Science.gov

Sample records for florida tomato vegetables

  1. New ilarvirus species in south Florida tomatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato necrotic streak virus (TomNSV) is a novel ilarvirus discovered infecting tomatoes in south Florida starting in fall 2013. It was found during surveys of vegetable fields for Tomato spotted wilt virus, Groundnut ringspot virus and Tomato chlorotic spot virus because all four viruses induce sim...

  2. Emerging tomato viruses in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) causes crop losses worldwide. This tospovirus is well-known for disease epidemics in vegetable, ornamental and peanut crops in the southeastern U.S. Two other tospoviruses have recently emerged in south Florida. Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV) was first detected in ...

  3. A novel M RNA reassortant of Groundnut ringspot virus and Tomato chlorotic spot virus infecting vegetables in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV) was recently identified using serology and nucleocapsid gene sequence from tomato plants with severe tospovirus symptoms in south Florida, which extends the geographic range of this virus from South America and South Africa to now include North America. Full genome s...

  4. Solanaceous vegetables in Florida infected with a novel M RNA reassortant of Groundnut ringspot virus and Tomato chlorotic spot virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We recently identified Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV) using serology and nucleocapsid gene sequence from tomato plants with severe tospovirus symptoms in south Florida. This extends the geographic range of this virus from South America and South Africa to now include North America. Full genome se...

  5. Vegetable viruses emerging in Florida and the Caribbean region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) and a natural Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV) reassortant (LGMTSG) with GRSV S and L RNAs and a TCSV M RNA have recently emerged and joined previously established Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) as economically important vegetable pathogens in south Florida. TCSV...

  6. 77 FR 21492 - Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 966 Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Increased... increase the assessment rate established for the Florida Tomato Committee (Committee) for the 2011-12 and subsequent fiscal periods from $0.0275 to $0.037 per 25-pound carton of tomatoes handled. The...

  7. 77 FR 43709 - Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 966 Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... Florida Tomato Committee (Committee) for the 2011-12 and subsequent fiscal periods from $0.0275 to $0.037 per 25-pound carton of tomatoes handled. The Committee locally administers the marketing order...

  8. 78 FR 28120 - Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 966 Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Decreased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Affirmation of interim rule as final rule. SUMMARY: The... locally administers the marketing order which regulates the handling of tomatoes grown in Florida....

  9. Detection and characterization of tomato viruses: A case study of emerging tospoviruses in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A unique strain of Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV), which has undergone genome reassortment with, and contains the medium RNA segment of, Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) emerged in solanaceous vegetables in south Florida in late 2009. A typical (non-reassorted) strain of TCSV was reported from t...

  10. 78 FR 77604 - Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office #0; #0;Proposed Rules #0...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 966 Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This...

  11. Genomic and biological characterization of Tomato necrotic streak virus, a novel subgroup 2 ilarvirus infecting tomato in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato necrotic streak virus (TomNSV) is a recently described ilarvirus that was detected in tomato in Florida. The full TomNSV genome sequence revealed it to be a novel subgroup 2 ilarvirus with little nucleotide identity to other previously reported tomato-infecting ilarviruses. Experimental hos...

  12. The nucleotide sequence of tomato mottle virus, a new geminivirus isolated from tomatoes in Florida.

    PubMed

    Abouzid, A M; Polston, J E; Hiebert, E

    1992-12-01

    A new geminivirus, tomato mottle virus (TMoV), affecting tomato production in Florida has been cloned and sequenced. Sequence analysis of the cloned replicative forms of TMoV revealed four potential coding regions for the A component [2601 nucleotides (nt)] and two for the B component (2541 nt). Comparisons of the nucleotide sequence of the TMoV genome with those of other whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses indicate that TMoV is a typical bipartite geminivirus of the New World and is closely related to but distinct from abutilon mosaic virus.

  13. 7 CFR 966.5 - Tomatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tomatoes. 966.5 Section 966.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 966.5 Tomatoes. Tomatoes means all varieties of the edible fruit...

  14. El Niño-Southern Oscillation Impacts on Winter Vegetable Production in Florida*.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, James W.; Jones, James W.; Kiker, Clyde F.; Hodges, Alan W.

    1999-01-01

    Florida's mild winters allow the state to play a vital role in supplying fresh vegetables for U.S. consumers. Producers also benefit from premium prices when low temperatures prevent production in most of the country. This study characterizes the influence of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on the Florida vegetable industry using statistical analysis of the response of historical crop (yield, prices, production, and value) and weather variables (freeze hazard, temperatures, rainfall, and solar radiation) to ENSO phase and its interaction with location and time of year. Annual mean yields showed little evidence of response to ENSO phase and its interaction with location. ENSO phase and season interacted to influence quarterly yields, prices, production, and value. Yields (tomato, bell pepper, sweet corn, and snap bean) were lower and prices (bell pepper and snap bean) were higher in El Niño than in neutral or La Niña winters. Production and value of tomatoes were higher in La Niña winters. The yield response can be explained by increased rainfall, reduced daily maximum temperatures, and reduced solar radiation in El Niño winters. Yield and production of winter vegetables appeared to be less responsive to ENSO phase after 1980; for tomato and bell pepper, this may be due to improvements in production technology that mitigate problems associated with excess rainfall. Winter yield and price responses to El Niño events have important implications for both producers and consumers of winter vegetables, and suggest opportunities for further research.

  15. Groundnut ringspot virus and tomato spotted wilt virus – Tospoviruses in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A growing number of solanaceous crop and weed species infected with groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV) has been identified in Florida. Continuing geographic spread of GRSV into additional vegetable production areas of Florida has also been documented. Much has been learned about GRSV in Florida altho...

  16. Aminopyralid soil residues affect rotational vegetable crops in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field experiments were conducted to determine the sensitivity of bell pepper, eggplant, tomato, muskmelon, and watermelon to aminopyralid soil residues. Aminopyralid was applied at six rates ranging from 0.0014 kg ae ha 1 to 0.0448 kg ae ha 1, and vegetable crops were planted in the treated areas. ...

  17. 7 CFR 966.5 - Tomatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... esculentum) commonly known as tomatoes and grown within the production area. ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tomatoes. 966.5 Section 966.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order...

  18. 7 CFR 966.5 - Tomatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... esculentum) commonly known as tomatoes and grown within the production area. ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tomatoes. 966.5 Section 966.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order...

  19. 7 CFR 966.5 - Tomatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... esculentum) commonly known as tomatoes and grown within the production area. ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tomatoes. 966.5 Section 966.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order...

  20. 7 CFR 966.5 - Tomatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... esculentum) commonly known as tomatoes and grown within the production area. ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tomatoes. 966.5 Section 966.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order...

  1. Western flower thrips and tospoviruses emerging as serious threats to tomato in central and southern Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Outbreaks of Tomato chlorotic spot virus and/or Groundnut ringspot virus have occurred in every season since their introduction into south Florida, and with each subsequent season disease severity has increased. In addition, these emerging viruses are widely present in southeast and southwest Florid...

  2. Thrips-vectored tospoviruses in south Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato spotted wilt virus, Groundnut ringspot virus and Tomato chlorotic spot virus are all thrips-transmitted tospoviruses and are present in south Florida. All three species cause economically significant disease in vegetable and ornamental crops including tomato, pepper and annual vinca. Use of...

  3. Necrotic streak disease of tomato in Florida caused by a new ilarvirus species related to Tulare apple mosaic virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel ilarvirus for which the name Tomato necrotic streak virus (TomNSV) is proposed was detected in Florida tomato plants beginning in October 2013. Symptoms including necrosis of leaves, petioles and stems, and necrotic rings or spots on fruits were observed. This report provides an overview o...

  4. Differential acquisition and transmission of Florida Tomato spotted wilt virus isolates by Western flower thrips

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thrips-vectored Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is one of the most important insect-vectored plant pathogens globally. The virus host range encompasses many key vegetable, ornamental and agronomic crops. TSWV populations are highly heterogeneous, which has important implications for vector relati...

  5. 75 FR 10409 - Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ...Guide ; or by contacting Antoinette Carter, Marketing Order Administration Branch, Fruit and Vegetable...) 720-2491, Fax: (202) 720-8938, or E-mail: Antoinette.Carter@ams.usda.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY...

  6. Thrips-transmitted Viruses Infect a Number of Florida Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ilarviruses Tomato necrotic streak virus and Tobacco streak virus are present in south Florida. Both species cause economically significant disease in vegetable crop. Control of these viruses makes use of integrated pest management approaches....

  7. Grafting as a Production System Component for Nematode Management in Florida Vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trials in Florida evaluated grafting for control of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in tomato, cantaloupe, and pepper. Pepper rootstocks assessed included ‘Charleston Hot’, ‘Carolina Wonder’, ‘Charleston Belle’, ‘Mississippi Nemaheart’, and ‘Carolina Cayenne’, which were resistant to gall...

  8. Integrated pest management of the southern green stinkbug, Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on tomato in North Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Southern Green Stinkbug, Nezara viridula is a serious insect pest of tomatoes in north Florida. We evaluated three trap crops and three refuge crops to investigate their potential for IPM of N. viridula. The experimental trap crops and refuge crops were, striped sunflower, WGF sorghum and brown ...

  9. Systematic vegetation change analysis of mangrove dieoff in Florida Bay and southern Everglades National Park

    SciTech Connect

    Colby, M.M.; Sargent, F.J.; Sargent, W.B.

    1997-06-01

    A very brief summary is provided of a project to link hydrological and ecological relationships of the Florida Everglades watershed and the Florida Bay estuary. The creation of vegetation maps and systematic spatial analysis of vegetation and hydrological features will provide information about the interaction between these two ecosystems. The distribution of mangroves, salt marshes, and related vegetative communities are being mapped using existing aerial photography. Historical photographic records are being used to create geographic information system data layers. Changes in the composition of wetlands and vegetative patterns will be compared over a 45-year period.

  10. [Examination of processed vegetable foods for the presence of common DNA sequences of genetically modified tomatoes].

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Mamiko; Nakamura, Kosuke; Kondo, Kazunari; Ubukata, Shoji; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    The contamination of processed vegetable foods with genetically modified tomatoes was investigated by the use of qualitative PCR methods to detect the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (P35S) and the kanamycin resistance gene (NPTII). DNA fragments of P35S and NPTII were detected in vegetable juice samples, possibly due to contamination with the genomes of cauliflower mosaic virus infecting juice ingredients of Brassica species and soil bacteria, respectively. Therefore, to detect the transformation construct sequences of GM tomatoes, primer pairs were designed for qualitative PCR to specifically detect the border region between P35S and NPTII, and the border region between nopaline synthase gene promoter and NPTII. No amplification of the targeted sequences was observed using genomic DNA purified from the juice ingredients. The developed qualitative PCR method is considered to be a reliable tool to check contamination of products with GM tomatoes.

  11. New thrips-transmitted plant viruses in Florida crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The thrips-transmitted tospoviruses Tomato spotted wilt virus, Groundnut ringspot virus and Tomato chlorotic spot virus are present in south Florida. All three species cause economically significant disease in vegetable and ornamental crops, and may also be problematic in peanut. Control of both t...

  12. Dehydrotomatine and alpha-tomatine content in tomato fruits and vegetative plant tissues.

    PubMed

    Kozukue, Nobuyuki; Han, Jae-Sook; Lee, Kap-Rang; Friedman, Mendel

    2004-04-07

    Tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) synthesize the glycoalkaloids dehydrotomatine and alpha-tomatine, possibly as a defense against bacteria, fungi, viruses, and insects. We used a high-performance liquid chromatography method with UV detection at 208 nm for the analysis of these compounds in various tissues. An Inertsil ODS-2 column with a mobile phase of acetonitrile/20 mM KH2PO4 (24/76, v/v) afforded good separation of the two glycoalkaloids in mini-tomato extracts, fruit harvested at different stages of maturity, and calyxes, flowers, leaves, roots, and stems. The two peaks appeared at approximately 17 and approximately 21 min. Recoveries from tomato fruit extracts spiked with dehydrotomatine and alpha-tomatine were 87.7 +/- 6.8 and 89.8 +/- 3.4% (n = 5), respectively. The detection limit is estimated to be 0.39 microg for dehydrotomatine and 0.94 microg for alpha-tomatine. The dehydrotomatine and alpha-tomatine content of tomatoes varied from 42 to 1498 and 521 to 16 285 microg/g of fresh weight, respectively. The ratio of alpha-tomatine to dehydrotomatine ranged from 10.9 to 12.5 in tomatoes and from 2.3 to 7.8 in the other plant tissues. These results suggest that the biosynthesis of the glycoalkaloids is under separate genetic control in each plant part. Degradation of both glycoalkaloids occurred at approximately the same rate during maturation of the tomatoes on the vine. An Inertsil NH2 column, with acetonitrile/1 mM KH2PO4 (96/4, v/v) as the eluent, enabled the fractionation of commercial tomatidine into tomatidenol and tomatidine, the aglycons of dehydrotomatine and alpha-tomatine, respectively. The information should be useful for evaluating tomatoes and vegetative tissues for dehydrotomatine/alpha-tomatine content during fruit development and their respective roles in host-plant resistance and the diet.

  13. MAPPING AND MONITORING OF SUBMERGED AQUATIC VEGETATION IN ESCAMBIA-PENSACOLA BAY SYSTEM, FLORIDA.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, the distribution and changes in submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in the Escambia-Pensacola Bay System in northwestern Florida were monitored by two techniques. One technique used divers to measure changes in the deepwater margin of beds and provided horizontal growth...

  14. Tomato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genome mapping and marker assisted selection are increasingly being adopted for tomato improvement. Vast amounts of technical and basic genomic information such as DNA and EST sequences, DNA markers, comparative linkage maps, introgression lines, mutant stocks, bioinformatics resources are availabl...

  15. Cultural and Economic Mediation Among Spanish Speaking Migrant Farm Workers in Dade County, Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferster, Lucian Edward

    Based on the study "Migrant Children in Florida", this paper discusses the Spanish speaking farm workers who migrate to Dade County yearly to harvest the tomato and fresh vegetable crops. During the fall of 1969 and the spring of 1970, questionnaires were given to a random sample of 9,065 adult migrant workers in Florida counties with…

  16. A CURLY LEAF homologue controls both vegetative and reproductive development of tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Boureau, L; How-Kit, A; Teyssier, E; Drevensek, S; Rainieri, M; Joubès, J; Stammitti, L; Pribat, A; Bowler, C; Hong, Y; Gallusci, P

    2016-03-01

    The Enhancer of Zeste Polycomb group proteins, which are encoded by a small gene family in Arabidopsis thaliana, participate to the control of plant development. In the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), these proteins are encoded by three genes (SlEZ1, SlEZ2 and SlEZ3) that display specific expression profiles. Using a gene specific RNAi strategy, we demonstrate that repression of SlEZ2 correlates with a general reduction of H3K27me3 levels, indicating that SlEZ2 is part of an active PRC2 complex. Reduction of SlEZ2 gene expression impacts the vegetative development of tomato plants, consistent with SlEZ2 having retained at least some of the functions of the Arabidopsis CURLY LEAF (CLF) protein. Notwithstanding, we observed significant differences between transgenic SlEZ2 RNAi tomato plants and Arabidopsis clf mutants. First, we found that reduced SlEZ2 expression has dramatic effects on tomato fruit development and ripening, functions not described in Arabidopsis for the CLF protein. In addition, repression of SlEZ2 has no significant effect on the flowering time or the control of flower organ identity, in contrast to the Arabidopsis clf mutation. Taken together, our results are consistent with a diversification of the function of CLF orthologues in plants, and indicate that although partly conserved amongst plants, the function of EZ proteins need to be newly investigated for non-model plants because they might have been recruited to specific developmental processes.

  17. Differential Expression and Turnover of the Tomato Polyphenol Oxidase Gene Family during Vegetative and Reproductive Development.

    PubMed Central

    Thipyapong, P.; Joel, D. M.; Steffens, J. C.

    1997-01-01

    Polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) are encoded by a highly conserved, seven-member gene family clustered within a 165-kb locus on chromosome 8 of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Using gene-specific probes capable of differentiating between PPO A/C, PPO B, PPO D, and PPO E/F, we examined the spatial and temporal expression of this gene family during vegetative and reproductive development. RNA blots and in situ hybridization using these probes showed that although PPO expression is primarily confined to early stages of development, the steady-state mRNA levels of these genes are subject to complex patterns of spatial and temporal regulation in vegetative and reproductive organs. Young tomato leaves and flowers possess the most abundant PPO transcripts. PPO B is the most abundant in young leaves, whereas in the inflorescence PPO B and E/F transcripts are dominant. Differential expression of PPOs is also observed in various trichome types. PPO A/C are specifically expressed in type I and type IV trichomes. In contrast, PPO D is only expressed in type VI trichomes. Type I, IV, and VI trichomes possess PPO E/F transcripts. Immunolocalization verified the translational activity of PPOs identified by in situ hybridization and suggested cell-type-specific, developmentally programmed PPO turnover. In addition, immunolocalization demonstrated the accumulation of PPO in specific idioblast cells of stems, leaves, and fruits. PMID:12223637

  18. Vegetative resistance to flow in south Florida; summary of vegetation sampling at sites NESRS3 and P33, Shark River slough, November, 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, Virginia; Reel, J.T.; Rybicki, N.B.; Ruhl, H.A.; Gammon, P.T.; Lee, J.K.

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is one of many agencies participating in the effort to restore the South Florida Everglades. We are sampling and characterizing the vegetation at selected sites in the Everglades as part of a study to quantify vegetative flow resistance. The objectives of the vegetation sampling are (1) to provide detailed information on species composition, vegetation characteristics, vegetation structure, and biomass for quantification of vegetative resistance to flow, and (2) to use this information to classify the vegetation and to improve existing vegetation maps for use with numerical models of surface-water flow. Vegetation was sampled at two sites in the Shark River Slough in November, 1996. The data collected and presented here include those for live and dead standing sawgrass, other dead material, periphyton biomass, vegetation characteristics and structure, and leaf area index.

  19. Vegetative resistance to flow in South Florida; summary of vegetation sampling at sites NESRS3 and P33, Shark River slough, April 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, Virginia; Ruhl, H.A.; Rybicki, N.B.; Reel, J.T.; Gammon, P.T.

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is one of many agencies participating in the effort to restore the south Florida Everglades. We are sampling and characterizing the vegetation at selected sites in the Everglades as part of a study to quantify vegetative flow resistance. The objectives of the vegetative sampling are (1) to provide detailed information on species composition, vegetative characteristics, vegetative structure, and biomass for quantification of vegetative resistance to flow, and (2) to use this information to classify the vegetation and to improve existing vegetation maps for use with numerical models of surface-water flow. Vegetative sampling was conducted in the Shark River Slough in April, 1996. The data collected and presented here include live, dead, and periphyton biomass, vegetation characteristics and structure, and leaf area index.

  20. Resilient populations of root fungi occur within five tomato production systems in Southeast Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farming practices are known to impact arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and other soil microbial communities in agroecosystems. The effects of divergent land management strategies on the incidence and infectivity of AM and other fungal root endophytes were evaluated in a 5-year tomato (Lycopersicon...

  1. Soil-vegetation correlations in selected wetlands and uplands of North-Central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Best, G. Ronnie; Wolfe, Charlotte; Segal, Debra S.

    1990-01-01

    Vegetation on four hydric and two nonhydric soils series in north-central Florida was sampled as part of a national study examining the correspondence between wetland vegetation and soils. The wetland character of the vegetation was estimated by weighted average calculations using published wetland indicator values for individual plant species. The weighted averages produced an ordering of plant communities in general agreement with the hydric character of the soils. However, the two nonhydric soils has weighted average scores slightly below 3, normally considered the lowest end of the range of nonhydric vegetation. There was no clear or consistent effect of fire management on the weighted average scores. Vegetation strata (herbaceous, low shrub, tall shrub, and trees) were generally similar in weighted average values, with the wettest of the hydric soils tending to be low in all strata and the nonhydric soils tending to be high in all strata. However, strata differed considerably in the specific values for a single soil and in the specific rank ordering of soils in different strata.

  2. Monitoring Invasive Aquatic Vegetation in Lake Okeechobee, Florida, Using NDVI Derived from Modis Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, Kate; Brozen, Madeline; Malik, Sadaf; Maki, Angela

    2009-01-01

    Lake Okeechobee, located in southern Florida, encompasses approximately 1,700 sq km and is a vital part of the Lake Okeechobee and Everglades ecosystem. Major cyanobacterial blooms have been documented in Lake Okeechobee since the 1970s and have continued to plague the ecosystem. Similarly, hydrilla, water hyacinth, and water lettuce have been documented in the lake and continue to threaten the ecosystem by their rapid growth. This study examines invasive aquatic vegetation occurrence through the use of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) calculated on MOD09 surface reflectance imagery. Occurrence during 2008 was analyzed using the Time Series Product Tool (TSPT), a MATLAB-based program developed at John C. Stennis Space Center. This project tracked spatial and temporal variability of cyanobacterial blooms, and overgrowth of water lettuce, water hyacinth, and hydrilla. In addition, this study presents an application of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data to assist in water quality management.

  3. Environmental impacts from pesticide use: a case study of soil fumigation in Florida tomato production.

    PubMed

    Sande, Doris; Mullen, Jeffrey; Wetzstein, Michael; Houston, Jack

    2011-12-01

    The search for alternative fumigants has been ongoing since the 1992 Parties of the Montreal Protocol classified methyl bromide as a Class I controlled substance with an ozone depletion potential (ODP) of 0.7 and destined it for phase-out. This paper focuses on the hazards from fumigants proposed as alternatives for pre-plant soil fumigation in tomato production. We use the Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ) developed by Kovach et al. to estimate the hazards from methyl bromide and the proposed alternative fumigants to workers, consumers, beneficial arthropods, birds, fish, and bees. Our findings indicate that iodomethane 98/2 has the lowest EIQ index value and field use rating, and is the alternative with the lowest relative risk. Among environmental categories, workers and beneficial arthropods experience the highest relative risks from the proposed tomato fumigants, and fish and consumers the least risks.

  4. Influence of Epicuticular Physicochemical Properties on Porcine Rotavirus Adsorption to 24 Leafy Green Vegetables and Tomatoes

    PubMed Central

    Palma-Salgado, Sindy Paola; Storm, Andrew Page; Feng, Hao; Juvik, John A.; Nguyen, Thanh H.

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne diseases are a persistent problem in the United States and worldwide. Fresh produce, especially those used as raw foods like salad vegetables, can be contaminated, causing illness. In this study, we determined the number of rotaviruses adsorbed on produce surfaces using group A porcine rotaviruses and 24 cultivars of leafy vegetables and tomato fruits. We also characterized the physicochemical properties of each produce’s outermost surface layer, known as the epicuticle. The number of rotaviruses found on produce surfaces varied among cultivars. Three-dimensional crystalline wax structures on the epicuticular surfaces were found to significantly contribute to the inhibition of viral adsorption to the produce surfaces (p = 0.01). We found significant negative correlations between the number of rotaviruses adsorbed on the epicuticular surfaces and the concentrations of alkanes, fatty acids, and total waxes on the epicuticular surfaces. Partial least square model fitting results suggest that alkanes, ketones, fatty acids, alcohols, contact angle and surface roughness together can explain 60% of the variation in viral adsorption. The results suggest that various fresh produce surface properties need to be collectively considered for efficient sanitation treatments. Up to 10.8% of the originally applied rotaviruses were found on the produce surfaces after three washing treatments, suggesting a potential public health concern regarding rotavirus contamination. PMID:26181904

  5. Vegetative changes in a wetland in the vicinity of a well field, Dade County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hofstetter, R.H.; Sonenshein, R.S.

    1990-01-01

    Plant communities present in 1978 and 1986 were analyzed at 250 random points on stereoscopic pairs of aerial photographs for four study sites in the vicinity of the Northwest Well Field in Dade County, Florida. Sites NW and NE lie northwest of the well field beyond the cone of depression. Site SW lies in the outer part of the cone, and site SE lies within the cone of depression. Relative frequency values for several plant types including herbs, shrubs-small trees, and trees were analyzed by the Heterogeneity G-test to determine heterogeneity among sites in 1978 and 1986. In 1978, all four sites were dominated by plant communities having herbs, shrubs, or a mixture thereof. The communities at sites NW and NE were similar, and those at SE and SW were somewhat similar. In 1986, sites NW, NE, and SE were dominated by a mixture of shrubs and trees. Only at site SW was the relative frequency of occurrence of herbaceous plants still high. At each site, there was a decrease in herbaceous vegetation and an increase in woody vegetation during this period, with the increase in trees being greatest at site SE. Time between the start of the well-field operation in May 1983 and the January 1986 photographs was insufficient to allow determination of any direct effects of the well field on the vegetation. Ground-level observations in 1987 and 1988 indicate a trend toward continued increase in dominance of woody plants and a decrease in herbaceous wetland vegetation. Development of a forest of the exotic pest tree melaleuca is occurring at all four sites, but especially at site SE. Vegetative changes between 1978 and 1986 are attributed to an invasion of the exotic species melaleuca, a shortened hydroperiod, and natural succession within the plant communities.

  6. Monitoring Invasive Aquatic Vegetation in Lake Okeechobee, Florida, using NDVI Derived from MODIS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, K. A.; Brozen, M.; Pelkie, A.; Malik, S.

    2009-12-01

    Lake Okeechobee is the second largest freshwater lake located entirely within the continental United States. The lake encompasses approximately 1,700 km2 in South Florida and is a vital part of the Lake Okeechobee and Everglades ecosystems. Lake Okeechobee has been plagued by invasive aquatic floating vegetation and in-water blooms of blue-green algae (cyanobacteria). Major cyanobacterial blooms have been documented in Lake Okeechobee since the 1970s and have continued to plague the ecosystem. Similarly, invasive hydrilla, water hyacinth, and water lettuce frequently overgrow in the lake and threaten the ecosystem. This study examines invasive aquatic vegetation occurrence through the use of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index calculated on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) MOD09 surface reflectance imagery. Occurrence during 2008 was analyzed using the Time Series Product Tool developed at John C. Stennis Space Center. This project tracked spatial and temporal variability of cyanobacterial blooms and overgrowth of water lettuce, water hyacinth, and hydrilla. In addition, this study presents an application of MODIS data to assist in water quality management.

  7. Florida

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Florida in Color and Stereo     View Larger ... 9, 2000 during Terra orbit 1650. The image at the top is a color view acquired by the vertical (nadir) camera. It has been reoriented so ... provides a three-dimensional effect when viewed using red/blue glasses with the red filter placed over the left eye. This stereoscopic ...

  8. Relationships Between Vegetation and Ground Conductivity in a Mangrove Near Indian River Lagoon, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNiff, C. M.; Kruse, S. E.; Rains, M. C.; Stringer, C. E.

    2013-12-01

    In this study, an electromagnetic induction survey was conducted with the EM-31 to assess the spatial variability of ground conductivity, a proxy for groundwater salinity, in a mangrove on North Hutchinson Island, Florida, a carbonate barrier island. A previous study established a relationship between ground conductivities and pore-water salinities, but data points are not spaced closely enough to properly observe the potential effect of mangrove vegetation on ground conductivities. We present here apparent conductivities measured along five profiles that traverse the field site; data were inverted to obtain ground conductivity for the vadose and saturated zones. The vegetation types are dense black mangrove, scrubby black mangrove and salt pan (little or no vegetation). At this site, average water-table levels were 0.2 m below ground level. The mangrove roots systems extend to .6 m to 1 m below the ground surface. Sampled pore-water conductivities range from near freshwater to hypersaline. Effective depth measurements range from 2 m to 5.5 m for the EM31. The average vadose-zone ground conductivities derived from inversion of the data are 1400 mS/m, but range from 75 mS/m to 12,000mS/m. The average saturated -zone ground conductivities are 1900 mS/m, and range more narrowly from 820 mS/m to 2400 mS/m. These large conductivity values mean the low-induction number assumption is not satisfied so true conductivity values are larger than what is measured, but spatial distribution and variability is still observable. There is a larger degree of variability observed in the vadose zone than the saturated zone, but the saturated zone generally has higher conductivity values associated with it; which is controlled by saline-hypersaline groundwater. The density of mangrove vegetation shows a strong correlation with ground conductivity variability in both zones-- vegetated areas have more variability than salt pan areas. This is due to root systems removing salt and water

  9. Evapotranspiration from areas of native vegetation in west-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bidlake, W.R.; Woodham, W.M.; Lopez, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    A study was made to examine the suitability of three different micrometeorological methods for estimating evapotranspiration from selected areas of native vegetation in west-central Florida and to estimate annual evapotranspiration from those areas. Evapotranspiration was estimated using the energy- balance Bowen ratio and eddy correlation methods. Potential evapotranspiration was computed using the Penman equation. The energy-balance Bowen ratio method was used to estimate diurnal evapotrans- piration at unforested sites and yielded reasonable results; however, measurements indicated that the magnitudes of air temperature and vapor-pressure gradients above the forested sites were too small to obtain reliable evapotranspiration measurements with the energy balance Bowen ratio system. Analysis of the surface energy-balance indicated that sensible and latent heat fluxes computed using standard eddy correlation computation methods did not adequately account for available energy. Eddy correlation data were combined with the equation for the surface energy balance to yield two additional estimates of evapotranspiration. Daily potential evapotranspiration and evapotranspira- tion estimated using the energy-balance Bowen ratio method were not correlated at a unforested, dry prairie site, but they were correlated at a marsh site. Estimates of annual evapotranspiration for sites within the four vegetation types, which were based on energy-balance Bowen ratio and eddy correlation measurements, were 1,010 millimeters for dry prairie sites, 990 millimeters for marsh sites, 1,060 millimeters for pine flatwood sites, and 970 millimeters for a cypress swamp site.

  10. Advection, dispersion, and filtration of fine particles within emergent vegetation of the Florida Everglades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huang, Y.H.; Saiers, J.E.; Harvey, J.W.; Noe, G.B.; Mylon, S.

    2008-01-01

    The movement of particulate matter within wetland surface waters affects nutrient cycling, contaminant mobility, and the evolution of the wetland landscape. Despite the importance of particle transport in influencing wetland form and function, there are few data sets that illuminate, in a quantitative way, the transport behavior of particulate matter within surface waters containing emergent vegetation. We report observations from experiments on the transport of 1 ??m latex microspheres at a wetland field site located in Water Conservation Area 3A of the Florida Everglades. The experiments involved line source injections of particles inside two 4.8-m-long surface water flumes constructed within a transition zone between an Eleocharis slough and Cladium jamaicense ridge and within a Cladium jamaicense ridge. We compared the measurements of particle transport to calculations of two-dimensional advection-dispersion model that accounted for a linear increase in water velocities with elevation above the ground surface. The results of this analysis revealed that particle spreading by longitudinal and vertical dispersion was substantially greater in the ridge than within the transition zone and that particle capture by aquatic vegetation lowered surface water particle concentrations and, at least for the timescale of our experiments, could be represented as an irreversible, first-order kinetics process. We found generally good agreement between our field-based estimates of particle dispersion and water velocity and estimates determined from published theory, suggesting that the advective-dispersive transport of particulate matter within complex wetland environments can be approximated on the basis of measurable properties of the flow and aquatic vegetation. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. Late Holocene vegetation, climate, and land-use impacts on carbon dynamics in the Florida Everglades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Miriam C.; Bernhardt, Christopher E.; Willard, Debra A.

    2014-01-01

    Tropical and subtropical peatlands are considered a significant carbon sink. The Florida Everglades includes 6000-km2 of peat-accumulating wetland; however, detailed carbon dynamics from different environments within the Everglades have not been extensively studied or compared. Here we present carbon accumulation rates from 13 cores and 4 different environments, including sawgrass ridges and sloughs, tree islands, and marl prairies, whose hydroperiods and vegetation communities differ. We find that the lowest rates of C accumulation occur in sloughs in the southern Everglades. The highest rates are found where hydroperiods are generally shorter, including near-tails of tree islands and drier ridges. Long-term average rates of 100 to >200 g C m−2 yr−1 are as high, and in some cases, higher than rates recorded from the tropics and 10–20 times higher than boreal averages. C accumulation rates were impacted by both the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age, but the largest impacts to C accumulation rates over the Holocene record have been the anthropogenic changes associated with expansion of agriculture and construction of canals and levees to control movement of surface water. Water management practices in the 20th century have altered the natural hydroperiods and fire regimes of the Everglades. The Florida Everglades as a whole has acted as a significant carbon sink over the mid- to late-Holocene, but reduction of the spatial extent of the original wetland area, as well as the alteration of natural hydrology in the late 19th and 20th centuries, have significantly reduced the carbon sink capacity of this subtropical wetland.

  12. Evapotranspiration from successional vegetation in a deforested area of the Lake Wales Ridge, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sumner, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    The suitability of three evapotranspiration models (Penman-Monteith, Penman, and a modified Priestley-Taylor) was evaluated at a site ofsuccessional vegetation in a deforested area of theLake Wales Ridge, Florida. Eddy correlation mea surements of evapotranspiration made during 22approximately 1-day periods at a temporal resolu tion of 20 minutes from September 1993 to August 1994 were used to calibrate the evapotranspiration models. Three variants of the eddy correlation method that ascribe measurement error to three different sources were considered in the analysis. The Penman-Monteith and modified Priestley- Taylor models were successful in approximating measured 20-minute values of evapotranspiration (r2  0.918). The most suc cessful approaches were the modified Priestley-Taylor model (r2 = 0.972) and a nontraditional and simplified form of the Penman-Monteith model (r2 = 0.967). The Penman approach was unsuccessful as a predictor of evapotranspiration. The evapotranspiration models were used to estimate evapotranspiration between measure ments. When evapotranspiration values measured with a Bowen ratio variant of the eddy correlation method were used for model calibration, estimated daily evapotranspiration rates varied sea sonally ranging from 0.2 millimeters per day (0.008 inch per day) in late December 1993 to5 millimeter per day (0.2 inch per day) in mid-July 1994. Annual evapotranspiration (September 15, 1993, to September 15, 1994) was estimated to be about 680 millimeters (27 inches).Evapotranspiration models calibrated to the stan dard eddy correlation method and to an energy- balance residual variant provided estimates ofannual evapotranspiration that were about 10 per cent lower and higher, respectively. These dataindicate that of the 1,320 millimeters (52 inches)of precipitation during the 1-year period, about 570 to 700 millimeters (22 to 28 inches) recharged the surficial aquifer. Evapotranspiration at this study site probably defines the lower

  13. Demonstration of wetland vegetation mapping in Florida from computer-processed satellite and aircraft multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butera, M. K.

    1979-01-01

    The success of remotely mapping wetland vegetation of the southwestern coast of Florida is examined. A computerized technique to process aircraft and LANDSAT multispectral scanner data into vegetation classification maps was used. The cost effectiveness of this mapping technique was evaluated in terms of user requirements, accuracy, and cost. Results indicate that mangrove communities are classified most cost effectively by the LANDSAT technique, with an accuracy of approximately 87 percent and with a cost of approximately 3 cent per hectare compared to $46.50 per hectare for conventional ground survey methods.

  14. Derivation of Ground Surface and Vegetation in a Coastal Florida Wetland with Airborne Laser Technology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raabe, Ellen A.; Harris, Melanie S.; Shrestha, Ramesh L.; Carter, William E.

    2008-01-01

    The geomorphology and vegetation of marsh-dominated coastal lowlands were mapped from airborne laser data points collected on the Gulf Coast of Florida near Cedar Key. Surface models were developed using low- and high-point filters to separate ground-surface and vegetation-canopy intercepts. In a non-automated process, the landscape was partitioned into functional landscape units to manage the modeling of key landscape features in discrete processing steps. The final digital ground surface-elevation model offers a faithful representation of topographic relief beneath canopies of tidal marsh and coastal forest. Bare-earth models approximate field-surveyed heights by + 0.17 m in the open marsh and + 0.22 m under thick marsh or forest canopy. The laser-derived digital surface models effectively delineate surface features of relatively inaccessible coastal habitats with a geographic coverage and vertical detail previously unavailable. Coastal topographic details include tidal-creek tributaries, levees, modest topographic undulations in the intertidal zone, karst features, silviculture, and relict sand dunes under coastal-forest canopy. A combination of laser-derived ground-surface and canopy-height models and intensity values provided additional mapping capabilities to differentiate between tidal-marsh zones and forest types such as mesic flatwood, hydric hammock, and oak scrub. Additional derived products include fine-scale shoreline and topographic profiles. The derived products demonstrate the capability to identify areas of concern to resource managers and unique components of the coastal system from laser altimetry. Because the very nature of a wetland system presents difficulties for access and data collection, airborne coverage from remote sensors has become an accepted alternative for monitoring wetland regions. Data acquisition with airborne laser represents a viable option for mapping coastal topography and for evaluating habitats and coastal change on marsh

  15. Transpiration of gaseous elemental mercury through vegetation in a subtropical wetland in florida

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, Steven Eric; Dong, Weijin; Meyers, Tilden

    2002-07-01

    Four seasonal sampling campaigns were carried out in the Florida Everglades to measure elemental Hg vapor (Hg{sup o}) fluxes over emergent macrophytes using a modified Bowen ratio gradient approach. The predominant flux of Hg{sup o} over both invasive cattail and native sawgrass stands was emission; mean day time fluxes over cattail ranged from {approx}20 (winter) to {approx}40 (summer) ng m{sup -2} h{sup -1}. Sawgrass fluxes were about half those over cattail during comparable periods. Emission from vegetation significantly exceeded evasion of Hg{sup o} from the underlying water surface ({approx}1-2 ng m{sup -2} h{sup -1}) measured simultaneously using floating chambers. Among several environmental factors (e.g. CO{sub 2} flux, water vapor flux, wind speed, water, air and leaf temperature, and solar radiation), water vapor exhibited the strongest correlation with Hg{sup o} flux, and transpiration is suggested as an appropriate term to describe this phenomenon. The lack of significant Hg{sup o} emissions from a live, but uprooted (floating) cattail stand suggests that a likely source of the transpired Hg{sup o} is the underlying sediments. The pattern of Hg{sup o} fluxes typically measured indicated a diel cycle with two peaks, possibly related to different gas exchange dynamics: one in early morning related to lacunal gas release, and a second at midday related to transpiration; nighttime fluxes approached zero.

  16. Assessment of groundwater input and water quality changes impacting natural vegetation in the Loxahatchee River and floodplain ecosystem, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orem, William H.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; McPherson, Benjamin F.; Hedgepath, Marion; Lerch, Harry E.; Reich, Christopher; Torres, Arturo E.; Corum, Margo D.; Roberts, Richard E.

    2007-01-01

    The Loxahatchee River and Estuary are small, shallow, water bodies located in southeastern Florida. Historically, the Northwest Branch (Fork) of the Loxahatchee River was primarily a freshwater system. In 1947, the river inlet at Jupiter was dredged for navigation and has remained permanently open since that time. Drainage patterns within the basin have also been altered significantly due to land development, road construction (e.g., Florida Turnpike), and construction of the C-18 and other canals. These anthropogenic activities along with sea level rise have resulted in significant adverse impacts on the ecosystem over the last several decades, including increased saltwater encroachment and undesired vegetation changes in the floodplain. The problem of saltwater intrusion and vegetation degradation in the Loxahatchee River may be partly induced by diminished freshwater input, from both surface water and ground water into the River system. The overall objective of this project was to assess the seasonal surface water and groundwater interaction and the influence of the biogeochemical characteristics of shallow groundwater and porewater on vegetation health in the Loxahatchee floodplain. The hypothesis tested are: (1) groundwater influx constitutes a significant component of the overall flow of water into the Loxahatchee River; (2) salinity and other chemical constituents in shallow groundwater and porewater of the river floodplain may affect the distribution and health of the floodplain vegetation.

  17. Flow Field and Nutrient Dynamics Control Over Formation of Parallel Vegetation Patterns in the Florida Everglades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, V.; Cheng, Y.; Stieglitz, M.

    2009-12-01

    Pattern formation in vegetated communities reflects the underlying mechanisms governing resource utilization and distribution across the landscape. An example of a patterned ecosystem is the Florida Everglades, which is characterized by parallel and slightly elevated peat "ridges" separated by deeper water "slough" communities (R&S). Ridges are dominated by sawgrass (Cladium jamaiscence). These patterns are thought to be aligned with and develop in response to the historic surface water flow direction, though the precise mechanisms which lead to their formation are poorly understood. Over the years this R&S habitat has degraded in areas where the natural flow regime, hydroperiod, and water depths have been impacted by human development. Managing and restoring this habitat has been an objective of the U.S. Federal and Florida State governments since the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) was authorized in 2000. It is imperative, however, to develop a mechanistic understanding of ridge-slough formation before the potential benefits of hydrologic forecasts associated with CERP can be evaluated. Recently, Cheng et al (see Cheng et al, session NG14) employed a simple 2D advection-diffusion model developed by Rietkerk et al (2004) to describe for the first time, the formation of parallel stripes from hydrologic interactions. To simulate parallel stripes, Cheng et al retained the basic equations of the Rietkerk model but allowed for constant advection of water and nutrient in one direction to simulate slope conditions, with evapotranspiration driven advection of water and nutrient perpendicular to the downhill flow direction. We employ this modeling framework and parameterize the model with Everglades field data to simulate ridge-slough formation. In this model, the relatively higher rates of evapotranspiration on the ridges compared to the sloughs create hydraulic gradients which carry dissolved nutrients from the sloughs to the faster growing ridges. With

  18. Emergence of Groundnut ringspot virus and Tomato chlorotic spot virus in U.S. vegetable production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Host and geographic ranges, genetic diversity and thrips transmission of Groundnut ringspot virus and Tomato chlorotic spot virus isolates from the U.S. were characterized. This report provides an overview of these viruses for growers, extension workers, crop consultants and research and regulatory...

  19. Tomato necrotic streak virus, a novel subgroup 2 ilarvirus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel plant virus has been identified infecting fresh market tomato plants in south and southeast Florida. The virus causes necrosis of tomato leaves, petioles and stems, and necrotic rings or spots on tomato fruits. Symptomatic tomato plant tissue was used to mechanically inoculate tomato plant...

  20. Use of vegetated agricultural drainage ditches to decrease toxicity of irrigation runoff from tomato and alfalfa fields in California, USA.

    PubMed

    Werner, Inge; Deanovic, Linda A; Miller, Jeff; Denton, Debra L; Crane, David; Mekebri, Abdou; Moore, Matthew T; Wrysinski, Jeanette

    2010-12-01

    The current study investigated the potential of vegetated drainage ditches for mitigating the impact of agricultural irrigation runoff on downstream aquatic ecosystems. Water column toxicity to larval fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas),and the amphipod Hyalella azteca was measured for 12 h or less at the ditch inflow and outflow, using custom-built in situ exposure systems. In addition, water and sediment samples were subject to standard toxicity tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia and H. azteca, respectively. No acute toxicity to larval fathead minnow was observed; however, runoff was highly toxic to invertebrates. Passage through a 389- to 402-m section of vegetated ditch had a mitigating effect and reduced toxicity to some degree. However, runoff from an alfalfa field treated with chlorpyrifos remained highly toxic to both invertebrate species, and runoff from a tomato field treated with permethrin remained highly toxic to H. azteca after passage through the ditch. Predicted toxic units calculated from insecticide concentrations in runoff and 96-h median lethal concentration (LC50) values generally agreed with C. dubia toxicity measured in the laboratory but significantly underestimated in situ toxicity to H. azteca. Sediments collected near the ditch outflow were toxic to H. azteca. Results from the current study demonstrate that experimental vegetated ditches were unable to eliminate the risk of irrigation runoff to aquatic ecosystems. In addition, protective measures based on chemical concentrations or laboratory toxicity tests with C. dubia do not ensure adequate protection of aquatic ecosystems from pyrethroid-associated toxicity.

  1. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part VI. Mushrooms, tomatoes, minor fruits and vegetables, dried fruits, and nuts

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, P.

    1988-01-01

    In this concluding article in the series on the technological feasibility of ionizing radiation treatment for shelf life improvement of fruits and vegetables, the present status of research on several commodities that have not been dealt with earlier is discussed. The commodities include mushrooms, tomatoes, pineapples, lychees, longans, rambutans, mangostenes, guavas, sapotas, loquats, ber, soursops, passion fruits, persimmons, figs, melons, cucumbers, aubergines, globe artichokes, endives, lettuce, ginger, carrots, beet roots, turnips, olives, dates, chestnuts, almonds, pistachios, and other dried fruits and nuts. Changes induced by irradiation on metabolism, chemical constituents, and organoleptic qualities are considered while evaluating the shelf life. The commodities have been grouped into those showing potential benefits and those not showing any clear advantages from radiation treatment. Shelf life improvement of mushrooms and insect disinfestation in dried fruits, nuts, and certain fresh fruits appears to have immediate potential for commercial application. 194 references.

  2. Importance of Rootstock and Scion Tomato Mosaic Virus Resistance for Grafting Heirloom Tomatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the 2011-2012 tomato production season at a Florida organic farm, heirloom tomato scions grafted onto Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV)-resistant tomato rootstocks were observed to undergo a rapid and severe wilt, and ultimately die. The soilborne fungus, Sclerotium rolfsii, was isolated...

  3. Sensory and chemical flavor analyses of tomato genotypes grown in Florida during three different growing seasons in multiple years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirty-eight tomato genotypes were analyzed for sensory attributes “sweet”, “sour” and “overall flavor” over seven years, one to three seasons per year (March, June and December) as well as for physical and chemical flavor-related attributes including color, sugars, acids and aroma volatiles (6-7 ye...

  4. First report of bacterial stem rot of ‘heirloom’ tomatoes caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the spring of 2014, a field experiment was established to evaluate the growth of ‘heirloom’ tomato types in a vertical garden hydroponic system. During bloom, approximately 40% of the established plants of the variety ‘Black Prince’ were severely wilted with necrotic upper leaves. Stems of infe...

  5. First report of Tomato chlorotic spot virus in scarlet eggplant (Solanum aethiopicum) and American black nightshade (Solanum americanum) in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) was identified in the vegetable crop scarlet eggplant and the weed American black nightshade in south Florida. This is the first report of TCSV naturally infecting these plant species in the U.S. Genetic diversity of TCSV was characterized. This report provides ...

  6. Ectopic expression of an apple apomixis-related gene MhFIE induces co-suppression and results in abnormal vegetative and reproductive development in tomato.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dan-Dan; Dong, Qing-Long; Fang, Mou-Jing; Chen, Ke-Qin; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2012-12-15

    It has been well documented that FERTILIZATION-INDEPENDENT ENDOSPERM (FIE) plays important regulatory roles in diverse developmental processes in model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. However, it is largely unknown how FIE genes function in economically important crops. In this study, MhFIE gene, which was previously isolated from apomictic tea crabapple (Malus hupehensis Redh. var. pingyiensis), was introduced into tomato. The hemizygous transgenic tomato lines produced curly leaves and decreased in seed germination. In addition, the co-suppression of the transgenic MhFIE and endogenous (SlFIE) genes occurred in homozygous transgenic tomatoes. As a result, FIE silencing brought about abnormal phenotypes during reproductive development in tomato, such as increased sepal and petal numbers in flower, a fused ovule and pistil and parthenocarpic fruit formation. A yeast two-hybrid assay and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) demonstrated that MhFIE interacted with a tomato protein, EZ2 (SlEZ2). Its ectopic expression and SlFIE co-suppression notably influenced the expression of genes associated with leaf, flower, and fruit development. Therefore, together with other PcG proteins, FIE was involved in the regulation of vegetative and reproductive development by modulating the expression of related genes in plants.

