips-vectored tospovirus, and several invasive species of thrips are significantly impacting vegetable and other crops in Florida and the Caribbean. Host and geographic ranges of TCSV are continuing to expand in this region. Dev...

  12. 77 FR 21492 - Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ... Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This rule would increase the assessment rate established for the Florida Tomato Committee (Committee) for the 2011-12 and.... Assessments upon tomato handlers are used by the Committee to fund reasonable and necessary expenses of the...

  13. Tomato chlorotic spot virus Identified in Marsdenia floribunda in Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ornamental crops including hoya, annual vinca and portulaca have recently been identified with Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) infections in Florida. Observations of Marsdenia floribunda, commonly known as Madagascar jasmine, in September 2016 revealed TCSV-like symptoms. Testing of these sympt...

  14. Genomic and biological characterization of Tomato necrotic streak virus, a novel subgroup 2 ilarvirus infecting tomato in Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tomato necrotic streak virus (TomNSV) is a recently described ilarvirus that was detected in tomato in Florida. The full TomNSV genome sequence revealed it to be a novel subgroup 2 ilarvirus with little nucleotide identity to other previously reported tomato-infecting ilarviruses. Experimental hos...

  15. The nucleotide sequence of tomato mottle virus, a new geminivirus isolated from tomatoes in Florida.

    PubMed

    Abouzid, A M; Polston, J E; Hiebert, E

    1992-12-01

    A new geminivirus, tomato mottle virus (TMoV), affecting tomato production in Florida has been cloned and sequenced. Sequence analysis of the cloned replicative forms of TMoV revealed four potential coding regions for the A component [2601 nucleotides (nt)] and two for the B component (2541 nt). Comparisons of the nucleotide sequence of the TMoV genome with those of other whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses indicate that TMoV is a typical bipartite geminivirus of the New World and is closely related to but distinct from abutilon mosaic virus.

  16. Aminopyralid soil residues affect rotational vegetable crops in Florida.

    PubMed

    Fast, Brandon J; Ferrell, Jason A; MacDonald, Gregory E; Sellers, Brent A; MacRae, Andrew W; Krutz, L Jason; Kline, William N

    2011-07-01

    Bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flueggé) is a poor host of several soilborne pests of vegetable crops; therefore vegetable crops are commonly grown in a rotation with bahiagrass pastures in Florida. The herbicide aminopyralid provides foliar and soil residual weed control and increases forage production in bahiagrass pastures; however, the soil residual activity of aminopyralid makes carryover injury likely in subsequent sensitive vegetable crops. Field research was conducted to determine the sensitivity of five vegetable crops to soil residues of aminopyralid. At an aminopyralid soil concentration of 0.2 µg kg(-1) (the limit of quantitation for aminopyralid in this research), crop injury ratings were 48% (bell pepper), 67% (eggplant), 71% (tomato), 3% (muskmelon) and 3% (watermelon), and fruit yield losses (relative to the untreated control) at that concentration were 61, 64, 95, 8 and 14% in those respective crops. The crops included in this research were negatively affected by aminopyralid at soil concentrations less than the limit of quantitation (0.2 µg kg(-1) ). Therefore, it was concluded that a field bioassay must be used to determine whether carryover injury will occur when these crops are planted on a site where aminopyralid has been previously applied. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Potential of three trap crops in managing Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on tomatoes in Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a serious insect pest of tomatoes in Florida. In this study, we examined the use of three species of trap crops to manage N. viridula in North Florida tomato crops in 2014 and 2015. We used striped sunflower (Helianthus ann...

  18. IPM of the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) using trap and refuge crops within tomato fields in North Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Southern Green Stink Bug (SGSB), Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is a serious insect pest of tomatoes and numerous vegetable and fruit plants in north Florida. We evaluated three trap crops and three refuge crops to investigate their potential to be used for IPM (Integrated Pest Manag...

  19. 7 CFR 966.5 - Tomatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tomatoes. 966.5 Section 966.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 966.5 Tomatoes. Tomatoes means all varieties of the edible fruit (Lycopersicon...

  20. Ecology and management of whitefly-transmitted viruses of vegetable crops in Florida.

    PubMed

    Adkins, Scott; Webster, Craig G; Kousik, Chandrasekar S; Webb, Susan E; Roberts, Pamela D; Stansly, Philip A; Turechek, William W

    2011-08-01

    A variety of fresh market vegetables, including watermelon and tomato are economically important crops in Florida. Whitefly-transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) was first identified in squash and watermelon in Florida in 2005 and shown to cause a severe decline of watermelon vines as crops approach harvest. Florida is most economically impacted by SqVYV, although the virus has been detected more recently in Indiana and South Carolina. The origin and evolutionary history of SqVYV, one of the few members of the genus Ipomovirus within the family Potyviridae, are not known. Sequence diversity of SqVYV isolates collected at different times, from different locations and from different plant species is being analyzed for insights into the origin of the virus. More recently, Cucurbit leaf crumple virus (CuLCrV) and Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV), also whitefly-transmitted, have been detected in watermelon in Florida. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) was first detected in south Florida tomato crops in 1997. Several surveys have been conducted in the region to identify alternative hosts for these four viruses. Cucurbit weeds including Balsam-apple (Momordica charantia), creeping cucumber (Melothria pendula) and smellmelon (Cucumis melo var. dudaim) provide reservoirs for SqVYV, CuLCrV and/or CYSDV. Green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) also can be a reservoir for CuLCrV. No wild hosts of TYLCV have been reported in Florida. The effectiveness of insecticides and silver plastic mulch to manage whiteflies and mitigate TYLCV has been demonstrated and is currently being evaluated for SqVYV, CuLCrV and CYSDV. In addition, potential sources of SqVYV resistance have been identified in greenhouse and field screening of watermelon germplasm. Further studies to refine these sources of resistance are underway. Lastly, a comprehensive map of 33,560 hectares (82,928 acres) of vegetable fields in the three counties comprising the majority of the southwest

  1. El Niño-Southern Oscillation Impacts on Winter Vegetable Production in Florida*.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, James W.; Jones, James W.; Kiker, Clyde F.; Hodges, Alan W.

    1999-01-01

    Florida's mild winters allow the state to play a vital role in supplying fresh vegetables for U.S. consumers. Producers also benefit from premium prices when low temperatures prevent production in most of the country. This study characterizes the influence of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on the Florida vegetable industry using statistical analysis of the response of historical crop (yield, prices, production, and value) and weather variables (freeze hazard, temperatures, rainfall, and solar radiation) to ENSO phase and its interaction with location and time of year. Annual mean yields showed little evidence of response to ENSO phase and its interaction with location. ENSO phase and season interacted to influence quarterly yields, prices, production, and value. Yields (tomato, bell pepper, sweet corn, and snap bean) were lower and prices (bell pepper and snap bean) were higher in El Niño than in neutral or La Niña winters. Production and value of tomatoes were higher in La Niña winters. The yield response can be explained by increased rainfall, reduced daily maximum temperatures, and reduced solar radiation in El Niño winters. Yield and production of winter vegetables appeared to be less responsive to ENSO phase after 1980; for tomato and bell pepper, this may be due to improvements in production technology that mitigate problems associated with excess rainfall. Winter yield and price responses to El Niño events have important implications for both producers and consumers of winter vegetables, and suggest opportunities for further research.

  2. Aminopyralid soil residues affect rotational vegetable crops in Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Field experiments were conducted to determine the sensitivity of bell pepper, eggplant, tomato, muskmelon, and watermelon to aminopyralid soil residues. Aminopyralid was applied at six rates ranging from 0.0014 kg ae ha 1 to 0.0448 kg ae ha 1, and vegetable crops were planted in the treated areas. ...

  3. First report of tomato chlorotic spot virus in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) and purslane (Portulaca oleracea) in Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) has been recently detected in tomato, pepper, hoya and vinca in Florida. Observations of additional crops in 2016 and 2017 revealed TCSV-like symptoms. Testing of these symptomatic plants identified three new hosts of TCSV in Florida: sweet basil (Ocimum basilicu...

  4. Groundnut ringspot virus and tomato spotted wilt virus – Tospoviruses in Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A growing number of solanaceous crop and weed species infected with groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV) has been identified in Florida. Continuing geographic spread of GRSV into additional vegetable production areas of Florida has also been documented. Much has been learned about GRSV in Florida altho...

  5. Western flower thrips and tospoviruses emerging as serious threats to tomato in central and southern Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Outbreaks of Tomato chlorotic spot virus and/or Groundnut ringspot virus have occurred in every season since their introduction into south Florida, and with each subsequent season disease severity has increased. In addition, these emerging viruses are widely present in southeast and southwest Florid...

  6. 7 CFR 966.5 - Tomatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... esculentum) commonly known as tomatoes and grown within the production area. ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tomatoes. 966.5 Section 966.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order...

  7. 7 CFR 966.5 - Tomatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... esculentum) commonly known as tomatoes and grown within the production area. ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tomatoes. 966.5 Section 966.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order...

  8. 7 CFR 966.5 - Tomatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... esculentum) commonly known as tomatoes and grown within the production area. ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tomatoes. 966.5 Section 966.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order...

  9. 7 CFR 966.5 - Tomatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... esculentum) commonly known as tomatoes and grown within the production area. ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tomatoes. 966.5 Section 966.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order...

  10. Thrips-vectored tospoviruses in south Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tomato spotted wilt virus, Groundnut ringspot virus and Tomato chlorotic spot virus are all thrips-transmitted tospoviruses and are present in south Florida. All three species cause economically significant disease in vegetable and ornamental crops including tomato, pepper and annual vinca. Use of...

  11. 75 FR 10409 - Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... fiscal periods from $0.0375 to $0.0275 per 25-pound carton of tomatoes handled. The Committee locally...-10 and subsequent fiscal periods from $0.0375 to $0.0275 per 25- pound carton or equivalent of... 2008-09 season was approximately $8.13 per 25-pound carton, and total fresh shipments for the 2008-09...

  12. Necrotic streak disease of tomato in Florida caused by a new ilarvirus species related to Tulare apple mosaic virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A novel ilarvirus for which the name Tomato necrotic streak virus (TomNSV) is proposed was detected in Florida tomato plants beginning in October 2013. Symptoms including necrosis of leaves, petioles and stems, and necrotic rings or spots on fruits were observed. This report provides an overview o...

  13. Differential acquisition and transmission of Florida Tomato spotted wilt virus isolates by Western flower thrips

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Thrips-vectored Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is one of the most important insect-vectored plant pathogens globally. The virus host range encompasses many key vegetable, ornamental and agronomic crops. TSWV populations are highly heterogeneous, which has important implications for vector relati...

  14. Evaluation of anaerobic soil disinfestation amendments and rates for conventional tomato production in Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Methyl bromide and other soil fumigants have been heavily relied upon to control soilborne plant pathogens, nematodes, and weeds in polyethylene-mulched vegetable production in Florida. However, negative aspects of their use on the environment and human health have increased the interest in non-chem...

  15. Effect of vegetable proteins on physical characteristics of spray-dried tomato powders.

    PubMed

    Tontul, Ismail; Topuz, Ayhan; Ozkan, Ceren; Karacan, Merve

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, the effectiveness of different vegetable proteins (pea protein isolate, soy protein isolate and zein from maize) at two different ratios (1% and 5%) on product yield and physical properties of spray-dried pulpy tomato juice was investigated. Additionally, these proteins were compared with whey protein concentrate which has a superior effect on spray dried products at the same concentrations. Additionally, plain tomato juice was also spray dried for comparison with vegetable proteins. The product yield of the tomato powders dried with the vegetable proteins was lower than with the whey protein concentrate. Among vegetable proteins, the highest product yield was produced with 1% soy protein isolate. In all products, there was a slight colour difference between the reconstituted tomato powders and the raw tomato juice, which indicated that pulpy tomato juice can be spray dried with minor colour change. All powders had unique free-flowing properties estimated as Carr index and Hausner ratio due to their large particles. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Grafting as a Production System Component for Nematode Management in Florida Vegetables

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Trials in Florida evaluated grafting for control of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in tomato, cantaloupe, and pepper. Pepper rootstocks assessed included ‘Charleston Hot’, ‘Carolina Wonder’, ‘Charleston Belle’, ‘Mississippi Nemaheart’, and ‘Carolina Cayenne’, which were resistant to gall...

  17. Integrated pest management of the southern green stinkbug, Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on tomato in North Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Southern Green Stinkbug, Nezara viridula is a serious insect pest of tomatoes in north Florida. We evaluated three trap crops and three refuge crops to investigate their potential for IPM of N. viridula. The experimental trap crops and refuge crops were, striped sunflower, WGF sorghum and brown ...

  18. Thrips-transmitted Viruses Infect a Number of Florida Crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The ilarviruses Tomato necrotic streak virus and Tobacco streak virus are present in south Florida. Both species cause economically significant disease in vegetable crop. Control of these viruses makes use of integrated pest management approaches....

  19. [Examination of processed vegetable foods for the presence of common DNA sequences of genetically modified tomatoes].

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Mamiko; Nakamura, Kosuke; Kondo, Kazunari; Ubukata, Shoji; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    The contamination of processed vegetable foods with genetically modified tomatoes was investigated by the use of qualitative PCR methods to detect the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (P35S) and the kanamycin resistance gene (NPTII). DNA fragments of P35S and NPTII were detected in vegetable juice samples, possibly due to contamination with the genomes of cauliflower mosaic virus infecting juice ingredients of Brassica species and soil bacteria, respectively. Therefore, to detect the transformation construct sequences of GM tomatoes, primer pairs were designed for qualitative PCR to specifically detect the border region between P35S and NPTII, and the border region between nopaline synthase gene promoter and NPTII. No amplification of the targeted sequences was observed using genomic DNA purified from the juice ingredients. The developed qualitative PCR method is considered to be a reliable tool to check contamination of products with GM tomatoes.

  20. Systematic vegetation change analysis of mangrove dieoff in Florida Bay and southern Everglades National Park

    SciTech Connect

    Colby, M.M.; Sargent, F.J.; Sargent, W.B.

    1997-06-01

    A very brief summary is provided of a project to link hydrological and ecological relationships of the Florida Everglades watershed and the Florida Bay estuary. The creation of vegetation maps and systematic spatial analysis of vegetation and hydrological features will provide information about the interaction between these two ecosystems. The distribution of mangroves, salt marshes, and related vegetative communities are being mapped using existing aerial photography. Historical photographic records are being used to create geographic information system data layers. Changes in the composition of wetlands and vegetative patterns will be compared over a 45-year period.

  1. Dehydrotomatine and alpha-tomatine content in tomato fruits and vegetative plant tissues.

    PubMed

    Kozukue, Nobuyuki; Han, Jae-Sook; Lee, Kap-Rang; Friedman, Mendel

    2004-04-07

    Tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) synthesize the glycoalkaloids dehydrotomatine and alpha-tomatine, possibly as a defense against bacteria, fungi, viruses, and insects. We used a high-performance liquid chromatography method with UV detection at 208 nm for the analysis of these compounds in various tissues. An Inertsil ODS-2 column with a mobile phase of acetonitrile/20 mM KH2PO4 (24/76, v/v) afforded good separation of the two glycoalkaloids in mini-tomato extracts, fruit harvested at different stages of maturity, and calyxes, flowers, leaves, roots, and stems. The two peaks appeared at approximately 17 and approximately 21 min. Recoveries from tomato fruit extracts spiked with dehydrotomatine and alpha-tomatine were 87.7 +/- 6.8 and 89.8 +/- 3.4% (n = 5), respectively. The detection limit is estimated to be 0.39 microg for dehydrotomatine and 0.94 microg for alpha-tomatine. The dehydrotomatine and alpha-tomatine content of tomatoes varied from 42 to 1498 and 521 to 16 285 microg/g of fresh weight, respectively. The ratio of alpha-tomatine to dehydrotomatine ranged from 10.9 to 12.5 in tomatoes and from 2.3 to 7.8 in the other plant tissues. These results suggest that the biosynthesis of the glycoalkaloids is under separate genetic control in each plant part. Degradation of both glycoalkaloids occurred at approximately the same rate during maturation of the tomatoes on the vine. An Inertsil NH2 column, with acetonitrile/1 mM KH2PO4 (96/4, v/v) as the eluent, enabled the fractionation of commercial tomatidine into tomatidenol and tomatidine, the aglycons of dehydrotomatine and alpha-tomatine, respectively. The information should be useful for evaluating tomatoes and vegetative tissues for dehydrotomatine/alpha-tomatine content during fruit development and their respective roles in host-plant resistance and the diet.

  2. New thrips-transmitted plant viruses in Florida crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The thrips-transmitted tospoviruses Tomato spotted wilt virus, Groundnut ringspot virus and Tomato chlorotic spot virus are present in south Florida. All three species cause economically significant disease in vegetable and ornamental crops, and may also be problematic in peanut. Control of both t...

  3. Impact of essential oils on the taste acceptance of tomato juice, vegetable soup, or poultry burgers.

    PubMed

    Espina, Laura; García-Gonzalo, Diego; Pagán, Rafael

    2014-08-01

    Despite the vast body of available literature on the possibilities of essential oils (EOs) as food preservatives or functional ingredients, the sensory impact of their addition to foods has barely been approached. This work focuses on the hedonic taste acceptance of 3 food products (tomato juice, vegetable soup, and poultry burgers) when they are incorporated with potentially antimicrobial concentrations (20 to 200 μL/L) of 6 selected EOs (lemon, pennyroyal mint, thyme, and rosemary) and individual compounds (carvacrol, p-cymene). Although addition of 20 μL/L of pennyroyal mint or lemon EO did not change the taste acceptance of tomato juice, higher concentrations of these compounds or any concentration of the other 4 compounds did. In vegetable soup, the tolerance limit for rosemary EO, thyme EO, carvacrol, or p-cymene was 20 μL/L, while the addition of 200 μL/L of lemon EO was accepted. Tolerance limits in poultry burgers were established in 20 μL/L for carvacrol and thyme EOs, 100 μL/L for pennyroyal mint EO and p-cymene, and 200 μL/L for lemon and rosemary EOs. Moreover, incorporation of pennyroyal mint EO to tomato juice or poultry burgers, and enrichment of vegetable soup with lemon EO, could contribute to the development of food products with an improved sensory appeal. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Distribution and accumulative pattern of tetracyclines and sulfonamides in edible vegetables of cucumber, tomato, and lettuce.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Mohamed Bedair M; Rajapaksha, Anushka Upamali; Lim, Jung Eun; Vu, Ngoc Thang; Kim, Il Seop; Kang, Ho Min; Lee, Sang Soo; Ok, Yong Sik

    2015-01-21

    Veterinary antibiotics can be released to environment by the animals' excretions, which thereby poses human health and ecological risks. Six antibiotics (tetracycline, oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxazole, and sulfadimethoxine) at three concentrations (5, 10, and 20 mg kg(-1) soil) were employed in pots filled with a loamy sand upland soil. Three types of vegetable seedlings, including cucumber (Cucumis sativus), cherry tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa), were also cultivated during 45 d in the greenhouse. All antibiotics taken up by tested plants showed negative effects on growth. Relatively high levels of tetracyclines and sulfonamides (SAs) were detected in the nonedible parts, roots, and leaves of cucumber and tomato, but fruit parts accumulated them lower than acceptable daily intake. Indeed, cucumber roots accumulated SAs by up to 94.6% of total addition (at 5 mg kg(-1) soil).

  5. MAPPING AND MONITORING OF SUBMERGED AQUATIC VEGETATION IN ESCAMBIA-PENSACOLA BAY SYSTEM, FLORIDA.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, the distribution and changes in submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in the Escambia-Pensacola Bay System in northwestern Florida were monitored by two techniques. One technique used divers to measure changes in the deepwater margin of beds and provided horizontal growth...

  6. MAPPING AND MONITORING OF SUBMERGED AQUATIC VEGETATION IN ESCAMBIA-PENSACOLA BAY SYSTEM, FLORIDA.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, the distribution and changes in submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in the Escambia-Pensacola Bay System in northwestern Florida were monitored by two techniques. One technique used divers to measure changes in the deepwater margin of beds and provided horizontal growth...

  7. Tomato

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genome mapping and marker assisted selection are increasingly being adopted for tomato improvement. Vast amounts of technical and basic genomic information such as DNA and EST sequences, DNA markers, comparative linkage maps, introgression lines, mutant stocks, bioinformatics resources are availabl...

  8. Comparison of electrofishing and rotenone for sampling largemouth bass in vegetated areas of two Florida lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tate, W.B.; Allen, M.S.; Myers, R.A.; Estes, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    We compared the sampling precision and efficiency of electrofishing and rotenone for assessing populations of largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides in vegetated portions of two Florida lakes. Sampling was conducted at Lochloosa and Orange lakes in north-central Florida from 1990 to 1999. Significant differences in length frequencies were determined between the two methods in 5 of 9 years for each lake. In years where differences existed, electrofishing collected larger fish than did rotenone. The maximum deviation between cumulative relative length frequencies for the two methods was not related to total vegetation, native emergent vegetation, or hydrilla Hydrilla verticallata coverage at either lake. Sampling precision was greater for electrofishing than for rotenone; electrofishing also required less sampling effort to detect changes in the abundance of juvenile and adult largemouth bass. Electrofishing was a more precise and cost-effective method than rotenone for estimating largemouth bass abundance.

  9. Drag coefficients for modeling flow through emergent vegetation in the Florida Everglades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, J.K.; Roig, L.C.; Jenter, H.L.; Visser, H.M.

    2004-01-01

    Hydraulic data collected in a flume fitted with pans of sawgrass were analyzed to determine the vertically averaged drag coefficient as a function of vegetation characteristics. The drag coefficient is required for modeling flow through emergent vegetation at low Reynolds numbers in the Florida Everglades. Parameters of the vegetation, such as the stem population per unit bed area and the average stem/leaf width, were measured for five fixed vegetation layers. The vertically averaged vegetation parameters for each experiment were then computed by weighted average over the submerged portion of the vegetation. Only laminar flow through emergent vegetation was considered, because this is the dominant flow regime of the inland Everglades. A functional form for the vegetation drag coefficient was determined by linear regression of the logarithmic transforms of measured resistance force and Reynolds number. The coefficients of the drag coefficient function were then determined for the Everglades, using extensive flow and vegetation measurements taken in the field. The Everglades data show that the stem spacing and the Reynolds number are important parameters for the determination of vegetation drag coefficient. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A CURLY LEAF homologue controls both vegetative and reproductive development of tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Boureau, L; How-Kit, A; Teyssier, E; Drevensek, S; Rainieri, M; Joubès, J; Stammitti, L; Pribat, A; Bowler, C; Hong, Y; Gallusci, P

    2016-03-01

    The Enhancer of Zeste Polycomb group proteins, which are encoded by a small gene family in Arabidopsis thaliana, participate to the control of plant development. In the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), these proteins are encoded by three genes (SlEZ1, SlEZ2 and SlEZ3) that display specific expression profiles. Using a gene specific RNAi strategy, we demonstrate that repression of SlEZ2 correlates with a general reduction of H3K27me3 levels, indicating that SlEZ2 is part of an active PRC2 complex. Reduction of SlEZ2 gene expression impacts the vegetative development of tomato plants, consistent with SlEZ2 having retained at least some of the functions of the Arabidopsis CURLY LEAF (CLF) protein. Notwithstanding, we observed significant differences between transgenic SlEZ2 RNAi tomato plants and Arabidopsis clf mutants. First, we found that reduced SlEZ2 expression has dramatic effects on tomato fruit development and ripening, functions not described in Arabidopsis for the CLF protein. In addition, repression of SlEZ2 has no significant effect on the flowering time or the control of flower organ identity, in contrast to the Arabidopsis clf mutation. Taken together, our results are consistent with a diversification of the function of CLF orthologues in plants, and indicate that although partly conserved amongst plants, the function of EZ proteins need to be newly investigated for non-model plants because they might have been recruited to specific developmental processes.

  11. Differential Expression and Turnover of the Tomato Polyphenol Oxidase Gene Family during Vegetative and Reproductive Development.

    PubMed Central

    Thipyapong, P.; Joel, D. M.; Steffens, J. C.

    1997-01-01

    Polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) are encoded by a highly conserved, seven-member gene family clustered within a 165-kb locus on chromosome 8 of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Using gene-specific probes capable of differentiating between PPO A/C, PPO B, PPO D, and PPO E/F, we examined the spatial and temporal expression of this gene family during vegetative and reproductive development. RNA blots and in situ hybridization using these probes showed that although PPO expression is primarily confined to early stages of development, the steady-state mRNA levels of these genes are subject to complex patterns of spatial and temporal regulation in vegetative and reproductive organs. Young tomato leaves and flowers possess the most abundant PPO transcripts. PPO B is the most abundant in young leaves, whereas in the inflorescence PPO B and E/F transcripts are dominant. Differential expression of PPOs is also observed in various trichome types. PPO A/C are specifically expressed in type I and type IV trichomes. In contrast, PPO D is only expressed in type VI trichomes. Type I, IV, and VI trichomes possess PPO E/F transcripts. Immunolocalization verified the translational activity of PPOs identified by in situ hybridization and suggested cell-type-specific, developmentally programmed PPO turnover. In addition, immunolocalization demonstrated the accumulation of PPO in specific idioblast cells of stems, leaves, and fruits. PMID:12223637

  12. Assessment of acreage and vegetation change in Florida's Big Bend tidal wetlands using satellite imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raabe, Ellen A.; Stumpf, Richard P.

    1997-01-01

    Fluctuations in sea level and impending development on the west coast of Florida have aroused concern for the relatively pristine tidal marshes of the Big Bend. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images for 1986 and 1995 are processed and evaluated for signs of change. The images cover 250 km of Florida's Big Bend Gulf Coast, encompassing 160,000 acres of tidal marshes. Change is detected using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and land cover classification. The imagery shows negligible net loss or gain in the marsh over the 9-year period. However, regional changes in biomass are apparent and are due to natural disturbances such as low winter temperatures, fire, storm surge, and the conversion of forest to march. Within the marsh, the most prominent changes in NDVI and in land cover result from the recovery of mangroves from freezes, a decline of transitional upland vegetation, and susceptibility of the marsh edge and interior to variations in tidal flooding.

  13. A spatial-temporal analysis of vegetation change, land cover change, and health impacts in Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Huiping

    The present dissertation contributes to the overall better understanding of vegetation change; land cover and land use change and health impacts in Florida, but would also have implications and significance beyond just Florida. By using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as vegetation representation, a time-series approach is applied in order to assess vegetation dynamics across the state from 1982-2006. In addition, the response of vegetation to climate variability and land cover is investigated with remote sensing based land cover classification data. At last, the impacts of land cover and land use change on air quality is examined. Overall, three conclusions can be drawn from this dissertation. First, there is an increasing NDVI value during winter months from 1995 onward and this phenomenon could be explained by the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) switched into its warm phase around 1995. The result also corresponding with an increased winter rainfall proportion has been found from a previous study. Second, precipitation and land cover types both influence NDVI behavior. The NDVI responds to precipitation is found to be stronger in natural land cover like estuarine wetlands than in human manipulated land cover such as developed land. Third, air pollution is highly correlated to weather conditions especially precipitation. Future research opportunities are plenty based on the findings from this dissertation.

  14. Vegetative resistance to flow in South Florida; summary of vegetation sampling at sites NESRS3 and P33, Shark River slough, April 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, Virginia; Ruhl, H.; Rybicki, N.B.; Reel, J.T.; Gammon, P.T.

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is one of many agencies participating in the effort to restore the south Florida Everglades. We are sampling and characterizing the vegetation at selected sites in the Everglades as part of a study to quantify vegetative flow resistance. The objectives of the vegetative sampling are (1) to provide detailed information on species composition, vegetative characteristics, vegetative structure, and biomass for quantification of vegetative resistance to flow, and (2) to use this information to classify the vegetation and to improve existing vegetation maps for use with numerical models of surface-water flow. Vegetative sampling was conducted in the Shark River Slough in April, 1996. The data collected and presented here include live, dead, and periphyton biomass, vegetation characteristics and structure, and leaf area index.

  15. Vegetative resistance to flow in south Florida; summary of vegetation sampling at sites NESRS3 and P33, Shark River slough, November, 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, Virginia; Reel, J.T.; Rybicki, N.B.; Ruhl, H.; Gammon, P.T.; Lee, J.K.

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is one of many agencies participating in the effort to restore the South Florida Everglades. We are sampling and characterizing the vegetation at selected sites in the Everglades as part of a study to quantify vegetative flow resistance. The objectives of the vegetation sampling are (1) to provide detailed information on species composition, vegetation characteristics, vegetation structure, and biomass for quantification of vegetative resistance to flow, and (2) to use this information to classify the vegetation and to improve existing vegetation maps for use with numerical models of surface-water flow. Vegetation was sampled at two sites in the Shark River Slough in November, 1996. The data collected and presented here include those for live and dead standing sawgrass, other dead material, periphyton biomass, vegetation characteristics and structure, and leaf area index.

  16. Methyl Bromide Alternatives for Control of Root-knot Nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) in Tomato Production in Florida

    PubMed Central

    Desaeger, Johan; Dickson, Donald W.; Locascio, S. J.

    2017-01-01

    The following work was initiated to determine the scope of application methodology and fumigant combinations for increasing efficacy of 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and metam sodium for management of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) in Florida. A series of five experiments were set up during spring and fall seasons to evaluate the potential of different fumigants, alone or in combination, in polyethylene film tomato production. The most promising chemical alternatives to methyl bromide, in terms of root-knot nematode management, were the combinations 1,3-D-chloropicrin, chloropicrin-proprietary solvent ,and 1,3-D-metam sodium. Sprayed or injected metam sodium generally provided only short-term nematode management and by harvest nematode infection was not different from the nontreated control. Drip-applied metam sodium gave good nematode management under high nematode pressure, but needs further verification to establish (i) the importance of soil moisture and temperature on treatment efficacy and (ii) whether similar management can be obtained with fewer than three drip tubes. Broadcast applications of 1,3-D showed better efficacy as compared to applications on a preformed raised bed. Fumigation did not increase tomato yields in spring when root-knot nematode pressure was low, but during fall all chemical treatments increased yields three to five-fold, as root-knot nematode was a major yield-limiting factor. PMID:28706313

  17. Cultural and Economic Mediation Among Spanish Speaking Migrant Farm Workers in Dade County, Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferster, Lucian Edward

    Based on the study "Migrant Children in Florida", this paper discusses the Spanish speaking farm workers who migrate to Dade County yearly to harvest the tomato and fresh vegetable crops. During the fall of 1969 and the spring of 1970, questionnaires were given to a random sample of 9,065 adult migrant workers in Florida counties with…

  18. First report of Groundnut ringspot virus infecting tomato in south Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Typical tospovirus symptoms were observed on tomato plants in Homestead, FL from November 2009 through February 2010. The presence of Groundnut ringspot virus was confirmed from serological and molecular tests incuding ELISA and PCR. This is the first report of GRSV within the U.S....

  19. Resilient populations of root fungi occur within five tomato production systems in Southeast Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Farming practices are known to impact arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and other soil microbial communities in agroecosystems. The effects of divergent land management strategies on the incidence and infectivity of AM and other fungal root endophytes were evaluated in a 5-year tomato (Lycopersicon...

  20. Identification of major QTLs underlying tomato spotted wilt virus resistance in peanut cultivar Florida-EP(TM) '113'.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Yu-Chien; Tillman, Barry L; Peng, Ze; Wang, Jianping

    2016-09-06

    Spotted wilt caused by tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is one of the major peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) diseases in the southeastern United States. Occurrence, severity, and symptoms of spotted wilt disease are highly variable from season to season, making it difficult to efficiently evaluate breeding populations for resistance. Molecular markers linked to spotted wilt resistance could overcome this problem and allow selection of resistant lines regardless of environmental conditions. Florida-EP(TM) '113' is a spotted wilt resistant cultivar with a significantly lower infection frequency. However, the genetic basis is still unknown. The objective of this study is to map the major quantitative trait loci (QTLs) linked to spotted wilt resistance in Florida-EP(TM) '113'. Among 2,431 SSR markers located across the whole peanut genome screened between the two parental lines, 329 were polymorphic. Those polymorphic markers were used to further genotype a representative set of individuals in a segregating population. Only polymorphic markers on chromosome A01 showed co-segregation between genotype and phenotype. Genotyping by sequencing (GBS) of the representative set of individuals in the segregating population also depicted a strong association between several SNPs on chromosome A01 and the trait, indicating a major QTL on chromosome A01. Therefore marker density was enriched on the A01 chromosome. A linkage map with 23 makers on chromosome A01 was constructed, showing collinearity with the physical map. Combined with phenotypic data, a major QTL flanked by marker AHGS4584 and GM672 was identified on chromosome A01, with up to 22.7 % PVE and 9.0 LOD value. A major QTL controlling the spotted wilt resistance in Florida-EP(TM) '113' was identified. The resistance is most likely contributed by PI 576638, a hirsuta botanical-type line, introduced from Mexico with spotted wilt resistance. The flanking markers of this QTL can be used for further fine mapping and marker

  1. Environmental impacts from pesticide use: a case study of soil fumigation in Florida tomato production.

    PubMed

    Sande, Doris; Mullen, Jeffrey; Wetzstein, Michael; Houston, Jack

    2011-12-01

    The search for alternative fumigants has been ongoing since the 1992 Parties of the Montreal Protocol classified methyl bromide as a Class I controlled substance with an ozone depletion potential (ODP) of 0.7 and destined it for phase-out. This paper focuses on the hazards from fumigants proposed as alternatives for pre-plant soil fumigation in tomato production. We use the Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ) developed by Kovach et al. to estimate the hazards from methyl bromide and the proposed alternative fumigants to workers, consumers, beneficial arthropods, birds, fish, and bees. Our findings indicate that iodomethane 98/2 has the lowest EIQ index value and field use rating, and is the alternative with the lowest relative risk. Among environmental categories, workers and beneficial arthropods experience the highest relative risks from the proposed tomato fumigants, and fish and consumers the least risks.

  2. Influence of Epicuticular Physicochemical Properties on Porcine Rotavirus Adsorption to 24 Leafy Green Vegetables and Tomatoes

    PubMed Central

    Palma-Salgado, Sindy Paola; Storm, Andrew Page; Feng, Hao; Juvik, John A.; Nguyen, Thanh H.

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne diseases are a persistent problem in the United States and worldwide. Fresh produce, especially those used as raw foods like salad vegetables, can be contaminated, causing illness. In this study, we determined the number of rotaviruses adsorbed on produce surfaces using group A porcine rotaviruses and 24 cultivars of leafy vegetables and tomato fruits. We also characterized the physicochemical properties of each produce’s outermost surface layer, known as the epicuticle. The number of rotaviruses found on produce surfaces varied among cultivars. Three-dimensional crystalline wax structures on the epicuticular surfaces were found to significantly contribute to the inhibition of viral adsorption to the produce surfaces (p = 0.01). We found significant negative correlations between the number of rotaviruses adsorbed on the epicuticular surfaces and the concentrations of alkanes, fatty acids, and total waxes on the epicuticular surfaces. Partial least square model fitting results suggest that alkanes, ketones, fatty acids, alcohols, contact angle and surface roughness together can explain 60% of the variation in viral adsorption. The results suggest that various fresh produce surface properties need to be collectively considered for efficient sanitation treatments. Up to 10.8% of the originally applied rotaviruses were found on the produce surfaces after three washing treatments, suggesting a potential public health concern regarding rotavirus contamination. PMID:26181904

  3. Soil-vegetation correlations in selected wetlands and uplands of North-Central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Best, G. Ronnie; Wolfe, Charlotte; Segal, Debra S.

    1990-01-01

    Vegetation on four hydric and two nonhydric soils series in north-central Florida was sampled as part of a national study examining the correspondence between wetland vegetation and soils. The wetland character of the vegetation was estimated by weighted average calculations using published wetland indicator values for individual plant species. The weighted averages produced an ordering of plant communities in general agreement with the hydric character of the soils. However, the two nonhydric soils has weighted average scores slightly below 3, normally considered the lowest end of the range of nonhydric vegetation. There was no clear or consistent effect of fire management on the weighted average scores. Vegetation strata (herbaceous, low shrub, tall shrub, and trees) were generally similar in weighted average values, with the wettest of the hydric soils tending to be low in all strata and the nonhydric soils tending to be high in all strata. However, strata differed considerably in the specific values for a single soil and in the specific rank ordering of soils in different strata.

  4. Vegetative resistance to flow in South Florida; summary of vegetation sampling in Taylor Slough, Everglades National Park, September 1997-July 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rybicki, N.B.; Reel, J.T.; Ruhl, H.; Gammon, P.A.; Carter, Virginia

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is one of many agencies providing scientific support to the effort to restore the South Florida Everglades. In September and November 1997 and July 1998, vegetation was sampled at selected sites in the Everglades as part of a study to quantify vegetative resistance to flow. The objectives of the vegetation sampling are (1) to provide detailed information on species composition, vegetation characteristics, and biomass for quantification of the effect of vegetation on water flow, and (2) to use these data in the future to infer flow resistance from vegetation information. Forty-two vegetation quadrats were sampled in Taylor Slough to determine the number and width of stems and leaves and the biomass of live and dead standing sawgrass, rush, and other plants, and the biomass of dead litter and periphyton. The samples were grouped into ten vegetation classes based on species composition and total biomass minus periphyton biomass.

  5. Monitoring Invasive Aquatic Vegetation in Lake Okeechobee, Florida, Using NDVI Derived from Modis Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, Kate; Brozen, Madeline; Malik, Sadaf; Maki, Angela

    2009-01-01

    Lake Okeechobee, located in southern Florida, encompasses approximately 1,700 sq km and is a vital part of the Lake Okeechobee and Everglades ecosystem. Major cyanobacterial blooms have been documented in Lake Okeechobee since the 1970s and have continued to plague the ecosystem. Similarly, hydrilla, water hyacinth, and water lettuce have been documented in the lake and continue to threaten the ecosystem by their rapid growth. This study examines invasive aquatic vegetation occurrence through the use of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) calculated on MOD09 surface reflectance imagery. Occurrence during 2008 was analyzed using the Time Series Product Tool (TSPT), a MATLAB-based program developed at John C. Stennis Space Center. This project tracked spatial and temporal variability of cyanobacterial blooms, and overgrowth of water lettuce, water hyacinth, and hydrilla. In addition, this study presents an application of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data to assist in water quality management.

  6. Vegetative changes in a wetland in the vicinity of a well field, Dade County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hofstetter, R.H.; Sonenshein, R.S.

    1990-01-01

    Plant communities present in 1978 and 1986 were analyzed at 250 random points on stereoscopic pairs of aerial photographs for four study sites in the vicinity of the Northwest Well Field in Dade County, Florida. Sites NW and NE lie northwest of the well field beyond the cone of depression. Site SW lies in the outer part of the cone, and site SE lies within the cone of depression. Relative frequency values for several plant types including herbs, shrubs-small trees, and trees were analyzed by the Heterogeneity G-test to determine heterogeneity among sites in 1978 and 1986. In 1978, all four sites were dominated by plant communities having herbs, shrubs, or a mixture thereof. The communities at sites NW and NE were similar, and those at SE and SW were somewhat similar. In 1986, sites NW, NE, and SE were dominated by a mixture of shrubs and trees. Only at site SW was the relative frequency of occurrence of herbaceous plants still high. At each site, there was a decrease in herbaceous vegetation and an increase in woody vegetation during this period, with the increase in trees being greatest at site SE. Time between the start of the well-field operation in May 1983 and the January 1986 photographs was insufficient to allow determination of any direct effects of the well field on the vegetation. Ground-level observations in 1987 and 1988 indicate a trend toward continued increase in dominance of woody plants and a decrease in herbaceous wetland vegetation. Development of a forest of the exotic pest tree melaleuca is occurring at all four sites, but especially at site SE. Vegetative changes between 1978 and 1986 are attributed to an invasion of the exotic species melaleuca, a shortened hydroperiod, and natural succession within the plant communities.

  7. Monitoring Invasive Aquatic Vegetation in Lake Okeechobee, Florida, using NDVI Derived from MODIS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, K. A.; Brozen, M.; Pelkie, A.; Malik, S.

    2009-12-01

    Lake Okeechobee is the second largest freshwater lake located entirely within the continental United States. The lake encompasses approximately 1,700 km2 in South Florida and is a vital part of the Lake Okeechobee and Everglades ecosystems. Lake Okeechobee has been plagued by invasive aquatic floating vegetation and in-water blooms of blue-green algae (cyanobacteria). Major cyanobacterial blooms have been documented in Lake Okeechobee since the 1970s and have continued to plague the ecosystem. Similarly, invasive hydrilla, water hyacinth, and water lettuce frequently overgrow in the lake and threaten the ecosystem. This study examines invasive aquatic vegetation occurrence through the use of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index calculated on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) MOD09 surface reflectance imagery. Occurrence during 2008 was analyzed using the Time Series Product Tool developed at John C. Stennis Space Center. This project tracked spatial and temporal variability of cyanobacterial blooms and overgrowth of water lettuce, water hyacinth, and hydrilla. In addition, this study presents an application of MODIS data to assist in water quality management.

  8. Identification and validation of QTLs for salt tolerance during vegetative growth in tomato by selective genotyping.

    PubMed

    Foolad, M R; Zhang, L P; Lin, G Y

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for salt tolerance (ST) during vegetative growth (VG) in tomato by distributional extreme analysis and compare them with the QTLs previously identified for this trait. A BC1 population (N = 792) of a cross between a moderately salt-sensitive Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. breeding line (NC84173, maternal and recurrent parent) and a salt-tolerant L. pimpinellifolium (Jusl.) Mill. accession (LA722) was evaluated for ST in solution cultures containing 700 mM NaCl + 70 mM CaCl2 (electrical conductivity, EC = 64 dS/m and phiw approximately -35.2 bars). Thirty-seven BC1 plants (4.7% of the total) that exhibited the highest ST were selected (referred to as the selected population), grown to maturity in greenhouse pots and self-pollinated to produce BC1S1 progeny seeds. The 37 selected BC1S1 progeny families were evaluated for ST and their average performance was compared with that of the parental BC1 population before selection. A realized heritability of 0.50 was obtained for ST in this population. The 37 selected BC1 plants were subjected to restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis using 115 markers, and marker allele frequencies were determined. Allele frequencies for the same markers were also determined in an unselected BC1 population (N = 119) of the same cross. A trait-based marker analysis (TBA), which measures differences in marker allele frequencies between selected and unselected populations, was used to identify marker-linked QTLs. Five genomic regions were detected on chromosomes 1, 3, 5, 6, and 11 bearing significant QTLs for ST. Except for the QTL on chromosome 3, all QTLs had positive alleles contributed from the salt tolerant parent LA722. Of the five QTLs, three (those on chromosomes 1, 3, and 5) were previously identified for this trait in another study, and thus were validated here. Only one of the major QTLs that was identified in our previous study was not

  9. Florida

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Florida in Color and Stereo     View Larger ... 9, 2000 during Terra orbit 1650. The image at the top is a color view acquired by the vertical (nadir) camera. It has been reoriented so ... provides a three-dimensional effect when viewed using red/blue glasses with the red filter placed over the left eye. This stereoscopic ...

  10. Relationships Between Vegetation and Ground Conductivity in a Mangrove Near Indian River Lagoon, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNiff, C. M.; Kruse, S. E.; Rains, M. C.; Stringer, C. E.

