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Sample records for floristic region south

  1. A new redfin species, Pseudobarbus skeltoni (Cyprinidae, Teleostei), from the Cape Floristic Region, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Chakona, Albert; Swartz, Ernst R

    2013-01-01

    A new cyprinid species, Pseudobarbus skeltoni sp. nov, is described from material recently collected in the upper Riviersonderend River (a major tributary of the Breede River system) and the Krom River (a tributary of the Molenaars River in the upper Breede River) in the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa. The new species is readily distinguished from congeners, except P. burgi and P burchelli, by having two pairs of prominent oral barbels. Pseudobarbus skeltoni can be distinguished from P. burgi and P burchelli by the following combination of characters: distinctive terminal (vs. subterminal) mouth in adults; mouth inferior in sub-adults and young adults of P skeltoni but lower lips are unretracted (vs. retracted) and lack a distinct cartilaginous plate; snout prominent; more slender head (head depth 64.2% of HL, vs. 70.1% of HL in P. burchelli and 74.1% of HL in P. burgi); and a longer head relative to standard length (30.5 % vs. 26.8% in P. burchelli and 25.8% in P. burgi). The new species attains the largest size of any Pseudobarbus. The restricted distribution and the small remaining population sizes of P skeltoni indicate that this species is highly threatened and requires immediate conservation attention.

  2. Topography as a driver of diversification in the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Verboom, G Anthony; Bergh, Nicola G; Haiden, Sarah A; Hoffmann, Vera; Britton, Matthew N

    2015-07-01

    The rugged topography of the Cape Floristic Region (CFR), South Africa, is frequently invoked to explain the spectacular radiation of the Cape flora, but the mechanisms involved remain unclear. Where recent authors emphasize the importance of elevation gradients as stimuli for ecological speciation, earlier workers stressed the role of topography as an isolating mechanism, particularly in montane lineages. Using six Cape plant lineages, we tested whether elevation niches are phylogenetically conserved. We then assessed whether high-elevation species are more consistently range-restricted than low-elevation species, and whether high-elevation sisters show stronger range exclusivity (allopatry) and weaker ecological and phenotypic differentiation, suggestive of nonecological speciation. Elevation niches tend to be phylogenetically conserved. Also, high-elevation species are more consistently range-restricted than low-elevation species, potentially explaining the generally stronger range exclusivity of high-elevation sisters. While the high-elevation zone is less homogeneous ecologically, more data are required to demonstrate that high-elevation sister species show generally weaker ecological and phenotypic differentiation. Topographic complexity promotes geographical isolation at high elevations, thereby providing opportunities for nonecological, vicariant speciation. While recognizing the need for additional data, we suggest that the upland and lowland floras of the CFR may differ with regard to predominant speciation mode.

  3. Climatic controls on ecosystem resilience: Postfire regeneration in the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Adam M; Latimer, Andrew M; Silander, John A

    2015-07-21

    Conservation of biodiversity and natural resources in a changing climate requires understanding what controls ecosystem resilience to disturbance. This understanding is especially important in the fire-prone Mediterranean systems of the world. The fire frequency in these systems is sensitive to climate, and recent climate change has resulted in more frequent fires over the last few decades. However, the sensitivity of postfire recovery and biomass/fuel load accumulation to climate is less well understood than fire frequency despite its importance in driving the fire regime. In this study, we develop a hierarchical statistical framework to model postfire ecosystem recovery using satellite-derived observations of vegetation as a function of stand age, topography, and climate. In the Cape Floristic Region (CFR) of South Africa, a fire-prone biodiversity hotspot, we found strong postfire recovery gradients associated with climate resulting in faster recovery in regions with higher soil fertility, minimum July (winter) temperature, and mean January (summer) precipitation. Projections using an ensemble of 11 downscaled Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) general circulation models (GCMs) suggest that warmer winter temperatures in 2080-2100 will encourage faster postfire recovery across the region, which could further increase fire frequency due to faster fuel accumulation. However, some models project decreasing precipitation in the western CFR, which would slow recovery rates there, likely reducing fire frequency through lack of fuel and potentially driving local biome shifts from fynbos shrubland to nonburning semidesert vegetation. This simple yet powerful approach to making inferences from large, remotely sensed datasets has potential for wide application to modeling ecosystem resilience in disturbance-prone ecosystems globally.

  4. Climatic controls on ecosystem resilience: Postfire regeneration in the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Adam M.; Latimer, Andrew M.; Silander, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Conservation of biodiversity and natural resources in a changing climate requires understanding what controls ecosystem resilience to disturbance. This understanding is especially important in the fire-prone Mediterranean systems of the world. The fire frequency in these systems is sensitive to climate, and recent climate change has resulted in more frequent fires over the last few decades. However, the sensitivity of postfire recovery and biomass/fuel load accumulation to climate is less well understood than fire frequency despite its importance in driving the fire regime. In this study, we develop a hierarchical statistical framework to model postfire ecosystem recovery using satellite-derived observations of vegetation as a function of stand age, topography, and climate. In the Cape Floristic Region (CFR) of South Africa, a fire-prone biodiversity hotspot, we found strong postfire recovery gradients associated with climate resulting in faster recovery in regions with higher soil fertility, minimum July (winter) temperature, and mean January (summer) precipitation. Projections using an ensemble of 11 downscaled Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) general circulation models (GCMs) suggest that warmer winter temperatures in 2080–2100 will encourage faster postfire recovery across the region, which could further increase fire frequency due to faster fuel accumulation. However, some models project decreasing precipitation in the western CFR, which would slow recovery rates there, likely reducing fire frequency through lack of fuel and potentially driving local biome shifts from fynbos shrubland to nonburning semidesert vegetation. This simple yet powerful approach to making inferences from large, remotely sensed datasets has potential for wide application to modeling ecosystem resilience in disturbance-prone ecosystems globally. PMID:26150521

  5. Luteocirrhus shearii gen. sp. nov. (Diaporthales, Cryphonectriaceae) pathogenic to Proteaceae in the South Western Australian Floristic Region.

    PubMed

    Crane, Colin; Burgess, Treena I

    2013-07-01

    Morphological and DNA sequence characteristics of a pathogenic fungus isolated from branch cankers in Proteaceae of the South West Australian Floristic Region elucidated a new genus and species within Cryphonectriaceae (Diaporthales). The pathogen has been isolated from canker lesions in several Banksia species and Lambertia echinata subsp. citrina, and is associated with a serious decline of the rare B. verticillata. Lack of orange pigment in all observed structures except cirrhi, combined with pulvinate to globose black semi-immersed conidiomata with paraphyses, distinguishes the canker fungus from other genera of Cryphonectriaceae. This was confirmed by DNA sequence analysis of the ITS regions, β-tubulin, and LSU genes. The fungus (sexual morph unknown) is described as Luteocirrhus shearii gen. sp. nov. Lesions in seedlings of Banksia spp. following wound inoculation and subsequent recovery confirm Koch's postulates for pathogenicity. This pathogen of native Proteaceae is currently an emerging threat, particularly toward B. baxteri and B. verticillata.

  6. A survey of the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa for the presence of cyst nematodes (Nematoda: Heteroderidae).

    PubMed

    Knoetze, Rinus; Swart, Antoinette

    2014-12-09

    A survey was performed to detect the presence of cyst nematodes in the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa. Soil was collected in the rhizosphere of the dominant plant species within blocks of indigenous vegetation and cysts were extracted from them. A total of 81 blocks of indigenous vegetation were sampled as described. Cysts were detected in 7 of these samples, representing 6 different vegetation types. One set of primers was used to amplify the ITS regions from these cysts, including the 5.8S ribosomal gene, as well as short parts of the 18S and 28S ribosomal genes. ITS-rDNA sequences from the indigenous isolates were aligned with selected sequences of other species from the Heteroderidae. Phylogenetic analyses to resolve the relationships between indigenous isolates and selected representatives of the Heteroderidae were conducted using the Maximum Parsimony method. The consensus tree resulting from alignment of the circumfenestrate cysts revealed that isolates SK18, WK1 and WK26 are included in a clade of Globodera species that parasitise non-solanaceous plants, forming a monophyletic group with G. millefolii, G. artemisiae, and an unidentified Globodera sp. from Portugal. In a tree resulting from the alignment of the Heterodera spp., isolates OK14 and WK2 are included in the Afenestrata group, forming a monophyletic group with H. orientalis.This survey unearthed at least four potentially new species of cyst nematodes, which may prove invaluable for the study of the evolution and biogeography of the group.

  7. Functional Traits in Parallel Evolutionary Radiations and Trait-Environment Associations in the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Nora; Moore, Timothy E; Mollmann, Hayley Kilroy; Carlson, Jane E; Mocko, Kerri; Martinez-Cabrera, Hugo; Adams, Christopher; Silander, John A; Jones, Cynthia S; Schlichting, Carl D; Holsinger, Kent E

    2015-04-01

    Evolutionary radiations with extreme levels of diversity present a unique opportunity to study the role of the environment in plant evolution. If environmental adaptation played an important role in such radiations, we expect to find associations between functional traits and key climatic variables. Similar trait-environment associations across clades may reflect common responses, while contradictory associations may suggest lineage-specific adaptations. Here, we explore trait-environment relationships in two evolutionary radiations in the fynbos biome of the highly biodiverse Cape Floristic Region (CFR) of South Africa. Protea and Pelargonium are morphologically and evolutionarily diverse genera that typify the CFR yet are substantially different in growth form and morphology. Our analytical approach employs a Bayesian multiple-response generalized linear mixed-effects model, taking into account covariation among traits and controlling for phylogenetic relationships. Of the pairwise trait-environment associations tested, 6 out of 24 were in the same direction and 2 out of 24 were in opposite directions, with the latter apparently reflecting alternative life-history strategies. These findings demonstrate that trait diversity within two plant lineages may reflect both parallel and idiosyncratic responses to the environment, rather than all taxa conforming to a global-scale pattern. Such insights are essential for understanding how trait-environment associations arise and how they influence species diversification.

  8. Plant responses to climate in the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa: evidence for adaptive differentiation in the Proteaceae.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Jane E; Holsinger, Kent E; Prunier, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Local adaptation along environmental gradients may drive plant species radiation within the Cape Floristic Region (CFR), yet few studies examine the role of ecologically based divergent selection within CFR clades. In this study, we ask whether populations within the monophyletic white protea clade (Protea section Exsertae, Proteaceae) differ in key functional traits along environmental gradients and whether differences are consistent with local adaptation. Using seven taxa, we measured trait-environment associations and selection gradients across 35 populations of wild adults and their offspring grown in two common gardens. Focal traits were leaf size and shape, specific leaf area (SLA), stomatal density, growth, and photosynthetic rate. Analyses on wild and common garden plants revealed heritable trait differences that were associated with gradients in rainfall seasonality, drought stress, cold stress, and less frequently, soil fertility. Divergent selection between gardens generally matched trait-environment correlations and literature-based predictions, yet variation in selection regimes among wild populations generally did not. Thus, selection via seedling survival may promote gradient-wide differences in SLA and leaf area more than does selection via adult fecundity. By focusing on the traits, life stages, and environmental clines that drive divergent selection, our study uniquely demonstrates adaptive differentiation among plant populations in the CFR.

  9. Strontium isotope investigation of ungulate movement patterns on the Pleistocene Paleo-Agulhas Plain of the Greater Cape Floristic Region, South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, Sandi R.; Cawthra, Hayley C.; Fisher, Erich C.; Lee-Thorp, Julia A.; Cowling, Richard M.; le Roux, Petrus J.; Hodgkins, Jamie; Marean, Curtis W.

    2016-04-16

    Middle Stone Age sites located within the Greater Cape Floristic Region on the South African southern coast have material culture with early evidence for key modern human behaviors such as projectile weaponry, large animal hunting, and symbolic behavior. In order to interpret how and why these changes evolved, it is necessary to understand their ecological context as it has direct relevance to foraging behavior. During periods of lowered sea level, a largely flat and vast expanse of land existed south of the modern coastline, but it is now submerged by higher sea levels. This exposed area, the Paleo-Agulhas Plain, likely created an ecological context unlike anything in the region today, as evidenced by fossil assemblages dominated by migratory ungulates. One hypothesis is that the Paleo-Agulhas Plain supported a migration ecosystem of large grazers driven by summer rainfall, producing palatable forage during summer in the east, and winter rainfall, producing palatable forage during winter in the west. Furthermore, ungulates may have been moving from the coastal plain in the south to the interior north of the Cape Fold Mountains, as observed for elephants in historic times.

  10. Strontium isotope investigation of ungulate movement patterns on the Pleistocene Paleo-Agulhas Plain of the Greater Cape Floristic Region, South Africa

    DOE PAGES

    Copeland, Sandi R.; Cawthra, Hayley C.; Fisher, Erich C.; ...

    2016-04-16

    Middle Stone Age sites located within the Greater Cape Floristic Region on the South African southern coast have material culture with early evidence for key modern human behaviors such as projectile weaponry, large animal hunting, and symbolic behavior. In order to interpret how and why these changes evolved, it is necessary to understand their ecological context as it has direct relevance to foraging behavior. During periods of lowered sea level, a largely flat and vast expanse of land existed south of the modern coastline, but it is now submerged by higher sea levels. This exposed area, the Paleo-Agulhas Plain, likelymore » created an ecological context unlike anything in the region today, as evidenced by fossil assemblages dominated by migratory ungulates. One hypothesis is that the Paleo-Agulhas Plain supported a migration ecosystem of large grazers driven by summer rainfall, producing palatable forage during summer in the east, and winter rainfall, producing palatable forage during winter in the west. Furthermore, ungulates may have been moving from the coastal plain in the south to the interior north of the Cape Fold Mountains, as observed for elephants in historic times.« less

  11. The potential for predicted climate shifts to impact genetic landscapes of lizards in the South African Cape Floristic Region.

    PubMed

    Tolley, Krystal A; Makokha, Jane Sakwa; Houniet, Darren T; Swart, Belinda L; Matthee, Conrad A

    2009-04-01

    The Cape Floristic Region (CFR) is well-known for its floral diversity, yet also contains a rich herpetofauna with >180 species, 28% of which are endemic. Recent studies conducted on CFR lizards indicated that phylogeographic patterns show some congruency, and that the western CFR shows higher overall diversity in the form of population and/or clade turnover. Here, we combine mitochondrial sequence data from two published (Bradypodion spp. and Agama atra) and one new dataset (Pedioplanis burchelli) to investigate whether geographic patterns of genetic diversity could be influenced by predicted climatic changes. We utilised Bayesian methodology and spatial genetic landscapes to establish broad-scale patterns and show that the western CFR is a contact zone for several clades in all three taxa, supporting the hypothesis of phylogeographic congruence. Current levels of gene flow are virtually zero between the western and eastern CFR. In the east, gene flow between populations is negligible at present but was probably stronger in the past given the present lack of strong genetic structure. Bioclimatic modelling predicted that climatically suitable areas within the CFR will decline for Bradypodion spp. and P. burchelli, with areas high in clade turnover loosing more climatically suitable areas than areas with low clade turnover. The models also predict that loss of climatic suitability may result in highly fragmented and patchy distributions, resulting in a greater loss of connectivity. In contrast, A. atra does not show significant climatic suitability losses overall, although it may experience localised losses (and gains). This species is not predicted to loose suitability in areas of high clade turnover. Thus, the incorporation of genetic data into climatic models has extended our knowledge on the vulnerability of these species given the predicted threat of landscape change.

  12. Strontium isotope investigation of ungulate movement patterns on the Pleistocene Paleo-Agulhas Plain of the Greater Cape Floristic Region, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copeland, Sandi R.; Cawthra, Hayley C.; Fisher, Erich C.; Lee-Thorp, Julia A.; Cowling, Richard M.; le Roux, Petrus J.; Hodgkins, Jamie; Marean, Curtis W.

    2016-06-01

    Middle Stone Age sites located within the Greater Cape Floristic Region on the South African southern coast have material culture with early evidence for key modern human behaviors such as projectile weaponry, large animal hunting, and symbolic behavior. In order to interpret how and why these changes evolved, it is necessary to understand their ecological context as it has direct relevance to foraging behavior. During periods of lowered sea level, a largely flat and vast expanse of land existed south of the modern coastline, but it is now submerged by higher sea levels. This exposed area, the Paleo-Agulhas Plain, likely created an ecological context unlike anything in the region today, as evidenced by fossil assemblages dominated by migratory ungulates. One hypothesis is that the Paleo-Agulhas Plain supported a migration ecosystem of large grazers driven by summer rainfall, producing palatable forage during summer in the east, and winter rainfall, producing palatable forage during winter in the west. Alternatively, ungulates may have been moving from the coastal plain in the south to the interior north of the Cape Fold Mountains, as observed for elephants in historic times. In this study, we assess ungulate movement patterns with inter- and intra-tooth enamel samples for strontium isotopes in fossil fauna from Pinnacle Point sites PP13B and PP30. To accomplish our goals we created a bioavailable 87Sr/86Sr isoscape for the region by collecting plants at 171 sampling sites and developing a geospatial model. The strontium isotope results indicate that ungulates spent most of their time on the Paleo-Agulhas Plain and avoided dissected plain, foothill, and mountain habitats located more than about 15 km north of the modern coastline. The results clearly exclude a north-south (coastal-interior) movement or migration pattern, and cannot falsify the east-west movements hypothesized in the south coast migration ecosystem hypothesis.

  13. Floristic study of Mirabad region.

    PubMed

    Hasanzadeh Gorttapeh, A; Panahy, J

    2007-10-15

    The study area (Mirabad) is located between 36 degrees, 55' to 37 degrees north latitude and 45 degrees, 05' to 55 degrees, 44' east longitude in west Azerbaijan province. In this study, Flora of this region was determined by using available references. We encountered 192 species that belongs to 126 genera and 41 families. The largest family of region is Asteraceae with 31 sp. and the largest Genera is Astragalus with 7 sp. The main life forms are: Hemicryptophyte with 30.2% and Therophyte with 28.1%. The most extended chorotype with 62.5% is related to: Irano_Turanian.

  14. Genetic and Morphological Characterization of Freshwater Shrimps (Caridina africana Kingsley, 1882) Reveals the Presence of Alien Shrimps in the Cape Floristic Region, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mirimin, Luca; Kitchin, Natasha; Impson, Dean N; Clark, Paul F; Richard, Jasmine; Daniels, Savel R; Roodt-Wilding, Rouvay

    2015-01-01

    Morphological identification and molecular data (mtDNA COI) were used to resolve the taxonomic identity of a non-native freshwater shrimp in the Cape Floristic Region (CFR) of South Africa and to evaluate levels of genetic diversity and differentiation in the species' core natural distribution. The species was morphologically and genetically identified as Caridina africana Kingsley, 1882, whose main natural distribution is in the KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) Province, more than 1200 km from the point of new discovery. Subsequently, sequence data from natural populations occurring in seven rivers throughout KZN showed the presence of nuclear copies of the mtDNA COI gene (NUMTs) in 46 out of 140 individuals. Upon removal of sequences containing NUMTs, levels of genetic diversity were low in the alien population (possibly as a consequence of a bottleneck event), while varying levels of genetic diversity and differentiation were found in natural populations, indicating habitat heterogeneity, fragmentation and restricted gene flow between rivers. Following the present study, the alien shrimp has survived the Western Cape's winter and dispersed into a nearby tributary of the Eerste River System, hence posing an additional potential threat to endangered endemics. Understanding the biology of this alien species will aid detection and eradication procedures.

  15. Phylogenetic relatedness limits co-occurrence at fine spatial scales: evidence from the schoenoid sedges (Cyperaceae: Schoeneae) of the Cape Floristic Region, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Slingsby, Jasper A; Verboom, G Anthony

    2006-07-01

    Species co-occurrence at fine spatial scales is expected to be nonrandom with respect to phylogeny because of the joint effects of evolutionary (trait convergence and conservatism) and ecological (competitive exclusion and habitat filtering) processes. We use data from 11 existing vegetation surveys to test whether co-occurrence in schoenoid sedge assemblages in the Cape Floristic Region shows significant phylogenetic structuring and to examine whether this changes with the phylogenetic scale of the analysis. We provide evidence for phylogenetic overdispersion in an alliance of closely related species (the reticulate-sheathed Tetraria clade) using both quantile regression analysis and a comparison between the mean observed and expected phylogenetic distances between co-occurring species. Similar patterns are not evident when the analyses are performed at a broader phylogenetic scale. Examination of six functional traits suggests a general pattern of trait conservatism within the reticulate-sheathed Tetraria clade, suggesting a potential role for interspecific competition in structuring co-occurrence within this group. We suggest that phylogenetic overdispersion of communities may be common throughout many of the Cape lineages, since interspecific interactions are likely intensified in lineages with large numbers of species restricted to a small geographic area, and we discuss the potential implications for patterns of diversity in the Cape.

  16. A phylogenetically informed delineation of floristic regions within a biodiversity hotspot in Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Rong; Kraft, Nathan J B; Yang, Jie; Wang, Yuhua

    2015-03-30

    Traditional attempts to delineate floristic regions typically focus on species distributions, often ignoring the rich context that phylogenetic relationships can provide. In this study, we explore how phylogenetic relatedness, taxonomic composition, and regional phylogenetic structure change across a global biodiversity hotspot region, Yunnan, located in southwestern China. We propose a system of floristic regions within Yunnan by combining data on the distributions and phylogenetic relationships of 1,983 genera of native seed plants. We identified eight distinct floristic regions in Yunnan, which were grouped into two larger northern and southern geographical units. Phylogenetic relatedness was well correlated with taxonomic composition between floras in Yunnan. Across the Yunnan region we examined, the central Yunnan region shows the lowest level of spatial turnover in phylogenetic relationships and taxonomic composition of the floristic assemblages. Using null model analyses, we found evidence of nonrandom phylogenetic structure across the region, in which four areas show higher phylogenetic turnover than expected given the underlying taxonomic composition between sites. Our results show that the integration of phylogenetic information can provide valuable insight in floristic assessments, and help us to better understand the structure of a global biodiversity hotspot.

  17. A phylogenetically informed delineation of floristic regions within a biodiversity hotspot in Yunnan, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rong; Kraft, Nathan J. B.; Yang, Jie; Wang, Yuhua

    2015-01-01

    Traditional attempts to delineate floristic regions typically focus on species distributions, often ignoring the rich context that phylogenetic relationships can provide. In this study, we explore how phylogenetic relatedness, taxonomic composition, and regional phylogenetic structure change across a global biodiversity hotspot region, Yunnan, located in southwestern China. We propose a system of floristic regions within Yunnan by combining data on the distributions and phylogenetic relationships of 1,983 genera of native seed plants. We identified eight distinct floristic regions in Yunnan, which were grouped into two larger northern and southern geographical units. Phylogenetic relatedness was well correlated with taxonomic composition between floras in Yunnan. Across the Yunnan region we examined, the central Yunnan region shows the lowest level of spatial turnover in phylogenetic relationships and taxonomic composition of the floristic assemblages. Using null model analyses, we found evidence of nonrandom phylogenetic structure across the region, in which four areas show higher phylogenetic turnover than expected given the underlying taxonomic composition between sites. Our results show that the integration of phylogenetic information can provide valuable insight in floristic assessments, and help us to better understand the structure of a global biodiversity hotspot. PMID:25820037

  18. Floristic and structural patterns in South Brazilian coastal grasslands.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Luciana S; Müller, Sandra C; Overbeck, Gerhard E

    2015-01-01

    The natural vegetation of Southern Brazil's coastal region includes grasslands formations that are poorly considered in conservation policy, due to the lack of knowledge about these systems. This study reports results from a regional-scale survey of coastal grasslands vegetation along a 536 km gradient on southern Brazil. We sampled 16 sites along the coastal plain with 15 plots (1 m²) per site. All sites were grazed by cattle. We estimated plant species cover, vegetation height, percentage of bare soil, litter and manure, and classified species according to their growth forms. We found 221 species, 14 of them exotic and two threatened. The prostate grasses: Axonopus aff.affinis, Paspalum notatum and P. pumilumwere among the most important species. Prostrate graminoids species represented the most important vegetation cover, followed by cespitose grasses. Vegetation height, bare soil, litter and manure were similar among all areas, highlighting the homogeneity of sampling sites due to similar management. In comparison to other grasslands formations in Southern Brazil, the coastal grasslands presented rather low species richness. The presence of high values for bare soil at all sampling sites indicates the need to discuss management practices in the region, especially with regard to the intensity of livestock grazing.

  19. Two new species of Indigofera L. (Leguminosae) from the Sneeuberg Centre of Floristic Endemism, Great Escarpment (Eastern and Western Cape, South Africa).

    PubMed

    Clark, V Ralph; Schrire, Brian D; Barker, Nigel P

    2015-01-01

    Two new species of Indigofera L. (Leguminosae) are described from the Sneeuberg Centre of Floristic Endemism on the southern Great Escarpment, Eastern and Western Cape Provinces, South Africa. Both species are localised high-altitude endemics. Indigoferamagnifica Schrire & V.R. Clark is confined to the summit plateau of the Toorberg-Koudeveldberg-Meelberg west of Graaff-Reinet, and complements other western Sneeuberg endemics such as Ericapasserinoides (Bolus) E.G.H. Oliv. and Faurearecondita Rourke & V.R. Clark. Indigoferaasantasanensis Schrire & V.R. Clark is confined to a small area east of Graaff-Reinet, and complements several other eastern Sneeuberg endemics such as Euryopsexsudans B. Nord & V.R. Clark and Euryopsproteoides B. Nord. & V.R. Clark. Based on morphology, both new species belong to the Cape Clade of Indigofera, supporting a biogeographical link between the Cape Floristic Region and the Sneeuberg, as well as with the rest of the eastern Great Escarpment.

  20. Patterns of plant speciation in the Cape floristic region.

    PubMed

    van der Niet, Timotheüs; Johnson, Steven D

    2009-04-01

    Plant species have accumulated in the Cape region of southern Africa to a much greater degree than in areas of equivalent size in the rest of the subcontinent. Although this could be a consequence simply of lower extinction rates in the Cape, most researchers have invoked high rates of ecological speciation, driven by unique aspects of the Cape environment, as the primary explanation for this richness. To assess these ideas, we analyzed the frequencies of ecological shifts among 188 sister species pairs obtained from molecular phylogenies of eight Cape clades. Ecological shifts were evident in 80% of sister species pairs, with general habitat, pollinator, and fire-survival strategy shifts being especially frequent. Contrary to an established idea that shifts in soil type are frequently associated with speciation of Cape taxa, these shifts were relatively rare, occurring in just 17% of species pairs. More cases of sister species divergence are accompanied solely by floral than by vegetative diversification, suggesting an important role for pollinator-driven speciation. In an analysis of two large orchid genera that have radiated in both the Cape and the rest of southern Africa, the frequency of ecological shifts (general habitat, soil type, altitude and flowering time), did not differ between sister species pairs in the Cape region and those outside it. Despite suggestions that Cape plants tend to have small range sizes and show fine-scale patterns of speciation, range size did not differ significantly between species in the Cape and those outside it. We conclude that ecological speciation is likely to have been important for radiation of the Cape flora, but there is no evidence as yet for special "Cape" patterns of ecological speciation.

  1. Fungal radiation in the Cape Floristic Region: an analysis based on Gondwanamyces and Ophiostoma.

    PubMed

    Roets, F; Wingfield, M J; Crous, P W; Dreyer, L L

    2009-04-01

    The Cape Floristic Region (CFR) displays high levels of plant diversity and endemism, and has received focused botanical systematic attention. In contrast, fungal diversity patterns and co-evolutionary processes in this region have barely been investigated. Here we reconstruct molecular phylogenies using the ITS and beta-tubulin gene regions of the ophiostomatoid fungi Gondwanamyces and Ophiostoma associated with southern African Protea species. Results indicate that they evolved in close association with Protea. In contrast to Protea, Ophiostoma species migrated to the CFR from tropical and subtropical Africa, where they underwent subsequent radiation. In both Gondwanamyces and Ophiostoma vector arthropods probably facilitated long-distance migration and shorter-distance dispersal. Although ecological parameters shaped most associations between ophiostomatoid fungi and Protea, there is congruence between fungal-host-associations and the systematic classification of Protea. These results confirm that the entire biotic environment must be considered in order to understand diversity and evolution in the CFR as a whole.

  2. Two new species of Indigofera L. (Leguminosae) from the Sneeuberg Centre of Floristic Endemism, Great Escarpment (Eastern and Western Cape, South Africa)

    PubMed Central

    Clark, V. Ralph; Schrire, Brian D.; Barker, Nigel P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of Indigofera L. (Leguminosae) are described from the Sneeuberg Centre of Floristic Endemism on the southern Great Escarpment, Eastern and Western Cape Provinces, South Africa. Both species are localised high-altitude endemics. Indigofera magnifica Schrire & V.R. Clark is confined to the summit plateau of the Toorberg–Koudeveldberg–Meelberg west of Graaff-Reinet, and complements other western Sneeuberg endemics such as Erica passerinoides (Bolus) E.G.H. Oliv. and Faurea recondita Rourke & V.R. Clark. Indigofera asantasanensis Schrire & V.R. Clark is confined to a small area east of Graaff-Reinet, and complements several other eastern Sneeuberg endemics such as Euryops exsudans B. Nord & V.R. Clark and Euryops proteoides B. Nord. & V.R. Clark. Based on morphology, both new species belong to the Cape Clade of Indigofera, supporting a biogeographical link between the Cape Floristic Region and the Sneeuberg, as well as with the rest of the eastern Great Escarpment. PMID:25941448

  3. Evolutionary history of a keystone pollinator parallels the biome occupancy of angiosperms in the Greater Cape Floristic Region.

    PubMed

    de Jager, Marinus L; Ellis, Allan G

    2017-02-01

    The Greater Cape Floristic Region (GCFR) in South Africa has been extensively investigated for its phenomenal angiosperm diversity. A key emergent pattern is the occurrence of older plant lineages in the southern Fynbos biome and younger lineages in the northern Succulent Karoo biome. We know practically nothing, however, about the evolutionary history of the animals that pollinate this often highly-specialized flora. In this study, we explore the evolutionary history of an important GCFR fly pollinator, Megapalpus capensis, and ask whether it exhibits broadly congruent genetic structuring and timing of diversification to flowering plants within these biomes. We find that the oldest M. capensis lineages originated in Fynbos during the Miocene, while younger Succulent Karoo lineages diverged in the Pliocene and correspond to the proposed age of this recent biome. A strong signature of population expansion is also recovered for flies in this arid biome, consistent with recent colonization. Our first investigation into the evolutionary history of GCFR pollinators thus supports a recent origin of the SK biome, as inferred from angiosperm phylogenies, and suggests that plants and pollinators may have co-diverged within this remarkable area.

  4. Molecular phylogenetics of Haemodoraceae in the Greater Cape and Southwest Australian Floristic Regions.

    PubMed

    Hopper, Stephen D; Smith, Rhian J; Fay, Michael F; Manning, John C; Chase, Mark W

    2009-04-01

    Molecular phylogenetic studies of Haemodoraceae in the Greater Cape and Southwest Australian Floristic Region (SWAFR) using trnL, trnL-F and matK sequence data affirm the presence of old and young rapidly radiated lineages in both regions. Commencement of tribal and generic divergence in the subfamilies occured in the Eocene in the two regions, but subsequent patterns of radiation differ slightly. The hypothesis of rapid recent speciation in these regions from the late Pliocene as the major explanation for endemic species richness is still repeated by several contemporary authors despite increasing molecular phylogenetic evidence to the contrary. Our estimates of the age of lineages in Haemodoraceae show significant lineage turnover occurring over the last 15 million years, since the mid-Miocene, with divergence of the major clades beginning in the Eocene. The search for independent evidence to date speciation episodes reliably and investigation of molecular analyses across a broad spectrum of these clades must be pursued to advance ideas rigorously concerning origins of species richness. These regions continue to confound attempts to develop theory concerning origins of global species richness, with consequent implications for conservation biology.

  5. Optimising Regionalisation Techniques: Identifying Centres of Endemism in the Extraordinarily Endemic-Rich Cape Floristic Region.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Peter L; Colville, Jonathan F; Linder, H Peter

    2015-01-01

    We used a very large dataset (>40% of all species) from the endemic-rich Cape Floristic Region (CFR) to explore the impact of different weighting techniques, coefficients to calculate similarity among the cells, and clustering approaches on biogeographical regionalisation. The results were used to revise the biogeographical subdivision of the CFR. We show that weighted data (down-weighting widespread species), similarity calculated using Kulczinsky's second measure, and clustering using UPGMA resulted in the optimal classification. This maximized the number of endemic species, the number of centres recognized, and operational geographic units assigned to centres of endemism (CoEs). We developed a dendrogram branch order cut-off (BOC) method to locate the optimal cut-off points on the dendrogram to define candidate clusters. Kulczinsky's second measure dendrograms were combined using consensus, identifying areas of conflict which could be due to biotic element overlap or transitional areas. Post-clustering GIS manipulation substantially enhanced the endemic composition and geographic size of candidate CoEs. Although there was broad spatial congruence with previous phytogeographic studies, our techniques allowed for the recovery of additional phytogeographic detail not previously described for the CFR.

  6. Optimising Regionalisation Techniques: Identifying Centres of Endemism in the Extraordinarily Endemic-Rich Cape Floristic Region

    PubMed Central

    Bradshaw, Peter L.; Colville, Jonathan F.; Linder, H. Peter

    2015-01-01

    We used a very large dataset (>40% of all species) from the endemic-rich Cape Floristic Region (CFR) to explore the impact of different weighting techniques, coefficients to calculate similarity among the cells, and clustering approaches on biogeographical regionalisation. The results were used to revise the biogeographical subdivision of the CFR. We show that weighted data (down-weighting widespread species), similarity calculated using Kulczinsky’s second measure, and clustering using UPGMA resulted in the optimal classification. This maximized the number of endemic species, the number of centres recognized, and operational geographic units assigned to centres of endemism (CoEs). We developed a dendrogram branch order cut-off (BOC) method to locate the optimal cut-off points on the dendrogram to define candidate clusters. Kulczinsky’s second measure dendrograms were combined using consensus, identifying areas of conflict which could be due to biotic element overlap or transitional areas. Post-clustering GIS manipulation substantially enhanced the endemic composition and geographic size of candidate CoEs. Although there was broad spatial congruence with previous phytogeographic studies, our techniques allowed for the recovery of additional phytogeographic detail not previously described for the CFR. PMID:26147438

  7. Psoralea margaretiflora (Psoraleeae, Fabaceae): A new species from the Sneeuberg Centre of Floristic Endemism, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Stirton, Charles H.; Clark, V. Ralph; Barker, Nigel P.; Muasya, A. Muthama

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Psoralea is described. Psoralea margaretiflora C.H. Stirton & V.R. Clark is endemic to the Sneeuberg Centre of Floristic Endemism, Eastern Cape, South Africa. This resprouter is characterised by its small greenish-white flowers with a small trifid purple nectar patch and translucent veins; 5(–7)-pinnate leaflets; multi-branching erect short seasonal flowering shoots; and tall habit of many stiff bare stems with the seasonal shoots massed at the apex. It is most similar to Psoralea oligophylla Eckl. & Zeyh., a widespread species found in the Eastern Cape. The reseeder Psoralea oligophylla differs in its lax virgate spreading habit with numerous long glaucous seasonal shoots; single stem, 1(–3)- glaucous leaflets; more numerous white flowers; and standard petals with a purple ring surrounding a bright yellow nectar patch. PMID:22171191

  8. Psoralea margaretiflora (Psoraleeae, Fabaceae): A new species from the Sneeuberg Centre of Floristic Endemism, Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Stirton, Charles H; Clark, V Ralph; Barker, Nigel P; Muasya, A Muthama

    2011-01-01

    A new species of Psoralea is described. Psoralea margaretiflora C.H. Stirton & V.R. Clark is endemic to the Sneeuberg Centre of Floristic Endemism, Eastern Cape, South Africa. This resprouter is characterised by its small greenish-white flowers with a small trifid purple nectar patch and translucent veins; 5(-7)-pinnate leaflets; multi-branching erect short seasonal flowering shoots; and tall habit of many stiff bare stems with the seasonal shoots massed at the apex. It is most similar to Psoralea oligophylla Eckl. & Zeyh., a widespread species found in the Eastern Cape. The reseeder Psoralea oligophylla differs in its lax virgate spreading habit with numerous long glaucous seasonal shoots; single stem, 1(-3)- glaucous leaflets; more numerous white flowers; and standard petals with a purple ring surrounding a bright yellow nectar patch.

  9. Costs of expanding the network of protected areas as a response to climate change in the Cape Floristic Region.

    PubMed

    Wise, Russell M; Reyers, Belinda; Guo, Chris; Midgley, Guy F; De Lange, Willem

    2012-06-01

    The expansion of protected areas is a critical component of strategies to promote the continued existence of biodiversity (i.e., life at all levels of biological organization) as climate changes, but scientific, social, and economic uncertainties associated with climate change are some of the major obstacles preventing such expansion. New models of climate change and species distribution and new methods of conservation planning now make it possible to explore the uncertainties associated with climate changes and species responses. Yet few reliable estimates of the costs of expanding protected areas and methods for determining these costs exist, largely because of the many (and uncertain) determinants of these costs. We developed a cost-accounting model to estimate the range in costs of various options for expanding protected areas and to explore the variables that drive these costs. Model development was informed by an existing plan to expand protected areas in the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa to address species conservation under a scenario of climate change. The 50-year present value of total costs varied from US$260 million ($1077/ha) for an off-reserve option that involves agreements with landowners and no compensation of forgone production and associated revenue to $1020 million ($4228/ha) for an on-reserve option that involves land acquisition and protection. The costs of acquiring land or compensating landowners for forgone production and development opportunities were the major drivers of the total costs across all options because most of the area identified in the protected-area expansion plan consisted of urban and high-quality agricultural lands. Total costs were also affected by changes in protected area extent and discount rate. Model-generated outputs such as these may be useful for informing implementation strategies and the allocation of future efforts in monitoring, data collection, and model development.

  10. Mercury's South Polar Region

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows 89 wide-angle camera (WAC) images of Mercury’s south polar region acquired by the Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) over one complete Mercury solar day (176 Earth days). Thi...

  11. Dated Plant Phylogenies Resolve Neogene Climate and Landscape Evolution in the Cape Floristic Region.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Vera; Verboom, G Anthony; Cotterill, Fenton P D

    2015-01-01

    In the context of molecularly-dated phylogenies, inferences informed by ancestral habitat reconstruction can yield valuable insights into the origins of biomes, palaeoenvironments and landforms. In this paper, we use dated phylogenies of 12 plant clades from the Cape Floristic Region (CFR) in southern Africa to test hypotheses of Neogene climatic and geomorphic evolution. Our combined dataset for the CFR strengthens and refines previous palaeoenvironmental reconstructions based on a sparse, mostly offshore fossil record. Our reconstructions show remarkable consistency across all 12 clades with regard to both the types of environments identified as ancestral, and the timing of shifts to alternative conditions. They reveal that Early Miocene land surfaces of the CFR were wetter than at present and were dominated by quartzitic substrata. These conditions continue to characterize the higher-elevation settings of the Cape Fold Belt, where they have fostered the persistence of ancient fynbos lineages. The Middle Miocene (13-17 Ma) saw the development of perennial to weakly-seasonal arid conditions, with the strongly seasonal rainfall regime of the west coast arising ~6.5-8 Ma. Although the Late Miocene may have seen some exposure of the underlying shale substrata, the present-day substrate diversity of the CFR lowlands was shaped by Pliocene-Pleistocene events. Particularly important was renewed erosion, following the post-African II uplift episode, and the reworking of sediments on the coastal platform as a consequence of marine transgressions and tectonic uplift. These changes facilitated adaptive radiations in some, but not all, lineages studied.

  12. Dated Plant Phylogenies Resolve Neogene Climate and Landscape Evolution in the Cape Floristic Region

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In the context of molecularly-dated phylogenies, inferences informed by ancestral habitat reconstruction can yield valuable insights into the origins of biomes, palaeoenvironments and landforms. In this paper, we use dated phylogenies of 12 plant clades from the Cape Floristic Region (CFR) in southern Africa to test hypotheses of Neogene climatic and geomorphic evolution. Our combined dataset for the CFR strengthens and refines previous palaeoenvironmental reconstructions based on a sparse, mostly offshore fossil record. Our reconstructions show remarkable consistency across all 12 clades with regard to both the types of environments identified as ancestral, and the timing of shifts to alternative conditions. They reveal that Early Miocene land surfaces of the CFR were wetter than at present and were dominated by quartzitic substrata. These conditions continue to characterize the higher-elevation settings of the Cape Fold Belt, where they have fostered the persistence of ancient fynbos lineages. The Middle Miocene (13–17 Ma) saw the development of perennial to weakly-seasonal arid conditions, with the strongly seasonal rainfall regime of the west coast arising ~6.5–8 Ma. Although the Late Miocene may have seen some exposure of the underlying shale substrata, the present-day substrate diversity of the CFR lowlands was shaped by Pliocene-Pleistocene events. Particularly important was renewed erosion, following the post-African II uplift episode, and the reworking of sediments on the coastal platform as a consequence of marine transgressions and tectonic uplift. These changes facilitated adaptive radiations in some, but not all, lineages studied. PMID:26422465

  13. Floristic and structural status of forests in permanent preservation areas of Moju river basin, Amazon region.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, J C; Vieira, I C G; Almeida, A S; Silva, C A

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study is to analyze the floristic patterns and the structure of disturbed and undisturbed upland forests, in Permanent Preservation Areas (PPAs) along the Moju river, in the Brazilian state of Pará. Trees with a diameter equal to or larger than 10cm at 1.30m from the ground (DBH) ≥10cm were analyzed for the upper stratum. For the middle stratum, individuals with DBH between 4.99 and 9.99cm were sampled. Forty-five families and 221 species were found in disturbed forests, and 43 families and 208 species in undisturbed forests. Floristic similarity was high between strata and between forest types, with values above 50%. Similarity was highest between middle strata. The most species-abundant families in undisturbed forests were Fabaceae, Sapotaceae, Chrysobalanaceae and Myrtaceae; the species with the highest density there were Eschweilera grandiflora, Licania sclerophylla and Zygia cauliflora. In disturbed forests, the dominant families were Fabaceae, Sapotaceae, Lecythidaceae and Melastomataceae. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index was 3.21 for undisturbed forests and 2.85 for disturbed forests. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis did not group the forests by their floristic composition in both upper and middle strata. Overall, the PPA forests along the Moju river, even if disturbed, did not show major floristic changes but substantially change their structural characteristics.

  14. Floristic composition and vegetation analysis in Hail region north of central Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    El-Ghanim, Wafaa M; Hassan, Loutfy M; Galal, Tarek M; Badr, Abdelfattah

    2010-04-01

    In this study, 19 sites representing different habitats in Hail region were regularly visited for two years, in each site 2-5 stands were selected for investigating floristic composition and vegetation types in the area. A total of 124 species representing 34 families were recorded. The family Asteraceae is represented by the highest number of species (21 species) followed by the Poaceae (17 species) and the Brassicaceae (10 species) whereas, 15 families including Acanthaceae, Convolvulaceae, Moraceae, Nyctaginaceae and Primulaceae, are represented by a single species each. Chronological analysis of the vegetation in the area revealed the domination of Saharo-Sindian elements in the wild vegetations and of weedy species in the cultivated plots. Therophytes and chamaephytes are the dominating life forms of the vegetation spectra; therophytes represent 49.20% and chamaephytes represent 29.00% of the total species in the study area. Application of TWINISPAN and DECORANA classification and ordination techniques to the data produced seven vegetation groups. Ruderal habitats comprised two small groups A and F dominated by Phragmites australis and Imperata cylindrical (A), Euphorbia peplus and Sisymbrium irio (F), respectively. Two vegetation groups (B and G) have been recognized in the mountains and slopes dominated by Launaea mucronata, Trigonella stellata (B) and Ficus palmate and Fagonia bruguieri (G). Other two groups (C and E) inhabit the desert and mountainous wadies; these are represented by Gymnocarpos decandrus and Ochradenus baccatus (C) and Senecio glaucus subsp. coronopifolius and Rumex equisetiforme (E). On the other hand, one group (D) inhabits the cultivated plots and is represented by Plantago albicans and Rumex vesicarius, the last group also includes species restricted to the sand dune habitat of the Al-Nafud desert north of Hail city and represented by Calligonum polygonoides and Halyxolon salicornicum. The vegetation analysis indicated the invasion of

  15. Floristic composition and vegetation analysis in Hail region north of central Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    El-Ghanim, Wafaa M.; Hassan, Loutfy M.; Galal, Tarek M.; Badr, Abdelfattah

    2010-01-01

    In this study, 19 sites representing different habitats in Hail region were regularly visited for two years, in each site 2–5 stands were selected for investigating floristic composition and vegetation types in the area. A total of 124 species representing 34 families were recorded. The family Asteraceae is represented by the highest number of species (21 species) followed by the Poaceae (17 species) and the Brassicaceae (10 species) whereas, 15 families including Acanthaceae, Convolvulaceae, Moraceae, Nyctaginaceae and Primulaceae, are represented by a single species each. Chronological analysis of the vegetation in the area revealed the domination of Saharo-Sindian elements in the wild vegetations and of weedy species in the cultivated plots. Therophytes and chamaephytes are the dominating life forms of the vegetation spectra; therophytes represent 49.20% and chamaephytes represent 29.00% of the total species in the study area. Application of TWINISPAN and DECORANA classification and ordination techniques to the data produced seven vegetation groups. Ruderal habitats comprised two small groups A and F dominated by Phragmites australis and Imperata cylindrical (A), Euphorbia peplus and Sisymbrium irio (F), respectively. Two vegetation groups (B and G) have been recognized in the mountains and slopes dominated by Launaea mucronata, Trigonella stellata (B) and Ficus palmate and Fagonia bruguieri (G). Other two groups (C and E) inhabit the desert and mountainous wadies; these are represented by Gymnocarpos decandrus and Ochradenus baccatus (C) and Senecio glaucus subsp. coronopifolius and Rumex equisetiforme (E). On the other hand, one group (D) inhabits the cultivated plots and is represented by Plantago albicans and Rumex vesicarius, the last group also includes species restricted to the sand dune habitat of the Al-Nafud desert north of Hail city and represented by Calligonum polygonoides and Halyxolon salicornicum. The vegetation analysis indicated the invasion

  16. Floristic diversity and vegetation analysis of Wadi Arar: A typical desert Wadi of the Northern Border region of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Osman, Ahmed K; Al-Ghamdi, Faraj; Bawadekji, Abdulhakim

    2014-12-01

    Wadi Arar in the Northern border region of Saudi Arabia is one of the most important Wadis of the Kingdom. The present study provides an analysis of vegetation types, life forms, as well as floristic categories and species distribution. A total of 196 species representing 31 families of vascular plants were recorded. Compositae, Gramineae and Leguminosae were the most common families. Therophytes and chamaephytes are the most frequent life forms, indicating typical desert spectrum vegetation. The distribution of these species in the different sectors of the Wadi as well as the phytochoria for the recorded species is provided. Ninety-one species (46.5%) are typical bi-regional. Furthermore, about 105 species (53.5%) are mono- or pluriregional taxa. The highest number of species (136 or 69.5%) was recorded for annual plants, while the lowest number of species (60% or 30.5%) was recorded for perennial, short perennial or annual to biennial species.

  17. Floristic diversity and vegetation analysis of Wadi Arar: A typical desert Wadi of the Northern Border region of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Osman, Ahmed K.; Al-Ghamdi, Faraj; Bawadekji, Abdulhakim

    2014-01-01

    Wadi Arar in the Northern border region of Saudi Arabia is one of the most important Wadis of the Kingdom. The present study provides an analysis of vegetation types, life forms, as well as floristic categories and species distribution. A total of 196 species representing 31 families of vascular plants were recorded. Compositae, Gramineae and Leguminosae were the most common families. Therophytes and chamaephytes are the most frequent life forms, indicating typical desert spectrum vegetation. The distribution of these species in the different sectors of the Wadi as well as the phytochoria for the recorded species is provided. Ninety-one species (46.5%) are typical bi-regional. Furthermore, about 105 species (53.5%) are mono- or pluriregional taxa. The highest number of species (136 or 69.5%) was recorded for annual plants, while the lowest number of species (60% or 30.5%) was recorded for perennial, short perennial or annual to biennial species. PMID:25473364

  18. Developmental plasticity in Protea as an evolutionary response to environmental clines in the Cape Floristic Region.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Jane E; Holsinger, Kent E

    2012-01-01

    Local adaptation along steep environmental gradients likely contributes to plant diversity in the Cape Region of South Africa, yet existing analyses of trait divergence are limited to static measurements of functional traits rather than trajectories of individual development. We explore whether five taxa of evergreen shrubs (Protea section Exsertae) differ in their developmental trajectories and capacity for plasticity using two environmentally-distinct common gardens in South Africa. We measured seedlings in the summer-dry season and winter-wet season of each of two consecutive years to characterize ontogeny and plasticity within years, as same-age leaf cohorts mature, and between years, i.e., from leaf one cohort to the next. We compared patterns of development between gardens to assess whether trait trajectories are programmed versus plastic and examined whether developmental differences covaried with characteristics of a seedling's home environment. We detected plasticity in developmental trajectories for leaf area, stomatal size, stomatal pore index, and to a limited extent specific leaf area, but not for stomatal density. We showed that the species growing in the harshest environments exhibits both the smallest increase in leaf area between years and the least change in SLA and photosynthetic rates as leaves age within years. These results show that within this clade, species have diverged in developmental trajectories and plasticity as well as in mean trait values. Some of these differences may be associated with adaptation to cold and drought stress within an environmentally-complex region.

  19. Developmental Plasticity in Protea as an Evolutionary Response to Environmental Clines in the Cape Floristic Region

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Jane E.; Holsinger, Kent E.

    2012-01-01

    Local adaptation along steep environmental gradients likely contributes to plant diversity in the Cape Region of South Africa, yet existing analyses of trait divergence are limited to static measurements of functional traits rather than trajectories of individual development. We explore whether five taxa of evergreen shrubs (Protea section Exsertae) differ in their developmental trajectories and capacity for plasticity using two environmentally-distinct common gardens in South Africa. We measured seedlings in the summer-dry season and winter-wet season of each of two consecutive years to characterize ontogeny and plasticity within years, as same-age leaf cohorts mature, and between years, i.e., from leaf one cohort to the next. We compared patterns of development between gardens to assess whether trait trajectories are programmed versus plastic and examined whether developmental differences covaried with characteristics of a seedling’s home environment. We detected plasticity in developmental trajectories for leaf area, stomatal size, stomatal pore index, and to a limited extent specific leaf area, but not for stomatal density. We showed that the species growing in the harshest environments exhibits both the smallest increase in leaf area between years and the least change in SLA and photosynthetic rates as leaves age within years. These results show that within this clade, species have diverged in developmental trajectories and plasticity as well as in mean trait values. Some of these differences may be associated with adaptation to cold and drought stress within an environmentally-complex region. PMID:23272203

  20. The impact of land-use change on floristic diversity at regional scale in southern Sweden 600 BC-AD 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredh, D.; Broström, A.; Rundgren, M.; Lagerås, P.; Mazier, F.; Zillén, L.

    2012-12-01

    This study explores the relationship between land-use and floristic diversity between 600 BC and AD 2008 in the uplands of southern Sweden. We use fossil pollen assemblages and the Regional Estimates of Vegetation Abundance from Large Sites (REVEALS) model to quantitatively reconstruct land-cover at a regional scale. Floristic richness and evenness are estimated using palynological richness and REVEALS-based evenness, respectively. We focus on the period AD 350 to 750 to investigate the impact of an inferred, short-lived (< 200 yr) period of land-use expansion and subsequent land abandonment on vegetation composition and floristic diversity. The observed vegetation response is compared to that recorded during the transition from traditional to modern land-use management at the end of the 19th century. Our results suggest that agricultural land-use was most widespread between AD 350 and 1850, which correlates broadly with high values of palynological richness. REVEALS-based evenness was highest between AD 500 and 1600 which indicates a more equal distribution among taxa during this time interval. Palynological richness increased during the inferred land-use expansion after AD 350 and decreased during the subsequent regression AD 550-750, while REVEALS-based increased throughout this period. The values of palynological richness during the last few decades are within the range observed during the last 1650 yr. However, REVEALS-based evenness shows much lower values during the last century compared to the previous ca. 2600 yr, which indicates that the distribution of present day vegetation is unusual in a millennial perspective. Our results show that regional scale changes in land-use have had clear impacts on floristic diversity in southern Sweden, with a vegetation response time of less than 20 to 50 yr. We show the importance of traditional land-use to attain high biodiversity and suggest that ecosystem management should include a regional landscape perspective.

  1. The impact of land-use change on floristic diversity at regional scale in southern Sweden 600 BC-AD 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredh, D.; Broström, A.; Rundgren, M.; Lagerås, P.; Mazier, F.; Zillén, L.

    2013-05-01

    This study explores the relationship between land-use and floristic diversity between 600 BC and AD 2008 in the uplands of southern Sweden. We use fossil pollen assemblages and the Regional Estimates of Vegetation Abundance from Large Sites (REVEALS) model to quantitatively reconstruct land cover at a regional scale. Floristic richness and evenness are estimated using palynological richness and REVEALS-based evenness, respectively. We focus on the period AD 350 to 750 to investigate the impact of an inferred, short-lived (< 200 yr) period of land-use expansion and subsequent land abandonment on vegetation composition and floristic diversity. The observed vegetation response is compared to that recorded during the transition from traditional to modern land-use management at the end of the 19th century. Our results suggest that agricultural land use was most widespread between AD 350 and 1850, which correlates broadly with high values of palynological richness. REVEALS-based evenness was highest between AD 500 and 1600 which indicates a more equal cover among taxa during this time interval. Palynological richness increased during the inferred land-use expansion after AD 350 and decreased during the subsequent regression AD 550-750, while REVEALS-based evenness increased throughout this period. The values of palynological richness during the last few decades are within the range observed during the last 1650 yr. However, REVEALS-based evenness shows much lower values during the last century compared to the previous ca. 2600 yr, which indicates that the composition of present-day vegetation is unusual in a millennial perspective. Our results show that regional scale changes in land use have had clear impacts on floristic diversity in southern Sweden, with a vegetation response time of less than 20 to 50 yr. We show the importance of traditional land use to attain high biodiversity and suggest that ecosystem management should include a regional landscape perspective.

  2. New species of Ophiostomatales from Scolytinae and Platypodinae beetles in the Cape Floristic Region, including the discovery of the sexual state of Raffaelea.

    PubMed

    Musvuugwa, Tendai; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; Duong, Tuan A; Dreyer, Léanne L; Oberlander, Kenneth C; Roets, Francois

    2015-10-01

    Olea capensis and Rapanea melanophloeos are important canopy trees in South African Afromontane forests. Dying or recently dead individuals of these trees are often infested by Scolytinae and Platypodinae (Curculionidae) beetles. Fungi were isolated from the surfaces of beetles emerging from wood samples and their galleries. Based on micro-morphological and phylogenetic analyses, four fungal species in the Ophiostomatales were isolated. These were Sporothrix pallida and three taxa here newly described as Sporothrix aemulophila sp. nov., Raffaelea vaginata sp. nov. and Raffaelea rapaneae sp. nov. This study represents the first collection of S. pallida, a species known from many environmental samples from across the world, from Scolytinae beetles. S. aemulophila sp. nov. is an associate of the ambrosia beetle Xyleborinus aemulus. R. rapaneae sp. nov. and R. vaginata sp. nov. were associated with a Lanurgus sp. and Platypodinae beetle, respectively, and represent the first Raffaelea spp. reported from the Cape Floristic Region. Of significance is that R. vaginata produced a sexual state analogous with those of Ophiostoma seticolle and O. deltoideosporum that also grouped in our analyses in Raffaelea s. str., to date considered an asexual genus. The morphology of the ossiform ascospores and anamorphs of the three species corresponded and the generic circumscription of Raffaelea is thus emended to accommodate sexual states. The two known species are provided with new combinations, namely Raffaelea seticollis (R.W. Davidson) Z.W. de Beer and T.A. Duong comb. nov. and Raffaelea deltoideospora (Olchow. and J. Reid) Z.W. de Beer and T.A. Duong comb. nov.

  3. Floristic zones and aeroallergen diversity.

    PubMed

    Weber, Richard W

    2003-08-01

    The interplay of geographic, geochemical, and meteorologic factors combines to define distinct floristic zones in North America. Latitude, elevation, Pacific or Atlantic Ocean influence, continental air mass influence, mountains, and hills are contributory geographic factors. Hardiness zones are defined by the nadir of temperature, which strongly affects the survival of individual plant species. There are 12 hardiness zones from the northernmost tundra to the tropics of Mexico. Although it is useful to consider the 10 major floristic zones, the hardiness zones cut across these zones and characterize subregions. A multiplicity of local terrain effects, such as soil porosity and acidity, and sun exposure also impact on plant growth. The ability of plant species, whether woody shrubs and trees, or herbaceous weeds and grasses, to adapt to conditions within the floristic zones determines their range. This article identifies the major aeroallergenic species and the regions in which they are most prevalent.

  4. Floristic patterns and disturbance history in karri ( Eucalyptus diversicolor: Myrtaceae) forest, south-western Australia: 2. Origin, growth form and fire response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wardell-Johnson, Grant W.; Williams, M. R.; Mellican, A. E.; Annells, A.

    2007-03-01

    We examined the influence of disturbance history on the floristic composition of a single community type in karri forest, south-western Australia. Cover-abundance of 224 plant species and six disturbance and site-based environmental variables were recorded in 91, 20 m × 20 m quadrats. Numerical taxonomic and correlation approaches were used to relate these and 10 plant species-group variables based on origin, growth form and fire response. Ordination revealed no discernable pattern of sites based on floristic composition. However, all 10 species-group variables were significantly correlated with the ordination axes. Species richness within these groups varied with category and with respect to many of the disturbance and site variables. We encountered low diversity of vascular plants at the community level and limited diversity of growth forms. Thus most species were herbs (62.1%) or shrubs (30.3%), and there were no epiphytes and few species of trees or climbers. Although many introduced species were recorded (18.3% of all taxa), virtually all (83%) were herbs that demonstrated little persistence in the community, and there was limited evidence of transformer species. Time-since-fire (and other disturbance) influenced species richness more than the number of recent past fires because of a high proportion of ephemerals associated with the immediate post-fire period. Long-lived shrubs with soil stored seed dominate numerically, and in understorey biomass in comparison with neighboring vegetation types because of their greater flexibility of response following irregular, but intense disturbance events. However, interactions between nutrient status, regeneration mechanisms and community composition may be worthy of further investigation.

  5. [Structure and floristic composition of three oak forests in the northern region of the Central Cordillera in Colombia].

    PubMed

    León, Juan D; Vélez, Gladys; Yepes, Adriana P

    2009-12-01

    Andean ecosystems harbor a high floristic diversity, which is being threatened by human disturbances such us deforestation and by the expansion of the agricultural frontier. One of these ecosystems are the Andean oak forests dominated by Quercus humboldtii, a threatened species in Colombia. We assessed the floristic composition and structure of three Andean oak forests located in three localities (San Andrés de Cuerquia, Belmira and Guarne) of Antioquia. The main goal was to determine whether these forests showed similarities in their structure and floristic composition. In each site, a permanent plot of 5000 m2 (0.5 ha) was established. All trees with D > or = 10 cm were sampled and identified to species. The Importance Value Index (IVI) was calculated as the sum of relative density (DeR), dominance (DoR) and frequency (FR) of a species. Trees with 5 < or = D < 10 cm and 2 < or = D < 5 cm were registered in sub-plots of 0.05 and 0.0144 ha, respectively. Finally, we used Jaccard's Index to quantify the floristic similarity among oak forest. When we considered all trees with D > or = 10 cm in the three forests, the number of species ranged from 18 to 54, whilst the number of individuals ranged from 326 to 680. The Guarne oak forest showed the highest species richness. In all sites, Q. humboldtii (Fagaceae) was the most important species in relation to the IVI, while Clusia sp. (Clusiaceae) and Myrsine coriaceae (Myrsinaceae) were the most important species in San Andrés de Cuerquia, Clethra fagifolia (Clethraceae) was important only in Belmira and Myrcia popayanensis (Myrtaceae) was important in Guarne. The families with the highest number of species were Fabaceae, Melastomataceae and Rubiaceae. Floristic similarity among places was low. The size distribution of trees had an inverse J-shape curve for all sites with changes in the abundance for size class. The three oak forests differed in their structure and floristic composition probably because of different

  6. The relationship of meteorological patterns with changes in floristic richness along a large elevational gradient in a seasonally dry region of southern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Salas-Morales, Silvia H; Meave, Jorge A; Trejo, Irma

    2015-12-01

    Globally, climate is a fundamental driver of plant species' geographical distributions, yet we still lack a good understanding of climatic variation on tropical mountains and its consequences for elevational floristic patterns. In a seasonally dry region of southern Mexico, we analysed meteorological patterns along a large elevational gradient (0-3670 m a.s.l.) and examined their relationship with changes in floristic richness. Meteorological patterns were characterised using two data sources. First, climatic information was extracted from cartography and records from a few existing meteorological stations. Additionally, air temperature and humidity were recorded hourly during 1 year with data loggers, at sites representing 200-m elevation increments. Floristic information was extracted from a database containing 10,124 records of plant collections, and organized in 200-m elevational belts. Climatic charts distinguished three climate types along the gradient, all with marked rainfall seasonality, but these bore little correspondence with the information obtained with the data loggers. Mean annual air temperature decreased with increasing elevation (lapse rate of 0.542 °C 100 m(-1)). Thermal oscillation was minimum around 1400 m and increased towards both extremes of the gradient. Relative humidity opposed this pattern, with maxima between 800 and 1800 m, decreasing towards the highest elevations. An analysis of temperature frequency distributions revealed meteorological features undetectable from the annual or monthly means of this variable; despite an overall gradual transition of the proportions of time recorded at different temperatures, some changes did not conform to this pattern. The first discontinuity occurred between 1000-1200 m, where dominant temperatures shifted abruptly; also noticeable was an abrupt increase of the proportion of time elapsed at 0.1-10 °C between 2400 and 2600 m. Air temperature appears to be the most influential climatic factor

  7. The relationship of meteorological patterns with changes in floristic richness along a large elevational gradient in a seasonally dry region of southern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salas-Morales, Silvia H.; Meave, Jorge A.; Trejo, Irma

    2015-12-01

    Globally, climate is a fundamental driver of plant species' geographical distributions, yet we still lack a good understanding of climatic variation on tropical mountains and its consequences for elevational floristic patterns. In a seasonally dry region of southern Mexico, we analysed meteorological patterns along a large elevational gradient (0-3670 m a.s.l.) and examined their relationship with changes in floristic richness. Meteorological patterns were characterised using two data sources. First, climatic information was extracted from cartography and records from a few existing meteorological stations. Additionally, air temperature and humidity were recorded hourly during 1 year with data loggers, at sites representing 200-m elevation increments. Floristic information was extracted from a database containing 10,124 records of plant collections, and organized in 200-m elevational belts. Climatic charts distinguished three climate types along the gradient, all with marked rainfall seasonality, but these bore little correspondence with the information obtained with the data loggers. Mean annual air temperature decreased with increasing elevation (lapse rate of 0.542 °C 100 m-1). Thermal oscillation was minimum around 1400 m and increased towards both extremes of the gradient. Relative humidity opposed this pattern, with maxima between 800 and 1800 m, decreasing towards the highest elevations. An analysis of temperature frequency distributions revealed meteorological features undetectable from the annual or monthly means of this variable; despite an overall gradual transition of the proportions of time recorded at different temperatures, some changes did not conform to this pattern. The first discontinuity occurred between 1000-1200 m, where dominant temperatures shifted abruptly; also noticeable was an abrupt increase of the proportion of time elapsed at 0.1-10 °C between 2400 and 2600 m. Air temperature appears to be the most influential climatic factor

  8. High ploidy diversity and distinct patterns of cytotype distribution in a widespread species of Oxalis in the Greater Cape Floristic Region

    PubMed Central

    Krejčíková, Jana; Sudová, Radka; Lučanová, Magdalena; Trávníček, Pavel; Urfus, Tomáš; Vít, Petr; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna; Kolano, Bożena; Oberlander, Kenneth; Dreyer, Leanne L.; Suda, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Genome duplication is widely acknowledged as a major force in the evolution of angiosperms, although the incidence of polyploidy in different floras may differ dramatically. The Greater Cape Floristic Region of southern Africa is one of the world's biodiversity hotspots and is considered depauperate in polyploids. To test this assumption, ploidy variation was assessed in a widespread member of the largest geophytic genus in the Cape flora: Oxalis obtusa. Methods DNA flow cytometry complemented by confirmatory chromosome counts was used to determine ploidy levels in 355 populations of O. obtusa (1014 individuals) across its entire distribution range. Ecological differentiation among cytotypes was tested by comparing sets of vegetation and climatic variables extracted for each locality. Key Results Three majority (2x, 4x, 6x) and three minority (3x, 5x, 8x) cytotypes were detected in situ, in addition to a heptaploid individual originating from a botanical garden. While single-cytotype populations predominate, 12 mixed-ploidy populations were also found. The overall pattern of ploidy level distribution is quite complex, but some ecological segregation was observed. Hexaploids are the most common cytotype and prevail in the Fynbos biome. In contrast, tetraploids dominate in the Succulent Karoo biome. Precipitation parameters were identified as the most important climatic variables associated with cytotype distribution. Conclusions Although it would be premature to make generalizations regarding the role of genome duplication in the genesis of hyperdiversity of the Cape flora, the substantial and unexpected ploidy diversity in Oxalis obtusa is unparalleled in comparison with any other cytologically known native Cape plant species. The results suggest that ploidy variation in the Greater Cape Floristic Region may be much greater than currently assumed, which, given the documented role of polyploidy in speciation, has direct implications for radiation

  9. Significant Local-Scale Plant-Insect Species Richness Relationship Independent of Abiotic Effects in the Temperate Cape Floristic Region Biodiversity Hotspot.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Jurene E; Ellis, Allan G

    2017-01-01

    Globally plant species richness is a significant predictor of insect richness. Whether this is the result of insect diversity responding directly to plant diversity, or both groups responding in similar ways to extrinsic factors, has been much debated. Here we assess this relationship in the Cape Floristic Region (CFR), a biodiversity hotspot. The CFR has higher plant diversity than expected from latitude (i.e., abiotic conditions), but very little is known about the diversity of insects residing in this region. We first quantify diversity relationships at multiple spatial scales for one of the dominant plant families in the CFR, the Restionaceae, and its associated insect herbivore community. Plant and insect diversity are significantly positively correlated at the local scales (10-50 m; 0.1-3 km), but not at the regional scales (15-20 km; 50-70 km). The local scale relationship remains significantly positively correlated even when accounting for the influence of extrinsic variables and other vegetation attributes. This suggests that the diversity of local insect assemblages may be more strongly influenced by plant species richness than by abiotic variables. Further, vegetation age and plant structural complexity also influenced insect richness. The ratio of insect species per plant species in the CFR is comparable to other temperate regions around the world, suggesting that the insect diversity of the CFR is high relative to other areas of the globe with similar abiotic conditions, primarily as a result of the unusually high plant diversity in the region.

  10. Significant Local-Scale Plant-Insect Species Richness Relationship Independent of Abiotic Effects in the Temperate Cape Floristic Region Biodiversity Hotspot

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Jurene E.; Ellis, Allan G.

    2017-01-01

    Globally plant species richness is a significant predictor of insect richness. Whether this is the result of insect diversity responding directly to plant diversity, or both groups responding in similar ways to extrinsic factors, has been much debated. Here we assess this relationship in the Cape Floristic Region (CFR), a biodiversity hotspot. The CFR has higher plant diversity than expected from latitude (i.e., abiotic conditions), but very little is known about the diversity of insects residing in this region. We first quantify diversity relationships at multiple spatial scales for one of the dominant plant families in the CFR, the Restionaceae, and its associated insect herbivore community. Plant and insect diversity are significantly positively correlated at the local scales (10–50 m; 0.1–3 km), but not at the regional scales (15–20 km; 50–70 km). The local scale relationship remains significantly positively correlated even when accounting for the influence of extrinsic variables and other vegetation attributes. This suggests that the diversity of local insect assemblages may be more strongly influenced by plant species richness than by abiotic variables. Further, vegetation age and plant structural complexity also influenced insect richness. The ratio of insect species per plant species in the CFR is comparable to other temperate regions around the world, suggesting that the insect diversity of the CFR is high relative to other areas of the globe with similar abiotic conditions, primarily as a result of the unusually high plant diversity in the region. PMID:28076412

  11. Planning for the Maintenance of Floristic Diversity in the Face of Land Cover and Climate Change.

    PubMed

    Jewitt, Debbie; Goodman, Peter S; Erasmus, Barend F N; O'Connor, Timothy G; Witkowski, Ed T F

    2017-02-04

    Habitat loss and climate change are primary drivers of global biodiversity loss. Species will need to track changing environmental conditions through fragmented and transformed landscapes such as KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Landscape connectivity is an important tool for maintaining resilience to global change. We develop a coarse-grained connectivity map between protected areas to aid decision-making for implementing corridors to maintain floristic diversity in the face of global change. The spatial location of corridors was prioritised using a biological underpinning of floristic composition that incorporated high beta diversity regions, important plant areas, climate refugia, and aligned to major climatic gradients driving floristic pattern. We used Linkage Mapper to develop the connectivity network. The resistance layer was based on land-cover categories with natural areas discounted according to their contribution towards meeting the biological objectives. Three corridor maps were developed; a conservative option for meeting minimum corridor requirements, an optimal option for meeting a target amount of 50% of the landscape and an option including linkages in highly transformed areas. The importance of various protected areas and critical linkages in maintaining landscape connectivity are discussed, disconnected protected areas and pinch points identified where the loss of small areas could compromise landscape connectivity. This framework is suggested as a way to conserve floristic diversity into the future and is recommended as an approach for other global connectivity initiatives. A lack of implementation of corridors will lead to further habitat loss and fragmentation, resulting in further risk to plant diversity.

