Science.gov

Sample records for flounder pseudopleuronectes americanus

  1. Assessment of Dredge-induced Sedimentation Effects on Winter Flounder (pseudopleuronectes americanus) Hatching Success: Results of Laboratory Investigations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Historically of significant commercial and recreational value, winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) stocks have declined steadily over the last 20 years and are currently at an all-time low. Although overfishing and climate change have been implicated, habitat alterat...

  2. Assessment of Dredging-Induced Sedimentation Effects on Winter Flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) Hatching Success: Results of Laboratory Investigations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Historically of significant commercial and recreational value, winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) stocks have declined steadily over the last 20 years and are currently at an all-time low. Although overfishing and climate change have been implicated, habitat alterat...

  3. Assessment of Dredge-induced Sedimentation Effects on Winter Flounder (pseudopleuronectes americanus) Hatching Success: Results of Laboratory Investigations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Historically of significant commercial and recreational value, winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) stocks have declined steadily over the last 20 years and are currently at an all-time low. Although overfishing and climate change have been implicated, habitat alterat...

  4. Assessment of Dredging-Induced Sedimentation Effects on Winter Flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) Hatching Success: Results of Laboratory Investigations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Historically of significant commercial and recreational value, winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) stocks have declined steadily over the last 20 years and are currently at an all-time low. Although overfishing and climate change have been implicated, habitat alterat...

  5. Liver lesions in winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) from Jamaica Bay, New York: Indications of environmental degradation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Augspurger, T.P.; Herman, R.L.; Tanacredi, J.T.; Hatfield, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    Liver sections of winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) collected from Jamaica Bay and Shinnecock Bay, New York, in 1989, were examined microscopically to determine the pervasiveness of liver lesions observed previously in Jamaica Bay winter flounder. Neoplastic lesions were not detected in fish from Jamaica Bay or the Shinnecock Bay reference site. Twenty-two percent of Jamaica Bay winter flounder examined (n = 103) had unusual vacuolization of hepatocytes and biliary pre-ductal and ductal cells (referred to hereafter as the vacuolated cell lesion). The lesion, identical to that found in 25% of Jamaica Bay winter flounder examined in 1988, has previously been identified in fishes taken from highly polluted regions of the Atlantic coast (e.g., Boston Harbor, Massachusetts, and Black Rock Harbor, Connecticut). Prevalence of the vacuolated cell lesion in winter flounder from Jamaica Bay was significantly greater (p < 0.0001) than in 102 specimens collected from Shinnecock Bay. Current scientific literature indicates vacuolated hepatocytes and cholangiocytes are chronically injured and that the extent of their deformity is consistent with the action of a hepatotoxicant. The high prevalence of vacuolated hepatocytes in Jamaica Bay winter flounder and absence of the lesion in flounder from reference sites strongly supports the hypothesis that this impairment is a manifestation of a toxic condition in at least some portions of Jamaica Bay.

  6. Effects of cooking on levels of PCBs in the fillets of winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus)

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, T.M.; Durell, G.S.; Koczwara, G.; Spellacy, A.M.

    1995-08-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory and Battelle Ocean Sciences performed a study to determine the effect of cooking on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels in the fillets of winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus). Broiling, pan frying, and deep frying in oil were tested on fillets from 21 fish collected from New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts, on February 21, 1991. The evaluation involved estimating the change in PCB concentrations using a mass-balance approach that factored the change in fillet weight resulting from cooking with the changes in PCB concentration expressed on a precooked wet-weight basis. Deep frying in oil resulted in a 47% reduction in total PCB levels in fillet tissue. Additionally, deep frying caused a 40% reduction in fillet mass. Pan frying and broiling resulted in statistically in insignificant increases in total PCB levels of 15% and 17%, respectively. Fillet mass reductions resulting from pan frying and broiling were 7% and 15%, respectively. The effects of cooking on 18 individual congeners generally paralleled the results observed for total PCB. All 18 congeners were significantly reduced by deep frying. Congener Cl{sub 2}(08) also was significantly reduced by either pan frying. Congeners Cl{sub 5}(105) and Cl{sub 5}(118) showed apparent significant increases in concentrations following pan frying. Congeners Cl{sub 5}(105), Cl{sub 5}(118), and C1{sub 6}(138) showed significant increases in concentration following broiling.

  7. Windowpane flounder (Scophthalmus aquosus) and winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) responses to cold temperature extremes in a Northwest Atlantic estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilber, Dara H.; Clarke, Douglas G.; Alcoba, Catherine M.; Gallo, Jenine

    2016-01-01

    The effect of climate variability on flatfish includes not only the effects of warming on sensitive life history stages, but also impacts from more frequent or unseasonal extreme cold temperatures. Cold weather events can affect the overwintering capabilities of flatfish near their low temperature range limits. We examined the responses of two flatfish species, the thin-bodied windowpane (Scophthalmus aquosus) and cold-tolerant winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus), to variable winter temperatures in a Northwest Atlantic estuary using abundance and size data collected during a monitoring study, the Aquatic Biological Survey, conducted from 2002 to 2010. Winter and spring abundances of small (50 to 120 mm total length) juvenile windowpane were positively correlated with adult densities (spawning stock) and fall temperatures (thermal conditions experienced during post-settlement development for the fall-spawned cohort) of the previous year. Windowpane abundances in the estuary were significantly reduced and the smallest size class was nearly absent after several consecutive years with cold (minimum temperatures < 1 °C) winters. Interannual variation in winter flounder abundances was unrelated to the severity of winter temperatures. A Paulik diagram illustrates strong positive correlations between annual abundances of sequential winter flounder life history stages (egg, larval, Age-1 juvenile, and adult male) within the estuary, reflecting residency within the estuary through their first year of life. Temperature variables representing conditions during winter flounder larval and post-settlement development were not significant factors in multiple regression models exploring factors that affect juvenile abundances. Likewise, densities of predators known to consume winter flounder eggs and/or post-settlement juveniles were not significantly related to interannual variation in winter flounder juvenile abundances. Colder estuarine temperatures through the

  8. Differences in female individual reproductive potential among three stocks of winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McElroy, W. David; Wuenschel, Mark J.; Press, Yvonna K.; Towle, Emilee K.; McBride, Richard S.

    2013-01-01

    Potential annual fecundity (PAF) and skipped spawning of winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, were compared among the three stocks in United States waters and between two spawning seasons. Winter flounder have group-synchronous oocyte development and determinate fecundity. These characteristics enable estimation of PAF just prior to spawning by enumeration of the late-vitellogenic cohort of oocytes, in this case employing the autodiametric method. There was a low level of down-regulation, which was limited to fish in the earlier stages of vitellogenesis. Estimates of PAF increased substantially with female size and age, ranging from < 0.5 million to > 5 million eggs per female. Fecundity at size decreased with increasing latitude. On average, fish from the Southern New England (SNE) stock had the highest individual fecundities at length and Gulf of Maine (GOM) the lowest, but differences varied among the years. Fecundity at length of fish from Georges Bank (GB) was intermediate to these two stocks and displayed less variability at size; however, GB fish grow faster so they had the highest relative fecundity at age. Skipped spawning also exhibited geographic differences; it was infrequent (< 2%) overall, but observed in the two coastal stocks (GOM more than SNE) in both years and was not observed in the GB stock. Fecundity at size between the two years was more similar for SNE fish, but all three stocks were synchronized with higher PAF in 2011 than 2010. Comparisons to previously published estimates suggest fecundity is highly variable in this species. Overall, different rates of reproductive productivity exist among individuals of the three stocks.

  9. A New PCR-Based Method Shows That Blue Crabs (Callinectes sapidus (Rathbun)) Consume Winter Flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus (Walbaum))

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Jackie L.; Fitzgerald, Sean P.; Hice, Lyndie A.; Frisk, Michael G.; McElroy, Anne E.

    2014-01-01

    Winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) once supported robust commercial and recreational fisheries in the New York (USA) region, but since the 1990s populations have been in decline. Available data show that settlement of young-of-the-year winter flounder has not declined as sharply as adult abundance, suggesting that juveniles are experiencing higher mortality following settlement. The recent increase of blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) abundance in the New York region raises the possibility that new sources of predation may be contributing to juvenile winter flounder mortality. To investigate this possibility we developed and validated a method to specifically detect winter flounder mitochondrial control region DNA sequences in the gut contents of blue crabs. A survey of 55 crabs collected from Shinnecock Bay (along the south shore of Long Island, New York) in July, August, and September of 2011 showed that 12 of 42 blue crabs (28.6%) from which PCR-amplifiable DNA was recovered had consumed winter flounder in the wild, empirically supporting the trophic link between these species that has been widely speculated to exist. This technique overcomes difficulties with visual identification of the often unrecognizable gut contents of decapod crustaceans, and modifications of this approach offer valuable tools to more broadly address their feeding habits on a wide variety of species. PMID:24454797

  10. A new PCR-based method shows that blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus (Rathbun)) consume winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus (Walbaum)).

    PubMed

    Collier, Jackie L; Fitzgerald, Sean P; Hice, Lyndie A; Frisk, Michael G; McElroy, Anne E

    2014-01-01

    Winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) once supported robust commercial and recreational fisheries in the New York (USA) region, but since the 1990s populations have been in decline. Available data show that settlement of young-of-the-year winter flounder has not declined as sharply as adult abundance, suggesting that juveniles are experiencing higher mortality following settlement. The recent increase of blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) abundance in the New York region raises the possibility that new sources of predation may be contributing to juvenile winter flounder mortality. To investigate this possibility we developed and validated a method to specifically detect winter flounder mitochondrial control region DNA sequences in the gut contents of blue crabs. A survey of 55 crabs collected from Shinnecock Bay (along the south shore of Long Island, New York) in July, August, and September of 2011 showed that 12 of 42 blue crabs (28.6%) from which PCR-amplifiable DNA was recovered had consumed winter flounder in the wild, empirically supporting the trophic link between these species that has been widely speculated to exist. This technique overcomes difficulties with visual identification of the often unrecognizable gut contents of decapod crustaceans, and modifications of this approach offer valuable tools to more broadly address their feeding habits on a wide variety of species.

  11. Erythrocyte micronuclei in winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus): results of field surveys during 1980-1988 from Virginia to Nova Scotia and in Long Island Sound.

    PubMed

    Hughes, J B; Hebert, A T

    1991-05-01

    Erythrocyte micronuclei (MN) frequencies of 280 winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) from Chesapeake Bay to the southern Scotian Shelf including Long Island Sound were measured. The MN data were combined with data previously reported for 224 flounder and the combined data sets were analyzed. Incidences of MN were elevated sixfold in flounder from the New York Bight Apex as compared to frequencies for fish from the inshore Gulf of Maine and Block Island Sound, and twice those found in Georges Bank and Long Island Sound flounder. Inshore New Jersey fish had higher MN frequencies than those from inshore Gulf Of Maine and Block Island Sound. The occurrence of MN in flounder from inshore Virginia was higher than in flounder from inshore Gulf of Maine and Block Island Sound. The large subset of stations from Long Island Sound indicated higher frequencies of MN in flounder from Hempstead and Shoreham as compared to most other sites in the Sound. There was no significant difference in the frequency of MN between males and females, but males had significantly more MN than sexually immature flounder. Flounder over the entire sampling area had increased levels of MN during the fall months of the year. This is probably influenced by the maternal cycle of gonadal maturation.

  12. Seasonal patterns of winter flounder Pseudopleuronectes americanus abundance and reproductive condition on the New York Bight continental shelf.

    PubMed

    Wuenschel, M J; Able, K W; Byrne, D

    2009-05-01

    To resolve varied and sometimes conflicting accounts of spawning and habitat characteristics for winter flounder Pseudopleuronectes americanus, seasonal patterns in abundance and reproductive condition were investigated in the New York Bight, near the southern edge of their current reproductive range. Fish were collected from trawl surveys on the inner continental shelf from October 2006 to October 2007. Pseudopleuronectes americanus were most abundant during January and April surveys, were rarely collected in August, with intermediate abundances in June and October. Measurements of fish condition [hepato-somatic index (I(H)), condition factor (K) and the per cent dry mass of muscle tissue (%M(D))] and reproductive condition [gonado-somatic index (I(G))] were determined to evaluate seasonal changes in energy accumulation and depletion and reproduction. Males and females had similar patterns in body and reproductive condition, although the magnitude of change was greater for females. I(H) values were highest during spring and early summer, suggesting increased feeding following spawning. K and %M(D) increased through spring and summer then declined in the autumn and winter concurrent with gonadal development. Gonads began developing in the autumn, and in January, I(G) values approached spawning levels, with many spent individuals collected in spring. Within these general patterns, however, there was a large degree of variability among individuals, and a few mature non-reproductive ('skipped spawning') females were observed. In the period after spawning, increased energy intake, indicated by increased I(H), may influence reproductive output since this energy is gradually transferred to the muscle and used for gonadal development in the forthcoming year. The occurrence of ripening individuals on the inner continental shelf in January suggests that these fish either rapidly move into estuaries to spawn by February-March or they remain on the inner shelf to spawn, or

  13. Juvenile winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) and summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) utilization of Southern New England nurseries: Comparisons among estuarine, tidal river, and coastal lagoon shallow-water habitats.

    PubMed

    Taylor, David L; McNamee, Jason; Lake, John; Gervasi, Carissa L; Palance, Danial G

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluated the relative importance of the N arragansett Bay estuary (RI and MA, USA), and associated tidal rivers and coastal lagoons, as nurseries for juvenile winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, and summer flounder, Paralichthys dentatus. Winter flounder (WF) and summer flounder (SF) abundance and growth were measured from May to October (2009-2013) and served as indicators for the use and quality of shallow-water habitats (water depth < 1.5-3.0 m). These bioindicators were then analyzed with respect to physiochemical conditions to determine the mechanisms underlying intra-specific habitat selection. WF and SF abundances were greatest in late May and June (maximum monthly mean = 4.9 and 0.55 flounder/m(2) for WF and SF, respectively), and were significantly higher in the tidal rivers relative to the bay and lagoons. Habitat-related patterns in WF and SF abundance were primarily governed by their preferences for oligohaline (0.1-5 ppt) and mesohaline (6-18 ppt) waters, but also their respective avoidance of hypoxic conditions (< 4 mg DO/L) and warm water temperatures (> 25 °C). Flounder habitat usage was also positively related to sediment organic content, which may be due to these substrates having sufficiently high prey densities. WF growth rates (mean = 0.25 ± 0.14 mm/d) were negatively correlated with the abundance of conspecifics, whereas SF growth (mean = 1.39 ± 0.46 mm/d) was positively related to temperature and salinity. Also, contrary to expectations, flounder occupied habitats that offered no ostensible advantage in intra-specific growth rates. WF and SF exposed to low salinities in certain rivers likely experienced increased osmoregulatory costs, thereby reducing energy for somatic growth. Low-salinity habitats, however, may benefit flounder by providing refugia from predation or reduced competition with other estuarine fishes and macro-invertebrates. Examining WF and SF abundance and growth across each species' broader

  14. Juvenile winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) and summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) utilization of Southern New England nurseries: Comparisons among estuarine, tidal river, and coastal lagoon shallow-water habitats

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, David L.; McNamee, Jason; Lake, John; Gervasi, Carissa L.; Palance, Danial G.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the relative importance of the N arragansett Bay estuary (RI and MA, USA), and associated tidal rivers and coastal lagoons, as nurseries for juvenile winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, and summer flounder, Paralichthys dentatus. Winter flounder (WF) and summer flounder (SF) abundance and growth were measured from May to October (2009–2013) and served as indicators for the use and quality of shallow-water habitats (water depth < 1.5–3.0 m). These bioindicators were then analyzed with respect to physiochemical conditions to determine the mechanisms underlying intra-specific habitat selection. WF and SF abundances were greatest in late May and June (maximum monthly mean = 4.9 and 0.55 flounder/m2 for WF and SF, respectively), and were significantly higher in the tidal rivers relative to the bay and lagoons. Habitat-related patterns in WF and SF abundance were primarily governed by their preferences for oligohaline (0.1–5 ppt) and mesohaline (6–18 ppt) waters, but also their respective avoidance of hypoxic conditions (< 4 mg DO/L) and warm water temperatures (> 25 °C). Flounder habitat usage was also positively related to sediment organic content, which may be due to these substrates having sufficiently high prey densities. WF growth rates (mean = 0.25 ± 0.14 mm/d) were negatively correlated with the abundance of conspecifics, whereas SF growth (mean = 1.39 ± 0.46 mm/d) was positively related to temperature and salinity. Also, contrary to expectations, flounder occupied habitats that offered no ostensible advantage in intra-specific growth rates. WF and SF exposed to low salinities in certain rivers likely experienced increased osmoregulatory costs, thereby reducing energy for somatic growth. Low-salinity habitats, however, may benefit flounder by providing refugia from predation or reduced competition with other estuarine fishes and macro-invertebrates. Examining WF and SF abundance and growth across each species’ broader

  15. Comparative reproductive success of winter flounder in Long Island Sound: A three-year study (biology, biochemistry, and chemistry). [Pseudopleuronectes americanus

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, D.A.; Miller, J.E.; Rusanowsky, D.; Greig, R.A.; Sennefelder, G.R.; Mercaldo-Allen, R.; Kuropat, C.; Gould, E.; Thurberg, F.P.; Calabrese, A. )

    1991-09-01

    In a 3-yr study, late prespawning winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) were collected from various stations in Long Island Sound (three of them heavily urbanized) and spawned in the laboratory. For comparative purposes, flounder from two sites in the Boston Harbor area were similarly treated in 1987 and 1988. Of the stations in Long Island Sound, New Haven Harbor alone consistently produced low percent viable hatch and small larvae. Boston Harbor produced the smallest larvae of all sites. There were no significant station-to-station differences in lipid utilization during larval development; yolk reserves at stations showing a low percent viable hatch, small larvae, and low embryonic development rate were probably used in part for stress metabolism. No significant differences in concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls for collections from Long Island Sound were found either in livers of spawned fish, in sediments, or in eggs of winter flounder. The very low metal concentrations in winter flounder eggs showed no relation to the degree of metal contamination found at stations in Long Island Sound and Boston Harbor.

  16. Relationship between body size and habitat complexity preference in age-0 and -1 year winter flounder Pseudopleuronectes americanus.

    PubMed

    Pappal, A L; Rountree, R A; MacDonald, D G

    2012-07-01

    The interaction between body size, habitat complexity and interstice width on habitat preference of age-0 and -1 year Pseudopleuronectes americanus was examined using continuous remote video observation. The habitat choices of juvenile P. americanus were recorded over a 6 h period in tanks with four treatments: bare sand, sand with low complexity cobble, sand with intermediate complexity cobble and sand with high complexity cobble. Both age-0 and -1 year fish preferred cobble to bare sand. Within cobble treatments, age-0 year fish preferred intermediate complexity cobble, with a 1.59 ratio of interstitial space to body width. The largest age-1 year fish (123-130 mm standard length, L(S) ) preferred low complexity cobble. While a significant preference was not detected, medium age-1 year fish (83-88 mm L(S) ) tended to select low complexity cobble, whereas small age-1 year fish (73-82 mm L(S) ) tended to select low and intermediate cobble, with an interstitial space to body width ratio of 1.05. For medium and large age-1 year fish, there was an increased selection of low complexity cobble, corresponding to larger interstitial space to body size ratios. This study indicates that juvenile P. americanus prefer complex habitat to unstructured habitat and that this preference is mediated by a relationship between fish body size and the size of structure interstices. These results contribute to the growing body of knowledge of complex habitat selection and drivers of habitat choice in flatfishes. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  17. Winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) estuarine habitat use and the association between spring temperature and subsequent year class strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilber, Dara H.; Davis, David; Clarke, Douglas G.; Alcoba, Catherine J.; Gallo, Jenine

    2013-11-01

    Winter flounder habitat use in New York/New Jersey Harbor was examined through a long-term (2002-2010) bottom trawl sampling program (Aquatic Biological Survey) in which 5234 winter flounder were captured in 2069 samples collected at approximately 26 stations throughout the harbor. Interannual variability in catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) primarily was attributable to fluctuations in Year-1 juvenile CPUE, which was positively correlated with total annual egg abundances from the previous year. Adult male CPUE during the spawning season was positively correlated with total egg abundances of the same year, whereas adult female CPUE was unrelated to annual egg abundances in the harbor. Annual variation in adult male densities in the harbor during the spawning season reflects the intensity of estuarine spawning activity, whereas adult female densities may include non-reproductive, foraging individuals. Seasonal fluctuations in condition indices reflected energy use during the spawning season, with relatively high condition in January, reduced levels in March and April, and elevated condition again in May. Adult CPUE peaked in April, coincident with the critical feeding period that follows spawning. Mean April water temperatures were positively correlated with egg abundances the following year and Year-1 juvenile CPUE two years later. A similar correlation between April temperatures and Year-1 juvenile abundances two years later was demonstrated using published data for winter flounder collected in Niantic Bay, CT. Higher April water temperatures may enhance benthic secondary production during the critical feeding period, and thus increase prey availability for foraging adults that need to restore energy reserves in order to reproduce the following year. A direct examination of benthic secondary production and variation in winter flounder estuarine foraging and subsequent spawning activity is needed to more fully understand this relationship.

  18. Long-term assessment of settlement and growth of juvenile winter flounder ( Pseudopleuronectes americanus) in New Jersey estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sogard, Susan M.; Able, Kenneth W.; Hagan, Stacy M.

    2001-06-01

    We examined patterns of metamorphosis, settlement, and growth for young-of-the-year winter flounder over a ten year period (1990-1999) in four estuaries spanning the coast of New Jersey, USA, with the objective to determine the spatial and temporal coherence in these processes. We hypothesised that these processes could be influenced by large-scale climatic factors such as temperature and small-scale, local factors such as predator and prey abundances and differences associated with the localised population structure of winter flounder. Newly settled juveniles were collected in late May/early June each year. Increment counts on sagittal otoliths were used to determine the date of metamorphosis, and increment widths were used to estimate growth rates at two times, just after settlement and just prior to capture. A high level of consistency in spatial patterns among four individual estuaries was evident, and was largely driven by the northernmost site, Sandy Hook, which had higher fish densities and later metamorphosis than the three other sites, and faster growth rates than the two mid-coast sites (Barnegat Bay and Great Bay). In contrast to spatial patterns, consistent temporal patterns were evident only in the timing of metamorphosis, which was delayed in colder years at all sites. Weekly plankton sampling over the same ten year period at one site (Great Bay) yielded winter flounder larvae during a relatively narrow period in spring, with a later peak of abundance in colder years, in agreement with back-calculated dates of metamorphosis for settled juveniles. These patterns suggest that the timing of settlement is driven by large-scale climatic factors that influence the timing of spawning and/or larval development. Interannual variability in densities and growth rates, however, appeared to be independent at each site, indicating control by local environmental factors or genetic differences among local populations. The spatial consistency of growth rates suggests

  19. Stable Carbon and Oxygen Isotope Ratios of Otoliths Differentiate Winter Flounder (Pseudopleuonectes americanus) Habitats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stable carbon (13C) and oxygen (18O) isotope ratios were measured in otoliths of juvenile winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) collected from 18 nursery areas along the coast of Rhode Island, USA. Samples were obtained during June and July of 2002 from locations tha...

  20. Stable Carbon and Oxygen Isotope Ratios of Otoliths Differentiate Winter Flounder (Pseudopleuonectes americanus) Habitats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stable carbon (13C) and oxygen (18O) isotope ratios were measured in otoliths of juvenile winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) collected from 18 nursery areas along the coast of Rhode Island, USA. Samples were obtained during June and July of 2002 from locations tha...

  1. The metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by two marine fishes: the little skate, Raja erinacea and the winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus

    SciTech Connect

    Foureman, G.L.

    1982-01-01

    Hepatic cytosolic fractions from male little skates exhibited high specific rates of enzymatic conjugation of glutathione with the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) oxide, benzo(a)pyrene 4,5-oxide (4,5-BPO). High performance liquid chromatography analysis demonstrated that all hepatic skate tranferases showed strict configurational stereoselectivity for the R carbons in enantiomeric 4,5-BPO, only the S products were observed in enzymic reaction mixtures. Rates of metabolism of the PAH benzo(a)pyrene (i.e., AHH activity) varied markedly in hepatic homogenates prepared from feral winter flounder caught in the Gulf of Maine. Treatment of feral flounder with either a PAH or a PAH-type compound resulted in induced AHH activities in the liver of all flounder so treated. ANF (7,8-benzoflavone) acted to inhibit the hepatic AHH activity in all treated fish as it did in 64% of the feral flounder examined. Electrophoretic analysis of hepatic microsomes from flounder treated with either a PAH or a PAH-type compound showed a novel or enriched polypeptide species at approximately 57,000 MW. A polypeptide species of similar MW was only faintly discernable in hepatic microsomes from feral flounder whose hepatic AHH activities were much lower than that of the treated flounder whereas a band of similar molecular weight was prominent in hepatic microsomes from feral flounder with high hepatic AHH activities. These results suggest that many of the flounder in this area of Maine have induction of their hepatic monooxygenase systems similar to that caused by PAH or PAH-type compounds.

  2. The effects of fin rot disease and sampling method on blood chemistry and hematocrit measurements of winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus from New Haven Harbor (1987--1990).

    PubMed

    Ziskowski, J; Mercaldo-Allen, R; Pereira, J J; Kuropat, C; Goldberg, R

    2008-04-01

    Winter flounder from New Haven, Connecticut were evaluated for fin rot disease. Blood samples collected from healthy and diseased fish were used to measure bilirubin, calcium, hematocrit, inorganic phosphorus, osmolality, and total protein. Blood measurements were significantly affected by the presence of fin rot disease and by sampling mode (bled immediately or after 18 h). A reduction in blood chemistry values was associated with fin rot disease. Logistic regression modeling was used to identify explanatory variables contributing to the fin rot outcome in winter flounder. Blood constituent levels were higher in fish bled immediately versus 18 h post-capture, especially among fish without fin rot, suggesting that a waiting period is necessary for blood values to stabilize following initial sampling stress. This study presents evidence that winter flounder blood chemistry and hematocrit measurements are affected by fin rot disease.

  3. Influence of gonadotropic hormone-releasing hormone analog (GnRH-A) on plasma sex steroid profiles and milt production in male winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus (Walbaum).

    PubMed

    Harmin, S A; Crim, L W

    1993-03-01

    The effects of gonadotropic hormone-releasing hormone analog (GnRH-A) treatment on the onset and duration of increases in plasma sex steroids and milt production (milt volume and number of spermatozoa) were investigated in prespawning male winter flounder. After treatment of maturing males during the winter with a single injection of either 20 or 200 μg/kg [D-Ala(6), Pro(9)-NHEt]LHRH (GnRH-A), plasma levels of testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone were increased within 12h and the steroid hormone levels remained elevated for long periods lasting several days. The androgenic steroid response of males was delayed after the administration of a lower dose of GnRH-A (2 μg/kg). Although a single GnRH-A injection in December or January advanced the onset of spermiation in some males, only small amounts (<50 μl) of milt could be collected. By March, all males were in spermiating condition following GnRH-A treatment; however, significant increases in sperm production, particularly increases in milt volume, occurred in fish twice treated with GnRH-A.

  4. Latitudinal and stock-specific variation in size- and age-at-maturity of female winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, as determined with gonad histology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, Richard S.; Wuenschel, Mark J.; Nitschke, Paul; Thornton, Grace; King, Jeremy R.

    2013-01-01

    Female winter flounder were examined using gonad histology to determine the adequacy of routine macroscopic maturity classification methods and to determine the spatial variation in size and age of maturity in U.S. waters. Sampling occurred in spring and autumn, which was adequate to collect immature, mature, spawning-active, and non-active females. Females were collected in coastal waters from Delaware Bay, USA, to the Scotian Shelf, Canada, including in Long Island Sound and on Georges Bank, which covered all U.S. stock areas. Mature fish spawned in spring, when gonads comprised up to 30% of the total body weight. Direct comparisons of maturity assignment by macroscopic versus microscopic methods demonstrated that both schemes are compatible, but the more cost-effective macroscopic method had trouble distinguishing larger immature from smaller resting females. Spatial comparisons, using gonad histology only, supported the existence of three stocks in U.S. waters, but also revealed significant variation in age at maturity within the two coastal stocks. Age-at-maturity was more variable than size-at-maturity, which is consistent with known stock-specific patterns of growth rates and a postulated life history tradeoff to delay maturity until a size threshold is reached. The within-stock variation in median age at maturity, about one year for coastal stocks, recommends further investigation of using static, stock-specific maturity ogives to calculate reference points for management.

  5. Multidisciplinary assessment of pollution at three sites in Long Island Sound. [Pseudopleuronectes americanus

    SciTech Connect

    Gronlund, W.D.; Sinlam Chan; McCain, B.B.; Clark, R.C. Jr.; Myers, M.S.; Stein, J.E.; Brown, D.W.; Landahl, J.T.; Krahn, M.M.; Varanasi, U. )

    1991-09-01

    Winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) were sampled from three sites located near Norwalk, New Haven, and Niantic, Connecticut, in Long Island Sound during February 1987, to evaluate the degree of chemical contamination and to determine possible effects of contaminant exposure. At each site, sediment ad infaunal invertebrates were also collected and analyzed for trace metals and organic chemicals. Specimens of liver and kidney from winter flounder were examined for histopathological conditions, including the presence of macrophage aggregates in liver tissue. Liver samples were also analyzed for DNA damage (i.e., the formation of adducts between DNA and chemical contaminants). Blood samples were collected and analyzed for erythrocyte micronuclei. The sampling site near New Haven was determined to be the most affected site, from the standpoints of greater chemical contamination and possible effects on winter flounder. Concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons (AHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were highest in sediment from this site, and the highest prevalences of the histopathological changes and DNA alterations were also found in the livers of winter flounder from this site. No differences in the concentrations of contaminants in fish or in frequencies of erythrocyte micronuclei in fish blood were found between sites. None of the sites samples had contaminant levels or prevalences of lesions as high as previously found at other East Coast locations (e.g., Boston Harbor, Massachusetts, Raritan Bay, New York). Overall, the results indicate moderate levels of pollution at two of the urban sites in Long Island Sound and provide a framework for expanded studies to better define the extent and impact of chemical pollution in Long Island Sound.

  6. Reduction in organic contaminant exposure and resultant hepatic hydropic vacuolation in winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) following improved effluent quality and relocation of the Boston sewage outfall into Massachusetts Bay, USA: 1987-2003.

    PubMed

    Moore, Michael; Lefkovitz, Lisa; Hall, Maury; Hillman, Robert; Mitchell, David; Burnett, Jay

    2005-02-01

    Effluent upgrades for metropolitan Boston have included toxicant reduction, primary and secondary treatment and outfall extension. Between 1992 and 2003 winter flounder at five stations were surveyed annually for liver and muscle burden and chronic hepatic sub-lethal impacts of polynuclear and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, and metals. Trends in flounder availability and fin condition were also examined. In 1988 12% of the adult winter flounder in Boston Harbor exhibited hepatic neoplasms and up to 80% had hepatic hydropic vacuolation (HV). Tumor prevalence fell to 0-2% and HV to <50% by 1996. Since then tumors have been absent, while a steady prevalence of HV has persisted, consistent with lower hydrocarbon loading and tissue levels. Contaminants and HV also fell with distance from the Boston outfall. After the outfall extension was activated in 2000, there has been no significant change in flounder liver health at the new outfall site.

  7. Taxonomy and host-specificity of Gyrodactylus aideni n. sp. and G. pleuronecti (Monogenea: Gyrodactylidae) from Pseudopleuronectes americanus (Walbaum) in Passamaquoddy Bay, New Brunswick, Canada.

    PubMed

    Mullen, A J; Cone, D K; Easy, R; Burt, M D B

    2010-11-01

    Wild and cultured winter flounder Pseudopleuronectes americanus (Walbaum) from Passamaquoddy Bay were surveyed for species of Gyrodactylus Nordmann, 1832. Two species were found: G. pleuronecti Cone, 1981 and G. aideni n. sp, both members of Malmberg's 'groenlandicus group'. Although the hard parts in the haptor are very similar in the two species, hamuli of G. aideni are consistently shorter than those of G. pleuronecti. The two species differed by 35 base pairs in the ITS 1, 5.8 and ITS 2 region. A BLAST search identified a variety of species of Gyrodactylus from marine fishes in the Atlantic Ocean as closest matches, indicating the 'groenlandicus group' is part of a major marine lineage within Gyrodactylus (sensu lato) that has successfully radiated among coastal percid, pleuronectid, cottid and anarhichadid fishes. Exposure experiments suggested that winter flounder is the primary host of both species of parasites and that three other pleuronectid species in the bay may potentially serve only as occasional transport hosts.

  8. Cloning, distribution and effects of season and nutritional status on the expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY), cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) and cholecystokinin (CCK) in winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus).

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Erin; Volkoff, Hélène

    2009-06-01

    cDNAs encoding for neuropeptide Y (NPY), cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) and cholecystokinin (CCK) were cloned in winter flounder, a species that undergoes a period of natural fasting during the winter. Tissue distribution studies show that these peptides are present in several peripheral tissues, including gut and gonads, as well as within the brain. We assessed the effects of season and fasting on the expression of these peptides. Our results show that NPY and CCK, but not CART, show seasonal differences in expression with higher hypothalamic NPY and lower gut CCK expression levels in the winter. In the summer, fasting induced an increase in hypothalamic NPY expression levels and a decrease in gut CCK levels, but did not affect hypothalamic CART expression levels. None of the peptides examined was affected by fasting in the winter. Our results suggest that NPY and CCK, but maybe not CART, might have a major role in the regulation of feeding in winter flounder and might contribute to the seasonal fluctuations in appetite in this species.

  9. Sublethal abnormalities in embryos of winter flounder, Psuedopleuronectes americanus, from Long Island Sound

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, D.M.; Hughes, J.B.; Herbert, A.T. )

    1991-09-01

    Sublethal abnormalities were examined in developing embryos of the winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, as part of a study of its early reproductive success in Long Island Sound and two sites in Boston Harbor. These sites represented varying levels of anthropogenic contamination that were possibly affecting reproduction, as ascertained by chromosomal abnormalities and lowered developmental rates in the embryos. Effort was focused on examination of blastula and tail-bud embryos from field-captured females spawned at the laboratory. Abnormalities observed included evidence of cytotoxicity and chromosome damage. Embryos of fish New Haven were usually the most aberrant, while embryos from other sites, notably Hempstead, Shoreham, and both Boston Harbor stations, showed subtle indications of abnormality.

  10. Temporal trends in nitrogen isotope ratios of winter flounder collected from Rhode Island coastal systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen isotope ratios (15N) were measured in muscle tissue of juvenile winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, collected from several estuarine systems along the coast of Rhode Island, USA, including Narragansett Bay, Narrow River and three coastal lagoons. Fish collect...

  11. Temporal trends in nitrogen isotope ratios of winter flounder collected from Rhode Island coastal systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen isotope ratios (15N) were measured in muscle tissue of juvenile winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, collected from several estuarine systems along the coast of Rhode Island, USA, including Narragansett Bay, Narrow River and three coastal lagoons. Fish collect...

  12. Stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of winter flounder otoliths assess connectivity between juvenile and adult habitats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Winter flounder populations (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) have significantly declined in recent years along the Rhode Island, USA coastline. The reasons for this decline are not completely clear; however, habitat loss may be a factor. Therefore, knowledge of connectivity betwee...

  13. Saptial and Temporal in Stable Carbon and Oxygen Isotope Ratios of Juvenile Winter Flounder Otoliths From Selected Nursery Areas

    EPA Science Inventory

    Winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) populations have supported large commercial and recreational fisheries along the coast of New England. In recent years, however, the population of this important species has declined precipitously in some areas, especially Narragan...

  14. Saptial and Temporal in Stable Carbon and Oxygen Isotope Ratios of Juvenile Winter Flounder Otoliths From Selected Nursery Areas

    EPA Science Inventory

    Winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) populations have supported large commercial and recreational fisheries along the coast of New England. In recent years, however, the population of this important species has declined precipitously in some areas, especially Narragan...

  15. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN HABITAT QUALITY AND DENSITY OF JUVENILE WINTER FLOUNDER

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used a digital video camera mounted to a 1-m beam trawl together with an attached continuous recording YSI sonde and GPS unit to quantify juvenile winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) densities and fish habitat. The YSI sonde measured temperature, salinity, dissolve...

  16. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN HABITAT QUALITY AND DENSITY OF JUVENILE WINTER FLOUNDER

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used a digital video camera mounted to a 1-m beam trawl together with an attached continuous recording YSI sonde and GPS unit to quantify juvenile winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) densities and fish habitat. The YSI sonde measured temperature, salinity, dissolve...

  17. Bioindicators of contaminant exposure, liver pathology, and reproductive development in prespawning female winter flounder ('Pleuronectes americanus') from urban and nonurban estuaries on the northeast Atlantic coast. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.L.; Stein, J.E.; Collier, T.K.; Casillas, E.; McCain, B.

    1992-08-01

    Relationships between liver pathology and ovarian development, and exposure to xenobiotic compounds were evaluated in prespawning female winter flounder (Pleuronectes americanus, formerly Pseudopleuronectes americanus) sampled from 11 sites on the Northeast coast of the United States during the 1988 and 1989 spawning seasons. Sediments from three sites exhibited a wide range in concentrations of xenobiotic compounds (e.g. concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) ranged from 20 to 50,000 ng/g dry weight and concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) ranged from 2 to 1,400 ng/g dry weight), with the sites in Boston Harbor and Raritan Bay the most heavily contaminated. The following parameters associated with ovarian development were measured: ovarian developmental stage, ovarian atresia, gonadosomatic index, plasma estradiol, fecundity, and egg weight. Contaminant exposure was assessed by measuring concentrations of fluorescent aromatic compounds (FACs) in the bile; hepatic aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) activity; concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in liver, ovary, and brain; and levels of xenobiotic-DNA adducts in liver tissue. In general, indicators of contaminant exposure were elevated and prevalences of suspected toxicopathic lesions were highest in fish from sites within Boston Harbor and Raritan Bay.

  18. USE OF VIDEO TO ACCESS JUVENILE WINTER FLOUNDER DENSITIES AND HABITATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used a digital video camera mounted to a 1-m beam trawl together with an attached continuous recording YSI sonde and a GPS unit to quantify juvenile winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) densities and fish habitat in Narragansett Bay, RI. The YSI sonde measured te...

  19. Carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios of juvenile winter flounder as indicators of inputs to estuarine systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios were measured in the muscle tissues of young-of-the-year (YOY) winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, collected from several estuarine systems along the coast of Rhode Island, USA. These systems included three coastal lagoons (Ni...

  20. Carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios of juvenile winter flounder as indicators of inputs to estuarine systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios were measured in the muscle tissues of young-of-the-year (YOY) winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, collected from several estuarine systems along the coast of Rhode Island, USA. These systems included three coastal lagoons (Ni...

  1. USING WINTER FLOUNDER GROWTH RATES TO ASSSESS HABITAT QUALITY IN RHODE ISLAND'S COASTAL LAGOONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used growth rates of juvenile winter flounder Pseudopleuronectes americanus, to assess habitat quality in 3 of Rhode Island's coastal salt ponds that had differing levels of nutrients and human development. In each pond, 1 m2 cages were placed in vegetated and unvegetated habi...

  2. USE OF VIDEO TO ACCESS JUVENILE WINTER FLOUNDER DENSITIES AND HABITATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used a digital video camera mounted to a 1-m beam trawl together with an attached continuous recording YSI sonde and a GPS unit to quantify juvenile winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) densities and fish habitat in Narragansett Bay, RI. The YSI sonde measured te...

  3. Nitrogen Isotope Ratios of Juvenile Winter Flounder as an Indicator of Anthropogenic Nitrogen Inputs to Estuarine Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen isotope ratios (15N) were measured in muscle tissue of juvenile winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, collected from several estuarine systems (lagoons, river, bay) along the coast of Rhode Island, USA over a three-year period. Significant differences i...

  4. IMPACT OF ELEVATED TEMPERATURE ON THE GROWTH, SURVIVAL, AND TROPHIC DYNAMICS OF WINTER FLOUNDER LARVAE: A MESOCOSM STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) is a dominant commercial fish in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, and yet factors controlling its recruitment remain unclear. An experiment was conducted with six 13-m3 land-based mesocosms (5 m deep) from February to April 1997 to a...

  5. IMPACT OF ELEVATED TEMPERATURE ON THE GROWTH, SURVIVAL, AND TROPHIC DYNAMICS OF WINTER FLOUNDER LARVAE: A MESOCOSM STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) is a dominant commercial fish in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, and yet factors controlling its recruitment remain unclear. An experiment was conducted with six 13-m3 land-based mesocosms (5 m deep) from February to April 1997 to a...

  6. Trends in nitrogen isotope ratios of juvenile winter flounder reflect changing nitrogen inputs to Rhode Island, USA estuarine systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen isotope ratios (d 15N) in juvenile winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, were used to examine changes in nitrogen inputs to several Rhode Island, USA estuarine systems. Fish were collected over two three-year periods with a ten-year interval between sampling pe...

  7. Nitrogen Isotope Ratios of Juvenile Winter Flounder as an Indicator of Anthropogenic Nitrogen Inputs to Estuarine Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen isotope ratios (15N) were measured in muscle tissue of juvenile winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, collected from several estuarine systems (lagoons, river, bay) along the coast of Rhode Island, USA over a three-year period. Significant differences i...

  8. USING WINTER FLOUNDER GROWTH RATES TO ASSESS HABITAT QUALITY ACROSS AN ANTHROPOGENIC GRADIENT IN NARRAGANSETT BAY, RI

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used growth rates of juvenile winter flounder Pseudopleuronectes americanus to assess anthropogenic influence on habitat quality at three sites in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island. The upper bay site, Gaspee Point, had the highest population density and concentration of total ni...

  9. A Case Study of the Effects of Dredging in Narrgansett Bay (RI, USA) on Winter Flounder Eggs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seasonal dredging constraints have been established in several northeastern U.S. estuaries with the intent to protect winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus). A major source of concern is impacts on demersal eggs due to elevated sedimentation rates during the winter-earl...

  10. USE OF A RHODE ISLAND SALT POND BY JUVENILE WINTER FLOUNDER, PSEUDOPLEURONECTES AMERICANUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used a 1.75 m2 drop ring sampler in June and July of 2000 to quantify populations of juvenile flatfishes and other small nekton in Ninigret Pond, Rhode Island. The drop sampler was deployed in approximately 1 m of water from a boom mounted on the bow of a small boat. Abundance...

  11. USE OF A RHODE ISLAND SALT POND BY JUVENILE WINTER FLOUNDER, PSEUDOPLEURONECTES AMERICANUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used a 1.75 m2 drop ring sampler in June and July of 2000 to quantify populations of juvenile flatfishes and other small nekton in Ninigret Pond, Rhode Island. The drop sampler was deployed in approximately 1 m of water from a boom mounted on the bow of a small boat. Abundance...

  12. ASSESSING HABITAT QUALITY OF MOUNT HOPE BAY AND NARRAGANSETT BAY USING GROWTH, RNA:DNA, AND FEDDING HABITS OF CAGED JUVENILE WINTER FLOUNDER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Somatic growth rates, RNA:DNA, and feeding habits of juvenile Pseudopleuronectes americanus (Winter Flounder) were used to asses small-scale spatio-temporal variations in the habitat quality of Mount Hope Bay and Narragan-sett Bay, RI. Three successive caging experiments (14–16 d...

  13. ASSESSING HABITAT QUALITY OF MOUNT HOPE BAY AND NARRAGANSETT BAY USING GROWTH, RNA:DNA, AND FEDDING HABITS OF CAGED JUVENILE WINTER FLOUNDER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Somatic growth rates, RNA:DNA, and feeding habits of juvenile Pseudopleuronectes americanus (Winter Flounder) were used to asses small-scale spatio-temporal variations in the habitat quality of Mount Hope Bay and Narragan-sett Bay, RI. Three successive caging experiments (14–16 d...

  14. Influence of sediment contaminated with untreated pulp and paper mill effluent on winter flounder, Pleuronectes americanus.

    PubMed

    Khan, R A

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to ascertain the influence of sediment contaminated with pulp and paper mill effluent in a fjord on winter flounder, Pleuronectes americanus, based on a laboratory study. Flounder, captured from a pristine site, were exposed in a flow-through system for 16 weeks to sediment collected at 2, 5, 7, and 10 km from the outfall. A group of controls was placed in uncontaminated sediment. Mortality occurred almost exclusively in fish exposed to sediment taken from 2 km than from more distant sites. Additionally, the condition factor was lower, the liver was enlarged, and toxicopathic lesions in the liver and spleen were significantly greater in fish submerged in the sediment than in fish from the more distant locations or the controls. Two ectoparasites including a ciliate, Trichodina jadranica, and a monogenean, Gyrodactylus pleuronecti, were observed only in the control group, while a digenean in the digestive tract, Steringophorus furciger, was more abundant in fish exposed to sediment from sites more distant from the outfall and the controls than at 2 km. Comparison of these results with data from a previous gradient field study on biological variables in winter flounder, captured at 2, 5, 7, and 10 km down-current from the outfall, revealed an enlarged liver that was associated with elevated levels of detoxification of hepatic enzymes and prevalence of toxicopathic lesions in both the liver and the spleen; these were significantly greater in samples taken nearest to the outfall from the mill than at more distant sites. Moreover, two metazoan parasites, S. furciger (Digenea) and Echinorhynchus gadi (Acanthocephala), in the digestive were more abundant in samples taken at farther locations and also from the reference sites. These results, based on a laboratory study, are in agreement with previous observations that winter flounder exposed to sediment at the site nearest to the outfall, where high concentrations of toxic contaminants persisted

  15. Vitellogenin in winter flounder (Pleuronectes americanus) from Long Island Sound and Boston Harbor

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, J.J.; Ziskowski, J.; Mercaldo-Allen, R.; Kuropat, C.; Leudke, D.; Gould, E. )

    1992-09-01

    Vitellogenin is an egg-yolk precursor protein in teleosts which is crucial to the survival of larvae. Manufactured in the liver, where pollutants are known to accumulate, and transported to the ovary by the blood, its synthesis by the liver or uptake by the gonad can be compromised by accumulation of xenobiotics. In three studies, winter flounder (Pleuronectes americanus) blood samples were taken to determine normal levels of vitellogenin during the reproductive cycle, and to learn how its production might be affected in degraded environments. Specifically, these studies followed the seasonal cycle of vitellogenin production in winter flounder through monthly sampling at relatively clean (Shoreham, New York) and degraded areas (Black Rock and New Haven harbors, Connecticut) in Long Island Sound; examined the relationship between parental vitellogenin levels and survival of offspring by sampling fish that had been spawned at the Milford Laboratory for a reproductive success study; and determined the effect of gross liver lesions on vitellogenin production by sampling flounder from Boston Harbor, Massachusetts, which have been reported to have a high prevalence of liver tumors. Blood vitellogenin levels were determined by measuring alkali-labile phosphate (ALP). Large fish (>30 cm) from the two degraded sites had elevated serum ALP levels relative to those from the clean area. Lowered total ovarian lipid levels in large fish from Black Rock Harbor suggested impaired vitellogenin uptake. There were no significant differences in serum ALP among the small ([le]30 cm) fish from the three sampling sites. Boston Harbor flounder with gross liver lesions had lower ALP values than fish without such lesions. There were no significant differences in ALP values among the spawned fish. 43 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Two species of commercial flatfish, winter flounder, Pleuronectes americanus, and American plaice, Hippoglossoides platessoides, as sentinels of environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Khan, R A

    2010-08-01

    Two species of marketable-size flatfish, winter flounder (Pleuronectes americanus) and American plaice (Hippoglossoides platessoides) from a fjord, were examined as sentinels for the effects of effluent discharged by a pulp and paper mill in Newfoundland, Canada. Reference samples for comparison were obtained from a pristine fjord. Condition factor, lymphocyte levels and the abundance of two intestinal parasites were significantly greater in flounder and plaice sampled at the reference site while macroscopic and microscopic lesions, and hepatic somatic indices were greater in flatfish taken from the contaminated site. These results suggest that both species of commercial flatfish are useful as sentinels for studying environmental pollution.

  17. PCB concentrations in winter flounder from Long Island Sound, 1984-1986

    SciTech Connect

    Greig, R.A.; Sennefelder, G.

    1987-11-01

    PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) pollutants of concern in Long Island Sound have been studied previously. Initial studies at this laboratory focused on levels of PCBs and metals in tissues from windowpane flounder (Scophthalmus aquosos) collected from various stations in the Sound. The purpose of that study was to determine whether there was a relationship between station location and concentration of metals and PCBs in flounder tissue. In that study, PCBs in livers of windowpane flounder were measurable but not significantly different for the three stations sampled even though the sediments differed in contaminant loading. In the present study, winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) were collected from several stations in Long Island Sound and the gonads and livers analyzed for PCBs. Winter flounder were selected because they are both commercially and recreationally important in northeast Atlantic water, including Long Island Sound. There are no major sources of PCBs for Long Island Sound; rather the sources appear to be small accidental spills, especially into rivers.

  18. First report of piscine nodavirus infecting wild winter flounder Pleuronectes americanus in Passamaquoddy Bay, New Brunswick, Canada.

    PubMed

    Barke, Duane E; MacKinnon, Ann-Margaret; Boston, Linda; Burt, Michael D B; Cone, David K; Speare, David J; Griffiths, Steve; Cook, Marcia; Ritchie, Rachael; Olivier, Gilles

    2002-05-10

    Piscine nodaviruses (Betanodaviridae) are frequently reported from a variety of cultured and wild finfishes. These non-enveloped, single-stranded RNA virions cause viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER), also known as viral nervous necrosis (VNN) or fish encephalitis. Recently, nodavirus infections have posed serious problems for larval and juvenile cultured halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus in Norway and Scotland. To date, no such viruses have been described from any cultured or wild pleuronectid in Atlantic Canada. Obviously, there exists a need to survey wild populations of pleuronectids to assess the risk of potential transfer of nodavirus from wild to caged fishes. This paper presents the results of monthly surveys (April 2000 to March 2001) of viruses from wild winter flounder Pleuronectes americanus collected from Passamaquoddy Bay, New Brunswick, Canada. Tissue samples from wild flounder were screened initially on commercial cell lines (EPC, SSN-1, SHK and CHSE-214) for any evidence of cytopathic effect (CPE). After confirmation of CPE, nodavirus identification was achieved using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. We detected nodavirus from only 1 out of 440 flounder (0.23%) examined. This is the first report of piscine nodavirus isolated from wild winter flounder in Atlantic Canada, and although this prevalence may seem low, we discuss the implications of this finding for Canada's emerging halibut aquaculture industry.

  19. The Effect of Elevated CO2 on the Growth and Food Consumption of Juvenile Winter Flounder Pseudopleuronectes Americanus

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increasing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide are causing changes in seawater chemistry in the world’s oceans. In estuarine waters, atmospheric CO2 exacerbates already declining pH due to high productivity and respiration caused by cultural eutrophication. These two sources o...

  20. The Effect of Elevated CO2 on the Growth and Food Consumption of Juvenile Winter Flounder Pseudopleuronectes Americanus

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increasing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide are causing changes in seawater chemistry in the world’s oceans. In estuarine waters, atmospheric CO2 exacerbates already declining pH due to high productivity and respiration caused by cultural eutrophication. These two sources o...

  1. Molecular identification and transmission studies of X-cell parasites from Atlantic cod Gadus morhua (Gadiformes: Gadidae) and the northern black flounder Pseudopleuronectes obscurus (Pleuronectiformes: Pleuronectidae)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Epidermal pseudotumours from Hippoglossoides dubius and Acanthogobius flavimanus in Japan and gill lesions in Limanda limanda from the UK have been shown to be caused by phylogenetically related protozoan parasites, known collectively as X-cells. However, the phylogenetic position of the X-cell group is not well supported within any of the existing protozoan phyla and they are currently thought to be members of the Alveolata. Ultrastructural features of X-cells in fish pseudotumours are somewhat limited and no typical environmental stages, such as spores or flagellated cells, have been observed. The life cycles for these parasites have not been demonstrated and it remains unknown how transmission to a new host occurs. In the present study, pseudobranchial pseudotumours from Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, in Iceland and epidermal pseudotumours from the northern black flounder, Pseudopleuronectes obscurus, in Japan were used in experimental transmission studies to establish whether direct transmission of the parasite is achievable. In addition, X-cells from Atlantic cod were sequenced to confirm whether they are phylogenetically related to other X-cells and epidermal pseudotumours from the northern black flounder were analysed to establish whether the same parasite is responsible for infecting different flatfish species in Japan. Results Phylogenetic analyses of small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) sequence data from Atlantic cod X-cells show that they are a related parasite that occupies a basal position to the clade containing other X-cell parasites. The X-cell parasite causing epidermal pseudotumours in P. obscurus is the same parasite that causes pseudotumours in H. dubius. Direct, fish to fish, transmission of the X-cell parasites used in this study, via oral feeding or injection, was not achieved. Non-amoeboid X-cells are contained within discrete sac-like structures that are loosely attached to epidermal pseudotumours in flatfish; these X-cells are

  2. WINTER FLOUNDER PSUEDOPLEURONECTES AMERICANUS HATCHING SUCCESS AS A FUNCTION OF BURIAL DEPTH IN THE LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous experiments have shown that viable hatch of winter flounder eggs is reduced when the eggs are buried by as little as one half of one egg diameter (approximately 0.5 mm of sediment). This sensitivity to burial has resulted in seasonal banning of dredging in several north...

  3. WINTER FLOUNDER PSUEDOPLEURONECTES AMERICANUS HATCHING SUCCESS AS A FUNCTION OF BURIAL DEPTH IN THE LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous experiments have shown that viable hatch of winter flounder eggs is reduced when the eggs are buried by as little as one half of one egg diameter (approximately 0.5 mm of sediment). This sensitivity to burial has resulted in seasonal banning of dredging in several north...

  4. Transfer of benzo(a)pyrene from two invertebrate prey species to the winter flounder, Pleuronectes americanus

    SciTech Connect

    Schnitz, A.R.; Taghon, G.L.

    1995-12-31

    Anthropogenic activities in and around the estuarine environment may introduce compounds with the ability to move through trophic levels, resulting in adverse effects to ecosystems and human health. In order to observe the potential for transfer of the carcinogen benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and its derivatives from prey organisms to a predator, a simplified benthic food chain was constructed. Winter flounder, Pleuronectes americanus, were fed via gavage either softshell clams, Mya arenaria, or sandworms, Neanthes virens, that had previously been exposed to {sup 14}C-benzo(a)pyrene-contaminated sediments and contained 5.05 ng/g and 5.8 ng/g activity, respectively (wet weight). The fish received doses every 48 hours for a total of 192 hours after which time, all tissues except the gall bladder were examined for the presence of BaP using liquid scintillation spectrometry (LSC). The bile was extracted with chloroform/methanol and analyzed via high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and LSC. The flounders that were fed worms demonstrated increased metabolism of the PAH relative to those fed clams, as shown by higher concentrations of polar metabolites in the bile. This corresponds with the higher concentration of metabolites recovered in the worm tissue; more than 95% of the recovered activity was in the form of polar derivatives whereas the activity in the clam tissue was almost completely parent benzo(a)pyrene. As was expected, the BaP metabolites formed by the fish were mediated by the differing abilities of the prey species to derivatize the PAH. Thus, macrofaunal interactions with sedimentary-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons may be important determinants in the fate and transport of these compounds in the benthos.

  5. /sup 32/P-postlabeling analysis of DNA adducts in liver of wild English sole (Parophrys vetulus) and winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus)

    SciTech Connect

    Varanasi, U.; Reichert, W.L.; Stein, J.E.

    1989-03-01

    The 1-butanol adduct enhancement version of the 32P-postlabeling assay was used to measure the levels of hepatic DNA adducts in the marine flatfish, English sole (Parophrys vetulus), sampled from the Duwamish Waterway and Eagle Harbor, Puget Sound, WA, where they are exposed to high concentrations of sediment-associated chemical contaminants and exhibit an elevated prevalence of hepatic neoplasms. Hepatic DNA was also analyzed from English sole from a reference area (Useless Bay, WA) and from reference English sole treated with organic-solvent extracts of sediments from the two contaminated sites. Autoradiograms of thin-layer chromatograms of 32P-labeled hepatic DNA digests from English sole from the contaminated sites exhibited up to three diagonal radioactive zones, which were not present in autoradiograms of thin-layer chromatogram maps of 32P-labeled DNA digests from English sole from the reference site. These diagonal radioactive zones contained several distinct spots as well as what appeared to be multiple overlapping adduct spots. The levels (nmol of adducts/mol of nucleotides) of total DNA adducts for English sole from Duwamish Waterway and Eagle Harbor were 26 +/- 28 (DS) and 17 +/- 9.6, respectively. All autoradiograms of DNA from fish from the contaminated sites exhibited a diagonal radioactive zone where DNA adducts of chrysene, benzo(a)pyrene, and dibenz(a,h)anthracene, formed in vitro using English sole hepatic microsomes, were shown to chromatograph. English sole treated with extracts of the contaminated sediments had adduct profiles generally similar to those for English sole from the respective contaminated sites.

  6. Carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios of juvenile winter flounder ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios were measured in the muscle tissues of young-of-the-year (YOY) winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, collected from several estuarine systems along the coast of Rhode Island, USA. These systems included three coastal lagoons (Ninigret Pond, Green Hill Pond and Point Judith Pond), an estuarine river (Narrow River) and Narragansett Bay. Results from sampling over a three-year period showed some year-to-year variability for 13C within waterbodies; however, 15N values were not significantly different (P > 0.05) within systems among the three years studied. he 13C trends observed along transects in Narrow River and Narragansett Bay showed isotopically depleted terrestrial signals in the upper reaches of the estuaries and more positive values indicative of marine organic material in the lower regions of these systems. Significant differences (P < 0.05) in 15N were observed among estuarine systems. Fish from the coastal lagoons had the lowest 15N values followed by those from Narrow River and then Narragansett Bay. Some unexpected trends in 15N were observed within Narragansett Bay. The Bay has a strong north-south gradient in nutrient concentrations due to large sewage inputs in the upper Bay which was not reflected in flounder 15N values. As expected, YOY flounder from stations in the lower-Bay had depleted 15N values compared to those from the other locations. However, the 15N ratios o

  7. Rapid amyloid fibril formation by a winter flounder antifreeze protein requires specific interaction with ice.

    PubMed

    Dubé, André; Leggiadro, Cindy; Ewart, Kathryn Vanya

    2016-05-01

    A typically α-helical antifreeze protein (wflAFP-6) from winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, forms amyloid fibrils during freezing. In this study, the effects of distinct components of the freezing process were examined. Freezing of wflAFP-6 in the presence of template ice was shown to be necessary for rapid conversion to an amyloid conformation. Neither subfreezing temperature nor phase change was sufficient. Thus, specific interaction with the ice surface was essential. The ice-induced formation of amyloid appeared to be unique to this helical antifreeze, it required high concentrations of protein and it occurred over a range of pH values. These results define a method for rapid formation of amyloid by wflAFP-6 on demand under physiological conditions. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  8. Stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of winter flounder otoliths assess connectivity between juvenile and adult habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pruell, Richard; Taplin, Bryan

    2017-04-01

    Winter flounder populations (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) have significantly declined in recent years along the Rhode Island, USA coastline. The reasons for this decline are not completely clear; however, habitat loss may be a factor. Therefore, knowledge of connectivity between juvenile nearshore habitats and the adult offshore populations may be important for improved management of this fishery. This study was undertaken to determine if stable carbon (δ13C) and oxygen (δ18O) isotope ratios in otoliths could be used to differentiate the locations that serve as important juvenile habitats for winter flounder. It is generally believed that winter flounder spawn during late winter in nearshore areas, and juvenile fish reside in shallow-water habitats along the coastline during their first summer. Once young-of-the-year flounder undergo metamorphosis and settle, they remain in close proximity to that site until fall. Adult fish move offshore during the late winter and spring, and then return to their natal estuaries during the fall and winter to spawn. Juvenile flounder were collected yearly over a three-year period from 18 juvenile habitats with a wide range of salinities. Several years later adult flounder of the same cohorts were obtained from similar inshore locations and also from the offshore fishery. Sagital otoliths were removed from the adult flounder and the core of the otolith representing the juvenile period was obtained using a Micromill drilling system. These juvenile otolith cores from adult fish and whole sagittal otoliths from juvenile flounder were analyzed for δ13C and δ18O using continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Results from these analyses show significant differences in δ13C and δ18O signatures among water bodies (bay, coastal ponds and an estuarine river). Preliminary analysis indicates that the isotope ratios of the juvenile cores from adult flounder and whole otoliths from juvenile fish collected at the same locations

  9. Trends in nitrogen isotope ratios of juvenile winter flounder reflect changing nitrogen inputs to Rhode Island, USA estuarine systems.

    PubMed

    Pruell, Richard J; Taplin, Bryan K; Miller, Kenneth M

    2017-05-15

    Nitrogen isotope ratios (δ(15)N) in juvenile winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, were used to examine changes in nitrogen inputs to several Rhode Island, USA estuarine systems. Fish were collected over two three-year periods with a ten-year interval between sampling periods (2002-2004 and 2012-2014). During that interval numerous changes to nutrient management practices were initiated in the watersheds of these estuarine systems including the upgrade of several major wastewater treatment facilities that discharge to Narragansett Bay, which significantly reduced nitrogen inputs. Following these reductions, the δ(15)N values of flounder in several of the systems decreased as expected; however, isotope ratios in fish from upper Narragansett Bay significantly increased. We believe that low δ(15)N values measured in 2002-2004 were related to concentration-dependent fractionation at this location. Increased δ(15)N values measured between 2012 and 2014 may indicate reduced fractionation or that changes in wastewater treatment processes altered the nitrogen isotopic ratios of the effluents. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. NEKTON HABITAT QUALITY AT SHALLOW-WATER SITES IN TWO RHODE ISLAND COASTAL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We evaluated nekton habitat quality at five shallow-water sites in two Rhode Island systems by comparing nekton densities and biomass, number of species, prey availability and feeding, and abundance of winter flounder Pseudopleuronectes americanus. Nekton density and biomass wer...

  11. Maternal effects and larval survival of marbled sole Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higashitani, Tomomi; Takatsu, Tetsuya; Nakaya, Mitsuhiro; Joh, Mikimasa; Takahashi, Toyomi

    2007-07-01

    Maternal effects of animals are the phenotypic influences of age, size, and condition of spawners on the survival and phenotypic traits of offspring. To clarify the maternal effects for marbled sole Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae, we investigated the effects of body size, nutrient condition, and growth history of adult females on egg size, larval size, and starvation tolerance, growth, and feeding ability of offspring. The fecundity of adult females was strongly dependent on body size. Path analysis revealed that the mother's total length positively affected mean egg diameter, meaning that large females spawned large eggs. In contrast, the relative growth rate of adult females negatively affected egg diameter. Egg diameters positively affected both notochord length and yolk sac volume of the larvae at hatching. Under starvation conditions, notochord length at hatching strongly and positively affected days of survival at 14 °C but not at 9 °C. Under adequate food conditions (1000 rotifers L - 1 ), the notochord length of larvae 5 days after hatching positively affected feeding rate, implying that large larvae have high feeding ability. In addition, the mean growth rate of larvae between 0 and 15 days increased with increasing egg diameter under homogenous food conditions, suggesting that larvae hatched from large eggs might have a growth advantage for at least to 15 days after hatching. In marbled sole, these relationships (i.e., mother's body size-egg size-larval size-larval resistance to starvation-larval feeding ability) may help explain recruitment variability.

