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Sample records for flow control valves

  1. Intelligent Flow Control Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Anthony R (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention is an intelligent flow control valve which may be inserted into the flow coming out of a pipe and activated to provide a method to stop, measure, and meter flow coming from the open or possibly broken pipe. The intelligent flow control valve may be used to stop the flow while repairs are made. Once repairs have been made, the valve may be removed or used as a control valve to meter the amount of flow from inside the pipe. With the addition of instrumentation, the valve may also be used as a variable area flow meter and flow controller programmed based upon flowing conditions. With robotic additions, the valve may be configured to crawl into a desired pipe location, anchor itself, and activate flow control or metering remotely.

  2. Ferroelectric Fluid Flow Control Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jalink, Antony, Jr. (Inventor); Hellbaum, Richard F. (Inventor); Rohrbach, Wayne W. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An active valve is controlled and driven by external electrical actuation of a ferroelectric actuator to provide for improved passage of the fluid during certain time periods and to provide positive closure of the valve during other time periods. The valve provides improved passage in the direction of flow and positive closure in the direction against the flow. The actuator is a dome shaped internally prestressed ferroelectric actuator having a curvature, said dome shaped actuator having a rim and an apex. and a dome height measured from a plane through said rim said apex that varies with an electric voltage applied between an inside and an outside surface of said dome shaped actuator.

  3. Energy conservation with automatic flow control valves

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, D.

    1984-12-01

    Automatic flow control valves are offered in a wide range of sizes starting at 1/2 in. with flow rates of 0.5 gpm and up. They are also provided with materials and end connections to meet virtually any fan-coil system requirement. Among these are copper sweat type valves; ductile iron threaded valves; male/female threaded brass valves; and combination flow control/ball valves with union ends.

  4. Pressure compensated flow control valve

    DOEpatents

    Minteer, Daniel J.

    1999-01-01

    The invention is an air flow control valve which is capable of maintaining a constant flow at the outlet despite changes in the inlet or outlet pressure. The device consists of a shell assembly with an inlet chamber and outlet chamber separated by a separation plate. The chambers are connected by an orifice. Also located within the inlet chamber is a port controller assembly. The port controller assembly consists of a differential pressure plate and port cap affixed thereon. The cap is able to slide in and out of the orifice separating the inlet and outlet chambers. When the pressure differential is sufficient, the differential pressure plate rises or falls to maintain a constant air flow. Movement of the port controller assembly does not require the use of seals, diaphragms, tight tolerances, bushings, bearings, hinges, guides, or lubricants.

  5. Valve for controlling solids flow

    DOEpatents

    Staiger, M. Daniel

    1985-01-01

    A valve for controlling the flow of solids comprises a vessel having an overflow point, an inlet line for discharging solids into the vessel positioned within the vessel such that the inlet line's discharge point is lower than the vessel's overflow point, and apparatus for introducing a fluidizing fluid into the vessel. The fluidizing fluid fluidizes the solids within the vessel so that they overflow at the vessel's overflow point. For the removal of nuclear waste product the vessel may be placed within a sealed container having a bottom connected transport line for transporting the solids to storage or other sites. The rate of solids flow is controlled by the flow rate of the fluidizing fluid and by V-notch weirs of different sizes spaced about the top of the vessel.

  6. Valve for controlling solids flow

    DOEpatents

    Staiger, M.D.

    1982-09-29

    A valve for controlling the flow of solids comprises a vessel having an overflow point, an inlet line for discharging solids into the vessel positioned within the vessel such that the inlet line's discharge point is lower than the vessel's overflow point, and means for introducing a fluidizing fluid into the vessel. The fluidizing fluid fluidizes the solids within the vessel so that they overflow at the vessel's overflow point. For the removal of nuclear waste product the vessel may be placed within a sealed container having a bottom connected transport line for transporting the solids to storage or other sites. The rate of solids flow is controlled by the flow rate of the fluidizing fluid and by V-notch weirs of different sizes spaced about the top of the vessel.

  7. High precision high flow range control valve

    DOEpatents

    McCray, J.A.

    1999-07-13

    A fluid control valve is described having a valve housing having first and second valve housing openings for the ingress and egress of fluid through the control valve. Disposed within a void formed by the control valve is a sleeve having at least one sleeve opening to permit the flow of fluid therethrough. A flow restricter travels within the sleeve to progressively block off the sleeve opening and thereby control flow. A fluid passageway is formed between the first valve housing opening and the outer surface of the sleeve. A second fluid passageway is formed between the inside of the sleeve and the second valve housing opening. Neither fluid passageway contains more than one 90 [degree] turn. In the preferred embodiment only one of the two fluid passageways contains a 90[degree] turn. In another embodiment, the control valve housing is bifurcated by a control surface having control surface opening disposed therethrough. A flow restricter is in slidable contact with the control surface to restrict flow of fluid through the control surface openings. 12 figs.

  8. High precision high flow range control valve

    DOEpatents

    McCray, John A.

    1999-01-01

    A fluid control valve is described having a valve housing having first and second valve housing openings for the ingress and egress of fluid through the control valve. Disposed within a void formed by the control valve is a sleeve having at least one sleeve opening to permit the flow of fluid therethrough. A flow restricter travels within the sleeve to progressively block off the sleeve opening and thereby control flow. A fluid passageway is formed between the first valve housing opening and the outer surface of the sleeve. A second fluid passageway is formed between the inside of the sleeve and the second valve housing opening. Neither fluid passageway contains more than one 90.degree. turn. In the preferred embodiment only one of the two fluid passageways contains a 90.degree. turn. In another embodiment, the control valve housing is bifurcated by a control surface having control surface opening disposed therethrough. A flow restricter is in slidable contact with the control surface to restrict flow of fluid through the control surface openings.

  9. Electromechanically Actuated Valve for Controlling Flow Rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Paul

    2007-01-01

    A proposed valve for controlling the rate of flow of a fluid would include an electric-motor-driven ball-screw mechanism for adjusting the seating element of the valve to any position between fully closed and fully open. The motor would be of a type that can be electronically controlled to rotate to a specified angular position and to rotate at a specified rate, and the ball screw would enable accurate linear positioning of the seating element as a function of angular position of the motor. Hence, the proposed valve would enable fine electronic control of the rate of flow and the rate of change of flow. The uniqueness of this valve lies in a high degree of integration of the actuation mechanism with the flow-control components into a single, relatively compact unit. A notable feature of this integration is that in addition to being a major part of the actuation mechanism, the ball screw would also be a flow-control component: the ball screw would be hollow so as to contain part of the main flow passage, and one end of the ball screw would be the main seating valve element. The relationships among the components of the valve are best understood by reference to the figure, which presents meridional cross sections of the valve in the fully closed and fully open positions. The motor would be supported by a bracket bolted to the valve body. By means of gears or pulleys and a timing belt, motor drive would be transmitted to a sleeve that would rotate on bearings in the valve body. A ball nut inside the sleeve would be made to rotate with the sleeve by use of a key. The ball screw would pass through and engage the ball nut. A key would prevent rotation of the ball screw in the valve body while allowing the ball screw to translate axially when driven by the ball nut. The outer surface of the ball screw would be threaded only in a mid-length region: the end regions of the outer surface of the ball screw would be polished so that they could act as dynamic sealing surfaces

  10. 25. Typical valves used to control flow into and out ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Typical valves used to control flow into and out of filtration bed. Left valve (painted red) drains the bed, and center valve (painted green) admits water into the bed. The right valve is a cross over valve which is used to admit water into a dry bed from the bottom. This bottom fill excludes entrapped air as the bed is filled. When the water reached to top of the bed, filling is continued from the top of the bed. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  11. Semitoroidal-diaphragm cavitating valve designed for bipropellant flow control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, A. L.

    1969-01-01

    Valve controls the flow of bipropellant liquids in rocket engines. Throttling and cavitation of the liquids are controlled by axial deflections of a semitoroidal metal diaphram. The valve is highly resistant to corrosion and leakage, and should be useful in food processing and chemical industries.

  12. Flow characteristics of control valve for different strokes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jablonská, Jana; Kozubková, Milada

    2016-03-01

    The article deals with the determination of flow characteristics and loss coefficients of control valve when the water flows in the interval of operating parameters, including the evaluation of vapour and air cavitation regime. The characteristics of the control valve are measured on the experimental equipment and subsequently loss coefficients are determined. Data from experimental measurements are used for creating of mathematical model with vapour and air cavitation and verification results. This validation will enable the application of methods of numerical modelling for valves of atypical dimensions e.g. for use in nuclear power industry. The correct knowledge of the valve characteristics and fundamental coefficients (e.g. flow coefficient, cavitation coefficient and loss coefficient) is necessarily required primarily for designers of pipe networks.

  13. Shuttle Gaseous Hydrogen Venting Risk from Flow Control Valve Failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, J. Philip; Baurle, Robert A.; Gafney, Richard L.; Norris, Andrew T.; Pellett, Gerald L.; Rock, Kenneth E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a series of studies to assess the potential risk associated with the failure of one of three gaseous hydrogen flow control valves in the orbiter's main propulsion system during the launch of Shuttle Endeavour (STS-126) in November 2008. The studies focused on critical issues associated with the possibility of combustion resulting from release of gaseous hydrogen from the external tank into the atmosphere during assent. The Shuttle Program currently assumes hydrogen venting from the external tank will result in a critical failure. The current effort was conducted to increase understanding of the risk associated with venting hydrogen given the flow control valve failure scenarios being considered in the Integrated In-Flight Anomaly Investigation being conducted by NASA.

  14. Electromagnetic valve for controlling the flow of molten, magnetic material

    DOEpatents

    Richter, T.

    1998-06-16

    An electromagnetic valve for controlling the flow of molten, magnetic material is provided, which comprises an induction coil for generating a magnetic field in response to an applied alternating electrical current, a housing, and a refractory composite nozzle. The nozzle is comprised of an inner sleeve composed of an erosion resistant refractory material (e.g., a zirconia ceramic) through which molten, magnetic metal flows, a refractory outer shell, and an intermediate compressible refractory material, e.g., unset, high alumina, thermosetting mortar. The compressible refractory material is sandwiched between the inner sleeve and outer shell, and absorbs differential expansion stresses that develop within the nozzle due to extreme thermal gradients. The sandwiched layer of compressible refractory material prevents destructive cracks from developing in the refractory outer shell. 5 figs.

  15. Electromagnetic valve for controlling the flow of molten, magnetic material

    DOEpatents

    Richter, Tomas

    1998-01-01

    An electromagnetic valve for controlling the flow of molten, magnetic material is provided, which comprises an induction coil for generating a magnetic field in response to an applied alternating electrical current, a housing, and a refractory composite nozzle. The nozzle is comprised of an inner sleeve composed of an erosion resistant refractory material (e.g., a zirconia ceramic) through which molten, magnetic metal flows, a refractory outer shell, and an intermediate compressible refractory material, e.g., unset, high alumina, thermosetting mortar. The compressible refractory material is sandwiched between the inner sleeve and outer shell, and absorbs differential expansion stresses that develop within the nozzle due to extreme thermal gradients. The sandwiched layer of compressible refractory material prevents destructive cracks from developing in the refractory outer shell.

  16. Excess flow shutoff valve

    DOEpatents

    Kiffer, Micah S.; Tentarelli, Stephen Clyde

    2016-02-09

    Excess flow shutoff valve comprising a valve body, a valve plug, a partition, and an activation component where the valve plug, the partition, and activation component are disposed within the valve body. A suitable flow restriction is provided to create a pressure difference between the upstream end of the valve plug and the downstream end of the valve plug when fluid flows through the valve body. The pressure difference exceeds a target pressure difference needed to activate the activation component when fluid flow through the valve body is higher than a desired rate, and thereby closes the valve.

  17. Development of myoelectric control type speaking valve with low flow resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ooe, Katsutoshi; Sakurai, Kohei; Mimaki, Shinya

    2015-12-01

    We aimed to develop welfare devices for patients with phonation disorder. One of these devices is the electrical controltype speaking valve system. The conventional speaking valves have one-way valve architecture, they open when the user breathes in, and they close when user breathes out and produce voices. This type is very simple and tough, but some users feel closeness in case of exhalation without phonation. This problem is caused by its mechanism what can not be controlled by user's will. Therefore, we proposed an electrical control-type speaking valve system to resolve this problem. This valve is controlled by neck myoelectric signal of sternohyoid muscle. From our previous report, it was clarified that this valve had better performance about easy-to-breath. Furthermore, we proposed the compact myoelectric control-type speaking valve system. The new-type speaking valve was enough small to attach the human body, and its opening area is larger than that of conventional one. Additionally, we described the improvement of flow channel shape by using of FEM analysis. According to the result of the analysis, it was clarified that the shape-improved speaking valve gets the low flow resistance channel in case of inspiration. In this report, we tried to make the flow resistance lower by the shape of current plates, in case of both inspiration and exhalation. From the result of FEM analysis, our speaking valve could get better flow channel than older one.

  18. Controlling flow in microfluidic channels with a manually actuated pin valve.

    PubMed

    Brett, Marie-Elena; Zhao, Shuping; Stoia, Jonathan L; Eddington, David T

    2011-08-01

    There is a need for a simple method to control fluid flow within microfluidic channels. To meet this need, a simple push pin with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) tip has been integrated into microfluidic networks to be placed within the microchannel to obstruct flow. This new valve design can attain on/off control of fluid flow without an external power source using readily-available, low-cost materials. The valve consists of a 14 gauge (1.6 mm) one inch piece of metal tubing with a PDMS pad at the tip to achieve a fluidic seal when pressed against a microfluidic channel's substrate. The metal tubing or pin is then either manually pushed down to block or pulled up to allow fluid flow. The valve was validated using a pressure transducer and fluorescent dye to determine the breakthrough pressure the valve can withstand over multiple cycles. In the first cycle, the median value for pressure withstood by the valve was 8.8 psi with a range of 17.5-2.7 psi. The pressure the valves were able to withstand during each successive trial was lower suggesting they may be most valuable as a method to control the initial introduction of fluids into a microfluidic device. These valves can achieve flow regulation within microfluidic devices, have a small dead volume, and are simple to fabricate and use, making this technique widely suitable for a range of applications.

  19. Calibration of sonic valves for the laminar flow control, leading-edge flight test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petley, D. H.; Alexander, W., Jr.; Wright, A. S., Jr.; Vallas, M.

    1985-01-01

    Sonic needle valves were calibrated to measure and control airflow in the suction system for the leading-edge flight test. The procedure and results for the calibration flow test of 4:41 flight valves are given. Mass-flow rates, which ranged from 0.001 to 0.012 lbm/sec, and maximum back pressure were measured for total temperatures from -30 F to 75 F and total pressures from 120 to 540 psf. Correlating equations are obtained for mass-flow rate as a function of total pressure, total temperature, and valve opening length. The most important aspect of flow measurement and control is found to be the measurement of valve opening length.

  20. NASA Work on Fatigue-Induced Cracking of H2 Flow Control Valve Poppet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maes, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the work that is being done to resolve a potential problem with the flow control valve poppet that controls the flow of GH2 into the space shuttle's main engine. The STS Hydrogen Flow Control Valve (HFVC) and potential problems that could arise from the failure of a poppet are reviewed. The analysis and testing that were performed are discussed. There is discussion about the current work involved in finding a resolution to the problem, including finding new materials to use in construction of poppetts,

  1. Gas flow in plant microfluidic networks controlled by capillary valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capron, M.; Tordjeman, Ph.; Charru, F.; Badel, E.; Cochard, H.

    2014-03-01

    The xylem vessels of trees constitute a model natural microfluidic system. In this work, we have studied the mechanism of air flow in the Populus xylem. The vessel microstructure was characterized by optical microscopy, transmission electronic microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) at different length scales. The xylem vessels have length ≈15 cm and diameter ≈20μm. Flow from one vessel to the next occurs through ˜102 pits, which are grouped together at the ends of the vessels. The pits contain a thin, porous pit membrane with a thickness of 310 nm. We have measured the Young's moduli of the vessel wall and of the pits (both water-saturated and after drying) by specific nanoindentation and nanoflexion experiments with AFM. We found that both the dried and water-saturated pit membranes have Young's modulus around 0.4 MPa, in agreement with values obtained by micromolding of pits deformed by an applied pressure difference. Air injection experiments reveal that air flows through the xylem vessels when the differential pressure across a sample is larger than a critical value ΔPc=1.8 MPa. In order to model the air flow rate for ΔP ⩾ΔPc, we assumed the pit membrane to be a porous medium that is strained by the applied pressure difference. Water menisci in the pit pores play the role of capillary valves, which open at ΔP =ΔPc. From the point of view of the plant physiology, this work presents a basic understanding of the physics of bordered pits.

  2. Gas flow in plant microfluidic networks controlled by capillary valves.

    PubMed

    Capron, M; Tordjeman, Ph; Charru, F; Badel, E; Cochard, H

    2014-03-01

    The xylem vessels of trees constitute a model natural microfluidic system. In this work, we have studied the mechanism of air flow in the Populus xylem. The vessel microstructure was characterized by optical microscopy, transmission electronic microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) at different length scales. The xylem vessels have length ≈15 cm and diameter ≈20μm. Flow from one vessel to the next occurs through ∼102 pits, which are grouped together at the ends of the vessels. The pits contain a thin, porous pit membrane with a thickness of 310 nm. We have measured the Young's moduli of the vessel wall and of the pits (both water-saturated and after drying) by specific nanoindentation and nanoflexion experiments with AFM. We found that both the dried and water-saturated pit membranes have Young's modulus around 0.4 MPa, in agreement with values obtained by micromolding of pits deformed by an applied pressure difference. Air injection experiments reveal that air flows through the xylem vessels when the differential pressure across a sample is larger than a critical value ΔPc=1.8 MPa. In order to model the air flow rate for ΔP⩾ΔPc, we assumed the pit membrane to be a porous medium that is strained by the applied pressure difference. Water menisci in the pit pores play the role of capillary valves, which open at ΔP=ΔPc. From the point of view of the plant physiology, this work presents a basic understanding of the physics of bordered pits.

  3. Analysis of the STS-126 Flow Control Valve Structural-Acoustic Coupling Failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Trevor M.; Larko, Jeffrey M.; McNelis, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    During the Space Transportation System mission STS-126, one of the main engine's flow control valves incurred an unexpected failure. A section of the valve broke off during liftoff. It is theorized that an acoustic mode of the flowing fuel, coupled with a structural mode of the valve, causing a high cycle fatigue failure. This report documents the analysis efforts conducted in an attempt to verify this theory. Hand calculations, computational fluid dynamics, and finite element methods are all implemented and analyses are performed using steady-state methods in addition to transient analysis methods. The conclusion of the analyses is that there is a critical acoustic mode that aligns with a structural mode of the valve

  4. Butterfly valve with metal seals controls flow of hydrogen from cryogenic through high temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, L. D.

    1967-01-01

    Butterfly valve with metal seals operates over a temperature range of minus 423 degrees to plus 440 degrees F with hydrogen as a medium and in a radiation environment. Media flow is controlled by an internal butterfly disk which is rotated by an actuation shaft.

  5. Ionogel-based light-actuated valves for controlling liquid flow in micro-fluidic manifolds.

    PubMed

    Benito-Lopez, Fernando; Byrne, Robert; Răduţă, Ana Maria; Vrana, Nihal Engin; McGuinness, Garrett; Diamond, Dermot

    2010-01-21

    We present the fabrication, characterisation and performance of four novel ionic liquid polymer gels (ionogels) as photo-actuated valves incorporated into micro-fluidic manifolds. The ionogels incorporate benzospiropyran units and phosphonium-based ionic liquids. Each ionogel is photo-polymerised in situ in the channels of a poly(methyl methacrylate) micro-fluidic device, generating a manifold incorporating four different micro-valves. The valves are actuated by simply applying localised white light irradiation, meaning that no physical contact between the actuation impulse (light) and the valve structure is required. Through variation of the composition of the ionogels, each of the micro-valves can be tuned to open at different times under similar illumination conditions. Therefore, flows through the manifold can be independently controlled by a single light source. At present, the contraction process to open the channel is relatively rapid (seconds) while the recovery (expansion) process to re-close the channel is relatively slow (minutes), meaning that the valve, in its current form, is better suited for single-actuation events.

  6. Active combustion flow modulation valve

    DOEpatents

    Hensel, John Peter; Black, Nathaniel; Thorton, Jimmy Dean; Vipperman, Jeffrey Stuart; Lambeth, David N; Clark, William W

    2013-09-24

    A flow modulation valve has a slidably translating hollow armature with at least one energizable coil wound around and fixably attached to the hollow armature. The energizable coil or coils are influenced by at least one permanent magnet surrounding the hollow armature and supported by an outer casing. Lorentz forces on the energizable coils which are translated to the hollow armature, increase or decrease the flow area to provide flow throttling action. The extent of hollow armature translation depends on the value of current supplied and the direction of translation depends on the direction of current flow. The compact nature of the flow modulation valve combined with the high forces afforded by the actuator design provide a flow modulation valve which is highly responsive to high-rate input control signals.

  7. Space Shuttle Main Propulsion System Gaseous Hydrogen Flow Control Valve Poppet Failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeitler, Rick

    2010-01-01

    The presentation provides background information pertinent to the MPS GH2 Flow Control Valve Poppet failure which occurred on the Space Shuttle Endeavour during STS-126 flight. The presentation provides general MPS system operating information which is pertinent to understanding the failure causes and affects. The presentation provides additional background information on the operating environment in which the FCV functions and basic design history of the flow control valve. The presentation provides an overview of the possible flight failure modes and a brief summary of the flight rationale which was developed for this failure event. This presentation is an introductory presentation to 3 other speakers at the conference who will be speaking on M&P aspects of the investigation, non destructive inspection techniques development, and particle impact testing.

  8. Coolant-Control Valves For Fluid-Sampling Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Donald F.

    1989-01-01

    Small built-in leaks prevent overheating. Downstream flow-control globe valve replaced with modified gate valve. Modification consists of drilling small hole through valve gate, so valve never turned completely off. This "leaky" valve provides enough flow of coolant to prevent overheating causing probe to fail. Principle also applied to automatic control system by installing small bypass line around control valve.

  9. Annular flow diverter valve

    DOEpatents

    Rider, Robert L.

    1980-01-01

    A valve for diverting flow from the center of two concentric tubes to the annulus between the tubes or, operating in the reverse direction, for mixing fluids from concentric tubes into a common tube and for controlling the volume ratio of said flow consists of a toroidal baffle disposed in sliding engagement with the interior of the inner tube downstream of a plurality of ports in the inner tube, a plurality of gates in sliding engagement with the interior of the inner tube attached to the baffle for movement therewith, a servomotor having a bullet-shaped plug on the downstream end thereof, and drive rods connecting the servomotor to the toroidal baffle, the servomotor thereby being adapted to move the baffle into mating engagement with the bullet-shaped plug and simultaneously move the gates away from the ports in the inner tube and to move the baffle away from the bullet-shaped plug and simultaneously move the gates to cover the ports in the inner tube.

  10. Evaluation of a fracture failure mode in the Space Shuttle hydrogen pressurization system flow control valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauver, S. E.; Sueme, D. R.

    1992-07-01

    During acceptance testing of the Space Shuttle Endeavor hydrogen flow control valves, which are used in the Orbiter's fuel tank pressurization system, two of the valves experienced fracture of the poppet flange. The poppets are made of 440 C, a high strength, wear-resistant, low ductility, martensitic stainless steel. The investigation which was initiated to determine the cause of these failures is traced. All aspects of the poppet processing that may have introduced a defect were assessed. This included machining, heat treating, passivation, assembly, and test. In addition, several potential failure modes were investigated. The extensive investigation revealed no obvious cause of the failures, but did result in a recommendation for a different material application.

  11. Potential flow in engine valves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eck, Bruno

    1925-01-01

    The extensive applicability of the hydrodynamic theory to the problems of engine construction is clearly shown in the following attempt to determine by exact methods the nature of the flow in valves under variously restricted conditions. Observation shows that two principal kinds of flow occur in simple flat-seated valves. For small valve lifts, the flow is along the horizontal wall and is therefore deflected 90 degrees, but for greater valve lifts the flow separates and forms a free stream, whose angle of deflection naturally increases with increasing lift. Both these kinds of flow can, in fact, be theoretically explained

  12. Lessons Learned from the Space Shuttle Engine Hydrogen Flow Control Valve Poppet Breakage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, Hugo E.; Damico, Stephen; Brewer, John

    2011-01-01

    The Main Propulsion System (MPS) uses three Flow Control Valves (FCV) to modulate the flow of pressurant hydrogen gas from the Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME) to the hydrogen External Tank (ET). This maintains pressure in the ullage volume as the liquid level drops, preserving ET structural integrity and assuring the engines receive a sufficient amount of head pressure. On Space Transportation System (STS)-126 (2009), with only a handful of International Space Station (ISS) assembly flights from the end of the Shuttle program, a portion of a single FCV?s poppet head broke off at about a minute and a half after liftoff. The risk of the poppet head failure is that the increased flow area through the FCV could result in excessive gaseous hydrogen flow back to the external tank, which could result in overboard venting of hydrogen ullage pressure. If the hydrogen venting were to occur in first stage (i.e., lower atmosphere), a flammability hazard exists that could lead to catastrophic loss of crew and vehicle. Other failure risks included particle impact damage to MPS downstream hardware. Although the FCV design had been plagued by contamination-related sluggish valve response problems prior to a redesign at STS-80 (1996), contamination was ruled out as the cause of the STS-126 failure. Employing a combination of enhanced hardware inspection and a better understanding of the consequences of a poppet failure, safe flight rationale for subsequent flights (STS-119 and later) was achieved. This paper deals with the technical lessons learned during the investigation and mitigation of this problem at a time when assembly flights were each in the critical path to Space Station success.

  13. Failure Analysis of Fractured Poppet from Space Shuttle Orbiter Flow Control Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the failure analysis of a fractured poppet from a flow control valve (FCV) used on the space shuttle. This presentation has focused on the laboratory analysis of the failed hardware. The use of Scanning electron fractography during the investigation led to the conclusion that the poppet failed due to fatigue cracking that, most likely, occurred under changing loading conditions. The initial investigation led to a more thorough test of poppets that had been retired, this testing led to the conclusion that the thumbnail cracks in the flight hardware had existed for the life of the shuttle program. This led to a program to develop an eddy current technique that was capable of detecting small very tight cracks.

  14. Hydraulic engine valve actuation system including independent feedback control

    DOEpatents

    Marriott, Craig D

    2013-06-04

    A hydraulic valve actuation assembly may include a housing, a piston, a supply control valve, a closing control valve, and an opening control valve. The housing may define a first fluid chamber, a second fluid chamber, and a third fluid chamber. The piston may be axially secured to an engine valve and located within the first, second and third fluid chambers. The supply control valve may control a hydraulic fluid supply to the piston. The closing control valve may be located between the supply control valve and the second fluid chamber and may control fluid flow from the second fluid chamber to the supply control valve. The opening control valve may be located between the supply control valve and the second fluid chamber and may control fluid flow from the supply control valve to the second fluid chamber.

  15. Bypass valve and coolant flow controls for optimum temperatures in waste heat recovery systems

    DOEpatents

    Meisner, Gregory P

    2013-10-08

    Implementing an optimized waste heat recovery system includes calculating a temperature and a rate of change in temperature of a heat exchanger of a waste heat recovery system, and predicting a temperature and a rate of change in temperature of a material flowing through a channel of the waste heat recovery system. Upon determining the rate of change in the temperature of the material is predicted to be higher than the rate of change in the temperature of the heat exchanger, the optimized waste heat recovery system calculates a valve position and timing for the channel that is configurable for achieving a rate of material flow that is determined to produce and maintain a defined threshold temperature of the heat exchanger, and actuates the valve according to the calculated valve position and calculated timing.

  16. Air flow through poppet valves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, G W; Nutting, E M

    1920-01-01

    Report discusses the comparative continuous flow characteristics of single and double poppet valves. The experimental data presented affords a direct comparison of valves, single and in pairs of different sizes, tested in a cylinder designed in accordance with current practice in aviation engines.

  17. Novel Active Combustion Control Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caspermeyer, Matt

    2014-01-01

    This project presents an innovative solution for active combustion control. Relative to the state of the art, this concept provides frequency modulation (greater than 1,000 Hz) in combination with high-amplitude modulation (in excess of 30 percent flow) and can be adapted to a large range of fuel injector sizes. Existing valves often have low flow modulation strength. To achieve higher flow modulation requires excessively large valves or too much electrical power to be practical. This active combustion control valve (ACCV) has high-frequency and -amplitude modulation, consumes low electrical power, is closely coupled with the fuel injector for modulation strength, and is practical in size and weight. By mitigating combustion instabilities at higher frequencies than have been previously achieved (approximately 1,000 Hz), this new technology enables gas turbines to run at operating points that produce lower emissions and higher performance.

  18. Dual Check Valve and Method of Controlling Flow Through the Same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corallo, Roger (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A dual check valve includes, a housing having a cavity fluidically connecting three ports, a movable member movably engaged within the cavity from at least a first position occluding a first port of the three ports, a second position occluding a second port of the three ports, and a third position allowing flow between both the first port, the second port and a third port of the three ports.

  19. Integrating bio-prosthetic valves in the Fontan operation - Novel treatment to control retrograde flow in caval veins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vukicevic, Marija; Conover, Timothy; Zhou, Jian; Hsia, Tain-Yen; Figliola, Richard

    2012-11-01

    For a child born with only one functional heart ventricle, the sequence of palliative surgeries typically culminates in the Fontan operation. This procedure is usually successful initially, but leads to later complications, for reasons not fully understood. Examples are respiratory-dependent retrograde flows in the caval and hepatic veins, and increased pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), hypothesized to be responsible for elevated pressure in the liver and disease of the liver and intestines. Here we study the parameters responsible for retrograde flows in the inferior vena cava (IVC) and hepatic vein (HV), and investigate two novel interventions to control retrograde flow: implanting either a Medtronic Contegra valved conduit or an Edwards lifescience pericardial aortic valve in the IVC or HV. We performed the experiments in a multi-scale, patient specific mock circuit, with normal and elevated PVR, towards the optimization of the Fontan circulation. The results show that both valves can significantly reduce retrograde flows in the veins, suggesting potential advantages in the treatment of the patients with congenital heart diseases. Fondation Leducq

  20. Exhaust gas bypass valve control for thermoelectric generator

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, Michael G; Yang, Jihui; Meisner, Greogry P.; Stabler, Francis R.; De Bock, Hendrik Pieter Jacobus; Anderson, Todd Alan

    2012-09-04

    A method of controlling engine exhaust flow through at least one of an exhaust bypass and a thermoelectric device via a bypass valve is provided. The method includes: determining a mass flow of exhaust exiting an engine; determining a desired exhaust pressure based on the mass flow of exhaust; comparing the desired exhaust pressure to a determined exhaust pressure; and determining a bypass valve control value based on the comparing, wherein the bypass valve control value is used to control the bypass valve.

  1. 30. Engine controls and valve gear, looking aft on main ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Engine controls and valve gear, looking aft on main (promenade) deck level. Threaded admission valve lift rods (two at immediate left of chronometer) permit adjustment of valve timing in lower and upper admission valves of cylinder (left rod controls lower valve, right rod upper valve). Valve rods are lifted by jaw-like "wipers" during operation. Exhaust valve lift rods and wipers are located to right of chronometer. Crank at extreme right drives valve wiper shaft when engaged to end of eccentric rod, shown under "Crank Indicator" dial. Pair of handles to immediate left of admission valve rods control condenser water valves; handles to right of exhaust valve rods control feedwater flow to boilers from pumps. Gauges indicate boiler pressure (left) and condenser vacuum (right); "Crank Indicator" on wall aids engineer in keeping engine crank off "dead-center" at stop so that engine may be easily restarted. - Ferry TICONDEROGA, Route 7, Shelburne, Chittenden County, VT

  2. 46 CFR 154.546 - Excess flow valve: Closing flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Excess flow valve: Closing flow. 154.546 Section 154.546... and Process Piping Systems § 154.546 Excess flow valve: Closing flow. (a) The rated closing flow of vapor or liquid cargo for an excess flow valve must be specially approved by the Commandant (CG-522)....

  3. Methods for combining a theoretical and an empirical approach in modelling pressure and flow control valves for CAE-programs for fluid power circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handroos, Heikki

    An analytical mathematical model for a fluid power valve uses equations based on physical laws. The parameters consist of physical coefficients, dimensions of the internal elements, spring constants, etc. which are not provided by the component manufacturers. The valve has to be dismantled in order to determine their values. The model is only in accordance with a particular type of valve construction and there are a large number of parameters. This is a major common problem in computer aided engineering (CAE) programs for fluid power circuits. Methods for solving this problem by combining a theoretical and an empirical approach are presented. Analytical models for single stage pressure and flow control valves are brought into forms which contain fewer parameters whose values can be determined from measured characteristic curves. The least squares criterion is employed to identify the parameter values describing the steady state of a valve. The steady state characteristic curves that are required data for this identification are quite often provided by the manufacturers. The parameters describing the dynamics of a valve are determined using a simple noncomputational method using dynamic characteristic curves that can be easily measured. The importance of the identification accuracy of the different parameters of the single stage pressure relief valve model is compared using a parameter sensitivity analysis method. A new comparison method called relative mean value criterion is used to compare the influences of variations of the different parameters to a nominal dynamic response.

  4. Computed Flow Through An Artificial Heart Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Stewart E.; Kwak, Dochan; Kiris, Cetin; Chang, I-Dee

    1994-01-01

    Report discusses computations of blood flow through prosthetic tilting disk valve. Computational procedure developed in simulation used to design better artificial hearts and valves by reducing or eliminating following adverse flow characteristics: large pressure losses, which prevent hearts from working efficiently; separated and secondary flows, which causes clotting; and high turbulent shear stresses, which damages red blood cells. Report reiterates and expands upon part of NASA technical memorandum "Computed Flow Through an Artificial Heart and Valve" (ARC-12983). Also based partly on research described in "Numerical Simulation of Flow Through an Artificial Heart" (ARC-12478).

  5. 9. BUTTERFLY VALVE CONTROL DIABLO POWERHOUSE. BUTTERFLY VALVES WERE MANUFACTURED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. BUTTERFLY VALVE CONTROL DIABLO POWERHOUSE. BUTTERFLY VALVES WERE MANUFACTURED BY THE PELTON WATER WHEEL COMPANY IN 1931, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Diablo Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 6.1 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  6. Cavitation guide for control valves

    SciTech Connect

    Tullis, J.P.

    1993-04-01

    This guide teaches the basic fundamentals of cavitation to provide the reader with an understanding of what causes cavitation, when it occurs, and the potential problems cavitation can cause to a valve and piping system. The document provides guidelines for understanding how to reduce the cavitation and/or select control valves for a cavitating system. The guide provides a method for predicting the cavitation intensity of control valves, and how the effect of cavitation on a system will vary with valve type, valve function, valve size, operating pressure, duration of operation and details of the piping installation. The guide defines six cavitation limits identifying cavitation intensities ranging from inception to the maximum intensity possible. The intensity of the cavitation at each limit Is described, including a brief discussion of how each level of cavitation influences the valve and system. Examples are included to demonstrate how to apply the method, including making both size and pressure scale effects corrections. Methods of controlling cavitation are discussed providing information on various techniques which can be used to design a new system or modify an existing one so it can operate at a desired level of cavitation.

  7. VALVE

    DOEpatents

    Arkelyan, A.M.; Rickard, C.L.

    1962-04-17

    A gate valve for controlling the flow of fluid in separate concentric ducts or channels by means of a single valve is described. In one position, the valve sealing discs engage opposed sets of concentric ducts leading to the concentric pipes defining the flow channels to block flow therethrough. In another position, the discs are withdrawn from engagement with the opposed ducts and at the same time a bridging section is interposed therebetween to define concentric paths coextensive with and connecting the opposed ducts to facilitate flow therebetween. A wedge block arrangement is employed with each sealing disc to enable it to engage the ducts. The wedge block arrangement also facilitates unobstructcd withdrawal of the discs out of the intervening space between the sets of ducts. (AEC)

  8. Cinematics and sticking of heart valves in pulsatile flow test.

    PubMed

    Köhler, J; Wirtz, R

    1991-05-01

    The aim of the project was to develop laboratory test devices for studies of the cinematics and sticking behaviour of technical valve protheses. The second step includes testing technical valves of different types and sizes under static and dynamic conditions. A force-deflection balance was developed in order to load valve rims by static radial forces until sticking or loss of a disc (sticking- and clamping-mould point) with computer-controlled force deflection curves. A second deflection device was developed and used for prosthetic valves in the aortic position of a pulsatile mock circulation loop with simultaneous video-cinematography. The stiffness of technical valve rims varied between 0.20 (St. Jude) and about 1.0 N/micron (metal rim valves). The stiffness decreased significantly with increasing valve size. Sticking under pulsatile flow conditions was in good agreement with the static deflection measurements. Hence, valve sticking with increasing danger of thrombus formation is more likely with a less stiff valve rim. In the case of forces acting perpendicularly to the pendulum axis, the clamping mould-point of the valve can be reached, followed by disc dislodgement.

  9. Flow Split Venturi, Axially-Rotated Valve

    DOEpatents

    Walrath, David E.; Lindberg, William R.; Burgess, Robert K.; LaBelle, James

    2000-02-22

    The present invention provides an axially-rotated valve which permits increased flow rates and lower pressure drop (characterized by a lower loss coefficient) by using an axial eccentric split venturi with two portions where at least one portion is rotatable with respect to the other portion. The axially-rotated valve typically may be designed to avoid flow separation and/or cavitation at full flow under a variety of conditions. Similarly, the valve is designed, in some embodiments, to produce streamlined flow within the valve. An axially aligned outlet may also increase the flow efficiency. A typical cross section of the eccentric split venturi may be non-axisymmetric such as a semicircular cross section which may assist in both throttling capabilities and in maximum flow capacity using the design of the present invention. Such a design can include applications for freeze resistant axially-rotated valves and may be fully-opened and fully-closed in one-half of a complete rotation. An internal wide radius elbow typically connected to a rotatable portion of the eccentric venturi may assist in directing flow with lower friction losses. A valve actuator may actuate in an axial manner yet be uniquely located outside of the axial flow path to further reduce friction losses. A seal may be used between the two portions that may include a peripheral and diametrical seal in the same plane. A seal separator may increase the useful life of the seal between the fixed and rotatable portions.