    2013-12-01

    In this study, an electromagnetic induction survey was conducted with the EM-31 to assess the spatial variability of ground conductivity, a proxy for groundwater salinity, in a mangrove on North Hutchinson Island, Florida, a carbonate barrier island. A previous study established a relationship between ground conductivities and pore-water salinities, but data points are not spaced closely enough to properly observe the potential effect of mangrove vegetation on ground conductivities. We present here apparent conductivities measured along five profiles that traverse the field site; data were inverted to obtain ground conductivity for the vadose and saturated zones. The vegetation types are dense black mangrove, scrubby black mangrove and salt pan (little or no vegetation). At this site, average water-table levels were 0.2 m below ground level. The mangrove roots systems extend to .6 m to 1 m below the ground surface. Sampled pore-water conductivities range from near freshwater to hypersaline. Effective depth measurements range from 2 m to 5.5 m for the EM31. The average vadose-zone ground conductivities derived from inversion of the data are 1400 mS/m, but range from 75 mS/m to 12,000mS/m. The average saturated -zone ground conductivities are 1900 mS/m, and range more narrowly from 820 mS/m to 2400 mS/m. These large conductivity values mean the low-induction number assumption is not satisfied so true conductivity values are larger than what is measured, but spatial distribution and variability is still observable. There is a larger degree of variability observed in the vadose zone than the saturated zone, but the saturated zone generally has higher conductivity values associated with it; which is controlled by saline-hypersaline groundwater. The density of mangrove vegetation shows a strong correlation with ground conductivity variability in both zones-- vegetated areas have more variability than salt pan areas. This is due to root systems removing salt and water

  11. Evapotranspiration from areas of native vegetation in west-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bidlake, W.R.; Woodham, W.M.; Lopez, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    A study was made to examine the suitability of three different micrometeorological methods for estimating evapotranspiration from selected areas of native vegetation in west-central Florida and to estimate annual evapotranspiration from those areas. Evapotranspiration was estimated using the energy- balance Bowen ratio and eddy correlation methods. Potential evapotranspiration was computed using the Penman equation. The energy-balance Bowen ratio method was used to estimate diurnal evapotrans- piration at unforested sites and yielded reasonable results; however, measurements indicated that the magnitudes of air temperature and vapor-pressure gradients above the forested sites were too small to obtain reliable evapotranspiration measurements with the energy balance Bowen ratio system. Analysis of the surface energy-balance indicated that sensible and latent heat fluxes computed using standard eddy correlation computation methods did not adequately account for available energy. Eddy correlation data were combined with the equation for the surface energy balance to yield two additional estimates of evapotranspiration. Daily potential evapotranspiration and evapotranspira- tion estimated using the energy-balance Bowen ratio method were not correlated at a unforested, dry prairie site, but they were correlated at a marsh site. Estimates of annual evapotranspiration for sites within the four vegetation types, which were based on energy-balance Bowen ratio and eddy correlation measurements, were 1,010 millimeters for dry prairie sites, 990 millimeters for marsh sites, 1,060 millimeters for pine flatwood sites, and 970 millimeters for a cypress swamp site.

  12. Advection, dispersion, and filtration of fine particles within emergent vegetation of the Florida Everglades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huang, Y.H.; Saiers, J.E.; Harvey, J.W.; Noe, G.B.; Mylon, S.

    2008-01-01

    The movement of particulate matter within wetland surface waters affects nutrient cycling, contaminant mobility, and the evolution of the wetland landscape. Despite the importance of particle transport in influencing wetland form and function, there are few data sets that illuminate, in a quantitative way, the transport behavior of particulate matter within surface waters containing emergent vegetation. We report observations from experiments on the transport of 1 ??m latex microspheres at a wetland field site located in Water Conservation Area 3A of the Florida Everglades. The experiments involved line source injections of particles inside two 4.8-m-long surface water flumes constructed within a transition zone between an Eleocharis slough and Cladium jamaicense ridge and within a Cladium jamaicense ridge. We compared the measurements of particle transport to calculations of two-dimensional advection-dispersion model that accounted for a linear increase in water velocities with elevation above the ground surface. The results of this analysis revealed that particle spreading by longitudinal and vertical dispersion was substantially greater in the ridge than within the transition zone and that particle capture by aquatic vegetation lowered surface water particle concentrations and, at least for the timescale of our experiments, could be represented as an irreversible, first-order kinetics process. We found generally good agreement between our field-based estimates of particle dispersion and water velocity and estimates determined from published theory, suggesting that the advective-dispersive transport of particulate matter within complex wetland environments can be approximated on the basis of measurable properties of the flow and aquatic vegetation. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  13. Global CO2 rise leads to reduced maximum stomatal conductance in Florida vegetation

    PubMed Central

    Lammertsma, Emmy I.; de Boer, Hugo Jan; Dekker, Stefan C.; Dilcher, David L.; Lotter, André F.; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike

    2011-01-01

    A principle response of C3 plants to increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO2 (CO2) is to reduce transpirational water loss by decreasing stomatal conductance (gs) and simultaneously increase assimilation rates. Via this adaptation, vegetation has the ability to alter hydrology and climate. Therefore, it is important to determine the adaptation of vegetation to the expected anthropogenic rise in CO2. Short-term stomatal opening–closing responses of vegetation to increasing CO2 are described by free-air carbon enrichments growth experiments, and evolutionary adaptations are known from the geological record. However, to date the effects of decadal to centennial CO2 perturbations on stomatal conductance are still largely unknown. Here we reconstruct a 34% (±12%) reduction in maximum stomatal conductance (gsmax) per 100 ppm CO2 increase as a result of the adaptation in stomatal density (D) and pore size at maximal stomatal opening (amax) of nine common species from Florida over the past 150 y. The species-specific gsmax values are determined by different evolutionary development, whereby the angiosperms sampled generally have numerous small stomata and high gsmax, and the conifers and fern have few large stomata and lower gsmax. Although angiosperms and conifers use different D and amax adaptation strategies, our data show a coherent response in gsmax to CO2 rise of the past century. Understanding these adaptations of C3 plants to rising CO2 after decadal to centennial environmental changes is essential for quantification of plant physiological forcing at timescales relevant for global warming, and they are likely to continue until the limits of their phenotypic plasticity are reached. PMID:21330552

  14. Late Holocene vegetation, climate, and land-use impacts on carbon dynamics in the Florida Everglades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Miriam C.; Bernhardt, Christopher E.; Willard, Debra A.

    2014-01-01

    Tropical and subtropical peatlands are considered a significant carbon sink. The Florida Everglades includes 6000-km2 of peat-accumulating wetland; however, detailed carbon dynamics from different environments within the Everglades have not been extensively studied or compared. Here we present carbon accumulation rates from 13 cores and 4 different environments, including sawgrass ridges and sloughs, tree islands, and marl prairies, whose hydroperiods and vegetation communities differ. We find that the lowest rates of C accumulation occur in sloughs in the southern Everglades. The highest rates are found where hydroperiods are generally shorter, including near-tails of tree islands and drier ridges. Long-term average rates of 100 to >200 g C m−2 yr−1 are as high, and in some cases, higher than rates recorded from the tropics and 10–20 times higher than boreal averages. C accumulation rates were impacted by both the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age, but the largest impacts to C accumulation rates over the Holocene record have been the anthropogenic changes associated with expansion of agriculture and construction of canals and levees to control movement of surface water. Water management practices in the 20th century have altered the natural hydroperiods and fire regimes of the Everglades. The Florida Everglades as a whole has acted as a significant carbon sink over the mid- to late-Holocene, but reduction of the spatial extent of the original wetland area, as well as the alteration of natural hydrology in the late 19th and 20th centuries, have significantly reduced the carbon sink capacity of this subtropical wetland.

  15. Evapotranspiration from successional vegetation in a deforested area of the Lake Wales Ridge, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sumner, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    The suitability of three evapotranspiration models (Penman-Monteith, Penman, and a modified Priestley-Taylor) was evaluated at a site ofsuccessional vegetation in a deforested area of theLake Wales Ridge, Florida. Eddy correlation mea surements of evapotranspiration made during 22approximately 1-day periods at a temporal resolu tion of 20 minutes from September 1993 to August 1994 were used to calibrate the evapotranspiration models. Three variants of the eddy correlation method that ascribe measurement error to three different sources were considered in the analysis. The Penman-Monteith and modified Priestley- Taylor models were successful in approximating measured 20-minute values of evapotranspiration (r2  0.918). The most suc cessful approaches were the modified Priestley-Taylor model (r2 = 0.972) and a nontraditional and simplified form of the Penman-Monteith model (r2 = 0.967). The Penman approach was unsuccessful as a predictor of evapotranspiration. The evapotranspiration models were used to estimate evapotranspiration between measure ments. When evapotranspiration values measured with a Bowen ratio variant of the eddy correlation method were used for model calibration, estimated daily evapotranspiration rates varied sea sonally ranging from 0.2 millimeters per day (0.008 inch per day) in late December 1993 to5 millimeter per day (0.2 inch per day) in mid-July 1994. Annual evapotranspiration (September 15, 1993, to September 15, 1994) was estimated to be about 680 millimeters (27 inches).Evapotranspiration models calibrated to the stan dard eddy correlation method and to an energy- balance residual variant provided estimates ofannual evapotranspiration that were about 10 per cent lower and higher, respectively. These dataindicate that of the 1,320 millimeters (52 inches)of precipitation during the 1-year period, about 570 to 700 millimeters (22 to 28 inches) recharged the surficial aquifer. Evapotranspiration at this study site probably defines the lower

  16. Derivation of Ground Surface and Vegetation in a Coastal Florida Wetland with Airborne Laser Technology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raabe, Ellen A.; Harris, Melanie S.; Shrestha, Ramesh L.; Carter, William E.

    2008-01-01

    The geomorphology and vegetation of marsh-dominated coastal lowlands were mapped from airborne laser data points collected on the Gulf Coast of Florida near Cedar Key. Surface models were developed using low- and high-point filters to separate ground-surface and vegetation-canopy intercepts. In a non-automated process, the landscape was partitioned into functional landscape units to manage the modeling of key landscape features in discrete processing steps. The final digital ground surface-elevation model offers a faithful representation of topographic relief beneath canopies of tidal marsh and coastal forest. Bare-earth models approximate field-surveyed heights by + 0.17 m in the open marsh and + 0.22 m under thick marsh or forest canopy. The laser-derived digital surface models effectively delineate surface features of relatively inaccessible coastal habitats with a geographic coverage and vertical detail previously unavailable. Coastal topographic details include tidal-creek tributaries, levees, modest topographic undulations in the intertidal zone, karst features, silviculture, and relict sand dunes under coastal-forest canopy. A combination of laser-derived ground-surface and canopy-height models and intensity values provided additional mapping capabilities to differentiate between tidal-marsh zones and forest types such as mesic flatwood, hydric hammock, and oak scrub. Additional derived products include fine-scale shoreline and topographic profiles. The derived products demonstrate the capability to identify areas of concern to resource managers and unique components of the coastal system from laser altimetry. Because the very nature of a wetland system presents difficulties for access and data collection, airborne coverage from remote sensors has become an accepted alternative for monitoring wetland regions. Data acquisition with airborne laser represents a viable option for mapping coastal topography and for evaluating habitats and coastal change on marsh

  17. Transpiration of gaseous elemental mercury through vegetation in a subtropical wetland in florida

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, Steven Eric; Dong, Weijin; Meyers, Tilden

    2002-07-01

    Four seasonal sampling campaigns were carried out in the Florida Everglades to measure elemental Hg vapor (Hg{sup o}) fluxes over emergent macrophytes using a modified Bowen ratio gradient approach. The predominant flux of Hg{sup o} over both invasive cattail and native sawgrass stands was emission; mean day time fluxes over cattail ranged from {approx}20 (winter) to {approx}40 (summer) ng m{sup -2} h{sup -1}. Sawgrass fluxes were about half those over cattail during comparable periods. Emission from vegetation significantly exceeded evasion of Hg{sup o} from the underlying water surface ({approx}1-2 ng m{sup -2} h{sup -1}) measured simultaneously using floating chambers. Among several environmental factors (e.g. CO{sub 2} flux, water vapor flux, wind speed, water, air and leaf temperature, and solar radiation), water vapor exhibited the strongest correlation with Hg{sup o} flux, and transpiration is suggested as an appropriate term to describe this phenomenon. The lack of significant Hg{sup o} emissions from a live, but uprooted (floating) cattail stand suggests that a likely source of the transpired Hg{sup o} is the underlying sediments. The pattern of Hg{sup o} fluxes typically measured indicated a diel cycle with two peaks, possibly related to different gas exchange dynamics: one in early morning related to lacunal gas release, and a second at midday related to transpiration; nighttime fluxes approached zero.

  18. Demonstration of wetland vegetation mapping in Florida from computer-processed satellite and aircraft multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butera, M. K.

    1979-01-01

    The success of remotely mapping wetland vegetation of the southwestern coast of Florida is examined. A computerized technique to process aircraft and LANDSAT multispectral scanner data into vegetation classification maps was used. The cost effectiveness of this mapping technique was evaluated in terms of user requirements, accuracy, and cost. Results indicate that mangrove communities are classified most cost effectively by the LANDSAT technique, with an accuracy of approximately 87 percent and with a cost of approximately 3 cent per hectare compared to $46.50 per hectare for conventional ground survey methods.

  19. Emergence of Groundnut ringspot virus and Tomato chlorotic spot virus in U.S. vegetable production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Host and geographic ranges, genetic diversity and thrips transmission of Groundnut ringspot virus and Tomato chlorotic spot virus isolates from the U.S. were characterized. This report provides an overview of these viruses for growers, extension workers, crop consultants and research and regulatory...

  20. Assessment of groundwater input and water quality changes impacting natural vegetation in the Loxahatchee River and floodplain ecosystem, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orem, William H.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; McPherson, Benjamin F.; Hedgepath, Marion; Lerch, Harry E.; Reich, Christopher; Torres, Arturo E.; Corum, Margo D.; Roberts, Richard E.

    2007-01-01

    The Loxahatchee River and Estuary are small, shallow, water bodies located in southeastern Florida. Historically, the Northwest Branch (Fork) of the Loxahatchee River was primarily a freshwater system. In 1947, the river inlet at Jupiter was dredged for navigation and has remained permanently open since that time. Drainage patterns within the basin have also been altered significantly due to land development, road construction (e.g., Florida Turnpike), and construction of the C-18 and other canals. These anthropogenic activities along with sea level rise have resulted in significant adverse impacts on the ecosystem over the last several decades, including increased saltwater encroachment and undesired vegetation changes in the floodplain. The problem of saltwater intrusion and vegetation degradation in the Loxahatchee River may be partly induced by diminished freshwater input, from both surface water and ground water into the River system. The overall objective of this project was to assess the seasonal surface water and groundwater interaction and the influence of the biogeochemical characteristics of shallow groundwater and porewater on vegetation health in the Loxahatchee floodplain. The hypothesis tested are: (1) groundwater influx constitutes a significant component of the overall flow of water into the Loxahatchee River; (2) salinity and other chemical constituents in shallow groundwater and porewater of the river floodplain may affect the distribution and health of the floodplain vegetation.

  1. Flow Field and Nutrient Dynamics Control Over Formation of Parallel Vegetation Patterns in the Florida Everglades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, V.; Cheng, Y.; Stieglitz, M.

    2009-12-01

    Pattern formation in vegetated communities reflects the underlying mechanisms governing resource utilization and distribution across the landscape. An example of a patterned ecosystem is the Florida Everglades, which is characterized by parallel and slightly elevated peat "ridges" separated by deeper water "slough" communities (R&S). Ridges are dominated by sawgrass (Cladium jamaiscence). These patterns are thought to be aligned with and develop in response to the historic surface water flow direction, though the precise mechanisms which lead to their formation are poorly understood. Over the years this R&S habitat has degraded in areas where the natural flow regime, hydroperiod, and water depths have been impacted by human development. Managing and restoring this habitat has been an objective of the U.S. Federal and Florida State governments since the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) was authorized in 2000. It is imperative, however, to develop a mechanistic understanding of ridge-slough formation before the potential benefits of hydrologic forecasts associated with CERP can be evaluated. Recently, Cheng et al (see Cheng et al, session NG14) employed a simple 2D advection-diffusion model developed by Rietkerk et al (2004) to describe for the first time, the formation of parallel stripes from hydrologic interactions. To simulate parallel stripes, Cheng et al retained the basic equations of the Rietkerk model but allowed for constant advection of water and nutrient in one direction to simulate slope conditions, with evapotranspiration driven advection of water and nutrient perpendicular to the downhill flow direction. We employ this modeling framework and parameterize the model with Everglades field data to simulate ridge-slough formation. In this model, the relatively higher rates of evapotranspiration on the ridges compared to the sloughs create hydraulic gradients which carry dissolved nutrients from the sloughs to the faster growing ridges. With

  2. Use of vegetated agricultural drainage ditches to decrease toxicity of irrigation runoff from tomato and alfalfa fields in California, USA.

    PubMed

    Werner, Inge; Deanovic, Linda A; Miller, Jeff; Denton, Debra L; Crane, David; Mekebri, Abdou; Moore, Matthew T; Wrysinski, Jeanette

    2010-12-01

    The current study investigated the potential of vegetated drainage ditches for mitigating the impact of agricultural irrigation runoff on downstream aquatic ecosystems. Water column toxicity to larval fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas),and the amphipod Hyalella azteca was measured for 12 h or less at the ditch inflow and outflow, using custom-built in situ exposure systems. In addition, water and sediment samples were subject to standard toxicity tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia and H. azteca, respectively. No acute toxicity to larval fathead minnow was observed; however, runoff was highly toxic to invertebrates. Passage through a 389- to 402-m section of vegetated ditch had a mitigating effect and reduced toxicity to some degree. However, runoff from an alfalfa field treated with chlorpyrifos remained highly toxic to both invertebrate species, and runoff from a tomato field treated with permethrin remained highly toxic to H. azteca after passage through the ditch. Predicted toxic units calculated from insecticide concentrations in runoff and 96-h median lethal concentration (LC50) values generally agreed with C. dubia toxicity measured in the laboratory but significantly underestimated in situ toxicity to H. azteca. Sediments collected near the ditch outflow were toxic to H. azteca. Results from the current study demonstrate that experimental vegetated ditches were unable to eliminate the risk of irrigation runoff to aquatic ecosystems. In addition, protective measures based on chemical concentrations or laboratory toxicity tests with C. dubia do not ensure adequate protection of aquatic ecosystems from pyrethroid-associated toxicity.

  3. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part VI. Mushrooms, tomatoes, minor fruits and vegetables, dried fruits, and nuts

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, P.

    1988-01-01

    In this concluding article in the series on the technological feasibility of ionizing radiation treatment for shelf life improvement of fruits and vegetables, the present status of research on several commodities that have not been dealt with earlier is discussed. The commodities include mushrooms, tomatoes, pineapples, lychees, longans, rambutans, mangostenes, guavas, sapotas, loquats, ber, soursops, passion fruits, persimmons, figs, melons, cucumbers, aubergines, globe artichokes, endives, lettuce, ginger, carrots, beet roots, turnips, olives, dates, chestnuts, almonds, pistachios, and other dried fruits and nuts. Changes induced by irradiation on metabolism, chemical constituents, and organoleptic qualities are considered while evaluating the shelf life. The commodities have been grouped into those showing potential benefits and those not showing any clear advantages from radiation treatment. Shelf life improvement of mushrooms and insect disinfestation in dried fruits, nuts, and certain fresh fruits appears to have immediate potential for commercial application. 194 references.

  4. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part VI. Mushrooms, tomatoes, minor fruits and vegetables, dried fruits, and nuts.

    PubMed

    Thomas, P

    1988-01-01

    In this concluding article in the series on the technological feasibility of ionizing radiation treatment for shelf life improvement of fruits and vegetables, the present status of research on several commodities that have not been dealt with earlier is discussed. The commodities include mushrooms, tomatoes, pineapples, lychees, longans, rambutans, mangostenes, guavas, sapotas, loquats, ber, soursops, passion fruits, persimmons, figs, melons, cucumbers, aubergines, globe artichokes, endives, lettuce, ginger, carrots, beet roots, turnips, olives, dates, chestnuts, almonds, pistachios, and other dried fruits and nuts. Changes induced by irradiation on metabolism, chemical constituents, and organoleptic qualities are considered while evaluating the shelf life. The commodities have been grouped into those showing potential benefits and those not showing any clear advantages from radiation treatment. Shelf life improvement of mushrooms and insect disinfestation in dried fruits, nuts, and certain fresh fruits appears to have immediate potential for commercial application.

  5. Tomato Leaf Curl New Delhi Virus: An Emerging Virus Complex Threatening Vegetable and Fiber Crops.

    PubMed

    Moriones, Enrique; Praveen, Shelly; Chakraborty, Supriya

    2017-09-21

    The tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) represents an important constraint to tomato production, as it causes the most predominant and economically important disease affecting tomato in the Indian sub-continent. However, in recent years, ToLCNDV has been fast extending its host range and spreading to new geographical regions, including the Middle East and the western Mediterranean Basin. Extensive research on the genome structure, protein functions, molecular biology, and plant-virus interactions of ToLCNDV has been conducted in the last decade. Special emphasis has been given to gene silencing suppression ability in order to counteract host plant defense responses. The importance of the interaction with DNA alphasatellites and betasatellites in the biology of the virus has been demonstrated. ToLCNDV genetic variability has been analyzed, providing new insights into the taxonomy, host adaptation, and evolution of this virus. Recombination and pseudorecombination have been shown as motors of diversification and adaptive evolution. Important progress has also been made in control strategies to reduce disease damage. This review highlights these various achievements in the context of the previous knowledge of begomoviruses and their interactions with plants.

  6. Evaluating anaerobic soil disinfestation and other biological soil management methods for open-field tomato production in Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD), amending the soil with composted poultry litter (CPL) and molasses (M), has been shown to be a potential alternative to chemical soil fumigation for tomato production, however, optimization of ASD and the use of other biologically-based soil management practices ...

  7. First report of bacterial stem rot of ‘heirloom’ tomatoes caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis in Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the spring of 2014, a field experiment was established to evaluate the growth of ‘heirloom’ tomato types in a vertical garden hydroponic system. During bloom, approximately 40% of the established plants of the variety ‘Black Prince’ were severely wilted with necrotic upper leaves. Stems of infe...

  8. Sensory and chemical flavor analyses of tomato genotypes grown in Florida during three different growing seasons in multiple years

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Thirty-eight tomato genotypes were analyzed for sensory attributes “sweet”, “sour” and “overall flavor” over seven years, one to three seasons per year (March, June and December) as well as for physical and chemical flavor-related attributes including color, sugars, acids and aroma volatiles (6-7 ye...

  9. Tomato necrotic streak virus, a novel subgroup 2 ilarvirus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A novel plant virus has been identified infecting fresh market tomato plants in south and southeast Florida. The virus causes necrosis of tomato leaves, petioles and stems, and necrotic rings or spots on tomato fruits. Symptomatic tomato plant tissue was used to mechanically inoculate tomato plant...

  10. Ectopic expression of an apple apomixis-related gene MhFIE induces co-suppression and results in abnormal vegetative and reproductive development in tomato.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dan-Dan; Dong, Qing-Long; Fang, Mou-Jing; Chen, Ke-Qin; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2012-12-15

    It has been well documented that FERTILIZATION-INDEPENDENT ENDOSPERM (FIE) plays important regulatory roles in diverse developmental processes in model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. However, it is largely unknown how FIE genes function in economically important crops. In this study, MhFIE gene, which was previously isolated from apomictic tea crabapple (Malus hupehensis Redh. var. pingyiensis), was introduced into tomato. The hemizygous transgenic tomato lines produced curly leaves and decreased in seed germination. In addition, the co-suppression of the transgenic MhFIE and endogenous (SlFIE) genes occurred in homozygous transgenic tomatoes. As a result, FIE silencing brought about abnormal phenotypes during reproductive development in tomato, such as increased sepal and petal numbers in flower, a fused ovule and pistil and parthenocarpic fruit formation. A yeast two-hybrid assay and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) demonstrated that MhFIE interacted with a tomato protein, EZ2 (SlEZ2). Its ectopic expression and SlFIE co-suppression notably influenced the expression of genes associated with leaf, flower, and fruit development. Therefore, together with other PcG proteins, FIE was involved in the regulation of vegetative and reproductive development by modulating the expression of related genes in plants.

  11. Importance of Rootstock and Scion Tomato Mosaic Virus Resistance for Grafting Heirloom Tomatoes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    During the 2011-2012 tomato production season at a Florida organic farm, heirloom tomato scions grafted onto Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV)-resistant tomato rootstocks were observed to undergo a rapid and severe wilt, and ultimately die. The soilborne fungus, Sclerotium rolfsii, was isolated...

  12. Reconstructing vegetation response to altered hydrology and its use for restoration, Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bernhardt, Christopher E.; Brandt, Laura A.; Landacre, Bryan D.; Marot, Marci E.; Willard, Debra A.

    2013-01-01

    We present reconstructed hydrologic and vegetation trends of the last three centuries across the Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge, Florida in order to understand the effects of 20th century water management. We analyzed pollen assemblages from cores at marsh sites along three transects to document vegetation and infer hydroperiod and water depth both before and after human alteration of Everglades hydrology. In the northern and central part of the Refuge, late Holocene water levels were higher and hydroperiods longer than the last 100 years. Post-1950 was a time of several different water management strategies. Pollen assemblages indicate drier conditions post-1950 in the northern and central parts of the Refuge, whereas sites in the southern Refuge are wetter and vegetation turnover is higher. Throughout the Refuge, Sagittaria pollen declines with the onset of water management, and may indicate a loss of greater variation in hydroperiods across years and water depths between seasons. Paleoecological evidence provides clear estimates of the vegetation response to hydrologic change under specific hydrologic regimes.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF ANAEROBIC SOIL DISINFESTATION FOR FLORIDA VEGETABLE AND FLOWER PRODUCTION

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) combines biological soil disinfestation (Blok et al., 2000; Goud et al., 2004) and soil reductive sterilization (Shinmura, 2004). The development of an ASD system for Florida incorporated soil solarization with clear plastic with the addition of a labile carbon s...

  14. Chopper herbicide site preparation for different bedding timings and vegetation complexes in North Florida

    Treesearch

    Dwight K. Lauer; Harold E. Quicke; David Adams

    2006-01-01

    The use of Chopper® (BASF Corporation, Research Triangle Park, NC) herbicide applied with an oil and water carrier was tested for site preparation. Tests were installed at eight locations to examine slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm.) response and vegetation control with different vegetation types and timings of bedding. Chopper was applied in...

  15. Resting and Energy Reserves of Aedes albopictus Collected in Common Landscaping Vegetation in St. Augustine, Florida

    PubMed Central

    Samson, Dayana M.; Qualls, Whitney A.; Roque, Deborah; Naranjo, Diana P.; Alimi, Temitope; Arheart, Kristopher L.; Müller, Günter C.; Beier, John C.

    2014-01-01

    The resting behavior of Aedes albopictus was evaluated by aspirating diurnal resting mosquitoes from common landscape vegetation in residential communities in St. Augustine, FL. Energy reserves of the resting mosquitoes were analyzed to determine if there was a correlation between mosquito resting habitat and energy accumulation. Six species of plants were selected and 9 collections of resting mosquitoes were aspirated from each plant using a modified John W. Hock backpack aspirator during June and July 2012. Eight mosquito species were collected, with Ae. albopictus representing 74% of the overall collection. The number of Ae. albopictus collected varied significantly with the species of vegetation. When comparing the vegetation and abundance of resting mosquitoes, the highest percentages of Ae. albopictus were collected resting on Ruellia brittoniana (Mexican petunia), Asplenium platyneuron (fern), Gibasis geniculate (Tahitian bridal veil), followed by Plumba goauriculata (plumbago), Setcreasea pallida (purple heart), and Hibiscus tiliaceus (hibiscus). There were significant differences in lipid and glycogen accumulation based on type of vegetation Ae. albopictus was found resting in. Resting mosquitoes' sugar reserves were not influenced by species of vegetation. However, there was an overall correlation between vegetation that serves as a resting habitat and energy reserve accumulation. The results of our study demonstrate the potential to target specific vegetation for control of diurnal resting mosquitoes. PMID:24199497

  16. First report of Tomato chlorotic spot virus in scarlet eggplant (Solanum aethiopicum) and American black nightshade (Solanum americanum) in the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) was identified in the vegetable crop scarlet eggplant and the weed American black nightshade in south Florida. This is the first report of TCSV naturally infecting these plant species in the U.S. Genetic diversity of TCSV was characterized. This report provides ...

  17. Hydrology, vegetation, and soils of four north Florida River flood plains with an evaluation of state and federal wetland determinations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Light, H.M.; Darst, M.R.; MacLaughlin, M.T.; Sprecher, S.W.

    1993-01-01

    A study of hydrologic conditions, vegetation, and soils was made in wetland forests of four north Florida streams from 1987 to 1990. The study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation to support State and Federal efforts to improve wetland delineation methodology in flood plains. Plant communities and soils were described and related to topographic position and long-term hydrologic conditions at 10 study plots located on 4 streams. Detailed appendixes give average duration, frequency, and depth of flooding; canopy, subcanopy, and ground-cover vegetation; and taxonomic classification, series, and profile descriptions of soils for each plot. Topographic relief, range in stage, and depth of flooding were greatest on the alluvial flood plain of the Ochlockonee River, the largest of the four streams. Soils were silty in the lower elevations of the flood plain, and tree communities were distinctly different in each topographic zone. The Aucilla River flood plain was dominated by levees and terraces with very few depressions or low backwater areas. Oaks dominated the canopy of both lower and upper terraces of the Aucilla flood plain. Telogia Creek is a blackwater stream that is a major tributary of the Ochlockonee River. Its low, wet flood plain was dominated by Wyssa ogeche (Ogeechee tupelo) trees, had soils with mucky horizons, and was inundated by frequent floods of very short duration. The St. Marks River, a spring-fed stream with high base flow, had the least topographic relief and lowest range in stage of the four streams. St. Marks soils had a higher clay content than the other streams, and limestone bedrock was relatively close to the surface. Wetland determinations of the study plots based on State and Federal regulatory criteria were evaluated. Most State and Federal wetland determinations are based primarily on vegetation and soil characteristics because hydrologic records are usually not

  18. Characterization of vegetative inflorescence (mc-vin) mutant provides new insight into the role of MACROCALYX in regulating inflorescence development of tomato

    PubMed Central

    Yuste-Lisbona, Fernando J.; Quinet, Muriel; Fernández-Lozano, Antonia; Pineda, Benito; Moreno, Vicente; Angosto, Trinidad; Lozano, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Inflorescence development is a key factor of plant productivity, as it determines flower number. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms that regulate inflorescence architecture is critical for reproductive success and crop yield. In this study, a new mutant, vegetative inflorescence (mc-vin), was isolated from the screening of a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) T-DNA mutant collection. The mc-vin mutant developed inflorescences that reverted to vegetative growth after forming two to three flowers, indicating that the mutated gene is essential for the maintenance of inflorescence meristem identity. The T-DNA was inserted into the promoter region of the MACROCALYX (MC) gene; this result together with complementation test and expression analyses proved that mc-vin is a new knock-out allele of MC. Double combinations between mc-vin and jointless (j) and single flower truss (sft) inflorescence mutants showed that MC has pleiotropic effects on the reproductive phase, and that it interacts with SFT and J to control floral transition and inflorescence fate in tomato. In addition, MC expression was mis-regulated in j and sft mutants whereas J and SFT were significantly up-regulated in the mc-vin mutant. Together, these results provide new evidences about MC function as part of the genetic network regulating the development of tomato inflorescence meristem. PMID:26727224

  19. Characterization of vegetative inflorescence (mc-vin) mutant provides new insight into the role of MACROCALYX in regulating inflorescence development of tomato.

    PubMed

    Yuste-Lisbona, Fernando J; Quinet, Muriel; Fernández-Lozano, Antonia; Pineda, Benito; Moreno, Vicente; Angosto, Trinidad; Lozano, Rafael

    2016-01-04

    Inflorescence development is a key factor of plant productivity, as it determines flower number. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms that regulate inflorescence architecture is critical for reproductive success and crop yield. In this study, a new mutant, vegetative inflorescence (mc-vin), was isolated from the screening of a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) T-DNA mutant collection. The mc-vin mutant developed inflorescences that reverted to vegetative growth after forming two to three flowers, indicating that the mutated gene is essential for the maintenance of inflorescence meristem identity. The T-DNA was inserted into the promoter region of the MACROCALYX (MC) gene; this result together with complementation test and expression analyses proved that mc-vin is a new knock-out allele of MC. Double combinations between mc-vin and jointless (j) and single flower truss (sft) inflorescence mutants showed that MC has pleiotropic effects on the reproductive phase, and that it interacts with SFT and J to control floral transition and inflorescence fate in tomato. In addition, MC expression was mis-regulated in j and sft mutants whereas J and SFT were significantly up-regulated in the mc-vin mutant. Together, these results provide new evidences about MC function as part of the genetic network regulating the development of tomato inflorescence meristem.

  20. Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation (ASD) Combined with Soil Solarization for Root-Knot Nematode Control in Vegetable and Ornamental Crops in Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) combined with soil solarization continues to be evaluated for management of plant-parasitic nematodes in vegetable and ornamental crops in Florida. ASD combines organic amendments and soil saturation to stimulate microbial activity and create anaerobic conditions...

  1. Semi-determinate growth habit adjusts the vegetative-to-reproductive balance and increases productivity and water-use efficiency in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    PubMed

    Vicente, Mateus Henrique; Zsögön, Agustin; de Sá, Ariadne Felicio Lopo; Ribeiro, Rafael V; Peres, Lázaro E P

    2015-04-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) shows three growth habits: determinate, indeterminate and semi-determinate. These are controlled mainly by allelic variation in the self-pruning (SP) gene family, which also includes the "florigen" gene single flower TRUSS (SFT). Determinate cultivars have synchronized flower and fruit production, which allows mechanical harvesting in the tomato processing industry, whereas indeterminate ones have more vegetative growth with continuous flower and fruit formation, being thus preferred for fresh market tomato production. The semi-determinate growth habit is poorly understood, although there are indications that it combines advantages of determinate and indeterminate growth. Here, we used near-isogenic lines (NILs) in the cultivar Micro-Tom (MT) with different growth habit to characterize semi-determinate growth and to determine its impact on developmental and productivity traits. We show that semi-determinate genotypes are equivalent to determinate ones with extended vegetative growth, which in turn impacts shoot height, number of leaves and either stem diameter or internode length. Semi-determinate plants also tend to increase the highly relevant agronomic parameter Brix × ripe yield (BRY). Water-use efficiency (WUE), evaluated either directly as dry mass produced per amount of water transpired or indirectly through C isotope discrimination, was higher in semi-determinate genotypes. We also provide evidence that the increases in BRY in semi-determinate genotypes are a consequence of an improved balance between vegetative and reproductive growth, a mechanism analogous to the conversion of the overly vegetative tall cereal varieties into well-balanced semi-dwarf ones used in the Green Revolution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Managing thrips and tospoviruses in tomato

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This fact sheet reports current management recommendations for Tomato spotted wilt virus, Groundnut ringspot virus and Tomato chlorotic spot virus and the thrips that transmits each of these viruses. All three viruses are important pathogens for Florida tomato crops. This information is useful for...

  3. Vegetation changes caused by fire in the Florida flatwoods as observed by remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mealor, W. T., Jr.; Prunty, M. C., Jr.

    1969-01-01

    The nature of the flatwoods and the role that ground fires have played in maintaining them are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the areal and temporal extent of burns as recorded uniformly by remote sensors. Thermal infrared, color infrared, and Ektachrome imagery were obtained from sensors flown by a NASA aircraft at 15,000 feet over a test site in Osceola County, Florida, in March 1968. The overall pattern of burning can be sequenced and mapped uniformly from the imagery. By comparing the various imagery, areal and temporal extent of burned areas can be determined. It was concluded that remote sensed imagery provides more accurate and areally comprehensive media for assessing the impact of ground fires on the landscape of the flatwoods region than are available from any other data source.

  4. Vegetation used for nesting by the red-winged blackbird in Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stowers, J.F.; Harke, D.T.; Stickley, A.R.

    1968-01-01

    During the breeding season of 1966, as an adjunct to a taxonomic study of Red-winged Blackbirds in Florida, 177 Redwin g nests were found. The general habitat types were noted, and the plant species harboring nests were listed.....Redwing nests were found in 30 genera of plants. Buttonbush was the primary choice; it was used to support 50 of the 177 nests. Silverling and willow were the next most often used plants. Nests also were found in other shrubs and trees, in assorted herbs and grasses, and in fields of sweet corn and sugarcane. The great degree of nesting adaptability of the Red-winged Blackbird is attested by the diversity of nesting site selections in several habitats.

  5. Evapotranspiration from areas of native vegetation in west-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bidlake, W.R.; Woodham, W.M.; Lopez, Miguel Angel

    1996-01-01

    The micrometeorological methods of energy-balance Bowen ratio and eddy correlation probably are suitable for determining evapotranspiration from unforested sites, but the aerodynamic effects of tall tree canopies need to be considered when the methods are used for forested sites. Potential evapotranspiration methods might not yield reliable estimates of evapotranspiration for all areas of native vegetation. Estimates of annual evapotranspiration ranged from 970 millimeters for a cypress swamp site to 1,060 millimeters for a pine flatwood site.

  6. Microbiological quality of fresh leafy vegetables, salad components and ready-to-eat salads: an evidence of inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes in tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Pingulkar, K; Kamat, A; Bongirwar, D

    2001-01-01

    A total of 116 samples of 11 different fresh vegetables from a local market generally consumed in raw form as well as 12 samples of ready-to-eat green salads procured from three grade 1 and 2 restaurants in Mumbai, India were examined for overall microbial quality in terms of bacterial, mold and coliform levels and incidence of pathogens such as Listeria and Yersinia. Standard procedures and media were used for isolation and identification studies. Thoroughly washed samples of 26 leafy vegetables, 12 roots, 62 tomatoes and four samples each of cabbage, capsicum and cucumber showed total bacterial and yeast-mold count in 10(6)-10(7) cfu/gm and 10(2)-10(5) cfu/gm range respectively. On the other hand, higher range of bacterial (10(6)-10(8) cfu/gm) and mold (10(4)-10(7) cfu/gm) count were noticed in ready-to-eat salads from restaurants. The MPN index/gm for coliforms for vegetables from a local market ranged from < 3 to > 1100 whereas for ready-to-eat salads it was 11 to 460. Evidence of higher number of coliforms was observed mostly in green leafy vegetables. All (100%) local vegetables exhibited the incidence of Listeria and Yersinia. On the other hand, ready-to-eat salads showed 20 and 73% presence of Yersinia and Listeria respectively. Higher occurrence of fecal coliforms was (65.6%) found in raw vegetables while they were absent in ready-to-eat salad samples. Non-pathogenic species like Y. intermedia and L. innocua were predominating species in most of the samples. Nevertheless, presence of L. monocytogenes was observed in 7 out of 62 tomatoes, 5 out of 10 coriander leaves, 2 out of 4 spinach samples and one from 4 cabbage samples. Studies conducted to understand the ability of L. monocytogenes 036 and 35152 to grow in tomato in the presence of naturally occurring bacteria suggested that artificially inoculated (10(3) cfu/ml) cells are killed after 3 days, 12 days and 14 days of incubation at 37 degrees C, 8-10 degrees C and 2-4 degrees C respectively.

  7. Validated UPLC-MS/MS Methods To Quantitate Free and Conjugated Alternaria Toxins in Commercially Available Tomato Products and Fruit and Vegetable Juices in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Walravens, Jeroen; Mikula, Hannes; Rychlik, Michael; Asam, Stefan; Devos, Tom; Njumbe Ediage, Emmanuel; Diana Di Mavungu, José; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Van Landschoot, Anita; Vanhaecke, Lynn; De Saeger, Sarah

    2016-06-22

    Ultraperformance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe based analytical methodologies to quantitate both free (alternariol (1), alternariol monomethyl ether (2), tenuazonic acid (3), tentoxin (4), altenuene (5), altertoxin-I (6)) and conjugated (sulfates and glucosides of 1 and 2) Alternaria toxins in fruit and vegetable juices and tomato products were developed and validated. Acceptable limits of quantitation (0.7-5.7 μg/kg), repeatability (RSDr < 15.7%), reproducibility (RSDR < 17.9%), and apparent recovery (87.0-110.6%) were obtained for all analytes in all matrices investigated. 129 commercial foodstuffs were analyzed, and 3 was detected in 100% of tomato product samples (tomato based foodstuffs, whereas 3 is unlikely to be of human health concern.

  8. Impact of Willow Invasion on Vegetation Water and Carbon Exchange in the Florida Everglades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budny, M. L.; Benscoter, B.

    2014-12-01

    Southern coastal willow (Salix caroliniana) is native to the Florida Everglades, commonly found on drier landforms like levees and tree islands. Shortened periods of inundation due to water management have led to the encroachment and expansion of these shrubs in sawgrass (Cladium jamaicense) marsh communities. The broadleaf willow is morphologically and physiologically different from the graminoid sedge sawgrass, with possible consequence for microhabitat conditions and ecosystem function. Willow is often assumed to have greater rates of transpiration, thereby affecting wetland water management, and may have concurrent differences in photosynthesis and carbon exchange. However, the ecophysiological impact of the willow invasion has not been quantified. We assessed differences in plant water and carbon exchange between willow and sawgrass at Blue Cypress Conservation Area, an impounded sawgrass peatland within the St. John's River Water Management District (SJRWMD). Plant transpiration and net CO2 exchange (photosynthesis and autotrophic respiration) were measured on fully expanded, non-damaged leaves of sawgrass and willow using a portable infrared gas analyzer (LI-6400XT, LI-COR, Lincoln, NE, U.S.A.). The results obtained from this study will provide a better understanding of ecophysiological changes that occur within marsh communities with shrub expansion, which will have cascading impacts on soil accretion and turnover, microclimate, and water quality Understanding the implications of willow expansion will improve landscape models of wetland water and carbon exchange as well as inform water management decisions.

  9. Ant community change across a ground vegetation gradient in north Florida's longleaf pine flatwoods.

    PubMed

    Lubertazzi, David; Tschinkel, Walter

    2003-01-01

    Ant communities in longleaf pine habitats are poorly known and hence the naturally occurring ant assemblages of a large portion of southeastern North America are not well understood. This study examined the diverse ant community found in the longleaf pine flatwoods of north Florida and tested how ant diversity changes along a herbaceous ground cover gradient. Restoring the ground cover to its original floral composition is an important focus of longleaf pine conservation and hence it is important to understand how native faunal communities vary with ground cover variation. Using 4 sampling methods, we characterized the ant community and analyzed its within-habitat variation among 12 study sites. We found the highest plot species richness (55 species) and within-habitat species richness (72 species) ever recorded for North American ants. The ants formed three distinct communities. The low-diversity arboreal and subterranean assemblages varied little across forest stands while the diversity of the species-rich ground foraging ant community was negatively correlated with percent herbaceous cover. The imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta (monogyne form), was unexpectedly found to be abundant in high herbaceous cover sites. Floral restoration of the pine flatwoods, which is increasing the proportion of herbaceous cover, is likely to cause an increase in the abundance of the imported fire ant.

  10. Ant community change across a ground vegetation gradient in north Florida's longleaf pine flatwoods

    PubMed Central

    Lubertazzi, David; Tschinkel, Walter R.

    2003-01-01

    Ant communities in longleaf pine habitats are poorly known and hence the naturally occurring ant assemblages of a large portion of southeastern North America are not well understood. This study examined the diverse ant community found in the longleaf pine flatwoods of north Florida and tested how ant diversity changes along a herbaceous ground cover gradient. Restoring the ground cover to its original floral composition is an important focus of longleaf pine conservation and hence it is important to understand how native faunal communities vary with ground cover variation. Using 4 sampling methods, we characterized the ant community and analyzed its within-habitat variation among 12 study sites. We found the highest plot species richness (55 species) and within-habitat species richness (72 species) ever recorded for North American ants. The ants formed three distinct communities. The low-diversity arboreal and subterranean assemblages varied little across forest stands while the diversity of the species-rich ground foraging ant community was negatively correlated with percent herbaceous cover. The imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta (monogyne form), was unexpectedly found to be abundant in high herbaceous cover sites. Floral restoration of the pine flatwoods, which is increasing the proportion of herbaceous cover, is likely to cause an increase in the abundance of the imported fire ant. Abbreviation: ANF Apalachicola National Forest PMID:15841237

  11. Signals of ENSO related precipitation changes and atmospheric CO2 levels in Florida wetland vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, F.