  12. CHARACTERIZATION OF MICROSATELLITE LOCI IN SCHOENOPLECTUS AMERICANUS (CYPERACEAE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Schoenoplectus americanus is a model organism for studying ecological and ecosystem responses of salt marsh plant communities to global climate change. Here we characterize 16 microsatellite loci in S. americanus to facilitate studies on the genetic basis of phenotypic responses...

  13. Genome of the human hookworm Necator americanus.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yat T; Gao, Xin; Rosa, Bruce A; Abubucker, Sahar; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kymberlie; Martin, John; Tyagi, Rahul; Heizer, Esley; Zhang, Xu; Bhonagiri-Palsikar, Veena; Minx, Patrick; Warren, Wesley C; Wang, Qi; Zhan, Bin; Hotez, Peter J; Sternberg, Paul W; Dougall, Annette; Gaze, Soraya Torres; Mulvenna, Jason; Sotillo, Javier; Ranganathan, Shoba; Rabelo, Elida M; Wilson, Richard K; Felgner, Philip L; Bethony, Jeffrey; Hawdon, John M; Gasser, Robin B; Loukas, Alex; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2014-03-01

    The hookworm Necator americanus is the predominant soil-transmitted human parasite. Adult worms feed on blood in the small intestine, causing iron-deficiency anemia, malnutrition, growth and development stunting in children, and severe morbidity and mortality during pregnancy in women. We report sequencing and assembly of the N. americanus genome (244 Mb, 19,151 genes). Characterization of this first hookworm genome sequence identified genes orchestrating the hookworm's invasion of the human host, genes involved in blood feeding and development, and genes encoding proteins that represent new potential drug targets against hookworms. N. americanus has undergone a considerable and unique expansion of immunomodulator proteins, some of which we highlight as potential treatments against inflammatory diseases. We also used a protein microarray to demonstrate a postgenomic application of the hookworm genome sequence. This genome provides an invaluable resource to boost ongoing efforts toward fundamental and applied postgenomic research, including the development of new methods to control hookworm and human immunological diseases.

  14. Chemical and Biological Characterization of Black Rock Harbor Dredged Material.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    the first test (Table.- 833). Dissolved oxygen was at or above saturation. Mortality in the control appeared to be the result of gas supersaturation ...Reference Strain and Four Geographical Strains of Artemia as Food for Winter Flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) Larvae," Aquaculture , Vol 29, pp...EVIDENCE OF SUPERSATURATION . (1) PERCENT FOR SOLID PHASE TESTS (2) MILLIGRAMS/LITER FOR SUSPENDED PARTICULATE TESTS, DRY WEIGHTS OR COULTER COUNTS OR

  15. Changes in metallothionein mRNA and protein after sublethal exposure to arsenite and cadmium chloride in juvenile winter flounder

    SciTech Connect

    Jessen-Eller, K.; Crivello, J.F.

    1998-01-01

    Juvenile winter flounder (Pleuronectes americanus) from a Long Island Sound site within the Niantic River region contain elevated levels of liver As and Cd. Previous work in mammals suggests that a reduced species of As, NaAs{sup 3+}, is as potent a metallothionein (MT) inducer as CdCl{sub 2}. The authors investigated whether this is also the case in winter flounder by subcutaneously exposing juveniles to a sublethal range of NaAs{sup 3+} (0, 0.38, 0.75, and 1.5 {micro}mol/g fish) or CdCl{sub 2} (0, 0.045, 0.09, and 0.18 {micro}mol/g). Both metals rapidly induced MT protein within 24 h of exposure, but only the highest dose of CdCl{sub 2} elicited a significant increase in MT mRNA. The magnitude of the MT protein response to CdCl{sub 2} (7.25-fold) demonstrates that elevated liver As and Cd do not narrow the MT response window in juvenile flounder from the Niantic River region. These fish have relatively low liver MT protein levels (46 {micro}g/g) and will be a useful reference population for future metal studies within Long Island Sound.

  16. Genome of the human hookworm Necator americanus

    PubMed Central

    Abubucker, Sahar; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kymberlie; Martin, John; Tyagi, Rahul; Heizer, Esley; Zhang, Xu; Bhonagiri-Palsikar, Veena; Minx, Patrick; Warren, Wesley C.; Wang, Qi; Zhan, Bin; Hotez, Peter J.; Sternberg, Paul W.; Dougall, Annette; Gaze, Soraya Torres; Mulvenna, Jason; Sotillo, Javier; Ranganathan, Shoba; Rabelo, Elida M.; Wilson, Richard W.; Felgner, Philip L.; Bethony, Jeffrey; Hawdon, John M.; Gasser, Robin B.; Loukas, Alex; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2014-01-01

    The hookworm Necator americanus is the predominant soil-transmitted human parasite. Adult worms feed on blood in the small intestine, causing iron deficiency anaemia, malnutrition, growth and development stunting in children, and severe morbidity and mortality during pregnancy in women. Characterization of the first hookworm genome sequence (244 Mb, 19,151 genes) identified genes orchestrating the hookworm's invasion of the human host, genes involved in blood feeding and development, and genes encoding proteins that represent new potential drug targets against hookworms. N. americanus has undergone a considerable and unique expansion of immunomodulator proteins, some of which we highlight as potential novel treatments against inflammatory diseases. We also utilize a protein microarray to demonstrate a post-genomic application of the hookworm genome sequence. This genome provides an invaluable resource to boost ongoing efforts towards fundamental and applied post-genomic research, including the development of new methods to control hookworm and human immunological diseases. PMID:24441737

  17. 50 CFR 648.105 - Summer flounder recreational fishing season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Summer flounder recreational fishing season. 648.105 Section 648.105 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... Management Measures for the Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.105 Summer flounder recreational fishing...

  18. 50 CFR 648.105 - Summer flounder recreational fishing season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Summer flounder recreational fishing season. 648.105 Section 648.105 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... Management Measures for the Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.105 Summer flounder recreational fishing...

  19. 50 CFR 648.105 - Summer flounder recreational fishing season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Summer flounder recreational fishing season. 648.105 Section 648.105 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... Management Measures for the Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.105 Summer flounder recreational fishing...

  20. 50 CFR 648.106 - Summer flounder possession restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... for inspection in standard 100-lb (45.3-kg) totes or fish boxes having a liquid capacity of 18.2 gal... Management Measures for the Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.106 Summer flounder possession restrictions. (a... the owner or operator of a fishing vessel issued a summer flounder moratorium permit, or is issued a...

  1. 50 CFR 648.106 - Summer flounder possession restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... for inspection in standard 100-lb (45.3-kg) totes or fish boxes having a liquid capacity of 18.2 gal... Management Measures for the Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.106 Summer flounder possession restrictions. (a... the owner or operator of a fishing vessel issued a summer flounder moratorium permit, or is issued a...

  2. 50 CFR 648.104 - Summer flounder minimum fish sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Summer flounder minimum fish sizes. 648... Measures for the Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.104 Summer flounder minimum fish sizes. (a) Moratorium... minimum sizes in this section apply to whole fish or to any part of a fish found in possession, e.g...

  3. 50 CFR 648.104 - Summer flounder minimum fish sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Summer flounder minimum fish sizes. 648... Measures for the Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.104 Summer flounder minimum fish sizes. (a) Moratorium... minimum sizes in this section apply to whole fish or to any part of a fish found in possession, e.g...

  4. 50 CFR 648.103 - Summer flounder accountability measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Summer flounder accountability measures... Management Measures for the Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.103 Summer flounder accountability measures. (a... subsequent single fishing year recreational sector ACT. (d) Non-landing accountability measures, by sector...

  5. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Southern and gulf flounders

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Enge, Kevin M.; Mulholland, Rosemarie

    1985-01-01

    Both the southern and gulf flounders (paralichthrS lethostigma, f. albi~utta) are important commercial and recreationa species. Catch statlstics for flounder do not differentiate between species; however, southern flounders are more common than gulf flounders except on the gulf coast of Florida (Topp and Hoff 1972). The commercial fishery consists of incidental catches by shrimp trawlers. A total of 853,162 kg (1,880,900 lb) of unclassified flounder worth $572,142 was caught from the Gulf of Mexico in 1976 (U.S. Dep. Commerce 1980). The sport fishery consists of both hook-and-line fishing and gigging.

  6. Biomarker analysis of American toad (Anaxyrus americanus) ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The objective of the current study was to use a biomarker-based approach to investigate the influence of atrazine exposure on American toad (Anaxyrus americanus) and grey tree frog (Hyla versicolor) tadpoles. Atrazine is one of the most frequently detected herbicides in environmental matrices throughout the United States. In surface waters, it has been found at concentrations from 0.04–2859 μg/L and thus presents a likely exposure scenario for non-target species such as amphibians. Studies have examined the effect of atrazine on the metamorphic parameters of amphibians, however, the data are often contradictory. Gosner stage 22–24 tadpoles were exposed to 0 (control), 10, 50, 250 or 1250 μg/L of atrazine for 48 h. Endogenous polar metabolites were extracted and analyzed using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Statistical analyses of the acquired spectra with machine learning classification models demonstrated identifiable changes in the metabolomic profiles between exposed and control tadpoles. Support vector machine models with recursive feature elimination created a more efficient, non-parametric data analysis and increased interpretability of metabolomic profiles. Biochemical fluxes observed in the exposed groups of both A. americanus and H. versicolor displayed perturbations in a number of classes of biological macromolecules including fatty acids, amino acids, purine nucleosides, pyrimidines, and mono- and di-saccharides. Metabolomic

  7. Biomarker analysis of American toad (Anaxyrus americanus) ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The objective of the current study was to use a biomarker-based approach to investigate the influence of atrazine exposure on American toad (Anaxyrus americanus) and grey tree frog (Hyla versicolor) tadpoles. Atrazine is one of the most frequently detected herbicides in environmental matrices throughout the United States. In surface waters, it has been found at concentrations from 0.04–2859 μg/L and thus presents a likely exposure scenario for non-target species such as amphibians. Studies have examined the effect of atrazine on the metamorphic parameters of amphibians, however, the data are often contradictory. Gosner stage 22–24 tadpoles were exposed to 0 (control), 10, 50, 250 or 1250 μg/L of atrazine for 48 h. Endogenous polar metabolites were extracted and analyzed using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Statistical analyses of the acquired spectra with machine learning classification models demonstrated identifiable changes in the metabolomic profiles between exposed and control tadpoles. Support vector machine models with recursive feature elimination created a more efficient, non-parametric data analysis and increased interpretability of metabolomic profiles. Biochemical fluxes observed in the exposed groups of both A. americanus and H. versicolor displayed perturbations in a number of classes of biological macromolecules including fatty acids, amino acids, purine nucleosides, pyrimidines, and mono- and di-saccharides. Metabolomic

  8. Structural characterization of peptides derived from prosomatostatins I and II isolated from the pancreatic islets of two species of teleostean fish: the daddy sculpin and the flounder.

    PubMed

    Conlon, J M; Davis, M S; Falkmer, S; Thim, L

    1987-11-02

    The primary structures of three peptides from extracts from the pancreatic islets of the daddy sculpin (Cottus scorpius) and three analogous peptides from the islets of the flounder (Platichthys flesus), two species of teleostean fish, have been determined by automated Edman degradation. The structures of the flounder peptides were confirmed by fast-atom bombardment mass spectrometry. The peptides show strong homology to residues (49-60), (63-96) and (98-125) of the predicted sequence of preprosomatostatin II from the anglerfish (Lophius americanus). The amino acid sequences of the peptides suggest that, in the sculpin, prosomatostatin II is cleaved at a dibasic amino acid residue processing site (corresponding to Lys61-Arg62 in anglerfish preprosomatostatin II). The resulting fragments are further cleaved at monobasic residue processing sites (corresponding to Arg48 and Arg97 in anglerfish preprosomatostatin II). In the flounder the same dibasic residue processing site is utilised but cleavage at different monobasic sites takes place (corresponding to Arg50 and Arg97 in anglerfish preprosomatostatin II). A peptide identical to mammalian somatostatin-14 was also isolated from the islets of both species and is presumed to represent a cleavage product of prosomatostatin I.

  9. Microsatellite analysis as a tool for discriminating an interfamily hybrid between olive flounder and starry flounder.

    PubMed

    Kang, J-H; Kim, Y-K; Park, J-Y; An, C-M; Nam, M-M; Byun, S G; Lee, B I; Lee, J H; Choi, T-J

    2011-10-31

    An interspecific artificial hybrid was produced between two economically important aquaculture flatfish: olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and starry flounder (P. stellatus). This hybrid displays the rapid growth characteristic of the former and tolerance to low temperatures and low salinity of the latter, but the genetics of inheritance in this hybrid have not been elucidated. Polymorphic microsatellite markers developed for P. olivaceus and P. stellatus were tested to determine if these markers can be used for analysis of parentage and genetic inheritance. Multiplex PCR using two primer sets that were specific to each species produced PCR products of different sizes; these could be used for the identification of interspecific hybrids. Among the 192 primers derived from olive flounder, 25.5% of the primer sets successfully amplified genomic DNA from starry flounder, and 23% of the 56 primer sets originating from starry flounder amplified DNA from olive flounder. Analysis of genetic inheritance in the hybrid using seven of the 62 microsatellite markers common to both species demonstrated classic Mendelian inheritance of these markers in the hybrid progeny, with the exception of one locus identified as a null allele in the hybrid. These results demonstrate that cross-specific microsatellite markers can be used tools for parentage analysis of hybrid flatfish, for mapping quantitative trait loci, for marker-assisted selective breeding, and for studies of the evolution of fish.

  10. Hybrids between olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus and stone flounder Kareius bicoloratus: karyotype, allozyme and RAPD analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Feng; Wang, Wei; Xu, Dongdong; Zhu, Xiangping; Ni, Jing; Wu, Zhihao; Xu, Yongli; Wang, Xincheng; Zhang, Peijun

    2009-05-01

    The hybrid between olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus and stone flounder Kareius bicoloratus was produced by artificial insemination of olive flounder eggs with stone flounder sperm. Sinistral and dextral are two types of hybrid progeny after metamorphosis. Karyotypes of both hybrid flounders are the same as those of the two parental species. Of the 22 loci examined from 12 allozymes, 12 confirmed hybridization of the paternal and maternal loci in hybrids and no difference was found in allozyme patterns of sinistral and dextral hybrid fishes. RAPD patterns of these specimens were also studied with 38 primers selected from 104 tested. Among them, the PCR products of 30 primers showed hybridization of the paternal and maternal bands. Genetic variation between hybrids and their parental stocks was analyzed by RAPD using 10 of the above 38 primers. The average heterozygosity and genetic distance were calculated. The results suggested that the filial generation could inherit a little more genetic materials from paternal fish than that from maternal fish.

  11. 75 FR 52890 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts...), Commerce. ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the 2010 summer flounder commercial... Federal fisheries permit for the summer flounder fishery may not land summer flounder in Massachusetts...

  12. 77 FR 75569 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested for the State of New Jersey...), Commerce. ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the 2012 summer flounder commercial... fisheries permit for the summer flounder fishery may not land summer flounder in New Jersey for...

  13. 77 FR 52262 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested for the Commonwealth of... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the 2012 summer flounder... commercial Federal fisheries permit for the summer flounder fishery may not land summer flounder...

  14. 78 FR 59626 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested for the State of New York...), Commerce. ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the 2013 summer flounder commercial... fisheries permit for the summer flounder fishery may not land summer flounder in New York for the...

  15. 78 FR 51096 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested for the Commonwealth of... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the 2013 summer flounder... commercial Federal fisheries permit for the summer flounder fishery may not land summer flounder...

  16. 77 FR 64239 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    ... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested for the State of New York...), Commerce. ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the 2012 summer flounder commercial... fisheries permit for the summer flounder fishery may not land summer flounder in New York for the...

  17. 78 FR 70890 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested for the State of New Jersey...), Commerce. ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the 2013 summer flounder commercial... fisheries permit for the summer flounder fishery may not land summer flounder in New Jersey for...

  18. 78 FR 72585 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested for the Commonwealth of... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the 2013 summer flounder... Federal fisheries ] permit for the summer flounder fishery may not land summer flounder in Virginia...

  19. Reproductive Behavior of Echinothrips americanus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, Stephanie; Jilge, Marcus; Mound, Laurence

    2017-01-01

    Most Thysanoptera possess a haplo-diploid reproductive mode and reproduce via arrhenotoky. Females can mature eggs successively throughout almost their entire life, but in most terebrantian thrips spermiogenesis is complete by adult male eclosion, and testes contain only mature spermatids. In parasitoid wasps this phenomenon of preadult spermiogenesis is described as prospermatogeny. It is unclear if prospermatogeny and this predetermined sperm quantity have implications for mating strategy and fitness. In this study, we give a detailed description of mating behavior of the thripine species Echinothrips americanus, which largely corresponds with the only available data of another species of this family, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). With investigations using light microscopy, we describe for the first time the chronological sequence of internal processes during copulation. The release of male accessory gland material followed subsequently by spermatozoa indicates production of a female-determined type 1 spermatophore. Despite prospermatogeny, males are able to inseminate 10 females with an equal amount of spermatozoa. It is only the quantity of glandular material that decreases with the number of previous copulations. Based on these new findings, the reproductive strategy of this species is discussed.

  20. Homarus Americanus Stomatogastric Nervous System Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Tobin, Anne-Elise; Bierman, Hilary S.

    2009-01-01

    With the goal of understanding how nervous systems produce activity and respond to the environment, neuroscientists turn to model systems that exhibit the activity of interest and are accessible and amenable to experimental methods. The stomatogastric nervous system (STNS) of the American lobster (Homarus americanus; also know was the Atlantic or Maine lobster) has been established as a model system for studying rhythm generating networks and neuromodulation of networks. The STNS consists of 3 anterior ganglia (2 commissural ganglia and an oesophageal ganglion), containing modulatory neurons that project centrally to the stomatogastric ganglion (STG). The STG contains approximately 30 neurons that comprise two central pattern generating networks, the pyloric and gastric networks that underlie feeding behaviors in crustaceans1,2. While it is possible to study this system in vivo3, the STNS continues to produce its rhythmic activity when isolated in vitro. Physical isolation of the STNS in a dish allows for easy access to the somata in the ganglia for intracellular electrophysiological recordings and to the nerves of the STNS for extracellular recordings. Isolating the STNS is a two-part process. The first part, dissecting the stomach from the animal, is described in an accompanying video article4. In this video article, fine dissection techniques are used to isolate the STNS from the stomach. This procedure results in a nervous system preparation that is available for electrophysiological recordings. PMID:19483669

  1. Finding Flounders: Outsmarting the Art of Camouflage

    SciTech Connect

    2016-11-01

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory, we study camouflage in nature to learn how we can identify things trying to disguise themselves. We do that by looking at marine organisms that are exceptionally good at the art of blending in: flounders, skates, cuttlefish and octopi. The goal of this work was to develop efficient automated methods for detecting and analyzing features in remote sensing imagery for national security and intelligence applications.

  2. Finding Flounders: Outsmarting the Art of Camouflage

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-11-30

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory, we study camouflage in nature to learn how we can identify things trying to disguise themselves. We do that by looking at marine organisms that are exceptionally good at the art of blending in: flounders, skates, cuttlefish and octopi. The goal of this work was to develop efficient automated methods for detecting and analyzing features in remote sensing imagery for national security and intelligence applications.

  3. 76 FR 53831 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... United States; Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fisheries; 2011 Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black... flounder, scup, and black sea bass specifications, which established commercial summer flounder allocations... summer flounder, scup, and black sea bass specifications published on December 28, 2010 (75 FR 81498). An...

  4. ELEMENTAL AND ISOTPOIC FINGERPRINTS OF JUVENILE WINTER FLOUNDER (PLEURONECTES AMERICANUS) FROM NARRAGANSETT BAY, RI (USA) AND SURROUNDING COASTAL PONDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Elemental fingerprinting has become a powerful tool in fisheries science for identifying fish migration patterns, seasonal changes in habitat use, and for delineating the nursery origins of adult fish populations. In this study, we investigated whether elemental and isotopic sign...

  5. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Elemental Signautres in Juvenile Winter Flounder (Psuedopleuronectes americanus): Implications for Natal Connectivity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Elemental signatures in otoliths (fish ear-stones) have become a powerful tool in fisheries science for identifying fish migration patterns, reconstructing environmental histories, and for delineating the nursery origins of adult fish populations. Assessing connectivity between a...

  6. ELEMENTAL AND ISOTPOIC FINGERPRINTS OF JUVENILE WINTER FLOUNDER (PLEURONECTES AMERICANUS) FROM NARRAGANSETT BAY, RI (USA) AND SURROUNDING COASTAL PONDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Elemental fingerprinting has become a powerful tool in fisheries science for identifying fish migration patterns, seasonal changes in habitat use, and for delineating the nursery origins of adult fish populations. In this study, we investigated whether elemental and isotopic sign...

  7. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Elemental Signautres in Juvenile Winter Flounder (Psuedopleuronectes americanus): Implications for Natal Connectivity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Elemental signatures in otoliths (fish ear-stones) have become a powerful tool in fisheries science for identifying fish migration patterns, reconstructing environmental histories, and for delineating the nursery origins of adult fish populations. Assessing connectivity between a...

  8. Trichinella surveillance in black bears (Ursus americanus) from Oregon, USA.

    PubMed

    Mortenson, J A; Kent, M L; Fowler, D R; Chomel, B B; Immell, D A

    2014-01-01

    We used serology and muscle digestion to test black bears (Ursus americanus) from western Oregon, USA, for Trichinella. Results indicate black bears in Oregon are not part of a sylvatic cycle for Trichinella, and risk of human exposure to Trichinella larvae from eating black bear meat from Oregon appears low.

  9. Sarcocystis oreamni n. sp. from the mountain goat (oreamnos americanus)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Numerous species of Sarcocystis have been reported from wild ruminants but none has been named from the Rocky Mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus). Mature sarcocysts were found in frozen muscle samples of 3 of 7 mountain goats from Alaska, USA. Two morphological types of sarcocysts were found; 1 had ...

  10. Eastern equine encephalitis in moose (Alces americanus) in northeastern Vermont.

    PubMed

    Mutebi, John-Paul; Swope, Bethany N; Saxton-Shaw, Kali D; Graham, Alan C; Turmel, Jon P; Berl, Erica

    2012-10-01

    During fall 2010, 21 moose (Alces americanus) sera collected in northeastern Vermont were screened for eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) antibodies using plaque reduction neutralization tests. Six (29%) were antibody positive. This is the first evidence of EEEV activity in Vermont, and the second report of EEEV antibodies in moose.

  11. Inhibition of Ca2+ and K+ currents by "antifreeze" proteins.

    PubMed

    Rubinsky, B; Mattioli, M; Arav, A; Barboni, B; Fletcher, G L

    1992-03-01

    For the last two decades, the research on fish "antifreeze" proteins has focused exclusively on their ability to depress noncolligatively blood plasma freezing points, presumably by binding to ice crystals. We report evidence that antifreeze polypeptides from the winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) have another special property, the ability to block ion channels. In experiments with porcine granulosa cells we show, using the patch-clamp technique in the whole cell configuration, that these proteins suppress effectively calcium and potassium currents. The results of dose-response studies indicate a protein-protein interaction mechanism.

  12. Fine-tuning metallothionein as a biomarker for arsenic exposure in feral juvenile winter flounder

    SciTech Connect

    Jessen-Eller, K.; Crivello, J.

    1995-12-31

    Metallothionein (MT) is a promising biomarker for assessing metal bioavailability and synergism impact on commercially important species such as the winter flounder (Pleuronectes americanus). The authors investigated whether arsenic induces in juvenile winter flounder from the Long Island Sound because these fish showed high levels of hepatic arsenic (up to 270 ppm; mean 15 ppm). Hepatic arsenic concentrations increased in a dose dependent manner 24 hr. after juveniles (mean length of 120 mm) were subcutaneously implanted with silastic tubing containing sodium arsenite (1.5, 3.0, 6.0 and 16.0 umols/g fish). Death occurred when hepatic arsenic levels exceeded 18 ppm with 0%, 18%, 20%, and 40% mortality at each respective treatment. Both the MT message and protein were significantly elevated (p < 0.05) above baseline (7.5 fold and 2 fold respective increase) across all four treatments. However, total arsenic levels did not significantly differ from the controls at the 1.5 umols/g fish level. This suggested that MT is a more sensitive indicator of arsenic exposure than the total liver arsenic burden when the level of exposure is environmentally realistic (e.g. near baseline). It also showed that the MT cellular response had reached its maximum at the 1.5 umols/g fish sodium arsenite level. When the experiment was repeated with a lower dose regime (0.75, 1.5 and 3.0 umols/g fish) and smaller fish (mean length of 80 mm), the baseline MT message level was the same as in the previous experiment. Also, as in the previous experiment, arsenic accumulated up to 100 ppm and 21% mortality occurred at the 3.0 umols/g fish treatment. The two experiments differed that the MT levels of the vector control were significantly (p < 0.05) lower than baseline. This resulted in a respective dose dependent increase MT message of 8, 100 and 1,000 fold above the vector control and vastly improved MT`s sensitivity as a biomarker.

  13. Clinical, hematological and biochemical alterations in olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus following experimental infection by Vibrio scophthalmi

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hematological analysis can provide key values for monitoring fish health conditions. There is no information available on hematological changes of olive flounder following infection by Vibrio scophthalmi. In this study, hematological and biochemical alterations were determined for olive flounder inf...

  14. Safety of florfenicol in the adult lobster (Homarus americanus).

    PubMed

    Basti, David; Bouchard, Deborah; Lichtenwalner, Anne

    2011-03-01

    Aerococcus viridans, the causative agent of the disease gaffkemia, was a major cause of mortality in lobsters (Homarus americanus) held in tidal impoundments during the 1970s and 1980s. Despite reports of an increase in the mortality of lobsters during impoundment, and the widespread prophylactic use of oxytetracycline against A. viridans, this bacterium has not been detected in active disease surveillance of the Maine postcapture lobster population. However, Photobacterium indicum may be an emerging opportunistic pathogen of stressed lobsters. An acute toxicity trial was conducted as a rapid screening procedure for the potential future use of the antibiotic florfenicol. Based on the results of this experiment, florfenicol appears to be well tolerated in adult H. americanus by intrapericardial injection at the 10-100 mg/kg dose. Oxytetracycline dihydrate is contraindicated by intrapericardial injection at the 10-100 mg/kg dose.

  15. Use of a Marine Vertebrate, the Flounder, in the Physiology Teaching Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, David S.; Linden, Donald G.

    1973-01-01

    Describes two experiments in physiology using a readily available marine vertebrate, the flounder. Representative results are presented from experiments which measure the effect of excess potassium on the flounder EKG, and the effect of temperature on heart rate of the starry flounder. (JR)

  16. 50 CFR 648.110 - Summer flounder framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Summer flounder framework adjustments to... UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.110 Summer flounder framework... instead of a framework adjustment. (2) MAFMC recommendation. After developing management actions...

  17. 50 CFR 648.110 - Summer flounder framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Summer flounder framework adjustments to... UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.110 Summer flounder framework... are otherwise introducing new concepts may require an amendment of the FMP instead of a...

  18. 50 CFR 648.110 - Summer flounder framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Summer flounder framework adjustments to... UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.110 Summer flounder framework... are otherwise introducing new concepts may require an amendment of the FMP instead of a...

  19. 50 CFR 648.110 - Summer flounder framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Summer flounder framework adjustments to... UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.110 Summer flounder framework... are otherwise introducing new concepts may require an amendment of the FMP instead of a...

  20. Use of a Marine Vertebrate, the Flounder, in the Physiology Teaching Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, David S.; Linden, Donald G.

    1973-01-01

    Describes two experiments in physiology using a readily available marine vertebrate, the flounder. Representative results are presented from experiments which measure the effect of excess potassium on the flounder EKG, and the effect of temperature on heart rate of the starry flounder. (JR)

  1. 75 FR 82295 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... commercial summer flounder quota to the Commonwealth of Virginia. In addition, the State of Maine is transferring a portion of its 2010 commercial summer flounder quota to the State of Rhode Island. By...

  2. 75 FR 22025 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... summer flounder quota to the Commonwealth of Virginia. By this action, NMFS adjusts the quotas and.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Regulations governing the summer flounder fishery are found at 50 CFR part 648....

  3. 76 FR 81851 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... commercial summer flounder quota to the Commonwealth of Virginia. By this action, NMFS adjusts the quotas and...-9224. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Regulations governing the summer flounder fishery are found at 50...

  4. 77 FR 14481 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-12

    ... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... commercial summer flounder quota to the Commonwealth of Virginia. By this action, NMFS adjusts the quotas and.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Regulations governing the summer flounder fishery are found at 50 CFR part 648....

  5. 76 FR 19276 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... commercial summer flounder quota to the Commonwealth of ] Virginia. Vessels were authorized by Virginia to land summer flounder under safe harbor provisions, thereby requiring a quota transfer to account for...

  6. 78 FR 66857 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... summer flounder quota to the State of Connecticut. NMFS is adjusting the quotas and announcing the.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Regulations governing the summer flounder fishery are in 50 CFR part 648, and...

  7. 75 FR 76925 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    ... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... summer flounder quota to the Commonwealth of Virginia. By this action, NMFS adjusts the quotas and.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Regulations governing the summer flounder fishery are found at 50 CFR part 648....

  8. 77 FR 69567 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... commercial summer flounder quota to the State of Rhode Island. NMFS is adjusting the quotas and announcing.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Regulations governing the summer flounder fishery are in 50 CFR part 648, and...

  9. 78 FR 9849 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... of its 2012 commercial summer flounder quota to the Commonwealth of Virginia. NMFS is adjusting the... INFORMATION: Regulations governing the summer flounder fishery are in 50 CFR part 648, and require...

  10. 78 FR 25003 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-29

    ... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... commercial summer flounder quota to the Commonwealth of Virginia and to the State of Rhode Island; and that the Commonwealth of Virginia is transferring a portion of its 2013 commercial summer flounder quota...

  11. 76 FR 81851 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... summer flounder quota to the State of Rhode Island. By this action, NMFS adjusts the quotas and announces...-9224. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Regulations governing the summer flounder fishery are found at 50...

  12. 77 FR 19951 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... commercial summer flounder quota to the Commonwealth of Virginia. The State of North Carolina is also retroactively transferring a portion of its 2011 commercial summer flounder quota to the Commonwealth...

  13. 75 FR 30739 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... summer flounder quota to the Commonwealth of Virginia. By this action, NMFS adjusts the quotas and.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Regulations governing the summer flounder fishery are found at 50 CFR part 648....

  14. 78 FR 77005 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... both transferring a portion of their 2013 commercial summer flounder quotas to the Commonwealth of... summer flounder fishery are in 50 CFR part 648, and require annual specification of a commercial...

  15. 75 FR 4490 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... summer flounder quota to the Commonwealth of Virginia. By this action, NMFS adjusts the quotas and.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Regulations governing the summer flounder fishery are found at 50 CFR part 648....

  16. 76 FR 23206 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-26

    ... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... commercial summer flounder quota to the Commonwealth of Virginia. Vessels from North Carolina were authorized by Virginia to land summer flounder under safe harbor provisions, thereby requiring a quota...

  17. 76 FR 17032 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-28

    ... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... and 2011 commercial summer flounder quotas to the Commonwealth of Virginia. Vessels were authorized by Virginia to land summer flounder under safe harbor provisions, thereby requiring a quota transfer...

  18. 78 FR 33 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... commercial summer flounder quota to the Commonwealth of Virginia, the State of North Carolina is transferring a portion of its 2012 commercial summer flounder quota to the State of Connecticut, and...

  19. 78 FR 76766 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ...NMFS announces that the 2013 summer flounder commercial quota allocated to the State of New Jersey has been harvested. Vessels issued a commercial Federal fisheries permit for the summer flounder fishery may not land summer flounder in New Jersey for the remainder of calendar year 2013, unless additional quota becomes available through a transfer from another state. Regulations governing the summer flounder fishery require publication of this notification to advise New Jersey that the quota has been harvested and to advise vessel permit holders and dealer permit holders that no Federal commercial quota is available for landing summer flounder in New Jersey.

  20. Biology and management of Longidorus americanus in a southern USA nursery

    Treesearch

    M.M. Cram; S.W. Fraedrich

    2007-01-01

    A recently discovered nematode, Longidorus americanus, caused stunting of Pinus taeda seedlings at a forest-tree nursery in Georgia, USA. In growth chamber experiments, L. americanus significantly reduced the root size of I? taeda and P elliottii seedlings. Although the root systems of L. palustris...

  1. Muscular Sarcocystis infection in a bear (Ursus americanus).

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Topper, M J; Nutter, F B

    1998-04-01

    Sarcocysts of an unidentified Sarcocystis species were found in sections of skeletal muscles of a black bear (Ursus americanus) from North Carolina. Two sarcocysts in a section measured 45 x 37.5 microm and 67.5 x 50 microm and had a thin (<2 microm) sarcocyst wall. The villar protrusions on the cyst wall were up to 2 microm long and up to 0.7 microm wide. The bradyzoites were approximately 6 X 2.5 microm in size. This is the first report of muscular Sarcocystis in a bear.

  2. Migrations and growth of deep-sea lobsters, Homarus americanus.

    PubMed

    Cooper, R A; Uzmann, J R

    1971-01-22

    In distinct contrast to the restricted movements of coastal stocks of lobsters (Homarus americanus), those inhabiting the outer continental shelf undertake extensive seasonal migrations. Of 5710 tagged lobsters released on the outer continental shelf off New England from April 1968 to June 1969, 400 had been recaptured by April 1970. The distribution of the recoveries demonstrated shoalward migration in spring and summer and a return to the edge of the shelf in fall and winter. Deep-sea lobsters have a faster rate of growth than coastal lobsters; growth increments at molting and the frequency of molting are greater.

  3. Taxonomy of the early life stages of arrowtooth flounder (Atheresthes stomias) and Kamchatka flounder (A. evermanni) in the eastern Bering Sea, with notes on distribution and condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Forest, Lisa; Duffy-Anderson, J. T.; Heintz, R. A.; Matarese, A. C.; Siddon, E. C.; Smart, T. I.; Spies, I. B.

    2014-11-01

    Arrowtooth flounder (Atheresthes stomias) and Kamchatka flounder (A. evermanni) are closely related flatfish species that co-occur in the eastern Bering Sea. As adults, arrowtooth flounder can be distinguished from Kamchatka flounder; however, larvae and early juveniles can only be indentified to the genus level due to morphological similarities. This has precluded studies of ecology for the early life stages of both species in the eastern Bering Sea. In this study, we developed a genetic technique to identify the larvae and early juveniles of the two species using mtDNA cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI). Genetically identified specimens were then examined to determine a visual identification method based on pigment patterns and morphology. Specimens 6.0-12.0 mm SL and≥18.0 mm SL can be identified to the species level, but species identification of individuals 12.1-17.9 mm SL by visual means alone remains elusive. The distribution of larvae (<25.0 mm SL) of both arrowtooth flounder and Kamchatka flounder is similar in the eastern Bering Sea; however, juvenile (≥25.0 mm SL) Kamchatka flounder occur closer to the shelf break and in deeper water than juvenile arrowtooth flounder. Condition was determined for larvae and juveniles of each species by analyzing lipid content (%) and energy density (kJ/g dry mass). Kamchatka flounder larvae on average had higher lipid content than arrowtooth flounder larvae, but were also larger on average than arrowtooth flounder larvae in the summer. When corrected for length, both species had similar lipid content in the larval and juvenile stages.

  4. Hookworm (Necator americanus) larval enzymes disrupt human vascular endothelium.

    PubMed

    Souadkia, Nahed; Brown, Alan; Leach, Lopa; Pritchard, David I

    2010-09-01

    Knowledge of the molecular mechanisms used by Necator americanus larvae to penetrate the human skin and the vasculature would aid the development of effective vaccines against this important pathogen. In this work, the impact of N. americanus exsheathing fluid (EF) and excretory/secretory products (ES) on the endothelial barrier was examined using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Cellular responses were assessed by investigating molecular changes at cell-cell junctions and by determining levels of secreted IL-6, IL-8, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the culture medium. It would appear that a repertoire of larval proteases caused a dose-related increase in endothelial permeability as characterized by a decrease in monolayer resistance with increased permeation of tracer-albumin. These barrier changes were associated with disruption of junctional vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin) and F-actin and an increase in endothelial secretion of IL-6 and IL-8. Our data suggest that larval proteases play an important role in negotiating the endothelium.

  5. Exploring the Microbial Community of Shell Disease in Homarus americanus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unzueta Martinez, A.; Feinman, S. G.; Bowen, J. L.; Tlusty, M. F.

    2016-02-01

    The American lobster, Homarus americanus is an important commercial fishery in New England, and generated nearly half a billion dollars in revenue in 2012. Outbreaks of shell disease among H. americanus populations have caused a great deal of concern regarding its cause and spread. Although shell disease is not usually lethal, afflicted lobsters have an unattractive appearance and are generally unmarketable. Shell disease is hypothesized to be caused by infectious microorganisms, but no etiological agent has been identified. This project characterizes the microbial communities associated with the formation of shell disease in lobsters and how these communities change during the progression of the disease. Microbial samples were collected on lobsters at the site of a new shell disease location, as well as at 0.5, 1, and 1.5 cm away from the site. Microbial DNA was extracted from each sample, the 16S rRNA gene amplified using PCR, and sequenced using high throughput sequencing. The results showed that microbial communities on diseased lobster shells were significantly different spatially, but not temporally. The diversity of microbes was lowest at the site of shell disease, and increased with distance from the site. This work elucidated the microbial community composition of shell disease, tracked this community throughout the progression of disease, and demonstrated a gradual rather than abrupt demarcation in microbial community between symptomatic and asymptomatic shell.

  6. Properties of proteolytic toxin of Vibrio anguilolarum from diseased flounder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Zhao-Lan; Chen, Shi-Yong; Zhang, Pei-Jun

    2002-12-01

    Extracellular products (ECP) produced by Vibrio anguillarum strain M3 originally isolated from diseased flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) were prepared. ECP of M3 showed gelatinase, casinase, amylase and haemolytic activity on agarose plates. High protease activity against azocasin was detected. Bacterium M2 showed highest growth and protease activity at 25°C. The protease present in ECP showed maximal activity at pH 8 and 55°C; was completely inactivated by application of 80°C heat for 30 min; was completely inhibited by EDTA and HgCl2, and was partially inhibited by PMSF, SDS, MnCl2 and iodoacetic acid; but not inhibited by CaCl2 and MgCl2. The ECP was toxic to flounder fish at LD50 values of 3.1 μg protein/g body weight. The addition of HgCl2 and application of heat at 50°C decreased the lethal toxicity of ECP. When heated at 100°C, ECP lethality to flounder was completely inhibited. After intramuscular injection of ECP into flounder, it showed evident histopathological changes including necrosis of muscle, extensive deposition of haemosiderin in the spleen, dilated blood vessels congested with numerious lymphocytes in the liver. These results showed that ECP protease was a lethal factor produced by the bacterium V. anguillarum M3.

  7. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 223 - Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flounder TED 10 Figure 10 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 10 Figure 10...

  8. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 223 - Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flounder TED 10 Figure 10 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 10 Figure 10...

  9. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 223 - Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flounder TED 10 Figure 10 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 10 Figure 10...

  10. 50 CFR Figure 11 to Part 223 - Modified Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Modified Flounder TED 11 Figure 11 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig....

  11. 50 CFR Figure 11 to Part 223 - Modified Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Modified Flounder TED 11 Figure 11 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig....

  12. 50 CFR 648.108 - Summer flounder gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) Otter trawlers whose owners are issued a summer flounder permit and that land or possess 100 lb (45.4 kg... a review of sea sampling data, that vessels fishing under the exemption are discarding more than 10.... (ii) (2) Vessels fishing with a two-seam otter trawl fly net with the following configuration...

  13. 50 CFR 648.108 - Summer flounder gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) Otter trawlers whose owners are issued a summer flounder permit and that land or possess 100 lb (45.4 kg... a review of sea sampling data, that vessels fishing under the exemption are discarding more than 10.... (ii) (2) Vessels fishing with a two-seam otter trawl fly net with the following configuration...

  14. 50 CFR 648.108 - Summer flounder gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) Otter trawlers whose owners are issued a summer flounder permit and that land or possess 100 lb (45.4 kg... a review of sea sampling data, that vessels fishing under the exemption are discarding more than 10.... (ii) (2) Vessels fishing with a two-seam otter trawl fly net with the following configuration...

  15. 50 CFR Figure 11 to Part 223 - Modified Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Modified Flounder TED 11 Figure 11 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 11...

  16. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 223 - Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flounder TED 10 Figure 10 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 10 Figure 10 to...

  17. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 223 - Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flounder TED 10 Figure 10 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 10 Figure 10 to...

  18. Spatial and temporal shifts in suitable habitat of juvenile southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furey, Nathan B.; Rooker, Jay R.

    2013-02-01

    Factors influencing suitable habitats of juvenile southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) within the Galveston Bay Complex (GBC), Texas, were assessed using generalized additive models (GAM). Fishery independent data collected with bag seines throughout the GBC from 1999 to 2009 were used to predict the probability of southern flounder occurrence. Binomial GAMs were used to assess presence/absence of southern flounder and models included temporal variables, benthic variables such as distance to habitats generated within a geographic information system, and physicochemical conditions of the water column. Separate models were generated for newly settled southern flounder, young-of-the-year (YOY) southern flounder observed in the summer, and YOY southern flounder observed in fall based on size and collection month. Factors affecting southern flounder occurrence changed seasonally, as did the corresponding shifts in the spatial distribution of suitable habitat. Temporal effects (year and month) were retained in all models. Physicochemical conditions (temperature, turbidity, and measures of environmental variability), and the presence of seagrass beds were influential for newly settled southern flounder. Distance to marine and/or freshwater sources were found to be important for YOY southern flounder in the summer and fall seasons. The abundance of brown shrimp was found to only influence the distribution of YOY southern flounder in the fall, when intermediate abundances of the potential prey item increased the occurrence of southern flounder. After model completion, the availability and spatial distribution of suitable habitat within the GBC was predicted using available environmental and spatial data for 2005. Spatial distributions of predicted suitable habitat stress the relative importance of West Bay during the newly settled stage and in the fall season, and Upper Bay during the summer and fall of the first year of life. These models demonstrate the potential

  19. Pilot attempt to grow winter flounders commercially. Completion report 15 Feb 77-30 Jun 80

    SciTech Connect

    Sawyer, P.J.; Hoornbeek, F.K.

    1980-09-01

    The first part of this report contains the details and results of laboratory efforts to raise flounders through the early developmental stages including metamorphosis. The second part reports the efforts to grow out newly metamorphosed flounders to commercial size. In order to produce marketable sized winter flounders in heated water, it will be necessary to assure availability of brood stock and an abundance of live food both prior and subsequent to metamorphosis.

  20. HYDROCEPHALUS IN THREE JUVENILE NORTH AMERICAN BLACK BEARS (URSUS AMERICANUS).

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Sylvia H; Novak, Janelle; Hecht, Silke; Craig, Linden E

    2016-06-01

    Hydrocephalus has been reported in a variety of species, including the North American black bear ( Ursus americanus ). This report describes three cases of hydrocephalus in this species from wild bears aged 3-4 mo considered retrospectively from necropsy records of one institution. Clinical signs included cortical blindness and ataxia. Primary gross findings were doming of the skull, gyri compression and flattening, and lateral ventricle dilation. Two cases had severe bilateral ventricular dilation with loss of the septum pellucidum; atrophy of the surrounding corpus callosum; and bilateral periventricular tears involving the caudate nuclei, internal capsule, and adjacent cerebrum. Histologically, the cases with periventricular tearing had severe axonal loss and degeneration, malacia, hemorrhage, and variable periventricular astrocytosis. All cases were likely congenital, given the bears' age and lack of an apparent acquired obstruction.

  1. Tetranucleotide microsatellite loci from the black bear (Ursus americanus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanderlin, J.S.; Faircloth, B.C.; Shamblin, B.; Conroy, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    We describe primers and polymerase chain reaction conditions to amplify 21 tetranucleotide microsatellite DNA loci in black bears (Ursus americanus). We tested primers using individuals from two populations, one each in Georgia and Florida. Among individuals from Georgia (n = 29), primer pairs yielded an average of 2.9 alleles (range, one to four) and an average observed heterozygosity (HO) of 0.50 (range, 0.00 to 0.79). Among individuals from Florida (n = 19), primer pairs yielded an average of 5.7 alleles (range, one to 14) and an HO of 0.55 (range, 0.00 to 1.00). A comparison of previously developed markers with individuals from Georgia suggests that bear populations in Georgia and Florida have reduced allelic diversity relative to other populations. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  2. Molecular immune response of the American lobster (Homarus americanus) to the White Spot Syndrome Virus.

    PubMed

    Clark, K Fraser; Greenwood, Spencer J; Acorn, Adam R; Byrne, Philip J

    2013-11-01

    The adult American lobster (Homarus americanus) is susceptible to few naturally occurring pathogens, and no viral pathogen is known to exist. Despite this, relatively little is known about the H. americanus immune system and nothing is known about its potential viral immune response. Hundreds of rural communities in Atlantic Canada rely on the lobster fishery for their economic sustainability and could be devastated by large-scale pathogen-mediated mortality events. The White Spot Syndrome Virus is the most economically devastating viral pathogen to global shrimp aquaculture production and has been proposed to be capable of infecting all decapod crustaceans including the European Lobster. An in vivo WSSV injection challenge was conducted in H. americanus and WSSV was found to be capable of infecting and replicating within lobsters held at 20°C. The in vivo WSSV challenge also generated the first viral disease model of H. americanus and allowed for the high-throughput examination of transcriptomic changes that occur during viral infection. Microarray analysis found 136 differentially expressed genes and the expression of a subset of these genes was verified using RT-qPCR. Anti-lipopolysaccharide isoforms and acute phase serum amyloid protein A expression did not change during WSSV infection, contrary to previous findings during bacterial and parasitic infection of H. americanus. This, along with the differential gene expression of thioredoxin and trypsin isoforms, provides compelling evidence that H. americanus is capable of mounting an immune response specific to infection by different pathogen classes.

  3. Genetic Linkage Map of Olive Flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jung-Ha; Kim, Woo-Jin; Lee, Woo-Jai

    2008-01-01

    Olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, is an important fish species in Asia, both for fisheries and aquaculture. As the first step for better understanding the genomic structure and functional analysis, we constructed a genetic linkage map for olive flounder based on 180 microsatellites and 31 expressed sequence tag (EST)-derived markers. Twenty-four linkage groups were identified, consistent with the 24 chromosomes of this species. The total map distance was 1,001.3 cM based on Kosambi sex-average mapping, and the average inter-locus distance was 4.7 cM. Linkage between the loci was identified by an LOD score of ≥3. This linkage map may be used to map quantitative trait loci associated with important traits of the species and may assist in breeding programs. PMID:18497873

  4. Characterization of Embryo Transcriptome of Gynogenetic Olive Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhaofei; Wu, Zhihao; Wang, Lijuan; Zou, Yuxia; Zhang, Peijun; You, Feng

    2016-10-01

    Olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus is an important commercially cultured marine flatfish in China, Korea, and Japan. Gynogenesis, via meiogynogenesis and mitogynogenesis, shows advantages in breeding and sex control, but the low survival rate, especially for mitogynogenesis, limits its application. In this study, we sequenced the embryo transcriptomes of gynogenetic haploid, meiogynogenetic diploid, mitogynogenetic diploid, and common diploid flounder and investigated their respective genetic characteristics by analyzing differentiated expressed genes. Compared with common diploid, the gynogenetic haploid showed significant downregulation in notch signaling and wingless-related integration site (Wnt) signaling pathways, which may be the source of haploid syndrome. In both meiogynogenesis and mitogynogenesis, several upregulated genes including complement C3, formin-2, and intelectin may be related to increased survival compared to the haploid. The downregulation of immune system and energy metabolism-related genes caused retarded development of gynogenetic diploids compared with the common diploid. These data provided new and important information for application of artificially induced gynogenesis to aquaculture.

  5. Transcriptional Responses of Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) to Low Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jinwei; You, Feng; Wang, Qian; Weng, Shenda; Liu, Hui; Wang, Lijuan; Zhang, Pei-Jun; Tan, Xungang

    2014-01-01

    The olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) is an economically important flatfish in marine aquaculture with a broad thermal tolerance ranging from 14 to 23°C. Cold-tolerant flounder that can survive during the winter season at a temperature of less than 14°C might facilitate the understanding of the mechanisms underlying the response to cold stress. In this study, the transcriptional response of flounder to cold stress (0.7±0.05°C) was characterized using RNA sequencing. Transcriptome sequencing was performed using the Illumina MiSeq platform for the cold-tolerant (CT) group, which survived under the cold stress; the cold-sensitive (CS) group, which could barely survive at the low temperature; and control group, which was not subjected to cold treatment. In all, 29,021 unigenes were generated. Compared with the unigene expression profile of the control group, 410 unigenes were up-regulated and 255 unigenes were down-regulated in the CT group, whereas 593 unigenes were up-regulated and 289 unigenes were down-regulated in the CS group. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analyses revealed that signal transduction, lipid metabolism, digestive system, and signaling molecules and interaction were the most highly enriched pathways for the genes that were differentially expressed under cold stress. All these pathways could be assigned to the following four biological functions for flounder that can survive under cold stress: signal response to cold stress, cell repair/regeneration, energy production, and cell membrane construction and fluidity. PMID:25279944

  6. VITELLOGENIN-INDUCED PATHOLOGY IN MALE SUMMER FLOUNDER (PARALICHTHYS DENTATUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Male summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) were given two injections (initially and 2 weeks later) of 17 -estra-diol (E2) totaling 0.2 (2 x 0.1), 2.0 (2 x 1.0) or 20.0 (2 x 10.0) mg E2/kg body weight. Blood and tissue samples were collected 4, 6 and 8 weeks after the initial in...

  7. VITELLOGENIN-INDUCED PATHOLOGY IN MALE SUMMER FLOUNDER (PARALICHTHYS DENTATUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Male summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) were given two injections (initially and 2 weeks later) of 17 -estra-diol (E2) totaling 0.2 (2 x 0.1), 2.0 (2 x 1.0) or 20.0 (2 x 10.0) mg E2/kg body weight. Blood and tissue samples were collected 4, 6 and 8 weeks after the initial in...

  8. Adaptive differences in gene expression in European flounder (Platichthys flesus).

    PubMed

    Larsen, Peter F; Nielsen, Einar E; Williams, Timothy D; Hemmer-Hansen, Jakob; Chipman, James K; Kruhøffer, Mogens; Grønkjaer, Peter; George, Stephen G; Dyrskjøt, Lars; Loeschcke, Volker

    2007-11-01

    Population structure was previously believed to be very limited or absent in classical marine fishes, but recently, evidence of weakly differentiated local populations has been accumulating using noncoding microsatellite markers. However, the evolutionary significance of such minute genetic differences remains unknown. Therefore, in order to elucidate the relationship between genetic markers and adaptive divergence among populations of marine fishes, we combined cDNA microarray and microsatellite analysis in European flounders (Platichthys flesus). We demonstrate that despite extremely low levels of neutral genetic divergence, a high number of genes were significantly differentially expressed between North Sea and Baltic Sea flounders maintained in a long-term reciprocal transplantation experiment mimicking natural salinities. Several of the differentially regulated genes could be directly linked to fitness traits. These findings demonstrate that flounders, despite little neutral genetic divergence between populations, are differently adapted to local environmental conditions and imply that adaptation in gene expression could be common in other marine organisms with similar low levels of population subdivision.

  9. 50 CFR 648.64 - Yellowtail flounder sub-ACLs and AMs for the scallop fishery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Yellowtail flounder sub-ACLs and AMs for...-ACLs and AMs for the scallop fishery. (a) As specified in § 648.55(d), and pursuant to the biennial... Georges Bank and Southern New England/Mid-Atlantic stocks of yellowtail flounder. The sub-ACLs for...

  10. 50 CFR 648.64 - Yellowtail flounder sub-ACLs and AMs for the scallop fishery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Yellowtail flounder sub-ACLs and AMs for...-ACLs and AMs for the scallop fishery. (a) As specified in § 648.55(d), and pursuant to the biennial... Georges Bank and Southern New England/Mid-Atlantic stocks of yellowtail flounder. The sub-ACLs for...

  11. 50 CFR Figure 6 to Part 223 - TED Extension in Summer Flounder Trawl

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false TED Extension in Summer Flounder Trawl 6 Figure 6 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND.... 223, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 223—TED Extension in Summer Flounder Trawl ER15OC99.001 ...

  12. Habitat selection of stone and starry flounders in an estuary in relation to feeding and survival

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomiyama, Takeshi; Omori, Michio

    2008-09-01

    Juveniles of both stone flounder Platichthys bicoloratus and starry flounder Platichthys stellatus utilize estuaries as nursery grounds. To understand their habitat selection and the functions of habitats such as food supply, we defined the seasonal distribution of recently settled fish of these species in shallow nursery areas and investigated their feeding habits in the Natori River estuary, Japan. Distribution of stone flounder was limited to the lower estuary (<3 km upriver from the mouth) and stone flounder were most abundant near the mouth. Recently settled starry flounder were first detected further upstream in areas characterized by low salinity <10 and by the absence of the predatory sand shrimp Crangon uritai. Early juvenile stone and starry flounders consumed mainly siphons of the bivalve Nuttallia olivacea and the mysid Neomysis awatschensis, respectively; however, 1- and 2-yr-old fish of both stone and starry flounders fed mainly on the bivalve siphons. These results indicate that habitat selections of juvenile stone and starry flounders enable utilization of preferred prey and predator avoidance, respectively, and that non-overlap of these species' habitats results in avoidance of inter-specific competition for food between these two species.

  13. 50 CFR 648.107 - Conservation equivalent measures for the summer flounder fishery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conservation equivalent measures for the... NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.107 Conservation equivalent measures for the summer flounder fishery. (a) The Regional Administrator has determined that the...

  14. 78 FR 20037 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... commercial summer flounder quota to the Commonwealth of Virginia and to the State of New Jersey. NMFS is... Management Specialist, 978-281-9224. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Regulations governing the summer...

  15. 78 FR 75267 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Available...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Available for the State of New Jersey...), Commerce. ACTION: Temporary rule. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the 2013 summer flounder commercial fishery... harvest the available quota. Vessels issued a commercial Federal fisheries permit for the summer...

  16. 78 FR 13812 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... commercial summer flounder quota to the Commonwealth of Virginia and to the State of Rhode Island. NMFS is... Management Specialist, 978-281-9224. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Regulations governing the summer...

  17. 77 FR 74390 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Available...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-14

    ... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Available for the State of New York To... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Temporary rule. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the 2012 summer flounder... fully harvest the available quota. Vessels issued a commercial Federal fisheries permit for the...

  18. 76 FR 29670 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ... Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 648 RIN 0648-XA403 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer... that the State of North Carolina is transferring a portion of its 2011 commercial summer flounder quota... of its 2011 commercial summer flounder quota to New Jersey. Vessels from North Carolina...

  19. 77 FR 73556 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS.... SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the State of Maine is transferring a portion of its 2012 commercial summer... INFORMATION: Regulations governing the summer flounder fishery are in 50 CFR part 648, and require...

  20. 77 FR 5414 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... of its 2011 commercial summer flounder quota to the Commonwealth of Virginia. By this action, NMFS... Management Specialist, (978) 281-9224. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Regulations governing the summer...

  1. 75 FR 2820 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ... Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fishery Management Plan (FMP), which was published on December 17, 1993... implementing the Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass FMP to address late-season circumstances that... could be approved, even if the transfer request is made in the subsequent fishing year, and would be...

  2. OCCURRENCE AND ORIENTATION OF PARALICHTHID FLOUNDERS (BOTHIDAE: PARALICHTYS) ON AN INTERTIDAL BEACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Middaugh, Douglas P. and Charles L. McKenney, Jr. 2003. Occurrence and Orientation of Flounders (Bothidae: Paralichthys) on an Intertidal Beach. J. North Carol. Acad. Sci. 119(4):157-171. (ERL,GB 1172).

    The intertidal movement and burying pattern of paralichthid flounders...

  3. OCCURRENCE AND ORIENTATION OF PARALICHTHID FLOUNDERS (BOTHIDAE: PARALICHTYS) ON AN INTERTIDAL BEACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Middaugh, Douglas P. and Charles L. McKenney, Jr. 2003. Occurrence and Orientation of Flounders (Bothidae: Paralichthys) on an Intertidal Beach. J. North Carol. Acad. Sci. 119(4):157-171. (ERL,GB 1172).

    The intertidal movement and burying pattern of paralichthid flounders...

  4. Cloning and expression of partial Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) IgD.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dae-Han; Jang, Han-Na; Ha, Dae-Mang; Kim, Jae-Wha; Oh, Chan-Ho; Choi, Sang-Hoon

    2007-07-31

    The cDNA sequence of the Japanese flounder (Paralychthys olivaceus) IgD has been previously reported (GenBank accession no. AB052658) and this was followed by the detection of IgD mRNA expression in some flounder organ tissues. However, it has not been determined whether the flounder IgD gene is virtually expressed into IgD protein. To characterize the flounder immunoglobulins utilized in elucidating the mechanism, evolution and diversity of the flounder immune system, antibodies specific to IgD and IgM were necessary. In the present study, partial flounder recombinant IgD (rIgD), IgM (rIgM) and the conserved regions of IgD and IgM (rCIg) were produced by cloning the cDNA sequence using isotype specific primers which were designed to produce unique fragments of IgD and IgM specific amino acid sequences. The production of recombinant Igs was ascertained by SDS-gel electrophoresis and immunoblot analysis using anti-T7 d Taq antibody. The produced recombinant Igs were purified using affinity columns, and used as immunogens. Antibodies specific to the isotype of flounder Igs were generated by immunizing rabbits with rfIgs and the antibodies produced were identified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblotting. Specificities of the generated antibodies were evaluated by testing cross-reactivity between recombinant IgM and IgD. By ELISA, rabbit antibodies against the rfIgD fragment (anti-rfIgD) failed to recognize any kind of flounder serum Igs, whereas respective antibodies against rfCIg (anti-rfCIg) and rfIgM fragments (anti-rfIgM) reacted with serum Igs. Likewise, in immunoblot assays, though anti-rfIgD did not, both anti-rfCIg and anti-rfIgM bound with the ~85 kd flounder IgM heavy chain. By flow cytometry analysis, anti-rfCIg, anti-rfIgD and anti-rfIgM reacted with 6%, 3% and 6.5% of cells, respectively, suggesting that flounder IgD is not secreted in serum but expressed on flounder B-like cell surfaces as in mammals. Antibodies produced against

  5. Metabolite and gene expression responses in juvenile flounder Paralichthys olivaceus exposed to reduced salinities.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huifeng; Liu, Jialin; Lu, Zhen; Xu, Lanlan; Ji, Chenglong; Wang, Qing; Zhao, Jianmin

    2017-04-01

    Seawater salinity is one of the most important changeable environmental factors influencing the behavior, survival, growth and production of marine organisms. In this work, metabolite and gene expression profiles were used to elucidate the biological effects of reduced salinities in juvenile flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. Metabolic profiling indicated that both reduced salinities (23.3‰ and 15.6‰) enhanced proteolysis and disturbed osmotic regulation and energy metabolism in juvenile flounder P. olivaceus. Furthermore, the low salinity (15.6‰) enhanced anaerobic metabolism indicated by the elevated lactate in flounder tissue extracts. Gene expression profiles exhibited that reduced salinities could induce immune stress and oxidative stress and disturb energy metabolism in juvenile flounder P. olivaceus. In addition, reduced salinities might promote the growth and gonadal differentiation in juvenile flounder P. olivaceus.

  6. General condition biomarkers in relation to contaminant burden in European flounder (Platichthys flesus).

    PubMed

    Kleinkauf, Anne; Connor, Leslie; Swarbreck, David; Levene, Carolyn; Walker, Peter; Johnson, Paul J; Leah, Richard T

    2004-07-01

    In respect to the differences found for vitellogenin (VTG) expression in male and immature flounder, general biological aspects and a set of chemical residues in the liver were compared between flounder from the Mersey and Dee estuaries (UK). Except for alpha-HCH, all pollutant chemicals analysed in flounder liver differed highly significantly between Mersey and Dee fish. Overall, the higher liver contaminant concentrations were found in VTG-induced Mersey flounder. The biomarkers studied were not found to indicate significant differences between Mersey and Dee fish. However, when all of the minor differences are taken into consideration, it appears that the slightly lower growth rates after age 2 in Mersey flounder, lower gonadosomatic index in both mature male and female animals, less precise seasonal patterns of condition factor (CF), hepatosomatic index and gonadosomatic index, and lower CF in immature Mersey fish may well be signs of a contaminant-affected Mersey population.

  7. The range and fine specificity of the anti-hapten immune response: phylogenetic studies.

    PubMed

    Litman, G W; Stolen, J S; Sarvas, H O; Mäkelä, O

    1982-12-01

    Heterodontus francisci (horned shark) and Pseudopleuronectes americanus (winter flounder) were immunized with furyl-oxazolone (furyl-Ox) and phenyl-oxazolone (phenyl-Ox) coupled either to bacteria or protein carriers. The antibodies produced were measured by inactivation of furyl- or phenyl-Ox conjugated bacteriophage, and their affinity and fine specificity were estimated by inhibition of phage inactivation with a series of structurally related hapten analogues. In both species, post-immunization peak titres were 100 to 2000 times higher than preimmunization titres. A number of unique features distinguished Heterodontus antibodies from Pseudopleuronectes or mammalian antibodies. Heterondontus antibodies exhibited a lower affinity for the immunizing hapten (furyl-Ox or phenyl-Ox) and a reduced ability to distinguish the homologous immunogenic hapten from its structural analogues. In addition, Heterodontus antibodies exhibited a lower level of inter-individual variation in affinity and fine specificity than did Pseudopleuronectes or mammalian IgM antibodies; this was especially prominent in anti-furyl-Ox responses. Typically the affinity and fine specificity of Heterodontus antibodies did not change over the 146-day period of immunization and were not influenced by the nature of the carrier. The implications of these findings in terms of the phylogenetic origins of antibody diversity are discussed.