  7. Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation (ASD) Combined with Soil Solarization for Root-Knot Nematode Control in Vegetable and Ornamental Crops in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) combined with soil solarization continues to be evaluated for management of plant-parasitic nematodes in vegetable and ornamental crops in Florida. ASD combines organic amendments and soil saturation to stimulate microbial activity and create anaerobic conditions...

  8. Hydrology, vegetation, and soils of four north Florida River flood plains with an evaluation of state and federal wetland determinations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Light, H.M.; Darst, M.R.; MacLaughlin, M.T.; Sprecher, S.W.

    1993-01-01

    A study of hydrologic conditions, vegetation, and soils was made in wetland forests of four north Florida streams from 1987 to 1990. The study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation to support State and Federal efforts to improve wetland delineation methodology in flood plains. Plant communities and soils were described and related to topographic position and long-term hydrologic conditions at 10 study plots located on 4 streams. Detailed appendixes give average duration, frequency, and depth of flooding; canopy, subcanopy, and ground-cover vegetation; and taxonomic classification, series, and profile descriptions of soils for each plot. Topographic relief, range in stage, and depth of flooding were greatest on the alluvial flood plain of the Ochlockonee River, the largest of the four streams. Soils were silty in the lower elevations of the flood plain, and tree communities were distinctly different in each topographic zone. The Aucilla River flood plain was dominated by levees and terraces with very few depressions or low backwater areas. Oaks dominated the canopy of both lower and upper terraces of the Aucilla flood plain. Telogia Creek is a blackwater stream that is a major tributary of the Ochlockonee River. Its low, wet flood plain was dominated by Wyssa ogeche (Ogeechee tupelo) trees, had soils with mucky horizons, and was inundated by frequent floods of very short duration. The St. Marks River, a spring-fed stream with high base flow, had the least topographic relief and lowest range in stage of the four streams. St. Marks soils had a higher clay content than the other streams, and limestone bedrock was relatively close to the surface. Wetland determinations of the study plots based on State and Federal regulatory criteria were evaluated. Most State and Federal wetland determinations are based primarily on vegetation and soil characteristics because hydrologic records are usually not

  9. Resting and Energy Reserves of Aedes albopictus Collected in Common Landscaping Vegetation in St. Augustine, Florida

    PubMed Central

    Samson, Dayana M.; Qualls, Whitney A.; Roque, Deborah; Naranjo, Diana P.; Alimi, Temitope; Arheart, Kristopher L.; Müller, Günter C.; Beier, John C.

    2014-01-01

    The resting behavior of Aedes albopictus was evaluated by aspirating diurnal resting mosquitoes from common landscape vegetation in residential communities in St. Augustine, FL. Energy reserves of the resting mosquitoes were analyzed to determine if there was a correlation between mosquito resting habitat and energy accumulation. Six species of plants were selected and 9 collections of resting mosquitoes were aspirated from each plant using a modified John W. Hock backpack aspirator during June and July 2012. Eight mosquito species were collected, with Ae. albopictus representing 74% of the overall collection. The number of Ae. albopictus collected varied significantly with the species of vegetation. When comparing the vegetation and abundance of resting mosquitoes, the highest percentages of Ae. albopictus were collected resting on Ruellia brittoniana (Mexican petunia), Asplenium platyneuron (fern), Gibasis geniculate (Tahitian bridal veil), followed by Plumba goauriculata (plumbago), Setcreasea pallida (purple heart), and Hibiscus tiliaceus (hibiscus). There were significant differences in lipid and glycogen accumulation based on type of vegetation Ae. albopictus was found resting in. Resting mosquitoes' sugar reserves were not influenced by species of vegetation. However, there was an overall correlation between vegetation that serves as a resting habitat and energy reserve accumulation. The results of our study demonstrate the potential to target specific vegetation for control of diurnal resting mosquitoes. PMID:24199497

  10. Managing thrips and tospoviruses in tomato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This fact sheet reports current management recommendations for Tomato spotted wilt virus, Groundnut ringspot virus and Tomato chlorotic spot virus and the thrips that transmits each of these viruses. All three viruses are important pathogens for Florida tomato crops. This information is useful for...

  11. Characterization of vegetative inflorescence (mc-vin) mutant provides new insight into the role of MACROCALYX in regulating inflorescence development of tomato.

    PubMed

    Yuste-Lisbona, Fernando J; Quinet, Muriel; Fernández-Lozano, Antonia; Pineda, Benito; Moreno, Vicente; Angosto, Trinidad; Lozano, Rafael

    2016-01-04

    Inflorescence development is a key factor of plant productivity, as it determines flower number. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms that regulate inflorescence architecture is critical for reproductive success and crop yield. In this study, a new mutant, vegetative inflorescence (mc-vin), was isolated from the screening of a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) T-DNA mutant collection. The mc-vin mutant developed inflorescences that reverted to vegetative growth after forming two to three flowers, indicating that the mutated gene is essential for the maintenance of inflorescence meristem identity. The T-DNA was inserted into the promoter region of the MACROCALYX (MC) gene; this result together with complementation test and expression analyses proved that mc-vin is a new knock-out allele of MC. Double combinations between mc-vin and jointless (j) and single flower truss (sft) inflorescence mutants showed that MC has pleiotropic effects on the reproductive phase, and that it interacts with SFT and J to control floral transition and inflorescence fate in tomato. In addition, MC expression was mis-regulated in j and sft mutants whereas J and SFT were significantly up-regulated in the mc-vin mutant. Together, these results provide new evidences about MC function as part of the genetic network regulating the development of tomato inflorescence meristem.

  12. Vegetation used for nesting by the red-winged blackbird in Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stowers, J.F.; Harke, D.T.; Stickley, A.R.

    1968-01-01

    During the breeding season of 1966, as an adjunct to a taxonomic study of Red-winged Blackbirds in Florida, 177 Redwin g nests were found. The general habitat types were noted, and the plant species harboring nests were listed.....Redwing nests were found in 30 genera of plants. Buttonbush was the primary choice; it was used to support 50 of the 177 nests. Silverling and willow were the next most often used plants. Nests also were found in other shrubs and trees, in assorted herbs and grasses, and in fields of sweet corn and sugarcane. The great degree of nesting adaptability of the Red-winged Blackbird is attested by the diversity of nesting site selections in several habitats.

  13. Vegetation changes caused by fire in the Florida flatwoods as observed by remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mealor, W. T., Jr.; Prunty, M. C., Jr.

    1969-01-01

    The nature of the flatwoods and the role that ground fires have played in maintaining them are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the areal and temporal extent of burns as recorded uniformly by remote sensors. Thermal infrared, color infrared, and Ektachrome imagery were obtained from sensors flown by a NASA aircraft at 15,000 feet over a test site in Osceola County, Florida, in March 1968. The overall pattern of burning can be sequenced and mapped uniformly from the imagery. By comparing the various imagery, areal and temporal extent of burned areas can be determined. It was concluded that remote sensed imagery provides more accurate and areally comprehensive media for assessing the impact of ground fires on the landscape of the flatwoods region than are available from any other data source.

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of a Tomato-Infecting Tomato Mottle Mosaic Virus in New York

    PubMed Central

    Padmanabhan, Chellappan; Zheng, Yi; Li, Rugang; Martin, Gregory B.; Fei, Zhangjun

    2015-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of an isolate of tomato mottle mosaic virus (ToMMV) infecting tomatoes in New York was obtained using small RNA (sRNA) deep sequencing. ToMMV_NY-13 shared 99% sequence identity with isolates from Mexico and Florida. Broader distribution of this emerging virus is a cause for concern to the tomato industry. PMID:26701086

  15. Evapotranspiration from areas of native vegetation in west-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bidlake, W.R.; Woodham, W.M.; Lopez, Miguel Angel

    1996-01-01

    The micrometeorological methods of energy-balance Bowen ratio and eddy correlation probably are suitable for determining evapotranspiration from unforested sites, but the aerodynamic effects of tall tree canopies need to be considered when the methods are used for forested sites. Potential evapotranspiration methods might not yield reliable estimates of evapotranspiration for all areas of native vegetation. Estimates of annual evapotranspiration ranged from 970 millimeters for a cypress swamp site to 1,060 millimeters for a pine flatwood site.

  16. Signals of ENSO related precipitation changes and atmospheric CO2 levels in Florida wetland vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, F.

    2003-04-01

    Trees are equipped with a plastic phenotype, capable of sustained adjustment of leaf stomata to changes in atmospheric [CO2] concentration. With high temporal resolution and accuracy, stomatal frequency data demonstrate that Holocene climate evolution has been influenced by century-scale [CO2] fluctuations. Apart from adapting to changes in [CO2], leaf-epidermal properties are known to be sensitive to environmental factors such as water availability. In long-lived hygrophilous plants, epidermal tissue expansion is likely to be significantly influenced by changes in water availability. Synchronous analysis of the leaf-morphology in [CO2] sensitive trees and water-stress sensitive fern species from leaf assemblages preserved in peat deposits in Florida (USA), reveals distinct temporal changes in epidermal properties over the past 100 years. Stomatal frequency changes in the deciduous trees reflects the human induced [CO2] increase. Epidermal-cell density changes in fern leaves, could well be interpreted in terms of El Niño / La Niña related precipitation trends. By quantifying the leaf morphological adaptation to known environmental conditions during historical times, a new palaeobotanical proxy for past precipitation changes is introduced. Hence, in El Niño sensitive regions, analysis of buried leaf assemblages offers the unique possibility of a direct recognition of time-equivalent leaf-based signals of palaeo-atmospheric [CO2] and El Niño variability.

  17. Impact of Willow Invasion on Vegetation Water and Carbon Exchange in the Florida Everglades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budny, M. L.; Benscoter, B.

    2014-12-01

    Southern coastal willow (Salix caroliniana) is native to the Florida Everglades, commonly found on drier landforms like levees and tree islands. Shortened periods of inundation due to water management have led to the encroachment and expansion of these shrubs in sawgrass (Cladium jamaicense) marsh communities. The broadleaf willow is morphologically and physiologically different from the graminoid sedge sawgrass, with possible consequence for microhabitat conditions and ecosystem function. Willow is often assumed to have greater rates of transpiration, thereby affecting wetland water management, and may have concurrent differences in photosynthesis and carbon exchange. However, the ecophysiological impact of the willow invasion has not been quantified. We assessed differences in plant water and carbon exchange between willow and sawgrass at Blue Cypress Conservation Area, an impounded sawgrass peatland within the St. John's River Water Management District (SJRWMD). Plant transpiration and net CO2 exchange (photosynthesis and autotrophic respiration) were measured on fully expanded, non-damaged leaves of sawgrass and willow using a portable infrared gas analyzer (LI-6400XT, LI-COR, Lincoln, NE, U.S.A.). The results obtained from this study will provide a better understanding of ecophysiological changes that occur within marsh communities with shrub expansion, which will have cascading impacts on soil accretion and turnover, microclimate, and water quality Understanding the implications of willow expansion will improve landscape models of wetland water and carbon exchange as well as inform water management decisions.

  18. Ant community change across a ground vegetation gradient in north Florida's longleaf pine flatwoods.

    PubMed

    Lubertazzi, David; Tschinkel, Walter

    2003-01-01

    Ant communities in longleaf pine habitats are poorly known and hence the naturally occurring ant assemblages of a large portion of southeastern North America are not well understood. This study examined the diverse ant community found in the longleaf pine flatwoods of north Florida and tested how ant diversity changes along a herbaceous ground cover gradient. Restoring the ground cover to its original floral composition is an important focus of longleaf pine conservation and hence it is important to understand how native faunal communities vary with ground cover variation. Using 4 sampling methods, we characterized the ant community and analyzed its within-habitat variation among 12 study sites. We found the highest plot species richness (55 species) and within-habitat species richness (72 species) ever recorded for North American ants. The ants formed three distinct communities. The low-diversity arboreal and subterranean assemblages varied little across forest stands while the diversity of the species-rich ground foraging ant community was negatively correlated with percent herbaceous cover. The imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta (monogyne form), was unexpectedly found to be abundant in high herbaceous cover sites. Floral restoration of the pine flatwoods, which is increasing the proportion of herbaceous cover, is likely to cause an increase in the abundance of the imported fire ant.

  19. Ant community change across a ground vegetation gradient in north Florida's longleaf pine flatwoods

    PubMed Central

    Lubertazzi, David; Tschinkel, Walter R.

    2003-01-01

    Ant communities in longleaf pine habitats are poorly known and hence the naturally occurring ant assemblages of a large portion of southeastern North America are not well understood. This study examined the diverse ant community found in the longleaf pine flatwoods of north Florida and tested how ant diversity changes along a herbaceous ground cover gradient. Restoring the ground cover to its original floral composition is an important focus of longleaf pine conservation and hence it is important to understand how native faunal communities vary with ground cover variation. Using 4 sampling methods, we characterized the ant community and analyzed its within-habitat variation among 12 study sites. We found the highest plot species richness (55 species) and within-habitat species richness (72 species) ever recorded for North American ants. The ants formed three distinct communities. The low-diversity arboreal and subterranean assemblages varied little across forest stands while the diversity of the species-rich ground foraging ant community was negatively correlated with percent herbaceous cover. The imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta (monogyne form), was unexpectedly found to be abundant in high herbaceous cover sites. Floral restoration of the pine flatwoods, which is increasing the proportion of herbaceous cover, is likely to cause an increase in the abundance of the imported fire ant. Abbreviation: ANF Apalachicola National Forest PMID:15841237

  20. Validated UPLC-MS/MS Methods To Quantitate Free and Conjugated Alternaria Toxins in Commercially Available Tomato Products and Fruit and Vegetable Juices in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Walravens, Jeroen; Mikula, Hannes; Rychlik, Michael; Asam, Stefan; Devos, Tom; Njumbe Ediage, Emmanuel; Diana Di Mavungu, José; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Van Landschoot, Anita; Vanhaecke, Lynn; De Saeger, Sarah

    2016-06-22

    Ultraperformance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe based analytical methodologies to quantitate both free (alternariol (1), alternariol monomethyl ether (2), tenuazonic acid (3), tentoxin (4), altenuene (5), altertoxin-I (6)) and conjugated (sulfates and glucosides of 1 and 2) Alternaria toxins in fruit and vegetable juices and tomato products were developed and validated. Acceptable limits of quantitation (0.7-5.7 μg/kg), repeatability (RSDr < 15.7%), reproducibility (RSDR < 17.9%), and apparent recovery (87.0-110.6%) were obtained for all analytes in all matrices investigated. 129 commercial foodstuffs were analyzed, and 3 was detected in 100% of tomato product samples (tomato based foodstuffs, whereas 3 is unlikely to be of human health concern.

  1. Effects of fire on composition, biomass, and nutrients in oak scrub vegetation on John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmalzer, Paul A.; Hinkle, C. Ross

    1987-01-01

    Four stands of oak scrub two, four, eight, and 25 years since fire were sampled with permanent 15 m line transects. Percent cover by species was determined. Plant samples were analyzed for a variety of substances. Transects were resurveyed in 1985 for vegetation parameters. Nutrient pools in biomass were calculated from biomass data and tissue nutrient concentrations. Soil nutrient pools were calculated from nutrient concentrations and bulk density. Species distribution and soil chemical properties were found to be closely related to water table depth. The following fire-related conclusions are reached: (1) major structural changes occur in scrub after fire in that shrub height is reduced and requires four to six years to exceed 1 m; (2) reduction in shrub height affects the suitability of scrub for the Florida scrub jay (3) live biomass increases with time since fire; (4) nutrient concentrations in live biomass do not change with time since fire; (5) species composition and richness are little changed after fire; and (6) imposition of a continued regime of burning on a three-year cycle may have adverse impacts not indicated by the recovery of scrub from a single fire.

  2. Vegetation changes during the last deglacial and early Holocene: a record from Little Salt Spring Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, C. E.; Willard, D. A.; Landacre, B.; Gifford, J.

    2010-12-01

    We present a high-resolution, 7000 year long pollen record of vegetation change that spans the Younger Dryas and Early Holocene. An 8.2 m sediment core was collected from Little Salt Spring (LSS), FL, which is an hourglass-shaped karst sinkhole lake with a water depth of 72 m. Previous paleohydrological reconstructions based on carbon and oxygen isotopes indicate that LSS is sensitive to past deglacial climate and sea-level changes. Distinct changes in pollen assemblages from the LSS core correspond to well-documented climatic events. For example, cooler climate during the Younger Dryas is characterized by an abrupt increase in Carya pollen. This change in pollen assemblages corresponds to estimates of cooler temperatures from ostracode isotopic records from LSS. In addition, precipitation and temperature in the early Holocene is relatively invariate as reflected in the development of a comparatively stable bayhead hammock plant community. In general, the vegetation response at LSS indicates an abrupt onset of a cooler Younger Dryas followed by, based ostracode isotopic records, a warmer and a relatively stable Early Holocene. The LSS record has potential to examine human response to abrupt climate variability because recent archeological finds indicate Early Native Americans were present there at least 10,000 years ago.

  3. Potassium deficiency affects water status and photosynthetic rate of the vegetative sink in green house tomato prior to its effects on source activity.

    PubMed

    Kanai, Synsuke; Moghaieb, Reda E; El-Shemy, Hany A; Panigrahi, R; Mohapatra, Pravat K; Ito, J; Nguyen, Nguyen T; Saneoka, Hirofumi; Fujita, Kounosuke

    2011-02-01

    The potassium requirement of green house tomatoes is very high for vegetative growth and fruit production. Potassium deficiency in plants takes long time for expression of visible symptoms. The objective of this study is to detect the deficiency early during the vegetative growth and define the roles of aquaporin and K-channel transporters in the process of regulation of water status and source-sink relationship. The tomato plants were grown hydroponically inside green house of Hiroshima University, Japan and subjected to different levels of K in the rooting medium. Potassium deficiency stress decreased photosynthesis, expansion and transport of ¹⁴C assimilates of the source leaf, but the effects became evident only after diameter expansion of the growing stem (sink) was down-regulated. The depression of stem diameter expansion is assumed to be associated with the suppression of water supply more than photosynthate supply to the organ. The stem diameter expansion is parameterized by root water uptake and leaf transpiration rates. The application of aquaporin inhibitor (AgNO₃) decreased leaf water potential, stem expansion and root hydraulic conductance within minutes of application. Similar results were obtained for application of the K-channel inhibitors. These observations suggested a close relationship between stem diameter expansion and activities of aquaporins and K-channel transporters in roots. The deficiency of potassium might have reduced aquaporin activity, consequently suppressing root hydraulic conductance and water supply to the growing stem for diameter expansion and leaf for transpiration. We conclude that close coupling between aquaporins and K-channel transporters in water uptake of roots is responsible for regulation of stem diameter dynamics of green house tomato plants.

  4. Genome Sequence of Southern tomato virus in Asymptomatic Tomato ‘Sweet Hearts’

    PubMed Central

    Alcalá-Briseño, Ricardo I.; Coşkan, Sevgi; Londoño, Maria A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The genome sequence of Southern tomato virus in asymptomatic Solanum lycopersicum ‘Sweet Hearts’ (STV-Florida) in Florida was assembled from small RNAs sequenced by Illumina RNA-seq. The STV-Florida genome shared 99.0 to 99.9% similarity with full genome sequences from Bangladesh, China, Mexico, and the United States (Mississippi and North Carolina). PMID:28209810

  5. 76 FR 71271 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Fresh Market Tomato (Dollar Plan) Crop Provisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ... defined. The definition specifies they are field grown mature green or ripe fresh market tomatoes that meet the Agricultural Marketing Service United States Standards for Grades of Fresh Tomatoes; and the applicable Florida Federal Marketing Order and Florida Tomato Committee Regulations, or their successors....

  6. The influence of vegetation on the hydrodynamics and geomorphology of a tree island in Everglades National Park (Florida, United States)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sullivan, Pamela L.; Engel, Victor C.; Ross, Michael S.; Price, René M.

    2013-01-01

    Transpiration-driven nutrient accumulation has been identified as a potential mechanism governing the creation and maintenance of wetland vegetation patterning. This process may contribute to the formation of nutrient-rich tree islands within the expansive oligotrophic marshes of the Everglades (Florida, United States). This study presents hydrogeochemical data indicating that tree root water uptake is a primary driver of groundwater ion accumulation across one of these islands. Sap flow, soil moisture, water level, water chemistry, and rainfall were measured to identify the relationships between climate, transpiration, and groundwater uptake by phreatophytes and to examine the effect this uptake has on groundwater chemistry and mineral formation in three woody plant communities of differing elevations. During the dry season, trees relied more on groundwater for transpiration, which led to a depressed water table and the advective movement of groundwater and dissolved ions, including phosphorus, from the surrounding marsh towards the centre of the island. Ion exclusion during root water uptake led to elevated concentrations of all major dissolved ions in the tree island groundwater compared with the adjacent marsh. Groundwater was predominately supersaturated with respect to aragonite and calcite in the lower-elevation woody communities, indicating the potential for soil formation. Elevated groundwater phosphorous concentrations detected in the highest-elevation woody community were associated with the leaching of inorganic sediments (i.e. hydroxyapatite) in the vadose zone. Understanding the complex feedback mechanisms regulating plant/groundwater/surface water interactions, nutrient dynamics, and potential soil formation is necessary to manage and restore patterned wetlands such as the Everglades.

  7. A rootstock provides water conservation for a grafted commercial tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) line in response to mild-drought conditions: a focus on vegetative growth and photosynthetic parameters.

    PubMed

    Nilsen, Erik T; Freeman, Joshua; Grene, Ruth; Tokuhisa, James

    2014-01-01

    The development of water stress resistant lines of commercial tomato by breeding or genetic engineering is possible, but will take considerable time before commercial varieties are available for production. However, grafting commercial tomato lines on drought resistant rootstock may produce drought tolerant commercial tomato lines much more rapidly. Due to changing climates and the need for commercial production of vegetables in low quality fields there is an urgent need for stress tolerant commercial lines of vegetables such as tomato. In previous observations we identified a scion root stock combination ('BHN 602' scion grafted onto 'Jjak Kkung' rootstock hereafter identified as 602/Jjak) that had a qualitative drought-tolerance phenotype when compared to the non-grafted line. Based on this initial observation, we studied photosynthesis and vegetative above-ground growth during mild-drought for the 602/Jjak compared with another scion-rootstock combination ('BHN 602' scion grafted onto 'Cheong Gang' rootstock hereafter identified as 602/Cheong) and a non-grafted control. Overall above ground vegetative growth was significantly lower for 602/Jjak in comparison to the other plant lines. Moreover, water potential reduction in response to mild drought was significantly less for 602/Jjak, yet stomatal conductance of all plant-lines were equally inhibited by mild-drought. Light saturated photosynthesis of 602/Jjak was less affected by low water potential than the other two lines as was the % reduction in mesophyll conductance. Therefore, the Jjak Kkung rootstock caused aboveground growth reduction, water conservation and increased photosynthetic tolerance of mild drought. These data show that different rootstocks can change the photosynthetic responses to drought of a high yielding, commercial tomato line. Also, this rapid discovery of one scion-rootstock combination that provided mild-drought tolerance suggests that screening more scion-rootstock combination for

  8. Ground-cover vegetation in wetland forests of the lower Suwannee River floodplain, Florida, and potential impacts of flow reductions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Darst, Melanie R.; Light, Helen M.; Lewis, Lori J.

    2002-01-01

    Ground-cover vegetation was surveyed in wetland forests in the lower Suwannee River floodplain, Florida, in a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Suwannee River Water Management District from 1996 to 1999. Increased water use in the basin, supplied primarily from ground water, could reduce ground-water discharge to the river and flows in the lower Suwannee River. Many of the 282 ground-cover species found in wetland forests of the floodplain have distributions that are related to flow-dependent hydrologic characteristics of forest types, and their distributions would change if flows were reduced. Overall species diversity in the floodplain might decrease, and the composition of ground-cover vegetation in all forest types might change with flow reductions. The study area included forests within the 10-year floodplain of the lower Suwannee River from its confluence with the Santa Fe River to the lower limit of forests near the Gulf of Mexico. The floodplain is divided into three reaches (riverine, upper tidal, and lower tidal) due to variations in hydrology, vegetation, and soils with proximity to the coast. The riverine (non-tidal) reach had the greatest number of total species (203) and species unique to that reach (81). Mitchella repens, Toxicodendron radicans, and Axonopus furcatus were the most frequently dominant species in riverine bottomland hardwoods. Free-floating aquatic species, such as Spirodela punctata and Lemna valdiviana, were the dominant species in the wettest riverine swamps. The upper tidal reach had the lowest number of total species (116), only two species unique to that reach, and the lowest density of ground cover (26 percent). Panicum commutatum and Crinum americanum were frequent dominant species in upper tidal forests. The lower tidal reach had the highest ground-cover density (43 percent) and the second highest number of total species (183) and number of species unique to that reach (55). Saururus cernuus

  9. Melaleuca quinquenervia litter accumulation, mass loss, and impact on the establishment of forest-floor vegetation in southern Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The invasive tree Melaleuca quinquenervia (melaleuca) occurs in various habitats of southern Florida where it degrades ecologically sensitive areas. The exotic tree displaces other plant species, such as Cladium jamaicense (sawgrass), from many areas, forms monoculture forests with closed canopies, ...

  10. Isatin as an auxin source favoring floral and vegetative shoot regeneration from calli produced by thin layer explants of tomato pedicel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Applewhite, P. B.; K-Sawhney, R.; Galston, A. W.

    1994-01-01

    Thin layer explants taken from the pedicels and peduncles of flowering tomato plants yielded calli with great organogenetic potential. Of the 15 cultivars tested, 7 regenerated roots, shoots and eventually entire fruit-bearing plants. Calli grown on modified Murashige-Skoog medium responded to varied auxins and cytokinins with different morphogenetic patterns. Thus, naphthaleneacetic acid yielded root-producing calli, while the auxin precursor isatin (indole 2,3-dione) caused the production of calli with vegetative and floral shoots, rarely yielding roots. This may be related to isatin's slow, steady conversion to an active auxin (Plant Physiol 41:1485-1488, 1966) in contrast with naphthaleneacetic acid's immediate presentation of a high level of active auxin. The highest incidence of vegetative shoot (100%) and flower (50%) formation was obtained with 10 micromoles isatin and 3 micromoles zeatin. A few of the flowers developed into ripe fruits. The high frequency of induction of vegetative shoots and flowers before roots with isatin suggests its utility in micropropagation from plant tissue cultures.

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of Tomato Mosaic Virus Isolated from Jasmine in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Fillmer, Kornelia; Adkins, Scott; Pongam, Patchara

    2015-01-01

    Tomato mosaic virus was reported from jasmine in Florida. We present the first complete genome sequence of a tomato mosaic virus isolate from this woody perennial plant in the United States. PMID:26159525

  12. Tailoring of plants via genetic engineering: Tomato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato has become a popular vegetable as it is an important source of vitamins, minerals and fibre in diets. One medium-sized tomato provides 57% of the recommended daily allowance (RDA) of vitamin C, 25% RDA of vitamin A, and 8% RDA of iron, yet with only 35 calories. Tomato extract has been used t...

  13. Proximate nutrient analyses of four species of submerged aquatic vegetation consumed by Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) compared to romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. longifolia).

    PubMed

    Siegal-Willott, Jessica L; Harr, Kendal; Hayek, Lee-Ann C; Scott, Karen C; Gerlach, Trevor; Sirois, Paul; Reuter, Mike; Crewz, David W; Hill, Richard C

    2010-12-01

    Free-ranging Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) consume a variety of sea grasses and algae. This study compared the dry matter (DM) content, proximate nutrients (crude protein [CP], ether-extracted crude fat [EE], nonfiber carbohydrate [NFC], and ash), and the calculated digestible energy (DE) of sea grasses (Thalassia testudinum, Halodule wrightii, and Syringodium filiforme) collected in spring, summer, and winter, and an alga (Chara sp.) with those of romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. longifolia). Neutral-detergent fiber (NDF), acid-detergent fiber (ADF), and lignin (L) measured after ash-extraction were also compared. Results of statistical tests (C = 0.01) revealed DM content was higher in aquatic vegetation than in lettuce (P = 0.0001), but NDF and ADF were up to threefold greater, EE (P = 0.00001) and CP (P = 0.00001) were 2-9 times less, and NFC (P = 0.0001) was 2-6 times lower in sea grass than in lettuce, on a DM basis. Chara was lower in NDF, ADF, L, EE, CP, and NFC relative to lettuce on a DM basis. Ash content (DM basis) was higher (P = 0.0001), and DE was 2-6 times lower in aquatic vegetation than in lettuce. Sea grass rhizomes had lower L and higher ash contents (DM basis) than sea grass leaves. Based on the nutrient analyses, romaine lettuce and sea grasses are not equivalent forages, which suggests that the current diet of captive Florida manatees should be reassessed.

  14. Emergence and impact of two tospoviruses in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A unique strain of Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV), which has undergone genome reassortment with, and contains the medium RNA segment of, Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) was identified in tomato in south Florida in late 2009. A typical (non-reassorted) strain of TCSV was reported from tomato in ...

  15. Fruits and vegetables (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A healthy diet includes adding vegetables and fruit every day. Vegetables like broccoli, green beans, leafy greens, zucchini, cauliflower, cabbage, carrots, and tomatoes are low in calories and high in fiber, ...

  16. A new quality parameter in tomato and tomato products: ergosterol.

    PubMed

    Kadakal, Cetin; Artik, Nevzat

    2004-01-01

    The poor precision of the "percentage of discarded fruits" and "Howard mold count" methods has increased the importance of ergosterol for the microbiological quality evaluation of tomato and tomato products. Ergosterol, a constituent of the cell wall of some important vegetable parasites, such as molds, has been recently recognized as a potential objective parameter useful for the characterization of the quality of processing tomatoes. Thus, 15 mg of ergosterol/kg total solids has been stated as an acceptability maximum limit of tomato products.

  17. Factors That Affect Proliferation of Salmonella in Tomatoes Post-Harvest: The Roles of Seasonal Effects, Irrigation Regime, Crop and Pathogen Genotype

    PubMed Central

    Marvasi, Massimiliano; Hochmuth, George J.; Giurcanu, Mihai C.; George, Andrée S.; Noel, Jason T.; Bartz, Jerry; Teplitski, Max

    2013-01-01

    Main Objectives Fresh fruits and vegetables become increasingly recognized as vehicles of human salmonellosis. Physiological, ecological, and environmental factors are all thought to contribute to the ability of Salmonella to colonize fruits and vegetables pre- and post-harvest. The goal of this study was to test how irrigation levels, fruit water congestion, crop and pathogen genotypes affect the ability of Salmonella to multiply in tomatoes post-harvest. Experimental Design Fruits from three tomato varieties, grown over three production seasons in two Florida locations, were infected with seven strains of Salmonella and their ability to multiply post-harvest in field-grown tomatoes was tested. The field experiments were set up as a two-factor factorial split plot experiment, with the whole-plot treatments arranged in a randomized complete-block design. The irrigation treatment (at three levels) was the whole-plot factor, and the split-plot factor was tomato variety, with three levels. The significance of the main, two-way, and three-way interaction effects was tested using the (type III) F-tests for fixed effects. Mean separation for each significant fixed effect in the model was performed using Tukey’s multiple comparison testing procedure. Most Important Discoveries and Significance The irrigation regime per se did not affect susceptibility of the crop to post-harvest proliferation of Salmonella. However, Salmonella grew significantly better in water-congested tissues of green tomatoes. Tomato maturity and genotype, Salmonella genotype, and inter-seasonal differences were the strongest factors affecting proliferation. Red ripe tomatoes were significantly and consistently more conducive to proliferation of Salmonella. Tomatoes harvested in the driest, sunniest season were the most conducive to post-harvest proliferation of the pathogen. Statistically significant interactions between production conditions affected post-harvest susceptibility of the crop to the

  18. Interactions between river stage and wetland vegetation detected with a Seasonality Index derived from LANDSAT images in the Apalachicola delta, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    la Cecilia, Daniele; Toffolon, Marco; Woodcock, Curtis E.; Fagherazzi, Sergio

    2016-03-01

    The distribution of swamp floodplain vegetation and its evolution in the lower non-tidal reaches of the Apalachicola River, Florida USA, is mapped using Landsat Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (TM/ETM+) images captured over a period of 29 years. A newly developed seasonality index (SI), the ratio of the NDVI in winter months to the summer months, shows that the hardwood swamp, dominated by bald cypress and water tupelo, is slowly replaced by bottomland hardwood forest. This forest shift is driven by lower water levels in the Apalachicola River in the last 30 years, and predominantly occurs in the transitional area between low floodplains and high river banks. A negative correlation between maximum summer NDVI and water levels in winter suggests the growth of more vigorous vegetation in the vicinity of sloughs during years with low river flow. A negative correlation with SI further indicates that these vegetation patches are possibly replaced by species typical of drier floodplain conditions.

  19. Use of vegetated agricultural drainage ditches to decrease pesticide transport from tomato and alfalfa fields in California, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigation and storm water runoff from agricultural fields has the potential to cause impairment to downstream aquatic receiving systems. Over the last several years, scientists have discovered the benefit of using edge-of-field practices, such as vegetated agricultural drainage ditches, in the mit...

  20. Use of vegetated agricultural drainage ditches to decrease pesticide transport from tomato and alfalfa fields in California: runoff toxicity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was performed to investigate the potential of vegetated drainage ditches for mitigating the impact of agricultural irrigation runoff on downstream aquatic ecosystems. Water column toxicity to larval fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), and the amphipod, Hyalella azteca, was measured for ...

  1. A Satellite-Based Estimation of Evapotranspiration Using Vegetation Index-Temperature Trapezoid Concept: A Case Study in Southern Florida, U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagci, A. L.; Santanello, J. A., Jr.; Jones, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    One of the key surface variables for hydrological applications, monitoring of natural and anthropogenic water consumption, closing energy balance and water budgets and drought identification is evapotranspiration (ET). There is currently a strong need for high temporal and spatial resolution ET products for climate and hydrological modelers. A satellite-based retrieval method based on vegetation index-temperature trapezoid (VITT) concept has been developed. This model has the ability to generate accurate ET estimates at high temporal and spatial resolutions by taking advantage of key remotely sensed parameters such as vegetation indices (VIs) and land surface temperature (LST) acquired by satellites as well as routinely-measured meteorological variables such as air temperature (Ta) and net radiation. For local-scale applications, the model has been successfully implemented in Python programming language and tested using Landsat satellite products at an eddy covariance flux tower in Florida. It is fully functional and automated such that there is no need of user intervention to run the model. The model development for continental-scale applications using VI and LST products from NASA satellites such as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is currently in progress. The results for local-scale application and early results for continental-scale (US) will be presented and discussed.

  2. Effects of space shuttle launches STS-1 through STS-9 on terrestrial vegetation of John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmalzer, P. A.; Hinkle, C. R.; Breininger, D.; Knott, W. M., III (Editor); Koller, A. M., Jr. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Space Shuttle launches produce a cloud containing hydrochloric acid (HCl), aluminum oxide (Al203), and other substances. Acidities of less than 0.5 pH have been measured routinely in association with the launch cloud. In an area of about 22 ha regularly exposed to the exhaust cloud during most Shuttle launches, acute vegetation damage has resulted from the first nine Shuttle launches. Changes include loss of sensitive species, loss of plant community structure, reduction in total cover, and replacement of some species by weedy invaders. Community level changes define a retrogressive sequence. One-time impacts to strand and dune vegetation occurred after launches of STS-8 and STS-9. Acute vegetation damage occurred especially to sensitive species. Within six months, however, recovery was nearly complete. Sensitivity of species to the launch cloud was partially predicted by previous laboratory studies. Far-field acidic and dry fallout from the cloud as it rises to stabilization and moves with the prevailing winds causes vegetation spotting. Damage from this deposition is minor; typically at most 1% to 5% of leaf surface area is affected. No plant mortality or community changes have occurred from far-field deposition.

  3. Further Insights Into The Epidemiology And Monitoring Practices Of Tomato Viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are a number of serious virus threats to tomato production in Florida. These include the whitefly-transmitted Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and, more recently, Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV) and Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) which are both vectored by thrips. GRSV and TCSV are cl...

  4. Screening tomato germplasm for resistance to potato spindle tuber viroid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, several outbreaks of a potentially devastating viroid disease on tomato in North America have caused serious concerns to tomato growers and vegetable seed industry. Several closely related viroids in the genus Pospiviroid have been identified on tomato. Among them, Potato spindle t...

  5. A demonstration of wetland vegetation mapping in Florida from computer-processed satellite and aircraft multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butera, M. K. (Principal Investigator)

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Major vegetative classes identified by the remote sensing technique were cypress swamp, pine, wetland grasses, salt grass, mixed mangrove, black mangrove, Brazilian pepper. Australian pine and melaleuca were not satisfactorily classified from LANDSAT. Aircraft scanners provided better resolution resulting in a classification of finer surface detail. An edge effect, created by the integration of diverse spectral responses within boundary elements of digital data, affected the wetlands classification. Accuracy classification for aircraft was 68% and for LANDSAT was 74%.

  6. Association of tomato leaf curl Sudan virus with leaf curl disease of tomato in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Sohrab, Sayed Sartaj; Yasir, Muhammad; El-Kafrawy, Sherif Ali; Abbas, Ayman T; Mousa, Magdi Ali Ahmed; Bakhashwain, Ahmed A

    2016-06-01

    Tomato is an important vegetable crop and its production is adversely affected by leaf curl disease caused by begomovirus. Leaf curl disease is a serious concern for tomato crops caused by begomovirus in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Tomato leaf curl disease has been shown to be mainly caused either by tomato leaf curl Sudan virus or tomato yellow leaf curl virus as well as tomato leaf curl Oman virus. Many tomato plants infected with monopartite begomoviruses were also found to harbor a symptom enhancing betasatellites. Here we report the association of tomato leaf curl Sudan virus causing leaf curl disease of tomato in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The complete genome sequence analysis showed highest (99.9 %) identity with tomato leaf curl Sudan virus causing leaf curl disease in Arabian Peninsula. In phylogenetic relationships analysis, the identified virus formed closest cluster with tomato leaf curl Sudan virus. In recombination analysis study, the major parent was identified as tomato leaf curl Sudan virus. Findings of this study strongly supports the associated virus is a variant of tomato leaf curl Sudan virus causing disease in Sudan, Yemen and Arabian Peninsula. The betasatellites sequence analysis showed highest identity (99.8 %) with tomato leaf curl betasatellites-Amaranthus-Jeddah. The phylogenetic analysis result based on betasatellites formed closed cluster with tomato yellow leaf curl Oman betasatellites. The importance of these findings and occurrence of begomovirus in new geographic regions causing leaf curl disease of tomato in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are discussed.

  7. 7 CFR 319.56-52 - Tomatoes with stems from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tomatoes with stems from the Republic of Korea. 319.56... Vegetables § 319.56-52 Tomatoes with stems from the Republic of Korea. Fresh tomatoes with stems (Solanum... not be allowed to enter the United States. (d) Commercial consignments. Tomatoes with stems from...

  8. 7 CFR 319.56-52 - Tomatoes with stems from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tomatoes with stems from the Republic of Korea. 319.56... Vegetables § 319.56-52 Tomatoes with stems from the Republic of Korea. Fresh tomatoes with stems (Solanum... not be allowed to enter the United States. (d) Commercial consignments. Tomatoes with stems from...

  9. 7 CFR 319.56-52 - Tomatoes with stems from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tomatoes with stems from the Republic of Korea. 319.56... Vegetables § 319.56-52 Tomatoes with stems from the Republic of Korea. Fresh tomatoes with stems (Solanum... not be allowed to enter the United States. (d) Commercial consignments. Tomatoes with stems from...

  10. Tospo-Resistant Variety Outlook for South Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato chlorotic spot virus, Tomato spotted wilt virus and/or Groundnut ringspot virus have occurred every season since being introduced to south Florida. With each subsequent season disease severity has increased. Use of insecticides for management of the thrips vector has proven ineffective in p...

  11. Vegetation and hydrology of land-margin ecosystems: the mangroves of South Florida in relation to disturbance, global change and response to restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Best, G.R.; Smith, T.J.

    1999-01-01

    The USGS Florida Caribbean Science Center's Restoration Ecology Branch and Florida International University is conducting research on disturbance, global change and restoration of land margin ecosystems of South Florida. Criticial research for the restoration of these systems involves understanding the responses of mangrove forests to changes in the quality, quantity, timing and distribution of freshwater inflows, response to global change (e.g. sea level rise) and catastrophic disturbances such as hurricanes.

  12. 21 CFR 155.190 - Canned tomatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... (vi) Flavoring and seasoning. (vii) Vegetable ingredients such as onion, peppers, and celery, that may... declaration of the presence of onion, peppers, and celery is required for stewed tomatoes. (c) The...

  13. 21 CFR 155.190 - Canned tomatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... (vi) Flavoring and seasoning. (vii) Vegetable ingredients such as onion, peppers, and celery, that may... declaration of the presence of onion, peppers, and celery is required for stewed tomatoes. (c) The...

  14. 21 CFR 155.190 - Canned tomatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... (vi) Flavoring and seasoning. (vii) Vegetable ingredients such as onion, peppers, and celery, that may... declaration of the presence of onion, peppers, and celery is required for stewed tomatoes. (c) The...

  15. Towards understanding the impact of floating aquatic vegetation on farm phosphorus loads in the Everglades Agricultural Area, Florida, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhadha, J. H.; Daroub, S. H.; Lang, T. A.; Josan, M. S.; Gomez, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    For decades water from Lake Okeechobee is released into the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) for irrigation; and discharges from the EAA have been identified as contributors to the phosphors (P) enrichment of the Everglades. Despite the success of the Best Management Practice (BMP) program in the EAA, higher P concentrations and loads still exit the S5A and S6 sub-basins located east of Lake Okeechobee. Limiting the growth of floating aquatic vegetation (FAV) in farm canals should improve the conveyance of drainage and irrigation waters throughout the region. We believe that suppressing the growth of FAV could potentially change the aquatic plant community. It is hypothesized that with better light penetration into canal waters more P may be co-precipitated with Ca-carbonates and form cohesive sediments that are less likely to be re-suspended and transported off the farm during drainage events. This is a long-term study which will evaluate changes in sediment composition and drainage water P in EAA farms. Four farm pairs (two from S5A and S6 sub-basin) have been selected for this study. Each farm is experimental unit. Treatments imposed on a farm will include either complete control of FAV in canals via mechanical removal followed by spot spraying of herbicides, or typical control of FAV as currently practiced. Changes in P species composition in canal waters, and overall total P loads as influenced by treatment will be determined. The goal is to provide growers an additional tool in their efforts to reduce off-farm P loading in the Everglades Agricultural Area.

  16. Tomato Preserves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Wendy Tessman

    1996-01-01

    Describes a project in which students selected seeds from two heirloom varieties of tomatoes, sowed the seeds, harvested the tomatoes, and fermented the seeds. Details are provided for each step of the project and the school address is included so that other students can begin similar projects. (DDR)

  17. Hydrology, vegetation, and soils of riverine and tidal floodplain forests of the lower Suwannee River, Florida, and potential impacts of flow reductions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Light, Helen M.; Darst, Melanie R.; Lewis, Lori J.; Howell, David A.

    2002-01-01

    A study relating hydrologic conditions, soils, and vegetation of floodplain forests to river flow was conducted in the lower Suwannee River, Florida, from 1996 to 2000. The study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Suwannee River Water Management District to help determine the minimum flows and levels required for wetlands protection. The study area included forests within the 10-year floodplain of the Suwannee River from its confluence with the Santa Fe River to the tree line (lower limit of forests) near the Gulf of Mexico, and covered 18,600 hectares (ha) of forests, 75 percent of which were wetlands and 25 percent uplands. The floodplain was divided into three reaches, riverine, upper tidal, and lower tidal, based on changes in hydrology, vegetation, and soils with proximity to the coast. The Suwannee River is the second largest river in Florida in terms of average discharge. Median flow at the confluence of the Suwannee and Santa Fe Rivers is approximately 181 cubic meters per second (m3/s) or 6,480 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) (1933-99). At the upper end of the riverine reach, river stages are unaffected by tides and have a typical annual range of 4.1 meters (m). Tides affect river stages at low and medium flows in the upper tidal reach, and at all flows in the lower tidal reach. Median tidal range at the mouth of the Suwannee River is about 1 m. Salinity of river water in the lower tidal reach increases with decreasing flow and proximity to the Gulf of Mexico. Vertically averaged salinity in the river near the tree line is typically about 5 parts per thousand at medium flow. Land-surface elevation and topographic relief in the floodplain decrease with proximity to the coast. Elevations range from 4.1 to 7.3 m above sea level at the most upstream riverine transect and from 0.3 to 1.3 m above sea level on lower tidal transects. Surface soils in the riverine reach are predominantly mineral and dry soon after floods recede except in

  18. Constitutively overexpressing a tomato fructokinase gene (lefrk1) in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. coker 312) positively affects plant vegetative growth, boll number and seed cotton yield.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing fructokinase (FRK) activity in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) plants may reduce fructose inhibition of sucrose synthase (Sus) and lead to improved fibre yield and quality. Cotton was transformed with a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) fructokinase gene (LeFRK1) under the control of the C...

  19. Whitefly population dynamics and evaluation of whitefly-transmitted tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV)-resistant tomato genotypes as whitefly and TYLCV reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Rajagopalbabu; Riley, David; Diffie, Stan; Sparks, Alton; Adkins, Scott

    2012-08-01

    Sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), and whitefly-transmitted tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) are major threats to tomato production in the southeastern United States. TYLCV was introduced to Florida from the Caribbean islands and has spread to other southern states of the United States. In Georgia, in recent years, the incidence of TYLCV has been steadily increasing. Studies were conducted to monitor population dynamics of whiteflies in the vegetable production belt of Georgia, to evaluate TYLCV-resistant genotypes against whiteflies and TYLCV, and to assess the potential role of resistant genotypes in TYLCV epidemiology. Monitoring studies indicated that the peak incidence of whiteflies varied seasonally from year to year. In general, whitefly populations were not uniformly distributed. Tomato genotypes exhibited minor differences in their ability to support whitefly populations. TYLCV symptoms were visually undetectable in all but one resistant genotype. The infection rates (visually) in susceptible genotypes ranged from 40 to 87%. Greenhouse inoculations with viruliferous whiteflies followed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) indicated that up to 100% of plants of resistant genotypes were infected, although predominantly symptomless. TYLCV acquisition by whiteflies from TYLCV-infected genotypes was tested by PCR; TYLCV acquisition rates from resistant genotypes were less than from susceptible genotypes. Nevertheless, this difference did not influence TYLCV transmission rates from resistant to susceptible genotypes. Results emphasize that resistant genotypes can serve as TYLCV and whitefly reservoirs and potentially influence TYLCV epidemics.