    2003-04-01

    Trees are equipped with a plastic phenotype, capable of sustained adjustment of leaf stomata to changes in atmospheric [CO2] concentration. With high temporal resolution and accuracy, stomatal frequency data demonstrate that Holocene climate evolution has been influenced by century-scale [CO2] fluctuations. Apart from adapting to changes in [CO2], leaf-epidermal properties are known to be sensitive to environmental factors such as water availability. In long-lived hygrophilous plants, epidermal tissue expansion is likely to be significantly influenced by changes in water availability. Synchronous analysis of the leaf-morphology in [CO2] sensitive trees and water-stress sensitive fern species from leaf assemblages preserved in peat deposits in Florida (USA), reveals distinct temporal changes in epidermal properties over the past 100 years. Stomatal frequency changes in the deciduous trees reflects the human induced [CO2] increase. Epidermal-cell density changes in fern leaves, could well be interpreted in terms of El Niño / La Niña related precipitation trends. By quantifying the leaf morphological adaptation to known environmental conditions during historical times, a new palaeobotanical proxy for past precipitation changes is introduced. Hence, in El Niño sensitive regions, analysis of buried leaf assemblages offers the unique possibility of a direct recognition of time-equivalent leaf-based signals of palaeo-atmospheric [CO2] and El Niño variability.

  12. Vegetation changes during the last deglacial and early Holocene: a record from Little Salt Spring Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, C. E.; Willard, D. A.; Landacre, B.; Gifford, J.

    2010-12-01

    We present a high-resolution, 7000 year long pollen record of vegetation change that spans the Younger Dryas and Early Holocene. An 8.2 m sediment core was collected from Little Salt Spring (LSS), FL, which is an hourglass-shaped karst sinkhole lake with a water depth of 72 m. Previous paleohydrological reconstructions based on carbon and oxygen isotopes indicate that LSS is sensitive to past deglacial climate and sea-level changes. Distinct changes in pollen assemblages from the LSS core correspond to well-documented climatic events. For example, cooler climate during the Younger Dryas is characterized by an abrupt increase in Carya pollen. This change in pollen assemblages corresponds to estimates of cooler temperatures from ostracode isotopic records from LSS. In addition, precipitation and temperature in the early Holocene is relatively invariate as reflected in the development of a comparatively stable bayhead hammock plant community. In general, the vegetation response at LSS indicates an abrupt onset of a cooler Younger Dryas followed by, based ostracode isotopic records, a warmer and a relatively stable Early Holocene. The LSS record has potential to examine human response to abrupt climate variability because recent archeological finds indicate Early Native Americans were present there at least 10,000 years ago.

  13. Potassium deficiency affects water status and photosynthetic rate of the vegetative sink in green house tomato prior to its effects on source activity.

    PubMed

    Kanai, Synsuke; Moghaieb, Reda E; El-Shemy, Hany A; Panigrahi, R; Mohapatra, Pravat K; Ito, J; Nguyen, Nguyen T; Saneoka, Hirofumi; Fujita, Kounosuke

    2011-02-01

    The potassium requirement of green house tomatoes is very high for vegetative growth and fruit production. Potassium deficiency in plants takes long time for expression of visible symptoms. The objective of this study is to detect the deficiency early during the vegetative growth and define the roles of aquaporin and K-channel transporters in the process of regulation of water status and source-sink relationship. The tomato plants were grown hydroponically inside green house of Hiroshima University, Japan and subjected to different levels of K in the rooting medium. Potassium deficiency stress decreased photosynthesis, expansion and transport of ¹⁴C assimilates of the source leaf, but the effects became evident only after diameter expansion of the growing stem (sink) was down-regulated. The depression of stem diameter expansion is assumed to be associated with the suppression of water supply more than photosynthate supply to the organ. The stem diameter expansion is parameterized by root water uptake and leaf transpiration rates. The application of aquaporin inhibitor (AgNO₃) decreased leaf water potential, stem expansion and root hydraulic conductance within minutes of application. Similar results were obtained for application of the K-channel inhibitors. These observations suggested a close relationship between stem diameter expansion and activities of aquaporins and K-channel transporters in roots. The deficiency of potassium might have reduced aquaporin activity, consequently suppressing root hydraulic conductance and water supply to the growing stem for diameter expansion and leaf for transpiration. We conclude that close coupling between aquaporins and K-channel transporters in water uptake of roots is responsible for regulation of stem diameter dynamics of green house tomato plants.

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of a Tomato-Infecting Tomato Mottle Mosaic Virus in New York

    PubMed Central

    Padmanabhan, Chellappan; Zheng, Yi; Li, Rugang; Martin, Gregory B.; Fei, Zhangjun

    2015-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of an isolate of tomato mottle mosaic virus (ToMMV) infecting tomatoes in New York was obtained using small RNA (sRNA) deep sequencing. ToMMV_NY-13 shared 99% sequence identity with isolates from Mexico and Florida. Broader distribution of this emerging virus is a cause for concern to the tomato industry. PMID:26701086

  15. Effects of fire on composition, biomass, and nutrients in oak scrub vegetation on John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmalzer, Paul A.; Hinkle, C. Ross

    1987-01-01

    Four stands of oak scrub two, four, eight, and 25 years since fire were sampled with permanent 15 m line transects. Percent cover by species was determined. Plant samples were analyzed for a variety of substances. Transects were resurveyed in 1985 for vegetation parameters. Nutrient pools in biomass were calculated from biomass data and tissue nutrient concentrations. Soil nutrient pools were calculated from nutrient concentrations and bulk density. Species distribution and soil chemical properties were found to be closely related to water table depth. The following fire-related conclusions are reached: (1) major structural changes occur in scrub after fire in that shrub height is reduced and requires four to six years to exceed 1 m; (2) reduction in shrub height affects the suitability of scrub for the Florida scrub jay (3) live biomass increases with time since fire; (4) nutrient concentrations in live biomass do not change with time since fire; (5) species composition and richness are little changed after fire; and (6) imposition of a continued regime of burning on a three-year cycle may have adverse impacts not indicated by the recovery of scrub from a single fire.

  16. Long-term wastewater irrigation of vegetables in real agricultural systems: Concentration of pharmaceuticals in soil, uptake and bioaccumulation in tomato fruits and human health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Christou, Anastasis; Karaolia, Popi; Hapeshi, Evroula; Michael, Costas; Fatta-Kassinos, Despo

    2017-02-01

    Wastewater (WW) reuse for vegetable crops irrigation is regularly applied worldwide. Such a practice has been found to allow the uptake of pharmaceutical active compounds (PhACs) by plants and their subsequent entrance to the food web, representing an important alternative pathway for the exposure of humans to PhACs, with potential health implications. Herein we report the impacts of the long-term (three consecutive years) WW irrigation of a tomato crop with two differently treated effluents under real agricultural conditions, on (1) the soil concentration of selected PhACs (i.e. diclofenac, DCF; sulfamethoxazole, SMX; trimethoprim, TMP), (2) the bioaccumulation of these PhACs in tomato fruits, and (3) the human risks associated with the consumption of WW-irrigated fruits. Results revealed that the concentration of the studied PhACs in both the soil and tomato fruits varied depending on the qualitative characteristics of the treated effluent applied and the duration of WW irrigation. The PhAC with the highest soil concentration throughout the studied period was SMX (0.98 μg kg(-1)), followed by TMP (0.62 μg kg(-1)) and DCF (0.35 μg kg(-1)). DCF was not found in tomato fruits harvested from WW-irrigated plants during the first year of the study. However, DCF displayed the highest fruit concentration (11.63 μg kg(-1)) throughout the study (as a result of prolonged WW irrigation), followed by SMX (5.26 μg kg(-1)) and TMP (3.40 μg kg(-1)). The calculated fruit bioconcentration factors (BCFF) were extremely high for DCF in the 2nd (108) and 3rd year (132) of the experimental period, with the respective values for SMX (0.5-5.4) and TMP (0.2-6.4) being significantly lower. The estimated threshold of toxicity concern (TTC) and hazard quotients (HQ) values revealed that the consumption of fruits harvested from tomato plants irrigated for long period with the WW applied for irrigation under field conditions in this study represent a de minimis risk to human

  17. A rootstock provides water conservation for a grafted commercial tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) line in response to mild-drought conditions: a focus on vegetative growth and photosynthetic parameters.

    PubMed

    Nilsen, Erik T; Freeman, Joshua; Grene, Ruth; Tokuhisa, James

    2014-01-01

    The development of water stress resistant lines of commercial tomato by breeding or genetic engineering is possible, but will take considerable time before commercial varieties are available for production. However, grafting commercial tomato lines on drought resistant rootstock may produce drought tolerant commercial tomato lines much more rapidly. Due to changing climates and the need for commercial production of vegetables in low quality fields there is an urgent need for stress tolerant commercial lines of vegetables such as tomato. In previous observations we identified a scion root stock combination ('BHN 602' scion grafted onto 'Jjak Kkung' rootstock hereafter identified as 602/Jjak) that had a qualitative drought-tolerance phenotype when compared to the non-grafted line. Based on this initial observation, we studied photosynthesis and vegetative above-ground growth during mild-drought for the 602/Jjak compared with another scion-rootstock combination ('BHN 602' scion grafted onto 'Cheong Gang' rootstock hereafter identified as 602/Cheong) and a non-grafted control. Overall above ground vegetative growth was significantly lower for 602/Jjak in comparison to the other plant lines. Moreover, water potential reduction in response to mild drought was significantly less for 602/Jjak, yet stomatal conductance of all plant-lines were equally inhibited by mild-drought. Light saturated photosynthesis of 602/Jjak was less affected by low water potential than the other two lines as was the % reduction in mesophyll conductance. Therefore, the Jjak Kkung rootstock caused aboveground growth reduction, water conservation and increased photosynthetic tolerance of mild drought. These data show that different rootstocks can change the photosynthetic responses to drought of a high yielding, commercial tomato line. Also, this rapid discovery of one scion-rootstock combination that provided mild-drought tolerance suggests that screening more scion-rootstock combination for

  18. A Rootstock Provides Water Conservation for a Grafted Commercial Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Line in Response to Mild-Drought Conditions: A Focus on Vegetative Growth and Photosynthetic Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Nilsen, Erik T.; Freeman, Joshua; Grene, Ruth; Tokuhisa, James

    2014-01-01

    The development of water stress resistant lines of commercial tomato by breeding or genetic engineering is possible, but will take considerable time before commercial varieties are available for production. However, grafting commercial tomato lines on drought resistant rootstock may produce drought tolerant commercial tomato lines much more rapidly. Due to changing climates and the need for commercial production of vegetables in low quality fields there is an urgent need for stress tolerant commercial lines of vegetables such as tomato. In previous observations we identified a scion root stock combination (‘BHN 602’ scion grafted onto ‘Jjak Kkung’ rootstock hereafter identified as 602/Jjak) that had a qualitative drought-tolerance phenotype when compared to the non-grafted line. Based on this initial observation, we studied photosynthesis and vegetative above-ground growth during mild-drought for the 602/Jjak compared with another scion-rootstock combination (‘BHN 602’ scion grafted onto ‘Cheong Gang’ rootstock hereafter identified as 602/Cheong) and a non-grafted control. Overall above ground vegetative growth was significantly lower for 602/Jjak in comparison to the other plant lines. Moreover, water potential reduction in response to mild drought was significantly less for 602/Jjak, yet stomatal conductance of all plant-lines were equally inhibited by mild-drought. Light saturated photosynthesis of 602/Jjak was less affected by low water potential than the other two lines as was the % reduction in mesophyll conductance. Therefore, the Jjak Kkung rootstock caused aboveground growth reduction, water conservation and increased photosynthetic tolerance of mild drought. These data show that different rootstocks can change the photosynthetic responses to drought of a high yielding, commercial tomato line. Also, this rapid discovery of one scion-rootstock combination that provided mild-drought tolerance suggests that screening more scion

  19. The influence of vegetation on the hydrodynamics and geomorphology of a tree island in Everglades National Park (Florida, United States)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sullivan, Pamela L.; Engel, Victor C.; Ross, Michael S.; Price, René M.

    2013-01-01

    Transpiration-driven nutrient accumulation has been identified as a potential mechanism governing the creation and maintenance of wetland vegetation patterning. This process may contribute to the formation of nutrient-rich tree islands within the expansive oligotrophic marshes of the Everglades (Florida, United States). This study presents hydrogeochemical data indicating that tree root water uptake is a primary driver of groundwater ion accumulation across one of these islands. Sap flow, soil moisture, water level, water chemistry, and rainfall were measured to identify the relationships between climate, transpiration, and groundwater uptake by phreatophytes and to examine the effect this uptake has on groundwater chemistry and mineral formation in three woody plant communities of differing elevations. During the dry season, trees relied more on groundwater for transpiration, which led to a depressed water table and the advective movement of groundwater and dissolved ions, including phosphorus, from the surrounding marsh towards the centre of the island. Ion exclusion during root water uptake led to elevated concentrations of all major dissolved ions in the tree island groundwater compared with the adjacent marsh. Groundwater was predominately supersaturated with respect to aragonite and calcite in the lower-elevation woody communities, indicating the potential for soil formation. Elevated groundwater phosphorous concentrations detected in the highest-elevation woody community were associated with the leaching of inorganic sediments (i.e. hydroxyapatite) in the vadose zone. Understanding the complex feedback mechanisms regulating plant/groundwater/surface water interactions, nutrient dynamics, and potential soil formation is necessary to manage and restore patterned wetlands such as the Everglades.

  20. Applying time series Landsat data for vegetation change analysis in the Florida Everglades Water Conservation Area 2A during 1996-2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Caiyun; Smith, Molly; Lv, Jie; Fang, Chaoyang

    2017-05-01

    Mapping plant communities and documenting their changes is critical to the on-going Florida Everglades restoration project. In this study, a framework was designed to map dominant vegetation communities and inventory their changes in the Florida Everglades Water Conservation Area 2A (WCA-2A) using time series Landsat images spanning 1996-2016. The object-based change analysis technique was combined in the framework. A hybrid pixel/object-based change detection approach was developed to effectively collect training samples for historical images with sparse reference data. An object-based quantification approach was also developed to assess the expansion/reduction of a specific class such as cattail (an invasive species in the Everglades) from the object-based classifications of two dates of imagery. The study confirmed the results in the literature that cattail was largely expanded during 1996-2007. It also revealed that cattail expansion was constrained after 2007. Application of time series Landsat data is valuable to document vegetation changes for the WCA-2A impoundment. The digital techniques developed will benefit global wetland mapping and change analysis in general, and the Florida Everglades WCA-2A in particular.

  1. Isatin as an auxin source favoring floral and vegetative shoot regeneration from calli produced by thin layer explants of tomato pedicel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Applewhite, P. B.; K-Sawhney, R.; Galston, A. W.

    1994-01-01

    Thin layer explants taken from the pedicels and peduncles of flowering tomato plants yielded calli with great organogenetic potential. Of the 15 cultivars tested, 7 regenerated roots, shoots and eventually entire fruit-bearing plants. Calli grown on modified Murashige-Skoog medium responded to varied auxins and cytokinins with different morphogenetic patterns. Thus, naphthaleneacetic acid yielded root-producing calli, while the auxin precursor isatin (indole 2,3-dione) caused the production of calli with vegetative and floral shoots, rarely yielding roots. This may be related to isatin's slow, steady conversion to an active auxin (Plant Physiol 41:1485-1488, 1966) in contrast with naphthaleneacetic acid's immediate presentation of a high level of active auxin. The highest incidence of vegetative shoot (100%) and flower (50%) formation was obtained with 10 micromoles isatin and 3 micromoles zeatin. A few of the flowers developed into ripe fruits. The high frequency of induction of vegetative shoots and flowers before roots with isatin suggests its utility in micropropagation from plant tissue cultures.

  2. Isatin as an auxin source favoring floral and vegetative shoot regeneration from calli produced by thin layer explants of tomato pedicel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Applewhite, P. B.; K-Sawhney, R.; Galston, A. W.

    1994-01-01

    Thin layer explants taken from the pedicels and peduncles of flowering tomato plants yielded calli with great organogenetic potential. Of the 15 cultivars tested, 7 regenerated roots, shoots and eventually entire fruit-bearing plants. Calli grown on modified Murashige-Skoog medium responded to varied auxins and cytokinins with different morphogenetic patterns. Thus, naphthaleneacetic acid yielded root-producing calli, while the auxin precursor isatin (indole 2,3-dione) caused the production of calli with vegetative and floral shoots, rarely yielding roots. This may be related to isatin's slow, steady conversion to an active auxin (Plant Physiol 41:1485-1488, 1966) in contrast with naphthaleneacetic acid's immediate presentation of a high level of active auxin. The highest incidence of vegetative shoot (100%) and flower (50%) formation was obtained with 10 micromoles isatin and 3 micromoles zeatin. A few of the flowers developed into ripe fruits. The high frequency of induction of vegetative shoots and flowers before roots with isatin suggests its utility in micropropagation from plant tissue cultures.

  3. Ground-cover vegetation in wetland forests of the lower Suwannee River floodplain, Florida, and potential impacts of flow reductions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Darst, Melanie R.; Light, Helen M.; Lewis, Lori J.

    2002-01-01

    Ground-cover vegetation was surveyed in wetland forests in the lower Suwannee River floodplain, Florida, in a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Suwannee River Water Management District from 1996 to 1999. Increased water use in the basin, supplied primarily from ground water, could reduce ground-water discharge to the river and flows in the lower Suwannee River. Many of the 282 ground-cover species found in wetland forests of the floodplain have distributions that are related to flow-dependent hydrologic characteristics of forest types, and their distributions would change if flows were reduced. Overall species diversity in the floodplain might decrease, and the composition of ground-cover vegetation in all forest types might change with flow reductions. The study area included forests within the 10-year floodplain of the lower Suwannee River from its confluence with the Santa Fe River to the lower limit of forests near the Gulf of Mexico. The floodplain is divided into three reaches (riverine, upper tidal, and lower tidal) due to variations in hydrology, vegetation, and soils with proximity to the coast. The riverine (non-tidal) reach had the greatest number of total species (203) and species unique to that reach (81). Mitchella repens, Toxicodendron radicans, and Axonopus furcatus were the most frequently dominant species in riverine bottomland hardwoods. Free-floating aquatic species, such as Spirodela punctata and Lemna valdiviana, were the dominant species in the wettest riverine swamps. The upper tidal reach had the lowest number of total species (116), only two species unique to that reach, and the lowest density of ground cover (26 percent). Panicum commutatum and Crinum americanum were frequent dominant species in upper tidal forests. The lower tidal reach had the highest ground-cover density (43 percent) and the second highest number of total species (183) and number of species unique to that reach (55). Saururus cernuus

  4. Genome Sequence of Southern tomato virus in Asymptomatic Tomato ‘Sweet Hearts’

    PubMed Central

    Alcalá-Briseño, Ricardo I.; Coşkan, Sevgi; Londoño, Maria A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The genome sequence of Southern tomato virus in asymptomatic Solanum lycopersicum ‘Sweet Hearts’ (STV-Florida) in Florida was assembled from small RNAs sequenced by Illumina RNA-seq. The STV-Florida genome shared 99.0 to 99.9% similarity with full genome sequences from Bangladesh, China, Mexico, and the United States (Mississippi and North Carolina). PMID:28209810

  5. 76 FR 71271 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Fresh Market Tomato (Dollar Plan) Crop Provisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ... defined. The definition specifies they are field grown mature green or ripe fresh market tomatoes that meet the Agricultural Marketing Service United States Standards for Grades of Fresh Tomatoes; and the applicable Florida Federal Marketing Order and Florida Tomato Committee Regulations, or their successors. The...

  6. Tailoring of plants via genetic engineering: Tomato

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tomato has become a popular vegetable as it is an important source of vitamins, minerals and fibre in diets. One medium-sized tomato provides 57% of the recommended daily allowance (RDA) of vitamin C, 25% RDA of vitamin A, and 8% RDA of iron, yet with only 35 calories. Tomato extract has been used t...

  7. Melaleuca quinquenervia litter accumulation, mass loss, and impact on the establishment of forest-floor vegetation in southern Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The invasive tree Melaleuca quinquenervia (melaleuca) occurs in various habitats of southern Florida where it degrades ecologically sensitive areas. The exotic tree displaces other plant species, such as Cladium jamaicense (sawgrass), from many areas, forms monoculture forests with closed canopies, ...

  8. Fruits and vegetables (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A healthy diet includes adding vegetables and fruit every day. Vegetables like broccoli, green beans, leafy greens, zucchini, cauliflower, cabbage, carrots, and tomatoes are low in calories and high in fiber, ...

  9. A new quality parameter in tomato and tomato products: ergosterol.

    PubMed

    Kadakal, Cetin; Artik, Nevzat

    2004-01-01

    The poor precision of the "percentage of discarded fruits" and "Howard mold count" methods has increased the importance of ergosterol for the microbiological quality evaluation of tomato and tomato products. Ergosterol, a constituent of the cell wall of some important vegetable parasites, such as molds, has been recently recognized as a potential objective parameter useful for the characterization of the quality of processing tomatoes. Thus, 15 mg of ergosterol/kg total solids has been stated as an acceptability maximum limit of tomato products.

  10. Natural Setting and Vegetation of the Florida Panhandle. An Account of the Environments and Plant Communities of Northern Florida, West of the Suwannee River.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    burrowers in the panhandle are moles, mice, shrews, cotton rats, pocket gophers , gopher turtles, crayfish, ants, and earthworms. . The detrital feeders...99 8. RIVERS................................................ 101 River Types ........................................ 101 Discharge...and Vegetation Type ........................... 156 01 , oi Maps.......................................... 157 CONTENTS (Continued) Page 12. FIRE

  11. Constitutive co-suppression of the GA 20-oxidase1 gene in tomato leads to severe defects in vegetative and reproductive development.

    PubMed

    Olimpieri, Irene; Caccia, Riccardo; Picarella, Maurizio Enea; Pucci, Anna; Santangelo, Enrico; Soressi, Gian Piero; Mazzucato, Andrea

    2011-03-01

    To dissect the role of gibberellins in tomato development, we have constitutively down-regulated the gene GA 20-oxidase1 (GA20ox1). Plants co-suppressed for GA20ox1 (referred to as CO-6 plants) showed vegetative defects typical of GA deficiency such as darker and mis-shaped leaves and dwarfism. CO-6 plants flowered as the controls, although their flowers had subtle defects in the pedicel and in organ insertion. Analysis of male development revealed defects before, during and after meiosis, and a final pollen viability of 22%. The development of female organs and gametes appeared normal. Pollination experiments indicated that the pollen produced by CO-6 plants was able to fertilize control ovaries, but the analysis of the progeny showed that the construct was not transmitted. Ovaries of CO-6 plants showed high fruit set and normal fruit development when pollinated with control pollen. However these fruits were completely seedless due to a stenospermocarpic behaviour that was evidenced by callose layering in the endothelium between 7 and 15 days after pollination. We conclude that GA20ox1 in tomato exerts specific developmental roles that are not redundantly shared with other members of this gene family. For reproductive male development, silencing of this gene is detrimental for pollen production and either gametophytically lethal or severely hampering seed germination. In the pistil, the co-suppression construct does not affect the progamic phase, nor fruit set and growth, but it interferes with seed development after fertilization leading to seed abortion. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Proximate nutrient analyses of four species of submerged aquatic vegetation consumed by Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) compared to romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. longifolia).

    PubMed

    Siegal-Willott, Jessica L; Harr, Kendal; Hayek, Lee-Ann C; Scott, Karen C; Gerlach, Trevor; Sirois, Paul; Reuter, Mike; Crewz, David W; Hill, Richard C

    2010-12-01

    Free-ranging Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) consume a variety of sea grasses and algae. This study compared the dry matter (DM) content, proximate nutrients (crude protein [CP], ether-extracted crude fat [EE], nonfiber carbohydrate [NFC], and ash), and the calculated digestible energy (DE) of sea grasses (Thalassia testudinum, Halodule wrightii, and Syringodium filiforme) collected in spring, summer, and winter, and an alga (Chara sp.) with those of romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. longifolia). Neutral-detergent fiber (NDF), acid-detergent fiber (ADF), and lignin (L) measured after ash-extraction were also compared. Results of statistical tests (C = 0.01) revealed DM content was higher in aquatic vegetation than in lettuce (P = 0.0001), but NDF and ADF were up to threefold greater, EE (P = 0.00001) and CP (P = 0.00001) were 2-9 times less, and NFC (P = 0.0001) was 2-6 times lower in sea grass than in lettuce, on a DM basis. Chara was lower in NDF, ADF, L, EE, CP, and NFC relative to lettuce on a DM basis. Ash content (DM basis) was higher (P = 0.0001), and DE was 2-6 times lower in aquatic vegetation than in lettuce. Sea grass rhizomes had lower L and higher ash contents (DM basis) than sea grass leaves. Based on the nutrient analyses, romaine lettuce and sea grasses are not equivalent forages, which suggests that the current diet of captive Florida manatees should be reassessed.

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of Tomato Mosaic Virus Isolated from Jasmine in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Fillmer, Kornelia; Adkins, Scott; Pongam, Patchara

    2015-01-01

    Tomato mosaic virus was reported from jasmine in Florida. We present the first complete genome sequence of a tomato mosaic virus isolate from this woody perennial plant in the United States. PMID:26159525

  14. Emergence and impact of two tospoviruses in Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A unique strain of Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV), which has undergone genome reassortment with, and contains the medium RNA segment of, Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) was identified in tomato in south Florida in late 2009. A typical (non-reassorted) strain of TCSV was reported from tomato in ...

  15. Use of vegetated agricultural drainage ditches to decrease pesticide transport from tomato and alfalfa fields in California, USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Irrigation and storm water runoff from agricultural fields has the potential to cause impairment to downstream aquatic receiving systems. Over the last several years, scientists have discovered the benefit of using edge-of-field practices, such as vegetated agricultural drainage ditches, in the mit...

  16. Use of vegetated agricultural drainage ditches to decrease pesticide transport from tomato and alfalfa fields in California: runoff toxicity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study was performed to investigate the potential of vegetated drainage ditches for mitigating the impact of agricultural irrigation runoff on downstream aquatic ecosystems. Water column toxicity to larval fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), and the amphipod, Hyalella azteca, was measured for ...

  17. Interactions between river stage and wetland vegetation detected with a Seasonality Index derived from LANDSAT images in the Apalachicola delta, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    la Cecilia, Daniele; Toffolon, Marco; Woodcock, Curtis E.; Fagherazzi, Sergio

    2016-03-01

    The distribution of swamp floodplain vegetation and its evolution in the lower non-tidal reaches of the Apalachicola River, Florida USA, is mapped using Landsat Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (TM/ETM+) images captured over a period of 29 years. A newly developed seasonality index (SI), the ratio of the NDVI in winter months to the summer months, shows that the hardwood swamp, dominated by bald cypress and water tupelo, is slowly replaced by bottomland hardwood forest. This forest shift is driven by lower water levels in the Apalachicola River in the last 30 years, and predominantly occurs in the transitional area between low floodplains and high river banks. A negative correlation between maximum summer NDVI and water levels in winter suggests the growth of more vigorous vegetation in the vicinity of sloughs during years with low river flow. A negative correlation with SI further indicates that these vegetation patches are possibly replaced by species typical of drier floodplain conditions.

  18. Interactions between river stage and wetland vegetation detected with a Seasonality Index derived from LANDSAT images in the Apalachicola delta, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagherazzi, S.; Toffolon, M.; la Cecilia, D.; Woodcock, C. E.

    2016-12-01

    The distribution of swamp floodplain vegetation and its evolution in the lower non-tidal reaches of the Apalachicola River, Florida USA, is mapped using Landsat Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (TM/ETM+) images captured over a period of 29 years. A newly developed seasonality index (SI), the ratio of the NDVI in winter months to the summer months, shows that the hardwood swamp, dominated by bald cypress and water tupelo, is slowly replaced by bottomland hardwood forest. This forest shift is driven by lower water levels in the Apalachicola River in the last 30 years, and predominantly occurs in the transitional area between low floodplains and high river banks. A negative correlation between maximum summer NDVI and water levels in winter suggests the growth of more vigorous vegetation in the vicinity of sloughs during years with low river flow. A negative correlation with SI further indicates that these vegetation patches are possibly replaced by species typical of drier floodplain conditions.

  19. First report of tomato mottle mosaic virus infecting tomato in the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tomato mottle mosaic virus was identified in tomato in Florida, the first report of this virus in the U.S. Host range and genetic diversity were characterized. This report provides an overview of this emerging virus for growers, extension workers, crop consultants and research and regulatory scien...

  20. Factors That Affect Proliferation of Salmonella in Tomatoes Post-Harvest: The Roles of Seasonal Effects, Irrigation Regime, Crop and Pathogen Genotype

    PubMed Central

    Marvasi, Massimiliano; Hochmuth, George J.; Giurcanu, Mihai C.; George, Andrée S.; Noel, Jason T.; Bartz, Jerry; Teplitski, Max

    2013-01-01

    Main Objectives Fresh fruits and vegetables become increasingly recognized as vehicles of human salmonellosis. Physiological, ecological, and environmental factors are all thought to contribute to the ability of Salmonella to colonize fruits and vegetables pre- and post-harvest. The goal of this study was to test how irrigation levels, fruit water congestion, crop and pathogen genotypes affect the ability of Salmonella to multiply in tomatoes post-harvest. Experimental Design Fruits from three tomato varieties, grown over three production seasons in two Florida locations, were infected with seven strains of Salmonella and their ability to multiply post-harvest in field-grown tomatoes was tested. The field experiments were set up as a two-factor factorial split plot experiment, with the whole-plot treatments arranged in a randomized complete-block design. The irrigation treatment (at three levels) was the whole-plot factor, and the split-plot factor was tomato variety, with three levels. The significance of the main, two-way, and three-way interaction effects was tested using the (type III) F-tests for fixed effects. Mean separation for each significant fixed effect in the model was performed using Tukey’s multiple comparison testing procedure. Most Important Discoveries and Significance The irrigation regime per se did not affect susceptibility of the crop to post-harvest proliferation of Salmonella. However, Salmonella grew significantly better in water-congested tissues of green tomatoes. Tomato maturity and genotype, Salmonella genotype, and inter-seasonal differences were the strongest factors affecting proliferation. Red ripe tomatoes were significantly and consistently more conducive to proliferation of Salmonella. Tomatoes harvested in the driest, sunniest season were the most conducive to post-harvest proliferation of the pathogen. Statistically significant interactions between production conditions affected post-harvest susceptibility of the crop to the

  1. Factors that affect proliferation of Salmonella in tomatoes post-harvest: the roles of seasonal effects, irrigation regime, crop and pathogen genotype.

    PubMed

    Marvasi, Massimiliano; Hochmuth, George J; Giurcanu, Mihai C; George, Andrée S; Noel, Jason T; Bartz, Jerry; Teplitski, Max

    2013-01-01

    Fresh fruits and vegetables become increasingly recognized as vehicles of human salmonellosis. Physiological, ecological, and environmental factors are all thought to contribute to the ability of Salmonella to colonize fruits and vegetables pre- and post-harvest. The goal of this study was to test how irrigation levels, fruit water congestion, crop and pathogen genotypes affect the ability of Salmonella to multiply in tomatoes post-harvest. Fruits from three tomato varieties, grown over three production seasons in two Florida locations, were infected with seven strains of Salmonella and their ability to multiply post-harvest in field-grown tomatoes was tested. The field experiments were set up as a two-factor factorial split plot experiment, with the whole-plot treatments arranged in a randomized complete-block design. The irrigation treatment (at three levels) was the whole-plot factor, and the split-plot factor was tomato variety, with three levels. The significance of the main, two-way, and three-way interaction effects was tested using the (type III) F-tests for fixed effects. Mean separation for each significant fixed effect in the model was performed using Tukey's multiple comparison testing procedure. The irrigation regime per se did not affect susceptibility of the crop to post-harvest proliferation of Salmonella. However, Salmonella grew significantly better in water-congested tissues of green tomatoes. Tomato maturity and genotype, Salmonella genotype, and inter-seasonal differences were the strongest factors affecting proliferation. Red ripe tomatoes were significantly and consistently more conducive to proliferation of Salmonella. Tomatoes harvested in the driest, sunniest season were the most conducive to post-harvest proliferation of the pathogen. Statistically significant interactions between production conditions affected post-harvest susceptibility of the crop to the pathogen. UV irradiation of tomatoes post-harvest promoted Salmonella growth.

  2. Modeling vegetation community responses to sea-level rise on Barrier Island systems: A case study on the Cape Canaveral Barrier Island complex, Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Foster, Tammy E; Stolen, Eric D; Hall, Carlton R; Schaub, Ronald; Duncan, Brean W; Hunt, Danny K; Drese, John H

    2017-01-01

    Society needs information about how vegetation communities in coastal regions will be impacted by hydrologic changes associated with climate change, particularly sea level rise. Due to anthropogenic influences which have significantly decreased natural coastal vegetation communities, it is important for us to understand how remaining natural communities will respond to sea level rise. The Cape Canaveral Barrier Island complex (CCBIC) on the east central coast of Florida is within one of the most biologically diverse estuarine systems in North America and has the largest number of threatened and endangered species on federal property in the contiguous United States. The high level of biodiversity is susceptible to sea level rise. Our objective was to model how vegetation communities along a gradient ranging from hydric to upland xeric on CCBIC will respond to three sea level rise scenarios (0.2 m, 0.4 m, and 1.2 m). We used a probabilistic model of the current relationship between elevation and vegetation community to determine the impact sea level rise would have on these communities. Our model correctly predicted the current proportions of vegetation communities on CCBIC based on elevation. Under all sea level rise scenarios the model predicted decreases in mesic and xeric communities, with the greatest losses occurring in the most xeric communities. Increases in total area of salt marsh were predicted with a 0.2 and 0.4 m rise in sea level. With a 1.2 m rise in sea level approximately half of CCBIC's land area was predicted to transition to open water. On the remaining land, the proportions of most of the vegetation communities were predicted to remain similar to that of current proportions, but there was a decrease in proportion of the most xeric community (oak scrub) and an increase in the most hydric community (salt marsh). Our approach provides a first approximation of the impacts of sea level rise on terrestrial vegetation communities, including important

  3. Modeling vegetation community responses to sea-level rise on Barrier Island systems: A case study on the Cape Canaveral Barrier Island complex, Florida, USA

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Tammy E.; Stolen, Eric D.; Hall, Carlton R.; Schaub, Ronald; Duncan, Brean W.; Hunt, Danny K.; Drese, John H.

    2017-01-01

    Society needs information about how vegetation communities in coastal regions will be impacted by hydrologic changes associated with climate change, particularly sea level rise. Due to anthropogenic influences which have significantly decreased natural coastal vegetation communities, it is important for us to understand how remaining natural communities will respond to sea level rise. The Cape Canaveral Barrier Island complex (CCBIC) on the east central coast of Florida is within one of the most biologically diverse estuarine systems in North America and has the largest number of threatened and endangered species on federal property in the contiguous United States. The high level of biodiversity is susceptible to sea level rise. Our objective was to model how vegetation communities along a gradient ranging from hydric to upland xeric on CCBIC will respond to three sea level rise scenarios (0.2 m, 0.4 m, and 1.2 m). We used a probabilistic model of the current relationship between elevation and vegetation community to determine the impact sea level rise would have on these communities. Our model correctly predicted the current proportions of vegetation communities on CCBIC based on elevation. Under all sea level rise scenarios the model predicted decreases in mesic and xeric communities, with the greatest losses occurring in the most xeric communities. Increases in total area of salt marsh were predicted with a 0.2 and 0.4 m rise in sea level. With a 1.2 m rise in sea level approximately half of CCBIC’s land area was predicted to transition to open water. On the remaining land, the proportions of most of the vegetation communities were predicted to remain similar to that of current proportions, but there was a decrease in proportion of the most xeric community (oak scrub) and an increase in the most hydric community (salt marsh). Our approach provides a first approximation of the impacts of sea level rise on terrestrial vegetation communities, including important

  4. A Satellite-Based Estimation of Evapotranspiration Using Vegetation Index-Temperature Trapezoid Concept: A Case Study in Southern Florida, U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagci, A. L.; Santanello, J. A., Jr.; Jones, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    One of the key surface variables for hydrological applications, monitoring of natural and anthropogenic water consumption, closing energy balance and water budgets and drought identification is evapotranspiration (ET). There is currently a strong need for high temporal and spatial resolution ET products for climate and hydrological modelers. A satellite-based retrieval method based on vegetation index-temperature trapezoid (VITT) concept has been developed. This model has the ability to generate accurate ET estimates at high temporal and spatial resolutions by taking advantage of key remotely sensed parameters such as vegetation indices (VIs) and land surface temperature (LST) acquired by satellites as well as routinely-measured meteorological variables such as air temperature (Ta) and net radiation. For local-scale applications, the model has been successfully implemented in Python programming language and tested using Landsat satellite products at an eddy covariance flux tower in Florida. It is fully functional and automated such that there is no need of user intervention to run the model. The model development for continental-scale applications using VI and LST products from NASA satellites such as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is currently in progress. The results for local-scale application and early results for continental-scale (US) will be presented and discussed.

  5. Effects of space shuttle launches STS-1 through STS-9 on terrestrial vegetation of John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmalzer, P. A.; Hinkle, C. R.; Breininger, D.; Knott, W. M., III (Editor); Koller, A. M., Jr. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Space Shuttle launches produce a cloud containing hydrochloric acid (HCl), aluminum oxide (Al203), and other substances. Acidities of less than 0.5 pH have been measured routinely in association with the launch cloud. In an area of about 22 ha regularly exposed to the exhaust cloud during most Shuttle launches, acute vegetation damage has resulted from the first nine Shuttle launches. Changes include loss of sensitive species, loss of plant community structure, reduction in total cover, and replacement of some species by weedy invaders. Community level changes define a retrogressive sequence. One-time impacts to strand and dune vegetation occurred after launches of STS-8 and STS-9. Acute vegetation damage occurred especially to sensitive species. Within six months, however, recovery was nearly complete. Sensitivity of species to the launch cloud was partially predicted by previous laboratory studies. Far-field acidic and dry fallout from the cloud as it rises to stabilization and moves with the prevailing winds causes vegetation spotting. Damage from this deposition is minor; typically at most 1% to 5% of leaf surface area is affected. No plant mortality or community changes have occurred from far-field deposition.

  6. Fire Frequency Effects on Longleaf Pine (Pinus palustris P. Miller) Vegetation in South Carolina and Northeast Florida, USA

    Treesearch

    Jeff S. Glitzenstein; Donna R. Streng; Dale D. Wade

    2003-01-01

    Southeastern United States habitats dominated by longleaf pine (Pinus pulutris P. Miller) have declined precipitously in area and extent. Conservation of diverse ground-layer vegetation in these endangered habitats depends on prescribed fire. While the need for prescribed fire is now generally accepted, there is disagreement concerning the most...

  7. Screening tomato germplasm for resistance to potato spindle tuber viroid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In recent years, several outbreaks of a potentially devastating viroid disease on tomato in North America have caused serious concerns to tomato growers and vegetable seed industry. Several closely related viroids in the genus Pospiviroid have been identified on tomato. Among them, Potato spindle t...

  8. Association of tomato leaf curl Sudan virus with leaf curl disease of tomato in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Sohrab, Sayed Sartaj; Yasir, Muhammad; El-Kafrawy, Sherif Ali; Abbas, Ayman T; Mousa, Magdi Ali Ahmed; Bakhashwain, Ahmed A

    2016-06-01

    Tomato is an important vegetable crop and its production is adversely affected by leaf curl disease caused by begomovirus. Leaf curl disease is a serious concern for tomato crops caused by begomovirus in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Tomato leaf curl disease has been shown to be mainly caused either by tomato leaf curl Sudan virus or tomato yellow leaf curl virus as well as tomato leaf curl Oman virus. Many tomato plants infected with monopartite begomoviruses were also found to harbor a symptom enhancing betasatellites. Here we report the association of tomato leaf curl Sudan virus causing leaf curl disease of tomato in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The complete genome sequence analysis showed highest (99.9 %) identity with tomato leaf curl Sudan virus causing leaf curl disease in Arabian Peninsula. In phylogenetic relationships analysis, the identified virus formed closest cluster with tomato leaf curl Sudan virus. In recombination analysis study, the major parent was identified as tomato leaf curl Sudan virus. Findings of this study strongly supports the associated virus is a variant of tomato leaf curl Sudan virus causing disease in Sudan, Yemen and Arabian Peninsula. The betasatellites sequence analysis showed highest identity (99.8 %) with tomato leaf curl betasatellites-Amaranthus-Jeddah. The phylogenetic analysis result based on betasatellites formed closed cluster with tomato yellow leaf curl Oman betasatellites. The importance of these findings and occurrence of begomovirus in new geographic regions causing leaf curl disease of tomato in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are discussed.

  9. A demonstration of wetland vegetation mapping in Florida from computer-processed satellite and aircraft multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butera, M. K. (Principal Investigator)

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Major vegetative classes identified by the remote sensing technique were cypress swamp, pine, wetland grasses, salt grass, mixed mangrove, black mangrove, Brazilian pepper. Australian pine and melaleuca were not satisfactorily classified from LANDSAT. Aircraft scanners provided better resolution resulting in a classification of finer surface detail. An edge effect, created by the integration of diverse spectral responses within boundary elements of digital data, affected the wetlands classification. Accuracy classification for aircraft was 68% and for LANDSAT was 74%.

  10. 7 CFR 319.56-52 - Tomatoes with stems from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tomatoes with stems from the Republic of Korea. 319.56... Vegetables § 319.56-52 Tomatoes with stems from the Republic of Korea. Fresh tomatoes with stems (Solanum... not be allowed to enter the United States. (d) Commercial consignments. Tomatoes with stems from the...

  11. 7 CFR 319.56-52 - Tomatoes with stems from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tomatoes with stems from the Republic of Korea. 319.56... Vegetables § 319.56-52 Tomatoes with stems from the Republic of Korea. Fresh tomatoes with stems (Solanum... not be allowed to enter the United States. (d) Commercial consignments. Tomatoes with stems from the...

  12. 7 CFR 319.56-52 - Tomatoes with stems from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tomatoes with stems from the Republic of Korea. 319.56... Vegetables § 319.56-52 Tomatoes with stems from the Republic of Korea. Fresh tomatoes with stems (Solanum... not be allowed to enter the United States. (d) Commercial consignments. Tomatoes with stems from the...

  13. Further Insights Into The Epidemiology And Monitoring Practices Of Tomato Viruses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There are a number of serious virus threats to tomato production in Florida. These include the whitefly-transmitted Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and, more recently, Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV) and Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) which are both vectored by thrips. GRSV and TCSV are cl...

  14. 21 CFR 155.190 - Canned tomatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... (vi) Flavoring and seasoning. (vii) Vegetable ingredients such as onion, peppers, and celery, that may... declaration of the presence of onion, peppers, and celery is required for stewed tomatoes. (c) The...

  15. Tomato Preserves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Wendy Tessman

    1996-01-01

    Describes a project in which students selected seeds from two heirloom varieties of tomatoes, sowed the seeds, harvested the tomatoes, and fermented the seeds. Details are provided for each step of the project and the school address is included so that other students can begin similar projects. (DDR)

  16. Tomato Preserves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Wendy Tessman

    1996-01-01

    Describes a project in which students selected seeds from two heirloom varieties of tomatoes, sowed the seeds, harvested the tomatoes, and fermented the seeds. Details are provided for each step of the project and the school address is included so that other students can begin similar projects. (DDR)

  17. Towards understanding the impact of floating aquatic vegetation on farm phosphorus loads in the Everglades Agricultural Area, Florida, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhadha, J. H.; Daroub, S. H.; Lang, T. A.; Josan, M. S.; Gomez, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    For decades water from Lake Okeechobee is released into the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) for irrigation; and discharges from the EAA have been identified as contributors to the phosphors (P) enrichment of the Everglades. Despite the success of the Best Management Practice (BMP) program in the EAA, higher P concentrations and loads still exit the S5A and S6 sub-basins located east of Lake Okeechobee. Limiting the growth of floating aquatic vegetation (FAV) in farm canals should improve the conveyance of drainage and irrigation waters throughout the region. We believe that suppressing the growth of FAV could potentially change the aquatic plant community. It is hypothesized that with better light penetration into canal waters more P may be co-precipitated with Ca-carbonates and form cohesive sediments that are less likely to be re-suspended and transported off the farm during drainage events. This is a long-term study which will evaluate changes in sediment composition and drainage water P in EAA farms. Four farm pairs (two from S5A and S6 sub-basin) have been selected for this study. Each farm is experimental unit. Treatments imposed on a farm will include either complete control of FAV in canals via mechanical removal followed by spot spraying of herbicides, or typical control of FAV as currently practiced. Changes in P species composition in canal waters, and overall total P loads as influenced by treatment will be determined. The goal is to provide growers an additional tool in their efforts to reduce off-farm P loading in the Everglades Agricultural Area.