  10. Digital valve for high pressure high flow applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Lewis, Derek; Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Hall, Jeffery L.

    2016-04-01

    To address the challenges, which are involved with the development of flow control valves that can meet high demand requirements such as high pressure, high flow rate, limited power and limited space, the authors have conceived a novel design configuration. This design consists of a digitalized flow control valve with multipath and multistage pressure reduction structures. Specifically, the valve is configured as a set of parallel flow paths from the inlet to the outlet. A choke valve controls the total flow rate by digitally opening different paths or different combination of the paths. Each path is controlled by a poppet cap valve basically operated in on-off states. The number of flow states is 2N where N is the number of flow paths. To avoid erosion from sand in the fluid and high speed flow, the seal area of the poppet cap valve is located at a distance from the flow inlet away from the high speed flow and the speed is controlled to stay below a predefined erosion safe limit. The path is a multistage structure composed of a set of serial nozzles-expansion chambers that equally distribute the total pressure drop to each stage. The pressure drop of each stage and, therefore, the flow speed at the nozzles and expansion chambers is controlled by the number of stages. The paths have relatively small cross section and could be relatively long for large number of stages and still fit in a strict annular space limit. The paper will present the design configuration, analysis and preliminary test results.

  11. Computations Of Flows In Flapper Valves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, Mastanaiah; Pearce, Dan

    1993-01-01

    Three reports describe computational studies of flows of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen in flapper valves located at quick-disconnect interface between main propellant feedlines of Space Shuttle orbiter and Space Shuttle external tank.

  12. Tortuous path control valves for vibration and noise control

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, H.L.

    1996-09-01

    Control valves are needed in many offshore applications involving fluid pressure drop levels that result in excessive system noise and vibration. These situations occur in liquid and gas flow applications. The root cause of the destructive forces that result in noise and vibration is excessive fluid velocities and the kinetic energy associated with these velocities during the pressure letdown. These high uncontrolled velocities can also cause significant erosion of internal parts that would result in a measurable degradation of the valve performance. The use of a multi-path, multi-staged trim design results in fluid velocities that will eliminate the noise and vibration associated with the pressure letdown. Valves of this type are used in chokes, pipeline vents, flow to flare, compressor recycle, pump minimum flow, level control, pressure letdown, fire water control, and bypass flow to mention a few.

  13. The inward flow piezo poppet valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, S. B.; Chua, Y. S.; Wong, A. P.; Bullough, William A.

    2005-02-01

    The inward flow piezo poppet valve (PZP) is examined by the use of CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) over a range of displacements and pressures consistent with the use of an actuating piezo driver, for conical head poppets in steady flow conditions. No tendency to unsteady fluid forcing of the poppet is seen in the computational output. A simple sizing technique is indicated.

  14. Internal Acoustics of a Pintle Valve with Supercritical Helium Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishbach, Sean R.; Davis, R. Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Large amplitude flow unsteadiness is a common phenomenon within the high flow rate ducts and valves associated with propulsion systems. Boundary layer noise, shear layers and vortex shedding are a few of the many sources of flow oscillations. The presence of lightly damped acoustic modes can organize and amplify these sources of flow perturbation, causing undesirable loading of internal parts. The present study investigates the self-induced acoustic environment within a pintle valve subject to high Reynolds Number flow of helium gas. Experiments were conducted to measure the internal pressure oscillations of the Ares I Launch Abort System (LAS) Attitude Control Motor (ACM) valve. The AGM consists of a solid propellant gas generator with eight pintle valves attached to the aft end. The pintle valve is designed to deliver variable upstream conditions to an attache( converging diverging nozzle. In order to investigate the full range of operating conditions 28 separate tests were conducted with varying pintle position and upstream pressure. Helium gas was utilized in order to closely mimic the speed of sound of the gas generator exhaust, minimizing required scaling during data analysis. The recordec pressure measurements were interrogated to multiple ends. The development of root mean square (RMS) value! versus Reynolds Number and Pintle position are important to creating bounding unsteady load curves for valve internal parts. Spectral analysis was also performed, helping to identify power spectral densities (PSD) of acoustic natural frequencies and boundary layer noise. An interesting and unexpected result was the identification of an acoustic mode within the valve which does not respond until the valve was over 60% open. Further, the response amplitude around this mode can be as large or larger than those associated with lower frequency modes.

  15. Numerical investigation of vibration in a steam turbine control valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Luke Michael

    A numerical analysis is performed at North Dakota State University to investigate and resolve steam inlet control valve vibration in a Minnkota Power Cooperative turbine. Pressure fluctuations resulting from an unstable flow pattern are found to cause vibration. Multiple valve disc and seat design modifications to stabilize the flow are made and tested. The full scale geometry is used with steam as the working material. Both steady-state and transient analyses are completed. Analytical calculations are used for verification. Investigation of all modifications is discussed. Results from the original valve configuration show vortex shedding off of the disc. A currently installed cutoff disc has not removed flow-induced vibration. Flow expansion generates unstable flow, creating an unsteady separation bubble on the valve seat at the throat exit. Changing the throat from a converging-diverging to a purely converging nozzle stabilizes the flow, removing the flow-induced pressure forces causing disc vibration.

  16. Computational cavitation flows at inception and light stages on an axial-flow pump blade and in a cage-guided control valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Sumio; Shibata, Masahiro; Fukae, Hideo; Outa, Eisuke

    2007-11-01

    Cavitation flows induced around an axial-flow pump blade and inside a high pressure cage-type valve are simulated by a two-dimensional unsteady Navier-Stokes analysis with the simplest treatment of bubble dynamics. The fluid is assumed as a continuum of homogeneous dispersed mixture of water and vapor nuclei. The analysis is aimed to capture transient stages with high amplitude pressure change during the birth and collapse of the bubble especially at the stage of cavitation inception. By the pump blade analysis, in which the field pressure is moderate, cavitation number of the inception and locations of developed cavitation are found to agree with experimental results in a wide flow range between high incidence and negative incidence. In the valve flow analysis, in which the water pressure of 5MPa is reduced to 2MPa, pressure change responding to the bubble collapse between the vapor pressure lower than 1 KPa and the extreme pressure of higher than 104 KPa is captured through a stable computation. Location of the inception bubble and pressure force to the valve plug is found agree well with the respective experimental features.

  17. Intermittent-flow coefficients of a poppet valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waldron, C D

    1939-01-01

    Flow coefficients were determined for the inlet valve of a modern air-cooled cylinder during operation of the valve. The cylinder head with valves was mounted on a large tank that could be evacuated. Operating the valve with a rotating cam allowed air to flow through the valve into the evacuated tank. The change of pressure in the tank was a measure of the amount of air flowing though the valve in a given number of cycles. The flow coefficients were determined from the pressure across the valve, the quantity of air flowing, and the valve-lift curve. Coefficients were measured with lifts of 0.1 to 0.6 inch and speeds of 130 to 1,200 r.p.m. The results obtained with intermittent flow were compared with the results of tests made with steady flow through this cylinder head. This comparison indicated that steady-flow coefficients can be used for intermittent flow.

  18. D0 Silicon Upgrade: Cryolab Control Valve Modification Information for D0-EVMF-H

    SciTech Connect

    Rucincki, Russ; /Fermilab

    1995-10-26

    This engineering note documents some information regarding the solenoid magnet flow valve, EVMF. See also EN-437 'Control Dewar valve sizing' also for further information on this valve. This note documents the modification done to the valve to change it to a Cv = 0.32.

  19. 46 CFR 154.550 - Excess flow valve: Bypass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Excess flow valve: Bypass. 154.550 Section 154.550 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... and Process Piping Systems § 154.550 Excess flow valve: Bypass. If the excess flow valve allowed...

  20. Noise generated by a flight weight, air flow control valve in a vertical takeoff and landing aircraft thrust vectoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Ronald G.

    1989-01-01

    Tests were conducted in the NASA Lewis Research Center's Powered Lift Facility to experimentally evaluate the noise generated by a flight weight, 12 in. butterfly valve installed in a proposed vertical takeoff and landing thrust vectoring system. Fluctuating pressure measurements were made in the circular duct upstream and downstream of the valve. This data report presents the results of these tests. The maximum overall sound pressure level is generated in the duct downstream of the valve and reached a value of 180 dB at a valve pressure ratio of 2.8. At the higher valve pressure ratios the spectra downstream of the valve is broad banded with its maximum at 1000 Hz.

  1. Three-dimensional analysis of partially open butterfly valve flows

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, C.; Kim, R.H.

    1996-09-01

    A numerical simulation of butterfly valve flows is a useful technique to investigate the physical phenomena of the flow field. A three-dimensional numerical analysis was carried out on incompressible fluid flows in a butterfly valve by using FLUENT, which solves difference equations. Characteristics of the butterfly valve flows at different valve disk angles with a uniform incoming velocity were investigated. Comparisons of FLUENT results with other results, i.e., experimental results, were made to determine the accuracy of the employed method. Results of the three-dimensional analysis may be useful in the valve design.

  2. Matching flow characteristics of standard shutoff valves eliminates need for custom fabricated valves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bevan, A. F.

    1966-01-01

    Standard high pressure valves are used in low pressure fluid system testing when a substantial system pressure increase is required. The flow-vs-valve stroke is matched with that of the valves being replaced. Some correction to the plug contour may be necessary.

  3. Wellhead flow control devices

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, D.K.

    1981-09-15

    A wellhead flow control device includes a main flow control valve and associated packings designed for operation under extreme conditions associated with the pumping of high viscosity asphaltic crude wherein the formation includes toxic gases. The formation is produced using steam flooding techniques. The main valve seat and the associated valve closure, consisting of a reciprocating ram and packing plug, are coaxial with the pump polished rod. The valve seat icludes tapered walls defining a shoulder which partially confronts the ram plug. The ram plug is formed of a compressible material formed to the shape of the valve seat. The packing plug is retained on the end of the ram by axial tie rods and a retaining ring. The ring may engage the valve seat shoulder to effect axial compression of the packing plug between the retaining ring and ram face, with consequent radial expansion into the sealing engagement. The ram is reciprocated axially, either manually or hydraulically relative to the ram body. A packing gland, suitable to seal against toxic gases, is provided between the ram and valve body. A rod packing, at the upper end of the ram, includes a primary adjustable packing gland for sealing between the ram and the reciprocating polished rod. 41 claims.

  4. Solenoid-valve-controlled fuel injection device

    SciTech Connect

    Oshizawa, H.

    1988-12-06

    This patent describes a solenoid-valve-controlled fuel injection device comprising: a fuel injection pump having a pump cylinder, a plunger rotatably and reciprocably disposed in the pump cylinder in a fluid-tight manner and defining a fuel pressurization chamber between a distal end of the plunger and the pump cylinder, a drive shaft rotatable in synchronism with an output shaft of an internal combustion engine, means responsive to rotation of the drive shaft for reciprocably displacing the plunger to pressurize fuel in the pressurization chamber, and a fuel chamber for being supplied with fuel from a fuel tank in response to rotation of the drive shaft, whereby the pressurized fuel can be fed into cylinders of the internal combustion engine; a solenoid valve for selectively opening and closing a communication passage by which the pressurization chamber and the fuel chamber communicate with each other; valve opening delay time detecting means for detecting a valve opening delay time of the solenoid valve; valve closing delay time detecting means for detecting a valve closing delay time of the solenoid valve; valve closing period calculating means for calculating a valve closing time of the solenoid valve according to operating conditions of the internal combustion engine; target fuel injection time calculating means for calculating a target fuel injection time according to the operating conditions of the internal combustion engine.

  5. Value for controlling flow of cryogenic fluid

    DOEpatents

    Knapp, Philip A.

    1996-01-01

    A valve is provided for accurately controlling the flow of cryogenic fluids such as liquid nitrogen. The valve comprises a combination of disc and needle valves affixed to a valve stem in such a manner that the disc and needle are free to rotate about the stem, but are constrained in lateral and vertical movements. This arrangement provides accurate and precise fluid flow control and positive fluid isolation.

  6. Controlling the cavitation phenomenon of evolution on a butterfly valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baran, G.; Catana, I.; Magheti, I.; Safta, C. A.; Savu, M.

    2010-08-01

    Development of the phenomenon of cavitation in cavitation behavior requires knowledge of both plant and equipment working in the facility. This paper presents a diagram of cavitational behavior for a butterfly valve with a diameter of 100 mm at various openings, which was experimentally built. We proposed seven stages of evolution of the phenomenon of cavitation in the case of a butterfly valve. All these phases are characterized by pressure drop, noise and vibration at various flow rates and flow sections through the valve. The level of noise and vibration for the seven stages of development of the phenomenon of cavitation were measured simultaneously. The experimental measurements were comprised in a knowledge database used in training of a neural network of a neural flow controller that maintains flow rate constantly in the facility by changing the opening butterfly valve. A fuzzy position controller is used to access the valve open. This is the method proposed to provide operational supervision outside the cavitation for a butterfly valve.

  7. Heart valve surgery - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    There are four valves in the heart: aortic valve, mitral valve, tricuspid valve, and pulmonary valve. The valves are designed to control the direction of blood flow through the heart. The opening and closing of the heart valves produce the heart-beat sounds.

  8. Electrically Controlled Valve With Small Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinicke, Robert H.; Mohtar, Rafic; Nelson, Richard O.

    1992-01-01

    Design of electrically controlled valve exploits force-multiplying principle to overcome large back-pressure force resisting initial opening. Design makes possible to open valve by use of relatively small motor adequate for rest of valve motion, but otherwise not large enough to open valve. In simple linear lifting, small horizontal forces applied to pair of taut cables to lift large weight through short distance. In rotary lifting, similar effect achieved by rotating, about an axis, disk to which initially axial cables attached.

  9. Electromagnetic unit fuel injector with piston assist solenoid actuated control valve

    SciTech Connect

    Teerman, R. F.; Bosch, R. H.; Wirth, R. C.

    1985-11-05

    An electromagnetic unit fuel injector includes a pump assembly having an external actuated plunger reciprocable in a bushing with flow therefrom during a pump stroke being directed to a fuel injection nozzle of the assembly. Fuel flow from the pump can also flow through a passage means, containing a normally open, substantially pressure-balanced control valve actuated by a solenoid assembly in the valve closing direction to block drain flow during a pump stroke, as desired. A piston, actuated by discharge fuel pressure is operatively connected to the control valve to assist the solenoid in holding the control valve in a closed position.

  10. Effect of the mitral valve on diastolic flow patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, Jung Hee; Vedula, Vijay; Mittal, Rajat; Abraham, Theodore; Dawoud, Fady; Luo, Hongchang; Lardo, Albert C.

    2014-12-15

    The leaflets of the mitral valve interact with the mitral jet and significantly impact diastolic flow patterns, but the effect of mitral valve morphology and kinematics on diastolic flow and its implications for left ventricular function have not been clearly delineated. In the present study, we employ computational hemodynamic simulations to understand the effect of mitral valve leaflets on diastolic flow. A computational model of the left ventricle is constructed based on a high-resolution contrast computed-tomography scan, and a physiological inspired model of the mitral valve leaflets is synthesized from morphological and echocardiographic data. Simulations are performed with a diode type valve model as well as the physiological mitral valve model in order to delineate the effect of mitral-valve leaflets on the intraventricular flow. The study suggests that a normal physiological mitral valve promotes the formation of a circulatory (or “looped”) flow pattern in the ventricle. The mitral valve leaflets also increase the strength of the apical flow, thereby enhancing apical washout and mixing of ventricular blood. The implications of these findings on ventricular function as well as ventricular flow models are discussed.

  11. Progress on a small multi-cycling cryogenic fluid flow valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weilert, M.; Hahn, I.; Barmatz, M.; Higham, D.; Frodsham, G.

    2001-11-01

    Mission Research Corporation (MRC) in cooperation with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has developed a new small remote-controlled fluid valve. The motivation for developing this valve came from the requirements of a future International Space Station experiment called Microgravity Scaling Theory Experiment (MISTE). This experiment requires an in situ, low-temperature operated, fluid valve that can be open/closed over 50 times during a 4.5 month flight. The successful operation of MISTE and other space-based and ground-based laboratory experiments now in development will require reliable cryogenic fluid valves that are remotely operated, helium leak tight, non-magnetic, very low power, and which have a small dead volume. The new valve is normally closed and requires fluid actuation at a pressure of approximately 600 kPa to open. The heart of the valve design is found in the configuration of the valve seat and sealing poppet. The design of these two surfaces was derived from work performed previously during a five year development program for a larger MRC remote-controlled, cryogenic fluid flow control valve. More than 50 of the larger valves have been produced and delivered for space flight applications. The new small valve has only three moving parts, which move less than 0.012 cm when the valve fully opens or closes. The bearing surfaces in the valve operating mechanism are all flexure (except for the valve poppet) and thus the valve is expected to have a lifetime of thousands of open/close cycles. The materials and processes used to fabricate the new valve have been flight certified. Results from the first extensively tested prototype show repeatable behavior with a leak rate of typically 3×10 -8 scc/ s after the first open/close cycle at 4.2 K, rising to about 10 -6 scc/ s after 100 cycles. Further tests and minor modifications are expected to improve the performance.

  12. Method, apparatus and system for controlling fluid flow

    DOEpatents

    McMurtrey, Ryan D.; Ginosar, Daniel M.; Burch, Joesph V.

    2007-10-30

    A system, apparatus and method of controlling the flow of a fluid are provided. In accordance with one embodiment of the present invention, a flow control device includes a valve having a flow path defined therethrough and a valve seat in communication with the flow path with a valve stem disposed in the valve seat. The valve stem and valve seat are cooperatively configured to cause mutual relative linear displacement thereof in response to rotation of the valve stem. A gear member is coupled with the rotary stem and a linear positioning member includes a portion which complementarily engages the gear member. Upon displacement of the linear positioning member along a first axis, the gear member and rotary valve stem are rotated about a second axis and the valve stem and valve seat are mutually linearly displaced to alter the flow of fluid through the valve.

  13. Valving for controlling a fluid-driven reciprocating apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, J.C.

    1995-06-27

    A pair of control valve assemblies is described for alternately actuating a pair of fluid-driven free-piston devices by using fluid pressure communication therebetween. Each control valve assembly is switched by a pressure signal depending on the state of its counterpart`s piston. The communication logic is arranged to provide overlap of the forward strokes of the pistons, so that at least one of the pair will always be pressurized. Thus, uninterrupted pumping of liquid is made possible from a pair of free-piston pumps. In addition, the speed and frequency of piston stroking is entirely dependent on the mechanical power load applied. In the case of a pair of pumps, this enables liquid delivery at a substantially constant pressure over the full range of flow rates, from zero to maximum flow. Each of the valve assemblies uses an intake-exhaust valve and a signal valve with the signal valve of one pump being connected to be pressure responsive to the piston of the opposite cylinder or pump. 15 figs.

  14. Valving for controlling a fluid-driven reciprocating apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, John C.

    1995-01-01

    A pair of control valve assemblies for alternately actuating a pair of fluid-driven free-piston devices by using fluid pressure communication therebetween. Each control valve assembly is switched by a pressure signal depending on the state of its counterpart's piston. The communication logic is arranged to provide overlap of the forward strokes of the pistons, so that at least one of the pair will always be pressurized. Thus, uninterrupted pumping of liquid is made possible from a pair of free-piston pumps. In addition, the speed and frequency of piston stroking is entirely dependent on the mechanical power load applied. In the case of a pair of pumps, this enables liquid delivery at a substantially constant pressure over the full range of flow rates, from zero to maximum flow. Each of the valve assemblies uses an intake-exhaust valve and a signal valve with the signal valve of one pump being connected to be pressure responsive to the piston of the opposite cylinder or pump.

  15. Flow Control Over Sharp-Edged Wings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    each jet. A constant average mass flow of air was supplied to the jet using a closed-loop servo valve . Their data indicated that maximum lift...and screw angles of 90 and 45 degrees respectively. High-speed flow control valves were used to control the pulsed flow to each jet individually. The...leading edge contained three jet nozzles; however only two were used. The valve open-and-close cycle was manipulated using a computer function

  16. Jet-controlled freeze valve for use in a glass melter

    DOEpatents

    Routt, Kenneth R.

    1986-09-02

    A drain valve for use in a furnace for the melting of thermoplastic material. The furnace includes a drain cavity formed in its bottom for withdrawing a flow of thermoplastic material. The drain valve includes a flow member which include a flow tube having an inlet and outlet for the material, and coaxially disposed concentric tubular members defining annuli surrounding the flow tube. The tubular members include heating and cooling means for the flow tube. The flow member is adapted to fit in mating relationship in the drain cavity. A freeze valve member is disposed adjacent the outlet of the flow member. The freeze valve member includes heating means and has a plurality of air jets adapted to direct streams of pressurized air at the outlet to control the flow of thermoplastic material through the flow members. The drain valve can also be used in a furnace of glass melting that includes a drain cavity for withdrawing molten glass from the furnace. The drain valve includes a flow tube member having an inlet and outlet, and having heating and cooling means. The tube member is adapted to fit in mating relationship with the drain cavity. A freeze valve member is disposed at the outlet of the flow tube member. The freeze valve member includes heating means and has a plurality of air jets adapted to direct a stream of pressurized air at the outlet to control the flow of glass through the flow tube member.

  17. Jet-controlled freeze valve for use in a glass melter

    DOEpatents

    Routt, Kenneth R.

    1986-01-01

    A drain valve for use in a furnace for the melting of thermoplastic material. The furnace includes a drain cavity formed in its bottom for withdrawing a flow of thermoplastic material. The drain valve includes a flow member which include a flow tube having an inlet and outlet for the material, and coaxially disposed concentric tubular members defining annuli surrounding the flow tube. The tubular members include heating and cooling means for the flow tube. The flow member is adapted to fit in mating relationship in the drain cavity. A freeze valve member is disposed adjacent the outlet of the flow member. The freeze valve member includes heating means and has a plurality of air jets adapted to direct streams of pressurized air at the outlet to control the flow of thermoplastic material through the flow members. The drain valve can also be used in a furnace of glass melting that includes a drain cavity for withdrawing molten glass from the furnace. The drain valve includes a flow tube member having an inlet and outlet, and having heating and cooling means. The tube member is adapted to fit in mating relationship with the drain cavity. A freeze valve member is disposed at the outlet of the flow tube member. The freeze valve member includes heating means and has a plurality of air jets adapted to direct a stream of pressurized air at the outlet to control the flow of glass through the flow tube member.

  18. Valve control system for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kaptur, S.J.

    1989-10-24

    This patent describes a valve control system for an internal combustion engine. The system comprising a primary control and a secondary control for modifying the operation of the primary control. The primary control comprising: a camshaft journaled for rotation in camshaft brackets, intake and exhaust cylindrical cams including cam channels; valve pin means; and timing belt means. The secondary system comprising: control plate means adjustably mounted between the cylindrical cams, rocker arm means; and at least one driver positioned between the driver leg and one of cylindrical cams.

  19. Simulation of a Hydraulic Pump Control Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molen, G. Vander; Akers, A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the mode of operation of a control valve assembly that is used with a hydraulic pump. The operating system of the valve is modelled in a simplified form, and an analogy for hydraulic resonance of the pressure sensing system is presented. For the control valve investigated, air entrainment, length and diameter of the resonator neck, and valve mass produced the greatest shift in resonant frequency. Experimental work was conducted on the hydraulic system so that the resonance levels and frequencies could be measured and the accuracy of the theory verified. The results obtained make it possible to evaluate what changes to any of the variables considered would be most effective in driving the second harmonic frequency above the operating range.

  20. Hydraulic servo control spool valve

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Donald M.

    1983-01-01

    A servo operated spool valve having a fixed sleeve and axially movable spool. The sleeve is machined in two halves to form a long, narrow tapered orifice slot across which a transverse wall of the spool is positioned. The axial position of the spool wall along the slot regulates the open orifice area with extreme precision.

  1. Effects of bileaflet mechanical heart valve orientation on coronary flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haya, Laura; Tavoularis, Stavros

    2015-11-01

    The aortic sinus is approximately tri-radially symmetric, but bileaflet mechanical heart valves (BMHVs), which are commonly used to replace diseased aortic valves, are bilaterally symmetric. This mismatch in symmetry suggests that the orientation in which a BMHV is implanted within the aortic sinus affects the flow characteristics downstream of it. This study examines the effect of BMHV orientation on the flow in the coronary arteries, which originate in the aortic sinus and supply the heart tissue with blood. Planar particle image velocimetry measurements were made past a BMHV mounted at the inlet of an anatomical aorta model under physiological flow conditions. The complex interactions between the valve jets, the sinus vortex and the flow in the right coronary artery were elucidated for three valve orientations. The coronary flow rate was directly affected by the size, orientation, and time evolution of the vortex in the sinus, all of which were sensitive to the valve's orientation. The total flow through the artery was highest when the valve was oriented with its axis of symmetry intersecting the artery's opening. The findings of this research may assist surgeons in choosing the best orientation for BMHV implantation. The bileaflet valve was donated by St. Jude Medical. Financial support was provided by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada.

  2. Tank depletion flow controller

    DOEpatents

    Georgeson, Melvin A.

    1976-10-26

    A flow control system includes two bubbler tubes installed at different levels within a tank containing such as radioactive liquid. As the tank is depleted, a differential pressure transmitter monitors pressure differences imparted by the two bubbler tubes at a remote, shielded location during uniform time intervals. At the end of each uniform interval, balance pots containing a dense liquid are valved together to equalize the pressures. The resulting sawtooth-shaped signal generated by the differential pressure transmitter is compared with a second sawtooth signal representing the desired flow rate during each time interval. Variations in the two signals are employed by a control instrument to regulate flow rate.

  3. A pulsatile flow model for in vitro quantitative evaluation of prosthetic valve regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Giuliatti, S; Gallo, L; Almeida-Filho, O C; Schmidt, A; Marin-Neto, J A; Pelá, C A; Maciel, B C

    2000-03-01

    A pulsatile pressure-flow model was developed for in vitro quantitative color Doppler flow mapping studies of valvular regurgitation. The flow through the system was generated by a piston which was driven by stepper motors controlled by a computer. The piston was connected to acrylic chambers designed to simulate "ventricular" and "atrial" heart chambers. Inside the "ventricular" chamber, a prosthetic heart valve was placed at the inflow connection with the "atrial" chamber while another prosthetic valve was positioned at the outflow connection with flexible tubes, elastic balloons and a reservoir arranged to mimic the peripheral circulation. The flow model was filled with a 0.25% corn starch/water suspension to improve Doppler imaging. A continuous flow pump transferred the liquid from the peripheral reservoir to another one connected to the "atrial" chamber. The dimensions of the flow model were designed to permit adequate imaging by Doppler echocardiography. Acoustic windows allowed placement of transducers distal and perpendicular to the valves, so that the ultrasound beam could be positioned parallel to the valvular flow. Strain-gauge and electromagnetic transducers were used for measurements of pressure and flow in different segments of the system. The flow model was also designed to fit different sizes and types of prosthetic valves. This pulsatile flow model was able to generate pressure and flow in the physiological human range, with independent adjustment of pulse duration and rate as well as of stroke volume. This model mimics flow profiles observed in patients with regurgitant prosthetic valves.

  4. Uncertainty Analysis for a Virtual Flow Meter Using an Air-Handling Unit Chilled Water Valve

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Li; Wang, Gang; Brambley, Michael R.

    2013-04-28

    A virtual water flow meter is developed that uses the chilled water control valve on an air-handling unit as a measurement device. The flow rate of water through the valve is calculated using the differential pressure across the valve and its associated coil, the valve command, and an empirically determined valve characteristic curve. Thus, the probability of error in the measurements is significantly greater than for conventionally manufactured flow meters. In this paper, mathematical models are developed and used to conduct uncertainty analysis for the virtual flow meter, and the results from the virtual meter are compared to measurements made with an ultrasonic flow meter. Theoretical uncertainty analysis shows that the total uncertainty in flow rates from the virtual flow meter is 1.46% with 95% confidence; comparison of virtual flow meter results with measurements from an ultrasonic flow meter yielded anuncertainty of 1.46% with 99% confidence. The comparable results from the theoretical uncertainty analysis and empirical comparison with the ultrasonic flow meter corroborate each other, and tend to validate the approach to computationally estimating uncertainty for virtual sensors introduced in this study.

  5. Fluid Dynamic Characterization of a Polymeric Heart Valve Prototype (Poli-Valve) tested under Continuous and Pulsatile Flow Conditions

    PubMed Central

    De Gaetano, Francesco; Serrani, Marta; Bagnoli, Paola; Brubert, Jacob; Stasiak, Joanna; Moggridge, Geoff D.; Costantino, Maria Laura

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Only mechanical and biological heart valve prostheses are currently commercially available. The former show longer durability but require anticoagulant therapy, the latter display better fluid dynamic behaviour but do not have adequate durability. New Polymeric Heart Valves (PHVs) could potentially combine the haemodynamic properties of biological valves with the durability of mechanical valves. This work presents a hydrodynamic evaluation of two groups of newly developed supra-annular tri-leaflet prosthetic heart valves made from styrenic block copolymers (SBC): Poli-Valves. Methods Two types of Poli-Valves made of SBC differing in polystyrene fraction content were tested under continuous and pulsatile flow conditions as prescribed by ISO 5840 Standard. An ad - hoc designed pulse duplicator allowed the valve prototypes to be tested at different flow rates and frequencies. Pressure and flow were recorded; pressure drops, effective orifice area (EOA), and regurgitant volume were computed to assess the valve’s behaviour. Results Both types Poli-Valves met the minimum requirements in terms of regurgitation and EOA as specified by ISO 5840 Standard. Results were compared with five mechanical heart valves (MHVs) and five tissue heart valves (THVs), currently available on the market. Conclusion Based on these results, polymeric heart valves based on styrenic block copolymers, as Poli-Valves are, can be considered as promising alternative for heart valve replacement in near future. PMID:26689146

  6. A piezoelectric micro control valve with integrated capacitive sensing for ambulant blood pressure waveform monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groen, Maarten S.; Wu, Kai; Brookhuis, Robert A.; van Houwelingen, Marc J.; Brouwer, Dannis M.; Lötters, Joost C.; Wiegerink, Remco J.

    2014-12-01

    We have designed and characterized a MEMS microvalve with built-in capacitive displacement sensing and fitted it with a miniature piezoelectric actuator to achieve active valve control. The integrated displacement sensor enables high bandwidth proportional control of the gas flow through the valve. This is an essential requirement for non-invasive blood pressure waveform monitoring based on following the arterial pressure with a counter pressure. Using the capacitive sensor, we demonstrate negligible hysteresis in the valve control characteristics. Fabrication of the valve requires only two mask steps for deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) and one release etch.

  7. Computational Modeling of Liquid and Gaseous Control Valves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daines, Russell; Ahuja, Vineet; Hosangadi, Ashvin; Shipman, Jeremy; Moore, Arden; Sulyma, Peter

    2005-01-01

    In this paper computational modeling efforts undertaken at NASA Stennis Space Center in support of rocket engine component testing are discussed. Such analyses include structurally complex cryogenic liquid valves and gas valves operating at high pressures and flow rates. Basic modeling and initial successes are documented, and other issues that make valve modeling at SSC somewhat unique are also addressed. These include transient behavior, valve stall, and the determination of flow patterns in LOX valves. Hexahedral structured grids are used for valves that can be simplifies through the use of axisymmetric approximation. Hybrid unstructured methodology is used for structurally complex valves that have disparate length scales and complex flow paths that include strong swirl, local recirculation zones/secondary flow effects. Hexahedral (structured), unstructured, and hybrid meshes are compared for accuracy and computational efficiency. Accuracy is determined using verification and validation techniques.

  8. Navier-Stokes Flow Field Analysis of Compressible Flow in a Pressure Relief Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vu, Bruce T.; Wang, Ten-See; Shih, Ming-Hsin; Soni, Bharat K.

    1993-01-01

    The present study was motivated to analyze the complex flow field involving gaseous oxygen (GOX) flow in a relief valve (RV). The 9391 RV, pictured in Figure 1, was combined with the pilot valve to regulate the actuation pressure of the main valve system. During a high-pressure flow test at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) the valve system developed a resonance chatter, which destroyed most of the valve body. Figures 2-4 show the valve body before and after accident. It was understood that the subject RV has never been operated at 5500 psia. In order to fully understand the flow behavior in the RV, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis is carried out to investigate the side load across the piston sleeve and the erosion patterns resulting from flow distribution around piston/nozzle interface.

  9. Measurements of flow past a bileaflet mechanical heart valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haya, Laura; Tavoularis, Stavros

    2013-11-01

    A bileaflet mechanical heart valve has been inserted in an axisymmetric model of the aorta within a mock circulation apparatus with physiological pressure and flow variations. The velocity field behind the valve has been measured with laser Doppler velocimetry and particle image velocimetry. The results closely match those reported by similar studies. A triple jet emanated from the valve's orifices and regions of reverse flow formed in the sinus region. Velocity fluctuations were greatest in the shear layers of the jets. The average r.m.s. streamwise velocity fluctuation over the turbulent period was 0.22 m/s; its maximum value was 0.53 m/s and occurred at the onset of deceleration. Measurements with the valve inserted in an anatomical model of the aorta are planned for the near future. The present and future measurements will be compared to determine the effects of the aorta anatomy on the characteristics of flow through bileaflet valves. In particular, measurements of the viscous and turbulent shear stresses will be analyzed to identify possible locations of blood element damage, and regions of recirculation and stagnation will be identified as locations favourable to thrombus growth. The effects of flows in branching arteries and valve orientation will also be investigated. Supported by NSERC.

  10. Valve

    DOEpatents

    Cho, Nakwon

    1980-01-01

    A positive acting valve suitable for operation in a corrosive environment is provided. The valve includes a hollow valve body defining an open-ended bore for receiving two, axially aligned, spaced-apart, cylindrical inserts. One insert, designated the seat insert, terminates inside the valve body in an annular face which lies within plane normal to the axis of the two inserts. An elastomeric O-ring seal is disposed in a groove extending about the annular face. The other insert, designated the wedge insert, terminates inside the valve body in at least two surfaces oppositely inclined with respect to each other and with respect to a plane normal to the axis of the two inserts. An elongated reciprocable gate, movable between the two inserts along a path normal to the axis of the two inserts, has a first flat face portion disposed adjacent and parallel to the annular face of the seat insert. The gate has a second face portion opposite to the first face portion provided with at least two oppositely inclined surfaces for mating with respective inclined surfaces of the wedge insert. An opening is provided through the gate which registers with a flow passage through the two inserts when the valve is open. Interaction of the respective inclined surfaces of the gate and wedge insert act to force the first flat face portion of the gate against the O-ring seal in the seat insert at the limits of gate displacement where it reaches its respective fully open and fully closed positions.

  11. Operating Room Environment Control. Part A: a Valve Cannister System for Anesthetic Gas Adsorption. Part B: a State-of-the-art Survey of Laminar Flow Operating Rooms. Part C: Three Laminar Flow Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, J. S.; Kosovich, J.

    1973-01-01

    An anesthetic gas flow pop-off valve canister is described that is airtight and permits the patient to breath freely. Once its release mechanism is activated, the exhaust gases are collected at a hose adapter and passed through activated coal for adsorption. A survey of laminar air flow clean rooms is presented and the installation of laminar cross flow air systems in operating rooms is recommended. Laminar flow ventilation experiments determine drying period evaporation rates for chicken intestines, sponges, and sections of pig stomach.

  12. Flow rate testing of valves used with the 500 gallon collapsible drum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perdue, William D.

    1992-04-01

    This report covers the test and evaluation of four couplings/valves used with the 500-gallon collapsible drum: the existing poppet valve, a new redesigned poppet valve, a Carter refuel/defuel valve that works in conjunction with the single point refueling nozzle, and a Kamvalok dry-break coupling valve. The purpose of this testing was to determine maximum flow capability of each valve design and identify any new characteristics that may impact performance of the FARE system.

  13. 17. ROSS POWERHOUSE: BUTTERFLY VALVE CONTROLS FOR UNIT 43. THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. ROSS POWERHOUSE: BUTTERFLY VALVE CONTROLS FOR UNIT 43. THE BUTTERFLY VALVE LOCK INDICATES THE BUTTERFLY VALVE IS CLOSED AS UNIT 43 WAS SHUT DOWN FOR REPAIRS, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Ross Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 10.7 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  14. Measurements and simulation of the flow around a poppet valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilek, Z.; Nadarajah, S.; Peric, M.; Tindal, M. J.; Yianneskis, M.

    The flow through an axisymmetric inlet port was investigated experimentally and numerically. Laser-Doppler anemometry was used to measure the three ensemble-averaged mean and rms velocity components for two valve lifts, 6 and 10 mm. Numerical calculations of the flows were carried out using a finite volume multigrid method and a standard k-epsilon turbulence model. Comparison of the predictions with the experimental results shows good agreement for the mean velocities for the 10 mm lift case. However, for the 6 mm liftcase the predicted flow differs substantially from the experimental results. This indicates the extreme sensitivity of the flow to the valve lift and the need for more sophisticated turbulence modeling when predicting such flows.

  15. Dual-Use Partnership Addresses Performance Problems with "Y" Pattern Control Valves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, John W.

    2004-01-01

    A Dual-Use Cooperative Agreement between the Propulsion Test Directorate (PTD) at Stennis Space Center (SSC) and Oceaneering Reflange, Inc. of Houston, TX has produced an improved 'Y' pattern split-body control valve for use in the propulsion test facilities at Stennis Space Center. The split-body, or clamped bonnet technology, provides for a 'cleaner' valve design featuring enhanced performance and increased flow capacity with extended life expectancy. Other points addressed by the partnership include size, weight and costs. Overall size and weight of each valve will be reduced by 50% compared to valves currently in use at SSC. An initial procurement of two 10 inch valves will result in an overall cost reduction of 15% or approximately $50,000 per valve.