  20. 7 CFR 966.15 - Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 966.15 Committee. Committee means the Florida Tomato Committee,...

  1. 7 CFR 966.22 - Establishment and membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Committee § 966.22 Establishment and membership. (a) The Florida Tomato...

  2. A decision support system (GesCoN) for managing fertigation in vegetable crops. Part II—model calibration and validation under different environmental growing conditions on field grown tomato

    PubMed Central

    Conversa, Giulia; Bonasia, Anna; Di Gioia, Francesco; Elia, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The GesCoN model was evaluated for its capability to simulate growth, nitrogen uptake, and productivity of open field tomato grown under different environmental and cultural conditions. Five datasets collected from experimental trials carried out in Foggia (IT) were used for calibration and 13 datasets collected from trials conducted in Foggia, Perugia (IT), and Florida (USA) were used for validation. The goodness of fitting was performed by comparing the observed and simulated shoot dry weight (SDW) and N crop uptake during crop seasons, total dry weight (TDW), N uptake and fresh yield (TFY). In SDW model calibration, the relative RMSE values fell within the good 10–15% range, percent BIAS (PBIAS) ranged between −11.5 and 7.4%. The Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) was very close to the optimal value 1. In the N uptake calibration RRMSE and PBIAS were very low (7%, and −1.78, respectively) and NSE close to 1. The validation of SDW (RRMSE = 16.7%; NSE = 0.96) and N uptake (RRMSE = 16.8%; NSE = 0.96) showed the good accuracy of GesCoN. A model under- or overestimation of the SDW and N uptake occurred when higher or a lower N rates and/or a more or less efficient system were used compared to the calibration trial. The in-season adjustment, using the “SDWcheck” procedure, greatly improved model simulations both in the calibration and in the validation phases. The TFY prediction was quite good except in Florida, where a large overestimation (+16%) was linked to a different harvest index (0.53) compared to the cultivars used for model calibration and validation in Italian areas. The soil water content at the 10–30 cm depth appears to be well-simulated by the software, and the GesCoN proved to be able to adaptively control potential yield and DW accumulation under limited N soil availability scenarios and consequently to modify fertilizer application. The DSSwell simulate SDW accumulation and N uptake of different tomato genotypes grown under Mediterranean and

  3. 7 CFR 966.74 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating... of tomatoes covered by such exemption certificates, a record of the amount of tomatoes handled...

  4. Complete genome sequence of a tomato infecting tomato mottle mosaic virus in New York

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Complete genome sequence of an emerging isolate of tomato mottle mosaic virus (ToMMV) infecting experimental nicotianan benthamiana plants in up-state New York was obtained using small RNA deep sequencing. ToMMV_NY-13 shared 99% sequence identity to ToMMV isolates from Mexico and Florida. Broader d...

  5. Allergenic Potential of Tomatoes Cultivated in Organic and Conventional Systems.

    PubMed

    Słowianek, Marta; Skorupa, Marta; Hallmann, Ewelina; Rembiałkowska, Ewa; Leszczyńska, Joanna

    2016-03-01

    Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) are a widely consumed vegetables and contain many health beneficial micronutrients. Unfortunately, they may also cause adverse allergic reactions in sensitized people. Many studies, conducted in recent years, indicate that organically produced vegetables have higher nutritional value, improved sensory quality and contain more health-enhancing bioactive compounds than vegetables grown under the conventional system. However, the relation between organic methods of cultivation and allergenic potential of tomatoes has received little scientific attention. This study analyzed samples of five tomato cultivars taken from organic and conventional systems over three consecutive years. The content of profilin, Bet v 1 and lipid transfer protein (LTP) analogues in tomato samples was determined using an indirect ELISA assay. Substantial quantities of these proteins were found in certain cultivars across all three years of cultivation. On the basis of these findings, organically grown tomatoes appear to offer little advantage over conventionally cultivated plants in terms of reduced allergenic potential.

  6. The tomato genome: implications for plant breeding, genomics and evolution

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The genome sequence of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), one of the most important vegetable crops, has recently been decoded. We address implications of the tomato genome for plant breeding, genomics and evolutionary studies, and its potential to fuel future crop biology research. PMID:22943138

  7. Groundnut Ringspot Virus in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tospoviruses in vegetable crops are difficult to manage due to a shortage of basic information about the viruses and their vectors. This is especially true for the recently detected Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV). This publication presents all current knowledge of GRSV in Florida....

  8. Philadelphia and the Tomato.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Andrew F.; Kling, Tatiana

    This booklet describes for elementary students the many contributions of people, traveling many places, over many years to bring the tomato to Philadelphia. The booklet includes the following: (1) "Introduction to the Tomato"; (2) "Where Does the Tomato Come From?"; (3) "The Spanish Tomato"; (4) "The Philadelphia…

  9. Recent advances in tomato functional genomics: utilization of VIGS.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Pranav Pankaj; Puranik, Swati; Khan, Moinuddin; Prasad, Manoj

    2012-10-01

    Tomato unquestionably occupies a significant position in world vegetable production owing to its world-wide consumption. The tomato genome sequencing efforts being recently concluded, it becomes more imperative to recognize important functional genes from this treasure of generated information for improving tomato yield. While much progress has been made in conventional tomato breeding, post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) offers an alternative approach for advancement of tomato functional genomics. In particular, virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is increasingly being used as rapid, reliable, and lucrative screening strategy to elucidate gene function. In this review, we focus on the recent advancement made through exploiting the potential of this technique for manipulating different agronomically important traits in tomato by discussing several case studies.

  10. Effect of 1-methylcycloprene on tomato flavour components, shelf life and decay as influenced by harvest maturity and storage temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For years there have been reports of consumer dissatisfaction with fresh market tomatoes (Solanum Lycopersicon; formerly known as Lycopersicon esculentum). In Florida, tomatoes are harvested green (GR), which includes mature green (MG) and immature green (IG) fruit, gassed with ethylene and stored a...

  11. Risk assessment of triazine herbicides in surface waters and bioaccumulation of Irgarol and M1 by submerged aquatic vegetation in Southeast Florida.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Melissa Victoria; Gardinali, Piero R

    2016-01-15

    Irgarol is a common antifoulant present in coastal environments experiencing high boating activities. Irgarol, its degradation product M1, and the similarly structured herbicide Atrazine, are highly toxic to non-target marine organisms and thus pose a continual risk to the environment. Nearshore areas with intensive boating activity were assessed for environmental exposure to Irgarol, M1, and Atrazine. Irgarol levels up to 241 ng/L were measured in surface water collected at Key Largo Harbor. Irgarol's metabolite, M1, was detected at levels up to 50 ng/L. Atrazine levels reached 21 ng/L throughout Miami River, and were also detected in waters within Biscayne Bay Aquatic Preserve at 7 ± 4 ng/L. The Irgarol 90th percentile exposure concentration (176 ng/L) in Southeast Florida--including Biscayne Bay--surface waters were found to exceed most toxicity benchmarks, suggesting Irgarol concentrations may be high enough to cause undesired effects on aquatic plants. Indigenous species of SAVs were also collected throughout Southeast Florida and assessed for their Irgarol and M1 bioaccumulation capabilities. All SAV species collected revealed Irgarol bioaccumulation capabilities and a 90th centile bioconcentration factor (BCF) of 9830. Several of those species were also capable of bioaccumulating M1, with a 90th centile BCF of 391. A 43-day in situ transplant between an impacted area and a pristine area within Biscayne Bay waters showed SAVs were able to uptake Irgarol from the environment with quick kinetics: tissue concentrations were 66 times greater than the water concentration within 6 weeks. Halodule and Syringodium had the highest capacity to bioaccumulate from marina surface waters, as indicated by the Irgarol BCF (Halodule=6809, Syringodium=6681) and M1 BCF (Halodule=277, Syringodium=558). Halodule and Syringodium are therefore the best candidate species to serve as bioindicators indicators of acute Irgarol contamination.

  12. Genomics of fungal disease resistance in tomato.

    PubMed

    Panthee, Dilip R; Chen, Feng

    2010-03-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is an important vegetable crop worldwide. Often times, its production is hindered by fungal diseases. Important fungal diseases limiting tomato production are late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans, early blight, caused by Alternaria solanii, and septoria leaf spot, caused by Septoria lycopersici, fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporium fsp. oxysporium, and verticilium wilt caused by Verticilium dahlea. The Phytophthora infestans is the same fungus that caused the devastating loss of potato in Europe in 1845. A similar magnitude of crop loss in tomato has not occurred but Phytophthora infestans has caused the complete loss of tomato crops around the world on a small scale. Several attempts have been made through conventional breeding and the molecular biological approaches to understand the biology of host-pathogen interaction so that the disease can be managed and crop loss prevented. In this review, we present a comprehensive analysis of information produced by molecular genetic and genomic experiments on host-pathogen interactions of late blight, early blight, septoria leaf spot, verticilim wilt and fusarium wilt in tomato. Furthermore, approaches adopted to manage these diseases in tomato including genetic transformation are presented. Attempts made to link molecular markers with putative genes and their use in crop improvement are discussed.

  13. Multistate outbreaks of Salmonella infections associated with raw tomatoes eaten in restaurants--United States, 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    2007-09-07

    During 2005-2006, four large multistate outbreaks of Salmonella infections associated with eating raw tomatoes at restaurants occurred in the United States. The four outbreaks resulted in 459 culture-confirmed cases of salmonellosis in 21 states. This report describes the epidemiologic, environmental, and laboratory investigations into these four outbreaks by state and local health departments, national food safety agencies, and CDC. The results of these investigations determined that the tomatoes had been supplied to restaurants either whole or precut from tomato fields in Florida, Ohio, and Virginia. These recurrent, large, multistate outbreaks emphasize the need to prevent Salmonella contamination of tomatoes early in the production and packing process. Current knowledge of mechanisms for tomato contamination and methods of eradication of Salmonella in tomatoes is incomplete; the agricultural industry, food safety agencies, and public health agencies should make tomato-safety research a priority.

  14. Evaluating Weeds as Hosts of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus.

    PubMed

    Smith, Hugh A; Seijo, Teresa E; Vallad, Gary E; Peres, Natalia A; Druffel, Keri L

    2015-08-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B transmits Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), which affects tomato production globally. Prompt destruction of virus reservoirs is a key component of virus management. Identification of weed hosts of TYLCV will be useful for reducing such reservoirs. The status of weeds as alternate hosts of TYLCV in Florida remains unclear. In greenhouse studies, B. tabaci adults from a colony reared on TYLCV-infected tomato were established in cages containing one of four weeds common to horticultural fields in central and south Florida. Cages containing tomato and cotton were also infested with viruliferous whiteflies as a positive control and negative control, respectively. Whitefly adults and plant tissue were tested periodically over 10 wk for the presence of TYLCV using PCR. After 10 wk, virus-susceptible tomato plants were placed in each cage to determine if whiteflies descended from the original adults were still infective. Results indicate that Bidens alba, Emilia fosbergii, and Raphanus raphanistrum are not hosts of TYLCV, and that Amaranthus retroflexus is a host.

  15. Ingress of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium into tomato leaves through hydathodes.

    PubMed

    Gu, Ganyu; Cevallos-Cevallos, Juan M; van Bruggen, Ariena H C

    2013-01-01

    Internal contamination of Salmonella in plants is attracting increasing attention for food safety reasons. In this study, three different tomato cultivars "Florida Lanai", "Crown Jewel", "Ailsa Craig" and the transgenic line Sp5 of "Ailsa Craig" were inoculated with 1 µl GFP-labeled Salmonella Typhimurium through guttation droplets at concentrations of 10(9) or 10(7) CFU/ml. Survival of Salmonella on/in tomato leaves was detected by both direct plating and enrichment methods. Salmonella cells survived best on/in the inoculated leaves of cultivar "Ailsa Craig" and decreased fastest on/in "Florida Lanai" leaves. Increased guttation in the abscisic acid over-expressing Sp5 plants may have facilitated the entrance of Salmonella into leaves and the colonization on the surface of tomato leaves. Internalization of Salmonella Typhimurium in tomato leaves through guttation drop inoculation was confirmed by confocal laser microscopy. For the first time, convincing evidence is presented that S. enterica can enter tomato leaves through hydathodes and move into the vascular system, which may result in the internal translocation of the bacteria inside plants.

  16. 7 CFR 966.6 - Handler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating... common or contract carrier transporting tomatoes for another person) who, as owner, agent, or otherwise, handles fresh tomatoes or causes fresh tomatoes to be handled....

  17. Grafting and Paladin™ Pic-21 for nematode and weed management in vegetable production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field trials were conducted over two years in a Meloidogyne incognita-infested field to evaluate the combined use of grafting and Paladin™ (DMDS:chloropicrin) for root-knot nematode and weed control in tomato and melon. Tomato rootstocks evaluated were; ‘TX301’, ‘Multifort’, and ‘Aloha’. ‘Florida 47...

  18. 7 CFR 966.35 - Duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating... tomatoes; (f) To prepare a marketing policy; (g) To recommend marketing regulations to the Secretary;...

  19. 7 CFR 966.35 - Duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating... tomatoes; (f) To prepare a marketing policy; (g) To recommend marketing regulations to the Secretary;...

  20. 7 CFR 966.35 - Duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating... tomatoes; (f) To prepare a marketing policy; (g) To recommend marketing regulations to the Secretary;...

  1. 7 CFR 966.35 - Duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating... tomatoes; (f) To prepare a marketing policy; (g) To recommend marketing regulations to the Secretary;...

  2. 7 CFR 966.9 - Grading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating... sorting or separation of tomatoes into grades, sizes, maturities, and packs for market purposes....

  3. 7 CFR 966.14 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order... subdivisions of tomatoes according to those definitive characteristics now or hereafter recognized by...

  4. Florida Everglades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Spanning the southern tip of the Florida Peninsula and most of Florida Bay, Everglades National Park is the only subtropical preserve in North America. It contains both temperate and tropical plant communities, including sawgrass prairie, mangrove and cypress swamps, pinelands, and hardwood hammocks, as well as marine and estuarine environments. The park is known for its rich bird life, particularly large wading birds, such as the roseate spoonbill, wood stork, great blue heron, and a variety of egrets. It is also the only place in the world where alligators and crocodiles exist side by side. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on May 2, 2000. This is a false-color composite image made using shortwave infrared, near infrared, and green wavelengths. The image has also been sharpened using the sensor's panchromatic band. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  5. 78 FR 44922 - Vegetable and Specialty Crop Marketing Orders; Notice of Request for Extension and Revision of a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-25

    ... (Colorado potatoes), 953 (North Carolina/Virginia potatoes), 955 (Vidalia onions), 956 (Walla Walla onions), 958 (Idaho/Oregon onions), 959 (South Texas onions), 966 (Florida tomatoes), 981 (California...

  6. Genotype and environmental interaction for fruit quality traits in vintage tomato varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is the second most commonly consumed vegetable after in the world, after potato. There is a growing demand for quality tomato in the market place. Traits such as lycopene, total soluble solids (TSS), vitamin C and titratable acid (TA) content contribute to the overal...

  7. Characterization and detection of emerging viroids in North American greenhouse tomatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato is an economically important vegetable in many countries around the world, with major productions in China, the U.S., Spain, Italy, India, Turkey, and Egypt. Although, most of the tomato production is field grown, there is a growing trend in protective production (greenhouse). Nearly 40% of...

  8. Global virus survey in tomato using small RNA deep sequencing technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato is one of the most important and widely grown vegetable crops in the world, growing in more than 173 countries under various eco-systems. Viral diseases are one of the major limiting factors in tomato production, with up to 136 described viral species. Emerging viral diseases are especially...

  9. Grafting effects on vegetable quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable grafting began in the 1920s to control soil-borne disease. It is now a common practice in Asia, parts of Europe, and the Middle East. In Japan and Korea most of the cucurbits and tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) grown are grafted. This practice is rare in the U.S. and there have...

  10. Fruit, vegetable, and grain processing wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, R.M.; Soderquist, M.R.

    1980-06-01

    This is a literature review of fruit, vegetable and grain processing wastes. The factors affecting water usage and methods of conservation were examined. Various processes were investigated which included the pulp recovery from caustic peeled tomato skin, the dewatering of citrus, washing leafy vegetables with recycled process water and the potato processing industry.

  11. Comparative Study of Tomato and Tomato Paste Supplementation on the Level of Serum Lipids and Lipoproteins Levels in Rats Fed With High Cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Khayat Nouri, Mir Hadi; Namvaran Abbas Abad, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background Hypercholesterolemia is one of the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. Increased blood cholesterol affects general health and increases mortality due to cardiovascular disease. Poor nutrition increases LDL cholesterol and decreases LDL receptor activities in the liver. Scientists have shown that consumption of antioxidants can reduce hypercholesterolemia and proved benefits of fruit and vegetables. Tomato reduces oxidative stress by increasing serum total antioxidant level. Objectives This study compared the tomato and tomato paste supplementation on the level of serum lipids and lipoproteins in rats fed with high cholesterol. Materials and Methods In this study, four male rat groups (10 rats per group) were used. Control group received basal diet, second group received basal diet and 2% cholesterol (Chol), third and fourth groups received basal diet, 2% cholesterol tomato and tomato paste respectively (20 percent of the diet) for a month. Then serum TC, LDL, HDL and TG were measured. Results Results showed that in Chol group, all lipids increased significantly (P < 0.05) except HDL compared to the control group. Tomato and tomato paste supplementation decreased TC, LDL and TG concentration significantly (P < 0.05) compared to Chol group. Tomato paste had the higher effect on lipids decreasing than tomato. Conclusions Decreases of TC, LDL and TG may be related to tomato antioxidant effect. This course in human required more investigations. PMID:24082999

  12. Pasteuria penetrans for control of Meloidogyne incognita on tomato and cucumber, and M. arenaria on snapdragon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meloidogyne incognita and Meloidogyne arenaria, are important parasitic nematodes of vegetable and ornamental crops. Field microplot and greenhouse experiments were conducted to test commercial formulations of the biocontrol agent Pasteuria penetrans for control of M. incognita on tomato and cucumbe...

  13. Endosulfan wet deposition in Southern Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable and other crops are produced on about 25000 ha. in southern Florida in an area adjacent to Everglades and Biscayne Bay National Parks (NP). High pest pressures require high pesticide use rates. We recently reported that one mechanism for transport of the insecticide endosulfan from treated...

  14. Genome Mapping and Molecular Breeding of Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Foolad, Majid R.

    2007-01-01

    The cultivated tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum, is the second most consumed vegetable worldwide and a well-studied crop species in terms of genetics, genomics, and breeding. It is one of the earliest crop plants for which a genetic linkage map was constructed, and currently there are several molecular maps based on crosses between the cultivated and various wild species of tomato. The high-density molecular map, developed based on an L. esculentum × L. pennellii cross, includes more than 2200 markers with an average marker distance of less than 1 cM and an average of 750 kbp per cM. Different types of molecular markers such as RFLPs, AFLPs, SSRs, CAPS, RGAs, ESTs, and COSs have been developed and mapped onto the 12 tomato chromosomes. Markers have been used extensively for identification and mapping of genes and QTLs for many biologically and agriculturally important traits and occasionally for germplasm screening, fingerprinting, and marker-assisted breeding. The utility of MAS in tomato breeding has been restricted largely due to limited marker polymorphism within the cultivated species and economical reasons. Also, when used, MAS has been employed mainly for improving simply-inherited traits and not much for improving complex traits. The latter has been due to unavailability of reliable PCR-based markers and problems with linkage drag. Efforts are being made to develop high-throughput markers with greater resolution, including SNPs. The expanding tomato EST database, which currently includes ∼214 000 sequences, the new microarray DNA chips, and the ongoing sequencing project are expected to aid development of more practical markers. Several BAC libraries have been developed that facilitate map-based cloning of genes and QTLs. Sequencing of the euchromatic portions of the tomato genome is paving the way for comparative and functional analysis of important genes and QTLs. PMID:18364989

  15. Improvement of tomato local varieties by grafting in organic farming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Marta M.; Villena, Jaime; Moreno, Carmen; García, Arántzazu M.; Mancebo, Ignacio; Meco, Ramón

    2015-04-01

    Grafting is the union of two or more pieces of living plant tissue that grow as a single plant. The early use of grafted vegetables was associated with protected cultivation which involves successive cropping (Lee et al., 2010). For this reason, in the past, grafting was used with vegetable crops to limit the effects of soil-borne diseases. However, the reasons for grafting as well as the kinds of vegetable grafted have increased considerably over the years. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), one of the most important horticultural crops in the world, the effect of grafting has also been widely studied. These effects on commercial tomato varieties can be summarized in increasing plant vigor and crop yield or inducing tolerance to abiotic stresses, although the effects on tomato fruit quality or on the sensory properties are not so patent (David et al., 2008). However, a few studies about the effect of grafting on local tomato varieties, which are especially recommended for organic production in spite of their lower yields in many cases, have been developed. In this work we evaluated the effect of grafting on tomato local varieties under organic management using vigorous commercial rootstocks, and aspects related to vigor, yield and tomato fruit composition were analyzed. In general terms, grafting increased the plant vigor, the crop yield and the fruit antioxidant content, although no modification of morphological fruit attributes was observed. Keywords: grafting, Solanum lycopersicum L., local varieties, organic farming. References: Davis A.R., Perkins-Veazie P., Hassell R., Levi A., King S.R., Zhang X. 2008. Grafting effects on vegetable quality. HortScience 43(6): 1670-1671. Lee J.M., Kubota C., Tsao S.J., Bie Z., Hoyos-Echevarría P., Morra L., Oda M. 2010. Current status of vegetable grafting: Diffusion, grafting techniques, automation. Scientia Horticulturae 127: 93-105.

  16. The history of tomato: from domestication to biopharming.

    PubMed

    Bergougnoux, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    Imported from the Andean region to Europe in the 16th century, today tomato is widespread throughout the world and represents the most economically important vegetable crop worldwide. Tomato is not only traded in the fresh market but is also used in the processing industry in soups, as paste, concentrate, juice, and ketchup. It is an incredible source of important nutrients such as lycopene, β-carotene and vitamin C, which all have positive impacts on human health. Its production and consumption is increasing with population growth. In this review, we report how tomato was already domesticated by the ancient Incan and Aztec civilizations, and how it came to Europe, where its breeding history started. The development of genetic, molecular biology and plant biotechnology have opened the doors towards the modern genetic engineering of tomato. The different goals of tomato genetic engineering are presented, as well as examples of successfully engineered tomatoes in terms of resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, and fruit quality. The development of GM tomato for biopharming is also described.

  17. Ethylene signalling affects susceptibility of tomatoes to Salmonella

    PubMed Central

    Marvasi, Massimiliano; Noel, Jason T; George, Andrée S; Farias, Marcelo A; Jenkins, Keith T; Hochmuth, George; Xu, Yimin; Giovanonni, Jim J; Teplitski, Max

    2014-01-01

    Fresh fruits and vegetables are increasingly recognized as important reservoirs of human pathogens, and therefore, significant attention has been directed recently to understanding mechanisms of the interactions between plants and enterics, like Salmonella. A screen of tomato cultivars for their susceptibility to Salmonella revealed significant differences in the ability of this human pathogen to multiply within fruits; expression of the Salmonella genes (cysB, agfB, fadH) involved in the interactions with tomatoes depended on the tomato genotype and maturity stage. Proliferation of Salmonella was strongly reduced in the tomato mutants with defects in ethylene synthesis, perception and signal transduction. While mutation in the ripening-related ethylene receptor Nr resulted only in a modest reduction in Salmonella numbers within tomatoes, strong inhibition of the Salmonella proliferation was observed in rin and nor tomato mutants. RIN and NOR are regulators of ethylene synthesis and ripening. A commercial tomato variety heterozygous for rin was less susceptible to Salmonella under the greenhouse conditions but not when tested in the field over three production seasons. PMID:24888884

  18. Identification of sulphur volatiles and GC-olfactometry aroma profiling in two fresh tomato cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ten sulphur volatiles were observed in two Florida tomato cultivars (‘Tasti-Lee’ and ‘FL 47’) harvested at three maturity stages (breaker, turning, and pink) using gas chromatography with a pulsed flame photometric detector (GC-PFPD). Eight PFPD peaks were identified using retention values from auth...

  19. First report of Tomato chlorotic spot virus on Annual Vinca (Catharanthus roseus) in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato chlorotic spot virus was identified in the ornamental crop Catharanthus roseus (commonly known as vinca) in south Florida, the first report of this virus naturally infecting this species. Genetic diversity of the virus was characterized. This report provides an overview of this emerging vir...

  20. Complete genome sequence of Tomato mosaic virus isolated from jasmine in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) was first identified in jasmine in the U.S. in Florida in 1999. This report provides the first full genome sequence of a ToMV isolate from jasmine. The full genome sequence of this virus will enable research scientists to develop additional specific diagnostic tests for ...

  1. First report of Tomato chlorotic spot virus in Hoya wayetii and Schlumbergera truncata (Haw.) Moran

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato chlorotic spot virus was identified in two ornamental crops [Hoya wayetii (commonly known as porcelainflower or waxflower) and Schlumbergera truncata (false Christmas cactus)] in central Florida, the first report of this virus naturally infecting these or other ornamentals anywhere. Genetic d...

  2. Liven Up Your Meals with Vegetables and Fruits

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mix vegetables such as sauteed onions, peas, pinto beans, or tomatoes into your favorite dish for that ... frozen veggies— like broccoli, carrots, cauliflower, or green beans—for a quick-and-easy addition to any ...

  3. Tomato and tomato byproducts. Human health benefits of lycopene and its application to meat products: a review.

    PubMed

    Viuda-Martos, M; Sanchez-Zapata, E; Sayas-Barberá, E; Sendra, E; Pérez-Álvarez, J A; Fernández-López, J

    2014-01-01

    During recent decades, the food industry, consumers, and regulatory authorities have developed a significant interest in functional foods because of their potential benefits for human health over and above their basic nutritional value. Tomato is the second most important vegetable crop in the world. The amount of the related wastes is estimated at up to 50,000 tons per year, representing a serious disposal problem with a consequent negative impact on the environment. Tomato byproducts contain a great variety of biologically active substances, principally lycopene, which have been demonstrated by in vitro and in vivo studies to possess antioxidant, hypolipidemic, and anticarcinogenic activities. The aim of this review is to present an overview of the functional and physiological properties of the principal bioactive compound present in tomato and tomato byproducts, lycopene, its addition to meat, and meat products.

  4. Wave Dissipation by Vegetation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    relative to conditions without vegetation. During Hurricanes Charley and Wilma, water levels recorded in two Florida mangrove ecosystems were...reduced by as much as 9.4 cm per km inland. Although water levels were reduced as the surge moved through the coastal mangroves , the relative contribution...of mangroves was still unclear (Krauss et al. 2009). Numerical simulations by Loder et al. (2009) and ERDC/CHL CHETN-I-82 September 2011 2

  5. IPM of specialty crops and community gardens in north Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect pests post serious challenges to specialty crops (vegetables, fruits and nut crops) and community gardens in North Florida. The major vegetable pests include silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii; the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae; southeastern green stinkbug, Nezara viridula; brown s...

  6. Industrial tomato lines: morphological properties and productivity.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, J V M; Neto, C de M S; Campos, L F C; Dourado, W de S; Nogueira, A P O; Nascimento, A Dos R

    2017-04-13

    The tomato is the second most produced vegetable in the world, with significant participation in the human diet. In addition, the production of tomatoes generates jobs and family income. The availability of improved cultivars that provide greater profitability to the producer and satisfactorily meets the needs of the fresh fruit market and the processing industry becomes imperative due to its importance. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize and select industrial tomato lines in regard to fruit yield, number of leaf branches, and number of flower racemes (NFR). The experiment was conducted in 2014 in the experimental area of the Federal University of Goiás (Universidade Federal de Goiás). The design was a randomized block design with four replicates and 25 genotypes. The number of leaf branches (NB), NFR, and fruit productivity were evaluated. The results were analyzed using analysis of variance and the means compared by the Tukey test. A difference was observed (P ≤ 0.01) for all traits analyzed. The NB and NFR were related, where more branches promoted an increase in NFR and thus the productivity increases. In addition, a greater number of fruits implied in smaller fruit size, and consequently lower fruit mass. The lowest number of fruit per plant caused increased fruit size and mass. The lines CVR 1, CVR 3, CVR 4, CVR 5, CVR 21, and CVR 22 were suitable for genetic enhancement of tomato and provided the greatest productivity.

  7. Resistance in tomato and wild relatives to crown and root rot caused by Phytophthora capsici.

    PubMed

    Quesada-Ocampo, L M; Hausbeck, M K

    2010-06-01

    Phytophthora capsici causes root, crown, and fruit rot of tomato, a major vegetable crop grown worldwide. The objective of this study was to screen tomato cultivars and wild relatives of tomato for resistance to P. capsici. Four P. capsici isolates were individually used to inoculate 6-week-old seedlings (1 g of P. capsici-infested millet seed per 10 g of soilless medium) of 42 tomato cultivars and wild relatives of tomato in a greenhouse. Plants were evaluated daily for wilting and death. All P. capsici isolates tested caused disease in seedlings but some isolates were more pathogenic than others. A wild relative of cultivated tomato, Solanum habrochaites accession LA407, was resistant to all P. capsici isolates tested. Moderate resistance to all isolates was identified in the host genotypes Ha7998, Fla7600, Jolly Elf, and Talladega. P. capsici was frequently recovered from root and crown tissue of symptomatic inoculated seedlings but not from leaf tissue or asymptomatic or control plants. The phenotype of the recovered isolate matched the phenotype of the inoculum. Pathogen presence was confirmed in resistant and moderately resistant tomato genotypes by species-specific polymerase chain reaction of DNA from infected crown and root tissue. Amplified fragment length polymorphisms of tomato genotypes showed a lack of correlation between genetic clusters and susceptibility to P. capsici, indicating that resistance is distributed in several tomato lineages. The results of this study create a baseline for future development of tomato cultivars resistant to P. capsici.

  8. Hydrology of Central Florida Lakes - A Primer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schiffer, Donna M.

    1998-01-01

    Florida, the interactions between lakes and ground- and surface-waters, and to describe how these interactions affect lake water levels. Included are descriptions of the basic geology and geomorphology of central Florida, origins of central Florida lakes, factors that affect lake water levels, lake water quality, and common methods of improving water quality. The geographic area discussed in this primer is approximate (fig. 1) and includes west and east-central Florida, extending from the Gulf of Mexico to the Atlantic Ocean coastlines, northward into Marion, Putnam, and Flagler Counties, and southward to Lake Okeechobee. The information presented here was obtained from the many publications available on lakes in central Florida, as well as from publications on Florida geology, hydrology, and primers on ground water, surface water, and water quality. Many publications are available that provide more detailed information on lake water quality, and this primer is not intended as an extensive treatise on that subject. The reader is referred to the reference section of this primer for sources of more detailed information on lake water quality. Lakes discussed in this report are identified in figure 2. Technical terms used in the report are shown in bold italics and are defined in the glossary. The classification of some water bodies as lakes is highly subjective. What one individual considers a lake another might consider a pond. Generally, any water- filled depression or group of depressions in the land surface could be considered a lake. Lakes differ from swamps or wetlands in the type and amount of vegetation, water depth, and some water-quality characteristics. Lakes typically have emergent vegetation along the shoreline with a large expanse of open water in the center. Swamps or wetlands, on the other hand, are characterized by a water surface interrupted by the emergence of many varieties of plant life, from saw grasses to cypress trees. Lakes may be na

  9. Development of Infrared Radiation Heating Method for Sustainable Tomato Peeling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although lye peeling is the widely industrialized method for producing high quality peeled fruit and vegetable products, the peeling method has resulted in negative impacts by significantly exerting both environmental and economic pressure on the tomato processing industry due to its associated sali...

  10. Herbicide and cover crop residue integration in conservation tillage tomato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increased adoption of conservation tillage in vegetable production requires more information on the role of various cover crops in weed control, tomato quality, and yield. Three conservation-tillage systems utilizing crimson clover, turnip, and cereal rye as winter cover crops were compared to a...

  11. 7 CFR 980.212 - Import regulations; tomatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the UglyRipeTM and Vintage RipesTM tomatoes meet the requirements of the Identity Preservation program... Vegetable Programs, Agricultural Marketing Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Food of Plant Origin Division, Plant Products Directorate, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, are hereby designated...

  12. 7 CFR 319.56-28 - Tomatoes from certain countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tomatoes from certain countries. 319.56-28 Section 319.56-28 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables §...

  13. Florida Information Resource Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Francis C.

    1986-01-01

    The Florida Information Resource Network (FIRN) is an effort by the Florida education community and the Florida Legislature to provide an electronic link among all agencies, institutions, and schools in the public education system. The communications link, perhaps one of the most advanced in the nation, has three purposes: (1) to provide equal…

  14. Mangos of Florida, country contribution: Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The book chapter presents a review of the historical importance of mango in Florida; geographical distribution of mangos in Florida; statistical data including total and seasonal production, main cultivars and their descriptors; cultural practices (i.e. propagation, fertilization, pruning); pests an...

  15. Tomato seeds for LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Tomato seeds are prepared for their launch aboard the Langley's Long Duration Exposure Facility. Photograph published in Winds of Change, 75th Anniversary NASA publication (page 119), by James Schultz.

  16. Land Cover Trends in the Southern Florida Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kambly, Steven; Moreland, Thomas R.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents an assessment of land use and land cover change in the Southern Florida Coastal Plain ecoregion for the period from 1973 to 2000. The ecoregion is one of 84 level III ecoregions defined by the Environmental Protection Agency; ecoregions have been designed to serve as a spatial framework for environmental resource management and denote areas that contain a geographically distinct assemblage of biotic and abiotic phenomena, including geology, physiography, vegetation, climate, soils, land use, wildlife, and hydrology. The Southern Florida Coastal Plain ecoregion covers an area of approximately 22,407 square kilometers [8,651 square miles] across the lower portion of the Florida peninsula, from Lake Okeechobee southward through the Florida Keys. It comprises flat plains with wet soils, marshland and swamp land cover with Everglades and palmetto prairie vegetation types.

  17. Proteomic analysis of ripening tomato fruit infected by Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Shah, Punit; Powell, Ann L T; Orlando, Ron; Bergmann, Carl; Gutierrez-Sanchez, Gerardo

    2012-04-06

    Botrytis cinerea, a model necrotrophic fungal pathogen that causes gray mold as it infects different organs on more than 200 plant species, is a significant contributor to postharvest rot in fresh fruit and vegetables, including tomatoes. By describing host and pathogen proteomes simultaneously in infected tissues, the plant proteins that provide resistance and allow susceptibility and the pathogen proteins that promote colonization and facilitate quiescence can be identified. This study characterizes fruit and fungal proteins solubilized in the B. cinerea-tomato interaction using shotgun proteomics. Mature green, red ripe wild type and ripening inhibited (rin) mutant tomato fruit were infected with B. cinerea B05.10, and the fruit and fungal proteomes were identified concurrently 3 days postinfection. One hundred eighty-six tomato proteins were identified in common among red ripe and red ripe-equivalent ripening inhibited (rin) mutant tomato fruit infected by B. cinerea. However, the limited infections by B. cinerea of mature green wild type fruit resulted in 25 and 33% fewer defense-related tomato proteins than in red and rin fruit, respectively. In contrast, the ripening stage of genotype of the fruit infected did not affect the secreted proteomes of B. cinerea. The composition of the collected proteins populations and the putative functions of the identified proteins argue for their role in plant-pathogen interactions.

  18. Florida Keys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Florida Keys are a chain of islands, islets and reefs extending from Virginia Key to the Dry Tortugas for about 309 kilometers (192 miles). The keys are chiefly limestone and coral formations. The larger islands of the group are Key West (with its airport), Key Largo, Sugarloaf Key, and Boca Chica Key. A causeway extends from the mainland to Key West.

    This image was acquired on October 28, 2001, by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long- term research effort to understand and protect our home planet. Through the study of Earth, NASA will help to provide sound science to policy and economic

  19. Severe tomato allergy (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    PubMed

    Zacharisen, Michael C; Elms, Nancy P; Kurup, Viswanath P

    2002-01-01

    Although tomatoes are a commonly consumed food, severe allergic reactions to tomatoes are unusual or rarely reported. Previously reported allergic manifestations to tomato include urticaria/angioedema, dermatitis, oral allergy syndrome, rhinitis, and abdominal pain. The aim of this study was to report two patients with significant immediate hypersensitivity reactions to tomato and characterize the responsible allergen. We reviewed the history and documentation of tomato-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) of two patients with adverse symptoms after ingesting tomato. Fresh tomato extracts prepared from the skin, seeds, and flesh of red, ripe tomatoes were evaluated for total protein content and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was performed to characterize the tomato protein. IgE enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using the patients' serum against the various tomato extracts was accomplished and IgE immunoblot was performed. Percutaneous skin tests or radioallergosorbent tests (RASTs) were positive to tomato in both patients. Both adults experienced laryngeal edema and one had anaphylaxis. Similar total protein contents were found in each of the tomato extracts and gel electrophoresis revealed similar protein profile for skin and seed extracts with protein bands discernible at molecular weights of 21, 33, and 43 kDa. One patient reacted specifically to a 43-kDa protein band on IgE immunoblot. The two cases show that severe allergic reactions to tomato occur in adults and one is associated with IgE binding to a 43-kDa protein.

  20. Traps and trap placement may affect location of brown marmorated stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and increase injury to tomato fruits in home gardens.

    PubMed

    Sargent, Chris; Martinson, Holly M; Raupp, Michael J

    2014-04-01

    The invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is an important pest of field crops, fruit orchards, commercial vegetables, ornamental plants, and home vegetable gardens. Pheromone-baited traps designed to attract, trap, and kill H. halys are marketed for use in home gardens to reduce damage to plants. To test this assertion, we conducted the following experiment: One group of 15 gardeners placed stink bug traps at the end of a row of tomatoes, Solanum lycopersicum (L.), in their vegetable garden and another group of 14 placed no traps in their garden and served as controls. Gardeners with traps were no more or less likely to have H. halys on tomato plants than those without traps, but the abundance of H. halys on tomato fruits was marginally greater in gardens with traps. However, tomato fruits grown in gardens with traps sustained significantly more injury than tomato fruits grown in gardens without traps. Furthermore, tomato fruits on plants near the trap housed more H. halys than tomato fruits on plants at the end of a row away from the trap. Traps may be useful in identifying gardens where H. halys is likely to be found and ones in which stink bug injury to tomatoes is likely. We found no evidence that stink bug traps protected tomatoes from H. halys, and it appears that the addition of traps to gardens may increase injury to tomato fruits.

  1. Diversity, distribution, and evolution of tomato viruses in China uncovered by small RNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chenxi; Sun, Xuepeng; Taylor, Angela; Jiao, Chen; Xu, Yimin; Cai, Xiaofeng; Wang, Xiaoli; Ge, Chenhui; Pan, Guanghui; Wang, Quanxi; Fei, Zhangjun; Wang, Quanhua

    2017-03-22

    Tomato is a major vegetable crop that has tremendous popularity. However, viral disease is still a major factor limiting tomato production. Here we report the tomato virome identified through sequencing small RNAs of 170 field-grown samples collected in China. A total of 22 viruses were identified including both well-documented and newly detected viruses. The tomato viral community is dominated by a few species, and they exhibit polymorphisms and recombination in the genomes with coldspots and hotspots. Most samples were co-infected by multiple viruses and the majority of identified viruses are positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses. Evolutionary analysis of one of the most dominant tomato viruses, Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), predicts its origin and the time back to its most recent common ancestor. The broadly sampled data has enabled us to identify several unreported viruses in tomato including a completely new virus, which has a genome of ∼13.4 kb and groups with aphid-transmitted viruses in genus Cytorhabdovirus Although both DNA and RNA viruses can trigger the biogenesis of virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs), we show that features such as length distribution, paired distance and base selection bias of vsiRNA sequences reflect different plant Dicer-like proteins and Argonautes involved in vsiRNA biogenesis. Collectively, this study offers insights into host-virus interaction in tomato and provides valuable information to facilitate the management of viral diseases.IMPORTANCE Tomato is an important source of micronutrient in human diet and is extensively consumed in the world. Virus is among the major constrains to tomato production. Categorizing virus species that are capable of infecting tomato and understanding their diversity and evolution are challenging due to difficulties in detecting such fast evolving biological entities. Here we report the landscape of tomato virome in China, the leading country of tomato production. We

  2. The flavonoids of tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Slimestad, Rune; Fossen, Torgils; Verheul, Michel J

    2008-04-09

    Tomatoes ( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) have been recognized as an important source of dietary flavonoids because of a high consumption worldwide. The qualitative and quantitative flavonoid compositions of assorted tomato cultivars including individual quantitative contributions of the five most significant flavonoids have been determined in this work. The dihydrochalcone phloretin 3',5'-di-C-beta-glucopyranoside and the flavonol quercetin 3-O-(2''-O-beta-apiofuranosyl-6''-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl-beta-glucopyranoside) were identified for the first time in Solanaceae spp. and found to be among the main flavonoids in all cultivars. Phloretin 3',5'-di-C-glc is the first C-glycoside identified in tomatoes and also the first dihydrochalcone from this species. In addition, chalconaringenin, kaempferol 3-rutinoside, and quercetin 3-rutinoside (rutin), though previously reported to occur in tomato, were fully characterized by extensive use of 2D NMR techniques and high-resolution LCMS. The total flavonoid content of different tomato types varied from 4 to 26 mg 100 (-1) g FW with chalconaringenin as the predominant compound comprising 35 to 71% of the total flavonoid content. The individual quantities of quercetin 3-O-(2''- O-beta-apiofuranosyl-6''- O-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl-beta-glucopyranoside) and phloretin 3',5'-di-C-beta-glucopyranoside was similar to that of rutin in several cultivars.

  3. Synthesis of vaterite and aragonite crystals using biomolecules of tomato and capsicum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Long; Xu, Wang-Hua; Zhao, Ying-Guo; Kang, Yan; Liu, Shao-Hua; Zhang, Zai-Yong

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, biomimetic synthesis of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in the presence of biomolecules of two vegetables-tomato and capsicum is investigated. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffractometry were used to characterize the CaCO3 obtained. The biomolecules in the extracts of two vegetables are determined by UV-vis or FTIR. The results indicate that a mixture of calcite and vaterite spheres constructed from small particles is produced with the extract of tomato, while aragonite rods or ellipsoids are formed in the presence of extract of capsicum. The possible formation mechanism of the CaCO3 crystals with tomato biomolecules can be interpreted by particle-aggregation based non-classical crystallization laws. The proteins and/or other biomolecules in tomato and capsicum may control the formation of vaterite and aragonite crystals by adsorbing onto facets of them.

  4. Biology, behavior and management of chilli thrips, and other invasive thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in south Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rich vegetation and Neotropical climate of Florida make the state suitable for the invasion and establishment of exotic flora and fauna. In the past two decades, there are multiple thrips species which have invaded Florida and are considered serious pests owing to the economic or aesthetic damag...

  5. Mist Interval and Hormone Concentration Influence Rooting of Florida and Piedmont Azalea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Native azalea (Rhododendron spp.) vegetative propagation information is limited. The objective of this experiment is to determine optimal levels of K-IBA and mist intervals for propagation of Florida azalea (Rhododendron austrinum) and Piedmont azalea (Rhododendron canescens). Florida azalea roote...

  6. Florida Energy Assurance Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Niescja E.; Murtagh, William; Guthrie, Kevin; Nykyri, Katariina; Radasky, William A.; Senkowicz, Eric

    2012-08-01

    This spring, Florida held the nation's first statewide emergency preparedness training and exercises geared specifically to the aftermath of severe geomagnetic events. Funded by the State of Florida Division of Emergency Management (FDEM) via a Department of Energy grant and held in collaboration with Watch House International, Inquesta Corporation, and the Florida Institute of Technology, the 17-19 April 2012 workshop had 99 on-site attendees in an oceanfront hotel in Melbourne, Florida, as well as 16 over live Web streaming. The workshop was the capstone to a three-month season of 21 regional space weather training sessions and workshops serving 386 attendees in total.

  7. Mineral composition of organically grown tomato

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghambashidze, Giorgi

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, consumer concerns on environmental and health issues related to food products have increased and, as a result, the demand for organically grown production has grown. Results indicate that consumers concerned about healthy diet and environmental degradation are the most likely to buy organic food, and are willing to pay a high premium. Therefore, it is important to ensure the quality of the produce, especially for highly consumed products. The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is one of the most widely consumed fresh vegetables in the world. It is also widely used by the food industries as a raw material for the production of derived products such as purees or ketchup. Consequently, many investigations have addressed the impact of plant nutrition on the quality of tomato fruit. The concentrations of minerals (P, Na, K, Ca and Mg) and trace elements (Cu, Zn and Mn) were determined in tomatoes grown organically in East Georgia, Marneuli District. The contents of minerals and Mn seem to be in the range as shown in literature. Cu and Zn were found in considerably high amounts in comparison to maximum permissible values established in Georgia. Some correlations were observed between the minerals and trace elements studied. K and Mg were strongly correlated with Cu and Zn. Statistically significant difference have shown also P, K and Mg based between period of sampling.

  8. Growing Vegetables. People on the Farm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. Office of Governmental and Public Affairs.

    This booklet, one in a series about life on modern farms, describes farm operations and some activities in the lives of six vegetable farmers throughout the United States. The booklet visits the tomato growing of Carl Schneider and his partners and the lettuce growing farm of Norman Martella, both in California. It then includes brief accounts of…

  9. New metrics of affordable nutrition: which vegetables provide most nutrients for least cost?

    PubMed

    Drewnowski, Adam

    2013-09-01

    Measuring food prices per gram, rather than per calorie, is one way to make healthful vegetables appear less expensive. However, a better measure of affordability would take the nutrient content of vegetables into account. This study, based on analyses of US Department of Agriculture datasets, aimed to identify which vegetables, including juices and soups, provided the most nutrients per unit cost. Nutrient density was measured using the Nutrient Rich Foods (NRF) index, based on nine nutrients to encourage: protein; fiber; vitamins A, C, and E; calcium; iron; magnesium; and potassium; and on three nutrients to limit: saturated fat, added sugar, and sodium. Food cost in dollars was calculated per 100 g, per 100 kcal, per serving, and per nutrient content. One-way analyses of variance with post hoc tests were used to determine statistical significance. Results showed that tomato juices and tomato soups, dark green leafy and nonleafy vegetables, and deep yellow vegetables, including sweet potatoes, had the highest NRF scores overall. Highest NRF scores per dollar were obtained for sweet potatoes, white potatoes, tomato juices and tomato soups, carrots, and broccoli. Tomato sauces, raw tomatoes, and potato chips were eaten more frequently than were many other vegetables that were both more affordable and more nutrient-rich. These new measures of affordable nutrition can help foodservice and health professionals identify those vegetables that provide the highest nutrient density per unit cost. Processed vegetables, including soups and juices, can contribute to the quality and the affordability of the diet.