  18. Florida Everglades

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    A "river of grass" extending south of Lake Okeechobee shows how the area was modified by man with visible areas of dense agriculture, urban sprawl and water conservation areas delineated by a series of waterways that crisscross Southern Florida. The image was created March 18-24, 2013 from the Visible-Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership or Suomi NPP satellite, a partnership between NASA and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, or NOAA. Credit: NASA/NOAA To read more go to: www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/NPP/news/vegetation.html NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  19. Vegetation and hydrology of land-margin ecosystems: the mangroves of South Florida in relation to disturbance, global change and response to restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Best, G.R.; Smith, T.J.

    1999-01-01

    The USGS Florida Caribbean Science Center's Restoration Ecology Branch and Florida International University is conducting research on disturbance, global change and restoration of land margin ecosystems of South Florida. Criticial research for the restoration of these systems involves understanding the responses of mangrove forests to changes in the quality, quantity, timing and distribution of freshwater inflows, response to global change (e.g. sea level rise) and catastrophic disturbances such as hurricanes.

  20. Fire In South Florida Ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Dale Wade; John Ewel; Ronald Hofstetter

    1980-01-01

    This compendium of tire information for selected south Florida vegetative communities will help resource managers and policymakers to better predict the consequences of their fire management decisions. Included is a brief history of fire in south Florida, along with some associated damages and benefits. Certain natural functions fulfilled by tire are outlined. Fire is...

  1. Tospo-Resistant Variety Outlook for South Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tomato chlorotic spot virus, Tomato spotted wilt virus and/or Groundnut ringspot virus have occurred every season since being introduced to south Florida. With each subsequent season disease severity has increased. Use of insecticides for management of the thrips vector has proven ineffective in p...

  2. Constitutively overexpressing a tomato fructokinase gene (lefrk1) in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. coker 312) positively affects plant vegetative growth, boll number and seed cotton yield.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Increasing fructokinase (FRK) activity in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) plants may reduce fructose inhibition of sucrose synthase (Sus) and lead to improved fibre yield and quality. Cotton was transformed with a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) fructokinase gene (LeFRK1) under the control of the C...

  3. Hydrology, vegetation, and soils of riverine and tidal floodplain forests of the lower Suwannee River, Florida, and potential impacts of flow reductions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Light, Helen M.; Darst, Melanie R.; Lewis, Lori J.; Howell, David A.

    2002-01-01

    A study relating hydrologic conditions, soils, and vegetation of floodplain forests to river flow was conducted in the lower Suwannee River, Florida, from 1996 to 2000. The study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Suwannee River Water Management District to help determine the minimum flows and levels required for wetlands protection. The study area included forests within the 10-year floodplain of the Suwannee River from its confluence with the Santa Fe River to the tree line (lower limit of forests) near the Gulf of Mexico, and covered 18,600 hectares (ha) of forests, 75 percent of which were wetlands and 25 percent uplands. The floodplain was divided into three reaches, riverine, upper tidal, and lower tidal, based on changes in hydrology, vegetation, and soils with proximity to the coast. The Suwannee River is the second largest river in Florida in terms of average discharge. Median flow at the confluence of the Suwannee and Santa Fe Rivers is approximately 181 cubic meters per second (m3/s) or 6,480 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) (1933-99). At the upper end of the riverine reach, river stages are unaffected by tides and have a typical annual range of 4.1 meters (m). Tides affect river stages at low and medium flows in the upper tidal reach, and at all flows in the lower tidal reach. Median tidal range at the mouth of the Suwannee River is about 1 m. Salinity of river water in the lower tidal reach increases with decreasing flow and proximity to the Gulf of Mexico. Vertically averaged salinity in the river near the tree line is typically about 5 parts per thousand at medium flow. Land-surface elevation and topographic relief in the floodplain decrease with proximity to the coast. Elevations range from 4.1 to 7.3 m above sea level at the most upstream riverine transect and from 0.3 to 1.3 m above sea level on lower tidal transects. Surface soils in the riverine reach are predominantly mineral and dry soon after floods recede except in

  4. Florida's Youth, Florida's Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgkinson, Harold L.

    Florida's children face the same health and welfare issues found in many other states. Changing family structure, growing poverty among families with young children, limited access to health and social services, an expanding immigrant population, and a tough state budget situation make focusing on children increasingly important for policymakers.…

  5. Whitefly population dynamics and evaluation of whitefly-transmitted tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV)-resistant tomato genotypes as whitefly and TYLCV reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Rajagopalbabu; Riley, David; Diffie, Stan; Sparks, Alton; Adkins, Scott

    2012-08-01

    Sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), and whitefly-transmitted tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) are major threats to tomato production in the southeastern United States. TYLCV was introduced to Florida from the Caribbean islands and has spread to other southern states of the United States. In Georgia, in recent years, the incidence of TYLCV has been steadily increasing. Studies were conducted to monitor population dynamics of whiteflies in the vegetable production belt of Georgia, to evaluate TYLCV-resistant genotypes against whiteflies and TYLCV, and to assess the potential role of resistant genotypes in TYLCV epidemiology. Monitoring studies indicated that the peak incidence of whiteflies varied seasonally from year to year. In general, whitefly populations were not uniformly distributed. Tomato genotypes exhibited minor differences in their ability to support whitefly populations. TYLCV symptoms were visually undetectable in all but one resistant genotype. The infection rates (visually) in susceptible genotypes ranged from 40 to 87%. Greenhouse inoculations with viruliferous whiteflies followed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) indicated that up to 100% of plants of resistant genotypes were infected, although predominantly symptomless. TYLCV acquisition by whiteflies from TYLCV-infected genotypes was tested by PCR; TYLCV acquisition rates from resistant genotypes were less than from susceptible genotypes. Nevertheless, this difference did not influence TYLCV transmission rates from resistant to susceptible genotypes. Results emphasize that resistant genotypes can serve as TYLCV and whitefly reservoirs and potentially influence TYLCV epidemics.

  6. A decision support system (GesCoN) for managing fertigation in vegetable crops. Part II—model calibration and validation under different environmental growing conditions on field grown tomato

    PubMed Central

    Conversa, Giulia; Bonasia, Anna; Di Gioia, Francesco; Elia, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The GesCoN model was evaluated for its capability to simulate growth, nitrogen uptake, and productivity of open field tomato grown under different environmental and cultural conditions. Five datasets collected from experimental trials carried out in Foggia (IT) were used for calibration and 13 datasets collected from trials conducted in Foggia, Perugia (IT), and Florida (USA) were used for validation. The goodness of fitting was performed by comparing the observed and simulated shoot dry weight (SDW) and N crop uptake during crop seasons, total dry weight (TDW), N uptake and fresh yield (TFY). In SDW model calibration, the relative RMSE values fell within the good 10–15% range, percent BIAS (PBIAS) ranged between −11.5 and 7.4%. The Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) was very close to the optimal value 1. In the N uptake calibration RRMSE and PBIAS were very low (7%, and −1.78, respectively) and NSE close to 1. The validation of SDW (RRMSE = 16.7%; NSE = 0.96) and N uptake (RRMSE = 16.8%; NSE = 0.96) showed the good accuracy of GesCoN. A model under- or overestimation of the SDW and N uptake occurred when higher or a lower N rates and/or a more or less efficient system were used compared to the calibration trial. The in-season adjustment, using the “SDWcheck” procedure, greatly improved model simulations both in the calibration and in the validation phases. The TFY prediction was quite good except in Florida, where a large overestimation (+16%) was linked to a different harvest index (0.53) compared to the cultivars used for model calibration and validation in Italian areas. The soil water content at the 10–30 cm depth appears to be well-simulated by the software, and the GesCoN proved to be able to adaptively control potential yield and DW accumulation under limited N soil availability scenarios and consequently to modify fertilizer application. The DSSwell simulate SDW accumulation and N uptake of different tomato genotypes grown under Mediterranean and

  7. Complete genome sequence of a tomato infecting tomato mottle mosaic virus in New York

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Complete genome sequence of an emerging isolate of tomato mottle mosaic virus (ToMMV) infecting experimental nicotianan benthamiana plants in up-state New York was obtained using small RNA deep sequencing. ToMMV_NY-13 shared 99% sequence identity to ToMMV isolates from Mexico and Florida. Broader d...

  8. 7 CFR 966.15 - Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 966.15 Committee. Committee means the Florida Tomato Committee, established...

  9. 7 CFR 966.15 - Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 966.15 Committee. Committee means the Florida Tomato Committee, established...

  10. 7 CFR 966.15 - Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 966.15 Committee. Committee means the Florida Tomato Committee, established...

  11. 7 CFR 966.15 - Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 966.15 Committee. Committee means the Florida Tomato Committee, established...

  12. 7 CFR 966.15 - Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 966.15 Committee. Committee means the Florida Tomato Committee, established...

  13. Allergenic Potential of Tomatoes Cultivated in Organic and Conventional Systems.

    PubMed

    Słowianek, Marta; Skorupa, Marta; Hallmann, Ewelina; Rembiałkowska, Ewa; Leszczyńska, Joanna

    2016-03-01

    Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) are a widely consumed vegetables and contain many health beneficial micronutrients. Unfortunately, they may also cause adverse allergic reactions in sensitized people. Many studies, conducted in recent years, indicate that organically produced vegetables have higher nutritional value, improved sensory quality and contain more health-enhancing bioactive compounds than vegetables grown under the conventional system. However, the relation between organic methods of cultivation and allergenic potential of tomatoes has received little scientific attention. This study analyzed samples of five tomato cultivars taken from organic and conventional systems over three consecutive years. The content of profilin, Bet v 1 and lipid transfer protein (LTP) analogues in tomato samples was determined using an indirect ELISA assay. Substantial quantities of these proteins were found in certain cultivars across all three years of cultivation. On the basis of these findings, organically grown tomatoes appear to offer little advantage over conventionally cultivated plants in terms of reduced allergenic potential.

  14. Cold plasma reduces Salmonella on sliced roma tomatoes: efficacy of air versus nitrogen

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A rapid, waterless, contact-free method of decontamination for tomatoes and tomato slices is of interest to processors and the food service industry. Cold plasma is a novel antimicrobial treatment for fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables. Slices of Roma tomatoes were spot inoculated with three ...

  15. The tomato genome: implications for plant breeding, genomics and evolution

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The genome sequence of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), one of the most important vegetable crops, has recently been decoded. We address implications of the tomato genome for plant breeding, genomics and evolutionary studies, and its potential to fuel future crop biology research. PMID:22943138

  16. Culture of the Tomato Micro-Tom Cultivar in Greenhouse.

    PubMed

    Rothan, Christophe; Just, Daniel; Fernandez, Lucie; Atienza, Isabelle; Ballias, Patricia; Lemaire-Chamley, Martine

    2016-01-01

    Micro-Tom tomato cultivar is particularly adapted to the development of genomic approaches in tomato. Here, we describe the culture of this plant in greenhouse, including climate regulation, seed sowing and watering, vegetative development, plant maintenance, including treatment of phytosanitary problems, and reproductive development.

  17. Complete genome sequence of a Tomato mottle mosaic virus isolate from the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tomato mottle mosaic virus (ToMMV) was first identified in the U.S. in tomatoes in Florida in 2010. This report provides the first full genome sequence of a U.S. ToMMV isolate from 2010. The full genome sequence of this emerging virus will enable research scientists to develop additional specific ...

  18. Philadelphia and the Tomato.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Andrew F.; Kling, Tatiana

    This booklet describes for elementary students the many contributions of people, traveling many places, over many years to bring the tomato to Philadelphia. The booklet includes the following: (1) "Introduction to the Tomato"; (2) "Where Does the Tomato Come From?"; (3) "The Spanish Tomato"; (4) "The Philadelphia…

  19. Recent advances in tomato functional genomics: utilization of VIGS.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Pranav Pankaj; Puranik, Swati; Khan, Moinuddin; Prasad, Manoj

    2012-10-01

    Tomato unquestionably occupies a significant position in world vegetable production owing to its world-wide consumption. The tomato genome sequencing efforts being recently concluded, it becomes more imperative to recognize important functional genes from this treasure of generated information for improving tomato yield. While much progress has been made in conventional tomato breeding, post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) offers an alternative approach for advancement of tomato functional genomics. In particular, virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is increasingly being used as rapid, reliable, and lucrative screening strategy to elucidate gene function. In this review, we focus on the recent advancement made through exploiting the potential of this technique for manipulating different agronomically important traits in tomato by discussing several case studies.

  20. Effector Gene Suites in Some Soil Isolates of Fusarium oxysporum Are Not Sufficient Predictors of Vascular Wilt in Tomato.

    PubMed

    Jelinski, Nicolas A; Broz, Karen; Jonkers, Wilfried; Ma, Li-Jun; Kistler, H Corby

    2017-07-01

    Seventy-four Fusarium oxysporum soil isolates were assayed for known effector genes present in an F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 3 tomato wilt strain (FOL MN-25) obtained from the same fields in Manatee County, Florida. Based on the presence or absence of these genes, four haplotypes were defined, two of which represented 96% of the surveyed isolates. These two most common effector haplotypes contained either all or none of the assayed race 3 effector genes. We hypothesized that soil isolates with all surveyed effector genes, similar to FOL MN-25, would be pathogenic toward tomato, whereas isolates lacking all effectors would be nonpathogenic. However, inoculation experiments revealed that presence of the effector genes alone was not sufficient to ensure pathogenicity on tomato. Interestingly, a nonpathogenic isolate containing the full suite of unmutated effector genes (FOS 4-4) appears to have undergone a chromosomal rearrangement yet remains vegetatively compatible with FOL MN-25. These observations confirm the highly dynamic nature of the F. oxysporum genome and support the conclusion that pathogenesis among free-living populations of F. oxysporum is a complex process. Therefore, the presence of effector genes alone may not be an accurate predictor of pathogenicity among soil isolates of F. oxysporum.

  1. Detection of human norovirus in cherry tomatoes, blueberries and vegetable salad by using a receptor-binding capture and magnetic sequestration (RBCMS) method.

    PubMed

    Pan, Liangwen; Zhang, Qigang; Li, Xiang; Tian, Peng

    2012-06-01

    In this study, we developed a sensitive receptor-binding capture and magnetic sequestration (RBCMS) method capable of concentrating human norovirus (HuNoV) from various food samples within few hours. We found that distilled water was suitable for the elution of HuNoV from inoculated tomatoes and blueberries, and glycine buffer improved the elution of HuNoV from inoculated salad. A significant improvement in post-extraction RNA yield was achieved by sequentially heat-releasing and column-extracting over either technique alone. The viral recovery of the RBCMS method was significantly higher than both the same-day PEG method (90 min PEG precipitation) and the two-day PEG method (overnight PEG precipitation) with a recovery rate of 8.75%, 1.03% and 5.40%, respectively. The detection limit of HuNoV by RBCMS method was significantly improved to 0.056 RTU. The estimated minimal concentration powers (MCPs) were 6.11, 30.48, and 63.60-fold for the same-day PEG, two-day PEG, and RBCMS methods, respectively. RNase protection assay suggests that the viral genome was protected from RNase attack by remaining within the viral capsid. The signal detected by the RBCMS method might be more biologically relevant, as it requires both intact viral capsid to bind to HBGA receptors and the presence of viral genome to be amplified. Overall, the RBCMS method takes significantly less time than current PEG precipitation methods, recovers a higher yield of HuNoV from various food samples, and hence exhibits higher sensitivity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. MISR Views Southern Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    These MISR nadir-camera images of southern Florida were acquired on October 18, 2000 (Terra orbit 4446). The view on the left includes Daytona Beach near the top and the Florida Keys at the bottom. Orlando appears as a grayish patch near the top of the image, just to the east of the greenish Lake Apopka, Florida's fourth largest and most polluted lake. On the coast is Cape Canaveral, home of the Kennedy Space Center.

    The large body of water in the middle of the land area is Lake Okeechobee. On the western (Gulf of Mexico) coast, Charlotte Harbor and Fort Myers are visible. Along the eastern (Atlantic) coast, partially obscured by clouds, are Palm Beach, Fort Lauderdale, and Miami. Further to the east, the shallow waters and reefs of the Little Bahama and Great Bahama Banks appear in striking blue and green colors.

    The two righthand images show the Florida Everglades and the Keys in more detail. Like the lefthand view, the top image is a natural color composite of blue, green, and red band imagery. On the bottom is a false color composite comprised of green, red, and near-infrared data. Near-infrared light is invisible to the human eye. The high reflectance of plants in this part of the electromagnetic spectrum, displayed here in shades of red, is the basis of many satellite-based techniques for detecting and characterizing land surface vegetation.

  3. MISR Views Southern Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    These MISR nadir-camera images of southern Florida were acquired on October 18, 2000 (Terra orbit 4446). The view on the left includes Daytona Beach near the top and the Florida Keys at the bottom. Orlando appears as a grayish patch near the top of the image, just to the east of the greenish Lake Apopka, Florida's fourth largest and most polluted lake. On the coast is Cape Canaveral, home of the Kennedy Space Center.

    The large body of water in the middle of the land area is Lake Okeechobee. On the western (Gulf of Mexico) coast, Charlotte Harbor and Fort Myers are visible. Along the eastern (Atlantic) coast, partially obscured by clouds, are Palm Beach, Fort Lauderdale, and Miami. Further to the east, the shallow waters and reefs of the Little Bahama and Great Bahama Banks appear in striking blue and green colors.

    The two righthand images show the Florida Everglades and the Keys in more detail. Like the lefthand view, the top image is a natural color composite of blue, green, and red band imagery. On the bottom is a false color composite comprised of green, red, and near-infrared data. Near-infrared light is invisible to the human eye. The high reflectance of plants in this part of the electromagnetic spectrum, displayed here in shades of red, is the basis of many satellite-based techniques for detecting and characterizing land surface vegetation.

  4. Florida Everglades

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Southern Florida's River of Grass     View Larger ... Okeechobee to the Gulf of Mexico. In places this remarkable 'river of grass' is 80 kilometers wide. These images from the Multi-angle ...

  5. Southern Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Three fires (red dots) in southern Florida are visible in this true-color MODIS image acquired April 4, 2002. Also visible is the city of Miami, and the northern edge of Cuba, including the city of Havana. The bright blue-green colors in the waters of the Strait of Florida are due to the Sun's light reflected off of chlorophyll in marine phytoplankton.

  6. Predicted Changes in Interannual Water-Level Fluctuations Due to Climate Change and Its Implications for the Vegetation of the Florida Everglades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Valk, Arnold G.; Volin, John C.; Wetzel, Paul R.

    2015-04-01

    The number of dominant vegetation types (wet prairies, sawgrass flats, ridges and sloughs, sloughs, and tree islands) historically and currently found in the Everglades, FL, USA, as with other wetlands with standing water, appears to be primarily a function of the magnitude of interannual water-level fluctuations. Analyses of 40 years of water-depth data were used to estimate the magnitude of contemporary (baseline) water-level fluctuations in undisturbed ridge and slough landscapes. Baseline interannual water-level fluctuations above the soil surface were at least 1.5 m. Predicted changes in interannual water-level fluctuations in 2060 were examined for seven climate change scenarios. When rainfall is predicted to increase by 10 %, the wettest scenario, the interannual range of water-level fluctuation increases to 1.8 m above the soil surface in sloughs. When rainfall is predicted to decrease by 10 % and temperatures to increase by 1.5 °C, the driest scenario, the range of interannual range of water-level fluctuations is predicted to decrease to 1.2 m above the soil surface in sloughs. A change of 25-30 cm in interannual water-level fluctuations is needed to change the number of vegetation types in a wetland. This suggests that the two most extreme climate change scenarios could have a significant impact on the overall structure of wetland vegetation, i.e., the number of vegetation types or zones, found in the Everglades.

  7. Predicted changes in interannual water-level fluctuations due to climate change and its implications for the vegetation of the Florida Everglades.

    PubMed

    van der Valk, Arnold G; Volin, John C; Wetzel, Paul R

    2015-04-01

    The number of dominant vegetation types (wet prairies, sawgrass flats, ridges and sloughs, sloughs, and tree islands) historically and currently found in the Everglades, FL, USA, as with other wetlands with standing water, appears to be primarily a function of the magnitude of interannual water-level fluctuations. Analyses of 40 years of water-depth data were used to estimate the magnitude of contemporary (baseline) water-level fluctuations in undisturbed ridge and slough landscapes. Baseline interannual water-level fluctuations above the soil surface were at least 1.5 m. Predicted changes in interannual water-level fluctuations in 2060 were examined for seven climate change scenarios. When rainfall is predicted to increase by 10 %, the wettest scenario, the interannual range of water-level fluctuation increases to 1.8 m above the soil surface in sloughs. When rainfall is predicted to decrease by 10 % and temperatures to increase by 1.5 °C, the driest scenario, the range of interannual range of water-level fluctuations is predicted to decrease to 1.2 m above the soil surface in sloughs. A change of 25-30 cm in interannual water-level fluctuations is needed to change the number of vegetation types in a wetland. This suggests that the two most extreme climate change scenarios could have a significant impact on the overall structure of wetland vegetation, i.e., the number of vegetation types or zones, found in the Everglades.

  8. Groundnut Ringspot Virus in Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tospoviruses in vegetable crops are difficult to manage due to a shortage of basic information about the viruses and their vectors. This is especially true for the recently detected Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV). This publication presents all current knowledge of GRSV in Florida....

  9. Risk assessment of triazine herbicides in surface waters and bioaccumulation of Irgarol and M1 by submerged aquatic vegetation in Southeast Florida.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Melissa Victoria; Gardinali, Piero R

    2016-01-15

    Irgarol is a common antifoulant present in coastal environments experiencing high boating activities. Irgarol, its degradation product M1, and the similarly structured herbicide Atrazine, are highly toxic to non-target marine organisms and thus pose a continual risk to the environment. Nearshore areas with intensive boating activity were assessed for environmental exposure to Irgarol, M1, and Atrazine. Irgarol levels up to 241 ng/L were measured in surface water collected at Key Largo Harbor. Irgarol's metabolite, M1, was detected at levels up to 50 ng/L. Atrazine levels reached 21 ng/L throughout Miami River, and were also detected in waters within Biscayne Bay Aquatic Preserve at 7 ± 4 ng/L. The Irgarol 90th percentile exposure concentration (176 ng/L) in Southeast Florida--including Biscayne Bay--surface waters were found to exceed most toxicity benchmarks, suggesting Irgarol concentrations may be high enough to cause undesired effects on aquatic plants. Indigenous species of SAVs were also collected throughout Southeast Florida and assessed for their Irgarol and M1 bioaccumulation capabilities. All SAV species collected revealed Irgarol bioaccumulation capabilities and a 90th centile bioconcentration factor (BCF) of 9830. Several of those species were also capable of bioaccumulating M1, with a 90th centile BCF of 391. A 43-day in situ transplant between an impacted area and a pristine area within Biscayne Bay waters showed SAVs were able to uptake Irgarol from the environment with quick kinetics: tissue concentrations were 66 times greater than the water concentration within 6 weeks. Halodule and Syringodium had the highest capacity to bioaccumulate from marina surface waters, as indicated by the Irgarol BCF (Halodule=6809, Syringodium=6681) and M1 BCF (Halodule=277, Syringodium=558). Halodule and Syringodium are therefore the best candidate species to serve as bioindicators indicators of acute Irgarol contamination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  10. Genome analysis and genetic enhancement of tomato.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vikrant; Mathur, Saloni; Solanke, Amolkumar U; Sharma, Manoj K; Kumar, Rahul; Vyas, Shailendra; Khurana, Paramjit; Khurana, Jitendra P; Tyagi, Akhilesh K; Sharma, Arun K

    2009-01-01

    The Solanaceae is an important family of vegetable crops, ornamentals and medicinal plants. Tomato has served as a model member of this family largely because of its enriched cytogenetic, genetic, as well as physical, maps. Mapping has helped in cloning several genes of importance such as Pto, responsible for resistance against bacterial speck disease, Mi-1.2 for resistance against nematodes, and fw2.2 QTL for fruit weight. A high-throughput genome-sequencing program has been initiated by an international consortium of 10 countries. Since heterochromatin has been found to be concentrated near centromeres, the consortium is focusing on sequencing only the gene-rich euchromatic region. Genomes of the members of Solanaceae show a significant degree of synteny, suggesting that the tomato genome sequence would help in the cloning of genes for important traits from other Solanaceae members as well. ESTs from a large number of cDNA libraries have been sequenced, and microarray chips, in conjunction with wide array of ripening mutants, have contributed immensely to the understanding of the fruit-ripening phenomenon. Work on the analysis of the tomato proteome has also been initiated. Transgenic tomato plants with improved abiotic stress tolerance, disease resistance and insect resistance, have been developed. Attempts have also been made to develop tomato as a bioreactor for various pharmaceutical proteins. However, control of fruit quality and ripening remains an active and challenging area of research. Such efforts should pave the way to improve not only tomato, but also other solanaceous crops.

  11. Genomics of Fungal Disease Resistance in Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Panthee, Dilip R.; Chen, Feng

    2010-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is an important vegetable crop worldwide. Often times, its production is hindered by fungal diseases. Important fungal diseases limiting tomato production are late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans, early blight, caused by Alternaria solanii, and septoria leaf spot, caused by Septoria lycopersici, fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporium fsp. oxysporium, and verticilium wilt caused by Verticilium dahlea. The Phytophthora infestans is the same fungus that caused the devastating loss of potato in Europe in 1845. A similar magnitude of crop loss in tomato has not occurred but Phytophthora infestans has caused the complete loss of tomato crops around the world on a small scale. Several attempts have been made through conventional breeding and the molecular biological approaches to understand the biology of host-pathogen interaction so that the disease can be managed and crop loss prevented. In this review, we present a comprehensive analysis of information produced by molecular genetic and genomic experiments on host-pathogen interactions of late blight, early blight, septoria leaf spot, verticilim wilt and fusarium wilt in tomato. Furthermore, approaches adopted to manage these diseases in tomato including genetic transformation are presented. Attempts made to link molecular markers with putative genes and their use in crop improvement are discussed. PMID:20808521

  12. Genomics of fungal disease resistance in tomato.

    PubMed

    Panthee, Dilip R; Chen, Feng

    2010-03-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is an important vegetable crop worldwide. Often times, its production is hindered by fungal diseases. Important fungal diseases limiting tomato production are late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans, early blight, caused by Alternaria solanii, and septoria leaf spot, caused by Septoria lycopersici, fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporium fsp. oxysporium, and verticilium wilt caused by Verticilium dahlea. The Phytophthora infestans is the same fungus that caused the devastating loss of potato in Europe in 1845. A similar magnitude of crop loss in tomato has not occurred but Phytophthora infestans has caused the complete loss of tomato crops around the world on a small scale. Several attempts have been made through conventional breeding and the molecular biological approaches to understand the biology of host-pathogen interaction so that the disease can be managed and crop loss prevented. In this review, we present a comprehensive analysis of information produced by molecular genetic and genomic experiments on host-pathogen interactions of late blight, early blight, septoria leaf spot, verticilim wilt and fusarium wilt in tomato. Furthermore, approaches adopted to manage these diseases in tomato including genetic transformation are presented. Attempts made to link molecular markers with putative genes and their use in crop improvement are discussed.

  13. Effect of 1-methylcycloprene on tomato flavour components, shelf life and decay as influenced by harvest maturity and storage temperature

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    For years there have been reports of consumer dissatisfaction with fresh market tomatoes (Solanum Lycopersicon; formerly known as Lycopersicon esculentum). In Florida, tomatoes are harvested green (GR), which includes mature green (MG) and immature green (IG) fruit, gassed with ethylene and stored a...

  14. Genetic analysis of reproductive development in tomato.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Rafael; Giménez, Estela; Cara, Beatriz; Capel, Juan; Angosto, Trinidad

    2009-01-01

    Besides being an important commercial crop, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) constitutes a model species for the study of plant developmental processes. Current research tends to combine classic disciplines such as physiology and genetics with modern approaches coming from molecular biology and genomics with a view to elucidating the biological mechanisms underlying plant architecture, floral transition and development of flowers and fruits. Comparative and functional analyses of tomato regulatory genes such as LATERAL SUPPRESSOR (LS), SELF PRUNING (SP), SINGLE FLOWER TRUSS (SFT) and FALSIFLORA (FA) have revealed mechanisms involved in shoot development and flowering time which are conserved among Arabidopsis, tomato and other plant species. Furthermore, several regulatory genes encoding transcription factors have been characterized as responsible for singular features of vegetative and reproductive development of tomato. Thus, the sympodial growth habit seems to require a specific control of the developmental fate followed by shoot meristems. In this process, novel genetic and molecular interactions involving SP, SFT and FA genes would be essential. Also this latter, but mainly ANANTHA (AN) and COMPOUND INFLORESCENCE (S) have recently been found to regulate the inflorescence architecture of the tomato. Concerning fruit development, genetic and molecular analyses of new genes such as fw2.2, FASCIATED, OVATE and SUN have proved their contribution to the domestication process and most importantly, their function as key regulators of fruit size and shape variation. Tomato ripening is also being elucidated thanks to the characterization of regulatory genes such as RIPENING INHIBITOR (RIN), NON-RIPENING (NOR), TDR4 and COLORLESS NON-RIPENING (CNR), which have been found to control early stages of fruit development and maturation. At the same time, much research is dedicated to isolating the targets of the ripening regulators, as well as the key genes promoting the

  15. Viruses of ornamentals emerging in Florida and the Caribbean region

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) has been reported in common weeds including American black nightshade and jimsonweed in Florida and/or Puerto Rico. Experimental host range studies demonstrated that TCSV and/or GRSV can also infect ornamentals including petunia, brugmansia and garden impatiens. ...

  16. Florida's Timber

    Treesearch

    Robert w. Larson; Marcus H. Goforth

    1961-01-01

    The period between the completion of Florida's first Forest Survey in 1936 and the third in 1959 spans nearly a quarter of a century. In 1936, the era of large sawmills was coming to a close, but half the lumber was still produced b ya dozen large mills. Taxes were high and lumber prices had no recovered from the depression slump

  17. Florida's Forest

    Treesearch

    William A. Bechtold; Herbert A. Knight

    1982-01-01

    In accordance with the Forest and Rangeland renewable Resources planning act (RPA) of 1974, the fifth inventory of Florida’s forests was expanded to accommodate both timber and nontimber evaluations. This report presents the principal findings of the timber evaluation. The nontimber evaluations will be published separately.

  18. Multistate outbreaks of Salmonella infections associated with raw tomatoes eaten in restaurants--United States, 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    2007-09-07

    During 2005-2006, four large multistate outbreaks of Salmonella infections associated with eating raw tomatoes at restaurants occurred in the United States. The four outbreaks resulted in 459 culture-confirmed cases of salmonellosis in 21 states. This report describes the epidemiologic, environmental, and laboratory investigations into these four outbreaks by state and local health departments, national food safety agencies, and CDC. The results of these investigations determined that the tomatoes had been supplied to restaurants either whole or precut from tomato fields in Florida, Ohio, and Virginia. These recurrent, large, multistate outbreaks emphasize the need to prevent Salmonella contamination of tomatoes early in the production and packing process. Current knowledge of mechanisms for tomato contamination and methods of eradication of Salmonella in tomatoes is incomplete; the agricultural industry, food safety agencies, and public health agencies should make tomato-safety research a priority.

  19. Ingress of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium into Tomato Leaves through Hydathodes

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Ganyu; Cevallos-Cevallos, Juan M.; van Bruggen, Ariena H. C.

    2013-01-01

    Internal contamination of Salmonella in plants is attracting increasing attention for food safety reasons. In this study, three different tomato cultivars “Florida Lanai”, “Crown Jewel”, “Ailsa Craig” and the transgenic line Sp5 of “Ailsa Craig” were inoculated with 1 µl GFP-labeled Salmonella Typhimurium through guttation droplets at concentrations of 109 or 107 CFU/ml. Survival of Salmonella on/in tomato leaves was detected by both direct plating and enrichment methods. Salmonella cells survived best on/in the inoculated leaves of cultivar “Ailsa Craig” and decreased fastest on/in “Florida Lanai” leaves. Increased guttation in the abscisic acid over-expressing Sp5 plants may have facilitated the entrance of Salmonella into leaves and the colonization on the surface of tomato leaves. Internalization of Salmonella Typhimurium in tomato leaves through guttation drop inoculation was confirmed by confocal laser microscopy. For the first time, convincing evidence is presented that S. enterica can enter tomato leaves through hydathodes and move into the vascular system, which may result in the internal translocation of the bacteria inside plants. PMID:23320087

  20. Evaluating Weeds as Hosts of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus.

    PubMed

    Smith, Hugh A; Seijo, Teresa E; Vallad, Gary E; Peres, Natalia A; Druffel, Keri L

    2015-08-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B transmits Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), which affects tomato production globally. Prompt destruction of virus reservoirs is a key component of virus management. Identification of weed hosts of TYLCV will be useful for reducing such reservoirs. The status of weeds as alternate hosts of TYLCV in Florida remains unclear. In greenhouse studies, B. tabaci adults from a colony reared on TYLCV-infected tomato were established in cages containing one of four weeds common to horticultural fields in central and south Florida. Cages containing tomato and cotton were also infested with viruliferous whiteflies as a positive control and negative control, respectively. Whitefly adults and plant tissue were tested periodically over 10 wk for the presence of TYLCV using PCR. After 10 wk, virus-susceptible tomato plants were placed in each cage to determine if whiteflies descended from the original adults were still infective. Results indicate that Bidens alba, Emilia fosbergii, and Raphanus raphanistrum are not hosts of TYLCV, and that Amaranthus retroflexus is a host.

  1. Ingress of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium into tomato leaves through hydathodes.

    PubMed

    Gu, Ganyu; Cevallos-Cevallos, Juan M; van Bruggen, Ariena H C

    2013-01-01

    Internal contamination of Salmonella in plants is attracting increasing attention for food safety reasons. In this study, three different tomato cultivars "Florida Lanai", "Crown Jewel", "Ailsa Craig" and the transgenic line Sp5 of "Ailsa Craig" were inoculated with 1 µl GFP-labeled Salmonella Typhimurium through guttation droplets at concentrations of 10(9) or 10(7) CFU/ml. Survival of Salmonella on/in tomato leaves was detected by both direct plating and enrichment methods. Salmonella cells survived best on/in the inoculated leaves of cultivar "Ailsa Craig" and decreased fastest on/in "Florida Lanai" leaves. Increased guttation in the abscisic acid over-expressing Sp5 plants may have facilitated the entrance of Salmonella into leaves and the colonization on the surface of tomato leaves. Internalization of Salmonella Typhimurium in tomato leaves through guttation drop inoculation was confirmed by confocal laser microscopy. For the first time, convincing evidence is presented that S. enterica can enter tomato leaves through hydathodes and move into the vascular system, which may result in the internal translocation of the bacteria inside plants.

  2. Florida Everglades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Spanning the southern tip of the Florida Peninsula and most of Florida Bay, Everglades National Park is the only subtropical preserve in North America. It contains both temperate and tropical plant communities, including sawgrass prairie, mangrove and cypress swamps, pinelands, and hardwood hammocks, as well as marine and estuarine environments. The park is known for its rich bird life, particularly large wading birds, such as the roseate spoonbill, wood stork, great blue heron, and a variety of egrets. It is also the only place in the world where alligators and crocodiles exist side by side. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on May 2, 2000. This is a false-color composite image made using shortwave infrared, near infrared, and green wavelengths. The image has also been sharpened using the sensor's panchromatic band. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  3. Genotype and environmental interaction for fruit quality traits in vintage tomato varieties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is the second most commonly consumed vegetable after in the world, after potato. There is a growing demand for quality tomato in the market place. Traits such as lycopene, total soluble solids (TSS), vitamin C and titratable acid (TA) content contribute to the overal...

  4. Characterization and detection of emerging viroids in North American greenhouse tomatoes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tomato is an economically important vegetable in many countries around the world, with major productions in China, the U.S., Spain, Italy, India, Turkey, and Egypt. Although, most of the tomato production is field grown, there is a growing trend in protective production (greenhouse). Nearly 40% of...

  5. Global virus survey in tomato using small RNA deep sequencing technology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tomato is one of the most important and widely grown vegetable crops in the world, growing in more than 173 countries under various eco-systems. Viral diseases are one of the major limiting factors in tomato production, with up to 136 described viral species. Emerging viral diseases are especially...

  6. 7 CFR 966.6 - Handler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating... common or contract carrier transporting tomatoes for another person) who, as owner, agent, or otherwise, handles fresh tomatoes or causes fresh tomatoes to be handled. ...

  7. 7 CFR 966.6 - Handler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating... common or contract carrier transporting tomatoes for another person) who, as owner, agent, or otherwise, handles fresh tomatoes or causes fresh tomatoes to be handled. ...

  8. 7 CFR 966.6 - Handler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating... common or contract carrier transporting tomatoes for another person) who, as owner, agent, or otherwise, handles fresh tomatoes or causes fresh tomatoes to be handled. ...

  9. 7 CFR 966.6 - Handler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating... common or contract carrier transporting tomatoes for another person) who, as owner, agent, or otherwise, handles fresh tomatoes or causes fresh tomatoes to be handled. ...

  10. 7 CFR 966.6 - Handler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating... common or contract carrier transporting tomatoes for another person) who, as owner, agent, or otherwise, handles fresh tomatoes or causes fresh tomatoes to be handled. ...

  11. Grafting and Paladin™ Pic-21 for nematode and weed management in vegetable production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Field trials were conducted over two years in a Meloidogyne incognita-infested field to evaluate the combined use of grafting and Paladin™ (DMDS:chloropicrin) for root-knot nematode and weed control in tomato and melon. Tomato rootstocks evaluated were; ‘TX301’, ‘Multifort’, and ‘Aloha’. ‘Florida 47...

  12. Grafting effects on vegetable quality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vegetable grafting began in the 1920s to control soil-borne disease. It is now a common practice in Asia, parts of Europe, and the Middle East. In Japan and Korea most of the cucurbits and tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) grown are grafted. This practice is rare in the U.S. and there have...

  13. Comparative Study of Tomato and Tomato Paste Supplementation on the Level of Serum Lipids and Lipoproteins Levels in Rats Fed With High Cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Khayat Nouri, Mir Hadi; Namvaran Abbas Abad, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background Hypercholesterolemia is one of the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. Increased blood cholesterol affects general health and increases mortality due to cardiovascular disease. Poor nutrition increases LDL cholesterol and decreases LDL receptor activities in the liver. Scientists have shown that consumption of antioxidants can reduce hypercholesterolemia and proved benefits of fruit and vegetables. Tomato reduces oxidative stress by increasing serum total antioxidant level. Objectives This study compared the tomato and tomato paste supplementation on the level of serum lipids and lipoproteins in rats fed with high cholesterol. Materials and Methods In this study, four male rat groups (10 rats per group) were used. Control group received basal diet, second group received basal diet and 2% cholesterol (Chol), third and fourth groups received basal diet, 2% cholesterol tomato and tomato paste respectively (20 percent of the diet) for a month. Then serum TC, LDL, HDL and TG were measured. Results Results showed that in Chol group, all lipids increased significantly (P < 0.05) except HDL compared to the control group. Tomato and tomato paste supplementation decreased TC, LDL and TG concentration significantly (P < 0.05) compared to Chol group. Tomato paste had the higher effect on lipids decreasing than tomato. Conclusions Decreases of TC, LDL and TG may be related to tomato antioxidant effect. This course in human required more investigations. PMID:24082999

  14. Fruit, vegetable, and grain processing wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, R.M.; Soderquist, M.R.

    1980-06-01

    This is a literature review of fruit, vegetable and grain processing wastes. The factors affecting water usage and methods of conservation were examined. Various processes were investigated which included the pulp recovery from caustic peeled tomato skin, the dewatering of citrus, washing leafy vegetables with recycled process water and the potato processing industry.

  15. Pasteuria penetrans for control of Meloidogyne incognita on tomato and cucumber, and M. arenaria on snapdragon

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Meloidogyne incognita and Meloidogyne arenaria, are important parasitic nematodes of vegetable and ornamental crops. Field microplot and greenhouse experiments were conducted to test commercial formulations of the biocontrol agent Pasteuria penetrans for control of M. incognita on tomato and cucumbe...

  16. Florida, USA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-06-14

    STS040-613-049 (5-14 June 1991) --- This oblique scene from the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Columbia shows southern Florida, several of the Bahama Islands and parts of the Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea. The nine-day STS-40/Spacelab Life Sciences (SLS-1) mission started with launch from Kennedy Space Center (KSC), visible in lower left. Cuba can be seen at top center. The picture was photographed with a handheld Rolleiflex camera, aimed through Columbia's aft flight deck windows.

  17. Florida Keys

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    NASA image acquired January 4, 2012 The Florida Keys many colors were captured when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Aqua satellite captured this true-color image. NASA/GSFC/Jeff Schmaltz/MODIS Land Rapid Response Team NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  18. 7 CFR 966.9 - Grading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating... sorting or separation of tomatoes into grades, sizes, maturities, and packs for market purposes. ...

  19. 7 CFR 966.9 - Grading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating... sorting or separation of tomatoes into grades, sizes, maturities, and packs for market purposes. ...

  20. 7 CFR 966.14 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order... subdivisions of tomatoes according to those definitive characteristics now or hereafter recognized by the...

  1. 7 CFR 966.9 - Grading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating... sorting or separation of tomatoes into grades, sizes, maturities, and packs for market purposes. ...

  2. 7 CFR 966.14 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order... subdivisions of tomatoes according to those definitive characteristics now or hereafter recognized by the...

  3. 7 CFR 966.14 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order... subdivisions of tomatoes according to those definitive characteristics now or hereafter recognized by the...

  4. 7 CFR 966.9 - Grading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating... sorting or separation of tomatoes into grades, sizes, maturities, and packs for market purposes. ...

  5. 7 CFR 966.14 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order... subdivisions of tomatoes according to those definitive characteristics now or hereafter recognized by the...

  6. 7 CFR 966.9 - Grading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating... sorting or separation of tomatoes into grades, sizes, maturities, and packs for market purposes. ...

  7. 7 CFR 966.14 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order... subdivisions of tomatoes according to those definitive characteristics now or hereafter recognized by the...