  12. Flora of the forests as the indicator of climate change of Baikal Region (South Siberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivobokov, Leonid; Anenkhonov, Oleg

    2010-05-01

    The problem of global climate warming and its consequences for nature and civilization has been actively discussed in scientific and political publications during last 15 years. Although quantitative estimations of the rate of warming can be rather differ by results of different authors. A relevant component of such assessment is the prognosis of vegetation development under conditions of climate warming. Our study was carried out on the western macroslope of the Ikatskii Ridge in the northern Baikal region (South Siberia). This area is located on the territory where permafrost may have a continuous, discontinuous, or insular distribution. The plant cover of study area is characterized by dominance of larch (Larix gmelinii (Rupr.) Rupr.) and pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests that form a forest belt. In this belt, two parts can be distinguished: the lower, forest-steppe part (550-900 m a.s.l.), which is limited by steppe at the lower part and the upper, mountain-taiga part (800-1600 m a.s.l.) with mountain tundra on the top. Pine forests by Braun-Blanquet approach include to hemiboreal forests Rhytidio rugosi-Laricetea sibiricae K. Korotkov et Ermakov 1999. Larch forests presented by boreal forests Vaccinio-Piceetea Br.-Bl. in Br.-Bl., Siss. et Vlieger 1939. Floristic compositions of these classes were analyzed as cenofloras. Floristic complexes of cenofloras included the species of dark coniferous, light coniferous, preboreal, forest-steppe, mountain steppe, true steppe, montane, and meadow zonal groups. The cenoflora of class Rhytidio-Laricetea is presented by 222 species of vascular plants. This cenoflora mostly has the steppe and forest floristic complexes, respectively 54.4 and 35.5%. The cenoflora of class Vaccinio-Piceetea include 153 species and the light coniferous group of the forest floristic complex prevailed. The total share of forest species in the cenoflora reaches 70.6%. Other floristic complexes (meadow, steppe, and mountain) has the similar

  13. Integrating regional and continental scale comparisons of tree composition in Amazonian terra firme forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honorio Coronado, E. N.; Baker, T. R.; Phillips, O. L.; Pitman, N. C. A.; Pennington, R. T.; Vásquez Martínez, R.; Monteagudo, A.; Mogollón, H.; Dávila Cardozo, N.; Ríos, M.; García-Villacorta, R.; Valderrama, E.; Ahuite, M.; Huamantupa, I.; Neill, D. A.; Laurance, W. F.; Nascimento, H. E. M.; Soares de Almeida, S.; Killeen, T. J.; Arroyo, L.; Núñez, P.; Freitas Alvarado, L.

    2009-01-01

    We contrast regional and continental-scale comparisons of the floristic composition of terra firme forest in South Amazonia, using 55 plots across Amazonia and a subset of 30 plots from northern Peru and Ecuador. Firstly, we examine the floristic patterns using both genus- or species-level data and find that the species-level analysis more clearly distinguishes different plot clusters. Secondly, we compare the patterns and causes of floristic differences at regional and continental scales. At a continental scale, ordination analysis shows that species of Lecythidaceae and Sapotaceae are gradually replaced by species of Arecaceae and Myristicaceae from eastern to western Amazonia. These floristic gradients are correlated with gradients in soil fertility and to dry season length, similar to previous studies. At a regional scale, similar patterns are found within north-western Amazonia, where differences in soil fertility distinguish plots where species of Lecythidaceae, characteristic of poor soils, are gradually replaced by species of Myristicaceae on richer soils. The main coordinate of this regional-scale ordination correlates mainly with concentrations of available calcium and magnesium. Thirdly, we ask at a regional scale within north-western Amazonia, whether soil fertility or other distance dependent processes are more important for determining variation in floristic composition. A Mantel test indicates that both soils and geographical distance have a similar and significant role in determining floristic similarity across this region. Overall, these results suggest that regional-scale variation in floristic composition can rival continental scale differences within Amazonian terra firme forests, and that variation in floristic composition at both scales is dependent on a range of processes that include both habitat specialisation related to edaphic conditions and other distance-dependent processes. To fully account for regional scale variation in continental

  14. Phylogeny and biogeography of the genus Pseudobarbus (Cyprinidae): shedding light on the drainage history of rivers associated with the Cape Floristic Region.

    PubMed

    Swartz, Ernst R; Skelton, Paul H; Bloomer, Paulette

    2009-04-01

    Relationships among the historically isolated lineages of Pseudobarbus were reconstructed using molecular and morphological data. Contradictions between the molecular and morphological phylogenies suggest convergent evolution and homoplasy in some morphological characters. The earliest divergence in Pseudobarbus was between P. quathlambae in Lesotho and the rest of the genus associated with the Cape Foristic Region in South Africa. A close relationship between P. phlegethon from the Olifants River system on the west coast of South Africa and a lineage of P. afer from small river systems in Afrotemperate Forests on the south coast, can only be explained through previous occurrence and subsequent extinction of ancestral populations in the Gourits River system. Several river systems had confluences before reaching lower sea levels, most notably during the last glacial maximum about 18,000 years ago, explaining closely related populations across different river systems. Mainly river capture explains shared lineages across river systems that did not share a common confluence during lower sea levels.

  15. Geological control of floristic composition in Amazonian forests

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Mark A; Ruokolainen, Kalle; Tuomisto, Hanna; Llerena, Nelly; Cardenas, Glenda; Phillips, Oliver L; Vásquez, Rodolfo; Räsänen, Matti

    2011-01-01

    Aim Conservation and land-use planning require accurate maps of patterns in species composition and an understanding of the factors that control them. Substantial doubt exists, however, about the existence and determinants of large-area floristic divisions in Amazonia. Here we ask whether Amazonian forests are partitioned into broad-scale floristic units on the basis of geological formations and their edaphic properties. Location Western and central Amazonia. Methods We used Landsat imagery and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation data to identify a possible floristic and geological discontinuity of over 300 km in northern Peru. We then used plant inventories and soil sampling to document changes in species composition and soil properties across this boundary. Data were obtained from 138 sites distributed along more than 450 km of road and river. On the basis of our findings, we used broad-scale Landsat and SRTM mosaics to identify similar patterns across western and central Amazonia. Results The discontinuity identified in Landsat and SRTM data corresponded to a 15-fold change in soil cation concentrations and an almost total change in plant species composition. This discontinuity appears to be caused by the widespread removal of cation-poor surface sediments by river incision to expose cation-rich sediments beneath. Examination of broad-scale Landsat and SRTM mosaics indicated that equivalent processes have generated a north–south discontinuity of over 1500 km in western Brazil. Due to similarities with our study area, we suggest that this discontinuity represents a chemical and ecological limit between western and central Amazonia. Main conclusions Our findings suggest that Amazonian forests are partitioned into large-area units on the basis of geological formations and their edaphic properties. The evolution of these units through geological time may provide a general mechanism for biotic diversification in Amazonia. These compositional

  16. Geological control of floristic composition in Amazonian forests.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Mark A; Ruokolainen, Kalle; Tuomisto, Hanna; Llerena, Nelly; Cardenas, Glenda; Phillips, Oliver L; Vásquez, Rodolfo; Räsänen, Matti

    2011-11-01

    AIM: Conservation and land-use planning require accurate maps of patterns in species composition and an understanding of the factors that control them. Substantial doubt exists, however, about the existence and determinants of large-area floristic divisions in Amazonia. Here we ask whether Amazonian forests are partitioned into broad-scale floristic units on the basis of geological formations and their edaphic properties. LOCATION: Western and central Amazonia. METHODS: We used Landsat imagery and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation data to identify a possible floristic and geological discontinuity of over 300 km in northern Peru. We then used plant inventories and soil sampling to document changes in species composition and soil properties across this boundary. Data were obtained from 138 sites distributed along more than 450 km of road and river. On the basis of our findings, we used broad-scale Landsat and SRTM mosaics to identify similar patterns across western and central Amazonia. RESULTS: The discontinuity identified in Landsat and SRTM data corresponded to a 15-fold change in soil cation concentrations and an almost total change in plant species composition. This discontinuity appears to be caused by the widespread removal of cation-poor surface sediments by river incision to expose cation-rich sediments beneath. Examination of broad-scale Landsat and SRTM mosaics indicated that equivalent processes have generated a north-south discontinuity of over 1500 km in western Brazil. Due to similarities with our study area, we suggest that this discontinuity represents a chemical and ecological limit between western and central Amazonia. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that Amazonian forests are partitioned into large-area units on the basis of geological formations and their edaphic properties. The evolution of these units through geological time may provide a general mechanism for biotic diversification in Amazonia. These

  17. Floristic Relationships Among Vegetation Types of New Zealand and the Southern Andes: Similarities and Biogeographic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Ezcurra, Cecilia; Baccalá, Nora; Wardle, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Similarities between the floras of geographically comparable regions of New Zealand (NZ) and the southern Andes (SA) have interested biologists for over 150 years. The present work selects vegetation types that are physiognomically similar between the two regions, compares their floristic composition, assesses the environmental factors that characterize these matching vegetation types, and determines whether phylogenetic groups of ancestral versus modern origin are represented in different proportions in their floras, in the context of their biogeographic history. Methods Floristic relationships based on 369 genera of ten vegetation types present in both regions were investigated with correspondence analysis (CA) and ascending hierarchical clustering (AHC). The resulting ordination and classification were related to the environmental characteristics of the different vegetation types. The proportions of different phylogenetic groups between the regions (NZ, SA) were also compared, and between forest and non-forest communities. Key Results Floristic similarities between NZ and SA tend to increase from forest to non-forest vegetation, and are highest in coastal vegetation and bog. The floras of NZ and SA also differ in their phylogenetic origin, NZ being characterized by an ‘excess’ of genera of basal origin, especially in forests. Conclusions The relatively low similarities between forests of SA and NZ are related to the former being largely of in situ South American and Gondwanan origin, whereas the latter have been mostly reconstituted though transoceanic dispersal of propagules since the Oligocene. The greater similarities among non-forest plant communities of the two regions result from varied dispersal routes, including relatively recent transoceanic dispersal for coastal vegetation, possible dispersal via a still-vegetated Antarctica especially for bog plants, and independent immigration from Northern Hemisphere sources for many genera

  18. Floristic study of Ghasemloo (Shohada) Valley Forest reserve and adjacent area.

    PubMed

    Malekmohammadi, L; Mahmoudzadeh, A; Hassanzadeh, A

    2007-05-15

    In this survey flora of protected region of Ghasemloo valley Forest reserve and adjacent areas has been studied. The study area includes about 577 ha and is located at south of Urmia. The method which used for plant collection is the same as regional floristic studies. Collected plants were recognized and determined as families, genera and species by using of indispensable references. Alphabetical list of taxa in this region was provided on the base of families, genera and species. The life form of plant species was determined by using of Raunckier's method and chorotype of plant species was determined by indispensable references. In this research 50 family, 165 genera and 204 species were identified. The largest plant family is Compositae with 21 genera and 26 species and the largest genera is Astragalus from Papilionaceae family with 6 species. The main biological forms respectively are: Therophytes and hemichryptophytes. The most extended chorotype with 61.28% is related to Irano-Turanian.

  19. Dolomite occurrence in Coorong region, South Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, M.; Warren, J.K.

    1988-01-01

    Lakes in the Coorong region are filled with a diverse suite of Holocene carbonates; mineralogies include aragonite, calcite, magnesium-calcite, magnesite, hydromagnesite, and dolomite. Dolomite is the main mineral of concern in this paper, yet it makes up no more than 5% of the carbonate minerals forming surficial deposits in the coastal plain of southeast South Australia. Coorong dolomite occurs as three stratigraphically and mineralogically distinct forms. Volumetrically, the most important type of dolomite is an evaporative dolomite laid down as the last episode of sedimentation in those Coorong Lakes that contain dolomite. In most lakes, dolomite is a capstone unit no more than a meter thick, although in a few lakes, it has infilled the lakes to form dolomitic units up to 4-5 m thick. Evaporative dolomite is usually magnesian-rich. In some lakes, a calcian-rich dolomite occurs along the edges of the lake. Like the evaporative upper dolomite, this dolomite is not intergrown with other carbonate phases and appears to define areas where continental ground waters first enter the lake.

  20. Dolomite occurrence in Coorong region, south Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, M.; Warren, J.K. )

    1988-02-01

    Lakes in the Coorong region are filled with a diverse suite of Holocene carbonates; mineralogies include aragonite, calcite, magnesium-calcite, magnesite, hydromagnesite, and dolomite. Dolomite is the main mineral of concern in this paper, yet it makes up no more than 5% of the carbonate minerals forming surficial deposits in the coastal plain of southeast South Australia. Coorong dolomite occurs as three stratigraphically and mineralogically distinct forms. Volumetrically, the most important type of dolomite is an evaporative dolomite laid down as the last episode of sedimentation in those Coorong Lakes that contain dolomite. In most lakes, dolomite is a capstone unit no more than a meter thick, although in a few lakes it has infilled the lakes to form dolomitic units up to 4-5 m thick. Evaporative dolomite is usually magnesian-rich. In some lakes, a calcian-rich dolomite occurs along the edges of the lake. Like the evaporative upper dolomite, this dolomite is not intergrown with other carbonate phases and appears to define areas where continental ground waters first enter the lake. A third type of dolomite occurs in some Coorong lakes. A basal dolomite, which is more crystalline than the other two forms of dolomite, appears to have formed some 6000 years ago when the rising Pleistocene water table (driven by a transgressing sea) first caused continental ground waters to outcrop and evaporate at the surface.

  1. An Ecological Regional Analysis of South Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Frank W.; Robinson, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    This study of the counties of South Carolina introduces a limited purpose, modifiable technology that is designed to reproduce the rapid discovery strategy of the natural sciences. It uses factor analysis to identify types of communities and the threats they face, and evaluates their success in dealing with these by comparisons based on…

  2. South Pole Region of the Moon as Seen by Clementine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Lunar mosaic of 1500 Clementine images of the south polar region of the moon. The projection is orthographic, centered on the south pole. The Schrodinger Basin (320 km in diameter) is located in the lower right of the mosaic. Amundsen-Ganswindt is the more subdued circular basin between Schrodinger and the pole. The polar regions of the moon are of special interest because of the postulated occurrence of ice in permanently shadowed areas. The south pole is of greater interest because the area that remains in shadow is much larger than that at the north pole.

  3. Floristic characteristics of alien invasive seed plant species in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Congyan; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Hongguang; Zhou, Jiawei; DU, Daolin

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to determine the floristic characteristics of alien invasive seed plant species (AISPS) in China. There are a total of five hundred and thirteen AISPS, belonging to seventy families and two hundred and eighty-three genera. Seventy families were classified into nine areal types at the family level, and "Cosmopolitan" and "Pantropic" are the two main types. Two hundred and eighty-three genera were classified into twelve areal types at the genus level, and "Pantropic", "Trop. Asia & Amer. disjuncted", and "Cosmopolitan" are the three main types. These results reveal a certain degree of diversity among AISPS in China. The floristic characteristics at the family level exhibit strong pantropic characteristics. Two possible reasons for this are as follows. Firstly, southeastern China is heavily invaded by alien invasive plant species and this region has a mild climate. Secondly, southeastern China is more disturbed by human activities than other regions in China. The floristic characteristics at the genus level display strong pantropic but with abundant temperate characteristics. This may be due to that China across five climatic zones and the ecosystems in which the most alien invasive plant species occur have the same or similar climate with their natural habitat.

  4. Temporal context in floristic classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, R. W.; Lees, B. G.

    1996-11-01

    Multi-temporal remote sensing data present a number of significant problems for the statistical and spatial competence of a classifier. Ideally, a classifier of multi-temporal data should be temporally invariant. It must have the capacity to account for the variations in season, growth cycle, radiometric, and atmospheric conditions at any point in time when classifying the land cover. This paper tests two methods of creating a temporally invariant classifier based on the pattern recognition capabilities of a neural network. A suite of twelve multi-temporal datasets spread over 5 yr along with a comprehensive mix of environmental variables are fused into floristic classification images by the neural network. Uncertainties in the classifications are addressed explicitly with a confidence mask generated from the fuzzy membership value's output by the neural network. These confidence masks are used to produce constrained classification images. The overall accuracy percentage achieved from a study site containing highly disturbed undulating terrain averages 60%. The first method of training, sequential learning of temporal context, is tested by an examination of the step-by-step evolution of the sequential training process. This reveals that the sequential classifier may not have learned about time, because time was constant during each network training session. It also suggests that there are optimal times during the annual cycle to train the classifier for particular floristic classes. The second method of training the classifier is randomised exposure to the entire temporal training suite. Time was now a fluctuating input variable during the network training process. This method produced the best spatially accurate results. The performance of this classifier as a temporally invariant classifier is tested amongst four multi-temporal datasets with encouraging results. The classifier consistently achieved an overall accuracy percentage of 60%. The pairwise predicted

  5. Piezomagnetic monitoring in the South Pacific region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladwin, Michael T.

    1984-11-01

    Data from an array of piezomagnetic stations in the South Pacific Islands indicate that noise limitations on piezomagnetic stress monitoring reported for California ( Mueller and Johnston, 1981; Johnston et al., 1984) are probably pessimistic since they seem to include significant diurnal residual. Raw station differences could be significant at the 1.0 nT level out to distances of several hundred kilometres. Two large earthquakes have occurred within the network, and no coseismic anomalies were observed. However, changes in observed magnetic field for several stations within 200 km of the earthquakes indicate that stress propagation effects are observable prior to the events, and that these effects dominate the simple elastic effects previously investigated which accompany the stress drops for moderate to large earthquakes.

  6. Integrated water resource assessment for the Adelaide region, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, James W.; Akeroyd, Michele; Oliver, Danielle P.

    2016-10-01

    South Australia is the driest state in the driest inhabited country in the world, Australia. Consequently, water is one of South Australia's highest priorities. Focus on water research and sources of water in the state became more critical during the Millenium drought that occurred between 1997 and 2011. In response to increased concern about water sources the South Australian government established The Goyder Institute for Water Research - a partnership between the South Australian State Government, the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Flinders University, University of Adelaide and University of South Australia. The Goyder Institute undertakes cutting-edge science to inform the development of innovative integrated water management strategies to ensure South Australia's ongoing water security and enhance the South Australian Government's capacity to develop and deliver science-based policy solutions in water management. This paper focuses on the integrated water resource assessment of the northern Adelaide region, including the key research investments in water and climate, and how this information is being utilised by decision makers in the region.

  7. Regional integration and south-south cooperation in health in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Carrillo Roa, Alejandra; Santana, José Paranaguá de

    2012-11-01

    This paper analyzes whether south-south cooperation is legitimately a recent practice or merely an improved version of previous regional integration processes in Latin America and the Caribbean. The authors reviewed and systematized the historic development of subregional integration processes in Latin America and the Caribbean and focused on health cooperation in the following contexts: the Central American Integration System, the Andean Community of Nations, the Caribbean Community, the Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization, the Southern Common Market, and the Union of South American Nations. The study concludes that the conceptual and methodologic foundations of south-south cooperation in health were born from and nurtured by the processes of regional integration in Latin America and the Caribbean. This paper posits that regional political and economic integration initiatives bring potential benefits to the health sector and act as an important mechanism to develop south-south cooperation in this domain. The study recommends furthering this type of research to provide information that will allow national and multilateral agencies, or other stakeholders, to formulate and implement better policies for international health cooperation that target reducing inequities and promoting health and well-being for all people.

  8. The South Florida Environment: A Region Under Stress

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McPherson, Benjamin F.; Halley, Robert B.

    1996-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the environmental setting in South Florida and serves as review and framework for developing U.S. Geological Survey programs in the region. The report describes the predevelopment and the current (present-day) environmental conditions in South Florida with emphasis on the quantity and quality of water. The geographical area covered is the southern one-half of the State and includes the South Florida National Water-Quality Assessment study area and adjacent coastal waters. This study area covers about 19,500 square miles and is the watershed of the larger regional ecosystem. The regional ecosystem includes the coastal waters between Charlotte Harbor on the Gulf of Mexico and the St. Lucie River on the Atlantic Ocean and the lands that drain into these waters.

  9. Giant taro and its relatives: a phylogeny of the large genus Alocasia (Araceae) sheds light on Miocene floristic exchange in the Malesian region.

    PubMed

    Nauheimer, Lars; Boyce, Peter C; Renner, Susanne S

    2012-04-01

    Alocasia comprises over 113 species of rainforest understorey plants in Southeast Asia, the Malesian region, and Australia. Several species, including giant taro, Alocasia macrorrhizos, and Chinese taro, Alocasia cucullata, are important food plants or ornamentals. We investigated the biogeography of this genus using plastid and nuclear DNA sequences (5200 nucleotides) from 78 accessions representing 71 species, plus 25 species representing 16 genera of the Pistia clade to which Alocasia belongs. Divergence times were inferred under strict and relaxed clock models, and ancestral areas with Bayesian and maximum likelihood approaches. Alocasia is monophyletic and sister to Colocasiagigantea from the SE Asian mainland, whereas the type species of Colocasia groups with Steudnera and Remusatia, requiring taxonomic realignments. Nuclear and plastid trees show topological conflict, with the nuclear tree reflecting morphological similarities, the plastid tree species' geographic proximity, suggesting chloroplast capture. The ancestor of Alocasia diverged from its mainland sister group c. 24 million years ago, and Borneo then played a central role in the expansion of Alocasia: 11-13 of 18-19 inferred dispersal events originated on Borneo. The Philippines were reached from Borneo 4-5 times in the Late Miocene and Early Pliocene, and the Asian mainland 6-7 times in the Pliocene. Domesticated giant taro originated on the Philippines, Chinese taro on the Asian mainland.

  10. Do the seasonal forests in northeastern Brazil represent a single floristic unit?

    PubMed

    Rodal, M J N; Barbosa, M R V; Thomas, W W

    2008-08-01

    Floristic analyses (Principal Component Analysis and Analysis of Group Indicators) at the genus level were employed to characterize and compare seasonal forest formations in northeastern Brazil. The presence--absence of 248 genera of woody plants occurring in 24 floristic surveys was correlated with geomorphology and climatic variables. The analyses were consistent and point to the existence of two floristic groups of seasonal forests in the region, one more closely related to the Atlantic Coastal Forest (mata atlântica) and the other to the xerophytic formations (caatinga) of the region. The driest seasonal forest group experiences more than 8 dry months per year and/or a total annual rainfall of <1000 mm, and is found on the ancient eroded peaks in the semi-arid core and on the western slopes of the Borborema Plateau.

  11. Palynological composition of a Lower Cretaceous South American tropical sequence: Climatic implications and diversity comparisons with other latitudes.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mejia-Velasquez, Paula J.; Dilcher, David L.; Jaramillo, Carlos A.; Fortini, Lucas B.; Manchester, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    Premise of the study: Reconstruction of floristic patterns during the early diversification of angiosperms is impeded by the scarce fossil record, especially in tropical latitudes. Here we collected quantitative palynological data from a stratigraphic sequence in tropical South America to provide floristic and climatic insights into such tropical environments during the Early Cretaceous. Methods: We reconstructed the floristic composition of an Aptian-Albian tropical sequence from central Colombia using quantitative palynology (rarefied species richness and abundance) and used it to infer its predominant climatic conditions. Additionally, we compared our results with available quantitative data from three other sequences encompassing 70 floristic assemblages to determine latitudinal diversity patterns. Key results: Abundance of humidity indicators was higher than that of aridity indicators (61% vs. 10%). Additionally, we found an angiosperm latitudinal diversity gradient (LDG) for the Aptian, but not for the Albian, and an inverted LDG of the overall diversity for the Albian. Angiosperm species turnover during the Albian, however, was higher in humid tropics. Conclusions: There were humid climates in northwestern South America during the Aptian-Albian interval contrary to the widespread aridity expected for the tropical belt. The Albian inverted overall LDG is produced by a faster increase in per-sample angiosperm and pteridophyte diversity in temperate latitudes. However, humid tropical sequences had higher rates of floristic turnover suggesting a higher degree of morphological variation than in temperate regions.

  12. Regional University Access: A Case Study from the South West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eversole, Robyn

    A study examined university service delivery in an isolated, inland region of south Western Australia. Surveys, focus groups, and interviews with students and former students found that many pre-university youths leave the area because education is only offered through year 10. Therefore, college students in the area tend to be mature-aged. Key…

  13. Identity and relationships of the Arboreal Caatinga among other floristic units of seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs) of north-eastern and Central Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Rubens M; Oliveira-Filho, Ary T; Eisenlohr, Pedro V; Queiroz, Luciano P; Cardoso, Domingos B O S; Rodal, Maria J N

    2012-01-01

    The tree species composition of seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTF) in north-eastern and central Brazil is analyzed to address the following hypotheses: (1) variations in species composition are related to both environment (climate and substrate) and spatial proximity; (2) SDTF floristic units may be recognized based on peculiar composition and environment; and (3) the Arboreal Caatinga, a deciduous forest occurring along the hinterland borders of the Caatinga Domain, is one of these units and its flora is more strongly related to the caatinga vegetation than to outlying forests. The study region is framed by the Brazilian coastline, 50th meridian west and 21st parallel south, including the Caatinga Domain and extensions into the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado Domains. Multivariate and geostatistic analyses were performed on a database containing 16,226 occurrence records of 1332 tree species in 187 georeferenced SDTF areas and respective environmental variables. Tree species composition varied significantly with both environmental variables and spatial proximity. Eight SDTF floristic units were recognized in the region, including the Arboreal Caatinga. In terms of species composition, its tree flora showed a stronger link with that of the Cerrado Dry Forest Enclaves. On the other hand, in terms of species frequency across sample areas, the links were stronger with two other units: Rock Outcrops Caatinga and Agreste and Brejo Dry Forests. There is a role for niche-based control of tree species composition across the SDTFs of the region determined primarily by the availability of ground water across time and secondarily by the amount of soil mineral nutrients. Spatial proximity also contributes significantly to the floristic cohesion of SDTF units suggesting a highly dispersal-limited tree flora. These units should be given the status of eco-regions to help driving the conservation policy regarding the protection of their biodiversity. PMID:22423333

  14. Identity and relationships of the Arboreal Caatinga among other floristic units of seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs) of north-eastern and Central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Rubens M; Oliveira-Filho, Ary T; Eisenlohr, Pedro V; Queiroz, Luciano P; Cardoso, Domingos B O S; Rodal, Maria J N

    2012-02-01

    The tree species composition of seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTF) in north-eastern and central Brazil is analyzed to address the following hypotheses: (1) variations in species composition are related to both environment (climate and substrate) and spatial proximity; (2) SDTF floristic units may be recognized based on peculiar composition and environment; and (3) the Arboreal Caatinga, a deciduous forest occurring along the hinterland borders of the Caatinga Domain, is one of these units and its flora is more strongly related to the caatinga vegetation than to outlying forests. The study region is framed by the Brazilian coastline, 50th meridian west and 21st parallel south, including the Caatinga Domain and extensions into the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado Domains. Multivariate and geostatistic analyses were performed on a database containing 16,226 occurrence records of 1332 tree species in 187 georeferenced SDTF areas and respective environmental variables. Tree species composition varied significantly with both environmental variables and spatial proximity. Eight SDTF floristic units were recognized in the region, including the Arboreal Caatinga. In terms of species composition, its tree flora showed a stronger link with that of the Cerrado Dry Forest Enclaves. On the other hand, in terms of species frequency across sample areas, the links were stronger with two other units: Rock Outcrops Caatinga and Agreste and Brejo Dry Forests. There is a role for niche-based control of tree species composition across the SDTFs of the region determined primarily by the availability of ground water across time and secondarily by the amount of soil mineral nutrients. Spatial proximity also contributes significantly to the floristic cohesion of SDTF units suggesting a highly dispersal-limited tree flora. These units should be given the status of eco-regions to help driving the conservation policy regarding the protection of their biodiversity.

  15. The shape of Mercury's south-polar region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, M. E.; Kahan, D. S.; Barnouin, O. S.; Ernst, C. M.; Solomon, S. C.; Zuber, M. T.; Smith, D. E.; Phillips, R. J.; Hauck, S. A.; Lemoine, F. G.; Neumann, G. A.; Peale, S. J.; Margot, J.; Mazarico, E.; McNutt, R. L.

    2011-12-01

    We present measurements of the radius of Mercury over the planet's southern hemisphere within 30° of the south pole. These measurements, derived from occultations of MESSENGER's radio frequency (RF) transmissions, are the first such measurements southward of 30°S, a region beyond the reach of the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA). The occultation start and end times, recovered with 0.3-s accuracy or better by fitting edge-diffraction patterns to the RF power history, are used to estimate Mercury's radius at the tangent point of the RF path. The occultation-analysis techniques were calibrated by comparing hundreds of occultation-derived radii to MLA measurements in Mercury's northern hemisphere, indicating a measurement accuracy of 0.4 km (one standard deviation). The southern-hemisphere data provide initial estimates of the flattening of the south-pole region and the north-south offset between Mercury's center of figure (COF) and center of mass (COM). A high degree of flattening would complement the north-polar depression and may indicate a rotationally driven equatorial bulge as the source for the degree-2 shape of Mercury. Alternatively, the lack of south-pole flattening would suggest that the north-pole depression may be a remnant of impacts or mantle convective flow. The presence or lack of a north-south COM-COF offset contributes to our understanding of the processes that shape Mercury's rotational and interior dynamics.

  16. [Sampling effort and floristic atlases: survey completeness of localities and description of knowledge gaps].

    PubMed

    Vallet, Jeanne; Rambaud, Maëlle; Coquel, Loïc; Poncet, Laurent; Hendoux, Frédéric

    2012-12-01

    Floristic atlases have an important input to flora conservation planning even though their data quality varied greatly across countries. This study aimed to assess survey completeness of cells of floristic atlases. Then, a surveying guide is designed to overcome as efficiently as possible sampling biases. A review and analyses on a wide dataset were carried out to select an estimator of the true species richness of surveyed cells. The Jackknife 1, a non-parametric estimator, appeared as the best compromise for regional floristic atlases. The number of records in each cell was used as an estimator of sampling effort. The ratio between the observed species richness and the estimated species richness measures the completeness of inventories in each surveyed cell. Eighteen variables were selected to describe current inventories and design new surveys. These variables highlight locations, periods and species to be given priority in future studies.

  17. Atmospheric water budget over the South Asian summer monsoon region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unnikrishnan, C. K.; Rajeevan, M.

    2017-02-01

    High resolution hybrid atmospheric water budget over the South Asian monsoon region is examined. The regional characteristics, variability, regional controlling factors and the interrelations of the atmospheric water budget components are investigated. The surface evapotranspiration was created using the High Resolution Land Data Assimilation System (HRLDAS) with the satellite-observed rainfall and vegetation fraction. HRLDAS evapotranspiration shows significant similarity with in situ observations and MODIS satellite-observed evapotranspiration. Result highlights the fundamental importance of evapotranspiration over northwest and southeast India on atmospheric water balance. The investigation shows that the surface net radiation controls the annual evapotranspiration over those regions, where the surface evapotranspiration is lower than 550 mm. The rainfall and evapotranspiration show a linear relation over the low-rainfall regions (<500 mm/year). Similar result is observed in in NASA GLDAS data (1980-2014). The atmospheric water budget shows annual, seasonal, and intra-seasonal variations. Evapotranspiration does not show a high intra-seasonal variability as compared to other water budget components. The coupling among the water budget anomalies is investigated. The results show that regional inter-annual evapotranspiration anomalies are not exactly in phase with rainfall anomalies; it is strongly influenced by the surface conditions and other atmospheric forcing (like surface net radiation). The lead and lag correlation of water budget components show that the water budget anomalies are interrelated in the monsoon season even up to 4 months lead. These results show the important regional interrelation of water budget anomalies on south Asian monsoon.

  18. Clean Coal Technology: Region 4 Market Description, South Atlantic. Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The Region 4 Market Description Summary provides information that can be used in developing an understanding of the potential markets for clean coal technologies (CCTs) in the South Atlantic Region. This region (which geographically is Federal Region 4) consists of the following eight states: Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee. In order to understand the potential market. A description is provided of the region`s energy use, power generation capacity, and potential growth. Highlights of state government activities that could have a bearing on commercial deployment of CCTs are also presented. The potential markets characterized in this summary center on electric power generation by investor-owned, cooperative, and municipal electric utilities and involve planned new capacity additions and actions taken by utilities to comply with Phases I and II of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. Regulations, policies, utility business strategies, and organizational changes that could impact the role of CCTs as a utility option are identified and discussed. The information used to develop the Region 4 Market Description is based mainly on an extensive review of plans and annual reports of 29 investor-owned, cooperative, and municipal coal-using electric utilities and public information on strategies and actions for complying with the CAAA of 1990.

  19. Geological framework of the south polar region of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murray, B.C.; Soderblom, L.A.; Cutts, J.A.; Sharp, R.P.; Milton, D.J.; Leighton, R.B.

    1972-01-01

    The first 4 months of Mariner 9 photography of the south polar region are discussed. Three major geological units have been recognized, separated by erosional unconformities. From oldest to youngest they are: cratered terrain, pitted plains, and laminated terrain. The latter unit is unique in occurrence to the polar region, volatiles are probably involved in its origin, and may still be present within the laminated terrain as layered ice. The residual south polar cap has been observed to survive the disappearance of the thin annual CO2 frost deposit and to last virtually unchanged in outline through the southern summer. That exposed deposit is inferred to be composed of water-ice. The residual cap appears to lie at the apex of an unusual quasi-circular structure composed of laminated terrain; a similar structure also appears to exist near the north pole. ?? 1972.

  20. Retail Florist: Designing Basic Types of Arrangements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale.

    This retail florist unit guide is provided to help teachers teach a unit on designing basic types of flower arrangements. Topics covered are principles of design, foundation materials used, foundation securing methods, tints and flower dyes, wire and ribbon sizes, color harmony, and basic types of arrangements. Learning activities include choosing…

  1. An Analysis of the Wholesale Florist Occupation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucal, Karle A.

    The general purpose of the occupational analysis is to provide workable, basic information dealing with the many and varied duties performed in the wholesale florist occupation. The document opens with a brief introduction followed by a job description. The bulk of the document is presented in table form. Five duties are broken down into a number…

  2. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy in South America: a regional preventive approach.

    PubMed

    van Gelderen, C; Gimeno, E J; Schudel, A A

    2003-04-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a neurodegenerative disease of cattle caused by prions that was first described in the United Kingdom (UK) in 1986. The BSE epizootic that commenced in the UK in the 1980s has since spread into other countries in Europe and Asia through exports of contaminated meat-and-bone meal or infected cattle. Over the past few years, other emerging or reemerging diseases have spread into previously free countries or regions through international trade. This negative effect of globalisation means that to implement successful preventive and strategic programmes to safeguard animal health, such programmes must, as a priority, take a regional approach. Global thinking, regional planning and local performance constitute the key factors for the successful control of animal diseases. In South America, initial preventive actions against BSE were adopted in 1989. Further measures adopted since then and based on new scientific and technical findings, have led to the demonstration that the region is free of BSE. These early preventive actions have reliably protected the region from importing BSE-infected material. An integral part of the project to determine the BSE status of South America was the training of personnel, the incorporation of technology and the provision of updated information through close relationships with international organisations and prominent international researcher workers. Regional activities aimed at harmonising BSE prevention programmes, producing objective and transparent data on the equivalence of regional BSE status and facilitating regional and international trade have recently been launched. Maintaining the BSE-free status of the region must be given high priority by the beef agro-industrial sectors.

  3. 40 CFR 81.166 - South Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false South Central Coast Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.166 South Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (California) consists of the territorial...

  4. 40 CFR 81.260 - South Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false South Central Iowa Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.260 South Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed...

  5. 40 CFR 81.260 - South Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false South Central Iowa Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.260 South Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed...

  6. 40 CFR 81.260 - South Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false South Central Iowa Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.260 South Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed...

  7. 40 CFR 81.260 - South Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false South Central Iowa Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.260 South Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed...

  8. 40 CFR 81.260 - South Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false South Central Iowa Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.260 South Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed...

  9. 40 CFR 81.166 - South Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false South Central Coast Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.166 South Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (California) consists of the territorial...

  10. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 7. The south central region

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, R.L.; Graves, L.F.; Sprankle, A.C.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-03-01

    This atlas of the south central region combines seven collections of wind resource data: one for the region, and one for each of the six states (Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas). At the state level, features of the climate, topography, and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than that provided in the regional discussion, and the data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations, over several time scales, in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and interannual wind speed and power, and hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed, direction, and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

  11. Regional Consortia for E-Resources: A Case Study of Deals in the South China Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chunrong, Luo; Jingfen, Wang; Zhinong, Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse the current situation and the social and economic benefits from the consortia acquisitions of electronic resources by the China Academic Library and Information System (CALIS) South China Regional Centre and to recommend improvements for consortia acquisitions. Design/methodology/approach: Analyses…

  12. Fingertip dermatitis in a retail florist.

    PubMed

    Guin, J D; Franks, H

    2001-04-01

    Prevalence of plant contact dermatitis in retail florists varies with exposure, and the number of reports of contact allergy to cut tulips is rather small. Alpha-methylene-gamma-butyrolactone is better known as the cause of both Alstroemeria dermatitis in retail florists and tulip finger in wholesale floral workers who handle the bulbs. Our patient presented with prominent erythema, scaling, and peeling of the skin of the thumb, index, and middle fingers of his right hand. Results of a patch test to alpha-methylene-gamma-butyrolactone were strongly positive, and the patient determined that the exposure had occurred when he stripped leaves from the tulip stems to arrange cut flowers. Other natural sources of the antigen include Alstroemeria; Bomarea; Dioscorea hispida; Erythronium; Gagea; Fritillaria; and at least one species of onion, Allium triquetrum.

  13. Floristics and plant biogeography in China.

    PubMed

    Li, De-Zhu

    2008-07-01

    In 1998, a revolutionary system of angiosperm classification, the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group system was published. Meanwhile, another new system of classification of angiosperms, the eight-class system was proposed by C. Y. Wu and colleagues based on long term work on the flora of China. The Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae project was initiated in 1959 and completed by 2004. It is the largest Flora so far completed in the world, including 31 228 species of vascular plants, or one-eighth of the global plant diversity. The English-language and updated Flora of China (FOC) is an international joint effort initiated in 1988 and accelerated in 1998. Up to now, 15 of the 24 volumes of the FOC have been published. Based on the floristic data, the composition, characteristics, floristic divisions and affinities of the flora of China have been studied by Wu and colleagues since 1965. In the past 10 years, analyses of the available floristic data have been very productive. The East Asiatic Floristic Kingdom was proposed in 1998. All 346 families of angiosperms in China, according to the eight-class system of classification, were comprehensively discussed by using knowledge of current and historical distribution of seed plants in the world, together with some morphological and molecular data. A scheme of distribution patterns or areal-types of families and genera of seed plants in China was modified and elucidated, together with a proposed scheme of areal-types of the world. Molecular phylogenetic and biogeographical studies of angiosperms in China in the past 10 years also witnessed a progressive development. Integration of morphological and molecular data and fossil evidence revealed some significant results. Eastern Asia, which used to be regarded as an important center of survival during the ice age, is likely an important center of diversification of angiosperms.

  14. Floristic analysis and dispersal syndromes of woody species of the Serra de Maracaju, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ramos, W M; Sartori, A L B

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents a floristic survey of the wood component of cerrado s.s. (eastern face) and gallery forest (western face) areas carried out in the southern part of the Serra de Maracaju. The dispersal syndromes and floristic relations of this portion of the Serra were compared to those of other formations from different regions of Brazil. Between October 2007 and September 2008, monthly collections identified 144 species. As for dispersal syndromes, zoochory prevails, followed by autochory and anemochory. The gallery forest is a heterogeneous formation that shelters floristic elements shared with the Atlantic rain forest, the Amazonian forest, semi-deciduous seasonal forests and dry forests of the Pantanal. Low similarity between the two areas analyzed makes this region unique and suggests that the Serra de Maracaju is greatly influenced by the semi-deciduous seasonal forests of the southeastern region.

  15. A Multihazard Regional Level Impact Assessment for South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amarnath, Giriraj; Alahacoon, Niranga; Aggarwal, Pramod; Smakhtin, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    To prioritize climate adaptation strategies, there is a need for quantitative and systematic regional-level assessments which are comparable across multiple climatic hazard regimes. Assessing which countries in a region are most vulnerable to climate change requires analysis of multiple climatic hazards including: droughts, floods, extreme temperature as well as rainfall and sea-level rise. These five climatic hazards, along with population densities were modelled using GIS which enabled a summary of associated human exposure and agriculture losses. A combined index based on hazard, exposure and adaptive capacity is introduced to identify areas of extreme risks. The analysis results in population climate hazard exposure defined as the relative likelihood that a person in a given location was exposed to a given climate-hazard event in a given period of time. The study presents a detailed and coherent approach to fine-scale climate hazard mapping and identification of risks areas for the regions of South Asia that, for the first time, combines the following unique features: (a) methodological consistency across different climate-related hazards, (b) assessment of total exposure on population and agricultural losses, (c) regional-level spatial coverage, and (d) development of customized tools using ArcGIS toolbox that allow assessment of changes in exposure over time and easy replacement of existing datasets with a newly released or superior datasets. The resulting maps enable comparison of the most vulnerable regions in South Asia to climate-related hazards and is among the most urgent of policy needs. Subnational areas (regions/districts/provinces) most vulnerable to climate change impacts in South Asia are documented. The approach involves overlaying climate hazard maps, sensitivity maps, and adaptive capacity maps following the vulnerability assessment framework of the United Nations' Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The study used data on the

  16. 40 CFR 81.113 - Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South Carolina) Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South... PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.113 Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South Carolina) Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South...

  17. 40 CFR 81.113 - Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South Carolina) Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South... PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.113 Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South Carolina) Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South...

  18. 40 CFR 81.113 - Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South Carolina) Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South... PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.113 Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South Carolina) Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South...

  19. 40 CFR 81.113 - Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South Carolina) Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South... PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.113 Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South Carolina) Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South...

  20. 40 CFR 81.113 - Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South Carolina) Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South... PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.113 Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South Carolina) Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South...

  1. Harmonization of regional health data requirements in the South Pacific.

    PubMed

    Souarès, Y; Sauve, L

    1997-01-01

    The South Pacific has 22 diverse countries and territories that receive various levels of assistance, training, and financial support from International, regional, and national agencies. To support various aspects of these activities, the agencies currently request health data from the Pacific Island countries and territories on systematic bases in two major fields: health program monitoring and disease surveillance. There currently is little consultation or integration between the agencies. Communication exists mostly in terms of the exchange of various types of processed information such as reports, circulars, and other publications. The Interagency Meeting on Health Information Requirements in the South Pacific took place in December 1995 in Noumea, New Caledonia, to discuss the potential for more integration and cooperation in order to ease the pressure on the data providers (the countries) and to improve the relevance, quality, and timeliness of regional health information in the Pacific. As part of the effort to deal with the problems of both the pressure on data providers and the low quality and availability of good health information, we have developed methodological tools for evaluating both health indicators and diseases subject to surveillance in order to ascertain those most suitable for public health surveillance.

  2. EPA Regional Administrator Highlights the Benefits of Reducing Food Waste in South Bend

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (SOUTH BEND, IND. - November 5, 2015) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Regional Administrator Susan Hedman joined South Bend Mayor Pete Buttigieg today at Ivy Tech Community College's culinary school to highlight the benefits of diverting food waste fr

  3. Transient surface liquid in Titan's south polar region from Cassini

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, A.G.; Aharonson, O.; Lunine, J.I.; Kirk, R.L.; Zebker, H.A.; Wye, L.C.; Lorenz, R.D.; Turtle, E.P.; Paillou, P.; Mitri, G.; Wall, S.D.; Stofan, E.R.; Mitchell, K.L.; Elachi, C.

    2011-01-01

    Cassini RADAR images of Titan's south polar region acquired during southern summer contain lake features which disappear between observations. These features show a tenfold increases in backscatter cross-section between images acquired one year apart, which is inconsistent with common scattering models without invoking temporal variability. The morphologic boundaries are transient, further supporting changes in lake level. These observations are consistent with the exposure of diffusely scattering lakebeds that were previously hidden by an attenuating liquid medium. We use a two-layer model to explain backscatter variations and estimate a drop in liquid depth of approximately 1-m-per-year. On larger scales, we observe shoreline recession between ISS and RADAR images of Ontario Lacus, the largest lake in Titan's south polar region. The recession, occurring between June 2005 and July 2009, is inversely proportional to slopes estimated from altimetric profiles and the exponential decay of near-shore backscatter, consistent with a uniform reduction of 4 ± 1.3 m in lake depth. Of the potential explanations for observed surface changes, we favor evaporation and infiltration. The disappearance of dark features and the recession of Ontario's shoreline represents volatile transport in an active methane-based hydrologic cycle. Observed loss rates are compared and shown to be consistent with available global circulation models. To date, no unambiguous changes in lake level have been observed between repeat images in the north polar region, although further investigation is warranted. These observations constrain volatile flux rates in Titan's hydrologic system and demonstrate that the surface plays an active role in its evolution. Constraining these seasonal changes represents the first step toward our understanding of longer climate cycles that may determine liquid distribution on Titan over orbital time periods.

  4. Simulation of South Asian aerosols for regional climate studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Vijayakumar S.; Solmon, Fabien; Giorgi, Filippo; Mariotti, Laura; Babu, S. Suresh; Moorthy, K. Krishna

    2012-02-01

    Extensive intercomparison of columnar and near-surface aerosols, simulated over the South Asian domain using the aerosol module included in the regional climate model (RegCM4) of the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) have been carried out using ground-based network of Sun/sky Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) radiometers, satellite sensors such as Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR), and ground-based black carbon (BC) measurements made at Aerosol Radiative Forcing over India (ARFI) network stations. In general, RegCM4 simulations reproduced the spatial and seasonal characteristics of aerosol optical depth over South Asia reasonably well, particularly over west Asia, where mineral dust is a major contributor to the total aerosol loading. In contrast, RegCM4 simulations drastically underestimated the BC mass concentrations over most of the stations, by a factor of 2 to 5, with a large spatial variability. Seasonally, the discrepancy between the measured and simulated BC tended to be higher during winter and periods when the atmospheric boundary layer is convectively stable (such as nighttime and early mornings), while during summer season and during periods when the boundary layer is convectively unstable (daytime) the discrepancies were much lower, with the noontime values agreeing very closely with the observations. A detailed analysis revealed that the model does not reproduce the nocturnal high in BC, observed at most of the Indian sites especially during winter, because of the excessive vertical transport of aerosols under stable boundary layer conditions. As far as the vertical distribution was concerned, the simulated vertical profiles of BC agreed well with airborne measurements during daytime. This comprehensive validation exercise reveals the strengths and weaknesses of the model in simulating the spatial and temporal heterogeneities of the aerosol fields over

  5. Challenges Facing Managers in Managing Conflict in Schools in the South and South Central Regions of Botswana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morake, Nnior Machomi; Monobe, Ratau John; Dingwe, Stephonia

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the challenges facing managers in managing conflict in schools of South and South Central Regions of Botswana. In this study, the schedule of interview was used to collect empirical data. A random sample of 50 school managers and deputy school managers was selected for interviews. Major findings of the…

  6. Pesticide Residues on Three Cut Flower Species and Potential Exposure of Florists in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Toumi, Khaoula; Vleminckx, Christiane; van Loco, Joris; Schiffers, Bruno

    2016-09-23

    In order to assess the prevalence of pesticide contamination and the risk of florists' exposure when handling cut flowers, sampling and analysis of 90 bouquets of the most commonly sold cut flowers in Belgium (50 bouquets of roses; 20 of gerberas, and 20 of chrysanthemums) were carried out. The bouquets were collected from 50 florists located in the seven largest cities of Belgium (Antwerp, Brussels, Charleroi, Ghent, Leuven, Liege, and Namur) and from five supermarkets located in the different regions. To have a better understanding of the route of exposure and professional practices a questionnaire was also addressed to a group of 25 florists who volunteered to take part in the survey. All florists were interviewed individually when collecting the questionnaire. The residual pesticide deposit values on cut flowers were determined in an accredited laboratory using a multi-residue (QuEChERS Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged Safe) method and a combination of gas chromatography (GC) and liquid chormatograhphy (LC) analysis. A total of 107 active substances were detected from all samples; i.e., an average of about 10 active substances per bouquet. The most severely contaminated bouquet accumulated a total concentration of residues up to 97 mg/kg. Results show that roses are the most contaminated cut flowers; with an average of 14 substances detected per sample and a total concentration per rose sample of 26 mg/kg. Some active substances present an acute toxicity (acephate, methiocarb, monocrotophos, methomyl, deltamethrin, etc.) and exposure can generate a direct effect on the nervous system of florists. Nevertheless, fungicides (dodemorph, propamocarb, and procymidone) were the most frequently detected in samples and had the highest maximum concentrations out of all the active substances analysed. Dodemorph was the most frequently detected substance with the highest maximum concentration (41.9 mg/kg) measured in the rose samples. It appears from the survey that

  7. Floristic quality assessment of one natural and three restored wetland complexes in North Dakota, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mushet, David M.; Euliss, Ned H.; Shaffer, Terry L.

    2002-01-01

    Floristic quality assessment is potentially an important tool for conservation efforts in the northern Great Plains of North America, but it has received little rigorous evaluation. Floristic quality assessments rely on coefficients assigned to each plant species of a region’s flora based on the conservatism of each species relative to others in the region. These “coefficients of conservatism” (C values) are assigned by a panel of experts familiar with a region’s flora. The floristic quality assessment method has faced some criticism due to the subjective nature of these assignments. To evaluate the effect of this subjectivity on floristic quality assessments, we performed separate evaluations of the native plant communities in a natural wetland complex and three restored wetland complexes. In our first assessment, we used C values assigned “subjectively” by the Northern Great Plains Floristic Quality Assessment Panel. We then performed an independent assessment using the observed distributions of species among a group of wetlands that ranged from highly disturbed to largely undisturbed (data-generated C values). Using the panel-assigned C values, mean C values (C¯">C¯C¯) of the restored wetlands rarely exceeded 3.4 and never exceeded 3.9, with the highest values occurring in the oldest restored complex; all but two wetlands in the natural wetland complex had a C¯">C¯C¯ greater than 3.9. Floristic quality indices (FQI) for the restored wetlands rarely exceeded 22 and usually reached maximums closer to 19, with higher values occurring again in the oldest restored complex; only two wetlands in the natural complex had an FQI less than 22. We observed that 95% confidence limits for species richness and percent natives overlapped greatly among wetland complexes, whereas confidence limits for both C¯">C¯C¯ and FQI overlapped little. C¯">C¯C¯ and FQI values were consistently greater when we used the datagenerated C values than when we used the

  8. Mars at Ls 269o: South Polar Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    30 August 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 269o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 269o occurred in mid-August 2005. The picture shows the south polar region of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: last days of Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  9. Pneumonia in South-East Asia Region: public health perspective.

    PubMed

    Ghimire, M; Bhattacharya, S K; Narain, J P

    2012-04-01

    Globally, pneumonia is the leading cause of death in young children and burden of disease is disproportionately high in South-East Asia Region of WHO. This review article presents the current status of pneumonia disease burden, risk factors and the ability of health infrastructure to deal with the situation. Literature survey was done for the last 20 years and data from country offices were also collected. The estimated incidence of pneumonia in under five children is 0.36 episodes per child, per year. Risk factors are malnutrition (40% in India), Indoor air pollution, non-breast feeding, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, etc. Strengthening of health care delivery system for early detection and treatment and as well as minimization of preventable risk factors can avert a large proportion of death due to pneumonia.

  10. Floristic similarity and dispersal syndromes in a rocky outcrop in semi-arid Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Elainne Cristina Silva; Lopes, Sérgio de Faria; Melo, José Iranildo Miranda de

    2015-09-01

    Floristic studies provide valuable information on species richness in a region, and are particularly important if these areas belong to less studied environments, such as rocky outcrops, that may increase our knowledge. An important aspect for species colonization includes the mechanisms of diaspores dispersal in each community; these are essential to understand its structure, dynamics, and the regeneration process, and constitute an important tool for conservation. We developed a floristic survey on a granite-gneiss outcrop with the objective to increase the knowledge on plant diversity, through a floristic similarity analysis and detection of dispersal syndromes of sampled species, in a semi-arid region of Brazil. The fieldwork included collection and observation of the botanical material in loco during a period of 12 months. A total of 161 species belonging to 127 genera and 50 families of angiosperms were recorded. Fabaceae, Asteraceae and Convolvulaceae were the most representative families in number of species. Allophylus quercifolius (Mart.) Radlk. (Capparaceae) and Lafoensia pacari A. St.-Hil. (Lythraceae) represented new records for the State of Paraiba. The autochoric syndrome was the most representative, with 51.5 % of the recorded species; the anemochory was the second most representative syndrome with 26.7 % of the species; and finally the zoochory, representing 22.3 % of the species. The floristic similarity dendrogram showed the formation of three well-defined groups, whose area with the highest value (J = 33.2) is located in a Caatinga region called Cariri Paraibano, while the lowest value observed (J = 5.2), occurred in a settled area in two geomorphological units, a crystalline complex and a plateau region. These results may be due to the varying topographic conditions and edaphic heterogeneity arising from the specific geological formation of the region. These results yet demonstrate that, in rocky outcrops, abiotic syndromes represent an

  11. Regionalized Lunar South Pole Surface Navigation System Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Bryan W.

    2008-01-01

    Apollo missions utilized Earth-based assets for navigation because the landings took place at lunar locations in constant view from the Earth. The new exploration campaign to the lunar south pole region will have limited Earth visibility, but the extent to which a navigation system comprised solely of Earth-based tracking stations will provide adequate navigation solutions in this region is unknown. This report presents a dilution-of-precision (DoP)-based, stationary surface navigation analysis of the performance of multiple lunar satellite constellations, Earth-based deep space network assets, and combinations thereof. Results show that kinematic and integrated solutions cannot be provided by the Earth-based deep space network stations. Also, the stationary surface navigation system needs to be operated either as a two-way navigation system or as a one-way navigation system with local terrain information, while the position solution is integrated over a short duration of time with navigation signals being provided by a lunar satellite constellation.

  12. Harold Hill and the South Polar region of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baum, R.

    2010-04-01

    For over half a century the British selenographer Harold Hill laboured to produce a detailed chart of the region around the south pole of the Moon. In the year before his death, having concluded the project would never be completed in his lifetime, he sent the writer a fragment of his archive, no doubt with the unspoken assumption that at least some part might be brought to general notice. Accordingly as the man is so much a piece of his work, and so much of his life is in his work, I have found it more suitable to adopt a biographical approach to outline the essence of his epic undertaking. Here the writer notes but does not discuss, a parallel with the lunar drawings of the eighteenth century portrait painter John Russell. His drawings of the Moon exceed in quality and accuracy those of his more illustrious contemporaries, and certainly pre-empted the classic work of Beer and Mädler, yet curiously they are little noticed in histories of selenography.

  13. Donor management in South-East Asia region (SEAR).

    PubMed

    Bharucha, Z S

    2005-01-01

    Quality management of a BTS starts with safe donor recruitment and donor care. In the South-East Asia region (SEAR) almost all countries except Thailand depend heavily on replacement of blood from relatives and friends. Most of these countries except Bangla Desh have ruled out the paid-donor system; however in the guise of replacement donation it still exists. Lack of resources, lack of professional management, myths and misconceptions arising from cultural and social differences form a barrier to blood donation. Most of the countries still do not have a National Blood Policy and/or a well planned blood programme. Besides recruitment, the donor screening and donor management are also not well addressed. The donors are mainly males of 20-35 years who come from the middle class of the society. Only 3-6 % of females donate blood. Most of the donors donate once in a lifetime as there is no emphasis on retention programmes. Only 5-10 % are repeat donors. The autologous transfusions are not widely practised. However, insistence on directed donors has increased. The prevalence of transfusion-transmissible infections in the region is variable; HIV 0-1.6 %, HBV 0.06-8.5 %, HCV 1.2-3 %. Training of staff and volunteers involved in the programme has started. Countries such as India and Sri Lanka are introducing NBP and moving towards reorganisation of their blood programme. All countries have now realised a need for regulation and implementation of a quality system as well as increased their efforts towards donor recruitment and retention. To improve the safety of blood supply, all are trying to phase out the replacement system and move towards 100 % voluntary non- remunerated regular blood donation. The aim of the presentation is to highlight the problems encountered as well as strategies used in making adequate and safe blood available.

  14. Regional, Continental, and Global Mobility to an Emerging Economy: The Case of South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jenny J.; Sehoole, Chika

    2015-01-01

    This study examined mobility within the understudied region of southern Africa and particularly, the factors that drive and shape educational migration toward South Africa as a regional, continental, and global destination. Based on a survey administered to international students across seven South African universities, the findings revealed…

  15. Research Ready Program: A First in Regional South Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penman, Joy; Oliver, Mary

    2012-01-01

    In response to the South Australian Certificate of Education (SACE) Board's introduction in 2010 of the new Research Project subject, the University of South Australia's Centre for Participation and Community Engagement took the opportunity to engage further with school students by organising the Research Ready Program. The adoption of the program…

  16. Pesticide Residues on Three Cut Flower Species and Potential Exposure of Florists in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    Toumi, Khaoula; Vleminckx, Christiane; van Loco, Joris; Schiffers, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    In order to assess the prevalence of pesticide contamination and the risk of florists’ exposure when handling cut flowers, sampling and analysis of 90 bouquets of the most commonly sold cut flowers in Belgium (50 bouquets of roses; 20 of gerberas, and 20 of chrysanthemums) were carried out. The bouquets were collected from 50 florists located in the seven largest cities of Belgium (Antwerp, Brussels, Charleroi, Ghent, Leuven, Liege, and Namur) and from five supermarkets located in the different regions. To have a better understanding of the route of exposure and professional practices a questionnaire was also addressed to a group of 25 florists who volunteered to take part in the survey. All florists were interviewed individually when collecting the questionnaire. The residual pesticide deposit values on cut flowers were determined in an accredited laboratory using a multi-residue (QuEChERS Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged Safe) method and a combination of gas chromatography (GC) and liquid chormatograhphy (LC) analysis. A total of 107 active substances were detected from all samples; i.e., an average of about 10 active substances per bouquet. The most severely contaminated bouquet accumulated a total concentration of residues up to 97 mg/kg. Results show that roses are the most contaminated cut flowers; with an average of 14 substances detected per sample and a total concentration per rose sample of 26 mg/kg. Some active substances present an acute toxicity (acephate, methiocarb, monocrotophos, methomyl, deltamethrin, etc.) and exposure can generate a direct effect on the nervous system of florists. Nevertheless, fungicides (dodemorph, propamocarb, and procymidone) were the most frequently detected in samples and had the highest maximum concentrations out of all the active substances analysed. Dodemorph was the most frequently detected substance with the highest maximum concentration (41.9 mg/kg) measured in the rose samples. It appears from the survey that

  17. DNA barcoding of lichenized fungi demonstrates high identification success in a floristic context.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Laura J; Hollingsworth, Peter M; Coppins, Brian J; Ellis, Christopher J; Harrold, Paul; Tosh, James; Yahr, Rebecca

    2011-07-01

    • Efforts are currently underway to establish a standard DNA barcode region for fungi; we tested the utility of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA for DNA barcoding in lichen-forming fungi by sampling diverse species across eight orders. • Amplification of the ITS region (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) was conducted for 351 samples, encompassing 107, 55 and 28 species, genera and families, respectively, of lichenized fungi. We assessed the ability of the entire ITS vs the ITS2 alone to discriminate between species in a taxonomic dataset (members of the genus Usnea) and a floristic dataset. • In the floristic dataset, 96.3% of sequenced samples could be assigned to the correct species using ITS or ITS2; a barcode gap for ITS is present in 92.1% of species. Although fewer species have a barcode gap in the taxonomic dataset (73.3% with ITS and 68.8% with ITS2), up to 94.1% of samples were assigned to the correct species using BLAST. • While discrimination between the most closely related species will remain challenging, our results demonstrate the potential to identify a high percentage of specimens to the correct species, and the remainder to the correct genus, when using DNA barcoding in a floristic context.

  18. Optical determination of phytoplankton floristic composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, P. S. D.; Bowers, D. G.; Mitchelson-Jacob, E. G.

    1997-02-01

    Radiance and irradiance measurements are collected using a seven channel profiling radiometer and a four channel moored irradiance sensor which both use Sea-viewing Wide Field-of- View Sensor (SeaWiFS) wavebands. The instruments were deployed as part of the Land-Ocean Interaction Study, shelf edge study on the Malin Shelf, off the west coast of Scotland, during spring and simmer 1995 and 1996. Changes in in-situ reflectance ratios, calculated from the blue, cyan and green wavebands of the moored color sensors, suggest a diatom-dominated spring bloom, followed by an early summer coccolithophore bloom, with a flagellate-dominated phytoplankton population during the summer. Similar changes are also seen in attenuance ratios and specific attenuation coefficients calculated from the profiling radiometer data. The use of these optical properties to determine phytoplankton floristic composition is discussed.

  19. Scale and Sampling Effects on Floristic Quality.

    PubMed

    Spyreas, Greg

    2016-01-01

    Floristic Quality Assessment (FQA) is increasingly influential for making land management decisions, for directing conservation policy, and for research. But, the basic ecological properties and limitations of its metrics are ill defined and not well understood-especially those related to sample methods and scale. Nested plot data from a remnant tallgrass prairie sampled annually over a 12-year period, were used to investigate FQA properties associated with species detection rates, species misidentification rates, sample year, and sample grain/area. Plot size had no apparent effect on Mean C (an area's average Floristic Quality level), nor did species detection levels above 65% detection. Simulated species misidentifications only affected Mean C values at greater than 10% in large plots, when the replaced species were randomly drawn from the broader county-wide species pool. Finally, FQA values were stable over the 12-year study, meaning that there was no evidence that the metrics exhibit year effects. The FQA metric Mean C is demonstrated to be robust to varied sample methodologies related to sample intensity (plot size, species detection rate), as well as sample year. These results will make FQA measures even more appealing for informing land-use decisions, policy, and research for two reasons: 1) The sampling effort needed to generate accurate and consistent site assessments with FQA measures is shown to be far lower than what has previously been assumed, and 2) the stable properties and consistent performance of metrics with respect to sample methods will allow for a remarkable level of comparability of FQA values from different sites and datasets compared to other commonly used ecological metrics.

  20. Scale and Sampling Effects on Floristic Quality

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Floristic Quality Assessment (FQA) is increasingly influential for making land management decisions, for directing conservation policy, and for research. But, the basic ecological properties and limitations of its metrics are ill defined and not well understood–especially those related to sample methods and scale. Nested plot data from a remnant tallgrass prairie sampled annually over a 12-year period, were used to investigate FQA properties associated with species detection rates, species misidentification rates, sample year, and sample grain/area. Plot size had no apparent effect on Mean C (an area’s average Floristic Quality level), nor did species detection levels above 65% detection. Simulated species misidentifications only affected Mean C values at greater than 10% in large plots, when the replaced species were randomly drawn from the broader county-wide species pool. Finally, FQA values were stable over the 12-year study, meaning that there was no evidence that the metrics exhibit year effects. The FQA metric Mean C is demonstrated to be robust to varied sample methodologies related to sample intensity (plot size, species detection rate), as well as sample year. These results will make FQA measures even more appealing for informing land-use decisions, policy, and research for two reasons: 1) The sampling effort needed to generate accurate and consistent site assessments with FQA measures is shown to be far lower than what has previously been assumed, and 2) the stable properties and consistent performance of metrics with respect to sample methods will allow for a remarkable level of comparability of FQA values from different sites and datasets compared to other commonly used ecological metrics. PMID:27489959

  1. Wadi dynamics in the Souss region, South Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchhoff, Mario; Peter, Klaus Daniel; Ries, Johannes B.

    2016-04-01

    The Souss region is strongly influenced by sheet wash, rill and gully erosion and intersected by ephemeral rivers, varying in size, called wadis or Oueds. Since this region is used intensely for agricultural purposes, land levelling is used to prevent the area from becoming badlands. The aim of this study was to identify the factors controlling the dynamics inside a wadi and especially to determine if wadis act as sinks for the sediment that is washed from the plains or if the sediment is transported further through the network of wadis. Scour chains were used to measure erosion or accumulation on the wadi bed. During the years 2011-2014 37 measurements were conducted in seven different wadis. These study areas were situated from northeast to southwest on an alluvial fan between the High Atlas in the North and the city of Taroudant in the South. To be able to identify factors contributing to wadi dynamics accumulated wadi length and catchment area as well as land use classes were mapped based on a Quickbird satellite image. The measurements showed variable data, with results ranging from +30 cm (accumulation) to -37 cm (erosion) per measurement interval ranging from two weeks to one year. While erosion was dominant in some wadis, others showed a tendency towards accumulation. From the measurement data, the phenomenon of 'Scour & Fill' becomes apparent. Sediment from the plains is eroded from the wadi with high water velocities and with decreasing flow speed fills scour rills downstream. Due to the high variability of measurement data from the scour chains, satisfying correlations between wadi erosion/accumulation and possibly contributing factors could not be detected. Daily maximum precipitation ranked as the factor that most likely controlled wadi dynamics, while land use showed virtually no correlation, possibly because of limited connectivity in the study area. Other contributing factors like accumulated wadi length and wadi width are linked more closely to the

  2. Regional assessment of nonforestry related biomass resources: South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-01

    This document is a collection of spreadsheets detailing in a county by county manner the agricultural crop, agricultural wastes, municipal wastes, and industrial wastes of South Carolina that are potential biomass energy sources.

  3. Update on polio eradication in the World Health Organization South-East Asia Region, 2013.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Patrick Michael; Allison, Robert; Thapa, Arun; Bahl, Sunil; Chunsuittiwat, Supamit; Hasan, Mainul; Khan, Zainul; Sedai, Tika

    2014-11-01

    There has been a tremendous amount of progress toward polio eradication in the World Health Organization South-East Asia Region particularly over the past 4 years. In 1988, there were >25,000 reported cases of wild poliovirus infection in the South-East Asia Region, and because of substantial underreporting the estimated polio burden was probably 10-fold higher. Following the initiation of mass polio immunization campaigns in the mid-1990s and years of intense effort, the 11 countries of the South-East Asia Region reported no cases of wild poliovirus infection in 2012. With India reporting the last wild poliovirus case in the region, on 13 January 2011, and its subsequent removal from the list of polio-endemic countries, in February 2012, the South-East Asia Region is firmly on track for polio-free certification in early 2014.

  4. Carbon Erosion in the Great Karoo Region of South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krenz, Juliane; Greenwood, Philip; Kuhn, Brigitte; Foster, Ian; Boardman, John; Meadows, Mike; Kuhn, Nikolaus

    2015-04-01

    Work undertaken in the seasonally arid upland areas of the Great Karoo region of South Africa has established a link between land degradation and overgrazing which began in the second half of the 18th century when European farmers first settled the area. Ongoing land use change and shifting rainfall patterns resulted in the development of badlands on foot slopes of upland areas, and gully systems on valley bottoms. As a consequence of agricultural intensification and overgrazing, accompanied by a higher water demand, many small reservoirs were constructed, most of which are now in-filled with sediment. The deposited material serves as an environmental archive by which land use change over the last 100 years can be analysed, but with a particular focus on erosion and deposition of soil-associated carbon (C). It is assumed that erosion caused an initial flush of carbon rich soil which was subsequently buried and stored off-site. Despite this assumption, however the net-effect of erosion on carbon dioxide emissions is still unknown. In this project, preliminary results are presented from an investigation to determine whether land degradation in the Karoo has resulted in a shift from a net sink of C to a net source of C. Firstly, a high resolution digital elevation model was generated and erosion modelling was then employed to create an erosion risk map showing areas most prone to erosion. Information from the model output then served as the basis for ground-truthing and on-site erosion mapping. Secondly, sediment deposits from silted reservoirs were analysed for varying physicochemical parameters, in order to reconstruct spatial patterns of erosion and deposition. Analysis of total carbon (TC) content revealed a sharp decrease with decreasing depth. This provisionally suggests that land degradation during and after post-European settlement probably led to accelerated erosion of the relatively fertile surface soils. This presumably resulted in the rapid in-filling of

  5. Pre-Kindergarten in the South: Preserving the Region's Comparative Advantage in Education. Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Education Foundation, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This Southern Education Foundation (SEF) report warns Southern states against endangering critical, hard-earned gains in early childhood education--the South's most effective innovation in public education--as state legislatures in the region consider substantial cuts to education programs. The SEF report reviews how the South continues to lead…

  6. South Polar Region of Mars: Topography and Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenk, P. M.; Moore, J. M.

    1999-01-01

    The polar layered deposits of Mars represent potentially important volatile reservoirs and tracers for the planet's geologically recent climate history. Unlike the north polar cap, the uppermost surface of the bright residual south polar deposit is probably composed of carbon dioxide ice. It is unknown whether this ice extends through the entire thickness of the deposit. The Mars Polar Lander (MPL), launched in January 1999, is due to arrive in December 1999 to search for water and carbon dioxide on layered deposits near the south pole (SP) of Mars. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  7. Australian and South Pacific External Studies Association: Odlaa's Regional Predecessor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bewley, Donald

    2008-01-01

    The Australian and South Pacific External Studies Association (ASPESA)-- the predecessor of the Open and Distance Learning Association of Australia, Inc. (ODLAA)--was founded in 1973. From the outset, ASPESA adopted a broader-than-Australia focus for open and distance learning that included New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, and the member countries…

  8. Environmental Assessment for Public-Private Venture Housing, South Texas Region

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-12-01

    Venture (PPV) partnership to provide adequate housing for military families in the South Texas Region. Section 2801 of the National Defense... housing to military families in the South Texas Region. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Public Release...population for available supply. The private rental housing market in the area is generally considered tight, with rents often exceeding military

  9. CORINE land cover and floristic variation in a Mediterranean wetland.

    PubMed

    Giallonardo, Tommaso; Landi, Marco; Frignani, Flavio; Geri, Francesco; Lastrucci, Lorenzo; Angiolini, Claudia

    2011-11-01

    The aims of the present study were to: (1) investigate whether CORINE land cover classes reflect significant differences in floristic composition, using a very detailed CORINE land cover map (scale 1:5000); (2) decompose the relationships between floristic assemblages and three groups of explanatory variables (CORINE land cover classes, environmental characteristics and spatial structure) into unique and interactive components. Stratified sampling was used to select a set of 100-m(2) plots in each land cover class identified in the semi-natural wetland surrounding a lake in central Italy. The following six classes were considered: stable meadows, deciduous oak dominated woods, hygrophilous broadleaf dominated woods, heaths and shrublands, inland swamps, canals or watercourses. The relationship between land cover classes and floristic composition was tested using several statistical techniques in order to determine whether the results remained consistent with different procedures. The variation partitioning approach was applied to identify the relative importance of three groups of explanatory variables in relation to floristic variation. The most important predictor was land cover, which explained 20.7% of the variation in plant distribution, although the hypothesis that each land cover class could be associated with a particular floristic pattern was not verified. Multi Response Permutation Analysis did not indicate a strong floristic separability between land cover classes and only 9.5% of species showed a significant indicator value for a specific land cover class. We suggest that land cover classes linked with hygrophilous and herbaceous communities in a wetland may have floristic patterns that vary with fine scale and are not compatible with a land cover map.