  10. 78 FR 9307 - Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office #0; #0;Rules and Regulations #0; Federal Register #0; #0; #0;This section of the FEDERAL REGISTER contains regulatory documents #0;having general applicability and legal effect, most of which are keyed #0;to and codified in the Code...

  11. Susceptibility of Bemisia tabaci MEAM1 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) to imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, dinotefuran and flupyradifurone in south Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Populations of Bemisa tabaci Middle East Asia Minor 1 (MEAM 1) were established from nineteen locations in south Florida, primarily from commercial tomato fields, and were tested using a cotton leaf petiole systemic uptake method for susceptibility to the nicotinic acetylcholine agonist insecticides...

  12. Enhancement of growth and yield of tomato by Rhodopseudomonas sp. under greenhouse conditions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kang-Hyeong; Koh, Rae-Hyun; Song, Hong-Gyu

    2008-12-01

    A greenhouse test was carried out to examine the effects on tomato growth of application of purple non-sulfur bacterium Rhodopseudomonas sp. which had enhanced germination and growth of tomato seed under axenic conditions. The shoot length of tomato plant inoculated by Rhodopseudomonas sp. KL9 increased by 34.6% compared to that of control in 8 weeks of cultivation. During the same period, this strain increased 120.6 and 78.6% of dry weight of shoot and root of tomato plants, respectively. The formation ratio of tomato fruit from flower was also raised by inoculation of KL9. In addition, Rhodopseudomonas sp. KL9 treatment enhanced the fresh weight and lycopene content in the harvested tomato fruits by 98.3 and 48.3%, respectively compared to those of the uninoculated control. When the effect on the indigenous bacterial community and fate of the inoculated Rhodopseudomonas sp. KL9 were monitored by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis, its application did not affect the native bacterial community in tomato rhizosphere soil, but should be repeated to maintain its population size. This bacterial capability may be applied as an environment-friendly biofertilizer to cultivation of high quality tomato and other crops including lycopene-containing vegetables and fruits.

  13. Florida's Workforce 2005.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Labor and Employment Security, Tallahassee.

    This report analyzes projected changes in population, labor force, and employment by industry and occupation for Florida between 1995 and 2005. More than 50 charts and graphs provide statistics on the following: Florida's population, labor force 1975-2005; employment 1975-2005; industry employment 1995-2005; occupational employment (general);…

  14. 'Florida Radiance' strawberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Florida Radiance' strawberry (Fragaria xananassa Duch.) is a new strawberry cultivar released by the University of Florida. It appears to be a good cultivar to complement the current commercial cultivar 'Strawberry Festival' during the early part of the production season as its yields are higher wh...

  15. Enhancement of phytochemical using next generation technologies for the production of high quality fruits and vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is an excellent plant model for unraveling physiological processes, fruit quality and fruit shelf determinants, stress responsive signaling, pathogenicity, and ripening development in climacteric fruits. Tomato is a popular vegetable, and along with potato, it is cla...

  16. Seismic attenuation in Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Bellini, J.J.; Bartolini, T.J.; Lord, K.M.; Smith, D.L. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    Seismic signals recorded by the expanded distribution of earthquake seismograph stations throughout Florida and data from a comprehensive review of record archives from stations GAI contribute to an initial seismic attenuation model for the Florida Plateau. Based on calculations of surface particle velocity, a pattern of attenuation exists that appears to deviate from that established for the remainder of the southeastern US. Most values suggest greater seismic attenuation within the Florida Plateau. However, a separate pattern may exist for those signals arising from the Gulf of Mexico. These results have important implications for seismic hazard assessments in Florida and may be indicative of the unique lithospheric identity of the Florida basement as an exotic terrane.

  17. Water and nitrogen management effects on water and nitrogen fluxes in Florida Flatwoods.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, Gregory S; Shukla, Sanjay

    2011-01-01

    The effects of water and fertilizer best management practices (BMPs) have not been quantified for groundwater nitrogen (N) beneath seepage irrigated vegetable fields with shallow water table environments. This effect was evaluated by a 3-yr study conducted in the Flatwoods of south Florida for watermelon ( cv. Mardi Gras and Tri-X 313) and tomato ( cv. BHN 586) using three treatments of water and inorganic fertilizer N (N) rates: (i) high fertilizer and water rates with seepage irrigation (HR), (ii) recommended fertilizer and water rates (BMP) with seepage irrigation (RR); and (iii) RR with subsurface drip irrigation (RR-SD). These treatments were implemented on six hydraulically isolated plots. The N rate treatments for high (HR) and recommended (RR and RR-SD) were based on a grower survey and BMP recommendations, respectively. Water applied, water table depth, and soil moisture content were regularly monitored for each treatment. Plant, soil, and groundwater N sampling and analyses were conducted for each season of the 3-yr study. The average water applied in HR (187 cm) was greater than RR (172 cm) and RR-SD (94 cm). Soil N maintained in crop beds for HR was significantly higher than RR and RR-SD. Soil solution analyses showed that N leached beneath HR (112 mg L) was greater ( = 0.053) than RR (76 mg L) and RR-SD (88 mg L). Shallow groundwater concentrations of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (NH-N + NO-N) were higher ( = 0.02) in HR (37 mg L) compared with RR (15 mg L) and RR-SD (19 mg L). Decreased N and water table levels can improve groundwater quality by reducing N leachate in shallow water table environments with seepage irrigated vegetable production systems.

  18. Effects of dark septate endophytes on tomato plant performance.

    PubMed

    Andrade-Linares, Diana Rocio; Grosch, Rita; Restrepo, Silvia; Krumbein, Angelika; Franken, Philipp

    2011-07-01

    Non-mycorrhizal fungal root endophytes can be found in all natural and cultivated ecosystems, but little is known about their impact on plant performance. The impact of three mitosporic dark septate endophytes (DSE48, DSE49 and Leptodontidium orchidicola) on tomato plant characteristics was studied. Their effects on root and shoot growth, their influence on fruit yield and fruit quality parameters and their ability to diminish the impact of the pathogen Verticillium dahliae were investigated. While shoot biomass of young plants was enhanced between 10% and 20% by the endophytes DSE48 and L. orchidicola in one of two experiments and by DSE49 in both experiments, vegetative growth parameters of 24-week-old plants were not affected except a reproducible increase of root diameter by the isolate DSE49. Concerning fruit yield and quality, L. orchidicola could double the biomass of tomatoes and increased glucose content by 17%, but this was dependent on date of harvest and on root colonisation density. Additionally, the endophytes DSE49 and L. orchidicola decreased the negative effect of V. dahliae on tomato, but only at a low dosage of the pathogen. This indicates that the three dark septate endophytes can have a significant impact on tomato characters, but that the effects are only obvious at early stages of vegetative and generative development and currently too inconsistent to recommend the application of these DSEs in horticultural practice.

  19. Comparative transcriptomic profiling of a salt-tolerant wild tomato species and a salt-sensitive tomato cultivar.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Xu, Xinna; Zhu, Huishan; Liu, Aihua; Liu, Lei; Li, Junming; Hua, Xuejun

    2010-06-01

    Wild halophytic tomato has long been considered as an ideal gene donor for improving salt tolerance in tomato cultivars. Extensive research has been focused on physiological and quantitative trait locus (QTL) characterization of wild tomato species in comparison with cultivated tomato. However, the global gene expression modification of wild tomato in response to salt stress is not well known. A wild tomato genotype, Solanum pimpinellifolium 'PI365967' is significantly more salt tolerant than the cultivar, Solanum lycopersicum 'Moneymaker', as evidenced by its higher survival rate and lower growth inhibition at the vegetative stage. The Affymetrix Tomato Genome Array containing 9,200 probe sets was used to compare the transcriptome of PI365967 and Moneymaker. After treatment with 200 mM NaCl for 5 h, PI365967 showed relatively fewer responsive genes compared with Moneymaker. The salt overly sensitive (SOS) pathway was found to be more active in PI365967 than in Moneymaker, coinciding with relatively less accumulation of Na(+) in shoots of PI365967. A gene encoding salicylic acid-binding protein 2 (SABP2) was induced by salinity only in PI365967, suggesting a possible role for salicylic acid signaling in the salt response of PI365967. The fact that two genes encoding lactoylglutathione lyase were salt inducible only in PI365967, together with much higher basal expression of several glutathione S-transferase genes, suggested a more effective detoxification system in PI365967. The specific down-regulation in PI365967 of a putative high-affinity nitrate transporter, known as a repressor of lateral root initiation, may explain the better root growth of this genotype during salt stress.

  20. Tomatoes in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    BioServe researcher Dr. Yi Li first flew plant experiments on board STS-63. Li discovered that exposure to microgravity increased a particular hormone concentration in plants. Since that time, Li has been able to manipulate this phenomenon and grow fruits, such as tomatoes, that overproduce the hormone, and these plants bear larger seedless fruit in the absence of pollination.

  1. The tomato genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The tomato genome sequence was undertaken at a time when state-of-the-art sequencing methodologies were undergoing a transition to co-called next generation methodologies. The result was an international consortium undertaking a strategy merging both old and new approaches. Because biologists were...

  2. Antioxidant and Antiplatelet Activities in Extracts from Green and Fully Ripe Tomato Fruits (Solanum lycopersicum) and Pomace from Industrial Tomato Processing

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes, Eduardo; Carle, Reinhold; Astudillo, Luis; Guzmán, Luis; Gutiérrez, Margarita; Carrasco, Gilda; Palomo, Iván

    2013-01-01

    The consumption of fruits and vegetables is accepted to be one of the strategies to reduce risk factors for these diseases. The aim of this study was to examine potential relationships between the antioxidant and the antiplatelet activities in green mature and fully ripe (red) tomatoes and of lycopene-rich byproducts of tomato paste processing such as pomace. The total phenol content of tomato components was the highest in peels, pulp, and in the mucilaginous myxotesta covering the tomato seeds with values 36.9 ± 0.8, 33.3 ± 00.5, and 17.6 ± 0.9 mg GAE/100 g, respectively (P < 0.05). Tomato peels had the highest antioxidant activity, both, as measured by the FRAP (46.9 ± 0.9 μmol Fe+2/g, P < 0.05) and the DPPH assays (97.4 ± 0.2%, 1000 μg/mL, P < 0.05). Pomace extracts showed the highest antiplatelet activity induced by ADP, collagen, TRAP-6, and arachidonic acid. While the maturation stage of the tomato fruit affected the antioxidant effect, antiplatelet activity was independent of fruit ripeness. Finally, based on the present results, tomato and its byproducts may be considered as a valuable source of antioxidant and antiplatelet activities. PMID:23476707

  3. Antioxidant and Antiplatelet Activities in Extracts from Green and Fully Ripe Tomato Fruits (Solanum lycopersicum) and Pomace from Industrial Tomato Processing.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Eduardo; Carle, Reinhold; Astudillo, Luis; Guzmán, Luis; Gutiérrez, Margarita; Carrasco, Gilda; Palomo, Iván

    2013-01-01

    The consumption of fruits and vegetables is accepted to be one of the strategies to reduce risk factors for these diseases. The aim of this study was to examine potential relationships between the antioxidant and the antiplatelet activities in green mature and fully ripe (red) tomatoes and of lycopene-rich byproducts of tomato paste processing such as pomace. The total phenol content of tomato components was the highest in peels, pulp, and in the mucilaginous myxotesta covering the tomato seeds with values 36.9 ± 0.8, 33.3 ± 00.5, and 17.6 ± 0.9 mg GAE/100 g, respectively (P < 0.05). Tomato peels had the highest antioxidant activity, both, as measured by the FRAP (46.9 ± 0.9  μ mol Fe(+2)/g, P < 0.05) and the DPPH assays (97.4 ± 0.2%, 1000  μ g/mL, P < 0.05). Pomace extracts showed the highest antiplatelet activity induced by ADP, collagen, TRAP-6, and arachidonic acid. While the maturation stage of the tomato fruit affected the antioxidant effect, antiplatelet activity was independent of fruit ripeness. Finally, based on the present results, tomato and its byproducts may be considered as a valuable source of antioxidant and antiplatelet activities.

  4. Evaluation of the impact of hot water treatment on flavor compounds of fresh tomatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In June of 2008, two varieties of tomato fruit, Florida 47 (F47) and Tasti-Lee (TL), were harvested mature green and submerged in water at 25º C (control) or 52º C for 5 minutes or 54º C for 2.5 minutes. The fruit were then gassed with ethylene at 100 ppm for 48 hours and ripened at 20º C. Ripeness ...

  5. Electricity generation from defective tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Namita; Fogg, Alex; Wilder, Joseph; Franco, Daniel; Komisar, Simeon; Gadhamshetty, Venkataramana

    2016-12-01

    The United States faces a significant burden in treating 0.61billionkg of defective tomatoes (culls) every year. We present a proof-of-concept for generating electricity from culled tomatoes in microbial-electrochemical systems (MESs). This study delineates impedance behavior of the culled tomatoes in MESs and compares its impedance spectra with that of soluble substrates (dextrose, acetate, and wastewater). A series of AC and DC diagnostic tests have revealed the superior performance of the culled tomatoes compared to the pure substrates. Cyclic voltammetry results have indicated the active role of indigenous, diffusible redox-active pigments in the culled tomatoes on overall electricity production. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results have elucidated the role of peel and seed on the oxidation behavior of the culled tomatoes.

  6. 1978 Insect Pest Management Guide: Commercial Vegetable Crops and Greenhouse Vegetables. Circular 897.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This circular lists suggested uses of insecticides for the control of pests by commercial vegetable farmers. Suggestions are given for selection, dosage and application of insecticides to control pests of cabbage and related crops, beans, cucumbers and other vine crops, tomatoes, potatoes, peppers, corn, and onions. (CS)

  7. Caribbean Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Small Fruit in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tephritid fruit flies are among the most important pests of fruits and vegetables worldwide. The Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), is a tephritid pest that became established in Florida following introduction in 1965. Populations of this fruit fly also occur in Puerto Rico and Cuba, ...

  8. Hydrologic almanac of Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heath, Richard C.; Conover, Clyde Stuart

    1981-01-01

    This first edition is a ready reference source of information on various facts and features about water in Florida. It is aimed primarily to help bust politicians, writers, agency officials, water managers, planners, consultants, educators, hydrologists, engineers, scientists, and the general public answer questions that arise on comparative and statistical aspects on the hydrology of Florida. It contains statistical comparative data, much of which was especially prepared for the almanac, a glossary of technical terms, tabular material, and conversion factors. Also included is a selective bibliography of 174 reports on water in Florida. (USGS)

  9. Northern Everglades, Florida, satellite image map

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Jean-Claude; Jones, John W.

    2002-01-01

    These satellite image maps are one product of the USGS Land Characteristics from Remote Sensing project, funded through the USGS Place-Based Studies Program with support from the Everglades National Park. The objective of this project is to develop and apply innovative remote sensing and geographic information system techniques to map the distribution of vegetation, vegetation characteristics, and related hydrologic variables through space and over time. The mapping and description of vegetation characteristics and their variations are necessary to accurately simulate surface hydrology and other surface processes in South Florida and to monitor land surface changes. As part of this research, data from many airborne and satellite imaging systems have been georeferenced and processed to facilitate data fusion and analysis. These image maps were created using image fusion techniques developed as part of this project.

  10. South Florida Everglades: satellite image map

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, John W.; Thomas, Jean-Claude; Desmond, G.B.

    2001-01-01

    These satellite image maps are one product of the USGS Land Characteristics from Remote Sensing project, funded through the USGS Place-Based Studies Program (http://access.usgs.gov/) with support from the Everglades National Park (http://www.nps.gov/ever/). The objective of this project is to develop and apply innovative remote sensing and geographic information system techniques to map the distribution of vegetation, vegetation characteristics, and related hydrologic variables through space and over time. The mapping and description of vegetation characteristics and their variations are necessary to accurately simulate surface hydrology and other surface processes in South Florida and to monitor land surface changes. As part of this research, data from many airborne and satellite imaging systems have been georeferenced and processed to facilitate data fusion and analysis. These image maps were created using image fusion techniques developed as part of this project.

  11. Major tomato viruses in the Mediterranean basin.

    PubMed

    Hanssen, Inge M; Lapidot, Moshe

    2012-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) originated in South America and was brought to Europe by the Spaniards in the sixteenth century following their colonization of Mexico. From Europe, tomato was introduced to North America in the eighteenth century. Tomato plants show a wide climatic tolerance and are grown in both tropical and temperate regions around the world. The climatic conditions in the Mediterranean basin favor tomato cultivation, where it is traditionally produced as an open-field plant. However, viral diseases are responsible for heavy yield losses and are one of the reasons that tomato production has shifted to greenhouses. The major tomato viruses endemic to the Mediterranean basin are described in this chapter. These viruses include Tomato yellow leaf curl virus, Tomato torrado virus, Tomato spotted wilt virus, Tomato infectious chlorosis virus, Tomato chlorosis virus, Pepino mosaic virus, and a few minor viruses as well.

  12. Effects of Red Light Night Break Treatment on Growth and Flowering of Tomato Plants.

    PubMed

    Cao, Kai; Cui, Lirong; Ye, Lin; Zhou, Xiaoting; Bao, Encai; Zhao, Hailiang; Zou, Zhirong

    2016-01-01

    Compact and healthy young plants increase crop production and improve vegetable quality. Adverse climatic conditions and shading can cause young plants to become elongated and spindly. We investigated the effects of night break (NB) treatments on tomato plants using red light (RL) with an intensity of 20 μmol·m(2)·s(-1). Tomato plants were subjected to NB treatments with different frequencies ranging from every 1, 2, 3, and 4 h, and plant growth, flowering, and yield were monitored. The results showed that with the increase of RL NB frequency, plant height decreased, stem diameter increased, and flower initiation delayed, the content of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and gibberellin 3 (GA3) in the leaf and stem declined. When the RL NB frequency was every 1 h, the heights of tomato plant decreased by 32.73% compared with the control, the diameter of tomato plants increased by 27.09% compared with the control, the number of leaves produced before flowering increased to 11, compared with 8 in the control, the contents of IAA and GA3 in the leaf decreased by 33.3 and 41.29% respectively compared with the control, the contents of IAA and GA3 in the stem decreased by 56.04 and 57.14% respectively compared with the control. After RL NB treatments, tomato plants were transplanted into a solar greenhouse to evaluate tomato yield. When tomato plants pre-treated with RL NB, per tomato fresh weight of the first spica increased with the increase of RL NB frequencies. These results indicate that more compact and healthier tomato plants could be gotten by RL NB treatments and improve tomato early yield.

  13. Effects of Red Light Night Break Treatment on Growth and Flowering of Tomato Plants

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Kai; Cui, Lirong; Ye, Lin; Zhou, Xiaoting; Bao, Encai; Zhao, Hailiang; Zou, Zhirong

    2016-01-01

    Compact and healthy young plants increase crop production and improve vegetable quality. Adverse climatic conditions and shading can cause young plants to become elongated and spindly. We investigated the effects of night break (NB) treatments on tomato plants using red light (RL) with an intensity of 20 μmol·m2·s−1. Tomato plants were subjected to NB treatments with different frequencies ranging from every 1, 2, 3, and 4 h, and plant growth, flowering, and yield were monitored. The results showed that with the increase of RL NB frequency, plant height decreased, stem diameter increased, and flower initiation delayed, the content of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and gibberellin 3 (GA3) in the leaf and stem declined. When the RL NB frequency was every 1 h, the heights of tomato plant decreased by 32.73% compared with the control, the diameter of tomato plants increased by 27.09% compared with the control, the number of leaves produced before flowering increased to 11, compared with 8 in the control, the contents of IAA and GA3 in the leaf decreased by 33.3 and 41.29% respectively compared with the control, the contents of IAA and GA3 in the stem decreased by 56.04 and 57.14% respectively compared with the control. After RL NB treatments, tomato plants were transplanted into a solar greenhouse to evaluate tomato yield. When tomato plants pre-treated with RL NB, per tomato fresh weight of the first spica increased with the increase of RL NB frequencies. These results indicate that more compact and healthier tomato plants could be gotten by RL NB treatments and improve tomato early yield. PMID:27148344

  14. MONITORING FLORIDA'S WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    GIS plays an important role as a management tool for the multi-dimensional Status Monitoring Network (SMN) program to monitor Florida's freshwater resources. By pulling together basin assessments, statistical analysis, surface water and groundwater analytical data, background is...

  15. 21 CFR 73.585 - Tomato lycopene extract; tomato lycopene concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tomato lycopene extract; tomato lycopene... SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.585 Tomato lycopene extract; tomato lycopene concentrate. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive tomato lycopene extract is...

  16. 21 CFR 73.585 - Tomato lycopene extract; tomato lycopene concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tomato lycopene extract; tomato lycopene... SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.585 Tomato lycopene extract; tomato lycopene concentrate. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive tomato lycopene extract is...

  17. 21 CFR 73.585 - Tomato lycopene extract; tomato lycopene concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tomato lycopene extract; tomato lycopene... SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.585 Tomato lycopene extract; tomato lycopene concentrate. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive tomato lycopene extract is...

  18. 21 CFR 73.585 - Tomato lycopene extract; tomato lycopene concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tomato lycopene extract; tomato lycopene... SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.585 Tomato lycopene extract; tomato lycopene concentrate. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive tomato lycopene extract is...

  19. 21 CFR 73.585 - Tomato lycopene extract; tomato lycopene concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tomato lycopene extract; tomato lycopene... SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.585 Tomato lycopene extract; tomato lycopene concentrate. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive tomato lycopene extract is...

  20. Residue dynamic of pyrimorph on tomatoes, cucumbers and soil under greenhouse trails.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Zhao, Lianlian; Li, Xuesheng; Jiang, Yaping; Li, Nan; Qin, Zhaohai; Pan, Canping

    2011-03-01

    A modified QuEChERS method for analysis of pyrimorph residue in tomatoes, cucumbers and soil was developed and validated. Residue dynamics and final residues in greenhouse vegetables and soil were studied. At fortification levels of 0.05, 0.1 and 1 mg kg(-1) in tomatoes, cucumbers and soil, the method got recoveries ranged from 86.1% to 99.3% with relative standard deviations of 1.0%-7.7%, in agreement with directives for method validation in residue analysis. The limit of determination in tomatoes, cucumbers and soil was 0.05 mg kg(-1). The proposed method was successfully employed for the determination of pyrimorph residue levels and dissipation rates in vegetables and soil. At six experimental sites, pyrimorph residues in tomatoes and cucumbers showed relatively fast dissipation rates, with half-lives of 5.8-7.7 days and 5.7-7.1 days respectively. Half-lives of pyrimorph in soil were 8.5-11.0 days. The final residues of pyrimorph in tomatoes ranged from 0.19 to 3.66 mg kg(-1), 0.18 to 4.35 mg kg(-1) in cucumbers and 0.22 to 16.5 mg kg(-1) in soil with pre-harvest interval of 3-7 days. 5 mg kg(-1) was proposed as the MRL of pyrimorph in tomatoes and cucumbers.

  1. Florida and the Bahamas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    In this view of the Florida peninsula and the Bahamas (28.5N, 80.0W), the Bahamas are easily identified from orbit because of the vivid blue colors of the shallow Bahama Banks and dark blues of the ocean depths. The Florida peninsula is completely silhoutted by cumulus clouds except for the cloud hole over Lake Okeechobee. The rest of the U.S. Gulf Coast and eastern seaboard is completely obscured by the clouds of an approaching winter front.

  2. Thermal inactivation kinetics of Bacillus coagulans spores in tomato juice.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jing; Mah, Jae-Hyung; Somavat, Romel; Mohamed, Hussein; Sastry, Sudhir; Tang, Juming

    2012-07-01

    The thermal characteristics of the spores and vegetative cells of three strains of Bacillus coagulans (ATCC 8038, ATCC 7050, and 185A) in tomato juice were evaluated. B. coagulans ATCC 8038 was chosen as the target microorganism for thermal processing of tomato products due to its spores having the highest thermal resistance among the three strains. The thermal inactivation kinetics of B. coagulans ATCC 8038 spores in tomato juice between 95 and 115°C were determined independently in two different laboratories using two different heating setups. The results obtained from both laboratories were in general agreement, with z-values (z-value is defined as the change in temperature required for a 10-fold reduction of the D-value, which is defined as the time required at a certain temperature for a 1-log reduction of the target microorganisms) of 8.3 and 8.7°C, respectively. The z-value of B. coagulans 185A spores in tomato juice (pH 4.3) was found to be 10.2°C. The influence of environmental factors, including cold storage time, pH, and preconditioning, upon the thermal resistance of these bacterial spores is discussed. The results obtained showed that a storage temperature of 4°C was appropriate for maintaining the viability and thermal resistance of B. coagulans ATCC 8038 spores. Acidifying the pH of tomato juice decreased the thermal resistance of these spores. A 1-h exposure at room temperature was considered optimal for preconditioning B. coagulans ATCC 8038 spores in tomato juice.

  3. Vegetable crop management with remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blazquez, C. H.; Elliott, R. A.; Edwards, G. J.

    1981-01-01

    Repetitive aerial photography with color infrared (ACIR) and black-and-white infrared (B and WIR) films was taken of potato and tomato fields in southwest Florida during the spring season of 1975. Color differences observed in the photographs revealed different levels of soil moisture in the fields, improper ditch arrangements, poor stands of plants, and areas where late blight (Phytophthora infestans) (Mont.)d.By and early blight (Alternaria solani) (Ell. and Mart.) Jones and Grout. were defoliating potato plants. Photographs of fields before planting also indicated areas where excessive rock formations existed which would make field preparation costly. Preplanting photographs also pinpointed areas with different water table levels.

  4. Involvement of the Rcs regulon in the persistence of Salmonella Typhimurium in tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Marvasi, Massimiliano; de Moraes, Marcos H; Salas-Gonzalez, Isai; Porwollik, Steffen; Farias, Marcelo; McClelland, Michael; Teplitski, Max

    2016-08-25

    It is becoming clear that human enteric pathogens, like Salmonella, can efficiently colonize vegetative and reproductive organs of plants. Even though the bacterium's ability to proliferate within plant tissues has been linked to outbreaks of salmonellosis, little is known about regulatory and physiological adaptations of Salmonella, or other human pathogens, to their persistence in plants. A screen of Salmonella deletion mutants in tomatoes identified rcsA and rcsB genes as those under positive selection. In tomato fruits, populations of Salmonella rcsB mutants were as much as 100-fold lower than those of the wild type. In the follow-up experiments, competitive fitness of rcsA and rcsB mutants was strongly reduced in tomatoes. Bioinformatics predictions identified a putative Salmonella RcsAB binding box (TTMGGAWWAABCTYA) and revealed an extensive putative RcsAB regulon, of which many members were differentially fit within tomatoes.

  5. Studies of acid resistance characteristics in multiple drug resistant Salmonella species isolated from tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Naushad, Z; Mishra, S H; Musaddiq, M; Ali, Y A

    2013-04-01

    Salmonella species found to have a great potential of causing a variety of diseases ranging from gastroenteritis to enteric fever. Salmonella have been isolated from all food, animals and also found in the vegetables such as tomatoes, spinach etc. Several out breaks of Salmonellosis have been associated with the consumption of raw tomatoes. This is because of the fact that Salmonella attaches to the surface of tomatoes and also present in the interior part due to geotropic transmission via contaminated soil irrigated with contaminated water. .During the life cycle, Salmonella encounters the various environments such as acidic environment (low pH). To overcome such factors, Salmonella has certain adaptable mechanisms. In present 'study total 200 samples of tomatoes were analyzed out of which 10 samples were found to contain Salmonella. All the 10 isolates were then subjected to the antibiotic susceptibility testing and were found to be resistant against several antibiotics. These were subjected to acid resistant tolerance study.

  6. Bioflavour production from tomato and pepper pomaces by Kluyveromyces marxianus and Debaryomyces hansenii.

    PubMed

    Güneşer, Onur; Demirkol, Aslı; Karagül Yüceer, Yonca; Özmen Toğay, Sine; İşleten Hoşoğlu, Müge; Elibol, Murat

    2015-06-01

    Bioflavours are called natural flavour and/or fragrance compounds which are produced using metabolic pathway of the microorganism and/or plant cells or their enzyme systems with bioengineering approaches. The aim of this study was to investigate bioflavour production from tomato and red pepper pomaces by Kluyveromyces marxianus and Debaryomyces hansenii. Obtained specific growth rates of K. marxianus and D. hansenii in tomato pomace were 0.081/h and 0.177/h, respectively. The bioflavour profile differed between the yeasts. Both yeasts can produce esters and alcohols such as phenyl ethyl alcohol, isoamyl alcohol, isoamyl acetate, phenyl ethyl acetate and isovaleric acid. "Tarhana" and "rose" were descriptive flavour terms for tomato and pepper pomaces fermented by K. marxianus, respectively. Tomato pomace fermented by D. hansenii had the most intense "green bean" flavour while "fermented vegetable" and "storage/yeast" were defined as characteristic flavour terms for pepper pomaces fermented by D. hansenii.

  7. Citrate, oxalate, sodium, and magnesium levels in fresh juices of three different types of tomatoes: evaluation in the light of the results of studies on orange and lemon juices.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Erdal; Batislam, Ertan; Kacmaz, Murat; Erguder, Imge

    2010-06-01

    Fruit and vegetable juices containing citrate may be recommended as an alternative in mild to moderate level hypocitraturic calcium stone formers who cannot tolerate pharmacological treatment. Tomato has been proved a citrate-rich vegetable. Tomato juice usage as citrate sources in hypocitraturic recurrent stone formers were evaluated in the light of the results of studies on orange and lemon juices. Ten 100 ml samples were prepared from three different tomato types processed through a blender. These samples were examined in terms of citrate, oxalate, calcium, magnesium, and sodium contents. No difference was detected between the parameters tested in three different tomato juices. Fresh tomato juice may be useful in hypocitraturic recurrent stone formers due to its high content of citrate and magnesium, and low content of sodium and oxalate. As the three different types of tomatoes did not differ in terms of citrate, magnesium, sodium, and oxalate content, they may be useful for clinical use if also supported by clinical studies.

  8. Handling Procedures of Vegetable Crops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele; French, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is working towards future long duration manned space flights beyond low earth orbit. The duration of these missions may be as long as 2.5 years and will likely include a stay on a lunar or planetary surface. The primary goal of the Advanced Food System in these long duration exploratory missions is to provide the crew with a palatable, nutritious, and safe food system while minimizing volume, mass, and waste. Vegetable crops can provide the crew with added nutrition and variety. These crops do not require any cooking or food processing prior to consumption. The vegetable crops, unlike prepackaged foods, will provide bright colors, textures (crispy), and fresh aromas. Ten vegetable crops have been identified for possible use in long duration missions. They are lettuce, spinach, carrot, tomato, green onion, radish, bell pepper, strawberries, fresh herbs, and cabbage. Whether these crops are grown on a transit vehicle (e.g., International Space Station) or on the lunar or planetary surface, it will be necessary to determine how to safely handle the vegetables while maintaining acceptability. Since hydrogen peroxide degrades into water and oxygen and is generally recognized as safe (GRAS), hydrogen peroxide has been recommended as the sanitizer. The objective of th is research is to determine the required effective concentration of hydrogen peroxide. In addition, it will be determined whether the use of hydrogen peroxide, although a viable sanitizer, adversely affects the quality of the vegetables. Vegetables will be dipped in 1 % hydrogen peroxide, 3% hydrogen peroxide, or 5% hydrogen peroxide. Treated produce and controls will be stored in plastic bags at 5 C for up to 14 days. Sensory, color, texture, and total plate count will be measured. The effect on several vegetables including lettuce, radish, tomato and strawberries has been completed. Although each vegetable reacts to hydrogen peroxide differently, the

  9. Tampa Bay, St. Petersburg, Florida, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This photo of the Tampa Bay, St. Petersburg, Florida (28.0N, 82.5W) is one of a pair (see STS049-97-020) to compare the differences between color film and color infrared film. In the color image above, the scene appears as it would to the human eye. The city of St. Petersburg can be seen even though there is atmospheric haze obscuring the image. Color infrared film filters out the haze and portrays vegetation as shades of red or pink.

  10. Tampa Bay, St. Petersburg, Florida, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This photo of the Tampa Bay, St. Petersburg, Florida (28.0N, 82.5W) is one of a pair (see STS049-92-017) to compare the differences between color film and color infrared film. In the color image above, the scene appears as it would to the human eye. The city of St. Petersburg can be seen even though there is atmospheric haze obscuring the image. Color infrared film filters out the haze and portrays vegetation as shades of red or pink.

  11. Genetic dissection of vitamin E biosynthesis in tomato

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Juliana; Quadrana, Leandro; Asís, Ramón; Setta, Nathalia; de Godoy, Fabiana; Bermúdez, Luisa; Otaiza, Santiago N.; Corrêa da Silva, Junia V.; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Rossi, Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    Vegetables are critical for human health as they are a source of multiple vitamins including vitamin E (VTE). In plants, the synthesis of VTE compounds, tocopherol and tocotrienol, derives from precursors of the shikimate and methylerythritol phosphate pathways. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for α-tocopherol content in ripe fruit have previously been determined in an Solanum pennellii tomato introgression line population. In this work, variations of tocopherol isoforms (α, β, γ, and δ) in ripe fruits of these lines were studied. In parallel all tomato genes structurally associated with VTE biosynthesis were identified and mapped. Previously identified VTE QTL on chromosomes 6 and 9 were confirmed whilst novel ones were identified on chromosomes 7 and 8. Integrated analysis at the metabolic, genetic and genomic levels allowed us to propose 16 candidate loci putatively affecting tocopherol content in tomato. A comparative analysis revealed polymorphisms at nucleotide and amino acid levels between Solanum lycopersicum and S. pennellii candidate alleles. Moreover, evolutionary analyses showed the presence of codons evolving under both neutral and positive selection, which may explain the phenotypic differences between species. These data represent an important step in understanding the genetic determinants of VTE natural variation in tomato fruit and as such in the ability to improve the content of this important nutriceutical. PMID:21527625

  12. Wetlands: Crop freezes and land-use change in Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marshall, C.H.; Pielke, R.A.; Steyaert, L.T.

    2003-01-01

    South Florida experienced a significant change in land usage during the twentieth century, including the conversion of natural wetlands into agricultural land for the cultivation of winter vegetable, sugar cane and citrus crops. This movement of agriculture from more northerly areas was intended partly to escape the risk of damaging winter freezes. Here we present evidence from a case study using a coupled atmosphere and land-surface computer-modelling system that suggests that the draining of wetlands may have inadvertently increased the frequency and severity of agriculturally damaging freezes in the south of Florida.

  13. Ecological characterization of the lower Everglades, Florida Bay, and the Florida Keys

    SciTech Connect

    Schomer, N.S.; Drew, R.D.

    1982-09-01

    A conceptual model of the study area identifies four major ecological zones: (1) terrestrial and freshwater wetlands, (2) estuarine and saltwater wetlands, (3) Florida Bay and mangrove islands, and (4) the Florida Keys. These zones are delineated by differences in basic physical-chemical background factors which in turn promote characteristic ecological communities. The terrestrial and freshwater wetlands support pinelands, sawgrass marshes, wet prairies, sloughs and occasional tree islands. The estuarine and saltwater wetlands support mangrove forests, salt marshes and oscillating salinity systems. Florida Bay exhibits oscillating meso- to hypersaline waters over grassbeds on marine lime mud sediments surrounding deeper lake areas. The exposed tips of the mud banks frequently support mangrove or salt prairie vegetation. The Florida Keys support almost all of the above communities to some small degree but are characterized by extensive offshore coral reefs. The productivity of these communities with regard to fish and wildlife reflects (1) the diversity and type of habitats available to species that are potentially capable of exploiting them, (2) the degree of alteration of these habitats by man and natural forces, and (3) historical, biogeographic and random factors that restrict organisms to specific environments or prohibit them from exploiting a potential habitat.

  14. Changes in oxidative stress in transgenic RNAi ACO1 tomato fruit during ripening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eglous, Najat Mohamed; Ali, Zainon Mohd; Hassan, Maizom; Zainal, Zamri

    2013-11-01

    Tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum L.) is the second most cultivated vegetable in the world and widely used as a system for studying the role of ethylene during fruit ripening. Our objective was to study the oxidative stress and antioxidative metabolism during ripening of non transgenic tomato and transgenic line-21 tomato which reduced ethylene. The line-21 of transgenic tomato plants (RNAi ACO1) had lower ethylene production and longer shelf-life more than 32 days as compared to the wild-type fruits which have very short shelf-life. In this study, tomato fruit were divided into five different stages (MG: mature green 5%, B: breaker 25%, T: turning 50%, O: orange75%, RR: red ripe100%). The activity of lipoxygenase (LOX) and lipid peroxidation (MDA) were measured to assess changes in oxidative stress. The LOX activity and MDA content decreased significantly obtaining 2.6-fold and 1.2-fold, respectively, as compared to the wild type fruit. However, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were increased to 1.9 and 1.2 folds from the mature green to the fully ripe stage in transgenic tomatoes. Furthermore, the wild type tomato increases 1.3 in SOD and 1.6 in CAT activities. The overall results indicate that the wild type tomato fruit showed a faster rate of ripening, parallel to decline in the rate of enzymatic antioxidative systems as compared to the transgenic line-21 tomato fruit. In addition, the results show that the antioxidant capacity is improved during the ripening process and is accompanied by an increase in the oxidative stress.

  15. Contamination of tomatoes with coliforms and Escherichia coli on farms and in markets of northwest Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Shenge, Kenneth C; Whong, Clement M Z; Yakubu, Lydia L; Omolehin, Raphael A; Erbaugh, J Mark; Miller, Sally A; LeJeune, Jeffrey T

    2015-01-01

    Although recent reports indicated that produce contamination with foodborne pathogens is widespread in Nigeria, the sources and magnitude of microbial contamination of fruits and vegetables on farms and in markets have not been thoroughly identified. To ascertain possible pathways of contamination, the frequency and magnitude of coliform and Escherichia coli contamination of tomatoes produced in northwest Nigeria was assessed on farms and in markets. Eight hundred twenty-six tomato fruit samples and 36 irrigation water samples were collected and assessed for fecal indicator organisms. In addition, the awareness and use of food safety practices by tomato farmers and marketers were determined. Median concentration of coliforms on all field- and market-sourced tomato fruit samples, as well as in irrigation water sources, in Kaduna, Kano, and Katsina states exceeded 1,000 most probable number (MPN) per g. Median E. coli counts from 73 (17%) of 420 field samples and 231 (57%) of 406 market tomato fruit samples exceeded 100 MPN/g. Median E. coli concentrations on tomato fruits were higher (P < 0.01) in the rainy season (2.45 Log MPN/g), when irrigation was not practiced than in the dry (1.10 Log MPN/g) and early dry (0.92 Log MPN/g) seasons. Eighteen (50%) of 36 irrigation water samples had E. coli counts higher than 126 MPN/100 ml. Median E. coli contamination on market tomato fruit samples (2.66 Log MPN/g) were higher (P < 0.001) than those from tomatoes collected on farms (0.92 Log MPN/g). Farmers and marketers were generally unaware of the relationship between food safety practices and microbial contamination on fresh produce. Good agricultural practices pertaining to food safety on farms and in local markets were seldom used. Adoption of food safety practices on-farm, during transport, and during marketing could improve the microbial quality of tomatoes available to the public in this region of the world.

  16. 7 CFR 966.52 - Issuance of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order... other available information, that such regulation would tend to effectuate the declared policy of...

  17. 7 CFR 966.52 - Issuance of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order... other available information, that such regulation would tend to effectuate the declared policy of...

  18. 7 CFR 966.52 - Issuance of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order... other available information, that such regulation would tend to effectuate the declared policy of...

  19. 7 CFR 966.87 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 966.87 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges,...

  20. 7 CFR 966.87 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 966.87 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges,...

  1. 7 CFR 966.161 - Reapportionment of Committee Membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Committee Membership. Pursuant to § 966.25, industry membership on the Florida Tomato Committee shall...

  2. 7 CFR 966.24 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order... committee members the following districts of the production area are hereby initially established....

  3. 7 CFR 966.24 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order... committee members the following districts of the production area are hereby initially established....

  4. 7 CFR 966.53 - Minimum quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order..., may establish, for any or all portions of the production area, minimum quantities below which...

  5. 7 CFR 966.45 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order... contributions but these shall only be used for production research, market research and development...

  6. 7 CFR 966.24 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order... committee members the following districts of the production area are hereby initially established....

  7. 7 CFR 966.53 - Minimum quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order..., may establish, for any or all portions of the production area, minimum quantities below which...

  8. 7 CFR 966.45 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order... contributions but these shall only be used for production research, market research and development...

  9. 7 CFR 966.45 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order... contributions but these shall only be used for production research, market research and development...

  10. 7 CFR 966.24 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order... committee members the following districts of the production area are hereby initially established....

  11. 7 CFR 966.53 - Minimum quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order..., may establish, for any or all portions of the production area, minimum quantities below which...

  12. 7 CFR 966.45 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order... contributions but these shall only be used for production research, market research and development...

  13. 7 CFR 966.53 - Minimum quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order..., may establish, for any or all portions of the production area, minimum quantities below which...

  14. Biological control of bacterial speck of tomato under field conditions at several locations in north america.

    PubMed

    Wilson, M; Campbell, H L; Ji, P; Jones, J B; Cuppels, D A

    2002-12-01

    ABSTRACT Bacterial speck of tomato, caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, continues to be a problem for tomato growers worldwide. A collection of nonpathogenic bacteria from tomato leaves plus P. syringae strains TLP2 and Cit7, P. fluorescens strain A506, and P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 hrp mutants were examined in a greenhouse bioassay for the ability to reduce foliar bacterial speck disease severity. While several of these strains significantly reduced disease severity, P. syringae Cit7 was the most effective, providing a mean level of disease reduction of 78% under greenhouse conditions. The P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 hrpA, hrpH, and hrpS mutants also significantly reduced speck severity under greenhouse conditions. The strains with the greatest efficacy under greenhouse conditions were tested for the ability to reduce bacterial speck under field conditions at locations in Alabama, Florida, and Ontario, Canada. P. syringae Cit7 was the most effective strain, providing a mean level of disease reduction of 28% over 10 different field experiments. P. fluorescens A506, which is commercially available as Blight-Ban A506, provided a mean level of disease reduction of 18% over nine different field experiments. While neither P. syringae Cit7 nor P. fluorescens A506 can be integrated with copper bactericides due to their copper sensitivity, there exist some potential for integrating these biological control agents with "plant activators", including Actigard. Of the P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 hrp mutants tested, only the hrpS mutant reduced speck severity significantly under field conditions.

  15. Sugarcane Variety Census: Florida 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Florida sugarcane industry produces about 25% of all sugar produced in the U.S. Varieties originate from two sources, a private breeding and selection program of the United States Sugar Corporation in Clewiston, Florida and a public program at Canal Point, Florida supported by the USDA-Agricultu...

  16. Sugarcane Variety Census: Florida 2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Florida sugarcane industry produces about 25% of all sugar produced in the U.S. Varieties originate from two sources, a private breeding and selection program of the United States Sugar Corporation in Clewiston, Florida and a public program at Canal Point, Florida supported by the USDA-Agricultu...

  17. Sugarcane Variety Census: Florida 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Florida sugarcane industry produces about 25% of all sugar produced in the U.S. Varieties originate from two sources, a private breeding and selection program of the United States Sugar Corporation in Clewiston, Florida and a public program at Canal Point, Florida supported by the USDA-Agricultu...

  18. Understanding the global distribution of tomato viruses and viroids using next-generation sequencing technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) originated in the Americas and is one of the most widely grown vegetables in the world. The modern transportation system, the increasing global seed trade, and the off-shore hybrid seed production have created greater opportunities for potential broader geographic d...

  19. Salicylic acid-mediated elicitation of tomato defense against infection by potato purple top phytoplasma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent outbreaks and continued spread of phytoplasma infection-associated diseases in potato, tomato, and other vegetable crops in the U.S. accentuates the need for practical strategies to mitigate the impact of the phytoplasmal diseases. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether ...

  20. Detection of cuticle defects on cherry tomatoes based on hyperspectral fluorescence imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Even though cherry tomato is one of the major vegetables consumed in the fresh-cut market, its quality evaluation process has been dependent on simple size- or color-sorting techniques, which currently is inadequate for meeting the increased consumer demand for high quality and safety products. Of ...

  1. Effects of a hydrodynamic process on extraction of carotenoids from tomato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated a proprietary sonoporation method that was introduced with the hope of increasing accessibility of phytonutrients in fruits and vegetables. Two important commodities were selected: tomato, a major source of carotenoids, notably lycopene, in the diet of the Western world; and Citrus, o...

  2. A comparison of disinfectants to prevent spread of potyviruses in greenhouse tomato production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potyviruses, transmitted by a diverse array of common aphid species, infect a broad range of vegetable crops, and can be problematic in glasshouse tomato production. Once introduced, these viruses are believed to be transmitted plant-to-plant during pruning operations, and can infect large sections...

  3. Freshwater mussels of Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, James D.; Butler, Robert S.; Warren, Gary L.; Johnson, Nathan A.

    2014-01-01

    An exhaustive guide to all aspects of the freshwater mussel fauna in Florida,Freshwater Mussels of Florida covers the ecology, biology, distribution, and conservation of the many species of bivalve mollusks in the Sunshine State. In the past three decades, researchers, the public, businesses that depend on wildlife, and policy makers have given more attention to the threatened natural diversity of the Southeast, including freshwater mussels. This compendium meets the increasingly urgent need to catalog this imperiled group of aquatic organisms in the United States.