  8. Genome Mapping and Molecular Breeding of Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Foolad, Majid R.

    2007-01-01

    The cultivated tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum, is the second most consumed vegetable worldwide and a well-studied crop species in terms of genetics, genomics, and breeding. It is one of the earliest crop plants for which a genetic linkage map was constructed, and currently there are several molecular maps based on crosses between the cultivated and various wild species of tomato. The high-density molecular map, developed based on an L. esculentum × L. pennellii cross, includes more than 2200 markers with an average marker distance of less than 1 cM and an average of 750 kbp per cM. Different types of molecular markers such as RFLPs, AFLPs, SSRs, CAPS, RGAs, ESTs, and COSs have been developed and mapped onto the 12 tomato chromosomes. Markers have been used extensively for identification and mapping of genes and QTLs for many biologically and agriculturally important traits and occasionally for germplasm screening, fingerprinting, and marker-assisted breeding. The utility of MAS in tomato breeding has been restricted largely due to limited marker polymorphism within the cultivated species and economical reasons. Also, when used, MAS has been employed mainly for improving simply-inherited traits and not much for improving complex traits. The latter has been due to unavailability of reliable PCR-based markers and problems with linkage drag. Efforts are being made to develop high-throughput markers with greater resolution, including SNPs. The expanding tomato EST database, which currently includes ∼214 000 sequences, the new microarray DNA chips, and the ongoing sequencing project are expected to aid development of more practical markers. Several BAC libraries have been developed that facilitate map-based cloning of genes and QTLs. Sequencing of the euchromatic portions of the tomato genome is paving the way for comparative and functional analysis of important genes and QTLs. PMID:18364989

  9. Improvement of tomato local varieties by grafting in organic farming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Marta M.; Villena, Jaime; Moreno, Carmen; García, Arántzazu M.; Mancebo, Ignacio; Meco, Ramón

    2015-04-01

    Grafting is the union of two or more pieces of living plant tissue that grow as a single plant. The early use of grafted vegetables was associated with protected cultivation which involves successive cropping (Lee et al., 2010). For this reason, in the past, grafting was used with vegetable crops to limit the effects of soil-borne diseases. However, the reasons for grafting as well as the kinds of vegetable grafted have increased considerably over the years. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), one of the most important horticultural crops in the world, the effect of grafting has also been widely studied. These effects on commercial tomato varieties can be summarized in increasing plant vigor and crop yield or inducing tolerance to abiotic stresses, although the effects on tomato fruit quality or on the sensory properties are not so patent (David et al., 2008). However, a few studies about the effect of grafting on local tomato varieties, which are especially recommended for organic production in spite of their lower yields in many cases, have been developed. In this work we evaluated the effect of grafting on tomato local varieties under organic management using vigorous commercial rootstocks, and aspects related to vigor, yield and tomato fruit composition were analyzed. In general terms, grafting increased the plant vigor, the crop yield and the fruit antioxidant content, although no modification of morphological fruit attributes was observed. Keywords: grafting, Solanum lycopersicum L., local varieties, organic farming. References: Davis A.R., Perkins-Veazie P., Hassell R., Levi A., King S.R., Zhang X. 2008. Grafting effects on vegetable quality. HortScience 43(6): 1670-1671. Lee J.M., Kubota C., Tsao S.J., Bie Z., Hoyos-Echevarría P., Morra L., Oda M. 2010. Current status of vegetable grafting: Diffusion, grafting techniques, automation. Scientia Horticulturae 127: 93-105.

  10. The history of tomato: from domestication to biopharming.

    PubMed

    Bergougnoux, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    Imported from the Andean region to Europe in the 16th century, today tomato is widespread throughout the world and represents the most economically important vegetable crop worldwide. Tomato is not only traded in the fresh market but is also used in the processing industry in soups, as paste, concentrate, juice, and ketchup. It is an incredible source of important nutrients such as lycopene, β-carotene and vitamin C, which all have positive impacts on human health. Its production and consumption is increasing with population growth. In this review, we report how tomato was already domesticated by the ancient Incan and Aztec civilizations, and how it came to Europe, where its breeding history started. The development of genetic, molecular biology and plant biotechnology have opened the doors towards the modern genetic engineering of tomato. The different goals of tomato genetic engineering are presented, as well as examples of successfully engineered tomatoes in terms of resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, and fruit quality. The development of GM tomato for biopharming is also described.

  11. Ethylene signalling affects susceptibility of tomatoes to Salmonella

    PubMed Central

    Marvasi, Massimiliano; Noel, Jason T; George, Andrée S; Farias, Marcelo A; Jenkins, Keith T; Hochmuth, George; Xu, Yimin; Giovanonni, Jim J; Teplitski, Max

    2014-01-01

    Fresh fruits and vegetables are increasingly recognized as important reservoirs of human pathogens, and therefore, significant attention has been directed recently to understanding mechanisms of the interactions between plants and enterics, like Salmonella. A screen of tomato cultivars for their susceptibility to Salmonella revealed significant differences in the ability of this human pathogen to multiply within fruits; expression of the Salmonella genes (cysB, agfB, fadH) involved in the interactions with tomatoes depended on the tomato genotype and maturity stage. Proliferation of Salmonella was strongly reduced in the tomato mutants with defects in ethylene synthesis, perception and signal transduction. While mutation in the ripening-related ethylene receptor Nr resulted only in a modest reduction in Salmonella numbers within tomatoes, strong inhibition of the Salmonella proliferation was observed in rin and nor tomato mutants. RIN and NOR are regulators of ethylene synthesis and ripening. A commercial tomato variety heterozygous for rin was less susceptible to Salmonella under the greenhouse conditions but not when tested in the field over three production seasons. PMID:24888884

  12. Florida Keys

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-12-13

    The Florida Keys are a chain of islands, islets and reefs extending from Virginia Key to the Dry Tortugas for about 309 kilometers (192 miles). The keys are chiefly limestone and coral formations. The larger islands of the group are Key West (with its airport), Key Largo, Sugarloaf Key, and Boca Chica Key. A causeway extends from the mainland to Key West. This image was acquired on October 28, 2001, by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA03890

  13. Florida, USA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-01-27

    51C-44-026 (24-27 January 1985) --- This oblique view of the Florida peninsula was photographed from the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Discovery during the DOD-devoted mission. Many popular features of the state can be delineated in the scene. Kennedy Space Center (KSC), from which this and all Space Shuttle missions are launched, is on the jutting Cape Canaveral, visible on the east Atlantic Coast. The spacecraft was flying at an altitude of 190 nautical miles. A handheld Hasselblad camera, with 70mm Kodak natural color Ektachrome ASA 64 film, was used to expose the frame. Crew members for the flight were astronauts Thomas K. Mattingly, Loren J. Shriver, Ellison S. Onizuka, James F. Buchli, and Gary E. Payton of the United States Air Force.

  14. Tomato and tomato byproducts. Human health benefits of lycopene and its application to meat products: a review.

    PubMed

    Viuda-Martos, M; Sanchez-Zapata, E; Sayas-Barberá, E; Sendra, E; Pérez-Álvarez, J A; Fernández-López, J

    2014-01-01

    During recent decades, the food industry, consumers, and regulatory authorities have developed a significant interest in functional foods because of their potential benefits for human health over and above their basic nutritional value. Tomato is the second most important vegetable crop in the world. The amount of the related wastes is estimated at up to 50,000 tons per year, representing a serious disposal problem with a consequent negative impact on the environment. Tomato byproducts contain a great variety of biologically active substances, principally lycopene, which have been demonstrated by in vitro and in vivo studies to possess antioxidant, hypolipidemic, and anticarcinogenic activities. The aim of this review is to present an overview of the functional and physiological properties of the principal bioactive compound present in tomato and tomato byproducts, lycopene, its addition to meat, and meat products.

  15. Industrial tomato lines: morphological properties and productivity.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, J V M; Neto, C de M S; Campos, L F C; Dourado, W de S; Nogueira, A P O; Nascimento, A Dos R

    2017-04-13

    The tomato is the second most produced vegetable in the world, with significant participation in the human diet. In addition, the production of tomatoes generates jobs and family income. The availability of improved cultivars that provide greater profitability to the producer and satisfactorily meets the needs of the fresh fruit market and the processing industry becomes imperative due to its importance. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize and select industrial tomato lines in regard to fruit yield, number of leaf branches, and number of flower racemes (NFR). The experiment was conducted in 2014 in the experimental area of the Federal University of Goiás (Universidade Federal de Goiás). The design was a randomized block design with four replicates and 25 genotypes. The number of leaf branches (NB), NFR, and fruit productivity were evaluated. The results were analyzed using analysis of variance and the means compared by the Tukey test. A difference was observed (P ≤ 0.01) for all traits analyzed. The NB and NFR were related, where more branches promoted an increase in NFR and thus the productivity increases. In addition, a greater number of fruits implied in smaller fruit size, and consequently lower fruit mass. The lowest number of fruit per plant caused increased fruit size and mass. The lines CVR 1, CVR 3, CVR 4, CVR 5, CVR 21, and CVR 22 were suitable for genetic enhancement of tomato and provided the greatest productivity.

  16. 78 FR 44922 - Vegetable and Specialty Crop Marketing Orders; Notice of Request for Extension and Revision of a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-25

    ... (Colorado potatoes), 953 (North Carolina/Virginia potatoes), 955 (Vidalia onions), 956 (Walla Walla onions), 958 (Idaho/Oregon onions), 959 (South Texas onions), 966 (Florida tomatoes), 981 (California...

  17. Resistance in tomato and wild relatives to crown and root rot caused by Phytophthora capsici.

    PubMed

    Quesada-Ocampo, L M; Hausbeck, M K

    2010-06-01

    Phytophthora capsici causes root, crown, and fruit rot of tomato, a major vegetable crop grown worldwide. The objective of this study was to screen tomato cultivars and wild relatives of tomato for resistance to P. capsici. Four P. capsici isolates were individually used to inoculate 6-week-old seedlings (1 g of P. capsici-infested millet seed per 10 g of soilless medium) of 42 tomato cultivars and wild relatives of tomato in a greenhouse. Plants were evaluated daily for wilting and death. All P. capsici isolates tested caused disease in seedlings but some isolates were more pathogenic than others. A wild relative of cultivated tomato, Solanum habrochaites accession LA407, was resistant to all P. capsici isolates tested. Moderate resistance to all isolates was identified in the host genotypes Ha7998, Fla7600, Jolly Elf, and Talladega. P. capsici was frequently recovered from root and crown tissue of symptomatic inoculated seedlings but not from leaf tissue or asymptomatic or control plants. The phenotype of the recovered isolate matched the phenotype of the inoculum. Pathogen presence was confirmed in resistant and moderately resistant tomato genotypes by species-specific polymerase chain reaction of DNA from infected crown and root tissue. Amplified fragment length polymorphisms of tomato genotypes showed a lack of correlation between genetic clusters and susceptibility to P. capsici, indicating that resistance is distributed in several tomato lineages. The results of this study create a baseline for future development of tomato cultivars resistant to P. capsici.

  18. Persistence, metabolism and safety evaluation of thiamethoxam in tomato crop.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, Rajib; Kulshrestha, Gita

    2009-08-01

    Thiamethoxam, a neonicotinoid insecticide, has been widely accepted for use in various crops, including vegetables, owing to its high efficacy against various chewing and sucking insect pests. In this particular study, the authors examined the residue dynamics of this insecticide in tomato and soil and calculated a safety index for this insecticide in an Indian context. In tomato fruits, the insecticide dissipated from 82 to 87% in 10 days with a half-life of 4 days, whereas dissipation in soil, under tomato crop, varied between 72 and 75% in 15 days with a half-life of 9 days. Total residues reached below detectable level in 15 days in tomato fruits and 20 days in soil. Maximum damage (30%) was found in control plots, as opposed to 8-10% of fruit damage in treated plots. One degradation product was detected on the tomato fruit surface, and three metabolites were identified in tomato fruits by the LC-MS technique. The metabolites have been reported for the first time in tomato fruits. Thiamethoxam at normal and double the recommended use rate effectively controlled aphids, whiteflies and Helicoverpa, as the insect population decreased to a minimum within 10 days of spraying in comparison with the control. There was no significant difference between the two rates of application, and both thiamethoxam treatments significantly increased tomato fruit yield compared with the untreated control. A maximum residue limit (MRL) of 0.05 mg kg(-1) for tomato has been proposed, with a corresponding preharvest interval (PHI) of 8 days. These parallel advances in toxicology and analytical chemistry have strengthened the observations that thiamethoxam can be used safely and efficiently in crop protection programmes.

  19. 7 CFR 319.56-28 - Tomatoes from certain countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tomatoes from certain countries. 319.56-28 Section 319.56-28 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables §...

  20. Development of Infrared Radiation Heating Method for Sustainable Tomato Peeling

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although lye peeling is the widely industrialized method for producing high quality peeled fruit and vegetable products, the peeling method has resulted in negative impacts by significantly exerting both environmental and economic pressure on the tomato processing industry due to its associated sali...

  1. Herbicide and cover crop residue integration in conservation tillage tomato

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The increased adoption of conservation tillage in vegetable production requires more information on the role of various cover crops in weed control, tomato quality, and yield. Three conservation-tillage systems utilizing crimson clover, turnip, and cereal rye as winter cover crops were compared to a...

  2. Endosulfan wet deposition in Southern Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vegetable and other crops are produced on about 25000 ha. in southern Florida in an area adjacent to Everglades and Biscayne Bay National Parks (NP). High pest pressures require high pesticide use rates. We recently reported that one mechanism for transport of the insecticide endosulfan from treated...

  3. Viruses infecting Passiflora species in Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report documents multiple viruses in Passiflora spp. in Florida. It also reiterates the risk of movement of vegetatively-propagated plant material. This report provides an overview of this virus for growers, extension workers, crop consultants and research and regulatory scientists....

  4. Tomato seeds for LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Tomato seeds are prepared for their launch aboard the Langley's Long Duration Exposure Facility. Photograph published in Winds of Change, 75th Anniversary NASA publication (page 119), by James Schultz.

  5. First report of Tomato chlorotic spot virus in Hoya wayetii and Schlumbergera truncata (Haw.) Moran

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tomato chlorotic spot virus was identified in two ornamental crops [Hoya wayetii (commonly known as porcelainflower or waxflower) and Schlumbergera truncata (false Christmas cactus)] in central Florida, the first report of this virus naturally infecting these or other ornamentals anywhere. Genetic d...

  6. Complete genome sequence of Tomato mosaic virus isolated from jasmine in the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) was first identified in jasmine in the U.S. in Florida in 1999. This report provides the first full genome sequence of a ToMV isolate from jasmine. The full genome sequence of this virus will enable research scientists to develop additional specific diagnostic tests for ...

  7. First report of Tomato chlorotic spot virus on Annual Vinca (Catharanthus roseus) in the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tomato chlorotic spot virus was identified in the ornamental crop Catharanthus roseus (commonly known as vinca) in south Florida, the first report of this virus naturally infecting this species. Genetic diversity of the virus was characterized. This report provides an overview of this emerging vir...

  8. Identification of sulphur volatiles and GC-olfactometry aroma profiling in two fresh tomato cultivars

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ten sulphur volatiles were observed in two Florida tomato cultivars (‘Tasti-Lee’ and ‘FL 47’) harvested at three maturity stages (breaker, turning, and pink) using gas chromatography with a pulsed flame photometric detector (GC-PFPD). Eight PFPD peaks were identified using retention values from auth...

  9. Proteomic analysis of ripening tomato fruit infected by Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Shah, Punit; Powell, Ann L T; Orlando, Ron; Bergmann, Carl; Gutierrez-Sanchez, Gerardo

    2012-04-06

    Botrytis cinerea, a model necrotrophic fungal pathogen that causes gray mold as it infects different organs on more than 200 plant species, is a significant contributor to postharvest rot in fresh fruit and vegetables, including tomatoes. By describing host and pathogen proteomes simultaneously in infected tissues, the plant proteins that provide resistance and allow susceptibility and the pathogen proteins that promote colonization and facilitate quiescence can be identified. This study characterizes fruit and fungal proteins solubilized in the B. cinerea-tomato interaction using shotgun proteomics. Mature green, red ripe wild type and ripening inhibited (rin) mutant tomato fruit were infected with B. cinerea B05.10, and the fruit and fungal proteomes were identified concurrently 3 days postinfection. One hundred eighty-six tomato proteins were identified in common among red ripe and red ripe-equivalent ripening inhibited (rin) mutant tomato fruit infected by B. cinerea. However, the limited infections by B. cinerea of mature green wild type fruit resulted in 25 and 33% fewer defense-related tomato proteins than in red and rin fruit, respectively. In contrast, the ripening stage of genotype of the fruit infected did not affect the secreted proteomes of B. cinerea. The composition of the collected proteins populations and the putative functions of the identified proteins argue for their role in plant-pathogen interactions.

  10. Severe tomato allergy (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    PubMed

    Zacharisen, Michael C; Elms, Nancy P; Kurup, Viswanath P

    2002-01-01

    Although tomatoes are a commonly consumed food, severe allergic reactions to tomatoes are unusual or rarely reported. Previously reported allergic manifestations to tomato include urticaria/angioedema, dermatitis, oral allergy syndrome, rhinitis, and abdominal pain. The aim of this study was to report two patients with significant immediate hypersensitivity reactions to tomato and characterize the responsible allergen. We reviewed the history and documentation of tomato-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) of two patients with adverse symptoms after ingesting tomato. Fresh tomato extracts prepared from the skin, seeds, and flesh of red, ripe tomatoes were evaluated for total protein content and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was performed to characterize the tomato protein. IgE enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using the patients' serum against the various tomato extracts was accomplished and IgE immunoblot was performed. Percutaneous skin tests or radioallergosorbent tests (RASTs) were positive to tomato in both patients. Both adults experienced laryngeal edema and one had anaphylaxis. Similar total protein contents were found in each of the tomato extracts and gel electrophoresis revealed similar protein profile for skin and seed extracts with protein bands discernible at molecular weights of 21, 33, and 43 kDa. One patient reacted specifically to a 43-kDa protein band on IgE immunoblot. The two cases show that severe allergic reactions to tomato occur in adults and one is associated with IgE binding to a 43-kDa protein.

  11. Wave Dissipation by Vegetation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    relative to conditions without vegetation. During Hurricanes Charley and Wilma, water levels recorded in two Florida mangrove ecosystems were...reduced by as much as 9.4 cm per km inland. Although water levels were reduced as the surge moved through the coastal mangroves , the relative contribution...of mangroves was still unclear (Krauss et al. 2009). Numerical simulations by Loder et al. (2009) and ERDC/CHL CHETN-I-82 September 2011 2

  12. Tomato chlorosis virus and Tomato infectious chlorosis virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This presentation will help consultants, growers, and other practitioners in the Southern and Western Regions of the US, as well as Mexico and the Caribbean identify and manage Tomato infectious chlorosis virus (TICV) and Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV) in tomato. Information will directly benefit cr...

  13. Tomato allergy: impact of genotype and environmental factors on the biological response.

    PubMed

    Dölle, Sabine; Schwarz, Dietmar; Lehmann, Karola; Weckwerth, Wolfram; George, Eckhard; Worm, Margitta; Franken, Philipp

    2011-09-01

    Food allergies are increasing in the European population. At present the onset of symptoms can be avoided only by elimination of a particular fruit or vegetable from the diet. A new approach is to develop hypoallergenic food products. This study characterises the allergenic potential of tomatoes, considering cultivation conditions, developmental stages and genotypes, in order to identify hypoallergenic fruits. Patients with a history of tomato allergy were recruited for skin allergy tests. Tomatoes carrying distinct genotypes were grown under various cultivation conditions and harvested at different maturation stages. Cultivation conditions (nitrogen fertilisation, light exposure and plant nutrition) did not affect the skin reactivity in tomato-allergic patients. However, skin reactivity was significantly lower when using green-unripe compared with red-ripe tomatoes and when using landrace cultivars compared with cultivars bred for use in organic horticulture. Depending on their genetic background and maturity level, some tomato cultivars elicit positive reactions in tomato-allergic patients in the skin allergy test. This novel finding should pave the way for the development of tomatoes with reduced allergenicity to relieve sufferers of tomato allergy. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. IPM of specialty crops and community gardens in north Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Insect pests post serious challenges to specialty crops (vegetables, fruits and nut crops) and community gardens in North Florida. The major vegetable pests include silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii; the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae; southeastern green stinkbug, Nezara viridula; brown s...

  15. Florida Keys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Florida Keys are a chain of islands, islets and reefs extending from Virginia Key to the Dry Tortugas for about 309 kilometers (192 miles). The keys are chiefly limestone and coral formations. The larger islands of the group are Key West (with its airport), Key Largo, Sugarloaf Key, and Boca Chica Key. A causeway extends from the mainland to Key West.

    This image was acquired on October 28, 2001, by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long- term research effort to understand and protect our home planet. Through the study of Earth, NASA will help to provide sound science to policy and economic

  16. Florida Keys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Florida Keys are a chain of islands, islets and reefs extending from Virginia Key to the Dry Tortugas for about 309 kilometers (192 miles). The keys are chiefly limestone and coral formations. The larger islands of the group are Key West (with its airport), Key Largo, Sugarloaf Key, and Boca Chica Key. A causeway extends from the mainland to Key West.

    This image was acquired on October 28, 2001, by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long- term research effort to understand and protect our home planet. Through the study of Earth, NASA will help to provide sound science to policy and economic

  17. The meaning of 'fruits' and 'vegetables'.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Frances E; Willis, Gordon B; Thompson, Olivia M; Yaroch, Amy L

    2011-07-01

    Fruit and vegetable consumption is a focus of research and nutrition education; yet, there is no universal agreement on the meaning of 'fruits' and 'vegetables'. Our objective was to describe survey respondent perceptions about a set of foods with regard to whether the food is a fruit, vegetable or something else. Three cross-sectional studies. Two small studies involving cognitive interviewing sessions; and one large self-administered population survey. US adults in two small studies (n 55 and 80) and one large survey (n 3312), all with multiple race/ethnicities. Perceptions varied. In the survey, rice was considered a vegetable by about 20 % of respondents. In one small study, Spanish speakers were more likely to consider rice a vegetable, and Chinese speakers less likely, than were English speakers. Black beans were frequently classified as something other than vegetable or fruit. Among Hispanics, Spanish speakers were less likely than English speakers to consider beans a vegetable. Overall, tomatoes were classified as both fruit and vegetable, and these perceptions varied by race/ethnicity. Substantial disagreement among the fruit, vegetable and other food domains highlights the importance of clearly defining the desired constructs. Foods that require specific instruction include rice, dried beans, potatoes, tomatoes and fruits and vegetables in mixtures and condiments. For measurement, additional questions or explanations may be needed to clarify which foods are of interest. For communication, the global message to increase consumption of fruit and vegetables should be reinforced with specific guidance.

  18. 75 FR 28187 - Importation of Tomatoes From Souss-Massa-Draa, Morocco; Technical Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ..., and set and maintain Mediterranean fruit fly traps during the tomato shipping season. In addition, the... December 2, 2009, we amended the fruits and vegetables regulations to allow the importation of commercial..., 2009, we amended the regulations in ``Subpart--Fruits and Vegetables'' (7 CFR 319.56-1 through 319.56...

  19. Mangos of Florida, country contribution: Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The book chapter presents a review of the historical importance of mango in Florida; geographical distribution of mangos in Florida; statistical data including total and seasonal production, main cultivars and their descriptors; cultural practices (i.e. propagation, fertilization, pruning); pests an...

  20. Traps and trap placement may affect location of brown marmorated stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and increase injury to tomato fruits in home gardens.

    PubMed

    Sargent, Chris; Martinson, Holly M; Raupp, Michael J

    2014-04-01

    The invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is an important pest of field crops, fruit orchards, commercial vegetables, ornamental plants, and home vegetable gardens. Pheromone-baited traps designed to attract, trap, and kill H. halys are marketed for use in home gardens to reduce damage to plants. To test this assertion, we conducted the following experiment: One group of 15 gardeners placed stink bug traps at the end of a row of tomatoes, Solanum lycopersicum (L.), in their vegetable garden and another group of 14 placed no traps in their garden and served as controls. Gardeners with traps were no more or less likely to have H. halys on tomato plants than those without traps, but the abundance of H. halys on tomato fruits was marginally greater in gardens with traps. However, tomato fruits grown in gardens with traps sustained significantly more injury than tomato fruits grown in gardens without traps. Furthermore, tomato fruits on plants near the trap housed more H. halys than tomato fruits on plants at the end of a row away from the trap. Traps may be useful in identifying gardens where H. halys is likely to be found and ones in which stink bug injury to tomatoes is likely. We found no evidence that stink bug traps protected tomatoes from H. halys, and it appears that the addition of traps to gardens may increase injury to tomato fruits.

  1. Diversity, Distribution, and Evolution of Tomato Viruses in China Uncovered by Small RNA Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chenxi; Sun, Xuepeng; Taylor, Angela; Jiao, Chen; Xu, Yimin; Cai, Xiaofeng; Wang, Xiaoli; Ge, Chenhui; Pan, Guanghui; Wang, Quanxi; Fei, Zhangjun; Wang, Quanhua

    2017-06-01

    Tomato is a major vegetable crop that has tremendous popularity. However, viral disease is still a major factor limiting tomato production. Here, we report the tomato virome identified through sequencing small RNAs of 170 field-grown samples collected in China. A total of 22 viruses were identified, including both well-documented and newly detected viruses. The tomato viral community is dominated by a few species, and they exhibit polymorphisms and recombination in the genomes with cold spots and hot spots. Most samples were coinfected by multiple viruses, and the majority of identified viruses are positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses. Evolutionary analysis of one of the most dominant tomato viruses, Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), predicts its origin and the time back to its most recent common ancestor. The broadly sampled data have enabled us to identify several unreported viruses in tomato, including a completely new virus, which has a genome of ∼13.4 kb and groups with aphid-transmitted viruses in the genus Cytorhabdovirus Although both DNA and RNA viruses can trigger the biogenesis of virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs), we show that features such as length distribution, paired distance, and base selection bias of vsiRNA sequences reflect different plant Dicer-like proteins and Argonautes involved in vsiRNA biogenesis. Collectively, this study offers insights into host-virus interaction in tomato and provides valuable information to facilitate the management of viral diseases.IMPORTANCE Tomato is an important source of micronutrients in the human diet and is extensively consumed around the world. Virus is among the major constraints on tomato production. Categorizing virus species that are capable of infecting tomato and understanding their diversity and evolution are challenging due to difficulties in detecting such fast-evolving biological entities. Here, we report the landscape of the tomato virome in China, the leading country in

  2. Florida Information Resource Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Francis C.

    1986-01-01

    The Florida Information Resource Network (FIRN) is an effort by the Florida education community and the Florida Legislature to provide an electronic link among all agencies, institutions, and schools in the public education system. The communications link, perhaps one of the most advanced in the nation, has three purposes: (1) to provide equal…

  3. Disease management of tomato through PGPB: current trends and future perspective.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vipin Kumar; Singh, Amit Kishore; Kumar, Ajay

    2017-08-01

    Tomato is the world's second most cultivated vegetable. During cultivation or post-harvest storage, it is susceptible to more than 200 diseases caused by an array of pathogenic fungi, nematodes, bacteria, and viruses. Although wide range of chemical pesticides are currently available to manage plant diseases, continuous application of pesticides not only affect the nutritional contents of tomato but also the texture or productivity of soil. In this context, plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) are one of the nature friendly, safe, and effective alternatives for the management of diseases and pathogens of tomato. Currently, numbers of microbes have been used as soil or plant inoculants in different plants including tomato as biocontrol. Besides disease inhibition, these inoculants also act as growth modulators. The present article describes the biocontrol potential of PGPB strains and mechanisms for the diseases management in tomato.

  4. Hydrology of Central Florida Lakes - A Primer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schiffer, Donna M.

    1998-01-01

    Florida, the interactions between lakes and ground- and surface-waters, and to describe how these interactions affect lake water levels. Included are descriptions of the basic geology and geomorphology of central Florida, origins of central Florida lakes, factors that affect lake water levels, lake water quality, and common methods of improving water quality. The geographic area discussed in this primer is approximate (fig. 1) and includes west and east-central Florida, extending from the Gulf of Mexico to the Atlantic Ocean coastlines, northward into Marion, Putnam, and Flagler Counties, and southward to Lake Okeechobee. The information presented here was obtained from the many publications available on lakes in central Florida, as well as from publications on Florida geology, hydrology, and primers on ground water, surface water, and water quality. Many publications are available that provide more detailed information on lake water quality, and this primer is not intended as an extensive treatise on that subject. The reader is referred to the reference section of this primer for sources of more detailed information on lake water quality. Lakes discussed in this report are identified in figure 2. Technical terms used in the report are shown in bold italics and are defined in the glossary. The classification of some water bodies as lakes is highly subjective. What one individual considers a lake another might consider a pond. Generally, any water- filled depression or group of depressions in the land surface could be considered a lake. Lakes differ from swamps or wetlands in the type and amount of vegetation, water depth, and some water-quality characteristics. Lakes typically have emergent vegetation along the shoreline with a large expanse of open water in the center. Swamps or wetlands, on the other hand, are characterized by a water surface interrupted by the emergence of many varieties of plant life, from saw grasses to cypress trees. Lakes may be na

  5. Synthesis of vaterite and aragonite crystals using biomolecules of tomato and capsicum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Long; Xu, Wang-Hua; Zhao, Ying-Guo; Kang, Yan; Liu, Shao-Hua; Zhang, Zai-Yong

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, biomimetic synthesis of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in the presence of biomolecules of two vegetables-tomato and capsicum is investigated. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffractometry were used to characterize the CaCO3 obtained. The biomolecules in the extracts of two vegetables are determined by UV-vis or FTIR. The results indicate that a mixture of calcite and vaterite spheres constructed from small particles is produced with the extract of tomato, while aragonite rods or ellipsoids are formed in the presence of extract of capsicum. The possible formation mechanism of the CaCO3 crystals with tomato biomolecules can be interpreted by particle-aggregation based non-classical crystallization laws. The proteins and/or other biomolecules in tomato and capsicum may control the formation of vaterite and aragonite crystals by adsorbing onto facets of them.

  6. Mineral composition of organically grown tomato

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghambashidze, Giorgi

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, consumer concerns on environmental and health issues related to food products have increased and, as a result, the demand for organically grown production has grown. Results indicate that consumers concerned about healthy diet and environmental degradation are the most likely to buy organic food, and are willing to pay a high premium. Therefore, it is important to ensure the quality of the produce, especially for highly consumed products. The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is one of the most widely consumed fresh vegetables in the world. It is also widely used by the food industries as a raw material for the production of derived products such as purees or ketchup. Consequently, many investigations have addressed the impact of plant nutrition on the quality of tomato fruit. The concentrations of minerals (P, Na, K, Ca and Mg) and trace elements (Cu, Zn and Mn) were determined in tomatoes grown organically in East Georgia, Marneuli District. The contents of minerals and Mn seem to be in the range as shown in literature. Cu and Zn were found in considerably high amounts in comparison to maximum permissible values established in Georgia. Some correlations were observed between the minerals and trace elements studied. K and Mg were strongly correlated with Cu and Zn. Statistically significant difference have shown also P, K and Mg based between period of sampling.

  7. Increasing salt tolerance in the tomato.

    PubMed

    Cuartero, J; Bolarín, M C; Asíns, M J; Moreno, V

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a number of strategies to overcome the deleterious effects of salinity on plants will be reviewed; these strategies include using molecular markers and genetic transformation as tools to develop salinity-tolerant genotypes, and some cultural techniques. For more than 12 years, QTL analysis has been attempted in order to understand the genetics of salt tolerance and to deal with component traits in breeding programmes. Despite innovations like better marker systems and improved genetic mapping strategies, the success of marker-assisted selection has been very limited because, in part, of inadequate experimental design. Since salinity is variable in time and space, experimental design must allow the study of genotype x environment interaction. Genetic transformation could become a powerful tool in plant breeding, but the growing knowledge from plant physiology must be integrated with molecular breeding techniques. It has been shown that the expression of several transgenes promotes a higher level of salt tolerance in some species. Despite this promising result, the development of a salt-tolerant cultivar by way of transgenesis has still not been achieved. Future directions in order to overcome the present limitations are proposed. Three cultural techniques have proved useful in tomato to overcome, in part, the effects of salinity: treatment of seedlings with drought or NaCl ameliorates the adaptation of adult plants to salinity; mist applied to tomato plants grown in Mediterranean conditions improves vegetative growth and yield in saline conditions; and grafting tomato cultivars onto appropriate rootstocks could reduce the effects of salinity.

  8. The Tomato Expression Atlas.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Pozo, Noe; Zheng, Yi; Snyder, Stephen I; Nicolas, Philippe; Shinozaki, Yoshihito; Fei, Zhangjun; Catala, Carmen; Giovannoni, James J; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Mueller, Lukas A

    2017-08-01

    With the development of new high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies and decreasing costs, large gene expression datasets are being generated at an accelerating rate, but can be complex to visualize. New, more interactive and intuitive tools are needed to visualize the spatiotemporal context of expression data and help elucidate gene function. Using tomato fruit as a model, we have developed the Tomato Expression Atlas to facilitate effective data analysis, allowing the simultaneous visualization of groups of genes at a cell/tissue level of resolution within an organ, enhancing hypothesis development and testing in addition to candidate gene identification. This atlas can be adapted to different types of expression data from diverse multicellular species. The Tomato Expression Atlas is available at http://tea.solgenomics.net/ . Source code is available at https://github.com/solgenomics/Tea . jr286@cornell.edu or lam87@cornell.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  9. 7 CFR 966.100 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Rules and... communications in connection with the marketing agreement and order shall be addressed to the Florida Tomato...

  10. 7 CFR 966.22 - Establishment and membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Committee § 966.22 Establishment and membership. (a) The Florida Tomato Committee...

  11. 7 CFR 966.100 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Rules and... communications in connection with the marketing agreement and order shall be addressed to the Florida Tomato...

  12. 7 CFR 966.100 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Rules and... communications in connection with the marketing agreement and order shall be addressed to the Florida Tomato...

  13. Optimization of lamp spectrum for vegetable growth

    SciTech Connect

    Prikupets, L.B.; Tikhomirov, A.A.

    1994-12-31

    Commmercial light sources were evaluated as to the optimum conditions for the production of tomatoes and cucumbers. Data is presented which corresponds to the maximum productivity and optimal spectral ratios. It is suggested that the commercial light sources evaluated were not efficient for the growing of the vegetables.

  14. Growing Vegetables. People on the Farm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. Office of Governmental and Public Affairs.

    This booklet, one in a series about life on modern farms, describes farm operations and some activities in the lives of six vegetable farmers throughout the United States. The booklet visits the tomato growing of Carl Schneider and his partners and the lettuce growing farm of Norman Martella, both in California. It then includes brief accounts of…

  15. 7 CFR 966.74 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating... of tomatoes covered by such exemption certificates, a record of the amount of tomatoes handled under...

  16. 7 CFR 966.74 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating... of tomatoes covered by such exemption certificates, a record of the amount of tomatoes handled under...

  17. 7 CFR 966.74 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating... of tomatoes covered by such exemption certificates, a record of the amount of tomatoes handled under...

  18. 7 CFR 966.74 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating... of tomatoes covered by such exemption certificates, a record of the amount of tomatoes handled under...

  19. 7 CFR 966.74 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating... of tomatoes covered by such exemption certificates, a record of the amount of tomatoes handled under...

  20. Transcriptome Analysis of Cytokinin Response in Tomato Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xiuling; Gupta, Sarika; Lindquist, Ingrid E.; Cameron, Connor T.; Mudge, Joann; Rashotte, Aaron M.

    2013-01-01

    Tomato is one of the most economically and agriculturally important Solanaceous species and vegetable crops, serving as a model for examination of fruit biology and compound leaf development. Cytokinin is a plant hormone linked to the control of leaf development and is known to regulate a wide range of genes including many transcription factors. Currently there is little known of the leaf transcriptome in tomato and how it might be regulated by cytokinin. We employ high throughput mRNA sequencing technology and bioinformatic methodologies to robustly analyze cytokinin regulated tomato leaf transcriptomes. Leaf samples of two ages, 13d and 35d were treated with cytokinin or the solvent vehicle control dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for 2 h or 24 h, after which RNA was extracted for sequencing. To confirm the accuracy of RNA sequencing results, we performed qPCR analysis of select transcripts identified as cytokinin regulated by the RNA sequencing approach. The resulting data provide the first hormone transcriptome analysis of leaves in tomato. Specifically we identified several previously untested tomato orthologs of cytokinin-related genes as well as numerous novel cytokinin-regulated transcripts in tomato leaves. Principal component analysis of the data indicates that length of cytokinin treatment and plant age are the major factors responsible for changes in transcripts observed in this study. Two hour cytokinin treatment showed a more robust transcript response indicated by both greater fold change of induced transcripts and the induction of twice as many cytokinin-related genes involved in signaling, metabolism, and transport in young vs. older leaves. This difference in transcriptome response in younger vs. older leaves was also found to a lesser extent with an extended (24 h) cytokinin treatment. Overall data presented here provides a solid foundation for future study of cytokinin and cytokinin regulated genes involved in compound leaf development or other

  1. Enhancement of growth and yield of tomato by Rhodopseudomonas sp. under greenhouse conditions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kang-Hyeong; Koh, Rae-Hyun; Song, Hong-Gyu

    2008-12-01

    A greenhouse test was carried out to examine the effects on tomato growth of application of purple non-sulfur bacterium Rhodopseudomonas sp. which had enhanced germination and growth of tomato seed under axenic conditions. The shoot length of tomato plant inoculated by Rhodopseudomonas sp. KL9 increased by 34.6% compared to that of control in 8 weeks of cultivation. During the same period, this strain increased 120.6 and 78.6% of dry weight of shoot and root of tomato plants, respectively. The formation ratio of tomato fruit from flower was also raised by inoculation of KL9. In addition, Rhodopseudomonas sp. KL9 treatment enhanced the fresh weight and lycopene content in the harvested tomato fruits by 98.3 and 48.3%, respectively compared to those of the uninoculated control. When the effect on the indigenous bacterial community and fate of the inoculated Rhodopseudomonas sp. KL9 were monitored by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis, its application did not affect the native bacterial community in tomato rhizosphere soil, but should be repeated to maintain its population size. This bacterial capability may be applied as an environment-friendly biofertilizer to cultivation of high quality tomato and other crops including lycopene-containing vegetables and fruits.

  2. Land Cover Trends in the Southern Florida Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kambly, Steven; Moreland, Thomas R.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents an assessment of land use and land cover change in the Southern Florida Coastal Plain ecoregion for the period from 1973 to 2000. The ecoregion is one of 84 level III ecoregions defined by the Environmental Protection Agency; ecoregions have been designed to serve as a spatial framework for environmental resource management and denote areas that contain a geographically distinct assemblage of biotic and abiotic phenomena, including geology, physiography, vegetation, climate, soils, land use, wildlife, and hydrology. The Southern Florida Coastal Plain ecoregion covers an area of approximately 22,407 square kilometers [8,651 square miles] across the lower portion of the Florida peninsula, from Lake Okeechobee southward through the Florida Keys. It comprises flat plains with wet soils, marshland and swamp land cover with Everglades and palmetto prairie vegetation types.

  3. The tomato genome

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The tomato genome sequence was undertaken at a time when state-of-the-art sequencing methodologies were undergoing a transition to co-called next generation methodologies. The result was an international consortium undertaking a strategy merging both old and new approaches. Because biologists were...

  4. Tomatoes in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    BioServe researcher Dr. Yi Li first flew plant experiments on board STS-63. Li discovered that exposure to microgravity increased a particular hormone concentration in plants. Since that time, Li has been able to manipulate this phenomenon and grow fruits, such as tomatoes, that overproduce the hormone, and these plants bear larger seedless fruit in the absence of pollination.

  5. Tomatoes in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    BioServe researcher Dr. Yi Li first flew plant experiments on board STS-63. Li discovered that exposure to microgravity increased a particular hormone concentration in plants. Since that time, Li has been able to manipulate this phenomenon and grow fruits, such as tomatoes, that overproduce the hormone, and these plants bear larger seedless fruit in the absence of pollination.

  6. Effects of dark septate endophytes on tomato plant performance.

    PubMed

    Andrade-Linares, Diana Rocio; Grosch, Rita; Restrepo, Silvia; Krumbein, Angelika; Franken, Philipp

    2011-07-01

    Non-mycorrhizal fungal root endophytes can be found in all natural and cultivated ecosystems, but little is known about their impact on plant performance. The impact of three mitosporic dark septate endophytes (DSE48, DSE49 and Leptodontidium orchidicola) on tomato plant characteristics was studied. Their effects on root and shoot growth, their influence on fruit yield and fruit quality parameters and their ability to diminish the impact of the pathogen Verticillium dahliae were investigated. While shoot biomass of young plants was enhanced between 10% and 20% by the endophytes DSE48 and L. orchidicola in one of two experiments and by DSE49 in both experiments, vegetative growth parameters of 24-week-old plants were not affected except a reproducible increase of root diameter by the isolate DSE49. Concerning fruit yield and quality, L. orchidicola could double the biomass of tomatoes and increased glucose content by 17%, but this was dependent on date of harvest and on root colonisation density. Additionally, the endophytes DSE49 and L. orchidicola decreased the negative effect of V. dahliae on tomato, but only at a low dosage of the pathogen. This indicates that the three dark septate endophytes can have a significant impact on tomato characters, but that the effects are only obvious at early stages of vegetative and generative development and currently too inconsistent to recommend the application of these DSEs in horticultural practice.

  7. Comparative transcriptomic profiling of a salt-tolerant wild tomato species and a salt-sensitive tomato cultivar.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Xu, Xinna; Zhu, Huishan; Liu, Aihua; Liu, Lei; Li, Junming; Hua, Xuejun

    2010-06-01

    Wild halophytic tomato has long been considered as an ideal gene donor for improving salt tolerance in tomato cultivars. Extensive research has been focused on physiological and quantitative trait locus (QTL) characterization of wild tomato species in comparison with cultivated tomato. However, the global gene expression modification of wild tomato in response to salt stress is not well known. A wild tomato genotype, Solanum pimpinellifolium 'PI365967' is significantly more salt tolerant than the cultivar, Solanum lycopersicum 'Moneymaker', as evidenced by its higher survival rate and lower growth inhibition at the vegetative stage. The Affymetrix Tomato Genome Array containing 9,200 probe sets was used to compare the transcriptome of PI365967 and Moneymaker. After treatment with 200 mM NaCl for 5 h, PI365967 showed relatively fewer responsive genes compared with Moneymaker. The salt overly sensitive (SOS) pathway was found to be more active in PI365967 than in Moneymaker, coinciding with relatively less accumulation of Na(+) in shoots of PI365967. A gene encoding salicylic acid-binding protein 2 (SABP2) was induced by salinity only in PI365967, suggesting a possible role for salicylic acid signaling in the salt response of PI365967. The fact that two genes encoding lactoylglutathione lyase were salt inducible only in PI365967, together with much higher basal expression of several glutathione S-transferase genes, suggested a more effective detoxification system in PI365967. The specific down-regulation in PI365967 of a putative high-affinity nitrate transporter, known as a repressor of lateral root initiation, may explain the better root growth of this genotype during salt stress.

  8. Enhancement of phytochemical using next generation technologies for the production of high quality fruits and vegetables

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is an excellent plant model for unraveling physiological processes, fruit quality and fruit shelf determinants, stress responsive signaling, pathogenicity, and ripening development in climacteric fruits. Tomato is a popular vegetable, and along with potato, it is cla...

  9. Antioxidant and Antiplatelet Activities in Extracts from Green and Fully Ripe Tomato Fruits (Solanum lycopersicum) and Pomace from Industrial Tomato Processing.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Eduardo; Carle, Reinhold; Astudillo, Luis; Guzmán, Luis; Gutiérrez, Margarita; Carrasco, Gilda; Palomo, Iván

    2013-01-01

    The consumption of fruits and vegetables is accepted to be one of the strategies to reduce risk factors for these diseases. The aim of this study was to examine potential relationships between the antioxidant and the antiplatelet activities in green mature and fully ripe (red) tomatoes and of lycopene-rich byproducts of tomato paste processing such as pomace. The total phenol content of tomato components was the highest in peels, pulp, and in the mucilaginous myxotesta covering the tomato seeds with values 36.9 ± 0.8, 33.3 ± 00.5, and 17.6 ± 0.9 mg GAE/100 g, respectively (P < 0.05). Tomato peels had the highest antioxidant activity, both, as measured by the FRAP (46.9 ± 0.9  μ mol Fe(+2)/g, P < 0.05) and the DPPH assays (97.4 ± 0.2%, 1000  μ g/mL, P < 0.05). Pomace extracts showed the highest antiplatelet activity induced by ADP, collagen, TRAP-6, and arachidonic acid. While the maturation stage of the tomato fruit affected the antioxidant effect, antiplatelet activity was independent of fruit ripeness. Finally, based on the present results, tomato and its byproducts may be considered as a valuable source of antioxidant and antiplatelet activities.