  10. Geographically Sourcing Cocaine's Origin - Delineation of the Nineteen Major Coca Growing Regions in South America.

    PubMed

    Mallette, Jennifer R; Casale, John F; Jordan, James; Morello, David R; Beyer, Paul M

    2016-03-23

    Previously, geo-sourcing to five major coca growing regions within South America was accomplished. However, the expansion of coca cultivation throughout South America made sub-regional origin determinations increasingly difficult. The former methodology was recently enhanced with additional stable isotope analyses ((2)H and (18)O) to fully characterize cocaine due to the varying environmental conditions in which the coca was grown. An improved data analysis method was implemented with the combination of machine learning and multivariate statistical analysis methods to provide further partitioning between growing regions. Here, we show how the combination of trace cocaine alkaloids, stable isotopes, and multivariate statistical analyses can be used to classify illicit cocaine as originating from one of 19 growing regions within South America. The data obtained through this approach can be used to describe current coca cultivation and production trends, highlight trafficking routes, as well as identify new coca growing regions.

  11. 40 CFR 81.73 - South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton Harbor (Michigan) Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton... PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.73 South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton Harbor (Michigan) Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton...

  12. 40 CFR 81.73 - South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton Harbor (Michigan) Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton... PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.73 South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton Harbor (Michigan) Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton...

  13. 40 CFR 81.73 - South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton Harbor (Michigan) Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton... PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.73 South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton Harbor (Michigan) Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton...

  14. Southern Regional Education Board: Serving Community Colleges in the South

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanco, Cheryl D.

    2015-01-01

    The Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) is a nonprofit, nonpartisan regional compact focused on critical issues with strong potential to improve quality of life by advancing public education. Designed primarily for legislators and other policymakers and policyshapers, SREB's research is policy-oriented, descriptive, and centered on statewide…

  15. An Assessment of Vocational and Technical Education in the South Pacific Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, David

    Technical and vocational education in the developing countries of the South Pacific region vary from the well-established to just commencing. Within the region as a whole, facilities exist to meet all the needs for semiskilled and skilled workers as well as for most middle and higher level needs; additional needs not catered to within the region…

  16. 40 CFR 81.105 - South Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES... Region. The South Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial... territorial area of all municipalities (as defined in section 302(f) of the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C....

  17. 40 CFR 81.105 - South Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES... Region. The South Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial... territorial area of all municipalities (as defined in section 302(f) of the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C....

  18. A Proposed Regional Plan for the Expansion of Optometric Education in the South.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorn, Wesley N.; And Others

    Concern about the adequacy of existing optometry schools to meet the needs and demands for optometric education in the South prompted a study, to result in a proposal for expansion of education in the field. The results showed that there is a shortage of optometrists in each of the 14 states of the Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) region,…

  19. Floristic survey of herbaceous and subshrubby aquatic and palustrine angiosperms of Viruá National Park, Roraima, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Suzana Maria; Barbosa, Tiago Domingos Mouzinho; Bittrich, Volker; do Amaral, Maria do Carmo Estanislau

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We provide and discuss a floristic survey of herbaceous and subshrubby aquatic and palustrine angiosperms of Viruá National Park (VNP). The VNP is located in the northern Amazon basin and displays phytophysiognomies distributed in a mosaic where these plants occur, as flooded forests, hydromorphic white-sand savannas, “buritizais” and waterbodies. After expeditions between February/2010 and January/2015 and the analysis of specimens from regional herbaria, we list 207 species of herbaceous and subshrubby aquatic and palustrine angiosperms for the VNP, distributed in 85 genera in 37 families. We recorded six new occurrences for Brazil, two for the northern Brazilian region and 21 for Roraima state. These new occurrences, added to the other species listed here, highlight the floristic similarity between the study site and the Guiana Shield, an adjacent phytogeographical unit and geologically related to the origin of white-sand savannas. PMID:26884704

  20. Floristic survey of herbaceous and subshrubby aquatic and palustrine angiosperms of Viruá National Park, Roraima, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Suzana Maria; Barbosa, Tiago Domingos Mouzinho; Bittrich, Volker; do Amaral, Maria do Carmo Estanislau

    2016-01-01

    We provide and discuss a floristic survey of herbaceous and subshrubby aquatic and palustrine angiosperms of Viruá National Park (VNP). The VNP is located in the northern Amazon basin and displays phytophysiognomies distributed in a mosaic where these plants occur, as flooded forests, hydromorphic white-sand savannas, "buritizais" and waterbodies. After expeditions between February/2010 and January/2015 and the analysis of specimens from regional herbaria, we list 207 species of herbaceous and subshrubby aquatic and palustrine angiosperms for the VNP, distributed in 85 genera in 37 families. We recorded six new occurrences for Brazil, two for the northern Brazilian region and 21 for Roraima state. These new occurrences, added to the other species listed here, highlight the floristic similarity between the study site and the Guiana Shield, an adjacent phytogeographical unit and geologically related to the origin of white-sand savannas.

  1. Declining Dixie: Regional Identification in the Modern American South

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Christopher A.; Knotts, H. Gibbs

    2010-01-01

    We replicate and extend John Shelton Reed's classic work on regional identification by examining and modeling the prevalence of the words "Dixie" and "Southern" in business names across 100 cities and four decades. We find that the instances of "Dixie" have dropped precipitously, although identification with the word…

  2. Regional and temporal patterns of litterfall in tropical South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chave, J.; Navarrete, D.; Almeida, S.; Álvarez, E.; Aragão, L. E. O. C.; Bonal, D.; Châtelet, P.; Silva Espejo, J.; Goret, J.-Y.; von Hildebrand, P.; Jiménez, E.; Patiño, S.; Peñuela, M. C.; Phillips, O. L.; Stevenson, P.; Malhi, Y.

    2009-07-01

    The production of aboveground soft tissue represents an important share of total net primary production in tropical rain forests. Here we draw from a large number of published and unpublished datasets (n=81 sites) to assess the determinants of litterfall variation across South American tropical forests. We show that across old-growth tropical rainforests, litterfall averages 8.61±1.91Mg/ha/yr. Secondary forests have a lower annual litterfall than old-growth tropical forests with a mean of 8.01±3.41 Mg/ha/yr. Annual litterfall shows no significant variation with total annual rainfall, either globally or within forest types. It does not vary consistently with soil type, except in the poorest soils (white sand soils), where litterfall is significantly lower than in other soil types (5.42±1.91Mg/ha/yr). Litterfall declines significantly with increasing N:P. We also study the determinants of litterfall seasonality, and find that it does not depend on annual rainfall or on soil type. However, litterfall seasonality is significantly positively correlated with rainfall seasonality. Finally, we assess how much carbon is stored in reproductive organs relative to photosynthetic organs. Mean leaf fall is 5.74±1.83 Mg/ha/yr (71% of total litterfall). Mean allocation into reproductive organs is 0.69±0.40Mg/ha/yr (9% of total litterfall). The investment into reproductive organs divided by leaf litterfall is negatively related to the N:P ratio, suggesting that on poor soils, the allocation to photosynthetic organs is prioritized over that to reproduction. Finally, we discuss the ecological and biogeochemical implications of these results.

  3. Regional and seasonal patterns of litterfall in tropical South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chave, J.; Navarrete, D.; Almeida, S.; Álvarez, E.; Aragão, L. E. O. C.; Bonal, D.; Châtelet, P.; Silva-Espejo, J. E.; Goret, J.-Y.; von Hildebrand, P.; Jiménez, E.; Patiño, S.; Peñuela, M. C.; Phillips, O. L.; Stevenson, P.; Malhi, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The production of aboveground soft tissue represents an important share of total net primary production in tropical rain forests. Here we draw from a large number of published and unpublished datasets (n=81 sites) to assess the determinants of litterfall variation across South American tropical forests. We show that across old-growth tropical rainforests, litterfall averages 8.61±1.91 Mg ha-1 yr-1 (mean ± standard deviation, in dry mass units). Secondary forests have a lower annual litterfall than old-growth tropical forests with a mean of 8.01±3.41 Mg ha-1 yr-1. Annual litterfall shows no significant variation with total annual rainfall, either globally or within forest types. It does not vary consistently with soil type, except in the poorest soils (white sand soils), where litterfall is significantly lower than in other soil types (5.42±1.91 Mg ha-1 yr-1). We also study the determinants of litterfall seasonality, and find that it does not depend on annual rainfall or on soil type. However, litterfall seasonality is significantly positively correlated with rainfall seasonality. Finally, we assess how much carbon is stored in reproductive organs relative to photosynthetic organs. Mean leaf fall is 5.74±1.83 Mg ha-1 yr-1 (71% of total litterfall). Mean allocation into reproductive organs is 0.69±0.40 Mg ha-1 yr-1 (9% of total litterfall). The investment into reproductive organs divided by leaf litterfall increases with soil fertility, suggesting that on poor soils, the allocation to photosynthetic organs is prioritized over that to reproduction. Finally, we discuss the ecological and biogeochemical implications of these results.

  4. Discovery Of A Rossby Wave In Jupiter's South Equatorial Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Choi, D. S.; Rogers, J. H.; Gierasch, P. J.

    2012-01-01

    A detailed study of the chevron-shaped dark spots on the strong southern equatorial wind jet near 7.5 deg S planetographic latitude shows variations in velocity with longitude and time. The chevrons move with velocities near the maximum wind jet velocity of approx.140 m/s, as deduced by the history of velocities at this latitude and the magnitude of the symmetric wind jet near 7 deg N latitude. Their repetitive nature is consistent with an inertia-gravity wave (n = 75-100) with phase speed up to 25 m/s, relative to the local flow, but the identity of this wave mode is not well constrained. However, high spatial resolution movies from Cassini images show that the chevrons oscillate in latitude with a approx.7-day period. This oscillating motion has a wavelength of approx.20 deg and a speed of approx.100 m/s, following a pattern similar to that seen in the Rossby wave plumes of the North Equatorial Zone, and possibly reinforced by it, though they are not perfectly in phase. The transient anticyclonic South Equatorial Disturbance (SED) may be a similar wave feature, but moves at slower velocity. All data show chevron latitude variability, but it is unclear if this Rossby wave is present during other epochs, without time series movies that fully delineate it. In the presence of multiple wave modes, the difference in dominant cloud appearance between 7 deg N and 7.5 deg S may be due to the presence of the Great Red Spot, either through changes in stratification and stability or by acting as a wave boundary.

  5. An Investigation into Why Students from Regional South Australia Choose to Study Business Programs in the Capital City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Janet; Ellis, Bronwyn

    2011-01-01

    Although Business undergraduate studies are available at the University of South Australia's (UniSA) Centre for Regional Engagement (CRE), both at the Whyalla Campus and the Mount Gambier Regional Centre (MGRC), many students from regional South Australia choose to undertake Business degrees in Adelaide, the state capital, rather than locally.…

  6. Retail Florist: Selling the Floral Product, Maintenance and Delivery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale.

    This retail florist unit guide is provided to help teachers teach units on sales of floral products and maintenance and delivery in a floral shop. Topics covered in the selling unit are basic mathematics; taxable items; sales etiquette; types of floral products; telephone etiquette; order form information; wire service regulations; care of floral…

  7. Floristic Quality Assessment Across the Nation: Status, Opportunities, and Challenges

    EPA Science Inventory

    Floristic Quality Assessment (FQA) will be considered in the USEPA National Wetland Condition Assessment (NWCA). FQA is a powerful tool to describe wetland ecological condition, and is based on Coefficients of Conservatism (CC) of individual native plant species. CCs rank sensiti...

  8. Solar energy resources at South region of Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinicius Fiorin, Daniel; Schuch, Nelson Jorge; Ramos Martins, Fernando; Bueno Pereira, Enio; Ceconi, Marcio; Brackmann, Rodrigo; Guarnieri, Ricardo André

    The Center for Weather Forecast and Climate Studies at the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research, Ministry of Science and Technology - CPTEC/INP-MCT, have installed throughout Brazilian territory several sites to acquired solar irradiation data used to assess the renewable energy potential of Brazil as part of SONDA project (www.cptec.inpe.br/sonda/). One of ground sites is located at the Southern Space Observatory-SSO/CRS/CIE/INPE-MCT, (29o S; 53o W), in São Martinho da Serra, RS, South of Brazil, where diffuse and global solar a irradiation are measured by CM 22 and CM21 Pyrhanometers), direct solar radiation are measured by Pyrheliometer NIP and opaque and thin cloudiness fractions were esteemed by a Total Sky Imager TSI-440 (YES, Inc). Our concern is with the fact that the current world energy scenery, characterized by petroleum sources exhaustion and environmental concerns, point out to the use of clean and renewable energy sources such as the solar energy. This work aims to the evaluation of the solar energy resource by using stochastic models relating the cloud cover fraction and solar radiation parameters such as diffuse-to-direct-beam ratio (DDB), diffuse-toglobal solar irradiation ratio (K), diffuse-to-TOA irradiation ratio (KD ), and global-to-TOA irradiation ratio (KT ), measured with the SONDA Project, where TOA is the total irradiation that reach the atmosphere. Only data collected for zenithal solar angle (SZA) lesser than 75 deg for the period between September/2005 to September/2007 were used. The ground data were averaged for fifteen minutes intervals in order to reduce the influence of high frequency variability of cloud cover. It was observed low correlation (around 0.55) among the diffuse to TOA irradiation ratio and cloud cover. Better correlation (about 0.94) were obtained for K parameter. The statistic deviations RMSE (23-28%) and MBE (0.3-5%) were calculated to validate and compare the models performance. The results showed more

  9. Lg and Other Regional Phases in South America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-10-23

    90-0298, ADA232087 58 60 Centro Regional de Sismologia, CERESIS (1985). Mapa Neotect6nico Preliminar de America del Sur, Proyecto SISRA, Instituto...report is written. It is annexed to the report. 61 ATENUACION DE LAS FASES DE CORTO PERIODO P, Li, Lg y Rg A TRAVES DE PERU - BOLIV[A, REGISTRADAS EN...Peru , reyitradas in L~a Pat - 8alvla (LP9). L~a velocidad promedio (km/s) oara !as fases consideradas as: P U L9 R h!70 km 7.73±0.21 .. 4±0.0001 3.54

  10. Seismotectonic Analysis for the KZN region of South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, M.

    2012-04-01

    Recently, devastating earthquakes and tsunamis have shocked the modern world (Japan [April 7 2011, Mw 9.0, loss of life and destruction of infrastructure, 15,457 deaths 5,389 injured, US300billion loss (Japanese National Police Agency 2011)], New Zealand [21 February 2011, Mw 6.3, 148 killed], Haiti [12 January 2010, Mw 7.0, estimated 316 000 killed and 300 000 injured]. These earthquakes have caused large scale damage to the built environment not to mention the high number of fatalities. The KZN coastal region is also fast developing especially towards the north of Durban CBD (Cornubia [New development near Umhlanga, 25 Billion Rands investment], Gateway/Umhlanga Business District, Moses Mabida Stadium (cost of R3.4 billion ), King Shaka International Airport at a cost of R6.8 billion, Dube Tradeport to be developed next to the airport at a cost of R5 billion, as well as the development of the Richards Bay Industrial Development Zone . The KZN is home to 10 million inhabitants with a relatively denser population distribution around the Durban and Pietermaritzburg CBDs. With the increasing amount of investment towards the north coast of Durban, the population distribution will migrate to these areas. These areas now become 'vulnerable' to rare, infrequent and potentially devastating natural disasters like earthquakes. One of the first steps to understand and plan for an earthquake occurrence is through a seismic hazard and risk assessment. The seismic hazard and risk method has well been established since 1968 (see Cornell (1968); Veneziano et al., (1984); Bender and Perkins (1993); McGuire (1993); McGuire and Toro (2008); Kijko and Graham (1998); Kijko and Sellevoll, (1989, 1992)). The components of a seismic risk assessment (SRA) include several building blocks namely: the development of the earthquake catalogue, seismotectonic model, attenuation models, seismic hazard assessment (SHA), vulnerability assessment and seismic risk computations. The seismotectonic

  11. African South of the Sahara: An Objective Test for Secondary Schools. A World Regions Perception Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA.

    Designed by Project Africa of Carnegie-Mellon University, these two test instruments have been used to discover what selected American secondary school students know or believe about Africa and other regions of the world. The first instrument, a 30-minute objective test, "Africa South of the Sahara," is comprised of 60 multiple-choice…

  12. The Emergence of a Regional Hub: Comparing International Student Choices and Experiences in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jon, Jae-Eun; Lee, Jenny J.; Byun, Kiyong

    2014-01-01

    As the demand for international education increases, middle-income non-English speaking countries, such as South Korea, play an increasing role in hosting the world's students. This mixed-methods study compares the different motivations and experiences of international students within and outside the East Asian region. Based on findings, this…

  13. Distance Education Regulatory Frameworks: Readiness for Openness in Southwest Pacific/South East Asia Region Nations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tynan, Belinda; James, Rosalind

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports in brief the pilot study, Distance Education Regulatory Frameworks, undertaken by the International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICDE) in 2010-2012 and the implications for openness for higher education in Southwest Pacific/South East Asia region nations. The project developed a methodological approach to…

  14. Longitudinal difference in the Sq profiles in the South American region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, R. P.

    1986-07-01

    The average daily variation profiles of the H component at Huancayo on the west coast and Eusebio, Fortaleza, on the east coast in the dip equator region and La Quiaca near the west coast and Vassouras near the east coast in the southern low latitude region of the South American continent indicate that the profiles are broader for the east coast. Thus, distortions in the overhead current systems while passing from one coast to the other are indicated.

  15. Health assessment for Rose Hill Regional Landfill, South Kingstown, Rhode Island, Region 1. CERCLIS No. RID980521025. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-18

    The Rose Hill Regional Landfill site, South Kingstown, Rhode Island, was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Part of this approximately 70-acre site is owned by the town of South Kingstown and part is owned by a private citizen. The site consists of three separate, inactive disposal areas--a solid waste landfill, a bulky waste disposal area, and a sewage sludge landfill. Disposal operations began in 1967 and ceased in 1983. Ground water has been affected; and municipal water has been extended to most residents in the vicinity of the site. As noted in the Human Exposure Pathways Section, human exposure to heavy metals and VOCs may occur and may have occurred in the past via ingestion of contaminated ground water.

  16. Acarbose improves glycemic control and reduces body weight: Subanalysis data of South Asia region.

    PubMed

    Kalra, S; Sahay, R K; Schnell, O; Sheu, W H H; Grzeszczak, W; Watada, H; Soegondo, S; Yamamoto, N; Weng, J; Rathod, R

    2013-10-01

    Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (AGIs) are widely used especially in Asian countries as a treatment option for type 2 diabetes patients with high postprandial glycaemia. However, data from South Asia region is very limited. In order to examine the effect of AGI in real-life setting, 10 PMS/NIS from all over the world from the launch of acarbose to date were pooled in one database and exploratory analysis was performed for glycemic parameters and weight. In total 62,905 patients were pooled from 21 countries and regions. Mean follow up (± SD) was 12.2 ± 4.8 weeks (range 0.1-108.9). From South Asia region (India and Pakistan), 8,738 Asian patients were enrolled. Mean PPG decreased from 240.0 and 261.1 mg/dl at baseline by 70.26 ± 65.10 and 82.96 ± 56.59 mg/dl at the last visit in total and South Asian populations, respectively (n = 53,883; n = 7,991, P < 0.0001 for both). Mean FPG decreased from 171.6 and 176.5 mg/dl at baseline by 38.48 ± 47.83 and 49.59 ± 41.41 mg/dl at the last visit in total and South Asian populations, respectively (n = 56,672; n = 7,837, P < 0.0001 for both). Mean HbA1c decreased from 8.4 and 8.4% at baseline by 1.11 ± 1.31% and 0.91 ± 0.93% at the last visit in total and South Asian populations, respectively (n = 38,843; n = 2,343, P < 0.0001 for both). Mean relative reduction of body weight (BW) was 1.40 ± 3.28% and 1.10 ± 3.39% at the last visit for mean baseline BW 73.6 and 74.2 kg in total and South Asian populations, respectively (n = 54,760; n = 7,718, P < 0.0001 for both). Consistent with RCT meta-analyses, post-hoc analysis of real-life data showed acarbose treatment improved glycaemic control and reduced the BW. Acarbose treatment in real life setting showed significant reductions in all glycemic parameters and BW in Asian patients from South Asia region.

  17. Simulating Regional Groundwater Flow Patterns in South Florida Using Density-Dependent Numerical Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    England, S. M.; Stevens, G. T.

    2008-05-01

    Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) is the storage of fresh water in an aquifer via injection during times when water is available, and recovery of the water from the same aquifer via pumping during times when it is needed. ASR is one of the proposed alternatives recommended by the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) to help with water supply, storage, and distribution of water in South Florida. To evaluate the numerous design considerations and the variation in aquifer response resulting from CERP ASR, regional density- dependent numerical modeling of the Floridan Aquifer System (FAS) in the southern half of Florida is in progress. This modeling incorporates use of two density-dependent numerical codes, SEAWAT and WASH123D, and the synthesis of regional knowledge of the FAS in terms of geologic parameters, groundwater flow patterns, and salinity influences. Several challenges have been discovered in replicating the existing regional groundwater flow patterns, most notably, that in south-central Florida the simulated heads are considerably lower than observed values. Recent model studies of several factors that could affect south Florida regional flow patterns indicate that the inclusion of preferential flow as well as the effects of temperature on groundwater density yield results that are more consistent with observed values. Future work will focus on the investigation of field data to support the application of preferential flow and the addition of groundwater injection and withdrawal including existing and proposed ASR projects.

  18. Mortality due to cutaneous melanoma in south region of Brazil: a spatial approach*

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Flávia Regina; Nascimento, Luiz Fernando Costa

    2016-01-01

    Background Cutaneous melanoma is a skin cancer with low incidence but high mortality rates. The South region of Brazil has the highest death rates by melanoma per 100,000 inhabitants of the country. Little is known about the spatial distribution of this malignancy in southern Brazil. Objectives Identify the spatial patterns of deaths from cutaneous melanoma in South region of Brazil, using geoprocessing tools. Methods This is an ecological and exploratory study of death information by cutaneous melanoma obtained from portal Datasus, for Brazil's southern region, from January 2008 to December 2012. Deaths were separated by gender and rates per 100,000 inhabitants were calculated and used to compile thematic maps, Moran maps and Kernel maps, using TerraView software. It was adopted an alpha = 5%. Results There were data on 2378 deaths from cutaneous melanoma in the study period. High rates were identified in the northern and littoral regions of Rio Grande do Sul; the northeast of Santa Catarina; and west of Paraná - for the total population, with minor differences detected and indicated regarding gender. The global Moran index presented p-values of 0.03, 0.04 and 0.03, respectively, for male, female and overall deaths. All the micro-regions that showed high priority for intervention were detected in the Rio Grande do Sul. Conclusion Spatial clusters of micro-regions with high death rates from cutaneous melanoma in South region of Brazil were identified, serving as an important tool for health managers. PMID:27579737

  19. An Examination of the Potential for Conflict in the South Pacific Region.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-23

    might also turn to the South Pacific and Tasman Sea as an alternative route... 7 The conclusion is reached that US security interests are there- fore...occupation during the War. But Japanese naval plans did aim at eventually occupying Fiji, New Caledonia, and Samoa to block the sea routes between Australia...traditional freedoms of the high seas , and placed limita- tions on the ability of the US to continue to guarantee security within the Region. While the New

  20. A preliminary evaluation of regional ground-water flow in south-central Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    La Sala, A. M.; Doty, G.C.; Pearson, F.J.

    1973-01-01

    The characteristics of regional ground-water flow were investigated in a 4,500-square-mile region of south-central Washington, centered on the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission Hanford Reservation. The investigation is part of the Commission's feasibility study on storing high-level radioactive waste in chambers mined in basaltic rocks at a. depth of about 3,000 feet or more below the surface. Ground-water flow., on a regional scale, occurs principally in the basalt and-in interbedded sediments of the Columbia River Group, and is controlled by topography, the structure of the basalt, and the large streams--the Columbia, Snake, and Yakima Rivers. The ground water beneath the main part of the Hanford Reservation, south and west of the Columbia River, inures southeastward from recharge areas in the uplands, including Cold Creek and Dry Creek valleys, and ultimately discharges to the Columbia River south of the reservation: East and southeast of the Columbia River, ground water flows generally southwestward and discharges to the River. The Yakima River valley contains a distinct flow system in which movement is toward the Yakima River from the topographic divides. A large southward-flowing ground-water system beneath the southern flank of the Horse Heaven Hills discharges to the Columbia River in the westward-trending reach downstream from Wallula Gap.

  1. Floristic Quality Index: An assessment tool for restoration projects and monitoring sites in coastal Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cretini, K.F.; Steyer, G.D.

    2011-01-01

    The Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) program was established to assess the effectiveness of individual coastal restoration projects and the cumulative effects of multiple projects at regional and coastwide scales. In order to make these assessments, analytical teams have been assembled for each of the primary data types sampled under the CRMS program, including vegetation, hydrology, landscape, and soils. These teams consist of scientists and support staff from the U.S. Geological Survey and other Federal agencies, the Louisiana Office of Coastal Protection and Restoration, and university academics. Each team is responsible for developing or identifying parameters, indices, or tools that can be used to assess coastal wetlands at various scales. The CRMS Vegetation Analytical Team has developed a Floristic Quality Index for coastal Louisiana to determine the quality of a wetland based on its plant species composition and abundance.

  2. Mitochondrial control region haplotypes of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800).

    PubMed

    Artico, L O; Bianchini, A; Grubel, K S; Monteiro, D S; Estima, S C; Oliveira, L R de; Bonatto, S L; Marins, L F

    2010-09-01

    The South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens, is widely distributed along the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of South America. However, along the Brazilian coast, there are only two nonbreeding sites for the species (Refúgio de Vida Silvestre da Ilha dos Lobos and Refúgio de Vida Silvestre do Molhe Leste da Barra do Rio Grande), both in Southern Brazil. In this region, the species is continuously under the effect of anthropic activities, mainly those related to environmental contamination with organic and inorganic chemicals and fishery interactions. This paper reports, for the first time, the genetic diversity of O. flavescens found along the Southern Brazilian coast. A 287-bp fragment of the mitochondrial DNA control region (D-loop) was analyzed. Seven novel haplotypes were found in 56 individuals (OFA1-OFA7), with OFA1 being the most frequent (47.54%). Nucleotide diversity was moderate (π = 0.62%) and haplotype diversity was relatively low (67%). Furthermore, the median joining network analysis indicated that Brazilian haplotypes formed a reciprocal monophyletic clade when compared to the haplotypes from the Peruvian population on the Pacific coast. These two populations do not share haplotypes and may have become isolated some time back. Further genetic studies covering the entire species distribution are necessary to better understand the biological implications of the results reported here for the management and conservation of South American sea lions.

  3. AgMIP: New Results from Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia Regional Integrated Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenzweig, C.

    2014-12-01

    AgMIP conducted the first set of comprehensive regional integrated assessments of climate change impacts on smallholder farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia led by researchers from the regions themselves. The project developed new methods integrating climate, crop, livestock and economic models to conduct climate change impact assessments that characterize impacts on smallholder groups. AgMIP projections of climate change impacts on agriculture are more realistic than previous assessments because they take agricultural development into account. Using the best available data and models, the assessments directly evaluated yield, income, and poverty outcomes including the effects of adaptation packages and development pathways. Results show that even with agricultural development, climate change generally will exert negative pressure on yields of smallholder farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Without adaptation, climate change leads to increased poverty in some locations in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia compared to a future in which climate change does not occur. Adaptation can significantly improve smallholder farmer responses to climate change. AgMIP expert teams identified improved varieties, sowing practices, fertilizer application, and irrigation applications as prioritized adaptation strategies. These targeted adaptation packages were able to overcome a portion of detrimental impacts but could not compensate completely in many locations. Even in cases where average impact is near zero, vulnerability (i.e., those at risk of loss) can be substantial even when mean impacts are positive.

  4. Black Carbon Emissions and Impacts on the South American Glacial Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, L. T.; Gallardo, L.; Schmitt, C. G.

    2015-12-01

    Black carbon is one of the key short-lived climate pollutants, which is a topic of growing interest for near-term mitigation of climate change and air quality improvement. In this presentation we will examine the emissions and impact of black carbon and co-pollutants on the South American glacial region and describe some recent measurements associated with the PISAC (Pollution and its Impacts on the South American Cryosphere) Initiative. The Andes is the longest continental mountain range in the world, extending about 7000 km along western South America through seven countries with complex topography and covering several climate zones, diversity of ecosystems and communities. Air pollution associated with biomass burning and urban emissions affects extensive areas in the region and is a serious public health concern. Scientific evidence indicates that the Andean cryosphere is changing rapidly as snow fields and glaciers generally recede, leading to changes in stream flow and water quality along the Andes. The challenge is to identify the principal causes of the observed changes so that action can be taken to mitigate this negative trend. Despite the paucity of systematic observations along the Andes, a few modeling and observational studies have indicated the presence of black carbon in the high Andes, with potentially significant impact on the Andean cryosphere.

  5. Relationship between Floristic and Phenologic Similarity in Temperate Forests: Implications for the Synoptic Assessment and Monitoring of Biodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vina, A.; Xu, W.; Tuanmu, M.; Li, Y.; Ouyang, Z.; Liu, J.

    2008-12-01

    As human activities continue to increase pressure on biodiversity, it is imperative to understand its status and responses to human disturbances. Although biodiversity varies greatly across space, most studies were conducted at limited spatial extents. While these studies have provided useful information at local scales, they are not suitable when a regional view is required, particularly when one is interested in evaluating large- scale effects of human activities and establishing sustainable management practices at regional levels. The synoptic view provided by imaging sensors constitutes a useful way of analyzing biodiversity at large scales. In this study we assessed the structure and tree species composition of temperate forests in the Qinling mountain region of Shaanxi province (China) at plot scales and analyzed their phenologic characteristics across the entire region using multi-temporal remotely sensed data acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Results show that areas floristically similar (i.e., composed of the same tree species associations) also exhibit comparable phenologic characteristics, implying a direct relationship between floristic and phenologic similarity. Therefore, the phenologic characteristics, as evaluated through remote sensing techniques, can be scaled-up to map and monitor the spatial distribution of particular tree species associations across broad geographic regions.

  6. Of Asian Forests and European Fields: Eastern U.S. Plant Invasions in a Global Floristic Context

    PubMed Central

    Fridley, Jason D.

    2008-01-01

    Background Biogeographic patterns of species invasions hold important clues to solving the recalcitrant ‘who’, ‘where’, and ‘why’ questions of invasion biology, but the few existing studies make no attempt to distinguish alien floras (all non-native occurrences) from invasive floras (rapidly spreading species of significant management concern), nor have invasion biologists asked whether particular habitats are consistently invaded by species from particular regions. Methodology/Principal Findings Here I describe the native floristic provenances of the 2629 alien plant taxa of the Eastern Deciduous Forest of the Eastern U.S. (EUS), and contrast these to the subset of 449 taxa that EUS management agencies have labeled ‘invasive’. Although EUS alien plants come from all global floristic regions, nearly half (45%) have native ranges that include central and northern Europe or the Mediterranean (39%). In contrast, EUS invasive species are most likely to come from East Asia (29%), a pattern that is magnified when the invasive pool is restricted to species that are native to a single floristic region (25% from East Asia, compared to only 11% from northern/central Europe and 2% from the Mediterranean). Moreover, East Asian invaders are mostly woody (56%, compared to just 23% of the total alien flora) and are significantly more likely to invade intact forests and riparian areas than European species, which dominate managed or disturbed ecosystems. Conclusions/Significance These patterns suggest that the often-invoked ‘imperialist dogma’ view of global invasions equating invasion events with the spread of European colonialism is at best a restricted framework for invasion in disturbed ecosystems. This view must be superseded by a biogeographic invasion theory that is explicitly habitat-specific and can explain why particular world biotas tend to dominate particular environments. PMID:18978940

  7. Let's Drum Up Some Business: Developing Entrepreneurship through the Retail Florist Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Howard R. D.

    The retail florist industry is composed of many small businesses. A flower shop is unique as a retail outlet because it sells a highly perishable agricultural product that involves customized work requiring a high degree of product knowledge and skill. Qualifications of a successful florist include being a good businessperson, able to design,…

  8. Regional assessment of atmospheric organic and black carbon in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gideon van Zyl, Pieter; Maritz, Petra; Beukes, Johan Paul; Liousse, Cathy; Galy-Lacaux, Corinne; Castéra, Pierre; Venter, Andrew; Pienaar, Kobus

    2014-05-01

    At present limited data exists for atmospheric black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) in South Africa. In this paper BC and OC concentrations were explored in terms of spatial and temporal patterns, mass fractions of BC and OC of the overall aerosol mass, as well as linked to possible sources. PM10 and PM2.5 samples were collected at five sampling sites in South Africa operated within the DEBITS IDAF network, i.e. Louis Trichardt, Skukuza, Vaal Triangle, Amersfoort and Botsalano, with MiniVol samplers. Samples were analysed with a Thermal/Optical Carbon analyser. OC were higher than BC concentrations at all sites in both size fractions. Most OC and BC were present in the PM2.5 fraction. OC/BC ratios reflected the location of the different DEBITS sites, with sites in or close to anthropogenic source regions having the lowest OC/BC ratios, while background sites had the highest OC/BC ratios. The OC mass fraction percentage varied between 1% and 24%, while the BC mass fraction ranged between 1 and 12 %. The highest OC mass fraction was found at Skukuza in the Kruger National Park, which was attributed to both natural sources and anthropogenic impacts from a dominant path of air mass movement from the anthropogenic industrial hub of South Africa. The highest mass fraction of BC was found at the Vaal Triangle situated within an region highly impacted by industry and household combustion for space heating and cooking. A relatively distinct seasonal pattern was observed, with higher OC and BC concentrations determined between May and October, which coincide with the dry season in the interior of South Africa. Positive correlations between OC and BC concentrations with the distance from back trajectories passing over veld fires were observed, indicating that veld fires contribute significantly to atmospheric OC and BC during the burning months.

  9. Simulation of 1986 South China Sea Monsoon with a Regional Climate Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, W. -K.; Lau, W. K.-M.; Jia, Y.; Juang, H.; Wetzel, P.; Qian, J.; Chen, C.

    1999-01-01

    A Regional Land-Atmosphere Climate Simulation System (RELACS) project is being developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. One of the major goals of RELACS is to use a regional scale model with improved physical processes and in particular land-related processes, to understand the role of the land surface and its interaction with convection and radiation as well as the water/energy cycles in the IndoChina/South China Sea (SCS) region. The Penn State/NCAR MM5 atmospheric modeling system, a state of the art atmospheric numerical model designed to simulate regional weather and climate, has been successfully coupled to the Parameterization for Land-Atmosphere-Cloud Exchange (PLACE) land surface model. The original MM5 model (without PLACE) includes the option for either a simple slab soil model or a five-layer soil model (MRF) in which the soil moisture availability evolves over time. However, the MM5 soil models do not include the effects of vegetation, and thus important physical processes such as evapotranspiration and interception are precluded. The PLACE model incorporates vegetation type and has been shown in international comparisons to accurately predict evapotranspiration and runoff over a wide variety of land surfaces. The coupling of MM5 and PLACE creates a numerical modeling system with the potential to more realistically simulate atmosphere and land surface processes including land-sea interaction, regional circulations such as monsoons, and flash flood events. In addition, the Penn State/NCAR MM5 atmospheric modeling system has been: (1) coupled to the Goddard Ice Microphysical scheme; (2) coupled to a turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) scheme; (3) modified to ensure cloud budget balance; and (4) incorporated initialization with the Goddard EOS data sets at NASA/Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres. The improved MM5 with two nested domains (60 and 20 km horizontal resolution) was used to simulate convective activity over IndoChina and the South China Sea

  10. Floristic and vegetation successional processes within landslides in a Mediterranean environment.

    PubMed

    Neto, Carlos; Cardigos, Patrícia; Oliveira, Sérgio Cruz; Zêzere, José Luís

    2017-01-01

    Floristic and vegetation analysis in seven Mediterranean landslides led to the understanding of the successional processes occurring in different landslide disturbed sectors. Our study showed that in landslides that occurred between 1996 and 2010 there is a clear differentiation between the three main landslide sectors (scarp, main body and foot) concerning floristic composition, vegetation structure, floristic richness, successional processes and plant functional type. Additional differences were found between landslide areas and undisturbed agricultural areas adjacent to landslides. In this study 48 floristic relevés were made using a stratified random sampling design. The main landslide body exhibits the highest floristic richness whereas the landslide scarp has the lowest coverage rate and the highest presence of characteristic species from ruderal and strongly perturbed habitats. Finally, the landslide foot shows a late stage in the succession (maquis or pre-forest stage) with a high dominance of vines. We further discuss the importance of landslides as reservoirs of biodiversity especially for Mediterranean orchids.

  11. [Physical factors influencing the floristic relationships of pinyon pine (Pinaceae) from San Luis Potosi, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Romero, Angélica; Luna, Mario; García, Edmundo

    2014-06-01

    In plant communities, the species distribution patterns and their relationships with environmental factors are of central importance in ecology. In San Luis Potosí of Mexico, woodlands of Pinus cembroides and P. johannis are sympatric, but P. cembroides tends to be located in South and Southwest slopes, in more disturbed sites; unlike, P. johannis, is mostly distributed in mesic areas, in North and Northeast slopes. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of some physical factors on the floristic similarity of pinyon pine P. cembroides and P. johannis. The study area was located in the Sierra San Miguelito, San Luis Potosí, Mexico. We selected 40 sampling units spread over an area of 50km2. In each unit, we laid out two 20m long lines perpendicular to each other, in which we recorded cover data of the plant species intercepted. We developed two data matrices, the first one including cover values of 91 species, and the second one, considering seven topographical, climatic, and solar radiation variables. We applied cluster analysis and ordination to explore the influence of environmental variables on the floristic differentiation of pinyon pine woodlands. Clustering showed six groups, the first three characterized by P. cembroides. The ordination showed that variance represented by the first three axes was 65.9%. Axis 1 was positively correlated with altitude and negatively with mean annual temperature; axes two and three, showed low correlation with the variables tested. P. cembroides woodlands and accompanying flora tend to be located in lower altitude, higher mean annual temperature, and mainly in South-Southwestern slopes. In contrast, stands of P. johannis, mixed stands of P. johannis-P. cembroides, and Quercus potosina, were usually founded in greater altitudes, mean annual temperature slightly lower, and North-Northeastern exposure. The sites of these monospecific and mixed woodlands with associated species, indicators of environmental variables

  12. Imaging Fluid-Rich Zones by Magnetotelluric Method at South Marmara Region, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cengiz, Özlem; Bülent Tank, Sabri; Tolak Çiftçi, Elif; Kaya, Tülay; Ogawa, Yasuo; Honkura, Yoshimori; Kemal Tunçer, Mustafa; Matsushima, Masaki; Oshiman, Naoto; Çelik, Cengiz

    2013-04-01

    After the mainshock of 1999 İzmit (Turkey) earthquake, scientists have undertaken various kinds of observations in the Marmara region in order to increase understanding of crustal properties of North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ). Most of these studies focused on the east Marmara region since the destructive earthquakes were occurring there. Considering the westward migration of significant earthquakes on the North Anatolian Fault (NAF), the next destructive earthquake is likely to occur beyond the westernmost part of 1999 İzmit earthquake epicenter, in or around Marmara Sea. For this reason, south of Marmara Sea was chosen as the survey area. Wide-band (320-0.0005 Hz) magnetotelluric (MT) data at sixteen sounding locations along two parallel profiles at south Marmara region were collected to improve the understanding of the crustal electrical conductivity structure. Both profiles are crossing several branches of North Anatolian Fault. The results were achieved by performing two-dimensional (2D) inversions of MT data with the transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) modes. These results show a relatively complex structure down to 4 km depth. The electrical resistivity pattern below this depth indicates a simpler structure with conductors (10 Ωm) beneath the northern ends of both profiles. While these deep conductive zones are attributed to partially melting in the crust, the highly resistive zones are associated with low fluid condition and high rigidity. In addition, the features characterized in geo-electric models correlate well with known faults in the survey area. The South Marmara Fault (SMF) possibly corresponds to a lateral resistive-conductive interface between Manyas-Karacabey basin and Bandirma-Karada uplift on the west (PW) and Uluabat uplift and Mudanya uplift on the east (PE) profiles.

  13. Asymmetric Power Balance and Its Implications for Regionalism in South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    Kashmir being “the most dangerous place on earth ” during his visit to the region in March 2000 was based not on an evaluation of day-to-day security...Sabur notes, “Since the ancient time, India, particularly its Hindi heartland, has been the center of power in South Asia, which dominated the...the Indian sub-continent into its security umbrella, extending up to Tibet and Afghanistan, and included command of the Indian Ocean .73 With the

  14. The south pole region of the moon as seen by Clementine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shoemaker, E.M.; Robinson, M.S.; Eliason, E.M.

    1994-01-01

    The Clementine mission has provided the first comprehensive set of high-resolution images of the south pole region of the moon. Within 5?? of latitude of the pole, an area of an estimated 30,000 square kilometers remained in shadow during a full lunar rotation and is a promising target for future exploration for ice deposits. The Schrodinger Basin (320 kilometers in diameter), centered at 75??S, is one of the two youngest, least modified, great multiring impact basins on the moon. A large maar-type volcano localized along a graben within the Schrodinger Basin probably erupted between 1 and 2 billion years ago.

  15. Plume source regions in the South Atlantic - spatial and temporal variability and implications for the LLSVP source region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Class, C.; le Roex, A. P.; O'Connor, J. M.; Jokat, W.

    2012-12-01

    To the extent that a lower mantle origin is accepted for individual mantle plumes, they are our only means of investigating the chemical variability of lower mantle regions in space and time. Ultimately such mapping of the lower mantle should provide important constraints on the geological processes that led to the formation of these plume source regions. It is generally accepted that mantle plume sources contain differentiated recycled material from the surface of the Earth, but uncertainties remain as to the nature, composition and age of these recycled components. In addition, in the southern hemisphere plumes preferentially rise from the edges of large low shear wave velocity provinces (LLSVP). It remains to be shown whether LLSVPs contribute material to rising mantle plumes and what their geochemical composition might be. The South Atlantic with four closely spaced mantle plumes in the vicinity to the African LLSVP could provide insights into these questions. Criteria in support of a lower mantle origin of these plumes are (1) presence of a flood basalt province (Tristan-Gough), (2) longevity of age-progressive volcanism (Tristan-Gough 130Ma, Shona 80 Ma, Discovery 40 Ma), as well as (3) enrichment of primordial 3He relative to MORB mantle (Discovery, Shona, Bouvet). The South Atlantic plumes are aligned and produce volcanism synchronously, consistent with their origin at the western edge of the African LLSVP. Geochemically the South Atlantic plumes are heterogeneous, spanning compositions in isotope space from EMI to Stracke's FOZO and the extreme DUPAL signature with high delta 74 and delta 84 as represented by Gough Island. The extreme DUPAL is found in 3 of the 4 plume systems, indicating a common mantle source. The extreme DUPAL contributed to the Tristan-Gough plume system since 70 Ma and represents the southern component of the laterally zoned plume conduit (Rhode, personal comm. 2012). The Discovery plume is laterally zoned since 40 Ma and the extreme

  16. Molecular Epidemiology and Characterization of Genotypes of Acinetobacter baumannii Isolates from Regions of South China.

    PubMed

    Ying, Jun; Lu, Junwan; Zong, Li; Li, Ailing; Pan, Ruowang; Cheng, Cong; Li, Kunpeng; Chen, Liqiang; Ying, Jianchao; Tou, Huifen; Zhu, Chuanxin; Xu, Teng; Yi, Huiguang; Li, Jinsong; Ni, Liyan; Xu, Zuyuan; Bao, Qiyu; Li, Peizhen

    2016-05-20

    The aim of this study was to analyze the molecular epidemiologic characteristics of Acinetobacter baumannii. A total of 398 isolates were collected in 7 regions of South China from January to June of 2012. Drug sensitivity was tested toward 15 commonly used antibiotics; thus, 146 multi-drug-resistant strains (resistant to more than 7 drugs) were identified, representing 36.7% of all isolates. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were used for molecular subtyping. According to the PFGE results (with a cutoff of 70% similarity for the DNA electrophoretic bands), 146 strains were subdivided into 15 clusters, with cluster A being the largest (33.6%, distributed in all districts except Jiaxing). Cluster B was also widespread and included 14.4% of all strains. In addition, MLST results revealed 11 sequence types (ST), with ST208 being the most prevalent, followed by ST191 and ST729. Furthermore, 4 novel alleles and 6 novel STs were identified. Our results showed that multi-drug-resistant A. baumannii in South China shares the origin with other widespread strains in other countries. The nosocomial infections caused by A. baumannii have been severe in South China. Continuous monitoring and judicious antibiotic use are required.

  17. Regional correlations in the South Caspian Sea -implications for stratigraphic nomenclature

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, J. Rukhsara, K.

    1995-08-01

    Regional Correlations in the South Caspian Sea - Implications for Stratigraphic Nomenclature Detailed sequence boundary correlations in the South Caspian sea have led to a better understanding of the relationships between stratigraphic units identified in wells throughout the basin. With the aid of synthetic seismograms, used to tie the logs to the seismic data, lithologic units have been identified seismically and have been mapped across the basin. The synthetic seismograms were created from pseudo-sonic logs which were transformed from resistivity logs with the Faust equation. Checkshots and VSP surveys supplied the velocity control. The sequence boundary correlations revealed substantial facies changes across the basin and led to the creation of a new stratigraphic correlation chart which relates local formation names to their time correlative boundaries. A recognition of these facies changes has led to a better understanding of the lithologic relationships within the basin, the depositional history of the basin, and the source and distribution of potential reservoir sands. Previous well log correlations, made primarily by matching tops of sand and shale sequences, frequently crossed sequence boundaries mapped from seismic data. Lithologic units, deposited under similar geologic conditions, often looked the same but were not time equivalent. Seismic sequence analyses have shown that tectonic movements, as evidenced by rising domes, created barriers to sediment distribution and led to pronounced thickness changes on opposite sides of a high. New log correlations, incorporating these concepts, are helping to unravel the complex structural and stratigraphic history of the South Caspian Sea.

  18. Social, economic and legal dimensions of tobacco and its control in South-East Asia region.

    PubMed

    Kyaing, Nyo Nyo; Islam, Md Ashadul; Sinha, Dhirendra N; Rinchen, Sonam

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the social, cultural, economic and legal dimensions of tobacco control in the South-East Asia Region in a holistic view through the review of findings from various studies on prevalence, tobacco economics, poverty alleviation, women and tobacco and tobacco control laws and regulations. Methods were Literature review of peer reviewed publications, country reports, WHO publications, and reports of national and international meetings on tobacco and findings from national level surveys and studies. Tobacco use has been a social and cultural part of the people of South-East Asia Region. Survey findings show that 30% to 60% of men and 1.8% to 15.6% of women in the Region use one or the other forms of tobacco products. The complex nature of tobacco use with both smoking and smokeless forms is a major challenge for implementing tobacco control measures. Prevalence of tobacco use is high among the poor and the illiterate. It is higher among males than females but studies show a rising trend among girls and women due to intensive marketing of tobacco products by the tobacco industry. Tobacco users spend a huge percent of their income on tobacco which deprives them and their families of proper nutrition, good education and health care. Some studies of the Region show that cost of treatment of diseases attributable to tobacco use was more than double the revenue that governments received from tobacco taxation. Another challenge the Region faces is the application of uniform tax to all forms of tobacco, which will reduce not only the availability of tobacco products in the market but also control people switching over to cheaper tobacco products. Ten out of eleven countries are Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and nine countries have tobacco control legislation. Enforcement of control measures is weak, particularly in areas such as smoke-free environments, advertisement at the point of sale and sale of tobacco to minors. Socio

  19. Numerical and functional representations of regional heat flow in South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamza, Valiya M.; Dias, Fernando J. S. Silva; Gomes, Antonio J. L.; Terceros, Zenón G. Delgadilho

    2005-10-01

    A summary of heat flow data acquired over recent years in several areas in the eastern (Brazil and Paraguay) and western (Bolivia, Chile, Colombia and Ecuador) parts of South American continent are presented. The improvements in the database have allowed numerical representations of heat flow for southeastern and central segments of the Precambrian fold belts in Brazil, Central Andean cordilleras in Chile and Bolivia, Southern Volcanic arc in Peru, Neuquén Province in southwestern Argentina, Chaco basin in Paraguay, Oriente basin in Ecuador and the system of pericratonic basins in north central Colombia. The maps reveal considerable variability in heat flow, not only between the main tectonic units but also within them. The intra-regional variations seem to originate mainly from complexities in local geologic structures while the inter-regional ones seem to point to action of deep-seated tectonic processes. The cordilleran regions are, in general, characterized by relatively high heat flow (>70 mW/m 2), compared with the coastal regions to the west and the Pre-cordilleran basins to the east. In the eastern part of the continent, heat flow is low to normal (<60 mW/m 2), the exceptions being the Mesozoic rift basins, areas of Cenozoic alkaline intrusions and some isolated belts of overthrust tectonics in the central parts of Brazil. There are indications that heat flow is high in the Patagonian Platform relative to that found in the Brazilian Platform. In addition, polynomial methods were employed for examining large-scale variations of heat flow over the continent. Specifically, a general-purpose least square solution was used to determine the coefficients of up to fourth order in latitude and longitude. Some of the large-scale trends seen in low order polynomial representations seem to be indicative of the nature of deep-seated heat transfer processes. The systematic increase in regional heat flow in the north-south direction is an example. It is considered as the

  20. Geographically Sourcing Cocaine’s Origin – Delineation of the Nineteen Major Coca Growing Regions in South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallette, Jennifer R.; Casale, John F.; Jordan, James; Morello, David R.; Beyer, Paul M.

    2016-03-01

    Previously, geo-sourcing to five major coca growing regions within South America was accomplished. However, the expansion of coca cultivation throughout South America made sub-regional origin determinations increasingly difficult. The former methodology was recently enhanced with additional stable isotope analyses (2H and 18O) to fully characterize cocaine due to the varying environmental conditions in which the coca was grown. An improved data analysis method was implemented with the combination of machine learning and multivariate statistical analysis methods to provide further partitioning between growing regions. Here, we show how the combination of trace cocaine alkaloids, stable isotopes, and multivariate statistical analyses can be used to classify illicit cocaine as originating from one of 19 growing regions within South America. The data obtained through this approach can be used to describe current coca cultivation and production trends, highlight trafficking routes, as well as identify new coca growing regions.

  1. Geographically Sourcing Cocaine’s Origin – Delineation of the Nineteen Major Coca Growing Regions in South America

    PubMed Central

    Mallette, Jennifer R.; Casale, John F.; Jordan, James; Morello, David R.; Beyer, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    Previously, geo-sourcing to five major coca growing regions within South America was accomplished. However, the expansion of coca cultivation throughout South America made sub-regional origin determinations increasingly difficult. The former methodology was recently enhanced with additional stable isotope analyses (2H and 18O) to fully characterize cocaine due to the varying environmental conditions in which the coca was grown. An improved data analysis method was implemented with the combination of machine learning and multivariate statistical analysis methods to provide further partitioning between growing regions. Here, we show how the combination of trace cocaine alkaloids, stable isotopes, and multivariate statistical analyses can be used to classify illicit cocaine as originating from one of 19 growing regions within South America. The data obtained through this approach can be used to describe current coca cultivation and production trends, highlight trafficking routes, as well as identify new coca growing regions. PMID:27006288

  2. Serological Survey of Porcine circovirus-2 in Captive Wild Boars (Sus scrofa) from Registered Farms of South and South-east Regions of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, C N; Martins, N R S; Freitas, T R P; Lobato, Z I P

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to survey captive wild boars for antibodies against Porcine circovirus-2 (PCV-2) in registered farms. Serum samples (n = 1305) were collected from 90-day-old wild boars from 118 farms of the Brazilian South-east region, including the states of Minas Gerais and São Paulo, and South region, including the states of Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina. All herds (100%) presented reactive animals, in varying numbers and from low-to-high antibody titres, with the occurrence ranging from 82 to 89%. Considering farms, the average prevalence was of 84.9% (P < 0.05) and ranged from 54.1 to 94.95%. Regarding the geographic regions studied, the prevalence was of 100%, with PCV2 antibodies detected in wild boars of all regions. This study provides the first evidence of PCV2 antibodies in captive wild boars in Brazil.

  3. LSPECS: A Proposed Robotic Astronomy Mission to the Lunar South Polar Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowman, Paul D., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    This paper outlines a possible mission to emplace a robotic infrared/submillimeter wave interferometer array near the lunar south pole. This region has now been investigated by the Clementine and Lunar Prospector missions, and by Earth-based radar, and its topography and thermal environment are fairly well-known. The area would be exceptionally suitable for infrared/submillimeter astronomy because of the continually low temperatures, approaching that of liquid nitrogen (77K) in some places. The presence of ice has been inferred independently from Clementine and Lunar Prospector, providing another incentive for a south polar mission. A submillimeter spaceborne interferometer mission, Submillimeter Probe of the Evolution of the Cosmic Structure (SPECS) has been proposed by John Mather and others, covering the 40 - 500 micron region with 3 formation flying telescopes. The present paper proposes a lunar adaptation of the SPECS concept, LSPECS. This adaptation would involve landing 4 telescopes on the area north of Shackleton crater at zero degrees longitude. This is in nearly year round darkness but is continually radar visible from Earth. The landed payload of LSPECS would include a telerobotic rover, 4 three meter submm telescopes, a solar power array to be emplaced on the continually sunlit north rim of Shackleton crater, and an S-band antenna for data relay to Earth. Operation without the use of expendable cryogenics for cooling might be possible, trading long exposure time for instrument temperatures above that of liquid helium. The LSPECS would permit long-term study of an extremely wide range of cosmic and solar system phenomena in the southern celestial hemisphere. For complete sky coverage, a similar installation near the north pole would be required. The LSPECS site would also be suitable other types of observation, such as optical interferometry or centimeter wavelength radio astronomy. The lunar south pole is also of great interest because of its extensive

  4. Radon radioactivity in groundwater from the Calabria region, south of Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caridi, F.; D'Agostino, M.; Belvedere, A.; Marguccio, S.; Belmusto, G.

    2016-05-01

    In the present study the radon radioactivity in selected groundwater (boreholes and wells) from the Calabria region, south of Italy, was investigated. Water samples were analyzed by gamma spectrometry and by RAD7 + RAD H2O setup to determine the 222Rn activity concentration. Obtained values were used with the ingested dose conversion factor for 222Rn to estimate the annual effective dose for adult members of public due to consumption of the groundwater. The estimated average value was (88±5) μ Sv/y. It was compared with the estimated average annual effective dose due to ingestion of groundwater by the WHO (100 μ Sv/y) and that due to ingestion of food and water (290 μ Sv/y) by the UNSCEAR (2000). Results show that the presence of radon may not pose any radiological health hazard to the public due to the consumption of groundwater in the investigated region.

  5. Regional and Seasonal Diet of the Western Burrowing Owl in South-Central Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Derek B. Hall, Paul D. Greger, Jeffrey R. Rosier

    2009-04-01

    We examined diets of Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) based on contents of pellets and large prey remains collected year-round at burrows in each of the 3 regions in south central Nevada (Mojave Desert, Great Basin Desert, and Transition region). The most common prey items, based on percent frequency of occurrence, were crickets and grasshoppers, beetles, rodents, sun spiders, and scorpions. The most common vertebrate prey was kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spp.). True bugs (Hemiptera), scorpions, and western harvest mice (Reithrodontomys megalotis) occurred most frequently in pellets from the Great Basin Desert region. Kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spp.) and pocket mice (Perognathinae) were the most important vertebrate prey items in the Transition and Mojave Desert regions, respectively. Frequency of occurrence of any invertebrate prey was high (>80%) in samples year-round but dropped in winter samples, with scorpions and sun spiders exhibiting the steepest declines. Frequency of occurrence of any vertebrate prey peaked in spring samples, was intermediate for winter and summer samples, and was lowest in fall samples. With the possible exception of selecting for western harvest mice in the Great Basin Desert region, Western Burrowing Owls in our study appeared to be opportunistic foragers with a generalist feeding strategy.

  6. Incidence of gonorrhoea diagnosed in GUM clinics in South Thames (west) region

    PubMed Central

    Hickman, M.; Judd, A.; Maguire, H.; Hay, P.; Charlett, A.; Catchpole, M.; Nayagam, A.; Renton, A.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the incidence of gonorrhoea diagnosed in genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics in South Thames (West) between 1995 and 1996, and how it changed among population subgroups. SETTINGS AND SUBJECTS: Cases of uncomplicated and complicated gonorrhoea diagnosed at 13 GUM clinics in the former South Thames West (STW) Regional Health Authority that reported disaggregate data to the South Thames GUM Clinic Collaborative STD Surveillance Scheme. METHODS: Annual incidence rates (per 100,000) of gonorrhoea diagnoses by sex, age group, ethnic group, area of residence, and year were calculated. Poisson regression models were used to calculate risk ratios (RR) to describe the key differences in the variation of gonorrhoea cases by these variables. Relative differences in the incidence of diagnosed gonorrhoea between 1995 and 1996 were investigated by including an interaction between year and the other variables (age group, sex, ethnic group, region) and testing whether any were significant using a likelihood ratio test. RESULTS: Area of residence, sex, age group, and ethnic group were key predictors of the rates of diagnosed gonorrhoea. The risk ratio for gonorrhoea (after adjustment for the other variables) was: 13 times higher among blacks than the white population; twice as high in inner London compared with outer London; and three times lower in the "shire" region compared with outer London. The rate of diagnosed gonorrhoea was significantly higher in the black population in the shire region than the inner London white population. The rate of gonorrhoea diagnosed by GUM clinics from 1995 to 1996 almost doubled in the white population aged 15-44 years, from 16 cases per 100,000 to 30 cases per 100,000 (adjusted RR 2.0, 95% CI 1.6 to 2.4), whereas increased rates in the black and Asian/other ethnic groups were not statistically significant (adjusted RR 1.1, 95% CI 0.9 to 1.4; and 1.4, 95% CI 0.7 to 2.7 respectively). CONCLUSION: The observed increase in

  7. Improved precipitation extremes and climatology in a regional coupled model simulation over CORDEX south Asia domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, P.; Sein, D.; Cabos, W.; Jacob, D.

    2014-12-01

    The South Asian continents are densely populated and their economy is largely dependent on agriculture which primarily depends on the summer monsoon (June-September). The region is highly vulnerable to climate variability and change. It has been well established that the SST anomalies in the Indian and the Pacific Ocean attributes to the monsoon interannual as well as intraseasonal variability. Most of the CMIP3 and CMIP5 climate models have difficulty in simulating the mean climate over South Asia. Regional Climate Models (RCMs) however simulate orographic induced precipitation better, but show limited ability to simulate mean precipitation over land and an overestimation over ocean more generally. These systematic differences between climate models and observation's may be related to poorly represented ocean dynamics and SST.For the first time a regional coupled atmosphere-ocean model is developed to study the monsoon climatology over the CORDEX South Asia domain. The REgional atmosphere MOdel REMO with 50km horizontal resolution is coupled via Oasis coupler to the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology global ocean - sea ice model MPIOM with increased resolution over the Indian Ocean (up to 20 km). Hereafter this coupled system will be called as ROM. For this study, four simulations for the period 1958-2001 are performed (i) REMO forced with ECMWF ERA40 reanalysis (ii) ROM forced with ECMWF ERA40 reanalysis (iii) REMO forced with MPI-ESM-LR CMIP5 historical simulation (iv) ROM forced with MPI-ESM-LR CMIP5 historical simulation. Differences in coupled and un-coupled RCM simulations are analyzed to investigate the effect of coupling on simulated climate, especially precipitation daily annual cycles and monthly spatial patterns. It has been observed that simulated feedback of ocean SST has positive influence on precipitation simulation of ROM both over land and ocean. The intensity of tropical cyclone is well simulated by the model ROM which improves the monsoon

  8. 40 CFR 81.73 - South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton Harbor (Michigan) Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.73 South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton... (Michigan) Interstate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the boundaries of the following jurisdictions or described area (including the territorial area of...

  9. 40 CFR 81.73 - South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton Harbor (Michigan) Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.73 South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton... (Michigan) Interstate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the boundaries of the following jurisdictions or described area (including the territorial area of...

  10. North-south asymmetry of eolian features in Martian polar regions - Analysis based on crater-related wind markers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, P.

    1981-01-01

    Crater-related wind markers in the north and south polar regions of Mars are analyzed in a study of possible north-south asymmetries in wind activity. Features including crater splotches and associated streaks, and depositional, erosional, frost and frost-sediment streaks were identified and analyzed as wind direction indicators on Viking Orbiter and Mariner 9 images of areas poleward of + or - 40 deg latitude. The wind streaks reveal eolian activity at present to be strongest in the north in winter and in the south in spring, due to the hemispherical asymmetry in climate. The alignment of the more massive intercrater dune fields with the presently strongest wind may reflect a longer-term asymmetry in spring flows, as the reorientation times of the dunes exceeded the period of climate asymmetry cycles. Finally, a wider distribution of dune latitudes in the southern polar region is noted to be suggestive of the greater effectiveness of windflow from the south pole.

  11. The Early Proterozoic structural and tectonic history of the south central Lake Superior Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueng, Wen-Long C.; Larue, Dave K.

    1988-06-01

    The early Proterozoic tectonic evolution of the south central Lake Superior region is complex, owing to the presence of four tectonostratigraphic terranes, which were affected by six phases of deformation. The four terranes are the passive margin of the Superior craton, two paraautochthonous passive margin terranes (Crystal Falls and Florence-Niagara terranes), and a southern magmatic arc complex which is probably allochthonous with respect to the other terranes. Four of the six deformational episodes accompanied subhorizontal shortening, while two were caused by subvertical shortening. The first and the most penetrative phase of deformation is marked by subhorizontal shortening in a NNE-SSW direction. The second and fourth deformations were characterized by subvertical shortening and did not significantly modify the structural orientations from previous events in the study area. The third, fifth, and sixth deformations mostly caused open folding, and shortening directions were NW, NE, and W, respectively. Because all the terranes in the south central Lake Superior region share parallel deformational histories, it is suggested that the accretion of these terranes occurred during the first deformational episode. After removal of younger deformational effects, including open folding of the suture zone, the tectonostratigraphic assemblages in this region show the following sequence from NNE to SSW: a platformal assemblage overlying sialic basement, a basinal assemblage of tholeiitic volcanic rocks overlain by deep-water turbidites, an assemblage of basin floor deposits (Crystal Falls terrane) with apparently no demonstratably underlying crystalline basement, a fault-bounded terrane with highly strained passive margin strata (Florence-Niagara terrane), and a calc-alkaline magmatic arc assemblage. Such an arrangement of tectonostratigraphic assemblages is comparable with cross sections through Phanerozoic accretionary continental margins and therefore supports an arc

  12. The Deep South Clouds & Aerosols project: Improving the modelling of clouds in the Southern Ocean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenstern, Olaf; McDonald, Adrian; Harvey, Mike; Davies, Roger; Katurji, Marwan; Varma, Vidya; Williams, Jonny

    2016-04-01

    Southern-Hemisphere climate projections are subject to persistent climate model biases affecting the large majority of contemporary climate models, which degrade the reliability of these projections, particularly at the regional scale. Southern-Hemisphere specific problems include the fact that satellite-based observations comparisons with model output indicate that cloud occurrence above the Southern Ocean is substantially underestimated, with consequences for the radiation balance, sea surface temperatures, sea ice, and the position of storm tracks. The Southern-Ocean and Antarctic region is generally characterized by an acute paucity of surface-based and airborne observations, further complicating the situation. In recognition of this and other Southern-Hemisphere specific problems with climate modelling, the New Zealand Government has launched the Deep South National Science Challenge, whose purpose is to develop a new Earth System Model which reduces these very large radiative forcing problems associated with erroneous clouds. The plan is to conduct a campaign of targeted observations in the Southern Ocean region, leveraging off international measurement campaigns in this area, and using these and existing measurements of cloud and aerosol properties to improve the representation of clouds in the nascent New Zealand Earth System Model. Observations and model development will target aerosol physics and chemistry, particularly sulphate, sea salt, and non-sulphate organic aerosol, its interactions with clouds, and cloud microphysics. The hypothesis is that the cloud schemes in most GCMs are trained on Northern-Hemisphere data characterized by substantial anthropogenic or terrestrial aerosol-related influences which are almost completely absent in the Deep South.

  13. A Regional Stable Carbon Isotope Dendro-Climatology from the South African Summer Rainfall Area.

    PubMed

    Woodborne, Stephan; Gandiwa, Patience; Hall, Grant; Patrut, Adrian; Finch, Jemma

    2016-01-01

    Carbon isotope analysis of four baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) trees from the Pafuri region of South Africa yielded a 1000-year proxy rainfall record. The Pafuri record age model was based on 17 radiocarbon dates, cross correlation of the climate record, and ring structures that were presumed to be annual for two of the trees. Here we present the analysis of five additional baobabs from the Mapungubwe region, approximately 200km west of Pafuri. The Mapungubwe chronology demonstrates that ring structures are not necessarily annually formed, and accordingly the Pafuri chronology is revised. Changes in intrinsic water-use efficiency indicate an active response by the trees to elevated atmospheric CO2, but this has little effect on the environmental signal. The revised Pafuri record, and the new Mapungubwe record correlate significantly with local rainfall. Both records confirm that the Medieval Warm Period was substantially wetter than present, and the Little Ice Age was the driest period in the last 1000 years. Although Mapungubwe is generally drier than Pafuri, both regions experience elevated rainfall peaking between AD 1570 and AD 1620 after which dry conditions persist in the Mapungubwe area until about AD 1840. Differences between the two records correlate with Agulhas Current sea-surface temperature variations suggesting east/west displacement of the temperate tropical trough system as an underlying mechanism. The Pafuri and Mapungubwe records are combined to provide a regional climate proxy record for the northern summer rainfall area of southern Africa.

  14. Systematic review of birth cohort studies in South East Asia and Eastern Mediterranean regions

    PubMed Central

    McKinnon, Rachel; Campbell, Harry

    2011-01-01

    Background Few longitudinal studies of children have taken place in the developing world, despite child mortality being concentrated there. This review summarises the methodologies and main outcomes of longitudinal studies of pre-school children (0 to 59 months) in the World Health Organization’s South East Asia (SEA) and Eastern Mediterranean (EM) Regions. Methods A systematic search of literature using pre-defined criteria revealed 7863 papers. After application of quality criteria, 120 studies were selected for analysis. Results The search revealed 83 studies in the SEA region and 37 in the EM region, of which 92 were community-based and 8 facility-based. Objectives were diverse but topics included growth (n = 49 studies), mortality (n = 28), nutrition (n = 24), and infectious diseases (n = 33). Only 12 studies focused on non-communicable diseases. Duration ranged from 7 to 384 months. Measurements included anthropometric (n = 56 studies), socioeconomic (n = 50) and biological sampling (n = 25), but only one study was DNA-based. Conclusion Biobanks have emerged as the most successful approach to generating knowledge about disease causes and mechanisms. Little of this is possible to undertake in the in SEA or EM regions, however. Further longitudinal studies of young children with DNA sampling should be set up to better understand determinants of diseases in low-income countries. PMID:23198103

  15. Structural and tectonic setting of the Charleston, South Carolina, region: Evidence from the Tertiary stratigraphic record

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weems, R.E.; Lewis, W.C.

    2002-01-01

    Eleven upper Eocene through Pliocene stratigraphic units occur in the subsurface of the region surrounding Charleston, South Carolina. These units contain a wealth of information concerning the long-term tectonic and structural setting of that area. These stratigraphic units have a mosaic pattern of distribution, rather than a simple layered pattern, because deposition, erosion, and tectonic warping have interacted in a complex manner through time. By generating separate structure-contour maps for the base of each stratigraphic unit, an estimate of the original basal surface of each unit can be reconstructed over wide areas. Changes in sea level over geologic time generate patterns of deposition and erosion that are geographically unique for the time of each transgression. Such patterns fail to persist when compared sequentially over time. In some areas, however, there has been persistent, repetitive net downward of upward movement over the past 34 m.y. These repetitive patterns of persistent motion are most readily attributable to tectonism. The spatial pattern of these high and low areas is complex, but it appears to correlate well with known tectonic features of the region. This correlation suggests that the tectonic setting of the Charleston region is controlled by scissors-like compression on a crustal block located between the north-trending Adams Run fault and the northwest-trending Charleston fault. Tectonism is localized in the Charleston region because it lies within a discrete hinge zone that accommodates structural movement between the Cape Fear arch and the Southeast Georgia embayment.

  16. A Regional Stable Carbon Isotope Dendro-Climatology from the South African Summer Rainfall Area

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Carbon isotope analysis of four baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) trees from the Pafuri region of South Africa yielded a 1000-year proxy rainfall record. The Pafuri record age model was based on 17 radiocarbon dates, cross correlation of the climate record, and ring structures that were presumed to be annual for two of the trees. Here we present the analysis of five additional baobabs from the Mapungubwe region, approximately 200km west of Pafuri. The Mapungubwe chronology demonstrates that ring structures are not necessarily annually formed, and accordingly the Pafuri chronology is revised. Changes in intrinsic water-use efficiency indicate an active response by the trees to elevated atmospheric CO2, but this has little effect on the environmental signal. The revised Pafuri record, and the new Mapungubwe record correlate significantly with local rainfall. Both records confirm that the Medieval Warm Period was substantially wetter than present, and the Little Ice Age was the driest period in the last 1000 years. Although Mapungubwe is generally drier than Pafuri, both regions experience elevated rainfall peaking between AD 1570 and AD 1620 after which dry conditions persist in the Mapungubwe area until about AD 1840. Differences between the two records correlate with Agulhas Current sea-surface temperature variations suggesting east/west displacement of the temperate tropical trough system as an underlying mechanism. The Pafuri and Mapungubwe records are combined to provide a regional climate proxy record for the northern summer rainfall area of southern Africa. PMID:27427912

  17. Simulation of the Climate of South-West Asia with a Regional Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, J. P.; Smith, R.; Oglesby, R.; Arnold, James E.

    2002-01-01

    The ability of the regional model RegCM2 to simulate the climate of South-West Asia is examined. The climate of the region displays high spatial, seasonal and interannual variability, providing a strong test of climate model capabilities. RegCM2 captures the spatial variability of temperature and precipitation despite cold biases being present in the model. RegCM2 does not capture the annual cycle of precipitation on the Black and Caspian Sea coasts where very steep topography exists, nor on the eastern Mediterranean coast where the coastal mountains are not resolvable. RegCM2 does capture the seasonal cycle in the Fertile Crescent and Zagros mountains, where it is strongly influenced by a plateau circulation above the Iranian plateau. It is shown that accurate simulation of precipitation in these regions, including the inter-annual variability, requires the correct simulation of both storm tracks and topographic interactions. Through the use of regional climate models the concentration and transport pathways of water vapor through the Middle East can be explored. The results demonstrate that short lived 'events' have little impact on monthly mean atmospheric fields yet provide a significant amount of the precipitated water which flows in the Tigris river.