  4. The historical record of metal enrichment in two Florida estuaries

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, C.R.; Smith, R.G. ); Calder, F.D.; Schropp, S.J. ); Windom H.L. )

    1993-12-01

    Historical profiles of metal accumulation have been generated for the lower St. Johns River and Hillsborough Bay, Florida, in cores representing approximately 50 yr of sediment and metal accumulation. These profiles demonstrate that Cd, Pb, and Zn are enriched in these Florida estuarine sediments. Pb enrichment has decreased since the mid 1970s because of reduced use of leaded gasoline. In the St. Johns River, most metals exhibit a trend of increasing enrichment with time. Cd enrichment significantly decreased between 1970 and 1975 as a result of reduced discharges into the river and control of aquatic vegetation. In Hillsborough Bay, enrichment factors for most metals are relatively high and show little change downcore. Cr, Cu, and Ni border on enrichment and Pb, Cd, and Zn are enriched. The results of this study are consistent with other studies of surficial-sediment metal concentration in other Florida estuaries. 39 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Florida's Online Option

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Bill

    2009-01-01

    Education reform often appears a zero-sum battle, one that pits crusaders demanding accountability and choice against much of the traditional education establishment, including teachers unions. The political skirmishes in Florida, including court fights over vouchers and charter schools, and ongoing struggles over a parade of different merit pay…

  6. Migrant Programs in Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Migrant Information Clearinghouse, Austin, TX. Juarez-Lincoln Center.

    As the last of 3 directories, this lists services available to migrants in Florida. Migrant programs, Community Action Agencies, and labor camps in the state are identified by county. Information for each county includes total population, estimated migrant population, migrant labor demand, estimated migrant wages, crops, work periods, migrant…

  7. The Maya of Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Allan F.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the Maya people who fled Guatemala due to a civil war and illegally entered the U.S. and settled in Florida. Presents a picture of their living conditions, employment opportunities, cultural traditions, community development, and family organization. Discusses a Kanjobal Association and the CORN-MAYA program, and explains immigration…

  8. Conservation: saving Florida's manatees

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonde, Robert K.

    2008-01-01

    Robert K. Bonde of the U.S. Geological Survey writes about the protected population of manatees in Crystal River, Florida, including information about the threats they face as they migrate in and out of protected waters. Photographer Carol Grant shares images of "Angel," a newborn manatee she photographed early one winter morning.

  9. Florida Educational Facilities, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Office of Educational Facilities.

    This publication describes Florida school and community college facilities completed in 2000, including photographs and floor plans. The facilities profiled are:J. R. Arnold High School (Bay County); Falcon Cove Middle School (Broward); Floranada Elementary School (Broward); Lyons Creek Middle School (Broward); Parkside Elementary School…

  10. Florida Driver Education Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mick, Susan H.

    This student edition contains the same basic information as the official Florida Driver Handbook, but the reading difficulty of the material has been sharply reduced. It also provides activity-oriented exercises and review tests on this material. Introductory materials include a complete listing of all activities given, some vocabulary exercises…

  11. The Seminoles of Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covington, James W.

    This book gives a complete account of the Florida Seminoles from their entrance into the state almost 300 years ago, through the great chiefdoms of Micanopy, Osceola, and Billy Bowlegs, to the current political reality of democratic tribal elections. After moving into the peninsula from Georgia and Alabama, the Seminoles fought three wars against…

  12. Florida and SREB

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Southern Regional Education Board is a nonprofit organization that works collaboratively with Florida and 15 other member states to improve education at every level-- from pre-K to postdoctoral study-- through many effective programs and initiatives. SREB's "Challenge to Lead Goals for Education", which call for the region to lead…

  13. Chloroxyanion Residues in Cantaloupe and Tomatoes after Chlorine Dioxide Gas Sanitation.

    PubMed

    Smith, D J; Ernst, W; Herges, G R

    2015-11-04

    Chlorine dioxide gas is effective at cleansing fruits and vegetables of bacterial pathogens and(or) rot organisms, but little data are available on chemical residues remaining subsequent to chlorine gas treatment. Therefore, studies were conducted to quantify chlorate and perchlorate residues after tomato and cantaloupe treatment with chlorine dioxide gas. Treatments delivered 50 mg of chlorine dioxide gas per kg of tomato (2-h treatment) and 100 mg of gas per kg of cantaloupe (6-h treatment) in sealed, darkened containers. Chlorate residues in tomato and cantaloupe edible flesh homogenates were less than the LC-MS/MS limit of quantitation (60 and 30 ng/g respectively), but were 1319 ± 247 ng/g in rind + edible flesh of cantaloupe. Perchlorate residues in all fractions of chlorine dioxide-treated tomatoes and cantaloupe were not different (P > 0.05) than perchlorate residues in similar fractions of untreated tomatoes and cantaloupe. Data from this study suggest that chlorine dioxide sanitation of edible vegetables and melons can be conducted without the formation of unwanted residues in edible fractions.

  14. Assessing Salinity in Cotton and Tomato Plants by Using Reflectance Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldshleger, Naftaly

    2016-04-01

    Irrigated lands in semi-arid and arid areas are subjected to salinization processes. An example of this phenomenon is the Jezreel Valley in northern Israel where soil salinity has increased over the years. The increase in soil salinity results in the deterioration of the soil structure and crops damage. In this experiment we quantified the relation between the chemical and spectral features of cotton and tomato plants and their mutual relationship to soil salinity. The experiment was carried out as part of ongoing research aiming to detect and monitor saline soils and vegetation by combining different remote sensing methods. The aim of this study was to use vegetation reflectance measurements to predict foliar Cl and Na concentration and assess salinity in the soil and in vegetation by their reflectance measurements. The model developed for determining concentrations of chlorine and sodium in tomato and cotton produced good results ( R2 = 0.92 for sodium and 0.85 for chlorine in tomato and R2 = 0.84 for sodium and 0.82 for chlorine in cotton). Lately, we extend the method to calculate vegetation salinity, by doing correlation between the reflectance slopes of the tested crops CL and Na from two research areas. The developed model produced a good results for all the data (R2=0.74) Our method can be implemented to assess vegetation salinity ahead of planting, and developed as a generic tool for broader use for agriculture in semi-arid regions. In our opinion these results show the possibility of monitoring for a threshold level of salinity in tomato and cotton leaves so remedial action can be taken in time to prevent crop damage. Our results strongly suggest that future imaging spectroscopy remote sensing measurements collected by airborne and satellite platforms could measure the salinity of soil and vegetation over larger areas. These results can be the first steps for generic a model which includes more vegetation for salinity measurements.

  15. First Report of Tomato Chlorotic Dwarf Viroid in Greenhouse Tomatoes in Arizona

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid (TCDVd) was first identified on greenhouse tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) in Canada in 1999. Since then, it has also been reported on tomato in Colorado, US and Japan and on ornamental plants in or from Europe and North America. In 2006, tomato plants in a large greenh...

  16. Teacher Education Program Reviews at University of North Florida, Florida State University, Florida Atlantic University, University of South Florida, March 1994-April 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    England, David A.

    This report offers the review of four joint teacher education reviews conducted in the Florida State University System (SUS). Institutions reviewed are: University of North Florida (UNF), Florida State University (FSU), Florida Atlantic University (FAU), and the University of South Florida (USF). Joint teams were composed of the National Council…

  17. Habitat model for the Florida Scrub Jay on John F. Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breininger, David R.

    1992-01-01

    The Florida Scrub Jay is endemic to Florida. The John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) provides habitat for one of the three largest populations of the Florida Scrub Jay. This threatened bird occupies scrub, slash pine flatwoods, disturbed scrub, and coastal strand on KSC. Densities of Florida Scrub Jays were shown to vary with habitat characteristics but not necessarily with vegetation type. Relationships between Florida Scrub Jay densities and habitat characteristics were used to develop a habitat model to provide a tool to compare alternative sites for new facilities and to quantify environmental impacts. This model is being tested using long term demographic studies of colorbanded Florida Scrub Jays. Optimal habitat predicted by the model has greater than or equal to 50 percent of the shrub canopy comprised of scrub oaks, 20-50 percent open space or scrub oak vegetation within 100 m of a ruderal edge, less than or equal to 15 percent pine canopy cover, a shrub height of 120-170 cm, and is greater than or equal to 100 m from a forest. This document reviews life history, social behavior, food, foraging habitat, cover requirements, characteristics of habitat on KSC, and habitat preferences of the Florida Scrub Jay. Construction of the model and its limitations are discussed.

  18. 7 CFR 966.121 - Issuance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Rules and... authorizing the applicant named therein to ship tomatoes for a specified purpose for a specified period...

  19. 7 CFR 966.12 - Maturity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order... tomatoes as established by the committee with approval of the Secretary as determined at the time of...

  20. 7 CFR 966.122 - Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Rules and Regulations Safeguards § 966.122 Reports. Each handler handling tomatoes under and pursuant to a...

  1. 7 CFR 966.123 - Denial and appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Rules and... committee, that such handler has shipped tomatoes contrary to the provisions of this part. Such...

  2. Hydrogen Research at Florida Universities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Block, David L.; T-Raissi, Ali

    2009-01-01

    This final report describes the R&D activities and projects conducted for NASA under the 6-year NASA Hydrogen Research at Florida Universities grant program. Contained within this report are summaries of the overall activities, one-page description of all the reports funded under this program and all of the individual reports from each of the 29 projects supported by the effort. The R&D activities cover hydrogen technologies related to production, cryogenics, sensors, storage, separation processes, fuel cells, resource assessments and education. In the span of 6 years, the NASA Hydrogen Research at Florida Universities program funded a total of 44 individual university projects, and employed more than 100 faculty and over 100 graduate research students in the six participating universities. Researchers involved in this program have filed more than 20 patents in all hydrogen technology areas and put out over 220 technical publications in the last 2 years alone. This 6 year hydrogen research program was conducted by a consortium of six Florida universities: Florida International University (FIU) in Miami, Florida State University (FSU) and Florida A&M University (FAMU) in Tallahassee, University of Central Florida (UCF) in Orlando, University of South Florida (USF) in Tampa, and University of Florida (UF) in Gainesville. The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) of the University of Central Florida managed the research activities of all consortium member universities except those at the University of Florida. This report does not include any of the programs or activities conducted at the University of Florida, but can be found in NASA/CR-2008-215440-PART 1-3.

  3. Florida Hydrogen Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Block, David L

    2013-06-30

    The Florida Hydrogen Initiative (FHI) was a research, development and demonstration hydrogen and fuel cell program. The FHI program objectives were to develop Florida?s hydrogen and fuel cell infrastructure and to assist DOE in its hydrogen and fuel cell activities The FHI program funded 12 RD&D projects as follows: Hydrogen Refueling Infrastructure and Rental Car Strategies -- L. Lines, Rollins College This project analyzes strategies for Florida's early stage adaptation of hydrogen-powered public transportation. In particular, the report investigates urban and statewide network of refueling stations and the feasibility of establishing a hydrogen rental-car fleet based in Orlando. Methanol Fuel Cell Vehicle Charging Station at Florida Atlantic University ? M. Fuchs, EnerFuel, Inc. The project objectives were to design, and demonstrate a 10 kWnet proton exchange membrane fuel cell stationary power plant operating on methanol, to achieve an electrical energy efficiency of 32% and to demonstrate transient response time of less than 3 milliseconds. Assessment of Public Understanding of the Hydrogen Economy Through Science Center Exhibits, J. Newman, Orlando Science Center The project objective was to design and build an interactive Science Center exhibit called: ?H2Now: the Great Hydrogen Xchange?. On-site Reformation of Diesel Fuel for Hydrogen Fueling Station Applications ? A. Raissi, Florida Solar Energy Center This project developed an on-demand forecourt hydrogen production technology by catalytically converting high-sulfur hydrocarbon fuels to an essentially sulfur-free gas. The removal of sulfur from reformate is critical since most catalysts used for the steam reformation have limited sulfur tolerance. Chemochromic Hydrogen Leak Detectors for Safety Monitoring ? N. Mohajeri and N. Muradov, Florida Solar Energy Center This project developed and demonstrated a cost-effective and highly selective chemochromic (visual) hydrogen leak detector for safety monitoring

  4. Management of root-knot nematode in tomato Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill, with biogas slurry.

    PubMed

    Jothi, G; Pugalendhi, S; Poornima, K; Rajendran, G

    2003-09-01

    The effect of biogas slurry application on the severity of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, attack on tomato cv. Co-1, was tested in the green house with two levels of biogas slurry: 5% and 10% (w/w) added to soil. Both the number (3 fruits/plant) and fruit yield (35.2 g/plant) of tomato increased significantly with 10% (w/w) biogas slurry. The plants amended with biogas slurry put up more vegetative growth and tended to flower and fruit much earlier than did those of the control. The nematode population in the soil decreased thus decreasing the severity of nematode attack.

  5. Salmonella newport and typhimurium colonization of fruit differs from leaves in various tomato cultivars.

    PubMed

    Han, Sanghyun; Micallef, Shirley Ann

    2014-11-01

    Several outbreaks of Salmonella enterica infections have been linked to tomatoes. One cost-effective way to complement on-farm preventive Good Agricultural Practices is to identify cultivars with inherent decreased susceptibility to Salmonella colonization. Fruit and leaves of 13 tomato cultivars with distinct phenotypes were screened to evaluate their susceptibility to Salmonella epiphytic colonization. Field-grown fruit or gnotobiotically grown seedling leaves were spot inoculated in replicate with either Salmonella Typhimurium LT2 or a tomato outbreak-associated strain of Salmonella Newport. Initial loads of the Salmonella inocula were 2.5 log CFU per fruit and 3.5 or 7.0 log CFU per seedling. Salmonella cells were retrieved and enumerated using direct plating after 24 h of incubation at room temperature for fruit and 72 h at 26°C during the day and 18°C at night for seedling leaves. Epiphytic colonization of fruit by S. enterica was cultivar-dependent and serotype-specific, but did not necessarily correlate with leaf colonization. Fruit of cultivar Heinz-1706 were the least colonized by Salmonella Newport, while the highest populations were retrieved from fruit of Nyagous. By contrast, seedling leaves supporting the lowest populations were Florida 91 VF and the highest were Virginia Sweets for Salmonella Newport. For Salmonella Typhimurium the lowest was Nyagous and the highest was Heinz-1706 and Moneymaker. The tomato outbreak strain of Salmonella Newport attained higher population densities on fruit than did Salmonella Typhimurium, suggesting better adaptation to tomato fruit colonization. Salmonella Newport populations were significantly lower on leaves, but not fruit of the near-isogenic line Movione, compared with the parent cultivar Moneymaker, suggesting the immunity conferring gene Pto could be responding to this outbreak strain. Susceptibility of tomato fruit to Salmonella colonization is highly variable and could be one criterion for cultivar

  6. Water withdrawals in Florida, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marella, Richard L.

    2015-09-01

    The largest percentage of freshwater withdrawals was from the South Florida Water Management District (46 percent), followed by the St. Johns River Water Management District (20 percent), Southwest Florida Water Management District (19 percent), Northwest Florida Water Management District (9 percent), and Suwannee River Water Management District (6 percent). The South Florida Water Management District accounted for the largest percentage of freshwater withdrawals for public-supply use (46 percent), commercial-industrial-mining self-supplied use (24 percent), agricultural self-supplied use (59 percent), and recreational-landscape irrigation use (63 percent). The Northwest Florida Water Management District accounted for the largest percentage of freshwater withdrawals for power-generation use (44 percent), and the Southwest Florida Water Management District accounted for the largest percentage of saline-water withdrawals for power-generation use (58 percent).

  7. 21 CFR 156.145 - Tomato juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the unfermented liquid extracted from mature tomatoes of the red or reddish varieties of Lycopersicum... be applied by any method which does not add water thereto. Such juice is strained free from peel... have been concentrated and later reconstituted with water and/or tomato juice to a tomato...

  8. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) variety discrimination and hybridization analysis based on the 5S rRNA region.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan-Lin; Kang, Ho-Min; Kim, Young-Sik; Baek, Jun-Pill; Zheng, Shi-Lin; Xiang, Jin-Jun; Hong, Soon-Kwan

    2014-05-04

    The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is a major vegetable crop worldwide. To satisfy popular demand, more than 500 tomato varieties have been bred. However, a clear variety identification has not been found. Thorough understanding of the phylogenetic relationship and hybridization information of tomato varieties is very important for further variety breeding. Thus, in this study, we collected 26 tomato varieties and attempted to distinguish them based on the 5S rRNA region, which is widely used in the determination of phylogenetic relations. Sequence analysis of the 5S rRNA region suggested that a large number of nucleotide variations exist among tomato varieties. These variable nucleotide sites were also informative regarding hybridization. Chromas sequencing of Yellow Mountain View and Seuwiteuking varieties indicated three and one variable nucleotide sites in the non-transcribed spacer (NTS) of the 5S rRNA region showing hybridization, respectively. Based on a phylogenetic tree constructed using the 5S rRNA sequences, we observed that 16 tomato varieties were divided into three groups at 95% similarity. Rubiking and Sseommeoking, Lang Selection Procedure and Seuwiteuking, and Acorn Gold and Yellow Mountain View exhibited very high identity with their partners. This work will aid variety authentication and provides a basis for further tomato variety breeding.

  9. Influence of simulated Quinclorac drift on the accumulation and movement of herbicide in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants.

    PubMed

    Lovelace, Michael L; Hoagland, Robert E; Talbert, Ronald E; Scherder, Eric F

    2009-07-22

    Quinclorac (3,7-dichloro-8-quinolinecarboxylic acid) is a herbicide commonly used in rice, and its drift has been suspected of causing injury to off-target tomato fields throughout Arkansas. Studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of single and multiple simulated quinclorac drift applications on tomato plant growth and development. Residues extracted from tomato plants treated with 0.42 g of ai ha(-1) were below the detection limit of liquid chromatography-double mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Quinclorac residue levels and half-lives in tomato tissue increased as the application rate and number of applications increased. From 3 to 72 h after (14)C-quinclorac treatment of plants, most of the absorbed (14)C was retained in the treated leaf, and translocations of (14)C out of the treated leaf of vegetative and flowering tomato plant tissues were similar. Of the (14)C that translocated out of the treated leaf, the greatest movement was acropetally. The flower cluster contained 1% of the total absorbed (14)C, which suggests the potential for quinclorac translocation into tomato fruit. More extensive research will be required to understand the impact that quinclorac may have on tomato production in the area.

  10. Florida's propagation report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmken, Henry; Henning, Rudolf

    1994-01-01

    One of the key goals of the Florida Center is to obtain a maximum of useful information on propagation behavior unique to its subtropical weather and subtropical climate. Such weather data is of particular interest when it is (or has the potential to become) useful for developing and implementing techniques to compensate for adverse weather effects. Also discussed are data observations, current challenges, CDF's, sun movement, and diversity experiments.

  11. Orlando, Florida, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Much of central Florida, including this detailed view of Orlando (28.5N, 81.0W) can be seen in this single photo. Disney World is at the top center of the scene and the crescent shaped Lake Tohopekaliga is near the bottom. The large round lakes are believed to be sinkholes formed during glacial times when ocean levels were several hundred feet lower than the present. Linear patterns east of Orlando are thought to be ancient shoreline ridges.

  12. SEASAT radar altimeter measurements over the Florida Everglades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, R. L.; Norcross, G. A.

    1983-01-01

    The SEASAT satellite radar altimeter traversed the Florida Everglades on August 14, 1978. Analysis of the measurements disclosed that the altimeter pulses from 800 km above the Earth's surface penetrated the vegetation canopies to provide land and water surface elevations with accuracies better than + or - 50 cm. The altimeter waveforms required retracking over the specular Everglades surface. The altimeter-derived land elevations were correlated with large-scale topographic maps while the altimeter-derived water elevations were correlated with water gauge records of the U.S. Geological Survey. Examination of the altimeter waveforms also revealed reflections from the Everglades' surface occurring earlier than the surface reflections. These earlier surface reflections are interpreted to be from vegetation canopies, and may provide a measure of vegetation canopy heights. Future satellite radar altimeters could provide supplemental vertical control in relatively inaccessible swamp areas, could monitor water levels, and perhaps could monitor vegetation growth.

  13. Antioxidant nutritional quality of tomato.

    PubMed

    Frusciante, Luigi; Carli, Paola; Ercolano, Maria R; Pernice, Rita; Di Matteo, Antonio; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Pellegrini, Nicoletta

    2007-05-01

    Regular consumption of tomatoes has been associated with decreased risk of chronic degenerative diseases. Epidemiological findings confirm the observed health effects are due to the presence of different antioxidant molecules such as carotenoids, particularly lycopene, ascorbic acid, vitamin E and phenol compounds, particularly flavonoids. In this work, eight components contributing to the healthy quality of tomato (i. e. lycopene, beta-carotene, other carotenoids, flavonoids, phenolic acids, vitamins C and E, dry residue) were studied in the framework of breeding programs aiming to develop nutritional superior genotypes. Twelve tomato advanced breeding lines and six open pollinated cultivars were grown in strictly controlled conditions and analysed for their content of antioxidants. Among the 18 genotypes analysed, 10 showed a high level of total carotenoids, 6 high level of beta-carotene, 9 high lycopene levels, 15 high flavonoids and 2 relevant concentration of vitamin E. Based on such data and on a literature survey on tomato composition, an index, called index of antioxidant nutritional quality (I(QUAN)), was proposed as a tool to address the breeding programs in selecting tomato genotypes with antioxidant nutritional qualities.

  14. Reduction of pesticide residues in tomatoes and other produce.

    PubMed

    Al-Taher, Fadwa; Chen, Yang; Wylie, Philip; Cappozzo, Jack

    2013-03-01

    There is interest in reducing pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables in order to minimize human exposure. The objectives of this study were to (i) determine the effect of various washing treatments with and without sonication on pesticide removal from tomatoes and (ii) assess the effectiveness of a water wash on select samples using a produce-washing flume. In the first set of experiments, tomatoes were contaminated with acephate, malathion, carbaryl, bifenthrin, cypermethrin, permethrin, cyhalothrin, chlorothalonil, and imidacloprid and were dried overnight. Subsets of the tomatoes were then washed (10°C, 1 min) with one of the following: water, sodium hypochlorite (80 μg/ml, pH 7), peroxyacetic acid (80 μg/ml), or Tween 20 (0.1%) with and without sonication. In general, the effect of sonication depended on the washing treatment and on the pesticide. A separate experiment measured pesticide residues in contaminated samples before and after being washed in a flume (22°C, 1 min). Pesticide residues in contaminated produce were reduced from about 40 to 90% when washed for 1 min in the flume.

  15. An undigested cherry tomato as a rare cause of small bowel obstruction.

    PubMed

    Mortezavi, A; Schneider, P M; Lurje, G

    2015-07-01

    Small bowel obstruction due to undigested fibre from fruits and vegetables is a rare but known medical condition. We report a case of small bowel obstruction caused by a whole cherry tomato in a patient without a past medical history of abdominal surgery. A 66-year-old man presented to the emergency department complaining of lower abdominal pain with nausea and vomiting. His last bowel movement had occurred on the morning of presentation. He underwent abdominal computed tomography (CT), which showed a sudden change of diameter in the distal ileum with complete collapse of the proximal small bowel segment. Laparoscopy confirmed a small bowel obstruction with a transition point close to the ileocaecal valve. An enterotomy was performed and a completely undigested cherry tomato was retrieved. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a small bowel obstruction caused by a whole cherry tomato.

  16. Potential of Pseudomonas putida PCI2 for the Protection of Tomato Plants Against Fungal Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Pastor, Nicolás; Masciarelli, Oscar; Fischer, Sonia; Luna, Virginia; Rovera, Marisa

    2016-09-01

    Tomato is one of the most economically attractive vegetable crops due to its high yields. Diseases cause significant losses in tomato production worldwide. We carried out Polymerase Chain Reaction studies to detect the presence of genes encoding antifungal compounds in the DNA of Pseudomonas putida strain PCI2. We also used liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry to detect and quantify the production of compounds that increase the resistance of plants to diseases from culture supernatants of PCI2. In addition, we investigated the presence of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase in PCI2. Finally, PCI2 was used for inoculation of tomato seeds to study its potential biocontrol activity against Fusarium oxysporum MR193. The obtained results showed that no fragments for the encoding genes of hydrogen cyanide, pyoluteorin, 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol, pyrrolnitrin, or phenazine-1-carboxylic acid were amplified from the DNA of PCI2. On the other hand, PCI2 produced salicylic acid and jasmonic acid in Luria-Bertani medium and grew in a culture medium containing ACC as the sole nitrogen source. We observed a reduction in disease incidence from 53.33 % in the pathogen control to 30 % in tomato plants pre-inoculated with PCI2 as well as increases in shoot and root dry weights in inoculated plants, as compared to the pathogenicity control. This study suggests that inoculation of tomato seeds with P. putida PCI2 increases the resistance of plants to root rot caused by F. oxysporum and that PCI2 produces compounds that may be involved at different levels in increasing such resistance. Thus, PCI2 could represent a non-contaminating management strategy potentially applicable in vegetable crops such as tomato.

  17. Florida's Urban Environment. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Mark; And Others

    This unit begins with the historical development of Florida and analyzes development from the perspective of an energy system. The unit deals with the urbanization process currently taking place in Florida and explores where it may be leading. Lessons are designed for individualized instruction or for use by students in small groups. In some cases…

  18. FREEZING WEATHER IN PENINSULAR FLORIDA,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The synoptic situations which bring serious freezing weather to the Florida Peninsula are discussed generally by presenting various weather charts...scheme is presented which might permanently eliminate serious freezing in the Florida Peninsula. Before any solution can be reached, it t necessary to be

  19. Florida's Nurses Speak to Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCulloch, Etta S.

    A questionnaire was sent to 5000 Florida hospitals to obtain information from non-members of the Florida Nurses Association (FNA) and to compare the data with that of FNA members on questions relevant to nursing education. Among findings from the 22-item survey, 84 percent of which were returned, were that 80 percent disagreed that licensing…

  20. The Florida Library History Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jasper, Catherine; McCook, Kathleen de la Pena

    The Florida Library History Project (FLHP) began in January 1998. Letters requesting histories were sent to all public libraries in Florida with follow-up letters sent after an initial response was received from the libraries. E-mail messages were sent out to FL-LIB listservs encouraging participation in the project. A poster session was presented…

  1. Inhalant Use in Florida Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siqueira, Lorena; Crandall, Lee A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To determine (1) the prevalence of use, (2) risk and protective factors for use of inhalants in Florida youth. Methods: The Florida Youth Substance Abuse Survey 2004 is a comprehensive assessment of youth substance abuse attitudes and practices obtained by sampling youth from sixty-five counties. Results: The sample consisted of 60,345…

  2. Applied studies of plant meridian system: I. The effect of agri-wave technology on yield and quality of tomato.

    PubMed

    Hou, T Z; Mooneyham, R E

    1999-01-01

    Agri-wave technology is a new agricultural technology based on the plant meridian system, that focuses on measurement of plant sound characteristics. The basic principle of agri-wave technology is to improve the yield and quality of plants such as vegetables, flowers, and fruit trees by broadcasting sound waves of certain frequencies and spraying a compound microelement fertilizer on the leaves. The application of agri-wave technology on tomatoes remarkably stimulates growth of their seedlings. Fresh weight of the branch, stems, and leaves of the treated tomatoes is significantly (59.53%, P < 0.0001) higher than that of the control group. Sampling survey results indicate that agri-wave technology accelerates the ripeness of tomatoes. The fresh weight of ripe tomatoes treated with this technique is 30.73% higher than that of the untreated (P = 0.0018), while the fresh weight of the treated unripe tomatoes is 27.29% lower than that of the untreated unripe group (P = 0.0020). Yield surveys show that the yield of treated plants is 13.89% (p < 0.0001) higher than that of the control group. Moreover, with agri-wave technology treatment the storage period of tomatoes is almost doubled. Analysis of tomato nutrition shows that agri-wave technology has increased their sugar content by 26.19%, vitamin A and niacin (an antifavours vitamin) by 55.39% and 92.31% respectively. There is no difference concerning vitamin B1, B2, and D content between the two groups, and vitamin C and E contents decreased by 2.10% and 12.69%, respectively. Among the analyzed 33 minerals of tomatoes, 26 increased in content, while 7 decreased. In conclusion, agri-wave technology has promoted the growth of the tomato, increased its yield, and improved its quality.

  3. Tomato ABSCISIC ACID STRESS RIPENING (ASR) gene family revisited.

    PubMed

    Golan, Ido; Dominguez, Pia Guadalupe; Konrad, Zvia; Shkolnik-Inbar, Doron; Carrari, Fernando; Bar-Zvi, Dudy

    2014-01-01

    Tomato ABSCISIC ACID RIPENING 1 (ASR1) was the first cloned plant ASR gene. ASR orthologs were then cloned from a large number of monocot, dicot and gymnosperm plants, where they are mostly involved in response to abiotic (drought and salinity) stress and fruit ripening. The tomato genome encodes five ASR genes: ASR1, 2, 3 and 5 encode low-molecular-weight proteins (ca. 110 amino acid residues each), whereas ASR4 encodes a 297-residue polypeptide. Information on the expression of the tomato ASR gene family is scarce. We used quantitative RT-PCR to assay the expression of this gene family in plant development and in response to salt and osmotic stresses. ASR1 and ASR4 were the main expressed genes in all tested organs and conditions, whereas ASR2 and ASR3/5 expression was two to three orders of magnitude lower (with the exception of cotyledons). ASR1 is expressed in all plant tissues tested whereas ASR4 expression is limited to photosynthetic organs and stamens. Essentially, ASR1 accounted for most of ASR gene expression in roots, stems and fruits at all developmental stages, whereas ASR4 was the major gene expressed in cotyledons and young and fully developed leaves. Both ASR1 and ASR4 were expressed in flower organs, with ASR1 expression dominating in stamens and pistils, ASR4 in sepals and petals. Steady-state levels of ASR1 and ASR4 were upregulated in plant vegetative organs following exposure to salt stress, osmotic stress or the plant abiotic stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA). Tomato plants overexpressing ASR1 displayed enhanced survival rates under conditions of water stress, whereas ASR1-antisense plants displayed marginal hypersensitivity to water withholding.

  4. 7 CFR 966.60 - Inspection and certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order... handling of tomatoes is regulated pursuant to this subpart no handler shall handle tomatoes unless such tomatoes have been inspected and certified as meeting the requirements of this subpart by an...

  5. 7 CFR 966.10 - Grade and size.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order... tomatoes and size means any one of the established sizes of tomatoes as defined and set forth in U.S. Standards for Fresh Tomatoes (§§ 51.1855 to 51.1877 of this title or U.S. Consumer Standards for...

  6. 7 CFR 966.130 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Rules and... requested; and facts demonstrating that the tomatoes, for which exemption is requested, were adversely... tomatoes for which exemption is requested, the location where such tomatoes are to be prepared for...

  7. Endosulfan wet deposition in Southern Florida (USA).

    PubMed

    Potter, Thomas L; Hapeman, Cathleen J; McConnell, Laura L; Harman-Fetcho, Jennifer A; Schmidt, Walter F; Rice, Clifford P; Schaffer, Bruce

    2014-01-15

    The atmosphere is an important transport route for semi-volatile pesticides like endosulfan. Deposition, which depends on physical-chemical properties, use patterns, and climatic conditions, can occur at local, regional, and global scales. Adverse human and ecological impact may result. We measured endosulfan wet deposition in precipitation over a 4-year period within an area of high agricultural use in Southern Florida (USA) and in nearby Biscayne and Everglades National Parks. Endosulfan's two isomers and degradate, endosulfan sulfate, were detected at high frequency with the order of detection and concentration being β-endosulfan>α-endosulfan>endosulfan sulfate. Within the agricultural area, detection frequency (55 to 98%) mean concentrations (5 to 87 ng L(-1)) and total daily deposition (200 ng m(-2) day(-1)) exceeded values at other sites by 5 to 30-fold. Strong seasonal trends were also observed with values at all monitored sites significantly higher during peak endosulfan use periods when vegetable crops were produced. Relatively high deposition in the crop production area and observations that concentrations exceeded aquatic life toxicity thresholds at all sites indicated that endosulfan volatilization and wet deposition are of ecotoxicological concern to the region. This study emphasizes the need to include localized volatilization and deposition of endosulfan and other semi-volatile pesticides in risk assessments in Southern Florida and other areas with similar climatic and crop production profiles.

  8. Geochemical history of Lake Miccosukee, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Z.Q.; Donoghue, J.F.; Hess, D.W.; Ragland, P.C.; Milla, K. . Geology Dept.)

    1994-03-01

    Lake Miccosukee is a 2,500 hectare karst lake in northwest Florida. The lake draws water from a 65,000 hectare watershed, although groundwater seepage appears to be the principal water source to the lake. Like many of the large lakes of north Florida it periodically drains via sinkholes, becoming nearly dry in the process. The result of the natural drawdowns is a large reduction of the organic matter content of the bottom sediments. The water level in the lake was stabilized after 1954 with the construction of a dike and weir. Drawdowns have been managed since then and have been fewer and less drastic. The lake bottom has been exposed for only about six months since 1954. The result has been an increase in aquatic vegetation and a diminishment in fish populations. A set of two dozen sediment cores was analyzed for sedimentation rate (using lead-210 and Cs-137), percent organics, C, N, P and trace metals. The effect of the lake level stabilization appears to be an increase in organic matter deposited in the bottom sediments. Anthropogenic metals, including Hg, Zn, Pb, Cu and V have been found to increase considerably near the tops of the cores, by a factor of two or more over long-term background levels.

  9. Biomass production in Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.H.; Dowd, M.L.

    1981-08-01

    Florida posseses climatic, land, and water resources favorable for abundant biomass production. Therefore, a statewide program has been initiated to determine adapted species for the available array of production sites. Plant resources under investigation include woody, aquatic, grasses, hydrocarbon, and root crop species. The goal is to produce a continuous stream of biomass for the various biofuel conversion options. Preliminary yields from energy cropping experiments range from about 10 to nearly 90 metric tons per hectare per year, depending on the crop and the production systems employed. (Refs. 15).

  10. 76 FR 63149 - Importation of Tomatoes With Stems From the Republic of Korea Into the United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ... exporters may intend to target U.S. specialty vegetable markets or certain ethnic consumer groups with... the consuming public, and remain in foreign commerce until sold to the ultimate consumer. The question...'' (NAICS 111219). Farms producing tomatoes in greenhouses are classified under ``Other food crops...

  11. Lycopene Content of Tomato Products: Its Stability, Bioavailability and In Vivo Antioxidant Properties.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Anita; Shen, Honglei; Agarwal, Sanjiv; Rao, A. V.

    2001-01-01

    Lycopene is a bioactive carotenoid present in many fruits and vegetables. Tomatoes constitute the major dietary source of lycopene. Recent evidence shows lycopene to be associated with several health benefits. However, very little information is available about the stability of lycopene and its bioavailability. Because tomatoes undergo extensive processing and storage before consumption, a study was conducted to evaluate the stability, isomeric form, bioavailability, and in vivo antioxidant properties of lycopene. Total lycopene and isomers were measured by spectrophotometry and high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively. Lycopene content of tomatoes remained unchanged during the multistep processing operations for the production of juice or paste and remained stable for up to 12 months of storage at ambient temperature. Moreover, subjecting tomato juice to cooking temperatures in the presence of corn oil resulted in the formation of the cis isomeric form, which was considered to be more bioavailable. Lycopene was absorbed readily from the dietary sources. Serum lipid and low-density lipoprotein oxidation were significantly reduced after the consumption of tomato products containing lycopene.

  12. Desorption isotherms and mathematical modeling of thin layer drying kinetics of tomato

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belghith, Amira; Azzouz, Soufien; ElCafsi, Afif

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, there is an increased demand on the international market of dried fruits and vegetables with significant added value. Due to its important production, consumption and nutrient intake, drying of tomato has become a subject of extended and varied research works. The present work is focused on the drying behavior of thin-layer tomato and its mathematical modeling in order to optimize the drying processes. The moisture desorption isotherms of raw tomato were determined at four temperature levels namely 45, 50, 60 and 65 °C using the static gravimetric method. The experimental data obtained were modeled by five equations and the (GAB) model was found to be the best-describing these isotherms. The drying kinetics were experimentally investigated at 45, 55 and 65 °C and performed at air velocities of 0.5 and 2 m/s. In order to investigate the effect of the exchange surface on drying time, samples were dried into two different shapes: tomato halves and tomato quarters. The impact of various drying parameters was also studied (temperature, air velocity and air humidity). The drying curves showed only the preheating period and the falling drying rate period. In this study, attention was paid to the modeling of experimental thin-layer drying kinetics. The experimental results were fitted with four different models.

  13. Galacturonosyltransferase 4 silencing alters pectin composition and carbon partitioning in tomato

    PubMed Central

    de Godoy, Fabiana; Bermúdez, Luisa; Lira, Bruno Silvestre; de Souza, Amanda Pereira; Elbl, Paula; Demarco, Diego; Alseekh, Saleh; Insani, Marina; Buckeridge, Marcos; Almeida, Juliana; Grigioni, Gabriela; Fernie, Alisdair Robert; Carrari, Fernando; Rossi, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    Pectin is a main component of the plant cell wall and is the most complex family of polysaccharides in nature. Its composition is essential for the normal growth and morphology pattern, as demonstrated by pectin-defective mutant phenotypes. Besides this basic role in plant physiology, in tomato, pectin structure contributes to very important quality traits such as fruit firmness. Sixty-seven different enzymatic activities have been suggested to be required for pectin biosynthesis, but only a few genes have been identified and studied so far. This study characterized the tomato galacturonosyltransferase (GAUT) family and performed a detailed functional study of the GAUT4 gene. The tomato genome harbours all genes orthologous to those described previously in Arabidopsis thaliana, and a transcriptional profile revealed that the GAUT4 gene was expressed at higher levels in developing organs. GAUT4-silenced tomato plants exhibited an increment in vegetative biomass associated with palisade parenchyma enlargement. Silenced fruits showed an altered pectin composition and accumulated less starch along with a reduced amount of pectin, which coincided with an increase in firmness. Moreover, the harvest index was dramatically reduced as a consequence of the reduction in the fruit weight and number. Altogether, these results suggest that, beyond its role in pectin biosynthesis, GAUT4 interferes with carbon metabolism, partitioning, and allocation. Hence, this cell-wall-related gene seems to be key in determining plant growth and fruit production in tomato. PMID:23599271

  14. Galacturonosyltransferase 4 silencing alters pectin composition and carbon partitioning in tomato.

    PubMed

    de Godoy, Fabiana; Bermúdez, Luisa; Lira, Bruno Silvestre; de Souza, Amanda Pereira; Elbl, Paula; Demarco, Diego; Alseekh, Saleh; Insani, Marina; Buckeridge, Marcos; Almeida, Juliana; Grigioni, Gabriela; Fernie, Alisdair Robert; Carrari, Fernando; Rossi, Magdalena

    2013-05-01

    Pectin is a main component of the plant cell wall and is the most complex family of polysaccharides in nature. Its composition is essential for the normal growth and morphology pattern, as demonstrated by pectin-defective mutant phenotypes. Besides this basic role in plant physiology, in tomato, pectin structure contributes to very important quality traits such as fruit firmness. Sixty-seven different enzymatic activities have been suggested to be required for pectin biosynthesis, but only a few genes have been identified and studied so far. This study characterized the tomato galacturonosyltransferase (GAUT) family and performed a detailed functional study of the GAUT4 gene. The tomato genome harbours all genes orthologous to those described previously in Arabidopsis thaliana, and a transcriptional profile revealed that the GAUT4 gene was expressed at higher levels in developing organs. GAUT4-silenced tomato plants exhibited an increment in vegetative biomass associated with palisade parenchyma enlargement. Silenced fruits showed an altered pectin composition and accumulated less starch along with a reduced amount of pectin, which coincided with an increase in firmness. Moreover, the harvest index was dramatically reduced as a consequence of the reduction in the fruit weight and number. Altogether, these results suggest that, beyond its role in pectin biosynthesis, GAUT4 interferes with carbon metabolism, partitioning, and allocation. Hence, this cell-wall-related gene seems to be key in determining plant growth and fruit production in tomato.

  15. Florida Library Directory with Statistics, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Dept. of State, Tallahassee. Div. of Library and Information Services.

    This publication is a directory of Florida libraries and related organizations, and contains statistical data for Florida public libraries for fiscal year 1994-95. The report lists members of the State Library Council, Florida State Advisory Council on Libraries, Florida Library Network Council, Staff Directory, State Library of Florida…

  16. State Education Finance and Governance Profile: Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the state education finance and governance profile of Florida. The state of Florida has 67 regular school districts as well as additional special districts comprised of developmental research schools and other schools that serve special populations. In 1973, the Florida Legislature adopted the Florida Education Finance…

  17. Curly Top Disease of Tomato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Curly top disease, caused by viruses in the genus, Curtovirus, has impacted western US agriculture for over a century; and is a significant threat to tomato production. The two most abundant curtovirus species today are Beet severe curly top virus (BSCTV) and Beet mild curly top virus (BMCTV) but ot...

  18. Simulation of the soil water balance of an undeveloped prairie in west-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bidlake, W.R.; Boetcher, P.F.

    1996-01-01

    A one-dimensional numerical model was developed to simulate the soil water balance of a densely vegetated prairie site in west-central Florida. Transient simulations of the soil water balance were performed using field-measured soil and vegetation properties. Simulated and measured soil water content generally agreed to within 0.04; however, simulated water storage and recharge were sensitive to air-entry soil-water pressure potential and depth to the water table.

  19. Dengue in Florida (USA)

    PubMed Central

    Rey, Jorge R.

    2014-01-01

    Florida (USA), particularly the southern portion of the State, is in a precarious situation concerning arboviral diseases. The geographic location, climate, lifestyle, and the volume of travel and commerce are all conducive to arbovirus transmission. During the last decades, imported dengue cases have been regularly recorded in Florida, and the recent re-emergence of dengue as a major public health concern in the Americas has been accompanied by a steady increase in the number of imported cases. In 2009, there were 28 cases of locally transmitted dengue in Key West, and in 2010, 65 cases were reported. Local transmission was also reported in Martin County in 2013 (29 cases), and isolated locally transmitted cases were also reported from other counties in the last five years. Dengue control and prevention in the future will require close cooperation between mosquito control and public health agencies, citizens, community and government agencies, and medical professionals to reduce populations of the vectors and to condition citizens and visitors to take personal protection measures that minimize bites by infected mosquitoes. PMID:26462955

  20. FLORIDA TOWER FOOTPRINT EXPERIMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    WATSON,T.B.; DIETZ, R.N.; WILKE, R.; HENDREY, G.; LEWIN, K.; NAGY, J.; LECLERC, M.

    2007-01-01

    The Florida Footprint experiments were a series of field programs in which perfluorocarbon tracers were released in different configurations centered on a flux tower to generate a data set that can be used to test transport and dispersion models. These models are used to determine the sources of the CO{sub 2} that cause the fluxes measured at eddy covariance towers. Experiments were conducted in a managed slash pine forest, 10 km northeast of Gainesville, Florida, in 2002, 2004, and 2006 and in atmospheric conditions that ranged from well mixed, to very stable, including the transition period between convective conditions at midday to stable conditions after sun set. There were a total of 15 experiments. The characteristics of the PFTs, details of sampling and analysis methods, quality control measures, and analytical statistics including confidence limits are presented. Details of the field programs including tracer release rates, tracer source configurations, and configuration of the samplers are discussed. The result of this experiment is a high quality, well documented tracer and meteorological data set that can be used to improve and validate canopy dispersion models.

  1. MISR Views Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) images of Florida acquired on April 9, 2000 during Terra orbit 1650. The image at the top is a color view acquired by the vertical (nadir) camera. It has been reoriented so that the flight path is from left to right, to facilitate comparison with the lower image, a stereo 'anaglyph' generated using 275-m resolution red band data from the cameras viewing 45.6 degrees and 70.5 degrees aft of nadir. The anaglyph provides a three-dimensional effect when viewed using red/blue glasses with the red filter placed over the left eye. This stereoscopic 'depth perception' and the variation in brightness as a function of view angle enables scientists to assess the climate impact of different types of cloud fields. The plume from a large brush fire that burned about 15,000 acres is visible at the western edge of the Big Cypress Swamp in southern Florida. East is toward the top.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

    For more information: http://www-misr.jpl.nasa.gov

  2. Phytotoxicity of tolylfluanid in tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Gielen, S; Vogels, L; Seels, B; Aerts, R

    2006-01-01

    The use of Euparen Multi (tolylfluanid) for controlling Botrytis cinerea in tomatoes has been decreased the last decade for several reasons. Because of the lack of different fungicides with a good efficacy it is important that growers can use different fungicides to prevent development of resistance of Botrytis cinerea against many fungicides. Tolylfluanid has negative side effects on some insect populations that are used for biological control. It is known that Euparen Multi and Euparen can have a negative effect on some predatory mites (Schmidt and Zeller, 1998) such as Phytoseiulus persimilis and some parasitic wasps like Encarsia formosa, Eretmocerus eremicus, Diglyphus isaea and Dacnusa sibirica. Recently investigation indicates that this fungicide is harmless for the predatory bug Macrolophus caliginosus (Biobest, 2006) frequently used in the cultivation of tomatoes as a predator for whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum). To investigate if tolylfluanid has a phytotoxic effect on tomato plants an experiment was performed. Young tomato plants were used, who are more sensitive. These plants were subdivided in different groups, from which each one was sprayed with a different concentration of tolylfluanid. The highest concentrations of tolylfluanid were used to stimulate the visibility of the possible phytotoxic effects. Results of this experiment demonstrate that there wasn't a difference between the different groups that were sprayed with tolylfluanid or the control group. This indicates that tolylfluanid doesn't seem to be phytotoxic. It is also important to mention that this experiment was done in the fall when the intensity of the sunlight was decreasing. There still exists the possibility that extreme irradiation in combination with tolylfluanid can provoke a phototoxic effect on young tomato plants.

  3. SUSCEPTIBILITY OF SEVERAL WEEDS COMMON IN FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION TO MELOIDOGYNE SPP.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Documenting shifts in existing and newly emerging weed populations, and how these changes affect nematode populations is required as vegetable and ornamental producers transition from broad-spectrum fumigants to more sustainable methods for nematode control. In a Florida field trial examining alter...

  4. WATER-USE ALONG A HYDROLOGICAL GRADIENT IN CENTRAL FLORIDA: A TALE OF TWO PINUS SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although central Florida is relatively flat, the distribution of species on the landscape is controlled by subtle changes in elevation. Along a four-meter elevation gradient, xeric sandhill vegetation dominated by Pinus palustris (Longleaf pine) gives way to mesic pine flatwoods...