  10. Antioxidant and Antiplatelet Activities in Extracts from Green and Fully Ripe Tomato Fruits (Solanum lycopersicum) and Pomace from Industrial Tomato Processing

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes, Eduardo; Carle, Reinhold; Astudillo, Luis; Guzmán, Luis; Gutiérrez, Margarita; Carrasco, Gilda; Palomo, Iván

    2013-01-01

    The consumption of fruits and vegetables is accepted to be one of the strategies to reduce risk factors for these diseases. The aim of this study was to examine potential relationships between the antioxidant and the antiplatelet activities in green mature and fully ripe (red) tomatoes and of lycopene-rich byproducts of tomato paste processing such as pomace. The total phenol content of tomato components was the highest in peels, pulp, and in the mucilaginous myxotesta covering the tomato seeds with values 36.9 ± 0.8, 33.3 ± 00.5, and 17.6 ± 0.9 mg GAE/100 g, respectively (P < 0.05). Tomato peels had the highest antioxidant activity, both, as measured by the FRAP (46.9 ± 0.9 μmol Fe+2/g, P < 0.05) and the DPPH assays (97.4 ± 0.2%, 1000 μg/mL, P < 0.05). Pomace extracts showed the highest antiplatelet activity induced by ADP, collagen, TRAP-6, and arachidonic acid. While the maturation stage of the tomato fruit affected the antioxidant effect, antiplatelet activity was independent of fruit ripeness. Finally, based on the present results, tomato and its byproducts may be considered as a valuable source of antioxidant and antiplatelet activities. PMID:23476707

  11. Florida Energy Assurance Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Niescja E.; Murtagh, William; Guthrie, Kevin; Nykyri, Katariina; Radasky, William A.; Senkowicz, Eric

    2012-08-01

    This spring, Florida held the nation's first statewide emergency preparedness training and exercises geared specifically to the aftermath of severe geomagnetic events. Funded by the State of Florida Division of Emergency Management (FDEM) via a Department of Energy grant and held in collaboration with Watch House International, Inquesta Corporation, and the Florida Institute of Technology, the 17-19 April 2012 workshop had 99 on-site attendees in an oceanfront hotel in Melbourne, Florida, as well as 16 over live Web streaming. The workshop was the capstone to a three-month season of 21 regional space weather training sessions and workshops serving 386 attendees in total.

  12. Electricity generation from defective tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Namita; Fogg, Alex; Wilder, Joseph; Franco, Daniel; Komisar, Simeon; Gadhamshetty, Venkataramana

    2016-12-01

    The United States faces a significant burden in treating 0.61billionkg of defective tomatoes (culls) every year. We present a proof-of-concept for generating electricity from culled tomatoes in microbial-electrochemical systems (MESs). This study delineates impedance behavior of the culled tomatoes in MESs and compares its impedance spectra with that of soluble substrates (dextrose, acetate, and wastewater). A series of AC and DC diagnostic tests have revealed the superior performance of the culled tomatoes compared to the pure substrates. Cyclic voltammetry results have indicated the active role of indigenous, diffusible redox-active pigments in the culled tomatoes on overall electricity production. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results have elucidated the role of peel and seed on the oxidation behavior of the culled tomatoes.

  13. Major tomato viruses in the Mediterranean basin.

    PubMed

    Hanssen, Inge M; Lapidot, Moshe

    2012-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) originated in South America and was brought to Europe by the Spaniards in the sixteenth century following their colonization of Mexico. From Europe, tomato was introduced to North America in the eighteenth century. Tomato plants show a wide climatic tolerance and are grown in both tropical and temperate regions around the world. The climatic conditions in the Mediterranean basin favor tomato cultivation, where it is traditionally produced as an open-field plant. However, viral diseases are responsible for heavy yield losses and are one of the reasons that tomato production has shifted to greenhouses. The major tomato viruses endemic to the Mediterranean basin are described in this chapter. These viruses include Tomato yellow leaf curl virus, Tomato torrado virus, Tomato spotted wilt virus, Tomato infectious chlorosis virus, Tomato chlorosis virus, Pepino mosaic virus, and a few minor viruses as well.

  14. 1978 Insect Pest Management Guide: Commercial Vegetable Crops and Greenhouse Vegetables. Circular 897.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This circular lists suggested uses of insecticides for the control of pests by commercial vegetable farmers. Suggestions are given for selection, dosage and application of insecticides to control pests of cabbage and related crops, beans, cucumbers and other vine crops, tomatoes, potatoes, peppers, corn, and onions. (CS)

  15. 1978 Insect Pest Management Guide: Commercial Vegetable Crops and Greenhouse Vegetables. Circular 897.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This circular lists suggested uses of insecticides for the control of pests by commercial vegetable farmers. Suggestions are given for selection, dosage and application of insecticides to control pests of cabbage and related crops, beans, cucumbers and other vine crops, tomatoes, potatoes, peppers, corn, and onions. (CS)

  16. Effects of Red Light Night Break Treatment on Growth and Flowering of Tomato Plants.

    PubMed

    Cao, Kai; Cui, Lirong; Ye, Lin; Zhou, Xiaoting; Bao, Encai; Zhao, Hailiang; Zou, Zhirong

    2016-01-01

    Compact and healthy young plants increase crop production and improve vegetable quality. Adverse climatic conditions and shading can cause young plants to become elongated and spindly. We investigated the effects of night break (NB) treatments on tomato plants using red light (RL) with an intensity of 20 μmol·m(2)·s(-1). Tomato plants were subjected to NB treatments with different frequencies ranging from every 1, 2, 3, and 4 h, and plant growth, flowering, and yield were monitored. The results showed that with the increase of RL NB frequency, plant height decreased, stem diameter increased, and flower initiation delayed, the content of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and gibberellin 3 (GA3) in the leaf and stem declined. When the RL NB frequency was every 1 h, the heights of tomato plant decreased by 32.73% compared with the control, the diameter of tomato plants increased by 27.09% compared with the control, the number of leaves produced before flowering increased to 11, compared with 8 in the control, the contents of IAA and GA3 in the leaf decreased by 33.3 and 41.29% respectively compared with the control, the contents of IAA and GA3 in the stem decreased by 56.04 and 57.14% respectively compared with the control. After RL NB treatments, tomato plants were transplanted into a solar greenhouse to evaluate tomato yield. When tomato plants pre-treated with RL NB, per tomato fresh weight of the first spica increased with the increase of RL NB frequencies. These results indicate that more compact and healthier tomato plants could be gotten by RL NB treatments and improve tomato early yield.

  17. Effects of Red Light Night Break Treatment on Growth and Flowering of Tomato Plants

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Kai; Cui, Lirong; Ye, Lin; Zhou, Xiaoting; Bao, Encai; Zhao, Hailiang; Zou, Zhirong

    2016-01-01

    Compact and healthy young plants increase crop production and improve vegetable quality. Adverse climatic conditions and shading can cause young plants to become elongated and spindly. We investigated the effects of night break (NB) treatments on tomato plants using red light (RL) with an intensity of 20 μmol·m2·s−1. Tomato plants were subjected to NB treatments with different frequencies ranging from every 1, 2, 3, and 4 h, and plant growth, flowering, and yield were monitored. The results showed that with the increase of RL NB frequency, plant height decreased, stem diameter increased, and flower initiation delayed, the content of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and gibberellin 3 (GA3) in the leaf and stem declined. When the RL NB frequency was every 1 h, the heights of tomato plant decreased by 32.73% compared with the control, the diameter of tomato plants increased by 27.09% compared with the control, the number of leaves produced before flowering increased to 11, compared with 8 in the control, the contents of IAA and GA3 in the leaf decreased by 33.3 and 41.29% respectively compared with the control, the contents of IAA and GA3 in the stem decreased by 56.04 and 57.14% respectively compared with the control. After RL NB treatments, tomato plants were transplanted into a solar greenhouse to evaluate tomato yield. When tomato plants pre-treated with RL NB, per tomato fresh weight of the first spica increased with the increase of RL NB frequencies. These results indicate that more compact and healthier tomato plants could be gotten by RL NB treatments and improve tomato early yield. PMID:27148344

  18. Forests of Florida, 2014

    Treesearch

    Mark Brown; J Nowak

    2016-01-01

    This periodic resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Florida based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station in cooperation with the Florida Forest Service. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated...

  19. Forests of Florida, 2013

    Treesearch

    Mark Brown; J.. Nowak

    2016-01-01

    This periodic resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Florida based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station in cooperation with the Florida Forest Service. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated...

  20. 'Florida Beauty' strawberry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Florida Beauty’ strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) originated from a 2012 cross made by the Queensland breeding program between Queensland Australia selection 2010-119 (female parent) and ‘Florida Radiance’ (male parent). Selection 2010-119 was chosen as a parent for its excellent fruit shape and fl...

  1. Forests of Florida, 2012

    Treesearch

    M.J. Brown; Jarek. Nowak

    2014-01-01

    This periodic resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Florida based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station in cooperation with the Florida Forest Service. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated...

  2. Florida's Workforce 2005.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Labor and Employment Security, Tallahassee.

    This report analyzes projected changes in population, labor force, and employment by industry and occupation for Florida between 1995 and 2005. More than 50 charts and graphs provide statistics on the following: Florida's population, labor force 1975-2005; employment 1975-2005; industry employment 1995-2005; occupational employment (general);…

  3. Forests of Florida, 2015

    Treesearch

    M.J. Brown; J. Nowak

    2017-01-01

    This periodic resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Florida based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station in cooperation with the Florida Forest Service. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated...

  4. Florida's Substitute Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odutola, Adeniji A.; Etemadi, Judy N.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the statutory duties of the Florida Education Standards Commission, highlighting a study of the working conditions of Florida's substitute teachers. Researchers collected data on school board policies regarding substitutes' educational levels required, initial training and staff development opportunities required, salary schedules, and…

  5. Water and nitrogen management effects on water and nitrogen fluxes in Florida Flatwoods.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, Gregory S; Shukla, Sanjay

    2011-01-01

    The effects of water and fertilizer best management practices (BMPs) have not been quantified for groundwater nitrogen (N) beneath seepage irrigated vegetable fields with shallow water table environments. This effect was evaluated by a 3-yr study conducted in the Flatwoods of south Florida for watermelon ( cv. Mardi Gras and Tri-X 313) and tomato ( cv. BHN 586) using three treatments of water and inorganic fertilizer N (N) rates: (i) high fertilizer and water rates with seepage irrigation (HR), (ii) recommended fertilizer and water rates (BMP) with seepage irrigation (RR); and (iii) RR with subsurface drip irrigation (RR-SD). These treatments were implemented on six hydraulically isolated plots. The N rate treatments for high (HR) and recommended (RR and RR-SD) were based on a grower survey and BMP recommendations, respectively. Water applied, water table depth, and soil moisture content were regularly monitored for each treatment. Plant, soil, and groundwater N sampling and analyses were conducted for each season of the 3-yr study. The average water applied in HR (187 cm) was greater than RR (172 cm) and RR-SD (94 cm). Soil N maintained in crop beds for HR was significantly higher than RR and RR-SD. Soil solution analyses showed that N leached beneath HR (112 mg L) was greater ( = 0.053) than RR (76 mg L) and RR-SD (88 mg L). Shallow groundwater concentrations of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (NH-N + NO-N) were higher ( = 0.02) in HR (37 mg L) compared with RR (15 mg L) and RR-SD (19 mg L). Decreased N and water table levels can improve groundwater quality by reducing N leachate in shallow water table environments with seepage irrigated vegetable production systems.

  6. Springs of Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenau, Jack C.; Faulkner, Glen L.; Hendry, Charles W.; Hull, Robert W.

    1977-01-01

    The first comprehensive report of Florida's springs, which contains both a story of the springs and a collection of facts about them, was published thirty years ago (Ferguson and others, 1947). Since then, much additional data on springs have been gathered and the current report, Springs of Florida, makes a wealth of information on springs available to the public. Springs of Florida, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Bureau of Geology, Florida Department of Natural Resources, publishers, and the Bureau of Water Resources Management, Florida Department of Environmental Regulation, is intended to provide sufficient background information for a lucid understanding of the nature and occurrence of the springs in the State.

  7. 77 FR 3433 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Tomatoes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-24

    ....regulations.gov/#!documentDetail ;D=APHIS-2011-0117-0001. Postal Mail/Commercial Delivery: Send your comment... and vegetables into the United States from certain parts of the world are contained in ``Subpart--Fruits and Vegetables'' (7 CFR 319.56-1 through 319.56-54). Under these regulations, pink or red tomatoes...

  8. 21 CFR 73.585 - Tomato lycopene extract; tomato lycopene concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tomato lycopene extract; tomato lycopene... SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.585 Tomato lycopene extract; tomato lycopene concentrate. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive tomato lycopene extract is...

  9. 21 CFR 73.585 - Tomato lycopene extract; tomato lycopene concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tomato lycopene extract; tomato lycopene... SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.585 Tomato lycopene extract; tomato lycopene concentrate. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive tomato lycopene extract is...

  10. Residue dynamic of pyrimorph on tomatoes, cucumbers and soil under greenhouse trails.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Zhao, Lianlian; Li, Xuesheng; Jiang, Yaping; Li, Nan; Qin, Zhaohai; Pan, Canping

    2011-03-01

    A modified QuEChERS method for analysis of pyrimorph residue in tomatoes, cucumbers and soil was developed and validated. Residue dynamics and final residues in greenhouse vegetables and soil were studied. At fortification levels of 0.05, 0.1 and 1 mg kg(-1) in tomatoes, cucumbers and soil, the method got recoveries ranged from 86.1% to 99.3% with relative standard deviations of 1.0%-7.7%, in agreement with directives for method validation in residue analysis. The limit of determination in tomatoes, cucumbers and soil was 0.05 mg kg(-1). The proposed method was successfully employed for the determination of pyrimorph residue levels and dissipation rates in vegetables and soil. At six experimental sites, pyrimorph residues in tomatoes and cucumbers showed relatively fast dissipation rates, with half-lives of 5.8-7.7 days and 5.7-7.1 days respectively. Half-lives of pyrimorph in soil were 8.5-11.0 days. The final residues of pyrimorph in tomatoes ranged from 0.19 to 3.66 mg kg(-1), 0.18 to 4.35 mg kg(-1) in cucumbers and 0.22 to 16.5 mg kg(-1) in soil with pre-harvest interval of 3-7 days. 5 mg kg(-1) was proposed as the MRL of pyrimorph in tomatoes and cucumbers.

  11. Thermal inactivation kinetics of Bacillus coagulans spores in tomato juice.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jing; Mah, Jae-Hyung; Somavat, Romel; Mohamed, Hussein; Sastry, Sudhir; Tang, Juming

    2012-07-01

    The thermal characteristics of the spores and vegetative cells of three strains of Bacillus coagulans (ATCC 8038, ATCC 7050, and 185A) in tomato juice were evaluated. B. coagulans ATCC 8038 was chosen as the target microorganism for thermal processing of tomato products due to its spores having the highest thermal resistance among the three strains. The thermal inactivation kinetics of B. coagulans ATCC 8038 spores in tomato juice between 95 and 115°C were determined independently in two different laboratories using two different heating setups. The results obtained from both laboratories were in general agreement, with z-values (z-value is defined as the change in temperature required for a 10-fold reduction of the D-value, which is defined as the time required at a certain temperature for a 1-log reduction of the target microorganisms) of 8.3 and 8.7°C, respectively. The z-value of B. coagulans 185A spores in tomato juice (pH 4.3) was found to be 10.2°C. The influence of environmental factors, including cold storage time, pH, and preconditioning, upon the thermal resistance of these bacterial spores is discussed. The results obtained showed that a storage temperature of 4°C was appropriate for maintaining the viability and thermal resistance of B. coagulans ATCC 8038 spores. Acidifying the pH of tomato juice decreased the thermal resistance of these spores. A 1-h exposure at room temperature was considered optimal for preconditioning B. coagulans ATCC 8038 spores in tomato juice.

  12. Susceptibility of Bemisia tabaci MEAM1 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) to imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, dinotefuran and flupyradifurone in south Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Populations of Bemisa tabaci Middle East Asia Minor 1 (MEAM 1) were established from nineteen locations in south Florida, primarily from commercial tomato fields, and were tested using a cotton leaf petiole systemic uptake method for susceptibility to the nicotinic acetylcholine agonist insecticides...

  13. Biology, behavior and management of chilli thrips, and other invasive thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in south Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The rich vegetation and Neotropical climate of Florida make the state suitable for the invasion and establishment of exotic flora and fauna. In the past two decades, there are multiple thrips species which have invaded Florida and are considered serious pests owing to the economic or aesthetic damag...

  14. Environmental Assessment for the Solar Photovoltaic Array at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-24

    Final Environmental Assessment – Eglin Air Force Base, Florida resources addresses the potential for impacts to surface waters, wetlands ...vegetation typically adapted for life in saturated soil conditions. Wetlands generally include swamps, marshes , bogs and similar areas” (USACE, 1987). The...Environmental Assessment – Eglin Air Force Base, Florida jurisdictional wetlands ( wetlands that fall under state or federal regulatory authority) in the United

  15. Mist Interval and Hormone Concentration Influence Rooting of Florida and Piedmont Azalea

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Native azalea (Rhododendron spp.) vegetative propagation information is limited. The objective of this experiment is to determine optimal levels of K-IBA and mist intervals for propagation of Florida azalea (Rhododendron austrinum) and Piedmont azalea (Rhododendron canescens). Florida azalea roote...

  16. Genome-Wide Analysis of the Cyclin Gene Family in Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tingyan; Wang, Xin; Lu, Yongen; Cai, Xiaofeng; Ye, Zhibiao; Zhang, Junhong

    2014-01-01

    Cyclins play important roles in cell division and cell expansion. They also interact with cyclin-dependent kinases to control cell cycle progression in plants. Our genome-wide analysis identified 52 expressed cyclin genes in tomato. Phylogenetic analysis of the deduced amino sequences of tomato and Arabidopsis cyclin genes divided them into 10 types, A-, B-, C-, D-, H-, L-, T-, U-, SDS- and J18. Pfam analysis indicated that most tomato cyclins contain a cyclin-N domain. C-, H- and J18 types only contain a cyclin-C domain, and U-type cyclins contain another potential cyclin domain. All of the cyclin genes are distributed throughout the tomato genome except for chromosome 8, and 30 of them were found to be segmentally duplicated; they are found on the duplicate segments of chromosome 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10, 11 and 12, suggesting that tomato cyclin genes experienced a mass of segmental duplication. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis indicates that the expression patterns of tomato cyclin genes were significantly different in vegetative and reproductive stages. Transcription of most cyclin genes can be enhanced or repressed by exogenous application of gibberellin, which implies that gibberellin maybe a direct regulator of cyclin genes. The study presented here may be useful as a guide for further functional research on tomato cyclins. PMID:24366066

  17. Achieving sustainable cultivation of tomatoes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Preface Tomato is the second largest horticultural crop after potato, a worldwide industry valued at over $50 billion. In addition to being a cash crop for farmers, tomato fruit is a significant dietary source of micronutrients, vitamins and antioxidants in maintaining and enhancing human health. It...

  18. Studies of acid resistance characteristics in multiple drug resistant Salmonella species isolated from tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Naushad, Z; Mishra, S H; Musaddiq, M; Ali, Y A

    2013-04-01

    Salmonella species found to have a great potential of causing a variety of diseases ranging from gastroenteritis to enteric fever. Salmonella have been isolated from all food, animals and also found in the vegetables such as tomatoes, spinach etc. Several out breaks of Salmonellosis have been associated with the consumption of raw tomatoes. This is because of the fact that Salmonella attaches to the surface of tomatoes and also present in the interior part due to geotropic transmission via contaminated soil irrigated with contaminated water. .During the life cycle, Salmonella encounters the various environments such as acidic environment (low pH). To overcome such factors, Salmonella has certain adaptable mechanisms. In present 'study total 200 samples of tomatoes were analyzed out of which 10 samples were found to contain Salmonella. All the 10 isolates were then subjected to the antibiotic susceptibility testing and were found to be resistant against several antibiotics. These were subjected to acid resistant tolerance study.

  19. Bioflavour production from tomato and pepper pomaces by Kluyveromyces marxianus and Debaryomyces hansenii.

    PubMed

    Güneşer, Onur; Demirkol, Aslı; Karagül Yüceer, Yonca; Özmen Toğay, Sine; İşleten Hoşoğlu, Müge; Elibol, Murat

    2015-06-01

    Bioflavours are called natural flavour and/or fragrance compounds which are produced using metabolic pathway of the microorganism and/or plant cells or their enzyme systems with bioengineering approaches. The aim of this study was to investigate bioflavour production from tomato and red pepper pomaces by Kluyveromyces marxianus and Debaryomyces hansenii. Obtained specific growth rates of K. marxianus and D. hansenii in tomato pomace were 0.081/h and 0.177/h, respectively. The bioflavour profile differed between the yeasts. Both yeasts can produce esters and alcohols such as phenyl ethyl alcohol, isoamyl alcohol, isoamyl acetate, phenyl ethyl acetate and isovaleric acid. "Tarhana" and "rose" were descriptive flavour terms for tomato and pepper pomaces fermented by K. marxianus, respectively. Tomato pomace fermented by D. hansenii had the most intense "green bean" flavour while "fermented vegetable" and "storage/yeast" were defined as characteristic flavour terms for pepper pomaces fermented by D. hansenii.

  20. Responses of grafted tomato (Solanum lycopersiocon L.) to abiotic stresses in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Harbi, Abdulaziz; Hejazi, Ahmad; Al-Omran, Abdulrasoul

    2017-09-01

    Quantity and quality of irrigation water are considered the most imperative limiting factors for plant production in arid environment. Adoptions of strategies can minimize crop water consumption while nonexistent yield reduction is considered challenge for scholars especially in arid environment. Grafting is regarded as a promising tool to avoid or reduce yield loss caused by abiotic stresses. Tomato (Solanum lycopersium Mill.), commercial cultivar Faridah was grafted on Unifort rootstock and grown under regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) (100%, 80% and 60% ETc), using two types of irrigation water, fresh (EC = 0.86 dS/m) and brackish (EC = 3.52 dS/m). The effects of grafting and RDI on water use efficiency, vegetative growth, yield, fruit quality were investigated. Plant vegetative growth was reduced under water and salinity stresses. Grafting the plant significantly improves the vegetative growth under both conditions. The results showed that crop yield, Ca(+2) and K(+) were considerably increased in grafted tomato compared to non-grafted plants under water and salinity stresses. Grafted tomato plants accumulated less Na(+) and Cl(-), especially under high levels of salinity compared to non-grafted plants. Grafting tomato plants showed a slight decrease on the fruit quality traits such as vitamin C, titratable acidity (TA) and total soluble solids (TSS). This study confirmed that grafted tomato plants can mitigate undesirable impact of salt stress on growth and fruit quality.

  1. Hydrologic almanac of Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heath, Richard C.; Conover, Clyde Stuart

    1981-01-01

    This first edition is a ready reference source of information on various facts and features about water in Florida. It is aimed primarily to help bust politicians, writers, agency officials, water managers, planners, consultants, educators, hydrologists, engineers, scientists, and the general public answer questions that arise on comparative and statistical aspects on the hydrology of Florida. It contains statistical comparative data, much of which was especially prepared for the almanac, a glossary of technical terms, tabular material, and conversion factors. Also included is a selective bibliography of 174 reports on water in Florida. (USGS)

  2. Northern Everglades, Florida, satellite image map

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Jean-Claude; Jones, John W.

    2002-01-01

    These satellite image maps are one product of the USGS Land Characteristics from Remote Sensing project, funded through the USGS Place-Based Studies Program with support from the Everglades National Park. The objective of this project is to develop and apply innovative remote sensing and geographic information system techniques to map the distribution of vegetation, vegetation characteristics, and related hydrologic variables through space and over time. The mapping and description of vegetation characteristics and their variations are necessary to accurately simulate surface hydrology and other surface processes in South Florida and to monitor land surface changes. As part of this research, data from many airborne and satellite imaging systems have been georeferenced and processed to facilitate data fusion and analysis. These image maps were created using image fusion techniques developed as part of this project.

  3. South Florida Everglades: satellite image map

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, John W.; Thomas, Jean-Claude; Desmond, G.B.

    2001-01-01

    These satellite image maps are one product of the USGS Land Characteristics from Remote Sensing project, funded through the USGS Place-Based Studies Program (http://access.usgs.gov/) with support from the Everglades National Park (http://www.nps.gov/ever/). The objective of this project is to develop and apply innovative remote sensing and geographic information system techniques to map the distribution of vegetation, vegetation characteristics, and related hydrologic variables through space and over time. The mapping and description of vegetation characteristics and their variations are necessary to accurately simulate surface hydrology and other surface processes in South Florida and to monitor land surface changes. As part of this research, data from many airborne and satellite imaging systems have been georeferenced and processed to facilitate data fusion and analysis. These image maps were created using image fusion techniques developed as part of this project.

  4. Evaluation of the impact of hot water treatment on flavor compounds of fresh tomatoes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In June of 2008, two varieties of tomato fruit, Florida 47 (F47) and Tasti-Lee (TL), were harvested mature green and submerged in water at 25º C (control) or 52º C for 5 minutes or 54º C for 2.5 minutes. The fruit were then gassed with ethylene at 100 ppm for 48 hours and ripened at 20º C. Ripeness ...

  5. Citrate, oxalate, sodium, and magnesium levels in fresh juices of three different types of tomatoes: evaluation in the light of the results of studies on orange and lemon juices.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Erdal; Batislam, Ertan; Kacmaz, Murat; Erguder, Imge

    2010-06-01

    Fruit and vegetable juices containing citrate may be recommended as an alternative in mild to moderate level hypocitraturic calcium stone formers who cannot tolerate pharmacological treatment. Tomato has been proved a citrate-rich vegetable. Tomato juice usage as citrate sources in hypocitraturic recurrent stone formers were evaluated in the light of the results of studies on orange and lemon juices. Ten 100 ml samples were prepared from three different tomato types processed through a blender. These samples were examined in terms of citrate, oxalate, calcium, magnesium, and sodium contents. No difference was detected between the parameters tested in three different tomato juices. Fresh tomato juice may be useful in hypocitraturic recurrent stone formers due to its high content of citrate and magnesium, and low content of sodium and oxalate. As the three different types of tomatoes did not differ in terms of citrate, magnesium, sodium, and oxalate content, they may be useful for clinical use if also supported by clinical studies.

  6. Analysis of Sequenced Genomes of Xanthomonas perforans Identifies Candidate Targets for Resistance Breeding in Tomato.

    PubMed

    Timilsina, Sujan; Abrahamian, Peter; Potnis, Neha; Minsavage, Gerald V; White, Frank F; Staskawicz, Brian J; Jones, Jeffrey B; Vallad, Gary E; Goss, Erica M

    2016-10-01

    Bacterial disease management is a challenge for modern agriculture due to rapid changes in pathogen populations. Genome sequences for hosts and pathogens provide detailed information that facilitates effector-based breeding strategies. Tomato genotypes have gene-for-gene resistance to the bacterial spot pathogen Xanthomonas perforans. The bacterial spot populations in Florida shifted from tomato race 3 to 4, such that the corresponding tomato resistance gene no longer recognizes the effector protein AvrXv3. Genome sequencing showed variation in effector profiles among race 4 strains collected in 2006 and 2012 and compared with a race 3 strain collected in 1991. We examined variation in putative targets of resistance among Florida strains of X. perforans collected from 1991 to 2006. Consistent with race change, avrXv3 was present in race 3 strains but nonfunctional in race 4 strains due to multiple independent mutations. Effectors xopJ4 and avrBs2 were unchanged in all strains. The effector avrBsT was absent in race 3 strains collected in the 1990s but present in race 3 strains collected in 2006 and nearly all race 4 strains. These changes in effector profiles suggest that xopJ4 and avrBsT are currently the best targets for resistance breeding against bacterial spot in tomato.

  7. Ethylene regulates the susceptible response to pathogen infection in tomato.

    PubMed Central

    Lund, S T; Stall, R E; Klee, H J

    1998-01-01

    Ethylene evolution occurs concomitantly with the progression of disease symptoms in response to many virulent pathogen infections in plants. A tomato mutant impaired in ethylene perception-Never ripe-exhibited a significant reduction in disease symptoms in comparison to the wild type after inoculations of both genotypes with virulent bacterial (Xanthomonas campestris pv vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato) and fungal (Fusarium oxysporum f sp lycopersici) pathogens. Bacterial spot disease symptoms were also reduced in tomato genotypes impaired in ethylene synthesis (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase) and perception (14893), thereby corroborating a reducing effect for ethylene insensitivity on foliar disease development. The reduction in foliar disease symptoms in Never ripe plants was a specific effect of ethylene insensitivity and was not due to reductions in bacterial populations or decreased ethylene synthesis. PR-1B1 mRNA accumulation in response to X. c. vesicatoria infection was not affected by ethylene insensitivity, indicating that ethylene is not required for defense gene induction. Our findings suggest that broad tolerance of diverse vegetative diseases may be achieved via engineering of ethylene insensitivity in tomato. PMID:9501111

  8. Ethylene regulates the susceptible response to pathogen infection in tomato.

    PubMed

    Lund, S T; Stall, R E; Klee, H J

    1998-03-01

    Ethylene evolution occurs concomitantly with the progression of disease symptoms in response to many virulent pathogen infections in plants. A tomato mutant impaired in ethylene perception-Never ripe-exhibited a significant reduction in disease symptoms in comparison to the wild type after inoculations of both genotypes with virulent bacterial (Xanthomonas campestris pv vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato) and fungal (Fusarium oxysporum f sp lycopersici) pathogens. Bacterial spot disease symptoms were also reduced in tomato genotypes impaired in ethylene synthesis (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase) and perception (14893), thereby corroborating a reducing effect for ethylene insensitivity on foliar disease development. The reduction in foliar disease symptoms in Never ripe plants was a specific effect of ethylene insensitivity and was not due to reductions in bacterial populations or decreased ethylene synthesis. PR-1B1 mRNA accumulation in response to X. c. vesicatoria infection was not affected by ethylene insensitivity, indicating that ethylene is not required for defense gene induction. Our findings suggest that broad tolerance of diverse vegetative diseases may be achieved via engineering of ethylene insensitivity in tomato.

  9. Genetic dissection of vitamin E biosynthesis in tomato

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Juliana; Quadrana, Leandro; Asís, Ramón; Setta, Nathalia; de Godoy, Fabiana; Bermúdez, Luisa; Otaiza, Santiago N.; Corrêa da Silva, Junia V.; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Rossi, Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    Vegetables are critical for human health as they are a source of multiple vitamins including vitamin E (VTE). In plants, the synthesis of VTE compounds, tocopherol and tocotrienol, derives from precursors of the shikimate and methylerythritol phosphate pathways. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for α-tocopherol content in ripe fruit have previously been determined in an Solanum pennellii tomato introgression line population. In this work, variations of tocopherol isoforms (α, β, γ, and δ) in ripe fruits of these lines were studied. In parallel all tomato genes structurally associated with VTE biosynthesis were identified and mapped. Previously identified VTE QTL on chromosomes 6 and 9 were confirmed whilst novel ones were identified on chromosomes 7 and 8. Integrated analysis at the metabolic, genetic and genomic levels allowed us to propose 16 candidate loci putatively affecting tocopherol content in tomato. A comparative analysis revealed polymorphisms at nucleotide and amino acid levels between Solanum lycopersicum and S. pennellii candidate alleles. Moreover, evolutionary analyses showed the presence of codons evolving under both neutral and positive selection, which may explain the phenotypic differences between species. These data represent an important step in understanding the genetic determinants of VTE natural variation in tomato fruit and as such in the ability to improve the content of this important nutriceutical. PMID:21527625

  10. Pollution of Florida's rivers.

    PubMed

    Cromartie, R S

    1991-12-01

    Pollution of Florida's waterways is a serious problem. Sources of pollution include sewage, storm water runoff, faulty septic tanks, improperly constructed landfills, and obstruction by causeway bridges. Some of the major causes and solutions are discussed.

  11. MONITORING FLORIDA'S WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    GIS plays an important role as a management tool for the multi-dimensional Status Monitoring Network (SMN) program to monitor Florida's freshwater resources. By pulling together basin assessments, statistical analysis, surface water and groundwater analytical data, background is...

  12. Hurricane Hermine Approaching Florida

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-12-30

    ... as it approached the coast of Florida. Hermine began life as Tropical Depression Nine, originating off the coast of Cuba on Aug. 28. After heading northwest into the Gulf of Mexico, it took a right turn toward ...

  13. Handling Procedures of Vegetable Crops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele; French, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is working towards future long duration manned space flights beyond low earth orbit. The duration of these missions may be as long as 2.5 years and will likely include a stay on a lunar or planetary surface. The primary goal of the Advanced Food System in these long duration exploratory missions is to provide the crew with a palatable, nutritious, and safe food system while minimizing volume, mass, and waste. Vegetable crops can provide the crew with added nutrition and variety. These crops do not require any cooking or food processing prior to consumption. The vegetable crops, unlike prepackaged foods, will provide bright colors, textures (crispy), and fresh aromas. Ten vegetable crops have been identified for possible use in long duration missions. They are lettuce, spinach, carrot, tomato, green onion, radish, bell pepper, strawberries, fresh herbs, and cabbage. Whether these crops are grown on a transit vehicle (e.g., International Space Station) or on the lunar or planetary surface, it will be necessary to determine how to safely handle the vegetables while maintaining acceptability. Since hydrogen peroxide degrades into water and oxygen and is generally recognized as safe (GRAS), hydrogen peroxide has been recommended as the sanitizer. The objective of th is research is to determine the required effective concentration of hydrogen peroxide. In addition, it will be determined whether the use of hydrogen peroxide, although a viable sanitizer, adversely affects the quality of the vegetables. Vegetables will be dipped in 1 % hydrogen peroxide, 3% hydrogen peroxide, or 5% hydrogen peroxide. Treated produce and controls will be stored in plastic bags at 5 C for up to 14 days. Sensory, color, texture, and total plate count will be measured. The effect on several vegetables including lettuce, radish, tomato and strawberries has been completed. Although each vegetable reacts to hydrogen peroxide differently, the

  14. Florida and the Bahamas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    In this view of the Florida peninsula and the Bahamas (28.5N, 80.0W), the Bahamas are easily identified from orbit because of the vivid blue colors of the shallow Bahama Banks and dark blues of the ocean depths. The Florida peninsula is completely silhoutted by cumulus clouds except for the cloud hole over Lake Okeechobee. The rest of the U.S. Gulf Coast and eastern seaboard is completely obscured by the clouds of an approaching winter front.

  15. Contamination of tomatoes with coliforms and Escherichia coli on farms and in markets of northwest Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Shenge, Kenneth C; Whong, Clement M Z; Yakubu, Lydia L; Omolehin, Raphael A; Erbaugh, J Mark; Miller, Sally A; LeJeune, Jeffrey T

    2015-01-01

    Although recent reports indicated that produce contamination with foodborne pathogens is widespread in Nigeria, the sources and magnitude of microbial contamination of fruits and vegetables on farms and in markets have not been thoroughly identified. To ascertain possible pathways of contamination, the frequency and magnitude of coliform and Escherichia coli contamination of tomatoes produced in northwest Nigeria was assessed on farms and in markets. Eight hundred twenty-six tomato fruit samples and 36 irrigation water samples were collected and assessed for fecal indicator organisms. In addition, the awareness and use of food safety practices by tomato farmers and marketers were determined. Median concentration of coliforms on all field- and market-sourced tomato fruit samples, as well as in irrigation water sources, in Kaduna, Kano, and Katsina states exceeded 1,000 most probable number (MPN) per g. Median E. coli counts from 73 (17%) of 420 field samples and 231 (57%) of 406 market tomato fruit samples exceeded 100 MPN/g. Median E. coli concentrations on tomato fruits were higher (P < 0.01) in the rainy season (2.45 Log MPN/g), when irrigation was not practiced than in the dry (1.10 Log MPN/g) and early dry (0.92 Log MPN/g) seasons. Eighteen (50%) of 36 irrigation water samples had E. coli counts higher than 126 MPN/100 ml. Median E. coli contamination on market tomato fruit samples (2.66 Log MPN/g) were higher (P < 0.001) than those from tomatoes collected on farms (0.92 Log MPN/g). Farmers and marketers were generally unaware of the relationship between food safety practices and microbial contamination on fresh produce. Good agricultural practices pertaining to food safety on farms and in local markets were seldom used. Adoption of food safety practices on-farm, during transport, and during marketing could improve the microbial quality of tomatoes available to the public in this region of the world.

  16. Changes in oxidative stress in transgenic RNAi ACO1 tomato fruit during ripening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eglous, Najat Mohamed; Ali, Zainon Mohd; Hassan, Maizom; Zainal, Zamri

    2013-11-01

    Tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum L.) is the second most cultivated vegetable in the world and widely used as a system for studying the role of ethylene during fruit ripening. Our objective was to study the oxidative stress and antioxidative metabolism during ripening of non transgenic tomato and transgenic line-21 tomato which reduced ethylene. The line-21 of transgenic tomato plants (RNAi ACO1) had lower ethylene production and longer shelf-life more than 32 days as compared to the wild-type fruits which have very short shelf-life. In this study, tomato fruit were divided into five different stages (MG: mature green 5%, B: breaker 25%, T: turning 50%, O: orange75%, RR: red ripe100%). The activity of lipoxygenase (LOX) and lipid peroxidation (MDA) were measured to assess changes in oxidative stress. The LOX activity and MDA content decreased significantly obtaining 2.6-fold and 1.2-fold, respectively, as compared to the wild type fruit. However, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were increased to 1.9 and 1.2 folds from the mature green to the fully ripe stage in transgenic tomatoes. Furthermore, the wild type tomato increases 1.3 in SOD and 1.6 in CAT activities. The overall results indicate that the wild type tomato fruit showed a faster rate of ripening, parallel to decline in the rate of enzymatic antioxidative systems as compared to the transgenic line-21 tomato fruit. In addition, the results show that the antioxidant capacity is improved during the ripening process and is accompanied by an increase in the oxidative stress.

  17. Caribbean Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Small Fruit in Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tephritid fruit flies are among the most important pests of fruits and vegetables worldwide. The Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), is a tephritid pest that became established in Florida following introduction in 1965. Populations of this fruit fly also occur in Puerto Rico and Cuba, ...

  18. Effects of nitrogen and potassium fertilization on the susceptibility of tomatoes to post-harvest proliferation of Salmonella enterica.

    PubMed

    Marvasi, Massimiliano; George, Andrée S; Giurcanu, Mihai; Hochmuth, George J; Noel, Jason T; Gause, Elizabeth; Teplitski, Max

    2014-10-01

    Fresh fruits and vegetables are increasingly recognized as vehicles of salmonellosis. Pre- and post-harvest environmental conditions, and physiological, and genetic factors are thought to contribute to the ability of human pathogens to persist in the production environment, attach to, colonize and proliferate in and on raw produce. How field production conditions affect the post-harvest food safety outcomes is not entirely understood. This study tested how varying nitrogen and potassium fertilization levels affected the "susceptibility" of tomatoes to Salmonella infections following the harvest of fruits. Two tomato varieties grown over three seasons under high, medium, and low levels of nitrogen and potassium fertilization in two locations were inoculated with seven strains of Salmonella. Even though the main effects of nitrogen and potassium fertilization on the susceptibility of tomatoes to infections with Salmonella enterica were not statistically significant overall, differences in nitrogen concentrations in plant tissues correlated with the susceptibility of partially ripe tomatoes (cv. Solar Fire) to Salmonella. Tomato maturity and the season in which tomatoes were produced had the strongest effect on the ability of Salmonella to multiply in tomatoes. Tomato phenolics, accumulation of which is known to correlate with rates of the N fertilization, did not inhibit growth of Salmonella in vitro. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of a hydrodynamic process on extraction of carotenoids from tomato

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We evaluated a proprietary sonoporation method that was introduced with the hope of increasing accessibility of phytonutrients in fruits and vegetables. Two important commodities were selected: tomato, a major source of carotenoids, notably lycopene, in the diet of the Western world; and Citrus, o...

  20. Understanding the global distribution of tomato viruses and viroids using next-generation sequencing technology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) originated in the Americas and is one of the most widely grown vegetables in the world. The modern transportation system, the increasing global seed trade, and the off-shore hybrid seed production have created greater opportunities for potential broader geographic d...

  1. Detection of cuticle defects on cherry tomatoes based on hyperspectral fluorescence imagery

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Even though cherry tomato is one of the major vegetables consumed in the fresh-cut market, its quality evaluation process has been dependent on simple size- or color-sorting techniques, which currently is inadequate for meeting the increased consumer demand for high quality and safety products. Of ...

  2. Salicylic acid-mediated elicitation of tomato defense against infection by potato purple top phytoplasma

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recent outbreaks and continued spread of phytoplasma infection-associated diseases in potato, tomato, and other vegetable crops in the U.S. accentuates the need for practical strategies to mitigate the impact of the phytoplasmal diseases. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether ...

  3. A comparison of disinfectants to prevent spread of potyviruses in greenhouse tomato production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Potyviruses, transmitted by a diverse array of common aphid species, infect a broad range of vegetable crops, and can be problematic in glasshouse tomato production. Once introduced, these viruses are believed to be transmitted plant-to-plant during pruning operations, and can infect large sections...

  4. Vegetable crop management with remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blazquez, C. H.; Elliott, R. A.; Edwards, G. J.

    1981-01-01

    Repetitive aerial photography with color infrared (ACIR) and black-and-white infrared (B and WIR) films was taken of potato and tomato fields in southwest Florida during the spring season of 1975. Color differences observed in the photographs revealed different levels of soil moisture in the fields, improper ditch arrangements, poor stands of plants, and areas where late blight (Phytophthora infestans) (Mont.)d.By and early blight (Alternaria solani) (Ell. and Mart.) Jones and Grout. were defoliating potato plants. Photographs of fields before planting also indicated areas where excessive rock formations existed which would make field preparation costly. Preplanting photographs also pinpointed areas with different water table levels.

  5. Vegetable crop management with remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blazquez, C. H.; Elliott, R. A.; Edwards, G. J.

    1981-01-01

    Repetitive aerial photography with color infrared (ACIR) and black-and-white infrared (B and WIR) films was taken of potato and tomato fields in southwest Florida during the spring season of 1975. Color differences observed in the photographs revealed different levels of soil moisture in the fields, improper ditch arrangements, poor stands of plants, and areas where late blight (Phytophthora infestans) (Mont.)d.By and early blight (Alternaria solani) (Ell. and Mart.) Jones and Grout. were defoliating potato plants. Photographs of fields before planting also indicated areas where excessive rock formations existed which would make field preparation costly. Preplanting photographs also pinpointed areas with different water table levels.

  6. Aucsia gene silencing causes parthenocarpic fruit development in tomato.

    PubMed

    Molesini, Barbara; Pandolfini, Tiziana; Rotino, Giuseppe Leonardo; Dani, Valeria; Spena, Angelo

    2009-01-01

    In angiosperms, auxin phytohormones play a crucial regulatory role in fruit initiation. The expression of auxin biosynthesis genes in ovules and placenta results in uncoupling of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit development from fertilization with production of parthenocarpic fruits. We have identified two newly described genes, named Aucsia genes, which are differentially expressed in auxin-synthesis (DefH9-iaaM) parthenocarpic tomato flower buds. The two tomato Aucsia genes encode 53-amino-acid-long peptides. We show, by RNA interference-mediated gene suppression, that Aucsia genes are involved in both reproductive and vegetative plant development. Aucsia-silenced tomato plants exhibited auxin-related phenotypes such as parthenocarpic fruit development, leaf fusions, and reflexed leaves. Auxin-induced rhizogenesis in cotyledon explants and polar auxin transport in roots were reduced in Aucsia-silenced plants compared with wild-type plants. In addition, Aucsia-silenced plants showed an increased sensitivity to 1-naphthylphthalamic acid, an inhibitor of polar auxin transport. We further prove that total indole-3-acetic acid content was increased in preanthesis Aucsia-silenced flower buds. Thus, the data presented demonstrate that Aucsia genes encode a novel family of plant peptides that control fruit initiation and affect other auxin-related biological processes in tomato. Aucsia homologous genes are present in both chlorophytes and streptophytes, and the encoded peptides are distinguished by a 16-amino-acid-long (PYSGXSTLALVARXSA) AUCSIA motif, a lysine-rich carboxyl-terminal region, and a conserved tyrosine-based endocytic sorting motif.