  8. Identification and differential expression of microRNAs during metamorphosis of the Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Fu, Yuanshuai; Shi, Zhiyi; Wu, Minglin; Zhang, Junling; Jia, Liang; Chen, Xiaowu

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous small non-coding RNAs of 20-25 nucleotides that play a key role in diverse biological processes. Japanese flounder undergo dramatic metamorphosis in their early development. The metamorphosis is characterized by morphological transformation from a bilaterally symmetrical to an asymmetrical body shape concomitant with extensive morphological and physiological remodeling of organs. So far, only a few miRNAs have been identified in fish and there are very few reports about the Japanese flounder miRNA. Solexa sequencing technology was used to perform high throughput sequencing of the small RNA library from the metamorphic period of Japanese flounder. Subsequently, aligning these sequencing data with metazoan known miRNAs, we characterized 140 conserved miRNAs and 57 miRNA: miRNA* pairs from the small RNA library. Among these 57 miRNA: miRNA* pairs, twenty flounder miRNA precursors were amplified from genomic DNA. We also demonstrated evolutionary conservation of Japanese flounder miRNAs and miRNA* in the animal evolution process. Using miRNA microarrays, we identified 66 differentially expressed miRNAs at two metamorphic stages (17 and 29 days post hatching) of Japanese flounder. The results show that miRNAs might play a key role in regulating gene expression during Japanese flounder metamorphosis. We identified a large number of miRNAs during flounder metamorphosis, some of which are differentially expressed at two different metamorphic stages. The study provides an opportunity for further understanding of miRNA function in the regulation of flounder metamorphosis and gives us clues for further studies of the mechanisms of metamorphosis in Japanese flounder.

  9. Multi-decadal variation in size of juvenile Summer Flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) in Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nys, Lauren N.; Fabrizio, Mary C.; Tuckey, Troy D.

    2015-09-01

    During the last quarter-century, management of Summer Flounder Paralichthys dentatus along the Atlantic coast resulted in significant increases in abundance such that rebuilding targets were recently achieved. Although spawning stock biomass is high, recruitment of young-of-the-year (YOY) Summer Flounder remains variable. Chesapeake Bay is one of the principal nursery areas for this species, but processes such as growth and survival that affect production of YOY Summer Flounder in this estuary have not been explored. Here, we investigated the relationship between abundance and size of Summer Flounder recruits from the 1988 to 2012 year classes in Chesapeake Bay. We also considered the effects of environmental factors on fish size because conditions in the bay vary spatially during the time that fish occupy nursery areas. To describe variations in Summer Flounder size, we used monthly length observations from 13,018 YOY fish captured by bottom trawl from the lower Chesapeake Bay and the James, York, and Rappahannock river subestuaries where Summer Flounder are commonly observed. We applied a generalized additive model to describe spatial, temporal, and environmental effects on observed fish size; we also considered the density of Summer Flounder and an index of productivity as factors in the model. Summer Flounder in Chesapeake Bay exhibited density-dependent and spatially related variations in mean length: larger fish were found mostly in the Bay and smaller fish in the subestuaries. Additionally, low (< 13 °C) and high (> 26 °C) temperatures and low salinities (< 10 psu) had a negative effect on fish size, indicating that individuals found in these environments were typically smaller than conspecifics inhabiting areas of moderate temperatures and higher salinities. Variable nursery habitat conditions in temperate estuaries affect fish size and, subsequently, may influence production of Summer Flounder year classes through effects on maturation and survival. As

  10. Multi-decadal variation in size of juvenile Summer Flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) in Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nys, Lauren N.; Fabrizio, Mary C.; Tuckey, Troy D.

    2016-01-01

    During the last quarter-century, management of Summer Flounder Paralichthys dentatus along the Atlantic coast resulted in significant increases in abundance such that rebuilding targets were recently achieved. Although spawning stock biomass is high, recruitment of young-of-the-year (YOY) Summer Flounder remains variable. Chesapeake Bay is one of the principal nursery areas for this species, but processes such as growth and survival that affect production of YOY Summer Flounder in this estuary have not been explored. Here, we investigated the relationship between abundance and size of Summer Flounder recruits from the 1988 to 2012 year classes in Chesapeake Bay. We also considered the effects of environmental factors on fish size because conditions in the bay vary spatially during the time that fish occupy nursery areas. To describe variations in Summer Flounder size, we used monthly length observations from 13,018 YOY fish captured by bottom trawl from the lower Chesapeake Bay and the James, York, and Rappahannock river subestuaries where Summer Flounder are commonly observed. We applied a generalized additive model to describe spatial, temporal, and environmental effects on observed fish size; we also considered the density of Summer Flounder and an index of productivity as factors in the model. Summer Flounder in Chesapeake Bay exhibited density-dependent and spatially related variations in mean length: larger fish were found mostly in the Bay and smaller fish in the subestuaries. Additionally, low (< 13 °C) and high (> 26 °C) temperatures and low salinities (< 10 psu) had a negative effect on fish size, indicating that individuals found in these environments were typically smaller than conspecifics inhabiting areas of moderate temperatures and higher salinities. Variable nursery habitat conditions in temperate estuaries affect fish size and, subsequently, may influence production of Summer Flounder year classes through effects on maturation and survival. As

  11. Spatial memory in captive American black bears (Ursus americanus).

    PubMed

    Zamisch, Valeria; Vonk, Jennifer

    2012-11-01

    The spatial memory and foraging strategies of four adult captive-born American black bears (Ursus americanus) were explored in four experiments using a simulated foraging task. In the first three experiments, each session consisted of two phases separated by a delay: During the exploration phase, subjects foraged among a set of baited and unbaited sites. During the delay, the same locations were rebaited and subjects were released again and allowed to search the sites (search phase). In Experiments 1a and 1b, different sites were baited each day and the interval between exploration and search was short (4 hr or 15 min). Subjects were not accurate at recovering the food items in either experiment. In Experiment 2, an "informed forager" paradigm was used in which one subject was given privileged knowledge about the location of the food during the exploration phase and was later released with an "uninformed" competitor during the search phase. The bears did not achieve above-chance recovery accuracy even in the presence of a competitor. In Experiment 3, the same two of four sites were continually baited and the bears were released simultaneously over a period of 20 days, with each baiting separated by 2 or 3 days. As a group, the bears' foraging accuracy with repeated baiting and longer intervals approached greater than chance accuracy. Results suggest some limitations on bears' use of spatial memory in captive environments, but reveal the potential for use of spatial memory over longer delays.

  12. Subcuticular urate accumulation in an American lobster (Homarus americanus).

    PubMed

    Battison, A L

    2013-05-01

    An unusually "lumpy" lobster, Homarus americanus, was presented to the Atlantic Veterinary College Lobster Science Centre for evaluation. The lobster was weak with numerous pale, raised, and flat areas (diameter, 3-15 mm) on the exoskeleton, some of which were ulcerated. On postmortem examination, the pale areas corresponded to accumulations of viscous to free-flowing white material, which was found in only the subcuticular connective tissues. No internal organs were affected. Direct light examination of nonstained impression smears of the material showed abundant crystals resembling uric acid, amorphous urates, and sodium urate, which were readily soluble in 1 M potassium hydroxide. Wright-Giemsa stained imprints showed numerous fine, rounded, nonstaining granules free in the background and within individual round cells. Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy confirmed the presence of urates or mixed urate salts. Hemolymph plasma urea (1.7 mmol/liter) and uric acid (287 μmol/liter) concentrations were slightly higher than those seen with 36-hour emersion. Histologic sections showed aggregates of vacuolated mononuclear cells in the loose subcuticular connective tissue occasionally infiltrating between underlying muscle fibers. Grossly visible urate deposits are occasionally documented in land crabs and rarely reported in the blue crab; none, however, are associated with deformation of the cuticle. Possible etiologies include increased uric acid intake or production or decreased excretion. Anecdotal reports of similarly affected lobsters have been received but are intermittent and undocumented.

  13. The complete genome sequence of 'Candidatus Liberibacter americanus', associated with Citrus huanglongbing.

    PubMed

    Wulff, Nelson A; Zhang, Shujian; Setubal, João C; Almeida, Nalvo F; Martins, Elaine C; Harakava, Ricardo; Kumar, Dibyendu; Rangel, Luiz Thiberio; Foissac, Xavier; Bové, Joseph M; Gabriel, Dean W

    2014-02-01

    Liberibacter spp. form a Rhizobiaceae clade of phloem-limited pathogens of limited host range. Two obligately parasitic species have been sequenced: 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus', which causes citrus huanglongbing (HLB) worldwide, and 'Ca. L. solanacearum', which causes potato "zebra chip" disease. A third (proposed) species, Liberibacter crescens, was isolated from mountain papaya, grown in axenic culture, and sequenced. In an effort to identify common host determinants, the complete genomic DNA sequence of a second HLB species, 'Ca. L. americanus' strain 'São Paulo' was determined. The circular genome of 1,195,201 bp had an average 31.12% GC content and 983 predicted protein encoding genes, 800 (81.4%) of which had a predicted function. There were 658 genes common to all sequenced Liberibacter spp. and only 8 genes common to 'Ca. L. americanus' and 'Ca. L. asiaticus' but not found in 'Ca. L. solanacearum'. Surprisingly, most of the lipopolysaccharide biosynthetic genes were missing from the 'Ca. L. americanus' genome, as well as OmpA and a key regulator of flagellin, all indicating a 'Ca. L. americanus' strategy of avoiding production of major pathogen-associated molecular patterns present in 'Ca. L. asiaticus' and 'Ca. L. solanacearum'. As with 'Ca. L. asiaticus', one of two 'Ca. L. americanus' prophages replicated as an excision plasmid and carried potential lysogenic conversion genes that appeared fragmentary or degenerated in 'Ca. L. solanacearum'.

  14. The effect of fallow on Longidorus americanus, a nematode associated with stunting of loblolly pine seedlings in Georgia, USA

    Treesearch

    Stephen W. Fraedrich; Michelle M. Cram; Stanley J. Zarnoch

    2005-01-01

    Stunting of loblolly pine (Pinue taeda L.) seedlings, caused by Longidorus americanus, has been a problem at a Georgia (USA) nursery. Field and growth chamber studies were conducted to determine the survivability of the nematode in a fallow nursery soil. The population density of L. americanus decreased rapidly...

  15. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii from free-ranging black bears ( Ursus americanus ) from Florida.

    PubMed

    Chambers, D L; Ulrey, W A; Guthrie, J M; Kwok, O C H; Cox, J J; Maehr, D S; Dubey, J P

    2012-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a significant worldwide parasitic protozoan. In the present study, prevalence of antibodies of T. gondii was examined from 29 free-ranging black bears ( Ursus americanus ) from south-central Florida where the host species was listed as state threatened during this project. Overall T. gondii prevalence was found to be 44.8%, specifically 46.2% in male and 43.8% in female U. americanus , using a modified agglutination test (1:25 titer). Seroprevalence differences between sexes were not significant (P > 0.05). Results of the present study add supportive data to the growing body of evidence suggesting that U. americanus has one of the highest T. gondii seroprevalences among all known intermediate hosts. In addition, our data emphasize the importance of understanding parasitic disease dynamics from a conservation perspective.

  16. Taxonomic recovery of the ant cricket Myrmecophilus albicinctus from M. americanus (Orthoptera, Myrmecophilidae)

    PubMed Central

    Komatsu, Takashi; Maruyama, Munetoshi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Myrmecophilus americanus and Myrmecophilus albicinctus are typical myrmecophilous insects living inside ant nests. These species are ecologically important due to the obligate association with tramp ant species, including harmful invasive ant species. However, the taxonomy of these “white-banded ant crickets” is quite confused owing to a scarcity of useful external morphological characteristics. Recently, Myrmecophilus albicinctus was synonymized with Myrmecophilus americanus regardless of the apparent host use difference. To clarify taxonomical relationship between Myrmecophilus albicinctus and Myrmecophilus albicinctus, we reexamined morphological characteristics of both species mainly in the viewpoint of anatomy. Observation of genitalia parts, together with a few external body parts, revealed that Myrmecophilus albicinctus showed different tendency from them of Myrmecophilus americanus. Therefore, we recover Myrmecophilus albicinctus as a distinct species on the basis of the morphology. PMID:27408536

  17. The influence of environmental factors on early life history patterns of flounders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, John Selden; Ueno, Masahiro; Tanaka, Yousuke; Walsh, Harvey; Maeda, Tsuneo; Kinoshita, Izumi; Seikai, Tadahisa; Hoss, Donald E.; Tanaka, Masaru

    1998-09-01

    The near-shore migration and settlement phases of Japanese and American flounders of the genus Paralichthys are compared and discussed relative to differences in coastal environments. Field sampling was conducted in Wakasa Bay, Kyoto Prefecture, Japan, where the shelf is narrow, estuarine habitat limited and tidal range slight, and in Onslow Bay, North Carolina, USA, where the shelf is broad, estuarine habitat extensive and tide relatively strong. Distribution of larvae and juveniles suggests Japanese flounder spawn in close proximity to nursery grounds relative to flounder in Onslow Bay. Sampling of planktonic and benthic flounder just seaward of nursery grounds resulted in capture of a wide range of developmental stages in Wakasa Bay (early planktonic to juvenile), but was limited to metamorphosing larvae in Onslow Bay. Vertical distribution of larvae during the night also differed between the Bays. At night most larvae in Wakasa Bay remained near the bottom regardless of tidal stage. In contrast, larvae in Onslow Bay exhibited selective tidal stream transport. Laboratory experiments conducted to examine the behaviour of recently captured wild and laboratory-reared larvae indicated that wild flounder from Onslow Bay had an endogenous rhythm of activity that corresponded to the tide at the time of capture. In contrast, wild flounder from Wakasa Bay and laboratory-reared larvae showed no distinct activity pattern. These results suggest that physical characteristics of the environment influence the early life history patterns of flounders by modifying behaviour of migrating larvae.

  18. Occurrence, distribution and prey items of juvenile marbled sole Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae around a submarine groundwater seepage on a tidal flat in southwestern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hata, Masaki; Sugimoto, Ryo; Hori, Masakazu; Tomiyama, Takeshi; Shoji, Jun

    2016-05-01

    Occurrence, distribution and prey items of juvenile marbled sole Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae were investigated around a submarine groundwater seepage on a tidal flat in southwestern Japan. Spatial distribution of radon-222 (222Rn) concentration in water showed more submarine groundwater seepage in the offshore area. The lower salinities at offshore sampling stations corresponded with the highest 222Rn concentrations. Juvenile marbled sole were collected from March through June with seasonal peak in April in 2013 and 2014. Mean abundance of juvenile marbled sole was highest at the second most offshore station where high submarine groundwater seepage was indicated. Major prey items in the stomachs of the marbled sole at the post-settlement stage (10-40 mm) were small crustaceans such as cumaceans and gammarids, which were partially replaced with polychaetes in larger juveniles (40-50 mm). Abundance of these major prey items was also higher at offshore stations. A negative correlation between gammarid abundance and salinity indicated a higher concentration of gammarids around the area of high submarine groundwater seepage, a pattern not observed for the other major prey organisms. Stable isotope analysis showed greater dependence of post-settlement stage marbled sole on the small crustaceans with low δ13C indicating that nutrients of terrestrial origin contribute to production of the juvenile marbled sole on the tidal flat.

  19. Characterization and functional classification of American lobster (Homarus americanus) immune factor transcripts.

    PubMed

    Clark, K Fraser

    2014-11-01

    The American lobster (Homarus americanus) is the most important commercially exploited marine species in Canada. Very little is known about the H. americanus molecular humoral immune response or how to determine if a seemingly healthy lobster is infected with a pathogen. The goal of this work is to characterize several important H. americanus immune genes as well as highlight and classify hundreds of others into functional immune groups. The protein sequence of H. americanus acute phase serum amyloid protein A (SAA) was found to be similar to that of vertebrate SAA, and is likely a good clinical marker for immune activation in lobsters and some crustaceans. Additionally, only one gene, Trypsin 1b, was found to be differentially regulated during bacterial, microparasitic and viral challenges in lobster and is likely critical for the activation of the H. americanus immune response. Bioinformatic analysis was used to functionally annotate, 263 H. americanus immune genes and identify the few shared patterns of differential gene expression in lobsters in response to bacterial, parasitic and viral challenge. Many of the described immune genes are biomarker candidates which could be used as clinical indicators for lobster health and disease. Biomarkers can facilitate early detection of pathogens, or anthropomorphic stressors, so that mitigation strategies can be developed in order to prevent the devastating economic losses that have occurred in Southern New England, USA. This work is contributes to further our understanding of how the lobster immune system works and how it can be used to maintain the health and sustainability of the overall American lobster fishery.

  20. Neuropeptidergic Signaling in the American Lobster Homarus americanus: New Insights from High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Christie, Andrew E; Chi, Megan; Lameyer, Tess J; Pascual, Micah G; Shea, Devlin N; Stanhope, Meredith E; Schulz, David J; Dickinson, Patsy S

    2015-01-01

    Peptides are the largest and most diverse class of molecules used for neurochemical communication, playing key roles in the control of essentially all aspects of physiology and behavior. The American lobster, Homarus americanus, is a crustacean of commercial and biomedical importance; lobster growth and reproduction are under neuropeptidergic control, and portions of the lobster nervous system serve as models for understanding the general principles underlying rhythmic motor behavior (including peptidergic neuromodulation). While a number of neuropeptides have been identified from H. americanus, and the effects of some have been investigated at the cellular/systems levels, little is currently known about the molecular components of neuropeptidergic signaling in the lobster. Here, a H. americanus neural transcriptome was generated and mined for sequences encoding putative peptide precursors and receptors; 35 precursor- and 41 receptor-encoding transcripts were identified. We predicted 194 distinct neuropeptides from the deduced precursor proteins, including members of the adipokinetic hormone-corazonin-like peptide, allatostatin A, allatostatin C, bursicon, CCHamide, corazonin, crustacean cardioactive peptide, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), CHH precursor-related peptide, diuretic hormone 31, diuretic hormone 44, eclosion hormone, FLRFamide, GSEFLamide, insulin-like peptide, intocin, leucokinin, myosuppressin, neuroparsin, neuropeptide F, orcokinin, pigment dispersing hormone, proctolin, pyrokinin, SIFamide, sulfakinin and tachykinin-related peptide families. While some of the predicted peptides are known H. americanus isoforms, most are novel identifications, more than doubling the extant lobster neuropeptidome. The deduced receptor proteins are the first descriptions of H. americanus neuropeptide receptors, and include ones for most of the peptide groups mentioned earlier, as well as those for ecdysis-triggering hormone, red pigment concentrating hormone

  1. Neuropeptidergic Signaling in the American Lobster Homarus americanus: New Insights from High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Christie, Andrew E.; Chi, Megan; Lameyer, Tess J.; Pascual, Micah G.; Shea, Devlin N.; Stanhope, Meredith E.; Schulz, David J.; Dickinson, Patsy S.

    2015-01-01

    Peptides are the largest and most diverse class of molecules used for neurochemical communication, playing key roles in the control of essentially all aspects of physiology and behavior. The American lobster, Homarus americanus, is a crustacean of commercial and biomedical importance; lobster growth and reproduction are under neuropeptidergic control, and portions of the lobster nervous system serve as models for understanding the general principles underlying rhythmic motor behavior (including peptidergic neuromodulation). While a number of neuropeptides have been identified from H. americanus, and the effects of some have been investigated at the cellular/systems levels, little is currently known about the molecular components of neuropeptidergic signaling in the lobster. Here, a H. americanus neural transcriptome was generated and mined for sequences encoding putative peptide precursors and receptors; 35 precursor- and 41 receptor-encoding transcripts were identified. We predicted 194 distinct neuropeptides from the deduced precursor proteins, including members of the adipokinetic hormone-corazonin-like peptide, allatostatin A, allatostatin C, bursicon, CCHamide, corazonin, crustacean cardioactive peptide, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), CHH precursor-related peptide, diuretic hormone 31, diuretic hormone 44, eclosion hormone, FLRFamide, GSEFLamide, insulin-like peptide, intocin, leucokinin, myosuppressin, neuroparsin, neuropeptide F, orcokinin, pigment dispersing hormone, proctolin, pyrokinin, SIFamide, sulfakinin and tachykinin-related peptide families. While some of the predicted peptides are known H. americanus isoforms, most are novel identifications, more than doubling the extant lobster neuropeptidome. The deduced receptor proteins are the first descriptions of H. americanus neuropeptide receptors, and include ones for most of the peptide groups mentioned earlier, as well as those for ecdysis-triggering hormone, red pigment concentrating hormone

  2. Morphological Dependence of Element Stoichiometry in the H. americanus Exoskeleton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mergelsberg, S. T.; Ulrich, R. N.; Dove, P. M.

    2016-02-01

    The crustacean exoskeleton is a complex biocomposite of inorganic mineral and organic macromolecules that expresses highly divergent morphologies across different taxa. While the structures and compositions of the organic framework show complex links to environmental and developmental pressures, little is known about the mineral chemistry. Previous studies of the cuticle have assumed that magnesium, phosphorous, and other trace metals are largely contained in the inorganic mineral fraction. Due to analytical limitations of structural analyses and in situ spectroscopic methods, the stoichiometry of the organic and inorganic portions could not be resolved. For example, previous Raman and XRD studies conclude the higher concentrations of trace elements, such as P and Mg measured in reinforced structures, e.g. the claw and abdomen, are primarily determined by the mineral fraction. Using the American Lobster (Homarus americanus) as a model organism to establish relationships between body part function and cuticle composition, this study quantified the distributions of Mg and P in the mineral and organic fractions. The experiments were designed to dissolve the exoskeleton of 10 body parts using three types of solutions that were specific to extracting 1) the mineral phase, 2) protein, and 3) polysaccharide. Analysis of the solutions by ICP-OES shows the mineral phase contains magnesium and phosphorous at concentrations sufficient to support the formation of calcium-magnesium and phosphate minerals. The protein fraction of the body parts contains significantly more Mg and P than previously hypothesized, while the levels of P contained in the organic portion are fairly constant. The findings demonstrate the lobster cuticle contains a significant amount of non-mineralized P and Mg that is readily water-soluble in the protein component. However, for those body parts used for defense and food acquisition, such as the claw, the mineral component determines the overall

  3. Blindness in a wild American black bear cub (Ursus americanus).

    PubMed

    Dombrowski, Elizabeth; McGregor, Glenna F; Bauer, Bianca S; Parker, Dennilyn; Grahn, Bruce H

    2016-07-01

    An approximately six-month-old wild American black bear (Ursus americanus) was found wandering in Saskatchewan and was presented to the Veterinary Medical Centre of the Western College of Veterinary Medicine for apparent blindness. Clinical examination confirmed an inability to navigate a photopic maze, bilateral tapetal hyper-reflectivity, fundi devoid of retinal vessels, and small pale optic nerve papillae. Single-flash electroretinography revealed A and B-wave amplitudes of approximately 40 and 140 microvolts, respectively, in both eyes. Histologic abnormalities included bilateral optic papillary mineralization and bilateral segmental optic nerve degeneration, with occasional intralesional lymphocytes confirmed with immunohistochemistry for CD3+. There was also bilateral multifocal retinal dysplasia, gliosis, lymphocytic retinitis, a complete lack of retinal blood vessels, an intravitreal vascular membrane, and a mild lymphocytic-plasmacytic uveitis with small pre-iridal cellular membranes. The presence of a positive ERG in a blind bear with numerous retinal ganglion cells and degenerative changes in the optic nerve are most consistent with vision loss due to optic nerve injury, which given the young age of the bear likely occurred during ocular development. The presence of ocular inflammation suggests this injury resulted from an inflammatory/infectious process. The etiology could not be determined. Hepatic concentrations of vitamin A were within the normal reference range for domestic species. Pan-herpesvirus PCR and immunohistochemistry for canine distemper virus and Toxoplasma gondii were negative, although this does not rule out these or other infectious etiologies. This represents the first case report of neonatal or congenital ocular abnormalities in an ursid species.

  4. Changeable camouflage: how well can flounder resemble the colour and spatial scale of substrates in their natural habitats?

    PubMed Central

    Akkaynak, Derya; Siemann, Liese A.; Barbosa, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Flounder change colour and pattern for camouflage. We used a spectrometer to measure reflectance spectra and a digital camera to capture body patterns of two flounder species camouflaged on four natural backgrounds of different spatial scale (sand, small gravel, large gravel and rocks). We quantified the degree of spectral match between flounder and background relative to the situation of perfect camouflage in which flounder and background were assumed to have identical spectral distribution. Computations were carried out for three biologically relevant observers: monochromatic squid, dichromatic crab and trichromatic guitarfish. Our computations present a new approach to analysing datasets with multiple spectra that have large variance. Furthermore, to investigate the spatial match between flounder and background, images of flounder patterns were analysed using a custom program originally developed to study cuttlefish camouflage. Our results show that all flounder and background spectra fall within the same colour gamut and that, in terms of different observer visual systems, flounder matched most substrates in luminance and colour contrast. Flounder matched the spatial scales of all substrates except for rocks. We discuss findings in terms of flounder biology; furthermore, we discuss our methodology in light of hyperspectral technologies that combine high-resolution spectral and spatial imaging. PMID:28405370

  5. Characterizing and predicting the distribution of Baltic Sea flounder (Platichthys flesus) during the spawning season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orio, Alessandro; Bergström, Ulf; Casini, Michele; Erlandsson, Mårten; Eschbaum, Redik; Hüssy, Karin; Lehmann, Andreas; Ložys, Linas; Ustups, Didzis; Florin, Ann-Britt

    2017-08-01

    Identification of essential fish habitats (EFH), such as spawning habitats, is important for nature conservation, sustainable fisheries management and marine spatial planning. Two sympatric flounder (Platichthys flesus) ecotypes are present in the Baltic Sea, pelagic and demersal spawning flounder, both displaying ecological and physiological adaptations to the low-salinity environment of this young inland sea. In this study we have addressed three main research questions: 1) What environmental conditions characterize the spatial distribution and abundance of adult flounder during the spawning season? 2) What are the main factors defining the habitats of the two flounder ecotypes during the spawning season? 3) Where are the potential spawning areas of flounder? We modelled catch per unit of effort (CPUE) of flounder from gillnet surveys conducted over the southern and central Baltic Sea in the spring of 2014 and 2015 using generalized additive models. A general model included all the stations fished during the survey while two other models, one for the demersal and one for the pelagic spawning flounder, included only the stations where each flounder ecotype should dominate. The general model captured distinct ecotype-specific signals as it identified dual salinity and water depth responses. The model for the demersal spawning flounder revealed a negative relation with the abundance of round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) and a positive relation with Secchi depth and cod abundance. Vegetation and substrate did not play an important role in the choice of habitat for the demersal ecotype. The model for the pelagic spawning flounder showed a negative relation with temperature and bottom current and a positive relation with salinity. Spatial predictions of potential spawning areas of flounder showed a decrease in habitat availability for the pelagic spawning flounder over the last 20 years in the central part of the Baltic Sea, which may explain part of the observed

  6. Renal morphology of the euryhaline flounder (Platichthys flesus): distribution of arginine vasotocin receptor.

    PubMed

    Weybourne, E; Warne, J M; Hentschel, H; Elger, M; Balment, R J

    2005-04-01

    The current study characterized tubular segmentation of the European flounder nephron and localized the vasotocin receptor expression by immunohistochemistry. Flounder nephron was shown to comprise a prominent renal corpuscle, short neck segment, proximal tubule I, proximal tubule II, collecting tubule, and collecting duct. Using specific antibodies raised against flounder vasotocin receptor, specific V(1) receptor staining was detected within the glomeruli, the endothelial surface of the afferent and efferent arterioles, and the capillaries surrounding the collecting duct system. Immunostaining for the receptor was exclusively vascular and there did not appear to be a tubular component.

  7. Early growth and development of reciprocal hybrids of the starry flounder Platichthys stellatus and stone flounder Kareius bicoloratus.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Y T; Aritaki, M; Kurita, Y; Tanaka, M

    2014-05-01

    Larval growth and development of hybrid flounder were observed and compared with those of their parent species. The reciprocal hybrids of female starry flounder Platichthys stellatus and male stone flounder Kareius bicoloratus (hybrid Sb) and of female K. bicoloratus and male P. stellatus (hybrid Bs) both survived and grew to juveniles. Development was divided into nine stages (A-I). Many of the hybrids' traits were identical and intermediate to those of their parents. The position of the eye, however, was primarily sinistral in both hybrids (80% in Sb and 76% in Bs), a trait possessed by P. stellatus (80%) in the western Pacific Ocean. The daily growth rates of the larvae were similar. In the parent species, development was more rapid in P. stellatus than in K. bicoloratus whereas rate of development was intermediate in both Sb and Bs hybrids. The size at settlement [standard length (LS ) at stage H (mean ± s.d.)] was 9·82 ± 1·47 mm for the hybrid Sb and 9·99 ± 0·90 mm for the hybrid Bs, while the minimum age at metamorphosis (initial age at stage H) was 29 days after hatching (DAH) in both hybrids. In comparison, LS at settlement in parent species was 6·43 ± 0·25 mm for P. stellatus and 12·87 ± 1·29 mm for K. bicoloratus. Minimum age at metamorphosis for the parents was 23 DAH at stage G in P. stellatus and 34 DAH at stage H in K. bicoloratus. Thus, the timing of settlement of hybrids was different from that of their parent species. These traits may occur with high frequency in a natural habitat.

  8. Viral diseases of olive flounder in Korean hatcheries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, M.-J.; Jung, S.-J.; Kitamura, S.-I.; Kim, H.-Y.; Kang, S. Y.

    2006-01-01

    In order to elucidate the state of diseases, especially viral diseases, and to prevent viral diseases from occurring in olive flounder hatcheries, a range of studies, including epidemiological study, were performed from 1997 to 2003. The location of the hatcheries investigated includes several representative sites in the east (Kangnung, Uljin, Pohang, Yangsan, Ulsan, Pusan), south (Wando, Changheung, Goheung, Yeosu, Namhae, Tongyeong, Geoje, Jeju) and west (Seosan, Kunsan, Gochang, Yeongkwang, Mokpo, Chindo) costal areas of the Korea Peninsula. A total of 2000 cases have been examined in 7 years, in which mortality caused by viral agents accounts for 22%, or 446 cases. Mortalities associated with viral infection considerably increased from 14% in 1997 to 27% in 2003. A variety of viral diseases were observed, and the occurrences of viral epidermal hyperplasia, viral ascites and viral deformity, viral nervous necrosis, and hirame rhabdoviral disease are 14%, 51%, 25%, and 8% respectively. By investigating the viral infection of broodstock flounder, the infection rate of marine birnavirus (MABV) in hatcheries was identified to be approximately 30%, therefore, it is highly necessary to acquire and keep non-infected broodstock fishes.

  9. Direct and indirect effects of southern flounder predation on a spot population: Experimental and model analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Crowder, L.B.; Wright, R.A.; Martin, T.H.; Rice, J.A. . Dept. of Zoology); Rose, K.A. )

    1992-01-01

    We have previously shown that southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma Jordan and Gilbert) influence the survival and size-distribution of spot (Leiostomus xanthurus Lafayette) and other small estuarine fishes in experimental ponds. In this paper, we seek to determine whether these of effects can be accounted for by direct size-dependent predation or if there is also evidence for indirect behavioral effects on spot foraging which might alter their survival or population size structure. In our experiment, spot were allowed to grow in the presence and absence of southern flounder in an experimental estuarine pond for 101 days. Each treatment was replicated three times. We also apply a recently published simulation model of the flounder-spot interaction to this experiment to independently test the model and to estimate the direct effects of flounder predation on spot survival and size structure.

  10. Inactivation of Kudoa septempunctata in olive flounder meat by liquid freezing.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Takahiro; Akuzawa, Sayuri; Furusawa, Hiroko; Yoshinari, Tomoya; Kamata, Yoichi; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko

    2014-01-01

    Kudoa septempunctata in olive flounder meat was inactivated using 3 distinct freezing methods:liquid freezing for 5 min, air blast freezing at -30℃ for 5 h, and -80℃ for 1 h. The fracture curve of olive flounder meat subjected to liquid freezing resembled that of meat stored at 4℃, indicating that the structure of olive flounder muscle was well preserved. In contrast, air blast freezing induced the disappearance of the fracture point in the fracture curve, indicating that there was deterioration in the meat quality. Liquid freezing preserved the transparency of olive flounder meat to the same degree as that of meat stored at 4°C. However, air blast freezing induced meat cloudiness. These results indicate that liquid freezing can be used for K. septempunctata inactivation without affecting the meat quality.

  11. 78 FR 76765 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ...NMFS announces that the State of Maryland is transferring a portion of its 2013 commercial summer flounder quota to the State of Connecticut. NMFS is adjusting the quotas and announcing the revised commercial quota for each state involved.

  12. Simulating winter flounder population dynamics using coupled individual-based YOY and Leslie matrix models

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, J.A.; Rose, K.A. ); Chambers, R.C. )

    1994-06-01

    Winter flounder populations support an important commercial fishery in eastern North America that has recently experienced declines in catch. We developed a model for winter flounder that combines an individual-based (IBM) simulation of the young-of-the-year (yoy) period and a Leslie matrix model of the adult period. The model is designed to depicit the biotic and abiotic environment of bays off the northeastern United States coast. Using the model we replicated the spawn and recruit relationship of winter flounder determined from 12 years of study in the Niantic River. The simulations show the importance of inter-annual variation in temperature and the spawning population as well as density-dependent growth and mortality in determining yoy recruitment. With 100 year simulations we determined the effect of variation in the environment on the recruitment of yoy winder flounder and on long term population stability.

  13. Ultrastructure of the olfactory epithelium in a flatfish, barfin flounder (Verasper moseri).

    PubMed

    Nakamuta, Shoko; Nakamuta, Nobuaki; Taniguchi, Kazuyuki

    2010-06-01

    In this study, we examined the olfactory epithelium (OE) of the barfin flounder by transmission electron microscopy. As in the case of the ordinary teleost, the OE of the barfin flounder had 3 types of olfactory receptor cells (ciliated olfactory receptor cell, microvillous olfactory receptor cell and crypt cell), 3 types of supporting cells (ciliated, microvillous and crypt supporting cells) and basal cells. Each type of OE cells in the barfin flounder had similar ultrastructure to that of the ordinary teleost. Crypt cell is the third type of olfactory receptor cell unique to fish, whose function is unclear. The barfin flounder may be a suitable material to study crypt cells because it has relatively abundant crypt cells in the OE.

  14. Gonadal Transcriptome Analysis of Male and Female Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Zhaofei; You, Feng; Wang, Lijuan; Weng, Shenda; Wu, Zhihao; Hu, Jinwei; Zou, Yuxia; Tan, Xungang; Zhang, Peijun

    2014-01-01

    Olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) is an important commercially cultured marine flatfish in China, Korea, and Japan, of which female grows faster than male. In order to explore the molecular mechanism of flounder sex determination and development, we used RNA-seq technology to investigate transcriptomes of flounder gonads. This produced 22,253,217 and 19,777,841 qualified reads from ovary and testes, which were jointly assembled into 97,233 contigs. Among them, 23,223 contigs were mapped to known genes, of which 2,193 were predicted to be differentially expressed in ovary and 887 in testes. According to annotation information, several sex-related biological pathways including ovarian steroidogenesis and estrogen signaling pathways were firstly found in flounder. The dimorphic expression of overall sex-related genes provides further insights into sex determination and gonadal development. Our study also provides an archive for further studies of molecular mechanism of fish sex determination. PMID:25121093

  15. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in American Black Bears ( Ursus americanus ) of the Central Appalachians, USA.

    PubMed

    Cox, John J; Murphy, Sean M; Augustine, Ben C; Guthrie, Joseph M; Hast, John T; Maehr, Sutton C; McDermott, Joseph

    2017-07-01

    We assessed Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in 53 free-ranging American black bears ( Ursus americanus ) in the Central Appalachian Mountains, US. Seroprevalence was 62% with no difference between males and females or between juvenile and adult bears. Wildlife agencies should consider warnings in hunter education programs to reduce the chances for human infection from this source.

  16. Prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in North Carolina Eastern Black Bears ( Ursus americanus ).

    PubMed

    Westmoreland, Lori S H; Stoskopf, Michael K; Maggi, Ricardo G

    2016-10-01

    We detected Anaplasma phagocytophilum by DNA amplification in whole blood from free-ranging, hunter-killed American black bears ( Ursus americanus ) from the east coast of North Carolina, US. Molecular prevalence for Anaplasma phagocytophilum was 3% from 68 black bears. No DNA of other Anaplasma or Ehrlichia spp. was identified.

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of "Candidatus Liberibacter americanus" Bacterium Associated with Citrus Huanglongbing in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hong; Coletta-Filho, Helvecio D; Han, Cliff S; Lou, Binghai; Civerolo, Edwin L; Machado, Marcos A; Gupta, Goutam

    2013-05-23

    We report here the draft genome sequence of "Candidatus Liberibacter americanus" strain PW_SP. The 1,176,071-bp genome, with 31.6% G+C content, comprises 948 open reading frames, 38 tRNAs, and three complete rRNAs.

  18. Potential Vertical Transmission of Winter Ticks (Dermacentor albipictus) from Moose (Alces americanus) Dams to Neonates.

    PubMed

    Severud, William J; DelGiudice, Glenn D

    2016-01-01

    North American moose (Alces americanus) frequently become infested with winter ticks (Dermacentor albipictus). During capture of neonatal moose in northeastern Minnesota, US, in May-June 2013 and 2014, we recovered adult ticks from neonates, presumably vertically transferred from dams, heretofore, not documented. Infestations on neonates may have population-level implications.

  19. Movements, activity patterns, and habitat use of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) in interior Alaska

    Treesearch

    D. Feierabend; K. Kielland

    2014-01-01

    Snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) are generally sedentary, but are likely to move among habitats frequently to gain access to spatially segregated food and cover. We investigated movement patterns of hares from 2 characteristic boreal habitats using very-high-frequency radio collars (n ¼ 300) monitored weekly and global positioning system (GPS) collars (n ¼ 18)...

  20. SARCOCYSTIS URSUSI, N. SP (APICOMPLEXA; SARCOCYSTIDAE) FROM THE BLACK BEAR (URSUS AMERICANUS)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Infection with Sarcocystis species is common in hervibores but is rare in bears. Histological sections of 374 black bears (Ursus americanus) from Pennsylvania were examined for sarcocysts. A total of 3 sarcocysts were found in 3 bears, 1 sarcocyst per section. Sarcocysts from 2 bears were considered...

  1. Mercury accumulation and the mercury-PCB-sex interaction in summer flounder

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Jensen, Olaf P.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; DeWild, John F.; Ogorek, Jacob M.; Vastano, Anthony R.

    2016-01-01

    Patterns in the relative differences in contaminant concentrations between the sexes of mature fish may reveal important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes. We determined whole-fish total mercury (Hg) concentrations in 23 female summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) and 27 male summer flounder from New Jersey coastal waters. To estimate the change in Hg concentration due to release of eggs at spawning, Hg concentration in the somatic tissue and ovaries of 5 of the 23 female summer flounder were also determined. To ascertain whether most of the Hg in the summer flounder was methylmercury (MeHg), whole-fish MeHg concentrations were determined in all 50 summer flounder. Whole-fish Hg concentrations averaged 113 ng/g for females and 111 ng/g for males. Thus, females were 2% higher in Hg concentration than males, on average, but the difference was not statistically significant. Based on Hg determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that Hg concentration of females would increase by 3.6%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. On average, 92% of the Hg in the summer flounder was MeHg. To determine whether the effect of sex on Hg concentration was significantly different from the effect of sex on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentration, we paired our Hg determinations with PCB determinations from a previous study, and applied regression analysis. Sex significantly interacted with contaminant type (Hg or PCBs), as males were 43% higher in PCB concentration than females, whereas females were 2% higher in Hg concentration than males. Males eliminating Hg from their bodies at a faster rate than females was a likely explanation for this discrepancy between the two contaminant types. Overall, the Hg and PCB concentrations in the summer flounder were relatively low, and therefore our findings also had implications for continued operation of the summer flounder fishery.

  2. 78 FR 78786 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; 2014 Commercial Summer Flounder Quota Adjustments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ...NMFS is announcing the commercial summer flounder state quotas for fishing year 2014. The 2014 summer flounder specifications were established in December 2012. This notice incorporates any previously unaccounted for overages from fishing year 2012 and any known overages to date from fishing year 2013. These commercial state quotas may change as a result of a recent stock assessment and a recommendation by the Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council.

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) effects, PCB congener distributions, and cytochrome P-450 regulation in fish

    SciTech Connect

    Elskus, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    PCB studies were conducted in gonadally mature winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) collected from spawning grounds with different degrees of PCB contamination. Flounder from Fox Is., RI, Gaspee Pt., RI and New Bedford, MA (US) had mean hepatic PCB concentrations between 1.6-10.6, 3.8-17.7, and 58-333 {mu}g PCB/g dry liver, respectively. PCB congener distributions in these flounder indicated that PCB disposition was not influenced by reproductive condition, that these migratory fish accumulate a significant portion of their PCB body burden during residence in their spawning grounds, and that flounder selectively metabolize congeners with adjacent meta-, para-unsubstituted carbon atoms. The most significant reproductive effect of PCBs in flounder was a 32 to 52% decrease in the mean ovarian size of highly contaminated females from New Bedford. Plasma levels of the sex hormones, estradiol and testosterone, and of the egg yolk precursor, vitellogenin, as well as hepatic estradiol metabolism (measured as estradiol 2-hydroxylase), showed no relationship to hepatic PCB concentration. PCB effects on flounder P4501A indicated that hepatic PCB concentrations as low as 0.9 {mu}g PCB/g were associated with decreased P4501A catalytic efficiency. Additional suppression of flounder P4501A by estrogens was suggested by depressed levels of P4501A messenger RNA, protein and catalytic activity in highly contaminated female fish with high estradiol titers. The mechanism of P4501A suppression by estrogens was studied in killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) treated wit {beta}-napthoflavone ({beta}-NF), a P4501A inducer, and/or estradiol.

  4. Accumulation of organochlorines and mercury in flounder — an approach to pollution assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, A.; Harms, U.; Luckas, B.

    1986-12-01

    Levels of PCBs, HCB and Hg were determined in the muscle tissue of flounder ( Platichthys flesus L.), sampled at two sites of the highly industrialized Elbe estuary which is characterized by a decreasing gradient of contaminant levels in water and sediments towards the mouth of the river. The contaminant levels were compared to those found in muscle tissue of flounders caught in an unpolluted reference area, the Eider estuary. Juvenile flounders (1 2 cm total length) caught during their migration from the southern North Sea coast into the Elbe estuary in early summer showed a significantly higher level of contamination at both Elbe stations than those from the reference area. In the following spring, the flounders, having grown to a length of 12 14 cm, reflected the gradient of contaminants measured in water and sediment. However, during summer and late autumn a drastic increase in average contaminant concentration was observed in the muscle tissue of flounders taken from the less polluted estuarine site. It became evident that severe oxygen depletion in the heavily polluted area near Hamburg had provoked the migration of highly contaminated fish downstream to the less polluted sampling area; thus intermingling with the less contaminated flounder population of this region had occurred. The results obtained indicate that careful analysis of environmentally controlled behavioural patterns in the species used for monitoring purposes as well as an appropriate statistical treatment of the data gained from chemical analysis are essential for assessing the contaminant concentrations in organisms in relation to the pollution load of their habitats.

  5. Vertebral deformities in hatchery-reared and wild-caught juvenile Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Hongjian; Zhang, Xiumei; Fu, Mei; Xi, Dan; Su, Shengqi; Yao, Weizhi

    2015-01-01

    The present study compared vertebral deformities of hatchery-reared and wild-caught juvenile Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. A total of 362 hatchery-reared flounder (total length 122.5-155.8 mm) were collected from three commercial hatcheries located in Yantai, East China, and 89 wild fish (total length 124.7-161.3 mm) were caught off Yangma Island near Yantai City (37°27'N, 121°36'E). All the fish were dissected, photographed, and images of the axial skeleton were examined for vertebral deformities. Compared with wild-caught flounder in which no deformed vertebrae were detected, 48 (13.3%) hatcheryreared fish had deformed vertebrae. The deformities were classified as compression, compression-ankylosis, and dislocation-ankylosis. The vertebral deformities were mainly localized between post-cranial vertebra 1 and 3, with vertebrae number 1 as the most commonly deformed. The causative factors leading to vertebral deformities in reared Japanese flounder may be related to unfavorable temperature conditions, inflammation, damage, or rupture to the intervertebral ligaments under rearing conditions. Furthermore, no significant difference in the total number of vertebral bodies was observed between wild-caught (38.8±0.4) and hatchery-reared flounder (38.1±0.9) ( P>0.05). However, the number of vertebral bodies of hatchery-reared and wild-caught flounder ranged from 35 to 39 and from 38 to 39, respectively.

  6. Seasonality of metazoan ectoparasites in marine European flounder Platichthys flesus (Teleostei: Pleuronectidae).

    PubMed

    Cavaleiro, F I; Santos, M J

    2009-07-01

    Seasonal occurrence of metazoan ectoparasites is described for the first time in marine European flounder, Platichthys flesus (L.). The parasitofauna, in this study monitored during 1 year, was found to be similar to that previously recorded for flounder. Moreover, specimens of Caligus sp. Müller, 1785 and Lepeophtheirus pectoralis (Copepoda: Caligidae), Acanthochondria cornuta (Copepoda: Chondracanthidae), Holobomolochus confusus (Copepoda: Bomolochidae) and Nerocila orbignyi (Isopoda: Cymothoidae), and also, a praniza larva (Isopoda: Gnathiidae), were isolated. From these, L. pectoralis and A. cornuta were the dominant parasites in all samples of flounder, while Caligus sp., H. confusus, N. orbignyi and the gnathiid praniza seemed to infect the flounder only occasionally. As far as the seasonality of infections is concerned, it differed considerably from that described for estuarine environments. Indeed, both prevalence and abundance of L. pectoralis and A. cornuta reached significant peaks in the summer, whereas the literature identifies the autumn as the season of maximum infection on estuarine flounder. Thus, the former period seems more favourable for the occurrence of epizooties of L. pectoralis and A. cornuta in flounder culturing systems running on seawater and operated in the studied or similar environments.

  7. Decline of flounder (Platichthys flesus (L.)) at the margin of the species' distribution range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jokinen, Henri; Wennhage, Håkan; Lappalainen, Antti; Ådjers, Kaj; Rask, Martti; Norkko, Alf

    2015-11-01

    The Baltic Sea is undergoing large-scale environmental change due to eutrophication, climate change, over-exploitation and habitat destruction, with subsequent degradation of living conditions for many fish species. Signs of this unfavorable development are seen as population declines in species affected. We provide the first synthesis and characterization of the recent population decline in European flounder (Platichthys flesus (L.)) in the northern Baltic Sea, using available fishery-independent data from the Finnish coast, which is at the margin of the distribution range of this species. The objective was to document recent changes in the flounder population, identify the onset and quantify the magnitude of the change. The results showed substantial decreases in flounder numbers and biomass across the whole study area during recent decades. Based on the time series data available, flounder abundances declined by 46-97% from the 1990s to the 2000s, with top values in the mid-1990s and current low levels reached in the early 2000s. Additionally, signs of decreasing flounder size and condition were also observed. We discuss potential reasons for the development in terms of environmental change and fishing, and identify potential bottlenecks for population maintenance and mechanisms behind population change, thereby contributing to our general understanding of marginal flounder populations.

  8. Trace metals in flounder, Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758), and sediments from the Baltic Sea and the Portuguese Atlantic coast.

    PubMed

    Polak-Juszczak, Lucyna

    2013-10-01

    Trace metals were examined in the muscle tissue of flatfish species of flounder, Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758), sediments from two southern Baltic Sea sites (Gdańsk Bay and Ustecko-Łebskie as a reference) and in two areas of the Portuguese Atlantic coast (Douro River estuary and Atlantic fishing ground as a reference) to evaluate spatial differences in trace metals. Additionally, the accumulation of trace metals in flounder of different length classes was assessed. Flounder from the Gdańsk Bay area contained twofold more cupper (Cu), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) than did flounder from the Douro River estuary, but zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) were at similar concentrations. The sediments from Gdańsk Bay contained significantly more Zn and threefold more Cd, while concentrations of Cu and Pb were twofold lower. The concentrations of metals in the sediments did not correlate with those in the flounder. Spatial differences were noted in metal concentrations in flounder from the southern Baltic Sea and the Portuguese Atlantic coast as well as within these regions, with higher concentrations in the flounder from the Baltic Sea Gdańsk Bay. The flounder in length class 25-30 cm from Gdańsk Bay contained metal concentrations comparable to those of class 40-45 cm specimens from the Atlantic coast. The accumulation of metals in flounder length classes differed in the two regions.

  9. The influence of environmental conditions on early life stages of flounder (Platichthys flesus) in the central Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustups, Didzis; Müller-Karulis, Bärbel; Bergstrom, Ulf; Makarchouk, Andrej; Sics, Ivo

    2013-01-01

    Flounder (Platichthys flesus) is a temperate marine fish that is well adapted to the brackish waters of the Baltic Sea. There are two sympatric flounder populations in the Baltic Sea, pelagic and demersal spawners, which differ in their spawning habitat and egg characteristics. In the present study, pelagic spawning flounder of the central Baltic Sea was studied. We examined whether variations in hydrological regime can explain fluctuations in flounder early life stages that have occurred over the past 30 years (1970-2005). Using generalized additive modeling to explain the abundance of flounder eggs and larvae in a Latvian ichthyoplankton dataset, we evaluate the hypothesis that the available reproductive volume, defined as the water column with dissolved oxygen larger than 1 ml/l and salinity between 10.6 and 12 PSU, affects the survival of flounder ichthyoplankton and determines recruitment success. Both reproductive volume and spawning stock biomass were significant factors determining flounder ichthyoplankton abundance. Different measures of water temperature did not contribute significantly to the variability of eggs or larvae. However, recruitment did not correlate to the supply of larvae. The findings presented in this study on the relationship between flounder reproduction, spawning stock biomass and reproductive volume, as well as the lack of correlation to recruitment, are valuable for the understanding of flounder ecology in the Baltic Sea, and for developing the management of the species.

  10. Fine Flounder (Paralichthys adspersus) Microbiome Showed Important Differences between Wild and Reared Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez, Carolina; Romero, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota is involved in a wide range of biological processes that benefit the host, including providing nutrition and modulating the immune system. Fine flounder (Paralichthys adspersus) is a flatfish of commercial interest that is native to the Chilean coast. The high value of this flatfish has prompted the development of stock enhancement and aquaculture activities. Knowledge of microbiota may help to improve the cultivation of this species; however, few comparative studies have evaluated the intestinal microbiota composition in farmed versus wild fishes. Intestinal contents from wild and aquaculture fish were collected, and DNA was extracted. Subsequently, the V3-region of 16S rRNA was PCR amplified and sequenced using the Ion Torrent platform. The comparison between wild and aquaculture specimens revealed important differences in the composition of the microbiota. The most abundant phylum in wild flounder was Proteobacteria, with an average relative abundance of 68.1 ± 15.4%; in contrast, in aquaculture flounder, this phylum had an average relative abundance of 30.8 ± 24.1%. Reciprocally, the most abundant phylum in flounder aquaculture was Firmicutes, averaging 61.2 ± 28.4%; in contrast, this phylum showed low abundance in wild flounder, in which it averaged 4.7 ± 4%. The phylum Actinobacteria showed greater abundance in wild flounder, ranging from 21.7 ± 18.8%, whereas, it averaged only 2.7 ± 3.8% in aquaculture fish. Specific taxa that were differentially distributed between wild and aquaculture flounder were identified using a statistical approach. At the genus level, a total of four genera were differentially represented between the two conditions. Bacillus and Pseudomonas were more highly represented in aquaculture flounder, whereas Arthrobacter and Psychrobacter were observed in wild flounder. Furthermore, in both cases, predicted functions (metabolic pathways) indicated that those microbiota might provide beneficial effects for

  11. Impact of arachidonic acid enrichment of live rotifer prey on bacterial communities in rotifer and larval fish cultures.

    PubMed

    Seychelles, Laurent H; Doiron, Kim; Audet, Céline; Tremblay, Réjean; Pernet, Fabrice; Lemarchand, Karine

    2013-03-01

    Rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis), commonly used at first feeding in commercial fish hatcheries, carry a large bacteria load. Because they are relatively poor in essential fatty acids, it is common practice to enrich them with fatty acids, including arachidonic acid (AA). This study aims to determine whether prey enrichment with AA may act as a prebiotic and modify the microbial community composition either in AA-enriched rotifer cultures or in larval-rearing water using winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) as a larval fish model. AA enrichment modified the bacterial community composition in both the rotifer culture tanks and the larval-rearing tanks. We observed an increase in the number of cultivable bacteria on TCBS (thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose) agar, used as a proxy for the abundance of Vibrio sp. The results suggest that AA may also play an indirect role in larval health.

  12. Cortisol is involved in temperature-dependent sex determination in the Japanese flounder.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Toshiya; Yoshinaga, Norifumi; Yazawa, Takashi; Gen, Koichiro; Kitano, Takeshi

    2010-08-01

    In vertebrates, sex is normally determined by genotype. However, in poikilothermal vertebrates, including reptiles, amphibians, and fishes, sex determination is greatly influenced by environmental factors, such as temperature. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying environmental sex determination in these species. The Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) is a teleost fish with an XX/XY sex determination system. However, XX flounder can be induced to develop into predominantly either phenotypic females or males, by rearing at 18 or 27 C, respectively, during the sex differentiation period. Therefore, the flounder provides an excellent model to study the molecular mechanisms underlying temperature-dependent sex determination. We previously showed that an aromatase inhibitor, an antiestrogen, and 27 C treatments cause masculinization of XX flounder, as well as suppression of mRNA expression of ovary-type aromatase (cyp19a1), a steroidogenic enzyme responsible for the conversion of androgens to estrogens in the gonads. Furthermore, estrogen administration completely inhibits masculinization by these treatments, suggesting suppression of cyp19a1 mRNA expression, and the resultant estrogen biosynthesis may trigger masculinization of the XX flounder induced by high water temperature. Here, we demonstrated that cortisol causes female-to-male sex reversal by directly suppressing cyp19a1 mRNA expression via interference with cAMP-mediated activation and that metyrapone (an inhibitor of cortisol synthesis) inhibits 27 C-induced masculinization of XX flounder. Moreover, cortisol concentrations in 27 C-reared juveniles were significantly higher than in 18 C-reared fishes during sexual differentiation. These results strongly suggest that masculinization by high water temperature is ascribable to elevation of cortisol concentration during gonadal sex differentiation in the flounder.

  13. Fecundity of flounder, Pleuronectes flesus, in the Baltic Sea — Reproductive strategies in two sympatric populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissling, Anders; Dahlman, Gry

    2010-10-01

    Two sympatric flounder populations with different reproductive strategies, offshore spawning at 10-20 psu producing pelagic eggs and coastal spawning at 5-7 psu with demersal eggs respectively, inhabit the brackish water Baltic Sea. Salinity governs the reproductive success by irregular saline water inflows and hence stock abundance and distribution. The potential fecundity (the standing stock of vitellogenic oocytes in the pre-spawning ovary) was assessed for fish sampled at five locations (two for offshore spawners and three for coastal spawners) along the salinity gradient (ICES SD 25, 27/28, 28 and 29). Multiple linear regression analysis resulted in r2-values of 0.698-0.894 for the respective sampling location with somatic weight or total fish length as the main predictor, and otolith weight (proxy for age) and oocyte density (by gravimetric counting) as additional predictors. Analysis by univariate regressions using GLM revealed significantly higher fecundity for coastal spawning- than offshore spawning flounder (˜ 69% more oocytes for an intermediate sized fish) but no intra-population differences. Similarly, gonad dry weight was significantly higher for coastal spawning flounder. Further, growth estimations indicated higher growth in offshore spawning- than in coastal spawning flounder suggesting that the coastal spawning population allocate relatively more resources into reproductive growth than somatic, potentially a result of strong selection for high fecundity of flounder producing demersal eggs due to poor egg survival for this spawning strategy. Earlier studies on fecundity of Baltic flounder are reviewed and discussed with consideration of inter-population differences questioning the idea of in general higher fecundity of flounder in the Baltic Sea.

  14. Aspects of the hormonal regulation of appetite in fish with emphasis on goldfish, Atlantic cod and winter flounder: notes on actions and responses to nutritional, environmental and reproductive changes.

    PubMed

    Volkoff, Hélène; Xu, Meiyu; MacDonald, Erin; Hoskins, Leah

    2009-05-01

    In vertebrates including fish, food intake regulation involves intricate networks of hormones produced by both brain and peripheral tissues. Under optimum conditions, nutritional intake is adequate for basal metabolic needs, growth, development, reproduction, and deposition of energy stores. As fish represent a very diverse group, different fish species live in very different environments and are exposed to variations in a wide range of factors, including not only internal factors, such as nutritional/metabolic status and reproductive events but also environmental factors, such as temperature and photoperiod. These physiological responses often include changes in appetite that might occur through modulations of the gene expression and action of feeding-regulating hormones. Despite recent advances, our current understanding of the regulation of feeding in fish is still limited and based primarily on studies involving a few fish species. This review will give a brief overview of our current knowledge of the regulation of feeding by three central (NPY, OX and CART) and two peripheral (ghrelin and GRP) appetite-related factors in a freshwater species, the goldfish (Carassius auratus) and two marine species, cod (Gadus morhua) and winter flounder (Pleuronectes americanus).

  15. 77 FR 41332 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Arrowtooth Flounder, Flathead Sole, Rex Sole...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Arrowtooth Flounder, Flathead Sole, Rex Sole, Deep-Water Flatfish, and Shallow- Water Flatfish in the Gulf of Alaska Management Area AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for arrowtooth flounder, flathead sole, rex sole,...

  16. Immigration, settlement and mortality of flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) larvae and juveniles in a nursery ground, Shijiki bay, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, M.; Goto, T.; Tomiyama, M.; Sudo, H.

    The occurrence, distribution and abundance of larvae and juveniles of a Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, were investigated in Shijiki Bay, south-western Japan, from 1982 through 1987, with special reference to immigration, settlement and mortality in this nursery ground. Sampling for pelagic larvae and settling and settled juveniles revealed that immigration and settlement occur during the late phase of metamorphosis, when flounders immigrate from coastal waters and settle in the near-shore sandy nursery area. Immigration of metamorphosing larvae begins in early April and continues until early June. The recruitment of flounders into the nursery ground was found to occur in several distinct phases, coinciding with spring tides. The semi-lunar periodicity found in the immigration of flounders may be due to the combination of landward tidal currents during spring tides and the tide-related vertical movements of metamorphosing flounders. Population size appeared to decrease rapidly during the first week after settlement, when lengths ranged from 11 to 14 mm. Field evidence demonstrated that heavy mortality may occur during the early phases of settlement, the extent depending on annual flounder densities and food abundance. Cannibalism of early-settled larger flounders on late-settled smaller flounders seemed to occur frequently in the nursery ground, and was more likely to occur under conditions of food deficiency and higher population densities. Thus, predation related t starvation could be one of the most important future research targets in determining recruitment dynamics in nursery areas.

  17. 77 FR 76950 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... for each coastal state from North Carolina to Maine, and the summer flounder recreational harvest... recreational harvest limit. This rule corrects that error. DATES: Effective December 26, 2012, through December... an error in the commercial summer flounder quota and recreational harvest limit, which...

  18. Microlichus americanus acariasis in saffron finches (Sicalis flaveola) with dermatitis and feather loss.

    PubMed

    Rettenmund, Christy L; Ossiboff, Robert J; McAloose, Denise; Knee, Wayne; Wade, Susan E; Paré, Jean A

    2015-05-01

    Over a 5-year period, 13 saffron finches (Sicalis flaveola) housed in mixed aviaries at the Bronx Zoo (Bronx, New York) were examined with feather loss and dermatitis, primarily affecting the nape, neck, and dorsum. Feather loss, hyperkeratosis, epidermal hyperplasia, and mixed granulocytic and mononuclear inflammation were identified in biopsies from live birds and tissue sections from postmortem specimens. In 10 of 13 cases, sections of arthropod parasites were seen histologically within feather follicles and along the surface of affected skin. Based on morphological characteristics, mites recovered from samples of formalin-fixed skin in 4 birds were identified as Microlichus americanus, an epidermoptid mite infrequently reported from wild birds and hippoboscid flies. Gross and histological lesions strongly implicate M. americanus as the cause of dermatitis affecting practically all saffron finches in the collection.

  19. External morphology of the cycliophoran dwarf male: a comparative study of Symbion pandora and S. americanus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neves, Ricardo Cardoso; da Cunha, Marina Ribeiro; Funch, Peter; Wanninger, Andreas; Kristensen, Reinhardt Møbjerg

    2010-09-01

    Cycliophora is a recently described phylum to which only two species have been assigned so far, Symbion pandora and S. americanus. The cycliophoran life cycle is complex and alternates between asexual and sexual stages. Although not recognized as an entirely independent free-swimming stage when the phylum was first described, the dwarf male has a remarkably complex bodyplan albeit its very small size (approx. 30-40 μm in length). Aiming to increase the knowledge on the gross morphology of the cycliophoran dwarf male, specimens from S. pandora and S. americanus were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. In both species, anterior and ventral ciliated fields, as well as paired lateral sensorial organs, were identified, thus confirming previous observations. However, new details are described herein such as the penial pouch that encloses the penis. We compare our findings on both Symbion species with the data currently available on other metazoan dwarf males.

  20. A microchannel confocal examination of arsenic speciation and distribution in Bufo americanus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nearing, Michelle M.; Koch, Iris; Gordon, Robert A.; Reimer, Kenneth J.

    2016-05-01

    We have used confocal methods to examine the distribution and speciation of arsenic within amphibian tissue (Bufo americanus) from a contaminated mine site. The use of new microchannel technology permits a confocal, and energy-independent, examination of a given voxel within the amphibian tissue without the need for sectioning. We observe differences in arsenic concentration and speciation depending on tissue type, with the Eberth- Katschenko layer in particular containing Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn in addition to Ca and pentavalent arsenic.

  1. Temperature affects insulin-like growth factor I and growth of juvenile southern flounder, Paralichthys lethostigma.

    PubMed

    Luckenbach, J Adam; Murashige, Ryan; Daniels, Harry V; Godwin, John; Borski, Russell J

    2007-01-01

    Temperature profoundly influences growth of heterothermic vertebrates. However, few studies have investigated the effects of temperature on growth and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in fishes. The aim of this study was to examine effects of temperature on growth and establish whether IGF-I may mediate growth at different temperatures in southern flounder, Paralichthys lethostigma. In two experiments, juvenile flounder were reared at 23 and 28 degrees C and growth was monitored for either 117 or 197 days. Growth was similar across treatments in both experiments until fish reached approximately 100 mm total length. Body size then diverged with fish at 23 degrees C ultimately growing 65-83% larger than those at 28 degrees C. Muscle IGF-I mRNA, plasma IGF-I, and hepatosomatic index (HSI) were significantly higher in flounder at 23 degrees C, whereas hepatic IGF-I mRNA abundance did not differ with treatment. Muscle IGF-I mRNA was correlated with HSI, while plasma IGF-I was correlated with body size, hepatic IGF-I mRNA, and HSI. These results demonstrate a strong effect of temperature on flounder growth and show that temperature-induced variation in growth is associated with differences in systemic IGF-I and local (i.e., muscle) IGF-I mRNA levels. The results also support the use of plasma IGF-I and HSI as indicators of flounder growth status.