  16. Numerical Simulation of Flow-Induced Noise in High Pressure Reducing Valve

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Lin; Zhu, Guorong; Qian, Jinyuan; Fei, Yang; Jin, Zhijiang

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to study the characteristics of flow-induced noise in high pressure reducing valve (HPRV) and to provide some guidance for noise control. Based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD), numerical method was used to compute flow field. Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings Model was applied to obtain acoustic signals. The unsteady flow field shows that noise sources are located at the bottom of plug for valve without perforated plate, and noise sources are behind the plate for valve with perforated plate. Noise directivity analysis and spectrum characteristics indicate that the perforated plate could help to reduce noise effectively. Inlet pressure has great effects on sound pressure level (SPL). The higher inlet pressure will lead to larger SPL at high frequency. When the maximum Ma is close to 1, SPL at low frequency becomes very high. PMID:26061396

  17. Flow dynamics of stenotic aortic valves assessed by signal processing of Doppler spectrograms.

    PubMed

    Bermejo, J; Antoranz, J C; García-Fernández, M A; Moreno, M M; Delcán, J L

    2000-03-01

    Clinical assessment of aortic stenosis (AS) is sometimes challenging, because all hemodynamic indexes of severity are modified by flow rate. However, the mechanisms underlying flow dependence remain controversial. Analysis of instantaneous flow dynamics has provided crucial information in a number of cardiovascular disorders and may add new insight into this phenomenon. This study was designed to analyze in vivo the effects of flow interventions on instantaneous valvular dynamics of stenotic valves. For this purpose, a custom algorithm for signal processing of Doppler spectrograms was developed and validated against a control population. Digital Doppler recordings at the aortic valve and left ventricular outflow tract were obtained in 15 patients with AS, at baseline and during low-dose dobutamine infusion; 10 normal subjects were studied as controls. Spectrograms were processed by signal averaging, time alignment, modal-velocity enhancement, envelope tracing, and numerical interpolation. Instantaneous relative aortic valve area (rAVA) was obtained by the continuity equation and plotted against normalized ejection time. Curves were classified as either type A (rapid, early-systolic opening) or type B (slow, end-systolic opening). Curves from controls closely matched prior knowledge of normal valve dynamics, but curves from patients were clearly different: all controls except 2 (80%) had type A, whereas all patients except 3 (80%) had a type B pattern (p = 0.03). Dobutamine infusion in patients increased and slightly anticipated peak rAVA by accelerating valve opening. Despite similar values of area and pressure difference, type B dynamics were associated with lower blood pressure (p = 0.01) and worse long-term outcome (>3 years) than type A flow dynamics (p = 0.02). Signal processing of Doppler spectrograms allows a comprehensive assessment of aortic flow dynamics. Differences in timing of valve aperture and in maximal leaflet excursion account for flow

  18. Low-Leak, High-Flow Poppet Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tervo, John N.

    1995-01-01

    Valve with conical poppet modified to incorporate smooth transition to segment of sphere at upstream end of cone. Constitutes sealing surface of poppet; results in leak rate equivalent to ball-type poppet, and extremely low flow losses. Also enables use of loose fit for guiding poppet, with resulting lower manufacturing cost, high reliability, and long operating life.

  19. 46 CFR 154.1315 - Restricted gauge excess flow valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restricted gauge excess flow valve. 154.1315 Section 154.1315 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction...

  20. Well safety valve

    SciTech Connect

    Vinzant, M.B.; Hilts, R.L.; Meaders, M.; Speegle, S.C.

    1984-07-24

    A retrievable well safety valve in a cased well system including a tubing string, a dual packer downhole around the tubing sealing with the casing and submersible pump in the tubing string below the packer. The safety valve controls flow of pumped fluids through the tubing to surface and directs gas flow into the casing annulus above the packer. When the safety valve is landed in cooperating tubing nipples above the packer, separated central annular flow passages are formed for pumped fluids and gas respectively. A ball valve in the central flow passage controls pumped fluid flow therethrough and an annular valve coupled to the ball valve controls gas flow from below the packer through the annular flow passage around and by the ball valve. When the ball valve is in the down and open position, the valve ball member engages a lower seat, which maintains the central and annular flow passages separate and prevents comingling flow of fluids and gas. The coupled valves are held open by pressured fluid from surface and are closed automatically on loss of pressure in their control fluid circuits. When the valves close, a circuit of flow passages for recirculating pumped fluids and gas are opened below the ball valve and the pump may continue operation without overload.

  1. Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Orbiter Main Propulsion System (MPS) Gaseous Hydrogen (GH2) Flow Control Valve (FCV) Poppet Eddy Current (EC) Inspection Probability of Detection (POD) Study. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Prosser, William H.

    2011-01-01

    The Director of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC), requested an independent assessment of the anomalous gaseous hydrogen (GH2) flow incident on the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Orbiter Vehicle (OV)-105 during the Space Transportation System (STS)-126 mission. The main propulsion system (MPS) engine #2 GH2 flow control valve (FCV) LV-57 transition from low towards high flow position without being commanded. Post-flight examination revealed that the FCV LV-57 poppet had experienced a fatigue failure that liberated a section of the poppet flange. The NESC assessment provided a peer review of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD), stress analysis, and impact testing. A probability of detection (POD) study was requested by the SSP Orbiter Project for the eddy current (EC) nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques that were developed to inspect the flight FCV poppets. This report contains the findings and recommendations from the NESC assessment.

  2. Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Orbiter Main Propulsion System (MPS) Gaseous Hydrogen (GH2) Flow Control Valve (FCV) Poppet Eddy Current (EC) Inspection Probability of Detection (POD) Study. Volume 2; Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Prosser, William H.

    2011-01-01

    The Director of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC), requested an independent assessment of the anomalous gaseous hydrogen (GH2) flow incident on the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Orbiter Vehicle (OV)-105 during the Space Transportation System (STS)-126 mission. The main propulsion system (MPS) engine #2 GH2 flow control valve (FCV) LV-57 transition from low towards high flow position without being commanded. Post-flight examination revealed that the FCV LV-57 poppet had experienced a fatigue failure that liberated a section of the poppet flange. The NESC assessment provided a peer review of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD), stress analysis, and impact testing. A probability of detection (POD) study was requested by the SSP Orbiter Project for the eddy current (EC) nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques that were developed to inspect the flight FCV poppets. This report contains the Appendices to the main report.

  3. Nitrile/Buna N Material Failure Assessment for an O-Ring used on the Gaseous Hydrogen Flow Control Valve (FCV) of the Space Shuttle Main Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingard, Doug

    2006-01-01

    After the rollout of Space Shuttle Discovery in April 2005 in preparation for return-to-flight, there was a failure of the Orbiter (OV-103) helium signature leak test in the gaseous hydrogen (GH2) system. Leakage was attributed to the Flow Control Valve (FCV) in Main Engine 3. The FCV determined to be the source of the leak for OV-103 is designated as LV-58. The nitrile/Buna N rubber O-ring seal was removed from LV-58, and failure analysis indicated radial cracks providing leak paths in one quadrant. Cracks were eventually found in 6 of 9 FCV O-rings among the three Shuttle Orbiters, though none were as severe as those for LV-58, OV-103. Testing by EM10 at MSFC on all 9 FCV O- rings included: laser dimensional, Shore A hardness and properties from a dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA) and an Instron tensile machine. The following test data was obtained on the cracked quadrant of the LV-58, OV-103 O-ring: (1) the estimated compression set was only 9.5%, compared to none for the rest of the O-ring; (2) Shore A hardness for the O.D. was higher by almost 4 durometer points than for the rest of the O-ring; and (3) DMA data showed that the storage/elastic modulus E was almost 25% lower than for the rest of the O-ring. Of the 8 FCV O-rings tested on an Instron, 4 yielded tensile strengths that were below the MIL spec requirement of 1350 psi-a likely influence of rubber cracking. Comparisons were made between values of modulus determined by DNA (elastic) and Instron (Young s). Each nitrile/Buna N O-ring used in the FCV conforms to the MIL-P-25732C specification. A number of such O-rings taken from shelf storage at MSFC and Kennedy Space Center (KSC) were used to generate a reference curve of DMA glass transition temperature (Tg) vs. shelf storage time ranging from 8 to 26 years. A similar reference curve of TGA onset temperature (of rubber weight loss) vs. shelf storage time was also generated. The DMA and TGA data for the used FCV O-rings were compared to the reference

  4. Fast acting check valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, Gerald S. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A check valve which closes more rapidly to prevent wearing of the valve seat and of the valve member that seals thereagainst, including a solenoid or other actuator that aids the normal spring to quickly close the valve at approximately the time when downpath fluid flow would stop, the actuator then being deenergized. The control circuit that operates the actuator can include a pair of pressure sensors sensing pressure both upstream and downstream from the valve seat. Where the valve is utilized to control flow to or from a piston pump, energization of the actuator can be controlled by sensing when the pump piston reaches its extreme of travel.

  5. Nuclear-radiation-actuated valve. [Patent application; for increasing coolant flow to blanket

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, D.W.; Schively, D.P.

    1982-01-19

    The present invention relates to a breeder reactor blanket fuel assembly coolant system valve which increases coolant flow to the blanket fuel assembly to minimize long-term temperature increases caused by fission of fissile fuel created from fertile fuel through operation of the breeder reactor. The valve has a valve first part (such as a valve rod with piston) and a valve second part (such as a valve tube surrounding the valve rod, with the valve tube having side slots surrounding the piston). Both valve parts have known nuclear radiation swelling characteristics. The valve's first part is positioned to receive nuclear radiation from the nuclear reactor's fuel region. The valve's second part is positioned so that its nuclear radiation induced swelling is different from that of the valve's first part. The valve's second part also is positioned so that the valve's first and second parts create a valve orifice which changes in size due to the different nuclear radiation caused swelling of the valve's first part compared to the valve's second part. The valve may be used in a nuclear reactor's core coolant system.

  6. Aerodynamic Shutoff Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horstman, Raymond H.

    1992-01-01

    Aerodynamic flow achieved by adding fixed fairings to butterfly valve. When valve fully open, fairings align with butterfly and reduce wake. Butterfly free to turn, so valve can be closed, while fairings remain fixed. Design reduces turbulence in flow of air in internal suction system. Valve aids in development of improved porous-surface boundary-layer control system to reduce aerodynamic drag. Applications primarily aerospace. System adapted to boundary-layer control on high-speed land vehicles.

  7. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN OF A FLUID-CONTROLLED HOT GAS VALVE

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Effort is described toward development of a hot gas jet reaction valve utilizing boundary layer techniques to control a high pressure, high...temperature gas stream. The result has been the successful design of a hot gas valve in a reaction control system utilizing fluid-controlled bi-stable

  8. Fluid-driven reciprocating apparatus and valving for controlling same

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, John C.; Toews, Hans G.

    1993-01-01

    A control valve assembly for alternately actuating a pair of fluid-driven free-piston devices by using fluid pressure communication therebetween. Each control valve is switched by a pressure signal depending on the state of its counterpart's piston. The communication logic is arranged to provide overlap of the forward strokes of the pistons, so that at least one of the pair will always be pressurized. Thus, uninterrupted pumping of liquid is made possible from a pair of free-piston pumps. In addition, the speed and frequency of piston stroking is entirely dependent on the mechanical power load applied. In the case of a pair of pumps, this enables liquid delivery at a substantially constant pressure over the full range of flow rates, from zero to maximum flow. One embodiment of the invention utilized two pairs of fluid-driven free-piston devices whereby a bipropellant liquid propulsion system may be operated, so as to provide continuous flow of both fuel and oxidizer liquids when used in rocket applications, for example.

  9. 49 CFR 192.381 - Service lines: Excess flow valve performance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.381 Service lines: Excess flow valve performance... hour (0.57 cubic meters per hour); or (B) For an excess flow valve designed to prevent equalization of pressure across the valve, to no more than 0.4 cubic feet per hour (.01 cubic meters per hour); and (4)...

  10. 49 CFR 192.381 - Service lines: Excess flow valve performance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.381 Service lines: Excess flow valve performance... hour (0.57 cubic meters per hour); or (B) For an excess flow valve designed to prevent equalization of pressure across the valve, to no more than 0.4 cubic feet per hour (.01 cubic meters per hour); and (4)...

  11. The development of a microprocessor-controlled linearly-actuated valve assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    The development of a proportional fluid control valve assembly is presented. This electromechanical system is needed for space applications to replace the current proportional flow controllers. The flow is controlled by a microprocessor system that monitors the control parameters of upstream pressure and requested volumetric flow rate. The microprocessor achieves the proper valve stem displacement by means of a digital linear actuator. A linear displacement sensor is used to measure the valve stem position. This displacement is monitored by the microprocessor system as a feedback signal to close the control loop. With an upstream pressure between 15 and 47 psig, the developed system operates between 779 standard CU cm/sec (SCCS) and 1543 SCCS.

  12. Transient flow characteristics of a high speed rotary valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browning, Patrick H.

    Pressing economic and environmental concerns related to the performance of fossil fuel burning internal combustion engines have revitalized research in more efficient, cleaner burning combustion methods such as homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI). Although many variations of such engines now exist, several limiting factors have restrained the full potential of HCCI. A new method patented by West Virginia University (WVU) called Compression Ignition by Air Injection (CIBAI) may help broaden the range of effective HCCI operation. The CIBAI process is ideally facilitated by operating two synchronized piston-cylinders mounted head-to-head with one of the cylinders filled with a homogeneous mixture of air and fuel and the other cylinder filled with air. A specialized valve called the cylinder connecting valve (CCV) separates the two cylinders, opens just before reaching top dead center (TDC), and allows the injection air into the charge to achieve autoignition. The CCV remains open during the entire power stroke such that upon ignition the rapid pressure rise in the charge cylinder forces mass flow back through the CCV into the air-only cylinder. The limited mass transfer between the cylinders through the CCV limits the theoretical auto ignition timing capabilities and thermal efficiency of the CIBAI cycle. Research has been performed to: (1) Experimentally measure the transient behavior of a potential CCV design during valve opening between two chambers maintained at constant pressure and again at constant volume; (2) Develop a modified theoretical CCV mass flow model based upon the measured cold flow valve performance that is capable of predicting the operating conditions required for successful mixture autoignition; (3) Make recommendations for future CCV designs to maximize CIBAI combustion range. Results indicate that the modified-ball CCV design offers suitable transient flow qualities required for application to the CIBAI concept. Mass injection events

  13. Enhanced rhamnolipids production via efficient foam-control using stop valve as a foam breaker.

    PubMed

    Long, Xuwei; Shen, Chong; He, Ni; Zhang, Guoliang; Meng, Qin

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a stop valve was used as a foam breaker for dealing with the massive overflowing foam in rhamnolipid fermentation. As found, a stop valve at its tiny opening could break over 90% of the extremely stable rhamnolipid foam into enriched liquid when foam flows through the sharp gap in valve. The efficient foam-control by the stop valve considerably improved the rhamnolipid fermentation and significantly enhanced the rhamnolipid productivity by 83% compared to the regular fermentation. This efficient foam breaking was mainly achieved by a high shear rate in combination with fast separation of air from the collapsed foam. Altogether, the stop valve possessed a great activity in breaking rhamnolipid foam, and the involving mechanism holds the potential for developing efficient foam breakers for industrial rhamnolipid fermentation.

  14. 14 CFR 23.995 - Fuel valves and controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel valves and controls. 23.995 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components § 23.995 Fuel valves and controls. (a) There must be a means to allow appropriate flight...

  15. 49 CFR 393.49 - Control valves for brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Control valves for brakes. 393.49 Section 393.49 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.49 Control valves for brakes. (a) General rule. Except as...

  16. 46 CFR 108.443 - Controls and valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... valves. (a) At least one control for operating a CO2 system must be outside the space or spaces that the... system protects. Control valves must not be located in a protected space unless the CO2 cylinders are also in the protected space. (b) A CO2 system that protects more than one space must have a...

  17. 46 CFR 108.443 - Controls and valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... valves. (a) At least one control for operating a CO2 system must be outside the space or spaces that the... system protects. Control valves must not be located in a protected space unless the CO2 cylinders are also in the protected space. (b) A CO2 system that protects more than one space must have a...

  18. 14 CFR 23.995 - Fuel valves and controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel valves and controls. 23.995 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components § 23.995 Fuel valves and controls. (a) There must be a means to allow appropriate flight...

  19. System and method for controlling engine knock using electro-hydraulic valve actuation

    DOEpatents

    Brennan, Daniel G

    2013-12-10

    A control system for an engine includes a knock control module and a valve control module. The knock control module adjusts a period that one or more of an intake valve and an exhaust valve of a cylinder are open based on engine knock corresponding to the cylinder. The valve control module, based on the adjusted period, controls the one or more of the intake valve and the exhaust valve using one or more hydraulic actuators.

  20. Liquid-fuel valve with precise throttling control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdougal, A. R.; Porter, R. N.; Riebling, R. W.

    1971-01-01

    Prototype liquid-fuel valve performs on-off and throttling functions in vacuum without component cold-welding or excessive leakage. Valve design enables simple and rapid disassembly and parts replacement and operates with short working stroke, providing maximum throttling sensitivity commensurate with good control.

  1. Investigation into air flow characteristics through inlet valve of directed ports

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, R.; Xiao, F.; Guan, L.; Liu, X.

    1994-09-01

    The velocity and turbulence intensity profiles at exit of intake valve from typical SI engine intake ports (horizontal and sloping directed ports) were measured by hot wire anemometry (HWA) in a steady flow rig. The characteristics of velocity and turbulence intensity distribution under different valve lifts and at distances along valve axis were analysed and compared between above two intake ports. Results showed that velocity and turbulence intensity profiles are strongly dependent on intake port form, valve lift and surrounding geometry. They vary not only around the valve head periphery but also along the valve axis. 9 refs., 14 figs.

  2. Blood flow characteristics in the ascending aorta after TAVI compared to surgical aortic valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Trauzeddel, Ralf Felix; Löbe, Ulrike; Barker, Alex J; Gelsinger, Carmen; Butter, Christian; Markl, Michael; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; von Knobelsdorff-Brenkenhoff, Florian

    2016-03-01

    Ascending aortic blood flow characteristics are altered after aortic valve surgery, but the effect of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is unknown. Abnormal flow may be associated with aortic and cardiac remodeling. We analyzed blood flow characteristics in the ascending aorta after TAVI in comparison to conventional stented aortic bioprostheses (AVR) and healthy subjects using time-resolved three-dimensional flow-sensitive cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (4D-flow MRI). Seventeen patients with TAVI (Edwards Sapien XT), 12 with AVR and 9 healthy controls underwent 4D-flow MRI of the ascending aorta. Target parameters were: severity of vortical and helical flow pattern (semiquantitative grading from 0 = none to 3 = severe) and the local distribution of systolic wall shear stress (WSSsystole). AVR revealed significantly more extensive vortical and helical flow pattern than TAVI (p = 0.042 and p = 0.002) and controls (p < 0.001 and p = 0.001). TAVI showed significantly more extensive vortical flow than controls (p < 0.001). Both TAVI and AVR revealed marked blood flow eccentricity (64.7 and 66.7%, respectively), whereas controls showed central blood flow (88.9%). TAVI and AVR exhibited an asymmetric distribution of WSSsystole in the mid-ascending aorta with local maxima at the right anterior aortic wall and local minima at the left posterior wall. In contrast, controls showed a symmetric distribution of WSSsystole along the aortic circumference. Blood flow was significantly altered in the ascending aorta after TAVI and AVR. Changes were similar regarding WSSsystole distribution, while TAVI resulted in less helical and vortical blood flow.

  3. Lymphatic vessel development: fluid flow and valve-forming cells.

    PubMed

    Kume, Tsutomu

    2015-08-03

    Hemodynamic forces regulate many aspects of blood vessel disease and development, including susceptibility to atherosclerosis and remodeling of primary blood vessels into a mature vascular network. Vessels of the lymphatic circulatory system are also subjected to fluid flow-associated forces, but the molecular and cellular mechanisms by which these forces regulate the formation and maintenance of lymphatic vessels remain largely uncharacterized. This issue of the JCI includes two articles that begin to address how fluid flow influences lymphatic vessel development and function. Sweet et al. demonstrate that lymph flow is essential for the remodeling of primary lymphatic vessels, for ensuring the proper distribution of smooth muscle cells (SMCs), and for the development and maturation of lymphatic valves. Kazenwadel et al. show that flow-induced lymphatic valve development is initiated by the upregulation of GATA2, which has been linked to lymphedema in patients with Emberger syndrome. Together, these observations and future studies inspired by these results have potential to lead to the development of strategies for the treatment of lymphatic disorders.

  4. Method and apparatus for controlling fluid flow

    DOEpatents

    Miller, J.R.

    1980-06-27

    A method and apparatus for precisely controlling the rate (and hence amount) of fluid flow are given. The controlled flow rate is finely adjustable, can be extremely small (on the order of microliter-atmospheres per second), can be adjusted to zero (flow stopped), and is stable to better than 1% with time. The dead volume of the valve can be made arbitrarily small, in fact essentially zero. The valve employs no wearing mechanical parts (including springs, stems, or seals). The valve is finely adjustable, has a flow rate dynamic range of many decades, can be made compatible with any fluid, and is suitable for incorporation into an open or closed loop servo-control system.

  5. Characterization of an artificial valve flow using the numerical dye washout visualization technique: application to the monoleaflet valve with purged flow.

    PubMed

    Goubergrits, Leonid; Timmel, Tobias; Affeld, Klaus; Petz, Christoph; Stalling, Detlev; Hege, Hans Christian

    2006-08-01

    Until today, no ideal heart valve prosthesis for the replacement of a diseased natural valve or for use in ventricular assist devices exists. Valves still cause thromboembolic complications originating from thrombus formations in the valve's stagnant zones. Optimization of valve design involves avoiding stagnation zones and zones of high shear stresses. This requires detailed flow field investigations. Usually, the regions which are more prone to thrombus formation can be estimated using a dye washout experiment. The method allows an assessment of regions with a high or low residence time that may in turn predict regions with a corresponding thrombus risk. This successful experimental method was simulated using numerical methods with a combination of the computational fluid dynamics program FLUENT (Fluent Inc., Lebanon, NH, USA) and of the visualization tool AMIRA (TGS Inc., San Diego, CA, USA). The numerical dye washout visualization was applied to four monoleaflet valves with varying valve housing geometries. The results show a significant difference in the washout processes of the examined valves. The dye washout was characterized by a time course of the gray value averaged over a defined region of interest. Finally, these curves were quantified by a half dye time. The half dye time in the best optimized valve was only 0.2753 s. The same time in the original valve was 0.6834 s. This study shows that the proposed numerical method of dye washout visualization can be used as an additional tool of the flow characterization in artificial organs.

  6. Shuttle Primary Reaction Control Subsystem Thruster Fuel Valve Pilot Seal Extrusion: A Failure Correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess; Saulsberry, Regor L.

    2003-01-01

    Pilot operated valves (POVs) are used to control the flow of hypergolic propellants monomethylhydrazine (fuel) and nitrogen tetroxide (oxidizer) to the Shuttle orbiter Primary Reaction Control Subsystem (PRCS) thrusters. The POV incorporates a two-stage design: a solenoid-actuated pilot stage, which in turn controls a pressure-actuated main stage. Isolation of propellant supply from the thruster chamber is accomplished in part by a captive polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) pilot seal retained inside a Custom 455.1 stainless steel cavity. Extrusion of the pilot seal restricts the flow of fuel around the pilot poppet, thus impeding or preventing the main valve stage from opening. It can also prevent the main stage from staying open with adequate force margin, particularly if there is gas in the main stage actuation cavity. During thruster operation on-orbit, fuel valve pilot seal extrusion is commonly indicated by low or erratic chamber pressure or failure of the thruster to fire upon command (Fail-Off). During ground turnaround, pilot seal extrusion is commonly indicated by slow gaseous nitrogen (GN2) main valve opening times (greater than 38 ms) or slow water main valve opening response times (greater than 33 ms). Poppet lift tests and visual inspection can also detect pilot seal extrusion during ground servicing; however, direct metrology on the pilot seat assembly provides the most quantitative and accurate means of identifying extrusion. Minimizing PRCS fuel valve pilot seal extrusion has become an important issue in the effort to improve PRCS reliability and reduce associated life cycle costs.

  7. Fuel control valve construction, parts therefor and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, S.T.; Katchka, J.R.

    1990-05-29

    This patent describes a fuel control valve construction. It comprises: a housing means having an inlet means adapted to be interconnected to a main burner means, the housing means having a main valve seat for interconnecting the inlet means with the main outlet means, the housing means having a movable main valve member for opening and closing the main valve seat, the housing means having a movable lever carrying the main valve member and having a manually operable actuator means for controlling the operating positions of the lever, the lever having an intermediate cam follower portion and opposed ends disposed on each side of the cam follower portion with one end of the opposed ends being pivotally mounted to the housing means and with the other end of the opposed ends carrying the main valve member, the housing means having biasing means operatively interconnected to the lever to tend to pivot the lever in one direction that opens the main valve member away from its main valve seat.

  8. Evaluation of a high response electrohydraulic digital control valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    The application is described of a digital control valve on an electrohydraulic servo actuator. The digital control problem is discussed in general as well as the design and evaluation of a breadboard actuator. The evaluation revealed a number of problems associated with matching the valve to a hydraulic load. The problems were related to lost motion resulting from bulk modulus and leakage. These problems were effectively minimized in the breadboard actuator by maintaining a 1000 psi back pressure on the valve circuit and thereby improving the effective bulk modulus.

  9. 8. DETAIL: GENERATOR FLOOR DIABLO POWERHOUSE SHOWING BUTTERFLY VALVE CONTROL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL: GENERATOR FLOOR DIABLO POWERHOUSE SHOWING BUTTERFLY VALVE CONTROL, MOSAIC TILE FLOOR, AS SEEN FROM VISITORS GALLERY, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Diablo Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 6.1 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  10. 137. VALVES ON SOUTH WALL OF LIQUID NITROGEN CONTROL ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    137. VALVES ON SOUTH WALL OF LIQUID NITROGEN CONTROL ROOM (115), LSB (BLDG. 770) - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  11. 20. GENERATOR #1 NEEDLE VALVE CONTROL WHEEL, WATERWHEEL GOVERNOR, PENSTOCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. GENERATOR #1 NEEDLE VALVE CONTROL WHEEL, WATERWHEEL GOVERNOR, PENSTOCK PRESSURE GAUGE, AND GOVERNOR OIL SET. VIEW TO EAST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-2 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  12. 19. WORM AND SPUR GEARS FOR CONTROLLING THE PADDLE VALVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. WORM AND SPUR GEARS FOR CONTROLLING THE PADDLE VALVE IN ONE OF THE LOCK GATES WHICH SEPARATES UPPER AND LOWER CHAMBERS: 1976 - Pawtucket Canal, Swamp Locks, Pawtucket & Merrimack Canals, Lowell, Middlesex County, MA

  13. 20. WORM AND SPUR GEARS FOR CONTROLLING THE PADDLE VALVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. WORM AND SPUR GEARS FOR CONTROLLING THE PADDLE VALVE IN ONE OF THE GATES BETWEEN THE UPPER AND LOWER CHAMBERS: 1976 - Pawtucket Canal, Swamp Locks, Pawtucket & Merrimack Canals, Lowell, Middlesex County, MA

  14. 18. WORM AND SPUR GEARS FOR CONTROLLING THE PADDLE VALVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. WORM AND SPUR GEARS FOR CONTROLLING THE PADDLE VALVE IN ONE OF THE GATES BETWEEN THE UPPER AND LOWER CHAMBERS: 1976 - Pawtucket Canal, Swamp Locks, Pawtucket & Merrimack Canals, Lowell, Middlesex County, MA

  15. An online tuned novel nonlinear PI controller for stiction compensation in pneumatic control valves.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Puneet; Kumar, Vineet; Rana, K P S

    2015-09-01

    A novel Nonlinear PI Controller (NPIC) has been proposed for effective control of flow process employing a sticky pneumatic control valve. The proposed control scheme has been inherited from a classical PI control structure with a difference that the integral gain has been varied in accordance with the instantaneous error and the rate of change of error. The tuning of controller has been carried out online using Differential Evolution algorithm. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed controller, a comparative study with the conventional PI controller has also been carried out for the setpoint tracking, disturbance rejection and robustness to parameter uncertainties on account of operating point change on a laboratory scale nonlinear flow process. Based on these intensive experimental evidences, it has been concluded that the NPIC performed far better than the conventional PI controller for all the case studies and suppressed effectively any stiction induced oscillations.

  16. The Mitral Valve Prolapsus : Quantification of the Regurgitation Flow Rate by Experimental Time-Dependant PIV

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    The Mitral Valve Prolapsus : Quantification of the Regurgitation Flow Rate by Experimental Time-Dependant PIV. F. Billy1, D. Coisne1,2, L. Sanchez1... mitral valve insufficiency), assumes that the velocity field in the convergent region have hemispheric shapes and introduce miscalculation specially...upstream a prolaps model of regurgitant orifice based on 2D time dependent PIV reconstruction. Keywords- Mitral Valve , Prolapsus, Regurgitation Flow

  17. Flow Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-08

    capable of simulating multi-input multi-output ( MIMO ) systems. They do have some downsides. Training is extremely sensitive, and tends to get stuck in...the attached bound- ary layers. Recent DES predictions of the flow around complex configurations (all using Cobalt) include the massively separated...and desired reference signal, ey = â−are f . (71) For multi input multi output ( MIMO ) systems, ey and γe are matrices of size nout ×nin. Also, the

  18. Chaos in a Hydraulic Control Valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, S.; Hayase, T.; Kurahashi, T.

    1997-08-01

    In this paper we have studied the instability and chaos occurring in a pilot-type poppet valve circuit. The system consists of a poppet valve, an upstream plenum chamber, a supply pipeline and an orifice inserted between the pelnum and the pipeline. Although the poppet valve rests on the seat stably for a supply pressure lower than the cracking pressure, the circuit becomes unstable for an initial disturbance beyond a critical value and develops a self-excited vibration. In this unstable region, chaotic vibration appears at the period-doubling bifurcation. We have investigated the stability of the circuit and the chaotic phenomenon numerically, and elucidated it by power spectra, a bifurcation diagram and Lyapunov exponent calculations, showing that the phenomenon follows the Feigenbaum route to chaos.Copyright 1997 Academic Press Limited

  19. Valve timing control system for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Masuda, S.; Morita, Y.; Oda, H.

    1986-04-15

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine having a camshaft, having an axis of rotation, bearing thereon a cam and a tappet member which transmits the movement of the cam to the stem of a valve to open and close the valve in a timed relation, a valve timing control system comprising a swinging member which is mounted for pivotal movement about the axis of rotation of the camshaft and is provided with a tappet receiving hole for receiving the tappet member to permit sliding movement of the tappet member therein to transmit the movement of the cam to the valve stem, and a control device which swings the swinging member together with the tappet member received in the tappet receiving hole according to the operating condition of the engine so that the relative position of the tappet member to the cam at a given angular position of the camshaft is changed. The tappet member has a cam abutting surface at one end and a valve stem abutting surface at the other end. The valve stem abutting surface is arcuately convex toward the valve, the center of curvature thereof being on the axis of rotation of the camshaft.

  20. Improved Flow-Controlling Vortex Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Earl R., Jr.; Marner, Wilbur J.; Rohatgi, Naresh K.

    1989-01-01

    Symmetrical tangential streams control flow of radial primary streams. Vortex generator uses small secondary stream of fluid to control normally-larger primary stream. Improved version of vortex generator described in "Variable Control Port for Fluidic Control Device," (NPO-16603). Secondary, or control, flows entering tangentially through diametrically opposite ports set up swirling motion restraining primary flow. Pressure of secondary fluid in relation to primary fluid controlling factor. Like valve, vortex generator varies rate of flow of primary fluid from maximum value down to zero. When properly designed, requires low pressure differential between primary and secondary streams and expends relatively small amount of secondary fluid.

  1. Turbo-generator control with variable valve actuation

    DOEpatents

    Vuk, Carl T [Denver, IA

    2011-02-22

    An internal combustion engine incorporating a turbo-generator and one or more variably activated exhaust valves. The exhaust valves are adapted to variably release exhaust gases from a combustion cylinder during a combustion cycle to an exhaust system. The turbo-generator is adapted to receive exhaust gases from the exhaust system and rotationally harness energy therefrom to produce electrical power. A controller is adapted to command the exhaust valve to variably open in response to a desired output for the turbo-generator.

  2. Flow Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-08

    system. They are not limited to single input-single output (SISO) systems but are capable of simulating multi-input multi-output ( MIMO ) systems. They do...around complex configurations (all using Cobalt) include the massively separated flow around an F-15E at 65o angle of attack reported by Forsythe et al...multi output ( MIMO ) systems, ey and γe are matrices of size nout ×nin. Also, the gain matrix is of size nin × nout . The derivative must be

  3. Pneumatic shutoff and time-delay valve operates at controlled rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horning, J. L.; Tomlinson, L. E.

    1966-01-01

    Shutoff and time delay valve, which incorporates a metering spool that moves at constant velocity under pneumatic pressure and spring compression, increases fluid-flow area at a uniform rate. Diaphragm areas, control cavity volume, and bleed-orifice size may be varied to give any desired combination of time delay and spool travel time.

  4. 77 FR 28669 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities, Excess Flow Valve Census

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities, Excess Flow Valve Census AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT..., PHMSA invites comments on a new one-time Information Collection (IC) on Excess Flow Valves (EFVs)....

  5. 49 CFR 192.381 - Service lines: Excess flow valve performance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service lines: Excess flow valve performance...) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE... Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.381 Service lines: Excess flow valve...

  6. Numerical simulation of flow in mechanical heart valves: grid resolution and the assumption of flow symmetry.

    PubMed

    Ge, Liang; Jones, S Casey; Sotiropoulos, Fotis; Healy, Timothy M; Yoganathan, Ajit P

    2003-10-01

    A numerical method is developed for simulating unsteady, 3-D, laminar flow through a bileaflet mechanical heart valve with the leaflets fixed. The method employs a dual-time-stepping artificial-compressibility approach together with overset (Chimera) grids and is second-order accurate in space and time. Calculations are carried out for the full 3-D valve geometry under steady inflow conditions on meshes with a total number of nodes ranging from 4 x 10(5) to 1.6 x 10(6). The computed results show that downstream of the leaflets the flow is dominated by two pairs of counter-rotating vortices, which originate on either side of the central orifice in the aortic sinus and rotate such that the common flow of each pair is directed away from the aortic wall. These vortices intensify with Reynolds number, and at a Reynolds number of approximately 1200 their complex interaction leads to the onset of unsteady flow and the break of symmetry with respect to both geometric planes of symmetry. Our results show the highly 3-D structure of the flow; question the validity of computationally expedient assumptions of flow symmetry; and demonstrate the need for highly resolved, fully 3-D simulations if computational fluid dynamics is to accurately predict the flow in prosthetic mechanical heart valves.

  7. Numerical investigation of cavitation flow inside spool valve with large pressure drop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Jian; Pan, Dingyi; Xie, Fangfang; Shao, Xueming

    2015-12-01

    Spool valves play an important role in fluid power system. Cavitation phenomena happen frequently inside the spool valves, which cause structure damages, noise and lower down hydrodynamic performance. A numerical tools incorporating the cavitation model, are developed to predict the flow structure and cavitation pattern in the spool valve. Two major flow states in the spool valve chamber, i.e. flow-in and flow-out, are studies. The pressure distributions along the spool wall are first investigated, and the results agree well with the experimental data. For the flow-in cases, the local pressure at the throttling area drops much deeper than the pressure in flow-out cases. Meanwhile, the bubbles are more stable in flow-in cases than those in flow-out cases, which are ruptured and shed into the downstream.

  8. Injection pump with radially mounted spill control valve

    SciTech Connect

    Djordjevic, I.

    1987-05-26

    This patent describes a rotary fuel injection pump for an internal combustion engine,. The method comprises: a housing, a rotor rotatable in the housing, a charge pump having radially extending plunger bores in the rotor and a plunger pump for each plunger bore having a pumping plunger reciprocable in the bore. The pumping plunger has outward fuel tank strokes and inward fuel delivery strokes for supplying high pressure charges of fuel for fuel injection. A cam ring surrounds the rotor and is engageable with the plunger pumps to reciprocate the plungers as the rotor rotates. A spill control mechanism has spill valve means connected to the charge pump for spill control of the high pressure charge of fuel. The improvement consists of the spill valve means which comprises at least one rotary spill valve having a valve bore in the rotor oriented transversely to the axis of the rotor and connected to the charge pump through pump passage means and a rotary spill valve member rotatably mounted within the valve bore; and the spill control mechanism.

  9. Abnormal distribution of pulmonary blood flow in aortic valve disease

    PubMed Central

    Goodenday, Lucy S.; Simon, George; Craig, Hazel; Dalby, Lola

    1970-01-01

    Wasted ventilatory volume (VD) and its ratio to tidal volume (VD/VT) were measured at rest and during exertion in 17 patients with aortic valve disease. We considered VD/VT to indicate abnormal ventilation: perfusion relations if it did not decrease on exertion, or if the exercising value was greater than 40 per cent. Plain chest radiographs were independently examined for evidence of diversion of pulmonary blood to the upper lobes. There was significant agreement (p<0·05) between radiographic and pulmonary function estimations of abnormality. This suggests that the raised pulmonary venous pressure associated with left ventricular failure creates an abnormal pattern of blood flow through the lung, which is responsible for causing inadequate perfusion with respect to ventilation. Images PMID:5420086

  10. Valve morphology effect in aortic coarctation flow using realistic silicon models and magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrufo, Oscar; Solis-Najera, Sergio; Pibarot, Philippe; Kadem, Lyes; Kesharvarz-Motamed, Zahra; Rodriguez, Alfredo O.; Garcia, Julio

    2014-11-01

    Aortic valve morphology and phenotype may alter the aortic wall structure and its normal flow hemodynamics. However, the relationship between altered flow patterns and progression of wall pathology is often not fully understood in patients with aortic coartation and needs larger experimental work. In this study, we introduced a compatible experimental setup with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a realistic aortic coarctation (AoCo) silicon model which can replicate physiological flow conditions (pressure, flow-wave, and systemic load). We evaluated the aortic valve hemodynamics of a normal tricuspid valve and a stenotic bicuspid valve using valve effective orifice area (EOA), peak and mean transvalvular pressure gradient (TPG). AoCo severity was assessed by the AoCo pressure gradient. For the tricuspid valve we obtained an EOA = 1.89 cm2, a peak TPG = 10 mmHg, and a mean TPG = 5 mmHg. For the bicuspid valve we obtained an EOA = 1.03 cm2, a peak TPG = 37 mmHg and a mean TPG = 13 mmHg. Furthermore, AoCo with tricuspid valve led to a peak AoCo pressure gradient (PG) = 11 mmHg and a mean PG = 5 mmHg. AoCo with bicuspid valve led to a peak PG = 6 mmHg and a mean PG = 3 mmHg. Aortic flow reattachment was more evident in presence of bicuspid valve and helical flow was present in all cases. This study showed that silicon prototyping in combination with MRI velocity measurements could successfully be used to assess hemodynamic effects of aortic valve morphology in aortic coarctation flow.