  18. Tsunami Simulations for Regional Sources in the South China and Adjoining Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okal, Emile A.; Synolakis, Costas E.; Kalligeris, Nikos

    2011-06-01

    We present 14 scenarios of potential tsunamis in the South China Sea and its adjoining basins, the Sulu and Sulawezi Seas. The sources consist of earthquake dislocations inspired by the the study of historical events, either recorded (since 1900) or described in historical documents going back to 1604. We consider worst-case scenarios, where the size of the earthquake is not limited by the largest known event, but merely by the dimension of the basin over which a coherent fault may propagate. While such scenarios are arguably improbable, they may not be impossible, and as such must be examined. For each scenario, we present a simulation of the tsunami's propagation in the marine basin, exclusive of its interaction with the coastline. Our results show that the South China, Sulu and Sulawezi Seas make up three largely independent basins where tsunamis generated in one basin do not leak into another. Similarly, the Sunda arc provides an efficient barrier to tsunamis originating in the Indian Ocean. Furthermore, the shallow continental shelves in the Java Sea, the Gulf of Thailand and the western part of the South China Sea significantly dampen the amplitude of the waves. The eastern shores of the Malay Peninsula are threatened only by the greatest—and most improbable—of our sources, a mega-earthquake rupturing all of the Luzon Trench. We also consider two models of underwater landslides (which can be triggered by smaller events, even in an intraplate setting). These sources, for which there is both historical and geological evidence, could pose a significant threat to all shorelines in the region, including the Malay Peninsula.

  19. Regional salt distribution from 3D data across the South Additions, offshore Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Jamieson, G.A. )

    1996-01-01

    A contiguous 3D dataset comprising 20 surveys covering over 800 OCS blocks in the offshore Louisiana South Additions region formed the primary database for a regional interpretation of top and base salt surfaces. The interpretation was performed on a 800m by 800m grid of 3D time migrated lines extracted from each survey and loaded into a single project on a workstation. After completing the interpretation the top and base salt horizons were depth converted, incorporating representative well velocity information across the study area. The use of 3D data has significantly improved interpretation confidence, particularly of the base salt, compared to 2D data, which, to date, has been the most commonly utilized regional tool. However, 2D data suffers from out-of-plane effects which can lead to erroneous interpretations of the base of salt and deep welds. A number of significant regional salt-related features and trends have been identified from the top and base salt time and depth maps. Significant identified features on the base of salt and below include keels, welds, fault zones and possible ramps which, in places, display significantly differing trends to those of the suprasalt section. The 3D data allows the mapping of feeders associated with large counter-regional fault systems down to extreme depths, in places to over 7 kms, as well as the location of feeder stock and wall locations beneath salt canopies. This has shown that many large sheets comprise several salt masses which have coalesced along suture zones, for example in the Vermilion and Ship Shoal regions.

  20. Regional salt distribution from 3D data across the South Additions, offshore Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Jamieson, G.A.

    1996-12-31

    A contiguous 3D dataset comprising 20 surveys covering over 800 OCS blocks in the offshore Louisiana South Additions region formed the primary database for a regional interpretation of top and base salt surfaces. The interpretation was performed on a 800m by 800m grid of 3D time migrated lines extracted from each survey and loaded into a single project on a workstation. After completing the interpretation the top and base salt horizons were depth converted, incorporating representative well velocity information across the study area. The use of 3D data has significantly improved interpretation confidence, particularly of the base salt, compared to 2D data, which, to date, has been the most commonly utilized regional tool. However, 2D data suffers from out-of-plane effects which can lead to erroneous interpretations of the base of salt and deep welds. A number of significant regional salt-related features and trends have been identified from the top and base salt time and depth maps. Significant identified features on the base of salt and below include keels, welds, fault zones and possible ramps which, in places, display significantly differing trends to those of the suprasalt section. The 3D data allows the mapping of feeders associated with large counter-regional fault systems down to extreme depths, in places to over 7 kms, as well as the location of feeder stock and wall locations beneath salt canopies. This has shown that many large sheets comprise several salt masses which have coalesced along suture zones, for example in the Vermilion and Ship Shoal regions.

  1. Dispersal, environment, and floristic variation of western Amazonian forests.

    PubMed

    Tuomisto, Hanna; Ruokolainen, Kalle; Yli-Halla, Markku

    2003-01-10

    The distribution of plant species, the species compositions of different sites, and the factors that affect them in tropical rain forests are not well understood. The main hypotheses are that species composition is either (i) uniform over large areas, (ii) random but spatially autocorrelated because of dispersal limitation, or (iii) patchy and environmentally determined. Here we test these hypotheses, using a large data set from western Amazonia. The uniformity hypothesis gains no support, but the other hypotheses do. Environmental determinism explains a larger proportion of the variation in floristic differences between sites than does dispersal limitation; together, these processes explain 70 to 75% of the variation. Consequently, it is important that management planning for conservation and resource use take into account both habitat heterogeneity and biogeographic differences.

  2. Observations of a 12 H wave in the mesopause region at the South Pole

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, R.L.; Senft, D.C.; Gardner, C.S. )

    1992-01-03

    In December 1989 a Na lidar was installed at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station and was used to measure aerosol, stratospheric temperature and mesospheric Na profiles through October 1990. The mesospheric Na data are used to characterize the gravity wave field in the mesopause region, These first lidar observations of Na layer dynamics at the South Pole show strong wave activity during the Antarctic winter. Data for 25 June and 19 August 1990 UT are presented here. The total wave induced variances in atmospheric density are respectively 29 and 35(%){sup 2}. The Na layer centroid height is very low during both observation periods. On 25 June a strong 12 h oscillation is observed in the bottomside of the Na layer which extends to altitudes as low as 74 km. The vertical displacement and temperature amplitudes associated with the 12 h oscillation are respectively 1.9 km and 19 K. The characteristics of the 12 h wave are similar to the pseudotide observed at Svalbard by Walterscheid et al.

  3. The ICTP Regional System Model (RESM) to simulate the monsoon in the South Asia CORDEX domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Sante, Fabio; Coppola, Erika; Farneti, Riccardo; Giorgi, Filippo

    2016-04-01

    South Asian climate is characterized mainly by the wet and dry dipole that divides the annual cycle in two seasons: the monsoon season and the dry season. The life and the economy of those regions is very much influenced by the climate variability and the monsoon variability therefore is crucial to understand the physical mechanism associated with them. The spatial and temporal representation of the monsoons over the South Asian region is one of the main challenge of global and regional climate models principally because they fail to represent the SST (sea surface temperature) induced rainfall when forced with observed SST resulting in a poor representation of the monsoon cycle (Fu et al. 2002). The coupling with the ocean is essential to be able to simulate the correct air-sea interaction; the results are in general much improved and the monsoon patterns and the time representation (like the onset for example) are closer to the observations (Fu et al. 2002; Fu et al. 2007; Ratnam et Al. 2008; Seo et Al. 2009). Here we present a Regional Earth System Model (RESM) composed by a regional climate model RegCM4 (Giorgi et al, 2012) coupled with the regional oceanic model MITgcm (Marshall et al, 1997) and two hydrological model: ChyM (Cetemps Hydrological Model, Coppola et al, 2007) and HD model (Max-Planck's HD model; Hagemann and Dümenil, 1998). We simulate the Southern Asian Climate taking into account the whole hydrological cycle. Wind stress, water fluxes and heat fluxes are exchanged from the atmosphere to the ocean, SST are exchanged from ocean to the atmosphere and in order to conserve mass, the river discharge is calculated from the Hydrological model and sent to the ocean. The main goal of this work is to evaluate the impacts of local air-sea interaction in the simulation of the interannual variability, over the Indian CORDEX (Giorgi et al, 2009) domain through regionally ocean-atmosphere-river coupled and uncoupled simulations, with a focus on monsoon season

  4. Determining the Hydrological Benefits of Clearing Invasive Alien Vegetation on the Agulhas Plain, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowell, M. S.; Le Maitre, D. C.; Esler, K. J.; Kalwij, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    Invasive Alien Plants (IAPs) threaten biodiversity and ecosystem processes due to their ability to outcompete native vegetation for resources such as water, nutrients, light and space. IAPs utilize water differently for different hydrogeological conditions. The aim of this study was to explore the water use by invasive vegetation for three different hydrogeological scenarios using remote sensing and the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL). The application of remote sensing techniques to map and monitor IAPs is relatively new in South Africa. Not only will the findings of this study contribute to more effective clearing strategies for the Working for Water programme, but will also provide conservation planners and managers with a cost and time effective technique for mapping invasive vegetation and updating land use maps in the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa.

  5. Wide Field Imaging of the Hubble Deep Field-South Region III: Catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palunas, Povilas; Collins, Nicholas R.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Hill, Robert S.; Malumuth, Eliot M.; Rhodes, Jason; Teplitz, Harry I.; Woodgate, Bruce E.

    2002-01-01

    We present 1/2 square degree uBVRI imaging around the Hubble Deep Field - South. These data have been used in earlier papers to examine the QSO population and the evolution of the correlation function in the region around the HDF-S. The images were obtained with the Big Throughput Camera at CTIO in September 1998. The images reach 5 sigma limits of u approx. 24.4, B approx. 25.6, V approx. 25.3, R approx. 24.9 and I approx. 23.9. We present a catalog of approx. 22,000 galaxies. We also present number-magnitude counts and a comparison with other observations of the same field. The data presented here are available over the world wide web.

  6. South Primorye, Far East Russia—A key region for global Permian correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotlyar, Galina V.; Belyansky, Gennady C.; Burago, Valentina I.; Nikitina, Antonina P.; Zakharov, Yuri D.; Zhuravlev, Andrey V.

    2006-03-01

    Significant differences between faunal and floral associations existing in different paleogeographic realms in the Kungurian-Late Permian interval make it difficult to correlate the Permian deposits of the world. Resolving this problem is one of the main tasks of Permian stratigraphy. The global significance of Permian strata of the Primorye region of Far East Russia is enhanced by the specific Middle Permian mixed Tethyan, Boreal and Gondwanan-type brachiopod fauna, mixed Angara-Euromerican-Cathaysian flora, and their close spatial and stratigraphical association with fusulinids, bryozoans, ammonoids, conodonts. These facts permit tracing of global correlational levels of some Permian sequences within the different paleobiogeographical realms: for example, the Monodiexodina sutschanica- Metadoliolina dutkevichi fusulinid zone of the Wordian age and Parafusulina stricta fusulinid zone of the Capitanian age. The Late Permian fauna of the Primorye is mainly Tethyan in origin and provides correlation with similar aged sequences from South China.

  7. Seismogenic stress field estimation in the Calabrian Arc region (south Italy) from a Bayesian approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Totaro, C.; Orecchio, B.; Presti, D.; Scolaro, S.; Neri, G.

    2016-09-01

    A new high-quality waveform inversion focal mechanism database of the Calabrian Arc region has been compiled by integrating 292 mechanisms selected from literature and catalogs with 146 newly computed solutions. The new database has then been used for computation of posterior density distributions of stress tensor components by a Bayesian method never applied in south Italy before the present study. The application of this method to the enhanced database has allowed us to provide a detailed picture of seismotectonic stress regimes in this very complex area where lithospheric unit configuration and geodynamic engines are still strongly debated. Our results well constrain the extensional domain of Calabrian Arc and the compressional one of the southernmost Tyrrhenian Sea. In addition, previously undetected transcurrent regimes have been identified in the Ionian offshore. The new information released here will furnish useful tools and constraints for future geodynamic investigations.

  8. Coronary events in the Hunter region of New South Wales, Australia: 1984-1986.

    PubMed

    Dobson, A J; Alexander, H M; Al-Roomi, K; Gibberd, R W; Heller, R F; Leeder, S R; Lloyd, D M; Malcolm, J A; Steele, P L

    1988-01-01

    The results of coronary event registration using the protocol of the World Health Organization MONICA Project are reported for two years for the Hunter Region, the area in and around Newcastle in New South Wales, Australia. The Newcastle MONICA Project monitors all suspected cases of heart attack by identifying patients from hospital admissions and obtaining information while they are still in hospital. For people who die out of hospital, the initial source of information is usually the death certificate. Rates for the most robust MONICA diagnostic categories, non-fatal definite myocardial infarction and all coronary deaths, differed for the two years reported here. Monthly rates suggested possible seasonal effects, and the possible influence of lower respiratory infections including an epidemic of influenza A. The results demonstrate that consistent monitoring over several years will be necessary to establish clear trends in coronary heart disease.

  9. South Asian Aerosols: Observations and regional scale modeling perspectives from the Nepal Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikary, B.; Bonasoni, P.; Cristofanelli, P.; Marinoni, A.; Duchi, R.; Calzolari, F.; Landi, T.; Putero, D.; Fuzzi, S.; Decesari, S.; Vuillermoz, E.; Stocchi, P.; Verza, G.; Kulkarni, S.

    2012-12-01

    SHARE (Stations at High Altitude Research on the Environment) project is promoted by Ev-K2-CNR and funded by the Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR) through the Italian National Research Council (CNR). Today SHARE monitoring stations span four continents around the globe. This paper will present the results from the SHARE-Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid (NCO-P) monitoring station located in the foothills of Mount Everest at an altitude of 5079 m.a.s.l. NCO-P is also one of the Global AtmosphericWatch stations of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO-GAW) and is the only currently operating GAW station in South Asia and the highest station of the UNEP ABC (Atmospheric Brown Clouds) project. Results obtained from the monitoring of aerosols and trace gases for multi years starting from 2006 will be presented. Seasonal distribution, composition, case studies and events related to high aerosol loadings will be discussed. A regional scale meteorological / chemical transport modeling projecthas been initiated to help put the measurements in perspective and provide decision support for policy makers. The paper will also describe themodeling framework,modeled case studiesillustrating sectoral and regional contribution to the aerosol loading over the Himalayan region will be presented.

  10. Heavy metal deposition in moss samples from east and south Marmara region, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Coskun, Mahmut; Cayir, Akin; Coskun, Munevver; Kilic, Onder

    2011-03-01

    A survey of atmospheric heavy metal deposition in the east and south Marmara region, Turkey was carried out in September 2004. For this purpose, moss samples (Hypnum cupressiforme) were collected in a systematic network of 125 sites. Concentrations of the elements (Al, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Fe, Co, Cr, Cu, K, Li, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr, Mg, Ti, and Zn) in the moss were used as an indication of the level of air pollution in the region. Significant differences in heavy metal concentrations, especially for Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn, were recorded in the moss samples collected around industrialized and heavily populated cities (Istanbul, Bursa, Bandırma, Kocaeli, Biga-Çan) and in an abandoned lead-mining area (Balıkesir-Balya). A map of the spatial distribution of each element in the region was plotted, and enrichment factors were calculated. VARIMAX principal component analysis was applied to the data obtained, and five different components were obtained. The results showed that Pb, Cu, Cd, and Zn derived from anthropogenic and industrial sources while other elements came mostly from natural sources.

  11. A Proposed Robotic Astronomy Mission to the Lunar South Polar Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowman, Paul D., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    This paper outlines a possible mission to emplace a robotic infrared / submillimeter wave interferometer array near the lunar south pole. This region has now been investigated by the Clementine and Lunar Prospector missions, and by Earth-based radar, and its topography and thermal environment are fairly well-known. The area would be exceptionally suitable for infrared / submillimeter astronomy because of the continually low temperatures, approaching that of liquid nitrogen (77K) in some places. A submillimeter spaceborne interferometer mission, Submillimeter Probe of the Evolution of the Cosmic Structure (SPECS) has been proposed by John Mather and others, covering the 40 - 500 micron region with 3 formation flying telescopes. The present paper proposes a lunar adaptation of the SPECS concept, LSPECS. This adaptation would involve landing 4 telescopes on the area north of Shackleton crater at zero degrees longitude. This is in nearly year round darkness but is continually radar visible from Earth. The landed payload of LSPECS would include a telerobotic rover, 4 three meter submm telescopes, a solar power array to be emplaced on the continually sunlit north rim of Shackleton crater, and an S-band antenna for data relay to Earth. Passive cooling without the use of expendable cryogenics. might be possible, trading long exposure time for instrument temperatures above that of liquid helium. The LSPECS would permit long-term study of an extremely wide range of cosmic and solar system phenomena in the southern celestial hemisphere. For complete sky coverage, a similar installation near the north pole would be required. The LSPECS site would also be suitable other types of observation, such as optical interferometry or centimeter wavelength radio astronomy. The lunar south pole is also of great interest because of its extensive ice deposits, which may represent cometary infall with pre-biotic compounds.

  12. Bias-corrected regional climate projections of extreme rainfall in south-east Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Jason P.; Argueso, D.; Olson, R.; Di Luca, A.

    2016-09-01

    This study presents future changes in extreme precipitation as projected within the New South Wales and Australian Capital Territory Regional Climate Modelling (NARCliM) project's regional climate ensemble for south-east Australia. Model performance, independence and projected future changes were considered when designing the ensemble. We applied a quantile mapping bias correction to the climate model outputs based on theoretical distribution functions, and the implications of this for the projected precipitation extremes is investigated. Precipitation extremes are quantified using several indices from the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices set of indices. The bias correction was successful in removing most of the magnitude bias in extreme precipitation but does not correct biases in the length of maximum wet and dry spells. The bias correction also had a relatively small effect on the projected future changes. Across a range of metrics, robust increases in the magnitude of precipitation extreme indices are found. While these increases are often in-line with a continuation of the trends present over the last century, they are not found to be statistically significant within the ensemble as a whole. The length of the maximum consecutive wet spell is projected to remain at present-day levels, while the length of the maximum dry spell is projected to increase into the future. The combination of longer dry spells and increases in extreme precipitation magnitude indicate an important change in the character of the precipitation time series. This could have considerable hydrological implications since changes in the sequencing of events can be just as important as changes in event magnitude for hydrological impacts.

  13. A case–control study of epidemiological factors associated with leptospirosis in South Gujarat region

    PubMed Central

    Desai, KT; Patel, F; Patel, PB; Nayak, S; Patel, NB; Bansal, RK

    2016-01-01

    Background: The current study was planned to identify the epidemiological factors associated with leptospirosis in South Gujarat region using neighborhood controls. Methods: A total of 100 cases of leptospirosis occurred in South Gujarat region during the year 2012 were selected using simple random sampling. Three neighbors of the selected cases formed the controls (n = 300). A pretested structured questionnaire was used for data collection and data were analyzed using Epi Info 2007. Results: There was significant association of illiteracy (odds ratio [OR] =1.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.14–2.89), working in waterlogged fields during the reference season (OR = 4.6, 95% CI = 1.6–17.9), swimming/bathing in canals, open air defecation practices, storage of cow dung in or surrounding house, residence in the house made up of cow dung walls, households with access of food to rodents, injuries over hands/foot during the endemic season (OR = 3, 95% CI = 1.8–4.8), and history of skin disease during the endemic season (OR = 4.2, 95% CI = 2–8.5), with leptospirosis. Only 10% of individuals had gumboots for protection. A total of 83 (83%) cases and 240 (80%) controls had taken oral doxycycline chemoprophylaxis (P > 0.05). Cases had taken chemoprophylaxis for a median 4 weeks (range: 1–8) while controls had taken the same for median 8 weeks (range = 1–8) (P < 0.002). Conclusions: Although the commonly established factors appear to be associated with leptospirosis, the role of host factors seems to play a more important role in determining susceptibility to leptospirosis in exposed individuals. PMID:27763478

  14. Effects of mining-associated lead and zinc soil contamination on native floristic quality.

    PubMed

    Struckhoff, Matthew A; Stroh, Esther D; Grabner, Keith W

    2013-04-15

    We assessed the quality of plant communities across a range of lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) soil concentrations at a variety of sites associated with Pb mining in southeast Missouri, USA. In a novel application, two standard floristic quality measures, Mean Coefficient of Conservatism (Mean C) and Floristic Quality Index (FQI), were examined in relation to concentrations of Pb and Zn, soil nutrients, and other soil characteristics. Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling and Regression Tree Analyses identified soil Pb and Zn concentrations as primary explanatory variables for plant community composition and indicated negative relationships between soil metals concentrations and both Mean C and FQI. Univariate regression also demonstrated significant negative relationships between metals concentrations and floristic quality. The negative effects of metals in native soils with otherwise relatively undisturbed conditions indicate that elevated soil metals concentrations adversely affect native floristic quality where no other human disturbance is evident.

  15. Effects of mining-associated lead and zinc soil contamination on native floristic quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Struckhoff, Matthew A.; Stroh, Esther D.; Grabner, Keith W.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed the quality of plant communities across a range of lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) soil concentrations at a variety of sites associated with Pb mining in southeast Missouri, USA. In a novel application, two standard floristic quality measures, Mean Coefficient of Conservatism (Mean C) and Floristic Quality Index (FQI), were examined in relation to concentrations of Pb and Zn, soil nutrients, and other soil characteristics. Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling and Regression Tree Analyses identified soil Pb and Zn concentrations as primary explanatory variables for plant community composition and indicated negative relationships between soil metals concentrations and both Mean C and FQI. Univariate regression also demonstrated significant negative relationships between metals concentrations and floristic quality. The negative effects of metals in native soils with otherwise relatively undisturbed conditions indicate that elevated soil metals concentrations adversely affect native floristic quality where no other human disturbance is evident.

  16. Burkholderia kirstenboschensis sp. nov. nodulates papilionoid legumes indigenous to South Africa.

    PubMed

    Steenkamp, Emma T; van Zyl, Elritha; Beukes, Chrizelle W; Avontuur, Juanita R; Chan, Wai Yin; Palmer, Marike; Mthombeni, Lunghile S; Phalane, Francina L; Sereme, T Karabo; Venter, Stephanus N

    2015-12-01

    Despite the diversity of Burkholderia species known to nodulate legumes in introduced and native regions, relatively few taxa have been formally described. For example, the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa is thought to represent one of the major centres of diversity for the rhizobial members of Burkholderia, yet only five species have been described from legumes occurring in this region and numerous are still awaiting taxonomic treatment. Here, we investigated the taxonomic status of 12 South African root-nodulating Burkholderia isolates from native papilionoid legumes (Hypocalyptus coluteoides, H. oxalidifolius, H. sophoroides and Virgilia oroboides). Analysis of four gene regions (16S rRNA, recA, atpD and rpoB) revealed that the isolates represent a genealogically unique and exclusive assemblage within the genus. Its distinctness was supported by all other aspects of the polyphasic approach utilized, including the genome-based criteria DNA-DNA hybridization (≥70.9%) and average nucleotide identities (≥96%). We accordingly propose the name B. kirstenboschensis sp. nov. for this taxon with isolate Kb15(T) (=LMG 28727(T); =SARC 695(T)) as its type strain. Our data showed that intraspecific genome size differences (≥0.81 Mb) and the occurrence of large DNA regions that are apparently unique to single individuals (16-23% of an isolate's genome) can significantly limit the value of data obtained from DNA-DNA hybridization experiments. Substitution of DNA-DNA hybridization with whole genome sequencing as a prerequisite for the description of Burkholderia species will undoubtedly speed up the pace at which their diversity are documented, especially in hyperdiverse regions such as the Cape Floristic Region.

  17. Study of the regional air quality south of Mexico City (Morelos state).

    PubMed

    Salcedo, D; Castro, T; Ruiz-Suárez, L G; García-Reynoso, A; Torres-Jardón, R; Torres-Jaramillo, A; Mar-Morales, B E; Salcido, A; Celada, A T; Carreón-Sierra, S; Martínez, A P; Fentanes-Arriaga, O A; Deustúa, E; Ramos-Villegas, R; Retama-Hernández, A; Saavedra, M I; Suárez-Lastra, M

    2012-01-01

    Results from the first study of the regional air quality in Morelos state (located south of Mexico City) are presented. Criteria pollutants concentrations were measured at several sites within Morelos in February and March of 2007 and 2009; meteorological data was also collected along the state for the same time periods; additionally, a coupled meteorology-chemistry model (Mesoscale Climate Chemistry Model, MCCM) was used to gain understanding on the atmospheric processes occurring in the region. In general, concentrations of almost all the monitored pollutants (O(3), NO(x), CO, SO(2), PM) remained below the Mexican air quality standards during the campaign; however, relatively high concentrations of ozone (8-hour average concentrations above the 60 ppb level several times during the campaigns, i.e. exceeding the World Health Organization and the European Union maximum levels) were observed even at sites with very low reported local emissions. In fact, there is evidence that a large percentage of Morelos vegetation was probably exposed to unhealthy ozone levels (estimated AOT40 levels above the 3 ppm h critical limit). The MCCM qualitatively reproduced ozone daily variations in the sites with an urban component; though it consistently overestimated the ozone concentration in all the sites in Morelos. This is probably because the lack of an updated and detailed emission inventory for the state. The main wind patterns in the region corresponded to the mountain-valley system (downslope flows at night and during the first hours of the day, and upslope flows in the afternoon). At times, Morelos was affected by emissions from surrounding states (Distrito Federal or Puebla). The results are indicative of an efficient transport of ozone and its precursors at a regional level. They also suggest that the state is divided in two atmospheric basins by the Sierras de Tepoztlán, Texcal and Monte Negro.

  18. Mechanisms of aquatic species invasions across the South Atlantic Landscape Conservation Cooperative region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, Amy J.; Stith, Bradley M.; Engel, Victor C.

    2016-12-15

    Invasive species are a global issue, and the southeastern United States is not immune to the problems they present. Therefore, various analyses using modeling and exploratory statistics were performed on the U.S. Geological Survey Nonindigenous Aquatic Species (NAS) Database with the primary objective of determining the most appropriate use of presence-only data as related to invasive species in the South Atlantic Landscape Conservation Cooperative (SALCC) region. A hierarchical model approach showed that a relatively small amount of high-quality data from planned surveys can be used to leverage the information in presence-only observations, having a broad spatial coverage and high biases of observer detection and in site selection. Because a variety of sampling protocols can be used in planned surveys, this approach to the analysis of presence-only data is widely applicable. An important part of the management of natural landscapes is the preservation of designated protected areas. When the hydrologic connection was considered in this analysis, the number of potential invaders that could spread to each protected area within the SALCC region was greatly increased, with a mean exceeding 30 species and the maximum reaching 57 species. Nearly all protected areas are hydrologically connected to at least 20 nonindigenous aquatic species. To examine possible factors which may contribute to nonindigenous aquatic species richness in the SALCC region, a set of exploratory statistics was employed. The best statistical model that included a combination of three anthropogenic variables (densities of housing, roads, and reservoirs) and two environmental variables (elevation range and longitude) explained approximately 62 percent of the variation in introduced species richness. Highest nonindigenous aquatic species richness occurred in the more upland, mountainous regions, where elevation range favored reservoirs and attracted urban centers. Lastly, patterns seen in a diffusion

  19. Lightning fatalities in the Transkei sub-region of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Meel, B L

    2007-04-01

    Lightning is a particularly unsettling product of bad weather. It kills more people than other natural disasters such as floods, hurricanes, and tornadoes, but, because lightning usually kills people one at a time, it tends to be an underrated hazard. High risk groups are uneducated, unsheltered and rural people. This study was carried out to determine the incidence of lightning fatalities in the Transkei sub-region. It is a review of records between 1993 and 2004 from the medico-legal autopsies at Umtata General Hospital (UGH). During the study period there were 10,860 autopsies performed on those who died of trauma and other unnatural circumstances which included 151 (1.4%) lightning fatalities. This represents 0.31 deaths per million per year. The highest (0.5/million) was in 1999, and the lowest (0.13/million) in 1997. The age of the victims ranged from 1 to 82 years, with a mean of 22 years. Males and females were almost equally represented (50%). The highest number of deaths (26.5%) was in the age group of 11 to 20 years, and the lowest number (2.7%) in the age group of 70+ years. There is a high incidence of lightning fatalities in the Transkei sub-region of South Africa. People need to be educated to disregard the myths of lightning strike.

  20. Protoptiline Caddisfly Genera Endemic to the Southern Cone Region of South America (Trichoptera: Glossosomatidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, D. R.; Holzenthal, R. W.

    2005-05-01

    The Trichoptera fauna of the Southern Cone region of South America (Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Paraguay, and SE Brazil) is well known for its high degree of endemism, at both the species and genus level. This is also true for the saddle or tortoise case-making family Glossosomatidae, represented entirely in the region by members of the subfamily Protoptilinae. The Southern Cone includes six endemic protoptiline genera: Canoptila, Itauara, Mastigoptila, Merionoptila, Scotiotrichia, and Tolhuaca, containing 19 described species. Although not particularly species diverse when compared to the rest of the Neotropical Trichoptera fauna, these endemics are note-worthy: some genera display morphological characteristics that may be considered very primitive and others are very evolutionarily derived. Additionally, there are at least 11 new species whose placement is uncertain. This points out the need to reexamine the taxonomy and evaluate the evolutionary relationships among these genera. Recently several new species of Mastigoptila and Tolhuaca were described, including some females. Taxonomic revisions of the remaining genera based on careful examination of the male and female genitalia, wing venation, and other adult morphological characters, are currently underway. Included in the revisions are descriptions of new species, new illustrations of previously described species, and a phylogenetic assessment.

  1. Modeling and mapping regional land use/land cover change in South Central Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranatunga, T.; Messen, D.

    2014-12-01

    Houston-Galveston Area Council (H-GAC) conducted a land use/land cover (LULC) change detection study to generate information about the LULC changes in a 15-county area of South Central Texas. Such information is essential in regional planning, natural resource management, monitoring and modeling of environmental characteristics. The objectives of this study are (1) Identification of regional spatial patterns of each LULC conversion, (2) Estimation of the area coverage of each LULC conversion, and (3) Estimation of the net gain and losses of each LULC classes. To achieve these objectives, ArcGIS Spatial analysis functions and data management tools were employed in python environment. Change detection was estimated from 1992 to 2011 using datasets from NLCD (National Land Cover Database) 1992, NLCD 2001 and NOAA C-CAP (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Coastal Change Analysis Program) 2011. Through visual analysis and comparisons with aerial imagery, we established that NLCD 1992 and 2001 datasets contained more classification inaccuracies than the NOAA 2011 dataset. The misclassified cells in the 1992 and 2001 NLCD datasets were corrected to be consistent with the 2011 C-CAP dataset. The NLCD 2001 dataset was first corrected using a logical evaluation with 2011 classes in each pixel. Then the NLCD 1992 dataset was corrected using the correct 2001 dataset. After correcting 1992 dataset, a cell by cell comparison was conducted with the NOAA 2011 dataset, and individual changes were recorded.

  2. Surficial geologic map of the Charleston region, Berkeley, Charleston, Colleton, Dorchester, and Georgetown Counties, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weems, Robert E.; Lewis, William C.; Lemon, Earl M.

    2014-01-01

    This map portrays the surface and shallow subsurface geology of the greater Charleston, S.C. region east of 80°30′ west and south of 33°15′ north. The region covers the entirety of Charleston County and portions of Berkeley, Colleton, Dorchester, and Georgetown Counties. Units locally exposed at the surface range in age from middle Eocene to Holocene, but most of the area is covered by Quaternary interglacial deposits. These are, from oldest to youngest, the Okefenokee, Waccamaw(?), Penholoway, Ladson, Ten Mile Hill, and Wando Formations and the Silver Bluff beds. Two cross sections, one running southeast from Harleyville to the coastline on James Island and the other running along the coastal barrier islands from the town of Edisto Beach to the northeast end of Bull Island at the southwest edge of Bull Bay, portray the complex geometry of the Paleogene and Neogene marine units that directly lie beneath the Quaternary units. These older units include the Santee Limestone, Tupelo Bay, Parkers Ferry, Ashley, Chandler Bridge, Edisto, Parachucla, and Marks Head Formations, the Goose Creek Limestone, and the Raysor Formation. The estimated locations of deeply buried active basement faults are shown which are responsible for ongoing modern seismicity in the Charleston, S.C. area.

  3. A new regional climate simulation using RegCM4 over the CORDEX South Asia domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariotti, Laura; Bacer, Sara; Coppola, Erika; Giorgi, Filippo

    2014-05-01

    We present a new high-resolution regional climate simulation over the CORDEX South Asia made with the latest version of the Regional Climate Model RegCM4. The simulation has been performed at 25 km of resolution using the ERA-Interim boundary conditions. The simulated results are compared with the monthly mean surface observations for temperature and precipitation over the entire domain. The rainy season during the June-July-August-September (JJAS) over India shows a bigger improvement using a different parameterization of the MIT-Emanuel convection scheme for land and ocean. Another big improvement has been found with the UW PBL scheme (Bretherton and McCaa, 2004). The model shows in JJAS season a slight cold bias over the mountain compared with CRU dataset, instead in Indian land area the pattern of the temperature is well represented. The monsoon precipitation over the Indian continent is reasonably represented. A good agreement was found from the comparison between RegCM4 with the IMD dataset by studying the area weighted average values time series of monthly accumulated rainfall (cm) in Indian land area.

  4. Estimation of underground river water availability based on rainfall in the Maros karst region, South Sulawesi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsyad, Muhammad; Ihsan, Nasrul; Tiwow, Vistarani Arini

    2016-02-01

    Maros karst region, covering an area of 43.750 hectares, has water resources that determine the life around it. Water resources in Maros karst are in the rock layers or river underground in the cave. The data used in this study are primary and secondary data. Primary data includes characteristics of the medium. Secondary data is rainfall data from BMKG, water discharge data from the PSDA, South Sulawesi province in 1990-2010, and the other characteristics data Maros karst, namely cave, flora and fauna of the Bantimurung Bulusaraung National Park. Data analysis was conducted using laboratory test for medium characteristics Maros karst, rainfall and water discharge were analyzed using Minitab Program 1.5 to determine their profile. The average rainfall above 200 mm per year occurs in the range of 1999 to 2005. The availability of the water discharge at over 50 m3/s was happened in 1993 and 1995. Prediction was done by modeling Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), with the rainfall data shows that the average precipitation for four years (2011-2014) will sharply fluctuate. The prediction of water discharge in Maros karst region was done for the period from January to August in 2011, including the type of 0. In 2012, the addition of the water discharge started up in early 2014.

  5. Possible recent and ancient glacial ice flow in the south polar region of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kargel, J. S.

    1992-01-01

    Martian polar science began almost as soon as small telescopes were trained on the planet. The seasonal expansion and contraction of the polar caps and their high albedoes led most astronomers to think that water ice is the dominant constituent. In 1911 Lowell perceived a bluish band around the retreating edge of the polar caps, and interpreted it as water from melting polar ice and seasonal snow. An alternative idea in his time was that the polar caps consist of frozen carbonic acid. Lowell rejected the carbonic acid hypothesis on account of his blue band. He also pointed out that carbonic acid would sublimate rather than melt at confining pressures near and below one bar, hence, carbonic acid could not account for the blue band. In comparing Lowell's theories with today's knowledge, it is recognized that (1) sublimation is mainly responsible for the growth and contraction of Mars' polar caps, (2) carbon dioxide is a major component of the southern polar cap, and (3) Lowell's blue band was probably seasonal dust and/or clouds. Geomorphic evidence that glacial ice and glacial melt waters once flowed over broad areas of the southern polar region. Two aspects of the south polar region suggest possible glacial processes during two distinct eras in Mars' history.

  6. Distribution, regional sources and deposition fluxes of organochlorine pesticides in precipitation in Guangzhou, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, De-Yin; Peng, Ping'an; Xu, Yi-Gang; Sun, Cui-Xiang; Deng, Hong-Mei; Deng, Yun-Yun

    2010-07-01

    We analyzed rainwater collected from multiple sites, Guangzhou, China, from March to August 2005, with the aim to characterize the distribution, regional sources and deposition fluxes of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in South China. Eight species of organochlorine pesticide were detected, including hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), and endosulfans. Volume-weighted mean monthly total concentrations varied from 3.65 ± 0.95 to 9.37 ± 2.63 ng L - 1 , and the estimated total wet deposition flux was about 11.43 ± 3.27 µg m - 2 during the monitoring period. Pesticides were mainly detected in the dissolved phase. Distribution coefficients between particulate and dissolved phases in March and April were generally higher than in other months. HCHs, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT in precipitation were attributed to both the residues and present usage of insecticides in Pearl River Delta. The concentrations of p,p'-DDD + p,p'-DDT were relatively high from April to August, which were related to the usage of antifouling paints containing DDT for fishing ships in seaports of the South China Sea in summer. In contrast, endosulfans were relatively high in March, which was related to their seasonal atmospheric transport from cotton fields in eastern China by the Asian winter monsoon. The consistency of the variation of endosulfans, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT concentrations with the alternation of summer and winter monsoon suggested that the Asian monsoon played an important role in the long-range transport of OCPs. In addition, the wet deposition of OCPs may influence not only Pearl River water but also the surface land distributions of pesticides in the Guangzhou area, especially for endosulfans, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT.

  7. Epidemiological aspects of astrovirus and coronavirus in poults in the South Eastern Region of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, S.E.L.; Bonetti, A.M.; Petrocelli, A.; Ferrari, H.F.; Luvizotto, M.C.R.; Cardoso, T.C.

    2009-01-01

    A survey of Turkey Coronavirus (TCoV) and Astrovirus (TAstV-2) prevalence was carried out from February to December during 2006 year in semiarid region of Brazil, from a turkey producer area, localized in South Eastern of Brazil. To asses the risk factor related to clinical material, climatic condition and type of RT-PCR applied, cloacal swabs (CS), faeces, sera, bursa of Fabricius (BF), thymus (TH) and spleen (SP) and ileum-caeca region were collected from 30-day-old poults suffering of enteritis episode characterized as poult enteritis mortality syndrome (PEMS). The PEMS clinical features were characterized by watery to foamy faeces, light brown-yellow in colour and low mortality rate. Meteorological data (rainfall and relative humidity) observed during along the study presented monthly average temperature ranging from 39.3 and 31.2ºC, precipitation in rainy season from 40 to 270.3 mm/month, and no rain during dry season. Simplex RT-PCR gave odds ratio (OR) values suggesting that ileum-caeca region is at higher chance (OR=1.9; p=0.9741) to have both viral RNA than faeces (OR=1.5; p=0.7319). However, multiplex RT-PCR showed 3.98 (p=0.89982) more chance to give positive results in faeces than CS at dry season. The major risk factors seem to be low rate of humidity and high temperatures at winter, probably responsible for spread, easily, the TCoV and TAstv-2 among the flocks. The positive results of both virus suggested that they can play an important role in enteric disorders, associated to low humidity and high temperatures frequently found in tropical countries. PMID:24031353

  8. MOMENT TENSOR SOLUTIONS OF RECENT EARTHQUAKES IN THE CALABRIAN REGION (SOUTH ITALY)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orecchio, B.; D'Amico, S.; Gervasi, A.; Guerra, I.; Presti, D.; Zhu, L.; Herrmann, R. B.; Neri, G.

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study is to provide moment tensor solutions for recent events occurred in the Calabrian region (South Italy), an area struck by several destructive earthquakes in the last centuries. The seismicity of the area under investigation is actually characterized by low to moderate magnitude earthquakes (up to 4.5) not properly represented in the Italian national catalogues of focal mechanisms like RCMT (Regional Centroid Moment Tensor, Pondrelli et al., PEPI, 2006) and TDMT (Time Domain Moment Tensors, Dreger and Helmerger, BSSA, 1993). Also, the solutions estimated from P-onset polarities are often poorly constrained due to network geometry in the study area. We computed the moment tensor solutions using the “Cut And Paste” method originally proposed by Zhao and Helmerger (BSSA, 1994) and later modified by Zhu and Helmerger (BSSA, 1996). Each waveform is broken into the Pnl and surface wave segments and the source depth and focal mechanisms are determined using a grid search technique. The technique allows time shifts between synthetics and observed data in order to reduce dependence of the solution on the assumed velocity model and earthquake locations. This method has shown to provide good-quality solutions for earthquakes of magnitude as small as 2.5. The data set of the present study consists of waveforms from more than 100 earthquakes that were recorded by the permanent seismic network run by Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) and about 40 stations of the NSF CAT/SCAN project. The results concur to check and better detail the regional geodynamic model assuming subduction of the Ionian lithosphere beneath the Tyrrhenian one and related response of the shallow structures in terms of normal and strike-slip faulting seismicity.

  9. Tectonic evolution of the South Fiji Basin: UNCLOS helps tackle regional tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzer, R.; Roest, W.; Barker, D.; Mortimer, N.; Mauffret, A.; Lafoy, Y.

    2005-12-01

    Marine surveys to study the evolution of remnant arcs and backarc basins north of New Zealand have been complemented by UNCLOS surveys by three countries - France, New Zealand and Australia - with potential extended continental shelf claims in the region. The UNCLOS factor allowed 9 cruises to focus on the region in the past 9 years, collecting approximately 30,000 km of seismic reflection (5,000 deep crustal), 263,700 sq km of swath bathymetry, and 70 dredge samples. Feedback through sharing or publishing data and joint participation allowed efficient planning and deployment of academic and UNCLOS cruises. Two models for South Fiji (SFB) and Norfolk (NB) basin evolution arise from current studies: at the level of the Three Kings Ridge - NB - southern SFB both involve Pacific trench roll-back and southward propagating spreading, but one also uses two subduction systems and arc-continent collision. Linked spreading of the NB and SFB is invoked in both models, but the veracity and geodynamics of the link are not investigated. A growing body of petrological and radiometric evidence and the tectonics of the New Zealand continental margin point to tandem Early Miocene spreading of the SFB and NB despite published magnetic interpretations that would confine SFB spreading to the Oligocene. The Franco-NZ NOUCAPLAC-1 cruise, the last cruise relevant to UNCLOS in this region, included a scientific objective to investigate the SFB-NB link in the critical area bounded by the Loyalty Ridge (LR), the Cook Fracture Zone (CFZ), the Bounty spreading centre (BSC) and the Julia Lineament (JL) with swath mapping, magnetics and seismic reflection. Initial results show a complex bathymetry where a possible link between the BSC and the CFZ involves ridge propagation, overlapping spreading centres, rift blocks and overprinting volcanoes. The link to the JL was not adequately tested due to sparse coverage. Closer to the LR, a thick, faulted sedimentary basin was found.

  10. Metamorphic and tectonic evolution of the Greater Himalayan Crystalline Complex in Nyalam region, south Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jia-Min; Zhang, Jin-Jiang; Rubatto, Daniela

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies evoke dispute whether the Himalayan metamorphic core - Greater Himalayan Crystalline Complex (GHC) - was exhumed as a lateral crustal flow or a critical taper wedge during the India-Asia collision. This contribution investigated the evolution of the GHC in the Nyalam region, south Tibet, with comprehensive studies on structural kinematics, metamorphic petrology and geochronology. The GHC in the Nyalam region can be divided into the lower and upper GHC. Phase equilibria modelling and conventional thermobarometric results show that peak temperature conditions are lower in the lower GHC (~660-700°C) and higher in the upper GHC (~740-780°C), whereas corresponding pressure conditions at peak-T decrease from ~9-13 kbar to ~4 kbar northward. Monazite, zircon and rutile U-Pb dating results reveal two distinct blocks within the GHC of the Nyalam region. The upper GHC underwent higher degree of partial melting (15-25%, via muscovite dehydration melting) that initiated at ~32 Ma, peaked at ~29 Ma to 25 Ma, possibly ended at ~20 Ma. The lower GHC underwent lower degree of melting (0-10%) that lasted from 19 to 16 Ma, which was produced mainly via H2O-saturated melting. At different times, both the upper and lower blocks underwent initial slow cooling (35 ± 8 and 10 ± 5°C/Myr, respectively) and subsequent rapid cooling (120 ± 40°C/Myr). The established timescale of metamorphism suggests that high-temperature metamorphism within the GHC lasted a long duration (~15 Myr), whereas duration of partial melting lasted for ~3 Myr in the lower GHC and lasted for 7-12 Myr in the upper GHC. The documented diachronous metamorphism and discontinuity of peak P-T conditions implies the presence of the Nyalam Thrust in the study area. This thrust is probably connected to the other thrusts in Nepal and Sikkim Himalaya, which extends over ~800 km and is named the "High Himalayan Thrust". Timing of activity along this thrust is at ~25-16 Ma, which is coeval with active

  11. Morphological and molecular observations on the cereal cyst nematode Heterodera filipjevi from the Volga and South Ural regions of Russia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During 2010-2012, a survey was conducted to determine the distribution and species diversity of the cereal cyst nematode Heterodera filipjevi within the Volga and South Ural regions of the Russian Federation. A total of 270 soil samples were collected. Seven populations of CCN were found in the rhiz...

  12. An Examination of Hurricane Emergency Preparedness Planning at Institutions of Higher Learning of the Gulf South Region Post Hurricane Katrina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ventura, Caterina Gulli

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine hurricane emergency preparedness planning at institutions of higher learning of the Gulf South region following Hurricane Katrina. The problem addressed the impact of Hurricane Katrina on decision-making and policy planning processes. The focus was on individuals that administer the hurricane emergency…

  13. Strategies to Improve Teacher Retention in American Overseas Schools in the Near East South Asia Region: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mancuso, Steven V.; Roberts, Laura; White, George P.; Yoshida, Roland K.; Weston, David

    2011-01-01

    Using a qualitative analysis and drawing from sociological theory, this study examined reasons for teacher turnover and retention from a representative sample of 248 teachers in American overseas schools in the Near East South Asia region. Results suggested that the most important reasons to stay or move pertained to supportive leadership,…

  14. Asian Values and Democratic Citizenship: Exploring Attitudes among South Korean Eighth Graders Using Data from the ICCS Asian Regional Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Ryan Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Utilizing data from the 2009 IEA International Civic and Citizenship Study Asian Regional Module, this secondary analysis explores the relationship between traditional Asian values and democratic citizenship. Findings identify two dimensions of Asian values: Asian civic values and obedience to authority. Among South Korean students, Asian civic…

  15. Beta-globin gene cluster haplotypes in Afro-Uruguayans from two geographical regions (South and North).

    PubMed

    Da Luz, Julio; Kimura, Elza Miyuki; Costa, Fernando Ferreira; Sonati, Maria de Fatima; Sans, Mónica

    2010-01-01

    The beta-globin gene cluster haplotypes were identified in 52 and 40 chromosomes from two Afro-Uruguayan populations located in the South and North of the country, respectively. In both regions, the 5' haplotype 2 (+ - - - -), characteristic of non-African populations, was the most frequent, reflecting a strong process of admixture in Afro-Uruguayans (0.355 and 0.262, respectively). The haplotypes 3 (- - - - +) and 4 (- + - - +), characteristics of African sub-Saharan populations, present inverse frequencies in North and South: whereas in the South haplotype 3 is the second most frequent (0.232), and haplotype 4 presents a low frequency (0.019), in the North haplotype 4 is the third most frequent (0.140), and haplotype 3 only reaches an intermediate frequency (0.088). The pairwise F(ST) and the exact test of differentiation show genetic heterogeneity between both regions. Nei's genetic distance show that South and North present affinities with Bantu groups, although the North present the smallest genetic distance with the Mandenka, a Senegalese population. With respect to 3' haplotypes, haplotype I was the most frequent in both populations, followed by haplotype II, characteristic of sub-Saharan Africans. The high frequencies of haplotype III-Asian could indicate admixture with Native American populations. The differences observed between both Uruguayan regions could be explained by microevolutionary events as genetic drift, founder effects, differential admixture, and/or distinct origin of the African slaves introduced in those regions.

  16. A Current Overview of Veterinary Medical Education in the South: A Staff Report to the Southern Regional Education Board.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA.

    The need for veterinarians and the capacity of the South for providing veterinary medical education are examined. Summarized are eight current veterinary medical education programs in the region and planned developments in education (in Kentucky, North Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, West Virginia, and Arkansas). Projected are the effects of the…

  17. Preface to the special issue on "Regional moment tensors and stress field in South and Central America"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audemard, Franck; Zahradnik, Jiri; Assumpção, Marcelo

    2016-11-01

    This special issue follows from the Symposium "Regional Moment Tensor Solutions: advances and new applications" held in Bogotá, Colombia, at the I Regional Assembly of the IASPEI's Latin American and Caribbean Seismological Commission (LACSC) in 2014. Seven papers are presented dealing with determination of moment tensors, focal mechanisms and the stress field in Central and South America. The study areas of each paper are indicated in the index Map of Fig. 1.

  18. Vegetation and floristics of a lowland tropical rainforest in northeast Australia

    PubMed Central

    Apgaua, Deborah M. G.; Campbell, Mason J; Cox, Casey J; Crayn, Darren M; Ishida, Françoise Y; Laidlaw, Melinda J; Liddell, Michael J; Seager, Michael; Laurance, Susan G. W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Full floristic data, tree demography, and biomass estimates incorporating non-tree lifeforms are seldom collected and reported for forest plots in the tropics. Established research stations serve as important repositories of such biodiversity and ecological data. With a canopy crane setup within a tropical lowland rainforest estate, the 42-ha Daintree Rainforest Observatory (DRO) in Cape Tribulation, northern Australia is a research facility of international significance. We obtained an estimate of the vascular plant species richness for the site, by surveying all vascular plant species from various mature-phase, remnant and open vegetation patches within the site. We also integrate and report the demography and basal areas of trees ≥ 10 cm diameter at breast height (dbh) in a new 1-ha core plot, an extension to the pre-existing forest 1-ha plot under the canopy crane. In addition, we report for the canopy crane plot new demography and basal areas for smaller-size shrubs and treelets subsampled from nine 20 m2 quadrats, and liana basal area and abundance from the whole plot. The DRO site has an estimated total vascular plant species richness of 441 species, of which 172 species (39%) are endemic to Australia, and 4 species are endemics to the Daintree region. The 2 x 1-ha plots contains a total of 262 vascular plant species of which 116 (1531 individuals) are tree species ≥ 10 cm dbh. We estimate a stem basal area of 34.9 m2 ha-1, of which small stems (tree saplings and shrubs <10cm dbh) and lianas collectively contribute c.4.2%. Comparing the stem density-diversity patterns of the DRO forest with other tropical rainforests globally, our meta-analysis shows that DRO forests has a comparatively high stem density and moderate species diversity, due to the influence of cyclones. These data will provide an important foundation for ecological and conservation studies in lowland tropical forest. New information We present a floristic checklist, a

  19. CMC Participation in the Regional Centre for Strategic Studies (RCSS) Workshop: Defense, Technology and Cooperative Security in South Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Biringer, K.L.; Olsen, J.

    1998-11-01

    As an ongoing part of the collaborative efforts between the Cooperative Monitoring Center (CMC) at Sandia National Laboratories, the United States Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA), and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), staff from the CMC served as faculty in conducting a workshop in Shanghai, China. Sponsor of the workshop was the Regional Centre for Strategic Studies (RCSS) based in Colombo, Sri Lanka. The workshop included participants from throughout South Asia and China. The CMC presented four sessions related to the role of monitoring technologies in promoting regional security and building confidence among nations. Participation in these workshops supports U.S. efforts to further regional cooperation and promote arms control, nonproliferation and other cooperative securily measures and supplements efforts funded by DOE and ACDA over the past four years. The RCSS Shanghai meeting permitted a continued CMC involvement in regionally conducted training for anew generation of leaders in government, the military, and academia throughout South Asia and China. Nuclear issues are clearly a dominant South Asian concern since the nuclear tests of May 1998. However, there remains a strong interest in identifying opportunities for increased trade and reduced tensions in other areas. The RCSS and other regional organizations are enthusiastic about continued CMC involvement in future regional courses.

  20. Evolution of naturally occurring 5'non-coding region variants of Hepatitis C virus in human populations of the South American region

    PubMed Central

    Moratorio, Gonzalo; Martínez, Mariela; Gutiérrez, María F; González, Katiuska; Colina, Rodney; López-Tort, Fernando; López, Lilia; Recarey, Ricardo; Schijman, Alejandro G; Moreno, María P; García-Aguirre, Laura; Manascero, Aura R; Cristina, Juan

    2007-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been the subject of intense research and clinical investigation as its major role in human disease has emerged. Previous and recent studies have suggested a diversification of type 1 HCV in the South American region. The degree of genetic variation among HCV strains circulating in Bolivia and Colombia is currently unknown. In order to get insight into these matters, we performed a phylogenetic analysis of HCV 5' non-coding region (5'NCR) sequences from strains isolated in Bolivia, Colombia and Uruguay, as well as available comparable sequences of HCV strains isolated in South America. Methods Phylogenetic tree analysis was performed using the neighbor-joining method under a matrix of genetic distances established under the Kimura-two parameter model. Signature pattern analysis, which identifies particular sites in nucleic acid alignments of variable sequences that are distinctly representative relative to a background set, was performed using the method of Korber & Myers, as implemented in the VESPA program. Prediction of RNA secondary structures was done by the method of Zuker & Turner, as implemented in the mfold program. Results Phylogenetic tree analysis of HCV strains isolated in the South American region revealed the presence of a distinct genetic lineage inside genotype 1. Signature pattern analysis revealed that the presence of this lineage is consistent with the presence of a sequence signature in the 5'NCR of HCV strains isolated in South America. Comparisons of these results with the ones found for Europe or North America revealed that this sequence signature is characteristic of the South American region. Conclusion Phylogentic analysis revealed the presence of a sequence signature in the 5'NCR of type 1 HCV strains isolated in South America. This signature is frequent enough in type 1 HCV populations circulating South America to be detected in a phylogenetic tree analysis as a distinct type 1 sub-population. The

  1. Intraseasonal Oscillations over South America: A Study with a Regional Climate Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Baode; Chao, Winston

    2003-01-01

    The National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) regional climate model version 2 (RegCM2) is used to investigate the observed characteristics of intraseasonal oscillations over South America. Our study is mainly concentrated on an intraseaonal mode, which is observed to account for a large portion of the intraseasonal variation, to have a standing feature and to be independent of the MJO. The NCEPDOE AMIP-II reanalysis is utilized to provide initial and lateral boundary conditions for the RegCM2 based upon the OOZ, 062, 122 and 182 data.Our results indicate that the intraseasonal oscillation still exists with time- averaged lateral boundary condition, which prevents the MJO and other outside disturbances from entering the model's domain, suggesting a locally forced oscillation responsible for ths intraseasonal mode independent of the MJO. Further experiments show that the annual and daily variabilities and a radiative-convective interaction are not essential to the locally forced intraseasonal oscillation. The intraseasonal oscillations over Amazon in our model essentially result from interactions among atmospheric continental- scale circulation, surface radiation, surface sensible and latent heat fluxes, and cumulus convection. The wavelet analyses of various surface energy fluxes and surface energy budget also verify that the primary cause of intraseasonal oscillation is the interaction of land surface processes with the atmosphere.

  2. e-Mental health in South Australia: impact of age, gender and region of residence.

    PubMed

    Keane, Miriam C; Roeger, Leigh S; Allison, Stephen; Reed, Richard L

    2013-01-01

    Respondents to the 2008 South Australian Health Omnibus survey (n=2996) indicated whether, in the previous 12 months, they had searched for information on the Internet relating to emotional issues such as depression, anxiety or relationship problems. Logistic regression was used to examine the penetration of e-mental health in rural and metropolitan areas (region of residence), and determine if other demographic variables (age group, gender) also impacted on the likelihood of an individual reporting that they had used the Internet to obtain such information. Overall, 9% of respondents reported that they had used the Internet for this purpose. The multivariate model was significant, F(11, 2985)=4.82, P<0.0001, with middle-aged rural females most likely to report doing so (18.1%), whereas older rural males were least likely to report doing so (2.2.%). These findings have important implications for the design of e-mental health promotional programs that provide information and interventions to improve mental health.

  3. Adult immunization with 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine in Campania region, South Italy: an economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Liguori, Giorgio; Parlato, Antonino; Zamparelli, Alessandro Sanduzzi; Belfiore, Patrizia; Gallé, Francesca; Di Onofrio, Valeria; Riganti, Carla; Zamparelli, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Pneumococcal pneumonia has a high clinical burden in terms of morbidity, mortality and hospitalization rate, with heavy implications for worldwide health systems. In particular, higher incidence and mortality rates of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) cases, with related costs, are registered among elderly. This study aimed to an economic evaluation about the immunization with PCV13 in the adult population in Campania region, South Italy. For this purpose we performed, considering a period of 5 y, a budget impact analysis (BIA) and a cost-effectiveness analysis which considered 2 scenarios of immunization compared with lack of immunization for 2 targeted cohorts: first, the high risk subjects aged 50-79 y, and second the high risk individuals aged 50-64 y, together with all those aged 65 y. Regarding the first group, the decrease of pneumonia could give savings equal to €29,005,660, while the immunization of the second cohort could allow savings equal to €10,006,017. The economic evaluation of pneumococcal vaccine for adult groups represents an essential instrument to support health policies. This study showed that both hypothesized immunization strategies could produce savings. Obtained results support the use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine for adults. This strategy could represent a sustainable and savings-producer health policy.

  4. Spatiotemporal patterns of wetland occurrence in the prairie pothole region of eastern South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kahara, S.N.; Mockler, R.M.; Higgins, K.F.; Chipps, S.R.; Johnson, R.R.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated changes in wetland abundance, size, and classification between average (19791986) and above-average (19951999) precipitation periods for two physiographic regions in eastern South Dakota. Temporal shifts in wetland numbers, area, and class varied by topographic location. In high wetland density areas (> 8 wetlands/100 ha), our data suggests that larger, semipermanent wetlands expanded and absorbed nearby wetland basins into their margins, resulting in a net "loss" or disappearance of temporary and seasonal wetlands in above-average water condition years. "Losses" described here are not deemed permanent as in cases of draining or filling, and wetlands may re-form when water conditions return to normal. Nevertheless, temporary disappearance of smaller more isolated wetlands may have implications for breeding waterfowl and other fauna. Percent change of semipermanent basin numbers was positively correlated with wetland density, whereas the opposite was true for seasonal wetlands. Loss of temporary wetlands was correlated with wetland aggregation within the sample area. However, in low wetland density areas, the number and size of seasonal and temporary wetlands generally increased following above-average precipitation. We suggest that wetlands' spatial arrangement be considered along with traditional wetland quantification techniques to better account for shifts in wetland habitat in dry versus wet years. ?? 2009 The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  5. Floristic summary of plant species in the air pollution literature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    A floristic summary and analysis was performed on a list of the plant species that have been studied for the effects of gaseous and chemical air pollutants on vegetation in order to compare the species with the flora of North America north of Mexico. The scientific names of 2081 vascular plant species were extracted from almost 4000 journal articles stored in two large literature databases on the effects of air pollutants on plants. Three quarters of the plant species studied occur in North America, but this was only 7% of the total North American flora. Sixteen percent and 56% of all North American genera and families have been studied. The most studied genus is Pinus with 70% of the North American species studied, and the most studied family is the grass family, with 12% of the species studied. Although Pinus is ranked 86th in the North American flora, the grass family is ranked third, indicating that representation at the family level is better than at the genus level. All of the top ten families in North America are represented in the top 20 families in the air pollution effects literature, but only one genus (Lupinus) in the top ten genera in North America is represented in the top thirteen genera in the air pollution literature.

  6. Floristic evolution in an agroforestry system cultivation in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luís C R; Machado, Sebastião A; Galvão, Franklin; Figueiredo, Afonso

    2016-06-07

    Bracatinga (Mimosa scabrella Bentham) is an important pioneer tree species in Ombrophylous Mixed Forest of Brazil and is widely used as an energy source. In traditional agroforestry systems, regeneration is induced by fire, then pure and dense stands known as bracatinga stands (bracatingais) are formed. In the first year, annual crops are intercalated with the seedlings. At that time the seedlings are thinned, then the stands remain at a fallow period and cut at seven years old. The species is very important mainly for small landowners. We studied the understory species that occur naturally during the succession over several years in order to manage them rationally in the future and maintain the natural vegetation over time. Three to 20 year-old Bracatinga stands were sampled between 1998 and 2011. All tree species with diameter at breast height (DBH) ≥ 5 cm were measured.The floristic evolution was assessed with respect to Sociability Index, the Shannon Diversity Index and the Pielou Evenness Index. Graphs of rank/abundance over different age groups were evaluated using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. We identified 153 species dispersed throughout the understory and tend to become aggregated over time.

  7. Development and use of a Floristic Quality Index for coastal Louisiana marshes.

    PubMed

    Cretini, Kari F; Visser, Jenneke M; Krauss, Ken W; Steyer, Gregory D

    2012-04-01

    The Floristic Quality Index (FQI) has been used as a tool for assessing the integrity of plant communities and for assessing restoration projects in many regions of the USA. Here, we develop a modified FQI (FQI(mod)) for coastal Louisiana wetlands and verify it using 12 years of monitoring data from a coastal restoration project. Plant species that occur in coastal Louisiana were assigned a coefficient of conservatism (CC) score by a local group with expertise in Louisiana coastal vegetation. Species percent cover and both native and non-native species were included in the FQI(mod) which was scaled from 0-100. The FQI(mod) scores from the long-term monitoring project demonstrated the utility of this index for assessing wetland condition over time, including its sensitivity to a hurricane. Ultimately, the FQI developed for coastal Louisiana will be used in conjunction with other wetland indices (e.g., hydrology and soils) to assess wetland condition coastwide and these indices will aid managers in coastal restoration and management decisions.

  8. [Floristic composition and distribution of the Andean subtropical riparian forests of Lules River, Tucuman, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Sirombra, Martín G; Mesa, Leticia M

    2010-03-01

    We studied the floristic composition and distribution of the riparian forest of two hydrographical systems in a subtropical Andean region. Using uni and multivariate techniques, we tested the hypotheses that a differentiable riparian forest exists, composed by native vegetation typical of the Yungas phytogeographical province, and that the distribution of vegetation varied significantly with geomorphologic characteristics. Parallel transects along the water courses were used to collect presence-absence data of vegetation in eleven sites. Detrended Correspondence Analysis defined a group of common riparian species for the studied area (Solanum riparium, Phenax laevigatus, Tipuana tipu, Cestrum parqui, Carica quercifolia, Acacia macracantha, Celtis iguanaea, Juglans australis, Pisoniella arborescens, Baccharis salicifolia, Cinnamomum porphyrium and Eugenia uniflora) and identified two reference sites. The distribution of the riparian vegetation varied significantly with the geomorphic characteristics along the studied sites. Riparian habitats were composed by native and exotic species. A distinct riparian flora, different in structure and function from adjacent terrestrial vegetation, could not be identified. Riparian species were similar to the adjacent terrestrial strata. These species would not be limited by the proximity to the river. Anthropogenic impacts were important factors regulating the introduction and increase of exotic vegetation. The lack of regulation of some activities in the zone could cause serious problems in the integrity of this ecosystem.

  9. A Database and Meta-Analysis of Ecological Responses to Flow in the South Atlantic Region

    SciTech Connect

    McManamay, Ryan A; Orth, Dr. Donald J; Davis, Dr, Mary; Kauffman, John

    2013-01-01

    Generalized and quantitative relationships between flow and ecology are pivotal to developing environmental flow standards based on socially acceptable ecological conditions. Informing management at regional scales requires compiling sufficient hydrologic and ecological sources of information, identifying information gaps, and creating a framework for hypothesis development and testing. We compiled studies of empirical and theoretical relationships between flow and ecology in the South Atlantic region (SAR) of the United States to evaluate their utility for the development of environmental flow standards. Using database searches, internet searches, and agency contacts, we gathered 186 sources of information that provided a qualitative or quantitative relationship between flow and ecology within states encompassing the SAR. A total of 109 of the 186 sources had sufficient information to support quantitative analyses. Ecological responses to natural changes in flow magnitude, frequency, and duration were highly variable regardless of the direction and magnitude of changes in flow. In contrast, the majority of ecological responses to anthropogenic-induced flow alterations were negative. Fish consistently showed negative responses to anthropogenic flow alterations whereas other ecological groups showed somewhat variable responses (e.g. macroinvertebrates and riparian vegetation) and even positive responses (e.g. algae). Fish and organic matter had sufficient sample sizes to stratify natural flow-ecology relationships by specific flow categories (e.g. high flow, baseflows) or by region (e.g. coastal plain, uplands). After stratifying relationships, we found that significant correlations existed between changes in natural flow and ecological responses. In addition, a regression tree explained 57% of the variation in fish responses to anthropogenic and natural changes in flow. Because of some ambiguity in interpreting the directionality in ecological responses, we

  10. Active tectonics of North Haji Abad (Hormozgan region) in south of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    shafiei bafti, amir

    2014-05-01

    Zagros Active Fold -thrust Belt is situated in the northern margin of the Arabian Plat and formed due to shortening, thickening and uplift of tethys sedimentary basin between Arabian and Iranian plates. In this study, the rate of uplift in the northern margin of the Zagros Mountains in southern Iran are examined. The Zagros fault zone in this region is composed of a set faults, including Deragah, Haji Abad, Tezerj and several other faults and also we call these branches from F1 to F8. These segments puts from northwest to the East- Southeast. Based on field surveys and Geological maps, we prepared a structural map from major faults of Zagros fault system for identify faults pattern and estimating of uplift rate movements in Zagros fault. Three methods used to calculation of uplift rate: A: Asymmetry index Accordance with the procedure, in studied area, northeast drainage are longer than of southwest drainage and east minor drainages also longer than the west side drainages, Uplifting in this region is characterized by mentioned asymmetry factor. The amount of this index is AF=71.81. B. Interaction between the faults movements and erosion process We comparison contrast between uplifting movement rates and erosion rates in different parts of studied region by Smf and other indexes. Average amount of Smf=1.1. C. Evaluation of Uplift rate of alluvial terraces was performed by sediment ages and terraces height. We surveyed Quaternary facieses which have ages between 17,000 and 30,000 years old. the rate of uplifting for each fault is follows : Deragah fault and F8 fault between 1.0 to 1.85mm per year and F7, F6, F5, and F4 faults, have a rate Uplifting between 0.6 to 1.0 mm per year and the rate of Uplift for other faults is between 0.04 to 0.06 mm per year. According to our studies, uplift rates in north -east and south-west more than other regions The minimum rate at different stations are about 0.5mm/y to 0.93mm/y and its maximum is 0.88 mm/y to 1.47mm/y.

  11. Seasonal and Intraseasonal Variability of Mesoscale Convective Systems over the South Asian Monsoon Region

    SciTech Connect

    Virts, Katrina S.; Houze, Robert A.

    2016-12-01

    Seasonal and intraseasonal differences in mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) over South Asia are examined using A-Train satellites, a ground-based lightning network, and reanalysis fields. Pre-monsoon (April-May) MCSs occur primarily over Bangladesh and the eastern Bay of Bengal. During the monsoon (June-September), small MCSs occur over the Meghalaya Plateau and northeast Himalayan notch, while large and connected MCSs are most widespread over the Bay of Bengal. Monsoon MCSs produce less lightning and exhibit more extensive stratiform and anvil reflectivity structures in CloudSat observations than do pre-monsoon MCSs. During the monsoon season, Bay of Bengal and Meghalaya Plateau MCSs vary with the 30-60 day northward-propagating intraseasonal oscillation, while northeast Himalayan notch MCSs are associated with weak large-scale anomalies but locally enhanced CAPE. During intraseasonal active periods, a zone of enhanced large and connected MCSs, precipitation, and lightning extends from the northeastern Arabian Sea southeast over India and the Bay of Bengal, flanked by suppressed anomalies. Spatial variability is observed within this enhancement zone: lightning is most enhanced where MCSs are less enhanced, and vice versa. Reanalysis composites indicate that Bay of Bengal MCSs are associated with monsoon depressions, which are frequent during active monsoon periods, while Meghalaya Plateau MCSs are most frequent at the end of break periods, as anomalous southwesterly winds strengthen moist advection toward the terrain. Over both regions, MCSs exhibit more extensive stratiform and anvil regions and less lightning when the large-scale environment is moister, and vice versa.

  12. Assessment of Ebola virus disease preparedness in the WHO South-East Asia Region

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Reuben; Gould, Philip; El Sakka, Hammam; Rana, Bardan J; Pinyowiwat, Vason; Bezbaruah, Supriya; Ofrin, Roderico

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To conduct assessments of Ebola virus disease preparedness in countries of the World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia Region. Methods Nine of 11 countries in the region agreed to be assessed. During February to November 2015 a joint team from WHO and ministries of health conducted 4–5 day missions to Bangladesh, Bhutan, Indonesia, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Timor-Leste. We collected information through guided discussions with senior technical leaders and visits to hospitals, laboratories and airports. We assessed each country’s Ebola virus disease preparedness on 41 tasks under nine key components adapted from the WHO Ebola preparedness checklist of January 2015. Findings Political commitment to Ebola preparedness was high in all countries. Planning was most advanced for components that had been previously planned or tested for influenza pandemics: multilevel and multisectoral coordination; multidisciplinary rapid response teams; public communication and social mobilization; drills in international airports; and training on personal protective equipment. Major vulnerabilities included inadequate risk assessment and risk communication; gaps in data management and analysis for event surveillance; and limited capacity in molecular diagnostic techniques. Many countries had limited planning for a surge of Ebola cases. Other tasks needing improvement included: advice to inbound travellers; adequate isolation rooms; appropriate infection control practices; triage systems in hospitals; laboratory diagnostic capacity; contact tracing; and danger pay to staff to ensure continuity of care. Conclusion Joint assessment and feedback about the functionality of Ebola virus preparedness systems help countries strengthen their core capacities to meet the International Health Regulations. PMID:27994284

  13. Composition and conservation of Orchidaceae on an inselberg in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and floristic relationships with areas of Eastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pessanha, Alexandre Soares; Menini Neto, Luiz; Forzza, Rafaela Campostrini; Nascimento, Marcelo Trindade

    2014-06-01

    The Brazilian Atlantic Forest presents high levels of richness and endemism of several taxonomic groups. Within this forest, the Orchidaceae may be highlighted as the richest family of Angiosperms found there, and is highly threatened due to collection and habitat destruction. The inselbergs of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest are mostly unknown regarding their floristic composition, but the available information points to occurrence of endemic species, with adaptations to survive to this dry environment. The objectives of this study were to conduct a floristic survey of the Orchidaceae species on the Maciço do Itaoca, an inselberg located in the Northern region of the State of Rio de Janeiro, make a comparative analysis with other sites in Eastern Brazil, and discuss the geographic distribution, floristic relationships and conservation status of the orchid species present on the inselbergs. The floristic composition of the study area was compared with 24 other locations in Eastern Brazil (of which 13 are inselbergs) and the influence of the types of surrounding vegetation on the composition of the Orchidaceae flora on the inselbergs. On Maciço do Itaoca we recorded 18 species from 17 genera: Brasiliorchis picta, Brassavola tuberculata, Campylocentrum robustum; C sellowii, Catasetum luridum, Cattleya guttata, Cyclopogon congestus, Cyrtopodium glutiniferum, Leptotes bicolor, Lophiaris pumila, Miltonia moreliana, Oeceoclades maculata, Phymatochilum brasiliense, Prescottia plantaginifolia, Pseudolaelia vellozicola, Sarcoglottis fasciculata, Sophronitis cernua. and Vanilla chamissonis. The highest floristic similarity was with the Pedra da Botelha (0.43), an inselberg located in the North of Espírito Santo. This result is probably due to the similarity in altitude and distance from the coast in both areas despite the geographical distance between them. Apparently, little influence is exerted by the types of surrounding vegetation on the composition of the flora of

  14. Contrasting patterns of Y-chromosome variation in South Siberian populations from Baikal and Altai-Sayan regions.

    PubMed

    Derenko, Miroslava; Malyarchuk, Boris; Denisova, Galina A; Wozniak, Marcin; Dambueva, Irina; Dorzhu, Choduraa; Luzina, Faina; Miścicka-Sliwka, Danuta; Zakharov, Ilia

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate the genetic history of autochthonous South Siberian populations and to estimate the contribution of distinct patrilineages to their gene pools, we have analyzed 17 Y-chromosomal binary markers (YAP, RPS4Y(711), SRY-8299, M89, M201, M52, M170, 12f2, M9, M20, 92R7, SRY-1532, DYS199, M173, M17, Tat, and LLY22 g) in a total sample of 1,358 males from 14 ethnic groups of Siberia (Altaians-Kizhi, Teleuts, Shors, Tuvinians, Todjins, Tofalars, Sojots, Khakassians, Buryats, Evenks), Central/Eastern Asia (Mongolians and Koreans) and Eastern Europe (Kalmyks and Russians). Based on both, the distribution pattern of Y-chromosomal haplogroups and results on AMOVA analysis we observed the statistically significant genetic differentiation between the populations of Baikal and Altai-Sayan regions. We suggest that these regional differences can be best explained by different contribution of Central/Eastern Asian and Eastern European paternal lineages into gene pools of modern South Siberians. The population of the Baikal region demonstrates the prevalence of Central/Eastern Asian lineages, whereas in the populations of Altai and Sayan regions the highest paternal contribution resulted from Eastern European descent is revealed. Yet, our data on Y-chromosome STRs variation demonstrate the clear differences between the South Siberian and Eastern European R1a1-lineages with the evolutionary ages compatible with divergence time between these two regional groups.