  2. Production and verification of a 2nd generation clonal group of Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Jilun; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yufen; Sun, Zhaohui; Si, Fei; Jiang, Xiufeng; Liu, Haijin

    2016-01-01

    Clonal fishes are useful tools in biology and aquaculture studies due to their isogenicity. In Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), a group of homozygous clones was created by inducing meiogynogenesis in eggs from a mitogynogenetic homozygous diploid. As the clones reached sexual maturity, meiogynogenesis was again induced in order to produce a 2nd generation clonal group of Japanese flounder. After 3 months, there were 611 healthy, surviving individuals. Twenty-four microsatellite markers, that covered all the linkage groups of Japanese flounder, were used to identify the homozygosity of the 2nd generation clones; no heterozygous locus was detected. This indicates that the production of a 2nd generation clonal group of Japanese flounder was successful. Restriction-site DNA associated sequencing at the genomic level also confirmed the homozygosity and clonality of the 2nd generation clonal group. Furthermore, these 2nd generation clones had a small coefficient of variation for body shape indices at 210 days of age and showed a high degree of similarity in body characteristics among individuals. The successful production of 2nd generation clones has laid the foundation for the large-scale production of clonal Japanese flounder. PMID:27767055

  3. Population structure of flounder (Platichthys flesus) in the Baltic Sea: differences among demersal and pelagic spawners.

    PubMed

    Florin, A-B; Höglund, J

    2008-07-01

    We found significant population structure and isolation by distance among samples of flounder (Platichthys flesus) in the Baltic, Kattegat and Skagerrak seas using microsatellite genetic markers. This pattern was almost entirely due to a difference between flounder that have demersal spawning in the northern Baltic, as compared to pelagic spawners in the southern Baltic and on the west coast of Sweden. Among demersal spawners we found neither genetic differentiation nor any isolation by distance among sampling sites. We speculate that demersal flounder are descendants of a population that colonized the Baltic previous to pelagic spawners. The demersal flounder may thus have had longer time to adapt to the low salinity in the Baltic, and accordingly display egg characteristics that make it possible to reproduce at the low salinity levels in the northern Baltic. Among pelagic spawners significant isolation by distance was detected. Pelagic spawners have previously been shown to display clinal variation in egg size, which allows them to float also at the moderate salinity levels up to the region north of the island Bornholm. Management units for harvesting should ideally be based on true biological populations, and for the commercially important flounder up to 15 different management stocks in the Baltic have been suggested. We could not find a population genetic foundation for such a high number of management units, and our data suggest three management units: the northern Baltic (demersal populations), southern Baltic with the Oresund straits and the most northwestern sampling sites (Skagerrak, Kattegat and North Sea).

  4. Diablo/SMAC: a novel biomarker of pollutant exposure in European flounder (Platichthys flesus).

    PubMed

    Zacchino, Valentina; Minghetti, Matteo; Centoducati, Gerardo; Leaver, Michael J

    2012-05-01

    Diablo (or SMAC) is a protein released from mitochondria following apoptotic stimuli and inhibits the actions of Inhibitors of Apoptosis (IAP) proteins. IAPs regulate the activity of caspases and NFkB, the primary executioners of apoptosis and of inflammation, respectively. Thus, Diablo is important for the regulation of cellular responses to damage. In Northern Europe, statutory governmental marine monitoring programs measure various biomarkers in flounder to indicate biological effects of pollutant exposure. More recently transcriptomic techniques have been applied in flounder to gain a more comprehensive understanding of pollutant effects, and to discover novel biomarkers. In most of these studies utilising flounder, Diablo was amongst the most highly increased transcripts identified. The aim of this study was to further examine piscine Diablo, at the gene level and mRNA level, after exposure to prototypical pollutants, and in flounder caught from polluted environments. The results show that two genes encoding Diablo exist in fish species, and in flounder one of these genes is increased in liver after exposure to polyaromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls, and also in livers from fish living on contaminated estuarine sediments. Therefore, Diablo measurement has potential as a biomarker of pollutant exposure, and could indicate damaging effects of chemical contaminants.

  5. Food intake of young cod and flounder in a shallow bay on the Swedish west coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pihl, L.

    The importance of shallow soft bottom areas as nursery grounds for I-ground cod, Gadus morhua, and I- to IV-group flounder, Platichthys flesus, was investigated in a 20 000 m 2 bay, 0 to 1 m deep, on the Swedish west coast. To estimate the amount of visiting fish and their food intake the bay was enclosed with a net once a month from July to November 1979 and from April to November 1980. At each occasion about 60 cods and 8 to 50 flounders were caught. The total biomass of the cod and flounder was 1 to 14 kg and 2 to 13 kg wet weight, respectively. The cod preyed on mobile epifauna such as Carcinus maenas, Crangon crangon and Pomatoschistus spp., whereas the flounder was eating infauna mainly Mya arenaria, Cardium spp. and Nereis spp. The food intake within the area was calculated to approximate 35 and 10 kg wet weight from April to November for cod and flounder, respectively.

  6. Comparisons of liver proteomes in the European flounder Platichthys flesus from three contrasted estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galland, Claire; Dupuy, Célie; Capitaine, Carole; Auffret, Michel; Quiniou, Louis; Laroche, Jean; Pichereau, Vianney

    2013-01-01

    Estuaries are important areas highly susceptible to anthropogenic degradations like pollution. Estuarine species have thus to cope with many types of constraints depending on the estuaries' characteristics. The European flounder Platichthys flesus is considered as a sentinel species for the monitoring of estuarine water quality. In this study, juvenile flounders (0+ group) were sampled from three contrasted Channel estuaries, i.e. the Seine, the Canche and the Tamar, and we characterized their liver proteomes by using a two-dimensional electrophoresis based proteomic approach. We showed that 27 protein spots differentially accumulated between the 3 populations. Six of these proteins were identified by MALDI TOF-TOF mass spectrometry. Flounders from the Seine and from the Tamar, two highly polluted estuaries, displayed common differences, i.e. an increase of the energetic- and the glutathione-metabolism. The most accumulated protein in the Seine's samples (6.7-fold) was a Vitelline Membrane Outer layer protein 1 homolog, suggesting oogenesis deregulation in these juvenile (sexually immature) flounders. Future works applying this kind of proteomic approach on flounders experimentally exposed to conditions that mimic environmental constraints will help to better understand the significance of these environmental proteomic signatures.

  7. Stanniocalcin in the euryhaline flounder (Platichthys flesus): primary structure, tissue distribution, and response to altered salinity.

    PubMed

    Hang, Xiaoming; Balment, Richard John

    2005-11-01

    Stanniocalcin (STC) is a homodimeric glycoprotein hormone that was first discovered in fish, where it is largely produced by a unique endocrine gland, the corpuscles of Stannius (CS). In bony fish, it is thought to be an important regulator of calcium and phosphate uptake from the aquatic environment. This report describes the molecular cloning of STC from euryhaline flounder (Platichthys flesus) CS cDNA and genomic DNA. The flounder STC encodes a prehormone of 251 amino acids (aa) with a signal peptide of 17 aa, followed by another 15 aa sequence before the mature protein of 219 aa. The deduced aa sequence of flounder STC shows 62.9-89.0% similarity and 50.4-83.1% identity with other known fish STC sequences, but only 42.3% identity with mouse STC1, 24.4% identity with fugu and zebrafish STC2, and 22.3% identity with mouse STC2. Primary structural analysis demonstrated that flounder STC gene contains five exons in contrast to the four exons present in mammalian STC gene. RT-PCR revealed the expression of flounder STC mRNA to be widely spread in many tissues and organs, similar to the situation in mammals and other fish. Quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) was conducted to measure relative STC expression levels in the CS, which showed STC mRNA expression levels in seawater-adapted fish CS were about 3-fold higher than in freshwater-adapted fish CS.

  8. Analysis of IL-2-like factor in lymphocyte culture supernatant of olive flounder, Paralichthys oliveaceus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Riqin; Zhang, Peijun; Li, Jun; Xu, Yongli

    2005-03-01

    To study immune mechanism of fish lymphocyte we performed a proliferation assay and ELISA using monoclonal antibody against human IL-2. The result showed that an interleukin-2 (IL-2)-like factor was detected in the supernatant of plant haemoglutinin (PHA)-stimulated lymphocyte culture from peripheral blood, spleen and head kidney of olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. The quantities of IL-2-like factor in the supernatant from different lymphoid tissues were quite different. The IL-2 like factor in the supernatant from cultured head kidney lymphocytes was much higher than those of peripheral blood lymphocytes and spleen lymphocytes ( P<0.01). The IL-2 activity was found in either mouse thymocyte proliferation assay or flounder head kidney lymphocyte proliferation assay and shown to have obvious enhancing effect on proliferation of the above two types of cell. The recombinant human IL-2, (rhIL-2) was able to stimulate flounder thymocyte proliferation and used to detect the IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) on the surface of flounder lymphocyte. The cross-reaction between the lymphocytes of flounder peripheral blood and CD25(IL-2R) was detected with flow cytometry and shown that the percentage of CD25-positive cell in peripheral blood was 7.74±0.67%.

  9. The toxic mechanism of high lethality of herbicide butachlor in marine flatfish flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Huarong; Yin, Licheng; Zhang, Shicui; Feng, Wenrong

    2010-09-01

    The toxic mechanism of herbicide butachlor to induce extremely high lethality in marine flatfish flounder, Paralichthys Olivaceus, was analyzed by histopathological examination, antioxidant enzymes activities and ATP content assay. Histopathological examination of gill, liver and kidney of exposed fishes showed that gill was a target organ of butachlor. The butachlor seriously impaired the respiration of gills by a series of lesions such as edema, lifting and detachment of lamellar epithelium, breakdown of pillar cells, and blood congestion. The dysfunction of gill respiration caused suffocation to the exposed flounder with extremely high acute lethality. Antioxidant enzyme activity assay of the in vitro cultured flounder gill (FG) cells exposed to butachlor indicated that butachlor markedly inhibited the antioxidant enzyme activities of Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX). Furthermore, along with the decline of antioxidant enzyme activities, ATP content in the exposed FG cells decreased, too. This infers that the oxidative stress induced by butachlor can inhibit the production of cellular ATP. Similar decrease of ATP content was also observed in the exposed flounder gill tissues. Taken together, as in FG cells, butachlor possibly induced a short supply of ATP in pillar cells by inhibiting the antioxidant enzyme activities and then affecting the contractibility of the pillar cells, which in turn resulted in the blood congestion and suffocation of exposed flounder.

  10. N-Terminal region is responsible for chemotaxis-inducing activity of flounder IL-8.

    PubMed

    Kurata, Osamu; Wada, Shinpei; Matsuyama, Tomomasa; Sakai, Takamitsu; Takano, Tomokazu

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to locate the functional region responsible for the chemotaxis-inducing activity of flounder interleukin 8 (IL-8), which lacks the glutamic acid-leucine-arginine (ELR) motif essential for the induction of neutrophil migration by mammalian IL-8. Using a human cell line, we produced a secretory recombinant protein of flounder IL-8, and analyzed its chemotaxis-inducing activity on leukocytes collected from the flounder kidney. The recombinant IL-8 induced significant migration in neutrophils, which were morphologically and functionally characterized. Using the Edman degradation method, the N-terminal amino acid sequence of rIL-8 was identified as VSLRSLGV. To examine the significance of the N-terminal region for the bioactivity of flounder IL-8, we prepared several recombinant proteins that containing mutations at the N-terminus. Modification of three residues (residues 9-11: serine-leucine-histidine) corresponding in position to the ELR motif in mammalian IL-8 did not reduce its chemotaxis-inducing activity. However, deletion of the first six or more residues significantly reduced its chemotaxis-inducing activity. We propose that residue 6 (leucine) at the N-terminus is important for the chemotaxis-inducing activity of flounder IL-8.

  11. Cultivation of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus', 'Ca. L. africanus', and 'Ca. L. americanus' associated with huanglongbing.

    PubMed

    Sechler, A; Schuenzel, E L; Cooke, P; Donnua, S; Thaveechai, N; Postnikova, E; Stone, A L; Schneider, W L; Damsteegt, V D; Schaad, N W

    2009-05-01

    A new medium designated Liber A has been designed and used to successfully cultivate all three 'Candidatus Liberibacter spp.,' the suspect causative agents of huanglongbing (HLB) in citrus. The medium containing citrus vein extract and a growth factor sustained growth of 'Ca. Liberibacter spp.' for four or five single-colony transfers before viability declined. Colonies, positive for 'Ca. L. asiaticus' by a 16s-based rDNA real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay and sequencing, were irregular-shaped, convex, and 0.1 to 0.3 mm after 3 to 4 days. Suspect 'Ca. L. asiaticus' and 'Ca. L. americanus' cells were observed in infected tissue and on agar culture by scanning electron microscopy. The cells were ovoid to rod shaped, 0.3 to 0.4 by 0.5 to 2.0 microm, often with fimbriae-like appendages. Two strains of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' and one of 'Ca. L. americanus' grown on Liber A medium were pathogenic on citrus and could be isolated from noninoculated tissues of inoculated trees and seedlings 9 and 2 months later, respectively. The identity was confirmed by RT-PCR and 16s rDNA sequencing. This is the first report of the cultivation and pathogenicity of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' and 'Ca. L. americanus' associated with symptoms of HLB.

  12. Sequence data mining in search of hookworm (Necator americanus) microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Abhijeet P; Mittal, Smriti P K

    2016-09-30

    The new world hookworm, Necator americanus is a soil-transmitted nematode responsible for Necatoriasis (a type of helminthiasis) in hosts such as humans, dogs, and cats. N. americanus genome and transcriptome has been sequenced and a draft assembly analysis has been published highlighting protein coding genes and possible drug target proteins. Hookworm microRNA identification, annotations and their public release is yet to be attempted. The same is evident from lack of hookworm miRNA information in related popular public nucleotide sequence repositories such as miRBase, GenBank, WormBase etc. Therefore, in the present study we addressed these issues using EST and assembled transcript sequence information of hookworm. Using computational approaches, we identified three miRNAs precursor sequences and their mature forms. We also identified their potential targets from hookworm ESTs and transcripts, and from human transcriptome. Overall, the results indicate presence of nematode specific miRNA homologs in N. americanus and shades light on their putative targets in worm itself and the human host.

  13. Improved insights into the transcriptomes of the human hookworm Necator americanus--fundamental and biotechnological implications.

    PubMed

    Rabelo, Elida M; Hall, Ross S; Loukas, Alex; Cooper, Leanne; Hu, Min; Ranganathan, Shoba; Gasser, Robin B

    2009-01-01

    Hookworms of humans are blood-feeding parasitic nematodes of major socio-economic significance in a wide range of countries. They cause a neglected tropical disease (NTD) called "hookworm disease" (=necatoriasis and/or ancylostomiasis). Necator americanus is the most widely distributed hookworm of humans and is a leading cause of iron deficiency anaemia, which can cause physical and mental retardation and deaths in children as well as adverse maternal-foetal outcomes. Currently, there is a significant focus on the development of new approaches for the prevention and control of hookworms in humans. Technological advances are underpinning the discovery of drug and vaccine targets through insights into the molecular biology and genomics of these parasites and their relationship with the human host. In spite of the widespread socio-economic impacts of human necatoriasis, molecular datasets for N. americanus are scant, limiting progress in molecular research. The present article explores all currently available EST datasets for adult and larval stages of N. americanus using a semi-automated bioinformatic pipeline. In the current repertoire of molecules now available, some have been or are being considered as candidate vaccines against N. americanus. Among others, the most abundant sets of molecules relate to the pathogenesis-related protein (PRP) superfamily, comprising various members, such as the Ancylostoma-secreted or activation-associated proteins (ASPs) and the kunitz-type proteins, both of which are inferred to play key roles in the interplay between N. americanus and the human host. Understanding the molecular biology of these and other novel molecules discovered could have important implications for finding new ways of disrupting the pathways that they are involved in, and should facilitate the identification of new drug and vaccine targets. Also, the bioinformatic prediction of the essentiality of genes and gene products as well as molecular network

  14. Ice-binding mechanism of winter flounder antifreeze proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, A; Merz, K M

    1997-01-01

    We have studied the winter flounder antifreeze protein (AFP) and two of its mutants using molecular dynamics simulation techniques. The simulations were performed under four conditions: in the gas phase, solvated by water, adsorbed on the ice (2021) crystal plane in the gas phase and in aqueous solution. This study provided details of the ice-binding pattern of the winter flounder AFP. Simulation results indicated that the Asp, Asn, and Thr residues in the AFP are important in ice binding and that Asn and Thr as a group bind cooperatively to the ice surface. These ice-binding residues can be collected into four distinct ice-binding regions: Asp-1/Thr-2/Asp-5, Thr-13/Asn-16, Thr-24/Asn-27, and Thr-35/Arg-37. These four regions are 11 residues apart and the repeat distance between them matches the ice lattice constant along the (1102) direction. This match is crucial to ensure that all four groups can interact with the ice surface simultaneously, thereby, enhancing ice binding. These Asx (x = p or n)/Thr regions each form 5-6 hydrogen bonds with the ice surface: Asn forms about three hydrogen bonds with ice molecules located in the step region while Thr forms one to two hydrogen bonds with the ice molecules in the ridge of the (2021) crystal plane. Both the distance between Thr and Asn and the ordering of the two residues are crucial for effective ice binding. The proper sequence is necessary to generate a binding surface that is compatible with the ice surface topology, thus providing a perfect "host/guest" interaction that simultaneously satisfies both hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interactions. The results also show the relation among binding energy, the number of hydrogen bonds, and the activity. The activity is correlated to the binding energy, and in the case of the mutants we have studied the number of hydrogen bonds. The greater the number of the hydrogen bonds the greater the antifreeze activity. The roles van der Waals interactions and the hydrophobic

  15. Investigation on health conditions of flounder and smelt in the Elbe estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, A.; Hölzel, F.

    1980-03-01

    Since 1958 the occurrence of flounder ( Platichthys flesus L.) and smelt ( Osmerus eperlanus L.) in the lower River Elbe has shifted gradually toward the mouth of the river into the North Sea; this may be due to periodical deprivation of oxygen and fluctuating peaks of toxic nitrite concentrations. The interior organs of both fish species caught in the Elbe estuary were examined. Macroscopic inspections revealed discolouring of the liver to be most pronounced in specimens 2 3 years of age. Cross-sections of the liver demonstrated histopathological symptoms of oedematous degeneration in smelt, and extreme lipoid vacuolation in flounder increasing with size and age of the fishes. The intestine of both species investigated showed massive desquamation defects of the mucosa, occurring in smelts shortly after hatching, and in flounders after immigration into the estuary. The observations made suggest the influence of toxic compounds distributed in the aquatic environment on the health of both species.

  16. Genetically similar VHSV isolates are differentially virulent in olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus.

    PubMed

    Cho, Mi Young; Lee, Unn Hwa; Moon, Chang Hoon; Bang, Jong Deuk; Jee, Bo Young; Cha, Seung Ju; Kim, Jin Woo; Park, Myoung Ae; Do, Jeong Wan; Park, Jeong Woo

    2012-11-08

    Two viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) isolates, VHSV-KR-CJA and VHSV-KR-YGH, were isolated from viral hemorrhagic septicemia disease outbreaks in flounder farms in South Korea. The VHSV-KR-CJA isolate was isolated from a flounder farm with high mortality (80%), while the VHSV-KR-YGH isolate was isolated from a flounder farm with low mortality (15%), suggesting that these isolates differ in virulence. The virulence of these isolates was evaluated in juvenile flounder via intraperitoneal injection. Consistent with their virulence in the field, mortality data revealed that the VHSV-KR-CJA isolate was highly pathogenic (cumulative mortality of 80%), while the VHSV-KR-YGH isolate was less pathogenic in flounder (cumulative mortality of 20%). To characterize the genotypes of these viruses, the full open reading frames (ORFs) encoding nucleoprotein N, phosphoprotein P, matrix protein M, glycoprotein G, nonstructural viral protein NV, and polymerase L of these viruses were sequenced and analyzed. Sequence analysis revealed that both isolates are genetically very similar (identical amino acid sequences for P, M, NV, and L and >99.7 and 99.8% amino acid sequence identity for N and G, respectively). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that both of these viruses belong to the Genotype IVa group, suggesting that they originated from a common ancestral virus. The low pathogenicity VHSV strain may potentially evolve to become a more pathogenic strain through only a few nucleotide substitutions. Further functional analyses of mutations in VHSV genes are necessary to identify factors that determine VHSV pathogenicity in flounder.

  17. A DNA expression array to detect toxic stress response in European flounder (Platichthys flesus).

    PubMed

    Williams, T D; Gensberg, K; Minchin, S D; Chipman, J K

    2003-10-29

    As a first stage in developing a DNA array-based approach to investigating the effects of pollutants on an environmentally relevant European fish species, we have constructed a 160-gene custom microarray for European flounder. Degenerate primers were used to amplify 110 different fragments of stress-related and other genes from European flounder cDNA and genomic DNA. Additionally, 22 fragments were obtained by suppressive subtractive hybridisation (SSH). These fragments were cloned and sequenced, then, with additional control genes, used to create a cDNA microarray for flounder. After optimisation of the arraying process, hepatic mRNA was isolated from flounder caught in the polluted Tyne and relatively unpolluted Alde estuaries. Fluorescent cDNA probes were synthesised from the mRNA and used in dual-colour hybridisations to the microarray. A number of transcripts were differentially expressed between Tyne and Alde female flounder but these changes were not significant, due to high inter-individual variation. However, in comparisons between Tyne and Alde male flounder, 11 transcripts were found to significantly differ in expression (P<0.05). Seven transcripts were more highly expressed in the Tyne male fish (CYP1A, UDPGT, alpha-2HS-glycoprotein, dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase, Cu/Zn SOD, aldehyde dehydrogenase and paraoxonase). Four transcripts (Elongation factor 1 (EF1), EF2, Int-6 and complement component C3) were found to be significantly less abundant in the Tyne male fish. Selected genes were assayed by real-time PCR, then normalised to alpha-tubulin. These assays confirmed the significance of the array results for CYP1A, UDPGT and EF1, but not for Cu/Zn SOD. This study provides a link between traditional single-gene biomarker studies and the emerging field of eco-toxicogenomics, demonstrating the utility of microarray studies on environmentally sampled, non-model organisms.

  18. Efforts to understand stock structure of summer flounder ( Paralichthys dentatus) in North Carolina, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, J. S.; Monaghan, J. P.; Yokoyama, S.

    2000-10-01

    Understanding the stock structure of the summer flounder is critical to attempts to manage this species. Currently such research is particularly urgent due to increased interest in commercial culture and stock enhancement of summer flounder as this creates pressure to transplant fish among geographic areas. Studies of summer flounder in the coastal waters of North Carolina are of particular relevance to the stock structure due to the existence of a zoogeographic boundary at Cape Hatteras, NC. The importance of this boundary is being investigated through mark-recapture studies of adults, field sampling of larvae and laboratory experiments on larvae and juveniles originating from different brood stocks. Twenty-three thousand summer flounder were marked in coastal waters and movement of recaptured animals relative to season and the zoogeographic boundary analysed. Seasonal occurrence of larvae relative to this boundary was compared and animals were characterised in terms of fin ray numbers and size and developmental stage at arrival at the coast. In the laboratory we reared larvae from two brood stocks; one originating from the northern portion of the summer flounders range, and the other from North Carolina. These animals were used to determine the importance of temperature to fin ray formation and to compare growth of the two groups of larvae relative to temperature. Additional laboratory experiments include comparisons of salinity tolerance of larvae during the settlement period. Our results support the existence of different groups relative to this zoogeographic barrier and suggest that extensive movement of summer flounder from one region to another for stock enhancement or culture should be prohibited.

  19. High doses of corticosteroid suppress resistance to Ichthyophonus in starry flounder

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, J.A.; Kocan, R.M.; Winton, J.R.; Hershberger, P.K.

    2004-01-01

    Application of pharmacological doses of the corticosteroid dexamethasone phosphate to starry flounder Platichthys stellatus resulted in a predisposition to clinical ichthyophoniasis and a progression from latent Ichthyophonus infections to patent, histologically identifiable infections. Among Ichthyophonus-challenged starry flounder, the prevalences of clinical infections and histologically identifiable infections were significantly greater in two groups that received dexamethasone (100% and 31%, respectively) than in the respective control groups (8% and 0%). Proliferation of Ichthyophonus infections in corticosteroid-treated groups may have resulted from suppression of the cellular immune response that typically follows corticosteroid application; however, further studies are needed to determine whether these effects occur at lower, physiological concentrations of corticosteroids.

  20. Comparison of antibodies in marine fish from clean and polluted waters of the New York Bight: relative levels against 36 bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Robohm, R A; Brown, C; Murchelano, R A

    1979-01-01

    Fish from polluted waters are subject to increased prevalence of disease. Because they respond to bacterial pathogens by producing serum antibodies, it was possible to construct a seasonal serological record in three fish species from clean and polluted waters of the New York Bight. Antibody levels were determined by testing sera for agglutinating activity against 36 strains of bacteria. Evaluation of 5,100 antibody titrations showed the following. During warm months, summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) from the polluted area had significantly higher antibody levels and antibody to a greater diversity of bacteria than fish from the unpolluted area. Weakfish (Cynoscion regalis) from the same polluted area shared with summer flounder raised titers to many bacteria. The greatest proportion of raised titers was against Vibrio species, although prominent titers were also seen against Aeromonas salmonicida and Haemophilus piscium, bacteria usually associated with diseases in freshwater but not marine fish. Differences between polluted and clean waters were not as evident in winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) during cold months. This could be due, in part, to reduced antibody production at colder temperatures. The data illustrate the usefulness of the serum antibody record in identifying environmental exposure to bacteria in marine fish and indicate that the polluted New York Bight apex has increased levels and diversity of bacteria during warm months. PMID:518084

  1. First record of the ant cricket Myrmecophilus (Myrmecophilina) americanus (Orthoptera: Myrmecophilidae) in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Morales, Aldo I; Rodríguez, Quetzaly K Siller; Garza-Hernández, Javier A; Adeniran, Adebiyi A; Hernández-Triana, Luis M; Rodríguez-Pérez, Mario A

    2017-04-27

    In September 2004, the New World ant cricket, Myrmecophilus americanus Saussure, 1877, was collected in association with longhorn crazy ants, Paratrechina longicornis (Latreille. 1802), in the state of Coahuila, Mexico. We are reporting the DNA barcode using the mitochrondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I for this first record of M. americanus in Mexico.

  2. Isothermal Diagnostic Assays for Monitoring Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Necator americanus Associated with Benzimidazole Drug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Rashwan, Nour; Bourguinat, Catherine; Keller, Kathy; Gunawardena, Nipul Kithsiri; de Silva, Nilanthi; Prichard, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Background Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) are the most prevalent intestinal helminths of humans, and a major cause of morbidity in tropical and subtropical countries. The benzimidazole (BZ) drugs albendazole (ABZ) and mebendazole (MBZ) are used for treatment of human STH infections and this use is increasing dramatically with massive drug donations. Frequent and prolonged use of these drugs could lead to the emergence of anthelmintic resistance as has occurred in nematodes of livestock. Previous molecular assays for putative resistance mutations have been based mainly on PCR amplification and sequencing. However, these techniques are complicated and time consuming and not suitable for resource-constrained situations. A simple, rapid and sensitive genotyping method is required to monitor for possible developing resistance to BZ drugs. Methods To address this problem, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection assays were developed based on the Smart amplification method (SmartAmp2) to target codons 167, 198, and 200 in the β-tubulin isotype 1 gene for the hookworm Necator americanus. Findings Diagnostic assays were developed and applied to analyze hookworm samples by both SmartAmp2 and conventional sequencing methods and the results showed high concordance. Additionally, fecal samples spiked with N. americanus larvae were assessed and the results showed that the Aac polymerase used has high tolerance to inhibitors in fecal samples. Conclusion The N. americanus SmartAmp2 SNP detection assay is a new genotyping tool that is rapid, sensitive, highly specific and efficient with the potential to be used as a field tool for monitoring SNPs associated with BZ resistance. However, further validation on large numbers of field samples is required. PMID:27930648

  3. Studies on endoparasites of the black bear (Ursus americanus) in the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Crum, J M; Nettles, V F; Davidson, W R

    1978-04-01

    Examination of 53 black bears (Ursus americanus) from six states in the southeastern United States revealed at least 17 species of endoparasites, including Sarcocystis sp., Spirometra mansonoides (spargana), Macracanthorhynchus ingens, Ancylostoma caninum, Arthrocephalus lotoris, Baylisascaris transfuga, Capillaria aerophila, Capillaria putorii, Crenosoma sp., Cyathospirura sp., Dirofilaria immitis, Gnathostoma sp., Gongylonema pulchrum, microfilariae, Molineus barbatus, Physaloptera sp. and Strongyloides sp. Twelve of these represent new host records for black bear, and two are considered to be new species. Data are presented on prevalence, intensity and geographic distribution of each species. Pathologic effects were associated with infections of spargana of S. mansonoides and adults of C. aerophilia.

  4. SURGICAL CORRECTION OF BILATERAL PATELLAR LUXATION IN AN AMERICAN BLACK BEAR CUB (URSUS AMERICANUS).

    PubMed

    Bennett, Katarina R; Desmarchelier, Marion R; Bailey, Trina R

    2015-06-01

    A wild orphaned male American black bear cub ( Ursus americanus ) presented with hind limb gait abnormalities and was found to have bilateral grade 3 laterally luxating patellas. There were no other significant abnormalities detected on neurologic, radiographic, or hematologic examinations. The trochlear grooves were deepened with a chondroplasty, and the redundant soft tissues imbricated. There was a marked improvement in the bear's gait postoperatively, with an apparent full return to function. To the authors' knowledge, patellar luxation has not been reported in the Ursidae family, and the success in this case suggests that this technique may be used in large wild or captive carnivore cubs.

  5. Mediastinal teratoma in a free-ranging American black bear (Ursus americanus).

    PubMed

    Munk, Brandon A; Turner, J Chris; Keel, M Kevin

    2013-12-01

    A 2.75-yr-old female American black bear (Ursus americanus) was found emaciated and unable to rise. It was euthanized due to the perceived poor prognosis. An approximately 18 x 8 x 10-cm, multiloculated, well-demarcated mass that extended from the bifurcation of the trachea, laterally displacing the lung lobes and caudally displacing the heart. The mass contained fibrous connective tissue, cartilage, bone, nervous tissue, smooth muscle, and a variety of epithelial structures. A mediastinal teratoma was diagnosed based on the microscopic features of the neoplasm.

  6. Consumption of seeds of southwestern white pine (Pinus strobiformis) by Black Bear (Ursus americanus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattson, David J.; Arundel, Terry A.

    2013-01-01

    We report a discovery of black bears (Ursus americanus) consuming seeds of southwestern white pine (Pinus strobiformis) on north slopes of the San Francisco Peaks near Flagstaff, Arizona, in high-elevation, mixed-species conifer forest. In one instance, a bear had obtained seeds from cones excavated from a larder horde made by a red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). Consumption of seeds of southwestern white pine by bears had not been previously documented. This discovery adds to the number of species of pine used by bears for food as well as the geographic range within which the behavior occurs.

  7. Fatal disseminated blastomycosis in a free-ranging American black bear (Ursus americanus).

    PubMed

    Dykstra, Jaclyn A; Rogers, Lynn L; Mansfield, Susan A; Wünschmann, Arno

    2012-11-01

    An aged, free-ranging, female, radio-collared American black bear (Ursus americanus) died after an approximately 5 month long period of weight loss. Gross necropsy findings included severe diffuse pyogranulomatous bronchopneumonia, marked granulomatous lymphadenitis of tracheobronchial lymph nodes and multiple intra-abdominal lymph nodes, chronic focal jejunal ulceration, and widespread alopecia. Histopathologic examination revealed abundant fungal organisms morphologically compatible with Blastomyces sp. within pyogranulomatous inflammatory lesions in the lungs, multiple lymph nodes, liver, kidneys, jejunum, and right adrenal gland. In addition, the haircoat had a mild infestation of chewing lice (Trichodectes pinguis euarctidos), and large numbers of rhabditid nematodes consistent with Pelodera sp. were histologically observed within hair follicles.

  8. Sinorhizobium americanus sp. nov., a new Sinorhizobium species nodulating native Acacia spp. in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Toledo, Ivonne; Lloret, Lourdes; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza

    2003-03-01

    The sinorhizobia isolated from root nodules of Acacia species native of Mexico constitute a diverse group of bacteria on the basis of their metabolic enzyme electromorphs but share restriction patterns of the PCR products of 16S rRNA genes and a common 500 kb symbiotic plasmid. They are distinguished from other Sinorhizobium species by their levels of DNA-DNA hybridization and the sequence of 16S rRNA and nifH genes. nolR gene hybridization patterns were found useful to identify sinorhizobia and characterize species. A new species, Sinorhizobium americanus, is described and the type strain is CFNEI 156 from Acacia acatlensis.

  9. The relationship between Pseudodiplorchis americanus (Monogenea) density and host resources under controlled environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Tocque, K; Tinsley, R C

    1994-02-01

    A previous study has shown that, under natural conditions, energy reserves of the desert toad, Scaphiopus couchii, are negatively related to the density of infection by Pseudodiplorchis americanus. However, this was based predominantly on collections of active animals from breeding congregations and inevitably selected toads which were in good condition. The parasite, a blood-feeding monogenean, occurs in burdens of up to 30 worms/host (mean intensity 6 worms/host) and represents a significant drain on reserves because the host does not feed during a 10-month hibernation. Field studies cannot resolve the possibility that larger worm densities are not observed in nature due to parasite-induced host mortality. The present study was conducted during investigations of P. americanus development and survival under controlled laboratory conditions, utilizing experimentally infected hosts which created worm densities larger than those observed in natural populations. At all temperature regimes, infected animals had smaller fat bodies than those uninfected but differences were generally not statistically significant due to large individual variations, presumably resulting from variations in past feeding efficiency. At cool temperatures (15-20 degrees C) there was no density-dependent effect on host fat body weight, and at a diurnal temperature cycle of 20-34 degrees C (simulating that experienced by host and parasite during the summer months), the effects of high temperatures were greater than the effects of infection, due to increased toad metabolic rates. The most significant effects of P. americanus were observed in hosts that began hibernation in relatively poor condition and experienced moderate temperatures (25 degrees C) during hibernation. The toads generally maintained packed blood cell levels (PCV) levels even when fat body weights were low, but infected animals had a lower PCV irrespective of fab body levels. In animals unfed after field collection, PCV was

  10. Screening of eye-position related genes with DD-RT-PCR and RDA in the hybrids between Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus and stone flounder Kareius bicoloratus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yanjie; Zhang, Quanqi; Qi, Jie; Sun, Yeying; Zhong, Qiwang; Wang, Xubo; Wang, Zhigang; Li, Shuo; Li, Chunmei

    2009-02-01

    Flatfish or flounder moves one eye to change body proportion into vertebral asymmetry during metamorphosis, during which some become sinistral while others dextral. However, the mechanism behinds the eye-position has not been well understood. In this research, hybrids between Japanese flounder(♀) and stone flounder (♂) show mixed eye-location in both dextral type and sinistral type, and thus become good samples for studying the eye-migration. mRNAs from pro-metamorphosis sinistral and dextral hybrids larvae were screened with classical differential display RT-PCR (DD-RT-PCR) and representational difference analysis of cDNA (cDNA-RDA); 30 and 47 putative fragments were isolated, respectively. The cDNA fragments of creatine kinase and trypsinogen 2 precursor genes isolated by cDNA-RDA exhibited eye-position expression patterns during metamorphosis. However, none of the fragments was proved to be related to flatfishes’ eye-position specifically. Therefore, further studies and more sensitive gene isolated methods are needed to solve the problems.

  11. CONSUMPTIONS RATES OF SUMMER FLOUNDER LARVAE ON ROTIFER AND BRINE SHRIMP PREY DURING LARVAL REARING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Larval summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus were hatched and reared through metamorphosis in the laboratory. At several points in the rearing cycle, larvae were removed from their rearing chambers and placed in small bowls, where they were fed known quantities of the rotifer Bra...

  12. THE PATHOBIOLOGY OF 17B-ESTRADIOL IN SUMMER FLOUNDER, PARALICHTYS DENTATUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estradiol has been shown to cause increased vitellogenin (VtG) concentrations in male fish. The intent of this study was to evaluate the pathobiology associated with exposure to 17 -estradiol (E2) on liver, gonad, and kidney tissues of summer flounder, Paralichthys dentatus. Juve...

  13. THE PATHOBIOLOGY OF 17B-ESTRADIOL IN SUMMER FLOUNDER, PARALICHTYS DENTATUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estradiol has been shown to cause increased vitellogenin (VtG) concentrations in male fish. The intent of this study was to evaluate the pathobiology associated with exposure to 17 -estradiol (E2) on liver, gonad, and kidney tissues of summer flounder, Paralichthys dentatus. Juve...

  14. Differential regulation of taurine biosynthesis in rainbow trout and Japanese flounder

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuan; He, Gen; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Zhou, Huihui

    2016-01-01

    Animals have varied taurine biosynthesis capability, which was determined by activities of key enzymes including cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) and cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase (CSD). However, whether CDO and CSD are differentially regulated across species remains unexplored. In the present study, we examined the regulations of CDO and CSD in rainbow trout and Japanese flounder, the two fish species with high and low taurine biosynthesis ability respectively. Our results showed that the expression of CDO was lower in rainbow trout but more responsive to cysteine stimulation compared to that in Japanese flounder. On the other hand, both the expression and catalytic efficiency (kcat) of CSD were higher in rainbow trout than those of Japanese flounder. A three-residue substrate recognition motif in rainbow trout CSD with sequence of F126/S146/Y148 was identified to be responsible for high kcat, while that with sequence of F88/N108/F110 in Japanese flounder led to low kcat, as suggested by site-directed mutagenesis studies. In summary, our results determined new aspects of taurine biosynthesis regulation across species. PMID:26880478

  15. Responses of juvenile southern flounder exposed to Deepwater Horizon oil-contaminated sediments.

    PubMed

    Brown-Peterson, Nancy J; Krasnec, Michelle O; Lay, Claire R; Morris, Jeffrey M; Griffitt, Robert J

    2016-09-27

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill released millions of barrels of crude oil into the northern Gulf of Mexico, much of which remains associated with sediments and can have continuing impacts on biota. Juvenile southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) were exposed for 28 d in the laboratory under controlled conditions to reference and Deepwater Horizon oil-contaminated sediments collected from coastal Louisiana to assess the impacts on an ecologically and commercially important benthic fish. The measured polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in the sediments ranged from 0.25 mg/kg to 3940 mg/kg suite of 50 PAH analytes (tPAH50). Mortality increased with both concentration and duration of exposure. Exposed flounder length and weight was lower compared to controls after 28 d of exposure to the sediments with the highest PAH concentration, but condition factor was significantly higher in these fish compared with all other treatments. Histopathological analyses showed increased occurrence of gill abnormalities, including telangiectasis, epithelial proliferation, and fused lamellae in flounder exposed to sediments with the highest tPAH50 concentrations. In addition, hepatic vascular congestion and macrovesicular vacuolation were observed in flounder exposed to the more contaminated sediments. These data suggest that chronic exposure to field collected oil-contaminated sediments results in a variety of sublethal impacts to a benthic fish, with implications for long-term recovery from oil spills. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;9999:1-10. © 2016 SETAC.

  16. 50 CFR 648.100 - Summer flounder Annual Catch Limit (ACL).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) The Summer Flounder Monitoring Committee shall recommend to the MAFMC separate ACLs for the commercial... recommended by the SSC. (1) Sector allocations. The commercial and recreational fishing sector ACLs will be... sector ACLs may be established on an annual basis for up to 3 years at a time, dependent on whether...

  17. 50 CFR 648.100 - Summer flounder Annual Catch Limit (ACL).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) The Summer Flounder Monitoring Committee shall recommend to the MAFMC separate ACLs for the commercial... recommended by the SSC. (1) Sector allocations. The commercial and recreational fishing sector ACLs will be... sector ACLs may be established on an annual basis for up to 3 years at a time, dependent on whether...

  18. 50 CFR 648.100 - Summer flounder Annual Catch Limit (ACL).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) The Summer Flounder Monitoring Committee shall recommend to the MAFMC separate ACLs for the commercial... recommended by the SSC. (1) Sector allocations. The commercial and recreational fishing sector ACLs will be... sector ACLs may be established on an annual basis for up to 3 years at a time, dependent on whether...

  19. CONSUMPTIONS RATES OF SUMMER FLOUNDER LARVAE ON ROTIFER AND BRINE SHRIMP PREY DURING LARVAL REARING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Larval summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus were hatched and reared through metamorphosis in the laboratory. At several points in the rearing cycle, larvae were removed from their rearing chambers and placed in small bowls, where they were fed known quantities of the rotifer Bra...

  20. Differentially expressed genes after viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus infection in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jee Youn; Kwon, Mun-Gyeong; Seo, Jung Soo; Do, Jung Wan; Park, Myoung-Ae; Jung, Sung-Hee; Ahn, Sang Jung

    2016-09-25

    A strain of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) was isolated from cultured olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) during epizootics in South Korean. This strain showed high mortality to olive flounder in in vivo challenge experiment. The complete genomic RNA sequences were determined and phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequences of glycoprotein revealed that this isolate was grouped into genotype IVa of genus Novirhabdovirus. Expression profile of genes in olive flounder was analyzed at day 1 and day3 after infection with this VHSV isolate by using cDNA microarray containing olive flounder 13K cDNA clones. Microarray analysis revealed 785 up-regulated genes and 641 down-regulated genes by at least two-fold in virus-infected fish compared to healthy control groups. Among 785 up-regulated genes, we identified seven immune response-associated genes, including the interferon (IFN)-induced 56-kDa protein (IFI56), suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1), interleukin 8 (IL-8), cluster of differentiation 83 (CD83), α-globin (HBA), VHSV-induced protein-6 (VHSV6), and cluster of differentiation antigen 9 (CD9). Our results confirm previous reports that even virulent strain of VHSV induces expression of genes involved in protective immunity against VHSV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Stabel Carbon and Oxygen Isotope Ratios of Otoliths from Juvenile and Adult Winter Flounder

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was designed to determine if stable carbon (13C) and oxygen (18O) isotope ratios in otoliths could be used to differentiate the locations that serve as important nursery areas for winter flounder along the Rhode Island, USA coastline. In recent years the populations ...

  2. 77 FR 48106 - Sea Turtle Conservation; Shrimp and Summer Flounder Trawling Requirements; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 223 RIN 0648-AW93 Sea Turtle Conservation; Shrimp and Summer Flounder Trawling Requirements; Correction AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...

  3. Stabel Carbon and Oxygen Isotope Ratios of Otoliths from Juvenile and Adult Winter Flounder

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was designed to determine if stable carbon (13C) and oxygen (18O) isotope ratios in otoliths could be used to differentiate the locations that serve as important nursery areas for winter flounder along the Rhode Island, USA coastline. In recent years the populations ...

  4. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN JUVENILE WINTER FLOUNDER AND MULTIPLE-SCALE HABITAT VARIATION IN NARRAGANSETT BAY, RHODE ISLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    A rapid random-sampling method was used to relate densities of juvenile winter flounder to multiple scales of habitat variation in Narragansett Bay and two nearby coastal lagoons in Rhode Island. We used a 1-m beam trawl with attached video camera, continuous GPS track overlay, ...

  5. Intestinal helminth parasites in flounder Platichthys flesus from the River Thames: an infracommunity analysis.

    PubMed

    Guillen-Hernandez, S; Whitfield, P J

    2004-12-01

    An analysis was undertaken of intestinal helminth communities in flounder Platichthys flesus from two sites on the River Thames. A comparison was made between helminth community richness and diversity from these sites at the component and infracommunity levels. At the component community level, a richer and more diverse parasite community was found in flounder from the Tilbury location (marine influence) than that from the Lots Road location (freshwater influence). At the infracommunity level, more parasite species and parasite individuals per host were found at Lots Road and the percentage of similarity values were low at both locations. Helminth species with high prevalence values in the parasite communities of the flounder are the dominant species in any individual fish, harbouring multi-specific infections. The presence of more invertebrate species, which are intermediate hosts in the helminth life cycle in the Thames, fish vagility and the high prevalence and abundance values of Pomphorhynchus laevis in the flounder, may explain the differences between the two locations.

  6. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN JUVENILE WINTER FLOUNDER AND MULTIPLE-SCALE HABITAT VARIATION IN NARRAGANSETT BAY, RHODE ISLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    A rapid random-sampling method was used to relate densities of juvenile winter flounder to multiple scales of habitat variation in Narragansett Bay and two nearby coastal lagoons in Rhode Island. We used a 1-m beam trawl with attached video camera, continuous GPS track overlay, ...

  7. USING WINTER FLOUNDER GROWTH RATES AND STABLE ISOTOPES TO ASSESS HABITAT QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used winter flounder growth rates and stable isotopes to assess habitat quality across an anthropogenic gradient in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island. Cages (1 m2) were placed in the Providence River which had the highest nutrient concentrations and greatest development, Prudence...

  8. Philasterides dicentrarchi, a histophagous ciliate causing scuticociliatosis in olive flounder, Philasterides dicentrarchi--histopathology investigations.

    PubMed

    Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Jin, Chang-Nam; Kim, Ju-Sang; Balasundaram, Chellam; Heo, Moon-Soo

    2012-03-01

    Philasterides dicentrarchi is a histophagous scuticociliate infecting Korean olive flounder farms in Jeju Island, South Korea, where it causes significant economic losses. However, the route of entry of these parasites in olive flounder is currently unknown. In the present study, we attempted experimental infection with different doses (concentrations) of P. dicentrarchi by intraperitoneal (IP) injection; maximum cumulative mortality of 95% was recorded on the administration of 2.1×10(8) ciliates/ml. In small size group (3 cm length, 24±2 gwt) the ciliates were found in connective tissues of muscle, fins, and nervous tissue while in large size group (5 cm length, 47±3 gwt), the ciliates were predominantly occurred with associated symptoms of liquefaction in the central nervous system. The major clinico-pathological manifestations were loss of scales, appearance of bleached spots that coalesced to form brownish patches, hemorrhagic, and severe dermal necrotic lesion. In addition there was degeneration of muscle fibers, necrosis of the hepatic parenchyma, and severe edema of the intestinal walls, extensive fouling, necrotic degeneration and hyperplasia in the gill bronchial epithelium. In this study, many ciliates were found in the blood vessel, brain, dorsal fins, muscle, kidney, and vertebra of infected flounder. The histopathological investigations are of significant importance in view of possible routes of entry into the host and doses of ciliates that trigger fast infection for potential utility of drugs as a strategy for the control of P. dicentrarchi in farmed olive flounder.

  9. 50 CFR Figure 6 to Part 223 - TED Extension in Summer Flounder Trawl

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false TED Extension in Summer Flounder Trawl 6 Figure 6 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES...

  10. 50 CFR Figure 6 to Part 223 - TED Extension in Summer Flounder Trawl

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false TED Extension in Summer Flounder Trawl 6 Figure 6 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES...

  11. Expression Pattern of Early Growth Response Gene 1 during Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) Embryonic Development

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Ho; Noh, Jae Koo; Kim, Hyun Chul; Park, Choul-Ji; Park, Jong-Won; Kim, Kyung-Kil

    2014-01-01

    The early growth response protein 1 (Egr-1) is a widely reported zinc finger protein and a well known transcription factor encoded by the Egr-1 gene, which plays key roles in many aspects of vertebrate embryogenesis and in adult vertebrates. The Egr-1 expression is important in the formation of the gill vascular system in flounders, which develops during the post-hatching phase and is essential for survival during the juvenile period. However, the complete details of Egr-1 expression during embryo development in olive flounder are not available. We assessed the expression patterns of Egr-1 during the early development of olive flounders by using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. Microscopic observations showed that gill filament formation corresponded with the Egr-1 expression. Thus, we showed that Egr-1 plays a vital role in angiogenesis in the gill filaments during embryogenesis. Further, Egr-1 expression was found to be strong at 5 days after hatching (DAH), in the development of the gill vascular system, and this strong expression level was maintained throughout all the development stages. Our findings have important implications with respect to the biological role of Egr-1 and evolution of the first respiratory blood vessels in the gills of olive flounder. Further studies are required to elucidate the Egr-1-mediated stress response and to decipher the functional role of Egr-1 in developmental stages. PMID:25949193

  12. Antioxidative responses and bioaccumulation in Japanese flounder larvae and juveniles under chronic mercury exposure.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Cao, Liang; Ye, Zhenjiang; Yin, Xuebo; Dou, Shuozeng

    2010-06-01

    This study investigated the sub-lethal effects of waterborne mercury on growth, bioaccumulation and antioxidative responses of larvae and juveniles of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). Fish were exposed to 0-10 microg Hg(2)(+)L(-1) solutions from embryonic to the juvenile stages for 80 days. Antioxidative responses to mercury exposure were studied in metamorphosing larvae (18 days post hatching, dph), settling larvae (33 dph) and juveniles (78 dph). Results showed that increasing mercury concentration led to increased mercury bioaccumulation and reduced flounder growth. Of the antioxidants investigated, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities at the three developmental stages were sensitive to mercury exposure and increased with increasing mercury concentration. Glutathione (GSH) content was elevated in metamorphosing larvae, but decreased in juveniles as mercury concentration increased. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity did not significantly vary with mercury concentration in either larvae or juveniles. Mercury exposure did not affect malondialdehyde (MDA) content of larvae, but significantly increased MDA content of juveniles. Results suggest that flounder larvae and juveniles have the potential to manipulate the levels of antioxidants such as SOD, CAT and GSH, which protect flounder from oxidative stress induced by mercury exposure. These antioxidants could serve as biomarkers of mercury contamination in the aquatic environment.

  13. 50 CFR 648.64 - Yellowtail flounder sub-ACLs and AMs for the scallop fishery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... section: Southern New England Yellowtail Closure Point N. lat. W. long. SNEYT AM 1 41°28.4′ 71°10.25... 2013 fishing years are as follows: (1) 2011. 82 mt for the Southern New England/Mid-Atlantic stock of... yellowtail flounder. (3) 2013. To be determined. (b) Georges Bank accountability measure. (1) Unless...

  14. Accumulation of flounder larvae ( Platichthys flesus L.) in the Dollard (Ems estuary, Wadden Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jager, Zwanette

    1998-09-01

    In the context of an investigation of the importance of the Dollard as a nursery for flounder ( Platichthys flesus L.), the process of larval accumulation was studied. The hypothesis was addressed that freshwater discharge is a steering factor in larval transport caused by a larval preference for low-salinity water. Flounder larvae were simultaneously sampled at three locations during five tidal cycles in combination with measurements of physical variables. One location was in the main channel, the other two were in more peripheral channels of the Dollard. One of those is directly connected to a sluice by which freshwater is discharged into the Dollard. Concentrations of larvae varied during the tidal cycle at all locations: high initial values dropped after the middle of the flood to lower levels to increase again at the end of the ebb. In the channel connected to the sluice, significantly lower salinities were observed around low water than at the other locations, which coincided with significantly higher larval concentrations at the beginning of flood. Water transport as well as larval transport at this location showed a flood surplus on all sampling dates. Also, relatively more larvae were transported than expected according to the water transport compared to the other stations. Moreover, there was an ebb surplus in larval transport during some sampling dates at the other locations. The results indicated an accumulation of flounder larvae in the inner Dollard, and particularly in the area affected by the discharge of freshwater. Independent observations of settling flounder larvae in traps also indicated a concentration in the vicinity of the sluice. However, the sluice itself may form an effective barrier for flounder larvae that try to migrate to freshwater.

  15. Molecular cloning and sexually dimorphic expression of wnt4 in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Weng, Shenda; You, Feng; Fan, Zhaofei; Wang, Lijuan; Wu, Zhihao; Zou, Yuxia

    2016-08-01

    WNT4 (wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 4) is regarded as a key regulator of gonad differentiation in mammalians. However, the potential role of wnt4 in teleosts during gonad differentiation and development is still unclear. The full-length cDNA sequence of wnt4 in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) was obtained using RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) technique. The wnt4 ORF contains 1059 nucleotides, encoding a protein with a signal peptide domain and a wnt family domain. Expression in tissues of adult flounders was analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. The results showed that wnt4 was widely expressed in multiple tissues of flounders, and the expression level was significantly higher in ovary than in testis. Then wnt4 expression pattern was investigated during gonadal differentiation period and at gonadal development stages (I-V). The results showed the expression levels were significantly higher in testis than in ovary during gonadal differentiation. Notably, wnt4 expression had a very significant increase before testis differentiation. At gonad different developmental stages, there was no expression signal at stage I or stage II, and the expression of wnt4 was much stronger in ovary than in testis at stage III and stage IV, followed by a faint expression in stage V in both sexes. Our results imply that cloned wnt4 could be wnt4a. It is a sex-related gene and its expression pattern in gonadal differentiation period of flounder is different from that in mammalians or other teleosts. Flounder wnt4 might play more important role in testis than in ovary during gonadal differentiation.

  16. Survey of the metazoan ectoparasites of the European flounder Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758) along the north-central Portuguese coast.

    PubMed

    Cavaleiro, Francisca I; Santos, Maria J

    2007-10-01

    A survey was undertaken to identify metazoan ectoparasite species on the European flounder, Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758), in 4 different locations off the north-central Portuguese coast. Parasites of 7 different taxa were found: Caligus diaphanus, Caligus sp., and Lepeophtheirus pectoralis (Copepoda: Caligidae); Acanthochondria cornuta (Copepoda: Chondracanthidae); Holobomolochus confusus (Copepoda: Bomolochidae); Nerocila orbignyi (Isopoda: Cymotholdae); and praniza larvae (Isopoda: Gnathiidae). Lernaeocera branchialis, a common European flounder parasite in the North and Baltic Seas, was not observed among the surveyed fish. Caligus diaphanus, Caligus sp., and Nerocila orbignyi are new host records. The high prevalence and intensity values recorded for L. pectoralis and A. cornuta suggest that both parasite species are common to the European flounder along the north-central Portuguese coast. In contrast, infection levels with respect to the other parasite taxa were, in most cases, comparatively lower, thereby indicating that they only occur occasionally among flounders in the surveyed area.

  17. Ocean Acidification Effects on the Early Life-Stages of Commercially Important Flatfish of the Northeast USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, R. C.; Habeck, E. A.; Candelmo, A. C.; Poach, M.; Wieczorek, D.; Phelan, B.; Caldarone, E.; Cooper, K. R.

    2012-12-01

    The limited available evidence about effects on finfish of high CO2 levels and acidification of our oceans suggests that effects will differ across fish species, be subtle, and interact with other stressors. A carefully planned, experimental framework was developed to cast an extensive yet strategic inferential net. Three key elements of our approach are the use of 1) multiple marine finfish species of relevance to the northeastern USA that differ in their ecologies including spawning season and habitat of early life-stages; 2) a wide yet realistic range of environmental conditions (i.e., concurrent manipulation of CO2 levels and water temperatures), and 3) a diverse set of response variables related to fish sensitivity to elevated CO2 levels, water temperatures, and their interactions. The response variable set reflects fish condition, fitness, and likelihood of recruitment, and includes measures of viability, physiology, histopathology, growth, development, and behavior expressed during fish early life-stages (i.e., gametes, embryos, and larvae). Early life-stages were chosen due to the anticipation of their vulnerability to acid-base challenges in their environment. To date, factorial experiments have been implemented on summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) and winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus). Initial results reveal survival of summer flounder embryos is compromised by pH < 7.7 (CO2 > 790 ppm). These results were similar across offspring groups (i.e., embryos from different parents). Winter flounder are larger at hatching when exposed to high CO2 levels in the coolest environment implemented in our experiments (range 4 to 10 ○C). Further responses of advanced larvae of both flounder species are currently being assessed for evidence of other whole body, component organ, and biochemical impairment. This study will aid researchers and resource managers in identifying species types, life-stages, and biotic responses that are most sensitive to

  18. Seasonal and daily plasma corticosterone rhythms in American toads, Bufo americanus

    SciTech Connect

    Pancak, M.K.; Taylor, D.H.

    1983-06-01

    Concentrations of corticosterone were measured in the plasma of American toads, Bufo americanus, on a seasonal basis using a radioimmunoassay technique. Two populations of toads, maintained under different light conditions, were monitored to observe the effects of photoperiod on the seasonal rhythm of plasma corticosterone. Under a natural photoperiod toads demonstrated a rhythm consisting of a spring peak and a fall peak in corticosterone concentration. Toads maintained under a 12L:12D photoperiod all year round demonstrated a similar rhythm with peaks in the spring and fall. This suggests that an endogenous (circannual) rhythm of corticosterone may be playing an important role in the seasonal change of overt behavior and physiology of Bufo americanus. A daily rhythm of corticosterone was also detected in toads when blood samples were taken every 4 hr. When compared to a previously published circadian rhythm study of locomotor activity, the surge in corticosterone concentration for the day occurred at 1730 just prior to the peak in locomotor activity.

  19. Chaoborus americanus predation on various zooplankters; Functional response and behavioral observations.

    PubMed

    Vinyard, Gary L; Menger, R A

    1980-04-01

    Predation rates for Chaoborus americanus on different types of noncyclomorphic zooplankton prey were determined in the laboratory as a function of both prey species and density. The sequence of events leading to consumption of prey was also observed, and probabilities determined for the various components.Predation rates generally reached an upper limit as the density of prey increased to high levels. Larger prey were always less vulnerable to Chaoborus predation. Among the species of zooplankton prey examined Holopedium gibberum suffered the lowest rates of predation, while those of the other plankters (Daphnia pulex, D. rosea, Moina hutchinsoni, Diaptomus birgei, D. leptopus, Cyclops vernalis) were approximately equivalent for any given size category.Observation of the predatory sequence indicates that for all the plankters except H. gibberum there were relatively high rates of evasion of attack by C. americanus and low rates of escape after capture. For H. gibberum the situation was reversed, and escape after capture was particularly important in determining the predation rate.The gelatinous envelope of Holopedium gibberum seems to operate as an effective anti-predator device which reduces the likelyhood of retention by Chaoborus after contact has been made.

  20. Comparative tissue expression of American lobster (Homarus americanus) immune genes during bacterial and scuticociliate challenge.

    PubMed

    Clark, K Fraser; Acorn, Adam R; Wang, Haili; Greenwood, Spencer J

    2015-12-01

    The American lobster (Homarus americanus) fishery is the most economically significant fishery in Canada; although comparatively little is known about the lobsters' response to pathogenic challenge. This is the first study to investigate the expression of immune genes in tissues outside of the lobster hepatopancreas in response to challenges by the Gram-positive bacteria, Aerococcus viridans var. homari or the scuticociliate parasite, Anophryoides haemophila. The hepatopancreas has been regarded as the major humoral immune organ in crustaceans, but the contribution of other organs and tissues to the molecular immune response has largely been overlooked. This study used RT-qPCR to monitor the gene expression of several immune genes including three anti-lipopolysaccharide isoforms (ALF) Homame ALF-B1, Homame ALF-C1 and ALFHa-1, acute phase serum amyloid protein A (SAA), as well as thioredoxin and hexokinase, in antennal gland and gill tissues. Our findings indicate that the gene expression of the SAA and all ALF isoforms in the antennal gland and gill tissues increased in response to pathogenic challenge. However, there was differential expression of individual ALF isoforms that were dependent on both the tissue, and the pathogen used in the challenge. The gene expression changes of several immune genes were found to be higher in the antennal gland than have been previously reported for the hepatopancreas. This study demonstrates that increased immune gene expression from the gill and antennal gland over the course of pathogen induced disease contributes to the immune response of H. americanus.

  1. Sarcocystis sp. in mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) in Washington: prevalence and search for the definitive host.

    PubMed

    Foreyt, W J

    1989-10-01

    During October and November 1986, Sarcocystis sp. was detected in 24 of 56 (43%) tongues from hunter-killed mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) in Washington (USA). Sarcocysts had an unusual sessile polyp-shaped branched wall. Mean size of 154 sarcocysts was 71.3 x 37.8 microns (range, 20 to 248 x 10 to 120 microns), and the mean intensity was 2.3 (range, 1 to 28). In an attempt to identify the definitive host, infected tongues were fed to four coyotes (Canis latrans), eight domestic dogs, four domestic cats, three bears (Ursus americanus), two raccoons (Procyon lotor), two martens (Martes americana), two fishers (Martes pennanti), three skunks (Mephitis mephitis), five mink (Mustela vison), five ferrets (Mustela putorius), one pigtail macaque (Macaca nemestrina), two red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) and one great horned owl (Bubo virginianus). Oocysts or sporocysts were not detected in the feces of any host for less than or equal to 20 days after ingestion of the infected meat. The definitive host for Sarcocystis sp. in mountain goats was not identified.

  2. Developmental Effects of Ocean Acidification Conditions and Elevated Temperature on Homarus Americanus Larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mcveigh, H.; Waller, J. D.

    2016-02-01

    The Gulf of Maine is experiencing a rapid warming in sea surface temperature and a marked decrease in pH. This study aimed to quantify the impact of elevated temperature and acidification on the larval development of the iconic American lobster (Homarus americanus). Experimental conditions were reflective of current and IPCC predicted levels of temperature and pCO2 to be reached by the end of the century. Larvae were measured for growth (carapace length), development time, and survivorship over the larval duration. Treatments of elevated temperatures experienced decreased development time across the larval stages of H. americanus. Consequently mortality increased at a significantly higher rate under elevated temperature. An increase in larval mortality may decrease recruitment to the commercial fishery, thus impacting the most valuable single species in the state of Maine. Furthermore, experimental pCO2 treatments yielded a significantly decreased development time between larval stages II and III, yet did not have a significant impact on carapace length or mortality. This study indicates that warmer temperatures may have a greater influence than decreased pH on larval development and survival. Determining how this species may respond to changing climactic conditions will better inform the sustainability efforts of such a critical marine fishery.

  3. A novel isothermal microcalorimetry tool to assess drug effects on Ancylostoma ceylanicum and Necator americanus.

    PubMed

    Flores, Dayana; Panic, Gordana; Braissant, Olivier; Keiser, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminths, which affect the poorest communities, worldwide cause a range of symptoms and morbidity, yet few treatment options are available and drug resistance is a concern. To improve and accelerate anthelminthic drug discovery, novel drug screening tools such as isothermal microcalorimetry (IMC) have been tested with great potential. In this study, we used a novel microcalorimeter, the calScreener™, to study the viability on the hookworms Necator americanus and Ancylostoma ceylanicum as well as the whipworm Trichuris muris. Significant heat flow signals could be obtained with already one adult worm per channel for all three species. High-amplitude oscillations were observed for the hookworms; however, adult T. muris showed a twofold heat flow decrease during the first 24 h. Antinematodal effects of ivermectin and levamisole at 1, 10, and 100 μg/ml were evaluated on adult N. americanus and A. ceylanicum. Levamisole-treated hookworms showed a decline in heat flow and oscillation amplitude in a dose-response manner. Heat flow for ivermectin-treated hookworms increased proportionally with increased concentrations of ivermectin, though the wavelet analysis showed an opposite trend as observed by flatter wavelets. In conclusion, the calScreener™ is an excellent tool to study drug effects on intestinal hookworms at the adult worm stage as it offers a lower detection limit than other IMC devices and the possibility to monitor worm viability online.

  4. Cloning and expression study of the lobster (Homarus americanus) vitellogenin: Conservation in gene structure among decapods.