  11. Flow visualization of a monoleaflet and bileaflet mechanical heart valve in a pneumatic ventricular assist device using a PIV system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwansung; Tatsumi, Eisuke; Taenaka, Yoshiyuki

    2010-01-01

    Our group is developing a new type of pulsatile pneumatic ventricular assist device (PVAD) that uses the Medtronic Hall tilting disc valve (M-H valve). Although tilting disc valves have good washout effect inside the blood pump, they are no longer in common clinical use and may be difficult to obtain in the future. To investigate the stability of the Sorin Bicarbon valve (S-B valve) in our PVAD, we constructed a model pump made of an acrylic resin with the same configuration as our PVAD and attempted to compare the flow visualization upstream and downstream of the outlet position valve between the M-H valve and the S-B valve using a particle image velocimetry (PIV) method. The outlet S-B valve had faster closure than the M-H valve. The maximum flow velocity was greater than with the M-H valve. The maximum Reynolds shear stress (RSS) of the M-H valve reached 150 N/m(2) and that of the S-B valve reached 300 N/m(2) upstream during the end-systolic and early-diastolic phases. In both valves, the maximum RSS upstream of the valve was higher than downstream of the valve because of the regurgitation flow during valve closure. In addition, the maximum viscous shear stress reached above 2 N/m(2), which occupied only about 1%-1.5% of the maximum RSS.

  12. Mesofluidic two stage digital valve

    DOEpatents

    Jansen, John F; Love, Lonnie J; Lind, Randall F; Richardson, Bradley S

    2013-12-31

    A mesofluidic scale digital valve system includes a first mesofluidic scale valve having a valve body including a bore, wherein the valve body is configured to cooperate with a solenoid disposed substantially adjacent to the valve body to translate a poppet carried within the bore. The mesofluidic scale digital valve system also includes a second mesofluidic scale valve disposed substantially perpendicular to the first mesofluidic scale valve. The mesofluidic scale digital valve system further includes a control element in communication with the solenoid, wherein the control element is configured to maintain the solenoid in an energized state for a fixed period of time to provide a desired flow rate through an orifice of the second mesofluidic valve.

  13. Effect of vortex generators on the closing transient flow of bileaflet mechanical heart valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, David; Dasi, Lakshmi; Yoganathan, Ajit; Glezer, Ari

    2006-11-01

    The time-periodic closing of bileaflet mechanical heart valves is accompanied by a strong flow transient that is associated with the formation of a counter-rotating vortex pair near the b-datum line of leaflet edges. The strong transitory shear that is generated by these vortices may be damaging to blood elements and may result in platelet activation. In the present work, these flow transients are mitigated using miniature vortex generator arrays that are embedded on the surface of the leaflets. Two vortex generator designs were investigated: one design comprised staggered rectangular fins and the other one staggered hemispheres. The closing transients in the absence and presence of the passive vortex generators are characterized using phase locked PIV measurements. The study utilizes a 25 mm St. Jude Medical valve placed in the aortic position of the Georgia Tech left heart simulator. Measurements of the velocity field in the center plane of the leaflets demonstrate that the dynamics of the transient vortices that precede the formation of the leakage jets can be significantly altered and controlled by relatively simple passive modifications of existing valve designs. Human blood experiments validated the effectiveness of miniature vortex generators in reducing thrombus formation by over 42 percent.

  14. [The assessment of mechanical heart valves stenosis in adults after aortic valve replacement: the advantage of full-flow design of mechanical valve].

    PubMed

    Bokeria, L A; Bokeria, O L; Fadeev, A A; Makhachev, O A; Kosareva, T I; Averina, I I

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of transprosthetic hemodynamics in adults after aortic valve replacement in the Bakoulev Center for Cardiovascular Surgery in 2007-2010 demonstrated the hemodynamic advantage of the concept of new full-flow mechanical aortic valve prosthesis "CorBeat". Having the same size of internal orifice and tissue annulus diameters, the values of transprosthetic parameters (peak and mean gradients, blood flow velocities) through "CorBeat" were close to physiological values of transvalvular native aortic parameters and had a tendency to be not dependent on the size of prosthesis (p = 0.63). In the article for the first time a morphometric database of geometric values of internal orifice area of normal native aortic valves in adults was used taking into account both the gender and the body surface area's of a patient. There was also used the standardized prosthesis size Z-score which represents the number of SDs by which the internal prosthesis area differs from the mean normal native aortic valve area for the patient's body surface area. The article emphasizes the need of the personal selection of the size and the type of prosthesis for any patient as well as the need for new design development of prosthetic heart valves.

  15. Development of Opto-Pneumatic On/Off Control Valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akagi, Tetsuya; Dohta, Shujiro; Matsushita, Hisashi

    An optical servo system is a new control system that can be used in hazardous environments. The purpose of our study is to develop such an optical control system. In a previous study, we had realized an optical control system that executed cart positioning using optical control signals instead of electric signals. We developed an optical servo valve in which the output pressure was proportional to input optical power. As a next step, we need to develop another type of optical valve in order to get higher pressure-gain. In this study, we propose and produce an optical on/off valve that consists of an optical on/off device and a fluid amplifier, and the structure, operating principle and fundamental characteristics of the valve are investigated. As the result, we obtain a higher output pressure of the tested valve compared with the previous one. And we propose the analytical model of the optical on/off device and identify the system parameters. We confirm their validity by comparing them with experimental results. And finally, we improve the dynamics of the device by using a feedback passage plate based on analytical results of the device.

  16. Directional control valve with the ability to "dangle"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meller, Michael; Tiwari, Rashi; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2011-04-01

    The majority of double-acting hydraulic cylinders are controlled via a 4/3 spool valve, which allows for the active movement of the cylinder in two directions, as well as holding its current position. These control valves lack the ability to "dangle," or rather, the ability to permit the hydraulic cylinder to freely sway passively in response to external forces. Including the ability to dangle within a control valve is of particular interest for a number of reasons. It allows for much more naturalistic actuation of the hydraulic cylinder, making it further compatible with bio-inspired platforms, such as driving the legs of a prosthetic limb or an exoskeleton for human augmentation. Additionally, dangle offers an opportunity for considerable efficiency gains. This is possible because the momentum of the load, gravity, among other external forces, can be utilized to move the actuator instead of solely relying on an active input. A novel control valve that integrates all of the features of a 4/3 spool valve in addition to dangle is reported herein.

  17. Three-Dimensional Fluid-Structure Interaction Simulation of Bileaflet Mechanical Heart Valve Flow Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Rui; Lai, Yong G.; Chandran, Krishnan B.

    2005-01-01

    The wall shear stress induced by the leaflet motion during the valve-closing phase has been implicated with thrombus initiation with prosthetic valves. Detailed flow dynamic analysis in the vicinity of the leaflets and the housing during the valve-closure phase is of interest in understanding this relationship. A three-dimensional unsteady flow analysis past bileaflet valve prosthesis in the mitral position is presented incorporating a fluid-structure interaction algorithm for leaflet motion during the valve-closing phase. Arbitrary Lagrangian–Eulerian method is employed for incorporating the leaflet motion. The forces exerted by the fluid on the leaflets are computed and applied to the leaflet equation of motion to predict the leaflet position. Relatively large velocities are computed in the valve clearance region between the valve housing and the leaflet edge with the resulting relatively large wall shear stresses at the leaflet edge during the impact-rebound duration. Negative pressure transients are computed on the surface of the leaflets on the atrial side of the valve, with larger magnitudes at the leaflet edge during the closing and rebound as well. Vortical flow development is observed on the inflow (atrial) side during the valve impact-rebound phase in a location central to the leaflet and away from the clearance region where cavitation bubbles have been visualized in previously reported experimental studies. PMID:15636108

  18. 46 CFR 108.443 - Controls and valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Controls and valves. 108.443 Section 108.443 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.443 Controls...

  19. 46 CFR 108.443 - Controls and valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Controls and valves. 108.443 Section 108.443 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.443 Controls...

  20. 46 CFR 108.443 - Controls and valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Controls and valves. 108.443 Section 108.443 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.443 Controls...

  1. Noise generated by flow through large butterfly valves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Ronald G.

    1987-01-01

    A large butterfly valve (1.37 m diam) was acoustically tested to measure the noise generated and propagating in both the upstream and downstream directions. The experimental investigation used wall mounted pressure transducers to measure the fluctuating component of the pipe static pressure upstream and downstream of the valve. Microphones upstream of the pipe inlet and located in a plenum were used to measure the noise radiated from the valve in the upstream direction. Comparison of the wall pressure downstream of the valve to a prediction were made. Reasonable agreement was obtained with the valve operating at a choked condition. The noise upstream of the valve is 30 dB less than that measured downstream.

  2. 49 CFR 192.381 - Service lines: Excess flow valve performance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... hour (0.57 cubic meters per hour); or (B) For an excess flow valve designed to prevent equalization of pressure across the valve, to no more than 0.4 cubic feet per hour (.01 cubic meters per hour); and (4) Not... the manufacturer according to an industry specification, or the manufacturer's written...

  3. Optical Study of Flow and Combustion in an HCCI Engine with Negative Valve Overlap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Trevor S.; Xu, Hongming; Richardson, Steve; Wyszynski, Miroslaw L.; Megaritis, Thanos

    2006-07-01

    One of the most widely used methods to enable Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion is using negative valve overlapping to trap a sufficient quantity of hot residual gas. The characteristics of air motion with specially designed valve events having reduced valve lift and durations associated with HCCI engines and their effect on subsequent combustion are not yet fully understood. In addition, the ignition process and combustion development in such engines are very different from those in conventional spark-ignition or diesel compression ignition engines. Very little data has been reported concerning optical diagnostics of the flow and combustion in the engine using negative valve overlapping. This paper presents an experimental investigation into the in-cylinder flow characteristics and combustion development in an optical engine operating in HCCI combustion mode. PIV measurements have been taken under motored engine conditions to provide a quantitative flow characterisation of negative valve overlap in-cylinder flows. The ignition and combustion process was imaged using a high resolution charge coupled device (CCD) camera and the combustion imaging data was supplemented by simultaneously recorded in-cylinder pressure data which assisted the analysis of the images. It is found that the flow characteristics with negative valve overlapping are less stable and more valve event driven than typical spark ignition in-cylinder flows, while the combustion initiation locations are not uniformly distributed.

  4. System and method for controlling hydraulic pressure in electro-hydraulic valve actuation systems

    DOEpatents

    Brennan, Daniel G; Marriott, Craig D; Cowgill, Joel; Wiles, Matthew A; Patton, Kenneth James

    2014-09-23

    A control system for an engine includes a first lift control module and a second lift control module. The first lift control module increases lift of M valves of the engine to a predetermined valve lift during a period before disabling or re-enabling N valves of the engine. The second lift control module decreases the lift of the M valves to a desired valve lift during a period after enabling or re-enabling the N valves of the engine, wherein N and M are integers greater than or equal to one.

  5. Laser Doppler anemometry measurements of steady flow through two bi-leaflet prosthetic heart valves

    PubMed Central

    Bazan, Ovandir; Ortiz, Jayme Pinto; Vieira Junior, Francisco Ubaldo; Vieira, Reinaldo Wilson; Antunes, Nilson; Tabacow, Fabio Bittencourt Dutra; Costa, Eduardo Tavares; Petrucci Junior, Orlando

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In vitro hydrodynamic characterization of prosthetic heart valves provides important information regarding their operation, especially if performed by noninvasive techniques of anemometry. Once velocity profiles for each valve are provided, it is possible to compare them in terms of hydrodynamic performance. In this first experimental study using laser doppler anemometry with mechanical valves, the simulations were performed at a steady flow workbench. Objective To compare unidimensional velocity profiles at the central plane of two bi-leaflet aortic prosthesis from St. Jude (AGN 21 - 751 and 21 AJ - 501 models) exposed to a steady flow regime, on four distinct sections, three downstream and one upstream. Methods To provide similar conditions for the flow through each prosthesis by a steady flow workbench (water, flow rate of 17L/min. ) and, for the same sections and sweeps, to obtain the velocity profiles of each heart valve by unidimensional measurements. Results It was found that higher velocities correspond to the prosthesis with smaller inner diameter and instabilities of flow are larger as the section of interest is closer to the valve. Regions of recirculation, stagnation of flow, low pressure, and flow peak velocities were also found. Conclusions Considering the hydrodynamic aspect and for every section measured, it could be concluded that the prosthesis model AGN 21 - 751 (RegentTM) is superior to the 21 AJ - 501 model (Master Series). Based on the results, future studies can choose to focus on specific regions of the these valves. PMID:24598950

  6. Dynamic power flow controllers

    DOEpatents

    Divan, Deepakraj M.; Prasai, Anish

    2017-03-07

    Dynamic power flow controllers are provided. A dynamic power flow controller may comprise a transformer and a power converter. The power converter is subject to low voltage stresses and not floated at line voltage. In addition, the power converter is rated at a fraction of the total power controlled. A dynamic power flow controller controls both the real and the reactive power flow between two AC sources having the same frequency. A dynamic power flow controller inserts a voltage with controllable magnitude and phase between two AC sources; thereby effecting control of active and reactive power flows between two AC sources.

  7. Control performances of a piezoactuator direct drive valve system at high temperatures with thermal insulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yung-Min; Han, Chulhee; Kim, Wan Ho; Seong, Ho Yong; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2016-09-01

    This technical note presents control performances of a piezoactuator direct drive valve (PDDV) operated at high temperature environment. After briefly discussing operating principle and mechanical dimensions of the proposed PDDV, an appropriate size of the PDDV is manufactured. As a first step, the temperature effect on the valve performance is experimentally investigated by measuring the spool displacement at various temperatures. Subsequently, the PDDV is thermally insulated using aerogel and installed in a large-size heat chamber in which the pneumatic-hydraulic cylinders and sensors are equipped. A proportional-integral-derivative feedback controller is then designed and implemented to control the spool displacement of the valve system. In this work, the spool displacement is chosen as a control variable since it is directly related to the flow rate of the valve system. Three different sinusoidal displacements with different frequencies of 1, 10 and 50 Hz are used as reference spool displacement and tracking controls are undertaken up to 150 °C. It is shown that the proposed PDDV with the thermal insulation can provide favorable control responses without significant tracking errors at high temperatures.

  8. Pressure tracking control of vehicle ABS using piezo valve modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Juncheol; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents a wheel slip control for the ABS(anti-lock brake system) of a passenger vehicle using a controllable piezo valve modulator. The ABS is designed to optimize for braking effectiveness and good steerability. As a first step, the principal design parameters of the piezo valve and pressure modulator are appropriately determined by considering the braking pressure variation during the ABS operation. The proposed piezo valve consists of a flapper, pneumatic circuit and a piezostack actuator. In order to get wide control range of the pressure, the pressure modulator is desired. The modulator consists of a dual-type cylinder filled with different substances (fluid and gas) and a piston rod moving vertical axis to transmit the force. Subsequently, a quarter car wheel slip model is formulated and integrated with the governing equation of the piezo valve modulator. A sliding mode controller to achieve the desired slip rate is then designed and implemented. Braking control performances such as brake pressure and slip rate are evaluated via computer simulations.

  9. Simulation of dynamics of hydraulic system with proportional control valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bureček, Adam; Hružík, Lumír; Vašina, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Dynamics of a hydraulic system is influenced by several parameters, in this case mainly by proportional control valve, oil bulk modulus, oil viscosity, mass load etc. This paper will be focused on experimental measurement and mathematical simulation of dynamics of a hydraulic system with proportional control valve, linear hydraulic cylinder and mass load. The measurement is performed on experimental equipment that enables realization of dynamic processes of the hydraulic system. Linear hydraulic cylinder with mass load is equipped with position sensor of piston. The movement control of piston rod is ensured by the proportional control valve. The equipment enables to test an influence of parameter settings of regulator of the proportional control valve on position and pressure system responses. The piston position is recorded by magnetostrictive sensor that is located in drilled piston rod side of the linear hydraulic cylinder. Pressures are measured by piezoresistive sensors on the piston side and the piston rod side of the hydraulic cylinder. The measurement is performed during movement of the piston rod with mass load to the required position. There is realized and verified a mathematical model using Matlab SimHydraulics software for this hydraulic system.

  10. Continuous-flow gas-lift installation design utilizing production-pressure-operated valve performance

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, H.W.

    1995-12-31

    The variable-gradient design-line method is a widely accepted procedure for spacing gas-lift valves (GLVs) in a continuous-flow gas-lift (GL) installation. Injection-pressure-operated (IPO) and production-pressure-operated (PPO) GLVs can be used in a variable gradient designed installation. The primary purpose of GLVs is to unload a well to the desired depth of gas injection. If the installation design is based on a constant surface injection-gas pressure (p{sub io}), the GLVs must be opened by an increase in the flowing-production pressure at valve depth (p{sub pfD}) rather than an increase in injection-gas pressure at valve depth (p{sub ioD}). PPO, also called fluid-operated, valves are opened and closed by changes in p{sub pfD}. This paper outlines in detail the calculations for a variable-gradient continuous-flow installation design procedure based on a constant p{sub io} for spacing the unloading PPO valves. The valve spacing and port size selection includes performance characteristics of PPO GLVs. A simplified method for calculating the injection daily volumetric gas rate (q{sub gsc}) throughput of an unbalanced bellows type of PPO valve on the basis of a change in p{sub pfD} and the valve bellows-assembly load rate (B{sub lr}) is given in the Appendix.

  11. Flow through a venous valve and its implication for thrombus formation.

    PubMed

    Karino, T; Motomiya, M

    1984-11-01

    To elucidate the possible connection between the flow patterns in the pockets of venous valves and thrombus formation, detailed studies of the behavior of model particles and red cells flowing through a venous valve have been carried out using isolated transparent dog saphenous veins containing two-leaflet valves, and cinemicrographic techniques. It was found that large paired vortices, located symmetrically on both sides of the bisector plane of the valve leaflets, were present in each valve pocket under physiological flow conditions. Particles continually entered the valve pockets from the mainstream, spending long periods of time describing a series of spiral orbits of decreasing diameter, while moving away from the bisector plane, and eventually left the vortex, rejoining the mainstream. With concentrated suspensions of red cells, it was found that another smaller counter-rotating secondary vortex, driven by the large primary vortex existed deep in each valve pocket. The concentration of red cells in this secondary vortex remained appreciably lower than that in the mainstream. In such regions, fluid circulated with extremely low velocities, thus creating a very low shear field which allowed red cells to form aggregates. The results suggest that in some pathological states, the valve-pocket vortices could act as automatic traps and generators of thrombi in a fashion similar to that previously demonstrated in an annular vortex formed downstream from a sudden tubular expansion.

  12. Hemodynamics of physiological blood flow in the aorta with nonlinear anisotropic heart valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotiropoulos, Fotis; Gilmanov, Anvar; Stolarski, Henryk

    2016-11-01

    The hemodynamic blood flow in cardiovascular system is one of the most important factor, which causing several vascular diseases. We developed a new Curvilinear Immersed Boundary - Finite Element - Fluid Structure Interaction (CURVIB-FE-FSI) method to analyze hemodynamic of pulsatile blood flow in a real aorta with nonlinear anisotropic aortic valve at physiological conditions. Hyperelastic material model, which is more realistic for describing heart valve have been incorporated in the CURVIB-FE-FSI code to simulate interaction of aortic heart valve with pulsatile blood flow. Comparative studies of hemodynamics for linear and nonlinear models of heart valve show drastic differences in blood flow patterns and hence differences of stresses causing impact at leaflets and aortic wall. This work is supported by the Lillehei Heart Institute at the University of Minnesota.

  13. Computer and water-model simulation of flow through poppet valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, H. Q.

    1984-10-01

    A computer code embodying a two equation turbulence model simulated two-dimensional steady flows through axisymmetric pipe expansions, with and without partial obstruction by a poppet valve. Steady and unsteady laminar flows through the valves were considered. The effect of valve geometry on the discharge coefficient was investigated. Satisfactory agreement is obtained between the predicted values of the discharge coefficient and experimental data. A water-model rig of a valve port and cylinder was used to visualize the flow pattern near the plane of enlargement. The computer simulation of such flows is validated by photographs of vortices. The experiments reveal that the mixing process in the circumferential direction, especially within the cores of toroidal vortices, takes place with unexpected rapidity. This diffusion cannot be reliably accounted for with the information available.

  14. Tri-leaflet valve design with a purge flow for heart-assist devices: an in vitro optimization study.

    PubMed

    Timmel, Tobias; Seshadri, Santhosh; Goubergrits, Leonid; Affeld, Klaus; Kertzscher, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the effect of a purge flow on valves of pulsatile heart-assist devices. Clinical applications of these devices are still limited because of frequent thromboembolic complications. These complications often originate at the valves and the unavoidable flow separation regions that are found behind the leaflets. The flow separations cause a long residence time of blood that is considered particularly detrimental. To solve this problem, a valve with a purge flow is proposed. A purge flow is a jet, which is separated from the main blood flow and directed behind the leaflets into the sinus to flush it. Even though the purge flow does not prevent a flow separation, it shortens the residence time of the blood in the sinus. Thus, the purge flow improves the periodic washout of the blood in the region of flow separation. The complex purge flow was investigated in a tri-leaflet valve. The geometrical parameters of the valve were varied systematically. A statistical technique--the Taguchi method--was used to reduce the number of investigated models to 12. The flows through the resulting valve models were numerically simulated and analyzed. The evaluated models with the best results were subsequently investigated experimentally using different methods: hemodynamic tests in a valve tester and flow visualization using the dye washout method. It was shown that the purge flow can effectively wash out the sinus. Therefore, the purge flow valve reduces the potential of a thrombus formation normally associated with the valve.

  15. Transient, three-dimensional flow field simulation through a mechanical, trileaflet heart valve prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Tim A S; Linde, Torsten; Cuenca-Navalon, Elena; Schmitz, Christoph; Hormes, Marcus; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Steinseifer, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Thromboembolic complications are one of the major challenges faced by designers and researchers in development of artificial organs with blood-contacting devices such as heart valve prostheses, especially mechanical valves. Besides increasing the thrombogenic potential, these valves change the hydrodynamic performance of the heart. In this study, the flow through a trileaflet, mechanical heart valve prosthesis was modeled with transient computational fluid dynamics to analyze flow patterns causing thrombus formations on valves. The valve was simulated under conditions of a test rig (THIA II), which was specially designed to analyze different valves with respect to thrombosis. The main goal of this study was to mimic the exact conditions of the test rig to be able to compare numerical and experimental results. The boundary conditions were obtained from experimental data as leaflet kinematics and pressure profiles. One complete cycle of the valve was simulated. Numerical flow and pressure results were analyzed and compared with experimental results. Shear stress and shear rates were determined with respect to thrombogenic potential, especially in the pivot regions, which seem to be the main influence for activation and deposition of thrombocytes. Approximately 0.7% of the blood volume moving through the fluid domain of the valve was exposed to shear rates high enough to cause platelet activation. However, shear rates of up to 20,000 s⁻¹ occurred in pivot regions. The pressure differences between the simulation and experimental data were approximately 2.5% during systole and increased up to 25% during diastole. The presented method, however, can be used to gain more information about the flow through different heart valve prostheses and, thus, improve the development process.

  16. Opening snap and isovolumic relaxation period in relation to mitral valve flow in patients with mitral stenosis. Significance of A2--OS interval.

    PubMed Central

    Kalmanson, D; Veyrat, C; Bernier, A; Witchitz, S; Chiche, P

    1976-01-01

    In 15 patients with pure or predominant mitral stenosis and in a control group of 11 patients without mitral stenosis the blood flow velocity through the mitral valve orifice was recorded by means of a directional Doppler ultrasound velocity catheter introduced transeptally and positioned in the orifice of the mitral valve. A simultaneous surface phonocardiogram was obtained. The timing of the mitral opening snap in relation to the blood velocity record of the flow through the valve supported the hypothesis that the opening snap is due to a sudden tensing of the valve leaflets by the chordae tendineae. Determination of the exact time of mitral valve opening, made possible by the blood velocity record, led to the division of the classical A2-0S interval (aortic valve closure to opening snap) into two components representing respectively the diastolic isovolumic relaxation period and the time of excursion of the mitral valve cusps. The durations of the isovolumic relaxation period were compared with those in the control patients and were found to correlate with the severity of the mitral stenosis, whereas those of the excursion time of the mitral cusps were influenced by the presence or absence of mitral valve calcification. PMID:1259828

  17. Performance Evaluation of a High Bandwidth Liquid Fuel Modulation Valve for Active Combustion Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saus, Joseph R.; DeLaat, John C.; Chang, Clarence T.; Vrnak, Daniel R.

    2012-01-01

    At the NASA Glenn Research Center, a characterization rig was designed and constructed for the purpose of evaluating high bandwidth liquid fuel modulation devices to determine their suitability for active combustion control research. Incorporated into the rig s design are features that approximate conditions similar to those that would be encountered by a candidate device if it were installed on an actual combustion research rig. The characterized dynamic performance measures obtained through testing in the rig are planned to be accurate indicators of expected performance in an actual combustion testing environment. To evaluate how well the characterization rig predicts fuel modulator dynamic performance, characterization rig data was compared with performance data for a fuel modulator candidate when the candidate was in operation during combustion testing. Specifically, the nominal and off-nominal performance data for a magnetostrictive-actuated proportional fuel modulation valve is described. Valve performance data were collected with the characterization rig configured to emulate two different combustion rig fuel feed systems. Fuel mass flows and pressures, fuel feed line lengths, and fuel injector orifice size was approximated in the characterization rig. Valve performance data were also collected with the valve modulating the fuel into the two combustor rigs. Comparison of the predicted and actual valve performance data show that when the valve is operated near its design condition the characterization rig can appropriately predict the installed performance of the valve. Improvements to the characterization rig and accompanying modeling activities are underway to more accurately predict performance, especially for the devices under development to modulate fuel into the much smaller fuel injectors anticipated in future lean-burning low-emissions aircraft engine combustors.

  18. A 3D velocimetry study of the flow through prosthetic heart valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledesma, R.; Zenit, R.; Pulos, G.; Sanchez, E.; Juarez, A.

    2006-11-01

    Blood damage commonly appears in medical valve prothesis. It is a mayor concern for the designers and surgeons. It is well known that this damage and other complications result from the modified fluid dynamics through the replacement valve. To evaluate the performance of prosthetic heart valves, it is necessary to study the flow through them. To conduct this study , we have built a flow channel that emulates cardiac conditions and allows optical access such that a 3D-PIV velocimetry system could be used. The experiments are aimed to reconstruct the downstream structure of the flow through a mechanical and a bio-material tricuspid heart valve prothesis. Preliminary results show that the observed coherent structures can be related with haemolysis and trombosis, illnesses commonly found in valve prothesis recipients. The mean flow, the levels of strain rate and the turbulence intensity generated by the valves can also be directly related to blood damage. In general, bio-material made valves tend to reduce these complications.

  19. Navier-Stokes flow field analysis of compressible flow in a high pressure safety relief valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vu, Bruce; Wang, Ten-See; Shih, Ming-Hsin; Soni, Bharat

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the complex three-dimensional flowfield of an oxygen safety pressure relieve valve during an incident, with a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis. Specifically, the analysis will provide a flow pattern that would lead to the expansion of the eventual erosion pattern of the hardware, so as to combine it with other findings to piece together a most likely scenario for the investigation. The CFD model is a pressure based solver. An adaptive upwind difference scheme is employed for the spatial discretization, and a predictor, multiple corrector method is used for the velocity-pressure coupling. The computational result indicated vortices formation near the opening of the valve which matched the erosion pattern of the damaged hardware.

  20. Application of color Doppler flow mapping to calculate orifice area of St Jude mitral valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leung, D. Y.; Wong, J.; Rodriguez, L.; Pu, M.; Vandervoort, P. M.; Thomas, J. D.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effective orifice area (EOA) of a prosthetic valve is superior to transvalvular gradients as a measure of valve function, but measurement of mitral prosthesis EOA has not been reliable. METHODS AND RESULTS: In vitro flow across St Jude valves was calculated by hemispheric proximal isovelocity surface area (PISA) and segment-of-spheroid (SOS) methods. For steady and pulsatile conditions, PISA and SOS flows correlated with true flow, but SOS and not PISA underestimated flow. These principles were then used intraoperatively to calculate cardiac output and EOA of newly implanted St Jude mitral valves in 36 patients. Cardiac output by PISA agreed closely with thermodilution (r=0.91, Delta=-0.05+/-0.55 L/min), but SOS underestimated it (r=0.82, Delta=-1.33+/-0.73 L/min). Doppler EOAs correlated with Gorlin equation estimates (r=0.75 for PISA and r=0.68 for SOS, P<0.001) but were smaller than corresponding in vitro EOA estimates. CONCLUSIONS: Proximal flow convergence methods can calculate forward flow and estimate EOA of St Jude mitral valves, which may improve noninvasive assessment of prosthetic mitral valve obstruction.

  1. Monovalve with integrated fuel injector and port control valve, and engine using same

    DOEpatents

    Milam, David M.

    2001-11-06

    An engine includes an engine casing that defines a hollow piston cavity separated from an exhaust passage and an intake passage by a valve seat. A gas exchange valve member is positioned adjacent the valve seat and is moveable between an open position and a closed position. The gas exchange valve member also defines an opening that opens into the hollow piston cavity. A needle valve member is positioned in the gas exchange valve member adjacent a nozzle outlet and is moveable between an inject position and a blocked position. A port control valve member, which has a hydraulic surface, is mounted around the gas exchange valve member and moveable between an intake position and an exhaust position. A pilot valve is moveable between a first position at which the port control hydraulic surface is exposed to a source of high pressure fluid, and a second position at which the port control hydraulic surface is exposed to a source of low pressure fluid.

  2. Three-dimentional simulation of flow-induced platelet activation in artificial heart valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedayat, Mohammadali; Asgharzadeh, Hafez; Borazjani, Iman

    2015-11-01

    Since the advent of heart valve, several valve types such as mechanical and bio-prosthetic valves have been designed. Mechanical Heart Valves (MHV) are durable but suffer from thromboembolic complications that caused by shear-induced platelet activation near the valve region. Bio-prosthetic Heart Valves (BHV) are known for better hemodynamics. However, they usually have a short average life time. Realistic simulations of heart valves in combination with platelet activation models can lead to a better understanding of the potential risk of thrombus formation in such devices. In this study, an Eulerian approach is developed to calculate the platelet activation in three-dimensional simulations of flow through MHV and BHV using a parallel overset-curvilinear immersed boundary technique. A curvilinear body-fitted grid is used for the flow simulation through the anatomic aorta, while the sharp-interface immersed boundary method is used for simulation of the Left Ventricle (LV) with prescribed motion. In addition, dynamics of valves were calculated numerically using under-relaxed strong-coupling algorithm. Finally, the platelet activation results for BMV and MHV are compared with each other.

  3. Innovative, High-Pressure, Cryogenic Control Valve: Short Face-to-Face, Reduced Cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A control valve that can throttle high-pressure cryogenic fluid embodies several design features that distinguish it over conventional valves designed for similar applications. Field and design engineers worked together to create a valve that would simplify installation, trim changes, and maintenance, thus reducing overall cost. The seals and plug stem packing were designed to perform optimally in cryogenic temperature ranges. Unlike conventional high-pressure cryogenic valves, the trim size can be changed independent of the body. The design feature that provides flexibility for changing the trim is a split body. The body is divided into an upper and a lower section with the seat ring sandwiched in between. In order to maintain the plug stem packing at an acceptable sealing temperature during cryogenic service, heat-exchanging fins were added to the upper body section. The body is made of stainless steel. The seat ring is made of a nickel-based alloy having a coefficient of thermal expansion less than that of the body material. Consequently, when the interior of the valve is cooled cryogenically, the body surrounding the seat ring contracts more than the seat ring. This feature prevents external leakage at the body-seat joint. The seat ring has been machined to have small, raised-face sealing surfaces on both sides of the seal groove. These sealing surfaces concentrate the body bolt load over a small area, thereby preventing external leakage. The design of the body bolt circle is different from that of conventional highpressure control valves. Half of the bolts clamp the split body together from the top, and half from the bottom side. This bolt-circle design allows a short, clean flow path, which minimizes frictional flow losses. This bolt-circle design also makes it possible to shorten the face-toface length of the valve, which is 25.5 in. (65 cm). In contrast, a conventional, high-pressure control valve face-to-face dimension may be greater than 40 in. (>1 m

  4. Monovalve with integrated fuel injector and port control valve, and engine using same

    DOEpatents

    Milam, David M.

    2002-01-01

    Each cylinder of an internal combustion engine includes a combined gas exchange valve and fuel injector with a port control valve. The port control valve operates to open either an intake passage or an exhaust passage. The operation of the combined device is controlled by a pair of electrical actuators. The device is hydraulically actuated.

  5. Dynamic Characteristics of The DSI-Type Constant-Flow Valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Yuan; Hu, Sheng-Yan; Chou, Hsien-Chin; Lee, Hsing-Han

    Constant flow valves have been presented in industrial applications or academic studies, which compensate recess pressures of a hydrostatic bearing to resist load fluctuating. The flow rate of constant-flow valves can be constant in spite of the pressure changes in recesses, however the design parameters must be specified. This paper analyzes the dynamic responses of DSI-type constant-flow valves that is designed as double pistons on both ends of a spool with single feedback of working pressure and regulating restriction at inlet. In this study the static analysis presents the specific relationships among design parameters for constant flow rate and the dynamic analyses give the variations around the constant flow rate as the working pressure fluctuates.

  6. Exhaled flow monitoring can detect bronchial flap-valve obstruction in a mechanical lung model.

    PubMed

    Breen, P H; Serina, E R; Barker, S J

    1995-08-01

    Flap-valve obstruction to expiratory flow (V) in a major bronchus can result from inspissated secretions, blood, or foreign body. During inhalation, increasing airway caliber preserves inspired V past the obstruction; during exhalation, decreasing airway diameter causes airflow obstruction and even frank gas trapping. We reasoned that the resultant sequential, biphasic exhalation of the lungs would be best detected by measuring exhaled V versus time. Accordingly, we designed an airway obstruction element in a mechanical lung model to examine flap-valve bronchial obstruction. A mechanical lung simulator was ventilated with a pressure-limited flow generator, where f = 10/min, tidal volume = 850 mL, and respiratory compliance = 40 mL/cm H2O. Airway V (pneumotachometer) and pressure (P) were digitally sampled for 1 min. Then, the circumference of the diaphragm in a respiratory one-way valve was trimmed to generate unidirectional resistance to expiratory V. Measurement sequences were repeated after this flap-valve was interposed in the right "main-stem bronchus." Integration of airway V versus time generated changes in lung volume. During flap-valve obstruction of the right bronchus, the V-time plot revealed preservation of peak expired flow from the normal lung, followed by retarded and decreased flow from the obstructed right lung. Gas trapping of the obstructed lung occurred during conditions of decreased expiratory time and increased expiratory resistance. Airway P could not differentiate between bronchial and tracheal flap-valve obstruction because P decreased abruptly in both conditions. The flow-volume loop displayed less distinctive changes than the flow-time plot, in part because the flow-volume loop was data (flow) plotted against its time integral (volume), with loss of temporal data. In this mechanical lung model, we conclude that bronchial flap-valve obstruction was best detected by the flow-time plot, which could measure the sequential emptying of the

  7. Main Oxidizer Valve Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Addona, Brad; Eddleman, David

    2015-01-01

    A developmental Main Oxidizer Valve (MOV) was designed by NASA-MSFC using additive manufacturing processes. The MOV is a pneumatically actuated poppet valve to control the flow of liquid oxygen to an engine's injector. A compression spring is used to return the valve to the closed state when pneumatic pressure is removed from the valve. The valve internal parts are cylindrical in shape, which lends itself to traditional lathe and milling operations. However, the valve body represents a complicated shape and contains the majority of the mass of the valve. Additive manufacturing techniques were used to produce a part that optimized mass and allowed for design features not practical with traditional machining processes.

  8. Metabolite Valves: Dynamic Control of Metabolic Flux for Pathway Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prather, Kristala

    2015-03-01

    Microbial strains have been successfully engineered to produce a wide variety of chemical compounds, several of which have been commercialized. As new products are targeted for biological synthesis, yield is frequently considered a primary driver towards determining feasibility. Theoretical yields can be calculated, establishing an upper limit on the potential conversion of starting substrates to target compounds. Such yields typically ignore loss of substrate to byproducts, with the assumption that competing reactions can be eliminated, usually by deleting the genes encoding the corresponding enzymes. However, when an enzyme encodes an essential gene, especially one involved in primary metabolism, deletion is not a viable option. Reducing gene expression in a static fashion is possible, but this solution ignores the metabolic demand needed for synthesis of the enzymes required for the desired pathway. We have developed Metabolite valves to address this challenge. The valves are designed to allow high flux through the essential enzyme during an initial period where growth is favored. Following an external perturbation, enzyme activity is then reduced, enabling a higher precursor pool to be diverted towards the pathway of interest. We have designed valves with control at both the transcriptional and post-translational levels. In both cases, key enzymes in glucose metabolism are regulated, and two different compounds are targeted for heterologous production. We have measured increased concentrations of intracellular metabolites once the valve is closed, and have demonstrated that these increased pools lead to increased product yields. These metabolite valves should prove broadly useful for dynamic control of metabolic flux, resulting in improvements in product yields.

  9. Adjustable flow rate controller for polymer solutions

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, Kenneth M.

    1981-01-01

    An adjustable device for controlling the flow rate of polymer solutions which results in only little shearing of the polymer molecules, said device comprising an inlet manifold, an outlet manifold, a plurality of tubes capable of providing communication between said inlet and outlet manifolds, said tubes each having an internal diameter that is smaller than that of the inlet manifold and large enough to insure that viscosity of the polymer solution passing through each said tube will not be reduced more than about 25 percent, and a valve associated with each tube, said valve being capable of opening or closing communication in that tube between the inlet and outlet manifolds, each said valve when fully open having a diameter that is substantially at least as great as that of the tube with which it is associated.

  10. Valve for abrasive material

    DOEpatents

    Gardner, Harold S.

    1982-01-01

    A ball valve assembly for controlling the flow of abrasive particulates including an enlarged section at the bore inlet and an enlarged section at the bore outlet. A refractory ceramic annular deflector is positioned in each of the enlarged sections, substantially extending the useful life of the valve.