  15. Phytoecological evaluation with detail floristic appraisal of the vegetation arround Malam Jabba, Swat, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Rashid, Abdur; Swati, Mohammad Farooq; Sher, Hassan; Al-Yemeni, Mohammad N

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the present status of plant communities and their possible association with the habitat in Malam Jabba, Swat, Pakistan. Methods A study on the phytoecology was conducted in various ecologically important sites of Malam Jabba, Swat, Pakistan from 2002 to 2004. The altitude of these sites ranged from 1 200 m to 3 200 m. Quadrat method was used for evaluation of plants communities and the data on these attributes was converted to relative values. The plant communities were named after 3 leading species with highest importance values. Biological spectrum of the flora based on the life form was prepared by following Raunkiar's life form classes. Results The floristic composition and structure of the study area were found to be 200 species belonging to 75 families. Asteraceae, Lamiaceae and Poaceae were important families in the study area. The biological spectrum showed that therophytic and hemicrytophytic life form and micro-nonophyllous leaf sizes were dominant in the area. The air and soil temperatures were decreasing with increasing elevation. Both the air and soil temperatures were relatively higher in south slopes than on the northeast slopes. The vegetation analysis of the area indicated eleven plant communities around the area. The present vegetation is the relics of moist temperate coniferous forest in the area. The communities reflect highly deteriorated conditions. Both the structure and composition of the surrounding vegetation were associated with the types of habitats. Conclusions The conservation of the remaining populations of the reported communities will be best achieved by proper time of sustainable harvesting. It is only possible with the participation of local communities. PMID:23569814

  16. Preliminary notes about Heritage Stone Resources from Apulia region South Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeone, Vincenzo; Doglioni, Angelo

    2013-04-01

    Apulia region in south Italy is characterized by a calcareous basement of cretaceous limestone outcropping in the large Murgia highland in central Apulia and by the presence of Miocenic and Pleistocenic calcareous sandstone that historically the have been used for many buildings and architectural purpose and can be considered as part of heritage stone resources that still today are used for several building purpose. Here is presented a preliminary overview of the main kind of stone that can be properly included in the global stone resources. The main limestone stones are the Bari cretaceous limestone that have been used to build up many Apulia Romanic cathedrals as Trani Cathedral, and also many mediaeval castle as the famous Castel del Monte built by Fredric II. The most famous variety is Trani stone dug in large open quarry in the area at north of Bari. A second important stone resource is the Lecce sandstone. It is a quite homogeneous and compact Miocenic sandstone, made up by fragments of limestone and fossil carbonate with calcites cement and the presence of other substances included dispersion of clay minerals. It has a light-colored or pale yellow with tiny pink veins. It is dug in large quarries throughout the Salento peninsula in southern Apulia. It is a rock relatively soft and easily workable also due to the presence of small quantities of clay. Improves its characteristics of resistance as a result of drying. Even if it was largely used for architecture and decorative purpose it is easily degradable for effect of weathering effects. It was the base of famous monuments and decoration of Lecce Baroque in the XVIII century, including the palace of Celestine and the adjacent Santa Croce Church, the Church of Santa Chiara and the Cathedral. A third relevant heritage stone is the Gravina calcareous sandstone (Upper Pleistocene) largely outcropping along the border of Murge calcareous horst. It has been used for several historical ancient building (XVII

  17. The petrology and petrogenesis of the Swaldale region, Motzfeldt Center, South Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reekie, Callum; Finch, Adrian

    2016-04-01

    Motzfeldt is one of several high-level alkaline plutonic centers that collectively define the mid-Proterozoic Gardar Province of South Greenland. Despite pyrochlore-hosted Ta-enrichment (± Nb-Zr-REE), the petrology, geochemistry and petrogenesis across the center remain to be fully constrained. We present petrological and geochemical data for the Swaldale region, an arcuate band of nepheline syenite and associated intrusives on Motzfeldt's NW margin. Work for this present study was undertaken in collaboration with the license holder, Regency Mines plc. Swaldale comprises two geochemically distinct magmatic members. The largest, the Motzfeldt Sø Formation (MSF; EuN/Eu*N = 0.35), is a suite of diverse syenite variants that show significant petrological and geochemical heterogeneity. These rocks have a relatively restricted SiO2 range (57.4-62.9 wt.%) with concurrent variation in (Na+K)/Al (0.75-0.95), Mg/(Mg+Fe) (2.18-19.82) and ΣREE (595.0-3095.9 ppm), emphasizing their evolved but not peralkaline nature. Fractionation is mirrored by pyroxene geochemistry with evolution from aegirine-augite, aegirine-hedenbergite, to aegirine. Accessory pyrochlore, titanite, and zircon are rare; however, anomalous facies of zircon-rich (~2 wt.%) syenite are observed. Intercumulus fluorite is a common accessory within MSF rocks. Hydrothermal alteration, marked by hematized alkali-feldspar, is pervasive and ubiquitous. Further peraluminous syenite of the Geologfjeld Formation ((Na+K)/Al = 0.74; EuN/Eu*N = 1.60) marks the truncated remnant of an early syenite stock to the north of the MSF. These rocks contain salite, which, in addition to a lower ΣREE and higher Mg/(Mg+Fe) (18.01), demonstrates the less-fractionated nature of this stock in comparison with the MSF. Sheeted intrusions of peralkaline syenite ((Na+K)/Al = 1.1; Ta = 32.4 ppm) truncate the MSF across central Swaldale. On a mineralogical basis, it is hypothesized that such intrusions reflect outward sheeting of the

  18. Black carbon and trace gases over South Asia: Measurements and Regional Climate model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuyan, Pradip; Pathak, Binita; Parottil, Ajay

    2016-07-01

    Trace gases and aerosols are simulated with 50 km spatial resolution over South Asian CORDEX domain enclosing the Indian sub-continent and North-East India for the year 2012 using two regional climate models RegCM4 coupled with CLM4.5 and WRF-Chem 3.5. Both models are found to capture the seasonality in the simulated O3 and its precursors, NOx and CO and black carbon concentrations together with the meteorological variables over the Indian Subcontinent as well as over the sub-Himalayan North-Eastern region of India including Bangladesh. The model simulations are compared with the measurements made at Dibrugarh (27.3°N, 94.6°E, 111 m amsl). Both the models are found to capture the observed diurnal and seasonal variations in O3 concentrations with maximum in spring and minimum in monsoon, the correlation being better for WRF-Chem (R~0.77) than RegCM (R~0.54). Simulated NOx and CO is underestimated in all the seasons by both the models, the performance being better in the case of WRF-Chem. The observed difference may be contributed by the bias in the estimation of the O3 precursors NOx and CO in the emission inventories or the error in the simulation of the meteorological variables which influences O3 concentration in both the models. For example, in the pre-monsoon and winter season, the WRF-Chem model simulated shortwave flux overestimates the observation by ~500 Wm-2 while in the monsoon and post monsoon season, simulated shortwave flux is equivalent to the observation. The model predicts higher wind speed in all the seasons especially during night-time. In the post-monsoon and winter season, the simulated wind pattern is reverse to observation with daytime low and night-time high values. Rainfall is overestimated in all the seasons. RegCM-CLM4.5 is found to underestimate rainfall and other meteorological parameters. The WRF-Chem model closely captured the observed values of black carbon mass concentrations during pre-monsoon and summer monsoon seasons, but

  19. Perspectives on nutrition needs for the new millennium for South Asian regions.

    PubMed

    Krishnaswamy, K

    2001-06-01

    South Asia is the most populated region of the world with several nutritional challenges. Though per capita food energy supply, child survival and life expectancy have improved, and even today large segments of the population are below the poverty line with high infant and maternal mortality rates. It is important to recognize the crucial role of nutrition throughout the life cycle-from conception to old age. It is very necessary now to move from food security to nutrition security and improve the quality of foods both in macro- and micronutrients in order to break the transgenerational effects of malnutrition. The key solutions to the problems should address the issue of social development, population stabilization, environmental degradation and inadequate health and nutritional services. Strategies for empowering women and actuating community participation as sustainable programmes for human development, measures to reduce underweight and stunting in children and prevention of micronutrient malnutrition across the population are required. Enhancing food and nutrition security through innovative diversified agriculture and dietary practices, prevention and control of infection, promotion of food safety and fortification of staples with appropriate attention on emerging chronic disorders are essential. Population control measures to stabilize the fertility rates, biotechnological approaches for genetically modified foods, nutrition surveillance based on assessment, analysis and action to address the logistic, technical and compliance issues with emphasis on promotion of breast feeding and complementary foods with adequate attention on the reproductive needs of adolescent girls, pregnant mothers and lactating women would eliminate low birth weight, stunting, and chronic energy deficiency in vulnerable groups. Focused studies on bioavailability of micronutrients and its enhancement, innovative horticulture interventions, fortifications, social marketing strategies

  20. Archive of digital Boomer seismic reflection data collected during USGS Cruise 94CCT02, south-central South Carolina coastal region, August 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calderon, Karynna; Dadisman, Shawn V.; Kindinger, Jack G.; Flocks, James G.; Wiese, Dana S.

    2005-01-01

    In August of 1994, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Coastal Carolina University, conducted marine geophysical surveys in numerous water bodies adjacent to the south-central South Carolina coastal region. Data were collected aboard the MS Coastal in the Ashley, North Edisto, Wadmalaw, Dawho, South Edisto, and Ashepoo Rivers; the Wappoo, North, Steamboat, Bohicket, and Toogoodoo Creeks; Charleston Harbor; Wadmalaw Sound; Fenwick Cut; and the Atlantic Ocean from offshore Isle of Palms to Kiawah Island. This report serves as an archive of unprocessed digital boomer seismic reflection data, trackline maps, navigation files, GIS information, observers' logbooks, Field Activity Collection System (FACS) logs, and FGDC metadata. Filtered and gained digital images of the seismic profiles are also provided. The archived trace data are in standard Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG) SEG-Y format (Barry and others, 1975) and may be downloaded and processed with commercial or public domain software such as Seismic Unix (SU). Example SU processing scripts and USGS software for viewing the SEG-Y files (Zihlman, 1992) are also provided.

  1. Simulation of the annual and diurnal cycles of rainfall over South Africa by a regional climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohl, Benjamin; Rouault, Mathieu; Roy, Shouraseni Sen

    2014-10-01

    The capability of a current state-of-the-art regional climate model for simulating the diurnal and annual cycles of rainfall over a complex subtropical region is documented here. Hourly rainfall is simulated over Southern Africa for 1998-2006 by the non-hydrostatic model weather research and forecasting (WRF), and compared to a network of 103 stations covering South Africa. We used five simulations, four of which consist of different parameterizations for atmospheric convection at a 0.5 × 0.5° resolution, performed to test the physic-dependency of the results. The fifth experiment uses explicit convection over tropical South Africa at a 1/30° resolution. WRF simulates realistic mean rainfall fields, albeit wet biases over tropical Africa. The model mean biases are strongly modulated by the convective scheme used for the simulations. The annual cycle of rainfall is well simulated over South Africa, mostly influenced by tropical summer rainfall except in the Western Cape region experiencing winter rainfall. The diurnal cycle shows a timing bias, with atmospheric convection occurring too early in the afternoon, and causing too abundant rainfall. This result, particularly true in summer over the northeastern part of the country, is weakly physic-dependent. Cloud-resolving simulations do not clearly reduce the diurnal cycle biases. In the end, the rainfall overestimations appear to be mostly imputable to the afternoon hours of the austral summer rainy season, i.e., the periods during which convective activity is intense over the region.

  2. Bayesian coalescent analysis of pandemic H1N1 influenza A virus circulating in the South American region.

    PubMed

    Goñi, Natalia; Moratorio, Gonzalo; Coppola, Leticia; Ramas, Viviana; Comas, Victoria; Soñora, Martin; Chiparelli, Hector; Cristina, Juan

    2012-12-01

    The first influenza pandemic of this century was declared in April of 2009, with the emergence of a novel H1N1 influenza A virus strain (H1N1pdm). Understanding the evolution of H1N1pdm populations within the South American region is essential for studying global diversification, emergence, resistance and vaccine efficacy. In order to gain insight into these matters, we have performed a Bayesian coalescent Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis of hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) gene sequences of all available and comparable HA and NA sequences obtained from H1N1pdm IAV circulating in the South American region. High evolutionary rates and fast population growths characterize the population dynamics of H1N1pdm strains in this region of the world. A significant contribution of first codon position to the mean evolutionary rate was found for both genes studied, revealing a high contribution of non-synonymous substitutions to the mean substitution rate. In the 178days period covered by these studies, substitutions in all HA epitope regions can be observed. HA substitutions D239G/N and Q310H have been observed only in Brazilian patients. While substitution D239G/N is not particularly associated to a specific genetic lineage, all strains bearing substitution Q310H were assigned to clade 6, suggesting a founder effect. None of the substitutions found in the NA proteins of H1N1pdm strains isolated in South America appears sufficiently close to affect the drug binding pocket for the three NA inhibitor antivirals tested. A more detailed analysis of NA proteins revealed epitope differences among 2010 vaccine and H1N1pdm IAV strains circulating in the South American region.

  3. The South: Birmingham Case Study, and The South as a Region. Grade Five (Unit IV). Resource Unit. Project Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.

    A case study on Birmingham is presented in the first part of this resource unit on regional studies designed for fifth graders. The objective of the sequent occupance unit is to illustrate the impact which the discovery and utilization of a large natural resource, namely, iron ore, can have on the development of a city, in the hope that students…

  4. Intraseasonal Variability of the South Asian Summer Monsoon: Present-day Simulations with the Regional Atmospheric Model HIRHAM5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanf, F. S.; Rinke, A.; Dethloff, K.

    2014-12-01

    Since 1950, observations show a robust negative trend of the seasonal rainfall associated with the South Asian summer monsoon over India coinciding with a continuous decrease in surface solar radiation ("dimming") over South Asia due to an increase of local aerosol emissions. On the intraseasonal timescale the summer monsoon fluctuates between periods of enhanced and reduced rainfall. The frequency of occurrence of these active and breaks monsoon phases affects directly the seasonal monsoon rainfall. This study investigates the regional pattern and changes of the South Asian monsoon for the period 1979-2012 using the regional atmospheric model HIRHAM5 with a horizontal resolution of 0.25° forced at the lateral and lower boundaries with ERA-Interim reanalysis data. Despite the dry bias in the mean summer monsoon rainfall over the Indian landmass, the simulated temperature and atmospheric circulation patterns are in agreement with the ERA-Interim reanalysis indicating a realistic representation of important dynamical summer monsoon features. In addition, mechanisms which controls active and break phases within the summer monsoon season are analyzed using daily outgoing longwave radiation model data as an identification tool of monsoon breaks as proposed by Krishnan et al. (2000). Model results reveal an increasing trend of the cumulative monsoon break days of around 1.4 days per year during the last 30 years. The possible link between this increasing of cumulative monsoon break days and the observed decrease of seasonal South Asian monsoon rainfall will be the scope of further investigations.

  5. The Last Glacial Maximum and Termination in the Torres del Paine Region, Southern South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, J.; Hall, B. L.; Kaplan, M. R.; Vega, R. M.; Binnie, S.; Gómez, G.; Santana, F.

    2012-12-01

    Deciphering the timing, structure and termination of the local last glacial maximum (LGM) throughout Patagonia (42-55 S) remains one of the key unsolved paleoclimate questions in Quaternary sciences. During the last glaciation, the Patagonian ice sheet formed one ice body along the Patagonian Andes (42-55 S) in southern South America, but previous work has revealed different spatiotemporal ice dynamics along the eastern and western ice margins. The Patagonian Andes is the only landmass that exists at this latitude confronting the southern westerly wind belt, which seems to have played a key role in past glacial and climate changes. Therefore, reconstructing southern Andes glacier history constitutes a key element for understanding the causes of glaciations in the Southern Hemisphere. Major progress has been made to document the local Late-Pleistocene glacier history, particularly in response to recent application of exposure-cosmogenic dating technique in the region, although only sparse well-dated paleoclimate records exist in this vast area. LGM moraine-based records in south Patagonia (~48-55 S) have been developed for the Strait of Magellan area, where full glacial conditions seems to have occurred between ~28.0 - 17.5 ka. Despite that these data seem to confirm previous glacial chronologies developed in north Patagonia and the Chilean Lake District (40-42 S), recent works in Torres del Paine and Última Esperanza basins (50-51 S), suggest that glacial maximum conditions may have occurred earlier (i.e., during Marine Isotope Stage 3) and that ice extent could have been twice the size of previously thought. Here, we discuss paleoclimatological implications from our 10Be and 26Al-dating program of moraines in the Torres del Paine region in southern Patagonia. We focused our efforts in the previously undated Río de las Viscachas (RV) I and II moraines, which occur distal to the late-glacial TDP II, III and IV moraines that enclose present lake bodies at the

  6. 3D Airborne Electromagnetic Inversion: A case study from the Musgrave Region, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, L. H.; Wilson, G. A.; Zhdanov, M. S.; Sunwall, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    Geophysicists know and accept that geology is inherently 3D, and is resultant from complex, overlapping processes related to genesis, metamorphism, deformation, alteration, weathering, and/or hydrogeology. Yet, the geophysics community has long relied on qualitative analysis, conductivity depth imaging (CDIs), 1D inversion, and/or plate modeling. There are many reasons for this deficiency, not the least of which has been the lack of capacity for historic 3D AEM inversion algorithms to invert entire surveys so as to practically affect exploration decisions. Our recent introduction of a moving sensitivity domain (footprint) methodology has been a paradigm shift in AEM interpretation. The basis of this method is that one needs only to calculate the responses and sensitivities for that part of the 3D earth model that is within the AEM system's sensitivity domain (footprint), and then superimpose all sensitivity domains into a single, sparse sensitivity matrix for the entire 3D earth model which is then updated in a regularized inversion scheme. This has made it practical to rigorously invert entire surveys with thousands of line kilometers of AEM data to mega-cell 3D models in hours using multi-processor workstations. Since 2010, over eighty individual projects have been completed for Aerodat, AEROTEM, DIGHEM, GEOTEM, HELITEM, HoisTEM, MEGATEM, RepTEM, RESOLVE, SkyTEM, SPECTREM, TEMPEST, and VTEM data from Australia, Brazil, Canada, Finland, Ghana, Peru, Tanzania, the US, and Zambia. Examples of 3D AEM inversion have been published for a variety of applications, including mineral exploration, oil sands exploration, salinity, permafrost, and bathymetry mapping. In this paper, we present a comparison of 3D inversions for SkyTEM, SPECTREM, TEMPET and VTEM data acquired over the same area in the Musgrave region of South Australia for exploration under cover.

  7. Quantitative studies of the Martian south polar region using spacecraft images

    SciTech Connect

    Herkenhoff, K.E.

    1989-01-01

    Mariner 9 images were processed for comparison with nearly simultaneous infrared spectra of the south polar cap of Mars. Combined analysis of these observations indicates that the southern residual cap was covered by carbon dioxide frost throughout the summer of 1971-72. Five color/albedo units have been recognized and mapped in the southern layered deposits on Mars. Shadow brightnesses were measured and modeled in order to correct for the effects of atmospheric scattering and quantify the albedo and color of the surface. The layered deposits appear to be mantled by red dust, except where eolian stripping has exposed the darker, less red underlying bedrock. Frost and bare ground are mixed below the resolution of the images in many areas, some of which appear to be younger than the surrounding layered terrain. The available observational data suggest that the layered deposits are composed of bright dust, water ice, and a small amount of dark material. Weathering of the layered deposits by sublimation of water ice can account for the data presented here and previous observations of the north polar deposits. The non-volatile component of the layered deposits appears to consist mainly of bright red dust, with small amounts of dark dust or sand. Dark dust, perhaps similar to the magnetic material found at the Viking Lander sites, may preferentially form filamentary residue particle upon weathering of the deposits. Once eroded, these particles may saltate to form the dark dunes found in both polar regions. Eventual destruction of the particle could allow recycling of the dark dust into the layered deposits via atmospheric suspension.

  8. Determining the optimal fluoride concentration in drinking water for fluoride endemic regions in South India.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, Gopalan; Jaswanth, A; Gopalakrishnan, S; Siva Ilango, S; Aditya, G

    2009-10-01

    Fluoride ion in drinking water is known for both beneficial and detrimental effects on health. The prevalence of fluorosis is mainly due to the intake of large quantities of fluoride through drinking water owing to more than 90% bioavailability. The objective of this study is to predict optimal fluoride level in drinking water for fluoride endemic regions by comprising the levels of fluoride and other water quality parameters in drinking water, prevalence of fluorosis, fluoride intake through water, food and beverages such as tea and coffee and also considering the progressive accumulation of fluoride in animal bones, by comparing with non fluoride endemic areas comprise of the same geological features with the aid of regression analysis. Result of this study shows that increase of fluoride level above 1.33 mg/l in drinking water increases the community fluorosis index (CFI) value more than 0.6, an optimum index value above which fluorosis is considered to be a public health problem. Regression plot between water fluoride and bone fluoride levels indicates that, every increase of 0.5mg/l unit of water fluoride level increases the bone fluoride level of 52 mg/kg unit within 2 to 3 years. Furthermore, the consumption of drinking water containing more than 0.65 mg/l of fluoride can raise the total fluoride intake per day more than 4 mg, which is the optimum fluoride dose level recommended for adults by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. From the result, the people in fluoride endemic areas in South India are advised to consume drinking water with fluoride level within the limit of 0.5 to 0.65 mg/l to avoid further fluorosis risk.

  9. EDs in the Midwest and South activate disaster plans as deadly tornadoes sweep through the region.

    PubMed

    2012-05-01

    Hospitals in the Midwest and South activated their disaster plans in early March to deal with a phalanx of powerful tornadoes that leveled several small towns and killed at least two dozen people. Some hospitals had to activate plans for both internal and external disasters as their own facilities were threatened. One small critical-access hospital in West Liberty, KY, sustained significant damage and had to evacuate its patients to another facility. All the hospitals credit their disaster plans and practice drills with helping them to manage the crisis as efficiently as possible. Morgan County ARH Hospital in West Liberty, KY, went for several days without an operational lab or radiology department, but staff kept the ED open for absolute emergencies. Margaret Mary Community Hospital (MMCH) in Batesville, IN, received six tornado victims, but it was prepared for many more. Administrators credit advanced warning of the storms with helping them to prepare effectively, as well as to coordinate their response with other hospitals in the area. As a level 1 trauma center, the University of Louisville Hospital in Louisville, KY, received all the most seriously injured patients in the region, even while the facility itself was under a tornado warning. Staff had to route families away from the glassed-in waiting room to the basement until the tornado warning had passed. At one point during the crisis, there were 90 patients in the hospital's ED even though the department is only equipped with 29 beds. Administrators at Huntsville Hospital in Huntsville, AL, encouraged colleagues to take advantage of smaller-scale emergencies to activate parts of their disaster plans, and to focus disaster preparation drills on their hospital's top hazard vulnerabilities.

  10. Does the invasive species Ailanthus altissima threaten floristic diversity of temperate peri-urban forests?

    PubMed

    Motard, Eric; Muratet, Audrey; Clair-Maczulajtys, Danielle; Machon, Nathalie

    2011-12-01

    We examined the influence of the invasive species Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle on the understory of the Fontainebleau forest, a peri-urban forest of Paris (France), by comparing invaded versus control plots. We performed floristic inventories in fixed plots around the base of A. altissima vs native trees in different habitat types of the forest. Our findings suggest that the understory vegetation is significantly poorer and more common under A. altissima than under the other tree species and that the floristic composition is significantly different. Furthermore, the number of A. altissima root suckers growing in the plots was significantly negatively correlated with floristic richness. This effect can be attributed to both interspecific competition and allelopathic properties of A. altissima. These results give an estimate of the threat to biodiversity ascribed to A. altissima in the Fontainebleau forest.

  11. Magmatic evolution of the Easter microplate-Crough Seamount region (South East Pacific)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hekinian, R.; Stoffers, P.; Akermand, D.; Binard, N.; Francheteau, Jean; Devey, C.; Garbe-Schonberg, D.

    1995-01-01

    The Easter microplate-Crough Seamount region located between 25?? S-116?? W and 25?? S-122?? W consists of a chain of seamounts forming isolated volcanoes and elongated (100-200 km in length) en echelon volcanic ridges oriented obliquely NE (N 065??), to the present day general spreading direction (N 100??) of the Pacific-Nazca plates. The extension of this seamount chain into the southwestern edge of the Easter microplate near 26??30??? S-115?? W was surveyed and sampled. The southern boundary including the Orongo fracture zone and other shallow ridges ( 0.25) MORBs which are similar in composition to other more recent basalts from the Southwest and East Rifts spreading axes of the Easter microplate. Incompatible element ratios normalized to chondrite values [(Ce/Yb)N = 1-2.5}, {(La/Sm)N = 0.4-1.2} and {(Zr/Y)N = 0.7-2.5} of the basalts are also similar to present day volcanism found in the Easter microplate. The volcanics from the Easter microplate-Crough region are unrelated to other known South Pacific intraplate magmatism (i.e. Society, Pitcairn, and Salas y Gomez Islands). Instead their range in incompatible element ratios is comparable to the submarine basalts from the recently investigated Ahu and Umu volcanic field (Easter hotspot) (Scientific Party SO80, 1993) and centered at about 80 km west of Easter Island. The oblique ridges and their associated seamounts are likely to represent ancient leaky transform faults created during the initial stage of the Easter microplate formation (??? 5 Ma). It appears that volcanic activity on seamounts overlying the oblique volcanic ridges has continued during their westward drift from the microplate as shown by the presence of relatively fresh lava observed on one of these structures, namely the first Oblique Volcanic Ridge near 25?? S-118?? W at about 160 km west of the Easter microplate West Rift. Based on a reconstruction of the Easter microplate, it is suggested that the Crough seamount (< 800 m depth) was formed

  12. Regional earthquake loss estimation in the Autonomous Province of Bolzano - South Tyrol (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huttenlau, Matthias; Winter, Benjamin

    2013-04-01

    Beside storm events geophysical events cause a majority of natural hazard losses on a global scale. However, in alpine regions with a moderate earthquake risk potential like in the study area and thereupon connected consequences on the collective memory this source of risk is often neglected in contrast to gravitational and hydrological hazards processes. In this context, the comparative analysis of potential disasters and emergencies on a national level in Switzerland (Katarisk study) has shown that earthquakes are the most serious source of risk in general. In order to estimate the potential losses of earthquake events for different return periods and loss dimensions of extreme events the following study was conducted in the Autonomous Province of Bolzano - South Tyrol (Italy). The applied methodology follows the generally accepted risk concept based on the risk components hazard, elements at risk and vulnerability, whereby risk is not defined holistically (direct, indirect, tangible and intangible) but with the risk category losses on buildings and inventory as a general risk proxy. The hazard analysis is based on a regional macroseismic scenario approach. Thereby, the settlement centre of each community (116 communities) is defined as potential epicentre. For each epicentre four different epicentral scenarios (return periods of 98, 475, 975 and 2475 years) are calculated based on the simple but approved and generally accepted attenuation law according to Sponheuer (1960). The relevant input parameters to calculate the epicentral scenarios are (i) the macroseismic intensity and (ii) the focal depth. The considered macroseismic intensities are based on a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) of the Italian earthquake catalogue on a community level (Dipartimento della Protezione Civile). The relevant focal depth are considered as a mean within a defined buffer of the focal depths of the harmonized earthquake catalogues of Italy and Switzerland as well as

  13. 40 CFR 81.166 - South Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Bernardino Base and Meridian; then south and east along the boundary of the Las Cruces Land Grant to the southwest corner of partial sec. 22, T. 5 N., R. 32 W.; then northeast along the Las Cruces Land...

  14. Region 4: South Carolina Adequate Letter and Response to Comments (6/21/2012)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This May 25, 2012 letter from EPA approves South Carolina's reasonable further progress (RFP) plan including the motor vehicle emission budget (MVEB) for volatile organic compounds (VOC) and EPA's response to comments received on the adequacy notification

  15. 77 FR 38509 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; South Carolina; Regional Haze State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... condensables (primarily sulfuric acid mist) (see Appendix H.6 of South Carolina's December 17, 2007, SIP... mortality in humans and contributes to environmental effects such as acid deposition and eutrophication....

  16. Region 9: California South Coast Adequate Letter (4/18/2003)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a letter from Jack Broadbent, Director, to Catherine Witherspoon regarding the motor vehicle emissions budgets in the particulate matter (PM-10) progress and attainment plan and motor vehicle emissions budgets for the South Coast.

  17. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Cook Inlet region, south-central Alaska, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, Richard G.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Houseknecht, David W.; Klett, Timothy R.; Lewis, Kristen A.; Lillis, Paul G.; Nelson, Philip H.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Potter, Christopher J.; Rouse, William A.; Saltus, Richard W.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Shah, Anjana K.; Valin, Zenon C.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed a new assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources in the Cook Inlet region of south-central Alaska. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimates that mean undiscovered volumes of nearly 600 million barrels of oil, about 19 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 46 million barrels of natural gas liquids remain to be found in this area.

  18. Seismicity of the Earth 1900-2013, seismotectonics of South America (Nazca Plate Region)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, Gavin P.; Smoczyk, Gregory M.; Benz, Harley M.; Furlong, Kevin P.; Villaseñor, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The South American arc extends over 7,000 kilometers (km), from the Chilean margin triple junction offshore of southern Chile, to its intersection with the Panama fracture zone, offshore of the southern coast of Panama in Central America. It marks the plate boundary between the subducting Nazca plate and the South America plate, where the oceanic crust and lithosphere of the Nazca plate begin their descent into the mantle beneath South America. The convergence associated with this subduction process is responsible for the uplift of the Andes Mountains, and for the active volcanic chain present along much of this deformation front. Relative to a fixed South America plate, the Nazca plate moves slightly north of eastwards at a rate varying from approximately 80 millimeters/year (mm/yr) in the south, to approximately 65 mm/yr in the north. Although the rate of subduction varies little along the entire arc, there are complex changes in the geologic processes along the subduction zone that dramatically influence volcanic activity, crustal deformation, earthquake generation and occurrence all along the western edge of South America.

  19. The seed plant flora of the Mount Jinggangshan region, southeastern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Liao, Wenbo; Chen, Chunquan; Fan, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    . Mount Jinggangshan region is an important north-south floristic passageway and is also a boundary between the floras of eastern, central and south China.

  20. The Seed Plant Flora of the Mount Jinggangshan Region, Southeastern China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Liao, Wenbo; Chen, Chunquan; Fan, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    China. Mount Jinggangshan region is an important north-south floristic passageway and is also a boundary between the floras of eastern, central and south China. PMID:24098732

  1. Implications of high species turnover on the south-western Australian sandplains

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Neil; Prober, Suzanne; Meissner, Rachel; van Leeuwen, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Species turnover and its components related to replacement and nestedness form a significant element of diversity that is historically poorly accounted for in conservation planning. To inform biodiversity conservation and contribute to a broader understanding of patterns in species turnover, we undertook a floristic survey of 160 plots along an 870 km transect across oligotrophic sandplains, extending from the mesic south coast to the arid interior of south-western Australia. A nested survey design was employed to sample distances along the transect as evenly as possible. Species turnover was correlated with geographic distance at both regional and local scales, consistent with dispersal limitation being a significant driver of species turnover. When controlled for species richness, species replacement was found to be the dominant component of species turnover and was uniformly high across the transect, uncorrelated with either climatic or edaphic factors. This high replacement rate, well documented in the mega-diverse south-west, appears to also be a consistent feature of arid zone vegetation systems despite a decrease in overall species richness. Species turnover increased rapidly with increasing extent along the transect reaching an asymptote at ca. 50 km. These findings are consistent with earlier work in sandplain and mallee vegetation in the south-west and suggests reserve based conservation strategies are unlikely to be practicable in the south-western Australia sandplains when communities are defined by species incidence rather than dominance. PMID:28245232

  2. Land use and land cover change impacts on the regional climate of non-Amazonian South America: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, Alvaro; Baldi, Germán; Hirota, Marina; Syktus, Jozef; McAlpine, Clive

    2015-05-01

    Land use and land cover change (LUCC) affects regional climate through modifications in the water balance and energy budget. These impacts are frequently expressed by: changes in the amount and frequency of precipitation and alteration of surface temperatures. In South America, most of the studies of the effects of LUCC on the local and regional climate have focused on the Amazon region (54 studies), whereas LUCC within non-Amazonian regions have been largely undermined regardless their potential importance in regulating the regional climate (19 studies). We estimated that 3.6 million km2 of the original natural vegetation cover in non-Amazonian South America were converted into other types of land use, which is about 4 times greater than the historical Amazon deforestation. Moreover, there is evidence showing that LUCC within such fairly neglected ecosystems cause significant reductions in precipitation and increases in surface temperatures, with occasional impacts affecting neighboring or remote areas. We explore the implications of these findings in the context of water security, climatic extremes and future research priorities.

  3. [The effect of forest exploitation on structure, diversity, and floristic composition of palmito-dominated Atlantic forests at Misiones, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Chediack, Sandra E

    2008-06-01

    The effect of forest exploitation--timber and palmito (Euterpe edulis, Palmae) extraction--on structure, diversity, and floristic composition of forests known as palmitals of the Atlantic Forest of Argentina was analyzed. These palmitals are located in Misiones (54 degrees 13' W and 25 degrees 41' S). Three 1 ha permanent plots were established: two in the "intangible" zone of the Iguazu National Park (PNI), and another in an exploited forest site bordering the PNI. Three 0.2 ha non-permanent plots were also measured. One was located in the PNI reserve zone where illegal palmito extraction occurs. The other two were in logged forest. All trees and palmitos with DBH >10 cm were identified and DBH and height were measured. For each of the six sites, richness and diversity of tree species, floristic composition, number of endemic species, and density of harvestable tree species were estimated. The harvest of E. edulis increases density of other tree species, diminishing palmito density. Forest explotation (logging and palmito harvest) is accompanied by an increase in diversity and density of heliophilic species, which have greater timber value in the region. However, this explotation also diminishes the density of palmito, of endemic species which normally grow in low densities, and of species found on the IUCN Red List. Results suggest that forest structure may be managed for timber and palmito production. The "intangible" zone of the PNI has the greatest conservation value in the Atlantic Forest, since a greater number of endemisms and endangered species are found here.

  4. A GCM investigation of dust aerosol impact on the regional climate of North Africa and South/East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Y.; Xue, Y.; De Sales, F.; Liou, K. N.

    2016-04-01

    The climatic effects of dust aerosols in North Africa and South/East Asia have been investigated using an atmospheric general circulation model, NCEP/GCM/SSiB (Simplified Simple Biosphere Model) and the three-dimensional aerosol data simulated by the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model. GCM simulations show that due to the scattering and absorption of solar radiation by dust particles, surface temperature decreases over both regions, accompanied by a reduced sensible heat flux. However, precipitation responses are different in these two regions. Due to differences in dust location and the associated heating with respect to the rainfall band and circulation, the effect of dust could either enhance or suppress precipitation. Over the North Africa region where dust particles are mainly located to the north of rainfall band, heating of the air column by dust particles forces a stronger ascent motion over dust layers, which induces an anomalous subsidence (or a weakened upward motion) and suppressed cyclonic circulation to its south where precipitation reduces. Furthermore, both humidity and cloud decrease due to the heating in the middle troposphere (semi-direct effect). In South/East Asia, dust particles are located in the upper troposphere over the major rainfall band during the monsoon season, especially Southwest India and the coastal area of Bay of Bengal. Heating of the air column increases upward motion and strengthens cyclonic circulation. Humidity also increases due to the draw-in of the low level moist air. Therefore, cloud and precipitation increase over South/East Asia associated with dust effect. During the pre-monsoon season, when dust particles are located to the north of the monsoon rainfall band, the heating effect results in shifting precipitation northward. The heating of air column due to dust particles, not surface cooling, plays the major role in precipitation changes. The anomalous upward motion over dust regions will

  5. The Great Karoo region of South Africa: A carbon source or sink?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus; Greenwood, Philip; Kuhn, Brigitte; Boardman, John; Foster, Ian; Meadows, Mike

    2014-05-01

    Work undertaken in the seasonally arid upland areas of the Great Karoo region of South Africa has established a link between land degradation and overgrazing that began approximately 200 years ago when European farmers first settled the area. In response to changing land use, coupled with shifting rainfall patterns, parts of the landscape are now characterised by badlands on footslopes of valley-sides and complex gully systems on valley floors. Limited precipitation and agricultural intensification, particularly from around the 1920s onwards, resulted in a growing demand for water, and led to the construction of many small reservoirs, most of which are now in-filled with sediment. Whilst the deposited material has provided a means of linking catchment-scale responses to land use changes over the last ca. 100 years, the influence of land degradation on erosion and deposition of soil-associated carbon (C) has received only limited attention. Despite a reversion to extensive agriculture and reduced livestock densities in certain areas, limited vegetation regrowth suggests that soil rehabilitation will be a long-term process. This communication presents preliminary results from an investigation to determine whether land degradation in the Karoo has resulted in a shift from a net sink of C to a net source of C. Sediment deposits from a silted-up reservoir in a small dry valley system was analysed for varying physicochemical parameters. Total Carbon (TC) content was recorded and the sharp decrease in total C content with decreasing depth suggests that land degradation during and after post-European settlement probably led to accelerated erosion of the relatively fertile surface soils, and this presumably resulted in the rapid in-filling of reservoirs with carbon-rich surface material. Overall, the results indicate a sharp decline in soil organic matter (SOM) of eroded material, presumably as a consequence of land degradation. This suggests that in landscapes such as the

  6. Characterization of HIV type 1 envelope sequence among viral isolates circulating in the northern region of Colombia, South America.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, José-Luis; Gutiérrez, Jaime; Palacio, Lucy; Peñuela, Martha; Hernández, Robin; Lemay, Guy; Cervantes-Acosta, Guillermo

    2012-12-01

    To characterize human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) strains circulating in the Northern region of Colombia in South America, sequences of the viral envelope C2V3C3 region were obtained from patients with different high-risk practices. Close to 60% of the sequences were predicted to belong to macrophage-tropic viruses, according to the positions of acidic amino acids and putative N-linked glycosylation sites. This is in agreement with the fact that most of the patients were recently diagnosed individuals. Phylogenic analysis then allowed assignment of all 35 samples to subtype B viruses. This same subtype was found in previous studies carried out in other Colombian regions. This study thus expands previous analyses with previously missing data from the Northern region of the country. The number and the length of the sequences examined also help to provide a clearer picture of the prevailing situation of the present HIV epidemics in this country.

  7. Topography of the South Polar Cap and Layered Deposits of Mars: Viking Stereo Grametry at Regional and Local Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenk, P.; Moore, J.; Stoker, C.

    1998-01-01

    Layered deposits and residual polar caps on Mars may record the deposition of ice and sediment modulated by periodic climate change. Topographic information relating to layer thicknesses, erosional processes, and formation of dark spirals within these deposits has been sparce or unreliable until the arrival of MOLA in orbit in September 1997. To assist in evaluating these terrains prior to launch and to assess formation and erosion processes in the polar deposits, we have assembled Viking stereo mosaics of the region and have produced the first reliable DEM models of the south polar deposits using automated stereogrammetry tools. Here we report our preliminary topographic results, pending final image pointing updates. The maximum total thickness of the layered deposits in the south polar region is 2.5 km. The thick layered deposits consist of a series of megaterraces. Each terrace is several tens of kilometers wide and is flat or slopes very gently toward the pole. These terraces step downward from a central plateau near the south pole. Terraces are bounded by relatively steep scarps 100-500 meters high that face toward the equator. These scarps correspond to the pattern of dark spirals observed within the residual cap in southern summer, and are interpreted as ice or frost-free surfaces warmed by solar insolation. Several tongue-shaped troughs, with rounded cirquelike heads, are observed near the margins of the deposit. These troughs are 300-600 meters in deep and may be similar to troughs observed in the northern polar deposit.

  8. Hydraulic properties and scale effects investigation in regional rock aquifers, south-western Quebec, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastev, M.; Savard, M. M.; Lapcevic, P.; Lefebvre, R.; Martel, R.

    This paper reports on the characterization of hydraulic properties of regional rock aquifers carried out within a groundwater resources assessment project in the St. Lawrence Lowlands of south-western Quebec. To understand the aquifer behavior at both the fracture level and at field scale, hydraulic investigations were carried out using various aquifer tests. The groundwater flow at the local scale is controlled mostly by the fracture system. Results of the constant-head injection tests show a weak decreasing trend of hydraulic conductivity with depth indicating that a major part of the groundwater flow occurs in the first meters of the rock sequence. At the regional scale, the equivalent porous media approach is applicable. The hydraulic conductivity measurements were correlated to the scale of the aquifer tests expressed with the investigated aquifer volume. A simple interpolation procedure for the hydraulic conductivity field was developed based on the distance between field measurements and the tested aquifer volumes. The regional distribution of the hydraulic conductivity for the major fractured aquifer units indicates that dolostone is the most permeable whereas sandstone and crystalline rocks are the least permeable units. Este artículo trata de la caracterización de las propiedades hidráulicas en acuíferos regionales rocosos, la cual se llevó a cabo dentro del proyecto de evaluación de los recursos de agua subterránea en St. Lawrence Lowlands al suroeste de Quebec. Para entender el comportamiento del acuífero tanto a nivel de fractura como a escala del campo, se ejecutaron investigaciones hidráulicas usando varias pruebas de acuífero. El flujo del agua subterránea a escala local está controlado principalmente por el sistema de fracturas. Los resultados de las pruebas de inyección con cabeza constante muestran una tendencia decreciente débil de la conductividad hidráulica con la profundidad, indicando que la mayor parte del flujo de agua

  9. [Characteristics of heat resource in mountainous region of northern Guangdong, South China based on three-dimensional climate observation].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Wang, Chun-Lin; Chen, Xin-Guang; Chen, Hui-Hua

    2013-09-01

    Based on the 2009-2011 daily air temperature observation data from 11 automatic weather stations in the mountainous region of northern Guangdong, this paper calculated the heat factors in the region, including the beginning date of 10 degrees C, the ending date of 15 degrees C, the duration days of 10-15 degrees C, the accumulated temperature above 10 degrees C, the days of minimum temperature below 5 degrees C, and the mean monthly temperature, with the linear regression model of the heat factors and latitude established. In 2009-2011, the heat factors in the region had significant correlations with latitude, and the heat resource at the same latitudes differed apparently between south and north slopes. With the increase of latitude, the beginning date of 10 degrees C delayed, the ending date of 10 degrees C advanced, and the duration days of 10-15 degrees C, the accumulated temperature above 10 degrees C, the days of temperature above 10 degrees C, and the mean annual air temperature decreased. The vertical variation rates of the heat factors were larger on south slope than on north slope. The results of this study could be used for fitting the vertical distribution of heat resource in the areas with no weather station, and provide basis for the fine regionalization of agricultural climate.

  10. Successes and challenges of north-south partnerships - key lessons from the African/Asian Regional Capacity Development projects.

    PubMed

    Färnman, Rosanna; Diwan, Vishal; Zwarenstein, Merrick; Atkins, Salla

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Increasing efforts are being made globally on capacity building. North-south research partnerships have contributed significantly to enhancing the research capacity in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) over the past few decades; however, a lack of skilled researchers to inform health policy development persists, particularly in LMICs. The EU FP7 funded African/Asian Regional Capacity Development (ARCADE) projects were multi-partner consortia aimed to develop a new generation of highly trained researchers from universities across the globe, focusing on global health-related subjects: health systems and services research and research on social determinants of health. This article aims to outline the successes, challenges and lessons learned from the life course of the projects, focusing on the key outputs and experiences of developing and implementing these two projects together with sub-Saharan African, Asian and European institution partners. Design Sixteen participants from 12 partner institutions were interviewed. The data were analysed using thematic content analysis, which resulted in four themes and three sub-categories. These data were complemented by a review of project reports. Results The results indicated that the ARCADE projects have been successful in developing and delivering courses, and have reached over 920 postgraduate students. Some partners thought the north-south and south-south partnerships that evolved during the project were the main achievement. However, others found there to be a 'north-south divide' in certain aspects. Challenges included technical constraints and quality assurance. Additionally, adapting new teaching and learning methods into current university systems was challenging, combined with not being able to award students with credits for their degrees. Conclusion The ARCADE projects were introduced as an innovative and ambitious project idea, although not designed appropriately for all partner institutions

  11. An Exploration of Public Attitudes Toward LGBTI Rights in the Gauteng City-Region of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mahomed, Faraaz; Trangoš, Guy

    2016-10-01

    South Africa's legal framework on the rights of sexual minorities is one of the most progressive in the world. Despite this, discrimination and violence against gay and lesbian people continues to be a challenge. Using large-scale survey data gathered in the Gauteng City-Region, this study examines public attitudes related to homosexuality. Most respondents to the survey felt that sexual minorities should have equal rights. However, a considerable proportion of respondents also held negative views toward gay and lesbian individuals, with close to two fifths of respondents believing that homosexuality is against the values of their community, and over 12% of participants holding the view that it is acceptable to be violent toward gays and lesbians. Further analysis also consists of an examination of responses cross-tabulated with the variables of race, gender, age, and education, revealing that younger, well-educated South Africans tend to be the most tolerant, but also exhibiting large variances in attitudes within groups.

  12. Intraspecific diversity in Sinningia speciosa (Gesneriaceae: Sinningieae), and possible origins of the cultivated florist's gloxinia

    PubMed Central

    Zaitlin, David

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims The florist's gloxinia is a familiar houseplant in the Gesneriaceae, the botanical family that includes the African violet (Saintpaulia) and other ornamental species. The gloxinia's wild progenitor is Sinningia speciosa (Lodd.) Hiern, a Brazilian endemic. Although it has been cultivated for almost 200 years, little is known about the genetic diversity in S. speciosa, how the wild populations relate to one another or even where the cultivated forms originated. Using available wild collections, preliminary phenetic and phylogenetic investigations were conducted to elucidate the interspecific relationships within S. speciosa and to infer the origins of the cultivars. Methodology Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis was applied to 24 accessions of S. speciosa (17 wild collections, seven cultivars) and one accession each of Sinningia guttata and Sinningia macrophylla. A maximum likelihood (ML) tree was also calculated from an alignment of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer sequence from the same 26 accessions. Principal results Dice/UPGMA and principal coordinates analysis of the AFLP data partitioned S. speciosa into several distinct clusters, one of which included S. macrophylla. All cultivated ‘gloxinias’ grouped together in a major cluster with plants from Rio de Janeiro. The AFLP results were compared with a phylogenetic analysis of the ribosomal spacer region, which was informative in S. speciosa. The ML tree generally supported the AFLP results, although several clades lacked strong statistical support. Conclusions Independent analyses of two different data sets show that S. speciosa is a diverse species comprised of several lineages. Genetic distance estimates calculated from the AFLP data were positively correlated with geographic distances between populations, indicating that reproductive isolation could be driving speciation in this taxon. Molecular markers are under development for population genetic

  13. Farm Family Adaptations to Severe Economic Distress: South Dakota. Results of the 1989 Regional Farm Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Ronald G.; Stover, Penny W.

    During the farm crisis of the 1980s, many midwestern farm families suffered financial distress, but by 1989 an uneven financial recovery was under way. This report summarizes data collected from 207 South Dakota farm operators (a 29.6% response) and 182 spouses (a 26% response) as part of large survey conducted in 12 North Central states. The…

  14. Explaining the Ordinary Magic of Stable African Multilingualism in the Vaal Triangle Region in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coetzee-Van Rooy, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The academic and public debates about language maintenance and language shift in the post-1994 South Africa distract attention from the more productive and important endeavour of explaining the nature of the multilingualism observed among users of African languages in urban contexts. An explanation for this phenomenon is offered here, based on…

  15. Floristic Characteristics and Biodiversity Patterns in the Baishuijiang River Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bing; Zhao, Wenzhi; Wen, Zijuan; Teng, Jirong; Li, Xiaohong

    2009-07-01

    A case study was conducted on the forest ecosystem in the Baishuijiang River basin of China to reveal the influences of environmental factors and human disturbance on the floristic characteristics and biodiversity patterns. Field surveys of the floristic composition, environmental factors, and disturbance factors were conducted along an elevation gradient, and the relationships between biodiversity pattern and environmental factors were analyzed using CCA (canonical correspondence analysis). The results showed that the floristic composition of higher plants consisted of 197 families, 796 genera, 2165 species, 19 subspecies, 239 varietas, and 12 forma, and it was characterized by the multi-geographic composition and by the transition from tropical to temperate zones. Along an elevation gradient, the variations in α and β diversity were best described by a bimodal curve, and the peak values occurred at middle elevations. The CCA indicated that the elevation had the greatest influence on the biodiversity pattern, followed by the topographic index, slope direction, slope, slope position, slope shape, and vegetation coverage. In addition, human disturbance has greatly impacted the floristic composition and biodiversity patterns, and the biodiversity indices were higher with intermediate disturbance at middle elevations compared to higher and lower disturbances at low and high elevations, respectively. This reflected a disturbance-diversity pattern and thus revealed the obvious importance to maintain the intermediate disturbance for biodiversity conservation.

  16. Floristic characteristics and biodiversity patterns in the Baishuijiang River basin, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bing; Zhao, Wenzhi; Wen, Zijuan; Teng, Jirong; Li, Xiaohong

    2009-07-01

    A case study was conducted on the forest ecosystem in the Baishuijiang River basin of China to reveal the influences of environmental factors and human disturbance on the floristic characteristics and biodiversity patterns. Field surveys of the floristic composition, environmental factors, and disturbance factors were conducted along an elevation gradient, and the relationships between biodiversity pattern and environmental factors were analyzed using CCA (canonical correspondence analysis). The results showed that the floristic composition of higher plants consisted of 197 families, 796 genera, 2165 species, 19 subspecies, 239 varietas, and 12 forma, and it was characterized by the multi-geographic composition and by the transition from tropical to temperate zones. Along an elevation gradient, the variations in alpha and beta diversity were best described by a bimodal curve, and the peak values occurred at middle elevations. The CCA indicated that the elevation had the greatest influence on the biodiversity pattern, followed by the topographic index, slope direction, slope, slope position, slope shape, and vegetation coverage. In addition, human disturbance has greatly impacted the floristic composition and biodiversity patterns, and the biodiversity indices were higher with intermediate disturbance at middle elevations compared to higher and lower disturbances at low and high elevations, respectively. This reflected a disturbance-diversity pattern and thus revealed the obvious importance to maintain the intermediate disturbance for biodiversity conservation.

  17. Multitemporal floristic analysis on a humid area in Rome's archaeological site as indicator for environmental change.

    PubMed

    Ceschin, Simona; Salerno, Giovanni; Caneva, Giulia

    2009-02-01

    A multitemporal analysis on a humid area in Rome's archaeological site is presented; the floristic data are used as bioindicators for main environmental changes over the last 50 years. By comparing the structural, biogeographical and ecological features of today's florula with the ones of a 1955 survey, and by assessing the new, the rare and the locally disappeared species, it was possible to define and analyse the main floristic changes and their ecological meaning for this site. Our results show that the floristic richness of the area did not differ significantly from 1955. However, the species composition has changed considerably: over 40% of the species have disappeared. More than half of these were rare and typical of humid environments. Approximately the same number of species has appeared but these are mainly ruderal and widespread entities, with the overall result being a progressive and general vulgarization of the local flora. Finally, we analyse the main reasons, linked for the most part to human activities, which led to the reported floristic changes.

  18. Identification of biophysical regions in the south-western part of the Okhotsk Sea by satellite imagery classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustapha, M. A.; Lihan, T.; Tangang, Fredolin; Saitoh, S.

    2015-03-01

    Water properties in the south-western part of the Okhotsk Sea show strong seasonal variability. This study applied a method based on Hierarchical Ascending Classification to classify biophysical regions using satellite data and to determine the seasonal variation of the characteristics of water masses in the area. Water masses in the same biophysical region have similar physical and biological characteristics and are able to explain the biological and physical processes in the ocean. This method provided classification of chlorophyll a, SST and SST gradient satellite data. Six classes explained the main patterns and important characteristics of the region. The method was also able to determine interannual variability in existence and area size of the classes which indicated occurrences of the major circulation patterns in the area and its influence on the variations of the classes.

  19. Organochlorine insecticide and polychlorinated biphenyl residues in martens and fishers from the Algonquin region of south-central Ontario

    SciTech Connect

    Steeves, T.; Strickland, M. ); Frank, R.; Rasper, J. ); Douglas, C.W.

    1991-03-01

    Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and organochlorine insecticides (OCI) has been restricted in the Province of Ontario, Canada, since 1971. This study reports on OCI and PCB levels in two carnivores, fishers (Martes pennanti) and martens (Martes americana), collected in the Algonquin Region of south-central Ontario in 1976 and 1981, and compares them to data collected for the same species in the same area in 1972-74. Algonquin Region is a forested area of 43,000 km{sup 2} on the Precambrian shield, and has no major industrial or agricultural development. Except for DDT, which was used in the 1950's and 1960's to control biting insects around tourist establishments, there has been little use of OCIs or PCBs in this area. Their occurrence in the Algonquin Region is most likely due to atmospheric transport.

  20. Integrated Assessments of the Impact of Climate Change on Agriculture: An Overview of AgMIP Regional Research in South Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDermid, Sonali P.; Dileepkumar, Guntuku; Murthy, K. M. Dakshina; Nedumaran, S.; Singh, Piara; Srinivasa, Chukka; Gangwar, B.; Subash, N.; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Zubair, Lareef; Nissanka, S. P.

    2015-01-01

    South Asia encompasses a wide and highly varied geographic region, and includes climate zones ranging from the mountainous Himalayan territory to the tropical lowland and coastal zones along alluvial floodplains. The region's climate is dominated by a monsoonal circulation that heralds the arrival of seasonal rainfall, upon which much of the regional agriculture relies. The spatial and temporal distribution of this rainfall is, however, not uniform over the region. Northern South Asia, central India, and the west coast receive much of their rainfall during the southwest monsoon season, between June and September. These rains partly result from the moisture transport accompanying the monsoonal winds, which move in the southwesterly direction from the equatorial Indian Ocean. Regions further south, such as south/southeast India and Sri Lanka, may receive rains from both the southwest monsoon, and also during the northeast monsoon season between October and December (with northeasterly monsoon wind flow and moisture flux), which results in a bi- or multi-modal rainfall distribution. In addition, rainfall across South Asia displays a large amount of intraseasonal and interannual variability. Interannual variability is influenced by many drivers, both natural (e.g., El Ni-Southern Oscillation; ENSO) and man-made (e.g., rising temperatures due to increasing greenhouse gas concentrations), and it is challenging to obtaining accurate time-series of annual rainfall, even amongst various observed data products, which display inconsistencies amongst themselves. These climatic and rainfall variations can further complicate South Asia's agricultural and water management. Agriculture employs at least 65 of the workforce in most South Asian countries, and nearly 80 of South Asia's poor inhabit rural areas. Understanding the response of current agricultural production to climate variability and future climate change is of utmost importance in securing food and livelihoods for

  1. Ground-water resources of the south metropolitan Atlanta region, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, John S.; Peck, Michael F.

    1991-01-01

    Ground-water resources of the nine county south metropolitan Atlanta region were evaluated in response to an increased demand for water supplies and concern that existing surface water supplies may not be able to meet future supply demands. Previous investigations have suggested that crystalline rock in the study area has low permeability and can not sustain well yields suitable for public supply. However, the reported yield for 406 wells drilled into crystalIine rock units in this area ranged from less than 1 to about 700 gallons per minute, and averaged 43 gallons per minute. The reported flow from 13 springs ranged from 0.5 to 679 gallons per minute. The yield of 43 wells and flow from five springs was reported to exceed 100 gallons per minute. Most of the high-yielding wells and springs were near contact zones between rocks of contrasting lithologic and weathering properties. The high-yielding wells and springs are located in a variety of topographic settings: hillsides, upland draws, and hilltops were most prevalent. The study area, which includes Henry, Fayette, Coweta, Spalding, Lamar, Pike, Meriwether, Upson and Talbot Counties, is within the Piedmont physiographic province except for the southernmost part of Talbot County, which is in the Coastal Plain physiographic province. In the Piedmont, ground-water storage occurs in joints, fractures and other secondary openings in the bedrock, and in pore spaces in the regolith. The most favorable geologic settings for siting highyielding wells are along contact zones between rocks of contrasting lithology and permeability, major zones of fracturing such as the Towaliga and Auchumpkee fault zones, and other numerous shear and microbreccia zones. Although most wells in the study area are from 101 to 300 feet deep, the highest average yields were obtained from wells 51 to 100 feet deep, and 301 to 500 feet deep. Of the wells inventoried, the average diameter of well casing was largest for wells located on hills and

  2. Assessing floristic composition with multispectral sensors—A comparison based on monotemporal and multiseasonal field spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feilhauer, Hannes; Thonfeld, Frank; Faude, Ulrike; He, Kate S.; Rocchini, Duccio; Schmidtlein, Sebastian

    2013-04-01

    Assessing and mapping patterns of (semi-)natural vegetation types at a large spatial scale is a difficult task. The challenge increases if the floristic variation within vegetation types (i.e., subtype variation of species composition) is the target. A desirable way to deal with this task may be to address such vegetation patterns with remote-sensing approaches. In particular data from multispectral sensors are easy to obtain, globally accessible, and often provide a high temporal resolution. They hence offer a comprehensive basis for vegetation mapping. The potential of such sensors for vegetation mapping has, however, never been thoroughly investigated. In particular, a systematic test regarding the spectral capabilities of these data for an assessment of detailed floristic variation has not been implemented to date. We thus addressed in this study the question how the ability of optical sensors to map floristic variation is affected by their respective spectral coverage and number of bands. To answer this question, we simulated monotemporal and multiseasonal data of eleven multispectral sensors. These data were used to model gradual transitions in species composition (i.e., floristic gradients) within three types of spontaneous vegetation typical for Central Europe using Partial Least Squares regression. Comparison of the model fits (ranging up to R2 = 0.76 in cross-validation) illustrated the potential of multispectral data for detailed vegetation mapping. The results show that spectral coverage of the entire solar-reflective domain is the most important sensor characteristic for a successful assessment of floristic variation. Model and sensor performances as well as limitations are thoroughly discussed, and recommendations for sensor development are made based on the final conclusions of this study.

  3. Floristic composition and across-track reflectance gradient in Landsat images over Amazonian forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muro, Javier; doninck, Jasper Van; Tuomisto, Hanna; Higgins, Mark A.; Moulatlet, Gabriel M.; Ruokolainen, Kalle

    2016-09-01

    Remotely sensed image interpretation or classification of tropical forests can be severely hampered by the effects of the bidirectional reflection distribution function (BRDF). Even for narrow swath sensors like Landsat TM/ETM+, the influence of reflectance anisotropy can be sufficiently strong to introduce a cross-track reflectance gradient. If the BRDF could be assumed to be linear for the limited swath of Landsat, it would be possible to remove this gradient during image preprocessing using a simple empirical method. However, the existence of natural gradients in reflectance caused by spatial variation in floristic composition of the forest can restrict the applicability of such simple corrections. Here we use floristic information over Peruvian and Brazilian Amazonia acquired through field surveys, complemented with information from geological maps, to investigate the interaction of real floristic gradients and the effect of reflectance anisotropy on the observed reflectances in Landsat data. In addition, we test the assumption of linearity of the BRDF for a limited swath width, and whether different primary non-inundated forest types are characterized by different magnitudes of the directional reflectance gradient. Our results show that a linear function is adequate to empirically correct for view angle effects, and that the magnitude of the across-track reflectance gradient is independent of floristic composition in the non-inundated forests we studied. This makes a routine correction of view angle effects possible. However, floristic variation complicates the issue, because different forest types have different mean reflectances. This must be taken into account when deriving the correction function in order to avoid eliminating natural gradients.

  4. Establishment of the South-Eastern Norway Regional Health Authority Resource Center for Children with Prenatal Alcohol/Drug Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Løhaugen, Gro C. C.; Flak, Marianne Møretrø; Gerstner, Thorsten; Sundberg, Cato; Lerdal, Bjørn; Skranes, Jon

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new initiative in the South-Eastern Health Region of Norway to establish a regional resource center focusing on services for children and adolescents aged 2–18 years with prenatal exposure to alcohol or other drugs. In Norway, the prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum (FAS) is not known but has been estimated to be between 1 and 2 children per 1000 births, while the prevalence of prenatal exposure to illicit drugs is unknown. The resource center is the first of its kind in Scandinavia and will have three main objectives: (1) provide hospital staff, community health and child welfare personnel, and special educators with information, educational courses, and seminars focused on the identification, diagnosis, and treatment of children with a history of prenatal alcohol/drug exposure; (2) provide specialized health services, such as diagnostic services and intervention planning, for children referred from hospitals in the South-Eastern Health Region of Norway; and (3) initiate multicenter studies focusing on the diagnostic process and evaluation of interventions. PMID:26692762

  5. Geodynamic models assist in determining the South Loyalty Basin's slab location and its implications for regional topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Stuart R.

    2010-05-01

    In the Western Pacific, two competing kinematic reconstructions exist: one with wholly westward subduction of the Pacific plate at what is now the Tonga-Kermadec trench and one combining a degree of eastward subduction under what has been termed the New Caledonia trench. New seismological observations indicate that eastward subduction could explain the existence of a fast anomaly, the hyothesised South Loyalty Basin slab, below the 660km transition zone distinct from the fast anomaly aligned with the Tonga-Kermadec slab. A plate reconstruction dated from the suggested initiation of New Caledonia subduction in the Eocene has been developed. This reconstruction is then used to predict the thermal history of the region and together provide kinematic and thermal boundary conditions for a regional mantle convection model. The model-predicted location of the South Loyalty Basin slab's location will be presented along with the location's dependence on the mantle rheological parameters and the hotspot reference frame. The implications for the topography of the region will also be discussed.

  6. Constrained Regional Recovery of Continental Water Mass Time-variations from GRACE-based Geopotential Anomalies over South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramillien, G. L.; Seoane, L.; Frappart, F.; Biancale, R.; Gratton, S.; Vasseur, X.; Bourgogne, S.

    2012-09-01

    We propose a "constrained" least-squares approach to estimate regional maps of equivalent-water heights by inverting GRACE-based potential anomalies at satellite altitude. According to the energy integral method, the anomalies of difference of geopotential between the two GRACE vehicles are derived from along-track K-Band Range-Rate (KBRR) residuals that correspond mainly to the continental water storage changes, once a priori known accelerations (i.e. static field, polar movements, atmosphere and ocean masses including tides) are removed during the orbit adjustment process. Newton's first law merely enables the Difference of Potential Anomalies from accurate KBRR data and the equivalent-water heights to be recovered. Spatial constraints versus spherical distance between elementary surface tiles are introduced to stabilize the linear system to cancel the effects of the north-south striping. Unlike the "mascons" approach, no basis of orthogonal functions (e.g., spherical harmonics) is used, so that the proposed regional method does not suffer from drawbacks related to any spectrum truncation. Time series of 10-day regional maps over South America for 2006-2009 also prove to be consistent with independent data sets, namely the outputs of hydrological models, "mascons" and global GRACE solutions.

  7. Away from the mainstream: medical women in one region of rural New South Wales.

    PubMed

    Harding, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Despite recent research on the difficulties associated with attracting women to the rural medical workforce, and the perception that the image of the rural doctor is male, women have had a history in rural medicine in southwest New South Wales that spans a century. This paper explores the contribution to medicine of women medical practitioners working within one geographical area of rural New South Wales. It traces these women, documenting the diversity of women's medical work and some of the challenges faced. Based largely on data from contemporary reports in two local newspapers, the Daily Express and The Daily Advertiser, this paper shows that some of the silence associated with the role of women in rural medicine could be attributed to them holding positions at the margins of what is depicted as 'real' medicine, in fields that include public health and education.

  8. Summary of First Regional Workshop on Dredging, Beach Nourishment, and Birds on the South Atlantic Coast

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    Tern (S. antillarum): Most conservation efforts have focused on the endangered interior subspecies of Least Tern, currently estimated at about 17,000...06-10 5 Texas to North Carolina, the non-listed coastal subspecies may be today much more vulnerable to future declines. Recent research suggests...About 10,000–12,000 birds winter in the Southeast and these may represent a separate subspecies from the birds that migrate to southern South

  9. Scramble in the South China Sea: Regional Conflict and U.S. Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-14

    of Fisheries and Aquaculture 2012 (Bangkok, Thailand, 2012), 59. 11. International Crisis Group, Stirring Up the South China Sea (II), 16-17. 12...Herberg, “The Rise of Energy and Resource Nationalism in Asia,” 124. 47. Richard L . Armitage and Joseph Nye, Jr., “CSIS Commission on Smart Power...Bibliography Armitage, Richard L . and Joseph Nye, Jr., CSIS Commission on Smart Power. Washington, D.C.: Center for Strategic

  10. The Emerging Role of the Republic of South Africa as a Regional Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    situation in Swaziland and to a much greater extent in Zimbabwe, however, not only is politically destabilizing to the upholding and development of...Liberation Army which aims at independence from Namibia. The political situation in countries such as Zimbabwe, and to a lesser extent Swaziland...leads to security implications that transcend national borders. Illegal migrants and to a lesser extent refugees, have increasingly been entering South

  11. Retrospective seroepidemiological study of chikungunya infection in South Asia, Southeast Asia and the Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Ngwe Tun, M M; Inoue, S; Thant, K Z; Talemaitoga, N; Aryati, A; Dimaano, E M; Matias, R R; Buerano, C C; Natividad, F F; Abeyewickreme, W; Thuy, N T T; Mai, L T Q; Hasebe, F; Hayasaka, D; Morita, K

    2016-08-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Ross River virus (RRV) of the genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae are mainly transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes and the symptoms they cause in patients are similar to dengue. A chikungunya (CHIK) outbreak re-emerged in several Asian countries during 2005-2006. This study aimed to clarify the prevalence of CHIKV infection in suspected dengue patients in six countries in South Asia and Southeast Asia. Seven hundred forty-eight serum samples were from dengue-suspected patients in South Asia and Southeast Asia, and 52 were from patients in Fiji. The samples were analysed by CHIKV IgM capture ELISA, CHIKV IgG indirect ELISA and focus reduction neutralization test against CHIKV or RRV. CHIK-confirmed cases in South Asia, particularly Myanmar and Sri Lanka, were 4·6%, and 6·1%, respectively; and in Southeast Asia, particularly Indonesia, the Philippines and Vietnam, were 27·4%, 26·8% and 25·0%, respectively. It suggests that CHIK was widely spread in these five countries in Asia. In Fiji, no CHIK cases were confirmed; however, RRV-confirmed cases represented 53·6% of suspected dengue cases. It suggests that RRV is being maintained or occasionally entering from neighbouring countries and should be considered when determining a causative agent for dengue-like illness in Fiji.