  5. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV-IL): a seed-transmissible geminivirus in tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Kil, Eui-Joon; Kim, Sunhoo; Lee, Ye-Ji; Byun, Hee-Seong; Park, Jungho; Seo, Haneul; Kim, Chang-Seok; Shim, Jae-Kyoung; Lee, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Ji-Kwang; Lee, Kyeong-Yeoll; Choi, Hong-Soo; Lee, Sukchan

    2016-01-08

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is one of the most well-known tomato-infecting begomoviruses and transmitted by Bemisia tabaci. Seed transmission has previously been reported for some RNA viruses, but TYLCV has not previously been described as a seed-borne virus. In 2013 and 2014, without whitefly-mediated transmission, TYLCV was detected in young tomato plants germinated from fallen fruits produced from TYLCV-infected tomato plants in the previous cultivation season. In addition, TYLCV-Israel (TYLCV-IL) was also detected in seeds and their seedlings of TYLCV-infected tomato plants that were infected by both viruliferous whitefly-mediated transmission and agro-inoculation. The seed infectivity was 20-100%, respectively, and the average transmission rate to seedlings was also 84.62% and 80.77%, respectively. TYLCV-tolerant tomatoes also produced TYLCV-infected seeds, but the amount of viral genome was less than seen in TYLCV-susceptible tomato plants. When tomato plants germinated from TYLCV-infected seeds, non-viruliferous whiteflies and healthy tomato plants were placed in an insect cage together, TYLCV was detected from whiteflies as well as receiver tomato plants six weeks later. Taken together, TYLCV-IL can be transmitted via seeds, and tomato plants germinated from TYLCV-infected seeds can be an inoculum source of TYLCV. This is the first report about TYLCV seed transmission in tomato.

  6. Tomato functional genomics database (TFGD): a comprehensive collection and analysis package for tomato functional genomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato Functional Genomics Database (TFGD; http://ted.bti.cornell.edu) provides a comprehensive systems biology resource to store, mine, analyze, visualize and integrate large-scale tomato functional genomics datasets. The database is expanded from the previously described Tomato Expression Database...

  7. Plasma and hepatic cholesterol-lowering in hamsters by tomato pomace, tomato seed oil and defatted tomato seed supplemented in high fat diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We determined the cholesterol-lowering effects of tomato pomace (TP), a byproduct of tomato processing, and its components such as tomato seed oil (TSO) and defatted tomato seed (DTS) in hamsters, a widely used animal model for cholesterol metabolism. Male Syrian Golden hamsters were fed high-fat di...

  8. Neural networks predict tomato maturity stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Federico

    1999-03-01

    Almost 40% of the total horticultural produce exported from Mexico the USA is tomato, and quality is fundamental for maintaining the market. Many fruits packed at the green-mature stage do not mature towards a red color as they were harvested before achieving its physiological maturity. Tomato gassed for advancing maturation does not respond on those fruits, and repacking is necessary at terminal markets, causing losses to the producer. Tomato spectral signatures are different on each maturity stage and tomato size was poorly correlated against peak wavelengths. A back-propagation neural network was used to predict tomato maturity using reflectance ratios as inputs. Higher success rates were achieved on tomato maturity stage recognition with neural networks than with discriminant analysis.

  9. Characterization and quantification of phenolic compounds in four tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) farmers' varieties in northeastern Portugal homegardens.

    PubMed

    Barros, Lillian; Dueñas, Montserrat; Pinela, José; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Buelga, Celestino Santos; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2012-09-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) is one of the most widely consumed fresh and processed vegetables in the world, and contains bioactive key components. Phenolic compounds are one of those components and, according to the present study, farmers' varieties of tomato cultivated in homegardens from the northeastern Portuguese region are a source of phenolic compounds, mainly phenolic acid derivatives. Using HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS, it was concluded that a cis p-coumaric acid derivative was the most abundant compound in yellow (Amarelo) and round (Batateiro) tomato varieties, while 4-O-caffeolyquinic acid was the most abundant in long (Comprido) and heart (Coração) varieties. The most abundant flavonoid was quercetin pentosylrutinoside in the four tomato varieties. Yellow tomato presented the highest levels of phenolic compounds (54.23 μg/g fw), including phenolic acids (43.30 μg/g fw) and flavonoids (10.93 μg/g fw). The phenolic compounds profile obtained for the studied varieties is different from other tomato varieties available in different countries, which is certainly related to genetic features, cultivation conditions, and handling and storage methods associated to each sample.

  10. Accumulation of heavy metals by vegetables grown in mine wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, G.P.; Sands, K.; Waters, M.; Wixson, B.G.; Dorward-King, E.

    2000-03-01

    Lead, cadmium, arsenic, and zinc were quantified in mine wastes and in soils mixed with mine wastes. Metal concentrations were found to be heterogeneous in the wastes. Iceberg lettuce, Cherry Belle radishes, Roma bush beans, and Better Boy tomatoes were cultivated in mine wastes and in waste-amended soils. Lettuce and radishes had 100% survival in the 100% mine waste treatments compared to 0% and 25% survival for tomatoes and beans, respectively. Metal concentrations were determined in plant tissues to determine uptake and distribution of metals in the edible plant parts. Individual soil samples were collected beneath each plant to assess metal content in the immediate plant environment. This analysis verified heterogeneous metal content of the mine wastes. The four plant species effectively accumulated and translocated lead, cadmium, arsenic, and zinc. Tomato and bean plants contained the four metals mainly in the roots and little was translocated to the fruits. Radish roots accumulated less metals compared to the leaves, whereas lettuce roots and leaves accumulated similar concentrations of the four metals. Lettuce leaves and radish roots accumulated significantly more metals than bean and tomato fruits. This accumulation pattern suggests that consumption of lettuce leaves or radish roots from plants grown in mine wastes would pose greater risks to humans and wildlife than would consumption of beans or tomatoes grown in the same area. The potential risk may be mitigated somewhat in humans, as vegetables grown in mine wastes exhibited stunted growth and chlorosis.

  11. Consumer sensory analysis of organically and conventionally grown vegetables.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Chambers, Edgar; Matta, Ziad; Loughin, Thomas M; Carey, Edward E

    2007-03-01

    Consumers of organically grown fruits and vegetables often believe that these products taste better than conventional produce. However, comparison of produce from supermarket shelves does not permit adequate assessment of this consumer perception, given potentially confounding cultivar and environmental effects. We used replicated side-by-side plots to produce organic and conventional vegetables for consumer sensory studies. In one test, red loose leaf lettuce, spinach, arugula, and mustard greens, grown organically and conventionally, were evaluated for overall liking as well as for intensity of flavor and bitterness. Another consumer test was conducted comparing organically and conventionally grown tomatoes, cucumbers, and onions. Overall, organically and conventionally grown vegetables did not show significant differences in consumer liking or consumer-perceived sensory quality. The only exception was in tomatoes where the conventionally produced tomato was rated as having significantly stronger flavor than the organically produced tomato. However, overall liking was the same for both organic and conventional samples. As conventional tomatoes also were scored marginally significantly higher in ripeness and a positive correlation was found between ratings of flavor intensity and ripeness, the flavor difference observed could not be simply ascribed to the contrasting growing conditions. Consumer panelists in both tests considered organic produce to be healthier (72%) and more environmentally friendly (51%) than conventional produce, while 28% considered organic produce to have better taste. Covariance analysis indicated that consumer demographics affected sensory comparisons of organic and conventional lettuce and cucumbers. Future study is needed to substantiate the influence of segmentation of consumers on their preference for organic food.

  12. A Florida Redbelly Turtle is spotted at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A Florida Redbelly Turtle casts a suspicious look as he is being photographed on the grounds of Kennedy Space Center. The Redbelly turtle inhabits ponds, lakes, sloughs, marshes and mangrove- bordered creeks, in a range that encompasses Florida from the southern tip north to the Apalachicola area of the panhandle. Active year-round, it is often seen basking on logs or floating mats of vegetation. Adults prefer a diet of aquatic plants. The Center shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  13. Barcoding exotic whitefly in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A portion of a mitochondrial gene has been sequenced for three recent invasive whitefly pests in Florida: Fig whitefly, Bondar’s whitefly and rugose spiraling whitefly. Diagnostic tests based on these sequences remain to be developed. ...

  14. Flooding Frequency Alters Vegetation in Isolated Wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haag, Kim H.; Lee, Terrie M.

    2006-01-01

    Many isolated wetlands in central Florida occur as small, shallow depressions scattered throughout the karst topography of the region. In these wetlands, the water table approaches land surface seasonally, and water levels and flooding frequency are largely determined by differences between precipitation and evapotranspiration. Because much of the region is flat with little topographic relief, small changes in wetland water levels can cause large changes in wetland surface area. Persistent changes in wetland flooding frequencies, as a result of changes in rainfall or human activity, can cause a substantial change in the vegetation of thousands of acres of land. Understanding the effect that flooding frequency has on wetland vegetation is important to assessing the overall ecological status of wetlands. Wetland bathymetric mapping, when combined with water-level data and vegetation assessments, can enable scientists to determine the frequency of flooding at different elevations in a wetland and describe the effects of flooding frequency on wetland vegetation at those elevations. Five cypress swamps and five marshes were studied by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) during 2000-2004, as part of an interdisciplinary study of isolated wetlands in central Florida (Haag and others, 2005). Partial results from two of these marshes are described in this report.

  15. Risk of damage to tomato crops by the generalist zoophytophagous predator Nesidiocoris tenuis (Reuter) (Hemiptera: Miridae).

    PubMed

    Arnó, J; Castañé, C; Riudavets, J; Gabarra, R

    2010-02-01

    Nesidiocoris tenuis (Reuter) (Hem. Miridae) is a native zoophytophagous predator of the Mediterranean region, and its populations colonize tomato crops when they are not heavily treated with insecticides. This generalist predator has a high capacity for controlling insect pests, and it is currently commercially produced and released in some areas to control Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hem. Aleyrodidae). However, its status as a pest and/or as beneficial is controversial. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of damage to tomatoes in extreme conditions of prey scarcity, as well as high predator populations. Three predator densities were tested in a greenhouse cage experiment during a summer tomato crop. The crop did not display any negative effect caused by the predators during the first six weeks of interaction, independently of the density released. However, subsequently, the effect was dramatic, both on the vegetative growth of the plant and on the production of fruits. The reduction in vegetative growth was located at truss eight and it was expressed mainly by a lower number of leaves and a shorter length of the shoot above the truss. There was a significant reduction of yield with a lower number of fruits collected and a smaller mean weight, although this was not observable until truss seven. It seems that feeding on the plant by this mirid bug competed with the vegetative growth and fruiting processes of the plant in the extreme conditions of prey shortage maintained in our experiment.

  16. Study of Biological Effects of Low Energy Ion Implantation on Tomato and Radish Breeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Qiuxia; Huang, Qunce; Cao, Gangqiang; Ying, Fangqing; Liu, Yanbo; Huang, Wen

    2008-04-01

    Biological effects of 30 keV low energy nitrogen ion implantation on the seeds of five types of tomato and one type of radish were investigated. Results showed that low energy ions have different effects on different vegetables. The whole dose-response curve of the germination ratio did not take on "the shape of saddle", but was a rising and falling waveform with the increase or decrease in ion implantation. In the vegetable of Solanaceae, two outstanding aberrant plants were selected from M1 of Henan No.4 tomato at a dose of 7 × 1017 nitrogen ions/cm2, which had thin-leaves, long-petal and nipple tip fruit stably inherited to M7. Furthermore the analysis of the isozyme showed that the activity of the mutant tomato seedling was distinct in quantity and color. In Raphanus sativus L., the aberrances were obvious in the mutant of radish 791 at a dose of 5 × 1017 nitrogen ions/cm2, and the weight of succulent root and the volume of growth were over twice the control's. At present, many species for breeding have been identified in the field and only stable species have been selected for the experiment of production. It is evident that the low energy ion implantation technology has clear effects on vegetables' genetic improvement.

  17. Spaceport Florida Authority: Business Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Spaceport Florida Authority (SFA) was established under Florida Statute by the Governor and Legislature to assist the development of our nation's space transportation industry and to generate new space-related jobs, investment and opportunities statewide. Included in the Authorities' business plan is the statement of work and list of team members involved in creating the report, SFA's current operating concept, market analysis, assessment of accomplishments, a sample operating concept and a "roadmap to success".

  18. Effects of the Mi-1, N and Tabasco Genes on Infection and Reproduction of Meloidogyne mayaguensis on Tomato and Pepper Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Brito, J. A.; Stanley, J. D.; Kaur, R.; Cetintas, R.; Di Vito, M.; Thies, J. A.; Dickson, D. W.

    2007-01-01

    Meloidogyne mayaguensis is a damaging root-knot nematode able to reproduce on root-knot nematode-resistant tomato and other economically important crops. In a growth chamber experiment conducted at 22 and 33°C, isolate 1 of M. mayaguensis reproduced at both temperatures on the Mi-1-carrying tomato lines BHN 543 and BHN 585, whereas M. incognita race 4 failed to reproduce at 22°C, but reproduced well at 33°C. These results were confirmed in another experiment at 26 ± 1.8°C, where minimal or no reproduction of M. incognita race 4 was observed on the Mi-1-carrying tomato genotypes BHN 543, BHN 585, BHN 586 and ‘Sanibel’, whereas heavy infection and reproduction of M. mayaguensis isolate 1 occurred on these four genotypes. Seven additional Florida M. mayaguensis isolates also reproduced on resistant ‘Sanibel’ tomato at 26 ± 1.8°C. Isolate 3 was the most virulent, with reproduction factor (Rf) equal to 8.4, and isolate 8 was the least virulent (Rf = 2.1). At 24°C, isolate 1 of M. mayaguensis also reproduced well (Rf ≥ 1) and induced numerous small galls and large egg masses on the roots of root-knot nematode-resistant bell pepper ‘Charleston Belle’ carrying the N gene and on three root-knot nematode-resistant sweet pepper lines (9913/2, SAIS 97.9001 and SAIS 97.9008) carrying the Tabasco gene. In contrast, M. incognita race 4 failed to reproduce or reproduced poorly on these resistant pepper genotypes. The ability of M. mayaguensis isolates to overcome the resistance of tomato and pepper genotypes carrying the Mi-1, N and Tabasco genes limits the use of resistant cultivars to manage this nematode species in infested tomato and pepper fields in Florida. PMID:19259507

  19. Phloem unloading in tomato fruit

    SciTech Connect

    Damon, S.; Hewitt, J.; Bennett, A.B.

    1986-04-01

    To begin to identify those processes that contribute to the regulation of photosynthate partitioning in tomato fruit the path of phloem unloading in this tissue has been characterized. Assymetrically labelled sucrose (/sup 3/H-fructosyl sucrose) was applied to source leaves. Following translocation to the fruit the apoplast was sampled. The appearance of assymetric sucrose and /sup 3/H-fructose in the apoplast indicates that phloem unloading is apoplastic and that extracellular invertase is active. Estimation of sucrose, glucose, and fructose concentrations in the apoplast were 1 mM, 40 mM, and 40 mM, respectively. Rates of uptake of sucrose, 1-fluorosucrose, glucose, and fructose across the plasma membrane were similar and non-saturating at physiological concentrations. These results suggest that, although extracellular invertase is present, sucrose hydrolysis is not required for uptake into tomato fruit pericarp cells. 1-fluorosucrose is used to investigate the role of sucrose synthase in hydrolysis of imported photosynthate.

  20. High-power LEDs influence on germination rate of tomato seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tudora, Cătălina; Ristici, M.; Ristici, Esofina

    2007-08-01

    Artificial lighting for plants cultivation is an important factor that can determine the nutritional quality of vegetables. The improvement of quality is determined by the emission spectrum of LED, suitable for vegetables. This spectrum values must be inside the solar ones. So, by using red high-power LEDs we can supplement the conventional lighting (ex. HPS) and we can enrich the red light from the emission light. We have used a special device that has 200 high-power red LEDs, having emission wavelength in 640-670 nm range, which is presented below. Using red LEDs on tomato seeds, we can observe that the germination rate significantly increased.

  1. Pollen assemblages as paleoenvironmental proxies in the Florida Everglades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Willard, D.A.; Weimer, L.M.; Riegel, W.L.

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of 170 pollen assemblages from surface samples in eight vegetation types in the Florida Everglades indicates that these wetland sub-environments are distinguishable from the pollen record and that they are useful proxies for hydrologic and edaphic parameters. Vegetation types sampled include sawgrass marshes, cattail marshes, sloughs with floating aquatics, wet prairies, brackish marshes, tree islands, cypress swamps, and mangrove forests. The distribution of these vegetation types is controlled by specific environmental parameters, such as hydrologic regime, nutrient availability, disturbance level, substrate type, and salinity; ecotones between vegetation types may be sharp. Using R-mode cluster analysis of pollen data, we identified diagnostic species groupings; Q-mode cluster analysis was used to differentiate pollen signatures of each vegetation type. Cluster analysis and the modern analog technique were applied to interpret vegetational and environmental trends over the last two millennia at a site in Water Conservation Area 3A. The results show that close modern analogs exist for assemblages in the core and indicate past hydrologic changes at the site, correlated with both climatic and land-use changes. The ability to differentiate marshes with different hydrologic and edaphic requirements using the pollen record facilitates assessment of relative impacts of climatic and anthropogenic changes on this wetland ecosystem on smaller spatial and temporal scales than previously were possible. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V.

  2. Space-Based Detection of Sinkhole Activity in Central Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver-Cabrera, T.; Kruse, S.; Wdowinski, S.

    2015-12-01

    Central Florida's thick carbonate deposits and hydrological conditions have made the area prone to sinkhole development. Sinkhole collapse is a major geologic hazard in central Florida threatening human life and causing substantial damage to property. According to the Florida Senate report in 2010, between 2006-2010 total insurance claims due to sinkhole activity were around $200 million per year. Detecting sinkhole deformation before a collapse is a very difficult task, due to small or sometimes unnoticeable surface changes. Most techniques used to monitor sinkholes provide very localized information and cannot be implemented to study broad areas. This is the case of central Florida, where the active zone spans over hundreds of square-kilometers. In this study we use Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) observations acquired over several locations in central Florida to detect possible pre-collapse deformation. The study areas were selected because they have shown suspicious sinkhole behavior. One of the sites collapsed on March 2013 destroying a property and killing a man. To generate the InSAR results we use six datasets acquired by the TerraSAR-X and Cosmo-SkyMed satellites with various acquisition modes reflecting pixel resolutions between 25cm and 2m. Preliminary InSAR results show good coherence over constructed areas and low coherence in vegetated zones, justifying our analysis that focuses on the man-made structures. After full datasets will be acquired, a Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) time series analysis will be performed for detecting localized deformation at spatial scale of 1-5 meters. The project results will be verified using Ground Penetrating Radar.

  3. PTIR: Predicted Tomato Interactome Resource

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Junyang; Xu, Wei; Ban, Rongjun; Huang, Shengxiong; Miao, Min; Tang, Xiaofeng; Liu, Guoqing; Liu, Yongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are involved in almost all biological processes and form the basis of the entire interactomics systems of living organisms. Identification and characterization of these interactions are fundamental to elucidating the molecular mechanisms of signal transduction and metabolic pathways at both the cellular and systemic levels. Although a number of experimental and computational studies have been performed on model organisms, the studies exploring and investigating PPIs in tomatoes remain lacking. Here, we developed a Predicted Tomato Interactome Resource (PTIR), based on experimentally determined orthologous interactions in six model organisms. The reliability of individual PPIs was also evaluated by shared gene ontology (GO) terms, co-evolution, co-expression, co-localization and available domain-domain interactions (DDIs). Currently, the PTIR covers 357,946 non-redundant PPIs among 10,626 proteins, including 12,291 high-confidence, 226,553 medium-confidence, and 119,102 low-confidence interactions. These interactions are expected to cover 30.6% of the entire tomato proteome and possess a reasonable distribution. In addition, ten randomly selected PPIs were verified using yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screening or a bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay. The PTIR was constructed and implemented as a dedicated database and is available at http://bdg.hfut.edu.cn/ptir/index.html without registration. PMID:27121261

  4. Phytochelatin synthesis in tomato cells

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsbrough, P.; Gupta, S.; Huang, B.; Scheller, H.

    1987-04-01

    Tomato cells that are exposed to cadmium and other heavy metals synthesize phytochelatins (PCs), a family of peptides that bind heavy metals and are structurally related to glutathione (GSH). PCs have the structure (..gamma..-glutamyl-cysteinyl) glycine; for PCs, n=2-10; GSH, n=1. GSH levels decline rapidly in tomato cells exposed to Cd/sup 2 +/. Buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), an inhibitor of GSH synthesis, prevents sustained synthesis of PC. However the addition of GSH to the medium of BSO-treated cells restores PC production. In vivo labeling studies indicate that /sup 35/(S)-cysteine is incorporated into PC via GSH, rather than being added directly to GSH or pre-formed PC. Initial synthesis of PCs is not inhibited by cycloheximide. Tomato cell cultures that are tolerant of high levels of Cd/sup 2 +/ contain large amounts of PCs. However, when sensitive and tolerant cells that have been grown in the absence of Cd/sup 2 +/ are exposed to relatively low concentrations of Cd/sup 2 +/, they synthesize PCs at similar rates. These and other results suggest that, although PCs are necessary, increased PC synthesis is not sufficient for expression of the Cd/sup 2 +/ tolerant phenotype.

  5. Fractions of aqueous and methanolic extracts from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) present platelet antiaggregant activity.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Eduado J; Astudillo, Luis A; Gutiérrez, Margarita I; Contreras, Samuel O; Bustamante, Luis O; Rubio, Pia I; Moore-Carrasco, Rodrigo; Alarcón, Marcelo A; Fuentes, Jaime A; González, Daniel E; Palomo, Iván F

    2012-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Its prevention emphasizes three aspects: not smoking, physical activity and a healthy diet. Recently, we screened the antithrombotic activity of a selected group of fruits and vegetables. Among them, tomato showed an important effect. The aim of this study was to evaluate and characterize the platelet antiaggregatory activity of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). For this, we obtained aqueous and methanolic tomato extracts and evaluated the effect of pH (2 and 10) and temperature (22, 60 and 100°C) on this activity. Furthermore, in order to isolate the antiaggregant principle, we separated tomato extracts into several fractions (A-D) by size exclusion chromatography. In addition, we evaluated the platelet antiaggregating activity ex vivo in Wistar rats. Aqueous and methanolic extracts of tomato treated at 22, 60 and 100°C and pH 2 and 10 still inhibited platelet aggregation (in vitro). Moreover, it was noted that one of the fractions (fraction C), from both aqueous and methanolic extracts, presented the highest activity (∼70% inhibition of platelet aggregation) and concentration dependently inhibited platelet aggregation significantly compared with control (P < 0.05). These fractions did not contain lycopene but presented two peaks of absorption, at 210 and 261 nm, compatible with the presence of nucleosides. In rats treated with tomato macerates, a mild platelet antiaggregating effect ex vivo was observed. Further studies are required to identify the molecules with platelet antiaggregating activity and antiplatelet mechanisms of action.

  6. South Florida wetlands ecosystem; biogeochemical processes in peat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orem, William; ,

    1996-01-01

    The South Florida wetlands ecosystem is an environment of great size and ecological diversity (figs. 1 and 2). The landscape diversity and subtropical setting of this ecosystem provide a habitat for an abundance of plants and wildlife, some of which are unique to South Florida. South Florida wetlands are currently in crisis, however, due to the combined effects of agriculture, urbanization, and nearly 100 years of water management. Serious problems facing this ecosystem include (1) phosphorus contamination producing nutrient enrichment, which is causing changes in the native vegetation, (2) methylmercury contamination of fish and other wildlife, which poses a potential threat to human health, (3) changes in the natural flow of water in the region, resulting in more frequent drying of wetlands, loss of organic soils, and a reduction in freshwater flow to Florida Bay, (4) hypersalinity, massive algal blooms, and seagrass loss in parts of Florida Bay, and (5) a decrease in wildlife populations, especially those of wading birds. This U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) project focuses on the role of organic-rich sediments (peat) of South Florida wetlands in regulating the concentrations and impact of important chemical species in the environment. The cycling of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur in peat is an important factor in the regulation of water quality in the South Florida wetlands ecosystem. These elements are central to many of the contamination issues facing South Florida wetlands, such as nutrient enrichment, mercury toxicity, and loss of peat. Many important chemical and biological reactions occur in peat and control the fate of chemical species in wetlands. Wetland scientists often refer to these reactions as biogeochemical processes, because they are chemical reactions usually mediated by microorganisms in a geological environment. An understanding of the biogeochemical processes in peat of South Florida wetlands will provide a basis for evaluating the

  7. 7 CFR 319.56-28 - Tomatoes from certain countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Tomatoes from certain countries. (a) Tomatoes (fruit) (Solanum lycopersicum) from Spain. Pink or red... other applicable provisions of this subpart. 5 5 The surface area of a pink tomato is more than 30 percent but not more than 60 percent pink and/or red. The surface area of a red tomato is more than...

  8. 7 CFR 51.1905 - Off-Grade tomatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Off-Grade tomatoes. 51.1905 Section 51.1905... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Fresh Tomatoes Off-Grade § 51.1905 Off-Grade tomatoes. Tomatoes which fail to meet the requirements of either of the foregoing grades shall be Off-Grade...

  9. Aluminum induced proteome changes in tomato cotyledons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotyledons of tomato seedlings that germinated in a 20 µM AlK(SO4)2 solution remained chlorotic while those germinated in an aluminum free medium were normal (green) in color. Previously, we have reported the effect of aluminum toxicity on root proteome in tomato seedlings (Zhou et al. J Exp Bot, 20...

  10. Peeling mechanism of tomato under infrared heating

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Critical behaviors of peeling tomatoes using infrared heat are thermally induced peel loosening and subsequent cracking. However, the mechanism of peel loosening and cracking due to infrared heating remains unclear. This study aimed at investigating the mechanism of peeling tomatoes under infrared h...

  11. 21 CFR 155.191 - Tomato concentrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... tomato ingredients: (i) The liquid obtained from mature tomatoes of the red or reddish varieties... material is restored to a pH of 4.2±0.2. Water may be added to adjust the final composition. The food... bicarbonate. (iv) Water, as provided for in paragraph (a)(1) of this section. (v) Spices. (vi) Flavoring....

  12. 21 CFR 155.191 - Tomato concentrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... tomato ingredients: (i) The liquid obtained from mature tomatoes of the red or reddish varieties... material is restored to a pH of 4.2±0.2. Water may be added to adjust the final composition. The food... bicarbonate. (iv) Water, as provided for in paragraph (a)(1) of this section. (v) Spices. (vi) Flavoring....

  13. 21 CFR 155.191 - Tomato concentrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... tomato ingredients: (i) The liquid obtained from mature tomatoes of the red or reddish varieties... material is restored to a pH of 4.2±0.2. Water may be added to adjust the final composition. The food... bicarbonate. (iv) Water, as provided for in paragraph (a)(1) of this section. (v) Spices. (vi) Flavoring....

  14. Prediction of processing tomato peeling outcomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peeling outcomes of processing tomatoes were predicted using multivariate analysis of Magnetic Resonance (MR) images. Tomatoes were obtained from a whole-peel production line. Each fruit was imaged using a 7 Tesla MR system, and a multivariate data set was created from 28 different images. After ...

  15. Hyperspectral imaging for nondestructive evaluation of tomatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Machine vision methods for quality and defect evaluation of tomatoes have been studied for online sorting and robotic harvesting applications. We investigated the use of a hyperspectral imaging system for quality evaluation and defect detection for tomatoes. Hyperspectral reflectance images were a...

  16. The Effectiveness of Florida Virtual School in Terms of Cost and Student Achievement in a Selected Florida School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNally, Susan R.

    2012-01-01

    Florida Virtual School was started in 1997. Since then, its presence and impact on public education in Florida has grown significantly. The Florida Virtual School was started by the Florida legislature and is funded through Florida's school funding program, receiving annual appropriations based on successful course completions. The Florida Virtual…

  17. 75 FR 54657 - University of Florida; University of Florida Training Reactor; Environmental Assessment and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... COMMISSION University of Florida; University of Florida Training Reactor; Environmental Assessment and... considering issuance of a renewed Facility Operating License No. R-56, to the University of Florida (the licensee), which would authorize continued operation of the University of Florida Training Reactor...

  18. 78 FR 43197 - Duke Energy Florida, Inc.; Florida Power & Light Company; Tampa Electric Company; Orlando...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Duke Energy Florida, Inc.; Florida Power & Light Company; Tampa Electric Company; Orlando Utilities Commission; Notice of Compliance Filings Take notice that on July 10, 2013, Duke Energy Florida, Inc., Florida Power...

  19. 77 FR 55207 - Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on August 16, 2012, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC (FGT... & Tariffs, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC, 5051 Westheimer Road, Houston, Texas, 77056, or call...

  20. 78 FR 43881 - Florida Petroleum Reprocessors Site, Davie, Broward County, Florida; Notice of Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... AGENCY Florida Petroleum Reprocessors Site, Davie, Broward County, Florida; Notice of Settlement AGENCY... Protection Agency has entered into a settlement with Jap. Tech, Inc. concerning the Florida Petroleum... Ms. Paula V. Painter. Submit your comments by Site name Florida Petroleum Reprocesssors Site by...

  1. Tomato fruits: a good target for iodine biofortification

    PubMed Central

    Kiferle, Claudia; Gonzali, Silvia; Holwerda, Harmen T.; Ibaceta, Rodrigo Real; Perata, Pierdomenico

    2013-01-01

    Iodine is a trace element that is fundamental for human health: its deficiency affects about two billion people worldwide. Fruits and vegetables are usually poor sources of iodine; however, plants can accumulate iodine if it is either present or exogenously administered to the soil. The biofortification of crops with iodine has therefore been proposed as a strategy for improving human nutrition. A greenhouse pot experiment was carried out to evaluate the possibility of biofortifying tomato fruits with iodine. Increasing concentrations of iodine supplied as KI or KIO3 were administered to plants as root treatments and the iodine accumulation in fruits was measured. The influences of the soil organic matter content or the nitrate level in the nutritive solution were analyzed. Finally, yield and qualitative properties of the biofortified tomatoes were considered, as well as the possible influence of fruit storage and processing on the iodine content. Results showed that the use of both the iodized salts induced a significant increase in the fruit’s iodine content in doses that did not affect plant growth and development. The final levels ranged from a few mg up to 10 mg iodine kg - 1 fruit fresh weight and are more than adequate for a biofortification program, since 150 μg iodine per day is the recommended dietary allowance for adults. In general, the iodine treatments scarcely affected fruit appearance and quality, even with the highest concentrations applied. In contrast, the use of KI in plants fertilized with low doses of nitrate induced moderate phytotoxicity symptoms. Organic matter-rich soils improved the plant’s health and production, with only mild reductions in iodine stored in the fruits. Finally, a short period of storage at room temperature or a 30-min boiling treatment did not reduce the iodine content in the fruits, if the peel was maintained. All these results suggest that tomato is a particularly suitable crop for iodine biofortification programs

  2. Expression of alternative oxidase in tomato

    SciTech Connect

    Kakefuda, M.; McIntosh, L. )

    1990-05-01

    Tomato fruit ripening is characterized by an increase in ethylene biosynthesis, a burst in respiration (i.e. the climacteric), fruit softening and pigmentation. As whole tomatoes ripened from mature green to red, there was an increase in the alternative oxidase capacity. Aging pink tomato slices for 24 and 48 hrs also showed an increase of alternative oxidase and cytochrome oxidase capacities. Monoclonal antibodies prepared to the Sauromatum guttatum alternative oxidase were used to follow the appearance of alternative oxidase in tomato fruits. There is a corresponding increase in a 36kDa protein with an increase in alternative oxidase capacity. Effects of ethylene and norbornadiene on alternative oxidase capacity were also studied. We are using an alternative oxidase cDNA clone from potato to study the expression of mRNA in ripening and wounded tomatoes to determine if the gene is transcriptionally regulated.

  3. Cryptocoryne beckettii complex (Araceae) introduced at a Florida spring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacono, C.C.

    2002-01-01

    A vegetative population of Cryptocoryne (Araceae), introduced at a Florida spring, appeared to represent three closely related species in the C. beckettii complex: C. beckettii Thw. ex Trimen, C. wendtii de Wit and C. undulata Wendt. Individuals of C. undulata were true to type and could be delineated at the site. Intergradation of diagnostic features was common in others, upon transplanting and flowering. While some transplants produced spathes characteristic of either C. wendtii or C. beckettii, intermediates between the two species were common. Neither C. beckettii nor C. wendtii could be delineated at the site. The seclusion of the stream and the integrity of native plant communities have likely prevented dispersal downstream.

  4. Biscayne aquifer, southeast Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klein, Howard; Hull, John E.

    1978-01-01

    Peak daily pumpage from the highly permeable, unconfined Biscayne aquifer for public water-supply systems in southeast Florida in 1975 was about 500 million gallons. Another 165 million gallons was withdrawn daily for irrigation. Recharge to the aquifer is primarily by local rainfall. Discharge is by evapotranspiration, canal drainage, coastal seepage, and pumping. Pollutants can enter the aquifer by direct infiltration from land surface or controlled canals, septic-tank and other drainfields, drainage wells, and solid-waste dumps. Most of the pollutants are concentrated in the upper 20 to 30 feet of the aquifer; public supply wells generally range in depth from about 75 to 150 feet. Dilution, dispersion, and adsorption tend to reduce the concentrations. Seasonal heavy rainfall and canal discharge accelerate ground-water circulation, thereby tending to dilute and flush upper zones of the aquifer. The ultimate fate of pollutants in the aquifer is the ocean, although some may be adsorbed by the aquifer materials en route to the ocean, and some are diverted to pumping wells. (Woodard-USGS)

  5. Effects of tomato variety, temperature differential and post-stem removal time on internalization of Salmonella Thompson into tomatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomatoes have been implicated in several Salmonellosis outbreaks due to possible contamination through bacterial infiltration into tomatoes during post-harvest handling. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of tomato variety, dump tank water to tomato pulp temperature differential, and...

  6. Florida, National Space Club Embrace Commercial Endeavors

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Commercial Crew Program (CCP) Manager Ed Mango and Florida's Lt. Gov. Jennifer Carroll were guest speakers at the National Space Club Florida Committee's luncheon at the Radisson Resort at t...

  7. Libraries in Florida: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/florida.html Libraries in Florida To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. Atlantis JFK Medical Center MEDICAL LIBRARY 5301 S. Congress Ave. Att: Karin H. Pancake Atlantis, ...

  8. A New Population Estimate for the Florida Scrub Jay on Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breininger, David R.

    1989-01-01

    The variable circular plot method was used to sample avifauna within different vegetation types determined from aerial imagery. The Florida Scrub Jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens coerulescens) population was estimated to range between 1,415 and 3,603 birds. Approximately half of the scrub and slash pine habitat appeared to be unused by Florida Scrub Jay, probably because the slash pine cover was too dense or the oak cover was too sparse. Results from the study suggest that the entire state population may be much lower than believed because the size of two of the three largest populations may have been overestimated.

  9. Epidemiology of Ciguatera in Florida.

    PubMed

    Radke, Elizabeth G; Reich, Andrew; Morris, John Glenn

    2015-08-01

    Ciguatera is the most commonly reported marine food-borne illness worldwide. Because there is a biological plausibility that ciguatera may be impacted by long-term climate variability and Florida is on the northern border of the geographic distribution of ciguatera, it is important to update our understanding of its epidemiology in Florida. We performed an analysis of 291 reports in Florida from 2000 to 2011 and an e-mail survey of 5,352 recreational fishers to estimate incidence and underreporting and identify high risk demographic groups, fish types, and catch locations. Incidence was 5.6 per 100,000 adjusted for underreporting. Hispanics had the highest incidence rate (relative risk [RR] = 3.4) and were more likely to eat barracuda than non-Hispanics. The most common catch locations for ciguatera-causing fish were the Bahamas and Florida Keys. Cases caused by fish from northern Florida were infrequent. These results indicate that ciguatera incidence is higher than estimated from public health reports alone. There is little evidence that incidence or geographic range has increased because of increased seawater temperatures since earlier studies.

  10. Epidemiology of Ciguatera in Florida

    PubMed Central

    Radke, Elizabeth G.; Reich, Andrew; Morris, John Glenn

    2015-01-01

    Ciguatera is the most commonly reported marine food-borne illness worldwide. Because there is a biological plausibility that ciguatera may be impacted by long-term climate variability and Florida is on the northern border of the geographic distribution of ciguatera, it is important to update our understanding of its epidemiology in Florida. We performed an analysis of 291 reports in Florida from 2000 to 2011 and an e-mail survey of 5,352 recreational fishers to estimate incidence and underreporting and identify high risk demographic groups, fish types, and catch locations. Incidence was 5.6 per 100,000 adjusted for underreporting. Hispanics had the highest incidence rate (relative risk [RR] = 3.4) and were more likely to eat barracuda than non-Hispanics. The most common catch locations for ciguatera-causing fish were the Bahamas and Florida Keys. Cases caused by fish from northern Florida were infrequent. These results indicate that ciguatera incidence is higher than estimated from public health reports alone. There is little evidence that incidence or geographic range has increased because of increased seawater temperatures since earlier studies. PMID:26123957

  11. Constitutively expressed DHAR and MDHAR influence fruit, but not foliar ascorbate levels in tomato.

    PubMed

    Haroldsen, Victor M; Chi-Ham, Cecilia L; Kulkarni, Shashank; Lorence, Argelia; Bennett, Alan B

    2011-10-01

    Vitamin C (L-ascorbate, AsA) is an essential nutrient required in key metabolic functions in humans and must be obtained from the diet, mainly from fruits and vegetables. Given its importance in human health and plant physiology we sought to examine the role of the ascorbate recycling enzymes monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), an economically important fruit crop. Cytosolic-targeted tomato genes Mdhar and Dhar were cloned and over-expressed under a constitutive promoter in tomato var. Micro-Tom. Lines with increased protein levels and enzymatic activity were identified and examined. Mature green and red ripe fruit from DHAR over-expressing lines had a 1.6 fold increase in AsA content in plants grown under relatively low light conditions (150 μmol m(-2) s(-1)). Conversely, MDHAR over-expressers had significantly reduced AsA levels in mature green fruits by 0.7 fold. Neither over-expressing line had altered levels of AsA in foliar tissues. These results underscore a complex regulation of the AsA pool size in tomato.

  12. Effectiveness of dishwashing liquids in removing chlorothalonil and chlorpyrifos residues from cherry tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiwei; Huang, Jiexun; Chen, Jinyuan; Li, Feili

    2013-08-01

    Washing is the most practical way to remove pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables. Two commonly used kitchen dishwashing liquids (detergents) in Chinese market were tested for enhanced removal of chlorpyrifos (CHP) and chlorothalonil (CHT) in cherry tomatoes by soaking the cherry tomatoes in the detergent solutions. The critical micelle concentrations of detergent A and detergent B were about 250 mg L(-1) and 444 mg L(-1), respectively. Detergent A had a higher solubilizing ability for pesticides and hence washing effectiveness than detergent B. The apparent solubility of CHP increased with increasing detergent concentration, while that of CHT remained comparatively invariant independent of detergent concentration within the tested range. The apparent solubility of CHP was also consistently higher in solutions of both detergents as compared to CHT. Due probably to its lower logKow value, CHT was more readily washed off cherry tomatoes than CHP. In terms of washing, a duration of 10-20 min was sufficient for removal of pesticides on cherry tomatoes in distilled water and detergent solutions. The effectiveness of removing pesticides increased with increasing detergent concentration from 50 mg L(-1) to 5 g L(-1), with up to 80% CHT and 42% CHP removed. Multiple washing further increased pesticide removal. Adding 10% acetic acid to lower pH or increasing washing temperature favored pesticide removal, but 10% NaCl produced the shielding effect and substantially reduced the effectiveness of detergent A for pesticide removal.

  13. A spectroscopy-based detector to monitor tomato growth condition in greenhouse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ce; Li, Minzan; Cui, Di

    2008-12-01

    A spectroscopy-based detector is developed to measure the nitrogen and chlorophyll content of tomato leaves and then to predict the growth condition of tomato plants in greenhouse. The detector uses two wavebands, 527 nm and 762 nm, since it is proved that these wavebands are sensitive to nitrogen and chlorophyll content in plant leaves by previous field test. The detector contains: A Y-type optic fiber, two silicon photocells, a signal processing unit, and a MCU. Light reflection from tomato leaves is transmitted by the Y-type optic fiber to the surface of the silicon photo cells, which transfer optical signal into electrical signal. Then the analog signal is amplified to conform to the TTL level signal standard and finally converted to digital signal by MAX186. After that, the MCU carries on a series of actions, including data calculating, displaying and storage. Using the measured data, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is calculated to estimate the nitrogen and chlorophyll content in plant leaves. The result is directly displayed on an LCD screen. Users have an option in saving data, either into a USB-memory stick or into a database over the PC serial port. The detector is portable, inexpensive, and convenient, which make it meet farmers' need in China. The performance test shows that the growth model works very well, and the device has high accuracy in predicting the growth condition of tomato plants in greenhouse.

  14. Carotenoid Profile of Tomato Sauces: Effect of Cooking Time and Content of Extra Virgin Olive Oil

    PubMed Central

    Vallverdú-Queralt, Anna; Regueiro, Jorge; Rinaldi de Alvarenga, José Fernando; Torrado, Xavier; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa M.

    2015-01-01

    The consumption of carotenoid-rich vegetables such as tomatoes and tomato sauces is associated with reduced risk of several chronic diseases. The predominant carotenoids in tomato products are in the (all-E) configuration, but (Z) isomers can be formed during thermal processing. The effect of cooking time (15, 30, 45 and 60 min) and the addition of extra virgin olive oil (5% and 10%) on the carotenoid extractability of tomato sauces was monitored using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) and LC-ultraviolet detection (LC-UV). The thermal treatment and the addition of extra virgin olive oil increased the levels of antioxidant activity, total carotenoids, Z-lycopene isomers, α-carotene and β-carotene. These results are of particular nutritional benefit since higher lycopene intake has been associated with a reduced risk of lethal prostate and a reduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. Moreover, β-carotene has been reported to suppress the up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 gene expression in a dose dependent manner and to suppress UVA-induced HO-1 gene expression in cultured FEK4. PMID:25927580

  15. Carotenoid profile of tomato sauces: effect of cooking time and content of extra virgin olive oil.

    PubMed

    Vallverdú-Queralt, Anna; Regueiro, Jorge; de Alvarenga, José Fernando Rinaldi; Torrado, Xavier; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa M

    2015-04-28

    The consumption of carotenoid-rich vegetables such as tomatoes and tomato sauces is associated with reduced risk of several chronic diseases. The predominant carotenoids in tomato products are in the (all-E) configuration, but (Z) isomers can be formed during thermal processing. The effect of cooking time (15, 30, 45 and 60 min) and the addition of extra virgin olive oil (5% and 10%) on the carotenoid extractability of tomato sauces was monitored using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) and LC-ultraviolet detection (LC-UV). The thermal treatment and the addition of extra virgin olive oil increased the levels of antioxidant activity, total carotenoids, Z-lycopene isomers, α-carotene and β-carotene. These results are of particular nutritional benefit since higher lycopene intake has been associated with a reduced risk of lethal prostate and a reduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. Moreover, β-carotene has been reported to suppress the up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 gene expression in a dose dependent manner and to suppress UVA-induced HO-1 gene expression in cultured FEK4.

  16. Estimation of antioxidant components of tomato using VIS-NIR reflectance data by handheld portable spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szuvandzsiev, Péter; Helyes, Lajos; Lugasi, Andrea; Szántó, Csongor; Baranowski, Piotr; Pék, Zoltán

    2014-10-01

    Processing tomato production represents an important part of the total production of processed vegetables in the world. The quality characteristics of processing tomato, important for the food industry, are soluble solids content and antioxidant content (such as lycopene and polyphenols) of the fruit. Analytical quantification of these components is destructive, time and labour consuming. That is why researchers try to develop a non-destructive and rapid method to assess those quality parameters. The present study reports the suitability of a portable handheld visible near infrared spectrometer to predict soluble solids, lycopene and polyphenol content of tomato fruit puree. Spectral ranges of 500-1000 nm were directly acquired on fruit puree of five different tomato varieties using a FieldSpec HandHeld 2™ Portable Spectroradiometer. Immediately after spectral measurement, each fruit sample was analysed to determine soluble solids, lycopene and polyphenol content. Partial least square regressions were carried out to create models of prediction between spectral data and the values obtained from the analytical results. The accuracy of the predictions was analysed according to the coefficient of determination value (R2), the root mean square error of calibration/ cross-validation.

  17. Transcriptomic insights into the allelopathic effects of the garlic allelochemical diallyl disulfide on tomato roots

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Fang; Cheng, Zhi-Hui; Meng, Huan-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Garlic is an allelopathic crop that can alleviate the obstacles to continuous cropping of vegetable crops. Diallyl disulfide (DADS), one of the most important allelochemicals in garlic, promotes tomato root growth. Therefore, the global transcriptome profiles of DADS-treated tomato roots over time were investigated to reveal the potential growth-promoting mechanisms. We detected 1828, 1296 and 1190 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the 4, 24 and 48 h samples, respectively. Most DEGs involved in assimilatory sulfate reduction and glutathione metabolism were up-regulated after short-term (4 h) DADS treatment. In addition, increased activity of defensive enzymes and up-regulation of six peroxidase genes were observed, suggesting that DADS could induce tomato resistance. In plant-pathogen interactions, DEGs related to calcium signaling were primarily inhibited, while those encoding pathogenesis-related proteins were primarily up-regulated. Although plant hormone synthesis and signal transduction were both significantly affected by DADS, the expression trends of the genes in these two pathways were conflicting. This research provides comprehensive information concerning the changes in the tomato root transcriptome affected by DADS and may help direct further studies on DADS-responsive genes to enhance the current understanding of the mechanisms by which DADS alleviates the obstacles to continuous cropping. PMID:27941943

  18. Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of aquaporins in tomato.

    PubMed

    Reuscher, Stefan; Akiyama, Masahito; Mori, Chiharu; Aoki, Koh; Shibata, Daisuke; Shiratake, Katsuhiro

    2013-01-01

    The family of aquaporins, also called water channels or major intrinsic proteins, is characterized by six transmembrane domains that together facilitate the transport of water and a variety of low molecular weight solutes. They are found in all domains of life, but show their highest diversity in plants. Numerous studies identified aquaporins as important targets for improving plant performance under drought stress. The phylogeny of aquaporins is well established based on model species like Arabidopsis thaliana, which can be used as a template to investigate aquaporins in other species. In this study we comprehensively identified aquaporin encoding genes in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), which is an important vegetable crop and also serves as a model for fleshy fruit development. We found 47 aquaporin genes in the tomato genome and analyzed their structural features. Based on a phylogenetic analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences the aquaporin genes were assigned to five subfamilies (PIPs, TIPs, NIPs, SIPs and XIPs) and their substrate specificity was assessed on the basis of key amino acid residues. As ESTs were available for 32 genes, expression of these genes was analyzed in 13 different tissues and developmental stages of tomato. We detected tissue-specific and development-specific expression of tomato aquaporin genes, which is a first step towards revealing the contribution of aquaporins to water and solute transport in leaves and during fruit development.