  11. Radiant energy receiver having improved coolant flow control means

    DOEpatents

    Hinterberger, H.

    1980-10-29

    An improved coolant flow control for use in radiant energy receivers of the type having parallel flow paths is disclosed. A coolant performs as a temperature dependent valve means, increasing flow in the warmer flow paths of the receiver, and impeding flow in the cooler paths of the receiver. The coolant has a negative temperature coefficient of viscosity which is high enough such that only an insignificant flow through the receiver is experienced at the minimum operating temperature of the receiver, and such that a maximum flow is experienced at the maximum operating temperature of the receiver. The valving is accomplished by changes in viscosity of the coolant in response to the coolant being heated and cooled. No remotely operated valves, comparators or the like are needed.

  12. Engine including hydraulically actuated valvetrain and method of valve overlap control

    SciTech Connect

    Cowgill, Joel

    2012-05-08

    An exhaust valve control method may include displacing an exhaust valve in communication with the combustion chamber of an engine to an open position using a hydraulic exhaust valve actuation system and returning the exhaust valve to a closed position using the hydraulic exhaust valve actuation assembly. During closing, the exhaust valve may be displaced for a first duration from the open position to an intermediate closing position at a first velocity by operating the hydraulic exhaust valve actuation assembly in a first mode. The exhaust valve may be displaced for a second duration greater than the first duration from the intermediate closing position to a fully closed position at a second velocity at least eighty percent less than the first velocity by operating the hydraulic exhaust valve actuation assembly in a second mode.

  13. Space Vehicle Valve System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor); Lindner, Jeffrey L. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention is a space vehicle valve system which controls the internal pressure of a space vehicle and the flow rate of purged gases at a given internal pressure and aperture site. A plurality of quasi-unique variable dimension peaked valve structures cover the purge apertures on a space vehicle. Interchangeable sheet guards configured to cover valve apertures on the peaked valve structure contain a pressure-activated surface on the inner surface. Sheet guards move outwardly from the peaked valve structure when in structural contact with a purge gas stream flowing through the apertures on the space vehicle. Changing the properties of the sheet guards changes the response of the sheet guards at a given internal pressure, providing control of the flow rate at a given aperture site.

  14. Modeling prosthetic heart valves for numerical analysis of blood flow in the heart

    SciTech Connect

    Peskin, C.S.; McQueen, D.M.

    1980-08-01

    This paper extends our previous work on numerical analysis of blood flow in the heart. In that work the boundary forces were evaluated by solving a fixed-point problem, which we now reformulate as a problem in optimization. This optimization problem, which involves the energy function from which the boundary forces are derived, is solved by Murray's modification of Newton's method. The energy function turns out to be an extremely useful tool in modeling prosthetic heart valves. To enforce a constraint on the valve, we use an energy function which is zero when the constraint is satisfied and positive other wise. The energy function must be invariant under translation and rotation so that convervation of momentum and angular momentum will be satisfied. We use this technique to construct computer models of several prosthetic valves, and we study the flow patterns of these valves in our computer test chamber.

  15. Laser Doppler techniques for the combined measurement of inlet flow and valve motion in IC engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasparetti, M.; Paone, N.; Tomasini, E. P.

    1996-04-01

    A measurement methodology and a test set-up for the experimental investigation of internal combustion engines are presented. This system is based on a laser Doppler anemometer and a laser Doppler vibrometer which measure in a co-ordinated or simultaneous mode both the velocity of the intake flow and the motion of the inlet poppet valve. A synchronized data acquisition procedure allows the use of two optical instruments to analyse the effects of valve jumps and bounces on the inlet flow field. At high rpm, anomalous valve behaviour may appear. Fluid velocity measurements are taken inside the cylinder and the manifold of a motored automotive engine head at different rpm, up to a speed at which anomalous valve behaviour regularly occurs. Velocity data are processed in both time and frequency domains. This measurement system also represents a valuable tool to study resonance phenomena in ducts.

  16. Is a Bioprosthetic Valve in the Aortic Position Desirable with a Continuous Flow LVAD?

    PubMed

    Doi, Atsuo; Marasco, Silvana F; McGiffin, David C

    2015-05-01

    Commissural fusion of the native aortic valve in a patient with a continuous flow left ventricular assist device (LVAD) is a known phenomenon. This may result in aortic insufficiency (AI) leading to symptomatic heart failure. In patients with AI at the time of LVAD implantation, repairing, or replacing the aortic valve is advisable. We describe a patient who had a severe dilated cardiomyopathy and moderate AI who underwent implantation of an LVAD and aortic valve replacement with a bioprosthesis that subsequently developed commissural fusion which was found at the time of heart transplantation. This case highlights the conundrum of the management of AI in patients requiring LVAD support.

  17. Reduced-impact sliding pressure control valve for pneumatic hammer drill

    DOEpatents

    Polsky, Yarom [Oak Ridge, TN; Grubelich, Mark C [Albuquerque, NM; Vaughn, Mark R [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-05-15

    A method and means of minimizing the effect of elastic valve recoil in impact applications, such as percussive drilling, where sliding spool valves used inside the percussive device are subject to poor positioning control due to elastic recoil effects experienced when the valve impacts a stroke limiting surface. The improved valve design reduces the reflected velocity of the valve by using either an energy damping material, or a valve assembly with internal damping built-in, to dissipate the compression stress wave produced during impact.

  18. Pressure model of a four-way spool valve for simulating electrohydraulic control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gebben, V. D.

    1976-01-01

    An equation that relates the pressure flow characteristics of hydraulic spool valves was developed. The dependent variable is valve output pressure, and the independent variables are spool position and flow. This causal form of equation is preferred in applications that simulate the effects of hydraulic line dynamics. Results from this equation are compared with those from the conventional valve equation, whose dependent variable is flow. A computer program of the valve equations includes spool stops, leakage spool clearances, and dead-zone characteristics of overlap spools.

  19. Determining the Combined Effect of the Lymphatic Valve Leaflets and Sinus on Resistance to Forward Flow

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, John T.; van Loon, Raoul; Wang, Wei; Zawieja, David C.; Moore, James E.

    2015-01-01

    The lymphatic system is vital to a proper maintenance of fluid and solute homeostasis. Collecting lymphatics are composed of actively contracting tubular vessels segmented by bulbous sinus regions that encapsulate bi-leaflet check valves. Valve resistance to forward flow strongly influences pumping performance. However, because of the sub-millimeter size of the vessels with flow rates typically < 1 ml/hour and pressures of a few cmH2O, resistance is difficult to measure experimentally. Using a newly defined idealized geometry, we employed an uncoupled approach where the solid leaflet deflections of the open valve were computed and lymph flow calculations were subsequently performed. We sought to understand: 1) the effect of sinus and leaflet size on the resulting deflections experienced by the valve leaflets and 2) the effects on valve resistance to forward flow of the fully open valve. For geometries with sinus-to-root diameter ratios > 1.39, the average resistance to forward flow was 0.95 × 106 [g/(cm4 s)]. Compared to the viscous pressure drop that would occur in a straight tube the same diameter as the upstream lymphangion, valve leaflets alone increase the pressure drop up to 35%. However, the presence of the sinus reduces viscous losses, with the net effect that when combined with leaflets the overall resistance is less than that of the equivalent continuing straight tube. Accurately quantifying resistance to forward flow will add to the knowledge used to develop therapeutics for treating lymphatic disorders and may eventually lead to understanding some forms of primary lymphedema. PMID:26315921

  20. Development of Small-sized Fluid Control Valve with Self-holding Function Using Permanent Magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akagi, Tetsuya; Dohta, Shujiro; Ueda, Hirofumi

    Recently, force feedback devices in virtual reality and power assisted nursing care systems have received much attention and active research. In such a control system, an actuator and a driving device such as a control valve are mounted on the human body. In this condition, the size and weight of the control valve become serious problems. At the same time, the valve should be operated with lower energy consumption because of using a limited electrical power. The typical electro magnetic solenoid valve drives its spool using a larger solenoid to open the valve. The complex construction of the valve for sealing makes its miniaturization and the fabrication of a low cost valve more difficult. In addition, the solenoid in the valve consumes more electrical power while the valve is kept opening. The purpose of our study is to develop a small-sized, lightweight, lower energy consumption and flexible control valve that can be safe enough to mount on the human body at a lower cost. In our pervious study, we proposed and tested the control valve that can open using a vibration motor. In this study, we propose and test a new type of fluid control valve with a self-holding function. The new valve uses a permanent magnet ball. It has a cylindrical magnet and two solenoids. The self-holding function of the valve is done as follows. When one side of the solenoid is stimulated by the current momentarily, the solenoid gives a repulsive force to the cylindrical magnet. The magnet moves toward the opposite side of the solenoid and is attracted to the iron core. Then, the magnet ball moves toward the cylindrical magnet and opens the orifice. The valve can keep open without electrical energy. As a result, the valve with the extremely lower energy consumption can be developed.

  1. Check valve with poppet damping mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Brian G. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An inline check valve for a flow line is presented where the valve element is guided for inline travel forward and rearward of a valve sealing member and is spring biased to a closed sealing condition. One of the guides for the valve element includes a dashpot bore and plunger member to control the rate of travel of the valve element in either direction as well as provided a guiding function. The dashpot is not anchored to the valve body so that the valve can be functional even if the plunger member becomes jammed in the dashpot.

  2. Check valve with poppet damping mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Brian G.

    1993-08-01

    An inline check valve for a flow line is presented where the valve element is guided for inline travel forward and rearward of a valve sealing member and is spring biased to a closed sealing condition. One of the guides for the valve element includes a dashpot bore and plunger member to control the rate of travel of the valve element in either direction as well as provided a guiding function. The dashpot is not anchored to the valve body so that the valve can be functional even if the plunger member becomes jammed in the dashpot.

  3. Check valve with poppet damping mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Brian G.

    1992-06-01

    An inline check valve for a flow line is presented where the valve element is guided for inline travel forward and rearward of a valve sealing member and is spring biased to a closed sealing condition. One of the guides for the valve element includes a dashpot bore and plunger member to control the rate of travel of the valve element in either direction as well as provided a guiding function. The dashpot is not anchored to the valve body so that the valve can be functional even if the plunger member becomes jammed in the dashpot.

  4. Electromechanical actuation for cryogenic valve control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lister, M. J.; Reichmuth, D. M.

    1993-01-01

    The design and analysis of the electromechanical actuator (EMA) being developed for the NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center as part of the National Launch System (NLS) Propellant Control Effector Advanced Development Program (ADP) are addressed. The EMA design uses several proven technologies combined into a single modular package which includes single stage high ratio gear reduction, redundant electric motors mounted on a common drive shaft, redundant drive and control electronics, and digital technology for performing the closed loop position feedback, communication, and health monitoring functions. Results of tests aimed at evaluating both component characteristics and overall system performance demonstrated that the goal of low cost, reliable control in a cryogenic environment is feasible.

  5. Flow-pattern analysis of artificial heart valves using high-speed camera and PIV technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong Hyuk; Seo, Soo W.; Min, Byong Goo

    1995-05-01

    Artificial heart valve is one of the most important artificial organs which have been implanted to many patients. The most serious problems related to the artificial heart valve prothesis are thrombosis and hemolysis. In vivo experiment to test against this problem is complex and hard work. Nowadays the request for in vitro artificial heart valve testing system is increasing. Several papers have announced us that the flow pattern of artificial heart valve is highly correlated with thrombosis and hemolysis. LDA is a usual method to get flow pattern, which is difficult to operate, is expensive and has narrow measure region. PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) can solve these problems. Because the flow speed of valve is too high to catch particles by CCD camera and high-speed camera (Hyspeed; Holland-Photonics) was used. The estimated max flow speed was 5 m/sec and max trackable length is 0.5 cm, so the shutter speed was determined as 1000 frames per sec. Several image processing techniques (blurring, segmentation, morphology, etc.) were used for the preprocessing. Particle tracking algorithm and 2D interpolation technique which were necessary in making gridrized velocity profile, were applied to this PIV program. By using Single- Pulse Multi-Frame particle tracking algorithm, some problems of PIV can be solved. To eliminate particles which penetrate the sheeted plane and to determine the direction of particle paths are these. 1D relaxation formula is modified to interpolate 2D field. Parachute artificial heart valve which was developed by Scoul National University and Bjork-Shiely valve was testified. For each valve, different flow pattern, velocity profile, wall shear stress, turbulence intensity profile and mean velocity were obtained. Those parameters were compared with the result of in vivo experiment. In this experiment we can conclude wall shear stress is not high enough to generate hemolysis and higher turbulence intensity to make more hemolysis. For further

  6. A new PROFIBUS interface for vacuum sector gate valve controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pigny, G.; Ferreira, R.; Gomes, P.; Gyori, L.; Roda, M.

    2017-02-01

    The vacuum control systems of the accelerators complex at CERN are based on PLCs, which communicate with controllers either with direct inputs or outputs, or via PROFIBUS. In order to improve the efficiency of the sector valve controller communication, a low cost PROFIBUS interface card has been designed. This paper presents the developed hardware and firmware, together with the corresponding assessment tests. It flags the improvements of this new interface, in comparison with the former system. Furthermore, this paper can be helpful for any custom design that needs a PROFIBUS interface.

  7. Valve Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... valves in the heart: tricuspid, pulmonary, mitral, and aortic. Two types of problems can disrupt blood flow though the valves: regurgitation or stenosis. Regurgitation is also called insufficiency or incompetence. Regurgitation ...

  8. Innovative, High-Pressure, Cryogenic Control Valve: Short Face-to-Face, Reduced Cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, Karlin; Larsen, Ed; McCourt, Jackson

    2003-01-01

    A control valve that can throttle high-pressure cryogenic fluid embodies several design features that distinguish it over conventional valves designed for similar applications. Field and design engineers worked together to create a valve that would simplify installation, trim changes, and maintenance, thus reducing overall cost. The seals and plug stem packing were designed to perform optimally in cryogenic temperature ranges. Unlike conventional high-pressure cryogenic valves, the trim size can be changed independent of the body.

  9. Jet-controlled freeze valve for use in a glass melter

    DOEpatents

    Routt, K.R.

    1985-07-29

    A drain valve for use in furnace for the melting of thermoplastic material is disclosed. The furnace includes a drain cavity formed in its bottom for withdrawing a flow of thermoplastic material. The drain valve includes a flow member which include a flow tube having an inlet and outlet for the material, and coaxially disposed concentric tubular members defining annuli surrounding the flow tube. The tubular members include heating and cooling means for the flow tube. The drain valve can also be used in a furnace of glass melting that includes a drain cavity for withdrawing molten glass from the furnace.

  10. Solid handling valve

    DOEpatents

    Williams, William R.

    1979-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a solids handling valve for use in combination with lock hoppers utilized for conveying pulverized coal to a coal gasifier. The valve comprises a fluid-actuated flow control piston disposed within a housing and provided with a tapered primary seal having a recessed seat on the housing and a radially expandable fluid-actuated secondary seal. The valve seals are highly resistive to corrosion, erosion and abrasion by the solids, liquids, and gases associated with the gasification process so as to minimize valve failure.

  11. Non-linear control of a hydraulic piezo-valve using a generalised Prandtl-Ishlinskii hysteresis model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanski, Frederik; Minorowicz, Bartosz; Persson, Johan; Plummer, Andrew; Bowen, Chris

    2017-01-01

    The potential to actuate proportional flow control valves using piezoelectric ceramics or other smart materials has been investigated for a number of years. Although performance advantages compared to electromagnetic actuation have been demonstrated, a major obstacle has proven to be ferroelectric hysteresis, which is typically 20% for a piezoelectric actuator. In this paper, a detailed study of valve control methods incorporating hysteresis compensation is made for the first time. Experimental results are obtained from a novel spool valve actuated by a multi-layer piezoelectric ring bender. A generalised Prandtl-Ishlinskii model, fitted to experimental training data from the prototype valve, is used to model hysteresis empirically. This form of model is analytically invertible and is used to compensate for hysteresis in the prototype valve both open loop, and in several configurations of closed loop real time control system. The closed loop control configurations use PID (Proportional Integral Derivative) control with either the inverse hysteresis model in the forward path or in a command feedforward path. Performance is compared to both open and closed loop control without hysteresis compensation via step and frequency response results. Results show a significant improvement in accuracy and dynamic performance using hysteresis compensation in open loop, but where valve position feedback is available for closed loop control the improvements are smaller, and so conventional PID control may well be sufficient. It is concluded that the ability to combine state-of-the-art multi-layer piezoelectric bending actuators with either sophisticated hysteresis compensation or closed loop control provides a route for the creation of a new generation of high performance piezoelectric valves.

  12. Computational Modeling of Blood Flow and Valve Dynamics in Hearts with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xudong; Mittal, Rajat; Abraham, Theodore; Pinheiro, Aurelio

    2010-11-01

    Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a cardiovascular disease manifested by the thickening of the ventricular wall and often leads to a partial obstruction to the blood flow out of the left ventricle. HCM is recognized as one of the most common causes of sudden cardiac death in athletes. In a heart with HCM, the hypertrophy usually narrows the blood flow pathway to the aorta and produces a low pressure zone between the mitral valve and the hypertrophy during systole. This low pressure can suck the mitral valve leaflet back and completely block the blood flow into the aorta. In the current study, a sharp interface immersed boundary method flow solver is employed to study the hemodynamics and valve dynamics inside a heart with HCM. The three-dimensional motion and configuration of the left ventricle including mitral valve leaflets and aortic valves are reconstructed based on echo-cardio data sets. The mechanisms of aortic obstruction associated with HCM are investigated. The long term objective of this study is to develop a computational tool to aid in the assessment and surgical management of HCM.

  13. State feedback integral control for a rotary direct drive servo valve using a Lyapunov function approach.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jue; Zhuang, Jian; Yu, Dehong

    2015-01-01

    This paper concerns a state feedback integral control using a Lyapunov function approach for a rotary direct drive servo valve (RDDV) while considering parameter uncertainties. Modeling of this RDDV servovalve reveals that its mechanical performance is deeply influenced by friction torques and flow torques; however, these torques are uncertain and mutable due to the nature of fluid flow. To eliminate load resistance and to achieve satisfactory position responses, this paper develops a state feedback control that integrates an integral action and a Lyapunov function. The integral action is introduced to address the nonzero steady-state error; in particular, the Lyapunov function is employed to improve control robustness by adjusting the varying parameters within their value ranges. This new controller also has the advantages of simple structure and ease of implementation. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed controller can achieve higher control accuracy and stronger robustness.

  14. Use of thermocapillary migration in a controllable heat valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, L. A.

    1982-01-01

    In accordance with the Marangoni effect, immiscible droplets in a host fluid in which a temperature gradient exists move in the direction of increasing temperature. It is proposed that this thermocapillary migration could be used to construct a 'liquid wick' that would return the condensed vapor at the condenser end of a heat pipe back to the evaporator, thus completing the fluid circuit. The droplets would be formed by capillary pressure forcing the condensate through a perforated diaphragm whose temperature would control the droplet flux, and hence the heat flux between the two ends of the heat pipe, thus making it a controllable heat valve.

  15. Analysis of Complex Valve and Feed Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahuja, Vineet; Hosangadi, Ashvin; Shipman, Jeremy; Cavallo, Peter; Dash, Sanford

    2007-01-01

    A numerical framework for analysis of complex valve systems supports testing of propulsive systems by simulating key valve and control system components in the test loop. In particular, it is designed to enhance the analysis capability in terms of identifying system transients and quantifying the valve response to these transients. This system has analysis capability for simulating valve motion in complex systems operating in diverse flow regimes ranging from compressible gases to cryogenic liquids. A key feature is the hybrid, unstructured framework with sub-models for grid movement and phase change including cryogenic cavitations. The multi-element unstructured framework offers improved predictions of valve performance characteristics under steady conditions for structurally complex valves such as pressure regulator valve. Unsteady simulations of valve motion using this computational approach have been carried out for various valves in operation at Stennis Space Center such as the split-body valve and the 10-in. (approx.25.4-cm) LOX (liquid oxygen) valve and the 4-in. (approx.10 cm) Y-pattern valve (liquid nitrogen). Such simulations make use of variable grid topologies, thereby permitting solution accuracy and resolving important flow physics in the seat region of the moving valve. An advantage to this software includes possible reduction in testing costs incurred due to disruptions relating to unexpected flow transients or functioning of valve/flow control systems. Prediction of the flow anomalies leading to system vibrations, flow resonance, and valve stall can help in valve scheduling and significantly reduce the need for activation tests. This framework has been evaluated for its ability to predict performance metrics like flow coefficient for cavitating venturis and valve coefficient curves, and could be a valuable tool in predicting and understanding anomalous behavior of system components at rocket propulsion testing and design sites.

  16. Numerical analysis of fluid flow in the throttle poppet valve channel in precision machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Tongle; Zhang, Xinyi

    2008-12-01

    The velocity, pressure, stream function and velocity magnitude in different case are discussed by numerical analysis and simulation of the fluid flow in the throttle poppet valve channel in Precision Machinery. The place and intensity of vortexes are analyzed and the main causations of energy loss are found. It is indicated that the stream function, velocity magnitude, energy loss and flow noise is reduced, negative pressure is changed and the use of energy is improved by optimizing design of the throttle poppet valve spool.

  17. Multi-port valve assembly

    DOEpatents

    Guggenheim, S. Frederic

    1986-01-01

    A multi-port fluid valve apparatus is used to control the flow of fluids through a plurality of valves and includes a web, which preferably is a stainless steel endless belt. The belt has an aperture therethrough and is progressed, under motor drive and control, so that its aperture is moved from one valve mechanism to another. Each of the valve mechanisms comprises a pair of valve blocks which are held in fluid-tight relationship against the belt. Each valve block consists of a block having a bore through which the fluid flows, a first seal surrounding the bore and a second seal surrounding the first seal, with the distance between the first and second seals being greater than the size of the belt aperture. In order to open a valve, the motor progresses the belt aperture to where it is aligned with the two bores of a pair of valve blocks, such alignment permitting a flow of the fluid through the valve. The valve is closed by movement of the belt aperture and its replacement, within the pair of valve blocks, by a solid portion of the belt.

  18. Hydraulic valve control system for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, T.J.; LoRusso, J.A.; Kaufman, W.F.

    1992-07-07

    This patent describes a hydraulic engine valve actuating assembly for use in an internal combustion engine cylinder head having a poppet valve which is axially shiftable therein by a rotary camshaft, the hydraulic engine valve actuating assembly. It comprises a housing having a mounted surface to attach to the cylinder head immediately above the poppet valve, a master piston cooperating with the camshaft and sealingly engaging the first cavity; a slave piston cooperating with the poppet valve and sealingly engaging the housing second cavity; a hydraulic energy and fluid storage accumulator assembly affixed and sealingly engaged relative to the housing and being provided with a fluid port coupled with the housing fluid passageway; valve means; the housing including a third cavity coaxially aligned with the poppet valve; and the valve means including a reciprocal valve piston sealingly engaged within the third cavity.

  19. Combustor air flow control method for fuel cell apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Clingerman, Bruce J.; Mowery, Kenneth D.; Ripley, Eugene V.

    2001-01-01

    A method for controlling the heat output of a combustor in a fuel cell apparatus to a fuel processor where the combustor has dual air inlet streams including atmospheric air and fuel cell cathode effluent containing oxygen depleted air. In all operating modes, an enthalpy balance is provided by regulating the quantity of the air flow stream to the combustor to support fuel cell processor heat requirements. A control provides a quick fast forward change in an air valve orifice cross section in response to a calculated predetermined air flow, the molar constituents of the air stream to the combustor, the pressure drop across the air valve, and a look up table of the orifice cross sectional area and valve steps. A feedback loop fine tunes any error between the measured air flow to the combustor and the predetermined air flow.

  20. Paradoxical low flow aortic valve stenosis: incidence, evaluation, and clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Clavel, Marie-Annick; Pibarot, Philippe; Dumesnil, Jean G

    2014-01-01

    Paradoxical low-flow (PLF) aortic stenosis is defined by a stroke volume index <35 ml/m(2) despite the presence of preserved LV ejection fraction (≥ 50 %). This entity is typically characterized by pronounced LV concentric remodeling with small LV cavity, impaired LV filling, increased arterial load, and reduced LV longitudinal shortening. Patients with PLF also have a worse prognosis compared to patients with normal flow. Because of the low flow state, these patients often have a low gradient despite the presence of severe stenosis, thus leading to discordant AS grading (i.e., aortic valve area < 1.0 cm(2) but mean gradient < 40 mmHg) and thus uncertainty about the indication of aortic valve replacement. Stress echocardiography and aortic valve calcium score by computed tomography may be helpful to differentiate true from pseudo severe stenosis and thereby guide therapeutic management in these patients. Aortic valve replacement improves outcomes in patients with PLF low gradient AS having evidence of severe stenosis. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement may provide an interesting alternative to surgery in these patients.

  1. Comparison of tricuspid and bicuspid aortic valve hemodynamics under steady flow conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaman, Clara; Ward, James; Sucosky, Philippe

    2011-11-01

    The bicuspid aortic valve (BAV), a congenital valvular defect consisting of two leaflets instead of three, is associated with a high prevalence of calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD). CAVD also develops in the normal tricuspid aortic valve (TAV) but its progression in the BAV is more severe and rapid. Although hemodynamic abnormalities are increasingly considered potential pathogenic contributor, the native BAV hemodynamics remain largely unknown. Therefore, this study aims at comparing experimentally the hemodynamic environments in TAV and BAV anatomies. Particle-image velocimetry was used to characterize the flow downstream of a native TAV and a model BAV mounted in a left-heart simulator and subjected to three steady flow rates characterizing different phases of the cardiac cycle. While the TAV developed a jet aligned along the valve axis, the BAV was shown to develop a skewed systolic jet with skewness decreasing with increasing flow rate. Measurement of the transvalvular pressure revealed a valvular resistance up to 50% larger in the BAV than in the TAV. The increase in velocity between the TAV and BAV leads to an increase in shear stress downstream of the valve. This study reveals strong hemodynamic abnormalities in the BAV, which may contribute to CAVD pathogenesis.

  2. Fluid-structure interaction analysis of the flow through a stenotic aortic valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maleki, Hoda; Labrosse, Michel R.; Durand, Louis-Gilles; Kadem, Lyes

    2009-11-01

    In Europe and North America, aortic stenosis (AS) is the most frequent valvular heart disease and cardiovascular disease after systemic hypertension and coronary artery disease. Understanding blood flow through an aortic stenosis and developing new accurate non-invasive diagnostic parameters is, therefore, of primarily importance. However, simulating such flows is highly challenging. In this study, we considered the interaction between blood flow and the valve leaflets and compared the results obtained in healthy valves with stenotic ones. One effective method to model the interaction between the fluid and the structure is to use Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) approach. Our two-dimensional model includes appropriate nonlinear and anisotropic materials. It is loaded during the systolic phase by applying pressure curves to the fluid domain at the inflow. For modeling the calcified stenotic valve, calcium will be added on the aortic side of valve leaflets. Such simulations allow us to determine the effective orifice area of the valve, one of the main parameters used clinically to evaluate the severity of an AS, and to correlate it with changes in the structure of the leaflets.

  3. Effect of the prosthetic mitral valve on vortex dynamics and turbulence of the left ventricular flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querzoli, G.; Fortini, S.; Cenedese, A.

    2010-04-01

    Mechanical heart valves implanted in mitral position have a great effect on the ventricular flow. Changes include alteration of the dynamics of the vortical structures generated during the diastole and the onset of turbulence, possibly affecting the efficiency of the heart pump or causing blood cell damage. Modifications to the hemodynamics in the left ventricle, when the inflow through the mitral orifice is altered, were investigated in vitro using a silicone rubber, flexible ventricle model. Velocity fields were measured in space and time by means of an image analysis technique: feature tracking. Three series of experiments were performed: one with a top hat inflow velocity profile (schematically resembling physiological conditions), and two with mechanical prosthetic valves of different design, mounted in mitral position—one monoleaflet and the other bileaflet. In each series of runs, two different cardiac outputs have been examined by changing the stroke volume. The flow was investigated in terms of phase averaged velocity field and second order moments of turbulent fluctuations. Results show that the modifications in the transmitral flow change deeply the interaction between the coherent structures generated during the first phase of the diastole and the incoming jet during the second diastolic phase. Top hat inflow gives the coherent structures which are optimal, among the compared cases, for the systolic function. The flow generated by the bileaflet valve preserves most of the beneficial features of the top hat inflow, whereas the monoleaflet valve generates a strong jet which discourages the permanence of large coherent structures at the end of the diastole. Moreover, the average shear rate magnitudes induced by the smoother flow pattern of the case of top hat inflow are nearly halved in comparison with the values measured with the mechanical valves. Finally, analysis of the turbulence statistics shows that the monoleaflet valves yield higher turbulence

  4. Variable Frequency Diverter Actuation for Flow Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culley, Dennis E.

    2006-01-01

    The design and development of an actively controlled fluidic actuator for flow control applications is explored. The basic device, with one input and two output channels, takes advantage of the Coanda effect to force a fluid jet to adhere to one of two axi-symmetric surfaces. The resultant flow is bi-stable, producing a constant flow from one output channel, until a disturbance force applied at the control point causes the flow to switch to the alternate output channel. By properly applying active control the output flows can be manipulated to provide a high degree of modulation over a wide and variable range of frequency and duty cycle. In this study the momentary operative force is applied by small, high speed isolation valves of which several different types are examined. The active fluidic diverter actuator is shown to work in several configurations including that in which the operator valves are referenced to atmosphere as well as to a source common with the power stream.

  5. Check valve

    DOEpatents

    Upton, H.A.; Garcia, P.

    1999-08-24

    A check valve for use in a GDCS of a nuclear reactor and having a motor driven disk including a rotatable armature for rotating the check valve disk over its entire range of motion is described. In one embodiment, the check valve includes a valve body having a coolant flow channel extending therethrough. The coolant flow channel includes an inlet end and an outlet end. A valve body seat is located on an inner surface of the valve body. The check valve further includes a disk assembly, sometimes referred to as the motor driven disc, having a counterweight and a disk shaped valve. The disk valve includes a disk base having a seat for seating with the valve body seat. The disk assembly further includes a first hinge pin member which extends at least partially through the disk assembly and is engaged to the disk. The disk valve is rotatable relative to the first hinge pin member. The check valve also includes a motor having a stator frame with a stator bore therein. An armature is rotatably positioned within the stator bore and the armature is coupled to the disk valve to cause the disk valve to rotate about its full range of motion. 5 figs.

  6. Check valve

    DOEpatents

    Upton, Hubert Allen; Garcia, Pablo

    1999-08-24

    A check valve for use in a GDCS of a nuclear reactor and having a motor driven disk including a rotatable armature for rotating the check valve disk over its entire range of motion is described. In one embodiment, the check valve includes a valve body having a coolant flow channel extending therethrough. The coolant flow channel includes an inlet end and an outlet end. A valve body seat is located on an inner surface of the valve body. The check valve further includes a disk assembly, sometimes referred to as the motor driven disc, having a counterweight and a disk shaped valve. The disk valve includes a disk base having a seat for seating with the valve body seat. The disk assembly further includes a first hinge pin member which extends at least partially through the disk assembly and is engaged to the disk. The disk valve is rotatable relative to the first hinge pin member. The check valve also includes a motor having a stator frame with a stator bore therein. An armature is rotatably positioned within the stator bore and the armature is coupled to the disk valve to cause the disk valve to rotate about its full range of motion.

  7. Use of duplex stainless steel castings in control valves

    SciTech Connect

    Gossett, J.L.

    1996-07-01

    Duplex stainless steels have enjoyed rapidly increasing popularity in recent years. For numerous reasons the availability of these alloys in the cast form has lagged behind the availability of the wrought form. Commercial demand for control valves in these alloys has driven development of needed information to move into production. A systematic approach was used to develop specifications, suppliers and weld procedures. Corrosion, stress corrosion cracking (SCC), sulfide stress cracking (SSC) and hardness results are also presented for several alloys including; CD3MN (UNS J92205), CD4MCu (UNS J93370) and CD7MCuN (cast UNS S32550).

  8. Effect of mitral valve prosthesis design and orientation on intraventricular flow and blood stasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May-Newman, Karen; Campos, J.; Montes, R.; Ramesh, V.; Moon, J.; Reider, C.; Martinez-Legazpi, P.; Bermejo, J.; Rossini, Lorenzo; Del Alamo, Juan C.

    2016-11-01

    Abnormal blood flow patterns are linked with thromboembolism (TE), especially in the presence of medical devices such as mitral valve prostheses (MVP). We performed PIV on a customized silicone left ventricle (LV) in a mock circulatory loop. We measured the velocity field in the long-axis midplane for 3 different MVP: a porcine bioprosthesis (BP), a tilting disk valve in two orientations: towards the LV lateral (TD-L) or the anterior wall (TD-A), and a bileaflet valve with anti-anatomical orientation (BL). Diastolic LV vortices were tracked and related to measures of blood stasis based on LV residence time. The BP and the TD-L produced flow patterns similar to those measured in patients. The TD-A showed a complete reversal of diastolic vortices. The BL design had increased apical blood stasis, which may lead to increased TE risk.

  9. Transcatheter valve implantation can alter fluid flow fields in aortic sinuses and ascending aorta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikrishnan, Neelakantan; Yoganathan, Ajit

    2012-11-01

    Transcatheter aortic valves (TAVs) are valve replacements used to treat aortic stenosis. Currently, these have been used in elderly patients at high-risk for open-heart procedures. Since these devices are implanted under fluoroscopic guidance, the implantation position of the valve can vary with respect to the native aortic valve annulus. The current study characterizes the altered hemodynamics in the aortic sinus and ascending aorta under different implantation (high and low) and cardiac output (2.5 and 5.0 L/min) conditions. Two commonly used TAV designs are studied using 2-D Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). 200 phase locked images are obtained at every 25ms in the cardiac cycle, and the resulting vector fields are ensemble averaged. High implantation of the TAV with respect to the annulus causes weaker sinus washout and weaker sinus vortex formation. Additionally, the longer TAV leaflets can also result in a weaker sinus vortex. The level of turbulent fluctuations in the ascending aorta did not appear to be affected by axial positioning of the valve, but varied with cardiac output. The results of this study indicates that TAV positioning is important to be considered clinically, since this can affect coronary perfusion and potential flow stagnation near the valve.

  10. Numerical simulation of the incompressible internal flow through a tilting disk valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, I-Dee; Rogers, Stuart E.; Kwak, Dochan; Kiris, Cetin

    1990-01-01

    A numerical simulation of the incompressible viscous flow through a prosthetic tilting disk heart valve is presented in order to demonstrate the current capability to model unsteady flows with moving boundaries. Both steady and unsteady flow calculations are performed by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in three-dimensional generalized curvilinear coordinates. In order to handle the moving boundary problems, the chimera grid embedding scheme which decomposes a complex computational domain into several simple subdomains is used. An algebraic turbulence model for internal flows is incorporated to reach the physiological values of Reynolds number. Good agreement is obtained between the numerical results and experimental measurements. It is found that the tilting disk valve causes large regions of separated flow, and regions of high shear.

  11. Improved Merge Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George-Falvy, Dez

    1992-01-01

    Circumferential design combines compactness and efficiency. In remotely controlled valve, flow in tributary duct along circumference of primary duct merged with flow in primary duct. Flow in tributary duct regulated by variable throat nuzzle driven by worm gear. Design leak-proof, and most components easily fabricated on lathe.

  12. Flow analysis of Space Shuttle feed line 17-inch disconnect valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, Max; Pearce, Daniel

    1988-01-01

    A steady incompressible three-dimensional viscous flow analysis has been conducted for the Space Shuttle external-tank/orbiter propellant-feed-line disconnect flapper valves with upstream elbows. The full Navier-Stokes code INS3D is modified to handle interior obstacles. Important flow characteristics such as secondary flows, recirculation, vortex and wake regions, and separated flows are observed. Computed values for forces, moments, and pressure drop are in satisfactory agreement with water flow test data covering a maximum tube Reynolds number of 3.5 x 10 to the 6th.

  13. Hydraulic High Pressure Valve Controller Using the In-Situ Pressure Difference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Hall, Jeffery L. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A hydraulic valve controller that uses an existing pressure differential as some or all of the power source for valve operation. In a high pressure environment, such as downhole in an oil or gas well, the pressure differential between the inside of a pipe and the outside of the pipe may be adequately large to drive a linear slide valve. The valve is operated hydraulically by a piston in a bore. When a higher pressure is applied to one end of the bore and a lower pressure to the other end, the piston moves in response to the pressure differential and drives a valve attached to it. If the pressure differential is too small to drive the piston at a sufficiently high speed, a pump is provided to generate a larger pressure differential to be applied. The apparatus is conveniently constructed using multiport valves, which can be rotary valves.

  14. Microelectromechanical flow control apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Okandan, Murat

    2009-06-02

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) flow control apparatus is disclosed which includes a fluid channel formed on a substrate from a first layer of a nonconducting material (e.g. silicon nitride). A first electrode is provided on the first layer of the nonconducting material outside the flow channel; and a second electrode is located on a second layer of the nonconducting material above the first layer. A voltage applied between the first and second electrodes deforms the fluid channel to increase its cross-sectional size and thereby increase a flow of a fluid through the channel. In certain embodiments of the present invention, the fluid flow can be decreased or stopped by applying a voltage between the first electrode and the substrate. A peristaltic pumping of the fluid through the channel is also possible when the voltage is applied in turn between a plurality of first electrodes and the substrate. A MEM flow control assembly can also be formed by providing one or more MEM flow control devices on a common substrate together with a submicron filter. The MEM flow control assembly can optionally include a plurality of pressure sensors for monitoring fluid pressure and determining flow rates through the assembly.

  15. Numerical analysis of the turbulent fluid flow through valves. Geometrical aspects influence at different positions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigola, J.; Aljure, D.; Lehmkuhl, O.; Pérez-Segarra, C. D.; Oliva, A.