  12. Changes in regional meteorology induced by anthropogenic heat and their impacts on air quality in South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Min; Zhu, Kuanguang; Wang, Tijian; Feng, Wen; Gao, Da; Li, Mengmeng; Li, Shu; Zhuang, Bingliang; Han, Yong; Chen, Pulong; Liao, Jingbiao

    2016-12-01

    Anthropogenic heat (AH) emissions from human activities can change the urban circulation and thereby affect the air pollution in and around cities. Based on statistic data, the spatial distribution of AH flux in South China is estimated. With the aid of the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF/Chem), in which the AH parameterization is developed to incorporate the gridded AH emissions with temporal variation, simulations for January and July in 2014 are performed over South China. By analyzing the differences between the simulations with and without adding AH, the impact of AH on regional meteorology and air quality is quantified. The results show that the regional annual mean AH fluxes over South China are only 0.87 W m-2, but the values for the urban areas of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region can be close to 60 W m-2. These AH emissions can significantly change the urban heat island and urban-breeze circulations in big cities. In the PRD city cluster, 2 m air temperature rises by 1.1° in January and over 0.5° in July, the planetary boundary layer height (PBLH) increases by 120 m in January and 90 m in July, 10 m wind speed is intensified to over 0.35 m s-1 in January and 0.3 m s-1 in July, and accumulative precipitation is enhanced by 20-40 % in July. These changes in meteorological conditions can significantly impact the spatial and vertical distributions of air pollutants. Due to the increases in PBLH, surface wind speed and upward vertical movement, the concentrations of primary air pollutants decrease near the surface and increase in the upper levels. But the vertical changes in O3 concentrations show the different patterns in different seasons. The surface O3 concentrations in big cities increase with maximum values of over 2.5 ppb in January, while O3 is reduced at the lower layers and increases at the upper layers above some megacities in July. This phenomenon can be attributed to the fact that chemical effects can play a

  13. The cost implications of participatory research. Experience of a health services review in a rural region in South Africa

    PubMed

    Doherty; Price

    1998-03-01

    OBJECTIVES: The study objectives were to estimate the total costs incurred by a comprehensive review of primary health care services in a rural region in South Africa, and to determine which of these costs were incurred because of the participatory research techniques employed by the review. DESIGN: The costing study estimated the direct and indirect costs of each component of the review in order to determine total costs. Costs that were linked to participatory research activities were aggregated separately. SETTING: The review that was costed was conducted in an area that included the former 'homeland' KaNgwane and the adjacent areas of 'white' South Africa, in part of what is now known as Mpumalanga Province. SUBJECTS: Not relevant. OUTCOME MEASURES: Direct, indirect, total, research and participation costs were used as outcome measures. RESULTS: Expenditure generated by participatory research techniques was estimated to be almost 14% of the total (direct and indirect) costs. CONCLUSIONS: Despite these costs, participatory research techniques are invaluable in terms of the many benefits they have for a research project. However, because of these costs, it is important that the financing of participatory research should be carefully planned. Projects must budget for the direct costs of participatory techniques, participating organisations and individuals must be committed to bearing the indirect costs of participation, and, increasingly, funders must consider funding these indirect costs. This is important in the South African situation, where public health research relies increasingly on the participation of relevant stakeholders.

  14. Silicic Volcanics in the South Mountain Region: A Volcanic Center with the Breakup of Rodinia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, C. W.; Rooney, T. O.; Sinha, A.

    2008-12-01

    Commonly, large igneous provinces are associated with the break-up of continents. The waning stages of large igneous provinces prior to continental rifting and breakup are characterized by volumetrically less significant felsic volcanics. The origin of these felsic volcanics remains a source of significant debate - do they represent additions of new crust derived from the mantle, or the melting and recycling of continental crust? We examine the South Mountain felsic volcanicism in Pennsylvania, part of a sequence of metabasalts and metarhyolites of the Catoctin Formation. These Late Neoproterozoic magmas are associated with the breakup of Rodinia and the formation of the Iapetus Ocean. The South Mountain felsic volcanics are predominantly rhyolitic and can be subdivided into high Al2O3 (>11.8 wt.%) and low Al2O3 (<11.8 wt.%) groups. Each group forms distinctive trends against differentiation indices. Cl Chondrite normalized spider diagrams show that both groups are parallel to each other, the low-Al group having higher REE concentrations. The low-Al group forms REE trends that decrease at a greater magnitude than the high-Al group with increasing SiO2, excluding Eu. A Eu anomaly is present in both groups but is more pronounced in the low-Al group. Models of REE variations in felsic liquids [Brophy, 2008] indicate that amphibolite melting yields magmas with decreasing La and Yb with increasing SiO2. In both groups, La and Yb indicate amphibolite partial melting trends. Decreasing Dy/Yb with increasing SiO2 is an indicator of a hornblende rich source for the South Mountain rhyolites. To explain these geochemical trends, we propose that the South Mountain rhyolites were produced by the partial melting of a plagioclase-bearing amphibolite source. The difference in magnitude of the Eu anomaly between the two groups may be produced by variable concentrations of plagioclase in the source amphibolite. Comparison of the South Mountain rhyolites with other large igneous

  15. Real time earthquake information and tsunami estimation system for Indonesia, Philippines and Central-South American regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulido Hernandez, N. E.; Inazu, D.; Saito, T.; Senda, J.; Fukuyama, E.; Kumagai, H.

    2015-12-01

    Southeast Asia as well as Central-South American regions are within the most active seismic regions in the world. To contribute to the understanding of source process of earthquakes the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention NIED maintains the international seismic Network (ISN) since 2007. Continuous seismic waveforms from 294 broadband seismic stations in Indonesia, Philippines, and Central-South America regions are received in real time at NIED, and used for automatic location of seismic events. Using these data we perform automatic and manual estimation of moment tensor of seismic events (Mw>4.5) by using the SWIFT program developed at NIED. We simulate the propagation of local tsunamis in these regions using a tsunami simulation code and visualization system developed at NIED, combined with CMT parameters estimated by SWIFT. The goals of the system are to provide a rapid and reliable earthquake and tsunami information in particular for large seismic, and produce an appropriate database of earthquake source parameters and tsunami simulations for research. The system uses the hypocenter location and magnitude of earthquakes automatically determined at NIED by the SeisComP3 system (GFZ) from the continuous seismic waveforms in the region, to perform the automated calculation of moment tensors by SWIFT, and then carry out the automatic simulation and visualization of tsunami. The system generates maps of maximum tsunami heights within the target regions and along the coasts and display them with the fault model parameters used for tsunami simulations. Tsunami calculations are performed for all events with available automatic SWIFT/CMT solutions. Tsunami calculations are re-computed using SWIFT manual solutions for events with Mw>5.5 and centroid depths shallower than 100 km. Revised maximum tsunami heights as well as animation of tsunami propagation are also calculated and displayed for the two double couple solutions by SWIFT

  16. Geomorphological map of the South Belet region of Titan: An exploration of Mid-Latitude-to-Pole transition zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenfeld, Ashley Marie; M. C Lopes, Rosaly; Malaska, Michael; Solomonidou, Anezina; Birch, Samuel; Hayes, Alexander; Williams, David A.; Janssen, Michael A.; Le Gall, Alice; Turtle, Elizabeth P.; Cassini RADAR Team

    2016-10-01

    We carried out detailed geomorphological mapping of Titan's mid-latitude region south of the Belet Sand Sea. We used radar data collected by Cassini's Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) as our basemap, supplemented by spectro-images from VIMS, images from ISS, SARtopo, and microwave emissivity datasets. We mapped at a scale of 1:800,000 in all areas of the South Belet region covered by SAR swaths, taking into consideration the 300 m/pixel resolution of the swaths. For the mid-latitudes, we have defined five broad classes of terrains following Malaska et al. (2016). These terrain classes are craters, hummocky/mountainous, labyrinth, plains, and dunes. We have found that the hummocky/mountainous terrains are the oldest, with a radiometric signature consistent with icy materials. Dunes are the youngest units and return a radiometric signature consistent with organic sediments. The South Belet region of Titan is primarily covered by the dune and plain units (specifically the undifferentiated plains) typical of the mid-latitudes (Malaska et al. 2016). Previous mapping efforts of the mid-latitude regions of Titan (Lopes et al. 2016; Malaska et al. 2016) have indicated that these regions are predominately modified and influenced by aeolian activities. A plain unit designated "scalloped plains" is prominently featured between the 50°S and 60°S latitudes of this region. In this area we also find a terrain unit (dark irregular plains) that has been interpreted as damp materials saturated with liquid hydrocarbons (Malaska et al 2016; Hayes et al. 2008). We also note a higher identification of fluvial channels starting at this latitude zone and extending poleward. We suggest that these features demark the transition zone between mid-latitude/equatorial aeolian-dominated processes and fluvial-dominated processes prevailing at the poles.References: Lopes, R.M.C., et al.: Icarus, 270, 162-182, 2016; Malaska, M., et al.: Icarus, 270, 130-161, 2016; Hayes, A. et al.: Geophys. Res

  17. Successes and challenges of north–south partnerships – key lessons from the African/Asian Regional Capacity Development projects

    PubMed Central

    Färnman, Rosanna; Diwan, Vishal; Zwarenstein, Merrick; Atkins, Salla

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Increasing efforts are being made globally on capacity building. North–south research partnerships have contributed significantly to enhancing the research capacity in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) over the past few decades; however, a lack of skilled researchers to inform health policy development persists, particularly in LMICs. The EU FP7 funded African/Asian Regional Capacity Development (ARCADE) projects were multi-partner consortia aimed to develop a new generation of highly trained researchers from universities across the globe, focusing on global health-related subjects: health systems and services research and research on social determinants of health. This article aims to outline the successes, challenges and lessons learned from the life course of the projects, focusing on the key outputs and experiences of developing and implementing these two projects together with sub-Saharan African, Asian and European institution partners. Design Sixteen participants from 12 partner institutions were interviewed. The data were analysed using thematic content analysis, which resulted in four themes and three sub-categories. These data were complemented by a review of project reports. Results The results indicated that the ARCADE projects have been successful in developing and delivering courses, and have reached over 920 postgraduate students. Some partners thought the north–south and south–south partnerships that evolved during the project were the main achievement. However, others found there to be a ‘north–south divide’ in certain aspects. Challenges included technical constraints and quality assurance. Additionally, adapting new teaching and learning methods into current university systems was challenging, combined with not being able to award students with credits for their degrees. Conclusion The ARCADE projects were introduced as an innovative and ambitious project idea, although not designed appropriately for all partner

  18. Three-dimensional fault framework of the 2014 South Napa Earthquake, San Francisco Bay region, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graymer, R. W.

    2014-12-01

    Assignment of the South Napa earthquake to a mapped fault is difficult, as it occurred where three large, northwest-trending faults converge and may interact in the subsurface. The surface rupture did not fall on the main trace of any of these faults, but instead between the Carneros and West Napa faults and northwest along strike from the northern mapped end of the Franklin Fault. The 2014 rupture plane appears to be nearly vertical, based on focal mechanisms of the mainshock and connection of the surface trace/rupture to the relocated hypocenter (J. Hardebeck, USGS). 3D surfaces constructed from published data show that the Carneros Fault is a steeply west-dipping fault that runs just west of the near-vertical 2014 rupture plane. The Carneros Fault does not appear to have been involved in the earthquake, although relocated aftershocks suggest possible minor triggered slip. The main West Napa Fault is also steeply west-dipping and that its projection intersects the 2014 rupture plane at around the depth of the mainshock hypocenter. UAVSAR data (A. Donnellan, JPL) and relocated aftershocks suggest that the main West Napa Fault experienced triggered slip/afterslip along a length of roughly 20 km. It is possible that the 2014 rupture took place along a largely unrecognized westerly strand of the West Napa Fault. The Franklin Fault is a steeply east-dipping fault (with a steeply west-dipping subordinate trace east of Mare Island) that has documented late Quaternary offset. Given the generally aligned orientation of the 3D fault surfaces, an alternative interpretation is that the South Napa earthquake occurred on the northernmost reach of the Franklin Fault within it's 3D junction with the West Napa Fault. This interpretation is supported, but not proven, by a short but prominent linear feature in the UAVSAR data at Slaughterhouse Point west of Vallejo, along trend south-southeast of the observed coseismic surface rupture.

  19. Multi-Scale Interactions Associated with the Monsoon Onset Over South China Sea and Adjacent Regions during SCSMEX-98

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, William K. M.; Li, X.; Wu, H.-T.

    1999-01-01

    Using data collected during The South China Sea Monsoon Experiment (SCSMEX) (1998) as well as from the TRMM Microwave-Imager (TMI) and precipitation radar (PR), we have studied the multi-scale interactions (meso-synoptic-intraseasonal) associated with monsoon onset over South China Sea (SCS) and its subsequent evolution. Results show that the monsoon onset (defined by development of steady wind direction and heavy precipitation) over the northern SCS occurred around May 15 -17. Prevailing southerlies and southwesterlies developed over the central SCS after May 20. Shortly after, monsoon convection developed over the whole SCS region around May 23-27. The entire onset process appeared to be delayed by about a week to 10 days compared with climatology. During late spring of 1998, mid-latitude frontal systems were particularly active. These systems strongly impacted the northern SCS convection and may have been instrumental in triggering the onset of the SCS monsoon. The Tropical Oceans and Global Atmosphere (TOGA) and Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre (BMRC) radar showed a wide variety of convective systems over the Intensive Flux Array, from frontal bands to shear-banded structure, deep convection, pop-corn type shallow convection, slow moving "fine lines" to water spout. Analysis of SSM/I wind and moisture data suggested that the delayed convective activity over the SCS may be linked to the weakened northward propagation of monsoon rain band, hence contributing to a persistence of the rainband south of the Yangtze River and the disastrous flood that occurred over this region during mid to late June, 1998.

  20. The Suruli shear zone and regional scale folding pattern in Madurai block of Southern Granulite Terrain, south India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, V.; Rajeshdurai, P.

    2010-04-01

    Through the application of remote sensing techniques followed by field checks, the exact extension and nature of Suruli shear zone in Madurai block of southern granulite terrain (SGT) in south India is brought out for the first time in this work. The dominant rock type exposed in this area is charnockite intruded by granites. The Suruli ductile shear zone extends from just west of Kadaiyanallur in the south to Ganguvarpatti in the north over a length of 150 km. Between Kadaiyanallur and Kambam, the shear zone extends roughly in N-S direction. From Kambam, it swerves towards NE and then towards ENE near Ganguvarpatti. The strongly developed transposed foliation and mylonite foliation within the shear zone dip towards east only and so the eastern block (Varushanad hills) is the hanging wall and the western block (Cardamom hills) is the footwall of the shear zone. In the eastern block, three distinct phases of regional scale folding (F1, F2 and F3) are recognized. In complete contrast, the western block recorded only the last phase (F3) regional scale folding. As the more deformed eastern block (older terrain) moved over the relatively less deformed western block (younger terrain) along the Suruli shear zone, it is proposed that this shear zone is a thrust or reverse fault, probably of Proterozoic age. As there are evidences for decreasing displacement from north to south (i.e., from Ganguvarpatti to Kadaiyanallur), the Suruli shear zone could be a rotational thrust or reverse fault with the pivot located close to Kadaiyanallur. As the pivot is located near Achankovil shear zone which trends WNW-ESE (dip towards SSW), the Suruli shear zone could be splaying (branching) out from Achankovil shear zone. In a nutshell, the Suruli shear zone could be a splay, rotational thrust or reverse fault.

  1. Future changes in drought characteristics over South Korea using multi regional climate models with the standardized precipitation index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Yeon-Woo; Ahn, Joong-Bae; Suh, Myoung-Seok; Cha, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Dong-Kyou; Hong, Song-You; Min, Seung-Ki; Park, Seong-Chan; Kang, Hyun-Suk

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the projection of future drought conditions is estimated over South Korea based on the latest and most advanced sets of regional climate model simulations under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) scenarios, within the context of the national downscaling project of the Republic of Korea. The five Regional Climate Models (RCMs) are used to produce climate-change simulations around the Korean Peninsula and to estimate the uncertainty associated with these simulations. The horizontal resolution of each RCM is 12.5 km and model simulations are available for historical (1981-2010) and future (2021-2100) periods under forcing from the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. To assess the characteristics of drought on multiple time scales in the future, we use Standardized Precipitation Indices for 1-month (SPI- 1), 6-month (SPI-6) and 12-month (SPI-12). The number of drought months in the future is shown to be characterized by strong variability, with both increasing and decreasing trends among the scenarios. In particular, the number of drought months over South Korea is projected to increase (decrease) for the period 2041-2070 in the RCP8.5 (RCP4.5) scenario and increase (decrease) for the period 2071-2100 in the RCP4.5 (RCP8.5) scenario. In addition, the percentage area under any drought condition is overall projected to gradually decrease over South Korea during the entire future period, with the exception of SPI-1 in the RCP4.5 scenario. Particularly, the drought areas for SPI-1 in the RCP4.5 scenario show weakly positive long-term trend. Otherwise, future changes in drought areas for SPI-6 and SPI-12 have a marked downward trend under the two RCP scenarios.

  2. A review about the mechanisms associated with active deformation, regional uplift and subsidence in southern South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folguera, Andrés; Gianni, Guido; Sagripanti, Lucía; Rojas Vera, Emilio; Novara, Iván; Colavitto, Bruno; Alvarez, Orlando; Orts, Darío; Tobal, Jonathan; Giménez, Mario; Introcaso, Antonio; Ruiz, Francisco; Martínez, Patricia; Ramos, Victor A.

    2015-12-01

    A broad range of processes acted simultaneously during the Quaternary producing relief in the Andes and adjacent foreland, from the Chilean coast, where the Pacific Ocean floor is being subducted beneath South American, to the Brazilian and the Argentinean Atlantic platform area. This picture shows to be complex and responds to a variety of processes. The Geoid exemplifies this spectrum of uplift mechanisms, since it reflects an important change at 35°S along the Andes and the foreland that could be indicating the presence of dynamic forces modeling the topography with varying intensity through the subduction margin. On the other hand, mountains uplifted in the Atlantic margin, along a vast sector of the Brazilian Atlantic coast and inland regions seem to be created at the area where the passive margin has been hyper-extended and consequently mechanically debilitated and the forearc region shifts eastwardly at a similar rate than the westward advancing continent. Therefore the forearc at the Arica latitudes can be considered as relatively stationary and dynamically sustained by a perpendicular-to-the-margin asthenospheric flow that inhibits trench roll back, determining a highly active orogenic setting at the eastern Andes in the Subandean region. To the south, the Pampean flat subduction zone creates particular conditions for deformation and rapid propagation of the orogenic front producing a high-amplitude orogen. In the southern Central and Patagonian Andes, mountain (orogenic) building processes are attenuated, becoming dominant other mechanisms of exhumation such as the i) impact of mantle plumes originated in the 660 km mantle transition, ii) the ice-masse retreat from the Andes after the Pleistocene producing an isostatic rebound, iii) the dynamic topography associated with the opening of an asthenospheric window during the subduction of the Chile ridge and slab tearing processes, iv) the subduction of oceanic swells linked to transform zones and v) the

  3. Changes in Climate over the South China Sea and Adjacent Regions: Response to and Feedback on Global Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Song

    2016-04-01

    El Niño-Southern Oscillation and the Asian monsoon have experienced significant long-term changes in the past decades. These changes, together with other factors, have in turn led to large climate change signals over the South China Sea and adjacent regions including Southeast Asia, the western Pacific, and the tropical Indian Ocean. An attribution analysis of the feedback processes of these signals indicate the predominant importance of water vapor and cloud radiative feedbacks. Experiments with multiple earth system models also show that these regional climate change signals exert significant influences on global climate. The increases in atmospheric heating over Southeast Asia and sea surface temperature in the adjacent oceans in the past decades have weakened the Indian and African monsoons, led to a drying effect over East Asia, and generated wave-train patterns in both the northern and southern hemispheres, explaining several prominent climate features in and outside Southeast Asia.

  4. Antibiotics in the coastal environment of the Hailing Bay region, South China Sea: Spatial distribution, source analysis and ecological risks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Liu, Shan; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Zhou, Guang-Jie; Liu, Shuang-Shuang; Yue, Wei-Zhong; Sun, Kai-Feng; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2015-06-15

    In this study, the occurrence and spatial distribution of 38 antibiotics in surface water and sediment samples of the Hailing Bay region, South China Sea, were investigated. Twenty-one, 16 and 15 of 38 antibiotics were detected with the concentrations ranging from <0.08 (clarithromycin) to 15,163ng/L (oxytetracycline), 2.12 (methacycline) to 1318ng/L (erythromycin-H2O), <1.95 (ciprofloxacin) to 184ng/g (chlortetracycline) in the seawater, discharged effluent and sediment samples, respectively. The concentrations of antibiotics in the water phase were correlated positively with chemical oxygen demand and nitrate. The source analysis indicated that untreated domestic sewage was the primary source of antibiotics in the study region. Fluoroquinolones showed strong sorption capacity onto sediments due to their high pseudo-partitioning coefficients. Risk assessment indicated that oxytetracycline, norfloxacin and erythromycin-H2O posed high risks to aquatic organisms.

  5. No signature of clear CO2 ice from the 'cryptic' regions in Mars' south seasonal polar cap.

    PubMed

    Langevin, Yves; Douté, Sylvain; Vincendon, Mathieu; Poulet, François; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Gondet, Brigitte; Schmitt, Bernard; Forget, F

    2006-08-17

    The seasonal polar ice caps of Mars are composed mainly of CO2 ice. A region of low (< 30%) albedo has been observed within the south seasonal cap during early to mid-spring. The low temperature of this 'cryptic region' has been attributed to a clear slab of nearly pure CO2 ice, with the low albedo resulting from absorption by the underlying surface. Here we report near-infrared imaging spectroscopy of the south seasonal cap. The deep and broad CO2 absorption bands that are expected in the near-infrared with a thick transparent slab of CO2 ice are not observed. Models of the observed spectra indicate that the low albedo results from extensive dust contamination close to the surface of a CO2 ice layer, which could be linked to atmospheric circulation patterns. The strength of the CO2 absorption increases after mid-spring, so part of the dust is either carried away or buried more deeply in the ice layer during the CO2 ice sublimation process.

  6. The 1985 Biomass Burning Season in South America: Satellite Remote Sensing of Fires, Smoke, and Regional Radiative Energy Budgets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christopher, Sundar A.; Wang, Min; Berendes, Todd A.; Welch, Ronald M.; Yang, Shi-Keng

    1998-01-01

    Using satellite imagery, more than five million square kilometers of the forest and cerrado regions over South America are extensively studied to monitor fires and smoke during the 1985 biomass burning season. The results are characterized for four major ecosystems, namely: (1) tropical rain forest, (2) tropical broadleaf seasonal, (3) savannah/grass and seasonal woods (SGW), and (4) mild/warm/hot grass/shrub (MGS). The spatial and temporal distribution of fires are examined from two different methods using the multispectral Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer Local Area Coverage data. Using collocated measurements from the instantaneous scanner Earth Radiation Budget Experiment data, the direct regional radiative forcing of biomass burning aerosols is computed. The results show that more than 70% of the fires occur in the MGS and SGW ecosystems due to agricultural practices. The smoke generated from biomass burning has negative instantaneous net radiative forcing values for all four major ecosystems within South America. The smoke found directly over the fires has mean net radiative forcing values ranging from -25.6 to -33.9 W m(exp -2). These results confirm that the regional net radiative impact of biomass burning is one of cooling. The spectral and broadband properties for clear-sky and smoke regions are also presented that could be used as input and/or validation for other studies attempting to model the impact of aerosols on the earth-atmosphere system. These results have important applications for future instruments from the Earth Observing System (EOS) program. Specifically, the combination of the Visible Infrared Scanner and Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission and the combination of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer and CERES instruments from the EOS morning crossing mission could provide reliable estimates of the direct radiative forcing of aerosols on a global scale

  7. Mapping rainfall fields and their ENSO variation in data-sparse tropical south-west Pacific Ocean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basher, Reid E.; Zheng, Xiaogu

    1998-03-01

    Rainfall fields for the data-sparse tropical south-west Pacific Ocean region have been mapped by partial thin-plate smoothing spline surface modelling applied to island rainfall measurements, enhanced by the use of satellite observations of outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) as a regression covariate. The aim is to obtain spatially realistic rainfall maps, especially in the data-sparse areas between island groups, through a fully objective and statistically valid method that includes error estimates. The method has been applied to the region 4°N-24°S, 168°E-154°W. The rainfall data set initially comprised 57 stations, most with 40 year records. As a first step, a regression of annual OLR and rainfall for atolls only was formed and used to eliminate outlier rainfall stations, all of which are on mountainous islands and thus are probably influenced orographically.The maps clearly show the spatial patterns and seasonal behaviour of the regions key meteorological features, namely, the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ), the southern edge of the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), and the wedge shaped region of divergent easterlies lying between them. To identify ENSO variations, maps of 3-month seasonal rainfall were constructed from composites of eight El Niño (negative SOI) episodes and nine La Niña (positive SOI) episodes. These maps are relatively rough in appearance, but nevertheless they show the evolution of the spatial patterns through each composite episode and the strong and symmetrically opposite differences between them. Marked variations in the strength and position of the SPCZ are evident and the isohyets in the equatorial dry zone exhibit east-west shifts of nearly 3000 km relative to the average field. The rainfall variation at a particular location may be understood in terms of competition of influence among the changing features of the pattern, rather than as a simple linear function of the SOI.

  8. How heterogeneous coseismic slip affects regional probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment: A case study in the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Linlin; Switzer, Adam D.; Chan, Chung-Han; Wang, Yu; Weiss, Robert; Qiu, Qiang

    2016-08-01

    Rupture complexity, typically in the form of heterogeneous slip distribution pattern, significantly affects the local tsunami wave field. However, the effect of rupture complexity is not commonly considered in any form of tsunami hazard assessment. Taking rupture complexity into account significantly increases the computational load, particularly in regional-scaled probabilistic tsunami hazard assessments (PTHAs) that usually require a large number of simulations based on synthetic scenarios. In this study, we investigate how the heterogeneous slip distribution affects the regional-scaled PTHA by taking the South China Sea (SCS) as an example. By doing this, we update PTHA for the SCS by incorporating the best available information of seismic tsunamigenic sources along the Manila megathrust. We integrate a stochastic source model into a Monte Carlo-type simulation, in which a broad range of slip distribution patterns is generated for large numbers of synthetic earthquake events. Green's function technique is employed to efficiently calculate the nearshore tsunami wave amplitude along the SCS coastlines. Our result suggests that for a relatively small and confined region like the SCS, the commonly used approach based on the uniform slip model significantly underestimates tsunami hazard not only in the near-source region like west Luzon, as expected, but also in the relative far field, such as south China and central Vietnam. Additionally, our sensitivity test of the patch size effects suggests that large patch size is unable to adequately resolve the details of heterogeneous seafloor deformation, and such approaches considerably underestimate the potential tsunami hazard for the SCS coasts.

  9. Patterns of active and passive smoking, and associated factors, in the South-east Anatolian Project (SEAP) region in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Bozkurt, Ali I; Şahinöz, Saime; Özçırpıcı, Birgül; Özgür, Servet; Şahinöz, Turgut; Acemoğlu, Hamit; Saka, Günay; Ceylan, Ali; Palanci, Yılmaz; İlçin, Ersen; Akkafa, Feridun

    2006-01-01

    Background Smoking is an important health threat in Turkey. This study aimed to determine the frequency of and main factors associated with smoking in persons of 15 years and over, and the frequency of passive smoking in homes in the South-east Anatolian Project (SEAP) Region in Turkey. Methods A cross sectional design was employed. The sample waschosen by the State Institute of Statistics using a stratified cluster probability sampling method. 1126 houses representing the SEAP Region were visited. Questionnaires about tobacco smoking and related factors were applied to 2166 women and 1906 men (of 15 years old and above) in their homes. Face-to-face interview methods were employed. Participants were classified as current, ex, and non-smokers. The presence of a regular daily smoker in a house was used as an indication of passive smoking. The chi-square andlogistic regressionanalysis methods were used for the statistical analysis. Results The prevalence of smoking, in those of 15 years and over, was 11.8% in women and 49.7% in men. The prevalence of current smokers was higher in urban (34.5 %) than in rural (22.8 %) regions. The mean of total cigarette consumption was 6.5 packs/year in women and 17.9 packs/year in men. There was at least one current smoker in 70.1% of the houses. Conclusion Smoking is a serious problem in the South-eastern Anatolian Region. Male gender, middle age, a high level of education and urban residency were most strongly associated with smoking. PMID:16436202

  10. Building a risk-targeted regional seismic hazard model for South-East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woessner, J.; Nyst, M.; Seyhan, E.

    2015-12-01

    The last decade has tragically shown the social and economic vulnerability of countries in South-East Asia to earthquake hazard and risk. While many disaster mitigation programs and initiatives to improve societal earthquake resilience are under way with the focus on saving lives and livelihoods, the risk management sector is challenged to develop appropriate models to cope with the economic consequences and impact on the insurance business. We present the source model and ground motions model components suitable for a South-East Asia earthquake risk model covering Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Indochine countries. The source model builds upon refined modelling approaches to characterize 1) seismic activity from geologic and geodetic data on crustal faults and 2) along the interface of subduction zones and within the slabs and 3) earthquakes not occurring on mapped fault structures. We elaborate on building a self-consistent rate model for the hazardous crustal fault systems (e.g. Sumatra fault zone, Philippine fault zone) as well as the subduction zones, showcase some characteristics and sensitivities due to existing uncertainties in the rate and hazard space using a well selected suite of ground motion prediction equations. Finally, we analyze the source model by quantifying the contribution by source type (e.g., subduction zone, crustal fault) to typical risk metrics (e.g.,return period losses, average annual loss) and reviewing their relative impact on various lines of businesses.

  11. Floristic composition and similarity of 15 hectares in Central Amazon, Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Kátia Emidio; Martins, Sebastião Venancio; Ribeiro, Carlos Antonio Alvares Soares; Santos, Nerilson Terra; de Azevedo, Celso Paulo; Matos, Francisca Dionizia de Almeida; do Amaral, Ieda Leão

    2011-12-01

    The Amazon region is one of the most diverse areas in the world. Research on high tropical forest diversity brings up relevant contributions to understand the mechanisms that result and support such diversity. In the present study we describe the species composition and diversity of 15 one-ha plots in the Amazonian terra firme dense forest in Brazil, and compare the floristic similarity of these plots with other nine one-ha plots. The 15 plots studied were randomly selected from permanent plots at the Embrapa Experimental site, Amazonas State in 2005. The diversity was analysed by using species richness and Shannon's index, and by applying the Sorensen's index for similarity and unweighted pair-group average (UPGMA) as clustering method. Mantel test was performed to study whether the differences in species composition between sites could be explained by the geographic distance between them. Overall, we identified 8 771 individuals, 264 species and 51 plant families. Most of the species were concentrated in few families and few had large number of individuals. Families presenting the highest species richness were Fabaceae (Faboideae: 22spp., Mimosoideae: 22spp.), Sapotaceae: 22spp., Lecythidaceae: 15 and Lauraceae: 13. Burseraceae had the largest number of individuals with 11.8% of the total. The ten most abundant species were: Protium hebetatum (1 037 individuals), Eschweilera coriacea (471), Licania oblongifolia (310), Pouteria minima (293), Ocotea cernua (258), Scleronema micranthum (197), Eschweilera collina (176), Licania apelata (172), Naucleopsis caloneura (170) and Psidium araca (152), which represented 36.5% of all individuals. Approximately 49% of species had up to ten individuals and 13% appeared only once in all sampled plots, showing a large occurrence of rare species. Our study area is on a forest presenting a high tree species diversity with Shannon's diversity index of 4.49. The dendrogram showed two groups of plots with low similarity between them

  12. Floristic units and their predictors unveiled in part of the Atlantic Forest hotspot: implications for conservation planning.

    PubMed

    Saiter, Felipe Z; Eisenlohr, Pedro V; França, Glauco S; Stehmann, João R; Thomas, William W; De Oliveira-Filho, Ary T

    2015-01-01

    We submitted tree species occurrence and geoclimatic data from 59 sites in a river basin in the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil to ordination, ANOVA, and cluster analyses with the goals of investigating the causes of phytogeographic patterns and determining whether the six recognized subregions represent distinct floristic units. We found that both climate and space were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) important in the explanation of phytogeographic patterns. Floristic variations follow thermal gradients linked to elevation in both coastal and inland subregions. A gradient of precipitation seasonality was found to be related to floristic variation up to 100 km inland from the ocean. The temperature of the warmest quarter and the precipitation during the coldest quarter were the main predictors. The subregions Sandy Coastal Plain, Coastal Lowland, Coastal Highland, and Central Depression were recognized as distinct floristic units. Significant differences were not found between the Inland Highland and the Espinhaço Range, indicating that these subregions should compose a single floristic unit encompassing all interior highlands. Because of their ecological peculiarities, the ferric outcrops within the Espinhaço Range may constitute a special unit. The floristic units proposed here will provide important information for wiser conservation planning in the Atlantic Forest hotspot.

  13. Regional temporal persistence of dried soil layer along south-north transect of the Loess Plateau, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Xiaoxu; Shao, Ming'an; Zhang, Chencheng; Zhao, Chunlei

    2015-09-01

    The occurrence of dried soil layer (DSL) threatens the sustainable development of restored ecosystems in the Loess Plateau of China. Knowledge of the regional spatiotemporal characteristics of DSL in water-deficient regions is critical for optimal water management and vegetation restoration. This study assessed regional temporal persistence of DSL using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rs) and relative difference (RD) analyses and determined the dominant driving factors. Two DSL evaluation indices [DSL thickness (DSLT) and DSL soil water content (DSL-SWC)] were calculated by measuring volumetric SWC of the 0-500 cm soil layer at 86 locations along a south-north regional transect of the Loess Plateau in 2013-2014. Based on the study, there was DSL formation at most of the sites (61 out of 86 sites) along the transect. The level of DSL was severe, with mean DSLT of 273 cm and mean DSL-SWC of only 10.8% (v/v) [field capacity (FC) = 22.5% (v/v)]. Mean DSL-SWC generally decreased from south to north, while no obvious trend was noted in DSLT along the transect. Derived rs values indicated a good temporal persistence of spatial patterns of DSL. Also RD analysis showed that DSL with thicker DSLT and/or lower DSL-SWC had much stronger temporal persistence, implying higher possibility for the formation of permanent DSL. The representative locations of each DSL index well represented the regional means of DSLT and DSL-SWC. This suggested that there was the feasibility of directly estimating regional patterns of DSL from theoretical temporal stability. The temporal persistence of DSL patterns was mainly controlled by soil texture, soil organic carbon, field capacity, mean annual precipitation, precipitation seasonal distribution (PSD) and mean annual temperature. We concluded that soil- and climate-related factors dominated regional temporal persistence of DSL. Lower soil water holding capacity, fewer rainfall and more concentrated PSD could intensify the formation and

  14. The Role of Education in Building a Future World Based on Democracy and Development: Regional Perspectives from Africa, Latin America, and South Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolman, David C.

    This paper begins with a comparative regional survey of the current status of democracy and development in Africa, Latin America, and South Asia. Each region shares a legacy of colonial domination by European powers. The comparative study uses criteria from the basic needs approach. Critical social thought and future visions about democracy and…

  15. Reduction of Risk in Exploration and Prospect Generation through a Multidisciplinary Basin-Analysis Program in the South-Central Mid-Continent Region

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, S.; Barker, C.; Fite, J.; George, S.; Guo, Genliang; Johnson, W.; Jordan, J., Szpakiewicz, M.; Person, M.; Reeves, T.K.; Safley, E.; Swenson, J.B.; Volk, L.; and Erickson, R.

    1999-04-02

    This report will discuss a series of regional studies that were undertaken within the South-Central Mid-Continent region of the U.S. Coverage is also provided about a series of innovative techniques that were used for this assessment.

  16. Carving out Institutional Space for Multilingualism in the World's Most Multilingual Region: The Role of Linguistics at the University of the South Pacific

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willans, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    The University of the South Pacific is a regional university catering for 12 countries. Its location situates it within unparalleled linguistic diversity, and its regional structure creates a highly multilingual body of staff and students interacting either face-to-face on the major campuses or remotely via e-learning and satellite communications.…

  17. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 5): South Andover Salvage Yards, Andover, MN, May 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This decision document represents an amendment to a Record of Decision (ROD) issued December 24, 1992 (PB93-964132) for soil remedial action at the South Andover Salvage Yard Site (the Site). U.S. EPA issued a ROD on December 24, 1992 for the second operable unit for the remedial action of soil. The major components of this remedy included: excavate and treat approximately 2,100 cubic yards of predominately carcinogenic PAH (CPAH) contaminated soils using an above-ground biological treatment unit; excavate and transport approximately 9,300 cubic yards of soils contaminated with PCBs, CPAHs, lead and antimony to an off-site solid waste landfill permitted to receive industrial and/or commercial wastes; sample and remove drums previously inventoried by MPCA and U.S. EPA.

  18. Population genetic structure of the malaria vector Anopheles moucheti in south Cameroon forest region.

    PubMed

    Antonio-Nkondjio, Christophe; Ndo, Cyrille; Awono-Ambene, Parfait; Ngassam, Pierre; Fontenille, Didier; Simard, Frédéric

    2007-01-01

    We used recently developed microsatellite DNA markers to explore the population genetic structure of the malaria vector, Anopheles moucheti. Polymorphism at 10 loci was examined to assess level of genetic differentiation between four A. moucheti populations from South Cameroon situated 65-400 km apart. All microsatellite loci were highly polymorphic with a number of distinct alleles per locus ranging from 9 to 17. Fst estimates ranging from 0.0094 to 0.0275 (P < 0.001) were recorded. These results suggest a very low level of genetic differentiation between A. moucheti populations. The recently available microsatellite loci revealed useful markers to assess genetic differentiation between geographical populations of A. moucheti in Cameroon.

  19. Temperature Estimates for the Slow Slip Region on the Decollement Underlying the South Flank of Kilauea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinelli, G. A.

    2013-12-01

    Eleven slow slip events on the decollement beneath the south flank of Kilauea volcano have been documented geodetically since 1998 (Brooks et al., 2006; Montgomery-Brown et al., 2009; 2013). Tectonic tremor has not been observed associated with these events, in contrast to most slow slip events in subduction zones (Montgomery-Brown et al., 2013). The slow slip events occur on the decollement at ~8 km depth, and updip of the 'normal' earthquakes on the fault. Constraining temperatures on Kilauea's decollement allows comparisons between its slow slip events and those in subduction zones. Kilauea's slow slip events (~8 km depth) are significantly shallower than most subduction zone slow slip events. I estimate temperatures in a 2-D cross-section through the south flank of Kilauea by combining methods used in subduction zone thermal models (Wang et al., 1995) with elements of intrusion cooling models of volcanoes (e.g., Civetta et al., 2004). Temperatures in the cross-section are controlled by: 1) heat sources from friction on the decollement, radioactive decay, and volcanic activity, and 2) heat transport by conduction, advection of the volcanic pile to the southeast over the underlying oceanic lithosphere, and advective heat transport associated with groundwater flow. I examine the thermal effects of a range of effective friction coefficients on the fault from 0-0.2. I determine the potential effects of groundwater flow in the upper ~1-2 km of the onshore and near-offshore volcanic pile (e.g., Kauahikaua, 1993; Buttner and Huenges, 2003) on decollement temperatures. Finally, I examine how heat input from Kilauea volcano may result in higher decollement temperatures than at the same depth on plate boundary faults in subduction zones.

  20. Observation of Seasonal Variability of Landforms in the Martian South Polar Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, J.; van Gasselt, S.; Neesemann, A.

    2016-09-01

    We report on a systematic seasonal survey started with spiders together with dark spots and polygonal terrain show seasonal and spatial changes. We provide a detailed mapping of landform types and a systematic analysis on Cavi Angusti City region.

  1. Organochlorine insecticide residues in fish and birds from three river systems on the North Coast Region of New South Wales

    SciTech Connect

    McDougall, K.W.; Harris, C.R. ); Ahmad, N.; Higginson, F.R. )

    1989-06-01

    In a study on the occurrence and management of organochlorine (OC) insecticide residues on the North Coast Region of New South Wales (NSW), the authors recorded the presence of dieldrin, aldrin, heptachlor, and BHC residues in dairy pasture, sugar cane, or banana plantation soils. DDT residues were seldom present in these soils but others have detected relatively low levels of DDT residues in soils on the Cudgen-Duranbah plateau, an important vegetable and tropical fruit production area overlooking the Tweed, one of the major rivers on the North Coast Region. Although OC residues in these agricultural soils were all relatively low, they could be one source of contamination of North Coast river systems. The authors report results of further work done to assess the extent to which fish and birds collected from river systems in the NSW North Coast Region are contaminated with OC residues. Three of the major rivers - Clarence, Richmond, and Tweed - on the North Coast Region were selected for study. Fish were taken between October, 1983 and February, 1984.

  2. Impacts of Atmospheric Mercury Deposition on Human Multimedia Exposure: Projection from Observations in the Pearl River Delta Region, South China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Minjuan; Deng, Sixin; Dong, Hanying; Dai, Wei; Pang, Jiongming; Wang, Xuemei

    2016-10-04

    A preliminary projection was performed to determine human multimedia exposure to mercury (Hg) based on deposition flux observations and to identify the impacts of atmospheric Hg deposition in Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, South China. The Monte Carlo technique was used to propagate the variability throughout the projection. The regional specific probability density functions (PDFs) of the studied parameters were regressed from the provincial/national published data, except when the data were deficient. The atmospheric Hg deposition flux ranged from 43.70 to 321.19 μg/m(2)/year and did not significantly contribute to Hg accumulation in the regional topsoil, freshwater bodies, and most food items except fish. The consumption of fish and milk/dairy products was the major contributor to the total exposure for adults (>18 years)/6- to 12-year children and 0- to 6-year children, respectively. The projected concentrations and exposure levels were the results combining MeHg and inorganic Hg (Hg(2+)). Under the 30-year projection, the probability of risks caused by Hg deposition (combining Hg(2+) and MeHg) was the highest for 0- to 6-year children, followed by 6- to 12-year children and adults. The ground effects driven by precipitation had a significantly greater effect relative to the mass transport effects in this region.

  3. VHF coherent scatter radar observations of mid-latitude F-region field-aligned irregularities over South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Y.; Yang, T.; Lee, J.; Hwang, J.; Kil, H.; Park, Y.

    2011-12-01

    We examine the mid-latitude F-region field-aligned irregularity (FAI) activity during 2010-2011 by using the VHF coherent scatter radar data in Daejeon (36.2°N, 127.1°E; dip latitude 26.7°N), South Korea. The VHF radar has been operated since December 2009 and provides a unique opportunity to investigate the variability of the FAI activity with local time, season, solar flux, and magnetic activity. Our preliminary results during the solar minimum show that FAIs preferentially occur at post-sunset and pre-sunrise and during the June solstice. The seasonal variation of the FAI occurrence frequency is similar to that of the electron density irregularities observed by the C/NOFS satellite. For one event, we observed the association of the FAIs with a medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbance (MSTID). Our study extends to the investigation of the correlations between the irregularities in the equatorial region and middle latitudes and between the conjugate F regions, and the causal linkage of the FAIs with the E-region perturbations. For this purpose, we analyze the VHF radar and C/NOFS data during 2010-2011.

  4. Dissecting the Effects of Simulated Cattle Activity on Floristic Composition and Functional Traits in Mediterranean Grasslands

    PubMed Central

    Dobarro, Iker; Pérez Carmona, Carlos; Peco, Begoña

    2013-01-01

    Livestock exerts direct and indirect effects on plant communities, changing colonization and extinction rates of species and the surrounding environmental conditions. There is scarce knowledge on how and to what extent these effects control the floristic and functional composition of plant communities in grasslands. We performed an experiment that included several treatments simulating trampling, defoliation, faeces addition and their combinations in a Mediterranean scrub community grazing-abandoned for at least 50 years. We monitored the plots for four years, and collected data on species composition, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and red∶far-red ratio (R∶FR), soil moisture and compaction. We estimated community weighted means (CWM) for height, habit, life cycle, seed mass and SLA. Neither compaction nor soil moisture were modified by the treatments, while PAR and R∶FR increased in all treatments in comparison to the Control and Faeces treatments. The floristic composition of all treatments, except for Faeces, converged over time, but deviated from that of the Control. The functional traits displayed the trends expected in the presence of grazing: loss of erect species and increased cover of short species with light seeds, with rosettes and prostrate habit. However, contrary to the results in literature, SLA was lower in all the treatments than Control plots. Like the results for floristic composition, all treatments except for Faeces converged towards a similar functional composition at the end of the four year period. The results of this study show the initial evolution of a Mediterranean plant community in the presence of grazing, driven primarily by the destructive action of livestock. These actions seem to directly affect the rates of extinction/colonization, and indirectly affect the light environment but not the soil conditions. However, their effects on floristic and trait composition do not seem to differ, at least at the small spatio

  5. Dissecting the effects of simulated cattle activity on floristic composition and functional traits in Mediterranean grasslands.

    PubMed

    Dobarro, Iker; Carmona, Carlos Pérez; Peco, Begoña

    2013-01-01

    Livestock exerts direct and indirect effects on plant communities, changing colonization and extinction rates of species and the surrounding environmental conditions. There is scarce knowledge on how and to what extent these effects control the floristic and functional composition of plant communities in grasslands. We performed an experiment that included several treatments simulating trampling, defoliation, faeces addition and their combinations in a Mediterranean scrub community grazing-abandoned for at least 50 years. We monitored the plots for four years, and collected data on species composition, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and red∶far-red ratio (R∶FR), soil moisture and compaction. We estimated community weighted means (CWM) for height, habit, life cycle, seed mass and SLA. Neither compaction nor soil moisture were modified by the treatments, while PAR and R∶FR increased in all treatments in comparison to the Control and Faeces treatments. The floristic composition of all treatments, except for Faeces, converged over time, but deviated from that of the Control. The functional traits displayed the trends expected in the presence of grazing: loss of erect species and increased cover of short species with light seeds, with rosettes and prostrate habit. However, contrary to the results in literature, SLA was lower in all the treatments than Control plots. Like the results for floristic composition, all treatments except for Faeces converged towards a similar functional composition at the end of the four year period. The results of this study show the initial evolution of a Mediterranean plant community in the presence of grazing, driven primarily by the destructive action of livestock. These actions seem to directly affect the rates of extinction/colonization, and indirectly affect the light environment but not the soil conditions. However, their effects on floristic and trait composition do not seem to differ, at least at the small spatio

  6. Impacts of conflict on land use and land cover in the Imatong Mountain region of South Sudan and northern Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorsevski, Virginia B.

    The Imatong Mountain region of South Sudan makes up the northern most part of the Afromontane conservation 'biodiversity hotspot' due to the numerous species of plants and animals found here, some of which are endemic. At the same time, this area (including the nearby Dongotana Hills and the Agoro-Agu region of northern Uganda) has witnessed decades of armed conflict resulting from the Sudan Civil War and the presence of the Ugandan Lord's Resistance Army (LRA). The objective of my research was to investigate the impact of war on land use and land cover using a combination of satellite remote sensing data and semi-structured interviews with local informants. Specifically, I sought to (1) assess and compare changes in forest cover and location during both war and peace; (2) compare trends in fire activity with human population patterns; and (3) investigate the underlying causes influencing land use patterns related to war. I did this by using a Disturbance Index (DI), which isolates un-vegetated spectral signatures associated with deforestation, on Landsat TM and ETM+ data in order to compare changes in forest cover during conflict and post-conflict years, mapping the location and frequency of fires in subsets of the greater study area using MODIS active fire data, and by analyzing and summarizing information derived from interviews with key informants. I found that the rate of forest recovery was significantly higher than the rate of disturbance both during and after wartime in and around the Imatong Central Forest Reserve (ICFR) and that change in net forest cover remained largely unchanged for the two time periods. In contrast, the nearby Dongotana Hills experienced relatively high rates of disturbance during both periods; however, post war period losses were largely offset by gains in forest cover, potentially indicating opposing patterns in human population movements and land use activities within these two areas. For the Agoro-Agu Forest Reserve (AFR) region

  7. IRTM brightness temperature maps of the Martian south polar region during the polar night: The cold spots don't move

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paige, D. A.; Crisp, D.; Santee, M. L.; Richardson, M. I.

    1993-01-01

    A series of infrared thermal mapper (IRTM) south polar brightness temperature maps obtained by Viking Orbiter 2 during a 35-day period during the southern fall season in 1978 was examined. The maps show a number of phenomena that have been identified in previous studies, including day to day brightness temperature variations in individual low temperature regions and the tendency for IRTM 11-micron channel brightness temperatures to also decrease in regions where low 20-micron channel brightness temperatures are observed. The maps also show new phenomena, the most striking of which is a clear tendency for the low brightness temperature regions to occur at fixed geographic regions. During this season, the coldest low brightness temperatures appear to be concentrated in distinct regions, with spatial scales ranging from 50 to 300 km. There are approximately a dozen of these concentrations, with the largest centered near the location of the south residual polar cap. Other concentrations are located at Cavi Angusti and close to the craters Main, South, Lau, and Dana. Broader, less intense regions appear to be well correlated with the boundaries of the south polar layered deposits and the Mountains of Mitchell. No evidence for horizontal motion of any of these regions has been detected.

  8. Diffuse nutrient losses and the impact factors determining their regional differences in four catchments from North to South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yongyong; Zhou, Yujian; Shao, Quanxi; Liu, Hongbin; Lei, Qiuliang; Zhai, Xiaoyan; Wang, Xuelei

    2016-12-01

    Diffuse nutrient loss mechanism is complicated and shows remarkably regional differences due to spatial heterogeneities of underlying surface conditions, climate and agricultural practices. Moreover, current available observations are still hard to support the identification of impact factors due to different time or space steps. In this study, an integrated water system model (HEQM) was adopted to obtain the simulated loads of diffuse components (carriers: runoff and sediment; nutrient: total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorous (TP)) with synchronous scales. Multivariable statistical analysis approaches (Analysis of Similarity and redundancy analysis) were used to assess the regional differences, and to identify impact factors as well as their contributions. Four catchments were selected as our study areas, i.e., Xiahui and Zhangjiafen Catchments of Miyun Basin in North China, Yuliang and Tunxi Catchments of Xin'anjiang Basin in South China. Results showed that the model performances of monthly processes were very good for runoff and good for sediment, TN and TP. The annual average coefficients of all the diffuse components in Xin'anjiang Basin were much greater than those in Miyun Basin, and showed significantly regional differences. All the selected impact factors interpreted 72.87-82.16% of the regional differences of carriers, and 62.72-71.62% of those of nutrient coefficients, respectively. For individual impact factor categories, the critical category was geography, followed by land-use/cover, carriers, climate, as well as soil and agricultural practices in Miyun Basin, or agricultural practices and soil in Xin'anjiang Basin. For individual factors, the critical factors were locations for the carrier regional differences, and carriers or chemical fertilizer for the nutrient regional differences. This study is expected to promote further applications of integrated water system model and multivariable statistical analysis in the diffuse nutrient studies, and

  9. Regional stratigraphy of Smackover limestone (Jurassic) in south Arkansas and north Louisiana, and geology of Chalybeat Springs oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Troell, A.R.; Robinson, J.D.

    1987-09-01

    Prior to 1960, the Reynolds oolite of the Smackover Formation of south Arkansas, was correlated with the Smackover B oolite of north Louisiana. The absence of anticlines with structural closure and the paucity of untested fault closures along the Arkansas-Louisiana boundary provided little exploratory interest in the area. Discovery of oil at Lick Creek field in 1960 and at Walker Creek in 1968 revealed a trend of traps and led to the geologic investigation that resulted in the discovery, in 1972, of Chalybeat Springs field, in Columbia County, Arkansas. Chalybeat Springs field is a combination stratigraphic-structural trap in oolitic calcarenite at a depth of 10,250 ft in the Smackover B limestone. Production is limited by the combination of a tilted anticline with porosity pinch-out on its flank. The field originally had 28 producing wells and 10 dry holes, and covered approximately 4500 productive acres. Original oil in place is estimated to have been 37 million bbl and cumulative production through 1985 was approximately 12 million bbl. The geologic relationships and principles observed in the Smackover Limestone of south Arkansas and north Louisiana have been successfully applied to other regions and in carbonate strata of different age, in the search for oil and gas production. Practical geologic studies of carbonate rocks, aided by examination of drill cuttings, cores, and thin sections, combined with mechanical log evaluation, result in lower finding costs for oil and gas reserves.

  10. Vertical structure of cumulonimbus towers and intense convective clouds over the South Asian region during the summer monsoon season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, G. S.; Kumar, Shailendra

    2015-03-01

    The vertical structure of radar reflectivity factor in active convective clouds that form during the South Asian monsoon season is reported using the 2A25 version 6 data product derived from the precipitation radar measurements on board the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite. We define two types of convective cells, namely, cumulonimbus towers (CbTs) and intense convective cells (ICCs). CbT is defined referring to a reflectivity threshold of 20 dBZ at 12 km altitude and is at least 9 km thick. ICCs are constructed referring to reflectivity thresholds at 8 km and 3 km altitudes. Cloud properties reported here are based on 10 year climatology. It is observed that the frequency of occurrence of CbTs is highest over the foothills of Himalayas, plains of northern India and Bangladesh, and minimum over the Arabian Sea and equatorial Indian Ocean west of 90°E. The regional differences depend on the reference height selected, namely, small in the case of CbTs and prominent in 6-13 km height range for ICCs. Land cells are more intense than the oceanic ones for convective cells defined using the reflectivity threshold at 3 km, whereas land versus ocean contrasts are not observed in the case of CbTs. Compared to cumulonimbus clouds elsewhere in the tropics, the South Asian counterparts have higher reflectivity values above 11 km altitude.

  11. Floristic composition, beta diversity, and nestedness of reference sites for restoration of xeroriparian areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beauchamp, Vanessa B.; Shafroth, P.B.

    2011-01-01

    In restoration ecology, reference sites serve as models for areas to be restored and can provide a standard of comparison for restoration project outcomes. When reference sites are located a relatively long distance from associated restoration projects, differences in climate, disturbance history, and biogeography can increase beta diversity and may decrease the relevance of reference sites. Variation in factors at the scale of individual reference sites such as patch size, microclimate, barriers to dispersal, or soil chemistry can result in reference site species composition that is a nested subset of the regional species pool. In the western United States, restoration of riparian areas, particularly those occupied by Tamarix spp., has become a priority; however, little is known about suitable native replacement vegetation communities for relatively dry and saline riparian terraces that comprise many of the sites where Tamarix is removed prior to restoration activities. We studied plant communities on riparian terraces along five rivers in New Mexico, USA, to (1) determine whether the floristic composition of reference sites can be predicted by easily measured soil variables such as pH, salinity (electric conductivity), and texture; (2) examine the extent of distance decay in the compositional similarity of xeroriparian plant communities in the southwestern United States; and (3) determine the degree of nestedness in xeroriparian plant communities in relationship to soil variables. We found that sites clustered into groups based largely on variation in soil salinity and texture. Vegetation across all sites was highly nested with dominant, salt-tolerant species found on most soil groups and salt-intolerant subordinate species restricted to lowsalinity soils. The identity of subordinate species was largely site dependent, causing all sites to have the same low degree of similarity regardless of the distance between them. We conclude that, when planning restoration

  12. Floristic composition, beta diversity, and nestedness of reference sites for restoration of xeroriparian areas.

    PubMed

    Beauchamp, Vanessa B; Shafroth, Patrick B

    2011-03-01

    In restoration ecology, reference sites serve as models for areas to be restored and can provide a standard of comparison for restoration project outcomes. When reference sites are located a relatively long distance from associated restoration projects, differences in climate, disturbance history, and biogeography can increase beta diversity and may decrease the relevance of reference sites. Variation in factors at the scale of individual reference sites such as patch size, microclimate, barriers to dispersal, or soil chemistry can result in reference site species composition that is a nested subset of the regional species pool. In the Western United States, restoration of riparian areas, particularly those occupied by Tamarix spp., has become a priority; however, little is known about suitable native replacement vegetation communities for relatively dry and saline riparian terraces that comprise many of the sites where Tamarix is removed prior to restoration activities. We studied plant communities on riparian terraces along five rivers in New Mexico, USA, to (1) determine whether the floristic composition of reference sites can be predicted by easily measured soil variables such as pH, salinity (electric conductivity), and texture; (2) examine the extent of distance decay in the compositional similarity of xeroriparian plant communities in the southwestern United States; and (3) determine the degree of nestedness in xeroriparian plant communities in relationship to soil variables. We found that sites clustered into groups based largely on variation in soil salinity and texture. Vegetation across all sites was highly nested with dominant, salt-tolerant species found on most soil groups and salt-intolerant subordinate species restricted to low-salinity soils. The identity of subordinate species was largely site dependent, causing all sites to have the same low degree of similarity regardless of the distance between them. We conclude that, when planning restoration

  13. Diviner lunar radiometer observations of cold traps in the moon's south polar region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paige, D.A.; Siegler, M.A.; Zhang, J.A.; Hayne, P.O.; Foote, E.J.; Bennett, K.A.; Vasavada, A.R.; Greenhagen, B.T.; Schofield, J.T.; McCleese, D.J.; Foote, M.C.; DeJong, E.; Bills, B.G.; Hartford, W.; Murray, B.C.; Allen, C.C.; Snook, K.; Soderblom, L.A.; Calcutt, S.; Taylor, F.W.; Bowles, N.E.; Bandfield, J.L.; Elphic, R.; Ghent, R.; Glotch, T.D.; Wyatt, M.B.; Lucey, P.G.

    2010-01-01

    Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment surface-temperature maps reveal the existence of widespread surface and near-surface cryogenic regions that extend beyond the boundaries of persistent shadow. The Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) struck one of the coldest of these regions, where subsurface temperatures are estimated to be 38 kelvin. Large areas of the lunar polar regions are currently cold enough to cold-trap water ice as well as a range of both more volatile and less volatile species. The diverse mixture of water and high-volatility compounds detected in the LCROSS ejecta plume is strong evidence for the impact delivery and cold-trapping of volatiles derived from primitive outer solar system bodies.

  14. Diviner Lunar Radiometer observations of cold traps in the Moon's south polar region.

    PubMed

    Paige, David A; Siegler, Matthew A; Zhang, Jo Ann; Hayne, Paul O; Foote, Emily J; Bennett, Kristen A; Vasavada, Ashwin R; Greenhagen, Benjamin T; Schofield, John T; McCleese, Daniel J; Foote, Marc C; DeJong, Eric; Bills, Bruce G; Hartford, Wayne; Murray, Bruce C; Allen, Carlton C; Snook, Kelly; Soderblom, Laurence A; Calcutt, Simon; Taylor, Fredric W; Bowles, Neil E; Bandfield, Joshua L; Elphic, Richard; Ghent, Rebecca; Glotch, Timothy D; Wyatt, Michael B; Lucey, Paul G

    2010-10-22

    Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment surface-temperature maps reveal the existence of widespread surface and near-surface cryogenic regions that extend beyond the boundaries of persistent shadow. The Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) struck one of the coldest of these regions, where subsurface temperatures are estimated to be 38 kelvin. Large areas of the lunar polar regions are currently cold enough to cold-trap water ice as well as a range of both more volatile and less volatile species. The diverse mixture of water and high-volatility compounds detected in the LCROSS ejecta plume is strong evidence for the impact delivery and cold-trapping of volatiles derived from primitive outer solar system bodies.

  15. Water Use and Management in Semiarid Regions - A Distributed Modelling Approach in the Verlorenvlei Catchment, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleischer, Melanie; Kralisch, Sven; Fink, Manfred; Pfennig, Björn; Butchart-Kuhlmann, Daniel; Meinhardt, Markus; de Clercq, Willem

    2016-04-01

    Hydrological modelling is a useful method to predict water availability and environmental impacts in a range of climate and land use change scenarios. One of the major challenges to accurate predictions using hydrological modelling in semi-arid areas is the high temporal and spatial variability of rainfall events and the associated uncertainty of related process parameters. Limited and often unreliable climate observations can cause additional problems. These particular circumstances are well documented for many catchments in the world, including semi-arid parts of South Africa. An accurate assessment of water quality and quantity is however crucial for sustainable water resource management, which is often difficult under changing environmental conditions such as climate and land use change. This situation can be found in the Verlorenvlei catchment, a part of the Sandveld area located in the Western Cape region of South Africa. Extensive dry periods in combination with an increasing domestic water demand, expanding irrigation agriculture and expected reducing rainfall due to climate change present a challenging setup for water management in this region. The catchment is a highly sensitive area with one of the most important estuary systems in the Western Cape region, containing significant natural wetlands with high biodiversity and numerous endemic species. With very limited surface water resources, most settlements and irrigation systems in the region are mainly dependent on groundwater. As a result of the particular conditions, the use of improved management techniques, such as centre pivot irrigation and contour-bank farming, are necessary. The distributed, process-oriented hydrological modelling system JAMS/J2000 is used and evaluated to assess water availability within the catchment under different climate and land-use change scenarios. The first phase has involved configuring the model to accurately represent the specific natural conditions of the

  16. Neonatal tetanus mortality survey, north and south Omo administrative regions, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Alemu, W

    1993-04-01

    Neonatal tetanus (NNT) is the second most frequent cause of infant mortality among the six vaccine preventable infections in developing countries. However, lack of reliable data has largely obscured the importance of the problem in these countries. A community based NNT mortality survey was conducted, using cluster sample method developed by WHO/EPI, in August 1989 in North and South Omo, Ethiopia. The study found 14 neonatal tetanus deaths among 2100 live births which occurred from 15 July 1988 to 15 July 1989, giving NNT mortality rate of 6.7/1000 LB (live births) and an estimated incidence rate of 8.4/1000 LB, accounting for 40% of all neonatal deaths. Male newborns were 2.5 times more commonly affected than females. Cutting of umbilical cord with unsterile instrument, home delivery attended by untrained TBAs, and lack of adequate tetanus TT immunization were found to be associated with increased incidence of NNT. Acceleration and promotion of TT immunization of all women of child bearing age and training of TBAs in proper obstetric care, coupled with continuous supportive supervision, is recommended in order to successfully execute the NNT elimination initiative undertaken by the Ministry of Health.

  17. Natural radioactivity and metal contamination of river sediments in the Calabria region, south of Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caridi, F.; Marguccio, S.; D'Agostino, M.; Belvedere, A.; Belmusto, G.

    2016-05-01

    River sediments from eight different sites of the coast of Calabria, south of Italy, were sampled to determine natural radioactivity and metal concentrations, in order to assess any possible radiological hazard, the level of contamination and the possible anthropogenic impact in the area. Gamma and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry were employed and results of this study show that the mean activity concentrations of radium (in secular equilibrium with uranium) ranged from 15.1Bq/kg to 26.7Bq/kg, that of thorium from 21.8Bq/kg to 48.3Bq/kg and that of potassium from 541.3Bq/kg to 1452.2Bq/kg. In terms of mean mass concentrations, XRF analysis revealed that uranium was lower than 1.5ppm (minimum detectable value), thorium ranged from 6.1ppm to 10.3ppm while potassium ranged from 2.5% to 4.4%. The degree of sediment contaminations were computed using an enrichment factor (EF) and geoaccumulation index ( I geo for some potential hazardous elements. Results suggested that enrichment factor and geoaccumulation values of Pb and Mn were greatest among the studied metals. The study revealed that on the basis of computed indexes, the eight investigated rivers can be classified as no polluted ones.

  18. Aedes aegypti from temperate regions of South America are highly competent to transmit dengue virus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aedes aegypti is extensively spread throughout South America where it has been responsible for large dengue epidemics during the last decades. Intriguingly, dengue transmission has not been reported in Uruguay and is essentially prevalent in subtropical northern Argentina which borders Uruguay. Methods We assessed vector competence for dengue virus (DENV) of Ae. aegypti populations collected in subtropical Argentina (Corrientes) as well as temperate Uruguay (Salto) and Argentina (Buenos Aires) in 2012 using experimental oral infections with DENV-2. Mosquitoes were incubated at 28°C and examined at 14 and 21 days p.i. to access viral dissemination and transmission. Batches of the Buenos Aires mosquitoes were also incubated at 15°C and 20°C. Results Although mosquitoes from temperate Uruguay and Argentina were competent to transmit DENV, those from subtropical Argentina were more susceptible, displaying the highest virus titters in the head and presenting the highest dissemination of infection and transmission efficiency rates when incubated at 28°C. Interestingly, infectious viral particles could be detected in saliva of mosquitoes from Buenos Aires exposed to 15°C and 20°C. Conclusions There is a potential risk of establishing DENV transmission in Uruguay and for the spread of dengue outbreaks to other parts of subtropical and temperate Argentina, notably during spring and summer periods. PMID:24373423

  19. New and interesting species of the genus Muelleria (Bacillariophyta) from the Antarctic region and South Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van De Vijver, B.; Mataloni, G.; Stanish, L.; Spaulding, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    During a survey of the terrestrial diatom flora of some sub-Antarctic islands in the southern Indian and Atlantic Oceans and of the Antarctic continent, more than 15 taxa belonging to the genus Muelleria were observed. Nine of these taxa are described as new species using light and scanning electron microscopy. Comments are made on their systematic position and how they are distinguished from other species in the genus. Additionally, two previously unrecognized taxa within the genus were discovered in samples from South Africa. One of these, Muelleria taylorii Van de Vijver & Cocquyt sp. nov., is new to science; the other, Muelleria vandermerwei (Cholnoky) Van de Vijver & Cocquyt nov. comb., had been included in the genus Diploneis. The large number of new Muelleria taxa on the (sub)-Antarctic locations is not surprising. Species in Muelleria occur rarely in collections; in many habitats, it is unusual to find more than 1-2 valves in any slide preparation. As a result, records are scarce. The practice of "force-fitting" (shoehorning) specimens into descriptions from common taxonomic keys (and species drift) results in European species, such as M. gibbula and M. linearis, being applied to Antarctic forms in ecological studies. Finally, the typical terrestrial habitats of soils, mosses and ephemeral water bodies of most of these taxa have been poorly studied in the past.

  20. Bluetongue disease and seroprevalence in South American camelids from the northwestern region of the United States.

    PubMed

    Allen, Andrew J; Stanton, James B; Evermann, James F; Fry, Lindsay M; Ackerman, Melissa G; Barrington, George M

    2015-03-01

    In late summer/early fall of 2013, 2 South American camelids from central Washington were diagnosed with fatal bluetongue viral disease, an event which is rarely reported. A 9-year-old intact male llama (Lama glama), with a 1-day history of anorexia, recumbency, and dyspnea before death. Abundant foam discharged from the mouth and nostrils, and the lungs were severely edematous on postmortem examination. Histologically, there was abundant intra-alveolar edema with fibrin. Hemorrhage and edema disrupted several other organs. Bluetongue viral RNA was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and serotype 11 was identified by sequencing a segment of the VP2 outer capsid gene. Approximately 1 month later, at a site 150 miles north of the index case, a 2-year-old female alpaca with similar, acutely progressive clinical signs was reported. A postmortem examination was performed, and histologic lesions from the alpaca were similar to those of the llama, and again serotype 11 was detected by PCR. The occurrence of bluetongue viral infection and disease is described in the context of seasonal Bluetongue virus activity within the northwestern United States and southwestern Canada.

  1. Spatial justice and the translation of European strategic planning ideas in the urban sub-region of south Yorkshire.

    PubMed

    Dabinett, Gordon

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses urban planning practices in South Yorkshire to reveal how EU strategic spatial ideas and values are reproduced. Specifically, the paper examines how the notion of spatial justice was interpreted as the organising concepts within the European Spatial Development Perspective became situated within a territory severely affected by deindustrialisation in the 1980s, but subsequently a major beneficiary of EU Structural Fund programmes. The analysis reveals how policy-making at this scale used a construct of polycentric urban development that reasserted a model of economic growth based on the indigenous assets held in city centres at the expense of more redistributive measures targeted at the former coal-mining communities in the sub-region.

  2. Methyl mercury concentrations in edible fish and shellfish from Dunedin, and other regions around the South Island, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Sadhu, Ashish K; Kim, Jonathan P; Furrell, Hamish; Bostock, Ben

    2015-12-15

    Methyl mercury (MeHg) concentrations were determined in edible fish and shellfish available in local markets in Dunedin, New Zealand. While most of the fish species were sourced in Dunedin, some specimens of fish were also collected from waters off Picton, around Stewart Island and also off-shore of the South Island in the Puysegur and Subantarctic regions. The concentrations of MeHg were analysed in 25 different fish species and shellfish (103 muscle tissue samples). Total mercury (HgT) levels were also analysed in a few (n=12) selected fish samples. Most of the Hg was in the form of MeHg (≥ 96%). Higher MeHg concentrations were found in fish at higher trophic levels, particularly in predatory fish species such as ling, school shark, spiny dogfish and albacore tuna. Concentrations of MeHg in all samples ranged from 0.002 to 2.515 μg MeHg/g.

  3. Desertification and its effect on the erosion of vegetation in the south-western region of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Salam, Magda Magdy; Elhakem, Abeer Hamdy

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted in Jazan region of south-western Saudi Arabia. Vegetation cover, frequency, abundance and soil characteristics were analysed at three locations with different quantitative and descriptive vegetation characteristics. Plant species were classified into three primary communities dominated by Salvadora persic, Acacia tortilis and Ziziphus spini-Christi. The results indicated that the distribution of plant species is controlled by soil characteristics. Very limited water resources are also limiting factor in vegetation growth. Among the three studied sites, desert and coastal environments are affected by desertification. Rehabilitation of the degraded lands requires collaborative efforts and support from the different related governmental sectors. Ecological conservation and sustainable development must be adopted as tools of rehabilitation.

  4. An Analysis of Rural Manpower Migration Patterns in the South Plains Region of Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stapleton, Richard C.

    Because of declining prices for sorghum and cotton, increased operating costs, and reduction in the underground water level, opportunities for male high school graduates in the Southern Plains region have declined in recent years. The study collected data on migration patterns of males who graduated during the 1953-63 period by surveying high…

  5. EPA Region 10 Climate Change and TMDL Pilot Project - South Fork Nooksack River, Washington

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 10 and EPA’s Office of Research and Development (ORD) and Office of Water (OW) have launched a pilot research project to consider how projected climate change impacts could be incorporated into a TMDL and influence restoration...

  6. Platform margins, reef facies, and microbial carbonates; a comparison of Devonian reef complexes in the Canning Basin, Western Australia, and the Guilin region, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jian-Wei; Webb, Gregory E.; Jell, John S.

    2008-05-01

    Devonian reef complexes were well developed in Western Australia and South China, but no detailed direct comparison has been made between reef building in the two regions. The regions differ in several respects, including tectonic, stratigraphic and palaeoceanographic-palaeogeographic settings, and the reef building styles reflect minor differences in reef builders and reef facies. Similarities and differences between the two reef complexes provide insights into the characteristics of platform margins, reef facies and microbial carbonates of both regions. Here we present a comparison of platform margin types from different stratigraphic positions in the Late Devonian reef complex of the Canning Basin, Western Australia and Middle and Late Devonian margin to marginal slope successions in Guilin, South China. Comparisons are integrated into a review of the reefal stratigraphy of both regions. Reef facies, reef complex architecture, temporal reef builder associations, 2nd order stratigraphy and platform cyclicity in the two regions were generally similar where the successions overlap temporally. However, carbonate deposition began earlier in South China. Carbonate complexes were also more widespread in South China and represent a thicker succession overall. Platforms in the Canning Basin grew directly on Precambrian crystalline basement or early Palaeozoic sedimentary rocks, but in South China, carbonate complexes developed conformably on older Devonian siliciclastic strata. Pre-Frasnian reef facies in South China had more abundant skeletal frameworks than in Canning Basin reefs of equivalent age, and Famennian shoaling margins containing various microbial reefs may have been more common and probably more diverse in South China. However, Late Devonian platform margin types have been documented more completely in the Canning Basin. Deep intra-platform troughs (deep depressions containing non-carbonate pelagic sediments — Nandan-type successions) that developed along

  7. Mantle plumes beneath the South Pacific superswell revealed by finite frequency P tomography using regional seafloor and island data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obayashi, M.; Yoshimitsu, J.; Sugioka, H.; Ito, A.; Isse, T.; Shiobara, H.; Reymond, D.; Suetsugu, D.