  7. Biological control of bacterial speck of tomato under field conditions at several locations in north america.

    PubMed

    Wilson, M; Campbell, H L; Ji, P; Jones, J B; Cuppels, D A

    2002-12-01

    ABSTRACT Bacterial speck of tomato, caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, continues to be a problem for tomato growers worldwide. A collection of nonpathogenic bacteria from tomato leaves plus P. syringae strains TLP2 and Cit7, P. fluorescens strain A506, and P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 hrp mutants were examined in a greenhouse bioassay for the ability to reduce foliar bacterial speck disease severity. While several of these strains significantly reduced disease severity, P. syringae Cit7 was the most effective, providing a mean level of disease reduction of 78% under greenhouse conditions. The P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 hrpA, hrpH, and hrpS mutants also significantly reduced speck severity under greenhouse conditions. The strains with the greatest efficacy under greenhouse conditions were tested for the ability to reduce bacterial speck under field conditions at locations in Alabama, Florida, and Ontario, Canada. P. syringae Cit7 was the most effective strain, providing a mean level of disease reduction of 28% over 10 different field experiments. P. fluorescens A506, which is commercially available as Blight-Ban A506, provided a mean level of disease reduction of 18% over nine different field experiments. While neither P. syringae Cit7 nor P. fluorescens A506 can be integrated with copper bactericides due to their copper sensitivity, there exist some potential for integrating these biological control agents with "plant activators", including Actigard. Of the P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 hrp mutants tested, only the hrpS mutant reduced speck severity significantly under field conditions.

  8. Chloroxyanion Residues in Cantaloupe and Tomatoes after Chlorine Dioxide Gas Sanitation.

    PubMed

    Smith, D J; Ernst, W; Herges, G R

    2015-11-04

    Chlorine dioxide gas is effective at cleansing fruits and vegetables of bacterial pathogens and(or) rot organisms, but little data are available on chemical residues remaining subsequent to chlorine gas treatment. Therefore, studies were conducted to quantify chlorate and perchlorate residues after tomato and cantaloupe treatment with chlorine dioxide gas. Treatments delivered 50 mg of chlorine dioxide gas per kg of tomato (2-h treatment) and 100 mg of gas per kg of cantaloupe (6-h treatment) in sealed, darkened containers. Chlorate residues in tomato and cantaloupe edible flesh homogenates were less than the LC-MS/MS limit of quantitation (60 and 30 ng/g respectively), but were 1319 ± 247 ng/g in rind + edible flesh of cantaloupe. Perchlorate residues in all fractions of chlorine dioxide-treated tomatoes and cantaloupe were not different (P > 0.05) than perchlorate residues in similar fractions of untreated tomatoes and cantaloupe. Data from this study suggest that chlorine dioxide sanitation of edible vegetables and melons can be conducted without the formation of unwanted residues in edible fractions.

  9. Tampa Bay, St. Petersburg, Florida, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This photo of the Tampa Bay, St. Petersburg, Florida (28.0N, 82.5W) is one of a pair (see STS049-97-020) to compare the differences between color film and color infrared film. In the color image above, the scene appears as it would to the human eye. The city of St. Petersburg can be seen even though there is atmospheric haze obscuring the image. Color infrared film filters out the haze and portrays vegetation as shades of red or pink.

  10. Tampa Bay, St. Petersburg, Florida, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This photo of the Tampa Bay, St. Petersburg, Florida (28.0N, 82.5W) is one of a pair (see STS049-92-017) to compare the differences between color film and color infrared film. In the color image above, the scene appears as it would to the human eye. The city of St. Petersburg can be seen even though there is atmospheric haze obscuring the image. Color infrared film filters out the haze and portrays vegetation as shades of red or pink.

  11. Qualitative and nutritional differences in processing tomatoes grown under commercial organic and conventional production systems.

    PubMed

    Barrett, D M; Weakley, C; Diaz, J V; Watnik, M

    2007-11-01

    Organically grown products experienced a doubling in percent penetration of organic sales into retail markets during the period from 1997 to 2003; however, there is still a debate over the perceived quality advantage of organically grown fruits and vegetables. In a study focusing on commercial production of processing tomatoes, samples were analyzed from 4 growers with matched organic and conventional fields. For the 4 growers studied, individual analysis of variance results indicated that tomato juice prepared from organically produced tomatoes on some farms was significantly higher in soluble solids ( degrees Brix), higher in consistency, and titratable acidity, but lower in red color, ascorbic acid, and total phenolics content in the microwaved juice. Results were significantly different among specific growers, and this may be attributed to differences in soil type and soil nutrients, tomato cultivar, environmental conditions, or other production-related factors. Higher levels of soluble solids, titratable acidity, and consistency are desirable for the production of tomato paste, in that tomatoes with these attributes may be more flavorful and require less thermal treatment. This has the potential to result both in cost savings from less energy required in paste manufacture and potentially a higher quality product due to less thermal degradation of color, flavor, and nutrients. Future work may involve a larger number of commercial growers and correlation to controlled university research plots.

  12. The sugar transporter inventory of tomato: genome-wide identification and expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Reuscher, Stefan; Akiyama, Masahito; Yasuda, Tomohide; Makino, Haruko; Aoki, Koh; Shibata, Daisuke; Shiratake, Katsuhiro

    2014-06-01

    The mobility of sugars between source and sink tissues in plants depends on sugar transport proteins. Studying the corresponding genes allows the manipulation of the sink strength of developing fruits, thereby improving fruit quality for human consumption. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is both a major horticultural crop and a model for the development of fleshy fruits. In this article we provide a comprehensive inventory of tomato sugar transporters, including the SUCROSE TRANSPORTER family, the SUGAR TRANSPORTER PROTEIN family, the SUGAR FACILITATOR PROTEIN family, the POLYOL/MONOSACCHARIDE TRANSPORTER family, the INOSITOL TRANSPORTER family, the PLASTIDIC GLUCOSE TRANSLOCATOR family, the TONOPLAST MONOSACCHARIDE TRANSPORTER family and the VACUOLAR GLUCOSE TRANSPORTER family. Expressed sequence tag (EST) sequencing and phylogenetic analyses established a nomenclature for all analyzed tomato sugar transporters. In total we identified 52 genes in tomato putatively encoding sugar transporters. The expression of 29 sugar transporter genes in vegetative tissues and during fruit development was analyzed. Several sugar transporter genes were expressed in a tissue- or developmental stage-specific manner. This information will be helpful to better understand source to sink movement of photoassimilates in tomato. Identification of fruit-specific sugar transporters might be a first step to find novel genes contributing to tomato fruit sugar accumulation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Efficient increase of ɣ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content in tomato fruits by targeted mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Satoko; Arai, Chikako; Takayama, Mariko; Matsukura, Chiaki; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2017-08-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a non-proteinogenic amino acid that has hypotensive effects. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is among the most widely cultivated and consumed vegetables in the world and contains higher levels of GABA than other major crops. Increasing these levels can further enhance the blood pressure-lowering function of tomato fruit. Glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) is a key enzyme in GABA biosynthesis; it has a C-terminal autoinhibitory domain that regulates enzymatic function, and deleting this domain increases GAD activity. The tomato genome has five GAD genes (SlGAD1-5), of which two (SlGAD2 and SlGAD3) are expressed during tomato fruit development. To increase GABA content in tomato, we deleted the autoinhibitory domain of SlGAD2 and SlGAD3 using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein (Cas)9 technology. Introducing a stop codon immediately before the autoinhibitory domain increased GABA accumulation by 7 to 15 fold while having variable effects on plant and fruit size and yield. This is the first study describing the application of the CRISPR/Cas9 system to increase GABA content in tomato fruits. Our findings provide a basis for the improvement of other types of crop by CRISPR/Cas9-based genetic modification.

  14. Assessing Salinity in Cotton and Tomato Plants by Using Reflectance Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldshleger, Naftaly

    2016-04-01

    Irrigated lands in semi-arid and arid areas are subjected to salinization processes. An example of this phenomenon is the Jezreel Valley in northern Israel where soil salinity has increased over the years. The increase in soil salinity results in the deterioration of the soil structure and crops damage. In this experiment we quantified the relation between the chemical and spectral features of cotton and tomato plants and their mutual relationship to soil salinity. The experiment was carried out as part of ongoing research aiming to detect and monitor saline soils and vegetation by combining different remote sensing methods. The aim of this study was to use vegetation reflectance measurements to predict foliar Cl and Na concentration and assess salinity in the soil and in vegetation by their reflectance measurements. The model developed for determining concentrations of chlorine and sodium in tomato and cotton produced good results ( R2 = 0.92 for sodium and 0.85 for chlorine in tomato and R2 = 0.84 for sodium and 0.82 for chlorine in cotton). Lately, we extend the method to calculate vegetation salinity, by doing correlation between the reflectance slopes of the tested crops CL and Na from two research areas. The developed model produced a good results for all the data (R2=0.74) Our method can be implemented to assess vegetation salinity ahead of planting, and developed as a generic tool for broader use for agriculture in semi-arid regions. In our opinion these results show the possibility of monitoring for a threshold level of salinity in tomato and cotton leaves so remedial action can be taken in time to prevent crop damage. Our results strongly suggest that future imaging spectroscopy remote sensing measurements collected by airborne and satellite platforms could measure the salinity of soil and vegetation over larger areas. These results can be the first steps for generic a model which includes more vegetation for salinity measurements.

  15. Isolation, identification, and biocontrol of antagonistic bacterium against Botrytis cinerea after tomato harvest.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jun-Feng; Sun, Chang-Qing

    2017-06-03

    Tomato is one of the most important vegetables in the world. Decay after harvest is a major issue in the development of tomato industry. Currently, the most effective method for controlling decay after harvest is storage of tomato at low temperature combined with usage of chemical bactericide; however, long-term usage of chemical bactericide not only causes pathogen resistance but also is harmful for human health and environment. Biocontrol method for the management of disease after tomato harvest has great practical significance. In this study, antagonistic bacterium B-6-1 strain was isolated from the surface of tomato and identified as Enterobacter cowanii based on morphological characteristics and physiological and biochemical features combined with sequence analysis of 16SrDNA and ropB gene and construction of dendrogram. Effects of different concentrations of antagonistic bacterium E. cowanii suspension on antifungal activity after tomato harvest were analyzed by mycelium growth rate method. Results revealed that antifungal activity was also enhanced with increasing concentrations of antagonistic bacterium; inhibitory rates of 1×10(5) colony-forming units (cfu)/mL antagonistic bacterial solution on Fusarium verticillioides, Alternaria tenuissima, and Botrytis cinerea were 46.31%, 67.48%, and 75.67%, respectively. By using in vivo inoculation method, it was further confirmed that antagonistic bacterium could effectively inhibit the occurrence of B. cinerae after tomato harvest, biocontrol effect of 1×10(9)cfu/mL zymotic fluid reached up to 95.24%, and antagonistic bacterium E. cowanii has biocontrol potential against B. cinerea after harvest of fruits and vegetables. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. First Report of Tomato Chlorotic Dwarf Viroid in Greenhouse Tomatoes in Arizona

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid (TCDVd) was first identified on greenhouse tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) in Canada in 1999. Since then, it has also been reported on tomato in Colorado, US and Japan and on ornamental plants in or from Europe and North America. In 2006, tomato plants in a large greenh...

  17. Freshwater mussels of Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, James D.; Butler, Robert S.; Warren, Gary L.; Johnson, Nathan A.

    2014-01-01

    An exhaustive guide to all aspects of the freshwater mussel fauna in Florida,Freshwater Mussels of Florida covers the ecology, biology, distribution, and conservation of the many species of bivalve mollusks in the Sunshine State. In the past three decades, researchers, the public, businesses that depend on wildlife, and policy makers have given more attention to the threatened natural diversity of the Southeast, including freshwater mussels. This compendium meets the increasingly urgent need to catalog this imperiled group of aquatic organisms in the United States.

  18. Impact of Wild Loci on the Allergenic Potential of Cultivated Tomato Fruits.

    PubMed

    Ghiani, Alessandra; D'Agostino, Nunzio; Citterio, Sandra; Raiola, Assunta; Asero, Riccardo; Barone, Amalia; Rigano, Maria Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is one of the most extensively consumed vegetables but, unfortunately, it is also able to induce allergic reactions. In the past, it has been shown that the choice of tomato cultivar significantly influenced the allergic reaction of tomato allergic subjects. In this study we investigated the allergenic potential of the cultivated tomato line M82 and of two selected lines carrying small chromosome regions from the wild species Solanum pennellii (i.e. IL7-3 and IL12-4). We evaluated the positive interactions of IgEs of allergic subjects in order to investigate the different allergenic potential of the lines under investigation. We used proteomic analyses in order to identify putative tomato allergens. In addition, bioinformatic and transcriptomic approaches were applied in order to analyse the structure and the expression profiles of the identified allergen-encoding genes. These analyses demonstrated that fruits harvested from the two selected introgression lines harbour a different allergenic potential as those from the cultivated genotype M82. The different allergenicity found within the three lines was mostly due to differences in the IgE recognition of a polygalacturonase enzyme (46 kDa), one of the major tomato allergens, and of a pectin methylesterase (34 kDa); both the proteins were more immunoreactive in IL7-3 compared to IL12-4 and M82. The observed differences in the allergenic potential were mostly due to line-dependent translational control or post-translational modifications of the allergens. We demonstrated, for the first time, that the introgression from a wild species (S. pennellii) in the genomic background of a cultivated tomato line influences the allergenic properties of the fruits. Our findings could support the isolation of favorable wild loci promoting low allergenic potential in tomato.

  19. Sugarcane Variety Census: Florida 2010

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Florida sugarcane industry produces about 25% of all sugar produced in the U.S. Varieties originate from two sources, a private breeding and selection program of the United States Sugar Corporation in Clewiston, Florida and a public program at Canal Point, Florida supported by the USDA-Agricultu...

  20. Sugarcane Variety Census: Florida 2008

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Florida sugarcane industry produces about 25% of all sugar produced in the U.S. Varieties originate from two sources, a private breeding and selection program of the United States Sugar Corporation in Clewiston, Florida and a public program at Canal Point, Florida supported by the USDA-Agricultu...

  1. Sugarcane Variety Census: Florida 2007

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Florida sugarcane industry produces about 25% of all sugar produced in the U.S. Varieties originate from two sources, a private breeding and selection program of the United States Sugar Corporation in Clewiston, Florida and a public program at Canal Point, Florida supported by the USDA-Agricultu...

  2. Ecological characterization of the lower Everglades, Florida Bay, and the Florida Keys

    SciTech Connect

    Schomer, N.S.; Drew, R.D.

    1982-09-01

    A conceptual model of the study area identifies four major ecological zones: (1) terrestrial and freshwater wetlands, (2) estuarine and saltwater wetlands, (3) Florida Bay and mangrove islands, and (4) the Florida Keys. These zones are delineated by differences in basic physical-chemical background factors which in turn promote characteristic ecological communities. The terrestrial and freshwater wetlands support pinelands, sawgrass marshes, wet prairies, sloughs and occasional tree islands. The estuarine and saltwater wetlands support mangrove forests, salt marshes and oscillating salinity systems. Florida Bay exhibits oscillating meso- to hypersaline waters over grassbeds on marine lime mud sediments surrounding deeper lake areas. The exposed tips of the mud banks frequently support mangrove or salt prairie vegetation. The Florida Keys support almost all of the above communities to some small degree but are characterized by extensive offshore coral reefs. The productivity of these communities with regard to fish and wildlife reflects (1) the diversity and type of habitats available to species that are potentially capable of exploiting them, (2) the degree of alteration of these habitats by man and natural forces, and (3) historical, biogeographic and random factors that restrict organisms to specific environments or prohibit them from exploiting a potential habitat.

  3. Management of root-knot nematode in tomato Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill, with biogas slurry.

    PubMed

    Jothi, G; Pugalendhi, S; Poornima, K; Rajendran, G

    2003-09-01

    The effect of biogas slurry application on the severity of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, attack on tomato cv. Co-1, was tested in the green house with two levels of biogas slurry: 5% and 10% (w/w) added to soil. Both the number (3 fruits/plant) and fruit yield (35.2 g/plant) of tomato increased significantly with 10% (w/w) biogas slurry. The plants amended with biogas slurry put up more vegetative growth and tended to flower and fruit much earlier than did those of the control. The nematode population in the soil decreased thus decreasing the severity of nematode attack.

  4. Wetlands: Crop freezes and land-use change in Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marshall, C.H.; Pielke, R.A.; Steyaert, L.T.

    2003-01-01

    South Florida experienced a significant change in land usage during the twentieth century, including the conversion of natural wetlands into agricultural land for the cultivation of winter vegetable, sugar cane and citrus crops. This movement of agriculture from more northerly areas was intended partly to escape the risk of damaging winter freezes. Here we present evidence from a case study using a coupled atmosphere and land-surface computer-modelling system that suggests that the draining of wetlands may have inadvertently increased the frequency and severity of agriculturally damaging freezes in the south of Florida.

  5. Increased Postharvest Life of TomLox B Silenced Mutants of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Var. TA234.

    PubMed

    León-García, Elizabeth; Vela-Gutiérrez, Gilber; Del Ángel-Coronel, Oscar A; Torres-Palacios, Cristobal; La Cruz-Medina, Javier De; Gómez-Lim, Miguel A; García, Hugo Sergio

    2017-09-16

    A healthy lifestyle includes fruits and vegetables consumption. Tomato is one of the most consumed vegetables, although it is susceptible to physical damage through postharvest handling, thus leading to important losses. Softening is an important variable during tomato ripening; excessive softening is undesirable and leads to postharvest losses. TomloxB plays an important role in ripening, mainly in the loss of cellular integrity caused by fatty acids released from the lipid matrix of membranes that initiate oxidative deterioration, which is in turn carried into senescence. In order to increase postharvest life, we produced transgenic tomato plants via Rhizobium radiobacter with tomato lipoxygenase B (TomloxB) antisense constructs under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter. Lipoxygenase activity and firmness were measured in tomato fruit and the fatty acids profile was determined. Transgenic fruits were maintained for 40 days at room temperature in optimal conditions, whereas wild type fruits remained in similar conditions for only six days. Firmness in pink and red stages was significantly lower in wild type fruits than in two transgenic lines. Linolenic acid was the most important fatty acid consumed by lipoxygenase in both turning and pink stages of ripening. Lipoxygenase activity was smaller in transformed fruits in comparison with the wild type. These results suggest that silencing the TomloxB gene promoted significant changes in the physiology of transformed tomatoes, being the increase in postharvest life the most important.

  6. 21 CFR 155.191 - Tomato concentrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tomato concentrates. 155.191 Section 155.191 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Tomato concentrates. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Tomato concentrates are the class of foods each...

  7. 21 CFR 156.145 - Tomato juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the unfermented liquid extracted from mature tomatoes of the red or reddish varieties of Lycopersicum... be applied by any method which does not add water thereto. Such juice is strained free from peel... have been concentrated and later reconstituted with water and/or tomato juice to a tomato...

  8. Florida Language Profile Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolking, William D.; And Others

    Described in the manual is the Florida Language Profile (funded through Title VI), a flexible set of performance sampling procedures for measuring language cognitive skills of children in kindergarten and grade 1 and remediating diagnosed disabilities. It is said that the Profile may be administered by the trained examiner or classroom teacher on…

  9. Florida's Online Option

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Bill

    2009-01-01

    Education reform often appears a zero-sum battle, one that pits crusaders demanding accountability and choice against much of the traditional education establishment, including teachers unions. The political skirmishes in Florida, including court fights over vouchers and charter schools, and ongoing struggles over a parade of different merit pay…

  10. Florida Driver Education Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mick, Susan H.

    This student edition contains the same basic information as the official Florida Driver Handbook, but the reading difficulty of the material has been sharply reduced. It also provides activity-oriented exercises and review tests on this material. Introductory materials include a complete listing of all activities given, some vocabulary exercises…

  11. Florida's forests, 1987

    Treesearch

    William A. Bechtold; Mark J. Brown; Raymond M. Sheffield

    1990-01-01

    This resource bulletin describes the principal findings of the sixth inventory of Florida’s forest resources. Data concerning the extent and condition of forest land, as well as associated timber inventory, growth, and removal volumes are presented and analyzed. In accordance with the Forest and rangeland renewable resources planning act of 1974, information on...

  12. Florida's timber, 1970

    Treesearch

    Herbert A. Knight; Joe P. McClure

    1970-01-01

    This report presents the principal findings of the fourth Forest Survey of Florida's timber resource, The survey was started in July 1968 and completed in June 1970. Findings of the three previous surveys, completed in 1936, 1949, and 1959, provide the basis for measuring changes that have occurred and trends that have developed over the past 34 years. In this...

  13. The Maya of Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Allan F.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the Maya people who fled Guatemala due to a civil war and illegally entered the U.S. and settled in Florida. Presents a picture of their living conditions, employment opportunities, cultural traditions, community development, and family organization. Discusses a Kanjobal Association and the CORN-MAYA program, and explains immigration…

  14. Conservation: saving Florida's manatees

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonde, Robert K.

    2008-01-01

    Robert K. Bonde of the U.S. Geological Survey writes about the protected population of manatees in Crystal River, Florida, including information about the threats they face as they migrate in and out of protected waters. Photographer Carol Grant shares images of "Angel," a newborn manatee she photographed early one winter morning.

  15. Florida Education Opinionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, Robert L.; Gordon, Ira J.

    The Florida Education Opinionnaire (FEO) was designed to determine the belief system of American educators. It consists of 24 statements of educational objectives and techniques to which the subject responds on a scale of 1 to 5, strongly agree to strongly disagree. The instrument requires no special skills for its administration or scoring and…

  16. Florida's forests-2005 update

    Treesearch

    Mark J. Brown

    2007-01-01

    This bulletin highlights principal findings of an annual inventory of Florida's forests. Data summaries are based on measurements of 60 percent of the plots in the State. Additional data summaries and bulletins will be published as the remaining plots are measured.

  17. Florida's forests, 1995

    Treesearch

    Mark J. Brown

    1999-01-01

    Between 1987 and 1995, timberland area in Florida decreased by 2 percent to less than 14.7 million acres. Timberland under nonindustrial private ownership increased 2 percent to 7.2 million acres, and public ownership increased 16 percent to 2.8 million acres. However, timberland controlled by forest industry decreased by 16 percent to 4.6 million acres. Pine...

  18. Florida and SREB

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Southern Regional Education Board is a nonprofit organization that works collaboratively with Florida and 15 other member states to improve education at every level-- from pre-K to postdoctoral study-- through many effective programs and initiatives. SREB's "Challenge to Lead Goals for Education", which call for the region to lead…

  19. The Seminoles of Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covington, James W.

    This book gives a complete account of the Florida Seminoles from their entrance into the state almost 300 years ago, through the great chiefdoms of Micanopy, Osceola, and Billy Bowlegs, to the current political reality of democratic tribal elections. After moving into the peninsula from Georgia and Alabama, the Seminoles fought three wars against…

  20. Florida Educational Facilities, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Office of Educational Facilities.

    This publication describes Florida school and community college facilities completed in 1999, including photographs and floor plans. The facilities profiled are: Buchholz High School (Alachua County); Gator Run Elementary School (Broward); Corkscrew Elementary School (Collier); The 500 Role Models Academy of Excellence (Miami-Dade); Caribbean…

  1. MISR Views Florida

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-06-20

    A plume from a large brush fire that burned about 15,000 acres in 2000 is visible at the western edge of the Big Cypress Swamp in southern Florida. NASA Terra satellite captured acquired this image on April 9, 2000. 3D glasses are necessary.

  2. The Seminoles of Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covington, James W.

    This book gives a complete account of the Florida Seminoles from their entrance into the state almost 300 years ago, through the great chiefdoms of Micanopy, Osceola, and Billy Bowlegs, to the current political reality of democratic tribal elections. After moving into the peninsula from Georgia and Alabama, the Seminoles fought three wars against…

  3. Florida Educational Facilities, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Office of Educational Facilities.

    This publication describes Florida school and community college facilities completed in 2000, including photographs and floor plans. The facilities profiled are:J. R. Arnold High School (Bay County); Falcon Cove Middle School (Broward); Floranada Elementary School (Broward); Lyons Creek Middle School (Broward); Parkside Elementary School…

  4. Florida's Online Option

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Bill

    2009-01-01

    Education reform often appears a zero-sum battle, one that pits crusaders demanding accountability and choice against much of the traditional education establishment, including teachers unions. The political skirmishes in Florida, including court fights over vouchers and charter schools, and ongoing struggles over a parade of different merit pay…

  5. Migrant Programs in Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Migrant Information Clearinghouse, Austin, TX. Juarez-Lincoln Center.

    As the last of 3 directories, this lists services available to migrants in Florida. Migrant programs, Community Action Agencies, and labor camps in the state are identified by county. Information for each county includes total population, estimated migrant population, migrant labor demand, estimated migrant wages, crops, work periods, migrant…

  6. Discovering Florida through Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Liz; Smith, Martha

    Noting that a student's study of a state becomes more meaningful when children's and young adult literature is used as an enhancement, this book offers Florida-related works of literature to broaden the study of the state. The book is organized by category: history, historical fiction, biographies, plants, animals, fiction, geography, and travel.…

  7. The Maya of Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Allan F.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the Maya people who fled Guatemala due to a civil war and illegally entered the U.S. and settled in Florida. Presents a picture of their living conditions, employment opportunities, cultural traditions, community development, and family organization. Discusses a Kanjobal Association and the CORN-MAYA program, and explains immigration…

  8. New metrics of affordable nutrition: which vegetables provide most nutrients for least cost?

    PubMed

    Drewnowski, Adam

    2013-09-01

    Measuring food prices per gram, rather than per calorie, is one way to make healthful vegetables appear less expensive. However, a better measure of affordability would take the nutrient content of vegetables into account. This study, based on analyses of US Department of Agriculture datasets, aimed to identify which vegetables, including juices and soups, provided the most nutrients per unit cost. Nutrient density was measured using the Nutrient Rich Foods (NRF) index, based on nine nutrients to encourage: protein; fiber; vitamins A, C, and E; calcium; iron; magnesium; and potassium; and on three nutrients to limit: saturated fat, added sugar, and sodium. Food cost in dollars was calculated per 100 g, per 100 kcal, per serving, and per nutrient content. One-way analyses of variance with post hoc tests were used to determine statistical significance. Results showed that tomato juices and tomato soups, dark green leafy and nonleafy vegetables, and deep yellow vegetables, including sweet potatoes, had the highest NRF scores overall. Highest NRF scores per dollar were obtained for sweet potatoes, white potatoes, tomato juices and tomato soups, carrots, and broccoli. Tomato sauces, raw tomatoes, and potato chips were eaten more frequently than were many other vegetables that were both more affordable and more nutrient-rich. These new measures of affordable nutrition can help foodservice and health professionals identify those vegetables that provide the highest nutrient density per unit cost. Processed vegetables, including soups and juices, can contribute to the quality and the affordability of the diet. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) variety discrimination and hybridization analysis based on the 5S rRNA region.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan-Lin; Kang, Ho-Min; Kim, Young-Sik; Baek, Jun-Pill; Zheng, Shi-Lin; Xiang, Jin-Jun; Hong, Soon-Kwan

    2014-05-04

    The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is a major vegetable crop worldwide. To satisfy popular demand, more than 500 tomato varieties have been bred. However, a clear variety identification has not been found. Thorough understanding of the phylogenetic relationship and hybridization information of tomato varieties is very important for further variety breeding. Thus, in this study, we collected 26 tomato varieties and attempted to distinguish them based on the 5S rRNA region, which is widely used in the determination of phylogenetic relations. Sequence analysis of the 5S rRNA region suggested that a large number of nucleotide variations exist among tomato varieties. These variable nucleotide sites were also informative regarding hybridization. Chromas sequencing of Yellow Mountain View and Seuwiteuking varieties indicated three and one variable nucleotide sites in the non-transcribed spacer (NTS) of the 5S rRNA region showing hybridization, respectively. Based on a phylogenetic tree constructed using the 5S rRNA sequences, we observed that 16 tomato varieties were divided into three groups at 95% similarity. Rubiking and Sseommeoking, Lang Selection Procedure and Seuwiteuking, and Acorn Gold and Yellow Mountain View exhibited very high identity with their partners. This work will aid variety authentication and provides a basis for further tomato variety breeding.

  10. Influence of simulated Quinclorac drift on the accumulation and movement of herbicide in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants.

    PubMed

    Lovelace, Michael L; Hoagland, Robert E; Talbert, Ronald E; Scherder, Eric F

    2009-07-22

    Quinclorac (3,7-dichloro-8-quinolinecarboxylic acid) is a herbicide commonly used in rice, and its drift has been suspected of causing injury to off-target tomato fields throughout Arkansas. Studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of single and multiple simulated quinclorac drift applications on tomato plant growth and development. Residues extracted from tomato plants treated with 0.42 g of ai ha(-1) were below the detection limit of liquid chromatography-double mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Quinclorac residue levels and half-lives in tomato tissue increased as the application rate and number of applications increased. From 3 to 72 h after (14)C-quinclorac treatment of plants, most of the absorbed (14)C was retained in the treated leaf, and translocations of (14)C out of the treated leaf of vegetative and flowering tomato plant tissues were similar. Of the (14)C that translocated out of the treated leaf, the greatest movement was acropetally. The flower cluster contained 1% of the total absorbed (14)C, which suggests the potential for quinclorac translocation into tomato fruit. More extensive research will be required to understand the impact that quinclorac may have on tomato production in the area.

  11. 7 CFR 966.87 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 966.87 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges,...

  12. 7 CFR 966.24 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order... committee members the following districts of the production area are hereby initially established....

  13. 7 CFR 966.24 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order... committee members the following districts of the production area are hereby initially established....

  14. 7 CFR 966.53 - Minimum quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order..., may establish, for any or all portions of the production area, minimum quantities below which...

  15. 7 CFR 966.45 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order... contributions but these shall only be used for production research, market research and development...

  16. 7 CFR 966.24 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order... committee members the following districts of the production area are hereby initially established....

  17. 7 CFR 966.53 - Minimum quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order..., may establish, for any or all portions of the production area, minimum quantities below which...

  18. 7 CFR 966.45 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order... contributions but these shall only be used for production research, market research and development...

  19. 7 CFR 966.45 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order... contributions but these shall only be used for production research, market research and development...

  20. 7 CFR 966.24 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order... committee members the following districts of the production area are hereby initially established....

  1. 7 CFR 966.53 - Minimum quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order..., may establish, for any or all portions of the production area, minimum quantities below which...

  2. 7 CFR 966.45 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order... contributions but these shall only be used for production research, market research and development...

  3. 7 CFR 966.53 - Minimum quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order..., may establish, for any or all portions of the production area, minimum quantities below which...

  4. Antioxidant nutritional quality of tomato.

    PubMed

    Frusciante, Luigi; Carli, Paola; Ercolano, Maria R; Pernice, Rita; Di Matteo, Antonio; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Pellegrini, Nicoletta

    2007-05-01

    Regular consumption of tomatoes has been associated with decreased risk of chronic degenerative diseases. Epidemiological findings confirm the observed health effects are due to the presence of different antioxidant molecules such as carotenoids, particularly lycopene, ascorbic acid, vitamin E and phenol compounds, particularly flavonoids. In this work, eight components contributing to the healthy quality of tomato (i. e. lycopene, beta-carotene, other carotenoids, flavonoids, phenolic acids, vitamins C and E, dry residue) were studied in the framework of breeding programs aiming to develop nutritional superior genotypes. Twelve tomato advanced breeding lines and six open pollinated cultivars were grown in strictly controlled conditions and analysed for their content of antioxidants. Among the 18 genotypes analysed, 10 showed a high level of total carotenoids, 6 high level of beta-carotene, 9 high lycopene levels, 15 high flavonoids and 2 relevant concentration of vitamin E. Based on such data and on a literature survey on tomato composition, an index, called index of antioxidant nutritional quality (I(QUAN)), was proposed as a tool to address the breeding programs in selecting tomato genotypes with antioxidant nutritional qualities.

  5. Florida Hydrogen Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Block, David L

    2013-06-30

    The Florida Hydrogen Initiative (FHI) was a research, development and demonstration hydrogen and fuel cell program. The FHI program objectives were to develop Florida?s hydrogen and fuel cell infrastructure and to assist DOE in its hydrogen and fuel cell activities The FHI program funded 12 RD&D projects as follows: Hydrogen Refueling Infrastructure and Rental Car Strategies -- L. Lines, Rollins College This project analyzes strategies for Florida's early stage adaptation of hydrogen-powered public transportation. In particular, the report investigates urban and statewide network of refueling stations and the feasibility of establishing a hydrogen rental-car fleet based in Orlando. Methanol Fuel Cell Vehicle Charging Station at Florida Atlantic University ? M. Fuchs, EnerFuel, Inc. The project objectives were to design, and demonstrate a 10 kWnet proton exchange membrane fuel cell stationary power plant operating on methanol, to achieve an electrical energy efficiency of 32% and to demonstrate transient response time of less than 3 milliseconds. Assessment of Public Understanding of the Hydrogen Economy Through Science Center Exhibits, J. Newman, Orlando Science Center The project objective was to design and build an interactive Science Center exhibit called: ?H2Now: the Great Hydrogen Xchange?. On-site Reformation of Diesel Fuel for Hydrogen Fueling Station Applications ? A. Raissi, Florida Solar Energy Center This project developed an on-demand forecourt hydrogen production technology by catalytically converting high-sulfur hydrocarbon fuels to an essentially sulfur-free gas. The removal of sulfur from reformate is critical since most catalysts used for the steam reformation have limited sulfur tolerance. Chemochromic Hydrogen Leak Detectors for Safety Monitoring ? N. Mohajeri and N. Muradov, Florida Solar Energy Center This project developed and demonstrated a cost-effective and highly selective chemochromic (visual) hydrogen leak detector for safety monitoring

  6. Reduction of pesticide residues in tomatoes and other produce.

    PubMed

    Al-Taher, Fadwa; Chen, Yang; Wylie, Philip; Cappozzo, Jack

    2013-03-01

    There is interest in reducing pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables in order to minimize human exposure. The objectives of this study were to (i) determine the effect of various washing treatments with and without sonication on pesticide removal from tomatoes and (ii) assess the effectiveness of a water wash on select samples using a produce-washing flume. In the first set of experiments, tomatoes were contaminated with acephate, malathion, carbaryl, bifenthrin, cypermethrin, permethrin, cyhalothrin, chlorothalonil, and imidacloprid and were dried overnight. Subsets of the tomatoes were then washed (10°C, 1 min) with one of the following: water, sodium hypochlorite (80 μg/ml, pH 7), peroxyacetic acid (80 μg/ml), or Tween 20 (0.1%) with and without sonication. In general, the effect of sonication depended on the washing treatment and on the pesticide. A separate experiment measured pesticide residues in contaminated samples before and after being washed in a flume (22°C, 1 min). Pesticide residues in contaminated produce were reduced from about 40 to 90% when washed for 1 min in the flume.

  7. Tomato Fruits-A Platform for Metabolic Engineering of Terpenes.

    PubMed

    Gutensohn, M; Dudareva, N

    2016-01-01

    Terpenoids are a large and diverse class of plant metabolites including mono-, sesqui-, and diterpenes. They have numerous functions in basic physiological processes as well as the interaction of plants with their biotic and abiotic environment. Due to the tight regulation of biosynthetic pathways and the resulting limited natural availability of terpenes, there is a strong interest in increasing their production in plants by metabolic engineering for agricultural, pharmaceutical, and industrial applications. The tomato fruit system was developed as a platform for metabolic engineering of terpenes to overcome detrimental effects on overall plant growth and photosynthesis traits, which are affected when terpenoid engineering is performed in vegetative tissues. Here we describe how the use of fruit-specific promoters for transgene expression can avoid these unwanted effects. In addition, targeting the expression of the introduced terpene biosynthetic gene to fruit tissue can take advantage of the large precursor pool provided by the methylerythritol-phosphate (MEP) pathway, which is highly active during tomato fruit ripening to facilitate the accumulation of carotenoids. We also discuss how the production of high levels of target terpene compounds can be achieved in fruits by the expression of individual or a combination of (i) the MEP or mevalonic acid pathway enzymes, (ii) prenyltransferases, and/or (iii) terpene synthases. Finally, we provide a brief outline of how the emitted as well as internal pools of terpenes can be analyzed in transgenic tomato fruits. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Vegetable, Sauce, and Bakery Item Production Guides Prepared for Walter Reed Army Medical Center

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    Pasta Items 21 Potato Items 27 Rice Items **5 Vegetable Items 53 Gravies 95 Sauces 103 Bakery Items 109 Biscuits 110 Breads 112 Cakes 116...Metabisulfite 1? PASTA Spaghetti in Tomato Sauce 21 SPAGHETTI IN TOMATO SAUCE Yield: 100 Portions Each Portion: 6 oz (170 g) Ingredients...Mix at low speed for 5 minutes. Add margarine and whip until light and fluffy. 3. Add thawed eggs to potato mixture and blend until smooth

  9. Salmonella newport and typhimurium colonization of fruit differs from leaves in various tomato cultivars.

    PubMed

    Han, Sanghyun; Micallef, Shirley Ann

    2014-11-01

    Several outbreaks of Salmonella enterica infections have been linked to tomatoes. One cost-effective way to complement on-farm preventive Good Agricultural Practices is to identify cultivars with inherent decreased susceptibility to Salmonella colonization. Fruit and leaves of 13 tomato cultivars with distinct phenotypes were screened to evaluate their susceptibility to Salmonella epiphytic colonization. Field-grown fruit or gnotobiotically grown seedling leaves were spot inoculated in replicate with either Salmonella Typhimurium LT2 or a tomato outbreak-associated strain of Salmonella Newport. Initial loads of the Salmonella inocula were 2.5 log CFU per fruit and 3.5 or 7.0 log CFU per seedling. Salmonella cells were retrieved and enumerated using direct plating after 24 h of incubation at room temperature for fruit and 72 h at 26°C during the day and 18°C at night for seedling leaves. Epiphytic colonization of fruit by S. enterica was cultivar-dependent and serotype-specific, but did not necessarily correlate with leaf colonization. Fruit of cultivar Heinz-1706 were the least colonized by Salmonella Newport, while the highest populations were retrieved from fruit of Nyagous. By contrast, seedling leaves supporting the lowest populations were Florida 91 VF and the highest were Virginia Sweets for Salmonella Newport. For Salmonella Typhimurium the lowest was Nyagous and the highest was Heinz-1706 and Moneymaker. The tomato outbreak strain of Salmonella Newport attained higher population densities on fruit than did Salmonella Typhimurium, suggesting better adaptation to tomato fruit colonization. Salmonella Newport populations were significantly lower on leaves, but not fruit of the near-isogenic line Movione, compared with the parent cultivar Moneymaker, suggesting the immunity conferring gene Pto could be responding to this outbreak strain. Susceptibility of tomato fruit to Salmonella colonization is highly variable and could be one criterion for cultivar

  10. An undigested cherry tomato as a rare cause of small bowel obstruction.

    PubMed

    Mortezavi, A; Schneider, P M; Lurje, G

    2015-07-01

    Small bowel obstruction due to undigested fibre from fruits and vegetables is a rare but known medical condition. We report a case of small bowel obstruction caused by a whole cherry tomato in a patient without a past medical history of abdominal surgery. A 66-year-old man presented to the emergency department complaining of lower abdominal pain with nausea and vomiting. His last bowel movement had occurred on the morning of presentation. He underwent abdominal computed tomography (CT), which showed a sudden change of diameter in the distal ileum with complete collapse of the proximal small bowel segment. Laparoscopy confirmed a small bowel obstruction with a transition point close to the ileocaecal valve. An enterotomy was performed and a completely undigested cherry tomato was retrieved. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a small bowel obstruction caused by a whole cherry tomato.

  11. 7 CFR 51.1905 - Off-Grade tomatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Off-Grade tomatoes. 51.1905 Section 51.1905... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Fresh Tomatoes Off-Grade § 51.1905 Off-Grade tomatoes. Tomatoes which fail to meet the requirements of either of the foregoing grades shall be Off-Grade tomatoes...

  12. 7 CFR 51.1905 - Off-Grade tomatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Off-Grade tomatoes. 51.1905 Section 51.1905... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Fresh Tomatoes Off-Grade § 51.1905 Off-Grade tomatoes. Tomatoes which fail to meet the requirements of either of the foregoing grades shall be Off-Grade tomatoes...

  13. 7 CFR 51.1905 - Off-Grade tomatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Off-Grade tomatoes. 51.1905 Section 51.1905... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Fresh Tomatoes Off-Grade § 51.1905 Off-Grade tomatoes. Tomatoes which fail to meet the requirements of either of the foregoing grades shall be Off-Grade tomatoes...

  14. The historical record of metal enrichment in two Florida estuaries

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, C.R.; Smith, R.G. ); Calder, F.D.; Schropp, S.J. ); Windom H.L. )

    1993-12-01

    Historical profiles of metal accumulation have been generated for the lower St. Johns River and Hillsborough Bay, Florida, in cores representing approximately 50 yr of sediment and metal accumulation. These profiles demonstrate that Cd, Pb, and Zn are enriched in these Florida estuarine sediments. Pb enrichment has decreased since the mid 1970s because of reduced use of leaded gasoline. In the St. Johns River, most metals exhibit a trend of increasing enrichment with time. Cd enrichment significantly decreased between 1970 and 1975 as a result of reduced discharges into the river and control of aquatic vegetation. In Hillsborough Bay, enrichment factors for most metals are relatively high and show little change downcore. Cr, Cu, and Ni border on enrichment and Pb, Cd, and Zn are enriched. The results of this study are consistent with other studies of surficial-sediment metal concentration in other Florida estuaries. 39 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Florida snapping turtle

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-10-22

    A rare photo of a Florida snapping turtle out in the open on Beach Road, near NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Found only in Florida and Georgia, this species is related to the common snapping turtle. It is considered a dangerous turtle because it can snap very quickly with its extremely strong jaws. Its tail, which is almost as long as its shell, has saw-edges along the top. The shell also has rough points down the middle. The shell is tan to dark brown and may have green algae growing on it. It can grow to 17 inches long and weigh 45 pounds. Snapping turtles usually live in ponds under the shadows and don’t like to rest in the sun like most turtles. They eat almost anything: water bugs, fish, lizards, small birds, mice, plants and even dead animals

  16. Florida snapping turtle

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-10-22

    A rare photo of a Florida snapping turtle out in the open on Beach Road, near NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Found only in Florida and Georgia, this species is related to the common snapping turtle. It is considered a dangerous turtle because it can snap very quickly with its extremely strong jaws. Its tail, which is almost as long as its shell, has saw-edges along the top. The shell also has rough points down the middle. The shell is tan to dark brown and may have green algae growing on it. It can grow to 17 inches long and weigh 45 pounds. Snapping turtles usually live in ponds under the shadows and don’t like to rest in the sun like most turtles. They eat almost anything: water bugs, fish, lizards, small birds, mice, plants and even dead animals.

  17. Florida's propagation report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmken, Henry; Henning, Rudolf

    1994-01-01

    One of the key goals of the Florida Center is to obtain a maximum of useful information on propagation behavior unique to its subtropical weather and subtropical climate. Such weather data is of particular interest when it is (or has the potential to become) useful for developing and implementing techniques to compensate for adverse weather effects. Also discussed are data observations, current challenges, CDF's, sun movement, and diversity experiments.

  18. SAVANNAH ROADLESS AREA, FLORIDA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patterson, Sam H.; Crandall, Thomas M.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey the Savannah Roadless Area in Florida was appraised to offer little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources. The commodities identified in the area are deposits of sand and gravel; however, they are deeply buried, far from potential markets, and more readily accessible material exists outside the roadless area. The possibility that oil and gas might occur in the Jurassic Smackover Formation or in other formations at depth cannot be ruled out.

  19. Orlando, Florida, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Much of central Florida, including this detailed view of Orlando (28.5N, 81.0W) can be seen in this single photo. Disney World is at the top center of the scene and the crescent shaped Lake Tohopekaliga is near the bottom. The large round lakes are believed to be sinkholes formed during glacial times when ocean levels were several hundred feet lower than the present. Linear patterns east of Orlando are thought to be ancient shoreline ridges.