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to carry out a group of numerical experiments over the fluid flow through a valve reed, using the CFD&HT code TermoFluids, an unstructured and parallel object-oriented CFD code for accurate and reliable solving of industrial flows. Turbulent flow and its solution is a very complex problem due to there is a non-lineal interaction between viscous and inertial effects further complicated by their rotational nature, together with the three-dimensionality inherent in these types of flow and the non-steady state solutions. In this work, different meshes, geometrical conditions and LES turbulence models (WALE, VMS, QR and SIGMA) are tested and results compared. On the other hand, the fluid flow boundary conditions are obtained by means of the numerical simulation model of hermetic reciprocating compressors tool, NEST-compressor code. The numerical results presented are based on a specific geometry, where the valve gap opening percentage is 11% of hole diameter and Reynolds numbers given by the one-dimensional model is 4.22 × 105, with density meshes of approximately 8 million CVs. Geometrical aspects related with the orifice's shape and its influence on fluid flow behaviour and pressure drop are analysed in detail, furthermore, flow results for different valve openings are also studied.

  16. THERMALLY OPERATED VAPOR VALVE

    DOEpatents

    Dorward, J.G. Jr.

    1959-02-10

    A valve is presented for use in a calutron to supply and control the vapor to be ionized. The invention provides a means readily operable from the exterior of the vacuum tank of the apparatuss without mechanical transmission of forces for the quick and accurate control of the ionizing arc by a corresponding control of gas flow theretos thereby producing an effective way of carefully regulating the operation of the calutron. The invention consists essentially of a tube member extending into the charge bottle of a calutron devices having a poppet type valve closing the lower end of the tube. An electrical heating means is provided in the valve stem to thermally vary the length of the stem to regulate the valve opening to control the flow of material from the charge bottle.

  17. The Nordic Aortic Valve Intervention (NOTION) trial comparing transcatheter versus surgical valve implantation: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Degenerative aortic valve (AV) stenosis is the most prevalent heart valve disease in the western world. Surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) has until recently been the standard of treatment for patients with severe AV stenosis. Whether transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) can be offered with improved safety and similar effectiveness in a population including low-risk patients has yet to be examined in a randomised setting. Methods/Design This randomised clinical trial will evaluate the benefits and risks of TAVI using the transarterial CoreValve System (Medtronic Inc., Minneapolis, MN, USA) (intervention group) compared with SAVR (control group) in patients with severe degenerative AV stenosis. Randomisation ratio is 1:1, enrolling a total of 280 patients aged 70 years or older without significant coronary artery disease and with a low, moderate, or high surgical risk profile. Trial outcomes include a primary composite outcome of myocardial infarction, stroke, or all-cause mortality within the first year after intervention (expected rates 5% for TAVI, 15% for SAVR). Exploratory safety outcomes include procedure complications, valve re-intervention, and cardiovascular death, as well as cardiac, cerebral, pulmonary, renal, and vascular complications. Exploratory efficacy outcomes include New York Heart Association functional status, quality of life, and valve prosthesis and cardiac performance. Enrolment began in December 2009, and 269 patients have been enrolled up to December 2012. Discussion The trial is designed to evaluate the performance of TAVI in comparison with SAVR. The trial results may influence the choice of treatment modality for patients with severe degenerative AV stenosis. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01057173 PMID:23302232

  18. Measurement and multidimensional prediction of flow in a axisymmetric port/valve assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Gosman, A.D.; Ahmed, A.M.Y.

    1987-01-01

    The results are reported of a combined experimental and computational study of steady flow through an axisymmetric valve/port assembly, the main objective of which was to assess the accuracy of the multidimensional model predictions of this flow. Measurements of the discharge coefficient, mean velocity and the turbulent Reynolds stress fields were obtained by hot-wire anemometry at various valve lifts. These were supplemented by flow visualisation studies. Predictions were made using a finite-volume method employing a body-fitted computational mesh and the k-epsilon turbulence model. Good agreement was found at low lifts, but at higher values this deteriorated due to the inability of the turbulence model to provoke the flow separations which occurred in the experiments. The conclusion is that for both idealised and practical ports multidimensional predictions will be of limited accuracy until better turbulence models become available.

  19. Deformation of a membrane in a pulsatile flow: implications in heart valve design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, C.; Guzman, J. E. V.; Zenit, R.

    2011-11-01

    Current designs of heart valves prosthetics have serious disadvantages and health issues for patients who use them. For this reason, a new design that combines durability (mechanical valves) and biocompatibility (biological valves) has to be conceived. Natural valves have very complex geometry because their leaflets have two principal curvatures, one imposed by the holding ring and a second one imposed by the bending of the closing arrangement. The objective of this research is to study the effects of both curvatures on the performance of a leaflet. It is well known that the increase of the curvature results in a larger stiffness, which, in turn, reduces the deflection of a leaflet. We conducted a study to determine the effect of changing the curvature (in two directions) of a flexible membrane when exposed to a steady and pulsatile flows. A study of the flow field that results from this interaction is also conducted by PIV measurements. Preliminary results of the leaflet deflection for many stiffnesses, curvatures and flow conditions will be presented and discussed.

  20. Design and Implementation of Automatic Air Flow Rate Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbar, A.; Saputra, C.; Munir, M. M.; Khairurrijal

    2016-08-01

    Venturimeter is an apparatus that can be used to measure the air flow rate. In this experiment we designed a venturimeter which equipped with a valve that is used to control the air flow rate. The difference of pressure between the cross sections was measured with the differential pressure sensor GA 100-015WD which can calculate the difference of pressures from 0 to 3737.33 Pa. A 42M048C Z36 stepper motor was used to control the valve. The precision of this motor rotation is about 0.15 °. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) was developed to monitor and set the value of flow rate then an 8-bit microcontroller was used to process the control system In this experiment- the venturimeter has been examined to get the optimal parameter of controller. The results show that the controller can set the stable output air flow rate.

  1. Technology Reinvestment Program/Advanced ``Zero Emission'' Control Valve (Phase II)

    SciTech Connect

    J. Napoleon

    1998-12-01

    The objectives of this effort are to determine, develop and demonstrate the feasibility of significantly reducing the cost and expanding the applications for a family of Advanced Zero Emissions Control Valves that meets the fugitive emissions requirements of the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act. This program is a direct technology spin-off from the valve technology that is critical to the US Navy's Nuclear Powered Fleet. These zero emissions valves will allow the Hydrocarbon and Chemical Processing Industries, etc., to maintain their competitiveness and still meet environmental and safety requirements. Phase 2 is directed at refining the basic technologies developed during Phase 1 so that they can be more readily selected and utilized by the target market. In addition to various necessary certifications, the project will develop a full featured digital controller with ``smart valve'' growth capability, expanding valve sizes/applications and identifying valve materials to permit applications in severe operational environments.

  2. Duct Flow Control System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    is ejected under pressure tangentially of local duct surfaces through Coanda affected slots at the trailing edge of the duct from which only the...channel passages in order to modify the flow stream through the duct so as to perform certain functions such as thrust control and steerage control effects enhancing vehicle maneuverability.

  3. Physical modeling of the flow downstream of the butterfly valve of a carburetor

    SciTech Connect

    Lahbabi, F.Z.; Nuglish, H.J.; Couteau, G.; Charnay, G. )

    1993-07-01

    The flow downstream of the carburetor of a spark ignition piston-engine was experimentally investigated, the geometry was simplified, and single-phase flow was used. Experiments were carried out in a straight cylindrical tube in which a butterfly valve was mounted. Tests were made with water and air. Qualitative and quantitative flow-visualization techniques and hot wire anemometry were used. The existence of several zones of low downstream of the valve was shown by local velocity measurements and measurement of three-dimensional particle trajectories. These results permitted estimation of the location of regions with high, medium, and low rates of deposition of fuel droplets on the walls under actual operating conditions of engines.

  4. Optimal Flow Control Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allan, Brian; Owens, Lewis

    2010-01-01

    In support of the Blended-Wing-Body aircraft concept, a new flow control hybrid vane/jet design has been developed for use in a boundary-layer-ingesting (BLI) offset inlet in transonic flows. This inlet flow control is designed to minimize the engine fan-face distortion levels and the first five Fourier harmonic half amplitudes while maximizing the inlet pressure recovery. This concept represents a potentially enabling technology for quieter and more environmentally friendly transport aircraft. An optimum vane design was found by minimizing the engine fan-face distortion, DC60, and the first five Fourier harmonic half amplitudes, while maximizing the total pressure recovery. The optimal vane design was then used in a BLI inlet wind tunnel experiment at NASA Langley's 0.3-meter transonic cryogenic tunnel. The experimental results demonstrated an 80-percent decrease in DPCPavg, the reduction in the circumferential distortion levels, at an inlet mass flow rate corresponding to the middle of the operational range at the cruise condition. Even though the vanes were designed at a single inlet mass flow rate, they performed very well over the entire inlet mass flow range tested in the wind tunnel experiment with the addition of a small amount of jet flow control. While the circumferential distortion was decreased, the radial distortion on the outer rings at the aerodynamic interface plane (AIP) increased. This was a result of the large boundary layer being distributed from the bottom of the AIP in the baseline case to the outer edges of the AIP when using the vortex generator (VG) vane flow control. Experimental results, as already mentioned, showed an 80-percent reduction of DPCPavg, the circumferential distortion level at the engine fan-face. The hybrid approach leverages strengths of vane and jet flow control devices, increasing inlet performance over a broader operational range with significant reduction in mass flow requirements. Minimal distortion level requirements

  5. 4D Flow MRI in bicuspid aortic valve disease demonstrates altered distribution of aortic blood flow helicity

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, R.; Bock, J.; Barker, A. J.; von Knobelsdorff-Brenkenhoff, F.; Wallis, W.; Korvink, J. G.; Bissell, M. M.; Schulz-Menger, J.; Markl, M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Changes in aortic geometry or presence of aortic valve disease can result in substantially altered aortic hemodynamics. Dilatation of the ascending aorta or aortic valve abnormalities can result in an increase in helical flow. Methods 4D flow MRI was used to test the feasibility of quantitative helicity analysis using equidistantly distributed 2D planes along the entire aorta. The evaluation of the method included three parts: 1) the quantification of helicity in 12 healthy subjects, 2) an evaluation of observer variability and test-retest reliability, and 3) the quantification of helical flow in 16 patients with congenitally altered bicuspid aortic valves. Results Helicity quantification in healthy subjects revealed consistent directions of flow rotation along the entire aorta with high clockwise helicity in the aortic arch and an opposite rotation sense in the ascending and descending aorta. The results demonstrated good scan-rescan and inter- and intra-observer agreement of the helicity parameters. Helicity quantification in patients revealed a significant increase of absolute peak relative helicity during systole and a considerably greater heterogeneous distribution of mean helicity in the aorta. Conclusion The method has the potential to serve as a reference distribution for comparisons of helical flow between healthy subjects and patients or between different patient groups. PMID:23716466

  6. Aircraft Laminar Flow Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joslin, Ronald D.

    1998-01-01

    Aircraft laminar flow control (LFC) from the 1930's through the 1990's is reviewed and the current status of the technology is assessed. Examples are provided to demonstrate the benefits of LFC for subsonic and supersonic aircraft. Early studies related to the laminar boundary-layer flow physics, manufacturing tolerances for laminar flow, and insect-contamination avoidance are discussed. LFC concept studies in wind-tunnel and flight experiments are the major focus of the paper. LFC design tools are briefly outlined for completeness.

  7. Identification of critical zones in the flow through prosthetic heart valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, A.; Ledesma, R.; Zenit, R.; Pulos, G.

    2008-11-01

    The hemodynamic properties of prosthetic heart valves can cause blood damage and platelet activation due to the non- physiological flow patterns. Blood recirculation and elevated shear stresses are believed to be responsible for these complications. The objective of this study is to identify and quantify the conditions for which recirculation and high stress zones appear. We have performed a comparative study between a mechanical monoleaflet and biological valve. In order to generate the flow conditions to test the prosthesis, we have built a hydraulic circuit which reproduces the human systemic circulation, on the basis of the Windkessel model. This model is based on an electrical analogy which consists of an arterial resistance and compliance. Using PIV 3D- Stereo measurements, taken downstream from the prosthetic heart valves, we have reconstructed the full phase-averaged tridimensional velocity field. Preliminary results show that critical zones are more prominent in mechanical prosthesis, indicating that valves made with bio-materials are less likely to produce blood trauma. This is in accordance with what is generally found in the literature.

  8. Development of digital flow control system for multi-channel variable-rate sprayers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision modulation of nozzle flow rates is a critical step for variable-rate spray applications in orchards and ornamental nurseries. An automatic flow rate control system activated with microprocessors and pulse width modulation (PWM) controlled solenoid valves was developed to control flow rates...

  9. Electro-Mechanical Coaxial Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Paul R (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    Coaxial valves usually contain only one moving part. It has not been easy, then, to provide for electric motor actuation. Many actuators being proposed involve designs which lead to bulky packages. The key facing those improving coaxial valves is the provision of suitable linear actuation. The valve herein indudes a valve housing with a flow channel there-through. Arranged in the flow channel is a closing body. In alignment with the closing body is a ball screw actuator which includes a ball nut and a cylindrical screw. The ball nut sounds a threaded portion of the cylindrical screw. The cylindrical screw is provided with a passageway there-through through which fluid flows. The cylindrical screw is disposed in the flow channel to become a control tube adapted to move toward and away from the valve seat. To rotate the ball nut an actuating drive is employed driven by a stepper motor.

  10. Variable gas leak rate valve

    DOEpatents

    Eernisse, Errol P.; Peterson, Gary D.

    1976-01-01

    A variable gas leak rate valve which utilizes a poled piezoelectric element to control opening and closing of the valve. The gas flow may be around a cylindrical rod with a tubular piezoelectric member encircling the rod for seating thereagainst to block passage of gas and for reopening thereof upon application of suitable electrical fields.

  11. Distant downstream steady-state flow studies of a mechanical heart valve: PIV study of secondary flow in a model aortic arch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fix, Brandon R.; Popma, Christopher J.; Bulusu, Kartik V.; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2013-11-01

    Each year, hundreds of thousands of aortic and mitral heart valves are replaced with prosthetic valves. In efforts to develop a valve that does not require lifelong anticoagulation therapy, previous experimental research has been devoted to analyzing the hemodynamics of various heart valve designs, limited to the flow up to only 2 diameters downstream of the valve. Two-component, two-dimensional (2C-2D) particle image velocimetry (PIV) was used in this study to examine secondary flow velocity fields in a curved tube modeling an aorta at five locations (0-, 45-, 90-, 135-, 180-degrees). A bileaflet valve, opened to 30-, 45-, and 59-degrees, and one (no-valve) baseline condition were examined under three steady flow inflows (Re = 218, 429, 634). In particular, variations in the two-dimensional turbulent shear stresses at each cross sectional plane were analyzed. The results suggest that bileaflet valves in the aortic model produce significant turbulence and vorticity up to 5.5 downstream diameters, i.e. up to the 90-degrees location. Expanding this research towards aortic heart valve hemodynamics highlights a need for additional studies extending beyond the typical few diameters downstream to fully characterize valvular function. Supported by the NSF Grant No. CBET- 0828903 and GW Center for Biomimetics and Bioinspired Engineering.

  12. Magnetically operated check valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Brian G. (Inventor); Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A magnetically operated check valve is disclosed. The valve is comprised of a valve body and a movable poppet disposed therein. A magnet attracts the poppet to hold the valve shut until the force of fluid flow through the valve overcomes the magnetic attraction and moves the poppet to an unseated, open position. The poppet and magnet are configured and disposed to trap a magnetically attracted particulate and prevent it from flowing to a valve seating region.

  13. Magnetically operated check valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Brian G.; Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1994-06-01

    A magnetically operated check valve is disclosed. The valve is comprised of a valve body and a movable poppet disposed therein. A magnet attracts the poppet to hold the valve shut until the force of fluid flow through the valve overcomes the magnetic attraction and moves the poppet to an unseated, open position. The poppet and magnet are configured and disposed to trap a magnetically attracted particulate and prevent it from flowing to a valve seating region.

  14. Control of Junction Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, T.-C.; Bingham, C.; Kellier, L.

    2001-11-01

    Control for horseshoe vortices resulting from boundary layer separation in front of a structure has long been sought without satisfactory results. Tests were carried out in a water channel with the objective of seeking such a control. The water channel has a test section of .6m wide, .4m deep and 8m long, with an adjustable mean flow speed of up to .5m/s. Flow visualization technique was used to elucidate the flow process. To control the horseshoe vortex a long airfoil of 1cm chord was placed horizontally near the ground upstream of a 10cm thin square plate. It was found that the original horseshoe vortex moved toward and circulated around the airfoil. The junction flow immediately upstream of the obstacle was noticeably steady and free of disturbance. The process was insensitive to the streamwise location of the airfoil, horseshoe's vortical structure, stream speed and acceleration, upstream vortical influx, and magnitude/sign of airfoil's angle of attack. Experimental results with obliquely mounted square cylinder were similar, which demonstrated that controls were effective for all angles of attack.

  15. Particle image velocimetry study of pulsatile flow in bi-leaflet mechanical heart valves with image compensation method.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yubing; Yeo, Tony Joon Hock; Zhao, Yong; Hwang, Ned H C

    2006-12-01

    Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is an important technique in studying blood flow in heart valves. Previous PIV studies of flow around prosthetic heart valves had different research concentrations, and thus never provided the physical flow field pictures in a complete heart cycle, which compromised their pertinence for a better understanding of the valvular mechanism. In this study, a digital PIV (DPIV) investigation was carried out with improved accuracy, to analyse the pulsatile flow field around the bi-leaflet mechanical heart valve (MHV) in a complete heart cycle. For this purpose a pulsatile flow test rig was constructed to provide the necessary in vitro test environment, and the flow field around a St. Jude size 29 bi-leaflet MHV and a similar MHV model were studied under a simulated physiological pressure waveform with flow rate of 5.2 l/min and pulse rate at 72 beats/min. A phase-locking method was applied to gate the dynamic process of valve leaflet motions. A special image-processing program was applied to eliminate optical distortion caused by the difference in refractive indexes between the blood analogue fluid and the test section. Results clearly showed that, due to the presence of the two leaflets, the valvular flow conduit was partitioned into three flow channels. In the opening process, flow in the two side channels was first to develop under the presence of the forward pressure gradient. The flow in the central channel was developed much later at about the mid-stage of the opening process. Forward flows in all three channels were observed at the late stage of the opening process. At the early closing process, a backward flow developed first in the central channel. Under the influence of the reverse pressure gradient, the flow in the central channel first appeared to be disturbed, which was then transformed into backward flow. The backward flow in the central channel was found to be the main driving factor for the leaflet rotation in the valve

  16. Digital feedwater and recirculation flow control for GPUN Oyster Creek

    SciTech Connect

    Burjorjee, D. ); Gan, B. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the digital system for feedwater and recirculation control that GPU Nuclear will be installing at Oyster Creek during its next outage - expected circa December 1992. The replacement was motivated by considerations of reliability and obsolescence - the analog equipment was aging and reaching the end of its useful life. The new system uses Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd.'s software platform running on dual, redundant, industrial-grade 386 computers with opto-isolated field input/output (I/O) accessed through a parallel bus. The feedwater controller controls three main feed regulating valves, two low flow regulating valves, and two block valves. The recirculation controller drives the five scoop positioners of the hydraulic couplers. The system also drives contacts that lock up the actuators on detecting an open circuit in their current loops.

  17. Quartz ball valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goetz, C.; Ingle, W. M. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A ball valve particularly suited for use in the handling of highly corrosive fluids is described. It is characterized by a valve housing formed of communicating segments of quartz tubing, a pair of communicating sockets disposed in coaxial alignment with selected segments of tubing for establishing a pair of inlet ports communicating with a common outlet port, a ball formed of quartz material supported for displacement between the sockets and configured to be received alternately thereby, and a valve actuator including a rod attached to the ball for selectively displacing the ball relative to each of the sockets for controlling fluid flow through the inlet ports.

  18. Chemical Safety Alert: Emergency Isolation for Hazardous Material Fluid Transfer Systems - Application and Limitations of Excess Flow Valves

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    While excess flow valves (EFV) are in extensive service and have prevented numerous pipe or hose breaks from becoming much more serious incidents, experience shows that in some cases the EFV did not perform as intended, usually because of misapplication.

  19. Loop Heat Pipe with Thermal Control Valve as a Variable Thermal Link

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartenstine, John; Anderson, William G.; Walker, Kara; Dussinger, Pete

    2012-01-01

    Future lunar landers and rovers will require variable thermal links that allow for heat rejection during the lunar daytime and passively prevent heat rejection during the lunar night. During the lunar day, the thermal management system must reject the waste heat from the electronics and batteries to maintain them below the maximum acceptable temperature. During the lunar night, the heat rejection system must either be shut down or significant amounts of guard heat must be added to keep the electronics and batteries above the minimum acceptable temperature. Since guard heater power is unfavorable because it adds to system size and complexity, a variable thermal link is preferred to limit heat removal from the electronics and batteries during the long lunar night. Conventional loop heat pipes (LHPs) can provide the required variable thermal conductance, but they still consume electrical power to shut down the heat transfer. This innovation adds a thermal control valve (TCV) and a bypass line to a conventional LHP that proportionally allows vapor to flow back into the compensation chamber of the LHP. The addition of this valve can achieve completely passive thermal control of the LHP, eliminating the need for guard heaters and complex controls.

  20. Direct Numerical Simulation of turbulent flow induced by prosthetic heart valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristallo, Antonio; Verzicco, Roberto

    2005-11-01

    The complex turbulent flow patterns downstream of mechanical bileaflet valves are to a large extend responsible for the thromboembolic complications that remain a major concern after surgery. To illuminate the detailed dynamics of flow in the vicinity of such valves we performed Direct Numerical Simulations in a simplified configuration. The selected shape and size of the leaflets roughly mimics the SJM Standard bi-leaflet. Also, the housing was a straight pipe with rigid walls which expands and then contracts to mimic the geometry of the aortic root. The overall set-up resembles the one commonly used in in-vitro experiments. The computation of the fluid structure interaction problem is performed using a fully coupled, embedded boundary formulation at physiologic flowrates. The valves open at the beginning of the systole and close before the start of the diastole. The interaction of vortices originating from the leaflets and the housing dominate the flow in the downstream proximal area and are responsible for most of the production of turbulent stress.

  1. Electrically heated particulate filter with zoned exhaust flow control

    SciTech Connect

    Gonze, Eugene V

    2012-06-26

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter that includes X zones. An electrical heater includes Y heater segments that are associated with respective ones of the X zones. The electrical heater is arranged upstream from and proximate with the PM filter. A valve assembly includes Z sections that are associated with respective ones of the X zones. A control module adjusts flow through each of the Z sections during regeneration of the PM filter via control of the valve assembly. X, Y and Z are integers.

  2. TECHNICAL DESIGN NOTE: Identification of the flow-rate characteristics of a pneumatic valve by the instantaneous polytropic exponent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Ye; Xiang, Meng Guo

    2008-05-01

    A novel method of the identification of the flow-rate characteristics of pneumatic valves using the instantaneous polytropic exponents during a discharge process is proposed. The method can determine the sonic conductance C, the critical pressure ratio b and the subsonic index ms of a pneumatic valve with a single discharge process. The method is based on a new hybrid natural and forced convection heat transfer criterion model. The procedure of the identification of the flow-rate characteristics of the pneumatic valve has been derived. Some examples of the calculation are given and the results are graphically illustrated. Experimental results show that the model has good accuracy and universality.

  3. Manufacturable plastic microfluidic valves using thermal actuation.

    PubMed

    Pitchaimani, Karthik; Sapp, Brian C; Winter, Adam; Gispanski, Austin; Nishida, Toshikazu; Hugh Fan, Z

    2009-11-07

    A low-cost, manufacturable, thermally actuated, plastic microfluidic valve has been developed. The valve contains an encapsulated, temperature-sensitive fluid, which expands, deflecting a thin elastomeric film into a fluidic channel to control fluid flow. The power input for thermal expansion of each microfluidic valve can be controlled using a printed circuit board (PCB)-based controller, which is suitable for mass production and large-scale integration. A plastic microfluidic device with such valves was fabricated using compression molding and thermal lamination. The operation of the valves was investigated by measuring a change in the microchannel's ionic conduction current mediated by the resistance variation corresponding to the deflection of the microvalve. Valve closing was also confirmed by the disappearance of fluorescence when a fluorescent solution was displaced in the valve region. Valve operation was characterized for heater power ranging from 36 mW to 80 mW. When the valve was actuating, the local channel temperature was 10 to 19 degrees C above the ambient temperature depending on the heater power used. Repetitive valve operations (up to 50 times) have been demonstrated with a flow resulting from a hydrostatic head. Valve operation was tested for a flow rate of 0.33-4.7 microL/min.

  4. Water hammer caused by closure of turbine safety spherical valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karadžić, U.; Bergant, A.; Vukoslavčević, P.

    2010-08-01

    This paper investigates water hammer effects caused by closure of spherical valves against the discharge. During the first phase of modernisation of Perućica high-head hydropower plant (HPP), Montenegro, safety spherical valves (inlet turbine valves) have been refurbished on the first two Pelton turbine units. The valve closure is controlled by the valve actuator (hydraulic servomotor). Because the torque acting on the valve body is dependent on flow conditions the valve closing time may vary significantly for different flow velocities (passive valve). For the passive valve the torques acting on the valve body should be considered in the valve model. The valve closing time results from numerical simulation. On the contrary, for the active valve the valve closing time is assumed prior to simulation. The spherical valve boundary condition is incorporated into the method of characteristics (MOC) algorithm. The staggered (diamond) grid in applying the MOC is used in this paper. The passive valve boundary condition is described by the water hammer equations, the valve equation that relates discharge to pressure head drop and the dynamic equation of the valve body motion (torque equation). The active valve boundary condition is described by the first two equations, respectively. Standard quasi-steady friction model is used for estimating friction losses in plant's tunnel and penstocks. Numerical results using both the active and the passive spherical valve models are compared with results of measurements. It has been found that the influence of flow conditions on the spherical valve closing time is minor for the cases considered. Computed and measured results agree reasonably well.

  5. The Mitral Valve Prolapsus: Quantification of the Regurgitation Flow Rate by Experimental Time-Dependant PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billy, F.; Coisne, D.; Sanchez, L.; Perrault, R.

    2001-10-01

    Color Doppler is routinely used for visualisation of intra cardiac flows and quantification of valvular heart disease, Nevertheless the 2D visualization of a complex 3D phenomenon is the major limitation of this technique, In particular, in clinical setting, the flow rate calculation upstream a regurgitant orifice (i,e, mitral valve insufficiency), assumes that the velocity field in the convergent region have hemispheric shapes and introduce miscalculation specially in case of prolaps regurgitant orifices, The main objective of this study was to characterize the dynamic 3D velocity field of the convergent region upstream a prolaps model of regurgitant orifice based on 2D time dependent PIV reconstruction.

  6. A note on the critical flow to initiate closure of pivoting disc mitral valve prostheses.

    PubMed

    Reif, T H; Huffstutler, M C

    1985-01-01

    Newton's second law of motion for rotating bodies and potential flow theory is used to mathematically model the closing process of a pivoting disc prosthetic heart valve in mitral position. The model predicts closure to be dependent upon disc curvature, eccentricity, mass, diameter, density, opening angle and fluid properties. Experiments using two commercially available prostheses are shown to give good correlation with the theory for large opening angles. Divergence between theory and experiment occur at small opening angles because of the limitation of the potential flow assumption.

  7. Remote actuated valve implant

    DOEpatents

    McKnight, Timothy E; Johnson, Anthony; Moise, Jr., Kenneth J; Ericson, Milton Nance; Baba, Justin S; Wilgen, John B; Evans, III, Boyd McCutchen

    2014-02-25

    Valve implant systems positionable within a flow passage, the systems having an inlet, an outlet, and a remotely activatable valve between the inlet and outlet, with the valves being operable to provide intermittent occlusion of the flow path. A remote field is applied to provide thermal or magnetic activation of the valves.

  8. Self-regulating flow control device

    DOEpatents

    Humphreys, Duane A.

    1984-01-01

    A variable, self-regulating valve having a hydraulic loss coefficient proportional to a positive exponential power of the flow rate. The device includes two objects in a flow channel and structure which assures that the distance between the two objects is an increasing function of the flow rate. The range of spacing between the objects is such that the hydraulic resistance of the valve is an increasing function of the distance between the two objects so that the desired hydraulic loss coefficient as a function of flow rate is obtained without variation in the flow area.

  9. Failure Analysis of High Pressure Test Facility Control Valves

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    larger than the axial load applied to the stem by the actuator in the closed valve position), so we decided that no further buckling analysis was...caused the stem to bend. There are only two modes by which the stem could have bent in the manner it did: buckling and/or a cantilever load...load; however, we have clearly demonstrated on other valves (much to our embarrassment) that it is entirely possible to buckle the stem by over

  10. Direct numerical simulation of a 2D-stented aortic heart valve at physiological flow rates.

    PubMed

    Dimakopoulos, Y; Bogaerds, A C B; Anderson, P D; Hulsen, M A; Baaijens, F P T

    2012-01-01

    We study the nonlinear interaction of an aortic heart valve, composed of hyperelastic corrugated leaflets of finite density attached to a stented vessel under physiological flow conditions. In our numerical simulations, we use a 2D idealised representation of this arrangement. Blood flow is caused by a time-varying pressure gradient that mimics that of the aortic valve and corresponds to a peak Reynolds number equal to 4050. Here, we fully account for the shear-thinning behaviour of the blood and large deformations and contact between the leaflets by solving the momentum and mass balances for blood and leaflets. The mixed finite element/Galerkin method along with linear discontinuous Lagrange multipliers for coupling the fluid and elastic domains is adopted. Moreover, a series of challenging numerical issues such as the finite length of the computational domain and the conditions that should be imposed on its inflow/outflow boundaries, the accurate time integration of the parabolic and hyperbolic momentum equations, the contact between the leaflets and the non-conforming mesh refinement in part of the domain are successfully resolved. Calculations for the velocity and the shear stress fields of the blood reveal that boundary layers appear on both sides of a leaflet. The one along the ventricular side transfers blood with high momentum from the core region of the vessel to the annulus or the sinusoidal expansion, causing the continuous development of flow instabilities. At peak systole, vortices are convected in the flow direction along the annulus of the vessel, whereas during the closure stage of the valve, an extremely large vortex develops in each half of the flow domain.

  11. PROCESS WATER BUILDING, TRA605. SIX CONTROL VALVES INSTALLED ABOVE PIPES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PROCESS WATER BUILDING, TRA-605. SIX CONTROL VALVES INSTALLED ABOVE PIPES IN BASEMENT. INL NEGATIVE NO. 3583A. Unknown Photographer, 10/29/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  12. Mitral annulus segmentation from four-dimensional ultrasound using a valve state predictor and constrained optical flow.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Robert J; Perrin, Douglas P; Vasilyev, Nikolay V; Marx, Gerald R; del Nido, Pedro J; Howe, Robert D

    2012-02-01

    Measurement of the shape and motion of the mitral valve annulus has proven useful in a number of applications, including pathology diagnosis and mitral valve modeling. Current methods to delineate the annulus from four-dimensional (4D) ultrasound, however, either require extensive overhead or user-interaction, become inaccurate as they accumulate tracking error, or they do not account for annular shape or motion. This paper presents a new 4D annulus segmentation method to account for these deficiencies. The method builds on a previously published three-dimensional (3D) annulus segmentation algorithm that accurately and robustly segments the mitral annulus in a frame with a closed valve. In the 4D method, a valve state predictor determines when the valve is closed. Subsequently, the 3D annulus segmentation algorithm finds the annulus in those frames. For frames with an open valve, a constrained optical flow algorithm is used to the track the annulus. The only inputs to the algorithm are the selection of one frame with a closed valve and one user-specified point near the valve, neither of which needs to be precise. The accuracy of the tracking method is shown by comparing the tracking results to manual segmentations made by a group of experts, where an average RMS difference of 1.67±0.63mm was found across 30 tracked frames.

  13. Controllability of flow turbulence.

    PubMed

    Guan, Shuguang; Wei, G W; Lai, C-H

    2004-06-01

    In this paper, we study the controllability of real-world flow turbulence governed by the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations, using strategies developed in chaos control. A case of control/synchronization of turbulent dynamics is observed when only one component of the velocity field vector is unidirectionally coupled to a target state, while the other component is uncoupled. Unlike previous results, it is shown that the dynamics of the whole velocity field cannot be completely controlled/synchronized to the target, even in the limit of long time and strong coupling strength. It is further revealed that the controlled component of the velocity field can be fully controlled/synchronized to the target, but the other component, which is not directly coupled to the target, can only be partially controlled/synchronized to the target. By extending an auxiliary method to distributed dynamic systems, the partial synchronization of two turbulent orbits in the present study can be categorized in the domain of generalized synchronization of spatiotemporal dynamics.

  14. Vortex generator for flow control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Jr., Earl R. (Inventor); Marner, Wilbur J. (Inventor); Rohatgi, Naresh K. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Fluidics flow control of a multiphase supply using a cylindrical chamber is achieved by introducing the supply flow radially into the chamber. The supply flow exits through a port in the center at the chamber. A control fluid is then introduced tangentially about 90.degree. upstream from the supply port. A second control fluid port may be added about 90.degree. upstream from the first control fluid port, but preferably two sets of supply and control ports are added with like ports diametrically opposite each other. The control fluid flows against the circular wall of the control chamber, which introduces a vortex in the flow of the supply flow that decays into a spiral path to the exit port in the center of the chamber. The control flow rate may thus be used to control the spiral path, and therefore the supply flow rate through the exit port.

  15. Thermostatic Valves Containing Silicone-Oil Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhandari, Pradeep; Birur, Gajanana C.; Bame, David P.; Karlmann, Paul B.; Prina, Mauro; Young, William; Fisher, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Flow-splitting and flow-mixing thermally actuated spool valves have been developed for controlling flows of a heat-transfer fluid in a temperature-regulation system aboard the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover. Valves like these could also be useful in terrestrial temperature-regulation systems, including automobile air-conditioning systems and general refrigeration systems. These valves are required to provide smoother actuation over a wider temperature range than the flow-splitting, thermally actuated spool valves used in the Mars Explorer Rover (MER). Also, whereas the MER valves are unstable (tending to oscillate) in certain transition temperature ranges, these valves are required not to oscillate. The MER valves are actuated by thermal expansion of a wax against spring-loaded piston rods (as in common automotive thermostats). The MSL valves contain similar actuators that utilize thermal expansion of a silicone oil, because silicone-oil actuators were found to afford greater and more nearly linear displacements, needed for smoother actuation, over the required wider temperature range. The MSL valves also feature improved spool designs that reflect greater understanding of fluid dynamics, consideration of pressure drops in valves, and a requirement for balancing of pressures in different flow branches.

  16. Piston and valve assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Rolder, G. K.

    1985-10-01

    A downhole hydraulically actuated pump assembly of either the free or fixed type lifts formation fluid from the bottom of a borehole to the surface of the ground. The downhole pump has a power piston which actuates a production plunger. A valve means is concentrically arranged within the power piston. A stationary, hollow valve control rod extends through the power piston and through the valve means, with a lower marginal end of the control rod terminating within the production plunger. Power fluid flows through the control rod and to the valve means. As the power piston reciprocates within the engine cylinder, means on the control rod actuates the valve means between two alternant positions so that power fluid is applied to the bottom face of the power piston to thereby cause the power piston to reciprocate upward; and thereafter, the control rod causes the valve means to shift to the other position, whereupon spent power fluid is exhausted from the engine cylinder. The spent power fluid is admixed with production fluid and is conducted to the surface of the ground.

  17. Influence of Beta-Blocker Therapy on Aortic Blood Flow in Patients with Bicuspid Aortic Valve

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Bradley D.; Markl, Michael; Barker, Alex J.; van Ooij, Pim; Carr, James C.; Malaisrie, S Chris; McCarthy, Patrick; Bonow, Robert O.; Kansal, Preeti

    2016-01-01

    Purpose In patients with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV), beta-blockers (BB) are assumed to slow ascending aorta (AAo) dilation by reducing wall shear stress (WSS) on the aneurysmal segment. The aim of this study was to assess differences in AAo peak velocity and WSS in BAV patients with and without BB therapy. Methods BAV patients receiving BB (BB+, n=30, age:47±11 years) or not on BB (BB−, n=30, age:46±13 years) and healthy controls (n=15, age:43±11 years) underwent 4D flow MRI for the assessment of in-vivo aortic 3D blood flow. Peak systolic velocities and 3D WSS were calculated at the anterior and posterior walls of the AAo. Results Both patient groups had higher maximum and mean WSS relative to the control group (p=0.001 to p=0.04). WSS was not reduced in the BB+ group compared to BB− patients in the anterior AAo (maximum: 1.49±0.47N/m2 vs. 1.38±0.49N/m2, p=0.99, mean: 0.76±0.2N/m2 vs. 0.74±0.18N/m2, p=1.00) or posterior AAo (maximum: 1.45±0.42N/m2 vs. 1.39±0.58N/m2, p=1.00; mean: 0.65±0.16N/m2 vs. 0.63±0.16N/m2, p=1.00). AAo peak velocity was elevated in patients compared to controls (p<0.01) but similar for BB+ and BB− groups (p=0.42). Linear models identified significant relationships between aortic stenosis severity and increased maximum WSS (β=0.186, p=0.007) and between diameter at the sinus of Valsalva and reduced mean WSS (β=−0.151, p=0.045). Conclusions Peak velocity and systolic WSS were similar for BAV patients irrespective of BB therapy. Further prospective studies are needed to investigate the impact of dosage and duration of BB therapy on aortic hemodynamics and development of aortopathy. PMID:26817758

  18. Influence of beta-blocker therapy on aortic blood flow in patients with bicuspid aortic valve.

    PubMed

    Allen, Bradley D; Markl, Michael; Barker, Alex J; van Ooij, Pim; Carr, James C; Malaisrie, S Chris; McCarthy, Patrick; Bonow, Robert O; Kansal, Preeti

    2016-04-01

    In patients with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV), beta-blockers (BB) are assumed to slow ascending aorta (AAo) dilation by reducing wall shear stress (WSS) on the aneurysmal segment. The aim of this study was to assess differences in AAo peak velocity and WSS in BAV patients with and without BB therapy. BAV patients receiving BB (BB+, n = 30, age: 47 ± 11 years) or not on BB (BB-, n = 30, age: 46 ± 13 years) and healthy controls (n = 15, age: 43 ± 11 years) underwent 4D flow MRI for the assessment of in vivo aortic 3D blood flow. Peak systolic velocities and 3D WSS were calculated at the anterior and posterior walls of the AAo. Both patient groups had higher maximum and mean WSS relative to the control group (p = 0.001 to p = 0.04). WSS was not reduced in the BB+ group compared to BB- patients in the anterior AAo (maximum: 1.49 ± 0.47 vs. 1.38 ± 0.49 N/m(2), p = 0.99, mean: 0.76 ± 0.2 vs. 0.74 ± 0.18 N/m(2), p = 1.00) or posterior AAo (maximum: 1.45 ± 0.42 vs. 1.39 ± 0.58 N/m(2), p = 1.00; mean: 0.65 ± 0.16 vs. 0.63 ± 0.16 N/m(2), p = 1.00). AAo peak velocity was elevated in patients compared to controls (p < 0.01) but similar for BB+ and BB- groups (p = 0.42). Linear models identified significant relationships between aortic stenosis severity and increased maximum WSS (β = 0.186, p = 0.007) and between diameter at the sinus of Valsalva and reduced mean WSS (β = -0.151, p = 0.045). Peak velocity and systolic WSS were similar for BAV patients irrespective of BB therapy. Further prospective studies are needed to investigate the impact of dosage and duration of BB therapy on aortic hemodynamics and development of aortopathy.