    2016-11-01

    We present a new tomographic image beneath the South Pacific superswell, using finite frequency P wave travel time tomography with global and regional data. The regional stations include broadband ocean-bottom seismograph stations. The tomographic image shows slow anomalies of 200-300 km in diameter beneath most hot spots in the studied region, extending continuously from the shallow upper mantle to 400 km depth. Narrow and weak slow anomalies are detected at depths of 500-1000 km, connecting the upper mantle slow anomalies with large-scale slow anomalies with lateral dimension of 1000-2000 km prevailing below 1000 km depth down to the core-mantle boundary. There are two slow anomalies around the Society hot spot at depths shallower than 400 km, which both emerge from the same slow anomaly at 500 km depth. One of them is located beneath the Society hot spot and the other underlies 500 km east of the Society hot spot, where no volcanism is observed.

  8. Radionuclides in resident and migratory fishes of a wedge bank region: Estimation of dose to human beings, South India.

    PubMed

    Khan, M Feroz; Wesley, S Godwin

    2012-10-01

    Baseline activity concentration of (137)Cs, (210)Po and (210)Pb was determined for 25 resident and 22 migratory fish species collected in a so-called wedge bank region in the extreme south of India. A nuclear power station is now under construction at Kudankulam near the target region and the data provide background information on the radionuclide activity concentration in the region. Three-way ANOVA revealed no significant variation in the concentrations of (137)Cs, (210)Po and (210)Pb between species based on feeding habit, habitat and migratory pattern except the effect of feeding habit on (210)Po concentration (p<0.05). The annual dose due to radionuclide ingestion through the fishes was calculated based on the survey results of fish consumption rates for the local population. The dose due to (137)Cs was negligibly small while those due to (210)Po and (210)Pb varied from 1.2 to 36.9 and 0.2 to 2.9μSv yr(-1), respectively.

  9. Surficial geology of the Safsaf region, south-central Egypt, derived from remote-sensing and field data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, P.A.; Breed, C.S.; McCauley, J.F.; Schaber, G.G.

    1993-01-01

    We used a decorrelation-stretched image of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) Bands 1, 4, and 7 and field data to map and describe the main surficial units in the hyperarid Safsaf region in south-central Egypt. We show that the near-infrared bands on Landsat TM, which are sensitive to very subtle changes in mineralogy common to arid regions, significantly improve the geologist's capability to discriminate geologic units in desert regions. These data also provide the spatial and spectral information necessary to determine the migration patterns and provenance of eolian materials. The Safsaf area was the focus of our post flight field studies using Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR) data following the discovery of buried paleochannels in North Africa. Most of the channels discernible on SIR images are not expressed in TM data, but traces of a few channels are present in both the SIR and the TM data within the Wadi Safsaf area. Here we present a detailed digital examination of the SIR and the TM-band reflectance and reflectance-ratio data at three locations of the more obvious surface expressions of the buried channels. Our results indicate that the TM expressions of the channels are not purely topographic but are more compositional in nature. Two possibilities may account for the TM expressions of the buried channels: 1) concentrations of windblown, iron-rich materials that accumulated along subtle curvilinear topograpohic traps, or 2) curvilinear exposures of an iron-rich underlying unit of the flat sand sheet. ?? 1993.

  10. Submarine Sedimentation Transport Processes in the South-Eastern Terceira Rift / São Miguel Region (Azores)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiß, Benedikt; Hübscher, Christian; Lüdmann, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The south-eastern Terceira Rift comprises a rift basin, igneous ridges, seamounts and São Miguel, the main island of the volcanic Azores Archipelago. It is located ~1500 km west of continental Portugal within the convergence zone of the American, African and Eurasian plate. Due to submarine and subaerial volcanism, the sedimentation rate is higher than usually assumed in such a segregated submarine region. Multi-beam and high-resolution multi-channel seismic data reveal a wide variety of sediment transport processes. Volcanic fall-out sediments are abundant in the entire area. Along the northern slope of Sao Miguel terrestrial volcanic sediments are drained by rain water gullies which connect to submarine channels. Turbidity currents created some 10 km long erosional channels which transported the sediments more than 40 km downslope. Several regional accumulations of talus and/or pyroclastic material get instable resulting in gravitational gliding, creeping or slide events. Volcanic ridges partly collapse due to tectonic stress and/or gravity spreading. Oceanic currents remobilize sediments and form drift deposits. Infilling drifts developed on top of hangingwall blocks of step faults. Therefore, the São Miguel region is a good example of a sedimentary system with strong time-variant and locally defined sediment support. Sedimentation is controlled by volcanism and tectonics, since these processes affect sedimentation pathways and oceanographic conditions.

  11. Gas emissions from dairy cows fed typical diets of Midwest, South, and West regions of the United States.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zifei; Powers, Wendy; Oldick, Bradley; Davidson, Jill; Meyer, Deanne

    2012-01-01

    Gas emissions were determined for dairy cows fed three diets formulated to represent feed ingredients typical of the Midwest, South, or West regions of the United States. Dairy cows were housed and monitored in 12 environmentally controlled rooms (4 cows diet). Two experiments were performed, representing two lactation stages (initial days in milk were 115 ± 39 d in Stage 1 and 216 ± 48 d in Stage 2). The results demonstrated that the combination of different dietary ingredients resulted in different gas emissions while maintaining similar dry matter intake (DMI) and milk yield (MY). Diet effect on ammonia (NH) emissions was more prominent in Stage 1. During Stage 1, cows fed the Midwest diet had the highest daily NH emission, corresponding to the highest crude protein (CP) concentration among the three regions. The differences in NH emissions (39.0%) were much larger than the percent difference in CP concentrations between diets (6.8%). Differences in N intake, N excretion, or milk urea N alone may not serve as a strong indicator of the potential to reduce NH emissions. Lower emissions of methane (CH) per unit DMI or per unit MY were observed for cows offered the South diet during Stage 1 as compared with that from cows offered the Midwest or West diets. No diet effect was observed for hydrogen sulfide (HS) emission per unit S intake, nor for nitrous oxide (NO) emission. The measured NH and CH emissions were comparable, but the NO emissions were much higher than those reported for tie-stall dairy barns in the literature.

  12. Reducing stunting by improving maternal, infant and young child nutrition in regions such as South Asia: evidence, challenges and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Meeting the high nutrient needs of pregnant and lactating women and their young children in regions such as South Asia is challenging because diets are dominated by staple foods with low nutrient density and poor mineral bioavailability. Gaps in nutritional adequacy in such populations probably date back to the agricultural revolution ~10 000 years ago. Options for improving diets during the first 1000 days include dietary diversification and increased intake of nutrient‐rich foods, improved complementary feeding practices, micronutrient supplements and fortified foods or products specifically designed for these target groups. Evidence from intervention trials indicates that several of these strategies, both prenatal and post‐natal, can have a positive impact on child growth, but results are mixed and a growth response is not always observed. Nutrition interventions, by themselves, may not result in the desired impact if the target population suffers from frequent infection, both clinical and subclinical. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms underlying both prenatal and post‐natal growth restriction. In the meantime, implementation and rigorous evaluation of integrated interventions that address the multiple causes of stunting is a high priority. These intervention packages should ideally include improved nutrition during both pregnancy and the post‐natal period, prevention and control of prenatal and post‐natal infection and subclinical conditions that restrict growth, care for women and children and stimulation of early child development. In regions such as South Asia, such strategies hold great promise for reducing stunting and enhancing human capital formation. PMID:27187908

  13. HLA gene and haplotype frequencies in Russians, Bashkirs and Tatars, living in the Chelyabinsk Region (Russian South Urals).

    PubMed

    Suslova, T A; Burmistrova, A L; Chernova, M S; Khromova, E B; Lupar, E I; Timofeeva, S V; Devald, I V; Vavilov, M N; Darke, C

    2012-10-01

    We have characterized the HLA-A, -B, -DRB1, -DQA1 and -DQB1 profiles of three major ethnic groups living in Chelyabinsk Region of Russian South Urals, viz., Russians (n = 207), Bashkirs (n = 146) and Tatars (n = 135). First field level typing was performed by PCR using sequence-specific primers. Estimates included carriage and gene frequencies, linkage disequilibrium and its significance and related values. Population comparisons were made between the allele family frequencies of the three populations and between these populations and 20 others using a dendrogram. Chelyabinsk Region Russians demonstrate all the features typical of a Caucasoid population, but also have some peculiarities. Together with Tatars, Russians have high frequencies of allele families and haplotypes characteristic of Finno-Ugric populations. This presupposes a Finno-Ugric impact on Russian and Tatar ethnogenesis. However, this was not apparent in Bashkirs, the first of the three populations to live in this territory, and implies admixture with populations of a Finno-Ugric origin with precursors of Russians and Tatars before they came to the South Urals. The Bashkirs appear close to Mongoloids in allele and haplotype distribution. However, Bashkirs cannot be labelled either as typical Mongoloids or as Caucasoids. Thus, Bashkirs possess some alleles and haplotypes frequent in Mongoloids, which supports the Turkic impact on Bashkir ethnogenesis, but also possess the AH 8.1 haplotype, which could evidence an ancient Caucasoid population that took part in their ethnic formation or of recent admixture with adjacent populations (Russians and Tatars). Bashkirs showed no features of populations with a substantial Finno-Ugric component, for example Chuvashes or Russian Saami. This disputes the commonly held belief of a Finno-Ugric origin for Bashkirs. Tatars appeared close to many European populations. However, they possessed some characteristics of Asiatic populations possibly reflecting a Mongoloid

  14. Lower ionosphere monitoring by the South America VLF Network (SAVNET): C region occurrence and atmospheric temperature variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoni, Fernando Celso Perin; Raulin, Jean-Pierre; Gavilán, Hernán. Rivero; Kaufmann, Pierre; Rodriguez, Rodolfo; Clilverd, Mark; Cardenas, Jorge Samanes; Fernandez, Germán.

    2013-10-01

    profiles of phase measurements as observed on fixed VLF paths generally show a transient phase advance, followed by a phase delay, for about 90 min after sunrise hours. This is indicative of a reflecting ionospheric C region developing along the terminator line at an altitude below the normal D region. The suggested occurrence of a C region is consistent with rocket measurements made in the 1960s, showing a maximum of the electron density between 64 and 68 km, and by radio sounding in the 1980s. In order to correctly describe the properties of the phase effect associated with the presence of a C region, it is important to understand the subionospheric propagation characteristics of the VLF paths. In this paper, we analyze the variations presented by the temporal properties of the VLF narrowband phase effect and determined a parameter associated with the appearance of the C region at sunrise hours observed by receivers from the South America VLF Network. Periodic patterns emerge from the parameter curves. Two distinct temporal behavior regimes can be identified: one exhibiting slow variations between March and October, and another one exhibiting faster variations between October and March. Solar illumination conditions and the geometrical configuration of the VLF paths relative to the sunrise terminator partly explain the slow variation regime. During periods of faster variations, we have observed good association with atmospheric temperature variability found in the measurements of the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics and Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry satellite instrument, which we assume to be related to the winter anomaly atmospheric phenomenon. However, when comparing the parameter time series with temperature curves, no direct one-to-one correspondence was found for transient events.

  15. Quantification and regionalization of groundwater recharge in South-Central Kansas: Integrating field characterization, statistical analysis, and GIS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sophocleous, M.

    2000-01-01

    A practical methodology for recharge characterization was developed based on several years of field-oriented research at 10 sites in the Great Bend Prairie of south-central Kansas. This methodology combines the soil-water budget on a storm-by-storm year-round basis with the resulting watertable rises. The estimated 1985-1992 average annual recharge was less than 50mm/year with a range from 15 mm/year (during the 1998 drought) to 178 mm/year (during the 1993 flood year). Most of this recharge occurs during the spring months. To regionalize these site-specific estimates, an additional methodology based on multiple (forward) regression analysis combined with classification and GIS overlay analyses was developed and implemented. The multiple regression analysis showed that the most influential variables were, in order of decreasing importance, total annual precipitation, average maximum springtime soil-profile water storage, average shallowest springtime depth to watertable, and average springtime precipitation rate. Therefore, four GIS (ARC/INFO) data "layers" or coverages were constructed for the study region based on these four variables, and each such coverage was classified into the same number of data classes to avoid biasing the results. The normalized regression coefficients were employed to weigh the class rankings of each recharge-affecting variable. This approach resulted in recharge zonations that agreed well with the site recharge estimates. During the "Great Flood of 1993," when rainfall totals exceeded normal levels by -200% in the northern portion of the study region, the developed regionalization methodology was tested against such extreme conditions, and proved to be both practical, based on readily available or easily measurable data, and robust. It was concluded that the combination of multiple regression and GIS overlay analyses is a powerful and practical approach to regionalizing small samples of recharge estimates.

  16. Seasonal Prediction of Regional Surface Air Temperature and First-flowering Date in South Korea using Dynamical Downscaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, J. B.; Hur, J.

    2015-12-01

    The seasonal prediction of both the surface air temperature and the first-flowering date (FFD) over South Korea are produced using dynamical downscaling (Hur and Ahn, 2015). Dynamical downscaling is performed using Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) v3.0 with the lateral forcing from hourly outputs of Pusan National University (PNU) coupled general circulation model (CGCM) v1.1. Gridded surface air temperature data with high spatial (3km) and temporal (daily) resolution are obtained using the physically-based dynamical models. To reduce systematic bias, simple statistical correction method is then applied to the model output. The FFDs of cherry, peach and pear in South Korea are predicted for the decade of 1999-2008 by applying the corrected daily temperature predictions to the phenological thermal-time model. The WRF v3.0 results reflect the detailed topographical effect, despite having cold and warm biases for warm and cold seasons, respectively. After applying the correction, the mean temperature for early spring (February to April) well represents the general pattern of observation, while preserving the advantages of dynamical downscaling. The FFD predictabilities for the three species of trees are evaluated in terms of qualitative, quantitative and categorical estimations. Although FFDs derived from the corrected WRF results well predict the spatial distribution and the variation of observation, the prediction performance has no statistical significance or appropriate predictability. The approach used in the study may be helpful in obtaining detailed and useful information about FFD and regional temperature by accounting for physically-based atmospheric dynamics, although the seasonal predictability of flowering phenology is not high enough. Acknowledgements This work was carried out with the support of the Rural Development Administration Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science and Technology Development under Grant Project No. PJ009953 and

  17. North-South Differentiation and a Region of High Diversity in European Wolves (Canis lupus)

    PubMed Central

    Stronen, Astrid V.; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła; Pertoldi, Cino; Demontis, Ditte; Randi, Ettore; Niedziałkowska, Magdalena; Pilot, Małgorzata; Sidorovich, Vadim E.; Dykyy, Ihor; Kusak, Josip; Tsingarska, Elena; Kojola, Ilpo; Karamanlidis, Alexandros A.; Ornicans, Aivars; Lobkov, Vladimir A.; Dumenko, Vitalii; Czarnomska, Sylwia D.

    2013-01-01

    European wolves (Canis lupus) show population genetic structure in the absence of geographic barriers, and across relatively short distances for this highly mobile species. Additional information on the location of and divergence between population clusters is required, particularly because wolves are currently recolonizing parts of Europe. We evaluated genetic structure in 177 wolves from 11 countries using over 67K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci. The results supported previous findings of an isolated Italian population with lower genetic diversity than that observed across other areas of Europe. Wolves from the remaining countries were primarily structured in a north-south axis, with Croatia, Bulgaria, and Greece (Dinaric-Balkan) differentiated from northcentral wolves that included individuals from Finland, Latvia, Belarus, Poland and Russia. Carpathian Mountain wolves in central Europe had genotypes intermediate between those identified in northcentral Europe and the Dinaric-Balkan cluster. Overall, individual genotypes from northcentral Europe suggested high levels of admixture. We observed high diversity within Belarus, with wolves from western and northern Belarus representing the two most differentiated groups within northcentral Europe. Our results support the presence of at least three major clusters (Italy, Carpathians, Dinaric-Balkan) in southern and central Europe. Individuals from Croatia also appeared differentiated from wolves in Greece and Bulgaria. Expansion from glacial refugia, adaptation to local environments, and human-related factors such as landscape fragmentation and frequent killing of wolves in some areas may have contributed to the observed patterns. Our findings can help inform conservation management of these apex predators and the ecosystems of which they are part. PMID:24146871

  18. North-South differentiation and a region of high diversity in European wolves (Canis lupus).

    PubMed

    Stronen, Astrid V; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła; Pertoldi, Cino; Demontis, Ditte; Randi, Ettore; Niedziałkowska, Magdalena; Pilot, Małgorzata; Sidorovich, Vadim E; Dykyy, Ihor; Kusak, Josip; Tsingarska, Elena; Kojola, Ilpo; Karamanlidis, Alexandros A; Ornicans, Aivars; Lobkov, Vladimir A; Dumenko, Vitalii; Czarnomska, Sylwia D

    2013-01-01

    European wolves (Canis lupus) show population genetic structure in the absence of geographic barriers, and across relatively short distances for this highly mobile species. Additional information on the location of and divergence between population clusters is required, particularly because wolves are currently recolonizing parts of Europe. We evaluated genetic structure in 177 wolves from 11 countries using over 67K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci. The results supported previous findings of an isolated Italian population with lower genetic diversity than that observed across other areas of Europe. Wolves from the remaining countries were primarily structured in a north-south axis, with Croatia, Bulgaria, and Greece (Dinaric-Balkan) differentiated from northcentral wolves that included individuals from Finland, Latvia, Belarus, Poland and Russia. Carpathian Mountain wolves in central Europe had genotypes intermediate between those identified in northcentral Europe and the Dinaric-Balkan cluster. Overall, individual genotypes from northcentral Europe suggested high levels of admixture. We observed high diversity within Belarus, with wolves from western and northern Belarus representing the two most differentiated groups within northcentral Europe. Our results support the presence of at least three major clusters (Italy, Carpathians, Dinaric-Balkan) in southern and central Europe. Individuals from Croatia also appeared differentiated from wolves in Greece and Bulgaria. Expansion from glacial refugia, adaptation to local environments, and human-related factors such as landscape fragmentation and frequent killing of wolves in some areas may have contributed to the observed patterns. Our findings can help inform conservation management of these apex predators and the ecosystems of which they are part.

  19. Cluster analysis of Landslide Vulnerable region on an urban Area in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Yonghee; Lee, Sangeun; Kim, Myoungsoo; Baek, Jongrak

    2016-04-01

    Mountain areas occupy about 65% of the territory in South Korea. Due to the rapid population growth and urbanization, many cities suffer from the limitation in space, and hence the commercial buildings, educational facilities, and housing settlement areas continue to stretch until the bottom of the mountain. In result, residents become more and more vulnerable to landslides and debris flow. This led to the central government to perceiving the need for strengthening regulations relevant to urban planning. In order to consider risks due to landslides and debris flow in the stage of urban planning, present authors suggested the strategies, including: first, selecting priority areas necessary to manage landslide-related disasters strictly; second, establishing the integrated management system useful to offer technical assistances to persons in charge of urban planning in the areas; third, promoting disaster awareness programs with those persons along with the central government. As the first attempt, this study mainly discusses the GIS-application procedures in which authors selected the priority areas, which are summarized: 1. Collect the landslide historical data for the period 1999 - 2012 when the disasters particularly threatened the whole country. 2. Define the areas with the one-kilometer radius around the landslide occurrence places. 3. Exclude the areas where population is less than 100 persons per 1 km2. 4. Exclude the areas where mountains with Grade I or II of landslide risk (announced by the Korea Forest Service) go below a certain portion of the area. 5. Carry out the cluster analysis with the remaining areas 6. Classify the types at the standpoint of landslide disaster risk management. Through the procedures, this study obtained a total of 86 priority areas, which were also classified into 24 areas - Type A (high population exposure and mid landslide occurrence likelihood) -, 25 areas - Type B (mid population exposure and high landslide occurrence

  20. Quality of streams in the Bull Mountains region, south-central Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knapton, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    In October 1977, water-quality monitoring stations were established on five small streams that drain the Bull Mountains and also on the Musselshell River to document present water-quality conditions in a coal area of south-central Montana. Relatively static water-quality conditions exist throughout the annual flow cycle on the small streams but water quality varies with time on the Musselshell River. The near absence of surface runoff in the Bull Mountains during the study and the dominance by the base-flow component account for stability of water quality in the small streams. High-mountain runoff coupled with storms and prairie runoff impact the base flow of the Musselshell River. Bicarbonate and sulfate were the principal anions and are present in nearly equal proportions in all small streams. Except for West Parrot Creek, magnesium was the most dominant cation. West Parrot Creek, which consistently contained the smallest levels of dissolved solids, had sodium rather than magnesium as the principal cation. Fattig Creek was highest in dissolved solids with an approximate concentration range of 900 to 2,100 milligrams per liter. Suspended-sediment discharge in the streams was relatively small; no stream exceeded 0.32 ton per day. The Musselshell River had dissolved solids concentrations that ranged from about 450 milligrams per liter during spring runoff to 1,800 milligrams per liter during periods of base flow. The sodium sulfate-type water, which is common during base flow, is diluted during runoff with water having principal ions of calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate. Suspended-sediment loads ranged from 0.56 to 37,300 tons per day and correlated directly to stream discharge. (USGS)

  1. Carbonaceous aerosol and its characteristics observed in Tokyo and south Kanto region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minoura, Hiroaki; Morikawa, Tazuko; Mizohata, Akira; Sakamoto, Kazuhiko

    2012-12-01

    Due to enforcing vehicle emission reduction requirements in Japan, particulate matter (PM) concentration, especially elemental carbon (EC) concentration in roadside atmosphere, obviously decreased in the last decade. In spite of the previous vehicle emission reduction, EC concentration was not shown a clear decrease, recently. To achieve the PM2.5 environmental standard, measurements based on emission source contribution are desirable. However, source apportionment of carbonaceous aerosol was ambiguous because chemical components are complicated, and the components change through photochemical reaction. The goal of this study is to determine source apportionment for carbonaceous aerosols. Examination of PM2.5 was performed in south Kanto including Tokyo in the summer of 2008 and the winter of 2009. Emissions from the industrial area around Tokyo Bay and the agricultural northern area showed transportation and accumulation due to the seasonal prevailing wind. The emissions formed a geographical distribution due to photochemical reactions. The characteristics of carbonaceous aerosol were obtained using carbon profile analysis and carbon isotope analysis, including the source information such as fossil fuel emission origin, vegetation origin, and combustion product, photochemical reaction product, etc. Soot-EC was found as a substance with fossil fuel origin which did not contain biomass combustion matter, and since it is stable, there was no observed difference by site and a uniform concentration was observed in winter. It became apparent from the carbon isotope analysis using 14C that the carbon from the biomass origin involved 29% in total carbon in the summer, and 48% in winter even at Kudan of central Tokyo.

  2. Investigation of Absorption Cooling Application Powered by Solar Energy in the South Coast Region of Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babayigit, O.; Aksoy, M. H.; Ozgoren, M.; Solmaz, O.

    2013-04-01

    In this study, an absorption system using ammonia-water (NH3-H2O) solution has been theoretically examined in order to meet the cooling need of a detached building having 150 m2 floor area for Antalya, Mersin and Mugla provinces in Turkey. Hourly dynamic cooling load capacities of the building were determined by using Radiant Time Series (RTS) method in the chosen cities. For the analysis, hourly average meteorological data such as atmospheric air temperature and solar radiation belonging to the years 1998-2008 are used for performance prediction of the proposed system. Thermodynamic relations for each component of absorption cooling system is explained and coefficients of performance of the system are calculated. The maximum daily total radiation data were calculated as 7173 W/m2day on July 15, 7277 W/m2 day on July 19 and 7231 W/m2day on July 19 for Mersin, Antalya and Mugla, respectively on the 23° toward to south oriented panels from horizontal surface. The generator operating temperatures are considered between 90-130°C and the best result for 110°C is found the optimum degree for maximum coefficient of performance (COP) values at the highest solar radiation occurred time during the considered days for each province. The COP values varies between 0.521 and 0.530 for the provinces. In addition, absorber and condenser capacities and thermal efficiency for the absorption cooling system were calculated. The necessary evacuated tube collector area for the different provinces were found in the range of 45 m2 to 47 m2. It is shown that although the initial investment cost is higher for the proposed absorption cooling system, it is economically feasible because of its lower annual operation costs and can successfully be operated for the considered provinces.

  3. Timing, Structural Styles, and Tectonic Significance of Neogene Basin Inversion Across the South China Sea and Indonesian Back-Arc Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorobek, S. L.; Olson, C. C.

    2005-12-01

    Basin inversion is a common phenomenon in many intracontinental extensional or transtensional settings that are subjected to later contractional deformation. Numerous examples of inverted Paleogene rift basins are found in the Indonesian back-arc region and southern and western parts of the South China Sea. Inversion was widespread across the broad region, mainly began in latest Oligocene-early Miocene time, and locally continues to the present day. Most basins were fully inverted in less than 15 Myr and inversion typically involved reactivation of preexisting extensional fault systems that formed during Paleogene rifting. We examined the tectonic styles and regional timing of basin inversion across this region in order to understand the tectonic and geodynamic reasons for the inversion. The timing of regional inversion and structural styles associated with inversion reflect roughly N-S to NNW-SSE oriented intraplate compressive stress, which suggests that incipient collision of Australian continental crust along the eastern Indonesian archipelago and `South Chinese/Vietnamese' crust along the Borneo/South Palawan margin were responsible for the widespread inversion. A fundamental change from uncoupled to coupled subduction along the Indonesian trench and Borneo/South Palawan margin, coincident with the incipient subduction of continental crust along these convergent margins during latest Oligocene-early Miocene time, may explain why intraplate compressive stress was transmitted across the Indonesian back-arc and southern South China Sea (Sunda Shelf) region. Prior to late Oligocene time, subduction was essentially uncoupled and Paleogene rift basins across the Indonesian backarc and Sunda Shelf region were thermally subsiding. The rheology of Sundaland and offshore Southeast Asian continental lithosphere also was especially conducive to widespread, nearly synchronous basin inversion during Neogene time, which likely reflects the low viscosity nature of the mantle

  4. Regional modeling of wind erosion in the North West and South West of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirmousavi, S. H.

    2016-08-01

    About two-thirds of the Iran's area is located in the arid and semiarid region. Lack of soil moisture and vegetation is poor in most areas can lead to soil erosion caused by wind. So that the annual suffered severe damage to large areas of rich soils. Modeling studies of wind erosion in Iran is very low and incomplete. Therefore, this study aimed to wind erosion modeling, taking into three factors: wind speed, vegetation and soil types have been done. Wind erosion sensitivity was modeled using the key factors of soil sensitivity, vegetation cover and wind erodibility as proxies. These factors were first estimated separately by factor sensitivity maps and later combined by fuzzy logic into a regional-scale wind erosion sensitivity map. Large areas were evaluated by using publicly available datasets of remotely sensed vegetation information, soil maps and meteorological data on wind speed. The resulting estimates were verified by field studies and examining the economic losses from wind erosion as compensated by the state insurance company. The spatial resolution of the resulting sensitivity map is suitable for regional applications, as identifying sensitive areas is the foundation for diverse land development control measures and implementing management activities.

  5. Canadian groundwater inventory: Regional hydrogeological characterization of the south-central part of the maritimes basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rivard, C.; Michaud, Y.; Deblonde, C.; Boisvert, V.; Carrier, C.; Morin, R.H.; Calvert, T.; Vigneault, H.; Conohan, D.; Castonguay, S.; Lefebvre, R.; Rivera, A.; Parent, M.

    2008-01-01

    The Maritimes Groundwater Initiative (MGWI) is a large, integrated, regional hydrogeological study focusing on a representative area of the Maritimes Basin in eastern Canada. The study area covers a land surface of 10 500 km2, of which 9 400 km2 are underlain by sedimentary rocks. This sedimentary bedrock is composed of a sequence of discontinuous strata of highly variable hydraulic properties, and is generally overlain by a thin layer of glacial till(mostly 4-8 m thick, but can reach 20 m). Depending on the area, 46 to 100% of the population relieson groundwater for water supply, either from municipal wells or from private residential wells. The main objectives of this project were to improve the general understanding of groundwater-flow dynamics and to provide baseline information and tools for a regional groundwater-resource assessment. This bulletin presents the current state of understanding of this hydrogeological system, along with the methodology used to characterize and analyze its distinct behaviour at three different scales. This regional bedrock aquifer system contains confined and unconfined zones, and each of its lenticular permeable strata extends only a few kilometres. Preferential groundwater recharge occurs where sandy till is present. The mean annual recharge rate to the bedrock is estimated to range between 130 and 165 mm/a. Several geological formations of this basin provide good aquifers, with hydraulic conductivity in the range 5x10-6 to 10-4m/s. Based on results of numerical flow modelling, faults were interpreted to have a key role in the regional flow. Pumping-test results revealed that the fractured aquifers can locally be very heterogeneous and anisotropic, but behave similarly to porous media. Work performed at the local scale indicated that most water-producing fractures seem to be subhorizontal and generally oriented in a northeasterly direction, in agreement with regional structures and pumping-test results. Almost all residential

  6. Multilocus phylogeographic assessment of the California Mountain Kingsnake (Lampropeltis zonata) suggests alternative patterns of diversification for the California Floristic Province.

    PubMed

    Myers, E A; Rodríguez-Robles, J A; Denardo, D F; Staub, R E; Stropoli, A; Ruane, S; Burbrink, F T

    2013-11-01

    Phylogeographic inference can determine the timing of population divergence, historical demographic processes, patterns of migration, and when extended to multiple species, the history of communities. Single-locus analyses can mislead interpretations of the evolutionary history of taxa and comparative analyses. It is therefore important to revisit previous single-locus phylogeographic studies, particularly those that have been used to propose general patterns for regional biotas and the processes responsible for generating inferred patterns. Here, we employ a multilocus statistical approach to re-examine the phylogeography of Lampropeltis zonata. Using nonparametic and Bayesian species delimitation, we determined that there are two well-supported species within L. zonata. Ecological niche modelling supports the delimitation of these taxa, suggesting that the two species inhabit distinct climatic environments. Gene flow between the two taxa is low and appears to occur unidirectionally. Further, our data suggest that gene flow was mediated by females, a rare pattern in snakes. In contrast to previous analyses, we determined that the divergence between the two lineages occurred in the late Pliocene (c. 2.07 Ma). Spatially and temporally, the divergence of these lineages is associated with the inundation of central California by the Monterey Bay. The effective population sizes of the two species appear to have been unaffected by Pleistocene glaciation. Our increased sampling of loci for L. zonata, combined with previously published multilocus analyses of other sympatric species, suggests that previous conclusions reached by comparative phylogeographic studies conducted within the California Floristic Province should be reassessed.

  7. Effects of open grazing and livestock exclusion on floristic composition and diversity in natural ecosystem of Western Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Rowaily, Saud L; El-Bana, Magdy I; Al-Bakre, Dhafer A; Assaeed, Abdulaziz M; Hegazy, Ahmad K; Ali, Mohammed Basharat

    2015-07-01

    Livestock grazing is one of the main causes of rangeland degradation in Saudi Arabia. Fencing to exclude grazers is one of the main management practices used to restore vegetation and conserve biodiversity. The main objectives of this study were to investigate the changes in plant diversity and abundance, floristic composition and plant groups of the major life forms in response to thirty-five years of grazing exclosure in western Saudi Arabia. These vegetation attributes and palatability were compared in 30 sampling stands located in the excluded and grazed sites. Our results showed that livestock exclusion significantly increased covers, density and species richness of annuals, grasses, perennial forbs, shrubs and trees. Exclosure enhanced the abundance and richness of palatable species and depressed the development of weedy species. About 66.7% of the recorded species at the excluded site were highly palatable compared to 34.5% at the grazed site. In contrary, about 55.2% unpalatable species were found in the grazed site compared to 25.8% in the protected site. Jaccard's similarity index between the excluded and grazed sites showed lower values of 0.39%, 0.40% and 0.31% at levels of families, genus and species, respectively. The results suggest that establishing livestock exclusion may be a useful sustainable management tool for vegetation restoration and conservation of plant diversity in degraded rangelands of arid regions.

  8. Effects of open grazing and livestock exclusion on floristic composition and diversity in natural ecosystem of Western Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Rowaily, Saud L.; El-Bana, Magdy I.; Al-Bakre, Dhafer A.; Assaeed, Abdulaziz M.; Hegazy, Ahmad K.; Ali, Mohammed Basharat

    2015-01-01

    Livestock grazing is one of the main causes of rangeland degradation in Saudi Arabia. Fencing to exclude grazers is one of the main management practices used to restore vegetation and conserve biodiversity. The main objectives of this study were to investigate the changes in plant diversity and abundance, floristic composition and plant groups of the major life forms in response to thirty-five years of grazing exclosure in western Saudi Arabia. These vegetation attributes and palatability were compared in 30 sampling stands located in the excluded and grazed sites. Our results showed that livestock exclusion significantly increased covers, density and species richness of annuals, grasses, perennial forbs, shrubs and trees. Exclosure enhanced the abundance and richness of palatable species and depressed the development of weedy species. About 66.7% of the recorded species at the excluded site were highly palatable compared to 34.5% at the grazed site. In contrary, about 55.2% unpalatable species were found in the grazed site compared to 25.8% in the protected site. Jaccard’s similarity index between the excluded and grazed sites showed lower values of 0.39%, 0.40% and 0.31% at levels of families, genus and species, respectively. The results suggest that establishing livestock exclusion may be a useful sustainable management tool for vegetation restoration and conservation of plant diversity in degraded rangelands of arid regions. PMID:26150749

  9. Impacts of artificial reservoirs on floristic diversity and plant functional traits in dry forests after 15 years.

    PubMed

    Lopes, S F; Vale, V S; Prado Júnior, J A; Schiavini, I

    2015-08-01

    Dams are of paramount importance to a wide variety of human services and many of their environmental problems are known; however, there are few studies in the world addressing the impacts on the native vegetation previously distant from water bodies which became close to the lakeshore created by a dam. Thus, this paper aims to analyze the responses of a dry forest to a dam after 15 years. For this, 20 random samples of 40 trees were made, 10 close to the lakeshore and 10 distant from it, by applying the central square point method. Close to the dam, we found higher values regarding basal area, number of trees, number of evergreen trees, and zoochoric syndrome, but there were lower values of Shannon's diversity index. Therefore, the impacts of the dam after 15 years caused several changes to the tree community. The greater basal area close to the dam suggests that water deficit during the dry season was decreased and plants have thicker trunks. On the other hand, this sector had much more zoochoric syndrome and a larger number of evergreen trees than plots which are distant from water, suggesting changes with regard to the community's ecological functions. Furthermore, structural floristic data shows that the sector close to the dam is less similar to other deciduous forests within the same geographical region than the sector distant from water, thus providing evidence of the impacts of dams on the tree community.

  10. Hydrogen concentration in Lunar South Circumpolar Region according to LEND data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanin, Anton; Mitrofanov, Igor; Litvak, Maxim; Boynton, William; Chin, Gordon; Evans, Larry; Golovin, Dmitry; Harshman, Karl; Livengood, Timothy; McClanahan, Timothy; Malakhov, Alexey; Mokrousov, Maxim; Sagdeev, Roald; Starr, Richard

    2014-05-01

    The neutron spectrometer LEND (Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector) [1] continuously operating at lunar orbit on-board the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission [2] since 02 Jul, 2009. The primary goal for this instrument is to test for the presence of hydrogen in regolith of the Moon's Polar Regions with spatial resolution at to ~10 km. According to one of hypothesis the Permanently Shadowed Regions (PSRs) in vicinity of poles may contains a large amount of hydrogen (water ice) in regolith. Thus the PSRs were a primary target of the LEND investigation. It was found that only few of them indicated statistically significant evidence of the presence of hydrogen in the regolith. On the other hand, there were several cases where hydrogen was significantly detected in sunlit areas [3, 4]. Layering conditions for hydrogen to be preserved in these areas should be covered by a desiccated (or 'dry') regolith layer. We are performing a multi-instrument LEND-Diviner-LOLA data analysis to determine the lower limit of hydrogen concentration and minimal depth of its presence. Properties of the regolith are investigated by comparison with the LEND measured neutron suppressions and numerical modeling of neutron flux at LRO orbit. The statistical uncertainty of neutron suppression regions decreases as the observation time of the LEND instrument increases. Thus we use LEND data gathered during four plus years of the LRO mission. Obtained results of this multi-instrument analysis will be presented. References: [1] Mitrofanov I. G. et al. (2010) Space Sci. Rev., 150(1-4), 183-207. [2] Chin G. et al. (2007) Space Sci. Rev., 129, 391-419. [3] Mitrofanov I. G. et al. (2012) JGR, 117, E00H27. [4] Sanin A. B. et al. (2012) JGR, 117, E00H26.

  11. Waveform tomography of crustal structure in the south San Francisco Bay region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollitz, F.F.; Fletcher, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    We utilize a scattering-based seismic tomography technique to constrain crustal tructure around the southern San Francisco Bay region (SFBR). This technique is based on coupled traveling wave scattering theory, which has usually been applied to the interpretation of surface waves in large regional-scale studies. Using fully three-dimensional kernels, this technique is here applied to observed P, S, and surface waves of intermediate period (3-4 s dominant period) observed following eight selected regional events. We use a total of 73 seismograms recorded by a U.S. Geological Survey short-period seismic array in the western Santa Clara Valley, the Berkeley Digital Seismic Network, and the Northern California Seismic Network. Modifications of observed waveforms due to scattering from crustal structure include (positive or negative) amplification, delay, and generation of coda waves. The derived crustal structure explains many of the observed signals which cannot be explained with a simple layered structure. There is sufficient sensitivity to both deep and shallow crustal structure that even with the few sources employed in the present study, we obtain shallow velocity structure which is reasonably consistent with previous P wave tomography results. We find a depth-dependent lateral velocity contrast across the San Andreas fault (SAF), with higher velocities southwest of the SAF in the shallow crust and higher velocities northeast of the SAF in the midcrust. The method does not have the resolution to identify very slow sediment velocities in the upper approximately 3 km since the tomographic models are smooth at a vertical scale of about 5 km. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  12. Mineralogy of agricultural soil of selected regions of South Western Karnataka, Peninsular India.

    PubMed

    Smitha, P G; Byrappa, K; Ranganathaiah, C

    2015-07-01

    Agricultural soils of selected regions of Southwestern Karnataka, Peninsular India, were subjected to systematic mineralogical characterization along with the study of soil physical properties. Physical properties such as soil texture and micro porosity were studied using particle size analyses and positron annihilation lifetime analysis (PALS) technique, respectively. The latter was used to analyze micro porosity of agricultural soil. Both major and minor minerals were identified and confirmed by some analytical techniques like thin section study, powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  13. State of neonatal health care in eight countries of the SAARC region, South Asia: how can we make a difference?

    PubMed

    Das, Jai K; Rizvi, Arjumand; Bhatti, Zaid; Paul, Vinod; Bahl, Rajiv; Shahidullah, Mohammod; Manandhar, Dharma; Stanekzai, Hedayatullah; Amarasena, Sujeewa; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2015-08-01

    The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) is an organization of eight countries--Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, the Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Afghanistan. The major objectives of this review are to examine trends and progress in newborn and neonatal health care in the region. A landscape analysis of the current state of neonatal mortality, stillbirths and trends over the years for each country and the effective interventions to reduce neonatal mortality and stillbirths was undertaken. A modelling exercise using the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) was also undertaken to determine the impact of scaling up a set of essential interventions on neonatal mortality and stillbirths. The findings demonstrate that there is an unacceptably high and uneven burden of neonatal mortality and stillbirths in the region which together account for 39% of global neonatal deaths and 41% of global stillbirths. Progress is uneven across countries in the region, with five of the eight SAARC countries having reduced their neonatal mortality rate by more than 50% since 1990, while India (43%), Afghanistan (29%) and Pakistan (25%) have made slower progress and will not reach their MDG4 targets. The major causes of neonatal mortality are intrapartum-related deaths, preterm birth complications and sepsis which account for nearly 80% of all deaths. The LiST analysis shows that a gradual increase in coverage of proven available interventions until 2020 followed by a uniform scale-up to 90% of all interventions until 2030 could avert 52% of neonatal deaths (0.71 million), 29% of stillbirths (0.31 million) and achieve a 31% reduction in maternal deaths (0.25 million). The analysis demonstrates that the Maldives and Sri Lanka have done remarkably well while other countries need greater attention and specific focus on strategies to improve neonatal health.

  14. Driving mechanism and sources of groundwater nitrate contamination in the rapidly urbanized region of south China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qianqian; Sun, Jichao; Liu, Jingtao; Huang, Guanxing; Lu, Chuan; Zhang, Yuxi

    2015-11-01

    Nitrate contamination of groundwater has become an environmental problem of widespread concern in China. We collected 899 groundwater samples from a rapidly urbanized area, in order to identify the main sources and driving mechanisms of groundwater nitrate contamination. The results showed that the land use has a significant effect on groundwater nitrate concentration (P<0.001). Landfill leakage was an important source of nitrate in groundwater in the PRD (Pearl River Delta) region, since landfill yielded the highest nitrate concentration (38.14 mg/L) and the highest ratio of exceeded standard (42.50%). In this study, the driving mechanism of groundwater nitrate contamination was determined to be urban construction and the secondary and tertiary industrial development, and population growth. This study revealed that domestic wastewater and industrial wastewater were the main sources of groundwater nitrate pollution. Therefore, the priority method for relieving groundwater nitrate contamination is to control the random discharge of domestic and industrial wastewater in regions undergoing rapid urbanization. Capsule abstract. The main driving mechanism of groundwater nitrate contamination was determined to be urban construction and the secondary and tertiary industrial development, and population growth.

  15. Driving mechanism and sources of groundwater nitrate contamination in the rapidly urbanized region of south China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qianqian; Sun, Jichao; Liu, Jingtao; Huang, Guanxing; Lu, Chuan; Zhang, Yuxi

    2015-11-01

    Nitrate contamination of groundwater has become an environmental problem of widespread concern in China. We collected 899 groundwater samples from a rapidly urbanized area, in order to identify the main sources and driving mechanisms of groundwater nitrate contamination. The results showed that the land use has a significant effect on groundwater nitrate concentration (P < 0.001). Landfill leakage was an important source of nitrate in groundwater in the PRD (Pearl River Delta) region, since landfill yielded the highest nitrate concentration (38.14 mg/L) and the highest ratio of exceeded standard (42.50%). In this study, the driving mechanism of groundwater nitrate contamination was determined to be urban construction and the secondary and tertiary industrial development, and population growth. This study revealed that domestic wastewater and industrial wastewater were the main sources of groundwater nitrate pollution. Therefore, the priority method for relieving groundwater nitrate contamination is to control the random discharge of domestic and industrial wastewater in regions undergoing rapid urbanization. Capsule abstract. The main driving mechanism of groundwater nitrate contamination was determined to be urban construction and the secondary and tertiary industrial development, and population growth.

  16. Paleozoic-involving thrust array in the central Sierras Interiores (South Pyrenean Zone, Central Pyrenees): regional implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, L.; Cuevas, J.; Tubía, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    This work deals with the structural evolution of the Sierras Interiores between the Tena and Aragon valleys. The Sierras Interiores is a WNW-trending mountain range that bounds the South Pyrenean Zone to the north and that is characterized by a thrust-fold system with a strong lithological control that places preferably decollements in Triassic evaporites. In the studied area of the Sierras Interiores Cenomanian limestones cover discordantly the Paleozoic rocks of the Axial Zone because there is a stratigraphic lacuna developed from Triassic to Late Cretaceous times. A simple lithostratigraphy of the study area is made up of Late Cenomanian to Early Campanian limestones with grey colour and massive aspect in landscape (170 m, Lower calcareous section), Campanian to Maastrichtian brown coloured sandstones (400-600 m, Marboré sandstones) and, finally, Paleocene light-coloured massive limestones (130-230 m), that often generate the higher topographic levels of the Sierras Interiores due to their greater resistance to erosion. Above the sedimentary sequence of the Sierras Interiores, the Jaca Basin flysch succession crops out discordantly. Based on a detailed mapping of the studied area of the Sierras Interiores, together with well and structural data of the Jaca Basin (Lanaja, 1987; Rodríguez and Cuevas, 2008) we have constructed a 12 km long NS cross section, approximately parallel to the movement direction deduced for this region (Rodríguez et al., 2011). The main structure is a thrust array made up of at least four Paleozoic-involving thrusts (the deeper thrust system) of similar thickness in a probably piggyback sequence, some of which are blind thrusts that generate fold-propagation-folds in upper levels. The higher thrust of the thrust array crops out duplicating the lower calcareous section all over the Sierras Interiores. The emplacement of the deeper thrust system generated the tightness of previous structures: south directed piggyback duplexes (the upper

  17. Semi-automatic measures of activity in selected south polar regions of Mars using morphological image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aye, Klaus-Michael; Portyankina, Ganna; Pommerol, Antoine; Thomas, Nicolas

    The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) onboard Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) has been used to monitor the seasonal evolution of several regions at high southern latitudes. Of particular interest have been jet-like activities that may result from the process described by Kieffer (2007), involving translucent CO2 ice. These jets are assumed to create fan-shaped ground features, as studied e.g. in Hansen et.al. (2010) and Portyankina et.al. (2010). In Thomas et.al. (2009), a small region of interest (ROI) inside the south polar Inca City region (81° S, 296° E) was defined for which the seasonal change of the number of fans was determined. This ROI was chosen for its strong visual variability in ground features. The mostly manual counting work showed, that the number of apparent fans increases monotonously for a considerable amount of time from the beginning of the spring time observations at Ls of 178° until approx. 230° , following the increase of available solar energy for the aforementioned processes of the Kieffer model. This fact indicates that the number of visual fan features can be used as an activity measure for the seasonal evolution of this area, in addition to commonly used evolution studies of surface reflectance. Motivated by these results, we would like to determine the fan count evolution for more south polar areas like Ithaca, Manhattan, Giza and others. To increase the reproducibility of the results by avoiding potential variability in fan shape recognition by human eye and to increase the production efficiency, efforts are being undertaken to automise the fan counting procedure. The techniques used, cleanly separated in different stages of the procedure, the difficulties for each stage and an overview of the tools used at each step will be presented. After showing a proof of concept in Aye et.al. (2010), for a ROI that is comparable to the one previously used for manual counting in Thomas et.al. (2009), we now will show

  18. Enhancement and identification of dust events in the south-west region of Iran using satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taghavi, F.; Owlad, E.; Ackerman, S. A.

    2017-03-01

    South-west Asia including the Middle East is one of the most prone regions to dust storm events. In recent years, there was an increase in the occurrence of these environmental and meteorological phenomena. Remote sensing could serve as an applicable method to detect and also characterise these events. In this study, two dust enhancement algorithms were used to investigate the behaviour of dust events using satellite data, compare with numerical model output and other satellite products and finally validate with in-situ measurements. The results show that the use of thermal infrared algorithm enhances dust more accurately. The aerosol optical depth from MODIS and output of a Dust Regional Atmospheric Model (DREAM8b) are applied for comparing the results. Ground-based observations of synoptic stations and sun photometers are used for validating the satellite products. To find the transport direction and the locations of the dust sources and the synoptic situations during these events, model outputs (HYSPLIT and NCEP/NCAR) are presented. Comparing the results with synoptic maps and the model outputs showed that using enhancement algorithms is a more reliable way than any other MODIS products or model outputs to enhance the dust.

  19. Climate change in a region with altitude differences and with precipitation from various sources, South-Central Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naderi, Mostafa; Raeisi, Ezatolah

    2016-05-01

    The study area, with an arid to semiarid climate, is located in South-Central Iran. The precipitation sources are from Mediterranean, Sudan, and Indian Ocean. The daily precipitation and temperature generated by the Canadian Global Coupled Model are transiently downscaled, from 2015 to 2095, at 15 stations using LARS-WG under scenarios B1, A1B, and A2. According to our simulations, the study area will warm 2.3, 3.1, and 3.5 °C and mean annual precipitation will decrease by 13, 24, and 26 % under scenarios B1, A1B, and A2, respectively. The western regions will experience greater precipitation reduction than eastern regions, due to effect of precipitation reduction in Mediterranean air mass in the future. The precipitation reduction varies among different stations due to differing precipitation depths. The duration of dry periods will increase, and precipitation depths of all wet, normal, and dry periods will decrease under three scenarios, but the reduction is higher in dry and normal periods.

  20. Tackling the malaria problem in the South-East Asia Region: Need for a change in policy?

    PubMed Central

    Bharati, Kaushik; Ganguly, N. K.

    2013-01-01

    Malaria is largely neglected in the South-East Asia Region (SEAR), although it has the highest number of people susceptible to the disease. Malaria in the SEAR exhibits special epidemiological characteristics such as “forest malaria” and malaria due to migration across international borders. The Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) has been a focal-point for the emergence of drug resistant malaria. With the recent emergence of artemisinin resistance, coupled with the limited availability of insecticides, malaria control efforts in the SEAR face a steep challenge. Indirect man-made factors such as climate change, as well as direct man-made factors such as the circulation of counterfeit drugs have added to the problem. Increased monitoring, surveillance, pharmacovigilance as well as cross-border collaboration are required to address these problems. Regional networking and data-sharing will keep all stakeholders updated about the status of various malaria control programmes in the SEAR. Cutting-edge technologies such as GIS/GPS (geographical information system/global positioning system) systems and mobile phones can provide information in “real-time”. A holistic and sustained approach to malaria control by integrated vector management (IVM) is suggested, in which all the stakeholder countries work collaboratively as a consortium. This approach will address the malaria problem in a collective manner so that malaria control can be sustained over time. PMID:23481050

  1. The first competency-based higher education programme for midwives in the South Asian region--Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Jan, Rafat; Lakhani, Arusa; Kaufman, Karyn; Karimi, Sadia

    2016-02-01

    Midwives in Pakistan and the South Asian region who complete a diploma program face many challenges for career growth and development. The absence of higher education in professional midwifery in the region has contributed to general non-acceptance and invisibility of midwifery. In response to the interest, Aga Khan University (AKU) developed bachelors program in midwifery based on the Global Standards for Midwifery Education developed by the International Confederation of Midwives (ICM) with the vision to equip midwives to provide full-scope practice, develop confidence to practice midwifery independently, become clinical leaders and contribute to the future of midwifery. The final curriculum had a balance of theory and clinical practice in order to develop a high level of clinical competence that would meet the ICM standards and guidelines. The two year bachelors program is currently in progress. The first cohort of 21 midwives graduated in 2014 and a second cohort was enrolled in 2015. There is a planning for a future graduate program in midwifery to prepare individuals for leadership roles in practice, teaching, maternal-child health provision and policy making through a master's degree in midwifery.

  2. Notes about the uses of plants by one of the last healers in the Basilicata Region (South Italy)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The paper refers to the knowledge and uses of plants and to the linked ritual practices as referred by Matteo (It.‘Zì Matteo’, En. ‘Uncle Matthew’), one of the last elder healers in the Basilicata Region (South Italy). Particular attention is also paid to the uses of ‘Vruca’ (Tamarix gallica L.) as a medicinal and magical plant used to heal common warts on various parts of the body. Methods After obtaining prior informed consent, we collected data through an open interview about the uses of the plants and on the associated ritual practices. For each species, data were collected that included the vernacular names, preparation, plant parts utilized and their method of use. Results The uses of 52 taxa are described. Among these, 43 are or were employed medicinally, eight as culinary foodstuffs, and 4 for domestic, handicraft or ethnoveterinary uses. Among the major findings: the ritual and magical use of Tamarix gallica L. to heal warts is described in detail; so far, no records of similar use were found in any Italian ethnobotanical studies conducted in southern Italy. Conclusion Phytotherapy in the Basilicata region is practiced by elderly people who resort to medicinal plants for mild illnesses; we interviewed one of those traditional healers who is very experienced in the field, and possesses rich ethno-pharmacological knowledge. PMID:22546322

  3. The Sarcophaginae (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) of Southern South America. I. The species of Microcerella Macquart from the Patagonian Region.

    PubMed

    Mulieri, Pablo Ricardo; Mariluis, Juan Carlos; Patitucci, Luciano Damián; Olea, María Sofía

    2015-03-17

    A revision is given of the species placed in the genus Microcerella Macquart, known from the southern extreme of South America, the so-called Patagonian Region. A new diagnosis of the genus is given on the basis of the revision of a large number of Neotropical species. A total of 25 valid species are recognized in the region. Most of these (21 species) are divided into four species-groups on the basis of general groundplan of genitalia and external characters. Four new species are described, M. deliae sp. nov., M. holmbergi sp. nov., M. nataliae sp. nov. and M. paetoi sp. nov. One new synonymy is established: Austrohartigia shannoni Lopes as a new junior synonym of Microcerella spinosa (Hall), syn. nov. A lectotype is designated for Doringia subandina Blanchard [a junior synonym of Microcerella spinigena (Rondani)]. Two species are recorded from Argentina for the first time: M. chicoensis (Lopes) and M. engeli (Hall). Three nominal species were not examined and are treated as nomina dubia within Microcerella: M. apicalis (Townsend), M. rufomaculata Macquart and M. sarcophagina Thomson. An illustrated key is provided to the males of Patagonian species of Microcerella allowing for separation of 25 species. Additionally, a series of images of male genitalia based on color photography and illustrations is provided to aid in the identification of these species of Microcerella. Biological information is given for the species, where known.

  4. The Artificial Neural Network Estimation for Daily and Hourly Rice Evapotranspiration in the Region of Red Soil, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Yuanshu; Ruthaikarn, Buaphean; Jin, Xinyi; Pang, Bo

    The evapotranspiration estimation is a key item for irrigation program. It has the important practical significance for high stable yield and water-saving in the region of red soil, South China. Penman-Monteith equation, recommended by FAO, is verified to be the most effective calculation to actual evaporation in many regions of the world. The only default is it has to use complete meteorological factors. To solve this problem, we are trying to find out a artificial neural network model (ANN) which can easily get its information and easy to calculate as well as guaranteed accuracy. A Bowen ratio energy balance (BREB) system and automatic weather station were employed for simultaneous measurement of actual evapotranspiration above the rice field. The frequency of 20-min recording provided the possibility for the estimation of daily and hourly evapotranspiration. The determined coefficient from the artificial neural network model on daily scale R2 is 0.9642, while hourly scale R2 is 0.9880. The reason was that the hourly scale training samples was greater than the daily scale measures. In general, the model gives an effective and feasible way for the evaluation of paddy rice evapotranspiration by the conventional parameters.

  5. Agate mineralization in basaltoids of the northeastern Ladoga region, South Karelia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polekhovsky, Yu. S.; Punin, Yu. O.

    2008-12-01

    In the northeastern Ladoga region, the Riphean agate-bearing volcanic rocks of the Priozersk Formation are composed of basaltic lavas and lava breccias. Agates occur in the upper lava flow and in overlying conglomerate of the Salmi Formation. By their patterns, the agate amygdules correspond to concentrically zoned varieties, while agate veinlets have a vague pattern. Microstructures of agates are diverse, We backspace we including quite peculiar ones. Agates with enveloping zoning (the main structural type) were formed in closed cavities, whereas agate veinlets usually occurred in open connecting fissures and were replaced by calcite at the late stage of mineral formation. The unusual absence of quartzine suggests a low SiO2 concentration in the agate-forming solutions and/or a low pH value.

  6. Radon Exposure Assessment and Relative Effective Dose Estimation to Inhabitants of Puglia Region, South Italy.

    PubMed

    Quarto, Maria; Pugliese, Mariagabriella; La Verde, Giuseppe; Loffredo, Filomena; Roca, Vincenzo

    2015-11-23

    Indoor radon concentrations were measured in dwellings of the Puglia region in Southern Italy using LR-115 passive detectors. The results show that the radon concentrations varied from 15 ± 2 to 2166 ± 133 Bq/m³ with a geometric mean of 114 Bq/m³ and a geometric standard deviation of 2.3. An analysis on the factors affecting radon concentration such as age of the dwellings, floors, and stories, was performed. The mean effective dose to inhabitants has been calculated and found to be 8.2 mSv/y. Finally, for estimation of cancer risks, the lifetime risk and lung cancer cases per years per million have been calculated.

  7. Physicochemical parameters and their sources in groundwater in the Thirupathur region, Tamil Nadu, South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajil Kumar, P. J.; James, E. J.

    2013-03-01

    This study reports physicochemical characteristics and their sources in groundwater in Thirupathur region in Tamil Nadu, India. For this purpose, groundwater samples were collected and analysed using standard methods. A wide seasonal variation was showed for the majority of the samples; higher concentration was observed in the pre-monsoon season. Concentration of fluoride was quite alarming in many locations. Groundwater is found to be dominated by Na+, Ca+, HCO3 and Cl-. Gibbs plot showed the dominance of rock-water interaction. Geology of the area in comparison with the results obtained in the chemical cross plots showed the dominance of silicate weathering, with a minor contribution from the cation exchange. Other processes such as evaporation dissolution of carbonate and gypsum were proved to be ineffective. However, dissolution of fluoride minerals present in the geological formation is the major source of fluoride in groundwater.

  8. Radon Exposure Assessment and Relative Effective Dose Estimation to Inhabitants of Puglia Region, South Italy

    PubMed Central

    Quarto, Maria; Pugliese, Mariagabriella; La Verde, Giuseppe; Loffredo, Filomena; Roca, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Indoor radon concentrations were measured in dwellings of the Puglia region in Southern Italy using LR-115 passive detectors. The results show that the radon concentrations varied from 15 ± 2 to 2166 ± 133 Bq/m3 with a geometric mean of 114 Bq/m3 and a geometric standard deviation of 2.3. An analysis on the factors affecting radon concentration such as age of the dwellings, floors, and stories, was performed. The mean effective dose to inhabitants has been calculated and found to be 8.2 mSv/y. Finally, for estimation of cancer risks, the lifetime risk and lung cancer cases per years per million have been calculated. PMID:26610543

  9. Trend in groundwater quality near FMD burials in agricultural region, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Jeong-Won; Lee, Kang-Kun

    2015-04-01

    After the nation-wide outbreak of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) in winter of 2010-2011, thousands of mass burial site had been built all over the country in Korea. Though the burial pits were partially lined with impermeable material, potential threat of leachate leakage was still in concern. In worry of leachate release from those livestock burials during decomposition of carcasses, groundwater samples from wells near the burials were collected and analyzed in between 2011 and 2013. Among the sample locations, 250 wells with monitoring priorities were chosen and had been watched continuously through the years. For trend analysis of groundwater quality, relations between land use types, distances to burial and nitrate concentrations are studied. Types of land use within 300 m radius of each well were investigated. Nitrate concentrations show proportional relations to the area of agricultural activity and inversely proportional to the area of forest. The proportionality decreased with both agricultural and forest area since 2011. When seasonal variation is concerned, slightly stronger proportionality is shown in dry season for both agricultural and forested area. For a qualitative analysis of the trend, non-parametric Kendall test is applied. Especially, regional Kendall test is implemented to find out spatial feature of nitrate concentration. Nitrate concentrations show slow but statistically significant deceasing trend for every well. When the wells are group according to their distances from the nearest burial pit, decreasing trend of nitrate concentration is shown in all groups. However, there was no consistency in significant factor among the groups. Considering the above mentioned results, the groundwater wells near the burials seem to be influence more from agricultural activities near the wells than from the burial leachate. The slow but significant decreasing trend in nitrate concentration is supposed as the result of an increasing governmental interest in

  10. Late Pleistocene glacial stratigraphy of the Kumara-Moana region, West Coast of South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrows, Timothy T.; Almond, Peter; Rose, Robert; Keith Fifield, L.; Mills, Stephanie C.; Tims, Stephen G.

    2013-08-01

    On the South Island of New Zealand, large piedmont glaciers descended from an ice cap on the Southern Alps onto the coastal plain of the West Coast during the late Pleistocene. The series of moraine belts and outwash plains left by the Taramakau glacier are used as a type section for interpreting the glacial geology and timing of major climatic events of New Zealand and also as a benchmark for comparison with the wider Southern Hemisphere. In this paper we review the chronology of advances by the Taramakau glacier during the last or Otira Glaciation using a combination of exposure dating using the cosmogenic nuclides 10Be and 36Cl, and tephrochronology. We document three distinct glacial maxima, represented by the Loopline, Larrikins and Moana Formations, separated by brief interstadials. We find that the Loopline Formation, originally attributed to Oxygen Isotope Chronozone 4, is much younger than previously thought, with an advance culminating around 24,900 ± 800 yr. The widespread late Pleistocene Kawakawa/Oruanui tephra stratigraphically lies immediately above it. This Formation has the same age previously attributed to the older part of the Larrikins Formation. Dating of the Larrikins Formation demonstrates there is no longer a basis for subdividing it into older and younger phases with an advance lasting about 1000 years between 20,800 ± 500 to 20,000 ± 400 yr. The Moana Formation represents the deposits of the last major advance of ice at 17,300 ± 500 yr and is younger than expected based on limited previous dating. The timing of major piedmont glaciation is restricted to between ˜25,000 and 17,000 yr and this interval corresponds to a time of regionally cold sea surface temperatures, expansion of grasslands at the expense of forest on South Island, and hemisphere wide glaciation.

  11. The foot and mouth disease network in the southern cone of South America: an example of regional governance.

    PubMed

    Corrales Irrazábal, H A

    2012-08-01

    The fact that foot and mouth disease is highly contagious, easily spread and of major commercial importance makes it a redoubtable challenge for animal health in South American countries and the world over. A number of factors impact directly on the effectiveness of national programmes to eradicate foot and mouth disease. Therefore, in order to meet the challenges posed by today's globalised world, it is of the utmost importance that national level eradication programmes be considered state policies and that they be the subject of broad political agreement at the highest level and consolidated as regional programmes between national Veterinary Services. The programmes, agreements and technical cooperation projects established jointly by Member Countries of the Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR) were a key factor in building management capacity to control foot and mouth disease in the area. Another key factor has been a partnership with one of the most sensitive sectors--the private production sector. Its active and responsible participation in operational functions has done much to strengthen and ensure the competitive development of South American countries and consolidate their role as global beef exporters. However, to prevent further outbreaks it is essential to maintain and reinforce the structure of national programmes and to have strong and highly trained Veterinary Services and sufficient funding to ensure efficient and sustainable plans. These plans must enable Veterinary Services, by means of good governance, to implement effective measures in the areas of animal health and international trade in animals and animal products/by-products, thereby achieving rapid and more equitable social and economic development.

  12. Reservoir quality, sediment source, and regional aspects of Norphlet Formation, South State Line field, Greene County, Mississippi

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, A.; Stancliffe, R.J.; Shew, R.D.

    1987-05-01

    South State Line field, discovered in 1970, is centrally located in the productive Jurassic Norphlet trend of the eastern Gulf Coast. The Norphlet Formation at South State Line has produced gas and condensate from normally pressured eolian sandstones at depths of more than 17,900 ft (5455 m). The 600-ft- (183-m) thick Norphlet Formation is composed of 100% sandstone and consists of two reservoir types: a poorer quality upper sandstone having low permeability (0.6 md) and a good-quality lower sandstone with better permeability (15.5 md). The upper sandstone exhibits tighter compaction of framework grains and more cement than the lower sandstone. Significantly, the upper sandstone contains authigenic illite (which promotes pressure solution), whereas the lower sandstone contains authigenic chlorite (which inhibits cementation and possibly pressure solution). On a regional scale, illite is the principal diagenetic clay mineral in the western area of the Norphlet trend (Mississippi to Texas), whereas chlorite is the principal diagenetic clay mineral in the east (Alabama to Florida). Not surprisingly, reservoir quality is poorer in the western portion of the trend. A comparison of framework grains in the upper and lower sandstones shows no significant compositional differences. Both are mature arkosic sandstones with a transitional-continental source (eastern Appalachians). No evidence was seen of a quartz-rich Ouachita or cratonic source. Volcanic and plutonic rock fragments are slightly more abundant in the lower sandstone, possibly reflecting a shifting of compositional terranes within a single source area along the eastern side of the Appalachians. The lower Norphlet sandstone may have been derived from Triassic volcanics, whereas the upper sandstone may have been derived from a more metamorphic source.

  13. Nutrient dynamics in the winter thermohaline frontal zone of the northern shelf region of the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Su Mei; Guo, Xinyu; Chen, Qi; Zhang, Jing; Bi, Yan Feng; Luo, Xin; Li, Jian Bing

    2010-11-01

    As the first attempt to estimate the nutrient transport across the winter thermohaline frontal zone on the northern shelf of the South China Sea, the nutrient dynamics around the front and the effects of cross-frontal water exchange on nutrient transport were investigated using wintertime field observations. Both water temperature and salinity increased from coastal to oceanic waters, showing the presence of a thermohaline front. The concentrations of dissolved inorganic nutrients decreased oceanward, especially across the thermohaline front, while those of dissolved organic nutrients (i.e., dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and dissolved organic phosphorus) showed patchy distributions. Ammonium was the major constituent of dissolved inorganic nitrogen, and DON was the main component of total dissolved nitrogen. Molar ratios of PO43-/total dissolved phosphorus decreased from coastal to oceanic waters, indicating that PO43- was rapidly removed and/or consumed from the water column and that organic matter degradation increased offshore, replenishing PO43-. Molar ratios of NO3-/(NH4+ + DON) were 0.01-0.6, indicating dominance of regenerated nitrogen. Surface water convergence and bottom water divergence were identified in the across-shore velocity field, and the calculated across-shore nutrient fluxes suggest that the presence of the winter thermohaline front promotes the offshore transport of nutrients from coastal waters. The transport path begins with convergence of surface coastal waters toward the front, followed by the sinking in the frontal region and the oceanward movement through the bottom layer of the front offshore side. With an assumption of 500 km as the length of thermohaline front on the northern shelf of the South China Sea, the calculated offshore fluxes of nutrients across the entire front are larger than those from the Zhujiang (Pearl River) and the Changjiang (Yangtze River).

  14. Spatiotemporal analysis of droughts using self-calibrating Palmer's Drought Severity Index in the central region of South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edossa, Desalegn C.; Woyessa, Yali E.; Welderufael, Worku A.

    2016-11-01

    The loss of life and property from drought events has forced society to focus on the development of reliable early warning systems which may enable farmers and other stakeholders to correctly and timely adapt to the expected impacts of climatic hazard. However, a scientific approach to a reliable early warning system for a region requires, among others, characterisation of drought events in the region in terms of duration, magnitude, intensity and frequency using standard drought indices. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify and characterise drought events in the Modder River basin, central region of South Africa, using a self-calibrated Palmer's Drought Severity Index (sc-PDSI). Attempts were also made to establish a relationship between meteorological and hydrological drought events in the region. During the period of analysis, the total number of drought episodes identified in the study area ranged between eight and sixteen. It was found that the most severe drought episodes occurred during the period 1992-1995 followed by the period 1982-1987. Results of analysis of seasonal drought events in one of the quaternary catchments (C52A) revealed that peak drought events during the three summer months (November, December and January) occurred in the area in 1993. However, in terms of event magnitude and intensity, the worst drought events were recorded during the period December 1982-July 1987, followed by the event that ensued during December 1989-September 1995. Results of analysis of decadal variation of drought events showed that the number of extreme and moderate drought events recorded in the catchment showed statistically significant increasing trends during the five decades at 5 % significance level. Moreover, spectral analysis of sc-PDSI time series in the region identified periodicities in the time series ranging from 6 years (C52E) to 16 years (C52K). In terms of the spatial extent of extreme drought events, the maximum areal coverage (91

  15. NITRATE POLLUTION IN SHALLOW GROUNDWATER OF A HARD ROCK REGION IN SOUTH CENTRAL INDIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brindha, K.; Rajesh, R.; Murugan, R.; Elango, L.

    2009-12-01

    Groundwater forms a major source of drinking water in most parts of the world. Due to the lack of piped drinking water supply, the population in rural areas depend on the groundwater resources for domestic purposes. Hence, the quality of groundwater in such regions needs to be monitored regularly. Presence of high concentration of nitrate in groundwater used for drinking is a major problem in many countries as it causes health related problems. Most often infants are affected by the intake of high nitrate in drinking water and food. The present study was carried out with the objective of assessing the nitrate concentration in groundwater and determining the causes for nitrate in groundwater in parts of Nalgonda district in India which is located at a distance of about 135 km towards ESE direction from Hyderabad. Nitrate concentration in groundwater of this area was analysed by collecting groundwater samples from forty six representative wells. Samples were collected once in two months from March 2008 to March 2009. A total of 244 groundwater samples were collected during the study. Soil samples were collected from fifteen locations during May 2009 and the denitrifying bacteria were isolated from the soil using spread plate method. The nitrate concentration in groundwater samples were analysed in the laboratory using Metrohm 861 advanced compact ion chromatograph using appropriate standards. The highest concentration of nitrate recorded during the sampling period was 879.65mg/l and the lowest concentration was below detection limit. The maximum permissible limit of nitrate for drinking water as per Bureau of Indian Standards is 45mg/l. About 13% of the groundwater samples collected from this study area possessed nitrate concentration beyond this limit. The nitrate concentration was high in the southeastern part of the study area. This implies that the nitrate concentration in groundwater tends to increase along the flow direction. Application of fertilizers is one

  16. Regional-Scale Migrations and Habitat Use of Juvenile Lemon Sharks (Negaprion brevirostris) in the US South Atlantic

    PubMed Central

    Reyier, Eric A.; Franks, Bryan R.; Chapman, Demian D.; Scheidt, Douglas M.; Stolen, Eric D.; Gruber, Samuel H.