  19. Modification of tomato growth by expression of truncated ERECTA protein from Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Villagarcia, Hector; Morin, Anne-Claire; Shpak, Elena D; Khodakovskaya, Mariya V

    2012-11-01

    ERECTA family genes encode leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases that control multiple aspects of plant development such as elongation of aboveground organs, leaf initiation, development of flowers, and epidermis differentiation. These receptors have also been implicated in responses to biotic and abiotic stress, probably as a consequence of their involvement in regulation of plant architecture. Here, ERECTA signalling in tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum) was manipulated by expressing truncated ERECTA protein (AtΔKinase) from Arabidopsis using two different promoters. In Arabidopsis, this protein functions in a dominant-negative manner, disrupting signalling of the whole ERECTA gene family. Expression of AtΔKinase under a constitutive 35S promoter dramatically reduced vegetative growth and led to the formation of fruits with a reduced seed set. Similarly, expression of AtΔKinase under its own promoter resulted in transgenic tomato plants with diminished growth, a reduced number of leaves, changed flowering time, and slightly increased stomata density. The transgenic plants also exhibited increased tolerance to water deficit stress, at least partially due to their diminished surface area. These phenotypes of the transgenic plants were the result of ERECTA signalling disruption at the protein level, as the expression of two endogenous tomato ERECTA family genes was not suppressed. These results demonstrate the significance of ERECTA family genes for development and stress responses in tomato and suggest that truncated ERECTA can be used to manipulate the growth of crop species.

  20. Constitutively expressed DHAR and MDHAR influence fruit, but not foliar ascorbate levels in tomato

    PubMed Central

    Haroldsen, Victor M.; Chi-Ham, Cecilia L.; Kulkarni, Shashank; Lorence, Argelia; Bennett, Alan B.

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin C (l-ascorbate, AsA) is an essential nutrient required in key metabolic functions in humans and must be obtained from the diet, mainly from fruits and vegetables. Given its importance in human health and plant physiology we sought to examine the role of the ascorbate recycling enzymes monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), an economically important fruit crop. Cytosolic-targeted tomato genes Mdhar and Dhar were cloned and over-expressed under a constitutive promoter in tomato var. Micro-Tom. Lines with increased protein levels and enzymatic activity were identified and examined. Mature green and red ripe fruit from DHAR over-expressing lines had a 1.6 fold increase in AsA content in plants grown under relatively low light conditions (150 µmol m−2 s−1). Conversely, MDHAR over-expressers had significantly reduced AsA levels in mature green fruits by 0.7 fold. Neither over-expressing line had altered levels of AsA in foliar tissues. These results underscore a complex regulation of the AsA pool size in tomato. PMID:21875809

  1. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Profiling of Tomato Hsp20 Gene Family in Response to Biotic and Abiotic Stresses.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jiahong; Cheng, Yuan; Feng, Kun; Ruan, Meiying; Ye, Qingjing; Wang, Rongqing; Li, Zhimiao; Zhou, Guozhi; Yao, Zhuping; Yang, Yuejian; Wan, Hongjian

    2016-01-01

    The Hsp20 genes are involved in the response of plants to environment stresses including heat shock and also play a vital role in plant growth and development. They represent the most abundant small heat shock proteins (sHsps) in plants, but little is known about this family in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), an important vegetable crop in the world. Here, we characterized heat shock protein 20 (SlHsp20) gene family in tomato through integration of gene structure, chromosome location, phylogenetic relationship, and expression profile. Using bioinformatics-based methods, we identified at least 42 putative SlHsp20 genes in tomato. Sequence analysis revealed that most of SlHsp20 genes possessed no intron or a relatively short intron in length. Chromosome mapping indicated that inter-arm and intra-chromosome duplication events contributed remarkably to the expansion of SlHsp20 genes. Phylogentic tree of Hsp20 genes from tomato and other plant species revealed that SlHsp20 genes were grouped into 13 subfamilies, indicating that these genes may have a common ancestor that generated diverse subfamilies prior to the mono-dicot split. In addition, expression analysis using RNA-seq in various tissues and developmental stages of cultivated tomato and the wild relative Solanum pimpinellifolium revealed that most of these genes (83%) were expressed in at least one stage from at least one genotype. Out of 42 genes, 4 genes were expressed constitutively in almost all the tissues analyzed, implying that these genes might have specific housekeeping function in tomato cell under normal growth conditions. Two SlHsp20 genes displayed differential expression levels between cultivated tomato and S. pimpinellifolium in vegetative (leaf and root) and reproductive organs (floral bud and flower), suggesting inter-species diversification for functional specialization during the process of domestication. Based on genome-wide microarray analysis, we showed that the transcript levels of SlHsp20

  2. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Profiling of Tomato Hsp20 Gene Family in Response to Biotic and Abiotic Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jiahong; Cheng, Yuan; Feng, Kun; Ruan, Meiying; Ye, Qingjing; Wang, Rongqing; Li, Zhimiao; Zhou, Guozhi; Yao, Zhuping; Yang, Yuejian; Wan, Hongjian

    2016-01-01

    The Hsp20 genes are involved in the response of plants to environment stresses including heat shock and also play a vital role in plant growth and development. They represent the most abundant small heat shock proteins (sHsps) in plants, but little is known about this family in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), an important vegetable crop in the world. Here, we characterized heat shock protein 20 (SlHsp20) gene family in tomato through integration of gene structure, chromosome location, phylogenetic relationship, and expression profile. Using bioinformatics-based methods, we identified at least 42 putative SlHsp20 genes in tomato. Sequence analysis revealed that most of SlHsp20 genes possessed no intron or a relatively short intron in length. Chromosome mapping indicated that inter-arm and intra-chromosome duplication events contributed remarkably to the expansion of SlHsp20 genes. Phylogentic tree of Hsp20 genes from tomato and other plant species revealed that SlHsp20 genes were grouped into 13 subfamilies, indicating that these genes may have a common ancestor that generated diverse subfamilies prior to the mono-dicot split. In addition, expression analysis using RNA-seq in various tissues and developmental stages of cultivated tomato and the wild relative Solanum pimpinellifolium revealed that most of these genes (83%) were expressed in at least one stage from at least one genotype. Out of 42 genes, 4 genes were expressed constitutively in almost all the tissues analyzed, implying that these genes might have specific housekeeping function in tomato cell under normal growth conditions. Two SlHsp20 genes displayed differential expression levels between cultivated tomato and S. pimpinellifolium in vegetative (leaf and root) and reproductive organs (floral bud and flower), suggesting inter-species diversification for functional specialization during the process of domestication. Based on genome-wide microarray analysis, we showed that the transcript levels of SlHsp20

  3. Tomato R2R3-MYB Proteins SlANT1 and SlAN2: Same Protein Activity, Different Roles

    PubMed Central

    Bassolino, Laura; Povero, Giovanni; Spelt, Cornelis; Buti, Sara; Giuliano, Giovanni; Quattrocchio, Francesca; Koes, Ronald; Perata, Pierdomenico; Gonzali, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Anthocyanins are water-soluble polyphenolic compounds with a high nutraceutical value. Despite the fact that cultivated tomato varieties do not accumulate anthocyanins in the fruit, the biosynthetic pathway can be activated in the vegetative organs by several environmental stimuli. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms regulating anthocyanin synthesis in tomato. Here, we carried out a molecular and functional characterization of two genes, SlAN2 and SlANT1, encoding two R2R3-MYB transcription factors. We show that both can induce ectopic anthocyanin synthesis in transgenic tomato lines, including the fruit. However, only SlAN2 acts as a positive regulator of anthocyanin synthesis in vegetative tissues under high light or low temperature conditions. PMID:26308527

  4. 75 FR 1269 - Vegetable Import Regulations; Modification of Potato Import Regulations; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 980 Vegetable Import Regulations; Modification of Potato Import Regulations; Correction... rule modified the import regulations for Irish potatoes and made minor administrative changes to the potato, onion, and tomato import regulations to update informational references. This document...

  5. Polysaccharides from the wastes of some fruit and berry, vegetable, and technical crops

    SciTech Connect

    Rakhimov, D.A.; Khamidkhozhaev, S.A.; Kondratenko, E.S.; Yuldasheva, N.P.

    1985-07-01

    The fractional isolation of water-soluble polysaccharides and pectin substances has been carried out from the wastes of fruit and berry and vegetable crops: apples, quinces, grapes, and tomatoes, and also the valves of cotton bolls. The qualititative and quantitative monosaccharide compositions of the carbohydrates isolated have been determined, and the characteristics of the pectin substances are given.

  6. Methyl Bromide alternatives for vegetable production in Georgia: Small-plot trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Georgia, the loss of MeBr directly impacts the production and profitability of several fruiting vegetables [specifically, pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), eggplant (Solanum melogena L.), and tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill)) and cucurbits (specifically, squash [yellow (Cucurbita pepo L.)], melon...

  7. Florida Library Directory with Statistics, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor-Furbee, Sondra, Comp.; Kellenberger, Betsy, Comp.

    The first section of this directory of Florida libraries with statistics provides information on Florida Division of Library and Information Services library organizations, councils, and associations, including: directories of State Library Council, Library Services and Technology Act Advisory Council, Florida Library Network Council, and Division…

  8. Florida Library Directory with Statistics, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Dept. of State, Tallahassee. Div. of Library and Information Services.

    This 49th annual Florida Library directory with statistics edition includes listings for over 1,000 libraries of all types in Florida, with contact named, phone numbers, addresses, and e-mail and web addresses. In addition, there is a section of library statistics, showing data on the use, resources, and financial condition of Florida's libraries.…

  9. Sugarcane Variety Census:Florida 2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Florida sugarcane industry produces about 25% of all sugar produced in the U.S. Varieties originate from two sources, a private breeding and selection program of the United States Sugar Corporation in Clewiston, Florida and a public program at Canal Point, Florida supported by the USDA-Agricultu...

  10. Hydrology of Southeast Florida and Associated Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monsour, William, Comp.; Moyer, Maureen, Comp.

    This booklet deals with the hydrology of southeastern Florida. It is designed to provide the citizen, teacher, or student with hydrological information, to promote an understanding of water resources, and to initiate conservation practices within Florida communities. The collection of articles within the booklet deal with Florida water resources…

  11. Parallel Vegetation Stripe Formation Through Hydrologic Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yiwei; Stieglitz, Marc; Turk, Greg; Engel, Victor

    2010-05-01

    It has long been a challenge to theoretical ecologists to describe vegetation pattern formations such as the "tiger bush" stripes and "leopard bush" spots in Niger, and the regular maze patterns often observed in bogs in North America and Eurasia. To date, most of simulation models focus on reproducing the spot and labyrinthine patterns, and on the vegetation bands which form perpendicular to surface and groundwater flow directions. Various hypotheses have been invoked to explain the formation of vegetation patterns: selective grazing by herbivores, fire, and anisotropic environmental conditions such as slope. Recently, short distance facilitation and long distance competition between vegetation (a.k.a scale dependent feedback) has been proposed as a generic mechanism for vegetation pattern formation. In this paper, we test the generality of this mechanism by employing an existing, spatially explicit, advection-reaction-diffusion type model to describe the formation of regularly spaced vegetation bands, including those that are parallel to flow direction. Such vegetation patterns are, for example, characteristic of the ridge and slough habitat in the Florida Everglades and which are thought to have formed parallel to the prevailing surface water flow direction. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a simple model encompassing a nutrient accumulation mechanism along with biomass development and flow is used to demonstrate the formation of parallel stripes. We also explore the interactive effects of plant transpiration, slope and anisotropic hydraulic conductivity on the resulting vegetation pattern. Our results highlight the ability of the short distance facilitation and long distance competition mechanism to explain the formation of the different vegetation patterns beyond semi-arid regions. Therefore, we propose that the parallel stripes, like the other periodic patterns observed in both isotropic and anisotropic environments, are self-organized and form

  12. Troubled waters: a Florida nightmare

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, W.

    1984-12-01

    Results of studies of pollution of groundwater in Florida are reported. Vast amounts of the underground water were found to be polluted with ethylene dibromide (EDB) used by Florida farmers since the 1950s as an insecticide. Pollution levels of water in the middle of the citrus belt were found to be as high as 775 ppB when 0.02 ppB has been set by the Florida Agriculture Department as the level for concern. EDB can be removed using activated charcoal filters, or new wells can tap aquifers separated from contaminated ones by beds of impermeable clay. Evidences of contamination of water in specific sites by cresote, sulfuric acid, and heavy metals such as lead and arsenic are mentioned.

  13. Effects of land use on surface-water quality in the East Everglades, Dade County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waller, Bradley G.

    1982-01-01

    Water-quality characteristics were determined at five developed areas in the East Everglades, Dade County, Florida, during the 1978 wet season (June through October). These areas are designated as: Coopertown; Chekika Hammock State Park; residential area; rock-plowed tomato field; and Cracker Jack Slough agricultural area. Data from the developed areas were compared with data from four baseline sites in undeveloped areas to determine the effects of land use on the surface-water quality. The rock-plowed tomato field was the only area where surface-water quality was affected. Water quality at this field is affected by agricultural activities and chemical applications as indicated by increased concentrations of orthophosphate, organic nitrogen, organic carbon, copper, manganese, mercury, and potassium. The remaining four areas of land use had water-quality characteristics typical of baseline sites in nearby Northeast Shark River Slough or Taylor Slough. Chemical analyses of soil indicated chlorinated-hydrocarbon insecticide residues at Coopertown and the two agricultural areas, Cracker Jack Slough and the rock-plowed tomato field. Trace elements in concentrations greater than base level occurred at both agricultural areas (manganese), Chekika Hammock State Park (manganese), and at Coopertown (lead and zinc). (USGS)

  14. Mixture approach for optimizing lycopene extraction from tomato and tomato products.

    PubMed

    Periago, María Jesús; Rincón, Francisco; Agüera, Maria Dolores; Ros, Gaspar

    2004-09-22

    A simple mixture process design based on the comparison of both quadratic and special cubic models and involving three mixture components (hexane/acetone/ethanol) as a solution for extracting lycopene from raw tomato, tomato sauce, and tomato paste was used to confirm the hypothesis that lycopene extraction rates are a function of the solvent used during the extraction process. Conventional criteria (p tomato paste samples); this suggests that a mixture including all three components is essential for optimizing the extraction process. The partial special cubic model yielded three stationary points, indicating the concentrations of hexane, acetone, and ethanol required to optimize lycopene extraction in raw tomato, tomato sauce, and paste.

  15. Chromium accumulation in three species of central Florida centrarchids

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, K.R. |

    1995-02-01

    Stormwater ponds are required in Central Florida when land is developed to treat the resulting stormwater. The St. Johns River Water Management District, the agency that regulates stormwater discharges in Central Florida, frequently approves plans that create habitat for fish and wildlife by planting desirable wetland and aquatic vegetation in the littoral zones of stormwater ponds to compensate for the loss of wetlands. The various species of fish that inhabit stormwater ponds serve as a food source to wildlife, especially wading birds. The objective of this study was to determine if fish that live in stormwater treatment ponds in Orlando, Florida contained significant concentrations of chromium. In order to determine if there were differences in chromium concentrations in fish with different foraging strategies, three species of sunfish (Centrarchidae) with substantially different foraging strategies were selected for this study: largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), a predator; redear sunfish (Lepomis microlophus), a bottom feeder; and bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus), an omnivore. Many researchers have shown that large quantities of chromium are found in urban runoff. Chromium sources are largely associates with the operation of motor vehicles. Several investigators have determined that chromium from urban runoff concentrates in the sediment of stormwater ponds. Sediments represent the most concentrated physical pool of metals in aquatic environments, and they are ingested by many types of aquatic organisms. Most fish are capable of accumulating heavy metals from their diet and from water through their gills. 17 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  16. Chemotaxis by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato.

    PubMed

    Cuppels, Diane A

    1988-03-01

    Optimal laboratory conditions for studying chemotaxis by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato were determined by using the Adler capillary tube assay. Although they are not an absolute requirement for chemotaxis, the presence of 0.1 mM EDTA and 1 mM MgCl(2) in the chemotaxis buffer (10 mM potassium phosphate [pH 7.2]) significantly enhanced the response to attractant. The addition of mannitol as an energy source had little effect. The optimal temperature for chemotaxis was 23 degrees C, which is 5 degrees C below the optimal growth temperature for this pathogen. The best response occurred when the bacteria were exposed to attractant for 60 min at a concentration of approximately 5 x 10 CFU/ml. P. syringae pv. tomato was strongly attracted to citric and malic acids, which are the predominant organic acids in tomato fruit. With the exception of asparagine, the major amino acids of tomatoes were weak to moderate attractants. Glucose and fructose, which account for approximately 47% of tomato dry matter, also elicited poor responses. In assays with tomato intercellular fluid and leaf surface water, the bacterial speck pathogen could not chemotactically distinguish between a resistant and a susceptible cultivar of tomato.

  17. The effect of transitional organic production practices on soilborne pests of tomato in a simulated microplot study.

    PubMed

    Chellemi, Dan O; Rosskopf, Erin N; Kokalis-Burelle, Nancy

    2013-08-01

    The perceived risk of pest resurgence upon transition from conventional to organic-based farming systems remains a critical obstacle to expanding organic vegetable production, particularly where chemical fumigants have provided soilborne pest and disease control. Microplots were used to study the effects of soil amendments and cropping sequences applied over a 2-year transitional period from conventional to organic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cultivation on the incidence of bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum, purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) reproduction, root galling by Meloidogyne incognita, and soil nematode populations. A continuation of tomato monoculture during the transitional period resulted in a disease incidence of 33%, as compared with 9% in microplots that were rotated with sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea) and Japanese millet (Echinochloa crusgalli var. frumentacea). The benefits of disease control from a crop rotation extended into to a second season of organic tomato cultivation season, where bacterial wilt declined from 40% in microplots with a tomato monoculture to 17% in plots with a crop rotation sequence. Combining applications of urban plant debris with a continued tomato monoculture increased the incidence of bacterial wilt to 60%. During the transition period, tomato plants following a cover crop regime also had significantly lower levels of root galling from root-knot nematode infection compared with plants in the continuous tomato monoculture. Nutsedge tuber production was significantly increased in plots amended with broiler litter but not urban plant debris. Compared with a continuous monoculture, the results illustrate the importance of a systems-based approach to implementing transitional organic practices that is cognizant of their interactive effects on resident soilborne disease, weed, and pest complexes.

  18. Antioxidant effect of lycopene-enriched tomato paste on N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Kujawska, Malgorzata; Ewertowska, Malgorzata; Adamska, Teresa; Sadowski, Czeslaw; Ignatowicz, Ewa; Jodynis-Liebert, Jadwiga

    2014-12-01

    Lycopene is a carotenoid pigment produced by vegetables and fruits, with tomatoes and their processed products being the most abundant sources. A high number of conjugated dienes make lycopene a powerful radical scavenger. Its antioxidant properties are considered to be primarily involved in many beneficial health effects. The present study was designed to assess the protective effect of lycopene-enriched tomato paste against N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA)-induced oxidative stress in rats. Forty-eight male Wistar rats were divided randomly into six groups. Four groups were treated with tomato paste, per os, for 28 days in doses which were equivalent to 0.5 (groups II and V) and 2.5 mg/kg b.w./day of lycopene (groups III and VI). Rats from groups IV-VI were given intraperitoneally a single dose of NDEA, 150 mg/kg b.w. Group I (control) was given distilled water. Pretreatment with tomato paste protected the antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase. Their activity was recovered by 32-97 %, as compared to NDEA-treated rats. Microsomal lipid peroxidation in the liver was decreased in rats pretreated with a lower dose of tomato paste by 28 %, as compared to animals given NDEA alone. Pretreatment with tomato paste caused a decrease in plasma concentration of protein carbonyls, even below the control level, in rats given NDEA. Moreover, a 10 % reduction of DNA damage in leucocytes caused by NDEA was observed. The tomato paste tested was able to suppress NDEA-induced oxidative stress in rats.

  19. Functional characterization of a tomato COBRA-like gene functioning in fruit development and ripening

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Extensive studies have demonstrated that the COBRA gene is critical for biosynthesis of cell wall constituents comprising structural tissues of roots, stalks, leaves and other vegetative organs, however, its role in fruit development and ripening remains largely unknown. Results We identified a tomato gene (SlCOBRA-like) homologous to Arabidopsis COBRA, and determined its role in fleshy fruit biology. The SlCOBRA-like gene is highly expressed in vegetative organs and in early fruit development, but its expression in fruit declines dramatically during ripening stages, implying a primary role in early fruit development. Fruit-specific suppression of SlCOBRA-like resulted in impaired cell wall integrity and up-regulation of genes encoding proteins involved in cell wall degradation during early fruit development. In contrast, fruit-specific overexpression of SlCOBRA-like resulted in increased wall thickness of fruit epidermal cells, more collenchymatous cells beneath the epidermis, elevated levels of cellulose and reduced pectin solubilization in the pericarp cells of red ripe fruits. Moreover, transgenic tomato fruits overexpressing SlCOBRA-like exhibited desirable early development phenotypes including enhanced firmness and a prolonged shelf life. Conclusions Our results suggest that SlCOBRA-like plays an important role in fruit cell wall architecture and provides a potential genetic tool for extending the shelf life of tomato and potentially additional fruits. PMID:23140186

  20. Organic weed conrol and cover crop residue integration impacts on weed control, quality, and yield and economics in conservation tillage tomato - A case study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increased use of conservation tillage in vegetable production requires more information be developed on the role of cover crops in weed control, tomato quality and yield. Three conservation-tillage systems utilizing crimson clover, brassica and cereal rye as winter cover crops were compared to ...

  1. Establishment of papaya banker plant system for Parasitoid, Encarsia sophia (Hymenoptera: Aphilidae) against Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in greenhouse tomato production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia tabaci biotype B (Gennadius) (Hemiptera:Aleyrodidae), is a key pest of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and other vegetable crops worldwide. To combat this pest, a non-crop banker plant system was evaluated that employs a parasitoid, Encarsia sophia (Girault & Dodd) ...

  2. [Effects of outer type and built-in type straw bio-reactors on tomato growth and photosynthetic performance].

    PubMed

    Bian, Zhong-Hua; Wang, Yu; Hu, Xiao-Hui; Zou, Zhi-Rong; Zhang, Jing; Yan, Fei

    2013-03-01

    Taking the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cultivar "Kuiguan108" as test object, a comparative study was made on the effects of outer type and built-in type straw bio-reactors on the CO2 concentration, air relative humidity , air vapor pressure deficit in the solar greenhouse during the tomato growth over autumn-delayed cultivation as well as the effects of the bio-reactors on the tomato growth and photosynthetic performance. As compared with that in CK, the average CO2 concentration in the greenhouse with outer type straw bio-reactor at 9:30-11:30 and 14:30-15:00 on sunny days was increased significantly by 207. 3 and 103 micromol . mol-1 , respectively, and the ave-rage CO2 concentration in the greenhouse with built-in straw bio-reactor at 9:30-11:30 on sunny days was raised by 19.0 micromol . mol-1. Both the outer type and the built-in type straw bio-reactors promoted the tomato plant height growth and early flowering, enhanced the plant net photosynthetic rate and the yield per plant and per unit area significantly, and decreased the plant transpiration rate at the stages of vegetative growth and fruit- bearing significantly. Nevertheless, as compared with built-in type straw bio-reactor, outer type straw bio-reactor was more suitable for the autumn- delayed cultivation of tomato in solar greenhouse.

  3. Cuticular hydrocarbons and sucrose esters as chemotaxonomic markers of wild and cultivated tomato species (Solanum section Lycopersicon).

    PubMed

    Haliński, Łukasz P; Stepnowski, Piotr

    2016-12-01

    The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is one of the most important vegetables worldwide. Due to the limited genetic variability, wild related species are considered as potential gene pool for breeding cultivated plants with enriched genetic basis. Taxonomic relations between tomato species at the level of single groups and taxa still remain, however, not fully resolved. Hence, in addition to already reported classification based on the morphology of the plants and molecular markers, we proposed chemotaxonomic approach to unveil some aspects of tomato taxonomy. Cuticular hydrocarbons and surface sucrose esters (SEs) were used as chemotaxonomic markers. Classification based on the cuticular hydrocarbon profile was in good agreement with other taxonomic studies as long as between-species differences were taken into account. Clear separation of the common tomato and closely related species from the majority of S. pennellii accessions was obtained. In the same time, however, S. pennellii revealed broad variation: based on the results, three highly distinct types of these plants were proposed, among them one type was very similar to cultivated tomato and its relatives. Addition of SEs profiles to the dataset did not impair the classification, but clarified the position of S. pennellii. The results suggest possible hybrid origin of some of S. pennellii and wild S. lycopersicum accessions, and the approach proposed has a potential to identify such hybrid plant lines.

  4. Pipelines jockey to serve Florida gas market

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-07

    This paper reports that Florida Gas Transmission Corp. (FGT), Houston, appears to have taken the lead in competition to serve Florida's growing gas markets. Florida Power and Light (FPL), Miami, decided to reserve transportation capacity on FGT's proposed Phase III expansion rather than the Sun Coast pipeline proposed by United Gas Pipe Line Co. (UGPL), Houston, and Coastal Corp. unit ANR Pipeline Co., Detroit (OGJ, Aug. 31, p. 31). Withdrawal of FPL, Florida's largest electric utility, from Sun Coast left the proposed 560 mile, 400 MMcfd intrastate gas transmission pipeline with only one major prospective client, Florida Power Corp., St. Petersburg. That forces UGPL and ANR to dissolve the partnership.

  5. A look at Florida's malpractice crisis.

    PubMed

    Coleman, F C

    1985-08-01

    To solve the malpractice problem, the Florida Medical Association has attempted during the last decade to bring about tort reform through the legislative process, but early successes were declared unconstitutional or ignored by the courts. In 1984, the FMA organized a constitutional initiative campaign called REASON '84, and secured a record 630,000 signatures of registered Florida voters to place a constitutional amendment on the 1984 Florida General Election ballot. The Florida Supreme Court in October 1984 removed the Association's constitutional Amendment 9 from the ballot. Dr. Coleman, past president of the Florida Medical Association, wrote the following during his term as president about the malpractice problem and its grave implications.

  6. 7 CFR 966.22 - Establishment and membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Committee § 966.22 Establishment and membership. (a) The Florida Tomato Committee... producer, in the district for which selected and a resident of the production area....

  7. 7 CFR 966.22 - Establishment and membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Committee § 966.22 Establishment and membership. (a) The Florida Tomato Committee... producer, in the district for which selected and a resident of the production area....

  8. 7 CFR 966.22 - Establishment and membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Committee § 966.22 Establishment and membership. (a) The Florida Tomato Committee... producer, in the district for which selected and a resident of the production area....

  9. 7 CFR 966.22 - Establishment and membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Committee § 966.22 Establishment and membership. (a) The Florida Tomato Committee... producer, in the district for which selected and a resident of the production area....

  10. Trichoderma asperellum spore dose depended modulation of plant growth in vegetable crops.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vivek; Upadhyay, Ram Sanmukh; Sarma, Birinchi Kumar; Singh, Harikesh Bahadur

    2016-12-01

    In the present study we bioprimed seeds of six vegetable crops (tomato, brinjal, chilli, okra, ridge gourd and guar) with different spore doses of Trichoderma asperellum BHUT8 ranging from 10(2) to 10(8) spores ml(-1) and the effect of biopriming was seen on seed germination and development. The most effective spore dose for enhancement in seed germination and radicle length was found to be 10(3) spores ml(-1) in tomato and ridge gourd, 10(4) spores ml(-1) in brinjal and okra while 10(6) spores ml(-1) in chilli and guar. At the most effective spore dose, the increase in germination percentage was 5, 146.15, 112.5, 5.4, 28.13 and 0% while increase in radicle length was 73.17, 50.83, 171.6, 107.35, 247.19 and 90.79% in tomato, brinjal, chilli, okra, ridge gourd and guar, respectively, compared to their controls. Higher spore dose i.e. 10(7)-10(8) spores ml(-1) and 10(6)-10(8) spores ml(-1) in tomato and brinjal, respectively, reduced seed germination percentage and radicle growth compared to their controls. Biopriming with T. asperellum BHUT8 also triggered various defense like responses such as high phenylpropanoid activities and lignifications in bioprimed tomato seedlings compared to the non-bioprimed tomato seedlings demonstrating possible use of BHUT8 against phytopathogens.

  11. Arsenic and Lead Uptake by Vegetable Crops Grown on an Old Orchard Site Amended with Compost

    PubMed Central

    McBride, Murray B.; Shayler, Hannah A.; Russell-Anelli, Jonathan M.; Spliethoff, Henry M.; Marquez-Bravo, Lydia G.

    2015-01-01

    The potential for lead (Pb) and arsenic (As) transfer into vegetables was studied on old orchard land contaminated by lead arsenate pesticides. Root (carrot), leafy (lettuce), and vegetable fruits (green bean, tomato) were grown on seven “miniplots” with soil concentrations ranging from near background to ≈ 800 and ≈ 200 mg kg−1 of total Pb and As, respectively. Each miniplot was divided into sub-plots and amended with 0% (control), 5% and 10% (by weight) compost and cropped for 3 years. Edible portions of each vegetable were analyzed for total Pb and As to test the effect of organic matter on transfer of these toxic elements into the crop. Vegetable Pb and As concentrations were strongly correlated to soil total Pb and As, respectively, but not to soil organic matter content or compost addition level. For Pb vegetable concentrations, carrot ≥ lettuce > bean > tomato. For As, lettuce > carrot > bean > tomato. A complementary single-year study of lettuce, arugula, spinach, and collards revealed a beneficial effect of compost in reducing both Pb and As concentrations in leafy vegetables. Comparisons of all measured vegetable concentrations to international health-based standards indicate that tomatoes can be grown without exceeding standards even in substantially Pb- and As-contaminated soils, but carrots and leafy greens may exceed standards when grown in soils with more than 100–200 mg kg−1 Pb. Leafy greens may also exceed health-based standards in gardens where soil As is elevated, with arugula having a particularly strong tendency to accumulate As. PMID:26900187

  12. Kennedy Space Center and the Florida Atlantic coast area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A vertical view of the Kennedy Space Center and the Florida Atlantic coast area is seen in this Skylab 4 Earth Resources Experiments Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) infrared photography taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. This photograph shows the major land-ocean features of the Florida coast from near Vero Beach northward to Cape Canaveral and the KSC complex. The launch pads for the Skylab missions are clearly visible. Various shades of red portray differences in the vegetation such as shown in the patterns in the agricultural area near Vero Beach. At KSC, the nearly continuous and uniform red color shows that most of the land areas are heavily vegetated. The white coastal beach areas are strongly contrasted to the red land and the blue Atlantic Ocean. Old dunal areas in KSC are visible on Merritt Island which is separated from the Launch areas by the Banana River and from the mainland by the Indian River. Federal and state highways and numerous cause

  13. Social Studies: The Florida Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaRoe, Margaret E.

    A survey of Florida's history comprises this quinmester general social studies course for grades seven through nine. The primary aim is to give students skills and knowledge necessary to understand issues and take part in their resolution, thereby helping students to prepare for effective citizenship in their own state. Objectives of the course…

  14. Readability of Central Florida Newspapers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmstead, Phyllis M.

    A study analyzed the readability of seven central Florida newspapers (one of which is a college newspaper) and "USA Today.""Rightwriter," a grammar checker and readability computer program, was used to evaluate front page articles for each of the eight newspapers. The readability formulas invoked in the readability program…

  15. State University System of Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Board of Governors, State University System of Florida, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents some information about the State University System of Florida. The following are presented in this paper: (1) University Work Plans and Annual Reports; (2) State University System 2009 Annual Report; (3) Quick Facts: Planned New Degree Programs--2010 to 2013; (4) State University System Tuition Differential Summary, FY…

  16. Public Health Education in Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee.

    This report documents issues related to the work of the Florida Comprehensive Health Professions Education Plan. Public health education prepares students for initial employment or advancement in a number of positions. While the public health work force is primarily employed in various units in local, state, and federal governments, industry also…

  17. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Florida Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Florida state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student,…

  18. A Community Affair in Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Margo

    2012-01-01

    Volusia County (Florida) Schools' Career and Technical Education (CTE) program has a high school graduation rate of 95 percent. That beats the districtwide rate of 78 percent. That's not all: The 4,500 students enrolled in 33 different career programs at 10 high schools have higher grade point averages in general and do better in Advanced…

  19. Miami, Florida: The Magic City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2008-01-01

    With its subtropical climate and intimate ties to Latin America, Miami is like no other city in the United States. More than 65 percent of its population is Hispanic, and Spanish is the most commonly heard language. Situated at the southern tip of the 500-mile-long Florida peninsula, Miami is the largest urban area in the southeastern United…

  20. Crossroads Cafe Implementation Florida Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Teri

    The evaluation reviews the implementation of the "Crossroads Cafe" English language instruction program in Florida, focusing on the program's management, training, and overall effectiveness as measured by its impact on adult English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) teachers and learners. "Crossroads Cafe" is a series of videotape…

  1. Effects of ozone and sulfur dioxide on processing tomato yields and quality. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, R.F.

    1986-03-01

    The object of the experiment was to study the effects of SO/sub 2/ and/or ozone on tomato vegetative growth, fruit yields, and fruit quality. Two varieties of processing tomatoes, UC-204-B and E-6203, were exposed to four levels of ozone and two levels of SO/sub 2/. Exposure to ambient ozone caused a 20% reduction in vine weights and 27% reduction in weight of red fruit compared to filtered air. Exposure to 0.1 ppm SO/sub 2/ produced 7% fewer vines and approximately 8% less fruit as compared with no SO/sub 2/ exposure. Fruit quality tests indicated that increasing ozone levels reduce soluble solids (Brix), and they reduce viscosity, an important indicator of processing behavior. Exposure to SO/sub 2/ in the concentrations used increased total solids but had no measurable effect on viscosity or consistency.

  2. Occurrence and distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) crops from organic production.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Mariana; Miglioranza, Karina S B; Aizpún de Moreno, Julia E; Moreno, Víctor J

    2003-02-26

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were quantified by GC-ECD in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) during a vegetation period. Plants were harvested at 15, 60, and 151 days after seed germination. Leaves, stem, roots, and fruit (peel and flesh) were analyzed separately. The results showed that tomato plants were able to accumulate OCPs from soils, and a trend to reach the equilibrium among tissues at mature stages was also observed. Endosulfans comprised the main OCP group, probably due to its spray during summer months in the surrounding areas. Banned pesticides such as DDTs, heptachlor, and dieldrin were found. OCPs levels in the fruit were below the maximum residues limits (MRL) considered by the Codex Alimentarius. DDE/DDT and alpha-/gamma-HCH ratios of <1 would indicate recent inputs of DDT and lindane in the environment. The occurrence of OCPs in the study farm, where agrochemicals have never been used, is a result of atmospheric deposition of those pesticides.

  3. Identification of defense-related genes associated with tomato Sw-7 line against Tomato spotted wilt virus in tomato through transcriptome analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is a highly infectious tospovirus, and one of the most damaging plant viruses infecting tomatoes worldwide. Developing a tomato cultivar with TSWV-resistance would be the most effective approach for disease management. Comparative analysis of differential expression ...

  4. The cell size distribution of tomato fruit can be changed by overexpression of CDKA1.

    PubMed

    Czerednik, Anna; Busscher, Marco; Angenent, Gerco C; de Maagd, Ruud A

    2015-02-01

    Tomato is one of the most cultivated vegetables in the world and an important ingredient of the human diet. Tomato breeders and growers face a continuous challenge of combining high quantity (production volume) with high quality (appearance, taste and perception for the consumers, processing quality for the processing industry). To improve the quality of tomato, it is important to understand the regulation of fruit development and of fruit cellular structure, which is in part determined by the sizes and numbers of cells within a tissue. The role of the cell cycle therein is poorly understood. Plant cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are homologues of yeast cdc2, an important cell cycle regulator conserved throughout all eukaryotes. CDKA1 is constitutively expressed during the cell cycle and has dual functions in S- and M-phase progression. We have produced transgenic tomato plants with increased expression of CDKA1 under the control of the fruit-specific TPRP promoter, which despite a reduced number of seeds and diminished amount of jelly, developed fruits with weight and shape comparable to that of wild-type fruits. However, the phenotypic changes with regard to the pericarp thickness and placenta area were remarkable. Fruits of tomato plants with the highest expression of CDKA1 had larger septa and columella (placenta), compared with wild-type fruits. Our data demonstrate the possibility of manipulating the ratio between cell division and expansion by changing the expression of a key cell cycle regulator and probably its activity with substantial effects on structural traits of the harvested fruit.

  5. Improving agronomic water use efficiency in tomato by rootstock-mediated hormonal regulation of leaf biomass.

    PubMed

    Cantero-Navarro, Elena; Romero-Aranda, Remedios; Fernández-Muñoz, Rafael; Martínez-Andújar, Cristina; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco; Albacete, Alfonso

    2016-10-01

    Water availability is the most important factor limiting food production, thus developing new scientific strategies to allow crops to more efficiently use water could be crucial in a world with a growing population. Tomato is a highly water consuming crop and improving its water use efficiency (WUE) implies positive economic and environmental effects. This work aimed to study and exploit root-derived hormonal traits to improve WUE in tomato by grafting on selected rootstocks. Firstly, root-related hormonal parameters associated to WUE were identified in a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the wild tomato species Solanum pimpinellifolium. A principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that some hormonal traits were associated with productivity (plant biomass and photosynthesis) and WUE in the RIL population. Leaf ABA concentration was associated to the first component (PC1) of the PCA, which explained a 60% of the variance in WUE, while the ethylene precursor ACC and the ratio ACC/ABA were also associated to PC1 but in the opposite direction. Secondly, we selected RILs according to their extreme biomass (high, B, low, b) and water use (high, W, low, w), and studied the differential effect of shoot and root on WUE by reciprocal grafting. In absence of any imposed stress, there were no rootstock effects on vegetative shoot growth and water relations. Finally, we exploited the previously identified root-related hormonal traits by grafting a commercial tomato variety onto the selected RILs to improve WUE. Interestingly, rootstocks that induced low biomass and water use, 'bw', improved fruit yield and WUE (defined as fruit yield/water use) by up to 40% compared to self-grafted plants. Although other hormonal factors appear implicated in this response, xylem ACC concentration seems an important root-derived trait that inhibits leaf growth but does not limit fruit yield. Thus tomato WUE can be improved exploiting rootstock-derived hormonal signals

  6. Characterization of rhizosphere fungi that mediate resistance in tomato against bacterial wilt disease.

    PubMed

    Jogaiah, Sudisha; Abdelrahman, Mostafa; Tran, Lam-Son Phan; Shin-ichi, Ito

    2013-09-01

    Plant immunization for resistance against a wide variety of phytopathogens is an effective strategy for plant disease management. Seventy-nine plant growth-promoting fungi (PGPFs) were isolated from rhizosphere soil of India. Among them, nine revealed saprophytic ability, root colonization, phosphate solubilization, IAA production, and plant growth promotion. Seed priming with four PGPFs exhibited early seedling emergence and enhanced vigour of a tomato cultivar susceptible to the bacterial wilt pathogen compared to untreated controls. Under greenhouse conditions, TriH_JSB27 and PenC_JSB41 treatments remarkably enhanced the vegetative and reproductive growth parameters. Maximum NPK uptake was noticed in TriH_JSB27-treated plants. A significant disease reduction of 57.3% against Ralstonia solanacearum was observed in tomato plants pretreated with TriH_JSB27. Furthermore, induction of defence-related enzymes and genes was observed in plants pretreated with PGPFs or inoculated with pathogen. The maximum phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity (111U) was observed at 24h in seedlings treated with TriH_JSB27 and this activity was slightly reduced (99U) after pathogen inoculation. Activities of peroxidase (POX, 54U) and β-1,3-glucanase (GLU, 15U) were significantly higher in control plants inoculated with pathogen after 24h and remained constant at all time points. A similar trend in gene induction for PAL was evident in PGPFs-treated tomato seedlings with or without pathogen inoculation, whereas POX and GLU were upregulated in control plus pathogen-inoculated tomato seedlings. These results determine that the susceptible tomato cultivar is triggered after perception of potent PGPFs to synthesize PAL, POX, and GLU, which activate defence resistance against bacterial wilt disease, thereby contributing to plant health improvement.

  7. Dynamic headspace analysis of fresh tomato juices.

    PubMed

    Sucan, M K; Russell, G F

    2001-01-01

    The methods used to isolate volatile compounds for GC analyses can cause profound effects on the quantitative and qualitative composition of the injected sample, and exert a great influence in the resultant bioactivity of volatiles. Especially with plant tissues like tomatoes, the isolation of volatile constituents using classical methods may yield results which are not representative of the chemicals present in the natural material. Headspace sampling methods may be advantageous in capturing the same volatile compounds emitted from tomatoes that are detected by the human nose. This study utilized an extremely sensitive dynamic headspace sampling with thermal desorption method to determine volatile components of fresh tomato juices. The method proved very sensitive for the isolation of tomato volatiles and concentrations of flavor compounds were much greater than related literature studies.

  8. Analysis of energy use in tomato evaporation

    SciTech Connect

    Rumsey, T.; Conant, T.

    1980-01-01

    Field performance data for four tomato product evaporators are presented and analyzed. Steam and feed flow rates along with steam economies were measured and are compared to steady state theoretical evaporator models.

  9. Deglacial climate variability in central Florida, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Willard, D.A.; Bernhardt, C.E.; Brooks, G.R.; Cronin, T. M.; Edgar, T.; Larson, R.

    2007-01-01

    Pollen and ostracode evidence from lacustrine sediments underlying modern Tampa Bay, Florida, document frequent and abrupt climatic and hydrological events superimposed on deglacial warming in the subtropics. Radiocarbon chronology on well-preserved mollusk shells and pollen residue from core MD02-2579 documents continuous sedimentation in a variety of non-marine habitats in a karst-controlled basin from 20 ka to 11.5 ka. During the last glacial maximum (LGM), much drier and cooler-than-modern conditions are indicated by pollen assemblages enriched in Chenopodiaceae and Carya, with rare Pinus (Pinus pollen increased to 20–40% during the warming of the initial deglaciation (∼ 17.2 ka), reaching near modern abundance (60–80%) during warmer, moister climates of the Bølling/Allerød interval (14.7–12.9 ka). Within the Bølling/Allerød, centennial-scale dry events corresponding to the Older Dryas and Intra-Allerød Cold Period indicate rapid vegetation response (

  10. Repression of floral meristem fate is crucial in shaping tomato inflorescence.

    PubMed

    Thouet, Johanna; Quinet, Muriel; Lutts, Stanley; Kinet, Jean-Marie; Périlleux, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Tomato is an important crop and hence there is a great interest in understanding the genetic basis of its flowering. Several genes have been identified by mutations and we constructed a set of novel double mutants to understand how these genes interact to shape the inflorescence. It was previously suggested that the branching of the tomato inflorescence depends on the gradual transition from inflorescence meristem (IM) to flower meristem (FM): the extension of this time window allows IM to branch, as seen in the compound inflorescence (s) and falsiflora (fa) mutants that are impaired in FM maturation. We report here that Jointless (J), which encodes a MADS-box protein of the same clade than Short Vegetative Phase (SVP) and Agamous Like 24 (AGL24) in Arabidopsis, interferes with this timing and delays FM maturation, therefore promoting IM fate. This was inferred from the fact that j mutation suppresses the high branching inflorescence phenotype of s and fa mutants and was further supported by the expression pattern of J, which is expressed more strongly in IM than in FM. Most interestingly, FA--the orthologue of the Arabidopsis LEAFY (LFY) gene--shows the complementary expression pattern and is more active in FM than in IM. Loss of J function causes premature termination of flower formation in the inflorescence and its reversion to a vegetative program. This phenotype is enhanced in the absence of systemic florigenic protein, encoded by the Single Flower Truss (SFT) gene, the tomato orthologue of Flowering Locus T (FT). These results suggest that the formation of an inflorescence in tomato requires the interaction of J and a target of SFT in the meristem, for repressing FA activity and FM fate in the IM.

  11. Repression of Floral Meristem Fate Is Crucial in Shaping Tomato Inflorescence

    PubMed Central

    Lutts, Stanley; Kinet, Jean-Marie; Périlleux, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Tomato is an important crop and hence there is a great interest in understanding the genetic basis of its flowering. Several genes have been identified by mutations and we constructed a set of novel double mutants to understand how these genes interact to shape the inflorescence. It was previously suggested that the branching of the tomato inflorescence depends on the gradual transition from inflorescence meristem (IM) to flower meristem (FM): the extension of this time window allows IM to branch, as seen in the compound inflorescence (s) and falsiflora (fa) mutants that are impaired in FM maturation. We report here that JOINTLESS (J), which encodes a MADS-box protein of the same clade than SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP) and AGAMOUS LIKE 24 (AGL24) in Arabidopsis, interferes with this timing and delays FM maturation, therefore promoting IM fate. This was inferred from the fact that j mutation suppresses the high branching inflorescence phenotype of s and fa mutants and was further supported by the expression pattern of J, which is expressed more strongly in IM than in FM. Most interestingly, FA - the orthologue of the Arabidopsis LEAFY (LFY) gene - shows the complementary expression pattern and is more active in FM than in IM. Loss of J function causes premature termination of flower formation in the inflorescence and its reversion to a vegetative program. This phenotype is enhanced in the absence of systemic florigenic protein, encoded by the SINGLE FLOWER TRUSS (SFT) gene, the tomato orthologue of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT). These results suggest that the formation of an inflorescence in tomato requires the interaction of J and a target of SFT in the meristem, for repressing FA activity and FM fate in the IM. PMID:22347436

  12. Efficacy and reproducibility of a produce wash in killing Salmonella on the surface of tomatoes assessed with a proposed standard method for produce sanitizers.

    PubMed

    Harris, L J; Beuchat, L R; Kajs, T M; Ward, T E; Taylor, C H

    2001-10-01

    The reproducibility of a method developed to evaluate point-of-use sanitizers for fresh produce was tested at three different laboratories. Mixtures of five Salmonella serotypes were inoculated on the surface of ripe tomatoes. After the inoculum was dry, tomatoes were placed inside a plastic bag and sprayed with sterile USP water, Dey and Engley (D/E) neutralizer broth, or a prototype Fit produce wash (PW), an alkaline solution comprised of generally recognized as safe ingredients (water, oleic acid, glycerol, ethanol, potassium hydroxide, sodium bicarbonate, citric acid, and distilled grapefruit oil), and rubbed for 30 s. The tomatoes were rinsed 10 s with 195 ml of D/E neutralizer broth (rinse solution), then combined with 20 ml of D/E neutralizer (residual wash solution) and rubbed by hand to remove residual Salmonella. Populations of Salmonella were determined for each tomato in the rinse solution and residual wash solution. Treatment with PW resulted in reductions in the number of Salmonella 2 to 4 logs greater than those achieved with the sterile water or D/E neutralizer broth controls. Consistent results were obtained across the three study sites, indicating reproducible results were obtained using the test method. The method used to determine the efficacy of killing or removing Salmonella from tomatoes in this study is suggested as a standard method for measuring the efficacy of sanitizers on tomatoes and other similar fruits and vegetables with rigid, smooth surfaces.