  19. Rankine cycle condenser pressure control using an energy conversion device bypass valve

    DOEpatents

    Ernst, Timothy C; Nelson, Christopher R; Zigan, James A

    2014-04-01

    The disclosure provides a waste heat recovery system and method in which pressure in a Rankine cycle (RC) system of the WHR system is regulated by diverting working fluid from entering an inlet of an energy conversion device of the RC system. In the system, an inlet of a controllable bypass valve is fluidly coupled to a working fluid path upstream of an energy conversion device of the RC system, and an outlet of the bypass valve is fluidly coupled to the working fluid path upstream of the condenser of the RC system such that working fluid passing through the bypass valve bypasses the energy conversion device and increases the pressure in a condenser. A controller determines the temperature and pressure of the working fluid and controls the bypass valve to regulate pressure in the condenser.

  20. Inhibition of Calcification of Bioprosthetic Heart Valves by Local Controlled-Release Diphosphonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Robert J.; Wolfrum, Jacqueline; Schoen, Frederick J.; Hawley, Marguerite A.; Lund, Sally Anne; Langer, Robert

    1985-04-01

    Bioprostheses fabricated from porcine aortic valves are widely used to replace diseased heart valves. Calcification is the principal cause of the clinical failure of these devices. In the present study, inhibition of the calcification of bioprosthetic heart valve cusps implanted subcutaneously in rats was achieved through the adjacent implantation of controlled-release matrices containing the anticalcification agent ethanehydroxydiphosphonate dispersed in a copolymer of ethylene-vinyl acetate. Prevention of calcification was virtually complete, without the adverse effects of retarded bone and somatic growth that accompany systemic administration of ethanehydroxydiphosphonate.

  1. Numerical research of parameters of interaction of the gas flow with rotary valve of the gas pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boldyrev, A. V.; Karelin, D. L.; Muljukin, V. L.

    2016-11-01

    Conducted numerical research of static characteristics of the rotary gate valve at different angles of its deviation. for this purpose were set different values of pressure differential on the valve depending on which, was determined the mass flow and torque on valve axes. The mathematical model is provided by continuity equations, average on Reynolds, Navier-Stokes and energy, the equation of the perfect gas, the equations of two-layer k-e of model of turbulence. When calculating the current near walls are used Wolfstein's model and the hybrid wall functions of Reichardt for the speed and temperature. The task is solved in three-dimensional statement with use of conditions of symmetry. The structure of the current is analyzed: zones of acceleration and flow separation, whirlwinds, etc. Noted growth of hydraulic resistance of the valve with reduction of slope angle of the valve and with the increase in mass flow. Established increase of torque with reduction of the deviation angle of the valve and with increase in the mass expense.

  2. Magnetically operated check valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Brian G.; Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1993-03-01

    A magnetically operated check valve is disclosed having, in one aspect, a valve body and a movable poppet disposed therein. A magnet attracts the poppet to hold the valve shut until the force of fluid flow through the valve overcomes the magnetic attraction and moves the poppet to an unseated, open position. The poppet and magnet are configured and disposed to trap a magnetically attracted particulate and prevent it from flowing to a valve seating region.

  3. A calcified polymeric valve for valve-in-valve applications.

    PubMed

    Falahatpisheh, Ahmad; Morisawa, Daisuke; Toosky, Taraz T; Kheradvar, Arash

    2017-01-04

    The prevalence of aortic valve stenosis (AS) is increasing in the aging society. More recently, novel treatments and devices for AS, especially transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) have significantly changed the therapeutic approach to this disease. Research and development related to TAVR require testing these devices in the calcified heart valves that closely mimic a native calcific valve. However, no animal model of AS has yet been available. Alternatively, animals with normal aortic valve that are currently used for TAVR experiments do not closely replicate the aortic valve pathology required for proper testing of these devices. To solve this limitation, for the first time, we developed a novel polymeric valve whose leaflets possess calcium hydroxyapatite inclusions immersed in them. This study reports the characteristics and feasibility of these valves. Two types of the polymeric valve, i.e., moderate and severe calcified AS models were developed and tested by deploying a transcatheter valve in those and measuring the related hemodynamics. The valves were tested in a heart flow simulator, and were studied using echocardiography. Our results showed high echogenicity of the polymeric valve, that was correlated to the severity of the calcification. Aortic valve area of the polymeric valves was measured, and the severity of stenosis was defined according to the clinical guidelines. Accordingly, we showed that these novel polymeric valves closely mimic AS, and can be a desired cost-saving solution for testing the performance of the transcatheter aortic valve systems in vitro.

  4. 10 CFR 431.264 - Uniform test method for the measurement of flow rate for commercial prerinse spray valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... gallons per minute (gpm) or liters per minute (L/min), shall be conducted in accordance with the test... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Uniform test method for the measurement of flow rate for... Valves Test Procedures § 431.264 Uniform test method for the measurement of flow rate for...

  5. 10 CFR 431.264 - Uniform test method for the measurement of flow rate for commercial prerinse spray valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... gallons per minute (gpm) or liters per minute (L/min), shall be conducted in accordance with the test... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Uniform test method for the measurement of flow rate for... Valves Test Procedures § 431.264 Uniform test method for the measurement of flow rate for...

  6. Internal combustion engine valve lift and cam duration control system

    SciTech Connect

    Bledsoe, P.G.

    1987-02-17

    A mechanism is described for varying the lift, timing and duration of a valve member associated with an internal combustion engine having a camshaft, a cam on the camshaft, and a rectilinear reciprocatable valve member for opening and closing a valve port in communication with a combustion chamber of the engine. The mechanism comprises an elongated rocker arm having a first pivot end and a second end forming a valve member actuating free end and an intermediate portion extending therebetween. The free end has a shaped valve member contact formation projecting therefrom and the pivot end has a circular opening therethrough receiving a pivotal mounting assembly therethrough having an exterior cylindrical surface within and corresponding substantially to the diameter of the circular opening forming the surface about which the rocker arm pivots. A pair of eccentric means form a first eccentric member and a second eccentric member collectively defines a pivot axis within the circular opening for the rocker arm, the first eccentric member comprising a shaft having cylindrical end portions journaled for rotation about a shaft axis and an eccentric cylindrical portion located within the opening of the rocker arm. The eccentric cylindrical portion is concentric with a first eccentric axis spaced from the shaft axis, and the second eccentric member comprises a tubular sleeve defining the exterior cylindrical surface and having a cylindrical bore having an inner diameter corresponding to the eccentric cylindrical portion of the shaft rotatably supported on the surface of the latter and concentric with a second eccentric axis spaced from the shaft axis and the first eccentric axis, a first means for rotating the shaft.

  7. Engine valve train module

    SciTech Connect

    Wirth, R.C.; De Klep, E.L.

    1988-01-26

    In a reciprocating internal combustion engine of the type having an engine block means defining at least one cylinder with a first port and a second port in flow communication therewith, a first valve and a second valve reciprocably located to control flow through the first and second ports, respectively, and normally biased to a port closed position, the improvement is described comprising a valve train module that includes a housing adapted to be secured by machine screws to the engine block means above the first and second valves; an engine driven camshaft having axial spaced apart first and second cam lobes operatively supported for rotation in the housing; a lifter guide bore in the housing located substantially coaxial with the reciprocating axis of the first valve; a direct acting hydraulic lash adjuster operatively supported in the lifter guide bore with one end thereof engaging the first cam lobe and at its opposite end being operatively connected to the first valve. A follower guide bore is in the housing operatively aligned relative to the second cam lobe; a hollow rocker shaft is operatively fixed in the housing in parallel spaced apart relationship to the engine driven camshaft; a rocker arm pivotably supported intermediate its ends by the rocker shaft.

  8. An electronic flow control system for a variable-rate tree sprayer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precise modulation of nozzle flow rates is a critical measure to achieve variable-rate spray applications. An electronic flow rate control system accommodating with microprocessors and pulse width modulation (PWM) controlled solenoid valves was designed to manipulate the output of spray nozzles inde...

  9. Microfluidic sieve valves

    DOEpatents

    Quake, Stephen R; Marcus, Joshua S; Hansen, Carl L

    2015-01-13

    Sieve valves for use in microfluidic device are provided. The valves are useful for impeding the flow of particles, such as chromatography beads or cells, in a microfluidic channel while allowing liquid solution to pass through the valve. The valves find particular use in making microfluidic chromatography modules.

  10. Valve for cryogenic service

    DOEpatents

    Worwetz, H.A.

    1975-09-02

    This patent relates to a valve for use with a liquefied gas at cryogenic temperatures in which a pair of joined knife edges are bellows controlled to contact an indium alloy seat in an annular slot when flow is to be stopped. The sealing alloy may be renewed by heating in situ. (auth)

  11. Cost benefit analysis of excess flow valves: An update. Topical report, August 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-26

    Calculations and analysis of the cost-to-benefit ratio of using excess flow valves (EFVs) of all U.S. new and renewed gas services operating at 10 psig or more are presented. The study is an update of an earlier evaluation performed by the same contractor, entitled 'Costs and Benefits of Excess Flow Valves in Gas Distribution Services' (GRI-86/0022). As calculated with up-to-date information and average operating cost data, the ratio continues to be unfavorable even when using high value for human life and injury and low operating cost data. Data collected from EFV users indicate that EFVs are highly reliable and generally perform as required with very few problems. The report expresses the opinion that the cost-to-benefit ratio is highly dependent on individual company operations, location, and pipeline characteristics, and that the decision to use EFVs should be left to individual companies after performing their own cost benefit analysis, which should include an assessment of alternative accident mitigation measures.

  12. Innovative, High-Pressure, Cryogenic Control Valve: Short Face-to-Face, Reduced Cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, Karlin; Larsen, Ed; McCourt, Jackson

    2004-01-01

    A control valve that can throttle high pressure cryogenic fluid embodies several design features that distinguish it over conventional valves designed for similar applications. Field and design engineers worked together to create a valve that would simplify installation, trim changes, and maintenance, thus reducing overall cost. The seals and plug stem packing were designed to perform optimally in cryogenic temperature ranges. Unlike conventional high-pressure cryogenic valves, the trim size can be changed independent of the body. The design feature that provides flexibility for changing the trim is a split body. The body is divided into an upper and a lower section with the seat ring sandwiched in between. In order to maintain the plug stem packing at an acceptable sealing temperature during cryogenic service, heat-exchanging fins were added to the upper body section (see figure). The body is made of stainless steel.

  13. Flow Interactions and Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-08

    intervals of “ hibernating ” turbulence that exhibit very low skin friction, • hibernating turbulence intervals are found occasionally even without...reduce overall drag in aerodynamically important flows. Background and objective Recent results Active Hibernating vorticity velocity Laminar...flow Turbulent flow Upper branch ECS Low-drag excursions- hibernation Turbulent bursts Basin boundary: • lower-branch ECS • edge state

  14. Cold flow simulation of an internal combustion engine with vertical valves using layering approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinas, G.; Cupsa, O. S.; Stan, L. C.; Arsenie, A.

    2015-11-01

    Complying with emission requirements and fuel consumption efficiency are the points which drive any development of internal combustion engine. Refinement of the process of combustion and mixture formation, together with in-cylinder flow refinement, is a requirement, valves and piston bowl and intake exhaust port design optimization is essential. In order to reduce the time for design optimization cycle it is used Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Being time consuming and highly costly caring out of experiment using flow bench testing this methods start to become less utilized. Air motion inside the intake manifold is one of the important factors, which govern the engine performance and emission of multi-cylinder diesel engines. Any cold flow study on IC is targeting the process of identifying and improving the fluid flow inside the ports and the combustion chamber. This is only the base for an optimization process targeting to increase the volume of air accessing the combustion space and to increase the turbulence of the air at the end of the compression stage. One of the first conclusions will be that the valve diameter is a fine tradeoff between the need for a bigger diameter involving a greater mass of air filling the cylinder, and the need of a smaller diameter in order to reduce the blind zone. Here there is room for optimization studies. The relative pressure indicates a suction effect coming from the moving piston. The more the shape of the inlet port is smoother and the diameter of the piston is bigger, the aerodynamic resistance of the geometry will be smaller so that the difference of inlet port pressure and the pressure near to piston face will be smaller. Here again there is enough room for more optimization studies.

  15. Self-aligning, low-pressure sealing poppet valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, R.; Bratfisch, W. A.

    1972-01-01

    Design and characteristics of poppet valve operated by very low differential pressures to control fluid flow are described. Valve is used to control flow of petroleum, chemical, and aircraft hydraulics where low leakage rates and activation at low pressures are required.

  16. Are anticoagulant independent mechanical valves within reach—fast prototype fabrication and in vitro testing of innovative bi-leaflet valve models

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Rolland

    2015-01-01

    Background Exploration for causes of prosthetic valve thrombogenicity has frequently focused on forward or post-closure flow detail. In prior laboratory studies, we uncovered high amplitude flow velocities of short duration close to valve closure implying potential for substantial shear stress with subsequent initiation of blood coagulation pathways. This may be relevant to widely accepted clinical disparity between mechanical and tissue valves vis-à-vis thrombogenicity. With a series of prototype bi-leaflet mechanical valves, we attempt reduction of closure related velocities with the objective of identifying a prototype valve with thrombogenic potential similar to our tissue valve control. This iterative design approach may find application in preclinical assessment of valves for anticoagulation independence. Methods Tested valves included: prototype mechanical bi-leaflet BVs (n=56), controls (n=2) and patented early prototype mechanicals (n=2) from other investigators. Pulsatile and quasi-steady flow systems were used for testing. Projected dynamic valve area (PDVA) was measured using previously described novel technology. Flow velocity over the open and closing periods was determined by volumetric flow rate/PDVA. For the closed valve interval, use was made of data obtained from quasi-steady back pressure/flow tests. Performance was ranked by a proposed thrombogenicity potential index (TPI) relative to tissue and mechanical control valves. Results Optimization of the prototype valve designs lead to a 3-D printed model (BV3D). For the mitral/aortic site, BV3D has lower TPI (1.10/1.47) relative to the control mechanical valve (3.44/3.93) and similar to the control tissue valve (ideal TPI ≤1.0). Conclusions Using unique technology, rapid prototyping and thrombogenicity ranking, optimization of experimental valves for reduced thrombogenic potential was expedited and simplified. Innovative mechanical valve configurations were identified that merit consideration

  17. Relation between symptoms and profiles of coronary artery blood flow velocities in patients with aortic valve stenosis: a study using transoesophageal Doppler echocardiography.

    PubMed Central

    Omran, H.; Fehske, W.; Rabahieh, R.; Hagendorff, A.; Lüderitz, B.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse profiles of coronary artery flow velocity at rest in patients with aortic stenosis and to determine whether changes of the coronary artery flow velocities are related to symptoms in patients with aortic stenosis. DESIGN: A prospective study investigating the significance of aortic valve area, pressure gradient across the aortic valve, systolic left ventricular wall stress index, ejection fraction, and left ventricular mass index in the coronary flow velocity profile of aortic stenosis; and comparing flow velocity profiles between symptomatic and asymptomatic patients with aortic stenosis using transoesophageal Doppler echocardiography to obtain coronary artery flow velocities of the left anterior descending coronary artery. SETTING: Tertiary referral cardiac centre. PATIENTS: Fifty eight patients with aortic stenosis and 15 controls with normal coronary arteries. RESULTS: Adequate recordings of the profile of coronary artery flow velocities were obtained in 46 patients (79%). Left ventricular wall stress was the only significant haemodynamic variable for determining peak systolic velocity (r = -0.83, F = 88.5, P < 0.001). The pressure gradient across the aortic valve was the only contributor for explaining peak diastolic velocity (r = 0.56, F = 20.9, P < 0.001). Controls and asymptomatic patients with aortic stenosis (n = 12) did not differ for peak systolic velocity [32.8 (SEM 9.7) v 27.0 (8.7) cm/s, NS] and peak diastolic velocity [58.3 (18.7) v 61.9 (13.5) cm/s, NS]. In contrast, patients with angina (n = 12) or syncope (n = 8) had lower peak systolic velocities and higher peak diastolic velocities than asymptomatic patients (P < 0.01). Peak systolic and diastolic velocities were -7.7 (22.5) cm/s and 81.7 (17.6) cm/s for patients with angina, and -19.5 (22.3) cm/s and 94.0 (20.9) cm/s for patients with syncope. Asymptomatic patients and patients with dyspnoea (n = 14) did not differ. CONCLUSIONS: Increased pressure gradient across the

  18. Periodontal ligament cells cultured under steady-flow environments demonstrate potential for use in heart valve tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Catalina; Rath, Sasmita; Van Gulden, Stephanie; Pelaez, Daniel; Alfonso, Abraham; Fernandez, Natasha; Kos, Lidia; Cheung, Herman; Ramaswamy, Sharan

    2013-02-01

    A major drawback of mechanical and prosthetic heart valves is their inability to permit somatic growth. By contrast, tissue-engineered pulmonary valves potentially have the capacity to remodel and integrate with the patient. For this purpose, adult stem cells may be suitable. Previously, human periodontal ligament cells (PDLs) have been explored as a reliable and robust progenitor cell source for cardiac muscle regeneration (Pelaez, D. Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Database, Coral Gables, FL, May 2011). Here, we investigate the potential of PDLs to support the valve lineage, specifically the concomitant differentiation to both endothelial cell (EC) and smooth muscle cell (SMC) types. We were able to successfully promote PDL differentiation to both SMC and EC phenotypes through a combination of stimulatory approaches using biochemical and mechanical flow conditioning (steady shear stress of 1 dyne/cm(2)), with flow-based mechanical conditioning having a predominant effect on PDL differentiation, particularly to ECs; in addition, strong expression of the marker FZD2 and an absence of the marker MLC1F point toward a unique manifestation of smooth muscle by PDLs after undergoing steady-flow mechanical conditioning alone, possible by only the heart valve and pericardium phenotypes. It was also determined that steady flow (which was performed using a physiologically relevant [for heart valves] magnitude of ~5-6 dynes/cm(2)) augmented the synthesis of the extracellular matrix collagen proteins. We conclude that under steady-flow dynamic culture environments, human PDLs can differentiate to heterogeneous cell populations that are relevant to heart valve tissue engineering. Further exploration of human PDLs for this purpose is thus warranted.

  19. High Reynolds Number Hybrid Laminar Flow Control (HLFC) Flight Experiment. 3; Leading Edge Design, Fabrication, and Installation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This document describes the design, fabrication, and installation of the suction panel and the required support structure, ducting, valving, and high-lift system (Krueger flaps) for flight demonstration of hybrid laminar flow control on the Boeing 757 airplane.

  20. Simulations of pulsatile suspension flow through bileaflet mechanical heart valves to quantify platelet damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Brian; Aidun, Cyrus; Yoganathan, Ajit

    2012-11-01

    Studies have shown that high shear stress and long exposure times on platelets have a strong impact on thromboembolic complications in bileaflet mechanical heart valves (BMHVs). This numerical study quantifies the platelet damage incurred in pulsatile flow through various BMHV designs. The lattice-Boltzmann method with external boundary force (LBM-EBF) was implemented to simulate pulsatile flow and capture the dynamics and surface shear stresses of modeled platelets with realistic geometry. The platelets are released in key regions of interest in the geometry as well as at various times of the cardiac cycle. The platelet damage is quantified using a linear shear stress-exposure time blood damage index (BDI) model. The multiscale computational method used to quantitatively measure the BDI during the pulsatile flow has been validated as being able to accurately capture bulk BMHV fluid flow and for accurately quantifying platelet damage in BMHV flows. These simulations will further knowledge of the geometric features and cardiac cycle times that most affect platelet damage. This study will ultimately lead to optimization of BMHV design in order to minimize thromboembolic complications.

  1. Detecting Solenoid Valve Deterioration in In-Use Electronic Diesel Fuel Injection Control Systems

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Hsun-Heng; Tseng, Chyuan-Yow

    2010-01-01

    The diesel engine is the main power source for most agricultural vehicles. The control of diesel engine emissions is an important global issue. Fuel injection control systems directly affect fuel efficiency and emissions of diesel engines. Deterioration faults, such as rack deformation, solenoid valve failure, and rack-travel sensor malfunction, are possibly in the fuel injection module of electronic diesel control (EDC) systems. Among these faults, solenoid valve failure is most likely to occur for in-use diesel engines. According to the previous studies, this failure is a result of the wear of the plunger and sleeve, based on a long period of usage, lubricant degradation, or engine overheating. Due to the difficulty in identifying solenoid valve deterioration, this study focuses on developing a sensor identification algorithm that can clearly classify the usability of the solenoid valve, without disassembling the fuel pump of an EDC system for in-use agricultural vehicles. A diagnostic algorithm is proposed, including a feedback controller, a parameter identifier, a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) sensor, and a neural network classifier. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can accurately identify the usability of solenoid valves. PMID:22163597

  2. Detecting solenoid valve deterioration in in-use electronic diesel fuel injection control systems.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hsun-Heng; Tseng, Chyuan-Yow

    2010-01-01

    The diesel engine is the main power source for most agricultural vehicles. The control of diesel engine emissions is an important global issue. Fuel injection control systems directly affect fuel efficiency and emissions of diesel engines. Deterioration faults, such as rack deformation, solenoid valve failure, and rack-travel sensor malfunction, are possibly in the fuel injection module of electronic diesel control (EDC) systems. Among these faults, solenoid valve failure is most likely to occur for in-use diesel engines. According to the previous studies, this failure is a result of the wear of the plunger and sleeve, based on a long period of usage, lubricant degradation, or engine overheating. Due to the difficulty in identifying solenoid valve deterioration, this study focuses on developing a sensor identification algorithm that can clearly classify the usability of the solenoid valve, without disassembling the fuel pump of an EDC system for in-use agricultural vehicles. A diagnostic algorithm is proposed, including a feedback controller, a parameter identifier, a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) sensor, and a neural network classifier. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can accurately identify the usability of solenoid valves.

  3. Effects of increasing flow rate on aortic stenotic indices: evidence from percutaneous transvenous balloon dilatation of the mitral valve in patients with combined aortic and mitral stenosis.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, T. M.; Su, S. F.; Chen, M. F.; Liau, C. S.; Lee, Y. T.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of transvalvar flow rate on aortic valve resistance and valve area after percutaneous transvenous balloon dilatation of the mitral valve in a homogeneous group of patients with rheumatic heart disease. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of 12 patients with combined aortic and mitral stenosis who had undergone balloon dilatation of the mitral valve over a period of 9 years. SETTING: Tertiary referral centre. PATIENTS: Twelve (8 women, 4 men; mean (SD) age 37 (9) of 227 consecutive patients with critical mitral stenosis undergoing transvenous balloon dilation of the mitral valve in the centre also had aortic stenosis, defined as a transaortic pressure gradient of more than 25 mm Hg measured at a catheterisation study before valvuloplasty. INTERVENTIONS: Echocardiographic variables (mitral valve area measured by the pressure half-time method and planimetry, and the aortic valve area derived from the continuity equation) and haemodynamic measurements (cardiac output, left ventricular mean systolic pressure, aortic mean pressure, transaortic valve pressure gradient, mitral valve and aortic valve areas derived from the Gorlin formula, and aortic valve resistance) were assessed before and after transvenous balloon dilatation of the mitral valve. Follow up catheterisation to measure haemodynamic variables was performed one week after mitral valvuloplasty. RESULTS: Mean transaortic flow rate increased 33% after mitral valvuloplasty (from 198 (68) to 254 (41) ml/s, P = 0.002). Aortic valve areas derived from the Gorlin formula were significantly increased from 0.57 (0.12) to 0.73 (0.14) cm2 (P = 0.006) after mitral valvuloplasty. However, aortic valve area and valve resistance derived from the continuity equation were independent of the increase in flow rate after mitral valvuloplasty (from 1.29 (0.35) to 1.30 (0.29) cm2 and from 317 (65) to 259 (75) dyn.s.cm-5, both P = NS). CONCLUSION: The Gorlin-derived aortic valve area tends to be flow

  4. Supersonic laminar flow control research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, C. F.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of the research is to understand supersonic laminar flow stability, transition and active control. Some prediction techniques will be developed or modified to analyze laminar stability. The effects of supersonic laminar flow with distributed heating and cooling on active control will be studied. The primary tasks of the research applying to the NASA/Ames POC and LFSWT's nozzle design with laminar flow control are as follows: (1) supersonic laminar boundary layer stability and transition prediction; (2) effects of heating and cooling for supersonic laminar flow control; and (3) POC and LFSWT nozzle design with heating and cooling effects combining wall contour and length changes.

  5. Role of vortices in cavitation formation in the flow at the closure of a bileaflet mitral mechanical heart valve.

    PubMed

    Li, Chi-Pei; Chen, Sheng-Fu; Lo, Chi-Wen; Lu, Po-Chien

    2012-03-01

    Bubble cavitation occurs in the flow field when local pressure drops below vapor pressure. One hypothesis states that low-pressure regions in vortices created by instantaneous valve closure and occluder rebound promote bubble formation. To quantitatively analyze the role of vortices in cavitation, we applied particle image velocimetry (PIV) to reduce the instantaneous fields into plane flow that contains information about vortex core radius, maximum tangential velocity, circulation strength, and pressure drop. Assuming symmetrical flow along the center of the St. Jude Medical 25-mm valve, flow fields downstream of the closing valve were measured using PIV in the mitral position of a circulatory mock loop. Flow measurements were made during successive time phases immediately following the impact of the occluder with the housing (O/H impact) at valve closing. The velocity profile near the vortex core clearly shows a typical Rankine vortex. The vortex strength reaches maximum immediately after closure and rapidly decreases at about 10 ms, indicating viscous dissipation; vortex strength also intensifies with rising pulse rate. The maximum pressure drop at the vortex center is approximately 20 mmHg, an insignificant drop relative to atmospheric vapor pressures, which implies vortices play a minor role in cavitation formation.

  6. Flow Interactions and Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-04

    0 0.1 0.2 0.3 F H T A T H F H average duration of active turbulence fraction of time taken by hibernation Onset of DR average duration of... hibernation Laminar flow Turbulent flow Upper branch ECS Low-drag excursions- hibernation Turbulent bursts Basin boundary: • lower-branch

  7. Cycle-to-cycle variation analysis of in-cylinder flow in a gasoline engine with variable valve lift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Daming; Wang, Tianyou; Jia, Ming; Wang, Gangde

    2012-09-01

    In spark ignition engines, cycle-to-cycle variation (CCV) limits the expansion of the operating range because it induces the load variations and the occurrence of misfire and/or knock. Variable valve actuation (VVA) or variable valve lift (VVL) has been widely used in SI engines to improve the volumetric efficiency or to reduce the pumping losses. It is necessary to investigate the CCV of in-cylinder gas motion and mixing processes in SI engines with VVA/VVL system. This study is aimed to analyze the CCV of the tumble flow in a gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine when VVL is employed. Cycle-resolved digital particle image velocimetry (CRD-PIV) data were acquired for the in-cylinder flow field of a motored four-stroke multi-valve GDI optical engine. The CCV of in-cylinder gas motion with a series of valve profiles and different maximum valve lift (MVL) was analyzed, including cyclic variation characteristics of bulk flow (tumble centre and tumble ratio), large- and small-scale fluctuation, total kinetic energy, and circulation. The results show that the CCV of the in-cylinder flow is increased with reduced MVL. With lower MVLs, stable tumble flow cannot be formed in the cylinder, and the ensemble-averaged tumble ratio decreases to zero before the end of the compression stroke due to violent variation. In addition, the evolution of the circulation shows larger variation with lower MVLs that indicates the `spin' of the small-scale eddy in the flow field presents violent fluctuation from one cycle to another, especially at the end of the compression stroke. Moreover, the analyze of the kinetic energy indicates the total energy of the flow field with lower MVLs increases significantly comparing with higher MVL conditions due to the intake flow jet at the intake valve seat in the intake stroke. However, the CCV of the in-cylinder flow becomes more violent under lower MVL conditions, especially for the low-frequency fluctuation kinetic energy. Thus, present strong

  8. Internal flow patterns on heat transfer characteristics of a closed-loop oscillating heat-pipe with check valves using ethanol and a silver nano-ethanol mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Bhuwakietkumjohn, N.; Rittidech, S.

    2010-11-15

    The aim of this research was to investigate the internal flow patterns and heat transfer characteristics of a closed-loop oscillating heat-pipe with check valves (CLOHP/CV). The ratio of number of check valves to meandering turns was 0.2. Ethanol and a silver nano-ethanol mixture were used as working fluids with a filling ratio of 50% by total volume of tube. The CLOHP/CV was made of a glass tube with an inside diameter of 2.4 mm. The evaporator section was 50 mm and 100 mm in length and there were 10 meandering turns. An inclination angle of 90 from horizontal axis was established. The evaporator section was heated by an electric heater and the condenser section was cooled by distilled water. Temperature at the evaporator section was controlled at 85 C, 105 C and 125 C. The inlet and outlet temperatures were measured. A digital camera and video camera were used to observe the flow patterns at the evaporator. The silver nano-ethanol mixture gave higher heat flux than ethanol. When the temperature at the evaporator section was increased from 85 C to 105 C and 125 C. It was found that, the flow patterns occurred as annular flow + slug flow, slug flow + bubble flow and dispersed bubble flow + bubble flow respectively. The main regime of each flow pattern can be determined from the flow pattern map ethanol and a silver nano-ethanol mixture. Each of the two working fluids gave corresponding flow patterns. (author)

  9. System and method for bidirectional flow and controlling fluid flow in a conduit

    DOEpatents

    Ortiz, M.G.

    1999-03-23

    A system for measuring bidirectional flow, including backflow, of fluid in a conduit is disclosed. The system utilizes a structural mechanism to create a pressure differential in the conduit. Pressure sensors are positioned upstream from the mechanism, at the mechanism, and downstream from the mechanism. Data from the pressure sensors are transmitted to a microprocessor or computer, and pressure differential detected between the pressure sensors is then used to calculate the backflow. Control signals may then be generated by the microprocessor or computer to shut off valves located in the conduit, upon the occurrence of backflow, or to control flow, total material dispersed, etc. in the conduit. 3 figs.

  10. System and method for bidirectional flow and controlling fluid flow in a conduit

    DOEpatents

    Ortiz, Marcos German

    1999-01-01

    A system for measuring bidirectional flow, including backflow, of fluid in a conduit. The system utilizes a structural mechanism to create a pressure differential in the conduit. Pressure sensors are positioned upstream from the mechanism, at the mechanism, and downstream from the mechanism. Data from the pressure sensors are transmitted to a microprocessor or computer, and pressure differential detected between the pressure sensors is then used to calculate the backflow. Control signals may then be generated by the microprocessor or computer to shut off valves located in the conduit, upon the occurrence of backflow, or to control flow, total material dispersed, etc. in the conduit.

  11. What Is Heart Valve Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... flow properly. Acquired heart valve disease usually involves aortic or mitral valves. Although the valves are normal at first, problems develop over time. Both congenital and acquired heart valve disease can cause stenosis or backflow. Outlook Many people have heart valve ...

  12. Measurements of steady flow through a bileaflet mechanical heart valve using stereoscopic PIV.

    PubMed

    Hutchison, Chris; Sullivan, Pierre; Ethier, C Ross

    2011-03-01

    Computational modeling of bileaflet mechanical heart valve (BiMHV) flow requires experimentally validated datasets and improved knowledge of BiMHV fluid mechanics. In this study, flow was studied downstream of a model BiMHV in an axisymmetric aortic sinus using stereoscopic particle image velocimetry. The inlet flow was steady and the Reynolds number based on the aortic diameter was 7600. Results showed the out-of-plane velocity was of similar magnitude as the transverse velocity. Although additional studies are needed for confirmation, analysis of the out-of-plane velocity showed the possible presence of a four-cell streamwise vortex structure in the mean velocity field. Spatial data for all six Reynolds stress components were obtained. Reynolds normal stress profiles revealed similarities between the central jet and free jets. These findings are important to BiMHV flow modeling, though clinical relevance is limited due to the idealized conditions chosen. To this end, the dataset is publicly available for CFD validation purposes.

  13. Supersonic Laminar Flow Control Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, Ching F.; Wiberg, Clark G.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this research is to understand supersonic laminar flow stability, transition and active control. Some prediction techniques will be developed or modified to analyze laminar flow stability. The effects of distributed heating and cooling as an active boundary layer control technique will be studied. The primary tasks of the research apply to the NASA/Ames PoC and LFSWT's nozzle design with laminar flow control and are listed as follows: Predictions of supersonic laminar boundary layer stability and transition; Effects of wall heating and cooling on supersonic laminar flow control on a flat plate; Performance evaluation of the PoC and LFSWT nozzle designs with wall heating and cooling applied at different locations and various lengths; Effects of a conducted-vs-pulse wall temperature distribution for the LFSWT; and Application of wall heating and/or cooling to laminar boundary layer and flow separation control of airfoils and investigation of related active control techniques.

  14. Fast-Acting Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojciechowski, Bogdan V. (Inventor); Pegg, Robert J. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A fast-acting valve includes an annular valve seat that defines an annular valve orifice between the edges of the annular valve seat, an annular valve plug sized to cover the valve orifice when the valve is closed, and a valve-plug holder for moving the annular valve plug on and off the annular valve seat. The use of an annular orifice reduces the characteristic distance between the edges of the valve seat. Rather than this distance being equal to the diameter of the orifice, as it is for a conventional circular orifice, the characteristic distance equals the distance between the inner and outer radii (for a circular annulus). The reduced characteristic distance greatly reduces the gap required between the annular valve plug and the annular valve seat for the valve to be fully open, thereby greatly reducing the required stroke and corresponding speed and acceleration of the annular valve plug. The use of a valve-plug holder that is under independent control to move the annular valve plug between its open and closed positions is important for achieving controllable fast operation of the valve.

  15. Heart Valve Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Your heart has four valves. Normally, these valves open to let blood flow through or out of your heart, and then shut to keep it from flowing ... close tightly. It's one of the most common heart valve conditions. Sometimes it causes regurgitation. Stenosis - when ...

  16. Microblower assisted barometric valve

    DOEpatents

    Rossabi, Joseph; Hyde, Warren K.; Riha, Brian D.; Jackson, Dennis G.; Sappington, Frank

    2005-12-06

    A gas exchange apparatus is provided which provides for both passive fluid flow and blower associated fluid flow through a barometric valve. A battery powered blower is provided which allows for operation of the barometric valve during times when the barometric valve would otherwise be closed, and provides for enhanced volume of gas exchange.

  17. Bistable diverter valve in microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesař, V.; Bandalusena, H. C. H.

    2011-05-01

    Bistable diverter valves are useful for a large number of no-moving-part flow control applications, and there is a considerable interest in using them also in microfluidics, especially for handling small pressure-driven flows. However, with decreasing Reynolds number, the Coanda effect—on which the flow diverting effect depends—becomes less effective. Authors performed a study, involving flow visualisation, PIV experiments, measurements of the flow rates, and numerical flowfield computations, aimed at clarifying behaviour of a typical fluidic valve at low Reynolds numbers. A typical fluidic valve originally developed for high Re operation was demonstrated to be useful, though with progressively limited efficiency, down to surprisingly low Re values as small as Re = 800. Also observed was a previously not reported discontinuation in the otherwise monotonic decrease in performance at Re between 1,500 and 2,000.

  18. Supersonic laminar flow control research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, Ching F.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of the research is to understand supersonic laminar flow stability, transition, and active control. Some prediction techniques will be developed or modified to analyze laminar flow stability. The effects of supersonic laminar flow with distributed heating and cooling on active control will be studied. The primary tasks of the research applying to the NASA/Ames Proof of Concept (POC) Supersonic Wind Tunnel and Laminar Flow Supersonic Wind Tunnel (LFSWT) nozzle design with laminar flow control are as follows: (1) predictions of supersonic laminar boundary layer stability and transition, (2) effects of wall heating and cooling for supersonic laminar flow control, and (3) performance evaluation of POC and LFSWT nozzles design with wall heating and cooling effects applying at different locations and various length.

  19. MHD Flow Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    Plasmatron // The 15th International Conference on 16 N I MHD Energy Conversion and the 6th International Workshop on MagnetoPlasma Aerodynamics, IVTAN...series. 1 2. FACILITY The principal scheme of High Frequency Plasmatron is given in Fig.88, and basic specifications in the Table 1. The high-frequency...CHAMBER OF HF- PLASMATRON Statement of the problem Detailed diagnostics of plasma jet flow is required for any type of studies in HF- plasmatron . Gas flow in

  20. Blood damage through a bileaflet mechanical heart valve: a quantitative computational study using a multiscale suspension flow solver.

    PubMed

    Min Yun, B; Aidun, Cyrus K; Yoganathan, Ajit P

    2014-10-01

    Bileaflet mechanical heart valves (BMHVs) are among the most popular prostheses to replace defective native valves. However, complex flow phenomena caused by the prosthesis are thought to induce serious thromboembolic complications. This study aims at employing a novel multiscale numerical method that models realistic sized suspended platelets for assessing blood damage potential in flow through BMHVs. A previously validated lattice-Boltzmann method (LBM) is used to simulate pulsatile flow through a 23 mm St. Jude Medical (SJM) Regent™ valve in the aortic position at very high spatiotemporal resolution with the presence of thousands of suspended platelets. Platelet damage is modeled for both the systolic and diastolic phases of the cardiac cycle. No platelets exceed activation thresholds for any of the simulations. Platelet damage is determined to be particularly high for suspended elements trapped in recirculation zones, which suggests a shift of focus in blood damage studies away from instantaneous flow fields and toward high flow mixing regions. In the diastolic phase, leakage flow through the b-datum gap is shown to cause highest damage to platelets. This multiscale numerical method may be used as a generic solver for evaluating blood damage in other cardiovascular flows and devices.