    PubMed

    Tiu, Shirley Hiu Kwan; Hui, Ho-Lam; Tsukimura, Brian; Tobe, Stephen S; He, Jian-Guo; Chan, Siu-Ming

    2009-01-01

    This study reports the molecular characterization of the vitellogenin (Vg) of the lobster, Homarus americanus. Based on the annual collection of female lobsters, vitellogenesis commences in early March and continues through to September of each year. Using an antibody to vitellin of the lobster, H. americanus, several immunoreactive ovarian proteins were initially identified by Western blot analysis. The 80kDa protein contained the amino acid sequence APWGGNTPRC, identified subsequently by cDNA cloning to be identical to the lobster Vg. In common with the shrimp Metapenaeus ensis and crab Charybdis feriatus, the lobster HaVg1 gene comprises 14 introns and 15 exons. The deduced HaVg1 precursor is most similar to the Vg of the crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus (57%), followed by M. ensis (40-43% identity) and C. feriatus (38%). The results from genomic and RT-PCR cloning also confirmed the presence of multiple Vg genes in lobster. At early reproductive stages, the hepatopancreas HaVg1 transcript levels are low but increased to a maximum in animals with mature oocytes. The ovary, however, also expressed low levels of HaVg1. Using in vitro explant culture, treatment of hepatopancreas fragments with farnesoic acid or 20-hydroxyecdysone resulted in a significant stimulation in HaVg1 expression. From this study, it appears that Vg gene organization and expression pattern in decapods is highly conserved. Similar endocrine mechanisms may govern the process of vitellogenesis across the decapods.

  5. The epidemiology and population biology of Necator americanus infection in a rural community in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Bradley, M; Chandiwana, S K; Bundy, D A; Medley, G F

    1992-01-01

    Baseline data from an epidemiological study of hookworm infection in a rural community in Zimbabwe are presented. The infection status of an age-stratified sample of the community was assessed using anthelmintic expulsion techniques. Necator americanus was the only helminth parasite found to be present. The age-prevalence and intensity profiles rose asymptotically to an adult prevalence of about 80% and adult mean burden of 7.7 worms per host. The overall mean burden was 4.8 worms per host. The frequency distribution of N. americanus was overdispersed and well described by the negative binomial distribution with a value for the aggregation parameter, k, of 0.346. Separate estimates of k were lower in males and older hosts. The distribution patterns were difficult to reconcile with any simple process of age-dependent acquisition of an effective immune response. A significant negative correlation was recorded between per caput fecundity and worm burden, providing evidence for a density-dependent regulation of female worm fecundity. The basic reproductive rate (R0 congruent to 2) was found to be similar to estimates from other geographical areas.

  6. Phytoremediation of two types of sediment contaminated with Zn by Schoenoplectus americanus.

    PubMed

    Arreghini, Silvana; de Cabo, Laura; Fabrizio de Iorio, Alicia

    2006-01-01

    The effect of different sediments on growth, Zn uptake, Zn plant distribution, and morphometric variables of Schoenoplectus americanus were investigated under controlled conditions. Two types of sediments were assayed: from a large natural levee (LS) and alluvial sediments (AS), the former with lower organic matter (OM) and nutrients content than AS, without and with added Zn (2500 microg Zn/g air-dry sediment). Zinc partition in sediment was determined. Increases in water conductivity and Zn concentrations in water and sediments were observed in artificially contaminated treatments. Plants showed a lower above ground growth rate, height, and width of shoots, and a higher Zn concentration in shoots and rhizomes. In the contaminated treatments, AS treatment showed lower Zn concentration in water and higher Zn concentration in sediments (total, exchangeable, and OM fractions) than LS treatment, due to Zn displacement from floodwater to sediments. The presence of a high level of OM and nutrients also increased aboveground biomass growth, whereas it decreased Zn concentration in shoots. Although the translocation factor increased with Zn addition, it was lower in AS treatment Sediments of AS treatments are a suitable environment for growth of S. americanus, which partially compensates the toxic effects of Zn. Our results provide an encouraging basis for planning larger scale experiments to test the role of OM and nutrients in improving phytoremediation.

  7. Immunization of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) with an auxotrophic Edwardsiella tarda mutant harboring the VHSV DNA vaccine.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seung Hyuk; Kim, Min Sun; Kim, Ki Hong

    2012-09-01

    The aims of the present study were to find more powerful promoter for DNA vaccines in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and to evaluate the availability of the auxotrophic Edwardsiella tarda mutant (Δalr Δasd E. tarda) as a delivery vehicle for DNA vaccine against VHSV in olive flounder. The marine medaka (Oryzias dancena) β-actin promoter was clearly stronger than cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter when the vectors were transfected to Epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cells or injected into the muscle of olive flounder, suggesting that marine medaka β-actin promoter would be more appropriate promoter for DNA vaccines in olive flounder than CMV promoter. Olive flounder immunized with the Δalr Δasd E. tarda harboring viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) DNA vaccine vector driven by the marine medaka β-actin promoter showed significantly higher serum neutralization titer and higher survival rates against challenge with VHSV than fish immunized with the bacteria carrying VHSV DNA vaccine vector driven by CMV promoter. These results indicate that auxotrophic E. tarda mutant harboring marine medaka β-actin promoter-driven DNA vaccine vectors would be a potential system for prophylactics of infectious diseases in olive flounder.

  8. Metamorphic pitx2 expression in the left habenula correlated with lateralization of eye-sidedness in flounder.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tohru; Washio, Youhei; Aritaki, Masato; Fujinami, Yuichiro; Shimizu, Daisuke; Uji, Susumu; Hashimoto, Hisashi

    2009-12-01

    The bilateral symmetry of flounder larvae changes through the process of morphogenesis to produce external asymmetry at metamorphosis. The process is characterized by the lateral migration of one eye and pigmentation at the ocular side. Migration of the left or right eye to produce either dextral or sinistral forms, respectively, is usually fixed within a species. Here we propose a mechanism for the mediation of lateralization by the nodal-lefty-pitx2 (NLP) pathway in flounders, in which pitx2, the final left-right determinant of the NLP pathway, is re-expressed in the left habenula at pre-metamorphosis. After the initiation of left-sided pitx2 re-expression, the eye commences migration, when the habenulae shift their position on the ventral diencephalon rightwards in sinistral flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and leftwards in dextral flounder (Verasper variegatus). In addition, the right habenula increases in size relative to the left habenula in both species. Loss of pitx2 re-expression induces randomization of eye-sidedness, manifesting as normal, reversed or bilateral symmetry, with laterality of the structural asymmetry of habenulae being entirely inverted in reversed flounders compared with normal ones. Thus, flounder pitx2 appears to be re-expressed in the left habenula at metamorphosis to direct eye-sidedness by lateralizing the morphological asymmetry of the habenulae.

  9. Structure of monomeric Na-GST-3, a glutathione S-transferase from the major human hookworm parasite Necator americanus.

    PubMed

    Kelleher, Alan; Zhan, Bin; Asojo, Oluwatoyin A

    2013-08-01

    Necator americanus is the major cause of human hookworm infection, which is a global cause of anemia in the developing world. Ongoing efforts to control hookworm infection include the identification of candidate vaccine antigens as well as potential therapeutic targets from the infective L3 larval stages and adult stages of the parasite. One promising family of proteins are the adult-stage-secreted cytosolic glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). Nematode GSTs facilitate the inactivation and degradation of a variety of electrophilic substrates (drugs) via the nucleophilic addition of reduced glutathione. Parasite GSTs also play significant roles in multi-drug resistance and the modulation of host immune defense mechanisms. Here, the structure of Na-GST-3, one of three GSTs secreted by adult-stage N. americanus, is reported. Unlike most GST structures, the Na-GST-3 crystal contains a monomer in the asymmetric unit. However, the monomer forms a prototypical GST dimer across the crystallographic twofold. A glutathione from the fermentation process is bound to the monomer. The overall binding cavity of Na-GST-3 is reminiscent of that of other N. americanus GSTs and is larger and capable of binding a wider array of ligands than GSTs from organisms that have other major detoxifying mechanisms. Furthermore, despite having low sequence identity to the host GST, Na-GST-3 has a greater tertiary-structure similarity to human sigma-class GST than was observed for the other N. americanus GSTs.

  10. Trichinella Surveillance in Black Bears ( Ursus americanus ) from the Dehcho Region, Northwest Territories, Canada, 2002-15.

    PubMed

    Larter, Nicholas C; Elkin, Brett T; Forbes, Lorry B; Wagner, Brent; Allaire, Danny G

    2017-04-01

    We used muscle digestion to test black bears ( Ursus americanus ) from the southwestern Northwest Territories, Canada, for Trichinella. Results showed a prevalence of 4.1%. Some bears had infection intensities of more than one larva per gram of muscle tissue; this level in meat is considered to pose a human consumption safety risk.

  11. Biomarker analysis of American toad (Anaxyrus americanus) and grey tree frog (Hyla versicolor) tadpoles following exposure to atrazine.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of the current study was to use a biomarker-based approach to investigate the influence of atrazine exposure on American toad (Anaxyrus americanus) and grey tree frog (Hyla versicolor) tadpoles. Atrazine is one of the most frequently detected herbicides in environme...

  12. Isolation and characterization of new genetic types of toxoplasma gondii and prevalence of trichinella murrelli from black bear (Ursus americanus)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Black bears (Ursus americanus) are hosts for two important zoonotic parasites, Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spp. and bears are hunted for human consumption in the USA. Little is known of the genetic diversity of T. gondii circulating in wildlife. In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii we...

  13. Biomarker analysis of American toad (Anaxyrus americanus) and grey tree frog (Hyla versicolor) tadpoles following exposure to atrazine.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of the current study was to use a biomarker-based approach to investigate the influence of atrazine exposure on American toad (Anaxyrus americanus) and grey tree frog (Hyla versicolor) tadpoles. Atrazine is one of the most frequently detected herbicides in environme...

  14. The hidden history of the snowshoe hare, Lepus americanus: extensive mitochondrial DNA introgression inferred from multilocus genetic variation.

    PubMed

    Melo-Ferreira, José; Seixas, Fernando A; Cheng, Ellen; Mills, L Scott; Alves, Paulo C

    2014-09-01

    Hybridization drives the evolutionary trajectory of many species or local populations, and assessing the geographic extent and genetic impact of interspecific gene flow may provide invaluable clues to understand population divergence or the adaptive relevance of admixture. In North America, hares (Lepus spp.) are key species for ecosystem dynamics and their evolutionary history may have been affected by hybridization. Here we reconstructed the speciation history of the three most widespread hares in North America - the snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus), the white-tailed jackrabbit (L. townsendii) and the black-tailed jackrabbit (L. californicus) - by analysing sequence variation at eight nuclear markers and one mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) locus (6240 bp; 94 specimens). A multilocus-multispecies coalescent-based phylogeny suggests that L. americanus diverged ~2.7 Ma and that L. californicus and L. townsendii split more recently (~1.2 Ma). Within L. americanus, a deep history of cryptic divergence (~2.0 Ma) was inferred, which coincides with major speciation events in other North American species. While the isolation-with-migration model suggested that nuclear gene flow was generally rare or absent among species or major genetic groups, coalescent simulations of mtDNA divergence revealed historical mtDNA introgression from L. californicus into the Pacific Northwest populations of L. americanus. This finding marks a history of past reticulation between these species, which may have affected other parts of the genome and influence the adaptive potential of hares during climate change.

  15. Does the chronic chemical contamination of a European flounder population decrease its thermal tolerance?

    PubMed

    Lavergne, Edouard; Pedron, Nicolas; Calves, Isabelle; Claireaux, Guy; Mazurais, David; Zambonino-Infante, José; Le Bayon, Nicolas; Cahu, Chantal; Laroche, Jean

    2015-06-30

    Juvenile flounders (Platichthys flesus), collected in two estuaries with similar temperature regimes (the heavily polluted Seine and the moderately contaminated Vilaine), were submitted to a common garden experiment. After an acclimation period, both populations were challenged by a thermal stress (9-24°C for 15days, then maintenance at 24°C for 19days). The condition factor of the Vilaine fish increased in both conditions, while it decreased for the heated Seine flounders after 34days. The expression of genes related to the energetic metabolism was measured in the liver. The expression levels for ATP-F0 and COII were significantly reduced for heated vs. standard fish from both estuaries, while a decrease of the 12S expression was detected only in heated vs. standard fish from the Seine estuary. Thus, it is suggested that highly contaminated fish from Seine could display a lower tolerance to thermal stress, compared to moderately contaminated fish from Vilaine.

  16. Gene expression responses of European flounder (Platichthys flesus) to 17-beta estradiol.

    PubMed

    Williams, Tim D; Diab, Amer M; George, Stephen G; Sabine, Victoria; Chipman, James K

    2007-02-05

    Male European flounder (Platichthys flesus) were intraperitoneally injected with 10mg/kg 17-beta estradiol and tissues taken from individuals over a timecourse of 16 days. The GENIPOL P. flesus cDNA microarray was employed to detect hepatic gene expression differences between fish treated with estradiol and saline controls. Known biomarkers of estrogen exposure, choriogenin L and vitellogenins, showed sustained induction over the time-course. Among 175 identified clones showing sustained statistically significant induction or repression, those associated with the Gene Ontology terms mitochondria, amino acid synthesis, ubiquitination and apoptosis were included amongst those induced while those associated with immune function, electron transport, cell signalling and protein phosphorylation were repressed. Thus, we show the gene expression response of an environmentally relevant fish species to a high dose of an estrogenic endocrine disruptor and also report the sequencing of a further 2121 flounder ESTs.

  17. Production and characterization of recombinant vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone from the American lobster Homarus americanus.

    PubMed

    Ohira, Tsuyoshi; Okumura, Takuji; Suzuki, Michio; Yajima, Yosuke; Tsutsui, Naoaki; Wilder, Marcy N; Nagasawa, Hiromichi

    2006-06-01

    Recombinant peptides related to vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH) of the American lobster Homarus americanus were expressed in bacterial cells, and then purified after being allowed to refold. Biological activities of the recombinant VIHs having an amidated C-terminus (rHoa-VIH-amide) and a free carboxyl-terminus (rHoa-VIH-OH) were examined using an ovarian fragment incubation system derived from the kuruma prawn, Marsupenaeus japonicus. The rHoa-VIH-amide significantly reduced vitellogenin mRNA levels in the ovary, while rHoa-VIH-OH had no effect. This is the first report that describes the production of a crustacean VIH having biological activity and the importance of the C-terminal amidation for its vitellogenesis-inhibiting activity.

  18. Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma in a North American black bear (Ursus americanus).

    PubMed

    Rotstein, David S; Govett, Pamela; Wolfe, Barbara

    2005-09-01

    A 10-yr-old female black bear (Ursus americanus) at the North Carolina Zoological Park presented with a 2-wk history of intermittent coughing and stertor. The animal was anesthetized for examination, and at intubation, a large mass associated with the tonsils and larynx was observed obstructing the airway. Cardiopulmonary collapse occurred during the procedure, and efforts at resuscitation were ineffective. At necropsy, an 8 cm times 6 cm times 5 cm mass was present in the larynx, infiltrating the epiglottis and obstructing the airway. Regional lymph nodes were mildly enlarged and contained tan inspissated substance. Histologically, the neoplasm was composed of nests of keratinizing squamous epithelial cells with evidence of lymphatic invasion and metastases to regional lymph nodes.

  19. Naturally occurring bacteraemia in American lobsters, Homarus americanus Milne-Edwards, in Long Island Sound.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, S L; Wooster, G A; Sokolowski, M S; Dove, A D M; Bowser, P R

    2008-01-01

    The health status of the American lobster, Homarus americanus Milne-Edwards, in Long Island Sound (LIS) has been in decline, with seasonal mortality events occurring since 1998. In order to assess the potential effects of environmental conditions on lobster health via haemolymph analysis, lobsters collected from various sites in LIS were examined and sampled while concurrent environmental data (water temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen) were recorded. The pH of the haemolymph of each lobster was tested, followed by a collection of haemolymph for serum biochemistry analysis and bacterial culture. This report focuses on the results of the bacterial sampling. The majority of bacteria cultured were opportunistic pathogens commonly found in the environment, including some that are associated with sewage and pollution. The prevalence of bacteraemia was correlated with the site of collection, the month in which the lobsters were sampled, and water temperature.

  20. 'Candidatus Liberibacter americanus', associated with citrus huanglongbing (greening disease) in São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Diva do Carmo; Saillard, Colette; Eveillard, Sandrine; Danet, Jean Luc; da Costa, Paulo Inácio; Ayres, Antonio Juliano; Bové, Joseph

    2005-09-01

    , were found to have identical or almost identical sequences. In contrast, the intergenic regions of the SPS-HLB liberibacter, 'Ca. L. asiaticus' and 'Ca. L. africanus' had quite different sequences, with similarity between 66.0 and 79.5%. These results confirm that the SPS-HLB liberibacter is a novel species for which the name 'Candidatus Liberibacter americanus' is proposed. Like the African and the Asian liberibacters, the 'American' liberibacter is restricted to the sieve tubes of the citrus host. The liberibacter could also be detected by PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene in Diaphorina citri, the psyllid vector of 'Ca. L. asiaticus', suggesting that this psyllid is also a vector of 'Ca. L. americanus' in SPS. 'Ca. L. americanus' was detected in 216 of 218 symptomatic leaf samples from 47 farms in 35 municipalities, while 'Ca. L. asiaticus' was detected in only 4 of the 218 samples, indicating that 'Ca. L. americanus' is the major cause of HLB in SPS.

  1. Ontogenetic changes in digestive enzyme activities and the amino acid profile of starry flounder Platichthys stellatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Zhidong; Wang, Jiying; Qiao, Hongjin; Li, Peiyu; Zhang, Limin; Xia, Bin

    2016-09-01

    Ontogenetic changes in digestive enzyme activities and the amino acid (AA) profile of starry flounder, Platichthys stellatus, were investigated and limiting amino acids were estimated compared with the essential AA profile between larvae and live food to clarify starry flounder larval nutritional requirements. Larvae were collected at the egg stage and 0, 2, 4, 7, 12, 17, 24 days after hatching (DAH) for analysis. Larvae grew from 1.91 mm at hatching to 12.13 mm at 24 DAH. Trypsin and chymotrypsin activities changed slightly by 4 DAH and then increased significantly 4 DAH. Pepsin activity increased sharply beginning 17 DAH. Lipase activity increased significantly 4 DAH and increased progressively with larval growth. Amylase activity was also detected in newly hatched larvae and increased 7 DAH followed by a gradual decrease. High free amino acid (FAA) content was detected in starry flounder eggs (110.72 mg/g dry weight). Total FAA content dropped to 43.29 mg/g in 4-DAH larvae and then decreased gradually to 13.74 mg/g in 24-DAH larvae. Most FAAs (except lysine and methionine) decreased >50% in 4-DAH larvae compared with those in eggs and then decreased to the lowest values in 24-DAH larvae. Changes in the protein amino acid (PAA) profile were much milder than those observed for FAAs. Most PAAs increased gradually during larval development, except lysine and phenylalanine. The percentages of free threonine, valine, isoleucine, and leucine decreased until the end of the trial, whereas the protein forms of these four AAs followed the opposite trend. A comparison of the essential AA composition of live food (rotifers, Artemia nauplii, and Artemia metanauplii) and larvae suggested that methionine was potentially the first limiting AA. These results may help develop starry flounder larviculture methods by solving the AA imbalance in live food. Moreover, the increased digestive enzyme activities indicate the possibility of introducing artificial compound feed.

  2. VITELLOGENIN-INDUCED PATHOLOGY AND MORTALITY IN MALE SUMMER FLOUNDER (PARALICHTHYS DENTATUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Male summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) were given two injections (initially and two weeks later) of 17 b-estradiol (E2) totaling 0.2 (2 x 0.1), 2.0 (2 x 1.0) or 20.0 (2 x 10.0) mg E2/kg body weight. Blood and tissue samples were collected 4, 6 and 8 weeks after the initial ...

  3. Cloning and expression of prion protein encoding gene of flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhiwen; Sun, Xiuqin; Zhang, Jinxing; Zan, Jindong

    2008-02-01

    The prion protein (PrP) encoding gene of flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) was cloned. It was not interrupted by an intron. This gene has two promoters in its 5' upstream, indicating that its transcription may be intensive, and should have an important function. It was expressed in all 14 tissues tested, demonstrating that it is a house-keeping gene. Its expression in digestion and reproduction systems implies that the possible prions of fish may transfer horizontally.

  4. VITELLOGENIN-INDUCED PATHOLOGY AND MORTALITY IN MALE SUMMER FLOUNDER (PARALICHTHYS DENTATUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Male summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) were given two injections (initially and two weeks later) of 17 b-estradiol (E2) totaling 0.2 (2 x 0.1), 2.0 (2 x 1.0) or 20.0 (2 x 10.0) mg E2/kg body weight. Blood and tissue samples were collected 4, 6 and 8 weeks after the initial ...

  5. DNA adduct analysis and histopathological biomarkers in European flounder (Platichthys flesus) sampled from UK estuaries.

    PubMed

    Lyons, B P; Stentiford, G D; Green, M; Bignell, J; Bateman, K; Feist, S W; Goodsir, F; Reynolds, W J; Thain, J E

    2004-08-18

    The presence of genotoxic and potentially carcinogenic chemical contaminants in the estuarine and coastal marine environment is well documented. In this study, European flounder (Platichthys flesus) sampled from eight UK estuaries were analysed for hepatic DNA adducts, using the 32P-postlabelling assay and liver histopathology as part of an on going survey to establish the health status of UK estuaries. Fish were collected from the estuaries Tyne, Mersey, Thames, Alde (reference site), Belfast, Forth, Clyde and Southampton. At the majority of contaminated sites (Southampton, Thames, Clyde, Tyne and Mersey) the predominant DNA adduct profile consisted of diagonal radioactive zones (DRZs). In contrast, flounder collected from the Forth, Alde and Belfast lacked DRZs with only background levels of DNA damage being observed. Statistically significant differences were observed between several of the sites sampled with the hepatic DNA adduct levels detected in flounder from Southampton, Thames and Clyde statistically elevated (P < 0.05) over those levels detected at the Tyne (Southampton and Thames only), Forth, Alde and Belfast. Histological analysis of these samples revealed a range of lesions including foci of cellular alteration, hepatocellular fibrillar inclusions, nuclear pleomorphisms along with non-toxicopathic changes/alterations, such as those associated with cell turnover (apoptosis, necrosis, regeneration) and immune-related functions (melanomacrophage aggregates, inflammation). Although it is difficult to associate higher prevalence of these lesion types with specific sites, generally, the lowest prevalence was seen in flounder captured from the Alde estuary, with higher prevalence (particularly of melanomacrophage aggregates, inflammation and necrotic foci) seen in fish from the contaminated sites.

  6. Genetic and physiological responses of flounder (Platichthys flesus) populations to chemical contamination in estuaries.

    PubMed

    Laroche, Jean; Quiniou, Louis; Juhel, Guillaume; Auffret, Michel; Moraga, Dario

    2002-12-01

    We sampled and analyzed European flounder (Platichthys flesus) from two highly contaminated estuaries (Seine and Loire, France) and one moderately contaminated estuary (reference site: Ster, France). Significant and convergent modifications of the allelic frequencies for the loci phosphoglucomutase (PGM), glucose phosphate isomerase 2 (GPI-2), mannose phosphate isomerase (MPI), and aspartate aminotransferase (AAT-2) were evident for fish in the contaminated sites versus fish from the reference site. Back-calculation from otoliths showed that the average growth rate of fish between the first and the second winter was greater at the reference site (approximately 150 mm/year) than at the contaminated sites (approximately 100 mm/year). Flounder from the reference site also had a higher condition factor (somatic wt/(fish length)3) compared to fish from the two contaminated sites. However, the observed pattern of growth rate and condition factor might be biased by particular environmental conditions other than contaminants and must be confirmed by more extensive study. Flow cytometry analysis of fish blood revealed a significant difference in the frequency of abnormal profiles for fish from the Seine (20%) versus from the Ster (3%). We interpret this result as a marked genotoxic effect of contaminants on fish in the Seine system. Some genotypes, such as PGM 85/85, appeared to be linked to the measured components of fitness, particularly to DNA integrity. Thus, these genotypes might be considered to be more tolerant to pollutants. The frequency of the PGM 85 allele was clearly elevated in flounder from the more contaminated sites, compared to flounder from the reference site.

  7. Evaluating the Hypoxia Response of Ruffe and Flounder Gills by a Combined Proteome and Transcriptome Approach

    PubMed Central

    Tiedke, Jessica; Borner, Janus; Beeck, Hendrik; Kwiatkowski, Marcel; Schmidt, Hanno; Thiel, Ralf; Fabrizius, Andrej; Burmester, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia has gained ecological importance during the last decades, and it is the most dramatically increasing environmental factor in coastal areas and estuaries. The gills of fish are the prime target of hypoxia and other stresses. Here we have studied the impact of the exposure to hypoxia (1.5 mg O2/l for 48 h) on the protein expression of the gills of two estuarine fish species, the ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernua) and the European flounder (Platichthys flesus). First, we obtained the transcriptomes of mixed tissues (gills, heart and brain) from both species by Illumina next-generation sequencing. Then, the gill proteomes were investigated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Quantification of the normalized proteome maps resulted in a total of 148 spots in the ruffe, of which 28 (18.8%) were significantly regulated (> 1.5-fold). In the flounder, 121 spots were found, of which 27 (22.3%) proteins were significantly regulated. The transcriptomes were used for the identification of these proteins, which was successful for 15 proteins of the ruffe and 14 of the flounder. The ruffe transcriptome dataset comprised 87,169,850 reads, resulting in an assembly of 72,108 contigs (N50 = 1,828 bp). 20,860 contigs (26.93%) had blastx hits with E < 1e-5 in the human sequences in the RefSeq database, representing 14,771 unique accession numbers. The flounder transcriptome with 78,943,030 reads assembled into 49,241 contigs (N50 = 2,106 bp). 20,127 contigs (40.87%) had a hit with human proteins, corresponding to 14,455 unique accession numbers. The regulation of selected genes was confirmed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Most of the regulated proteins that were identified by this approach function in the energy metabolism, while others are involved in the immune response, cell signalling and the cytoskeleton. PMID:26273839

  8. Isolation and characterization of 28 new microsatellite markers for European flounder (Platichthys flesus L.).

    PubMed

    Tysklind, Niklas; Neuparth, Teresa; Ashcroft, Gregg R; Taylor, Martin I; Lyons, Brett P; McCarthy, Ian D; Carvalho, Gary R

    2009-05-01

    The European flounder (Platichthys flesus L.) is used in ecotoxicological studies to provide detailed information on the effects of pollution on individual fish. Data on population and evolutionary level effects are, however, limited. Here, the isolation and characterization of 28 novel species specific microsatellite loci are presented. The number of alleles ranged from 8 to 38, and observed heterozygosity from 0.542 to 1.

  9. Identification and cardiotropic actions of sulfakinin peptides in the American lobster Homarus americanus.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Patsy S; Stevens, Jake S; Rus, Szymon; Brennan, Henry R; Goiney, Christopher C; Smith, Christine M; Li, Lingjun; Towle, David W; Christie, Andrew E

    2007-07-01

    In arthropods, a group of peptides possessing a -Y((SO3H))GHM/LRFamide carboxy-terminal motif have been collectively termed the sulfakinins. Sulfakinin isoforms have been identified from numerous insect species. In contrast, members of this peptide family have thus far been isolated from just two crustaceans, the penaeid shrimp Penaeus monodon and Litopenaeus vannamei. Here, we report the identification of a cDNA encoding prepro-sulfakinin from the American lobster Homarus americanus. Two sulfakinin-like sequences were identified within the open-reading frame of the cDNA. Based on modifications predicted by peptide modeling programs, and on homology to the known isoforms of sulfakinin, particularly those from shrimp, the mature H. americanus sulfakinins were hypothesized to be pEFDEY((SO3H))GHMRFamide (Hoa-SK I) and GGGEY((SO3H))DDY((SO3H))GHLRFamide (Hoa-SK II). Hoa-SK I is identical to one of the previously identified shrimp sulfakinins, while Hoa-SK II is a novel isoform. Exogenous application of either synthetic Hoa-SK I or Hoa-SK II to the isolated lobster heart increased both the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous heart contractions. In preparations in which spontaneous contractions were irregular, both peptides increased the regularity of the heartbeat. Our study provides the first molecular characterization of a sulfakinin-encoding cDNA from a crustacean, as well as the first demonstration of bioactivity for native sulfakinins in this group of arthropods.

  10. Structure of a two-CAP-domain protein from the human hookworm parasite Necator americanus

    SciTech Connect

    Asojo, Oluwatoyin A.

    2011-05-01

    The first structure of a two-CAP-domain protein, Na-ASP-1, from the major human hookworm parasite N. americanus refined to a resolution limit of 2.2 Å is presented. Major proteins secreted by the infective larval stage hookworms upon host entry include Ancylostoma secreted proteins (ASPs), which are characterized by one or two CAP (cysteine-rich secretory protein/antigen 5/pathogenesis related-1) domains. The CAP domain has been reported in diverse phylogenetically unrelated proteins, but has no confirmed function. The first structure of a two-CAP-domain protein, Na-ASP-1, from the major human hookworm parasite Necator americanus was refined to a resolution limit of 2.2 Å. The structure was solved by molecular replacement (MR) using Na-ASP-2, a one-CAP-domain ASP, as the search model. The correct MR solution could only be obtained by truncating the polyalanine model of Na-ASP-2 and removing several loops. The structure reveals two CAP domains linked by an extended loop. Overall, the carboxyl-terminal CAP domain is more similar to Na-ASP-2 than to the amino-terminal CAP domain. A large central cavity extends from the amino-terminal CAP domain to the carboxyl-terminal CAP domain, encompassing the putative CAP-binding cavity. The putative CAP-binding cavity is a characteristic cavity in the carboxyl-terminal CAP domain that contains a His and Glu pair. These residues are conserved in all single-CAP-domain proteins, but are absent in the amino-terminal CAP domain. The conserved His residues are oriented such that they appear to be capable of directly coordinating a zinc ion as observed for CAP proteins from reptile venoms. This first structure of a two-CAP-domain ASP can serve as a template for homology modeling of other two-CAP-domain proteins.

  11. Goosefish Lophius americanus fecundity and spawning frequency, with implications for population reproductive potential.

    PubMed

    McBride, R S; Johnson, A K; Lindsay, E K; Walsh, H J; Richards, R A

    2017-02-23

    To improve knowledge of goosefish Lophius americanus' reproductive biology, females were collected during 2009-2012 from the Mid-Atlantic Bight shelf region of the U.S. east coast. Batch fecundity increased with total length (LT ), from 229 100 to 2 243 300 mature oocytes per female (LT range: 55·5-112 cm; n = 54). This estimate of fecundity at LT is lower than one derived from a sample collected during 1982-1985. Examination of whole oocyte diameters in different months indicated that L. americanus is a serial spawner, releasing more than one egg veil per spawning season, as suspected or observed for other Lophius species. Seasonality of spawning was evident from whole oocytes and gonad histology, and from larval fish surveys spanning the U.S. north-east shelf, and confirmed a protracted (c. 6 months) spawning period. Peak spawning activity progressed northward from spring to autumn. The population-level implications of these results were explored by estimating population reproductive potential (PRP ), which considered the value of both current and future per capita reproduction using decade-specific age structure and fecundity at length. PRP is now more than 50% lower compared with the historical period (1982-1985), a result of the lower proportions of large females and reduced fecundity across all sizes. Mechanisms that could explain this loss of stock productivity are fishing-induced size-age truncation or regime shifts in egg production caused by changes in energy density of common forage species.

  12. Microarray analysis of gene expression in olive flounder liver infected with viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV).

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyun Kook; Kim, Julan; Moon, Ji Young; Nam, Bo-Hye; Kim, Young-Ok; Kim, Woo-Jin; Park, Jung Youn; An, Cheul Min; Cheong, Jaehun; Kong, Hee Jeong

    2016-02-01

    The most fatal viral pathogen in olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus, is viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus, which afflicts over 48 species of freshwater and marine fish. Here, we performed gene expression profiling on transcripts isolated from VHSV-infected olive flounder livers using a 13 K cDNA microarray chip. A total of 1832 and 1647 genes were upregulated and down-regulated over two-fold, respectively, after infection. A variety of immune-related genes showing significant changes in gene expression were identified in upregulated genes through gene ontology annotation. These genes were grouped into categories such as antibacterial peptide, antigen-recognition and adhesion molecules, apoptosis, cytokine-related pathway, immune system, stress response, and transcription factor and regulatory factors. To verify the cDNA microarray data, we performed quantitative real-time PCR, and the results were similar to the microarray data. In conclusion, these results may be useful for the identification of specific genes or for the diagnosis of VHSV infection in flounder.

  13. Genetic variants of Kudoa septempunctata (Myxozoa: Multivalvulida), a flounder parasite causing foodborne disease.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, F; Ogasawara, Y; Kato, K; Sekizuka, T; Nozaki, T; Sugita-Konishi, Y; Ohnishi, T; Kuroda, M

    2016-06-01

    Foodborne disease outbreaks caused by raw olive flounders (Paralichthys olivaceus) parasitized with Kudoa septempunctata have been reported in Japan. Origins of olive flounders consumed in Japan vary, being either domestic or imported, and aquaculture-raised or natural. Although it is unknown whether different sources are associated with different outcomes, it is desirable to identify whether this is the case by determining whether unique K. septempunctata strains occur and if so, whether some are associated with foodborne illness. We here developed an intraspecific genotyping method, using the sequence variation of mitochondrial genes. We collected olive flounder samples from foodborne disease outbreaks, domestic fish farms or quarantine offices and investigated whether K. septempunctata genotype is associated with pathogenicity or geographic origin. The 104 samples were classified into three genotypes, ST1, ST2 and ST3. Frequency of symptomatic cases differed by genotypes, but the association was not statistically significant. Whereas K. septempunctata detected from aquaculture-raised and natural fish from Japan were either ST1 or ST2, those from fish inspected at quarantine from Korea to Japan were ST3. Our method can be applied to phylogeographic analysis of K. septempunctata and contribute to containing the foodborne disease. The genotype database is hosted in the PubMLST website (http://pubmlst.org/kseptempunctata/). © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Molecular cloning and characterization of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyun Kook; Kong, Hee Jeong; Nam, Bo-Hye; Kim, Woo-Jin; Noh, Jae-Koo; Lee, Jeong-Ho; Kim, Young-Ok; Cheong, JaeHun

    2009-09-15

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear hormone receptors that play key roles in lipid and energy homeostasis. Olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) PPARgamma cDNA (olPPARgamma) was isolated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The full-length cDNA is 1667-bp long and encodes a polypeptide with 532 amino acids containing a C4-type zinc finger and a ligand-binding domain. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that olPPARgamma transcription was detected from 7days post-hatching, and its expression was increased under a starved condition. Overexpression of olPPARgamma stimulated PPAR response element (PPRE) activity, and treatment with rosiglitazone, a PPARgamma agonist, augmented olPPARgamma-stimulated PPRE activity in HINAE olive flounder cells. Cotransfection of olPPARgamma and olRXRbeta, in the absence or presence of rosiglitazone and ciglitazone, produced a synergistic effect on PPRE transactivation in 3T3L1 adipocytes. Moreover, olPPARgamma, in the presence or absence of rosiglitazone, regulated the expression of lipid synthesis- and adipogenesis-related proteins in NIH3T3 and 3T3L1 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that olPPARgamma is functionally and evolutionarily conserved in olive flounder and mammals.

  15. Comparison of proteome typing and serotyping of Streptococcus parauberis isolates from olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Kim, Si Won; Jang, Ho Bin; Lee, Jung Seok; Im, Se Pyeong; Lazarte, Jassy Mary S; Seo, Jong Pyo; Lee, Woo Jai; Kim, Jae Sung; Jung, Tae Sung

    2015-11-01

    The olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) is a cultivated marine species that is economically important in Korea and Japan. Several bacterial pathogens have caused severe mortalities in farmed olive flounder, especially Streptococcus parauberis. We collected 145 S. parauberis isolates from diseased olive flounders from 2003 to 2008 in Jeju Island, South Korea and characterized them by Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF MS) and by serology. The serological analysis divided the isolates into serotype I (62.1%) and serotype II (36.6%) and the proteome analysis divided the isolates into cluster 1 (43.4%) and cluster 2 (56.6%). All cluster 1 isolates had serotype I, but cluster 2 consisted of serotype I (32.9%), serotype II (64.6%), and others (2.5%). Further detailed analysis of the mass spectra led to identification of several specific m/z peaks that enabled discrimination between cluster 1 and 2 and between serotype I and II within cluster 2. Our results suggest that MALDI TOF MS analysis has potential as an alternative method for the rapid and reliable identification of the fish pathogen S. parauberis.

  16. Expression Analysis of Cathepsin F during Embryogenesis and Early Developmental Stage in Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jang-Wook; Lee, Young Mee; Yang, Hyun; Noh, Jae Koo; Kim, Hyun Chul; Park, Choul-Ji; Park, Jong-Won; Hwang, In Joon; Kim, Sung Yeon; Lee, Jeong-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Cathepsins are members of the multigene family of lysosomal cysteine proteinases and have regulated function in several life processes. The potential role of cathepsin F cysteine gene was expected as protease in the yolk processing mechanism during early developmental stage, but expression analysis was unknown after fertilization. The alignment analysis showed that amino acid sequence of cathepsin F from olive flounder liver expressed sequence tag (EST) homologous to cathepsin F of other known cathepsin F sequences with 87-98% identity. In this study, we examined the gene expression analysis of cathepsin F in various tissues at variety age flounder. Tissue distribution of the cathepsin F mRNA has been shown to be ubiquitous and constitutive pattern regardless of age in each group, although derived from cDNA library using liver sample. The mRNA level of cathepsin F more increased as developmental proceed during embryogenesis and early developmental stage, especially increased in the blastula, hatching stage and 3 days post hatching (dph). As a result, it may suggest that the proteolysis of yolk proteins (YPs) has been implicated as a mechanism for nutrient supply during early larval stages in olive flounder. PMID:25949137

  17. Single nucleotide polymorphism of FSHβ gene associated with reproductive traits in Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Feng; Wen, Haishen; Yu, Dahui; Li, Jifang; Shi, Bao; Chen, Caifang; Zhang, Jiaren; Jin, Guoxiong; Chen, Xiaoyan; Shi, Dan; Yang, Yanping

    2010-12-01

    Follicle stimulating hormone β (FSHβ) of Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) plays a key role in the regulation of gonadal development. This study aimed to investigate molecular genetic characteristics of the FSHβ gene and elucidate the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of FSHβ on reproductive traits in Japanese flounder. We used polymerase chain reaction single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and sequencing of the FSHβ gene in 60 individuals. We identified only an SNP (T/C) in the coding region of exon3 of FSHβ. The SNP (T/C) did not lead to amino acid changes at the position 340 bp of FSHβ gene. Statistical analysis showed that the SNP was significantly associated with testosterone (T) level and gonadosomatic index (GSI) ( P < 0.05). Individuals with genotype TC of the SNP had significantly higher serum T levels and GSI ( P < 0.05) than that of genotype CC. Therefore, FSHβ gene could be a useful molecular marker in selection for prominent reproductive trait in Japanese Flounder.

  18. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (North Atlantic): Winter flounder

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, J.

    1989-01-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and aquatic invertebrates. They are designed to assist with environmental impact assessments. From 1935 to 1980, the annual commercial landings of winter flounder in New England ranged from 6000 to 15000 t; the sport catch exceeded the commercial catch in some years. Winter flounder are found in waters with temperatures of 0 to 25 /degree/C and they usually spawn at 0 to 3 /degree/C. Reported fecundities are 0.5 to 1.5 million eggs per female. Metamorphosis from larva to juvenile is complete in 49-80 days, depending on temperature. Juveniles remain in or near shallow natal waters for much of their first 2 years. Adults of some populations move more than 3 miles offshore to cooler waters in summer. These adults live in shallow inshore waters in winter and early spring. Adult winter flounder feed largely on annelids, cnidariids, and mollusks. 58 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Recombination-activating gene 1 and 2 (RAG1 and RAG2) in flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianlei; Tan, Xungang; Zhang, Pei-Jun; Zhang, Yuqing; Xu, Peng

    2014-12-01

    During the development of B and T lymphocytes, Ig and TCR variable region genes are assembled from germline V, D, and J gene segments by a site-specific recombination reaction known as V(D)J recombination. The process of somatic V(D)J recombination, mediated by the recombination-activating gene (RAG) products, is the most significant characteristic of adaptive immunity in jawed vertebrates. Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) RAG1 and RAG2 were isolated by Genome Walker and RT-PCR, and their expression patterns were analysed by RT-PCR and in situ hybridization on sections. RAG1 spans over 7.0 kb, containing 4 exons and 3 introns, and the full-length ORF is 3207 bp, encoding a peptide of 1068 amino acids. The first exon lies in the 5'-UTR, which is an alternative exon. RAG2 full-length ORF is 1062 bp, encodes a peptide of 533 amino acids, and lacks introns in the coding region. In 6-month old flounders, the expression of RAG1 and RAG2 was essentially restricted to the pronephros (head kidney) and mesonephros (truck kidney). Additionally, both of them were mainly expressed in the thymus. These results revealed that the thymus and kidney most likely serve as the primary lymphoid tissues in the flounder.

  20. Screening of hydrophobic DNA adducts in flounder (Platichthys flesus) from the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Malmström, C; Konn, M; Bogovski, S; Lang, T; Lönnström, L-G; Bylund, G

    2009-12-01

    Neoplasia and other histopathological lesions in flounder (Platichthys flesus) liver have been investigated in several European sea areas, including the Baltic Sea. Several studies have been able to link neoplasm epizootics in fish with the exposure to genotoxins such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The level of hydrophobic DNA adducts in tissue DNA reflects the exposure of the organism to PAHs. Using hydrophobic DNA adduct levels as biomarkers, possible PAH exposure was assessed in flounder from 10 different sites in the Baltic Sea, collected during the years 1995-1997. The results show that the overall levels of hepatic DNA adducts were low and, in general, the chromatograms appeared clean. The highest levels of DNA adducts were found at two sites in the southern Baltic Sea. There were no statistically significant differences in adduct levels between the sites. Our results indicate that flounder from studied off shore sites of the Baltic Sea had not been exposed to a greater extent to large polycyclic hydrophobic hydrocarbons in their environment.

  1. Habitat distribution model for European flounder juveniles in the Venice lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucchetta, Matteo; Franco, Anita; Torricelli, Patrizia; Franzoi, Piero

    2010-07-01

    In order to identify nursery habitats for Platichthys flesus in the Venice lagoon we developed a generalized additive model relating juvenile flounder's distribution to environmental variables. A field survey was conducted between March 2004 and June 2005 and between February and October 2008 in the central and Northern sub-basins of the lagoon. Each station was sampled by means of a beach seine net and characterized collecting the main chemico-physical variables, such as water temperature, salinity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen content and bottom grain size. Main winds fetches were also considered, and estimated in a GIS environment. A logistic model was fitted, and evaluated on an independent dataset. The response curves allowed to identify the role of the environmental parameters in explaining the distribution of the juvenile flounder: turbidity, salinity and sand content revealed to be the most important factors, showing the preference for mesohaline turbid waters together with a low sand content of the sediment. The application of this model to continuous surfaces of the environmental variables allowed the creation of potential habitat distribution maps. In this way it has been possible to recognize several areas covering a key role for the juveniles of flounder, located mainly in the inner part of the lagoon.

  2. Measuring some flounder (Platichthys flesus L.) innate immune responses to be incorporated in effect biomonitoring concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skouras, Andreas; Steinhagen, Dieter

    2003-10-01

    For an implementation of innate immune responses of flounder (Platichthys flesus) in an integrated biological effect monitoring concept, leucocytes were isolated from peripheral blood, head kidney and spleen, and analysed for their capacity to mount a respiratory burst response upon phorbol ester stimulation. Responding cells were identified by reduced nitro-blue-tetrazolium salt deposits and by dihydro-rhodamine fluorescence in light microscope and flow cytometric analysis. Responding cells were found in head kidney derived cell suspensions rather than in peripheral blood or spleen. Parallel cytometric and microscopic analysis indicated that responding cells had a granulocyte or monocyte morphology, were alpha-naphtyl-esterase or myeloperoxidase positive and in flow cytometry exhibited a characteristic forward and side scatter (FSC/SSC) pattern. These cells represented 30-40% of head kidney derived cell suspensions and only 4-5 % of peripheral blood and spleen. In order to reduce sampling effort in field studies, leucocyte cell suspensions derived from flounder head kidney could be used in respiratory burst assays without further enrichment protocols. This paper combines, for the first time, conventional and cytometric analysis of phagocytes derived from flounder peripheral blood and head kidney.

  3. Liver histopathology in Baltic flounder (Platichthys flesus) as indicator of biological effects of contaminants.

    PubMed

    Lang, Thomas; Wosniok, Werner; Barsiene, Janina; Broeg, Katja; Kopecka, Justyna; Parkkonen, Jari

    2006-01-01

    Results are presented of a study on liver histopathology in Baltic flounder (Platichthys flesus) carried out in 2001 and 2002 in four coastal sampling areas of the Baltic Sea: Kvädöfjärden (Swedish east coast, reference area), Klaipeda-Butinge (Lithuanian coast), Gulf of Gdansk (Polish coast), and Wismar Bay (German coast) within the framework of the EU-funded BEEP project. Liver lesions were diagnosed and categorised using standardised methodologies and, for a spatial and temporal assessment of the prevalence and types of lesions detected, a scoring system was applied, involving the calculation of mean histopathology lesion scores. 83.0% of the 436 female flounder examined (size range: 20-43 cm total length, age range: 2-8 years) were affected by liver lesions, out of which 74.3% were assigned to the category of non-specific, 3.4% to the category of early toxicopathic non-neoplastic, 4.6% to the category of pre-neoplastic and 0.7% to the category of neoplastic lesions. Mean lesions scores were highest in the areas at the Lithuanian and Swedish coast and there is indication of an impact of the age structure of the flounder populations studied, the sampling season as well as of contaminant effects.

  4. Factors influencing distribution of juvenile yellowtail flounder ( Limanda ferruginea) on the grand bank of Newfoundland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, S. J.

    On the Grand Bank, off the coast of Newfoundland, yellowtail flounder is at its northern limit in abundance. The population is relatively sedentary and has formed the basis of a traditional trawler fishery since the middle 1960s. However, very little is known about this species' early life history stages and ecology. Beginning in 1985, bottom trawl surveys have been conducted annually to determine distribution and abundance of juvenile yellowtail flounder on the Grand Bank. It was found that both juveniles and adults maintained their shallow water depth distribution despite wide fluctuations in temperature. Based on the analyses of the distribution of age-1 group and older juveniles (up to 4 years) and incorporating historical information on egg and larval surveys, physical oceanography and substrate type in the region it was found that all early life history stages were retained in the same geographic area, on and adjacent to the Southeast Shoal on the southern Grand Bank. It is suggested that passive retention of eggs and larvae is related to a weak current regime on the southern Grand Bank. Age-1 group and older juveniles were consistently found on a sandy substrate in the same area, indicating that sediment size is an important factor influencing distribution. These observed patterns of distribution of eggs, larvae, and juveniles points to the Southeast Shoal area as being an oceanic nursery site for Grand Bank yellowtail flounder. But unlike the well-published North Sea coastal nurseries, this oceanic nursery also contains newly settled juveniles, older juveniles, and adults.

  5. Effects of ocean acidification on the larval growth of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.-S.; Shim, J. H.; Kim, S.

    2013-04-01

    Little is known about how marine fishes respond to the reduced pH condition caused by the increased CO2 in the atmosphere. We investigated the effects of CO2 concentration on the growth of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) larvae. Newly hatched larvae were reared in three different concentrations of CO2 (574, 988 and 1297 μatm CO2) in temperature-controlled water tanks until metamorphosis (4 weeks). Body lengths, weights, and the concentration of some chemical elements in larval tissue were measured at the completion of each experiment, and experiment was repeated three times in May, June, and July 2011. Results indicated that body length and weight of flounder larvae were significantly increased with increasing CO2 concentration (P < 0.05). Daily growth rates of flounder larvae were higher (0.391 mm) from the high CO2 concentration (1297 μatm) than those (0.361 mm and 0.360 mm) from the lower ones (988 and 574 μatm).The measurement on some chemical elements (Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Sr) in fish tissue also revealed the increasing tendency of element concentration with increasing CO2 in seawater, although statistical significance cannot be tested due to the single measurement. It suggests that there are enrichment processes of these cations in larval tissue in the low pH condition.

  6. The effects of combined dietary probiotics Lactococcus lactis BFE920 and Lactobacillus plantarum FGL0001 on innate immunity and disease resistance in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Beck, Bo Ram; Kim, Daniel; Jeon, Jongsu; Lee, Sun-Min; Kim, Hui Kwon; Kim, Oi-Jin; Lee, Jae Il; Suh, Byung Sun; Do, Hyung Ki; Lee, Kwan Hee; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H; Hwang, Jee Youn; Kwon, Mun Gyeong; Song, Seong Kyu

    2015-01-01

    The effects of a dietary probiotic mixture containing Lactococcus (Lc.) lactis BFE920 isolated from bean sprout and autochthonous Lactobacillus (Lb.) plantarum FGL0001 originally isolated from the hindgut of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) were investigated for the purpose of improving the probiotic effects of Lc. lactis BFE920 on the olive flounder. The immunostimulatory, disease protective, and weight gain effects of Lc. lactis BFE920 were significantly improved when olive flounder (average weight 37.5±1.26 g) were fed the probiotic mixture (log10 7.0 CFU each/g feed pellet) for 30 days. Flounder fed the mixture showed improved skin mucus lysozyme activity and phagocytic activity of innate immune cells compared to flounder fed a single probiotic agent or a control diet. While the levels of neutrophil activity in flounder fed the single probiotic agent or the mixture were similar, they were significantly higher than levels in a control group. Additionally, probiotic-fed flounder showed significantly increased expressions of IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α in the intestine compared to the control group. Following a 30-day period of being fed probiotics or a control diet, the olive flounder were challenged with an i.p. injection of Streptococcus iniae (log10 6.0 CFU/fish). The groups fed the mixed probiotics, Lc. lactis BFE920, Lb. plantarum FGL0001, and the control diet had survival rates of 55%, 45%, 35%, and 20%, respectively. Flounder fed the probiotic mixture gained 38.1±2.8% more body weight compared to flounder fed the control diet during the 30-day study period. These data strongly suggest that a mixture of Lc. lactis BFE920 and Lb. plantarum FGL0001 may serve as an immunostimulating feed additive useful for disease protection in the fish farming industry.

  7. A transcriptomic analysis of American lobster (Homarus americanus) immune response during infection with the bumper car parasite Anophryoides haemophila.

    PubMed

    Clark, K Fraser; Acorn, Adam R; Greenwood, Spencer J

    2013-06-01

    Anophryoides haemophila is an important protistan parasite of American lobster, Homarus americanus, as it has been found to infect lobsters in the wild as well as causing major losses of lobsters maintained in commercial holding facilities. Expression of over 14,500 H. americanus hepatopancreatic genes were monitored during an A. haemophila infection challenge in order to elucidate molecular mechanisms involved in the lobster immune response. One hundred and forty-five genes were found to be differentially expressed during infection. For many genes, this study is the first to link their expression to an immune response to a known lobster pathogen. Several of the genes have previously been linked to crustacean or invertebrate immune response including: several anti-lipopolysaccharide factor isoforms (ALFHa), acute phase serum amyloid protein A (SAA), a serine protease inhibitor, a toll-like receptor, several haemocyanin subunits, phagocyte signaling-impaired protein, vitelline membrane outer layer protein-1, trypsin, and a C-type lectin receptor. Microarray results were verified using RT-qPCR and agreement was good between the two methods. The expression of six ALFHa isoforms was monitored via microarray where ALFHa-1, ALFHa-2, ALFHa-4 and ALFHa-6 were differentially expressed while ALFHa-3 and ALFHa7 were not. RT-qPCR analysis confirmed that ALFHa-1, ALFHA-2 and ALFHa-4 expression increased during infection with a peak at 5-7weeks for ALFHa-1 and 10weeks for ALFHa-2 and ALFHa-4. This suggests that different ALFHa isoforms are temporally expressed during A. haemophila infection. Importantly, these results provide evidence that different ALFHa isoforms have more significant roles in responding to A. haemophila infection. Significant increases in SAA gene expression were also found, corroborating previous findings of increased SAA expression during Aerococcus viridans infections; highlighting the importance of SAA as a marker of H. americanus immune activation and

  8. Purification and amino acid composition of a peptide with molt-inhibiting activity from the lobster, Homarus americanus.

    PubMed

    Chang, E S; Bruce, M J; Newcomb, R W

    1987-01-01

    A peptide was isolated and purified from sinus glands of the lobster, Homarus americanus, that was able to decrease circulating titers of ecdysteroids and increase the molt interval of eyestalk-ablated juvenile lobsters. This molt-inhibiting activity was demonstrated to consist of two very closely related peptides by means of high-performance liquid chromatography and gel electrophoresis. By means of amino acid analyses, a molecular weight of approximately 8700 was obtained.

  9. Assessment of the European flounder responses to chemical stress in the English Channel, considering biomarkers and life history traits.

    PubMed

    Dupuy, Célie; Galland, Claire; Pichereau, Vianney; Sanchez, Wilfried; Riso, Ricardo; Labonne, Maylis; Amara, Rachid; Charrier, Grégory; Fournier, Michel; Laroche, Jean

    2015-06-30

    A multi-biomarker approach was developed to evaluate responses of European flounder (Platichthys flesus) in three contrasted estuaries over the English Channel: the Canche (pristine site), Tamar (heavy metals and PAHs contamination) and Seine (heavily pollution with a complex cocktail of contaminants). The condition factor and several biomarkers of the immune system, antioxidant enzymes, energetic metabolism and detoxification processes were investigated in young-of-the-year (0+) and one-year-old (1+) flounder. Results underlined the difference between the pristine site and the Seine estuary which showed a lower condition factor, a modulation of the immune system, a higher Cytochrome C oxidase activity, and an up-regulation of BHMT expression. The moderate biomarker responses in the Tamar fish could be linked to the specific contamination context of this estuary. Flounder life history traits were analyzed by otolith microchemistry, in order to depict how the fish use their habitat and thus respond to chemical stress in estuaries.

  10. Comparison of common persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in flounder (Platichthys flesus) from the Vistula (Poland) and Douro (Portugal) River estuaries.

    PubMed

    Waszak, Ilona; Dabrowska, Henryka; Komar-Szymczak, Katarzyna

    2014-04-15

    Groups of flounder (Platichthys flesus) females were collected in 2011 from the Vistula River and the Duoro River estuaries and corresponding reference sites in the southern Baltic Sea and Portuguese coast of the Atlantic Ocean to measure and compare the levels and profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The estuaries' sediments were also investigated. Several differences were found in the POPs between the estuaries and between the two marine regions, which were highlighted by PCA. The Vistula River estuary POPs, significantly higher than in the Douro River estuary, were dominated by DDTs followed by PCBs. PBDEs levels, indifferent between the estuaries, were relatively low. The POP levels in flounder and sediment evaluated against environmental assessment criteria (EACs) indicated that none of the measured contaminants for which EAC had been established exceeded the criterion, except for CB-118 in flounder from the Vistula River estuary. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. On the population development of the introduced razor clam Ensis americanus near the island of Sylt (North Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armonies, W.; Reise, K.

    1998-09-01

    The American razor clam Ensis americanus (= E. directus) was introduced into the eastern North Sea in the late 1970s. By larval and poslarval drifting the species rapidly extended its distribution, now ranging from the English Channel to the Kattegat. Near the island of Sylt in the eastern North Sea it has been recorded since 1979. Recruitment was rather irregular, with about six strong year-classes within two decades. Growth seems comparable with populations in its native range (Atlantic North America). Although present in the lower intertidal zone, maximum densities occurred in shallow subtidal sand with a biomass similar to that of dense beds of native cockles and mussels in the adjacent intertidal zone. Ensis americanus established in otherwise sparsely faunated sand (channels exposed to strong currents) as well as in dense infaunal assemblages (lower intertidal and subtidally). There were no significant interactions with resident species. In dense beds of razor clams, however, fine sediment particles accumulated which may have altered abundances of polychaetes. In spite of high annual variability, E. americanus has become a prominent component of the macrobenthos in shallow subtidal sands of the North Sea.

  12. First report of Taenia arctos (Cestoda: Taeniidae) from grizzly (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bears (Ursus americanus) in North America.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Stefano; Lejeune, Manigandan; Verocai, Guilherme G; Duignan, Pádraig J

    2014-04-01

    The cestode Taenia arctos was found at necropsy in the small intestine of a grizzly (Ursus arctos horribilis) and a black bear (Ursus americanus) from Kananaskis Country in southwestern Alberta, Canada. The autolysis of the tapeworm specimens precluded detailed morphological characterization of the parasites but molecular analysis based on mitochondrial DNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene confirmed their identity as T. arctos. This is the first report of T. arctos from definitive hosts in North America. Its detection in Canadian grizzly and black bears further supports the Holarctic distribution of this tapeworm species and its specificity for ursids as final hosts. Previously, T. arctos was unambiguously described at its adult stage in brown bears (Ursus arctos arctos) from Finland, and as larval stages in Eurasian elk (Alces alces) from Finland and moose (Alces americanus) from Alaska, USA. Given the morphological similarity between T. arctos and other Taenia species, the present study underlines the potential for misidentification of tapeworm taxa in previous parasitological reports from bears and moose across North America. The biogeographical history of both definitive and intermediate hosts in the Holarctic suggests an ancient interaction between U. arctos, Alces spp., and T. arctos, and a relatively recent host-switching event in U. americanus.

  13. Anti-lipopolysaccharide factors in the American lobster Homarus americanus: Molecular characterization and transcriptional response to Vibrio fluvialis challenge

    PubMed Central

    Beale, K.M.; Towle, D.W.; Jayasundara, N.; Smith, C.M.; Shields, J.D.; Small, H.J.; Greenwood, S.J.

    2008-01-01

    Two partial mRNA sequences predicted to encode anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (ALFs) were identified among expressed sequence tags generated from the American lobster Homarus americanus and complete cDNA sequences were obtained from library clones. Comparison of the translated amino acid sequences to those publicly available confirmed similarity to arthropod anti-lipopolysaccharide factors. Both protein sequences, designated ALFHa-1 and ALFHa-2, contained an N-terminal signal peptide and two half-cysteines participating in a disulfide bridge, features conserved in other ALFs. Predicted secondary structures were similar to that described for the ALF from the horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus. As part of an exploratory study of immunity in H. americanus, lobsters were injected with the bacterium Vibrio fluvialis and gill, hematopoietic, and hepatopancreas tissues were sampled for analysis of gene expression of ALFHa-1 and ALFHa-2 by quantitative PCR. The relative abundance of ALFHa-2 mRNA was not significantly affected by Vibrio injection in any of the three tissues tested. In contrast, ALFHa-1 mRNA levels in gills were increased by the treatment some 17-fold. Our results support a molecularly specific regulation of antimicrobial proteins in response to bacterial infection in H. americanus. PMID:19956341

  14. Analysis of gene expression in Homarus americanus larvae exposed to sublethal concentrations of endosulfan during metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Megan; Greenwood, Spencer J; Clark, K Fraser; Jackman, Paula; Fairchild, Wayne

    2013-12-01

    Agricultural pesticide runoff has been suspected as the cause of numerous fish kills in rivers throughout Prince Edward Island but the impact on the surrounding marine environment is unknown. Endosulfan, an organochlorine pesticide, is a potent neurotoxin and molt inhibitor used to combat the Colorado potato beetle however it has the potential to affect non-target organisms including the American lobster (Homarus americanus). Metamorphosis is a critical stage of development and the effects of contaminant exposure during this time are largely unknown in lobster. A 14day endosulfan exposure was performed to identify the effects on survival, development and gene expression in lobster larvae during metamorphosis; all of which were predicted to be negatively impacted. The higher endosulfan concentrations resulted in greater mortality and a significant increase in the number of days required to reach metamorphosis in surviving animals. A custom made H. americanus microarray was used for monitoring the changes in expression of 14,592 genes at the termination of the exposure. Genes with >1.5 fold change and identified as being significant at p<0.05 using one-way ANOVA were selected for further analysis. A total of 707 genes were identified as being significantly differentiated, however with only ~40% annotation of the array, the majority of these genes were unknown. Annotated genes of interest were involved in many processes: development, metabolism, immunity and oxidative stress response and gene regulation. Nine genes of interest (histone H1, farnesoic acid O-methyltransferase, cuticle protein, glutathione S-transferase, thioredoxin, NADH dehydrogenase, ecdysone nuclear receptor Fushi tarazu F1 (FTZ-F1), ferritin and ecdysone inducible protein E75 (EIP-E75)) were selected for RT-qPCR validation of the microarray results. The RT-qPCR method was more sensitive than the microarray yet detected similar expression patterns. The two highest endosulfan concentrations resulted

  15. Development of a multiplex PCR assay to detect Edwardsiella tarda, Streptococcus parauberis, and Streptococcus iniae in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Park, Seong Bin; Kwon, Kyoung; Cha, In Seok; Jang, Ho Bin; Nho, Seong Won; Fagutao, Fernand F; Kim, Young Kyu; Yu, Jong Earn; Jung, Tae Sung

    2014-01-01

    A multiplex PCR protocol was established to simultaneously detect major bacterial pathogens in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) including Edwardsiella (E.) tarda, Streptococcus (S.) parauberis, and S. iniae. The PCR assay was able to detect 0.01 ng of E. tarda, 0.1 ng of S. parauberis, and 1 ng of S. iniae genomic DNA. Furthermore, this technique was found to have high specificity when tested with related bacterial species. This method represents a cheaper, faster, and reliable alternative for identifying major bacterial pathogens in olive flounder, the most important farmed fish in Korea.

  16. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Florida): Southern, gulf, and summer flounders. [Paralichthys lethostigma; Paralichthys albigutta; Paralichthys dentatus

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, C.R.

    1986-07-01

    The southern, gulf, and summer flounders live most of their lives in or near estuaries. Adults migrate into offshore waters during fall and winter, where spawning occurs from September to April. Eggs and newly-hatched larvae are carried inshore into estuaries, where further growth takes place. Age at sexual maturity for the three species has been estimated from 2 to 4 years, and maximum longevity from 3 to 10 years. Females apparently live slightly longer than males. Southern and summer flounders are estimated to live slightly longer than the smaller gulf flounder. Postlarvae eat mostly zooplankton, and larger individuals feed on fish and crustaceans. The summer and gulf flounders prefer a hard and/or sandy substrate, whereas the southern flounder is more common in a soft bottom of rich organic mud, clay, or silt. The southern flounder, unlike the other two species, is highly euryhaline, and frequently occurs in fresh water. Commercial catch statistics lump the three species together under the name ''flounder.'' Peak commercial catch in the Gulf of Mexico (in 1977) was 1.5 million lb, for a value of $561,000; peak catch in the south Atlantic region (also in 1977) was 11.4 million lb, for a value of $5,100,000.