    2014-01-01

    Resolving the geographic extent and timing of coastal shark migrations, as well as their environmental cues, is essential for refining shark management strategies in anticipation of increasing anthropogenic stressors to coastal ecosystems. We employed a regional-scale passive acoustic telemetry array encompassing 300 km of the east Florida coast to assess what factors influence site fidelity of juvenile lemon sharks (Negaprion brevirostris) to an exposed coastal nursery at Cape Canaveral, and to document the timing and rate of their seasonal migrations. Movements of 54 juvenile lemon sharks were monitored for three years with individuals tracked for up to 751 days. While most sharks demonstrated site fidelity to the Cape Canaveral region December through February under typical winter water temperatures, historically extreme declines in ocean temperature were accompanied by rapid and often temporary, southward displacements of up to 190 km along the Florida east coast. From late February through April each year, most sharks initiated a northward migration at speeds of up to 64 km day−1 with several individuals then detected in compatible estuarine telemetry arrays in Georgia and South Carolina up to 472 km from release locations. Nineteen sharks returned for a second or even third consecutive winter, thus demonstrating strong seasonal philopatry to the Cape Canaveral region. The long distance movements and habitat associations of immature lemon sharks along the US southeast coast contrast sharply with the natal site fidelity observed in this species at other sites in the western Atlantic Ocean. These findings validate the existing multi-state management strategies now in place. Results also affirm the value of collaborative passive arrays for resolving seasonal movements and habitat preferences of migratory coastal shark species not easily studied with other tagging techniques. PMID:24586329

  17. Regional-scale migrations and habitat use of juvenile lemon sharks (Negaprion brevirostris) in the US South Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Reyier, Eric A; Franks, Bryan R; Chapman, Demian D; Scheidt, Douglas M; Stolen, Eric D; Gruber, Samuel H

    2014-01-01

    Resolving the geographic extent and timing of coastal shark migrations, as well as their environmental cues, is essential for refining shark management strategies in anticipation of increasing anthropogenic stressors to coastal ecosystems. We employed a regional-scale passive acoustic telemetry array encompassing 300 km of the east Florida coast to assess what factors influence site fidelity of juvenile lemon sharks (Negaprion brevirostris) to an exposed coastal nursery at Cape Canaveral, and to document the timing and rate of their seasonal migrations. Movements of 54 juvenile lemon sharks were monitored for three years with individuals tracked for up to 751 days. While most sharks demonstrated site fidelity to the Cape Canaveral region December through February under typical winter water temperatures, historically extreme declines in ocean temperature were accompanied by rapid and often temporary, southward displacements of up to 190 km along the Florida east coast. From late February through April each year, most sharks initiated a northward migration at speeds of up to 64 km day(-1) with several individuals then detected in compatible estuarine telemetry arrays in Georgia and South Carolina up to 472 km from release locations. Nineteen sharks returned for a second or even third consecutive winter, thus demonstrating strong seasonal philopatry to the Cape Canaveral region. The long distance movements and habitat associations of immature lemon sharks along the US southeast coast contrast sharply with the natal site fidelity observed in this species at other sites in the western Atlantic Ocean. These findings validate the existing multi-state management strategies now in place. Results also affirm the value of collaborative passive arrays for resolving seasonal movements and habitat preferences of migratory coastal shark species not easily studied with other tagging techniques.

  18. Density and magnetic suseptibility values for rocks in the Talkeetna Mountains and adjacent region, south-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanger, Elizabeth A.; Glen, Jonathan M.G.

    2003-01-01

    This report presents a compilation and statistical analysis of 306 density and 706 magnetic susceptibility measurements of rocks from south-central Alaska that were collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (ADGGS) scientists between the summers of 1999 and 2002. This work is a product of the USGS Talkeetna Mountains Transect Project and was supported by USGS projects in the Talkeetna Mountains and Iron Creek region, and by Bureau of Land Management (BLM) projects in the Delta River Mining District that aim to characterize the subsurface structures of the region. These data were collected to constrain potential field models (i.e., gravity and magnetic) that are combined with other geophysical methods to identify and model major faults, terrane boundaries, and potential mineral resources of the study area. Because gravity and magnetic field anomalies reflect variations in the density and magnetic susceptibility of the underlying lithology, these rock properties are essential components of potential field modeling. In general, the average grain density of rocks in the study region increases from sedimentary, felsic, and intermediate igneous rocks, to mafic igneous and metamorphic rocks. Magnetic susceptibility measurements performed on rock outcrops and hand samples from the study area also reveal lower magnetic susceptibilities for sedimentary and felsic intrusive rocks, moderate susceptibility values for metamorphic, felsic extrusive, and intermediate igneous rocks, and higher susceptibility values for mafic igneous rocks. The density and magnetic properties of rocks in the study area are generally consistent with general trends expected for certain rock types.

  19. Remote Sensing of the Night-time Lower Ionosphere from Lightning Generated Sferics Recorded in the South Pacific Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sushil, K.; Ramachandran, V.

    The lightning generated Extremely Low Frequency ELF and Very Low Frequency VLF radio signals tweeks recorded using the lightning detection system under Word Wide Lightning Location WWLL Network at Suva 18 2 o S 178 3 o E Fiji a low latitude ground wave station in the South Pacific region are used to determine the lower ionospheric electron content and its variation during night-time Due to its least relative inaccessibility the lower ionosphere consisting of D-region is among the least studied regions of the Earth s atmosphere The lightning generated sferics which are short pulses typically of 1-10 ms with significant spectral contents over the ELF VLF can be used in the study of the lower ionosphere A total of 400 tweeks recoded in the time period of 1800-0600 hrs FST during 2003- 2004 have been analysed Matlab codes are used to analyse the data files recorded using lightning software and each of data file is of 11 MB with one minute duration The value of ionospheric reflecting height h calculated using waveguide mode theory of electromagnetic wave propagation in the spherical cell Earth-ionosphere waveguide having perfectly conducting boundaries is found to vary from 80-95 km in the night-time To estimate the electron density at the ionospheric reflection heights i e lower ionosphere we perform a qualitative analysis based on the propagation theory of radio waves in an infinite collisionless anisotropic ionospheric plasma Shvets and Hayakawa J Atmos Sol -Terr Phys 60 461

  20. Gastrointestinal helminth parasites of local chickens from selected communities in Nsukka region of south eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Idika, I K; Obi, C F; Ezeh, I O; Iheagwam, C N; Njoku, I N; Nwosu, C O

    2016-12-01

    The prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths of local chickens in Nsukka region of Southeastern Nigeria was studied using 125 free range local birds purchased from four communities in Nsukka zone namely, Obollo-afor, Orba, Nsukka urban and Owerre Eze-orba. The birds were sacrificed humanely and their oesophagus, crop, proventriculus, gizzard, small intestine and caecum examined for the presence of gastrointestinal helminths. Worms when present were isolated and identified using standard parasitological procedures. The study identified four species of cestodes namely Raillietina echinobothridia, R. tetragona, R. cesticillus and Choanotaenia infundibulum and two species of nematodes namely, Ascaridia galli and Heterakis gallinarum. Results obtained showed 96.8 % prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth parasites in the birds with cestodes being the more prevalent class (70.4 %). Raillietina spp was the most prevalent cestode encountered and A. galli the most prevalent nematode. Prevalence rates of infections recorded 14.4 % for nematode species, 26.4 % for cestodes and 56 % for mixed infections of nematodes and cestodes. It was concluded that local chickens are common in the area and could serve as a potential source of helminth infections to intensively managed birds in the study area.

  1. Multiple Determinants of Anuran Richness and Occurrence in an Agricultural Region in South-Eastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prado, Vitor H. M.; Rossa-Feres, Denise de C.

    2014-04-01

    In agricultural landscapes, studies that identify factors driving species richness and occupancy are important because they can guide farmers to use conservation practices that minimize species loss. In this context, anurans are threatened by habitat loss because they depend on the characteristics of both local water bodies and adjacent landscapes. We used a model selection approach to evaluate the influence of local and landscape variables in determining anuran species richness and occurrence in 40 freshwater bodies in a heavily deforested region of semideciduous Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil. Our aim was to develop recommendations for conservation of anuran communities in rural areas. Pond hydroperiod and area were the most important variables for explaining anuran species richness and occupancy, with greatest species richness being found in water bodies with intermediate hydroperiod and area. Other important variables that reflected individual species occupancies were the number of vegetation types and pond isolation. In addition, recent studies evidenced that water bodies near forest fragments have higher anuran abundance or diversity. In conclusion, we suggest the maintenance of semi-permanent ponds, isolated from large rivers or reservoirs and near forest fragments, as an effective strategy to conserve anuran fauna in agricultural landscapes of southeastern Brazil. Brazilian government requires the maintenance of forests as legal reserve in each farm, and farmers need to maintain ponds as drinking water for cattle or crop irrigation. For this reason, the guidelines suggested in the present study can be easily adopted, without additional costs to rural productivity.

  2. Regional stratigraphy and subsurface geology of Cenozoic deposits, Gulf Coastal Plain, south-central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hosman, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    Although Cenozoic deposits are not uniformly differentiated, interstate correlations of major Paleocene and Eocene units are generally established throughout the area. Younger deposits are not as well differentiated. Some stratigraphic designations made at surface exposures cannot be extended into the sub-surface, and the scarcity of distinct geologic horizons has hampered differentiation on a regional scale. The complexities of facies development in Oligocene and younger coastal deposits preclude the development of extensive recognizable horizons needed for stratigraphic applications. Coastal deposits are a heterogeneous assemblage of deltaic, lagoonal, lacustrine, palustrine, eolian, and fluvial clastic facies and local calcareous reef facies. Even major time boundaries, as between geologic series, are not fully resolved. Surficial Quaternary deposits overlie the truncated subcrops of Tertiary strata and generally are distinguishable, although some contacts between Pleistocene and underlying Pliocene deposits have been a ?lstoncal source of controversy. Glacially related terraces are characteristic of the Pleistocene Epoch, and alluvium of aggrading streams typifies the Holocene. 

  3. The effect of plate movements in the northern region of South America on tectonics and sedimentation in the Eastern Llanos Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Pena, L.E. )

    1993-02-01

    The geological configuration of the Eastern Llanos pericratonic mega-basin has been directly affected by the overall tectonic regime experienced in the Northern part of South America. Interaction between the Pacific (Cocos), South American and Caribbean Plates generated a regional compressional dextral rotational force expressed as a regional North-South striking structural trend in the southern part of the basin and an east-west striking trend in portion nearest the Caribbean Plate Boundary. Nearly 90% of the strike-slip faults in this northern area show right lateral displacement. The majority of the structures in the East Llanos basin are related to the Late Miocene uplift of the Eastern Andes. Nevertheless we can subdivide the structures into two major groups: pre-Miocene and post-Miocene. By being able to recognize pre-Miocene Cretaceous age structures, much altered by later movements, we can envision remigration of hydrocarbons out of early traps into those created more recently. Plate tectonic events in the north of South America have produced a general regional structure strike directional through time. Sedimentary-tectonic relationships depend upon regional phenomena which, if interpreted correctly, help to sub-divide the mega-basin into genetically related parts. By understanding the mechanism that creates large scale structural features, the geologist is thus provided with an important tool that can aid him in exploring the Eastern Llanos basin.

  4. Population structure and genetic variability of six bar wrasse (Thallasoma hardwicki) in northern South China Sea revealed by mitochondrial control region sequences.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chaolun Allen; Ablan, Maria Carmen Anonuevo; McManus, John Williams; Bell, Johann Diepernk; Tuan, Vo Si; Cabanban, Annadel Sarmiento; Shao, Kwang-Tsao

    2004-01-01

    The genetic relationships among northern South China Sea populations of the six bar wrasse (Thallasoma hardwicki) were investigated. Fish collected from the Solomon Islands were used for geographic comparison. In 1998 and 1999, a total of 100 fish were sampled from 6 localities of the northern South China Sea and 3 localities of the Solomon Islands. Genetic variations in DNA sequences were examined from the first hypervariable region (HVR-1) of the mitochondrial control region, as amplified by polymerase chain reaction. High levels of haplotypic diversity (h = 0.944 +/- 0.0016, pi = 0.0224 +/- 0.01171) in the HVR-1 region of the mitochondrial control region of T. hardwicki were detected. This yielded 94 haplotypes that exhibited a minimum spanning tree with a starburst structure, suggestive of a very recent origin for most haplotypes. Neutrality tests indicated that the pattern of genetic variability in T. hardwicki is consistent either with genetic hitchhiking by an advantageous mutation or with population expansion. Partitioning populations into coherent geographic groups divided the northern South China Sea samples (Phi(CT) = 0.0313, P < 0.001) into 3 major groups: a north-central group composed of northwestern Taiwan and northern Vietnam; a southwestern group containing southern Vietnam; and a southern group including the central Philippines. These results are in concordance with mesoscale boundaries proposed by allozyme markers, thus highlighting the importance of identifying transboundary units for the conservation and management of fisheries in the South China Sea.

  5. The contribution of occult precipitation to nutrient deposition on the west coast of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Nyaga, Justine M; Neff, Jason C; Cramer, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    The Strandveld mediterranean-ecosystem of the west coast of South Africa supports floristically diverse vegetation growing on mostly nutrient-poor aeolian sands and extending from the Atlantic Ocean tens of kilometers inland. The cold Benguela current upwelling interacts with warm onshore southerly winds in summer causing coastal fogs in this region. We hypothesized that fog and other forms of occult precipitation contribute moisture and nutrients to the vegetation. We measured occult precipitation over one year along a transect running inland in the direction of the prevailing wind and compared the nutrient concentrations with those in rainwater. Occult deposition rates of P, N, K, Mg, Ca, Na, Al and Fe all decreased with distance from the ocean. Furthermore, ratios of cations to Na were similar to those of seawater, suggesting a marine origin for these. In contrast, N and P ratios in occult precipitation were higher than in seawater. We speculate that this is due to marine foam contributing to occult precipitation. Nutrient loss in leaf litter from dominant shrub species was measured to indicate nutrient demand. We estimated that occult precipitation could meet the demand of the dominant shrubby species for annual N, P, K and Ca. Of these species, those with small leaves intercepted more moisture and nutrients than those with larger leaves and could take up foliar deposits of glycine, NO3(-), NH4(+) and Li (as tracer for K) through leaf surfaces. We conclude that occult deposition together with rainfall deposition are potentially important nutrient and moisture sources for the Strandveld vegetation that contribute to this vegetation being floristically distinct from neighbouring nutrient-poor Fynbos vegetation.

  6. The Contribution of Occult Precipitation to Nutrient Deposition on the West Coast of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The Strandveld mediterranean-ecosystem of the west coast of South Africa supports floristically diverse vegetation growing on mostly nutrient-poor aeolian sands and extending from the Atlantic Ocean tens of kilometers inland. The cold Benguela current upwelling interacts with warm onshore southerly winds in summer causing coastal fogs in this region. We hypothesized that fog and other forms of occult precipitation contribute moisture and nutrients to the vegetation. We measured occult precipitation over one year along a transect running inland in the direction of the prevailing wind and compared the nutrient concentrations with those in rainwater. Occult deposition rates of P, N, K, Mg, Ca, Na, Al and Fe all decreased with distance from the ocean. Furthermore, ratios of cations to Na were similar to those of seawater, suggesting a marine origin for these. In contrast, N and P ratios in occult precipitation were higher than in seawater. We speculate that this is due to marine foam contributing to occult precipitation. Nutrient loss in leaf litter from dominant shrub species was measured to indicate nutrient demand. We estimated that occult precipitation could meet the demand of the dominant shrubby species for annual N, P, K and Ca. Of these species, those with small leaves intercepted more moisture and nutrients than those with larger leaves and could take up foliar deposits of glycine, NO3-, NH4+ and Li (as tracer for K) through leaf surfaces. We conclude that occult deposition together with rainfall deposition are potentially important nutrient and moisture sources for the Strandveld vegetation that contribute to this vegetation being floristically distinct from neighbouring nutrient-poor Fynbos vegetation. PMID:26017747

  7. Water Balance Study on a Semiarid Regional Landscape in South Texas: Effects of Anthropogenic Land Disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camarena, C.; Ren, J.; Jones, K.

    2004-12-01

    While extensive vegetation manipulation has been encouraged by many administrators and extension groups, its effect on the water balance is complex and the hypothesis that removal of woody plants consistently reduces evapotranspiration, increases soil water content, and water yield remains unproven. This project focuses on examination of the effects of various land management practices on the overall water balance for semiarid regional landscapes. The project location is at the Wellhausen Ranch Research Station located near Laredo, TX, consisting of 5,280 acres of shrub landscape dominated by honey mesquite shrub species. This ranch has undergone various land disturbances such as root plowing and cattle overgrazing that have caused damage to the vegetation and natural communities. Five research sites were chosen within the ranch including a control site, a gravel dominated site, a root plowed site, an undisturbed site, and a second research site with different vegetative cover to represent different land use environments. Parameters that are being measured for the water balance study include precipitation, soil moisture, surface runoff, evaporation, and evapotranspiration. Preliminary results show that for the period of January to September of 2004, temperatures in the Wellhausen Ranch range from 29.1 ºF to 106.9 ºF, indicating hot summers and mild winters. 68 rainfall events have occurred, which resulted in 16.24 inches of total precipitation. Patterns were detected in soil moisture profiles reflecting the differences of soil moisture at different depths in the soil. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicates significant differences in the soil moisture in the five research sites. In addition, micro-lysimeter results show higher evaporation rates in the gravel dominated and the second research sites. These preliminary results indicate a potentially significant influence of anthropogenic land disturbance on a landscape water balance in the semiarid Nueces River basin.

  8. Submarine groundwater discharge from the South Australian Limestone Coast region estimated using radium and salinity.

    PubMed

    Lamontagne, S; Taylor, A R; Herpich, D; Hancock, G J

    2015-02-01

    The Tertiary Limestone Aquifer (TLA) is one of the major regional hydrogeological systems of southern Australia. Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) of freshwater from the TLA occurs through spring creeks, beach springs and diffusively through beach sands, but the magnitude of the total flux is not known. Here, a range of potential environmental tracers (including temperature, salinity, (222)Rn, (223)Ra, (224)Ra, (226)Ra, (228)Ra, and (4)He) were measured in potential sources of SGD and in seawater along a 45 km transect off the coastline to evaluate SGD from the TLA. Whilst most tracers had a distinct signature in the sources of water to the coastline, salinity and the radium quartet had the most distinct SGD signal in seawater. A one-dimensional advection-dispersion model was used to estimate the terrestrial freshwater component of SGD (Qfw) using salinity and the recirculated seawater component (Qrsw) using radium activity in seawater. Qfw was estimated at 1.2-4.6 m(3) s(-1), similar in magnitude to previously measured spring creek discharge (∼3 m(3) s(-1)) for the area. This suggests that other terrestrial groundwater discharge processes (beach springs and diffuse discharge through beach sands) were no more than 50% of spring creek discharge. The largest component of total SGD was Qrsw, estimated at 500-1000 m(3) s(-1) and possibly greater. The potential for wave, storm, or buoyancy-driven porewater displacement from the seafloor could explain the large recirculation flux for this section of the Southern Ocean Continental Shelf.

  9. Methanogenesis: Seasonal changes in human impacted regions of Ashtamudi estuary (Kerala, South India)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshmi, R. R.; Deepa Nair, K.; Zachariah, E. J.; Vincent, Salom Gnana Thanga

    2015-04-01

    Environmental variables as well as methanogenic abundance and activity were analysed in selected human impacted regions of Ashtamudi estuary. Sediment samples were collected during summer and monsoon of 2013. Each was analysed for environmental variables such as temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, sulphate, total kjeldahl nitrogen, organic carbon, organic matter and redox potential. Abundance and methanogenic potential of two distinct groups of methanogenic archaea (i.e. aceticlastic and methylotrophic methanogens) were quantified by incubating the sediment samples in basal media, added with acetate or methanol as substrate. Most of the environmental variables showed significant differences spatially and temporally. Among the environmental variables, temperature, pH, electrical conductivity and salinity were higher during summer, while total kjeldahl nitrogen, sulphate and organic carbon were higher during monsoon. Abundance of both aceticlastic and methylotrophic methanogens showed significant variations both spatially and temporally. Aceticlastic methanogens were abundant during monsoon, with a maximum value of 810 ± 13 CFU g-1, and methylotrophic methanogens were abundant during summer, with a maximum value of 1770 ± 30 CFU g-1. Results of methanogenic potential of sediment samples showed a range of 0.01 ± 0.00 to 12.03 ± 0.35 mol m-3. Among the two substrates, methanol favoured the abundance of methylotrophic methanogens, while acetate induced the methanogenic activity. Methanogenic activity was higher during monsoon than summer that can be attributed to the favourable sedimentary conditions (like reduced redox potential and increased substrate availability). Aceticlastic methanogens were abundant at bottom layers and methylotrophic methanogens in top layers of the sediments. The results of canonical correspondence analysis revealed the existence of linear relationship between methanogenic archaea and environmental variables among the sampling

  10. Levels and profiles of persistent organic pollutants in resident and migratory birds from an urbanized coastal region of South Korea.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sang Hee; Shim, Won Joon; Han, Gi Myung; Ha, Sung Yong; Jang, Mi; Rani, Manviri; Hong, Sunwook; Yeo, Gwang Yeong

    2014-02-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) levels in resident and migratory birds collected from an urbanized coastal region of South Korea were investigated. As target species, resident birds that reside in different habitats-such as inland and coastal regions-were selected and their POP contamination status and accumulation features evaluated. Additionally, winter and summer migratory species were analysed for comparison with resident birds. Black-tailed gull and domestic pigeon were selected as the coastal and inland resident birds, respectively, and pacific loon and heron/egret were selected as the winter and summer migratory birds, respectively. The overall POP concentrations (unit: ng/g lipid) in resident birds were 14-131,000 (median: 13,400) for PCBs, 40-284,000 (11,200) for DDTs, <1.0-2850 (275) for CHLs, 23-2020 (406) for HCHs, 2-1520 (261) for HCB, <0.2-48 (5) for pentachlorobenzene (PeCB), 71-7120 (1840) for PBDEs, and <1.8-2300 (408) for HBCDs. In resident birds, the overall level of POPs was higher in seagull compared to pigeon. The stable isotope ratio of nitrogen and carbon indicates that seagull occupies a higher trophic position in the environment than pigeon. However, the POP accumulation profiles in these species differed. Pigeon tends to accumulate more recently used POPs such as PBDEs than seagull. The high-brominated BDE congeners, γ-HBCDs and γ-HCH (also called lindane) were enriched in pigeon compared to seagull, implying the widespread use of Deca-BDE, technical HBCDs, and lindane in the terrestrial environment of South Korea. The different accumulation profile of POPs in both resident species would be related to their habitat difference and trophic positions. For urban resident bird such as pigeon, an intentional intake of dust or soils during feeding is likely to be an additional route of exposure to POPs. Resident birds generally accumulated higher POPs concentrations than migratory birds, the exceptions being relatively volatile compounds

  11. [Rate of microsuccessions: Structure and floristic richness recovery after sod transplantation in alpine plant communities].

    PubMed

    Kipkeev, A M; Cherednichenko, O V; Tekeev, D K; Onipchenko, V G

    2015-01-01

    Reciprocal transplantations of sod pieces have been conducted in alpine plant communities of the northwestern Caucasus. During 25 years, the changes in floristic richness and successional rates have been registered. Study objects were chosen to be. plant communities located along the toposequence from ridges to hollows with gradient of snow. cover thickness increase and vegetation period decrease, namely alpine lichen heath (ALH), Festuca varia grasslands (FVG), Geranium-Hedysarum meadows (GHM), and snow bed communities (SBC). The results of the study confirm the hypothesis about floristic richness of transplanted pieces to come closer to that of a background acceptor community. It is shown that during succession the variability reduces if sod pieces from different communities are transplanted into a common one. In particular, this is evident in case of SBC, where floristic richness of sod pieces transplanted from ALH and GHM has reduced noticeably. Also, it is evident from the results that the more different are donor and acceptor communities the higher is the rate of their changing. However, the assumption of higher succession rate in more productive communities has not been affirmed. On the opposite, communities with initially low productivity turned out to change faster than those with high productivity. It is found out that sod pieces transplanted to upper areas of the toposequence have had higher rate of alteration in comparison with those transplanted to lower areas. The reason behind this, as it may be suggested, is a longer growth season, which means a more prolonged period of high functional activity, and, accordingly, more time for the effects of competition, bringing seeds over, etc. In whole, the rate of succession decreases as the time from the moment of transplantation.increases, especially in communities with low productivity.

  12. Winter runoff losses of phosphorus from paddy soils in the Taihu Lake Region of South China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huanchao; Cao, Zhihong; Wang, Gaiping; Zhang, Hongai; Wong, M H

    2003-09-01

    A winter wheat field plot experiment was conducted on two types of paddy soils, from November, 2000 to June, 2001 to assess P losses to its surrounding watercourses by runoff in the Taihu Lake Region. Commercial NPK compound fertilizer and single superphosphate fertilizer were applied to furnish 0, 20, 80, and 160 kg P ha(-1). The experiments consisted of six replicates of each treatment in Changshu site and four replicates in Anzhen site, with a plot size of 5x6 m2 in a randomized block design. Results revealed that the average concentration of dissolved P (DP), particulate P (PP), and total P (TP) in runoff water during the winter season was 0.13, 0.90 and 1.04 mg P l(-1) respectively, from P20 plots in Anzhen site. While it was 0.67, 1.08 and 1.75 mg P l(-1) respectively, from P20 plots in Changshu site. The seasonal TP load (mass loss) from P20 plot ranged from a low of 290.88 g P ha(-1)season(-1) to a high of 483.54 g P ha(-1)season(-1), with a mean of 382.29 g P ha(-1)season(-1) in Anzhen, but from 444.92 to 752.21 g P ha(-1)season(-1), with a mean of 539.13 g P ha(-1)season(-1) in Changshu. Both in Anzhen and Changshu PP represented a major portion of the TP lost in runoff, the average PP/TP was about more than 80% in P0 and P20 plot, but it was decreased with the increase of P rate. The average seasonal P loads (DP, PP, and TP) in Changshu were greater than in Anzhen although runoff volume in Anzhen (45 mm season(-1)) was more than in Changshu (36 mm season(-1)). This was probably associated with the differences of soil physical and chemical properties between the two sites. Phosphate fertilizer rate significantly affected P concentrations and P loads by runoff. Both the mean concentrations and the average seasonal P loads from the P80 plots were lower than from the P160 plots, but obviously higher than from the P20 and P0 plots. There was no significant difference found between the P20 plots and the P0 plots both in Anzhen and Changshu sites. It indicated

  13. Petrophysical rock properties of the Bazhenov Formation of the South-Eastern part of Kaymysovsky Vault (Tomsk Region)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorshkov, A. M.; Kudryashova, L. K.; Lee-Van-Khe, O. S.

    2016-09-01

    The article presents the results of studying petrophysical rock properties of the Bazhenov Formation of the South-Eastern part of Kaymysovsky Vault with the Gas Research Institute (GRI) method. The authors have constructed dependence charts for bulk and grain density, open porosity and matrix permeability vs. depth. The results of studying petrophysical properties with the GRI method and core description have allowed dividing the entire section into three intervals each of which characterized by different conditions of Bazhenov Formation rock formation. The authors have determined a correlation between the compensated neutron log and the rock density vs. depth chart on the basis of complex well logging and petrophysical section analysis. They have determined a promising interval for producing hydrocarbons from the Bazhenov Formation in the well under study. Besides, they have determined the typical behavior of compensated neutron logs and SP logs on well logs for this interval. These studies will allow re-interpreting available well logs in order to determine the most promising interval to be involved in Bazhenov Formation development in Tomsk Region.

  14. Response of sea surface fugacity of CO2 to the SAM shift south of Tasmania: Regional differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Liang; Gao, Libao; Cai, Wei-Jun; Yu, Weidong; Wei, Meng

    2015-05-01

    Using observational data collected south of Tasmania during 14 austral summer cruises during 1993-2011, we examined the response of sea surface fugacity of carbon dioxide (fCO2) to the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) shift, which occurred around 2000. In the southern part of the Southern Ocean (SO) or the Polar Zone (PZ) and the Polar Frontal Zone (PFZ), fCO2 increased faster at the sea surface than in the atmosphere before the SAM shift, but not after the shift. In the northern part of the SO or the Subantarctic Zone (SAZ), however, surface fCO2 increased faster than atmospheric fCO2 both before and after the shift. The SAM shift had an important influence on the surface fCO2 trend in the PZ and PFZ but not in the SAZ, which we attribute to differences in regional oceanographic processes (upwelling versus nonupwelling). The SAM shift may have reversed the negative trend of SO CO2 uptake.

  15. The coal-forming plants of the upper part of the Lower Cretaceous Starosuchan Formation (Partizansk Basin, South Primorye region)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugdaeva, E. V.; Markevich, V. S.; Volynets, E. B.

    2014-05-01

    The plant remains and palynological assemblages are studied in detail in the section of the coal-bearing upper part of the Aptian Starosuchan Formation near the village of Molchanovka (Partizansk Basin, South Primorye region). On the basis of the light and electron microscopic study of the disperse cuticles, it was established that the coals are mostly composed of remains of taxodialean Elatides asiatica (Yok.) Krassil., subordinate Miroviaceae, rare ginkgoalean Pseudotorellia sp., and bennettite Nilssoniopteris rithidorachis (Krysht.) Krassil. The spores Gleicheniidites and pollen Taxodiaceaepollenites are dominant in the palynospectrum of the coal interlayer. It was found that dominant taxodialeans and gleicheniaceous ferns with less abundant Miroviaceae, ginkgoaleans, and rare bennettites occurred in the Aptian swamp communities of the Partizansk basin. Shoots and leaves of Elatides asiatica, fronds of Birisia onychioides (Vassil. et K.-M.) Samyl., are dominant in the burials of plants from the clastic rocks. The fragments of leaves of Nilssoniopteris, scale-leaved conifers, and Ginkgo ex gr. adiantoides are rare. The disperse cuticle of these layers mostly includes Pseudotorellia sp.; however, its remains in burials were not found. The spores Laevigatosporites are dominant in the palynospectra from the clastic interlayers. Ginkgocycadophytus and taxa close to Pinaceae are plentiful among the pollen of gymnosperms.

  16. Occurrence, source analysis and risk assessment of androgens, glucocorticoids and progestagens in the Hailing Bay region, South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shan; Chen, Hui; Zhou, Guang-Jie; Liu, Shuang-Shuang; Yue, Wei-Zhong; Yu, Shen; Sun, Kai-Feng; Cheng, Hefa; Ying, Guang-Guo; Xu, Xiang-Rong

    2015-12-01

    The occurrence and spatial distribution of 40 steroids in the environmental matrices of the Hailing Bay region, South China Sea, were investigated by rapid resolution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-MS/MS). Seventeen, 14 and 11 of 40 steroids were detected with the concentrations ranging from 0.04 (testosterone) to 40.00 ng/L (prednisolone), 1.33 (4-hydroxy-androst-4-ene-17-dione) to 1855 ng/L (androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione) and <0.19 (androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione) to 2.37 ng/g (progesterone) in the seawater, the municipal sewage discharged effluent and the sediment samples, respectively. The concentrations and risk quotients (RQs) of the steroids detected in the water samples decreased in the order of municipal sewage discharge site>wharves~aquaculture zones~tourism areas>offshore areas. The distribution of steroids in the marine environment was significantly correlated with the levels of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N). Source analysis indicated that untreated municipal sewage was the main source of steroids in the marine environment. Furthermore, progesterone was found to be a reliable chemical indicator to surrogate different steroids in both the water and sediment phases based on the correlation analysis.

  17. Phase equilibrium modeling, fluid inclusions and origin of charnockites in the Datian region of the northeastern Cathaysia Block, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiao-Qiang; Li, Zi-Long; Yu, Sheng-Qiang

    2016-08-01

    Charnockites in the Datian region of the northeastern Cathaysia Block, South China have an assemblage of garnet, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, plagioclase, anti-perthite, K-feldspar, biotite, quartz and ilmenite. Phase equilibrium modeling indicates that the Datian charnockite was formed at T = 845-855 °C and P = 8.2-8.4 kbar with corresponding water activity lower than 0.50. Fluid inclusions in the Datian charnockite are dominated by N2 and CO2 with minor CH4. The fluids homogenized to liquid at -153.0 to -138.8 °C and 18.3-21.6 °C, respectively, showing a low-density nature. The low-density fluids could be attributed to selective leakage of water due to the affinity of water to melt and decompression-dominated retrograde process. Combined with previous studies, a two-stage formation model is proposed to interpret the petrogenesis of the Datian charnockite, viz emplaced at the Paleoproterozoic and underwent the granulite-facies metamorphism during the Phanerozoic tectonic event.

  18. Survey of Medicinal Plants Used to Treat Malaria by Sidama People of Boricha District, Sidama Zone, South Region of Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Asnake, Solomon; Teklehaymanot, Tilahun; Hymete, Ariaya; Erko, Berhanu; Giday, Mirutse

    2016-01-01

    In Ethiopia, malaria control has been complicated due to resistance of the parasite to the current drugs. Thus, new drugs are required against drug-resistant Plasmodium strains. Historically, many of the present antimalarial drugs were discovered from plants. This study was, therefore, conducted to document antimalarial plants utilized by Sidama people of Boricha District, Sidama Zone, South Region of Ethiopia. An ethnobotanical survey was carried out from September 2011 to February 2012. Data were collected through semistructured interview and field and market observations. Relative frequency of citation (RFC) was calculated and preference ranking exercises were conducted to estimate the importance of the reported medicinal plants in Boricha District. A total of 42 antimalarial plants belonging to 27 families were recorded in the study area. Leaf was the dominant plant part (59.0%) used in the preparation of remedies and oral (97.4%) was the major route of administration. Ajuga integrifolia scored the highest RFC value (0.80). The results of this study revealed the existence of rich knowledge on the use of medicinal plants in the study area to treat malaria. Thus, an attempt should be made to conserve and evaluate the claimed antimalarial medicinal plants with priority given to those that scored the highest RFC values. PMID:26989429

  19. How accurate are antenatal weight measurements? A survey of hospital and community clinics in a South Thames Region NHS Trust.

    PubMed

    Harris, H E; Ellison, G T; Holliday, M; Nickson, C

    1998-04-01

    The accuracy of antenatal weight data recorded in obstetric notes was investigated in the 45 hospital and community antenatal clinics within a South Thames Region NHS Trust. In order to assess the reliability and validity of all 60 clinic scales triplicate measurements of body weight for low- and high-weight subjects were recorded on each clinical scale and on a calibrated standard scale. The quality of weighing practice during antenatal care was investigated by means of semi-structured interviews conducted with all 33 midwives who currently provide antenatal care within the Trust. Beam balances had the highest reliability and validity, whereas scales with spring mechanisms were the least accurate. Only 40% of the clinics surveyed had access to beam balances, yet most of the maternal weight measurements recorded during antenatal care are likely to be out by no more than 1-1.5% of body weight. Weighing practice was generally inconsistent, and serial measurements of maternal body weight collected during pregnancy are probably too imprecise to provide a sensitive screen for conditions associated with unusual weight gain and too inaccurate to assess compliance with guidelines for weight gain.

  20. Rongbuk re-visited: Geochronology of leucogranites in the footwall of the South Tibetan Detachment System, Everest Region, Southern Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottle, John M.; Searle, Michael P.; Jessup, Micah J.; Crowley, James L.; Law, Richard D.

    2015-06-01

    The Hermit's Gorge area adjacent to the Rongbuk Glacier on the north side of Mount Everest is a critical location to establish the timing and duration of movement along the ductile strand of the South Tibetan Detachment system (STDS), a low-angle, north-dipping normal fault that bounds the upper part of the Greater Himalayan Sequence. Monazite from four leucogranite samples in the Hermit's Gorge that bracket the timing of ductile fabric development has been dated using both U/Th-Pb ID-TIMS and LA-MC-ICPMS. Results suggest that the earliest, ~ 16.4 Ma, leucogranite sills have been folded and deformed along with the host sillimanite gneisses and calc-silicates whereas structurally higher sills and dykes that post-date fabric development are slightly younger, all within uncertainty of one another at 15.6 to 15.4 Ma. Field relations combined with age data constrain ductile fabric formation associated with movement along this strand of the STDS as being on-going at 16.4 Ma but had ceased prior to 15.6 Ma, while brittle faulting along the STDS is younger than 15.4 Ma. Combined with data from the Everest massif and surrounding region, ages of granite crystallization and ductile shearing propagated up-structural section and northward with time.

  1. Paleolimnological reconstruction of environmental variability during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene in the south-east Baltic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kublitskiy, Iurii; Subetto, Dmitriy; Druzhinina, Olga; Kulkova, Marianna; Arslanov, Khikmatula

    2016-04-01

    The main goal of our research is the high-resolution reconstruction of environmental and climatic changes in SE Baltic region since the Last Glacial Maximum by palaeolimnological data. The 6 objects - lakes and peat-bogs, were studied since 2009 in the Kaliningrad region, Russian Federation. According to palaeolimnological studies of bottom sediments of the Kamyshovoe Lake (N 54°22,6`; E22°42,8`, 189 m a.s.l.), located in the Vishtynets Highland, the south-east part of Kaliningrad district, the environmental and climatic changes after the late glacial have been reconstructed. At that moment the radiocarbon and loss-on-ignition (LOI) data, geochemistry and diatom analysis for the whole sediment core, and pollen analyze for the bottom part of the core have been completed. According to the pollen data the Alleröd interstadial starts at 13 200 cal. yrs BP and is marked by the rising of birch and pine pollen. The transition to the Younger Dryas around 12 700 cal. yrs BP corresponds with the development of patches of shrublands in which light-demanding species, such as juniper, flourished and communities of steppe herbs. The late Preboreal is marked by the appearance of Populus and an increase of the role of grasses in the vegetation cover 11 300-11 100 cal. yrs BP (Druzinina et al., 2015). The Holocene climatic zones have been identified by LOI and geochemistry analyses. The Boreal period started about 10 200 cal. yrs BP, Atlantic around 9100 cal. yrs BP, Subboreal 5800 cal. yrs BP, and Subatlantic 3200 cal. yrs BP (Kublitskiy et al., 2015). During the conference the new palaeolimnological data of environmental variability during the late Pleistocene and Holocene in SE Baltic region will be presented. Acknowledgements The investigations have been granted by the Russian Fund for Basic Research (12-05-33013, 13-05-41457, 15-35-50721). References Druzhinina, O., Subetto, D., Stančikaitė, M., Vaikutienė, G., Kublitsky, J., Arslanov, Kh., 2015. Sediment record from the

  2. Contamination profiles of perfluoroalkyl substances in five typical rivers of the Pearl River Delta region, South China.

    PubMed

    Pan, Chang-Gui; Ying, Guang-Guo; Liu, You-Sheng; Zhang, Qian-Qian; Chen, Zhi-Feng; Peng, Feng-Jiao; Huang, Guo-Yong

    2014-11-01

    A survey on contamination profiles of eighteen perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) was performed via high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for surface water and sediments from five typical rivers of the Pearl River Delta region, South China in summer and winter in 2012. The total concentrations of the PFASs in the water phase of the five rivers ranged from 0.14 to 346.72 ng L(-1). The PFAS concentrations in the water phase were correlated positively to some selected water quality parameters such as chemical oxygen demand (COD) (0.7913) and conductivity (0.5642). The monitoring results for the water samples showed significant seasonal variations, while those for the sediment samples showed no obvious seasonal variations. Among the selected 18 PFASs, perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was the dominant PFAS compound both in water and sediment for two seasons with its maximum concentration of 320.5 ng L(-1) in water and 11.4 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw) in sediment, followed by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) with its maximum concentration of 26.48 ng L(-1) in water and 0.99 ng g(-1) dw in sediment. PFOS and PFOA were found at relatively higher concentrations in the Shima River and Danshui River than in the other three rivers (Xizhijiang River, Dongjiang River and Shahe River). The principal component analysis for the PFASs concentrations in water and sediment separated the sampling sites into two groups: rural and agricultural area, and urban and industrial area, suggesting the PFASs in the riverine environment were mainly originated from industrial and urban activities in the region.

  3. Typhoid Fever surveillance and vaccine use - South-East Asia and Western Pacific regions, 2009-2013.

    PubMed

    Date, Kashmira A; Bentsi-Enchill, Adwoa D; Fox, Kimberley K; Abeysinghe, Nihal; Mintz, Eric D; Khan, M Imran; Sahastrabuddhe, Sushant; Hyde, Terri B

    2014-10-03

    Typhoid fever is a serious, systemic infection resulting in nearly 22 million cases and 216,500 deaths annually, primarily in Asia. Safe water, adequate sanitation, appropriate personal and food hygiene, and vaccination are the most effective strategies for prevention and control. In 2008, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended use of available typhoid vaccines to control endemic disease and outbreaks and strengthening of typhoid surveillance to improve disease estimates and identify high-risk populations (e.g., persons without access to potable water and adequate sanitation). This report summarizes the status of typhoid surveillance and vaccination programs in the WHO South-East Asia (SEAR) and Western Pacific regions (WPR) during 2009-2013, after the revised WHO recommendations. Data were obtained from the WHO/United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) Joint Reporting Form on Immunization, a supplemental survey of surveillance and immunization program managers, and published literature. During 2009-2013, 23 (48%) of 48 countries and areas of SEAR (11) and WPR (37) collected surveillance or notifiable disease data on typhoid cases, with most surveillance activities established before 2008. Nine (19%) countries reported implementation of typhoid vaccination programs or recommended vaccine use during 2009-2013. Despite the high incidence, typhoid surveillance is weak in these two regions, and vaccination efforts have been limited. Further progress toward typhoid fever prevention and control in SEAR and WPR will require country commitment and international support for enhanced surveillance, targeted use of existing vaccines and availability of newer vaccines integrated within routine immunization programs, and integration of vaccination with safe water, sanitation, and hygiene measures.

  4. Habitat type and nursery function for coastal marine fish species, with emphasis on the Eastern Cape region, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitfield, Alan K.; Pattrick, Paula

    2015-07-01

    A considerable amount of research has been undertaken to document and assess the nursery function of a variety of coastal habitats for marine fish species around the world. Most of these studies have focused on particular habitats and have generally been confined to a limited range of fish species associated with specific nursery areas. In this review we conduct a general assessment of the state of knowledge of coastal habitats in fulfilling the nursery-role concept for marine fishes, with particular emphasis on biotic and abiotic factors that influence nursery value. A primary aim was to synthesize information that can be used to drive sound conservation planning and provide a conceptual framework so that new marine protected areas (MPAs) incorporate the full range of nursery areas that are present within the coastal zone. We also use published data from a coastal section in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, to highlight the differential use of shallow aquatic habitats by a range of juvenile marine fish species within this region. Although the Eastern Cape case study does not assess the relative growth, food availability or predation in nursery and non-nursery areas within the coastal zone, it does document which habitats are important to the juveniles of dominant marine species within each area. These habitats, which range from intertidal pools, subtidal gulleys and surf zones to estuaries, do appear to perform a key role in the biological success of species assemblages, with the juveniles of particular marine fishes tending to favour specific nursery areas. According to a multivariate analysis of nursery habitat use within this region, marine species using estuaries tend to differ considerably from those using nearshore coastal waters, with a similar pattern likely to occur elsewhere in the world.

  5. [The floristic diversity of the psammophyte vegetation in the region of Tlemcen (north-west Algeria)].

    PubMed

    Stambouli-Meziane, Hassiba; Bouazza, M; Thinon, Michel

    2009-08-01

    This study is devoted to the analysis of the psammophyte of the coastal and semi-continental dunes in Tlemcen. Interesting results have been obtained, in particular, on the biological and ecological aspects of the psammophyte. The interpretation from Factoriel analysis of correspondences enabled us to identify the different phytosociological classes (Cakiletea maritimae, Ammophiletea, Quercetea ilicis, Therobrachypodietea and Stellarietea mediae). Some of these classes (Cakiletea maritimae and Ammophiletea) inhabit, exceedingly well, the embryonic dunes. Some species (Therobrachypodietea) colonize the quickset dunes. Lastly, some others (Quercetea ilicis) settle in the more mature and stable dunes. By using the phytosociological and phytodynamical data, we have been able to understand the vegetation and its diversity.

  6. An overview of regional and local characteristics of aerosols in South Africa using satellite, ground, and modeling data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hersey, S. P.; Garland, R. M.; Crosbie, E.; Shingler, T.; Sorooshian, A.; Piketh, S.; Burger, R.

    2014-09-01

    domestic burning influence, (2) urban and suburban residential sites with no domestic burning in the immediate vicinity, (3) industrial sites, and (4) one traffic site situated at a major freeway interchange. PM10 concentrations in township areas are 56% higher than in developed residential areas and 78% higher than in industrial areas as an annual average, with PM10 in townships 63 and 136% higher than developed residential and industrial areas, respectively, in winter (June, July, August). Monthly PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations reach annual maxima during winter at all sites except in industrial areas. At industrial sites, maxima in PM10 and PM2.5 tend to occur during summer (December-February), when photochemical generation of secondary aerosol is expected and when deep and unstable boundary layers allow high stack emissions (emitted above the boundary layer during winter) to reach the ground in close proximity to point sources. Diurnal profiles of PM10 and PM2.5 display maxima during morning (06:00-09:00 LT) and evening (17:00-22:00 LT) at nearly every site - especially during winter - and underscore the importance of domestic burning as a major source of primary particles. Multi-year averages indicate that evening maxima at some township sites average in excess of 400 μg m-3. These results from the urban/industrial Gauteng area quantitatively confirm previous studies suggesting that the lowest-income populations of South Africa experience the poorest air quality, and demonstrate that domestic burning results in frequent exposure to high concentrations of particulate pollution in the region comprising the cities of Johannesburg and Tshwane. While remotely-sensed data are frequently used as a proxy for ground air quality, we report poor correlations between PM concentrations and satellite parameters and suggest that this practice is not appropriate in metropolitan South Africa. Disagreement between satellite and ground data may be attributed to a number of factors: (1

  7. Distribution, facies, ages, and proposed tectonic associations of regionally metamorphosed rocks in east- and south-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Csejtey, Bela; Foster, Helen L.; Doyle, Elizabeth O.; Nokleberg, Warren J.; Plafker, George

    1993-01-01

    Most of the exposed bedrock in east- and south-central Alaska has been regionally metamorphosed and deformed during Mesozoic and early Cenozoic time. All the regionally metamorphosed rocks are assigned to metamorphic-facies units on the basis of their temperature and pressure conditions and metamorphic age. North of the McKinley and Denali faults, the crystalline rocks of the Yukon- Tanana upland and central Alaska Range compose a sequence of dynamothermally metamorphosed Paleozoic and older(?) metasedimentary rocks and metamorphosed products of a Devonian and Mississippian continental-margin magmatic arc. This sequence was extensively intruded by postmetamorphic mid-Cretaceous and younger granitoids. Many metamorphic-unit boundaries in the Yukon-Tanana upland are low-angle faults that juxtapose units of differing metamorphic grade, which indicates that metamorphism predated final emplacement of the fault-bounded units. In some places, the relation of metamorphic grade across a fault is best explained by contractional faulting; in other places, it is suggestive of extensional faulting.Near the United States-Canadian border in the central Yukon- Tanana upland, metamorphism, plutonism, and thrusting occurred during a latest Triassic and Early Jurassic event that presumably resulted from the accretion of a terrane that had affinities to the Stikinia terrane onto the continental margin of North America. Elsewhere in the Yukon-Tanana upland, metamorphic rocks give predominantly late Early Cretaceous isotopic ages. These ages are interpreted to date either the timing of a subsequent Early Cretaceous episode of crustal thickening and metamorphism or, assuming that these other areas were also originally heated during the latest Triassic to Early Jurassic and remained buried, the timing of their uplift and cooling. This uplift and cooling may have resulted from extension.South of the McKinley and Denali faults and north of the Border Ranges fault system, medium

  8. Maps Showing Sea Floor Topography, Sun-Illuminated Sea Floor Topography, and Backscatter Intensity of Quadrangles 1 and 2 in the Great South Channel Region, Western Georges Bank

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Valentine, Page C.; Middleton, Tammie J.; Malczyk, Jeremy T.; Fuller, Sarah J.

    2002-01-01

    The Great South Channel separates the western part of Georges Bank from Nantucket Shoals and is a major conduit for the exchange of water between the Gulf of Maine to the north and the Atlantic Ocean to the south. Water depths range mostly between 65 and 80 m in the region. A minimum depth of 45 m occurs in the east-central part of the mapped area, and a maximum depth of 100 m occurs in the northwest corner. The channel region is characterized by strong tidal and storm currents that flow dominantly north and south. Major topographic features of the seabed were formed by glacial and postglacial processes. Ice containing rock debris moved from north to south, sculpting the region into a broad shallow depression and depositing sediment to form the irregular depressions and low gravelly mounds and ridges that are visible in parts of the mapped area. Many other smaller glacial featuresprobably have been eroded by waves and currents at worksince the time when the region, formerly exposed bylowered sea level or occupied by ice, was invaded by the sea. The low, irregular and somewhat lumpy fabric formed by the glacial deposits is obscured in places by drifting sand and by the linear, sharp fabric formed by modern sand features. Today, sand transported by the strong north-south-flowing tidal and storm currents has formed large, east-west-trending dunes. These bedforms (ranging between 5 and 20 m in height) contrast strongly with, and partly mask, the subdued topography of the older glacial features.

  9. Possible Changes in the Characteristics of the Rainy Season over Northern South America: Results from a Regional Climate Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasconcelos, Francisco; Costa, Alexandre; Gandu, Adilson; Sales, Domingo; Araújo, Luiz

    2013-04-01

    Regional Climate Simulations were performed with RAMS6.0 to evaluate possible changes in the behaviour of the rainy season over the Amazon region, within the CORDEX domain of the Inter-tropical Americas. We forced the regional model using data from one of the CMIP5 participants (HadGEM2-ES), both for the Historical Experiment (1980-2005) and along the XXI century under RCP 8.5 (heavy-emission scenario). Regarding projections, we analyzed results for three time slices, short (2014-2035), middle (2044-2065) and long term (2078-2099), according to the following steps. First, the spatially averaged precipitation in non-overlapping pentads over 7 sub-regions over northern South America was calculated ("boxes" 1 to 7). Then, we calculated the climatological annual cycle for each one of them. Finally, dates of the onset and demise of the rainy season are found, validating the model results against GPCP observations and checking for projected changes. In general, in the Historical Experiment, the model delays the onset of the rainy season over the northern areas and anticipates it over most inland sub-regions. Over eastern Amazon, the regional model represents it properly, besides a delay in the demise of about one month. In short-term projections, there is a slight increase in precipitation and a modest anticipation of the rainy season onset in the coastal areas. Projected changes in the annual cycle of most sub-regions are relatively modest for the short-term and mid-term periods, but may become very significant by the end of the century. Over Colombia (Box 1), which has a bimodal precipitation annual cycle, the model projects a late century increase in the first precipitation peak. Little change is projected for the two boxes roughly covering Venezuela, the Guianas and the northernmost portion of northern Brazilian states (Boxes 2 and 3). The box covering northern Peru and Ecuador (Box 4) shows increased March-April precipitation, but with no significant changes in the

  10. The use of local natural stone in construction of St. Petersburg region and south-east Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luodes, Hannu; Härmä, Paavo; Panova, Elena; Pirinen, Heikki; Selonen, Olavi

    2013-04-01

    A three-year project, started in 2012, "Efficient use of natural stone in the Leningrad region and South-East Finland", studies the use and durability of natural stone in the city environments in the Nordic climate and especially along the Eastern Baltic Sea coastline between Helsinki and St. Petersburg. The project is lead by the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) and the partners in the project are Saimaa University of Applied Sciences from Finland and Federal State Unitary Enterprise "Petersburg Complex Geological Expedition" Russian together with Saint-Petersburg State University from the Russian Federation. As associates in this project are also natural stone companies from Finland, Ylämaa Group Oy and Palin Granit Oy. The project is co-funded by the European Union, the Russian Federation and the Republic of Finland through the European Neighbourhood and Partnership Instrument (ENPI). A great potential of natural stone that can be used in construction is located in the border zone between South-East Finland and the Leningrad region. Rapakivi granite from that area has been utilized for several important buildings worldwide since 18th century and the area holds still potential for future economic growth. The use of the stone particularly from this area is based on its visual expression and good properties with high durability and long life cycle that can be used as arguments in the future development. Strengthening of the knowledge of the material reserves in the area gives a long term basement for economic development. Special aim of the project is to promote the use of natural stone in the city construction, especially the use of left-over stone generated in the production. In the project the use of natural stone in larger cities from the 18th century until today including the towns St. Petersburg, Vyborg, Helsinki, Kuopio and Kotka will be reported. Also an analysis of the near future needs of natural stone (qualities and quantities) in reconstruction and

  11. Floristic diversity in urban forest area of NEERI Campus, Nagpur, Maharashtra (India).

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rakhi B; Chaudhari, P R; Wate, S R

    2008-01-01

    This study has been carried out to assess the diverse floristic wealth in urban forest area of NEERI campus at Nagpur, Maharashtra (India). This urban forest is ecologically important to maintain the atmospheric temperature around 2 degrees C below and higher relative humidity as compared to other urban areas. The water table is also observed to be shallower in this area as compared to other areas. Therefore, the biological diversity of this urban forest was studied, as it is directly related to ecology of the area. Floristic survey of NEERI premises recorded 135 vascular plants including 16 monocots and 119 dicots, belonging to 115 genera and 53 families. The taxa included 4 types of grasses, 55 herbs, 30 shrubs and 46 trees. The large number of species within very small area (43 ha) indicates rich biodiversity in this forest area. It is also observed that this forest patch has tall trees, with good density and rich cover of shrubs and herbs on forest floor indicating well knit plant community. These characteristics have given immense ecological importance to this urban forest area. Detailed vegetation study revealed that positive co-operation in the plant communities can significantly maintain species diversity in the environment.

  12. Floristic diversity and distribution pattern of plant communities along altitudinal gradient in Sangla Valley, Northwest Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pankaj; Rana, J C; Devi, Usha; Randhawa, S S; Kumar, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Himalayas are globally important biodiversity hotspots and are facing rapid loss in floristic diversity and changing pattern of vegetation due to various biotic and abiotic factors. This has necessitated the qualitative and quantitative assessment of vegetation here. The present study was conducted in Sangla Valley of northwest Himalaya aiming to assess the structure of vegetation and its trend in the valley along the altitudinal gradient. In the forest and alpine zones of the valley, 15 communities were recorded. Study revealed 320 species belonging to 199 genera and 75 families. Asteraceae, Rosaceae, Apiaceae, and Ranunculaceae were dominant. Among genera, Artemisia followed by Polygonum, Saussurea, Berberis, and Thalictrum were dominant. Tree and shrub's density ranged from 205 to 600 and from 105 to 1030 individual per hectare, respectively, whereas herbs ranged from 22.08 to 78.95 individual/m(2). Nearly 182 species were native to the Himalaya. Maximum altitudinal distribution of few selected climate sensitive species was found to be highest in northeast and north aspects. This study gives an insight into the floristic diversity and community structure of the fragile Sangla Valley which was hitherto not available.

  13. Sinfonevada: Dataset of Floristic diversity in Sierra Nevada forests (SE Spain).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Luque, Antonio Jesús; Bonet, Francisco Javier; Pérez-Pérez, Ramón; Rut Aspizua; Lorite, Juan; Zamora, Regino

    2014-01-01

    The Sinfonevada database is a forest inventory that contains information on the forest ecosystem in the Sierra Nevada mountains (SE Spain). The Sinfonevada dataset contains more than 7,500 occurrence records belonging to 270 taxa (24 of these threatened) from floristic inventories of the Sinfonevada Forest inventory. Expert field workers collected the information. The whole dataset underwent a quality control by botanists with broad expertise in Sierra Nevada flora. This floristic inventory was created to gather useful information for the proper management of Pinus plantations in Sierra Nevada. This is the only dataset that shows a comprehensive view of the forest flora in Sierra Nevada. This is the reason why it is being used to assess the biodiversity in the very dense pine plantations on this massif. With this dataset, managers have improved their ability to decide where to apply forest treatments in order to avoid biodiversity loss. The dataset forms part of the Sierra Nevada Global Change Observatory (OBSNEV), a long-term research project designed to compile socio-ecological information on the major ecosystem types in order to identify the impacts of global change in this area.

  14. The development of floristic provinciality during the Middle and Late Paleozoic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wnuk, C.

    1996-01-01

    Phytogeographic reconstructions have been published for most Paleozoic series since the Pr??i??doli??, but there have been few attempts to synthesize this data into a comprehensive review of the characteristics and causes of the changing phytogeographic patterns for the whole Paleozoic history of the vascular flora. Existing floristic analyses have been compiled in this manuscript and the resulting data are used to reconstruct the evolution of floristic provinces since the Silurian. The earliest plant fossil records indicate that provinciality was characteristic of terrestrial vascular plant distributions right from the beginning of terrestrial colonization by vascular plants. This interpretation differs markedly from the views of many workers who still maintain that pre-Upper Carboniferous floras were uniform and cosmopolitan in distribution. Three of the four major phytogeographic units, i.e. Angara, Euramerica, and Gondwana, can be recognized in the earliest fossil floras. The fourth unit, Cathaysia, differentiated from Euramerica during the late Upper Carboniferous. Phytogeographic differentiation occurs in direct response to climatic gradients and physiographic barriers. As these gradients and barriers change, provincial boundaries expand and contract, fragment, reassemble and reassort. Phytogeographic units are dynamic through time. ?? 1996 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Sinfonevada: Dataset of Floristic diversity in Sierra Nevada forests (SE Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Luque, Antonio Jesús; Bonet, Francisco Javier; Pérez-Pérez, Ramón; Rut Aspizua; Lorite, Juan; Zamora, Regino

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The Sinfonevada database is a forest inventory that contains information on the forest ecosystem in the Sierra Nevada mountains (SE Spain). The Sinfonevada dataset contains more than 7,500 occurrence records belonging to 270 taxa (24 of these threatened) from floristic inventories of the Sinfonevada Forest inventory. Expert field workers collected the information. The whole dataset underwent a quality control by botanists with broad expertise in Sierra Nevada flora. This floristic inventory was created to gather useful information for the proper management of Pinus plantations in Sierra Nevada. This is the only dataset that shows a comprehensive view of the forest flora in Sierra Nevada. This is the reason why it is being used to assess the biodiversity in the very dense pine plantations on this massif. With this dataset, managers have improved their ability to decide where to apply forest treatments in order to avoid biodiversity loss. The dataset forms part of the Sierra Nevada Global Change Observatory (OBSNEV), a long-term research project designed to compile socio-ecological information on the major ecosystem types in order to identify the impacts of global change in this area. PMID:24843285

  16. Floristic Diversity and Distribution Pattern of Plant Communities along Altitudinal Gradient in Sangla Valley, Northwest Himalaya

    PubMed Central

    Rana, J. C.; Devi, Usha; Randhawa, S. S.; Kumar, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Himalayas are globally important biodiversity hotspots and are facing rapid loss in floristic diversity and changing pattern of vegetation due to various biotic and abiotic factors. This has necessitated the qualitative and quantitative assessment of vegetation here. The present study was conducted in Sangla Valley of northwest Himalaya aiming to assess the structure of vegetation and its trend in the valley along the altitudinal gradient. In the forest and alpine zones of the valley, 15 communities were recorded. Study revealed 320 species belonging to 199 genera and 75 families. Asteraceae, Rosaceae, Apiaceae, and Ranunculaceae were dominant. Among genera, Artemisia followed by Polygonum, Saussurea, Berberis, and Thalictrum were dominant. Tree and shrub's density ranged from 205 to 600 and from 105 to 1030 individual per hectare, respectively, whereas herbs ranged from 22.08 to 78.95 individual/m2. Nearly 182 species were native to the Himalaya. Maximum altitudinal distribution of few selected climate sensitive species was found to be highest in northeast and north aspects. This study gives an insight into the floristic diversity and community structure of the fragile Sangla Valley which was hitherto not available. PMID:25383363

  17. Water-column cooling and sea surface salinity increase in the upwelling region off central-south Chile driven by a poleward displacement of the South Pacific High

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Wolfgang; Donoso, David; Garcés-Vargas, José; Escribano, Rubén

    2017-02-01

    Here we present results of direct observations of seawater temperature and salinity over the continental shelf off central-south Chile that shows an unprecedented cooling of the entire water column and an increase in upper layer salinity during 2002 to 2013. We provide evidence that this phenomenon is related to the intensification but mostly to a recent southward displacement of the South Pacific High over the same period, from 2007 on. This in turn has accelerated alongshore, equatorward, subtropical coastal upwelling favorable winds, particularly during winter, injecting colder water from below into the upper water column. Consequently, the environmental conditions on the shelf off central-south Chile shifted from a warmer (fresher) to a cooler (saltier) phase; water column temperature dropped from 11.7 °C (2003-2006) to 11.3 °C (2007-2012) and upper layer salinity rose by 0.25; water column stratification gradually decreased. The biological impacts of such abrupt cooling are apparently already happening in this coastal ecosystem, as recent evidence shows substantial changes in the plankton community and negative trends in zooplankton biomass over the same period.

  18. A modeling study on the effect of urban land surface forcing to regional meteorology and air quality over South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Kuanguang; Xie, Min; Wang, Tijian; Cai, Junxiong; Li, Songbing; Feng, Wen

    2017-03-01

    The change of land-use from natural to artificial surface induced by urban expansion can deeply impact the city environment. In this paper, the model WRF/Chem is applied to explore the effect of this change on regional meteorology and air quality over South China, where people have witnessed a rapid rate of urbanization. Two sets of urban maps are adopted to stand for the pre-urbanization and the present urban land-use distributions. Month-long simulations are conducted for January and July, 2014. The results show that urban expansion can obviously change the weather conditions around the big cities of South China. Especially in the Pearl River Delta region (PRD), the urban land-use change can increase the sensible heat flux by 40 W/m2 in January and 80 W/m2 in July, while decrease the latent heat flux about -50 W/m2 in January and -120 W/m2 in July. In the consequent, 2-m air temperature (T2) increases as much as 1 °C and 2 °C (respective to January and July), planetary boundary layer height (PBLH) rises up by 100-150 m and 300 m, 10-m wind speed (WS10) decreases by -1.2 m/s and -0.3 m/s, and 2-m specific humidity is reduced by -0.8 g/kg and -1.5 g/kg. Also, the precipitation in July can be increased as much as 120 mm, with more heavy rains and rainstorms. These variations of meteorological factors can significantly impact the spatial and vertical distribution of air pollutants as well. In PRD, the enhanced updraft can reduce the surface concentrations of PM10 by -40 μg/m3 (30%) in January and -80 μg/m3 (50%) in July, but produce a correlating increase in the concentrations at higher atmospheric layers. However, according to the increase in T2 and the decrease in surface NO, the surface concentrations of O3 in PRD can increase by 2-6 ppb in January and 8-12 ppb in July. Meanwhile, there is a significant increase in the O3 concentrations at upper layers above PRD, which should be attributed to the increase in air temperature and the enhanced upward transport of

  19. Devonian and carboniferous arcs of the oyu tolgoi porphyry Cu-Au district, South Gobi region, Mongolia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wainwright, A.J.; Tosdal, R.M.; Forster, C.N.; Kirwin, D.J.; Lewis, P.D.; Wooden, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    The Central Asian orogenic belt consists of microcontinental blocks and mobile belts positioned between the Siberian craton and the Tarim and North China cratons. Extending across Asia for 5000 km, the belt consists of terranes that decrease in age southward away from the Siberian craton. A time-stratigraphic-structural sequence for the rocks is critical to defining the tectonic evolution of the belt. In the Oyu Tolgoi area of the South Gobi Desert (Mongolia), Devonian and Carboniferous rocks record the construction of multiple arcs, formation of a giant porphyry Cu-Au system, exhumation, and polyphase deformation. The oldest rocks are basaltic volcanic and subvolcanic rocks of the Devonian Alagbayan Group intruded by Late Devonian quartz monzodiorite stocks and dikes, which host giant porphyry Cu-Au deposits. The rocks were exhumed, overlain by pyroclastic rocks, and then tectonically buried by marine mafic supracrustal rocks prior to the youngest Devonian granodiorite intrusions. The postmineral Carboniferous Gurvankharaat Group unconformably overlying the deformed terrane consists of effusive, pyroclastic, subvolcanic and volcaniclastic rocks, as well as sedimentary units. The supracrustal rocks underwent polyphase shortening after 330 Ma and prior to 290 Ma. Variations in stratigraphic sequences suggest that the region is underlain by a submarine arc that became emergent during the Upper Devonian and remained subaerial to shallow subaqueous through much of the Carboniferous. Xenocrystic zircons in igneous rocks suggest that the offshore arcs were sufficiently close to ancient crust to have interacted with detritus shed into marine basins, most likely from the Siberian craton and fringing early Paleozoic terranes. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  20. [Chemical denudation rates and carbon dioxide sink in Koxkar glacierised region at the south slope of Mt. Tianshan, China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Xu, Jun-li; Zhang, Shi-qiang; Liu, Shi-yin; Han, Hai-dong

    2010-04-01

    Chemical denudation rates and carbon dioxide sink were from water samples from ice-melt water, precipitation and river water were collected daily from June 21st to September 10th in 2004 in the Koxkar glacier region, south slope of Mt. Tianshan, China. The law of conservation of mass was applied for calculating chemical denudation fluxes and transient carbon dioxide sink. It is found that: 1) There were average of 60.7 kg x (km2 x d)(-1) and 60.2 kg x (km2 x d)(-1) solutes supplied by precipitation and ice melt-water respectively which accounted for about 7.7% and 7.6% of the total solutes of bulk river water [791.2 kg x (km2 x d)(-1)]. Consequently, the rate of chemical denudation derived from the crustal flux was 558.0 kg x (km2 x d)(-1), accounting for 70.5%. 2) Carbonation weathering was 308.9 kg x (km2 x d)(-1), and heavier than that of the other chemical denudations. The crustal concentration of bicarbonates (HCO3-) is attributed chiefly to the carbonation of carbonates (limestone and dolomite) and aluminosilicates/silicates. A further important source of bicarbonates and sulphates is pyrite oxidation coupled with limestone/dolomite dissolution. The transient carbon dioxide sink can be estimated by ion balance law, which is 81.0 kg x (km2 x d)(-1), accounting for 14.2%. 3) The chemical denudation rates was 641.1 kg x (km2 x d)(-1) with relationship of specific conductivity to concentrations of dissolved carbonate in water, which is only 4.4% less than that obtained from mass balance method without regard to carbon dioxide sink. The study also implied important to evaluate chemical denudation fluxes of poor data in western mountain area, China. However, because of without chemical analysis and ion partitioning, the transient CO2 drawdown cannot be established.

  1. EPA and DHA status of South Asian and white Canadians living in the National Capital Region of Canada.

    PubMed

    Nagasaka, Reiko; Gagnon, Claude; Swist, Eleonora; Rondeau, Isabelle; Massarelli, Isabelle; Cheung, Winnie; Ratnayake, Walisundera M N

    2014-10-01

    To minimize the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), most dietary guidelines have recommended consuming 500 mg/day of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or two servings of oily fish/week. The sum of percent EPA and DHA in red blood cell (RBC) total fatty acids-termed the omega-3 index-has been proposed as a biomarker for assessing the risk of death from CVD. The omega-3 indices of ≤4, >4 to <8 and ≥8 % have been proposed to be associated with high, intermediate and low CVD risks, respectively. In this study, we determined the EPA + DHA intake level and the omega-3 index of South Asian Canadians (SAC; n = 308) and white Canadians (WC; n = 341) age 20-79 years living in the National Capital Region of Canada. The mean EPA + DHA intake levels were 569 ± 571 mg/day for SAC and 684 ± 865 mg/day for WC and 46 % of SAC and 43 % of WC met the recommended EPA + DHA intake level of 500 mg/day. The mean omega-3 indices were 6.6 and 5.9 % for SAC and WC respectively. The suggested cardio-protective target level for the omega-3 index of ≥8 % was observed only in 19.8 % of SAC and in 9.4 % of WC subjects. The majority of the participants (74.4 % of SAC and 82.7 % of WC) were in the >4 to <8 % range. These results suggest that although study participants' dietary intake of EPA + DHA is adequate, this intake was not sufficient to provide an omega-3 index that is considered cardio-protective.

  2. A Clinico-Etiological Study of Dermatoses in Pediatric Age Group in Tertiary Health Care Center in South Gujarat Region

    PubMed Central

    Jawade, Sugat A; Chugh, Vishal S; Gohil, Sneha K; Mistry, Amit S; Umrigar, Dipak D

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dermatologic conditions have different presentation and management in pediatric age group from that in adult; this to be studied separately for statistical and population based analysis. Objective: To study the pattern of various dermatoses in infants and children in tertiary health care center in South Gujarat region. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study; various dermatoses were studied in pediatric patients up to 14 years of age attending the Dermatology OPD of New Civil Hospital, Surat, Gujarat over a period of 12 months from June 2009 to June 2010. All patients were divided into four different study groups: <1 month (neonates), 1 month to 1 year, >1 to 6 years and 7 to 14 years. Results: There were 596 boys and 425 girls in total 1021 study populations. Majority of the skin conditions in neonates were erythema toxicum neonatorum (12.97%), scabies (9.92%), mongolian spot (9.16%), and seborrheic dermatitis (7.63%). In > 1 month to 14 years age group of children among infectious disorder, children were found to be affected most by scabies (24.49%), impetigo (5.96%), pyoderma (5.62%), molluscum contagiosum (5.39%), tinea capitis (4.49%), leprosy (2.02%), and viral warts (1.35%) while among non-infectious disorders, they were affected by atopic dermatitis (4.27%), pityriasis alba (4.16%), seborrheic dermatitis (3.60%), pityriasis rosea (3.15%), others (3.01%), phrynoderma (2.70%), lichen planus (2.58%), contact dermatitis (1.57%) and ichthyosis (1.45%). Conclusion: There is a need to emphasize on training the management of common pediatric dermatoses to dermatologists, general practitioners and pediatricians for early treatment. PMID:26677296

  3. The genetic landscape of Ceratocystis albifundus populations in South Africa reveals a recent fungal introduction event.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Hyeon; Roux, Jolanda; Wingfield, Brenda D; Barnes, Irene; Mostert, Lizel; Wingfield, Michael J

    2016-05-01

    Geographical range expansion or host shifts is amongst the various evolutionary forces that underlie numerous emerging diseases caused by fungal pathogens. In this regard, Ceratocystis albifundus, the causal agent of a serious wilt disease of Acacia mearnsii trees in Africa, was recently identified killing cultivated Protea cynaroides in the Western Cape (WC) Province of South Africa. Protea cynaroides is an important native plant in the area and a key component of the Cape Floristic Region. The appearance of this new disease outbreak, together with isolates of C. albifundus from natural ecosystems as well as plantations of nonnative trees, provided an opportunity to consider questions relating to the possible origin and movement of the pathogen in South Africa. Ten microsatellite markers were used to determine the genetic diversity, population structure, and possible gene flow in a collection of 193 C. albifundus isolates. All populations, other than those from the WC, showed high levels of genetic diversity. An intermediate level of gene flow was found amongst populations of the pathogen. The results suggest that a limited number of individuals have recently been introduced into the WC, resulting in a novel disease problem in the area.

  4. TESTING THE FLORISTIC QUALITY ASSESSMENT INDEX AS AN INDICATOR OF WETLAND CONDITION ALONG GRADIENTS OF HUMAN INFLUENCE