  20. Hydrogen Research at Florida Universities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Block, David L.; T-Raissi, Ali

    2009-01-01

    This final report describes the R&D activities and projects conducted for NASA under the 6-year NASA Hydrogen Research at Florida Universities grant program. Contained within this report are summaries of the overall activities, one-page description of all the reports funded under this program and all of the individual reports from each of the 29 projects supported by the effort. The R&D activities cover hydrogen technologies related to production, cryogenics, sensors, storage, separation processes, fuel cells, resource assessments and education. In the span of 6 years, the NASA Hydrogen Research at Florida Universities program funded a total of 44 individual university projects, and employed more than 100 faculty and over 100 graduate research students in the six participating universities. Researchers involved in this program have filed more than 20 patents in all hydrogen technology areas and put out over 220 technical publications in the last 2 years alone. This 6 year hydrogen research program was conducted by a consortium of six Florida universities: Florida International University (FIU) in Miami, Florida State University (FSU) and Florida A&M University (FAMU) in Tallahassee, University of Central Florida (UCF) in Orlando, University of South Florida (USF) in Tampa, and University of Florida (UF) in Gainesville. The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) of the University of Central Florida managed the research activities of all consortium member universities except those at the University of Florida. This report does not include any of the programs or activities conducted at the University of Florida, but can be found in NASA/CR-2008-215440-PART 1-3.

  1. Tomato ABSCISIC ACID STRESS RIPENING (ASR) gene family revisited.

    PubMed

    Golan, Ido; Dominguez, Pia Guadalupe; Konrad, Zvia; Shkolnik-Inbar, Doron; Carrari, Fernando; Bar-Zvi, Dudy

    2014-01-01

    Tomato ABSCISIC ACID RIPENING 1 (ASR1) was the first cloned plant ASR gene. ASR orthologs were then cloned from a large number of monocot, dicot and gymnosperm plants, where they are mostly involved in response to abiotic (drought and salinity) stress and fruit ripening. The tomato genome encodes five ASR genes: ASR1, 2, 3 and 5 encode low-molecular-weight proteins (ca. 110 amino acid residues each), whereas ASR4 encodes a 297-residue polypeptide. Information on the expression of the tomato ASR gene family is scarce. We used quantitative RT-PCR to assay the expression of this gene family in plant development and in response to salt and osmotic stresses. ASR1 and ASR4 were the main expressed genes in all tested organs and conditions, whereas ASR2 and ASR3/5 expression was two to three orders of magnitude lower (with the exception of cotyledons). ASR1 is expressed in all plant tissues tested whereas ASR4 expression is limited to photosynthetic organs and stamens. Essentially, ASR1 accounted for most of ASR gene expression in roots, stems and fruits at all developmental stages, whereas ASR4 was the major gene expressed in cotyledons and young and fully developed leaves. Both ASR1 and ASR4 were expressed in flower organs, with ASR1 expression dominating in stamens and pistils, ASR4 in sepals and petals. Steady-state levels of ASR1 and ASR4 were upregulated in plant vegetative organs following exposure to salt stress, osmotic stress or the plant abiotic stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA). Tomato plants overexpressing ASR1 displayed enhanced survival rates under conditions of water stress, whereas ASR1-antisense plants displayed marginal hypersensitivity to water withholding.

  2. Potential of Pseudomonas putida PCI2 for the Protection of Tomato Plants Against Fungal Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Pastor, Nicolás; Masciarelli, Oscar; Fischer, Sonia; Luna, Virginia; Rovera, Marisa

    2016-09-01

    Tomato is one of the most economically attractive vegetable crops due to its high yields. Diseases cause significant losses in tomato production worldwide. We carried out Polymerase Chain Reaction studies to detect the presence of genes encoding antifungal compounds in the DNA of Pseudomonas putida strain PCI2. We also used liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry to detect and quantify the production of compounds that increase the resistance of plants to diseases from culture supernatants of PCI2. In addition, we investigated the presence of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase in PCI2. Finally, PCI2 was used for inoculation of tomato seeds to study its potential biocontrol activity against Fusarium oxysporum MR193. The obtained results showed that no fragments for the encoding genes of hydrogen cyanide, pyoluteorin, 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol, pyrrolnitrin, or phenazine-1-carboxylic acid were amplified from the DNA of PCI2. On the other hand, PCI2 produced salicylic acid and jasmonic acid in Luria-Bertani medium and grew in a culture medium containing ACC as the sole nitrogen source. We observed a reduction in disease incidence from 53.33 % in the pathogen control to 30 % in tomato plants pre-inoculated with PCI2 as well as increases in shoot and root dry weights in inoculated plants, as compared to the pathogenicity control. This study suggests that inoculation of tomato seeds with P. putida PCI2 increases the resistance of plants to root rot caused by F. oxysporum and that PCI2 produces compounds that may be involved at different levels in increasing such resistance. Thus, PCI2 could represent a non-contaminating management strategy potentially applicable in vegetable crops such as tomato.

  3. Applied studies of plant meridian system: I. The effect of agri-wave technology on yield and quality of tomato.

    PubMed

    Hou, T Z; Mooneyham, R E

    1999-01-01

    Agri-wave technology is a new agricultural technology based on the plant meridian system, that focuses on measurement of plant sound characteristics. The basic principle of agri-wave technology is to improve the yield and quality of plants such as vegetables, flowers, and fruit trees by broadcasting sound waves of certain frequencies and spraying a compound microelement fertilizer on the leaves. The application of agri-wave technology on tomatoes remarkably stimulates growth of their seedlings. Fresh weight of the branch, stems, and leaves of the treated tomatoes is significantly (59.53%, P < 0.0001) higher than that of the control group. Sampling survey results indicate that agri-wave technology accelerates the ripeness of tomatoes. The fresh weight of ripe tomatoes treated with this technique is 30.73% higher than that of the untreated (P = 0.0018), while the fresh weight of the treated unripe tomatoes is 27.29% lower than that of the untreated unripe group (P = 0.0020). Yield surveys show that the yield of treated plants is 13.89% (p < 0.0001) higher than that of the control group. Moreover, with agri-wave technology treatment the storage period of tomatoes is almost doubled. Analysis of tomato nutrition shows that agri-wave technology has increased their sugar content by 26.19%, vitamin A and niacin (an antifavours vitamin) by 55.39% and 92.31% respectively. There is no difference concerning vitamin B1, B2, and D content between the two groups, and vitamin C and E contents decreased by 2.10% and 12.69%, respectively. Among the analyzed 33 minerals of tomatoes, 26 increased in content, while 7 decreased. In conclusion, agri-wave technology has promoted the growth of the tomato, increased its yield, and improved its quality.

  4. Specific Responses of Salmonella enterica to Tomato Varieties and Fruit Ripeness Identified by In Vivo Expression Technology

    PubMed Central

    Noel, Jason T.; Arrach, Nabil; Alagely, Ali; McClelland, Michael; Teplitski, Max

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent outbreaks of vegetable-associated gastroenteritis suggest that enteric pathogens colonize, multiply and persist in plants for extended periods of time, eventually infecting people. Genetic and physiological pathways, by which enterics colonize plants, are still poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings To better understand interactions between Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium and tomatoes, a gfp-tagged Salmonella promoter library was screened inside red ripe fruits. Fifty-one unique constructs that were potentially differentially regulated in tomato relative to in vitro growth were identified. The expression of a subset of these promoters was tested in planta using recombinase-based in vivo expression technology (RIVET) and fitness of the corresponding mutants was tested. Gene expression in Salmonella was affected by fruit maturity and tomato cultivar. A putative fadH promoter was upregulated most strongly in immature tomatoes. Expression of the fadH construct depended on the presence of linoleic acid, which is consistent with the reduced accumulation of this compound in mature tomato fruits. The cysB construct was activated in the fruit of cv. Hawaii 7997 (resistant to a race of Ralstonia solanacearum) more strongly than in the universally susceptible tomato cv. Bonny Best. Known Salmonella motility and animal virulence genes (hilA, flhDC, fliF and those encoded on the pSLT virulence plasmid) did not contribute significantly to fitness of the bacteria inside tomatoes, even though deletions of sirA and motA modestly increased fitness of Salmonella inside tomatoes. Conclusions/Significance This study reveals the genetic basis of the interactions of Salmonella with plant hosts. Salmonella relies on a distinct set of metabolic and regulatory genes, which are differentially regulated in planta in response to host genotype and fruit maturity. This enteric pathogen colonizes tissues of tomatoes differently than plant pathogens, and relies

  5. Identification of sulphur volatiles and GC-olfactometry aroma profiling in two fresh tomato cultivars.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiaofen; Song, Mei; Baldwin, Elizabeth; Rouseff, Russell

    2015-03-15

    Ten sulphur volatiles were observed in two Florida tomato cultivars ('Tasti-Lee' and 'FL 47') harvested at three maturity stages (breaker, turning, and pink) using gas chromatography with a pulsed flame photometric detector (GC-PFPD). Eight PFPD peaks were identified using retention values from authentic sulphur standards and GC-MS characteristic masses. Seven were quantified using an internal standard combined with external calibration curves. Dimethyl sulphide, dimethyl disulphide, dimethyl trisulphide 2-propylthiazole and 2-s-butylthiazole were newly identified in fresh tomatoes. Principal component analysis of sulphur volatiles indicated that there were appreciable maturity stage differences clustered in separate quadrants. GC-olfactometry (GC-O) identified 50 aroma-active compounds in 'Tasti-Lee', with 10 reported as odorants in fresh tomatoes for the first time. Four sulphur volatiles exhibited aroma activity, including two of the newly-reported fresh tomato sulphur volatiles, 2-s-butylthiazole and dimethyl sulphide. GC-O aroma profiling indicated that the most intense aroma category was earthy-musty, followed by fruity-floral, green-grassy, sweet-candy and sweaty-stale-sulphurous. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 7 CFR 966.121 - Issuance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Rules and... authorizing the applicant named therein to ship tomatoes for a specified purpose for a specified period of...

  7. 7 CFR 966.123 - Denial and appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Rules and... committee, that such handler has shipped tomatoes contrary to the provisions of this part. Such committee...

  8. 7 CFR 966.35 - Duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating... tomatoes; (f) To prepare a marketing policy; (g) To recommend marketing regulations to the Secretary; (h...

  9. 7 CFR 966.18 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 966.18 Export. Export means shipment of tomatoes beyond the boundaries of the 48...

  10. 7 CFR 966.54 - Shipments for special purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order... facilitate handling of tomatoes for the following purposes: (a) For export; (b) For relief or for charity; (c...

  11. 7 CFR 966.122 - Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Rules and Regulations Safeguards § 966.122 Reports. Each handler handling tomatoes under and pursuant to a Certificate...

  12. 7 CFR 966.12 - Maturity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order... tomatoes as established by the committee with approval of the Secretary as determined at the time of the...

  13. 7 CFR 966.123 - Denial and appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Rules and... committee, that such handler has shipped tomatoes contrary to the provisions of this part. Such committee...

  14. 7 CFR 966.122 - Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Rules and Regulations Safeguards § 966.122 Reports. Each handler handling tomatoes under and pursuant to a Certificate...

  15. 7 CFR 966.122 - Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Rules and Regulations Safeguards § 966.122 Reports. Each handler handling tomatoes under and pursuant to a Certificate...

  16. 7 CFR 966.25 - Redistricting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order...: (a) Shifts in tomato acreage within districts and within the production area during recent years; (b...

  17. 7 CFR 966.121 - Issuance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Rules and... authorizing the applicant named therein to ship tomatoes for a specified purpose for a specified period of...

  18. 7 CFR 966.12 - Maturity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order... tomatoes as established by the committee with approval of the Secretary as determined at the time of the...

  19. 7 CFR 966.18 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 966.18 Export. Export means shipment of tomatoes beyond the boundaries of the 48...

  20. 7 CFR 966.123 - Denial and appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Rules and... committee, that such handler has shipped tomatoes contrary to the provisions of this part. Such committee...

  1. 7 CFR 966.122 - Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Rules and Regulations Safeguards § 966.122 Reports. Each handler handling tomatoes under and pursuant to a Certificate...

  2. 7 CFR 966.123 - Denial and appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Rules and... committee, that such handler has shipped tomatoes contrary to the provisions of this part. Such committee...

  3. 7 CFR 966.12 - Maturity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order... tomatoes as established by the committee with approval of the Secretary as determined at the time of the...

  4. 7 CFR 966.54 - Shipments for special purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order... facilitate handling of tomatoes for the following purposes: (a) For export; (b) For relief or for charity; (c...

  5. 7 CFR 966.54 - Shipments for special purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order... facilitate handling of tomatoes for the following purposes: (a) For export; (b) For relief or for charity; (c...

  6. 7 CFR 966.54 - Shipments for special purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order... facilitate handling of tomatoes for the following purposes: (a) For export; (b) For relief or for charity; (c...

  7. 7 CFR 966.12 - Maturity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order... tomatoes as established by the committee with approval of the Secretary as determined at the time of the...

  8. 7 CFR 966.121 - Issuance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Rules and... authorizing the applicant named therein to ship tomatoes for a specified purpose for a specified period of...

  9. 7 CFR 966.122 - Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Rules and Regulations Safeguards § 966.122 Reports. Each handler handling tomatoes under and pursuant to a Certificate...

  10. 7 CFR 966.18 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 966.18 Export. Export means shipment of tomatoes beyond the boundaries of the 48...

  11. 7 CFR 966.121 - Issuance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Rules and... authorizing the applicant named therein to ship tomatoes for a specified purpose for a specified period of...

  12. 7 CFR 966.54 - Shipments for special purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order... facilitate handling of tomatoes for the following purposes: (a) For export; (b) For relief or for charity; (c...

  13. 7 CFR 966.48 - Research and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order... of tomatoes. The expenses of such projects shall be paid by funds collected pursuant to §§ 966.42 and...

  14. 7 CFR 966.123 - Denial and appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Rules and... committee, that such handler has shipped tomatoes contrary to the provisions of this part. Such committee...

  15. 7 CFR 966.48 - Research and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order... of tomatoes. The expenses of such projects shall be paid by funds collected pursuant to §§ 966.42 and...

  16. 7 CFR 966.48 - Research and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order... of tomatoes. The expenses of such projects shall be paid by funds collected pursuant to §§ 966.42 and...

  17. 7 CFR 966.35 - Duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating... tomatoes; (f) To prepare a marketing policy; (g) To recommend marketing regulations to the Secretary; (h...

  18. 7 CFR 966.18 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 966.18 Export. Export means shipment of tomatoes beyond the boundaries of the 48...

  19. 7 CFR 966.35 - Duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating... tomatoes; (f) To prepare a marketing policy; (g) To recommend marketing regulations to the Secretary; (h...

  20. 7 CFR 966.18 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 966.18 Export. Export means shipment of tomatoes beyond the boundaries of the 48...

  1. 7 CFR 966.12 - Maturity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order... tomatoes as established by the committee with approval of the Secretary as determined at the time of the...

  2. 7 CFR 966.35 - Duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating... tomatoes; (f) To prepare a marketing policy; (g) To recommend marketing regulations to the Secretary; (h...

  3. Pepino mosaic virus and Tomato torrado virus: two emerging viruses affecting tomato crops in the Mediterranean basin.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Pedro; Sempere, Raqueln; Aranda, Miguel A

    2012-01-01

    The molecular biology, epidemiology, and evolutionary dynamics of Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) are much better understood than those of Tomato torrado virus (ToTV). The earliest descriptions of PepMV suggest a recent jump from nontomato species (e.g., pepino; Solanum muricatum) to tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Its stability in contaminated plant tissues, its transmission through seeds, and the global trade of tomato seeds and fruits may have facilitated the global spread of PepMV. Stability and seed transmission also probably account for the devastating epidemics caused by already-established PepMV strains, although additional contributing factors may include the efficient transmission of PepMV by contact and the often-inconspicuous symptoms in vegetative tomato tissues. The genetic variability of PepMV is likely to have promoted the first phase of emergence (i.e., the species jump) and it continues to play an important role as the virus becomes more pervasive, progressing from regional outbreaks to pandemics. In contrast, the long-term progression of ToTV outbreaks is not yet clear and this may reflect factors such as the limited accumulation of the virus in infected plants, which has been shown to be approximately two orders of magnitude less than PepMV. The efficient dispersion of ToTV may therefore depend on dense populations of its principal vectors, Bemisia tabaci and Trialeurodes vaporariorum, as has been proposed for the necrogenic satellite RNA of Cucumber mosaic virus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. 21 CFR 808.59 - Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Florida. 808.59 Section 808.59 Food and Drugs FOOD... and Local Exemptions § 808.59 Florida. The following Florida medical device requirements are preempted... preemption under section 521(b) of the act: (a) Florida Statutes, section 468.135(5). (b) Florida...

  5. 21 CFR 808.59 - Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Florida. 808.59 Section 808.59 Food and Drugs FOOD... and Local Exemptions § 808.59 Florida. The following Florida medical device requirements are preempted... preemption under section 521(b) of the act: (a) Florida Statutes, section 468.135(5). (b) Florida...

  6. 21 CFR 808.59 - Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Florida. 808.59 Section 808.59 Food and Drugs FOOD... and Local Exemptions § 808.59 Florida. The following Florida medical device requirements are preempted... preemption under section 521(b) of the act: (a) Florida Statutes, section 468.135(5). (b) Florida...

  7. 21 CFR 808.59 - Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Florida. 808.59 Section 808.59 Food and Drugs FOOD... and Local Exemptions § 808.59 Florida. The following Florida medical device requirements are preempted... preemption under section 521(b) of the act: (a) Florida Statutes, section 468.135(5). (b) Florida...

  8. 21 CFR 808.59 - Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Florida. 808.59 Section 808.59 Food and Drugs FOOD... and Local Exemptions § 808.59 Florida. The following Florida medical device requirements are preempted... preemption under section 521(b) of the act: (a) Florida Statutes, section 468.135(5). (b) Florida...

  9. Teacher Education Program Reviews at University of North Florida, Florida State University, Florida Atlantic University, University of South Florida, March 1994-April 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    England, David A.

    This report offers the review of four joint teacher education reviews conducted in the Florida State University System (SUS). Institutions reviewed are: University of North Florida (UNF), Florida State University (FSU), Florida Atlantic University (FAU), and the University of South Florida (USF). Joint teams were composed of the National Council…

  10. Lycopene Content of Tomato Products: Its Stability, Bioavailability and In Vivo Antioxidant Properties.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Anita; Shen, Honglei; Agarwal, Sanjiv; Rao, A. V.

    2001-01-01

    Lycopene is a bioactive carotenoid present in many fruits and vegetables. Tomatoes constitute the major dietary source of lycopene. Recent evidence shows lycopene to be associated with several health benefits. However, very little information is available about the stability of lycopene and its bioavailability. Because tomatoes undergo extensive processing and storage before consumption, a study was conducted to evaluate the stability, isomeric form, bioavailability, and in vivo antioxidant properties of lycopene. Total lycopene and isomers were measured by spectrophotometry and high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively. Lycopene content of tomatoes remained unchanged during the multistep processing operations for the production of juice or paste and remained stable for up to 12 months of storage at ambient temperature. Moreover, subjecting tomato juice to cooking temperatures in the presence of corn oil resulted in the formation of the cis isomeric form, which was considered to be more bioavailable. Lycopene was absorbed readily from the dietary sources. Serum lipid and low-density lipoprotein oxidation were significantly reduced after the consumption of tomato products containing lycopene.

  11. A Role for APETALA1/FRUITFULL Transcription Factors in Tomato Leaf Development[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Burko, Yogev; Shleizer-Burko, Sharona; Yanai, Osnat; Shwartz, Ido; Zelnik, Iris Daphne; Jacob-Hirsch, Jasmine; Kela, Itai; Eshed-Williams, Leor; Ori, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Flexible maturation rates underlie part of the diversity of leaf shape, and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) leaves are compound due to prolonged organogenic activity of the leaf margin. The CINCINNATA -TEOSINTE BRANCHED1, CYCLOIDEA, PCF (CIN-TCP) transcription factor LANCEOLATE (LA) restricts this organogenic activity and promotes maturation. Here, we show that tomato APETALA1/FRUITFULL (AP1/FUL) MADS box genes are involved in tomato leaf development and are repressed by LA. AP1/FUL expression is correlated negatively with LA activity and positively with the organogenic activity of the leaf margin. LA binds to the promoters of the AP1/FUL genes MBP20 and TM4. Overexpression of MBP20 suppressed the simple-leaf phenotype resulting from upregulation of LA activity or from downregulation of class I knotted like homeobox (KNOXI) activity. Overexpression of a dominant-negative form of MBP20 led to leaf simplification and partly suppressed the increased leaf complexity of plants with reduced LA activity or increased KNOXI activity. Tomato plants overexpressing miR319, a negative regulator of several CIN-TCP genes including LA, flower with fewer leaves via an SFT-dependent pathway, suggesting that miR319-sensitive CIN-TCPs delay flowering in tomato. These results identify a role for AP1/FUL genes in vegetative development and show that leaf and plant maturation are regulated via partially independent mechanisms. PMID:23771895

  12. Galacturonosyltransferase 4 silencing alters pectin composition and carbon partitioning in tomato

    PubMed Central

    de Godoy, Fabiana; Bermúdez, Luisa; Lira, Bruno Silvestre; de Souza, Amanda Pereira; Elbl, Paula; Demarco, Diego; Alseekh, Saleh; Insani, Marina; Buckeridge, Marcos; Almeida, Juliana; Grigioni, Gabriela; Fernie, Alisdair Robert; Carrari, Fernando; Rossi, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    Pectin is a main component of the plant cell wall and is the most complex family of polysaccharides in nature. Its composition is essential for the normal growth and morphology pattern, as demonstrated by pectin-defective mutant phenotypes. Besides this basic role in plant physiology, in tomato, pectin structure contributes to very important quality traits such as fruit firmness. Sixty-seven different enzymatic activities have been suggested to be required for pectin biosynthesis, but only a few genes have been identified and studied so far. This study characterized the tomato galacturonosyltransferase (GAUT) family and performed a detailed functional study of the GAUT4 gene. The tomato genome harbours all genes orthologous to those described previously in Arabidopsis thaliana, and a transcriptional profile revealed that the GAUT4 gene was expressed at higher levels in developing organs. GAUT4-silenced tomato plants exhibited an increment in vegetative biomass associated with palisade parenchyma enlargement. Silenced fruits showed an altered pectin composition and accumulated less starch along with a reduced amount of pectin, which coincided with an increase in firmness. Moreover, the harvest index was dramatically reduced as a consequence of the reduction in the fruit weight and number. Altogether, these results suggest that, beyond its role in pectin biosynthesis, GAUT4 interferes with carbon metabolism, partitioning, and allocation. Hence, this cell-wall-related gene seems to be key in determining plant growth and fruit production in tomato. PMID:23599271

  13. Desorption isotherms and mathematical modeling of thin layer drying kinetics of tomato

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belghith, Amira; Azzouz, Soufien; ElCafsi, Afif

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, there is an increased demand on the international market of dried fruits and vegetables with significant added value. Due to its important production, consumption and nutrient intake, drying of tomato has become a subject of extended and varied research works. The present work is focused on the drying behavior of thin-layer tomato and its mathematical modeling in order to optimize the drying processes. The moisture desorption isotherms of raw tomato were determined at four temperature levels namely 45, 50, 60 and 65 °C using the static gravimetric method. The experimental data obtained were modeled by five equations and the (GAB) model was found to be the best-describing these isotherms. The drying kinetics were experimentally investigated at 45, 55 and 65 °C and performed at air velocities of 0.5 and 2 m/s. In order to investigate the effect of the exchange surface on drying time, samples were dried into two different shapes: tomato halves and tomato quarters. The impact of various drying parameters was also studied (temperature, air velocity and air humidity). The drying curves showed only the preheating period and the falling drying rate period. In this study, attention was paid to the modeling of experimental thin-layer drying kinetics. The experimental results were fitted with four different models.

  14. Galacturonosyltransferase 4 silencing alters pectin composition and carbon partitioning in tomato.

    PubMed

    de Godoy, Fabiana; Bermúdez, Luisa; Lira, Bruno Silvestre; de Souza, Amanda Pereira; Elbl, Paula; Demarco, Diego; Alseekh, Saleh; Insani, Marina; Buckeridge, Marcos; Almeida, Juliana; Grigioni, Gabriela; Fernie, Alisdair Robert; Carrari, Fernando; Rossi, Magdalena

    2013-05-01

    Pectin is a main component of the plant cell wall and is the most complex family of polysaccharides in nature. Its composition is essential for the normal growth and morphology pattern, as demonstrated by pectin-defective mutant phenotypes. Besides this basic role in plant physiology, in tomato, pectin structure contributes to very important quality traits such as fruit firmness. Sixty-seven different enzymatic activities have been suggested to be required for pectin biosynthesis, but only a few genes have been identified and studied so far. This study characterized the tomato galacturonosyltransferase (GAUT) family and performed a detailed functional study of the GAUT4 gene. The tomato genome harbours all genes orthologous to those described previously in Arabidopsis thaliana, and a transcriptional profile revealed that the GAUT4 gene was expressed at higher levels in developing organs. GAUT4-silenced tomato plants exhibited an increment in vegetative biomass associated with palisade parenchyma enlargement. Silenced fruits showed an altered pectin composition and accumulated less starch along with a reduced amount of pectin, which coincided with an increase in firmness. Moreover, the harvest index was dramatically reduced as a consequence of the reduction in the fruit weight and number. Altogether, these results suggest that, beyond its role in pectin biosynthesis, GAUT4 interferes with carbon metabolism, partitioning, and allocation. Hence, this cell-wall-related gene seems to be key in determining plant growth and fruit production in tomato.

  15. Water withdrawals in Florida, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marella, Richard L.

    2015-09-01

    The largest percentage of freshwater withdrawals was from the South Florida Water Management District (46 percent), followed by the St. Johns River Water Management District (20 percent), Southwest Florida Water Management District (19 percent), Northwest Florida Water Management District (9 percent), and Suwannee River Water Management District (6 percent). The South Florida Water Management District accounted for the largest percentage of freshwater withdrawals for public-supply use (46 percent), commercial-industrial-mining self-supplied use (24 percent), agricultural self-supplied use (59 percent), and recreational-landscape irrigation use (63 percent). The Northwest Florida Water Management District accounted for the largest percentage of freshwater withdrawals for power-generation use (44 percent), and the Southwest Florida Water Management District accounted for the largest percentage of saline-water withdrawals for power-generation use (58 percent).

  16. Bronzed cowbird taken in Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matteson, R.E.

    1970-01-01

    On 8 November 1968 in Gainesville, Florida, I removed a male Bronzed Cowbird (Tangavius a. aeneus) from a blackbird decoy trap containing a large number of Brown-headed Cowbirds (Malothrus ater). Oliver L. Austin, Jr., at the Florida State Museum, verified the species identification by noting the notched inner webs of the outer three primaries, a characteristic of the genus. The subspecific identification was made at the U. S. National Museum where the bird is now specimen number 531666. The subspecies normally ranges from southcentral Texas and the Yucatan Peninsula south through Central America to Panama (Check-list of North American birds, fifth ed., Baltimore, Amer. Ornithol. Union, 1957, p. 542). This Gainesville specimen apparently is the first Bronzed Cow- bird taken in Florida. Alexander Sprunt, Jr., (Florida bird life. In Addendum to Florida bird life, New York, Coward-McCann, 1963, p. 18) lists three photographed sightings at Sarasota, Florida, in April 196

  17. Occurrence of patulin in fruit and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Frank, H K

    1977-01-01

    In different varieties of apples and pears suffering from brown rot, patulin was found in about 50 p. 100 of samples investigated (about 120). Patulin levels as high as 1 g/kg rotten material were found 2-3 days after the fruit was removed from the cold store where it had been stored for 5 months. A significant diffusion into the healthy plant tissue was not observed in apples, but in peaches, tomatoes and pears. Vegetable products with natural patulin content: apples, pears, peaches, apricots, bananas, pine apples, grapes. After inoculation with Penicillium expansum, P. urticae or Byssochlamys nivea, patulin was also found in greengages, strawberries, honeydew melons, red and green paprika, tomatoes, cucumbers and carrots. The artificial infection failed in celeriac, kohlrabi, cauliflower, red cabbage, radish, horseradish, onions, squash (zuccini), potatoes and egg plants. The author further investigated the patulin synthesis as a function of the temperature as well as its oxygen requirement in various mold species and strains.

  18. Effects of Vegetables on Cardiovascular Diseases and Related Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Guo-Yi; Meng, Xiao; Li, Ya; Zhao, Cai-Ning; Liu, Qing

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that vegetable consumption is inversely related to the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, research has indicated that many vegetables like potatoes, soybeans, sesame, tomatoes, dioscorea, onions, celery, broccoli, lettuce and asparagus showed great potential in preventing and treating cardiovascular diseases, and vitamins, essential elements, dietary fibers, botanic proteins and phytochemicals were bioactive components. The cardioprotective effects of vegetables might involve antioxidation; anti-inflammation; anti-platelet; regulating blood pressure, blood glucose, and lipid profile; attenuating myocardial damage; and modulating relevant enzyme activities, gene expression, and signaling pathways as well as some other biomarkers associated to cardiovascular diseases. In addition, several vegetables and their bioactive components have been proven to protect against cardiovascular diseases in clinical trials. In this review, we analyze and summarize the effects of vegetables on cardiovascular diseases based on epidemiological studies, experimental research, and clinical trials, which are significant to the application of vegetables in prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:28796173

  19. SEASAT radar altimeter measurements over the Florida Everglades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, R. L.; Norcross, G. A.

    1983-01-01

    The SEASAT satellite radar altimeter traversed the Florida Everglades on August 14, 1978. Analysis of the measurements disclosed that the altimeter pulses from 800 km above the Earth's surface penetrated the vegetation canopies to provide land and water surface elevations with accuracies better than + or - 50 cm. The altimeter waveforms required retracking over the specular Everglades surface. The altimeter-derived land elevations were correlated with large-scale topographic maps while the altimeter-derived water elevations were correlated with water gauge records of the U.S. Geological Survey. Examination of the altimeter waveforms also revealed reflections from the Everglades' surface occurring earlier than the surface reflections. These earlier surface reflections are interpreted to be from vegetation canopies, and may provide a measure of vegetation canopy heights. Future satellite radar altimeters could provide supplemental vertical control in relatively inaccessible swamp areas, could monitor water levels, and perhaps could monitor vegetation growth.

  20. Curly Top Disease of Tomato

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Curly top disease, caused by viruses in the genus, Curtovirus, has impacted western US agriculture for over a century; and is a significant threat to tomato production. The two most abundant curtovirus species today are Beet severe curly top virus (BSCTV) and Beet mild curly top virus (BMCTV) but ot...

  1. Florida and Bahamas in Sunglint

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-04-02

    STS045-78-016 (24 March-2 April 1992) --- This view is of the Bahamas and Florida looking westward into the sunglint. The Bahama Banks are in the foreground; from left to right, Andros Island, the Berry Islands, and Grand Bahama Island are surrounded by shallow limestone banks. Bimini is the double dark spot on the edge of the Straits of Florida, with the peninsula of Florida within the sunglint. Cuba can be seen to the upper left.

  2. Biodegradable mulch performed comparably to polyethylene in high tunnel tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) production.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Jeremy S; Miles, Carol A; Andrews, Preston K; Inglis, Debra A

    2014-07-01

    High tunnels in the cool climate of north western Washington state improve the growing environment for crops otherwise suited to warmer climates. Biodegradable mulch may improve the sustainability of high tunnel vegetable production if it performs comparably to polyethylene. Four biodegradable mulch treatments (BioAgri, BioTelo, WeedGuardPlus and SB-PLA-10/11/12) were compared to black polyethylene and bare ground in high tunnels and open field settings to assess the impact of production system and mulch treatment on weed control, tomato yield, and fruit quality. Fewer weeds grew in high tunnels than in the open field. High tunnels increased total and marketable fruit yields and increased individual fruit weight. High tunnel production increased juice content and pH of tomato fruit, but decreased total soluble solids, titratable acidity, and total phenolics compared to the open field. All mulch treatments except SB-PLA-10 controlled weeds. BioAgri, BioTelo and polyethylene increased total yields by 20%, though marketability was reduced 14% compared to bare ground and WeedGuardPlus treatments. High tunnels can improve tomato yield and affect fruit quality in north western Washington. Biodegradable plastic mulches performed comparably to polyethylene in weed control, tomato yield, and fruit quality and may, therefore, improve the sustainability of high tunnel vegetable production. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Tomato-based food products for prostate cancer prevention: what have we learned?

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Hsueh-Li; Thomas-Ahner, Jennifer M.; Grainger, Elizabeth M.; Wan, Lei; Francis, David M.; Schwartz, Steven J.; Erdman, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Evidence derived from a vast array of laboratory studies and epidemiological investigations have implicated diets rich in fruits and vegetables with a reduced risk of certain cancers. However, these approaches cannot demonstrate causal relationships and there is a paucity of randomized, controlled trials due to the difficulties involved with executing studies of food and behavioral change. Rather than pursuing the definitive intervention trials that are necessary, the thrust of research in recent decades has been driven by a reductionist approach focusing upon the identification of bioactive components in fruits and vegetables with the subsequent development of single agents using a pharmacologic approach. At this point in time, there are no chemopreventive strategies that are standard of care in medical practice that have resulted from this approach. This review describes an alternative approach focusing upon development of tomato-based food products for human clinical trials targeting cancer prevention and as an adjunct to therapy. Tomatoes are a source of bioactive phytochemicals and are widely consumed. The phytochemical pattern of tomato products can be manipulated to optimize anticancer activity through genetics, horticultural techniques, and food processing. The opportunity to develop a highly consistent tomato-based food product rich in anticancer phytochemicals for clinical trials targeting specific cancers, particularly the prostate, necessitates the interactive transdisciplinary research efforts of horticulturalists, food technologists, cancer biologists, and clinical translational investigators. PMID:20803054

  4. Phytotoxicity of tolylfluanid in tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Gielen, S; Vogels, L; Seels, B; Aerts, R

    2006-01-01

    The use of Euparen Multi (tolylfluanid) for controlling Botrytis cinerea in tomatoes has been decreased the last decade for several reasons. Because of the lack of different fungicides with a good efficacy it is important that growers can use different fungicides to prevent development of resistance of Botrytis cinerea against many fungicides. Tolylfluanid has negative side effects on some insect populations that are used for biological control. It is known that Euparen Multi and Euparen can have a negative effect on some predatory mites (Schmidt and Zeller, 1998) such as Phytoseiulus persimilis and some parasitic wasps like Encarsia formosa, Eretmocerus eremicus, Diglyphus isaea and Dacnusa sibirica. Recently investigation indicates that this fungicide is harmless for the predatory bug Macrolophus caliginosus (Biobest, 2006) frequently used in the cultivation of tomatoes as a predator for whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum). To investigate if tolylfluanid has a phytotoxic effect on tomato plants an experiment was performed. Young tomato plants were used, who are more sensitive. These plants were subdivided in different groups, from which each one was sprayed with a different concentration of tolylfluanid. The highest concentrations of tolylfluanid were used to stimulate the visibility of the possible phytotoxic effects. Results of this experiment demonstrate that there wasn't a difference between the different groups that were sprayed with tolylfluanid or the control group. This indicates that tolylfluanid doesn't seem to be phytotoxic. It is also important to mention that this experiment was done in the fall when the intensity of the sunlight was decreasing. There still exists the possibility that extreme irradiation in combination with tolylfluanid can provoke a phototoxic effect on young tomato plants.

  5. Habitat model for the Florida Scrub Jay on John F. Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breininger, David R.

    1992-01-01

    The Florida Scrub Jay is endemic to Florida. The John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) provides habitat for one of the three largest populations of the Florida Scrub Jay. This threatened bird occupies scrub, slash pine flatwoods, disturbed scrub, and coastal strand on KSC. Densities of Florida Scrub Jays were shown to vary with habitat characteristics but not necessarily with vegetation type. Relationships between Florida Scrub Jay densities and habitat characteristics were used to develop a habitat model to provide a tool to compare alternative sites for new facilities and to quantify environmental impacts. This model is being tested using long term demographic studies of colorbanded Florida Scrub Jays. Optimal habitat predicted by the model has greater than or equal to 50 percent of the shrub canopy comprised of scrub oaks, 20-50 percent open space or scrub oak vegetation within 100 m of a ruderal edge, less than or equal to 15 percent pine canopy cover, a shrub height of 120-170 cm, and is greater than or equal to 100 m from a forest. This document reviews life history, social behavior, food, foraging habitat, cover requirements, characteristics of habitat on KSC, and habitat preferences of the Florida Scrub Jay. Construction of the model and its limitations are discussed.

  6. Retention of Quality and Nutritional Value of Thirteen Fresh-cut Vegetables Treated with Low Dose Radiation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The recent outbreaks associated with consumption of spinach, lettuce and tomato have resulted in much concern over the safety of fresh-cut vegetables. The industry is in need of a “kill” step to ensure the safety of fresh-cut vegetables. Many studies have demonstrated that a dose of 1 kGy radiatio...

  7. Biomass production in Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.H.; Dowd, M.L.

    1981-08-01

    Florida posseses climatic, land, and water resources favorable for abundant biomass production. Therefore, a statewide program has been initiated to determine adapted species for the available array of production sites. Plant resources under investigation include woody, aquatic, grasses, hydrocarbon, and root crop species. The goal is to produce a continuous stream of biomass for the various biofuel conversion options. Preliminary yields from energy cropping experiments range from about 10 to nearly 90 metric tons per hectare per year, depending on the crop and the production systems employed. (Refs. 15).

  8. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV-IL): a seed-transmissible geminivirus in tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Kil, Eui-Joon; Kim, Sunhoo; Lee, Ye-Ji; Byun, Hee-Seong; Park, Jungho; Seo, Haneul; Kim, Chang-Seok; Shim, Jae-Kyoung; Lee, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Ji-Kwang; Lee, Kyeong-Yeoll; Choi, Hong-Soo; Lee, Sukchan

    2016-01-08

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is one of the most well-known tomato-infecting begomoviruses and transmitted by Bemisia tabaci. Seed transmission has previously been reported for some RNA viruses, but TYLCV has not previously been described as a seed-borne virus. In 2013 and 2014, without whitefly-mediated transmission, TYLCV was detected in young tomato plants germinated from fallen fruits produced from TYLCV-infected tomato plants in the previous cultivation season. In addition, TYLCV-Israel (TYLCV-IL) was also detected in seeds and their seedlings of TYLCV-infected tomato plants that were infected by both viruliferous whitefly-mediated transmission and agro-inoculation. The seed infectivity was 20-100%, respectively, and the average transmission rate to seedlings was also 84.62% and 80.77%, respectively. TYLCV-tolerant tomatoes also produced TYLCV-infected seeds, but the amount of viral genome was less than seen in TYLCV-susceptible tomato plants. When tomato plants germinated from TYLCV-infected seeds, non-viruliferous whiteflies and healthy tomato plants were placed in an insect cage together, TYLCV was detected from whiteflies as well as receiver tomato plants six weeks later. Taken together, TYLCV-IL can be transmitted via seeds, and tomato plants germinated from TYLCV-infected seeds can be an inoculum source of TYLCV. This is the first report about TYLCV seed transmission in tomato.

  9. Western flower thrips can transmit Tomato spotted wilt virus from virus-infected tomato fruits

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Acquisition and transmission of Tomato spotted wilt virus from symptomatic tomato fruits by western flower thrips was demonstrated for the first time. This suggests that infected tomato fruits may be a source of virus and also provide an additional means of virus movement between geographic areas....

  10. 21 CFR 73.585 - Tomato lycopene extract; tomato lycopene concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tomato lycopene extract; tomato lycopene concentrate. 73.585 Section 73.585 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.585 Tomato lycopene...

  11. Tomato functional genomics database (TFGD): a comprehensive collection and analysis package for tomato functional genomics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tomato Functional Genomics Database (TFGD; http://ted.bti.cornell.edu) provides a comprehensive systems biology resource to store, mine, analyze, visualize and integrate large-scale tomato functional genomics datasets. The database is expanded from the previously described Tomato Expression Database...

  12. 21 CFR 73.585 - Tomato lycopene extract; tomato lycopene concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tomato lycopene extract; tomato lycopene concentrate. 73.585 Section 73.585 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.585 Tomato lycopene...

  13. 21 CFR 73.585 - Tomato lycopene extract; tomato lycopene concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tomato lycopene extract; tomato lycopene concentrate. 73.585 Section 73.585 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.585 Tomato lycopene...

  14. Neural networks predict tomato maturity stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Federico

    1999-03-01

    Almost 40% of the total horticultural produce exported from Mexico the USA is tomato, and quality is fundamental for maintaining the market. Many fruits packed at the green-mature stage do not mature towards a red color as they were harvested before achieving its physiological maturity. Tomato gassed for advancing maturation does not respond on those fruits, and repacking is necessary at terminal markets, causing losses to the producer. Tomato spectral signatures are different on each maturity stage and tomato size was poorly correlated against peak wavelengths. A back-propagation neural network was used to predict tomato maturity using reflectance ratios as inputs. Higher success rates were achieved on tomato maturity stage recognition with neural networks than with discriminant analysis.

  15. Plasma and hepatic cholesterol-lowering in hamsters by tomato pomace, tomato seed oil and defatted tomato seed supplemented in high fat diets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We determined the cholesterol-lowering effects of tomato pomace (TP), a byproduct of tomato processing, and its components such as tomato seed oil (TSO) and defatted tomato seed (DTS) in hamsters, a widely used animal model for cholesterol metabolism. Male Syrian Golden hamsters were fed high-fat di...

  16. Characterization and quantification of phenolic compounds in four tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) farmers' varieties in northeastern Portugal homegardens.

    PubMed

    Barros, Lillian; Dueñas, Montserrat; Pinela, José; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Buelga, Celestino Santos; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2012-09-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) is one of the most widely consumed fresh and processed vegetables in the world, and contains bioactive key components. Phenolic compounds are one of those components and, according to the present study, farmers' varieties of tomato cultivated in homegardens from the northeastern Portuguese region are a source of phenolic compounds, mainly phenolic acid derivatives. Using HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS, it was concluded that a cis p-coumaric acid derivative was the most abundant compound in yellow (Amarelo) and round (Batateiro) tomato varieties, while 4-O-caffeolyquinic acid was the most abundant in long (Comprido) and heart (Coração) varieties. The most abundant flavonoid was quercetin pentosylrutinoside in the four tomato varieties. Yellow tomato presented the highest levels of phenolic compounds (54.23 μg/g fw), including phenolic acids (43.30 μg/g fw) and flavonoids (10.93 μg/g fw). The phenolic compounds profile obtained for the studied varieties is different from other tomato varieties available in different countries, which is certainly related to genetic features, cultivation conditions, and handling and storage methods associated to each sample.

  17. The Florida Library History Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jasper, Catherine; McCook, Kathleen de la Pena

    The Florida Library History Project (FLHP) began in January 1998. Letters requesting histories were sent to all public libraries in Florida with follow-up letters sent after an initial response was received from the libraries. E-mail messages were sent out to FL-LIB listservs encouraging participation in the project. A poster session was presented…

  18. Florida's Nurses Speak to Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCulloch, Etta S.

    A questionnaire was sent to 5000 Florida hospitals to obtain information from non-members of the Florida Nurses Association (FNA) and to compare the data with that of FNA members on questions relevant to nursing education. Among findings from the 22-item survey, 84 percent of which were returned, were that 80 percent disagreed that licensing…

  19. Inhalant Use in Florida Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siqueira, Lorena; Crandall, Lee A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To determine (1) the prevalence of use, (2) risk and protective factors for use of inhalants in Florida youth. Methods: The Florida Youth Substance Abuse Survey 2004 is a comprehensive assessment of youth substance abuse attitudes and practices obtained by sampling youth from sixty-five counties. Results: The sample consisted of 60,345…

  20. Florida's Urban Environment. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Mark; And Others

    This unit begins with the historical development of Florida and analyzes development from the perspective of an energy system. The unit deals with the urbanization process currently taking place in Florida and explores where it may be leading. Lessons are designed for individualized instruction or for use by students in small groups. In some cases…