  17. The migration patterns of the European flounder Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Pleuronectidae, Pisces) at the southern limit of its distribution range: Ecological implications and fishery management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morais, Pedro; Dias, Ester; Babaluk, John; Antunes, Carlos

    2011-02-01

    This study aims to determine the diversity of migration patterns of the European flounder ( Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758)) present in the Minho estuary and in the adjacent coastal area (NW-Iberian Peninsula). Assessing the diversity of flounder migration patterns at the southern limit of its distribution allows the determination of characteristics of the species' ecology and provides useful information for fishery managers, since it is a regionally important estuarine fishery. An unexpected result of our study was that flounder appears to spawn in both estuarine and coastal areas and not just in coastal areas as was previously widely accepted. Our interpretation of otolith strontium distribution patterns from flounder specimens collected in the freshwater tidal area of the Minho estuary and in the lower estuary suggested that the flounders hatched in the estuary, while only 6.7% of those captured in the coastal area hatched in the coastal area. Ultimately, studies aimed at collecting larval stages and adult flounders must be made to confirm that flounders spawn in the estuary and to define new and better scientifically supported fishing policies, or simply to confirm the existing ones regarding temporal and spatial closures for each gear used in the Minho estuary.

  18. Differences in Energy Expenditures and Growth Dilution Explain Higher PCB Concentrations in Male Summer Flounder

    PubMed Central

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Jensen, Olaf P.; Rediske, Richard R.; O’Keefe, James P.; Vastano, Anthony R.; Pothoven, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations between the sexes of mature fish may reveal important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes. We determined whole-fish PCB concentrations in 23 female summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus and 27 male summer flounder from New Jersey coastal waters. To investigate the potential for differences in diet or habitat utilization between the sexes, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were also determined. In 5 of the 23 female summer flounder, PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries were determined. In addition, we used bioenergetics modeling to assess the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 87 and 124 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 43% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios did not significantly differ between the sexes, suggesting that diet composition and habitat utilization did not vary between the sexes. Based on PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 0.6%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain the higher PCB concentrations observed in males. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being 19% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the bulk of the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes was not explained by growth dilution. We concluded that a higher rate of energy expenditure in males, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate, was most likely the primary driver for the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. PMID:26794728

  19. Differences in energy expenditures and growth dilution explain higher PCB concentrations in male summer flounder

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Jensen, Olaf P.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.; Vastano, Anthony R.; Pothoven, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations between the sexes of mature fish may reveal important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes. We determined whole-fish PCB concentrations in 23 female summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus and 27 male summer flounder from New Jersey coastal waters. To investigate the potential for differences in diet or habitat utilization between the sexes, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were also determined. In 5 of the 23 female summer flounder, PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries were determined. In addition, we used bioenergetics modeling to assess the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 87 and 124 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 43% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios did not significantly differ between the sexes, suggesting that diet composition and habitat utilization did not vary between the sexes. Based on PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 0.6%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain the higher PCB concentrations observed in males. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being 19% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the bulk of the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes was not explained by growth dilution. We concluded that a higher rate of energy expenditure in males, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate, was most likely the primary driver for the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes.

  20. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationship, and withdrawal period of amoxicillin sodium in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Yong; Awji, Elias Gebru; Suh, Joo-Won; Park, Seung-Chun

    2016-01-01

    1. The pharmacokinetics (PK) and withdrawal period of amoxicillin sodium in olive flounder and its activity against pathogenic bacteria of olive flounder were investigated. 2. Intramuscular administration (12.5 or 125 mg/kg, n = 160) and HPLC analysis of sera were used. 3. Rapid absorption (Tmax 2.6 and 2.2 h), prolonged action (terminal half-life, 15.52 and 10.42 h; MRT, 18.79 and 14.44 h), and dose-proportional exposure (AUC0-∞, 273.69 and 2755.37 h. μg/ml) were observed after 12.5 and 125 mg/kg doses. 4. The withdrawal period of amoxicillin sodium from muscle plus skin of olive flounder (n =40, water temperature, 23 °C) was 12 d (276 degree days). 5. Amoxicillin sodium had small MICs against Streptococcus iniae (0.008-0.06 μg/ml) and Streptococcus parauberis (0.03-1.0 μg/ml), whereas higher concentrations were required to inhibit Edwardsiella tarda isolates (0.06-16 μg/ml). 6. While large AUC0-24 h/MIC90 and Cmax/MIC90 ratios were obtained for S. iniae and S. parauberis, with drug concentrations in serum greater than MICs for the entire dosing interval (T > MIC90 of 100%), the lower dose (12.5 mg/kg) could not achieve target values of the PK-pharmacodynamic (PD) indices for E. tarda isolates, suggesting the need for higher doses to combat pathogenic bacteria with large MICs.

  1. Selective Tidal Stream Transport of Flounder Larvae ( Platichthys flesusL.) in the Dollard (Ems Estuary)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jager, Z.

    1999-09-01

    The vertical distribution of flounder larvae (Platichthys flesus L.) was investigated in the Dollard (Ems estuary, Wadden Sea) in relation to tidal phase and physical variables in order to address the question whether larval migration into the nursery is accomplished by passive transport, or is influenced by active (swimming) behaviour. Larval concentrations were measured twice per hour simultaneously at three water depths from low water (LW), through high water (HW), to the next LW slack. Physical variables were measured at the same time. Maximum concentrations of flounder larvae were 433 m-3in 1994 and 40 m-3in 1995. There were tidal variations in larval concentrations in all three water layers and the vertical distribution varied as well. The highest larval concentrations were usually found near the surface during flood and the lowest in the midwater layer during the ebb. In contrast to larval concentrations, turbidity was always highest near the bottom. The observation that larval vertical distributions deviate from those of suspended matter and vary in a different way led to the rejection of an entirely passive transport mechanism. The vertical distribution of larvae during flood supported the selective tidal stream transport hypothesis, but the relatively high number of flounder larvae in the surface layer during ebb was in contradiction with it. The high surface concentrations during ebb may have been caused by different origins of the water layers and thus larvae, or by an inability of the metamorphosing larvae to resist the strong ebb currents. The data suggest that the transport process inside the nursery may favour retention.

  2. Transport and retention of flounder larvae ( Platichthys flesus L.) in the Dollard nursery (Ems estuary)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jager, Zwanette

    2001-05-01

    Variability in tidal transport of larval flounder ( Platichthys flesus L.) in the Dollard was investigated to estimate the quantity of larvae that are annually retained in the nursery based on simultaneous measurements of water transport and larval concentrations. Sampling was done three times per hour in the main channel in the Dollard, during 35 tidal cycles divided over 1993, 1994 and 1995. In 1993, additional sampling was carried out simultaneously during eight tidal cycles in a subsidiary channel. Larval concentrations showed marked tidal variations at all time scales and indicated a patchy spatial distribution. The estimated net tidal transport of larvae was not correlated to the net tidal transport of water. However, a higher net water transport coincided with higher retention, defined as the percentage of net larval transport divided by the flood larval transport. Also, relatively longer duration of the flood than the ebb period (tidal asymmetry) was positively correlated with both net tidal water transport and larval retention. The wind direction significantly affected the net water transport at the cross-section in the main channel, whereas wind speed was not significant. The flood transport, but not the ebb or net transport, was significantly higher during spring tide following full moon than during the other lunar phases. The net tidal transport of larvae was much more variable in 1994 than in 1993 and 1995, frequently resulting in ebb surpluses in larval transport. Despite higher mean concentrations, the estimated net larval input was lower in 1994 than in 1993. This corresponded neither with the observed abundance estimates of juvenile flounder in the Dollard in these two years, nor with the abundance index obtained from routine surveys. The total larval input better reflects the juvenile flounder abundance. Variability in water circulation, influenced by varying wind conditions, and its effect on larval transport and retention is an important source

  3. Visualization of primordial germ cells in the fertilized pelagic eggs of the barfin flounder Verasper moseri.

    PubMed

    Goto, Rie; Saito, Taiju; Kawakami, Yutaka; Kitauchi, Tomoe; Takagi, Misae; Todo, Takashi; Arai, Katsutoshi; Yamaha, Etsuro

    2015-01-01

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) appear during early embryogenesis and differentiate into gametes through oogenesis or spermatogenesis. Teleost PGCs can be visualized by injecting RNA transcribed from the fusion product of a fluorescent protein gene attached to the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of zebrafish nanos3 (zf-nos3). Although this method has been widely applied to teleost PGCs, the visualization of PGCs in pelagic species that have eggs with a hard chorion is more problematic due to the technical difficulty of microinjection into their eggs. In this study, we developed a reliable method for microinjection of fertilized eggs in a pelagic species, the barfin flounder. Using a microneedle with a constriction "brake", we were able to introduce gfp-nos3 3'UTR mRNA into embryos and to determine the origin and migration route of PGCs. We also isolated the barfin flounder nos3 (bf-nos3) gene to compare its 3'UTR sequence with that of zebrafish. The 3'UTR of the bf-nos3 sequence was longer than that of zf-nos3. However, PGCs were also visualized after injection of gfp-bf-nos3 3'UTR mRNA both in zebrafish and barfin flounder. These results suggest that the function of nos3 is conserved between these species regardless of the sequence differences. The method developed here for labeling PGCs with gfp-nos3 mRNA will provide a means to study PGC development in the embryos of a wide range of marine fish species.

  4. Differences in Energy Expenditures and Growth Dilution Explain Higher PCB Concentrations in Male Summer Flounder.

    PubMed

    Madenjian, Charles P; Jensen, Olaf P; Rediske, Richard R; O'Keefe, James P; Vastano, Anthony R; Pothoven, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations between the sexes of mature fish may reveal important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes. We determined whole-fish PCB concentrations in 23 female summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus and 27 male summer flounder from New Jersey coastal waters. To investigate the potential for differences in diet or habitat utilization between the sexes, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were also determined. In 5 of the 23 female summer flounder, PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries were determined. In addition, we used bioenergetics modeling to assess the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 87 and 124 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 43% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios did not significantly differ between the sexes, suggesting that diet composition and habitat utilization did not vary between the sexes. Based on PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 0.6%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain the higher PCB concentrations observed in males. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being 19% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the bulk of the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes was not explained by growth dilution. We concluded that a higher rate of energy expenditure in males, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate, was most likely the primary driver for the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes.

  5. Serosurvey for selected pathogens in free-ranging American black bears (Ursus americanus) in Maryland, USA.

    PubMed

    Bronson, Ellen; Spiker, Harry; Driscoll, Cindy P

    2014-10-01

    American black bears (Ursus americanus) in Maryland, USA, live in forested areas in close proximity to humans and their domestic pets. From 1999 to 2011, we collected 84 serum samples from 63 black bears (18 males; 45 females) in five Maryland counties and tested them for exposure to infectious, including zoonotic, pathogens. A large portion of the bears had antibody to canine distemper virus and Toxoplasma gondii, many at high titers. Prevalences of antibodies to zoonotic agents such as rabies virus and to infectious agents of carnivores including canine adenovirus and canine parvovirus were lower. Bears also had antibodies to vector-borne pathogens common to bears and humans such as West Nile virus, Borrelia burgdorferi, Rickettsia rickettsii, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Antibodies were detected to Leptospira interrogans serovars Pomona, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Canicola, Grippotyphosa, and Bratislava. We did not detect antibodies to Brucella canis or Ehrlichia canis. Although this population of Maryland black bears demonstrated exposure to multiple pathogens of concern for humans and domesticated animals, the low levels of clinical disease in this and other free-ranging black bear populations indicate the black bear is likely a spillover host for the majority of pathogens studied. Nevertheless, bear populations living at the human-domestic-wildlife interface with increasing human and domestic animal exposure should continue to be monitored because this population likely serves as a useful sentinel of ecosystem health.

  6. Sulfate uptake by crustacean hepatopancreatic brush border membrane vesicles. [Homarus americanus

    SciTech Connect

    Gerencser, G.A.; Cattey, M.A; Ahearn, G.A. Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu )

    1990-02-26

    Purified brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) were prepared from Atlantic lobster (Homarus americanus) hepatopancreas using differential centrifugation and Mg{sup +2} precipitation techniques. Uptake of 0.1 mM {sup 35}SO{sub 4}{sup {minus}2} was stimulated by pre-loading vesicles with Cl{sup {minus}} leading to a transient accumulation of isotope more than twice that at equilibrium. Pre-loading with HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} or gluconate had no effect on sulfate uptake. No stimulation of {sup 35}SO{sub 4}{sup {minus}2} was observed in the presence of inwardly directed Na{sup +} or tetramethylammonium{sup +} gradients. Uptake of the divalent anion was strongly stimulated by inwardly directed proton gradients (pH{sub o} < pH{sub i}) and markedly inhibited by outwardly directed proton gradients (pH{sub o} > pH{sub i}). {sup 35}SO{sub 4}{sup {minus}2}/Cl{sup {minus}} exchange was enhanced by imposing a transmembrane inside positive K{sup +} diffusion potential and inhibited by a membrane potential of the opposite polarity (K{sup +}/valinomycin). Results suggest the presence of a proton-dependent, electrogenic anion antiport mechanism in BBMV isolated from the crustacean hepatopancreas.

  7. Electrogenic sulfate uptake by crustacean hepatopancreatic basolateral membrane vesicles. [Homarus americanus

    SciTech Connect

    Cattey, M.A.; Gerencser, G.A.; Aheam, G.A. Univ. of Florida, Gainesville )

    1990-02-26

    Basolateral membrane vesicles (BLMV) were isolated from Atlantic lobster (Homarus americanus) hepatopancreas and purified by discontinuous sucrose gradient centrifugation. BLMV prepared in this fashion were osmotically reactive exhibiting linear dependence of vesicular {sup 35}SO{sub 4}{sup {minus}2} uptake to increasing external osmotic pressure with negligible non-specific isotope binding. Under short circuited conditions (valinomycin/K{sup +}) BLMV responded to either a HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} gradient directed out or equilibrated HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} (10 mM) by displaying short term accumulation of sulfate above that of equilibrium. Uptake of divalent anion was unaffected by an inwardly directed transmembrane Na{sup +} or tetramethylammonium{sup +} gradient. {sup 35}SO{sub 4}{sup {minus}2}/HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} exchange in the presence of valinomycin was stimulated by transient inside positive K{sup +} diffusion potentials and inhibited by transient inside negative K{sup +} diffusion potentials. The role of electrogenic anion exchange by hepatopancreas BLMV in transcellular sulfate transport is discussed.

  8. Temporal dynamics of genetic variability in a mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) population.

    PubMed

    Ortego, Joaquín; Yannic, Glenn; Shafer, Aaron B A; Mainguy, Julien; Festa-Bianchet, Marco; Coltman, David W; Côté, Steeve D

    2011-04-01

    The association between population dynamics and genetic variability is of fundamental importance for both evolutionary and conservation biology. We combined long-term population monitoring and molecular genetic data from 123 offspring and their parents at 28 microsatellite loci to investigate changes in genetic diversity over 14 cohorts in a small and relatively isolated population of mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) during a period of demographic increase. Offspring heterozygosity decreased while parental genetic similarity and inbreeding coefficients (F(IS) ) increased over the study period (1995-2008). Immigrants introduced three novel alleles into the population and matings between residents and immigrants produced more heterozygous offspring than local crosses, suggesting that immigration can increase population genetic variability. The population experienced genetic drift over the study period, reflected by a reduced allelic richness over time and an 'isolation-by-time' pattern of genetic structure. The temporal decline of individual genetic diversity despite increasing population size probably resulted from a combination of genetic drift due to small effective population size, inbreeding and insufficient counterbalancing by immigration. This study highlights the importance of long-term genetic monitoring to understand how demographic processes influence temporal changes of genetic diversity in long-lived organisms.

  9. Sarcocystis oreamni, n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) from the mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus).

    PubMed

    Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Van Wilpe, Erna; White, Kevin; Verma, Shiv K; Cerqueira-Cézar, Camila K; Dubey, Jitender P

    2015-11-01

    Numerous species of Sarcocystis have been reported from wild ruminants, but none has been named from the Rocky Mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus). Mature sarcocysts were found in frozen muscle samples of three of seven mountain goats from Alaska, USA. Two morphological types of sarcocysts were found; one had Sarcocystis cornagliai-like sarcocysts, previously named from the Alpine ibex (Capra ibex) from Europe. Two other goats were infected with a new species, Sarcocystis oreamni. Sarcocystis oreamni sarcocysts were microscopic with 2 μm-thick sarcocyst wall. By transmission electron microscopy, the sarcocyst wall had 1.7 μm-thick with unusual molar tooth-like villar protrusions (vp), type 29. The vp had an electron dense core and two disc-shaped plaques at the tip with fine microtubules. Bradyzoites were 8.6-9.1 μm long. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) identified in 18S rRNA, and 28S rRNA loci of rDNA regions that suggested S. oreamni molecularly apart from related species. The phylogenetic analysis based on 18S rRNA and 28S rRNA sequences suggested S. oreamni is related with Sarcocystis species that employ members of the Canidae family as their definitive host.

  10. Bears "Count" Too: Quantity Estimation and Comparison in Black Bears (Ursus Americanus).

    PubMed

    Vonk, Jennifer; Beran, Michael J

    2012-07-01

    Studies of bear cognition are notably missing from the comparative record despite bears' large relative brain size and interesting status as generalist carnivores facing complex foraging challenges, but lacking complex social structures. We investigated the numerical abilities of three American black bears (Ursus Americanus) by presenting discrimination tasks on a touch-screen computer. One bear chose the larger of two arrays of dot stimuli, while two bears chose the smaller array of dots. On some trials the relative number of dots was congruent with the relative total area of the two arrays. On other trials number of dots was incongruent with area. All of the bears were above chance on trials of both types with static dots. Despite encountering greater difficulty with dots that moved within the arrays, one bear was able to discriminate numerically larger arrays of moving dots, and a subset of moving dots from within the larger array, even when area and number were incongruent. Thus, although the bears used area as a cue to guide responding, they were also able to use number as a cue. The pattern of performance was similar to that found previously with monkeys, and suggests that bears may also show other forms of sophisticated quantitative abilities.

  11. Social network analysis of mating patterns in American black bears (Ursus americanus).

    PubMed

    Moore, Jennifer A; Xu, Ran; Frank, Kenneth; Draheim, Hope; Scribner, Kim T

    2015-08-01

    Nonrandom mating can structure populations and has important implications for population-level processes. Investigating how and why mating deviates from random is important for understanding evolutionary processes as well as informing conservation and management. Prior to the implementation of parentage analyses, understanding mating patterns in solitary, elusive species like bears was virtually impossible. Here, we capitalize on a long-term genetic data set collected from black bears (Ursus americanus) (N = 2422) in the Northern Lower Peninsula (NLP) of Michigan, USA. We identified mated pairs using parentage analysis and applied logistic regression (selection) models that controlled for features of the social network, to quantify the effects of individual characteristics, and spatial and population demographic factors on mating dynamics. Logistic regression models revealed that black bear mating was associated with spatial proximity of mates, male age, the time a pair had coexisted, local population density and relatedness. Mated pairs were more likely to contain older males. On average, bears tended to mate with nearby individuals to whom they were related, which does not support the existence of kin recognition in black bears. Pairwise relatedness was especially high for mated pairs containing young males. Restricted dispersal and high male turnover from intensive harvest mortality of NLP black bears are probably the underlying factors associated with younger male bears mating more often with female relatives. Our findings illustrate how harvest has the potential to disrupt the social structure of game species, which warrants further attention for conservation and management. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Anaerobic oral flora in the North American black bear (Ursus americanus) in eastern North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Elsburgh O; Stoskopf, Michael K; Minter, Larry J; Stringer, Elizabeth M

    2012-06-01

    Microbial flora can provide insight into the ecology and natural history of wildlife in addition to improving understanding of health risks. This study examines the anaerobic oral flora of hunter killed black bears (Ursus americanus) in eastern North Carolina. Oral swabs from the buccal and lingual supragingival tooth surfaces of the first and second mandibular and maxillary molars of 22 black bears were inoculated onto Brucella Blood Agar plates supplemented with hemin and vitamin K after transport from the field using reduced oxoid nutrient broth. Sixteen anaerobic bacterial species, representing nine genera were identified using the RapID ANA II Micromethod Kit system and a number of organisms grown that could not be identified with the system. The most frequently identified anaerobes were Peptostreptococcus prevotii, Streptococcus constellatus, and Porphyromonas gingivalis. The diversity in the anaerobic oral flora of black bear in eastern North Carolina suggests the importance of including these organisms in basic health risk assessment protocols and suggests a potential tool for assessment of bear/habitat interactions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Genomic analysis of expressed sequence tags in American black bear Ursus americanus.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Sen; Shao, Chunxuan; Goropashnaya, Anna V; Stewart, Nathan C; Xu, Yichi; Tøien, Øivind; Barnes, Brian M; Fedorov, Vadim B; Yan, Jun

    2010-03-26

    Species of the bear family (Ursidae) are important organisms for research in molecular evolution, comparative physiology and conservation biology, but relatively little genetic sequence information is available for this group. Here we report the development and analyses of the first large scale Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) resource for the American black bear (Ursus americanus). Comprehensive analyses of molecular functions, alternative splicing, and tissue-specific expression of 38,757 black bear EST sequences were conducted using the dog genome as a reference. We identified 18 genes, involved in functions such as lipid catabolism, cell cycle, and vesicle-mediated transport, that are showing rapid evolution in the bear lineage Three genes, Phospholamban (PLN), cysteine glycine-rich protein 3 (CSRP3) and Troponin I type 3 (TNNI3), are related to heart contraction, and defects in these genes in humans lead to heart disease. Two genes, biphenyl hydrolase-like (BPHL) and CSRP3, contain positively selected sites in bear. Global analysis of evolution rates of hibernation-related genes in bear showed that they are largely conserved and slowly evolving genes, rather than novel and fast-evolving genes. We provide a genomic resource for an important mammalian organism and our study sheds new light on the possible functions and evolution of bear genes.

  14. Right paw foraging bias in wild black bear (Ursus americanus kermodei).

    PubMed

    Reimchen, T E; Spoljaric, M A

    2011-07-01

    Using field observations of ~15 wild adult black bear (Ursus americanus kermodei) foraging on a salmon stream during two autumns on the central coast of British Columbia, we tested for laterality of forelimb use during lunging and during handling of salmon. Of 288 lunging events observed overall, 53% were non biased, 26% were right-limb biased, and 21% left-limb biased (p = .53 between left and right bias). Among six bears in which we could ascertain individual identity (182 lunging events), there was heterogeneity among individuals (p <.05) of which two were significantly right biased and one significantly left biased (p<.005). Of 186 carcass-handling (pick-up) events, 68% were right-pawed (p <.005) and there was no heterogeneity among five individually identifiable bears (p = .19). There was no forelimb laterality in adjustment of the prey in the mouth or in securing the prey to the substrate. This is the first report of task-specific behavioural lateralisation of a wild carnivore and is suggestive of a right bias (left-hemisphere dominance) in object manipulation.

  15. Seasonal variation in American black bear Ursus americanus activity patterns: Quantification via remote photography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bridges, A.S.; Vaughan, M.R.; Klenzendorf, S.

    2004-01-01

    Activity pattern plasticity may serve as an evolutionary adaptation to optimize fitness in an inconstant environment, however, quantifying patterns and demonstrating variation can be problematic. For American black bears Ursus americanus, wariness and habitat inaccessibility further complicate quantification. Radio telemetry has been the primary technique used to examine activity, however, interpretation error and limitation on numbers of animals available to monitor prevent extrapolation to unmarked or untransmittered members of the population. We used remote cameras to quantify black bear activity patterns and examined differences by season, sex and reproductive class in the Alleghany Mountains of western Virginia, USA. We used 1,533 pictures of black bears taken during 1998-2002 for our analyses. Black bears generally were diurnal in summer and nocturnal in autumn with a vespertine activity peak during both seasons. Bear-hound training seasons occurred during September and may offer explanation for the observed shift towards nocturnal behaviour. We found no substantial differences in activity patterns between sex and reproductive classes. Use of remote cameras allowed us to efficiently sample larger numbers of individual animals and likely offered a better approximation of population-level activity patterns than individual-level, telemetry-based methodologies.

  16. Short- and long-term dietary effects on disease and mortality in American lobster Homarus americanus.

    PubMed

    Tlusty, Michael F; Myers, Anna; Metzler, Anita

    2008-01-24

    The American lobster Homarus americanus fishery is heavily dependent on the use of fish as bait to entice lobsters into traps. There is concern that this food supplementation is nutritionally insufficient for lobsters, but previous experiments reported conflicting results. We conducted a long-term feeding experiment in which 1 yr old American lobsters were fed one of 7 diets for a period of 352 d, a time that allowed the lobsters to molt thrice. The diets consisted of fresh frozen herring, a 'wild' diet (rock crab, mussel, and Spirulina algae), a formulated artificial diet for shrimp, paired combinations of these 3 diets or a diet formulated at the New England Aquarium (Artemia, fish and krill meal, Spirulina algae, soy lecithin, vitamins and minerals). The lobsters fed the diet of 100% fish had higher initial molting rates, but within the period of this experiment all either contracted shell disease or died. Mixed diets resulted in higher survival and a lower probability of mortality. This research demonstrated a critical time component to diet studies in lobsters. Short- and long-term impacts of diet differ. In the long term, continual high consumption rates of fish by the lobsters promote poor health in all lobsters, not just those of market size. The use of fish as bait may make lobsters more susceptible to the stress associated with environmental fluctuation, thereby leading to increased disease and mortality. This nutritional stress can be used to develop a laboratory model of shell disease in American lobsters.

  17. Elevated expression of protein biosynthesis genes in liver and muscle of hibernating black bears (Ursus americanus).

    PubMed

    Fedorov, Vadim B; Goropashnaya, Anna V; Tøien, Oivind; Stewart, Nathan C; Gracey, Andrew Y; Chang, Celia; Qin, Shizhen; Pertea, Geo; Quackenbush, John; Showe, Louise C; Showe, Michael K; Boyer, Bert B; Barnes, Brian M

    2009-04-10

    We conducted a large-scale gene expression screen using the 3,200 cDNA probe microarray developed specifically for Ursus americanus to detect expression differences in liver and skeletal muscle that occur during winter hibernation compared with animals sampled during summer. The expression of 12 genes, including RNA binding protein motif 3 (Rbm3), that are mostly involved in protein biosynthesis, was induced during hibernation in both liver and muscle. The Gene Ontology and Gene Set Enrichment analysis consistently showed a highly significant enrichment of the protein biosynthesis category by overexpressed genes in both liver and skeletal muscle during hibernation. Coordinated induction in transcriptional level of genes involved in protein biosynthesis is a distinctive feature of the transcriptome in hibernating black bears. This finding implies induction of translation and suggests an adaptive mechanism that contributes to a unique ability to reduce muscle atrophy over prolonged periods of immobility during hibernation. Comparing expression profiles in bears to small mammalian hibernators shows a general trend during hibernation of transcriptional changes that include induction of genes involved in lipid metabolism and carbohydrate synthesis as well as depression of genes involved in the urea cycle and detoxification function in liver.

  18. Behavioral response and kinetics of terrestrial atrazine exposure in American toads (bufo americanus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Storrs, Mendez S.I.; Tillitt, D.E.; Rittenhouse, T.A.G.; Semlitsch, R.D.

    2009-01-01

    Amphibians in terrestrial environments obtain water through a highly vascularized pelvic patch of skin. Chemicals can also be exchanged across this patch. Atrazine (ATZ), a widespread herbicide, continues to be a concern among amphibian ecologists based on potential exposure and toxicity. Few studies have examined its impact on the terrestrial juvenile or adult stages of toads. In the current study, we asked the following questions: (1) Will juvenile American toads (Bufo americanus) avoid soils contaminated with ATZ? (2) Can they absorb ATZ across the pelvic patch? (3) If so, how is it distributed among the organs and eventually eliminated? We conducted a behavioral choice test between control soil and soil dosed with ecologically relevant concentrations of ATZ. In addition, we examined the uptake, distribution, and elimination of water dosed with 14C-labeled ATZ. Our data demonstrate that toads do not avoid ATZ-laden soils. ATZ crossed the pelvic patch rapidly and reached an apparent equilibrium within 5 h. The majority of the radiolabeled ATZ ended up in the intestines, whereas the greatest concentrations were observed in the gall bladder. Thus, exposure of adult life stages of amphibians through direct uptake of ATZ from soils and runoff water should be considered in risk evaluations. ?? 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  19. Bone formation is not impaired by hibernation (disuse) in black bears Ursus americanus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donahue, S.W.; Vaughan, M.R.; Demers, L.M.; Donahue, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    Disuse by bed rest, limb immobilization or space flight causes rapid bone loss by arresting bone formation and accelerating bone resorption. This net bone loss increases the risk of fracture upon remobilization. Bone loss also occurs in hibernating ground squirrels, golden hamsters, and little brown bats by arresting bone formation and accelerating bone resorption. There is some histological evidence to suggest that black bears Ursus americanus do not lose bone mass during hibernation (i.e. disuse). There is also evidence suggesting that muscle mass and strength are preserved in black bears during hibernation. The question of whether bears can prevent bone loss during hibernation has not been conclusively answered. The goal of the current study was to further assess bone metabolism in hibernating black bears. Using the same serum markers of bone remodeling used to evaluate human patients with osteoporosis, we assayed serum from five black bears, collected every 10 days over a 196-day period, for bone resorption and formation markers. Here we show that bone resorption remains elevated over the entire hibernation period compared to the pre-hibernation period, but osteoblastic bone formation is not impaired by hibernation and is rapidly accelerated during remobilization following hibernation.

  20. Experimental Infection and Detection of Necrotizing Hepatopancreatitis Bacterium in the American Lobster Homarus americanus

    PubMed Central

    Avila-Villa, Luz A.; Gollas-Galván, Teresa; Martínez-Porchas, Marcel; Mendoza-Cano, Fernando; Hernández-López, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Necrotizing hepatopancreatitis bacterium (NHPB) is an obligated intracellular bacteria causing severe hepatopancreatic damages and mass mortalities in penaeid shrimp. The worldwide distribution of penaeid shrimp as alien species threatens the life cycle of other crustacean species. The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the possibility of experimentally infecting the American lobster (Homarus americanus) with NHPB extracted from shrimp hepatopancreas. Homogenates from infected shrimp were fed by force to lobsters. Other group of lobsters was fed with homogenates of NHPB-free hepatopancreas. After the 15th day from initial inoculation, the presence of NHPB was detected by polymerase chain reaction in feces and hepatopancreas from lobsters inoculated with infected homogenates. Necrotized spots were observed in the surface of lobster hepatopancreas. In contrast, lobsters fed on NHPB-free homogenates resulted negative for NHPB. Evidence suggests the plasticity of NHPB which can infect crustacean from different species and inhabiting diverse latitudes. Considering the results, the American lobster could be a good candidate to maintain available NHPB in vivo. PMID:22645497

  1. Esfenvalerate-induced case-abandonment in the larvae of the caddisfly (Brachycentrus americanus).

    PubMed

    Johnson, Katherine R; Jepson, Paul C; Jenkins, Jeffrey J

    2008-02-01

    Field-collected Brachycentrus americanus Banks (Trichoptera: Brachycentridae) larvae were used to investigate the relationship between esfenvalerate exposure and case-abandonment response, determine larval ability to construct a new case, and measure the change in predation risk to insects in rebuilt cases. We evaluated case-abandonment following four environmentally relevant esfenvalerate exposures, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 microg/L; 48-h exposures to 0.2 and 0.4 microg/L (nominal) esfenvalerate both resulted in over 60% of larvae abandoning cases and were statistically indistinguishable. Propensity to engage in building behaviors was significantly diminished in 0.2 and 0.4 microg/L esfenvalerate-exposed insects that had abandoned cases, with less than 20% of exposed insects producing cases. Cases built by intoxicated larvae were characterized by a disorganized composition, and required half the pressure to crush versus cases built by nonexposed larvae. Pre-exposing case-building material to 1 microg/L esfenvalerate also reduced the physical strength of rebuilt cases. Larvae inhabiting weaker rebuilt cases and larvae without cases were significantly more susceptible to predation by second year Hesperoperla pacifica Banks (Plecoptera: Perlidae) stonefly nymphs than those in original cases. Overall, we concluded that small behavioral responses can have profound consequences for survival of species and reveal susceptible stages in life-cycles that can be overlooked by conventional approaches to ecological risk assessment.

  2. Effects of body temperature and hydration state on organismal performance of toads, Bufo americanus.

    PubMed

    Preest, Marion R; Pough, F Harvey

    2003-01-01

    Temperature and humidity are dominant environmental variables affecting performance of nocturnal, terrestrial amphibians. Toads are frequently active at body temperatures (T(b)) and hydration states (HS) that yield suboptimal performance. We investigated the combined effects of T(b) and HS on feeding, locomotion, and metabolism of Bufo americanus. More toads responded to the presence of prey when fully hydrated than when dehydrated, and times to orient to prey, maneuver around a barrier, and reach prey were less in hydrated than in dehydrated animals. Time to capture prey decreased with increasing T(b) in fully hydrated, but not dehydrated, toads, and hydrated animals caught prey more rapidly than did dehydrated animals. Distance traveled in 5 min and aerobic scope were affected by T(b). Generally, individuals that performed well in the feeding experiments at a particular T(b) and HS also performed well at a different T(b) and HS. The same was true for distance traveled and aerobic scope. However, within combinations of T(b) and HS, correlations between performance variables were minimal. Specialization of a particular variable resulting in high performance at a certain T(b) and HS does not appear to exact a cost in terms of performance at a different T(b) and HS.

  3. Energy expenditure during activity in the American lobster Homarus americanus: Correlations with body acceleration.

    PubMed

    Lyons, G N; Halsey, L G; Pope, E C; Eddington, J D; Houghton, J D R

    2013-10-01

    How animals manage time and expend energy has implications for survivorship. Being able to measure key metabolic costs of animals under natural conditions is therefore an important tool in behavioral ecology. One method for estimating activity-specific metabolic rate is via derived measures of acceleration, often 'overall dynamic body acceleration' (ODBA), recorded by an instrumented acceleration logger. ODBA has been shown to correlate well with rate of oxygen consumption (V˙o2) in a range of species during activity in the laboratory. This study devised a method for attaching acceleration loggers to decapod crustaceans and then correlated ODBA against concurrent respirometry readings to assess accelerometry as a proxy for activity-specific energy expenditure in a model species, the American lobster Homarus americanus. Where the instrumented animals exhibited a sufficient range of activity levels, positive linear relationships were found between V˙o2 and ODBA over 20min periods at a range of ambient temperatures (6, 13 and 20°C). Mixed effect linear models based on these data and morphometrics provided reasonably strong predictive power for estimating activity-specific V˙o2 from ODBA. These V˙o2-ODBA calibrations demonstrate the potential of accelerometry as an effective predictor of behavior-specific metabolic rate of crustaceans in the wild during periods of activity.

  4. Behavior and substrate selection during larval settling in the lobster Homarus americanus

    SciTech Connect

    Botero, L.; Atema, J.

    1982-02-01

    During the molt from third- to fourth-stage, larvae of Homarus americanus metamorphose into their adult form and pigmentation. In the course of the fourth stage, their pelagic life changes to a benthic existence. Artificial substrate choice experiments and qualitative illumination experiments show that during the early fourth stage the phototactic response reverses from positive to negative. Together with positive thigmotaxis, this results in a choice of dark crevices. Among natural substrate choices, preferential settlement occurred on macroalgal-covered rocks, followed by rocks on sand, mud, and sand. Although mud was not a preferred substrate in choice tests, the animals that chose mud and those that were presented only with mud settled successfully and were immediately efficient in their burrowing behavior, constructing U-shaped tunnels even in the center of the aquarium without using a pebble or rock as a starting point. These laboratory test confirm field observations that lobsters can successfully exploit a variety of substrates. They show that a substrate with preformed crevices is preferred for settling, but other substrates can be manipulated to make suitable burrows.

  5. Neuromuscular synapses on the dactyl opener muscle of the lobster Homarus americanus.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Jonna; Dillaman, Richard M; Worden, Mary Kate

    2006-12-01

    The crustacean dactyl opener neuromuscular system has been studied extensively as a model system that exhibits several forms of synaptic plasticity. We report the ultrastructural features of the synapses on dactyl opener of the lobster (Homarus americanus) as determined by examination of serial thin sections. Several innervation sites supplied by an inhibitory motoneuron have been observed without nearby excitatory innervation, indicating that excitatory and inhibitory inputs to the muscle are not always closely matched. The ultrastructural features of the lobster synapses are generally similar to those described previously for the homologous crayfish muscle, with one major distinction: few dense bars are seen at the presynaptic membranes of these lobster synapses. The majority of the lobster neuromuscular synapses lack dense bars altogether, and the mean number of dense bars per synapse is relatively low. In view of the finding that the physiology of the lobster dactyl opener synapses is similar to that reported for crayfish, these ultrastructural observations suggest that the structural complexity of the synapses may not be a critical factor determining synaptic plasticity.

  6. Antimicrobial activity in the cuticle of the American lobster, Homarus americanus.

    PubMed

    Mars Brisbin, Margaret; McElroy, Anne E; Pales Espinosa, Emmanuelle; Allam, Bassem

    2015-06-01

    American lobster, Homarus americanus, continues to be an ecologically and socioeconomically important species despite a severe decline in catches from Southern New England and Long Island Sound (USA) and a high prevalence of epizootic shell disease in these populations. A better understanding of lobster immune defenses remains necessary. Cuticle material collected from Long Island Sound lobsters was found to be active against a broad spectrum of bacteria, including Gram-negative and -positive species. The antimicrobial activity was characterized by boiling, muffling, and size fractioning. Boiling did not significantly reduce activity, while muffling did have a significant effect, suggesting that the active component is organic and heat stable. Size fractioning with 3 and 10 kDa filters did not significantly affect activity. Fast protein liquid chromatography fractions were also tested for antimicrobial activity, and fractions exhibiting protein peaks remained active. MALDI mass spectrometry revealed peptide peaks at 1.6, 2.8, 4.6, and 5.6 kDa. The data presented suggest that one or several antimicrobial peptides contribute to antimicrobial activity present in the American lobster cuticle.

  7. An unusual cuticular tumor-like growth on the abdomen of a lobster, Homarus americanus.

    PubMed

    Shields, Jeffrey D; Small, Hamish J

    2013-11-01

    Tumors are rare in crustaceans, and whereas a few have been reported from the lobster Homarus americanus none have been adequately described. A lobster with an unusual, large, blue-colored tumor-like growth projecting laterally outward from the first abdominal somite was caught off Stonington, Maine, USA. The growth was rugose and covered by a relatively normal appearing cuticle with dispersed focal melanization. The underlying stroma consisted of an internal area of rescaffolded fibrous connective tissue, restructured muscle fibers, few arterioles, and an epidermal area comprised of columnar, highly vacuolated epithelial cells. No infectious pathogens or unusual inclusions were observed with microscopy and no eukaryotic pathogens were detected via molecular sequencing. Given the nature of the histology and the appearance of the growth, we identify the mass as a benign papilliform hamartoma that likely originated as a result of abnormal wound repair possibly initiated around ecdysis. This represents the first tumor-like hamartoma reported from a lobster, and the second hamartoma reported from a crustacean.

  8. Daily Rhythms of PERIOD protein in the eyestalk of the American lobster, Homarus americanus.

    PubMed

    Grabek, Katharine R; Chabot, Christopher C

    2012-01-01

    The daily rhythm of PERIOD protein (PER) expression is an integral component of the circadian clock, which is found among a broad range of animal species including fruit flies, marine mollusks and even humans. The use of antibodies directed against PER has provided a helpful tool in the discovery of PER homologues and the labeling of putative pacemaker cells, especially in animals for which an annotated genome is not readily available. In this study, DrosophilaPER antibodies were used to probe for PER in the American lobster, Homarus americanus. This species exhibits robust endogenous circadian rhythms but the circadian clock has yet to be located or characterized. PER was detected in the eyestalks of the lobster but not in the brain. Furthermore, a significant effect of the LD cycle on daily PER abundance was identified, and PER was significantly more abundant at mid dark than in early light or mid light hours. Our results suggest that PER is a part of the molecular machinery of the circadian clock located in the eyestalk of the lobster.

  9. American Lobsters (Homarus Americanus) not Surviving During Air Transport: Evaluation of Microbial Spoilage

    PubMed Central

    Tirloni, Erica; Stella, Simone; Gennari, Mario; Colombo, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Eighteen American lobsters (Homarus americanus), dead during air transport, were analysed in order to evaluate the microbial population of meat, gills and gut: no specific studies have ever been conducted so far on the microbiological quality of American lobsters’ meats in terms of spoilage microbiota. The meat samples showed very limited total viable counts, in almost all the cases below the level of 6 Log CFU/g, while higher loads were found, as expected, in gut and gills, the most probable source of contamination. These data could justify the possibility to commercialise these not-surviving subjects, without quality concerns for the consumers. Most of the isolates resulted to be clustered with type strains of Pseudoalteromonas spp. (43.1%) and Photobacterium spp. (24.1%), and in particular to species related to the natural marine environment. The distribution of the genera showed a marked inhomogeneity among the samples. The majority of the isolates identified resulted to possess proteolytic (69.3%) and lipolytic ability (75.5%), suggesting their potential spoilage ability. The maintanance of good hygienical practices, especially during the production of ready-to-eat lobsters-based products, and a proper storage could limit the possible replication of these microorganisms. PMID:27800442

  10. Genomic analysis of expressed sequence tags in American black bear Ursus americanus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Species of the bear family (Ursidae) are important organisms for research in molecular evolution, comparative physiology and conservation biology, but relatively little genetic sequence information is available for this group. Here we report the development and analyses of the first large scale Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) resource for the American black bear (Ursus americanus). Results Comprehensive analyses of molecular functions, alternative splicing, and tissue-specific expression of 38,757 black bear EST sequences were conducted using the dog genome as a reference. We identified 18 genes, involved in functions such as lipid catabolism, cell cycle, and vesicle-mediated transport, that are showing rapid evolution in the bear lineage Three genes, Phospholamban (PLN), cysteine glycine-rich protein 3 (CSRP3) and Troponin I type 3 (TNNI3), are related to heart contraction, and defects in these genes in humans lead to heart disease. Two genes, biphenyl hydrolase-like (BPHL) and CSRP3, contain positively selected sites in bear. Global analysis of evolution rates of hibernation-related genes in bear showed that they are largely conserved and slowly evolving genes, rather than novel and fast-evolving genes. Conclusion We provide a genomic resource for an important mammalian organism and our study sheds new light on the possible functions and evolution of bear genes. PMID:20338065

  11. Immobilization of black bears (Ursus americanus) with orally administered carfentanil citrate.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, E C; Sleeman, J M; Clyde, V L

    1995-07-01

    Ten black bears (Ursus americanus) were immobilized with orally administered carfentanil citrate. The total carfentanil dose was mixed with 5 to 20 ml honey and given incrementally to captive bears. The bears ranged in weight from 80 (estimated) to 233 kg. Total carfentanil doses ranged from 0.7 to 3.0 mg, resulting in dosages of 6.8 to 18.8 micrograms carfentanil/kg. Mean (+/- SD) times from estimated 80% mixture consumption to sternal recumbency, and first safe human contact were 7.7 +/- 2.3 min and 19.7 +/- 5.6 min, respectively. Undesired side effects of immobilization were muscle rigidity, bradypnea, and oxygen desaturation. All bears received diazepam to alleviate muscle rigidity and were insufflated with oxygen during immobilization. Nine immobilizations were considered satisfactory or good. The bear receiving 6.8 micrograms carfentanil/kg, the lowest dosage used, was very excited during induction and required intravenous (IV) ketamine to permit safe examination. Immobilization was reversed with 100 mg naltrexone/mg carfentanil administered (75% subcutaneous, 25% IV). Bears recovered to full mobility in 6.3 +/- 1.9 min. Five bears vomited post-recovery but no episodes of renarcotization were observed.

  12. Modulation of gene expression in heart and liver of hibernating black bears (Ursus americanus).

    PubMed

    Fedorov, Vadim B; Goropashnaya, Anna V; Tøien, Oivind; Stewart, Nathan C; Chang, Celia; Wang, Haifang; Yan, Jun; Showe, Louise C; Showe, Michael K; Barnes, Brian M

    2011-03-31

    Hibernation is an adaptive strategy to survive in highly seasonal or unpredictable environments. The molecular and genetic basis of hibernation physiology in mammals has only recently been studied using large scale genomic approaches. We analyzed gene expression in the American black bear, Ursus americanus, using a custom 12,800 cDNA probe microarray to detect differences in expression that occur in heart and liver during winter hibernation in comparison to summer active animals. We identified 245 genes in heart and 319 genes in liver that were differentially expressed between winter and summer. The expression of 24 genes was significantly elevated during hibernation in both heart and liver. These genes are mostly involved in lipid catabolism and protein biosynthesis and include RNA binding protein motif 3 (Rbm3), which enhances protein synthesis at mildly hypothermic temperatures. Elevated expression of protein biosynthesis genes suggests induction of translation that may be related to adaptive mechanisms reducing cardiac and muscle atrophies over extended periods of low metabolism and immobility during hibernation in bears. Coordinated reduction of transcription of genes involved in amino acid catabolism suggests redirection of amino acids from catabolic pathways to protein biosynthesis. We identify common for black bears and small mammalian hibernators transcriptional changes in the liver that include induction of genes responsible for fatty acid β oxidation and carbohydrate synthesis and depression of genes involved in lipid biosynthesis, carbohydrate catabolism, cellular respiration and detoxification pathways. Our findings show that modulation of gene expression during winter hibernation represents molecular mechanism of adaptation to extreme environments.

  13. A descriptive analysis of the climbing mechanics of a mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus).

    PubMed

    Lewinson, Ryan T; Stefanyshyn, Darren J

    2016-12-01

    The mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) is one of the most extraordinary mountaineers in the animal kingdom. While observational descriptions exist to indicate factors that may influence their climbing ability, these have never been assessed biomechanically. Here, we describe whole-body motion of a mountain goat during ascent of a 45° incline based on a video recording in the Canadian Rocky Mountains, and discuss the results in a mechanical context. During the push-off phase, the hindlimb extended and the forelimb was tucked close to the torso. During the pull-up phase, the hindlimb was raised near to the torso, while the forelimb humerus seemed to "lock" in a constant position relative to the torso, allowing the elbow to be held in close proximity to the whole-body center of mass. Extension of the elbow and carpal joints resulted in a vertical translation of the center of mass up the mountain slope. Based on the observations from this naturalistic study, hypotheses for future controlled studies of mountain goat climbing mechanics are proposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Idiopathic lesions and visual deficits in the american lobster (Homarus americanus) from Long Island Sound, NY.

    PubMed

    Magel, Christopher R; Shields, Jeffrey D; Brill, Richard W

    2009-08-01

    In 1999, a mass mortality of the American lobster (Homarus americanus) occurred in western Long Island Sound (WLIS). Although the etiology of this event remains unknown, bottom water temperature, hypoxia, heavy metal poisoning, and pesticides are potential causal factors. Lobsters from WLIS continue to display signs of morbidity, including lethargy and cloudy grey eyes that contain idiopathic lesions. As the effect of these lesions on lobster vision is unknown, we used electroretinography (ERG) to document changes in visual function in lobsters from WLIS, while using histology to quantify the extent of physical damage. Seventy-three percent of lobsters from WLIS showed damage to photoreceptors and optic nerve fibers, including necrosis, cellular breakdown, and hemocyte infiltration in the optic nerves, rhabdoms, and ommatidia. Animals with more than 15% of their photoreceptors exhibiting damage also displayed markedly reduced responses to 10-ms flashes of a broad-spectrum white light. Specifically, maximum voltage (Vmax) responses were significantly lower and occurred at a lower light intensity compared to responses from lobsters lacking idiopathic lesions. Nearly a decade after the 1999 mortality event, lobsters from WLIS still appear to be subjected to a stressor of unknown etiology that causes significant functional damage to the eyes.

  15. Excretory calcinosis: a new fatal disease of wild American lobsters Homarus americanus.

    PubMed

    Dove, Alistair D M; LoBue, Carl; Bowser, Paul; Powell, Mark

    2004-03-10

    A significant number of moribund and dead lobsters Homarus americanus were reported to New York state authorities by lobster fishers in Long Island Sound (LIS) during the summer of 2002. Morbid lobsters were characterised by an orange discolouration of the abdomen, lethargy, an excess of epibionts and poor post-capture survival. On necropsy, severe extensive multifocal or diffuse mineralised granulomatous inflammation of the gills and antennal glands was the most striking pathology. In the gills, granulomas often occluded the lumen of filaments, resulting in congestion, ischemia and coagulative necrosis of gill tissues. In the antennal glands, granulomas were concentrated along the border between the coelomosac and labyrinth. No significant pathogens were recovered from diseased individuals. In prechronic individuals, however, it was evident that granulomas were focused around calcium carbonate (aragonite) crystals. This disease may result from anomalously high sea-bottom temperatures in LIS (approximately 23 degrees C) during the summer of 2002 and associated disruptions of the calcium chemistry of lobsters in favour of deposition of minerals in soft tissues. The ultimate cause of death of affected lobsters is probably respiratory failure due to reduced effective surface area of the gills, exacerbated by hypermetabolic temperatures and an abundance of epibionts.

  16. Histopathology of idiopathic lesions in the eyes of Homarus americanus from Long Island Sound.

    PubMed

    Maniscalco, Andrea M; Shields, Jeffrey D

    2006-02-01

    In 1999, American lobsters, Homarus americanus, from western Long Island Sound (WLIS) experienced a significant mortality. In 2001 and 2004, the eyes and eyestalks of lobsters from WLIS and central LIS were examined for histopathological changes. Idiopathic lesions were identified in the ommatidia and optic nerve fibers proximal to the ommatidia in 29 (56%) of the lobsters from LIS. Lesions were categorized as either moderate or severe. Moderate lesions had altered rhabdoms, clumped pigment, and altered optic nerve fibers. Severe lesions were marked by absent rhabdoms, clumped pigment in both the ommatidial region and in the optic nerve region; and optic nerve fibers that had been completely destroyed and were replaced by vascular tissue. Idiopathic lesions occurred primarily in the central and ventral regions of the eye, and with much less frequency in the dorsal region. In addition, damage to the dorsal area tended to occur only when the severity of lesions was high, indicating a spatially progressive pattern to the lesion development. The lesions occurred in both western and central Long Island Sound, with no significant differences in severity between locations. The prevalence of lesions did not vary between years, but in 2004, several eyes had less severe pathology than those from 2001. These data indicate that the etiological agent is present throughout a large portion of the Sound, and that lobsters are probably continually exposed to it.

  17. Microfibrils provide non-linear elastic behaviour in the abdominal artery of the lobster Homarus americanus.

    PubMed Central

    McConnell, C J; DeMont, M E; Wright, G M

    1997-01-01

    1. Microfibrils are becoming increasingly recognized as an important component of the extra-cellular matrix. However, almost nothing is known about their mechanical role in the diversity of tissues in which they are found. 2. Microfibrils form the principal structural component in the wall of the abdominal artery of the lobster Homarus americanus. We have used previous estimates of the mechanical properties of these microfibrils, estimates of the fraction of the aorta wall volume occupied by the microfibrils, and their angular distribution as a function of strain in a numerical model that predicts the macroscopic mechanical properties of the whole tissue. 3. Microfibrils alone, when their reorientation and deformation are accounted for, characterize the stress-strain behaviour of the vessel. Evidence of the evolutionary conservation of fibrillin between medusans, echinoderms and vertebrates implies that the mechanical properties of lobster microfibrils may apply to microfibrillar function in other taxa. This will have profound implications on the perceived roles of microfibrils in development, physiology and disease. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9080378

  18. Dietary lipid requirements of adult lobsters, Homarus americanus (M.E.).

    PubMed

    Castell, J D; Covey, J F

    1976-08-01

    The effects of several dietary lipids on adult American lobster (Homarus americanus) were assessed over a 10 month feeding period. Cod liver oil (CLO) resulted in greater precent weight gains, feed conversion, percent edible meat and higher serum protein and hemocyte counts than either corn oil (CO) or hydrogenated coconut oil (HCO). These differences were probably due to an essential fatty acid (EFA) requirement by the lobster for linolenic series omega3 or other fatty acids present in CLO. The linoleic or omega6 fatty acids of CO appeared to have some sparing effect on several of the EFA deficiency symptoms. It was found that 5% CLO was optimal for mean percent weight gain, molt incidence, feed conversion and hemocyte counts of lobsters. Further increases in dietary CLO to 10% and 15% resulted in no significant improvement of any of the condition indices used. There was a decrease in serum protein and calcium when lobsters were fed a non-saponifiable sterol deficient diet. The addition of 1% cholesterol to the diet raised the serum protein, but resulted in even a greater decrease in the serum calcium level.

  19. Differential expression of American lobster (Homarus americanus) immune related genes during infection of Aerococcus viridans var. homari, the causative agent of Gaffkemia.

    PubMed

    Clark, K Fraser; Acorn, Adam R; Greenwood, Spencer J

    2013-02-01

    This is the first transcriptomic study focusing on immunity in the commercially valuable American lobster (Homarus americanus). We have conducted an in vivo infection trial using the Gram-positive bacterium Aerococcus viridans var. homari to determine how H. americanus responds to this naturally occurring lethal-pathogen. A novel H. americanus microarray was used to measure the transcriptomic changes occurring in over 14,000 genes in the lobster hepatopancreas. Hundreds of new immune genes and isoforms were identified and measured for the first time in this species, and our findings highlight 148 genes of interest involved in H. americanus pathogen response. We verified our microarray results using RT-qPCR on three anti-lipopolysaccharide (ALFHa-1, ALFHa-2, ALFHa-4), a thioredoxin, acute phase serum amyloid protein A, hexokinase and two trypsin genes. RT-qPCR and microarray findings show close agreement and highlight the significant increase in gene expression in many lobster immune genes during A. viridans infection. Differential expression of the ALFHa isoforms may indicate that the H. americanus immune response can be tailored to the class of pathogen causing disease.

  20. Flounder growth and production as indicators of the nursery value of marsh habitats in a Mediterranean lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, Anita; Fiorin, Riccardo; Zucchetta, Matteo; Torricelli, Patrizia; Franzoi, Piero

    2010-11-01

    Estuarine marshes are known as suitable nursery areas for many marine migrant fishes, such as flounder. The potential nursery value of such habitats was investigated in the Venice lagoon, by using growth and production of 0-group flounder as indicators. Size-frequency distribution analysis was performed on fish samples collected fortnightly, from March 2004 to June 2005, in two marsh sites, Dese and Tessera, differing in their origin and environmental conditions. Samples were mostly composed of juvenile individuals, belonging to 0- and 1-group cohorts (the latter being present in Tessera only). A higher total production, either annual or monthly, and faster growth of 0-group flounder was observed in Dese, associated to a higher ecological performance of 0-group individuals in this site, as indicated by the higher P:B ratio values. Dese is a site located in a marsh complex characterized by the relevant influence of a nearby river, and the observed higher potential nursery value of this marsh area with respect to the other is discussed in the light of the higher trophic status and other environmental conditions in this site. The production results were also compared to those from other estuarine environments commonly acknowledged as important nurseries for European flounder.

  1. Cloning and sequence analysis of cDNA for the proteasome activator PA28-beta subunit of flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Hyun; Lee, Sun-Me; Hong, Bo-Young; Kim, Young-Tae; Choi, Tae-Jin

    2003-12-01

    Proteasome is a large multisubunit complex involved in intracellular proteolysis in antigen processing for loading MHC class I molecules. Two activators PA28-alpha and PA28-beta, which are induced by interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), activate this latent enzyme complex. Genes encoding these activators, PSME1 and PSME2, respectively, have been characterized from various mammalian but only from zebrafish among piscine. We have cloned a PSME2 gene homologue from a leukocyte cDNA library of flounder, a marine fish. The flounder PSME2 gene (fPSME2) encompasses 1063 nucleotides and encodes a polypeptide of 242 amino acids (aa), with a deduced molecular weight of 27.2 kDa. The deduced protein has 82% sequence similarity to that of zebrafish and 73-74% sequence similarity to that of various mammalians and shows higher level sequence homology in the C-terminal region. There was a PA28-beta protein subunit-specific insert located at the corresponding to the KEKE motif of PA28-alpha protein. A phylogenetic tree derived using deduced amino acid sequences showed a diversion of piscine PSME2 from mammalian counterpart after diversion of PSME1 and PSME2 from a common ancestral gene. Northern blot analysis revealed a higher level expression of fPSME2 gene in kidney, spleen and muscle tissues of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated flounder than those from non-induced flounder.

  2. 77 FR 24151 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... are not overfished or subject to overfishing in 2012. This final rule makes no changes to the interim... Flounder The updated stock assessment overfishing limit (OFL) is 31,588,000 lb (14,328 mt). The projected... the Council's risk policy results in an overfishing risk tolerance (P*) of 0.40, or a 40- percent...

  3. 77 FR 48916 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Arrowtooth Flounder in the Bering Sea and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ... available data and finds that the ITAC for arrowtooth flounder in the BSAI needs to be supplemented from the... responding to the most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the apportionment of the non... plan for the fishing season, and to avoid potential disruption to the fishing fleet and...

  4. Identification, tissue distribution and evaluation of brain neuropeptide Y gene expression in the Brazilian flounder Paralichthys orbignyanus.

    PubMed

    Campos, Vinicius F; Collares, Tiago; Deschamps, João C; Seixas, Fabiana K; Dellagostin, Odir A; Lanes, Carlos Frederico C; Sandrini, Juliana; Marins, Luis Fernando; Okamoto, Marcelo; Sampaio, Luís A; Robaldo, Ricardo B

    2010-09-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is one of the most potent stimulants of food intake in vertebrates, mammals and fish. However, the present knowledge about feeding behaviour in fish is still limited and based on studies in a few species. The Brazilian flounder Paralichthys orbignyanus is being considered for aquaculture, and it is important to understand the mechanisms regulating feeding in order to improve its performance in captivity. The objectives of this study were to clone NPY cDNA, evaluate the mRNA levels in different tissues of flounder, and also evaluate brain NPY expression to associate food intake with NPY expression levels. A 597 bp NPY cDNA was cloned from Brazilian flounder brain. NPY expression was detected in all the peripheral tissues analysed. No significant differences were observed in brain NPY gene expression over 24 h after food intake at a temperature of 15 +or- 3 degrees C. No correlation was observed among plasma glucose, total protein, cholesterol, triglycerides and NPY expression levels during this 24 h period. On the other hand, mRNA levels were increased after two weeks of fasting at elevated temperatures. Our results suggest that NPY mRNA levels in Brazilian flounder are affected by temperature.

  5. Development of a quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of Kudoa septempunctata in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Harada, Tetsuya; Kawai, Takao; Sato, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Kumeda, Yuko

    2012-05-15

    Kudoa septempunctata is a newly identified myxosporean parasite that infects the trunk muscles of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and a causative agent of the increasing number of foodborne gastroenteritis outbreaks with unknown etiology which have occurred in Japan over the last few years. Here, we developed a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) assay for the detection of K. septempunctata 18S rDNA in olive flounder muscle tissue samples. Additionally, we compared the relative efficacy of four DNA extraction methods, including two commercial kits, and assessed intrafish variability in the distribution of K. septempunctata spores in flounder using this QPCR method in order to establish a more accurate quantitative measurement. Our QPCR assay displayed high sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility, and had good correlation with a microscopic detection method. Our data also indicated that the DNeasy® Blood & Tissue Kit was more efficient method for the extraction of K. septempunctata DNA than the three other methods (heating, alkaline lysis, and FastDNA® SPIN Kit method). We believe that our method would be useful for investigating foodborne outbreaks caused by K. septempunctata and for the monitoring and quantification of this parasite in retail or aquacultured olive flounders to prevent such outbreaks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Detection of lymphocystis disease virus in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus and other marine teleosts from northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Wenbin; Li, Yongqin; Sheng, Xiuzhen; Xing, Jing; Tang, Xiaoqian

    2010-11-01

    We isolated a strain of lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) from Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) cultured in northern China. Based on published sequences of major capsid protein (MCP) gene of LCDV-cn (GenBank: AF126405), we designed two primer sets P1/P2 and P3/P4. We then used one-step or nested PCR and in-situ hybridization (ISH) to detect LCDV and identify the target tissues or cells in infected Japanese flounder. The PCR products were positive in purified viral supernatant, skin nodules, gut, gill, kidney, spleen, stomach, heart, and liver of Japanese flounder. We compared the DNA sequence with 14 MCP nucleotide sequences from GenBank, including Megalocytivirus (OFIV and RSIV), Iridovirus (CzIV and WIV), Ranavirus (TFV and FV3), and Lymphocystivirus (8 LCDV). Based on the alignment, we confirmed the PCR product was from Lymphocystivirus (GenBank accession number DQ279090 (LCDV-HD)). Using ISH, we noted the presence of LCDV in the skin nodules, gut, gill, spleen, stomach, and heart of spontaneously infected Japanese flounders. We successfully amplified LCDV fragments from Schlegel’s black rockfish ( Sebastes schlegeli Higendorf), redwing sea robin ( Lepidotrigla microptera Günther) and turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus) using the one-step and nested PCR, suggesting the target genes can be widely detected in fish using this method.

  7. EFFECTS OF LARVAL STOCKING DENSITY ON LABORATORY-SCALE AND COMMERICAL-SCALE PRODUCTION OF SUMMER FLOUNDER, PARALICHTHYS DENTATUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three experiments investigating larval stocking densities of summer flounder from hatch to metamorphosis, Paralichthys dentatus, were conducted at laboratory-scale (75-L aquaria) and at commercial scale (1,000-L tanks). Experiments 1 and 2 at commercial scale tested the densities...

  8. Cloning and characterization of a fish specific gelsolin family gene, ScinL, in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Hur, Deokhwe; Hong, Suhee

    2013-02-01

    Scinderin like (ScinL) gene is a unique gelsolin family gene found only in fish. In this study ScinL gene was cloned in olive flounder for the first time and characterized its expression and function. Flounder ScinL cDNA consists of 2911 nucleotides encoding a putative protein of 720 amino acids (79.4 kDa). In phylogenetic analysis, flounder ScinL is closely related to ScinL of zebra fish, anableps, and fugu with the similarity of 51-72%. Fish ScinLs are positioned between gelsolin and scinderin of other species. Flounder ScinL protein has the highly conserved actin and PIP2 binding sites, Ca(2+) coordination site, and a C-terminal latch helix preventing the activation of ScinL protein in the absence of Ca(2+). Putative binding sites for NFAT and AP-1 were found in 5' flanking region. Constitutive ScinL expression was found in most organs and the expression level was higher in gill, head kidney, trunk kidney, spleen and skin than muscle, stomach, intestine and brain. In Q-PCR analysis ScinL and CYP1A1 gene expression were significantly upregulated by BaP in head kidney in vivo and in vitro, and in macrophage cells. Upregulated ScinL expression by BaP was blocked by EGTA, indicating a calcium dependent regulation of ScinL expression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Availability of cadmium and zinc from sewage sludge to the flounder, Platichthys flesus, via a marine food chain.