  13. Study of the migration phenomena of specific metals in canned tomato paste before and after opening. Validation of a new quality indicator for opened cans.

    PubMed

    Raptopoulou, Kalomoira G; Pasias, Ioannis N; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S; Proestos, Charalampos

    2014-07-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of Cd-Pb, As-Cu, Cr-Ni and Fe-Mn in canned tomato paste samples by Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometry was developed and validated. The validation procedure was conducted according to the terms of the European regulation for the official control of contaminants in foods. The validated method was applied for the determination of these metals and metalloids in 13 different tomato paste samples and the results showed that Cd content was higher than the maximum permissible value of 0.050 mg kg(-1) as proposed in European Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006 concerning fresh fruits and vegetables. Furthermore, a new quality indicator was evaluated in order to provide information about tomato paste quality and the appropriate storage time of an opened canned tomato paste. Finally, a migration test was accomplished based on the calculation of mass balance and the comparison of the elemental content in canned tomato paste samples and in aseptic paper pack and it was proved that Fe and Pb were the main metals migrating in tomato paste samples.

  14. Optimization and development of a high-performance liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous determination of vitamin E and carotenoids in tomato fruits.

    PubMed

    Irakli, Maria; Chatzopoulou, Paschalina; Kadoglidou, Kalliopi; Tsivelika, Nektaria

    2016-09-01

    A simple and reliable high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of lipophilic antioxidants in tomato fruits using C30 column operated at 15°C and a gradient mobile phase based on acetonitrile/methanol/dichloromethane in a total run time of 30 min. Diode array and fluorescence detectors were used respectively for the detection of carotenoids (lutein, zeaxanthin, cryptoxanthin, lycopene, and β-carotene) and vitamin E analogs (α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherols, and tocotrienols). The best extraction yield of analytes in tomato fruits was achieved by employing ethyl acetate/hexane (1:1, v/v) after several treatments with various solvents. In addition, low extraction yields were obtained for carotenoids compared to tocopherols by adopting solid-phase extraction as a second clean-up step. The method was validated on the basis of recovery, precision, linearity, and limit of detection and quantification using spiked tomato samples. The method was applied to cherry and medium-sized tomato fruits. Lycopene was found to be present in largest amount in tomato pulp, followed by β-carotene and lutein. Due to its simplicity, rapidity, and efficiency, the method is suitable for routine analysis of lipophilic antioxidants in tomato fruits, and may also be applied to other vegetables of similar phytochemical profiles.

  15. Antioxidant activities of various fruits and vegetables produced in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui-Yu; Chang, Chen-Kang; Tso, Tim K; Huang, Ju-Jen; Chang, Wei-Wei; Tsai, Ying-Chieh

    2004-08-01

    Fruits and vegetables have been known to contain a variety of antioxidant components. It has been suggested that antioxidants may protect biomolecules from oxidative damage and therefore be associated with reduced risks of cardiovascular disease and certain cancer. The antioxidant abilities of various parts of eight common fruits and vegetables produced in Taiwan were investigated, including tomato, guava, squash, tangerine, wax gourd, pineapple, chayote, and eggplant. Squash, wax gourd, tomato, and guava seeds showed the highest antioxidant activities in thiobarbituric acid assay. Wax guard and squash seeds showed the highest antioxidant activities in iodometric assay. At the level of 1 g fresh sample, low-density lipoprotein peroxidation was inhibited by at least 90% by tomato meat, guava meat, squash seed, wax gourd meat, core, and seed, and eggplant skin. The total phenolic content was significantly correlated with antioxidant activities measured by thiobarbituric acid (r=0.715, P<0.01) and iodometric (r=0.749, P<0.01) assays. The results of this study could be used for development of merchandise with potential health benefits from agricultural products.

  16. Dissipation of deltamethrin, triazophos, and endosulfan in ready mix formulations in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) and Egg plant (Solanum melongena L.).

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Irani; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Aman

    2015-09-01

    Persistence of delltamethrin, endosulfan, and triazophos in egg plant and tomato was studied following application of two ready mix formulations of insecticides viz. deltametrhin and endosulfan (Cobra 5000; 0.75% deltamethrin + 29.5% endosulfan) and deltamethrin and triazophos (Annaconda Plus; 1% deltamethrin + 35% triazophos) at recommended (1.0 L/ha and double dose 2.0 L/ha). The residues of deltamethrin persisted till 7 and 5 days in tomato and egg plant fruits, respectively, in the ready mix formulation of Cobra 5000 whereas endosulfan persisted till 15 and 10 days in tomato and egg plant fruits, respectively. Dissipation of the insecticides followed first-order kinetics with half-life values of deltamethrin and endosulfan ranged from 2.6 to 4.7 and 1.4 to 1.7 days, respectively, for both the vegetables. In case of combination mix of deltamethrin and triazophos (Annaconda Plus), deltamethrin persisted beyond 5 days in both tomato and egg plant fruits, while triazophos persisted till 10 days in both the vegetables. Residues of deltamethrin and triazophos dissipated with half-life of 2.6-4.2 and 1.7-4.1 days, respectively, on tomato and egg plant fruits. Based on the Codex MRL limits, a safe waiting period of 5 and 3 days is suggested for tomato and egg plant, respectively, for the ready mix formulation of deltamethrin and endosulfan (Cobra 5000), and 5-day waiting period is suggested for tomato and egg plant for the combination mix of deltamethrin and triazophos.

  17. Molecular characterization of two distinct monopartite begomoviruses infecting tomato in india

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Tomato leaf curl viruses, which are the members of the genus Begomovirus, have emerged as devastating pathogens worldwide causing huge economic losses and threatening production of crops like cassava, cotton, grain legumes and vegetables. Even though the ToLCV isolates from Northern India have been shown to possess bipartite genome (designated as DNA A and DNA B), those from Australia, Taiwan and Southern India have a single genomic component (DNA A). We describe here the genetic diversity of two isolates of monopartite Tomato leaf curl virus infecting tomato in two extreme regions (North and South) of Indian subcontinent. Results The rolling circle amplification (RCA) products obtained from symptomatic samples were digested, cloned and sequenced. The complete DNA sequence of two Tomato leaf curl virus isolates identified as ToLCV-CTM (India, New Delhi, 2005) and ToLCVK3/K5 (India, Kerala, 2008) are reported here. These isolates had the characteristic features of Begomovirus genome organization with six conserved open reading frames (ORFs). The ToLCV-K3 and ToLCV-K5 isolates may be the strains of the same virus since they show sequence homology of 97% over their entire genome. This, according to the guidelines established by the ICTV Geminiviridae Study-Group is higher than threshold (92%) for delineation of different viral variants and hence single, average value has been assigned for all their analyses presented here. The ToLCV-CTM and ToLCV-K3/K5 viruses were found to be monopartite, as neither DNA-B component nor betasatellite associated with begomovirus species, were detected. The complete nucleotide sequence of DNA-A genome of CTM exhibited highest sequence homology (88%) to Croton yellow vein mosaic virus (AJ507777), and of isolates K3/K5 (88.5%) to Tomato leaf curl Pakistan virus (DQ116884). This is less than the threshold value for demarcation of species in the genus Begomovirus. Conclusion K3/K5 and CTM are considered to be novel isolates of

  18. Reconstructing the migration patterns of late Pleistocene mammals from northern Florida, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoppe, Kathryn A.; Koch, Paul L.

    2007-11-01

    We used analyses of the strontium isotope ( 87Sr/ 86Sr) ratios of tooth enamel to reconstruct the migration patterns of fossil mammals collected along the Aucilla River in northern Florida. Specimens date to the late-glacial period and before the last glacial maximum (pre-LGM). Deer and tapir displayed low 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios that were similar to the ratios of Florida environments, which suggest that these taxa did not migrate long distance outside of the Florida region. Mastodons, mammoths, and equids all displayed a wide range of 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios. Some individuals in each taxon displayed low 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios that suggest they ranged locally, while other animals had high 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios that suggest they migrated long distances (> 150 km) outside of the Florida region. Mastodons were the only taxa from this region that provided enough well-dated specimens to compare changes in migration patterns over time. Pre-LGM mastodons displayed significantly lower 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios than late-glacial mastodons, which suggests that late-glacial mastodons from Florida migrated longer distances than their earlier counterparts. This change in movement patterns reflects temporal changes in regional vegetation patterns.

  19. Interregional comparison of karst disturbance: west-central Florida and southeast Italy.

    PubMed

    North, Leslie A; van Beynen, Philip E; Parise, Mario

    2009-04-01

    The karst disturbance index (KDI) consists of 31 environmental indicators contained within the five broad categories: geomorphology, hydrology, atmosphere, biota, and cultural. The purpose of this research is to apply the KDI to two distinct karst areas, west Florida, USA, and Apulia, Italy. Through its application, the utility of the index can be validated and other important comparisons can be made, such as differences in the karst legislations implemented in each region and the effect of time exposure to human occupation to each karst terrain. Humans have intensively impacted the karst of southeast Italy for thousands of years compared to only decades in west-central Florida. However, west-central Florida's higher population density allows the region to reach disturbance levels comparable to those reached over a longer period in Apulia. Similarly, Italian karst is more diverse than the karst found in west-central Florida, creating an opportunity to test all the KDI indicators. Overall, major disturbances for southeast Italy karst include quarrying, stone clearing, and the dumping of refuse into caves, while west-central Florida suffers most from the infilling of sinkholes, soil compaction, changes in the water table, and vegetation removal. The application of the KDI allows a benchmark of disturbance to be established and later revisited to determine the changing state of human impact for a region. The highlighting of certain indicators that recorded high levels of disturbance also allows regional planners to allocate resources in a more refined manner.

  20. Complete Genome Sequence of Southern tomato virus Naturally Infecting Tomatoes in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Padmanabhan, Chellappan; Zheng, Yi; Li, Rugang; Fei, Zhangjun

    2015-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of a Southern tomato virus (STV) isolate on tomato plants in a seed production field in Bangladesh was obtained for the first time using next-generation sequencing. The identified isolate, STV_BD-13, shares a high degree of sequence identity (99%) with several known STV isolates worldwide. PMID:26722014

  1. Genetic diversity, host range and disease resistance to the emerging Tomato mottle mosaic virus on tomato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since its first discovery in 2013 in Mexico, Tomato mottle mosaic virus (ToMMV), a new tomato-infecting tobamovirus is now present in a number of countries (i.e., Brazil, China, and Israel) and several states in the U.S. There is little information available on the molecular and biological properti...

  2. Integrated management of tomato diseases in open field-grown tomatoes in Southern Italy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is one of a growing list of Tospoviruses adversely affecting field tomato crops worldwide. The only known means of virus transmission is via vectors belonging to a few species of thrips. The most important vectors in Italian conditions are Frankliniella occidentalis ...

  3. A stimulo-deterrent method of thrips and Tomato spotted wilt virus management in tomatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato spotted wilt virus remains a serious economic limitation to the production of tomatoes in the southeastern U.S. more than 20 years after its appearance. The thrips vectors of TSWV also remain difficult to manage. The current study tested various combinations of ultraviolet-reflective and blac...

  4. Characterization and detection of Tomato necrotic stunt virus, a novel potyvirus infecting greenhouse tomatoes in Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greenhouse tomato production has increased significantly in recent years in North America. Nearly 40% of fresh tomato supplies in the U.S. are produced in greenhouses. The highly intensive and hydroponic production system has created some unique ecological conditions for disease epidemic, especial...

  5. First report of Tomato chlorotic spot virus in tomato, pepper and jimsonweed in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the first report of Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) in Puerto Rico. TCSV was detected in tomato, pepper and jimsonweed. This report provides an overview of this virus for growers, extension workers, crop consultants and research and regulatory scientists....

  6. Molecular, serological and biological characterization of the emerging tomato mottle mosaic virus on tomato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For many years, Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) are the two major tobamoviruses that have a serious impact on tomato productions worldwide. These seed-borne and mechanically transmitted viruses are difficult to control. The most effective disease management has been the u...

  7. Evaluation of disinfectants to control mechanical transmission of tomato viruses and viroids in greenhouse tomatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greenhouse tomato production has increased significantly in recent years. The cultural practices and intensive hands-on activities implemented in protected tomato culture have created ideal conditions for a number of plant pathogens to be mechanically transmitted. In some situations, disease outbr...

  8. Arsenic and Lead Uptake by Vegetable Crops Grown on Historically Contaminated Orchard Soils

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Transfer of Pb and As into vegetables grown in orchard soils historically contaminated by Pb arsenate pesticides was measured in the greenhouse. Lettuce, carrots, green beans and tomatoes were grown on soils containing a range of total Pb (16.5–915 mg/kg) and As (6.9–211 mg/kg) concentrations. The vegetables were acid-digested and analyzed for total Pb and As using ICP-mass spectrometry. Vegetable contamination was dependent on soil total Pb and As content, pH, and vegetable species. Arsenic concentrations were highest in lettuce and green beans, lower in carrots, and much lower in tomato fruit. Transfer of Pb into lettuce and beans was generally lower than that of As, and Pb and As were strongly excluded from tomato fruit. Soil metal concentrations as high as 400 mg/kg Pb and 100 mg/kg As produced vegetables with concentrations of Pb and As below the limits of international health standards. PMID:26949393

  9. Pesticide residue analysis of vegetables by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection.

    PubMed

    Fenoll, José; Hellín, Pilar; Martínez, Carmen M; Flores, Pilar

    2007-01-01

    A new and original analytical method was developed for the routine analysis of 28 multiclass pesticide residues in vegetables (green pepper, red pepper, and tomato). The extraction was performed with acetone, and the pesticides were partitioned into ethyl acetate-cyclohexane (1 + 1, v/v). Residue levels in vegetables were determined by gas chromatography (GC) with electron-capture detection. Residue identities were confirmed by GC coupled with mass spectrometry in the selected ion monitoring mode. The average recoveries in pepper and tomato obtained for all analytes studied were 67.3 and 123.1%, respectively, with relative standard deviation between 1.8 and 7.0%. The detection limit for the pesticides studied varied from 0.1 to 2.6 microg/kg. The proposed method was applied to the analysis of these compounds in vegetables grown in experimental greenhouses.

  10. Effect of the epicuticular waxes of fruits and vegetables on the photodegradation of rotenone.

    PubMed

    Angioni, Alberto; Cabizza, Maddalena; Cabras, Marco; Melis, Marinella; Tuberoso, Carlo; Cabras, Paolo

    2004-06-02

    The effect of epicuticular waxes extracted from fruits (apple, nectarine, pear, and plum) and vegetables (tomato and eggplant) on the photodegradation of rotenone was studied. The waxes affected the decay rate and the degradation pathway of this botanical insecticide. Tomato, nectarine, and plum waxes decreased the photodegradation rate compared to controls, whereas apple and pear waxes increased it. Rotenone irradiated under sunlight without waxes gave seven photoproducts; in contrast, in the presence of waxes it changed its behavior, leading to different pathways according to the wax employed. The main photoproduct formed was 12abeta-rotenolone.

  11. 7 CFR 966.80 - Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating... tomatoes received by a handler; (2) the quantities disposed of by him, segregated as to the respective... identification of the carrier transporting such tomatoes; and (4) identification of the inspection...

  12. 7 CFR 966.81 - Compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order... handler shall handle tomatoes, the handling of which has been prohibited by the Secretary in accordance with provisions of this subpart, and no handler shall handle tomatoes except in conformity to...

  13. 7 CFR 966.40 - Expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order... share of such expense shall be proportionate to the ratio between the total quantity of tomatoes handled by him as the first handler thereof during a fiscal period and the total quantity of tomatoes...

  14. 7 CFR 966.7 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating... to place fresh tomatoes, produced in the production area, in the current of commerce within the... include the transportation, sale or delivery of field-run tomatoes within the production area by...

  15. 7 CFR 966.42 - Assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order... handler who first handles tomatoes shall pay assessments to the committee upon demand, which assessments... tomatoes which were regulated under this part and which were shipped by the first handler thereof...

  16. 7 CFR 966.124 - Approved receiver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Rules and..., as an approved receiver, tomatoes for purposes as set forth in § 966.120(a), shall annually, prior... specified purpose is to occur; (4) Whether or not the receiver packs, repacks or sells fresh tomatoes; (5)...

  17. 7 CFR 966.132 - Issuance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Rules and... of all tomatoes authorized to be shipped thereunder, the quantity (by grade, size, quality and variety) of tomatoes which will be permitted in the exempted shipments and such other information as...

  18. 7 CFR 966.27 - Nomination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order... a person is engaged in producing tomatoes in more than one district, such person shall elect the... number of districts in which a person produces tomatoes, each such person is entitled to cast only...

  19. 7 CFR 966.134 - Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Rules and Regulations Exemption Procedures § 966.134 Reports. Persons handling tomatoes under exemption certificates... and addresses of the receivers of such tomatoes, the quantity shipped (by grade, size, quality,...

  20. 7 CFR 966.11 - Pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 966.11 Pack. Pack means any of the packs of tomatoes as defined and set forth in the United States Standards for Fresh Tomatoes issued by the United States Department of Agriculture (§§...

  1. 7 CFR 966.140 - Truck shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Rules and... production area of any tomatoes which are required to be inspected and certified as complying with any applicable requirements under this part, such tomatoes shall be accompanied by, and made available...

  2. 7 CFR 966.84 - Termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order... producers, who during a representative period, have been engaged in the production for market of tomatoes... percent of the volume of such tomatoes produced for market. (d) The provisions of this subpart shall,...

  3. 7 CFR 966.56 - Safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order..., may prescribe adequate safeguards to prevent handling of tomatoes pursuant to § 966.53 or § 966.54... applications with the committee to ship tomatoes pursuant to §§ 966.53 and 966.54; or (2) Handlers shall...

  4. 7 CFR 966.133 - Disposition of certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Rules and Regulations Exemption Procedures § 966.133 Disposition of certificates. (a) Each lot of tomatoes... tomatoes covered by an exemption certificate shall be accompanied by a Federal-State Inspection...

  5. 7 CFR 966.7 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to place fresh tomatoes, produced in the production area, in the current of commerce within the... include the transportation, sale or delivery of field-run tomatoes within the production area by the... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order...

  6. 7 CFR 966.140 - Truck shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... production area of any tomatoes which are required to be inspected and certified as complying with any applicable requirements under this part, such tomatoes shall be accompanied by, and made available for... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Rules...

  7. 7 CFR 966.7 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to place fresh tomatoes, produced in the production area, in the current of commerce within the... include the transportation, sale or delivery of field-run tomatoes within the production area by the... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order...

  8. 7 CFR 966.7 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to place fresh tomatoes, produced in the production area, in the current of commerce within the... include the transportation, sale or delivery of field-run tomatoes within the production area by the... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order...

  9. 7 CFR 966.140 - Truck shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... production area of any tomatoes which are required to be inspected and certified as complying with any applicable requirements under this part, such tomatoes shall be accompanied by, and made available for... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Rules...

  10. 7 CFR 966.7 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... to place fresh tomatoes, produced in the production area, in the current of commerce within the... include the transportation, sale or delivery of field-run tomatoes within the production area by the... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order...

  11. 7 CFR 966.140 - Truck shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... production area of any tomatoes which are required to be inspected and certified as complying with any applicable requirements under this part, such tomatoes shall be accompanied by, and made available for... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Rules...

  12. 7 CFR 966.140 - Truck shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... production area of any tomatoes which are required to be inspected and certified as complying with any applicable requirements under this part, such tomatoes shall be accompanied by, and made available for... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Rules...

  13. Water quality in southern Florida; Florida, 1996-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McPherson, Benjamin F.; Miller, Ronald L.; Haag, Kim H.; Bradner, Anne

    2000-01-01

    Major influences and findings for water quality and biology in southern Florida, including the Everglades, are described and illustrated. Samples were collected to determine total phosphorus, dissolved organic carbon, pesticides, mercury, nitrate, volatile organic carbon compounds, and radon-222. Water-management, agricultural, and land-use practices are discussed. Sixty-three species of fish in 26 families were collected; 43 native species, 10 exotic or nonnative species, and 10 species of marine fish that periodically inhabit canals and rivers were identified.

  14. No evidence of adverse effects on germination, emergence, and fruit yield due to space exposure of tomato seeds.

    PubMed

    Kahn, B A; Stoffella, P J

    1996-05-01

    Seeds of 'Rutgers California Supreme' tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were exposed to outer space conditions aboard the long duration exposure facility (LDEF) satellite in the space exposed experiment developed for students (SEEDS) project of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Seeds aboard the LDEF were packed in dacron bags forming four layers per sealed canister. Some of these seeds were used in Oklahoma and Florida for studies of germination, emergence, and fruit yield. Among all measured variables in three experiments, there was only one significant main effect of canister 2 versus canister 7 (for mean time to germination) and only one main effect of layer (for seedling shoot dry weight). There also were only two inconsistent canister x layer interactions in the germination tests. The contrast of Earth-based control seed versus space-exposed seed was significant four times: in Oklahoma in 1991 the mean time to germination of space-exposed seeds and the days to 50% of final germination were 0.7 days less than for Earth-based seeds, and in Florida in 1992 seedling percent emergence and shoot dry weight were increased by space exposure. Fruit yield and marketability were unaffected in plants grown from space-exposed seeds. These results support student findings from the SEEDS project, and provide evidence that tomato seeds can survive in space for several years without adverse effects on germination, emergence, and fruit yield.

  15. The use of remote sensing in solving Florida's geological and coastal engineering problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, H. K.; Ruth, B. E.; Wang, Y. H.; Ferguson, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    LANDSAT imagery and NASA high altitude color infrared (CIR) photography were used to select suitable sites for sanitary landfill in Volusia County, Florida and to develop techniques for preventing sand deposits in the Clearwater inlet. Activities described include the acquisition of imagery, its analysis by the IMAGE 100 system, conventional photointerpretation, evaluation of existing data sources (vegetation, soil, and ground water maps), site investigations for ground truth, and preparation of displays for reports.

  16. Stereoselective degradation of benalaxyl in tomato, tobacco, sugar beet, capsicum, and soil.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xu; Wang, Peng; Liu, Donghui; Lv, Chunguang; Lu, Yuele; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2008-02-01

    The stereoselective degradation of the racemic benalaxyl in vegetables such as tomato, tobacco, sugar beet, capsicum, and the soil has been investigated. The two enantiomers of benalaxyl in the matrix were extracted by organic solvent and determined by validated chiral high-performance liquid chromatography with a cellulose-tris-(3, 5-dimethylphenylcarbamate)-based chiral column. Rac-benalaxyl was fortified into the soil and foliar applied to vegetables. The assay method was linear over a range of concentrations (0.5-50 microg ml(-1)) and the mean recoveries in all the samples were more than 70% for the two enantiomers. The limit of detection for both enantiomers was 0.05 microg g(-1). The results in soil showed that R-(-)-enantiomer dissipated faster than S-(+)-enantiomer and the stereoselectivity might be caused by microorganisms. In tomato, tobacco, sugar, beet, and capsicum plants, there was significantly stereoselective metabolism. The preferential absorption and degradation of S-(+)-enantiomer resulted an enrichment of the R-(-)-enantiomer residue in all the vegetables.

  17. Commissioner's Roundtable for Women in Educational Leadership in Florida. Proceedings (Tallahassee, Florida, November 20, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee.

    The proceedings of this roundtable discuss the current status of Florida women in educational leadership and ways to expand their opportunities for advancement. The report begins with an introduction and opening remarks by Florida's Assistant Commissioner of Education, Laurey T. Stryker and Florida Commissioner of Education, Betty Castor. A…

  18. The Impact of One Florida Initiative on Florida's Public Law Schools: A Critical Race Theory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Adriel A.; Gasman, Marybeth; Wood, J. Luke

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of the One Florida Initiative (OFI) on racial diversity in Florida's public law schools and legal profession using the lens of Critical Race Theory (CRT). This study seeks to determine what, if any, impact this event has had on recruitment, admissions, and enrollment of Florida's public schools of…

  19. Change In Minimum Temperature As A Response To Land Cover Change In South Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandel, H. P.; Melesse, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    Replacement of higher evapotranspirative surface materials such as water and vegetation cover by other materials such as buildings, roads, and pavements increases the Bowen's ratio from about 0.5-2.0 in rural to about ≈ 5.0 in urban areas resulting in higher surface and near surface atmospheric temperatures in the urban areas (Taha, 1997). This effect is intensified by low emissivity surfaces of the urban covers storing more heat energy during day time, but emitting less during night compared to the energy emitted by rural covers causing higher night time temperatures in urban centers, an effect called Urban Heat Island (UHI). South Florida has undergone tremendous land cover change from its pre-drainage vegetated and wetlands to post drainage agricultural and urban lands, especially after late 20th century. The objective of this study was to simultaneously analyze the land use/ land cover change and the rural/ urban minimum temperatures in south Florida for the period representing pre and post drainage states. The result shows urban sprawl increased from 8% at the beginning of the analysis period to about 14% at the end. Green vegetated areas, shrubs, and forests are found to be declined. The minimum temperature is found increased as maximum as 2°F in the urbanized stations, which remained constant or shows negligible increase in rural stations. The study dictates further micro level scrutiny in order to reach a conclusion on the development of UHI in south Florida. Key words: Bowen's ratio, emissivity, urban heat island

  20. Coastal land loss in Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R.R. )

    1990-09-01

    Florida has approximately 593 mi of shoreline fronting on the Atlantic Ocean and Straits of Florida and approximately 673 mi of shoreline fronting on the Gulf of Mexico with an additional 5,000 mi of bay and estuary shoreline. Of a statewide total of 818.9 mi of open coast sandy beaches, 337.2 mi or 41.2% of the beaches are identified as erosion problem areas. These erosion problem areas include those beaches with a moderate or low erosion rate, but with a narrow width fronting a highly developed area, and those restored beaches with an active maintenance nourishment program. Of these erosion problem areas, 217.8 mi or 26.6% of the statewide beach length are areas of critical erosion; that is, segments of the shoreline where substantial development or recreation interests are threatened by the erosion processes. On a shorewide basis, the Atlantic Ocean beaches of Florida typically have historical erosion rates of between 0 and {minus}3 ft per year, while the Gulf of Mexico beaches typically have historical erosion rates of between 0 and {minus}2 ft per year. Many of the problem areas have shoreline erosion rates in the magnitude of between {minus}3 and {minus}5 ft per year. The most extreme erosion rates are occurring along the southern portion of St. Joseph Peninsula at Cape San Bias where the annual shoreline recession exceeds {minus}20 ft. Erosion conditions in Florida are most apparent as a result of storm tides and storm wave activity. Extreme meteorological events inflict significant erosion conditions in all beach areas of the state. Historical shoreline changes are often the cumulative effect of a number of storm events and their cycles of poststorm recovery. Erosion and damage from recent storms as well as efforts to mitigate storm damage have heightened the erosion problems and incited a public response through coastal construction regulation and beach management planning.

  1. Thunderstorm off Florida coast, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    This cumulonimbus thunderhead with its towering anvil was photographed just north of Cape Canaveral and the Kennedy Space Center, Florida (28.5N, 80.5W). Cumulonimbus clouds are the familiar thunderheads that can tower up to as much as 75,000 ft. producing thunderstorms and sometimes tornadoes as well. Inland from the cape, Orlando in the center of the state, can be seen.

  2. Phage therapy for Florida corals?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kellogg, Christina A.

    2007-01-01

    Coral disease is a major cause of reef decline in the Florida Keys. Bacterium has been defined as the most common pathogen (disease-causing organism). Although much is being done to catalog coral diseases, map their locations, determine the causes of disease, or measure the rates of coral demise, very little research has been directed toward actually preventing or eliminating the diseases affecting coral and coral reef decline.

  3. Clarification of Tomato Juice with Polygalacturonase Obtained from Tomato Fruits Infected by Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Ajayi, A A; Peter-Albert, C F; Akeredolu, M; Shokunbi, A A

    2015-02-01

    Two varieties of tomato fruits commonly available in Nigerian markets are the Roma VF and Ibadan local varieties of tomato fruits. The Roma VF fruits are oval in shape. It is a common type of cultivar in the Northern region of Nigeria and it is not susceptible to cracking. The Ibadan local variety of tomato fruits is a local variety commonly found on farmers fields in South-western region of Nigeria. They are highly susceptible to cracking. The Ibadan local variety was employed for this research. There are lots of benefits derived from the consumption of tomato fruits. The fruits can be made into tomato juice clarified with pectinases. Polygalacturonase is one of the pectinases used commercially in the clarification of fruit juice from different fruits. This study examined the production of polygalacturonase during the deterioration of tomato fruits by Aspergillus niger and the role of the purified polygalacturonase in the clarification of tomato juice. Tomato fruits of the Ibadan local variety were inoculated with mycelia discs containing spores of a 96-h-old culture of Aspergillus niger served as the inoculum. The organism from the stock culture was subcultured onto potato dextrose agar plates. The extraction of polygalacturonase after 10 days of incubation at 27 degrees C was carried out by homogenizing the fruits with liquid extractant using the MSE homogenizer after the deteriorated fruits had been chilled for 30 min inside a freezer. Control fruits were similarly treated except that sterile potato dextrose agar served as the inoculum. The effect of different temperature of incubation and different volume of enzyme on the tomato juice from the tomato fruits was investigated. Extracts from the inoculated fruits exhibited appreciable polygalacturonase activity. The juice with polygalacturonase was visually clearer and more voluminous than the juice treated with water for all parameters studied. The highest volume of juice was obtained after an incubation period

  4. Rotala rotundifolia (Lythraceae) new to Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burks, K.C.; Hall, D.W.; Vandiver, V.V.; Jacono, C.C.

    2003-01-01

    Naturalized populations of the Asian amphibious species Rotala rotundifolia are documented for three peninsular Florida counties. Distinguishing characters and a comment on invasive potential are also provided.

  5. First report of Pepper mottle virus infecting tomato in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In August 2011, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) fruit from a University of Hawaii field trial evaluating varietal resistance to Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) displayed mottling symptoms similar to that caused by TSWV or other tospoviruses. The foliage f...

  6. Magnitude of genotype x environment interactions affecting tomato fruit quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a growing interest by consumers to purchase fresh tomato with improved quality traits including lycopene, total soluble solids (TSS), vitamin C and titratable acid (TA) content. Therefore, there are considerable efforts by tomato breeders to improve tomato for these traits. However, suitabl...

  7. In vivo measurement of phytochrome in tomato fruit.

    PubMed

    Jen, J J

    1977-04-01

    Presence of phytochrome in two kinds of tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), the yellow lutescent strain and cherry tomatoes (L. esculentum Mill. var. cerasiformecv. Red Cherry), was established by measuring the absorption difference spectra of the whole fruit after irradiation with red and with far red light. Phytochrome content was determined in yellow lutescent tomatoes and decreased gradually during the ripening period.

  8. Association between pollen hypersensitivity and edible vegetable allergy: a review.

    PubMed

    Caballero, T; Martín-Esteban, M

    1998-01-01

    Over the last three decades several authors have described the existence of an association between sensitivity to different pollens and sensitivity to diverse edible vegetables. An association between ragweed pollinosis and hypersensitivity to Cucurbitaceae vegetables (e.g., watermelon, melon, cucumber) and banana has been reported. Other authors have found a relationship between birch pollinosis and sensitization to hazelnut, apple, carrot, potato, kiwi and other vegetables. Additionally, several papers have shown the association between mugwort pollinosis and sensitization to celery, carrot, spices, nuts, mustard and Leguminoseae vegetables. Later, some studies showed association between grass pollinosis and sensitization to tomato, potato, green- pea, peanut, watermelon, melon, apple, orange and kiwi. Finally, an association between sensitization to plantain pollen and melon hypersensitivity was also described. The association between pollinosis and edible vegetable sensitization has been explained by the combination of different hypotheses, such as the following: 1) presence of lectins in edible vegetables; 2) existence of IgE to carbohydrates of the glycoproteins (cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants); and, 3) existence of common allergens between pollens and edible vegetables. Up to now three allergens have been identified as responsible for cross-reactivity in these associations: profilin, a 14 kd protein that regulates actin; Bet v 1, the 18 kd birch pollen allergen; and a 60-69 kd allergen. It is important to study in depth these associated sensitizations and the common allergens responsible for them in order to improve diagnostic methods and treatment of these syndromes.

  9. Survey of fresh vegetables for nematodes, amoebae, and Salmonella.

    PubMed

    Rude, R A; Jackson, G J; Bier, J W; Sawyer, T K; Risty, N G

    1984-01-01

    Contamination by nematodes, amoebae, and bacteria of the genus Salmonella was estimated in a 2-year survey of salad vegetables obtained from wholesale and retail sources. The vegetables examined were cucumbers, cabbage, lettuce, celery, carrots, radishes, tomatoes, mushrooms, cauliflower, and spinach. Nematode eggs and larvae were recovered by the Nacconol-ether centrifugation method. Some nematode eggs were identified as parasitic Ascaris sp.; the majority of larval nematodes were thought to be soil-dwelling species. Amoebae were recovered by rinsing the vegetables with distilled water, centrifuging the rinse water, and transferring the sediment to agar plates on which a bacterial lawn had previously been grown; trophozoites identified as the potentially pathogenic species--Acanthamoeba polyphaga, A. rhysodes, and A. castellanii--were the most common amoebae recovered on the plates. Salmonella spp. were grown from 4 of 50 samples.

  10. Environmental impacts on the southern Florida coastal waters: a history of change in Florida Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brewster-Wingard, G. L.; Ishman, S. E.; Holmes, C. W.

    1998-01-01

    Analyses of four cores located in the northern transitional, eastern, and central portions of Florida Bay reveal historical patterns of change in salinity and seagrass distribution. Salinity and the distribution of seagrass beds are two critical issues for the restoration of Florida Bay. The distribution of benthic fauna in Bob Allen 6A and Russell Bank 19B cores illustrates changes in environmental parameters prior to 1900. Natural fluctuations occur in salinity, but the amplitude of those fluctuations was limited to a 15–20% shift about the mean. Subtle changes occur in the benthic fauna around 1910, but beginning around 1940, the pattern of salinity fluctuation departs substantially from the pre-1900 pattern. Post-1940, the salinity oscillates 40–60% about the mean. This pattern is seen in all indicators measured. Around 1970, a significant but short term decline occurred in salinity. The Taylor Creek T24 core from the northern transitional zone reflects changes in freshwater flow that have occurred during this century. The upper portion of the core records a significant increase in salinity, with a slight decrease occurring in recent years. The Pass Key 37 core represents an area of very high sedimentation rates; an increase in salinity occurs in the upper portion of the core. Natural fluctuations in seagrass distribution are inferred from the shifts in relative abundance of epiphytal species preserved in the cores. All four cores show an increase in epiphytes and therefore in seagrass coverage during this century. An increase also occurs in epiphytal species that can dwell on either Thalassia or macro-algal mats associated with Thalassia beds. These data suggest an increase in algal-mats has occurred during this century. The Bob Allen 6A core records an extensive period during the 1800's of little to no vegetative cover of the substrate based on the near absence of epiphytic species in that segment of the core. Following this period, the epiphytal species

  11. Optimization of lamp spectrum for vegetable growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prikupets, L. B.; Tikhomirov, A. A.

    1994-01-01

    An increase in the demand for and production of vegetables in the winter, mainly in northern and Siberian regions, inevitably leads to mass building of structures for growing plants under completely artificial conditions. An industrial lighting technology is required whose main parameters (spectrum, irradiance, photoperiod) should be assigned carefully and should uniquely determine, along with other important characteristics of the artificial climate, the productivity of the plant-production facility. The most widespread crops grown in our country under indoor conditions are cucumber and tomato plants, which account for more than 98% of the area in greenhouses. These plants are good prospects for growing completely under intense artificial lighting conditions (photocultures). Optimization of the main parameters of optical radiation when growing these plants is the most important task of achieving their profitable production. At present, considerable experience has been gained in studying the dependence of productivity of cucumber and tomato communities on irradiation conditions. Fundamental studies of the Agrophysical Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Timiryazev Institute of Plant Physiology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Timiryazev Agricultural Academy, and other institutes create a good basis for a detailed study of the given problem. Commercial sources of radiation substantially differing in spectral characteristics in the region of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) were used in the studies.

  12. Influence of laser diode red beams on germination rate of tomato seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niculita, P.; Danaila-Guidea, Silvana; Livadariu, Oana; Popa, M.; Ristici, M.; Ristici, Esofina

    2007-08-01

    Laser diodes are lighting devices in which the light is generated by stimulated emission rather than spontaneous emission, with high generation efficiency. A device using 20 red laser diodes is presented. Emission wavelengths are in the 650-670 nm range. Emission power for each laser diode is about 4 mW. This device is used to irradiate the tomato seeds with three different irradiating doses. There were three Petri vessels for each dose having 25 seeds each of them. Results show that the germination rate increases for irradiated seeds. The red light has a positive effect for vegetable cultivated in protected area.

  13. Nature and regulation of pistil-expressed genes in tomato.

    PubMed

    Milligan, S B; Gasser, C S

    1995-07-01

    The specialized reproductive functions of angiosperm pistils are dependent in part upon the regulated activation of numerous genes expressed predominantly in this organ system. To better understand the nature of these pistil-predominant gene products we have analyzed seven cDNA clones isolated from tomato pistils through differential hybridization screening. Six of the seven cDNAs represent sequences previously undescribed in tomato, each having a unique pistil- and/or floral-predominant expression pattern. The putative protein products encoded by six of the cDNAs have been identified by their similarity to sequences in the database of previously sequenced genes, with a seventh sequence having no significant similarity with any previously reported sequence. Three of the putative proteins appear to be targeted to the endomembrane system and include an endo-beta-1,4-glucanase which is expressed exclusively in pistils at early stages of development, and proteins similar in sequence to gamma-thionin and miraculin which are expressed in immature pistils and stamens, and in either sepals or petals, respectively. Two other clones, similar in sequence to each other, were expressed primarily in immature pistils and stamens and encode distinct proteins with similarity to leucine aminopeptidases. An additional clone, which encodes a protein similar in sequence to the enzyme hyoscyamine 6-beta-hydroxylase and to other members of the family of Fe2+/ascorbate-dependent oxidases, was expressed at high levels in pistils, stamens and sepals, and at detectable levels in some vegetative organs. Together, these observations provide new insight into the nature and possible functional roles of genes expressed during reproductive development.

  14. Integrating Plant Essential Oils and Kaolin for the Sustainable Management of Thrips and Tomato Spotted Wilt on Tomato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thrips-vectored Tomato spotted wilt virus is one of the most devastating pest complexes affecting tomato in the southern USA and elsewhere. Field trials were conducted over two years to determine the effects of volatile plant essential oils and kaolin based particle films on the incidence of Tomato...

  15. Superfamily of ankyrin repeat proteins in tomato.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiaowei; Zhang, Shizhong; Qing, Xiaohe; Sun, Meihong; Liu, Shiyang; Su, Hongyan; Shu, Huairui; Li, Xinzheng

    2013-07-10

    The ankyrin repeat (ANK) protein family plays a crucial role in plant growth and development and in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, no detailed information concerning this family is available for tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) due to the limited information on whole genome sequences. In this study, we identified a total of 130 ANK genes in tomato genome (SlANK), and these genes were distributed across all 12 chromosomes at various densities. And chromosomal localizations of SlANK genes indicated 25 SlANK genes were involved in tandem duplications. Based on their domain composition, all of the SlANK proteins were grouped into 13 subgroups. A combined phylogenetic tree was constructed with the aligned SlANK protein sequences. This tree revealed that the SlANK proteins comprise five major groups. An analysis of the expression profiles of SlANK genes in tomato in different tissues and in response to stresses showed that the SlANK proteins play roles in plant growth, development and stress responses. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a genome-wide analysis of the tomato ANK gene family. This study provides valuable information regarding the classification and putative functions of SlANK genes in tomato.

  16. Supplemental photosynthetic lighting for greenhouse tomato production

    SciTech Connect

    Godfriaux, B.L.; Wittman, W.K. ); Janes, H.W.; McAvoy, R.J.; Putman, J.; Logendra, S. . Dept. of Horticulture and Forestry); Mears, D.R.; Giacommelli, G.; Giniger, M. . Dept. of Biological and Agricultural Engineering)

    1989-12-01

    The influence of supplemental light on the growth and productivity of greenhouse tomatoes grown to a single cluster on movable benches is examined, and the economic feasibility of such a system is evaluated. Experiments were conducted to quantify the tomato plants' response to various levels of supplemental light in terms of growth rate and yield at various stages in their development (e.g., seedling, flowering plant, etc.). The 1984--85 experiments showed that supplemental photosynthetic lighting nearly doubled tomato yields, from 0.48 to 0.86 lbs/plant. Subsequent experiments in 1985--86 identified the best tomato varieties for this treatment and further increased yields to 1.3 lbs/plant. In addition, the use of supplemental lighting was found to hasten tomato crop maturity. An economic analysis was performed on the 1985--86 empirical data using the tax rates and provisions then in force. It indicated that a 10-acre greenhouse could provide an after-tax internal rate of return of 10% to 12% using only equity financing. This return could likely be increased to 15--18% with the use of combined debt/equity financing. Using supplemental lighting on 10,000 acres of greenhouse production would require an estimated 7.5 billion kWh of additional electricity per year and, at 4.7 cents/kWh, generate an estimated $350 million in additional utility revenues. 48 refs., 34 figs., 24 tabs.

  17. Repeated taste exposure increases liking for vegetables by low-income elementary school children.

    PubMed

    Lakkakula, Anantha; Geaghan, James; Zanovec, Michael; Pierce, Sarah; Tuuri, Georgianna

    2010-10-01

    Children's food preferences play a major role in their food choices and consumption. The objective of the present study was to examine if repeated tastings of selected vegetables in a school setting increased children's liking of these items. A total of 360 fourth- and fifth-grade students attending four low-income, public elementary schools in southeastern Louisiana volunteered to participate. During the spring of 2008, children were offered a taste of carrots, peas, tomatoes, and bell peppers once a week for 10 weeks. At each tasting session children recorded whether they swallowed each of the vegetables, spit it into the napkin, or did not put it in their mouth and indicated their liking for each vegetable using a Likert-type response scale. Approximately one-half of the children tasted eight of ten times during the program (46.5% for those who began disliking and 68.5% for those who began liking the vegetables). Proc Glimmix analyses indicated that for children who began the program disliking the vegetables, repeated tasting improved liking scores for carrots, peas, and tomatoes; liking for bell peppers did not change. The number of children who reported liking or liking a lot for previously disliked vegetables was greater after eight or nine taste exposures. Repeated tasting of less-liked vegetables by children in a cafeteria-based setting is a strategy to promote liking of these items and is effective in approximately half of the participants.

  18. [Vitamin C in fruits and vegetables].

    PubMed

    Kosheleva, O V; Kodentsova, V M

    2013-01-01

    Strong opinion about reducing vitamin C content in traditional cultivars of fruits and vegetables as a result of intensive farming practices, on the one hand, and depletion of soil, waste of fertilizers, on the other hand, takes place. The aim of the study was to assess changes in vitamin C content in fresh vegetables, fruits and berries from the 40s of last century to the present. Available national and foreign data from official tables of the chemical composition tables published in different years, including the most typical values, based on the results conducted in a number of research institutes, laboratories and university departments, as well as some original investigations and unpublished own results were used to analyze possible changes of vitamin C content in fruits and vegetables. For comparison we take into consideration only results from the most common and affordable since the last century method of visual titration, which has a relative error of 20%. Analysis of vitamin C content conducted according 5-58 studies from the 40s of the last century to the present, for 32 types of greens and vegetables (potatoes, various types of cabbage and onion, garlic, carrot, turnip, tomato, pepper, eggplant, cucumber, squash, peas, turnip, garden radish, parsnip, rhubarb, parsley, dill, lettuce, onion, spinach, sorrel), and according to 6-50 studies of 24 sorts of fruits (apple, pear, mandarin, orange, lemon, grapefruit, pineapple, banana, watermelon, cantaloupe, grapes, peach, apricot, plum, cherry, blackberry, blueberry, strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, gooseberry, black currant, red and white) has been done. It was found that the average content of vitamin varies slightly. Deviations from the average for all the years of research do not exceed the standard deviation. Analysis of longitudinal data did not confirm a vitamin C decrease. This means that vitamin value C of fruits and vegetables remains approximately constant, due to the successful selection of new

  19. Biomass and vegetative characteristics of sawgrass grown in a tilting flume as part of a study of vegetative resistance to flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rybicki, N.B.; Reel, J.T.; Ruhl, H.A.; Gammon, P.T.; Carter, Virginia; Lee, J.K.

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is studying vegetative resistance to flow in the south Florida Everglades as part of a multidisciplinary effort to restore the South Florida Ecosystem. In order to test the flow resistance of sawgrass, one of the dominant species in the Everglades, uniform, dense stands of sawgrass were grown in a tilting flume at Stennis Space Center, Mississippi. Depth of water in the flume was controlled by adding or removing metal plates at the downstream end of the flume. A series of experiments were conducted at various flow depths, and the velocity, flow depth, and water-surface slope were measured. During each set of experiments, the sawgrass was sampled in layers from the sediment water interface for vegetative characteristics, biomass, and leaf area index. The results of the vegetation sampling are summarized in a series of tables.

  20. Differential Expression of Two Novel Members of the Tomato Ethylene-Receptor Family

    PubMed Central

    Tieman, Denise M.; Klee, Harry J.

    1999-01-01

    The phytohormone ethylene regulates many aspects of plant growth, development, and environmental responses. Much of the developmental regulation of ethylene responses in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) occurs at the level of hormone sensitivity. In an effort to understand the regulation of ethylene responses, we isolated and characterized tomato genes with sequence similarity to the Arabidopsis ETR1 (ethylene response 1) ethylene receptor. Previously, we isolated three genes that exhibit high similarity to ETR1 and to each other. Here we report the isolation of two additional genes, LeETR4 and LeETR5, that are only 42% and 40% identical to ETR1, respectively. Although the amino acids known to be involved in ethylene binding are conserved, LeETR5 lacks the histidine within the kinase domain that is predicted to be phosphorylated. This suggests that histidine kinase activity is not necessary for an ethylene response, because mutated forms of both LeETR4 and LeETR5 confer dominant ethylene insensitivity in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Expression analysis indicates that LeETR4 accounts for most of the putative ethylene-receptor mRNA present in reproductive tissues, but, like LeETR5, it is less abundant in vegetative tissues. Taken together, ethylene perception in tomato is potentially quite complex, with at least five structurally divergent, putative receptor family members exhibiting significant variation in expression levels throughout development. PMID:10318694