    PubMed

    Burgos, M G; Rainbow, P S

    2001-06-01

    This paper examines the potential availability to a demersal fish of cadmium and zinc associated with digested sewage sludge, via a food chain as well as directly from the sludge, and the tissue distribution and possible excretion of any accumulated cadmium and zinc. Radioactive tracer techniques were used in order to follow the food chain transfer of the metals. Flounder (Platichthys flesus) accumulated cadmium both directly from sludge (delivered in newly ingested unassimilated gutfuls in the amphipods) and in assimilated form from the tissues of the amphipod crustacean Corophium volutator that had been feeding on a sludge-sediment mixture. Cadmium from both sources could be excreted by the fish. The concentration of cadmium within the whole fish increased as the input of cadmium in the diet increased. Zinc, similarly, is available to the flounder both directly from sludge and from zinc accumulated in C. volutator. Only a limited increase in net accumulation of zinc by the flounder was observed upon increased inputs of zinc through the diet, perhaps indicating some regulation of body zinc concentration by the flounder.

  10. Characterization of flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) FoxD5 and its function in regulating myogenic regulatory factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Xungang; Zhang, Yuqing; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Peijun; Xu, Yongli

    2012-03-01

    As one member of winged helix domain transcription factors, FoxD5 was reported to be a trunk organizer. Recent study showed that zebrafish foxd5 is expressed in the somites. To further understand the function of FoxD5 in fish muscle development, the FoxD5 gene was isolated from flounder. Its expression pattern was analyzed by in situ hybridization, while its function in regulating myogenic regulatory factor, MyoD, was analyzed by ectopic expression. It showed that flounder FoxD5 was firstly expressed in the tailbud, adaxial cells, and neural plate of the head. In flounder embryo, FoxD5 is expressed not only in forebrain but also in somite cells that will form muscle in the future. When flounder FoxD5 was over-expressed in zebrafish by microinjection, the expression of zebrafish MyoD in the somites was reduced, suggesting that FoxD5 is involved in myogenesis by regulating the expression of MyoD.

  11. Edwardsiella tarda and Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from diseased Southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) are virulent to channel catfish and Nile tilapia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The aim of this study is to identify bacterial pathogens isolated from diseased Southern flounder and determine their virulence to channel catfish and Nile tilapia. Twenty five Gram-negative bacteria isolates were recovered from five tissues (skin lesions, brain, liver, intestine, and posterior kidn...

  12. Distribution, condition, and growth of newly settled southern flounder ( Paralichthys lethostigma) in the Galveston Bay Estuary, TX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, Lindsay A.; Rooker, Jay R.; Kraus, Richard T.; Holt, G. Joan

    2008-08-01

    Several flatfish species, including southern flounder ( Paralichthys lethostigma) recruit to estuaries during early life. Therefore, evaluation of estuarine sites and habitats that serve as nurseries is critical to conservation and management. The present study used density data in conjunction with biochemical condition and growth measurements to evaluate settlement sites used by southern flounder in the Galveston Bay Estuary (GBE). In 2005, beam-trawl collections were made in three major sections of the GBE (East Bay, Galveston Bay, West Bay). Three sites were sampled in each bay. Within each sampling site, replicate collections were taken from three habitats: 1) marsh edge (< 1 m depth), 2) intermediate zone (10-20 m from marsh interface; ˜ 1 m depth), and 3) bay zone (typically > 100 m from marsh interface; depth > 1 m). Average size of southern flounder collected was 12-19 mm standard length, and peak densities occurred in January and February. Catch data indicated that densities of southern flounder were significantly greater in East Bay (2.75 per 100 m 2) than in Galveston Bay (0.91 per 100 m 2) or in West Bay (0.45 per 100 m 2). Densities were statistically similar among habitats. Otolith-based estimates of age indicated that the majority of southern flounder collected were 35-45 days old and derived from early December to early January hatch-dates. Growth rates were similar among bays and among habitats, with the average growth rate being 0.40 mm day - 1 (range: 0.21-0.76 mm day - 1 ). RNA:DNA was above the established baseline value for nutritional stress, indicating that newly settled southern flounder in the GBE were in relatively high condition. Habitat-specific differences in RNA:DNA ratios were not observed; however, ratios were significantly lower in West Bay (average 8.0) than in East Bay (average 9.5) or in Galveston Bay (average 9.8), suggesting the condition of new recruits may vary spatially within the GBE. Findings from the current study

  13. Ontogeny of anti-viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) immunity in developing Japanese flounder.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, Tomomasa; Nakayasu, Chihaya; Fujiwara, Atsushi; Kurita, Jun; Takano, Tomokazu; Ito, Takafumi; Sano, Motohiko

    2012-07-01

    We examined the ability of developing Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) to acquire protective immunity after exposure to viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). Juveniles measuring 9.8 cm average body length were not susceptible to infection with VHSV at 20 °C, while the smaller fish were susceptible. Mortality was not observed after secondary infection at 15 °C in the 9.8 cm cohort that had previously been exposed to the virus at 20 °C, while the smaller fish were susceptible to secondary infection. The expression of interferon (IFN)-related genes was shown to be better developed in larger fish upon virus infection and basal expression levels of the virus recognition proteins were higher in larger fish. Virus-specific antibody was detected in the larger fish, but not in smaller fish. These data indicate that the largest juvenile (9.8 cm) acquired immunity against VHSV infection at the first virus challenge, but smaller fish did not. The anti-viral immune system in the Japanese flounder matures when juveniles reach approximately 10 cm.

  14. A Vibrio anguillarum strain associated with skin ulcer on cultured flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Zhao-Lan; Tan, Xun-Gang; Xu, Yong-Li; Zhang, Pei-Jun

    2001-12-01

    The characteristics of a bacterium strain M3, isolated from cultured flounder Paralichthys olivaceus with remarkable external sign of skin ulcer during an epizootic outbreak, indicated that the bacterium belonged to the species Vibrio anguillarum. Challenge by I.M. (intramuscular injection), bath, and oral administration with M3 showed that it was highly pathogenic for Paralichthys olivacues. The LD50 dose was 5.144×103 CFU/ per fish infection by I.M. injection. Recovered inoculated bacteria from the surviving fish revealed that the asymptomatic carriers could be a latent contagious source. Study of the effect of bacterial culture CFS (cell-free-supernatant) showed that the exotoxins produced by M3 play an important role in its pathogenicity for flounder. The resistance of M3 to 36 out of 41 antibiotics indicated that the bacterial disease outbreak was mainly attributable to the frequent and excessive use of antimicrobial agents; and that vaccination would be an effective precaution against bacterial disease.

  15. Cyclic volatile methylsiloxane bioaccumulation in flounder and ragworm in the Humber Estuary.

    PubMed

    Kierkegaard, Amelie; van Egmond, Roger; McLachlan, Michael S

    2011-07-15

    Cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes are being subjected to regulatory scrutiny as possible PBT chemicals. The investigation of bioaccumulation has yielded apparently contradictory results, with high laboratory fish bioconcentration factors on the one hand and low field trophic magnification factors on the other. In this study, octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5), and dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6) were studied along with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments, ragworm, and flounder from six sites in the Humber Estuary. Bioaccumulation was evaluated using multimedia bioaccumulation factors (mmBAFs) which quantified the fraction of the contaminant present in the aquatic environment that is transferred to the biota. PCB 180, a known strongly bioaccumulative chemical, was used as a benchmark. The mean mmBAF of D5 was about twice that of PCB 180 in both polycheates and flounder, while for D4 it was 6 and 14 times higher, respectively. The mmBAF of D6 was a factor 5-10 lower than that of PCB180. The comparatively strong multimedia bioaccumulation of D4 and D5, even in the absence of biomagnification, was explained by both compounds having a >100 times stronger tendency to partition into lipid rather than into organic carbon, while PCB 180 partitions to a similar extent into both matrices.

  16. Spatial and temporal variability in growth of southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Midway, Stephen R.; Wagner, Tyler; Arnott, Stephen A.; Biondo, Patrick; Martinez-Andrade, Fernando; Wadsworth, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    Delineation of stock structure is important for understanding the ecology and management of many fish populations, particularly those with wide-ranging distributions and high levels of harvest. Southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) is a popular commercial and recreational species along the southeast Atlantic coast and Gulf of Mexico, USA. Recent studies have provided genetic and otolith morphology evidence that the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean stocks differ. Using age and growth data from four states (Texas, Alabama, South Carolina, and North Carolina) we expanded upon the traditional von Bertalanffy model in order to compare growth rates of putative geographic stocks of southern flounder. We improved the model fitting process by adding a hierarchical Bayesian framework to allow each parameter to vary spatially or temporally as a random effect, as well as log transforming the three model parameters (L∞, K, andt0). Multiple comparisons of parameters showed that growth rates varied (even within states) for females, but less for males. Growth rates were also consistent through time, when long-term data were available. Since within-basin populations are thought to be genetically well-mixed, our results suggest that consistent small-scale environmental conditions (i.e., within estuaries) likely drive growth rates and should be considered when developing broader scale management plans.

  17. Possible Involvement of Photoperiodic Regulation in Reproductive Endocrine System of Female Olive Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Chul; Lee, Chi Hoon; Hur, Sung Pyu; Kim, Byeong Hoon; Park, Jun Young; Lee, Young Don

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated possible involvement of photoperiodic regulation in reproductive endocrine system of female olive flounder. To investigate the influence on brain-pituitary axis in endocrine system by regulating photoperiod, compared expression level of Kisspeptin and sbGnRH mRNA in brain and FSH-β, LH-β and GH mRNA in pituitary before and after spawning. Photoperiod was treated natural photoperiod and long photoperiod (15L:9D) conditions from Aug. 2013 to Jun. 2014. Continuous long photoperiod treatment from Aug. (post-spawning phase) was inhibited gonadal development of female olive flounder. In natural photoperiod group, the Kiss2 expression level a significant declined in Mar. (spawning period). And also, FSH-β, LH-β and GH mRNA expression levels were increasing at this period. However, in long photoperiod group, hypothalamic Kiss2, FSH-β, LH-β and GH mRNA expression levels did not show any significant fluctuation. These results suggest that expression of hypothalamic Kiss2, GtH and GH in the pituitary would change in response to photoperiod and their possible involvement of photoperiodic regulation in reproductive endocrine system of the BPG axis.

  18. Comparative Evolution of Duplicated Ddx3 Genes in Teleosts: Insights from Japanese Flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhongkai; Liu, Wei; Song, Huayu; Wang, Huizhen; Liu, Jinxiang; Zhao, Haitao; Du, Xinxin; Zhang, Quanqi

    2015-01-01

    Following the two rounds of whole-genome duplication that occurred during deuterostome evolution, a third genome duplication event occurred in the stem lineage of ray-finned fishes. This teleost-specific genome duplication is thought to be responsible for the biological diversification of ray-finned fishes. DEAD-box polypeptide 3 (DDX3) belongs to the DEAD-box RNA helicase family. Although their functions in humans have been well studied, limited information is available regarding their function in teleosts. In this study, two teleost Ddx3 genes were first identified in the transcriptome of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). We confirmed that the two genes originated from teleost-specific genome duplication through synteny and phylogenetic analysis. Additionally, comparative analysis of genome structure, molecular evolution rate, and expression pattern of the two genes in Japanese flounder revealed evidence of subfunctionalization of the duplicated Ddx3 genes in teleosts. Thus, the results of this study reveal novel insights into the evolution of the teleost Ddx3 genes and constitute important groundwork for further research on this gene family. PMID:26109358

  19. Diel feeding patterns and daily food intake of juvenile stone flounder Platichthys bicoloratus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomiyama, Takeshi; Katayama, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Shoji, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Pleuronectid flatfish are considered visual day feeders, but their ability to feed at night has not been examined in the field. Juvenile (age-0) stone flounder Platichthys bicoloratus were collected, and their stomach contents were investigated in situ every 4 h over a 24-h period in an estuarine habitat to elucidate diel feeding periodicity. The weight of juvenile stomach contents was usually the highest around dusk and the main prey was bivalve siphons. To reveal whether juveniles feed only at particular times during the day or throughout a 24-h period, we conducted 24-h cage experiments in which 10 juveniles with empty stomachs were held in a cage for approximately 4 h (six trials). This experiment was carried out three times during different moon phases. Juveniles primarily ingested prey during the day, but 30% of fish that were caged at night also ingested prey. The number of successful captures by the caged fish was much greater during the day than that at night. These results indicate that stone flounder generally feed during the day and they may only feed at night under unusual situations, although they have the ability to capture prey at night. The mean daily ration estimated by diel changes in stomach content weight varied from 3.4% (95% confidence interval, 1.8-4.8%) to 13.2% (11.0-15.6%) of body weight between survey dates, indicating that daily food consumption by fish estimated from a single survey may be strongly biased.

  20. Expression of let-7 microRNAs that are involved in Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yuanshuai; Shi, Zhiyi; Wang, Guyue; Zhang, Junling; Li, Wenjuan; Jia, Liang

    2013-06-01

    The let-7 microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small noncoding RNAs, are phylogenetically conserved and temporally expressed and control the proper timing of events during development as heterochronic genes in many animals. Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) undergoes a metamorphosis from the larval to juvenile form. Here, we identified 21 let-7 miRNA precursors from different genome loci in Japanese flounder. P. olivaceus let-7 miRNAs are widely expressed in adult tissues, highly expressed during metamorphosis, but weakly during embryonic development. Exogenous thyroid hormone (0.1 mg/L), which induces premature metamorphosis, significantly promotes the expression of let-7 miRNAs, while thiourea (30 mg/L), which affects metamorphic arrest, inhibits the expression of let-7 miRNAs in metamorphosis in P. olivaceus. These results show that let-7 miRNAs widely participate in tissue development and metabolism during development and are also involved in regulation of temporal transitions associated with cell proliferation and differentiation during metamorphosis, in P. olivaceus. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Transcriptomic responses of European flounder (Platichthys flesus) liver to a brominated flame retardant mixture.

    PubMed

    Williams, Tim D; Diab, Amer M; Gubbins, Matt; Collins, Catherine; Matejusova, Iveta; Kerr, Rose; Chipman, James K; Kuiper, Raoul; Vethaak, A Dick; George, Stephen G

    2013-10-15

    Male European flounder (Platichthys flesus) were exposed to a technical mixture of brominated diphenyl ethers (PDBEs, DE-71, Pentamix) that had been purified to remove contaminating dioxins. Controls were exposed to carrier solvent alone. Fish were exposed to decadally increasing concentrations of Pentamix via both sediment and spiked food. The GENIPOL P. flesus cDNA microarray, differentially expressed gene profiling (DEG) and quantitative PCR were employed to detect hepatic transcriptional differences between exposed fish and controls. Gene transcriptional changes were more sensitive to Pentamix exposure than biomarkers measured previously. Pentamix exposure induced transcripts coding for enzymes of xenobiotic metabolism (CYP1A, aldo-keto reductases) and elicited endocrine disruption (vitellogenin and thyroid hormone receptor alpha), with effects on CYP1A and VTG occurring at the highest exposure. Ontology analysis clearly showed dose-responsive changes indicative of oxidative stress, induction of mitochondrial dysfunction, and apoptosis. We conclude that exposure to PBDEs in both sediment and food has a significant adverse effect on a broad range of crucial biochemical processes in the livers of this widely distributed estuarine fish species, the flounder.

  2. Plasma steroid hormone levels in female flounder Platichthys flesus and the influence of fluctuating hydrostatic pressure.

    PubMed

    Damasceno-Oliveira, A; Fernández-Durán, B; Gonçalves, J; Couto, E; Canário, A V M; Coimbra, J

    2012-11-01

    The reproductive cycle in teleosts is timed to guarantee that eggs hatch in the right place at the right time, with environmental factors playing important roles in entraining and controlling the entire process. The effects of some environmental factors, like temperature and photoperiod, are now well understood. There are only a few studies regarding the effects of hydrostatic pressure (HP) on the reproductive cycle, in spite of its importance as a ubiquitous factor in all biological environments and affecting all living organisms. Hydrostatic pressure is of particular importance in fish because they can also experience rapid and cyclic changes in HP due to vertical movements in the water column. The aim of the present research was to investigate the effects of vertical migrations on the reproductive steroids of maturing female flounder. After a 14 day exposure to cyclic hydrostatic pressure (with a period of 12.4h and with a maximum peak of 800 kPa of absolute hydrostatic pressure), fish showed significantly lower plasmatic concentrations of "5β,3α" steroids, metabolites of the putative maturation-inducing steroid in flounder (17α,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one). Results indicate that environmentally realistic cyclic changes of hydrostatic pressure can influence the metabolism of reproductive steroids. This suggests a physiological role of tidally-associated vertical migrations, affecting oocyte maturation and retarding the reproductive cycle in this species until the spawning ground is attained.

  3. A ranking system for the evaluation of intersex condition in European flounder (Platichthys flesus).

    PubMed

    Bateman, Kelly S; Stentiford, Grant D; Feist, Stephen W

    2004-12-01

    Intersex (ovotestis) is the condition whereby an individual possesses oocytes, at varying degrees of severity, within the normal testicular tissue and is regarded as an endpoint of endocrine disruption in male fish. The occurrence of intersex has been linked with exposure to endocrine-disrupting compounds present in the environment, which are thought to mimic the actions of the female sex hormone 17-beta-oestradiol. Using stained histological sections of archived cases of intersex from European flounder (Platichthys flesus), this study developed a grading method to assess the extent of the condition. This was termed the ovotestis severity index (OSI). The OSI utilizes the distribution pattern (focal, diffuse, cluster, zonal) and type of oocyte (previtellogenic, cortical alveolar, vitellogenic) to assign a severity rating to each intersex fish. A high OSI refers to fish with testicular material almost completely replaced with mature (vitellogenic) oocytes, and lower scores indicate those fish with small numbers of immature (previtellogenic) oocytes. The development of this index provides pathologists with a robust tool for the grading of the intersex condition in European flounder and potentially in other fish species.

  4. Evidence for nitric oxide role in the caudal neurosecretory system of the European flounder, Platichthys flesus.

    PubMed

    Marley, Richard; Lu, Weiqun; Balment, Richard J; McCrohan, Catherine R

    2007-01-01

    A neuromodulatory role for nitric oxide has been reported for magnocellular neuroendocrine cells in mammalian hypothalamus. We examined its potential as a local intercellular messenger in the neuroendocrine Dahlgren cell population of the caudal neurosecretory system (CNSS) of the euryhaline flounder. Immunocytochemistry using an antibody raised against human neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS) indicated the presence of NOS in the Dahlgren cells. Quantitative RT-PCR, using a flounder-specific probe, revealed NOS mRNA expression in the CNSS. In July, though not in September, NOS mRNA expression was significantly higher in fish fully adapted to seawater, compared to freshwater-adapted fish. Following acute transfer of fish from freshwater to seawater, NOS mRNA expression was elevated at 8h and then recovered by 24h. In pharmacological experiments in vitro, application of NO donors (SNAP, SNP) caused an increase in electrical activity (firing frequency) of Dahlgren cells, recruitment of previously silent cells, together with a greater proportion of cells showing phasic (irregular) activity. The NOS substrate, l-arginine, led to increased firing frequency, cell recruitment and enhanced bursting activity. However, this effect was not blocked by the NOS inhibitor L-NAME. These findings suggest that NO acts as a modulator within the CNSS, potentially enhancing electrical activity and hence secretory output. A role in supporting adaptation to hyperosmotic conditions is also indicated.

  5. Molecular responses of European flounder (Platichthys flesus) chronically exposed to contaminated estuarine sediments.

    PubMed

    Williams, Tim D; Davies, Ian M; Wu, Huifeng; Diab, Amer M; Webster, Lynda; Viant, Mark R; Chipman, J Kevin; Leaver, Michael J; George, Stephen G; Moffat, Colin F; Robinson, Craig D

    2014-08-01

    Molecular responses to acute toxicant exposure can be effective biomarkers, however responses to chronic exposure are less well characterised. The aim of this study was to determine chronic molecular responses to environmental mixtures in a controlled laboratory setting, free from the additional variability encountered with environmental sampling of wild organisms. Flounder fish were exposed in mesocosms for seven months to a contaminated estuarine sediment made by mixing material from the Forth (high organics) and Tyne (high metals and tributyltin) estuaries (FT) or a reference sediment from the Ythan estuary (Y). Chemical analyses demonstrated that FT sediment contained significantly higher concentrations of key environmental pollutants (including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), chlorinated biphenyls and heavy metals) than Y sediment, but that chronically exposed flounder showed a lack of differential accumulation of contaminants, including heavy metals. Biliary 1-hydroxypyrene concentration and erythrocyte DNA damage increased in FT-exposed fish. Transcriptomic and (1)H NMR metabolomic analyses of liver tissues detected small but statistically significant alterations between fish exposed to different sediments. These highlighted perturbance of immune response and apoptotic pathways, but there was a lack of response from traditional biomarker genes. Gene-chemical association annotation enrichment analyses suggested that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were a major class of toxicants affecting the molecular responses of the exposed fish. This demonstrated that molecular responses of sentinel organisms can be detected after chronic mixed toxicant exposure and that these can be informative of key components of the mixture.

  6. Bioaccumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in flounder (Platichthys flesus) in the southern Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Waszak, Ilona; Dabrowska, Henryka; Góra, Agnieszka

    2012-08-01

    Concentrations of seven polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners were examined in flounder (Platichthys flesus) and sediment in three southern Baltic Sea sites, representing a range of exposure conditions, in order to evaluate spatial differences in PBDE contamination. Additionally, PBDEs were measured in muscle, liver, and gonads of flounder from one of the sites in order to examine inter-tissue distribution. Mean muscle Σ(7)PBDE levels, in the range of 10-21 ng g(-1) lipid, showed inter-site differences attributed to the distance from the Gulf of Gdańsk, and were overall lower than reported earlier in herring, sprat, and salmon. Biota sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) for Σ(7)PBDE and individual BDE congeners, in the range of 0.5-24.5, were generally consistent with predicted models for persistent hydrophobic halogenated contaminants. Wet weight (wet wt) PBDE levels in muscle and liver, but not in gonads, were related to tissue lipid content and did not correlate with the fish length and weight. These tissues differed in PBDE levels and profiles as a result of varying lipid content and presumably lipid composition and congener-specific physico-chemical properties.

  7. Sex differences in hepatic lipids of Toxaphene-exposed juvenile yellowtail flounder (Pleuronectes ferrugineus Storer).

    PubMed

    Scott, K D; Fåhraeus-Van Ree, G E; Parrish, C C

    2002-03-01

    Histochemical and biochemical effects of Toxaphene on liver were investigated in laboratory-bred female and male juvenile yellowtail flounder (Pleuronectes ferrugineus). Fish were fed uncontaminated food, or food contaminated with hexane (the solvent for Toxaphene) or with one of two concentrations of Toxaphene (0.02 or 0.2 microg/g fish/day) for 2 weeks. Males were more advanced in sexual maturity than females, although all were from the same year-class (0(+)). Liver tissue examined histochemically (Sudan black B, oil red O) revealed that Toxaphene affected storage of total and neutral lipids according to sex and dose. The sexes differed in the amount of total and neutral lipids. Neutral lipid droplets were considerably larger in the liver of females. Lipids were extracted and analyzed using the latroscan TLC/FID system. Triacylglycerols comprised the majority of lipids. Animals exposed to the lowest concentration of Toxaphene stored low amounts of total and neutral lipids and high amounts of polar lipids, while animals exposed to a 10 times higher concentration showed the reverse. Sterols were highest in animals exposed to the highest dose. Thus Toxaphene can alter the lipid composition in the liver of yellowtail flounder, which may have consequences for physiological processes involving the liver, such as lipid metabolism and reproduction.

  8. Possible Involvement of Photoperiodic Regulation in Reproductive Endocrine System of Female Olive Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun Chul; Lee, Chi Hoon; Hur, Sung Pyu; Kim, Byeong Hoon; Park, Jun Young; Lee, Young Don

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated possible involvement of photoperiodic regulation in reproductive endocrine system of female olive flounder. To investigate the influence on brain-pituitary axis in endocrine system by regulating photoperiod, compared expression level of Kisspeptin and sbGnRH mRNA in brain and FSH-β, LH-β and GH mRNA in pituitary before and after spawning. Photoperiod was treated natural photoperiod and long photoperiod (15L:9D) conditions from Aug. 2013 to Jun. 2014. Continuous long photoperiod treatment from Aug. (post-spawning phase) was inhibited gonadal development of female olive flounder. In natural photoperiod group, the Kiss2 expression level a significant declined in Mar. (spawning period). And also, FSH-β, LH-β and GH mRNA expression levels were increasing at this period. However, in long photoperiod group, hypothalamic Kiss2, FSH-β, LH-β and GH mRNA expression levels did not show any significant fluctuation. These results suggest that expression of hypothalamic Kiss2, GtH and GH in the pituitary would change in response to photoperiod and their possible involvement of photoperiodic regulation in reproductive endocrine system of the BPG axis. PMID:25949205

  9. Stoichiometry and Na+ binding cooperativity of rat and flounder renal type II Na+-Pi cotransporters.

    PubMed

    Forster, I C; Loo, D D; Eskandari, S

    1999-04-01

    The stoichiometry of the rat and flounder isoforms of the renal type II sodium-phosphate (Na+-Pi) cotransporter was determined directly by simultaneous measurements of phosphate (Pi)-induced inward current and uptake of radiolabeled Pi and Na+ in Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing the cotransporters. There was a direct correlation between the Pi-induced inward charge and Pi uptake into the oocytes; the slope indicated that one net inward charge was transported per Pi. There was also a direct correlation between the Pi-induced inward charge and Na+ influx; the slope indicated that the influx of three Na+ ions resulted in one net inward charge. This behavior was similar for both isoforms. We conclude that for both Na+-Pi cotransporter isoforms the Na+:Pi stoichiometry is 3:1 and that divalent Pi is the transported substrate. Steady-state activation of the currents showed that the Hill coefficients for Pi were unity for both isoforms, whereas for Na+, they were 1.8 (flounder) and 2.5 (rat). Therefore, despite significant differences in the apparent Na+ binding cooperativity, the estimated Na+:Pi stoichiometry was the same for both isoforms.

  10. Seasonal variability of prey in the stomachs of Astropecten americanus (Echinodermata: Asteroidea) from off southern New England, U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franz, David R.; Worley, E. K.

    1982-04-01

    The diet of Astropecten americanus from a location off Nantucket Shoals, Massachusetts, was determined by analysis of stomach contents in May and November. Molluscs, followed by crustaceans, dominated stomach contents. The proportion of molluscan species in the diet differed significantly from the benthos, Juvenile Arctica islandica dominated stomachs in May, but declined sharply in November, probably due in part to predation by Astropecten. Other molluscs, not prevalent in the benthos, were important in stomach contents. Frequency distributions of counts of prey species in a sample of seastar stomachs indicate that some seastars ingest unusually large numbers of certain prey species. A. americanus generally ingests small prey individuals (<4mm) although larger prey are consumed, especially in November. Relatively high selectivity, seasonal shifts in the diversity of stomach contents, and evidence for patch-specific foraging are characteristics of A. americanus which are consistent with general predictions of optimum diet models.

  11. Fecundity regulation in relation to habitat utilisation of two sympatric flounder (Platichtys flesus) populations in the brackish water Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissling, Anders; Thorsen, Anders; da Silva, Filipa F. G.

    2015-01-01

    Two populations of flounder (Platichtys flesus) with different life history traits inhabit the brackish water Baltic Sea. Both types share feeding areas in coastal waters during summer-autumn but utilise different habitats for spawning in spring, namely offshore spawning with pelagic eggs and coastal spawning with demersal eggs respectively. Fecundity regulation by atresia was assessed as prevalence (portion of fish with atresia) and intensity (calculated as the average intensity of atresia in these fish) during the reproductive cycle following start of gonad development in the autumn up to spawning in spring, and evaluated in relation to fish condition (Fulton's condition factor reflecting energy reserves of the fish) and feeding incidence of the respective population. Peaking in winter (December-February), fecundity regulation was significantly higher for coastal spawning flounder than for flounder spawning offshore. For coastal spawners, the prevalence was 45-90% with an intensity of 6.4-9.3% vs. 0-25% and an intensity of 2.1-3.4% for offshore spawners during winter. Further, fecundity regulation ceased prior to spawning for offshore spawners but continued for coastal spawners. For coastal spawners, the prevalence was 12-29% and an intensity of 2.5-6.1% during spawning. The change in fish condition was strongly related to feeding incidence and differed between populations. As feeding ceased, condition of offshore spawners decreased during winter up to spawning, whereas condition of coastal spawners decreased during autumn but was maintained as feeding started again prior to spawning. Thus, habitat utilisation according to spawning strategy affects the timing of fecundity down-regulation reflecting availability of resources, namely limited food resources in deep areas and higher availability in coastal areas. Offshore spawning flounder display characteristics typical for a capital spawner with ceasing of feeding and oocyte down-regulation well before spawning

  12. Cytochrome P4501A indices as biomarkers of contaminant exposure: A field study with plaice and flounder

    SciTech Connect

    Eggens, M.; Opperhuizen, A.

    1995-12-31

    Samples of two flatfish species, flounder (Platichthys flesus) and plaice (Pleurnectus platessa), were collected during August/September 1991 and May/June 1992 in the southern North Sea. The induction of hepatic cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A) in both species was examined, when exposed to environmental PCBs and PAHs. CYP1A was measured by a semi-quantitative ELISA technique and by the activity of its catalyst, 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD). In plaice, both hepatic CYP1 protein level and EROD activity were significantly higher at offshore sampling locations than at coastal locations, by a factor of 1.5 to 2. In flounder, which were only collected at coastal locations, the range of values of EROD activity was much greater than in plaice, but the range in CYP1A protein content was comparable in both species. multiple regression analysis of data from plaice and flounder did not show any significant correlation between CYP1A indices, water temperature and contaminant concentrations in fish tissues. CYP1A indices also appeared to be unrelated to food type, as determined by visual screening of fish intestines. It is concluded that the induction of CYP1A in plaice and flounder from the southern North Sea is not related in a simple manner to exposure to PCBs and PAHs. From the point of view-of use as a biomarker, the measurement of CYP1A protein level and EROD activity in plaice and flounder from the open North Sea cannot be applied straightforwardly for monitoring exposure to PCBs and/or PAHs.

  13. Necator americanus and helminth co-infections: further down-modulation of hookworm-specific type 1 immune responses.

    PubMed

    Geiger, Stefan Michael; Alexander, Neal Douglas Edward; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Brooker, Simon; Cundill, Bonnie; Diemert, David Joseph; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Bethony, Jeffrey Michael

    2011-09-01

    Helminth co-infection in humans is common in tropical regions of the world where transmission of soil-transmitted helminths such as Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and the hookworms Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale as well as other helminths such as Schistosoma mansoni often occur simultaneously. We investigated whether co-infection with another helminth(s) altered the human immune response to crude antigen extracts from either different stages of N. americanus infection (infective third stage or adult) or different crude antigen extract preparations (adult somatic and adult excretory/secretory). Using these antigens, we compared the cellular and humoral immune responses of individuals mono-infected with hookworm (N. americanus) and individuals co-infected with hookworm and other helminth infections, namely co-infection with either A. lumbricoides, Schistosoma mansoni, or both. Immunological variables were compared between hookworm infection group (mono- versus co-infected) by bootstrap, and principal component analysis (PCA) was used as a data reduction method. Contrary to several animal studies of helminth co-infection, we found that co-infected individuals had a further downmodulated Th1 cytokine response (e.g., reduced INF-γ), accompanied by a significant increase in the hookworm-specific humoral immune response (e.g. higher levels of IgE or IgG4 to crude antigen extracts) compared with mono- infected individuals. Neither of these changes was associated with a reduction of hookworm infection intensity in helminth co-infected individuals. From the standpoint of hookworm vaccine development, these results are relevant; i.e., the specific immune response to hookworm vaccine antigens might be altered by infection with another helminth.

  14. De novo transcriptome assembly for the lobster Homarus americanus and characterization of differential gene expression across nervous system tissues.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Lara Lewis; Vollmer, Steven V; Kaluziak, Stefan T; Ayers, Joseph

    2016-01-16

    The American lobster, Homarus americanus, is an important species as an economically valuable fishery, a key member in marine ecosystems, and a well-studied model for central pattern generation, the neural networks that control rhythmic motor patterns. Despite multi-faceted scientific interest in this species, currently our genetic resources for the lobster are limited. In this study, we de novo assemble a transcriptome for Homarus americanus using central nervous system (CNS), muscle, and hybrid neurosecretory tissues and compare gene expression across these tissue types. In particular, we focus our analysis on genes relevant to central pattern generation and the identity of the neurons in a neural network, which is defined by combinations of genes distinguishing the neuronal behavior and phenotype, including ion channels, neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, receptors, transcription factors, and other gene products. Using samples from the central nervous system (brain, abdominal ganglia), abdominal muscle, and heart (cardiac ganglia, pericardial organs, muscle), we used RNA-Seq to characterize gene expression patterns across tissues types. We also compared control tissues with those challenged with the neuropeptide proctolin in vivo. Our transcriptome generated 34,813 transcripts with known protein annotations. Of these, 5,000-10,000 of annotated transcripts were significantly differentially expressed (DE) across tissue types. We found 421 transcripts for ion channels and identified receptors and/or proteins for over 20 different neurotransmitters and neuromodulators. Results indicated tissue-specific expression of select neuromodulator (allostatin, myomodulin, octopamine, nitric oxide) and neurotransmitter (glutamate, acetylcholine) pathways. We also identify differential expression of ion channel families, including kainite family glutamate receptors, inward-rectifying K(+) (IRK) channels, and transient receptor potential (TRP) A family channels, across central

  15. Fatal Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus-like infection in 4 Rocky Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus).

    PubMed

    Patton, Kristin M; Bildfell, Robert J; Anderson, Mark L; Cebra, Christopher K; Valentine, Beth A

    2012-03-01

    Over a 3.5-year period, 4 Rocky Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus), housed at a single facility, developed clinical disease attributed to infection by Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV). Ages ranged from 1 to 10 years. Three of the goats, a 1-year-old female, a 2-year-old male, and a 5-year-old male, had been fed raw domestic goat milk from a single source that was later found to have CAEV on the premises. The fourth animal, a 10-year-old male, had not ingested domestic goat milk but had been housed with the other 3 Rocky Mountain goats. All 4 animals had clinical signs of pneumonia prior to death. At necropsy, findings in lungs included marked diffuse interstitial pneumonia characterized histologically by severe lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates with massive alveolar proteinosis, interstitial fibrosis, and type II pneumocyte hyperplasia. One animal also developed left-sided hemiparesis, and locally extensive lymphoplasmacytic myeloencephalitis was present in the cranial cervical spinal cord. Two animals had joint effusions, as well as severe lymphoplasmacytic and ulcerative synovitis. Immunohistochemical staining of fixed sections of lung tissue from all 4 goats, as well as spinal cord in 1 affected animal, and synovium from 2 affected animals were positive for CAEV antigen. Serology testing for anti-CAEV antibodies was positive in the 2 goats tested. The cases suggest that Rocky Mountain goats are susceptible to naturally occurring CAEV infection, that CAEV from domestic goats can be transmitted to this species through infected milk and by horizontal transmission, and that viral infection can result in clinically severe multisystemic disease.

  16. Multilocus heterozygosity, parental relatedness and individual fitness components in a wild mountain goat, Oreamnos americanus population.

    PubMed

    Mainguy, Julien; Côté, Steeve D; Coltman, David W

    2009-05-01

    Matings between relatives lead to a decrease in offspring genetic diversity which can reduce fitness, a phenomenon known as inbreeding depression. Because alpine ungulates generally live in small structured populations and often exhibit a polygynous mating system, they are susceptible to inbreeding. Here, we used marker-based measures of pairwise genetic relatedness and inbreeding to investigate the fitness consequences of matings between relatives in a long-term study population of mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) at Caw Ridge, Alberta, Canada. We first assessed whether individuals avoided mating with kin by comparing actual and random mating pairs according to their estimated genetic relatedness, which was derived from 25 unlinked polymorphic microsatellite markers and reflected pedigree relatedness. We then examined whether individual multilocus heterozygosity H, used as a measure of inbreeding, was predicted by parental relatedness and associated with yearling survival and the annual probability of giving birth to a kid in adult females. Breeding pairs identified by genetic parentage analyses of offspring that survived to 1 year of age were less genetically related than expected under random matings. Parental relatedness was negatively correlated with offspring H, and more heterozygous yearlings had higher survival to 2 years of age. The probability of giving birth was not affected by H in adult females. Because kids that survived to yearling age were mainly produced by less genetically related parents, our results suggest that some individuals experienced inbreeding depression in early life. Future research will be required to quantify the levels of gene flow between different herds, and evaluate their effects on population genetic diversity and dynamics.

  17. Sequential ovulation and fertility of polyoestrus in American black bears (Ursus americanus).

    PubMed

    Himelright, Brendan M; Moore, Jenna M; Gonzales, Ramona L; Mendoza, Alejandra V; Dye, Penny S; Schuett, Randall J; Durrant, Barbara S; Read, Betsy A; Spady, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    American black bears (Ursus americanus) are seasonally polyoestrous and exhibit delayed implantation, which may allow equal and independent fertility of recurrent oestruses of a mating season. We postulated that the luteal inactivity during delayed implantation allows bears to have sequential ovulation during a polyoestrous mating season such that each oestrus of a polyoestrous female will have equivalent fertility, and pregnancy would not preclude subsequent ovulation and superfetation. Controlled mating experiments were conducted on semi-free-ranging female American black bears during three mating seasons, wherein females were bred by different male cohorts in each oestrus. Behavioural observation, vulva score ranking, genetic paternity analysis, gross morphology of ovaries and microscopic morphology of diapaused embryos were used to evaluate the fertility of each subsequent oestrus in polyoestrous females. Oestrus duration, number of successful mounts and median vulva scores were similar between first and subsequent oestruses of the season. Polyoestrus occurred in 81.3% of oestrous females, with a 9.7 ± 5.5 day (mean ± SD) inter-oestrous interval. Sequential ovulation was documented in three polyoestrous females, including one that possessed both a corpus haemorrhagicum and a developed corpus luteum. Among polyoestrous dams, four of nine embryos were conceived in the first oestrus and five of nine in the second oestrus. These results indicate that each oestrus of polyoestrous females is capable of fertility, even if the female is already pregnant from a prior oestrus. Although superfetation was not directly observed in the present study, our results strongly suggest the potential of superfetation in the American black bear and provide novel insight into the complex behavioural and physiological breeding mechanisms of bears. Given that most endangered bear species share similar reproductive traits with American black bears, captive breeding programmes

  18. Prevalence of Babesia spp., Ehrlichia spp., and Tick Infestations in Oklahoma Black Bears (Ursus americanus).

    PubMed

    Skinner, Delaina; Mitcham, Jessica R; Starkey, Lindsay A; Noden, Bruce H; Fairbanks, W Sue; Little, Susan E

    2017-06-28

    American black bears (Ursus americanus) are commonly infested with ticks throughout their range, but there are few surveys for tick-borne disease agents in bears. To characterize tick infestations and determine the prevalence of current infection with Babesia spp. and past or current infection with Ehrlichia spp. in newly re-established populations of black bears in east central and southeastern Oklahoma, we identified adult (n=1,048) and immature (n=107) ticks recovered from bears (n=62). We evaluated serum and whole blood samples from a subset (n=49) for antibodies reactive to, and characteristic DNA fragments of Ehrlichia spp. as well as characteristic DNA fragments of Babesia spp. Amblyomma americanum, the most common tick identified, was found on a majority (56/62; 90%) of bears and accounted for 697/1,048 (66.5%) of all ticks recovered. Other ticks included Dermacentor variabilis (338/1,048; 32.3%) from 36 bears, Amblyomma maculatum (9/1,048; 0.9%) from three bears, and Ixodes scapularis (4/1,048; 0.4%) from three bears. Antibodies reactive to Ehrlichia spp. were detected in every bear tested (49/49; 100%); maximum inverse titers to Ehrlichia chaffeensis ranged from 64-4,096 (geometric mean titer 1,525). However, PCR failed to identify active infection with E. chaffeensis, Ehrlichia ewingii, or an Ehrlichia ruminantium-like agent. Infection with Babesia spp. was detected by PCR in 3/49 (6%) bears. Together these data confirm that tick infestations and infection with tick-borne disease agents are common in bears in the southern US. The significance of these infestations and infections to the health of bears, if any, and the identity of the Ehrlichia spp. responsible for the antibody reactivity seen, warrant further evaluation.

  19. Detection of human bacterial pathogens in ticks collected from Louisiana black bears (Ursus americanus luteolus).

    PubMed

    Leydet, Brian F; Liang, Fang-Ting

    2013-04-01

    There are 4 major human-biting tick species in the northeastern United States, which include: Amblyomma americanum, Amblyomma maculatum, Dermacentor variabilis, and Ixodes scapularis. The black bear is a large mammal that has been shown to be parasitized by all the aforementioned ticks. We investigated the bacterial infections in ticks collected from Louisiana black bears (Ursus americanus subspecies luteolus). Eighty-six ticks were collected from 17 black bears in Louisiana from June 2010 to March 2011. All 4 common human-biting tick species were represented. Each tick was subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting select bacterial pathogens and symbionts. Bacterial DNA was detected in 62% of ticks (n=53). Rickettsia parkeri, the causative agent of an emerging spotted fever group rickettsiosis, was identified in 66% of A. maculatum, 28% of D. variabilis, and 11% of I. scapularis. The Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, was detected in 2 I. scapularis, while one A. americanum was positive for Borrelia bissettii, a putative human pathogen. The rickettsial endosymbionts Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae, rickettsial endosymbiont of I. scapularis, and Rickettsia amblyommii were detected in their common tick hosts at 21%, 39%, and 60%, respectively. All ticks were PCR-negative for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia spp., and Babesia microti. This is the first reported detection of R. parkeri in vector ticks in Louisiana; we also report the novel association of R. parkeri with I. scapularis. Detection of both R. parkeri and B. burgdorferi in their respective vectors in Louisiana demands further investigation to determine potential for human exposure to these pathogens. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Modulation of gene expression in heart and liver of hibernating black bears (Ursus americanus)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hibernation is an adaptive strategy to survive in highly seasonal or unpredictable environments. The molecular and genetic basis of hibernation physiology in mammals has only recently been studied using large scale genomic approaches. We analyzed gene expression in the American black bear, Ursus americanus, using a custom 12,800 cDNA probe microarray to detect differences in expression that occur in heart and liver during winter hibernation in comparison to summer active animals. Results We identified 245 genes in heart and 319 genes in liver that were differentially expressed between winter and summer. The expression of 24 genes was significantly elevated during hibernation in both heart and liver. These genes are mostly involved in lipid catabolism and protein biosynthesis and include RNA binding protein motif 3 (Rbm3), which enhances protein synthesis at mildly hypothermic temperatures. Elevated expression of protein biosynthesis genes suggests induction of translation that may be related to adaptive mechanisms reducing cardiac and muscle atrophies over extended periods of low metabolism and immobility during hibernation in bears. Coordinated reduction of transcription of genes involved in amino acid catabolism suggests redirection of amino acids from catabolic pathways to protein biosynthesis. We identify common for black bears and small mammalian hibernators transcriptional changes in the liver that include induction of genes responsible for fatty acid β oxidation and carbohydrate synthesis and depression of genes involved in lipid biosynthesis, carbohydrate catabolism, cellular respiration and detoxification pathways. Conclusions Our findings show that modulation of gene expression during winter hibernation represents molecular mechanism of adaptation to extreme environments. PMID:21453527

  1. Behavioral Thermoregulation and Trade-Offs in Juvenile Lobster Homarus americanus.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Travis V; McGaw, Iain J

    2016-02-01

    Water temperature influences the behavior and distribution patterns of both larval and adult American lobster Homarus americanus. However, very little is known about the responses of juvenile lobsters. The juvenile life stage is a critical period; high levels of mortality, combined with specific behavioral responses, can disconnect larval settlement from patterns of abundance of adults. We assessed behavioral thermoregulation in juvenile lobsters, and determined how thermal preferences can be altered by the presence of shelter and food. Juvenile lobsters avoided temperatures higher than 20 °C and lower than 8 °C, and had a mean temperature preference of 16.2 ± 1 °C. This preference was unaffected by prior acclimation, origin (laboratory-raised or wild), or size. When the animals were subjected to a temperature change (5-20 °C), activity rates peaked at 15 °C, and remained stable thereafter. Activity rates did not change when a shelter was added. The addition of food resulted in an increase in activity associated with food handling. When juvenile lobsters were offered a choice between temperature, shelter, and food, they always chose the environment with a shelter, even when it was in a thermally unfavorable temperature. Juveniles also spent more time in a thermally unfavorable environment when food was present; however, acquisition of a shelter was prioritized over food. Although juveniles had a similar thermal preference to adults, they are more vulnerable to predation; the innate shelter-seeking behavior of juveniles overrode their thermal preference. While temperature is an important environmental factor affecting the physiology, distribution, and growth of aquatic ectotherms, our findings suggest that trade-off behaviors occur in order to maintain optimal fitness and survival of the individual. © 2016 Marine Biological Laboratory.

  2. Soil organic matter content effects on dermal pesticide bioconcentration in American toads (Bufo americanus).

    PubMed

    Van Meter, Robin J; Glinski, Donna A; Henderson, W Matthew; Purucker, S Thomas

    2016-11-01

    Pesticides have been implicated as a major factor in global amphibian declines and may pose great risk to terrestrial phase amphibians moving to and from breeding ponds on agricultural landscapes. Dermal uptake from soil is known to occur in amphibians, but predicting pesticide availability and bioconcentration across soil types is not well understood. The present study was designed to compare uptake of 5 current-use pesticides (imidacloprid, atrazine, triadimefon, fipronil, and pendimethalin) in American toads (Bufo americanus) from exposure on soils with significant organic matter content differences (14.1% = high organic matter and 3.1% = low organic matter). We placed toads on high- or low-organic matter soil after applying individual current-use pesticides on the soil surface for an 8-h exposure duration. Whole body tissue homogenates and soils were extracted and analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine pesticide tissue and soil concentration, as well as bioconcentration factor in toads. Tissue concentrations were greater on the low-organic matter soil than the high-organic matter soil across all pesticides (average ± standard error; 1.23 ± 0.35 ppm and 0.78 ± 0.23 ppm, respectively), and bioconcentration was significantly higher for toads on the low-organic matter soil (analysis of covariance p = 0.002). Soil organic matter is known to play a significant role in the mobility of pesticides and bioavailability to living organisms. Agricultural soils typically have relatively lower organic matter content and serve as a functional habitat for amphibians. The potential for pesticide accumulation in amphibians moving throughout agricultural landscapes may be greater and should be considered in conservation and policy efforts. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2734-2741. © 2016 SETAC.

  3. Effects of simulated feeding by snow geese on Scirpus americanus rhizomes.

    PubMed

    Giroux, J -F; Bédard, J

    1987-11-01

    We simulated the feeding of Greater Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens atlantica) on the rhizomes of three-square bulrush (Scirpus americanus) in a tidal marsh along the St. Lawrence River estuary in Québec. During the spring staging period, aboveground biomass is unavailable and geese feed solely on rhizomes and overwintering buds. An experiment was designed to test the effect of three factors on subsequent growth of Scirpus: the intensity of removal (3 to 77% removal of belowground biomass), the number of "bites" (1, 2 or 3 sections removed) and the number of adventitious buds removed (1, 2 or 3). Rhizomes were dug out in May, treated and transplanted into 85-1 basins sunk in the marsh and filled with marsh soil freed of all plant material. Growth was observed weekly until the end of the growing season in August. Shoots and rhizomes were then collected, dried and weighed to obtain biomass estimates. The net above- and belowground production of Scirpus was inversely related to the initial rhizome biomass removed. At a high level of removal (>35%), the cumulative number of shoots was significantly reduced as early as two weeks after transplantation. The relative reduction in production of the treated rhizomes compared to the control plants was also related to the intensity of removal. An increased number of bites reduced production and the removal of an increased number of adventitious buds further amplified the effect of removal on rhizome production. These experimental results show that even low intensity of feeding by Snow Geese can reduce the production of Scirpus marshes.

  4. Sequential ovulation and fertility of polyoestrus in American black bears (Ursus americanus)

    PubMed Central

    Himelright, Brendan M.; Moore, Jenna M.; Gonzales, Ramona L.; Mendoza, Alejandra V.; Dye, Penny S.; Schuett, Randall J.; Durrant, Barbara S.; Read, Betsy A.; Spady, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    American black bears (Ursus americanus) are seasonally polyoestrous and exhibit delayed implantation, which may allow equal and independent fertility of recurrent oestruses of a mating season. We postulated that the luteal inactivity during delayed implantation allows bears to have sequential ovulation during a polyoestrous mating season such that each oestrus of a polyoestrous female will have equivalent fertility, and pregnancy would not preclude subsequent ovulation and superfetation. Controlled mating experiments were conducted on semi-free-ranging female American black bears during three mating seasons, wherein females were bred by different male cohorts in each oestrus. Behavioural observation, vulva score ranking, genetic paternity analysis, gross morphology of ovaries and microscopic morphology of diapaused embryos were used to evaluate the fertility of each subsequent oestrus in polyoestrous females. Oestrus duration, number of successful mounts and median vulva scores were similar between first and subsequent oestruses of the season. Polyoestrus occurred in 81.3% of oestrous females, with a 9.7 ± 5.5 day (mean ± SD) inter-oestrous interval. Sequential ovulation was documented in three polyoestrous females, including one that possessed both a corpus haemorrhagicum and a developed corpus luteum. Among polyoestrous dams, four of nine embryos were conceived in the first oestrus and five of nine in the second oestrus. These results indicate that each oestrus of polyoestrous females is capable of fertility, even if the female is already pregnant from a prior oestrus. Although superfetation was not directly observed in the present study, our results strongly suggest the potential of superfetation in the American black bear and provide novel insight into the complex behavioural and physiological breeding mechanisms of bears. Given that most endangered bear species share similar reproductive traits with American black bears, captive breeding programmes

  5. Plasma levels of ursodeoxycholic acid in black bears, Ursus americanus: seasonal changes.

    PubMed

    Solá, Susana; Garshelis, David L; Amaral, Joana D; Noyce, Karen V; Coy, Pam L; Steer, Clifford J; Iaizzo, Paul A; Rodrigues, Cecília M P

    2006-06-01

    To date, no other studies have examined the seasonal changes in circulating levels of various bile acids in the plasma of wild North American black bears, Ursus americanus. Using gas chromatography, bile acid concentrations were measured in plasma samples obtained during either early or late hibernation, and during summer active periods. Thus, specific compositional changes from individual animals were examined through a given year. Total bile acid concentrations in the plasma of these normal animals were found to range between 0.2 and 3.1 micromol/L (0.9 +/- 0.2 micromol/L, mean +/- SEM). Cholic, ursodeoxycholic and chenodeoxycholic acids were the major bile acid species identified. Ursodeoxycholic acid represented 28.0 +/- 2.6% of the total bile acid pool. Deoxycholic and lithocholic acids were found only in small amounts. In addition, total bile acid concentrations were lower in plasma samples obtained during hibernation compared with those obtained during summer active periods (0.6 +/- 0.1 and 1.2 +/- 0.4 micromol/L, respectively; p < 0.05). However, the relative proportion of ursodeoxycholic acid, was significantly greater in winter than in summer (31.5 +/- 3.2% and 22.2 +/- 4.5%, p < 0.05). Finally, taurine-conjugated bile acids were the predominant species in bear plasma, accounting for >67% of the total bile acids. These data demonstrate that ursodeoxycholic acid is a major bile acid in black bear plasma, mostly conjugated with taurine. Further, the finding of seasonal variation in plasma bile acid composition provides evidence to support the possible role that ursodeoxycholic acid may play in cellular protection in hibernating black bears.

  6. Blood lipid concentrations and lipoprotein patterns in captive and wild American black bears (Ursus americanus).

    PubMed

    Frank, Nicholas; Elliott, Sarah B; Allin, Shawn B; Ramsay, Edward C

    2006-02-01

    To compare blood lipid concentrations and lipoprotein patterns for captive and wild American black bears (Ursus americanus). 7 captive and 9 wild adult (> or = 4 years old) black bears. Blood was collected from 2 groups of captive black bears (groups A and B) and 1 group of wild black bears (group C). Blood triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol concentrations were compared among groups. Plasma lipoproteins were isolated by use of a self-generating gradient of iodixanol, and lipoprotein patterns were compared between groups A and B. Captive bears (mean +/- SD, 187.8 +/- 44.4 kg) weighed significantly more than wild bears (mean, 104.8 +/- 41.4 kg), but mean body weight did not differ between groups A and B. Mean blood TG concentrations for groups B (216.8 +/- 16.0 mg/dL) and C (190.7 +/- 34.0 mg/dL) were significantly higher than that of group A (103.9 +/- 25.3 mg/dL). Mean blood cholesterol concentration was also significantly higher for group B (227.8 +/- 8.2 mg/dL) than for groups A (171.7 +/- 35.5 mg/dL) or C (190.8 +/- 26.8 mg/dL). Mean very-low-density lipoprotein TG and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations were 2- and 3-fold higher, respectively, for group B, compared with concentrations for group A. Blood lipid concentrations vary significantly among populations of black bears. Plasma lipoprotein patterns of captive bears differed significantly between colonies and may have reflected differences in diet or management practices.

  7. Spatio-temporal variation in serum chemistry of the lobster, Homarus americanus Milne-Edwards.

    PubMed

    Dove, A D M; Sokolowski, M S; Bartlett, S L; Bowser, P R

    2005-11-01

    Monthly variations in serum chemistry of the American lobster, Homarus americanus Milne-Edwards, were investigated at one location in Long Island Sound (LIS). Comparisons between three locations within and outside LIS were also made for a single time point. Most serum analytes displayed significant fluctuation over the study period and between locations. Temporal patterns could be classified as: low in cool months/high in warm months, i.e. Na, Cl, Na:K ratio, Ca, albumin:globulin ratio, percentage Fe saturation; high in cool months/low in warm months, i.e. pH, K, urea, total protein, albumin, globulin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lipaemia; June spike, i.e. glucose, cholesterol, creatine kinase, iron, transferrin iron-binding capacity; other less obvious fluctuations, i.e. Mg, PO4; and no apparent fluctuation, i.e. HCO3, alkaline phosphatase. The proportion of samples correctly classified into month of collection by a subset of 13 analytes using discriminant analysis improved as the months progressed from May (0.75) to October (>0.95). Discriminant analysis also resolved 96.5% of samples by location. The significant depression of serum calcium at the eastern LIS site correlates with excretory calcinosis, a calcium storage disease described from lobsters at this site, but contrasts with a seasonal elevation in serum calcium recorded in the temporal component of the study. Serum proteins, the electrolytes Ca and K and the enzymes ALT and AST proved to have the strongest spatio-temporal patterns of variation. Serum chemistry is a useful research tool for lobster populations, but the dearth of information on the homology of analyte functions in this species with those in vertebrate species makes interpretation of the results challenging. Late summer/autumn water conditions appear to cause stress for lobsters in LIS.

  8. Structural and Functional Characterization of a Multifunctional Alanine-Rich Peptide Analogue from Pleuronectes americanus

    PubMed Central

    Migliolo, Ludovico; Silva, Osmar N.; Silva, Paula A.; Costa, Maysa P.; Costa, Carolina R.; Nolasco, Diego O.; Barbosa, João A. R. G.; Silva, Maria R. R.; Bemquerer, Marcelo P.; Lima, Lidia M. P.; Romanos, Maria T. V.; Freitas, Sonia M.; Magalhães, Beatriz S.; Franco, Octavio L.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, defense peptides that are able to act against several targets have been characterized. The present work focuses on structural and functional evaluation of the peptide analogue Pa-MAP, previously isolated as an antifreeze peptide from Pleuronectes americanus. Pa-MAP showed activities against different targets such as tumoral cells in culture (CACO-2, MCF-7 and HCT-116), bacteria (Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923), viruses (HSV-1 and HSV-2) and fungi (Candida parapsilosis ATCC 22019, Trichophyton mentagrophytes (28d&E) and T. rubrum (327)). This peptide did not show toxicity against mammalian cells such as erythrocytes, Vero and RAW 264.7 cells. Molecular mechanism of action was related to hydrophobic residues, since only the terminal amino group is charged at pH 7 as confirmed by potentiometric titration. In order to shed some light on its structure-function relations, in vitro and in silico assays were carried out using circular dichroism and molecular dynamics. Furthermore, Pa-MAP showed partial unfolding of the peptide changes in a wide pH (3 to 11) and temperature (25 to 95°C) ranges, although it might not reach complete unfolding at 95°C, suggesting a high conformational stability. This peptide also showed a conformational transition with a partial α-helical fold in water and a full α-helical core in SDS and TFE environments. These results were corroborated by spectral data measured at 222 nm and by 50 ns dynamic simulation. In conclusion, data reported here show that Pa-MAP is a potential candidate for drug design against pathogenic microorganisms due to its structural stability and wide activity against a range of targets. PMID:23056574

  9. Population trends and flight behavior of the American burying beetle, Nicrophorus americanus (Coleoptera: Silphidae), on Block Island, RI

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raithel, C.J.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Prospero, M.L.

    2006-01-01

    The endangered American burying beetle, Nicrophorus americanus, was monitored on Block Island, RI, USA, from 1991-2003 using mark-recapture population estimates of adults collected in pitfall traps. Populations increased through time, especially after 1994 when a program was initiated that provided carrion for beetle production. Beetle captures increased with increasing temperature and dew point, and decreased with increasing wind speed. Short distance movement was not related to wind direction, while longer distance flights tended to be downwind. Although many individuals flew considerable distances along transects, most recaptures were in traps near the point of release. These behaviors probably have counterbalancing effects on population estimates.

  10. Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (North Atlantic). American lobster. [Homarus americanus

    SciTech Connect

    MacKenzie, C.; Moring, J.R.

    1985-04-01

    This species profile is a literature summary of the taxonomy, morphology, distribution, life history, and environmental requirements of the American lobster (Homarus americanus). These species profiles are designed to assist in the preparation of environmental impact assessments. The American lobster is a valuable commercial shellfish. After spawning, lobsters undergo a series of molts; as adults they live in coastal and offshore waters. Lobsters are captured in baited traps and incidentally in trawls. About 5 to 6 million pounds were captured commercially in 1983, a downward trend from 1971. Major environmental factors affecting reproduction, growth, and survival are water temperature, oxygen concentration, salinity, and substrate. 82 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Classification of Homarus americanus hemocytes and the use of differential hemocyte counts in lobsters infected with Aerococcus viridans var. homari (Gaffkemia).

    PubMed

    Battison, Andrea; Cawthorn, Richard; Horney, Barbara

    2003-11-01

    Hemocytes of the American lobster (Homarus americanus H. Milne Edwards) were classified after examination of Wright-Giemsa stained cytocentrifuge preparations by brightfield light microscopy. Eleven hemocyte types were identified using morphologic criteria. The classification system was then used to monitor changes in the differential hemocyte count (DHC) of lobsters infected with the Gram positive coccus Aerococcus viridans var. homari, etiologic agent of gaffkemia. The appearance of less mature hemocytes in the DHCs of lobsters in the late stages of infection was similar to the 'left shift' of vertebrate inflammation. Results from this study suggest that DHCs can be used to assess and characterize inflammation in H. americanus and possibly other crustaceans.

  12. The European flounder (Platichthys flesus) TP53 functions as a temperature-sensitive transcription factor which inhibits cell growth in yeast.

    PubMed

    Cachot, J; Flaman, J M; Frébourg, T; Leboulenger, F

    2004-01-07

    Numerous studies focus on biological roles of the TP53 tumor suppressor gene in mammals but little is known about the actual function of TP53 in lower vertebrates. In this study, we used an in vivo functional assay in yeast to address the transactivation capacity of the flounder TP53 protein. We showed that the flounder TP53 acts as a sequence-specific transcription factor which is able to transactivate various human promoters containing a p53-responsive element (RE). This transcriptional activity was completely abrogated in the Val147Glu TP53 mutant previously identified in two flounder hepatic hyperplasia. In addition, we showed that the wild-type (wt) flounder TP53 but not the Val147Glu mutant inhibits cell growth when expressed in yeast. We finally reported that transcription regulation and growth inhibition by the wild-type flounder TP53 is temperature-dependent. The flounder TP53 optimal temperature appeared lower than those reported for the Xenopus and human homologues.

  13. Frequency of hepatocellular fibrillar inclusions in European flounder (Platichthys flesus) from the Douro River estuary, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Carrola, João; Fontaínhas-Fernandes, António; Pires, Maria João; Rocha, Eduardo

    2014-02-01

    Liver lesions in wild fish have been associated with xenobiotic exposure. Facing reports of pollution in the Douro River estuary (north of Portugal), we have been making field surveys using fishes and targeting histopathological biomarkers of exposure and effect. Herein, we intended to better characterize and report the rate of one poorly understood lesion-hepatocellular fibrillar inclusions (HFI)-found in European flounder (Platichthys flesus). With this report, we aimed to establish sound baseline data that could be viewed as a starting point for future biomonitoring, while offering the world's second only pool of field data on such a liver toxicopathic lesion, which could be compared with data available from the UK estuaries. Sampling was done in the Douro River estuary over 1 year. A total of 72 animals were fished with nets, in spring-summer (SS) and autumn-winter (AW) campaigns. Livers were processed for histopathology and both routine and special staining procedures (alcian blue, periodic acid Schiff (PAS), tetrazonium coupling reaction). Immunohistochemistry targeted AE1/AE3 (pan cytokeratins). The severity of the HFI extent was graded using a system with four levels, varying from 0 (absence of HFI) to 3 (high relative density of cells with HFI). Cells (isolated/groups) with HFI appeared in 35 % or more of the fish, in the total samples of each season, and over 40 % in more homogeneous sub-samples. There were no significant differences when comparing samples versus sub-samples or SS versus AW. When merging the data sets from the two seasons, the frequency of fish with HFI was ≈36 % for the total sample and ≈49 % for the sub-sample. The extreme group (biggest and smallest fish) revealed a HFI frequency of only 16 %, which differed significantly from the total and sub-sampled groups. Immunostaining and PAS were negative for the HFI, and alcian blue could, at times, faintly stain the inclusions. These were positive with the tetrazonium reaction. We showed

  14. Molecular and functional characterization of opsins in barfin flounder (Verasper moseri).

    PubMed

    Kasagi, Satoshi; Mizusawa, Kanta; Murakami, Naoto; Andoh, Tadashi; Furufuji, Sumihisa; Kawamura, Shoji; Takahashi, Akiyoshi

    2015-02-10

    Green light irradiation facilitates the somatic growth of barfin flounder (Verasper moseri). However, the V. moseri visual system, which may be associated with somatic growth by acting on the endocrine system upon exposure to this particular wavelength, remains largely unexplored. Herein, we characterized the visual opsin repertoire of V. moseri to understand the molecular basis underlying this effect. The five types of visual opsins that are found in vertebrates were cloned from RNA that was extracted from the eyes of V. moseri. Notably, V. moseri possessed one pseudogene (RH2-A) and two intact (RH2-B and RH2-C) copies of "green-sensitive" opsin genes. The wavelengths of maximum absorption spectra (λmax) for each of the reconstituted photopigments were 552nm for "red-sensitive" LWS, 506nm for RH2-B, 490nm for RH2-C, 482nm and 416nm for "blue-sensitive" SWS2A and SWS2B, respectively, 367nm for "ultraviolet-sensitive" SWS1, and 494nm for "dim-light sensitive rhodopsin" RH1. The λmax of SWS2A was longer than that of any other reported vertebrate SWS2 opsin. By measuring the expression level of these opsin genes with quantitative RT-PCR in 3-, 15-, and 27-month-old fish, we found that RH2-B and SWS2A were expressed at a constant level, whereas the expression of LWS, RH2-C, SWS2B, and SWS1 opsin genes decreased, and that of RH1 increased with age. Barfin flounders inhabit inshore waters at a young age and expand their habitat to deep sea areas as they age, and green light is relatively abundant in deep water compared to the lights of other wavelengths in shallow water. Our results indicate that gene repertoire and expression profile of the opsin genes of barfin flounder are adaptive to their habitat shift that occurs during development, with some opsins acquiring a distinct λmax. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The effects of ambient pH on nitrogen excretion in early life stages of the American toad (Bufo americanus).

    PubMed

    Tattersall, G J; Wright, P A

    1996-04-01

    Acidification of breeding ponds has been identified as a potential threat to the survival and health of North American amphibian populations. The effects of acid exposure on ion and acid-balance are well known, but there is little information on how environmental water pH influences nitrogen balance in amphibians. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of moderately acidic water (pH 6.0) on nitrogen excretion in early life stages of the toad, Bufo americanus. Acid exposure (pH 6.0, 54 h) resulted in a 20-80% increase in ammonia-N excretion rates in embryos and early, middle and late tadpoles stages, whereas there was no significant effect on urea-N excretion. Tissue ammonia concentrations were significantly higher (+33%) in the embryos and 35-65% lower in the three groups of tadpoles exposed to water of pH 6.0 compared to control animals (pH 8.5). In embryos, ammonia excretion accounted for greater than 90% of total nitrogen excretion (ammonia-N + urea-N), but by the late tadpole stage this value had decreased to approximately 65%. These findings indicate that exposure of embryonic and larval B. americanus to moderately acidic water disrupts nitrogen balance by increasing nitrogen loss as ammonia, with no compensatory decrease in urea excretion.

  16. Manganese concentration in lobster (Homarus americanus) gills as an index of exposure to reducing conditions in western Long Island Sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draxler, Andrew F.J.; Sherrell, Robert M.; Wieczorek, Dan; Lavigne, Michele G.; Paulson, A.J.

    2005-01-01

    We examined the accumulation of manganese (Mn) in gill tissues of chemically nai??ve lobsters held in situ at six sites in Long Island Sound (LIS) for up to six weeks to evaluate the possible contribution of eutrophication-driven habitat quality factors to the 1999 mass mortality of American lobsters (Homarus americanus). These western LIS lobster habitats experience seasonal hypoxia, which results in redox-mobilized Mn being transferred to and deposited on the tissues of the lobsters. Manganese accumulated in gill tissue of lobsters throughout the study, but rates were highest at western and southern LIS sites, ranging from 3.4-0.8 ??g/g/d (???16 ??g/g initial). The Baden-Eriksson observation that Mn accumulation in Norway lobsters (Nephrops norvegicus) is associated with ecosystem hypoxia is confirmed and extended to H. americanus. It seems likely that, after accounting for molting frequency, certain critical values may be applied to other lobster habitats of the NE US shelf. If a high proportion of lobsters in autumn have gill Mn concentrations exceeding 30 ??g/g, then the habitats are likely experiencing some reduced oxygen levels. Manganese concentrations above 100 ??g/g suggest exposure to conditions with the potential for lobster mortality should the temperatures of bottom waters become elevated, and gill concentrations above some higher level (perhaps 300 ??g/g) indicate the most severe habitat conditions with a strong potential for hypoxia stress.

  17. Molecular Detection of Ancylostoma duodenale, Ancylostoma ceylanicum, and Necator americanus in Humans in Northeastern and Southern Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Phosuk, Issarapong; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Sanpool, Oranuch; Janwan, Penchom; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Aamnart, Witthaya; Morakote, Nimit; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2013-01-01

    The 2 principal species of hookworms infecting humans are Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. Case studies on zoonotic hookworm infections with Ancylostoma ceylanicum and/or Ancylostoma caninum are known mainly from Asian countries. Of these 2 zoonotic species, only A. ceylanicum can develop to adulthood in humans. In the present study, we report a molecular-based survey of human hookworm infections present in southern and northeastern Thailand. Thirty larval hookworm samples were obtained from fecal agar plate cultures of 10 patients in northeastren Thailand and 20 in southern Thailand. Partial ITS1, 5.8S, and ITS2 regions of the ribosomal DNA genes were amplified using PCR. The amplicons were sequenced, aligned, and compared with other hookworm sequences in GenBank database. The results showed that, in Thailand, N. americanus is more prevalent than Ancylostoma spp. and is found in both study areas. Sporadic cases of A. ceylanicum and A. duodenale infection were seen in northeastern Thailand. PMID:24516284

  18. Forces generated during stretch in the heart of the lobster Homarus americanus are anisotropic and are altered by neuromodulators

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, E. S.; Johnson, A. S.; Ellers, O.; Dickinson, P. S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mechanical and neurophysiological anisotropies mediate three-dimensional responses of the heart of Homarus americanus. Although hearts in vivo are loaded multi-axially by pressure, studies of invertebrate cardiac function typically use uniaxial tests. To generate whole-heart length–tension curves, stretch pyramids at constant lengthening and shortening rates were imposed uniaxially and biaxially along longitudinal and transverse axes of the beating whole heart. To determine whether neuropeptides that are known to modulate cardiac activity in H. americanus affect the active or passive components of these length–tension curves, we also performed these tests in the presence of SGRNFLRFamide (SGRN) and GYSNRNYLRFamide (GYS). In uniaxial and biaxial tests, both passive and active forces increased with stretch along both measurement axes. The increase in passive forces was anisotropic, with greater increases along the longitudinal axis. Passive forces showed hysteresis and active forces were higher during lengthening than shortening phases of the stretch pyramid. Active forces at a given length were increased by both neuropeptides. To exert these effects, neuropeptides might have acted indirectly on the muscle via their effects on the cardiac ganglion, directly on the neuromuscular junction, or directly on the muscles. Because increases in response to stretch were also seen in stimulated motor nerve-muscle preparations, at least some of the effects of the peptides are likely peripheral. Taken together, these findings suggest that flexibility in rhythmic cardiac contractions results from the amplified effects of neuropeptides interacting with the length–tension characteristics of the heart. PMID:26896540

  19. Mass Spectral Analysis of Neuropeptide Expression and Distribution in the Nervous System of the Lobster Homarus americanus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ruibing; Jiang, Xiaoyue; Prieto Conaway, Maria C.; Mohtashemi, Iman; Hui, Limei; Viner, Rosa; Li, Lingjun

    2010-01-01

    The lobster Homarus americanus has long served as an important animal model for electrophysiological and behavioral studies. Using this model, we performed a comprehensive investigation of the neuropeptide expression and their localization in the nervous system, which provides useful insights for further understanding of their biological functions. Using nanoLC ESI Q-TOF MS/MS and three types of MALDI instruments, we analyzed the neuropeptide complements in a major neuroendocrine structure, pericardial organ. 57 putative neuropeptides were identified and 18 of them were de novo sequenced. Using direct tissue/extract analysis and bioinformatics software SpecPlot, we charted the global distribution of neuropeptides throughout the nervous system in H. americanus. Furthermore, we also mapped the localization of several neuropeptide families in the brain by high mass resolution and high mass accuracy mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) using a MALDI LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometer. We have also compared the utility and instrument performance of multiple mass spectrometers for neuropeptide analysis in terms of peptidome coverage, sensitivity, mass spectral resolution and capability for de novo sequencing. PMID:20025296

  20. Dental and Temporomandibular Joint Pathology of the American Black Bear (Ursus americanus).

    PubMed

    Clark, E J; Chesnutt, S R; Winer, J N; Kass, P H; Verstraete, F J M

    Museum specimens (maxillae and/or mandibles) from 371 American black bears (Ursus americanus) acquired between 1889 and 2006 were examined macroscopically according to predefined criteria, and 348 were included in this study. Of the 348 specimens, 126 (36.2%) were from male animals, 106 (30.5%) were from female animals and 116 (33.3%) were from animals of unknown sex. Specimen ages ranged from young adult (n = 63, 18.1%) to adult (n = 285, 81.9%), with juveniles excluded from the study. The number of teeth available for examination was 12,019 (82.2%); 7.0% of teeth were absent artefactually, 0.4% were deemed absent due to acquired tooth loss and 9.7% were absent congenitally. In 43 specimens (12.3%), 82 teeth (0.68%) were small vestigial structures with crowns that were flush with the level of surrounding alveolar bone. The remaining teeth (99.3%) were of normal morphology. Only three supernumerary teeth and three instances of enamel hypoplasia were encountered. Persistent deciduous teeth or teeth with an aberrant number of roots were not encountered in any of the specimens. Approximately one-third of the teeth examined (4,543, 37.8%) displayed attrition/abrasion, affecting nearly all of the specimens (n = 338, 97.1%). Incisor and molar teeth accounted for 52.5% and 34.3% of the affected teeth, respectively, with significantly more adults affected than young adults. Dental fractures were noted in 63 bears, affecting 18.1% of specimens and 1.0% of the total number of present teeth. The canine teeth were most often fractured, with adults having significantly more complicated crown fractures of these teeth than young adults. There were 11 specimens (3.2%) that displayed periapical lesions, affecting 12 (0.1%) dental alveoli. There were 179 specimens (51.4%) displaying bony changes indicative of periodontitis, affecting 816 (6.8%) dental alveoli. The proportion of adult bears affected by periodontitis (57.9%) was significantly greater than that of young adults

  1. Candidatus Liberibacter americanus induces significant reprogramming of the transcriptome of the susceptible citrus genotype

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Citrus huanglongbing (HLB) disease is caused by endogenous, phloem-restricted, Gram negative, uncultured bacteria named Candidatus Liberibacter africanus (CaLaf), Ca. L. asiaticus (CaLas), and Ca. L. americanus (CaLam), depending on the continent where the bacteria were first detected. The Asian citrus psyllid vector, Diaphorina citri, transmits CaLas and CaLam and both Liberibacter species are present in Brazil. Several studies of the transcriptional response of citrus plants manifesting HLB symptoms have been reported, but only for CaLas infection. This study evaluated the transcriptional reprogramming of a susceptible genotype of sweet orange challenged with CaLam, using a customized 385K microarray containing approximately 32,000 unigene transcripts. We analyzed global changes in gene expression of CaLam-infected leaves of sweet orange during the symptomatic stage of infection and compared the results with previously published microarray studies that used CaLas-infected plants. Twenty candidate genes were selected to validate the expression profiles in symptomatic and asymptomatic PCR-positive leaves infected with CaLas or CaLam. Results The microarray analysis identified 633 differentially expressed genes during the symptomatic stage of CaLam infection. Among them, 418 (66%) were upregulated and 215 (34%) were down regulated. Five hundred and fourteen genes (81%) were orthologs of genes from Arabidopsis thaliana. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) revealed that several of the transcripts encoded transporters associated with the endomembrane system, especially zinc transport. Among the most biologically relevant gene transcripts in GSEA were those related to signaling, metabolism and/or stimulus to hormones, genes responding to stress and pathogenesis, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, oxidative stress and transcription factors belonging to different families. Real time PCR of 20 candidate genes validated the expression pattern of some genes in

  2. Histopathological lesions and DNA adducts in the liver of European flounder (Platichthys flesus) collected in the Seine estuary versus two reference estuarine systems on the French Atlantic coast.

    PubMed

    Cachot, Jérôme; Cherel, Yan; Larcher, Thibaut; Pfohl-Leszkowicz, Annie; Laroche, Jean; Quiniou, Louis; Morin, Jocelyne; Schmitz, Julien; Burgeot, Thierry; Pottier, Didier

    2013-02-01

    An epidemiological survey was conducted in the Seine estuary and in two smaller and relatively preserved estuaries on the French Atlantic coast in order to estimate the occurrence of liver lesions in European flounder, Platichthys flesus, and also to seek putative risk factors for the recorded pathologies. Four hundred and seventy-eight fish of both sexes and of different size ranges were sampled in the three studied areas, 338 of which in the Seine estuary. All fish were examined for histopathological liver lesions, while DNA adducts and otoliths were analyzed on a subsample. Five categories of hepatic lesions were recorded with the following prevalence for the Seine estuary: 36.7 % inflammations, 8 % parasites (mainly encysted nematodes), 6.5 % foci of cellular alteration (FCA), 5.3 % foci of necrosis or regeneration (FNR), and 1.5 % tumors. Inflammation occurrence increased according to age, contrary to parasitic infestations and FCA which were more prevalent in young fish, notably those of <1 year old (group 0). Tumors were only observed in females of more than two winters. Females exhibited a higher prevalence of tumors (3.0 %) and FCA (6.5 %) than males (0 and 2.6 %, respectively). Parasitic and infectious lesions and FNR were equally distributed in males and females. The prevalence of FNR was also shown to vary according to sampling season, with significantly more occurrences of liver necrosis in the fish collected in summer than in spring. Spatial differences were observed with a higher occurrence of encysted parasites in flounders from the upper Seine estuary, while inflammations predominated in flounders living downstream. Temporal trends were also noted, with an increased prevalence of parasitic infestations, inflammations, and FCA in the 2002-2003 period in comparison to the 1996-1997 one. The three flounder populations from the Seine estuary (Normandy), Ster estuary (Brittany), and Bay of Veys (Normandy) showed different spectra of hepatic lesions

  3. Organochlorine contaminants in flounder (Platichthys flesus) and mullet (Mugil cephalus) from Douro estuary, and their use as sentinel species for environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, M; Antunes, P; Gil, O; Vale, C; Reis-Henriques, M A

    2004-09-20

    In order to monitor the presence of organic pollutants in Douro estuary (NW Portugal), two sentinel fish species, grey mullet (Mugil cephalus) and flounder (Platichthys flesus), were periodically sampled from May 2001 to April 2002. At all sampling periods, several specimens of both species were allowed to depurate in clean sea water. Levels of PCBs and DDTs were quantified in liver and muscle of both species. The accumulation of PCBs was higher in muscle of mullet, with a maximum of 345 ng/g dw, than in flounder, with a maximum 52ng/g dw. In the liver, flounder showed the highest levels (811 ng/g dw). Of the 18 congeners analysed, CBs 180 (hepta), 153 and 138 (hexachlorobiphenyls) were predominant in the tissue of both species. The maximum concentration of tDDT was measured in flounder liver (301ng/g dw). In contrast, a 10-fold higher tDDT was recorded in mullet muscle (63-69 ng/g dw and 8-16 ng/g dw for mullet and flounder, respectively). The hepatic ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity was periodically determined. Consistently, a 10-fold higher enzymatic activity was present in mullet in comparison with flounder (1536 pmol/min/mg protein in mullet and 156 pmol/min/mg protein in flounder). In mullet, no correlation could be found between EROD activity and gonado-somatic index (GSI) or hepato-somatic index (HSI). On the contrary, during the reproductive season, female flounder showed a negative correlation between EROD activity and GSI. Despite being in clean sea water for 1 month period, no significant decrease in the tissue content of PCBs and tDDT was found. However, mullet's EROD activity followed a clear pattern, with a decrease enzymatic activity after being in captivity. Female flounder displayed a similar trend during the resting season. Yet, during the reproductive season, an increased EROD activity was recorded after being in captivity for 1 month, which may be associated with a modulation effect of steroids on CYP 1A1. Histological analyses of

  4. Effects of diet composition and trophic structure on mercury bioaccumulation in temperate flatfishes.

    PubMed

    Payne, Eric J; Taylor, David L

    2010-02-01

    The summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus and winter flounder Pseudopleuronectes americanus support valuable fisheries along the northeastern United States. The importance of these flatfish as a human dietary resource indicates they are potential sources of mercury (Hg) to fish-consuming citizens. In this study, summer flounder (SF) and winter flounder (WF) were collected from the Narragansett Bay (Rhode Island, USA) and were measured for total Hg burden in whole-body or dorsal muscle tissue. Interspecies differences in Hg contamination were analyzed relative to flounder body size, age, and Hg content of preferred prey. Stable isotope signatures were also used to elucidate the effect of trophic processes on Hg accumulation in the estuarine food web. The mean Hg content of SF exceeded concentrations measured in WF across multiple life-history stages (0.039-0.100 and 0.016-0.029 mg Hg/kg wet weight for SF and WF, respectively), and observed values for both species were lower than the US Environmental Protection Agency regulatory threshold of 0.3 mg Hg/kg wet weight. Total Hg concentrations were also positively correlated with flounder age and length, verifying that both flatfish bioaccumulate Hg. SF accumulate Hg at an accelerated rate, however, owing to this species consuming Hg-enriched prey (teleosts, squid, and macrocrustaceans; mean Hg content = 0.023 mg Hg/kg wet weight), whereas WF feed on prey with low Hg levels (amphipods and polychaetes; mean Hg content = 0.013 mg Hg/kg wet weight). The positive correlation observed between mean biota Hg content and stable nitrogen (delta(15)N) isotope signatures further indicates that Hg is trophically transferred through the food web, and higher trophic level organisms (i.e., enriched delta(15)N) have increased Hg concentrations. Therefore, results from this study suggest that dietary preference and trophic structure are the main factors affecting Hg bioaccumulation in the estuary. Total Hg concentrations of flatfish from

  5. Comparison of Two Bacterial Transport Media for Culture of Tonsilar Swabs from Bighorn Sheep ( Ovis canadensis ) and Mountain Goats ( Oreamnos americanus ).

    PubMed

    Roug, Annette; Diaz-Campos, Dubraska; Teitzel, Charlene; Besser, Thomas E

    2017-01-01

    Duplicate tonsilar swabs were collected from 77 bighorn sheep ( Ovis canadensis ) and 19 mountain goats ( Oreamnos americanus ) in Utah. Swabs were refrigerated in bacterial transport medium or frozen in cryopreservation medium prior to bacteriologic culture. The cryopreservation medium yielded comparable or superior bacterial growth while permitting more flexibility in specimen shipment to the laboratory.

  6. Use of acepromazine and medetomidine in combination for sedation and handling of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and black bears (Ursus americanus).

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Lisa L; Johnson, Heather E; Fisher, Mark C; Sirochman, Michael A; Kraft, Benjamin; Miller, Michael W

    2014-10-01

    We opportunistically evaluated a combination of acepromazine maleate and medetomidine HCl for use in sedating Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and black bears (Ursus americanus) as an alternative to scheduled drug combinations. This combination was safe and effective with limitations inherent in its sedative rather than anesthetic properties.

  7. ISOLATION AND GENETIC CHARACTERIZATION OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII FROM RACCOONS (PROCYON LOTOR), CATS (FELIS DOMESTICUS), STRIPED SKUNK (MEPHITIS MEPHITIS), BLACK BEAR (URSUS AMERICANUS), AND COUGAR (PUMA CONCOLOR) FROM CANADA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Viable Toxoplasma gondii was isolated by bioassay in mice from tissues of 2 feral cats ( Felis domesticus), 2 raccoons (Procyon lotor), a skunk (Mephitis mephitis) trapped in remote locations in Manitoba, Canada, and a black bear (Ursus americanus ) from Kuujjuaq, northern Quebec, Canada. Geno...

  8. The introduced clam Ensis americanus in the Wadden Sea: field experiment on impact of bird predation and tidal level on survival and growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freudendahl, Anna Sofie L.; Nielsen, Mette M.; Jensen, Tomas; Jensen, Kurt Thomas

    2010-06-01

    In the Danish Wadden Sea the intertidal distribution of the introduced bivalve Ensis americanus (syn. E. directus) is restricted to a narrow zone around the mean low water level. To test the possible impact of birds and submersion time on dynamics and distribution of the clams, adult specimens of E. americanus collected near the low water line were transplanted to two intertidal sites and established in open and net-covered experimental plots for 9 weeks (autumn 2001). The lowest survival of clams was registered at the low-shore-site (LSS) in plots open to bird predators, suggesting that birds such as Common Eider ( Somateria mollissima) or Oystercatcher ( Haematopus ostralegus) may control the abundance of E. americanus at the lower tidal levels. For clams showing increment in shell length during the study period, the shell growth rates were highest at the LSS and lowest in the open plots at the high-shore-site (HSS). Differences in immersion time and thus food supply may explain this pattern. Body mass index (BMI) of the clams showed basically the same pattern as the survivorship: lowest BMI in open plots at the LSS and highest in the covered plots at this site. Clams from the HSS were intermediate in their BMI. Disturbance by birds in the open plots at the LSS may explain the low BMI. In conclusion birds may be an important factor controlling abundance of E. americanus in the lower intertidal zone.

  9. Identification of candidate piRNAs in the gonads of Paralichthys olivaceus (Japanese flounder).

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Lei; Wang, Zhi-Peng; Wang, Jia-Qi; Li, Ming-You; Chen, Xiao-Wu

    2016-09-18

    Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) plays an important role in the gonadal development and maintenance of Teleostei. In this study, piRNA libraries derived from the adult gonads of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) were generated using next-generation sequencing technology. Using zebrafish piRNAs as a reference, 5 865 unique candidate piRNAs were identified; 289 candidate piRNA clusters (PRCs) were generated from the above piRNAs. Among the isolated candidate PRCs, a total of 38 ovary-specific, 45 ovary-bias, 24 testis-specific, and 131 testis-bias PRCs were found. The relative expression levels of seven PRCs were validated through quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The results of this study will help facilitate exploration of the development and maintenance of the phenotypic sex mechanism in P. olivaceus.

  10. Preparation and Characterization of an Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) Skin Gelatin and Polylactic Acid Bilayer Film.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ka-Yeon; Song, Kyung Bin

    2017-03-01

    Olive flounder skin gelatin (OSG) was used as a film base material. A bilayer film of OSG and polylactic acid (PLA) was prepared using solvent casting method to enhance the film properties. Physical properties of the OSG-PLA film were increased compared with the nonaugmented OSG film. In particular, the PLA lamination decreased water vapor permeability from 2.17 to 0.92 × 10(-9) g·m/m(2) ·s·Pa, as well as of the water solubility from 16.62% to 9.27%, in the bilayer film relative to the OSG film. The oxygen permeability of the OSG-PLA bilayer film was held low by the OSG film, compensating for the high oxygen permeability of the PLA layer. Therefore, the OSG-PLA bilayer film with its enhanced physical properties and high water and oxygen barrier properties can be applied as a food packaging material.

  11. Properties of protein powders from arrowtooth flounder (Atheresthes stomias) and herring (Clupea harengus) byproducts.

    PubMed

    Sathivel, Subramaniam; Bechtel, Peter J; Babbitt, Jerry; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon; Negulescu, Ioan I; Reppond, Kermit D

    2004-08-11

    Functional, nutritional, and thermal properties of freeze-dried protein powders (FPP) from whole herring (WHP), herring body (HBP), herring head (HHP), herring gonad (HGP), and arrowtooth flounder fillets (AFP) were evaluated. The FPP samples have desirable nutritional and functional properties and contained 63-81.4% protein. All FPP samples had desirable essential amino acid profiles and mineral contents. The emulsifying and fat adsorption capacities of all FPP samples were higher than those of soy protein concentrate. The emulsifying stability of WHP was lower than that of egg albumin but greater than that of soy protein concentrate. Thermal stability of the FPP samples is in the following order: HGP > HBP > WHP > HHP > AFP.

  12. Analysis of new microsatellite markers developed from reported sequences of Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haiyang; Jiang, Liming; Chen, Wei; Wang, Xubo; Wang, Zhigang; Zhang, Quanqi

    2010-12-01

    The expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, were selected from GenBank to identify simple sequence repeats (SSRs) or microsatellites. A bioinformatic analysis of 11111 ESTs identified 751 SSR-containing ESTs, including 440 dinucleotide, 254 trinucleotide, 53 tetranucleotide, 95 pentanucleotide and 40 hexanucleotide microsatellites respectively. The CA/TG and GA/TC repeats were the most abundant microsatellites. AT-rich types were predominant among trinucleotide and tetranucleotide microsatellites. PCR primers were designed to amplify 10 identified microsatellites loci. The PCR results from eight pairs of primers showed polymorphisms in wild populations. In 30 wild individuals, the mean observed and expected heterozygosities of these 8 polymorphic SSRs were 0.71 and 0.83 respectively and the average PIC value was 0.8. These microsatellite markers should prove to be a useful addition to the microsatellite markers that are now available for this species.

  13. Feeding and growth of juvenile Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus in relation to temperature and food supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonds, Mark; Tanaka, Masaru; Van der Veer, Henk W.

    The growth of juvenile Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus (Temming et Schlegel) exposed to various feeding and temperature regimes was studied in the laboratory. The temperature limits for growth were estimated from about 9 to 32°C, and highest growth rate was observed at a temperature of 25°C. For fish of an initial total length of about 3 cm, exposed to temperatures between 10 and 30°C with unlimited food, the daily growth rate in length (dL; mm·d -1) was described as a function of temperature (T,°C) by the equation: dL=0.005 T 2 - 0.0000046 T 4 - 0.35. Fish fed with mussel meat or mysids displayed similar protein conversion efficiencies. The relationship between condition factor of the fish and the proximate body composition of the fish is reported.

  14. Effects of cyclic hydrostatic pressure on the brain biogenic amines concentrations in the flounder, Platichthys flesus.

    PubMed

    Damasceno-Oliveira, Alfredo; Fernández-Durán, Begoña; Gonçalves, José; Serrão, Paula; Soares-da-Silva, Patrício; Reis-Henriques, Maria Armanda; Coimbra, João

    2007-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of cyclic variations of hydrostatic pressure (HP) on neurotransmitters in the whole brain of flounder. The concentrations of the biogenic amines L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA), 3-methoxytyramine (3-MT), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA) were measured. Fish were subjected to HP cyclic variations which mimic naturally occurring conditions for a period of 14 days. DA, NE and 5-HT concentrations were significantly smaller by 21, 24 and 36%, respectively, compared to control fish. The concentrations of monoamine metabolites HVA, 3-MT and 5-HIAA were also smaller than those in control fish. These results suggest that central monoaminergic systems were influenced during long exposure to cyclic HP. The decreases of central neurotransmitters content might be involved in the physiological and behavioral responses to intermittent HP in fish.

  15. Variation in hepatic aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity in flounder, Platichthys flesus: A baseline study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarlebø, J.; Solbakken, J. E.; Palmork, K. H.

    1985-06-01

    This investigation is concerned with the natural variations in aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) activity of flounder ( Platichthys flesus L.) throughout the year. A general trend towards higher activity in males was observed. It became significant during gonadal maturation, a period during which the activity in females was inhibited. Addition of α-naphthoflavone inhibited AHH activity except in females with maturing gonads. Enzyme activity measured at the optimal temperature for incubation showed highest activity during spring followed by a significant decrease during summer. Activity increased again during autumn, followed by a second decrease in the winter season. When activity was calculated based on ambient water temperature at time of sampling, smaller fluctuations between different seasons were observed; the only significant variation was high activity in June. The results obtained indicate that AHH activity is affected by both exogenous and endogenous factors, which should be taken into consideration if AHH activity is used as a biological indicator of marine pollution effects.

  16. Ice-binding structure and mechanism of an antifreeze protein from winter flounder.

    PubMed

    Sicheri, F; Yang, D S

    1995-06-01

    Antifreeze proteins provide fish with protection against the freezing effect of polar environments by binding to ice surfaces and inhibiting growth of ice crystals. We present the X-ray crystal structure at 1.5 A resolution of a lone alpha-helical antifreeze protein from winter flounder, which provides a detailed look at its ice-binding features. These consist of four repeated ice-binding motifs, the side chains of which are inherently rigid or restrained by pair-wise side-chain interactions to form a flat binding surface. Elaborate amino- and carboxy-terminal cap structures are also present, which explain the protein's rich alpha-helical content in solution. We propose an ice-binding model that accounts for the binding specificity of the antifreeze protein along the <0112> axes of the (2021) ice planes.

  17. Identification of candidate piRNAs in the gonads of Paralichthys olivaceus (Japanese flounder)

    PubMed Central

    WANG, Chun-Lei; WANG, Zhi-Peng; WANG, Jia-Qi; Li, Ming-You; CHEN, Xiao-Wu

    2016-01-01

    Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) plays an important role in the gonadal development and maintenance of Teleostei. In this study, piRNA libraries derived from the adult gonads of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) were generated using next-generation sequencing technology. Using zebrafish piRNAs as a reference, 5 865 unique candidate piRNAs were identified; 289 candidate piRNA clusters (PRCs) were generated from the above piRNAs. Among the isolated candidate PRCs, a total of 38 ovary-specific, 45 ovary-bias, 24 testis-specific, and 131 testis-bias PRCs were found. The relative expression levels of seven PRCs were validated through quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The results of this study will help facilitate exploration of the development and maintenance of the phenotypic sex mechanism in P. olivaceus. PMID:27686790

  18. In vitro acute cytotoxicity of neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid to gill cell line of flounder Paralichthy olivaceus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Feng; Zhang, Shicui; Li, Hongyan; Guo, Huarong

    2007-04-01

    In vitro acute cytotoxicity of neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid (IMI) to the gill cell line of flounder (FG) that collected in the gill of Paralichthys olivaceus, was examined by 3 widely used endpoint bioassays: NR (neutral red), MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and TCP (total cell protein). The result shows that the IMI increased at concentrations ≥0.5 μg/ml. The IC50 value of NR. MTT, and TCP was 41.86, 38.46, and 39.08 μg/ml, respectively. The ultrastructural observation revealed that the mitochondria of the cells exposed to 60 μg/ml IMI for 48 h were severely damaged, swollen or disrupted, while their nuclei and rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) remained normal. This would suggest that the mitochondria are probably the primary target of IMI.

  19. Crude oil impairs immune function and increases susceptibility to pathogenic bacteria in southern flounder.

    PubMed

    Bayha, Keith M; Ortell, Natalie; Ryan, Caitlin N; Griffitt, Kimberly J; Krasnec, Michelle; Sena, Johnny; Ramaraj, Thiruvarangan; Takeshita, Ryan; Mayer, Gregory D; Schilkey, Faye; Griffitt, Robert J

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to crude oil or its individual constituents can have detrimental impacts on fish species, including impairment of the immune response. Increased observations of skin lesions in northern Gulf of Mexico fish during the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill indicated the possibility of oil-induced immunocompromisation resulting in bacterial or viral infection. This study used a full factorial design of oil exposure and bacterial challenge to examine how oil exposure impairs southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) immune function and increases susceptibility to the bacteria Vibrio anguillarum, a causative agent of vibriosis. Fish exposed to oil prior to bacterial challenge exhibited 94.4% mortality within 48 hours of bacterial exposure. Flounder challenged with V. anguillarum without prior oil exposure had <10% mortality. Exposure resulted in taxonomically distinct gill and intestine bacterial communities. Mortality strongly correlated with V. anguillarum levels, where it comprised a significantly higher percentage of the microbiome in Oil/Pathogen challenged fish and was nearly non-existent in the No Oil/Pathogen challenged fish bacterial community. Elevated V. anguillarum levels were a direct result of oil exposure-induced immunosuppression. Oil-exposure reduced expression of immunoglobulin M, the major systemic fish antibody, and resulted in an overall downregulation in transcriptome response, particularly in genes related to immune function, response to stimulus and hemostasis. Ultimately, sediment-borne oil exposure impairs immune function, leading to increased incidences of bacterial infections. This type of sediment-borne exposure may result in long-term marine ecosystem effects, as oil-bound sediment in the northern Gulf of Mexico will likely remain a contamination source for years to come.

  20. Juvenile nursery colonization patterns for the European flounder (Platichthys flesus): A latitudinal approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinho, Filipe; van der Veer, Henk W.; Cabral, Henrique N.; Pardal, Miguel A.

    2013-11-01

    In this work, we analysed the latitudinal trends in the nursery habitat colonization processes of the European flounder (Platichthys flesus). This was accomplished by estimating the duration of the pelagic and metamorphic stages, as well as the duration of the spawning period, in several nursery areas across its geographical distribution range in the European Atlantic Coast: Mondego estuary (Portugal), Vilaine estuary (France), Slack estuary (France), Wadden Sea (Netherlands) and the Sørfjord (Norway). All juvenile flounders were captured with beam trawls in June/July 2010, and otolith microstructure was used to determine the duration of each stage by means of daily growth increments. The pelagic and metamorphic stages were longer at the middle of the distribution range, and lasted in total up to two months after hatching. The spawning period occurred between mid-January and early-July over the species' distribution range, with a time lapse of nearly two months between the Mondego estuary and the Sørfjord, as a consequence of warmer water temperature earlier in the season in southern areas. In general, total length of the captured fish showed a latitudinal cline between the northernmost and southernmost sampling sites, with higher values at the middle of the distribution range. The results also suggested the existence of a countergradient growth compensation mechanism in the northernmost populations. Apart from temperature, which sets the general metabolic pace of organisms, differences between sites were also related with local features, such as the extension of the continental platform and adaptations to transport and retention mechanisms.

  1. Transport Velocity of Flounder Larvae ( Platichthys flesus L.) in the Dollard (Ems Estuary)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jager, Z.; Mulder, H. P. J.

    1999-09-01

    Larval concentrations of flounder (Platichthys flesus L.), longitudinal current velocity and physical variables were measured simultaneously in the Dollard to calculate the mass transport of the larvae, salinity and suspended matter. Transport velocities of the three substances (salinity, suspended matter and larvae) and of water were calculated and compared. The concept of larval velocity was extended to incorporate the effect of varying vertical larval distribution. The contributions of variations in vertical and temporal concentration to the transport velocity were calculated separately. The differences in velocity between the substances in relation to the vertical and temporal variation provide more insight in estuarine transport processes in the nursery. Temporal salinity variation dominated over vertical variation during flood, and indicated that longitudinal advection was important. Overall, during flood the transport velocity of salinity was 3% lower than that of water. During ebb, there was hardly any difference between the transport velocity of salinity and water. The contributions of temporal and vertical variation in suspended matter were each in the order of 10%, but of opposite signs. The net result is a transport velocity of suspended matter which is 3% (flood) or 4% (ebb) higher than that of water. Erosion-deposition seemed the dominant process. During flood, transport velocity of larvae is 9% higher than that of water, which is mainly caused by vertical concentration variation (6%), while during ebb, larval transport velocity is 9% lower, which is almost exclusively due to the temporal concentration variation (8%). Swimming influences transport during flood, while during ebb it is not clear which process dominates. The results indicate that flounder larvae make use of selective tidal stream transport inside the nursery.

  2. Morphological Analysis of Blind-Side Hypermelanosis of the Starry Flounder, Platichthys stellatus during Early Development

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Duk-Young; Byun, Soon-Gyu; Myeong, Jeong-In; Kim, Hyo-Chan; Min, Byoung-Hwa

    2014-01-01

    In Pleuronectiformes, blind-side malpigmentation (hypermelanosis) is common in cultured flatfishes, and is economically important. To understand the mechanism of blind-side hypermelanosis in flatfishes, we examined when the malpigmentation initially occurred, and studied how the symptoms proceeded during early development of the starry flounder, Platichthys stellatus. To assess quantitative pattern changes of blind-side skin, we observed morphological development of the whole body from 22 (total length [TL] 10.0±0.2 mm and body weight [BW] 8.8±0.57 mg) to 110 days (TL 23.4±0.7 mm, BW 193.6±23.3 mg) after hatching (DAH), and also examined the malpigmented area rate of blind-side skin and the malpigmented fish ratios. The experimental animals were reared in fiberglass-reinforced plastic (FRP) tanks in water at a temperature of 18.9±1.9°C and salinity of 32.6±0.6 psu and were fed with rotifer and Artemia nauplii from 22 to 48 DAH, and with A. nauplii and commercial feed from 49 to 110 DAH. As results, the first staining patch seen by the naked eye was observed around the area between the anus and pelvic fin or caudal edge of the trunk at 80 DAH (TL 20.6±0.5 mm, BW 112.5±8.8 mg). The pigmented area and the pigmented fish ratios were significantly increased from 80 to 110 DAH. These results indicated that malpigmentation on the blind side of starry flounder was initially observed at about 2 cm in length and 100 mg in weight, and the pigmented domain on the blind-side skin was continually broadened by the differentiation of pigmented cells (melanophores and xanthophores) with growth. PMID:25949175

  3. Crude oil impairs immune function and increases susceptibility to pathogenic bacteria in southern flounder

    PubMed Central

    Bayha, Keith M.; Ortell, Natalie; Ryan, Caitlin N.; Griffitt, Kimberly J.; Krasnec, Michelle; Sena, Johnny; Ramaraj, Thiruvarangan; Takeshita, Ryan; Mayer, Gregory D.; Schilkey, Faye; Griffitt, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to crude oil or its individual constituents can have detrimental impacts on fish species, including impairment of the immune response. Increased observations of skin lesions in northern Gulf of Mexico fish during the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill indicated the possibility of oil-induced immunocompromisation resulting in bacterial or viral infection. This study used a full factorial design of oil exposure and bacterial challenge to examine how oil exposure impairs southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) immune function and increases susceptibility to the bacteria Vibrio anguillarum, a causative agent of vibriosis. Fish exposed to oil prior to bacterial challenge exhibited 94.4% mortality within 48 hours of bacterial exposure. Flounder challenged with V. anguillarum without prior oil exposure had <10% mortality. Exposure resulted in taxonomically distinct gill and intestine bacterial communities. Mortality strongly correlated with V. anguillarum levels, where it comprised a significantly higher percentage of the microbiome in Oil/Pathogen challenged fish and was nearly non-existent in the No Oil/Pathogen challenged fish bacterial community. Elevated V. anguillarum levels were a direct result of oil exposure-induced immunosuppression. Oil-exposure reduced expression of immunoglobulin M, the major systemic fish antibody, and resulted in an overall downregulation in transcriptome response, particularly in genes related to immune function, response to stimulus and hemostasis. Ultimately, sediment-borne oil exposure impairs immune function, leading to increased incidences of bacterial infections. This type of sediment-borne exposure may result in long-term marine ecosystem effects, as oil-bound sediment in the northern Gulf of Mexico will likely remain a contamination source for years to come. PMID:28464028

  4. Characterization of parameters for in vitro culture of isolated ovarian follicles of greenback flounder Rhombosolea tapirina.

    PubMed

    Pankhurst, N W; Riple, G

    2000-10-01

    Isolated ovarian follicles of greenback flounder Rhombosolea tapirina were incubated with a variety of gonadotropins (GtHs) and steroid precursors for periods of up to 42 h, and levels of free and glucuronated testosterone (T) and 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) in the medium, and free T and E(2) from inside follicles were measured by RIA. Short incubations (6 h) generated increases in T and E(2) in response to steroid precursors, but not human chorionic GtH (hCG), or salmon or carp GtH. At incubation times of 18 h, all GtHs stimulated T and, or E(2) production, whereas after 42-h incubation, GtH effects on E(2) production had disappeared. Steroid precursors remained effective at 18 and 42 h. T and E(2) glucuronides were formed in small quantities but did not account for loss of treatment effects at long incubation times. Instead, this could be explained by accumulation of E(2) in controls as a result of continued basal steroid production. Follicles absorbed substantial amounts of both endogenous and exogenous steroid from the medium, however, this did not appear to have any influence on changes in treatment effects with incubation time. Flounder follicles were most sensitive to hCG, followed by salmon and carp GtH at approximately 10-fold higher concentrations. Ovarian segments were not sensitive to any GtH but did convert exogenous steroid precursors indicating that tissue access by GtH may be a limiting factor under certain in vitro conditions. HCG augmented the conversion of 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17P) to T but not T to E(2), consistent with the relative GtH-insensitivity of aromatase in other species. Follicles converted a range of steroid precursors with equal competence, indicating that no step in the cleavage pathway is strongly rate-limited, and that choice of precursor is unlikely to affect the assessment of steroidogenic activity.

  5. Effects of resveratrol on growth and skeletal muscle physiology of juvenile southern flounder.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Whitney N; Baumgarner, Bradley L; Watanabe, Wade O; Alam, Md Shah; Kinsey, Stephen T

    2015-05-01

    Resveratrol is a naturally occurring antioxidant that has been widely studied in mammals due to its potential to extend lifespan. However, antioxidants may also limit protein damage and therefore reduce rates of protein degradation, providing a potential avenue for enhancing growth in an aquaculture setting. The present study tested the hypotheses that in Southern flounder, Paralichthys lethostigma, resveratrol would decrease protein carbonylation and 4-HNE (indicators of protein and lipid oxidative damage, respectively), levels of ubiquitinylation and LC3 (indicators of non-lysosomal and lysosomal protein degradation, respectively), while having no effect on S6K activation (indicator of protein synthesis). These effects were predicted to increase growth rate. Mitochondrial volume density was also examined since resveratrol may lead to the proliferation of mitochondria, which are the principal source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that cause oxidative damage. Juvenile fish (n=142) were fed a control diet or a diet supplemented with 600 μg resveratrol per g of food for 16 weeks. Fish treated with resveratrol had a 9% greater length and 33% greater body mass than control fish after 16 weeks. Additionally, there was lower protein carbonylation and lipid 4-HNE within the muscle tissues of treated fish, indicating decreased oxidative damage, and reduced protein ubiquitinylation in the resveratrol fed flounder, indicating less protein degradation. However, there was not a significant difference in LC3, S6K activation, or mitochondrial volume density. These results suggest that resveratrol has positive effects on growth due to its antioxidant properties that reduce non-lysosomal protein degradation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. On the ecology of two sympatric flounders of the genus Paralichthys in the Bay of Coquimbo, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acuña, Enzo; Cid, Luis

    The ecology of two flounders belonging to the genus Paralichthys was studied in the Bay of Coquimbo (29°57'S), Chile. P. adspersus grows larger than P. microps. In both species, the females were significantly larger than the males. The species differed in their reproductive cycles as revealed by their gonadosomatic indices. This difference was also reflected in larval abundance and spatial distribution of the species. No significant changes were found in the abundances of juveniles and adults in the Bay of Coquimbo either throughout the year or interannually. However, when the analysis included the proportion of specimens between the two species and sex by season, the differences were apparent in most cases. The results show that the environmental characteristics of the marine system which the Bay of Coquimbo is a part of provide good feeding, spawning and nursery grounds for these two species of flounder.

  7. Biomarkers of contaminant exposure: results of a field study with flounder (Platichthys flesus) from the southern Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Napierska, Dorota; Podolska, Magdalena

    2005-07-01

    The results of the present study are based on enzyme biomarker measurements in flounder (Platichthys flesus), a flatfish species that is widely distributed in Baltic coastal waters. The fish were collected from known pollution gradients and from reference areas regarded as relatively free of anthropogenic input. Muscular cholinesterases (ChEs), hepatic glutathione S-transferase (GST), and hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activities were measured in each sampled specimen of flounder. Generalized linear models (GLM) were used to analyze the dependence of the enzyme activity on sampling year and area as well as on the biological parameters of the fish. Statistically significant differences in the activities of the measured biomarkers were observed between reference and contaminated sites. ChEs and GST activities differed with gender. The results of this study suggest that the location and year of sampling have a significant impact on the activity of all the measured biomarkers.

  8. Assessment of juvenile flounder catches at the cordemais power station water intake in the Loire estuary, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robin, Jean-Paul

    A comprehensive sampling exercise was carried out at Cordemais Power Station during 1988 in order to evaluate the number of 0-group flounder, Platichthys flesus, removed from the Loire Estuary by the water intakes. Larvae drawn through the cooling system and juveniles impinged on the drumscreens were both taken into account. Statistical confidence limits of the estimates (which are useful for comparisons with the effect of other human activities) were estimated using non-linear regression and Monte-Carlo techniques. The method was developed for one of the two similar units working during the April-June period of high flounder abundance in the cooling water. For this unit 16.5 million fish were drawn through the cooling system and 1.13 million were trapped on the drumscreen. The effect of the Power Station is discussed in connection with small-meshed fisheries and assessments of the estuarine juvenile stock.

  9. Comparison of biomarker and pathological responses in flounder (Platichthys flesus L.) induced by ingested polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, W J; Feist, S W; Jones, G J; Lyons, B P; Sheahan, D A; Stentiford, G D

    2003-08-01

    This study investigated the response of biomarker measurements and histopathological indicators of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure in the flounder (Platichthys flesus L.). Flounder were fed food spiked with a mixture of four PAHs at an environmentally relevant range of concentrations for either one or six months. Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity was elevated following 1 month exposure to PAH concentrations up to 50 mgkg(-1) in food. Bile metabolite concentrations were found to increase with PAH concentration, up to 500 mgkg(-1) PAH. By comparison, no DNA adducts were detected and there were no significant histopathological changes observed. After 6 months exposure, EROD levels were not elevated but bile metabolites showed a similar dose dependent relationship as in the 1 month experiment, while DNA adducts were only detected in the highest PAH exposure groups. No significant histopathological changes were observed. The results are discussed with respect to the implications for the use of these methods in environmental monitoring studies.

  10. In vitro and in vivo acute toxicity of fenpyroximate to flounder Paralichthys olivaceus and its gill cell line FG.

    PubMed

    Na, Na; Guo, Huarong; Zhang, Shicui; Li, Zhaojie; Yin, Licheng

    2009-04-09

    Fenpyroximate, an acaricide, is widely used in the prevention of acarids (mites) in plants. In this study, the in vitro and in vivo acute toxicity of fenpyroximate was examined using the marine flounder Paralichthys olivaceus and its gill cell line (FG). The 48h-IC(50) (95% confidence limits) values of fenpyroximate in the FG cells were 890 (790-990)nM, 950 (881-1019)nM and 1250 (1159-1341)nM, and 96h-IC(50) (95% confidence limits) were 480 (388-572)nM, 490 (454-526)nM and 510 (469-551)nM, for methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, neutral red (NR) uptake and cell protein assay, respectively. The 48h- and 96h-LC(50) (95% confidence limits) values of fenpyroximate in living flounders were 28.84 (14.28-58.26)nM and 11.74 (6.06-22.8)nM, respectively. This indicated that fenpyroximate was highly toxic to both flounders and FG cells. Moreover, comparisons of the ratios of average 48h-IC(50) to 48h-LC(50) and average 96h-IC(50) to 96h-LC(50) showed that the length of exposure time did not significantly affect the correlation between the FG cells and living flounders in the acute toxicity estimation of fenpyroximate provided the selected exposure time is the same. Thus, we suggest that FG cells could be a good bioassay system in rapid estimation of the corresponding LC(50) values of pollutants to living fish, instead of whole living fish. Histopathological examinations showed that liver and gill were the major target organs of fenpyroximate, especially the damage of gill tissues may account much for the high lethality of exposed flounders. Consistent with the histopathological observations, analysis of the activities of two key detoxification metabolism-related enzymes, glutathione S-transferase (GST) and cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1)-dependent ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), in the liver and gill tissues of exposed flounders indicated that liver has much higher detoxification capacity than gills, and this contributes to the higher tolerance of liver to the toxicity

  11. Food and feeding habits of juvenile flounder Platichthys flesus (L.), abd turbot Scophthalmus maximus L. in the åland archipelago, northern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aarnio, Katri; Bonsdorff, Erik; Rosenback, Nina

    1996-12-01

    The food choice of juvenile flounder ( Platichthys flesus) and turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus) was studied in the northern Baltic Sea during the years 1988, 1989, 1994 and 1995. The diet included organisms from 30 species/taxa in flounder (n = 306) and 10 species/taxa in turbot (n = 41). Flounder ⩽ 45 mm mainly consumed meiofauna (dominating taxon: Harpacticoida, Copepoda) and larger fish (46-101 mm) consumed macrofauna (dominating taxa: Oligochaeta, Amphipoda and Chironomidae). In terms of biomass, macrofauna dominated for all sizes of flounders, and meiofauna was important only for the smallest fish. A strong seasonal variation could be detected in the diet. In spring, macrofauna dominated for all size classes of fish (only fish > 30 mm were caught in spring), while in summer and autumn meiofauna dominated the diets for fish ⩽ 45 mm in size. Juvenile turbot (22-88 mm) consumed macrofauna and small fish. Turbot ⩽ 30 mm consumed mainly amphipods, while > 30 mm turbot consumed mysid shrimps, amphipods and fish. The ontogenetic shift from meio- to macrofauna-sized prey in flounders occurs at a larger fish size in the northern Baltic Sea than reported in other areas, possibly depending on the increased relative importance of meiofauna in the northern Baltic. The seasonal variation in the diet could be due to seasonally changing abundances in the zoobenthos, or for the small fish (1-group, spring), to switching from meio- to macrofauna in order to optimize their energy gain. The 0-group flounders consumed meiofauna for a long period, possibly due to a learning-process or simply due to easy availability of meiofauna. Turbot has a much larger mouth gap than flounders, thus allowing them to consume macrofauna from the beginning of their benthic life.

  12. Characterization of genes encoding prolactin and prolactin receptors in starry flounder Platichthys stellatus and their expression upon acclimation to freshwater.

    PubMed

    Noh, Gyeong Eon; Lim, Han Kyu; Kim, Jong-Myoung

    2013-04-01

    This study aims to investigate the genes encoding prolactin (PRL) and prolactin receptors (PRLR) and their tissue-specific expression in starry flounder Platichthys stellatus. Starry flounder PRL gene consisting of five exons encodes an ORF of 212 amino acid residue comprised of a putative signal peptide of 24 amino acids and a mature protein of 188 amino acids. It showed amino acid identities of 73 % with tuna Thunnus thynnus, 71 % with black porgy Acanthopagrus schlegelii, 69 % with Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, 64 % with pufferfish Takifugu rubripes, 63 % with rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, and 60 % with mangrove rivulus Kryptolebias marmoratus. Phylogenetic analysis of piscine PRLs also demonstrated a similarity between starry flounder and other teleosts but with a broad distinction from non-teleost PRLs. PRLR gene consists of eight exons encoding a protein of 528 amino acid residues. It showed a similarity to the PRLR2 subtype as reflected by amino acid identities of 54 % with A. schlegelii, 48.1 % with K. marmoratus, 46.3 % with tilapia O. mossambicus, and 46.1 % with O. niloticus PRLR2 as compared to PRLR1 isoform having less than 30 % identities. While mRNA transcript corresponding to PRL was detected only from the pituitary, most of PRLR mRNA was detected in the gill, kidney, and intestine, with a small amount in the ovary. The level of PRL transcript progressively increased during 6 days of acclimation to freshwater and then decreased but stayed higher than that of seawater at 60 days of acclimation. An opposite pattern of changes including a decrease at the beginning of the acclimation but a slight increase in the level osmolality was found as adaptation continued. The results support the osmoregulatory role of PRL signaling in starry flounder.

  13. Molecular Response of Estuarine Fish to Hypoxia: A Comparative Study with Ruffe and Flounder from Field and Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Tiedke, Jessica; Thiel, Ralf; Burmester, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    On a global scale, the frequencies and magnitudes of hypoxic events in coastal and estuarine waters have increased dramatically over the past 20 years. Fish populations are suitable indicators for the assessment of the quality of aquatic ecosystems, as they are omnipresent and often comprise a variety of different lifestyles and adaption strategies. We have investigated on the molecular level the impact of hypoxia on two fish species typical of European estuaries. We monitored the expression of eleven putatively hypoxia-responsive genes by means of quantitative real-time RT-PCR in brains, gills and hearts of the ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernua) and the flounder (Platichthys flesus). We first investigated the effect of naturally occurring hypoxia in the Elbe estuary. In a second approach, expression changes in the response to hypoxia were monitored under controlled laboratory conditions. The genes that showed the strongest effect were two respiratory proteins, myoglobin and neuroglobin, as well as the apoptosis enzyme caspase 3. As previously observed in other fish, myoglobin, which was considered to be muscle-specific, was found in brain and gills as well. Comparison of field and laboratory studies showed that – with the exception of the heart of flounder – that mRNA levels of the selected genes were about the same, suggesting that laboratory conditions reflect natural conditions. Likewise, trends of gene expression changes under hypoxia were the same, although hypoxia response was more pronounced in the Elbe estuary. In general, the flounder displayed a stronger response to hypoxia than the ruffe, suggesting that the flounder is more susceptible to hypoxia. The most pronounced differences were found among tissues within a species, demonstrating that hypoxia response is largely tissue-specific. In summary, our data suggest that laboratory experiments essentially mimic field data, but additional environmental factors enhance hypoxia response in nature. PMID:24595439

  14. Comparison of growth characteristics between skeletal muscle satellite cell lines from diploid and triploid olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhi-hao; Tan, Xungang; Jiao, Shuang; Zhang, Pei-jun

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. According to myosatellite cell lines (MSCs) established in vitro from diploid and triploid flounder, we compared the characters of growth and differentiation of their MSCs. The results would be useful for learning the muscle development mechanism in teleosts. Materials and Methods. The skeletal muscle cells from the diploid and triploid olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus were isolated and cultured in vitro, respectively, and the cells were characterized at the morphology and molecular level; meanwhile, the performance of these cells’ proliferation and differentiation were analyzed. Results. Two new skeletal muscle cell lines (POMSCS(2n) and POMSCS(3n)) from diploid and triploid flounder have been respectively subcultured for 67 times and 66 times. The cultured cells were mostly spindle-like mononuclear cells. They have normal flounder diploid karyotype (2n=48t) and triploid karyotype (3n=72t), respectively. Muscle satellite cell gene marker (pax7b) and myogenic cell protein marker (Desmin) were all expressed in cells of two cell lines. Both of the cells could differentiate into the large polynucleated muscle fibre cells, and immunofluorescence reactions of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) were positive. There were more cells of POMSCS(3n) to differentiate into the muscle fibre cells than that of POMSCS(2n). However, POMSCS(2n) cells proliferated more rapidly than those of POMSCS(3n) (P < 0.05). The significant fluorescent signals were observed in both POMSCS(2n) and POMSCS(3n) cells after transfected with pEGFP-N3 reporter plasmid. Conclusions. The two cell lines have been established and characterized as MSCs. We suppose that it might be the differentiation capacity, rather than the proliferation activity of MSCs to play a key role in the better growth of triploid ones than diploid. Both cell lines will become the ideal tools to learn the mechanism of fish MSCs proliferation, differentiation and regeneration during muscle development in the future. PMID

  15. Mutations in exons of the CYP17-II gene affect sex steroid concentration in male Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ruiqin; He, Feng; Wen, Haishen; Li, Jifang; Shi, Bao; Shi, Dan; Liu, Miao; Mu, Weijie; Zhang, Yuanqing; Hu, Jian; Han, Weiguo; Zhang, Jianan; Wang, Qingqing; Yuan, Yuren; Liu, Qun

    2012-03-01

    As a specific gene of fish, cytochrome P450c17-II ( CYP17-II) gene plays a key role in the growth, development an reproduction level of fish. In this study, the single-stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) technique was used to characterize polymorphisms within the coding region of CYP17-II gene in a population of 75 male Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus). Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in CYP17-II gene of Japanese flounder. They were c.G594A (p.G188R), c.G939A and c.G1502A (p.G490D). SNP1 (c.G594A), located in exon 4 of CYP17-II gene, was significantly associated with gonadosomatic index (GSI). Individuals with genotype GG of SNP1 had significantly lower GSI ( P < 0.05) than those with genotype AA or AG. SNP2 (c.G939A) located at the CpG island of CYP17-II gene. The mutation changed the methylation of exon 6. Individuals with genotype AA of SNP2 had significantly lower serum testosterone (T) level and hepatosomatic index (HSI) compared to those with genotype GG. The results suggested that SNP2 could influence the reproductive endocrine of male Japanese flounder. However, the SNP3 (c.G1502A) located in exon 9 did not affect the four measured reproductive traits. This study showed that CYP17-II gene could be a potentially useful candidate gene for the research of genetic breeding and physiological aspects of Japanese flounder.

  16. Biomarker responses in flounder Platichthys flesus from the Polish coastal area of the Baltic Sea and applications in biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    Napierska, Dorota; Barsiene, Janina; Mulkiewicz, Ewa; Podolska, Magdalena; Rybakovas, Aleksandras

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the pattern of enzymatic activities, environmental genotoxicity and cytotoxicity in flounder, Platichthys flesus, from the Polish coastal area of the Baltic Sea. Fish were sampled in different contaminated sites in the Gulf of Gdansk and in a reference area outside the gulf. The activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), glutathione S: -transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), were studied, as well as the frequency of micronuclei, nuclear buds and fragmented-apoptotic cells. A higher mean activity level of muscular AChE and a lower activity level of hepatic GST were evident in samples taken from the reference site, relative to those found in the gulf. Modeled CAT activity (in both liver and gill tissue), blood plasma LDH and CK activities were all significantly higher in flounder collected at locations within the Gulf of Gdansk than at the reference site. No statistically significant alterations were observed in the activities of ALT and AST in the blood plasma of flounder in this study. Fish collected from a location at the mouth of the Vistula River showed the highest hepatic GST and CAT, the highest gill CAT activity, and the highest frequency of blood micronuclei, nuclear buds and fragmented-apoptotic cell inductions, as well as the lowest level of blood plasma CK. The present study confirms that compared to fish from the reference area, flounder from the Gulf of Gdansk clearly demonstrate a different enzyme activity, genotoxicity and cytotoxicity biomarker response pattern.

  17. De Novo assembly of the Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) spleen transcriptome to identify putative genes involved in immunity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lin; Li, Guiyang; Mo, Zhaolan; Xiao, Peng; Li, Jie; Huang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) is an economically important marine fish in Asia and has suffered from disease outbreaks caused by various pathogens, which requires more information for immune relevant genes on genome background. However, genomic and transcriptomic data for Japanese flounder remain scarce, which limits studies on the immune system of this species. In this study, we characterized the Japanese flounder spleen transcriptome using an Illumina paired-end sequencing platform to identify putative genes involved in immunity. A cDNA library from the spleen of P. olivaceus was constructed and randomly sequenced using an Illumina technique. The removal of low quality reads generated 12,196,968 trimmed reads, which assembled into 96,627 unigenes. A total of 21,391 unigenes (22.14%) were annotated in the NCBI Nr database, and only 1.1% of the BLASTx top-hits matched P. olivaceus protein sequences. Approximately 12,503 (58.45%) unigenes were categorized into three Gene Ontology groups, 19,547 (91.38%) were classified into 26 Cluster of Orthologous Groups, and 10,649 (49.78%) were assigned to six Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. Furthermore, 40,928 putative simple sequence repeats and 47, 362 putative single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified. Importantly, we identified 1,563 putative immune-associated unigenes that mapped to 15 immune signaling pathways. The P. olivaceus transciptome data provides a rich source to discover and identify new genes, and the immune-relevant sequences identified here will facilitate our understanding of the mechanisms involved in the immune response. Furthermore, the plentiful potential SSRs and SNPs found in this study are important resources with respect to future development of a linkage map or marker assisted breeding programs for the flounder.

  18. An environmental assessment and risk map of Ascaris lumbricoides and Necator americanus distributions in Manufahi District, Timor-Leste.

    PubMed

    Wardell, Rebecca; Clements, Archie C A; Lal, Aparna; Summers, David; Llewellyn, Stacey; Campbell, Suzy J; McCarthy, James; Gray, Darren J; V Nery, Susana

    2017-05-01

    In Timor-Leste there have been intermittent and ineffective soil-transmitted helminth (STH) deworming programs since 2004. In a resource-constrained setting, having information on the geographic distribution of STH can aid in prioritising high risk communities for intervention. This study aimed to quantify the environmental risk factors for STH infection and to produce a risk map of STH in Manufahi district, Timor-Leste. Georeferenced cross-sectional data and stool samples were obtained from 2,194 participants in 606 households in 24 villages in the Manufahi District as part of cross sectional surveys done in the context of the "WASH for Worms" randomised controlled trial. Infection status was determined for Ascaris lumbricoides and Necator americanus using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Baseline infection data were linked to environmental data obtained for each household. Univariable and multivariable multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression analysis with random effects at the village and household level were conducted, with all models adjusted for age and sex. For A. lumbricoides, being a school-aged child increased the odds of infection, whilst higher temperatures in the coolest quarter of the year, alkaline soils, clay loam/loam soils and woody savannas around households were associated with decreased infection odds. For N. americanus, greater precipitation in the driest month, higher average enhanced vegetation index, age and sandy loam soils increased infection odds, whereas being female and living at higher elevations decreased the odds of infection. Predictive risk maps generated for Manufahi based upon these final models highlight the high predicted risk of N. americanus infection across the district and the more focal nature of A. lumbricoides infection. The predicted risk of any STH infection is high across the entire district. The widespread predicted risk of any STH infection in 6 to 18 year olds provides strong evidence to

  19. Sequence and organization of the complete mitochondrial genomes of spotted halibut (Verasper variegatus) and barfin flounder (Verasper moseri).

    PubMed

    He, Chongbo; Han, Jiabo; Ge, Longli; Zhou, Zunchun; Gao, Xianggang; Mu, Yunlei; Liu, Weidong; Cao, Jie; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2008-06-01

    In this work, the mitochondrial genomes for spotted halibut (Verasper variegatus) and barfin flounder (Verasper moseri) were completely sequenced. The entire mitochondrial genome sequences of the spotted halibut and barfin flounder were 17,273 and 17,588 bp in length, respectively. The organization of the two mitochondrial genomes was similar to those reported from other fish mitochondrial genomes containing 37 genes (2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs and 13 protein-coding genes) and two non-coding regions (control region (CR) and WANCY region). In the CR, the termination associated sequence (ETAS), six central conserved block (CSB-A,B,C,D,E,F), three conserved sequence blocks (CSB1-3) and a region of 61-bp tandem repeat cluster at the end of CSB-3 were identified by similarity comparison with fishes and other vertebrates. The tandem repeat sequences show polymorphism among the different individuals of the two species. The complete mitochondrial genomes of spotted halibut and barfin flounder should be useful for evolutionary studies of flatfishes and other vertebrate species.

  20. Polymorphysims of CYP17-I Gene in the Exons Were Associated with the Reproductive Endocrine of Japanese Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

    PubMed Central

    Ma, R. Q.; He, F.; Wen, H. S.; Li, J. F.; Mu, W. J.; Liu, M.; Zhang, Y. Q.; Hu, J.; Qun, L.

    2012-01-01

    The cytochrome P450c17-I (CYP17-I) is one of the enzymes critical to gonadal development and the synthesis of androgens. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected within the coding region of the CYP17-I gene in a population of 75 male Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). They were SNP1 (c.C445T) located in exon2 and SNP2 (c.T980C (p.Phe307Leu)) located in exon5. Four physiological indices, which were serum testosterone (T), serum 17β-estradiol (E2), Hepatosomatic index (HSI), and Gonadosomatic index (GSI), were studied to examine the effect of the two SNPs on the reproductive endocrines of Japanese flounder. Multiple comparisons revealed that CT genotype of SNP1 had a much lower T level than CC genotype (p<0.05) and the GSI of individuals with CC genotype of SNP2 was higher than those with TT genotype (p<0.05). Four diplotypes were constructed based on the two SNPs and the diplotype D3 had a significantly lower T level and GSI. In conclusion, the two SNPs were significantly associated with reproductive traits of Japanese flounder. PMID:25049628