  1. Spatio-temporal flow analysis in bileaflet heart valve hinge regions: potential analysis for blood element damage.

    PubMed

    Simon, Hélène A; Dasi, Lakshmi P; Leo, Hwa-Liang; Yoganathan, Ajit P

    2007-08-01

    Point-wise velocity measurements have been traditionally acquired to estimate blood damage potential induced by prosthetic heart valves with emphasis on peak values of velocity magnitude and Reynolds stresses. However, the inherently Lagrangian nature of platelet activation and hemolysis makes such measurements of limited predictive value. This study provides a refined fluid mechanical analysis, including blood element paths and stress exposure times, of the hinge flows of a CarboMedics bileaflet mechanical heart valve placed under both mitral and aortic conditions and a St Jude Medical bileaflet valve placed under aortic conditions. The hinge area was partitioned into characteristic regions based on dominant flow structures and spatio-temporal averaging was performed on the measured velocities and Reynolds shear stresses to estimate the average bulk stresses acting on blood elements transiting through the hinge. A first-order estimate of viscous stress levels and exposure times were computed. Both forward and leakage flow phases were characterized in each partition by dynamic flows dependent on subtle leaflet movements and transvalvular pressure fluctuations. Blood elements trapped in recirculation regions may experience exposure times as long as the entire forward flow phase duration. Most calculated stresses were below the accepted blood damage threshold. Estimates of the stress levels indicate that the flow conditions within the boundary layers near the hinge and leaflet walls may be more detrimental to blood cells than bulk flow conditions, while recirculation regions may promote thrombus buildup.

  2. Parallel Control of Velocity Control and Energy-Saving Control for a Hydraulic Valve-Controlled Cylinder System Using Self-Organizing Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Mao-Hsiung; Chien, Yu-Wei

    Conventional hydraulic valve-controlled systems that incorporate positive displacement pumps and relief valves have a problem of low energy efficiency. The objective of the research is to implement parallel control of energy-saving control in an electro-hydraulic load-sensing system and velocity control in a hydraulic valve-controlled cylinder system to achieve both high velocity control accuracy and low input power simultaneously. The overall control system is a two-input two-output system. For that, the control strategy of self-organizing fuzzy sliding mode control (SOFSMC) is developed in this study to reduce the fuzzy rule number and to self-organize on-line the fuzzy rules. To compare the energy-saving performance, the velocity control is implemented under three different energy-saving control systems, such as load-sensing control system, constant supply pressure control system and conventional hydraulic system. The parallel control of the velocity control and energy-saving control by the SOFSMC is implemented experimentally.

  3. Exhaust bypass flow control for exhaust heat recovery

    DOEpatents

    Reynolds, Michael G.

    2015-09-22

    An exhaust system for an engine comprises an exhaust heat recovery apparatus configured to receive exhaust gas from the engine and comprises a first flow passage in fluid communication with the exhaust gas and a second flow passage in fluid communication with the exhaust gas. A heat exchanger/energy recovery unit is disposed in the second flow passage and has a working fluid circulating therethrough for exchange of heat from the exhaust gas to the working fluid. A control valve is disposed downstream of the first and the second flow passages in a low temperature region of the exhaust heat recovery apparatus to direct exhaust gas through the first flow passage or the second flow passage.

  4. The effectiveness of a double-stem injection valve in controlling combustion in a compression-ignition engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spanogle, J A; Whitney, E G

    1931-01-01

    An investigation was made to determine to what extent the rates of combustion in a compression-ignition engine can be controlled by varying the rates of fuel injection. The tests showed that the double-stem valve operated satisfactorily under all normal injection conditions; the rate of injection has a definite effect on the rate of combustion; the engine performance with the double-stem valve was inferior to that obtained with a single-stem valve; and the control of injection rates permitted by an injection valve of two stages of discharge is not sufficient to effect the desired rates of combustion.

  5. Advanced Flow Control as a Management Tool in the National Airspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wugalter, S.

    1974-01-01

    Advanced Flow Control is closely related to Air Traffic Control. Air Traffic Control is the business of the Federal Aviation Administration. To formulate an understanding of advanced flow control and its use as a management tool in the National Airspace System, it becomes necessary to speak somewhat of air traffic control, the role of FAA, and their relationship to advanced flow control. Also, this should dispell forever, any notion that advanced flow control is the inspirational master valve scheme to be used on the Alaskan Oil Pipeline.

  6. Dynamic three-dimensional phase-contrast technique in MRI: application to complex flow analysis around the artificial heart valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Soo Jeong; Lee, Dong Hyuk; Song, Inchang; Kim, Nam Gook; Park, Jae-Hyeung; Kim, JongHyo; Han, Man Chung; Min, Byong Goo

    1998-07-01

    Phase-contrast (PC) method of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has bee used for quantitative measurements of flow velocity and volume flow rate. It is a noninvasive technique which provides an accurate two-dimensional velocity image. Moreover, Phase Contrast Cine magnetic resonance imaging combines the flow dependent contrast of PC-MRI with the ability of cardiac cine imaging to produce images throughout the cardiac cycle. However, the accuracy of the data acquired from the single through-plane velocity encoding can be reduced by the effect of flow direction, because in many practical cases flow directions are not uniform throughout the whole region of interest. In this study, we present dynamic three-dimensional velocity vector mapping method using PC-MRI which can visualize the complex flow pattern through 3D volume rendered images displayed dynamically. The direction of velocity mapping can be selected along any three orthogonal axes. By vector summation, the three maps can be combined to form a velocity vector map that determines the velocity regardless of the flow direction. At the same time, Cine method is used to observe the dynamic change of flow. We performed a phantom study to evaluate the accuracy of the suggested PC-MRI in continuous and pulsatile flow measurement. Pulsatile flow wave form is generated by the ventricular assistant device (VAD), HEMO-PULSA (Biomedlab, Seoul, Korea). We varied flow velocity, pulsatile flow wave form, and pulsing rate. The PC-MRI-derived velocities were compared with Doppler-derived results. The velocities of the two measurements showed a significant linear correlation. Dynamic three-dimensional velocity vector mapping was carried out for two cases. First, we applied to the flow analysis around the artificial heart valve in a flat phantom. We could observe the flow pattern around the valve through the 3-dimensional cine image. Next, it is applied to the complex flow inside the polymer sac that is used as ventricle in

  7. Acoustic-Modal Testing of the Ares I Launch Abort System Attitude Control Motor Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, R. Benjamin; Fischbach, Sean R.

    2010-01-01

    The Attitude Control Motor (ACM) is being developed for use in the Launch Abort System (LAS) of NASA's Ares I launch vehicle. The ACM consists of a small solid rocket motor and eight actuated pintle valves that directionally allocate.thrust_- 1t.has-been- predicted-that significant unsteady. pressure.fluctuations.will.exist. inside the-valves during operation. The dominant frequencies of these oscillations correspond to the lowest several acoustic natural frequencies of the individual valves. An acoustic finite element model of the fluid volume inside the valve has been critical to the prediction of these frequencies and their associated mode shapes. This work describes an effort to experimentally validate the acoustic finite model of the valve with an acoustic modal test. The modal test involved instrumenting a flight-like valve with six microphones and then exciting the enclosed air with a loudspeaker. The loudspeaker was configured to deliver broadband noise at relatively high sound pressure levels. The aquired microphone signals were post-processed and compared to results generated from the acoustic finite element model. Initial comparisons between the test data and the model results revealed that additional model refinement was necessary. Specifically, the model was updated to implement a complex impedance boundary condition at the entrance to the valve supply tube. This boundary condition models the frequency-dependent impedance that an acoustic wave will encounter as it reaches the end of the supply tube. Upon invoking this boundary condition, significantly improved agreement between the test data and the model was realized.

  8. Bipropellant shut-off valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. V.

    1971-01-01

    An advanced design of an all metal, fast response, bipropellant, shut-off valve for use on long duration space missions is reported. The valve provides the flow control capability for a 1,000 lb thrust, bipropellant engine using oxygen difluoride and diborane as propellants. The shutoff seal selection is a soft-on-hard metal concept. The soft seal is a spherical shell that seats against a hard conical seat. Beryllium copper and beryllium nickel seals were selected to seal against an electrolyzed Inconel 718 seat. Poppet shaft sealing is achieved by use of hydroformed, Inconel 718 bellows. Two valve assemblies were fabricated and subjected to a series of tests including leak, response time, flow capacity, dry cycles, water cycles, liquid nitrogen cycles, liquid fluorine cycles, and lead-lag operation cycles. These tests demonstrated the ability of the valve to meet design goals.

  9. Double-reed exhaust valve engine

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2015-06-30

    An engine based on a reciprocating piston engine that extracts work from pressurized working fluid. The engine includes a double reed outlet valve for controlling the flow of low-pressure working fluid out of the engine. The double reed provides a stronger force resisting closure of the outlet valve than the force tending to open the outlet valve. The double reed valve enables engine operation at relatively higher torque and lower efficiency at low speed, with lower torque, but higher efficiency at high speed.

  10. Development of the Valvo pump: an axial flow pump implanted at the heart valve position.

    PubMed

    Mitamura, Y; Nakamura, H; Okamoto, E; Yozu, R; Kawada, S; Kim, D W

    1999-06-01

    Pulsatile artificial hearts having a relatively large volume are difficult to implant in a small patient, but rotary blood pumps can be easily implanted. The objective of this study was to show the feasibility of using the Valvo pump, an axial flow pump implanted at the heart valve position, in such cases. The Valvo pump consists of an impeller and a motor. The motor is waterproofed with a ferrofluidic seal. A blood flow of 5 L/min was obtained at a pressure difference of 13.3 kPa (100 mm Hg) at 7,000 rpm. The normalized index of hemolysis (NIH) was 0.030 +/- 0.003 (n = 3) for a blood flow of 5 L/min at a pressure difference of 13.3 kPa. The pressure resistance of the ferrofluidic seal was 37.5 kPa in a static condition and 26.3 kPa at 10,000 rpm. The seal exhibited no leaks for 41+ days against 20.0 kPa. The results showed that the Valvo pump can maintain systemic circulation with an acceptable level of hemolysis.

  11. Dynamic-Active Flow Control - Phase I

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-18

    Section, 4: Plenum Chamber, 5: Rear Observation Window, 6: Return Pipework , 7: Filtration Isolation Valve, 8: AC Motor and Centrifugal Pump, 10: Return... Pipework (pressure side), 11: Filtration Circuit. A large settling chamber existed upstream of the test section. The pump flow was introduced

  12. Supersonic laminar flow control research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, Ching F.; Wiberg, Clark G.

    1995-01-01

    The objective is to understand supersonic laminar flow stability, transition, and active control. Some prediction techniques will be developed or modified to analyze laminar flow stability. The effects of distributed heating and cooling as an active boundary layer control technique will be studied. The primary tasks of the research apply to the NASA/Ames Proof of Concept (PoC) and Laminar Flow Supersonic Wind Tunnel's (LFSWT's) nozzle design with laminar flow control and are listed as follows: (1) predictions of supersonic laminar boundary layer stability and transition, (2) effects of wall heating and cooling on supersonic laminar flow control, (3) performance evaluation of the PoC and LFSWT nozzle designs with wall heating and cooling applied at different locations and various lengths, and (4) effects of a conducted versus pulse wall temperature distribution for the LFSWT.

  13. Scissor thrust valve actuator

    DOEpatents

    DeWall, Kevin G.; Watkins, John C; Nitzel, Michael E.

    2006-08-29

    Apparatus for actuating a valve includes a support frame and at least one valve driving linkage arm, one end of which is rotatably connected to a valve stem of the valve and the other end of which is rotatably connected to a screw block. A motor connected to the frame is operatively connected to a motor driven shaft which is in threaded screw driving relationship with the screw block. The motor rotates the motor driven shaft which drives translational movement of the screw block which drives rotatable movement of the valve driving linkage arm which drives translational movement of the valve stem. The valve actuator may further include a sensory control element disposed in operative relationship with the valve stem, the sensory control element being adapted to provide control over the position of the valve stem by at least sensing the travel and/or position of the valve stem.

  14. Transmission series power flow control

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.J.; Bian, J.; Williams, S.L.

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents the characteristics of two gate turn-off (GTO) thyristor voltage-sourced inverter-based series power flow control devices, namely the Series Power Flow Controller (SPFC) and the Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC). These devices represent series extensions of the STATCON, an inverter-based shunt device developed under a tailored collaboration by EPRI, TVA and the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center, which will soon be placed in service on the TVA 161kV transmission system for transmission voltage control. Operation of the SPFC and UPFC is illustrated through the use of easily-constructed circle diagrams on the P-Q plane. The circle diagrams provide the transmission planning engineer with a simple means to assess the performance of these devices on the transmission system. A concluding example illustrates that the UPFC provides a level of power flow control which is unattainable with more conventional devices.

  15. Nonlinear control of valves in diesel engines using the derivative-free nonlinear Kalman Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigatos, Gerasimos; Siano, Pierluigi; Arsie, Ivan

    2014-10-01

    The paper studies robust nonlinear control for gas exchange valves in diesel engines, with the use of the Derivative-free nonlinear Kalman Filter. Robust control of gas exchange valves is important for improving the efficiency in the operation of diesel engines. By applying differential flatness theory the initial nonlinear model of the system is transformed in the linear canonical (Brunovsky) form. For the latter model it is possible to design a state feedback controller that enables accurate tracking of the valve's reference set-points. To estimate the nonmeasurable state variables of the model and the unknown external disturbances the Derivative-free nonlinear Kalman Filter is used as a disturbance observer. The Derivative-free nonlinear Kalman Filter consists of the standard Kalman Filter recursion on the linearized equivalent model of the valve and of computation of state and disturbance estimates using the diffeomorphism (relations about state variables transformation) provided by differential flatness theory. Evaluation tests are performed for assessing the performance of the proposed control scheme.

  16. Refrigeration system having a modulation valve which also performs function of compressor throttling valve

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, J.L.

    1990-12-18

    This paper discusses a method of controlling a refrigeration system having a compressor, with the compressor being driven by a prime mover. It comprises providing a controllable modulation valve which is open in the absence of electrical current flow, disposing the modulation valve in the refrigeration system in a position which enables the modulation valve to control the amount of refrigerant flow to the compressor, controlling the modulation valve in a predetermined range near a selected set point temperature according to a predetermined control algorithm, with the control algorithm otherwise allowing the modulation valve to remain open, causing the modulation valve to provide a predetermined restriction in the flow of refrigerant to the compressor for a predetermined period of time following start-up of the compressor, overriding the control algorithm, providing an overload signal in response to a predetermined overload condition of the prime mover, and causing the modulation valve to provide the predetermined restriction in the flow of refrigerant to the compressor in response to the overload signal, overriding the control algorithm.

  17. Theoretical analysis of a pressure setting and control system with PWM direction control valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avram, M.; Duminică, D.; Cartal, L. A.

    2016-08-01

    The paper tackles theoretical aspects concerning an original automated system that sets and controls the pressure inside a tank chamber of fixed volume. The structure of the system integrates an original device developed and designed by the authors. The device digitally controls the one way flow of the working fluid using pulse width modulation, allowing the free flow in the other way. The purpose of this research stage was the theoretical establishing of the variation law of the pressure inside the controlled chamber.

  18. Supersonic laminar flow control research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, Ching F.; Wiberg, Clark G.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this research is to understand supersonic laminar flow stability, transition and active control. Some prediction techniques will be developed or modified to analyze laminar flow stability. The effects of distributed heating and cooling as an active boundary layer control technique will be studied. The primary tasks of the research apply to the NASA/Ames PoC and LFSWT's nozzle design with laminar flow control and are listed as follows: (1) predictions of supersonic laminar boundary layer stability and transition; (2) effects of wall heating and cooling on supersonic laminar flow control; (3) performance evaluation of the PoC and LFSWT nozzle designs with wall heating and cooling applied at different locations and various lengths; and (4) effects of a conducted -vs- pulse wall temperature distribution for the LFSWT.

  19. Check valve with poppet dashpot/frictional damping mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Brian G.

    1993-08-01

    An inline check valve for a flow line where the valve element is guided for inline travel forward and rearward of a valve sealing member and is spring biased to a closed sealing condition is presented. One of the guides for the valve element includes a dashpot housing with a bore and plunger member to control the rate of travel of the valve element in either direction, providing a guiding function. The plunger member is arranged with a dashpot ring to frictionally contact the dashpot bore and has an interior tortuous flow path from one side to the other side of the dashpot ring. The dashpot housing is not anchored to the valve body so that the valve can be functional even if the dashpot ring becomes jammed in the dashpot housing.

  20. Check valve with poppet dashpot/frictional damping mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Brian G. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An inline check valve for a flow line where the valve element is guided for inline travel forward and rearward of a valve sealing member and is spring biased to a closed sealing condition is presented. One of the guides for the valve element includes a dashpot housing with a bore and plunger member to control the rate of travel of the valve element in either direction, providing a guiding function. The plunger member is arranged with a dashpot ring to frictionally contact the dashpot bore and has an interior tortuous flow path from one side to the other side of the dashpot ring. The dashpot housing is not anchored to the valve body so that the valve can be functional even if the dashpot ring becomes jammed in the dashpot housing.

  1. Check valve with poppet dashpot/frictional damping mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Brian G.

    1992-06-01

    An inline check valve for a flow line where the valve element is guided for inline travel forward and rearward of a valve sealing member and is spring biased to a closed sealing condition is presented. One of the guides for the valve element includes a dashpot housing with a bore and plunger member to control the rate of travel of the valve element in either direction, providing a guiding function. The plunger member is arranged with a dashpot ring to frictionally contact the dashpot bore and has an interior tortuous flow path from one side to the other side of the dashpot ring. The dashpot housing is not anchored to the valve body so that the valve can be functional even if the dashpot ring becomes jammed in the dashpot housing.

  2. Vortex and energy characteristics of flow in the left ventricle following progressive severities of aortic valve regurgitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Labbio, Giuseppe; Kadem, Lyes

    2016-11-01

    During the heart's filling phase, a notorious vortex is known to develop in the left ventricle (LV). Improper development and poor energetic behavior of this vortex can be correlated with cardiac disease. In particular, during aortic valve regurgitation (leakage of blood through the aortic valve during LV filling), this vortex is forced to interact with a jet emanating from a regurgitant orifice in the valve. The ensuing flow in the left ventricle subject to this disease has yet to be fully characterized and may lead to new indices for evaluation of its severity. As such, this experimental work investigates flow in a model LV subject to aortic regurgitation on a novel double-activation left heart duplicator for six progressive grades of regurgitation (beginning from the healthy case). Double-activation (independent activation of the atrium and ventricle) is critical to the simulation of this pathology. Regurgitation is induced by restricting the closure of the aortic valve to a centralized orifice. The velocity fields for each case are acquired using 2D time-resolved particle image velocimetry. Viscous energy dissipation and vortex formation time are investigated and found to significantly increase as the pathology progresses, while a histogram of vorticity tends toward a shifted and depressed Gaussian distribution. Proper orthogonal decomposition reveals significant disruption of the dominant energetic coherent structures.

  3. Supersonic Laminar Flow Control Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, C. F.; Wiberg, Clark G.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this research is to understand supersonic laminar flow stability, transition and active control. Some prediction techniques are developed or modified to analyze laminar flow stability. The effects of distributed heating and cooling as an active boundary layer control technique are studied. The primary tasks of the research apply to the NASA/Ames Proof-of-Concept (PoC) and the Laminar Flow Supersonic Wind Tunnel's (LFSWT's) nozzle design with laminar flow control and are listed as follows: (1) Predictions of supersonic laminar boundary layer stability and transition; (2) Effects of wall heating and cooling on supersonic laminar flow control on a flat plate; (3) Performance evaluation of the PoC and LFSWT nozzle designs with wall heating and cooling applied at different locations and various lengths; (4) Effects of a conducted -vs- pulse wall temperature distribution for the LFSWT; and (5) Application of wall heating and/or cooling to laminar boundary layer and flow separation control of airfoils and investigation of related active control techniques.

  4. Dual stage check valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitten, D. E. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A dual stage seat valve head arrangement is described which consists of a primary sealing point located between a fixed orifice seat and a valve poppet, and a secondary sealing point between an orifice poppet and a valve poppet. Upstream of the valve orifice is a flexible, convoluted metal diaphragm attached to the orifice poppet. Downstream of the valve orifice, a finger spring exerts a force against the valve poppet, tending to keep the valve in a closed position. The series arrangement of a double seat and poppet is able to tolerate small particle contamination while minimizing chatter by controlling throttling or metering across the secondary seat, thus preserving the primary sealing surface.

  5. Feasibility and testing of lighweight, energy efficient, additive manufactured pneumatic control valve

    SciTech Connect

    Love, Lonnie J.; Mell, Ellen

    2015-02-01

    AeroValve s innovative pneumatic valve technology recycles compressed air through the valve body with each cycle of the valve, and was reported to reduce compressed air requirements by an average of 25% 30%.This technology collaboration project between ORNL and Aerovalve confirms the energy efficiency of valve performance. Measuring air consumption per work completed, the AeroValve was as much as 85% better than the commercial Festo valve.

  6. Control valves and cascades for the first stages of turbines with ultrasupercritical steam parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaryankin, A. E.; Rogalev, N. D.; Rogalev, A. N.; Garanin, I. V.; Osipov, S. K.; Grigoriev, E. Yu.

    2016-06-01

    This paper considers the problems that will unavoidably be encountered in the creation of new-generation turbines operated at ultrasupercritical initial steam parameters, namely, the development of new control and shutoff valves, the reduction of end energy losses in blade cascades and steam leaks in high-pressure cylinders (HPCs), the elimination of effect produced by regenerative steam bleedoffs on the afterextraction stage, the cooling of a blade cascade, etc. Some possible solutions are given for the two first of the listed problems. The conclusion about the need for the transition to new-generation control valves in the development of new advanced steam turbines with ultrasupercritical initial steam parameters has been made. From the viewpoint of their design, the considered new-generation valves differ from the known contemporary constructions by a shaped axially symmetric confusor channel and perforated zones on the streamlined spool surface and the inlet diffuser saddle part. The analysis of the vibration behavior of new-generation valves has demonstrated a decrease in the dynamic loads acting on their stems. To reduce the end energy losses in nozzle or blade cascades with small aspect ratios, it is proposed to use finned shrouds in the interblade channels. The cross section of fins has a triangular profile, and their height must be comparable with the thickness of the boundary layer in the outlet cross section of a cascade and, provisionally, be smaller than 8% of the cascade chord.

  7. Transmission series power flow control

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.J.; Bian, J.; Williams, S.L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the characteristics of two gate turn-off (GTO) thyristor voltage-sourced inverter based series power flow control devices, namely the Series Power Flow Controller (SPFC) and the Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC). These devices represent series extensions of the STATCON, an inverter-based shunt device developed under a tailored collaboration by EPRI, TVA and the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center, which will soon be placed in service on the TVA 161kV transmission system for transmission voltage control. Operation of the SPFC and UPFC is illustrated through the use of easily-constructed circle diagrams on the P-Q plane. The circle diagrams provide the transmission planning engineer with a simple means to assess the performance of these devices on the transmission system. A concluding example illustrates that the UPFC provides a level of power now control which is unattainable with more conventional devices.

  8. Biomimetic Flow Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anders, John B.

    2000-01-01

    Biologic flight has undoubtedly intrigued man for thousands of years, yet it has been only the last 100 years or so that any serious challenge has been mounted to the pre-eminence of birds. Although present-day large-scale aircraft are now clearly able to fly higher, faster and farther than any bird or insect, it is obvious that these biological creatures have a mastery of low Reynolds number, unsteady flows that is unrivaled by man-made systems. This paper suggests that biological flight should be examined for mechanisms that may apply to engineered flight systems, especially in the emerging field of small-scale, uninhabited aerial vehicles (UAV). This paper discusses the kinematics and aerodynamics of bird and insect flight, including some aspects of unsteady aerodynamics. The dynamics of flapping wing flight is briefly examined, including gait selection, flapping frequency and amplitude selection, as well as wing planform and angle-of-attack dynamics. Unsteady aerodynamic mechanisms as practiced by small birds and insects are reviewed. Drag reduction morphologies of birds and marine animals are discussed and fruitful areas of research are suggested.

  9. Double-Poppet Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, W. C.

    1984-01-01

    New valve design includes two poppet/seat combinations actuated simultaneously. If one fails, other continues to seal against fluid flow. Valve primarily useful for handling dangerous fluids and lighter and more compact than comparable redundant-valve systems used at present.

  10. Multidisciplinary optimization of a butterfly valve.

    PubMed

    Song, Xue Guan; Wang, Lin; Baek, Seok Heum; Park, Young Chul

    2009-07-01

    A butterfly valve is a type of flow control device, typically used to regulate fluid flow. This paper proposes a new process to meet desired needs in valve design that is characterized by the complex configuration. First, the need is identified according to the valve user/company, and then the problem is defined with a characteristic function. Second, the initial model of valve is made, and then the initial analysis including fluid and/or structural analysis is carried out to predict the fluid and/or structural performance of the valve. Third, the optimization in the form of mathematical functions, which considers single or multiple objective and/or discipline, is handled. This part includes the design of computer experiment, approximation technique, topology optimization and sizing optimization. Finally, the validation experiment is conducted based on the optimum result to verify the accuracy of the optimization. An example is provided to confirm the availability of the process proposed here.

  11. Pump isolation valve

    DOEpatents

    Kinney, Calvin L.; Wetherill, Todd M.

    1983-08-02

    The pump isolation valve provides a means by which the pump may be selectively isolated from the remainder of the coolant system while being compatible with the internal hydraulic arrangement of the pump during normal operation of the pump. The valve comprises a valve cylinder disposed around the pump and adjacent to the last pump diffuser with a turning vane attached to the lower end of the valve cylinder in a manner so as to hydraulically match with the discharge diffuser. The valve cylinder is connected to a drive means for sliding the valve cylinder relative to the diffuser support cylinder so as to block flow in either direction through the discharge diffuser when the valve is in the closed position and to aid in the flow of the coolant from the discharge diffuser by means of the turning vane when the valve is in the open position.

  12. Conical Seat Shut-Off Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farner, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    A moveable valve for controlling flow of a pressurized working fluid was designed. This valve consists of a hollow, moveable floating piston pressed against a stationary solid seat, and can use the working fluid to seal the valve. This open/closed, novel valve is able to use metal-to-metal seats, without requiring seat sliding action; therefore there are no associated damaging effects. During use, existing standard high-pressure ball valve seats tend to become damaged during rotation of the ball. Additionally, forces acting on the ball and stem create large amounts of friction. The combination of these effects can lead to system failure. In an attempt to reduce damaging effects and seat failures, soft seats in the ball valve have been eliminated; however, the sliding action of the ball across the highly loaded seat still tends to scratch the seat, causing failure. Also, in order to operate, ball valves require the use of large actuators. Positioning the metal-to-metal seats requires more loading, which tends to increase the size of the required actuator, and can also lead to other failures in other areas such as the stem and bearing mechanisms, thus increasing cost and maintenance. This novel non-sliding seat surface valve allows metal-to-metal seats without the damaging effects that can lead to failure, and enables large seating forces without damaging the valve. Additionally, this valve design, even when used with large, high-pressure applications, does not require large conventional valve actuators and the valve stem itself is eliminated. Actuation is achieved with the use of a small, simple solenoid valve. This design also eliminates the need for many seals used with existing ball valve and globe valve designs, which commonly cause failure, too. This, coupled with the elimination of the valve stem and conventional valve actuator, improves valve reliability and seat life. Other mechanical liftoff seats have been designed; however, they have only resulted in

  13. Combined pressure regulator and shutoff valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, E. F. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A remotely operable pressure regulator and shutoff valve particularly suited for achieving high resolution and flow control, and positive shutoff is described. The valve is characterized by a spring-loaded ball coaxially aligned with a fluid port to be sealed, a spring-loaded pintle extended through the port into engagement with the ball, for controlling the position, a spring-loaded diaphragm for controlling the position of the pintle, and an axially displaceable spring supported by a movable stop which, in turn, is repositioned by a selectively operable stepper motor. Thus, the pressure-response characteristics for the valve can be varied through a selective repositioning of the stop.

  14. Overview of Laminar Flow Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joslin, Ronald D.

    1998-01-01

    The history of Laminar Flow Control (LFC) from the 1930s through the 1990s is reviewed and the current status of the technology is assessed. Early studies related to the natural laminar boundary-layer flow physics, manufacturing tolerances for laminar flow, and insect-contamination avoidance are discussed. Although most of this publication is about slot-, porous-, and perforated-suction LFC concept studies in wind tunnel and flight experiments, some mention is made of thermal LFC. Theoretical and computational tools to describe the LFC aerodynamics are included for completeness.

  15. Computer-controlled apparatus for automated development of continuous flow methods

    PubMed Central

    Wentzell, Peter D.; Hatton, Michael J.; Shiundu, Paul M.; Ree, Ronald M.; Betteridge, D.; Sly, Timothy J.

    1989-01-01

    An automated apparatus to assist in the development of analytical continuous flow methods is described. The system is capable of controlling and monitoring a variety of pumps, valves, and detectors through an IBM PC-AT compatible computer. System components consist of two types of peristaltic pumps (including a multiple pump unit), syringe pumps, electrically and pneumatically actuated valves, and an assortment of spectrophotometric and electrochemical detectors. Details of the interface circuitry are given where appropriate. To demonstrate the utility of the system, an automatically generated response surface is presented for the flow injection determination of iron(II) by its reaction with 1,10-phenanthroline. PMID:18924682

  16. Lab on valve-multisyringe flow injection system (LOV-MSFIA) for fully automated uranium determination in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Avivar, Jessica; Ferrer, Laura; Casas, Montserrat; Cerdà, Víctor

    2011-06-15

    The hyphenation of lab-on-valve (LOV) and multisyringe flow analysis (MSFIA), coupled to a long path length liquid waveguide capillary cell (LWCC), allows the spectrophotometric determination of uranium in different types of environmental sample matrices, without any manual pre-treatment, and achieving high selectivity and sensitivity levels. On-line separation and preconcentration of uranium is carried out by means of UTEVA resin. The potential of the LOV-MSFIA makes possible the fully automation of the system by the in-line regeneration of the column. After elution, uranium(VI) is spectrophotometrically detected after reaction with arsenazo-III. The determination of levels of uranium present in environmental samples is required in order to establish an environmental control. Thus, we propose a rapid, cheap and fully automated method to determine uranium(VI) in environmental samples. The limit of detection reached is 1.9 ηg of uranium and depending on the preconcentrated volume; it results in ppt levels (10.3 ηg L(-1)). Different water sample matrices (seawater, well water, freshwater, tap water and mineral water) and a phosphogypsum sample (with natural uranium content) were satisfactorily analyzed.

  17. Magnetic Check Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Brian G.; Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Poppet in proposed check valve restored to closed condition by magnetic attraction instead of spring force. Oscillations suppressed, with consequent reduction of wear. Stationary magnetic disk mounted just upstream of poppet, also containing magnet. Valve body nonmagnetic. Forward pressure or flow would push poppet away from stationary magnetic disk so fluid flows easily around poppet. Stop in valve body prevents poppet from being swept away. When flow stopped or started to reverse, magnetic attraction draws poppet back to disk. Poppet then engages floating O-ring, thereby closing valve and preventing reverse flow. Floating O-ring facilitates sealing at low loads.

  18. The Effect of Pressure Ratio on Unsteady Fluid-Structure Interaction Characteristics of Ball Type Control Valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yang; Tu, Shan; Wang, Hongjuan

    Two-way sequential fluid-structure interaction method was used to analyze and discuss the characteristics of unsteady fluid-structure interaction of the complex flow channel of a steam turbine ball type control valve. Research indicates that when the pressure ratio changes as a sine wave, its flow rate occurs a sine wave change, and the maximum flow rate value of 57.46kg•s-1 occurs in the minimum pressure ratio condition. The longitudinal force of the structure domain decreases with the reduction of the pressure ratio, and points to the opposite direction of the flow. The lateral force increases with the decrease of the pressure ratio, and points to the opposite direction of the flow. The maximum value of deformation and force of the structure domain changes consistently with the pressure ratio fluctuation. The maximum value of the structure domain stress is 28.67MPa, which is far less than the yield strength of the structure material, and the maximum deformation value is 3.25um.

  19. Valves Based on Amplified Piezoelectric Actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Letty, R.; Lhermet, N.; Patient, G.; Claeyssen, F.; Lang, M.

    2004-10-01

    Amplified Piezo Actuators have been developed at CEDRAT TECHNOLOGIES for several years and found several applications in space. Their well-known advantages (rapid response and precise positioning) have been used in valve designs to obtain either rapid or fine proportional valves. A first gas valve is using a small amplified piezo actuator and is further driven with a switched amplifier to get a high frequency modulation. A frequency modulation higher than 400 Hz with a stroke of 100 m has been measured. These properties can also be used for gasoline injectors. A second gas valve is also using an amplified piezo actuator, a linear amplifier, and a servo controller to get an accurate proportional valve dedicated to precise gas flow control in the fields of instrumentation and space. A linear and stable flow control has been demonstrated. The low power consumption of the piezoelectric valve in the space applications is an additional advantage. A stable flow of dry Nitrogen ranging from 0.1 sccm to 200 sccm has been measured with an inlet pressure of 1 bar. These valves have been designed with the help of several modelling tools: finite element procedure for the electro-mechanical part, the contact mechanics between the poppet and the seat, the computational fluid dynamics. The valves have been further measured by using several measuring equipment's, including a laser interferometer, a spectrum analyser to measure the gas flow stability, Thermal vacuum and leak tests have also been performed. A special emphasis is realised on the driving and control aspects of this valve for space applications.

  20. INVITED PAPER: Control of sudden releases in channel flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katopodes, Nikolaos D.

    2009-12-01

    We present a method for the detection and real-time control of chemical releases in channel flow. Sensor arrays capable of detecting a broad menu of chemical agents are required at strategic locations of the channel. The sensors detect the instantaneous, spatially distributed concentration of the chemical agent and transmit the associated information to a predictive control model. The model provides optimal operation scenarios for computer controlled bleed valves mounted on the channel walls and connected to a common manifold. Control and elimination of the chemical cloud are achieved by optimal blowing and suction of ambient fluid. Gradient information is obtained by use of adjoint equations, so optimization of the control actions is achieved with the highest possible efficiency. The control is optimized over a finite prediction horizon and instructions are sent to the valve manifold. Next, the sensor arrays detect all changes effected by the control and report them to the control model, which advances the process over the next control horizon. Non-reflective boundary conditions for the adjoint equations are derived by a characteristic analysis, which minimizes spurious information in the computation of sensitivities.

  1. Supersonic laminar-flow control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, Dennis M.; Malik, Mujeeb R.

    1987-01-01

    Detailed, up to date systems studies of the application of laminar flow control (LFC) to various supersonic missions and/or vehicles, both civilian and military, are not yet available. However, various first order looks at the benefits are summarized. The bottom line is that laminar flow control may allow development of a viable second generation SST. This follows from a combination of reduced fuel, structure, and insulation weight permitting operation at higher altitudes, thereby lowering sonic boom along with improving performance. The long stage lengths associated with the emerging economic importance of the Pacific Basin are creating a serious and renewed requirement for such a vehicle. Supersonic LFC techniques are discussed.

  2. Hybrid laminar flow control study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Hybrid laminar flow control (HLFC) in which leading edge suction is used in conjunction with wing pressure distribution tailoring to postpone boundary layer transition and reduce friction drag was examined. Airfoil design characteristics required for laminar flow control (LFC) were determined. The aerodynamic design of the HLFC wing for a 178 passenger commercial turbofan transport was developed, and a drag was estimated. Systems changes required to install HLFC were defined, and weights and fuel economy were estimated. The potential for 9% fuel reduction for a 3926-km (2120-nmi) mission is identified.

  3. Device for controlling a safety valve disposed below an activation pump in a hydrocarbon production well

    SciTech Connect

    Lefebvre, H. M.; Helderle, P. M.

    1985-05-21

    In a hydrocarbon production well in which the effluent is activated by an activation pump installed in a production pipe, a safety valve is disposed in the production pipe below the pump, the safety valve being operated by lowering of an operating member by a controlling device. The controlling device comprises a piston and cylinder system, and connection means connecting the piston to the operating member during the downward movement of the piston. The cylinder and piston system is provided at the level of the pump, and is advantageously constituted by the production pipe and pump respectively, so that pressurized fluid present at the level of the pump will cause downward movement of the piston.

  4. A hybrid disturbance rejection control solution for variable valve timing system of gasoline engines.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hui; Song, Kang; He, Yu

    2014-07-01

    A novel solution for electro-hydraulic variable valve timing (VVT) system of gasoline engines is proposed, based on the concept of active disturbance rejection control (ADRC). Disturbances, such as oil pressure and engine speed variations, are all estimated and mitigated in real-time. A feed-forward controller was added to enhance the performance of the system based on a simple and static first principle model, forming a hybrid disturbance rejection control (HDRC) strategy. HDRC was validated by experimentation and compared with an existing manually tuned proportional-integral (PI) controller. The results show that HDRC provided a faster response and better tolerance of engine speed and oil pressure variations.

  5. Reduction of procoagulant potential of b-datum leakage jet flow in bileaflet mechanical heart valves via application of vortex generator arrays.

    PubMed

    Murphy, David W; Dasi, Lakshmi P; Vukasinovic, Jelena; Glezer, Ari; Yoganathan, Ajit P

    2010-07-01

    Current designs of bileaflet mechanical heart valves put patients at an increased risk of thromboembolism. In particular, regurgitant flow through the b-datum line is associated with nonphysiologic flow characteristics such as elevated shear stresses, regions of recirculation, and increased mixing, all of which may promote thrombus formation. We have previously shown that passive flow control in the form of vortex generators mounted on the downstream leaflet surfaces can effectively diminish turbulent stresses. The objective of the current work is thus to determine the effect of vortex generators on the thromboembolic potential of the b-datum line leakage jet and to correlate that effect with the vortex generator-induced changes to the flow structure. Flow experiments were performed using a steady model of the transient b-datum line jet. These experiments encompassed flow visualization to gain an overall picture of the flow system, particle image velocimetry to quantify the flow field in detail, and in vitro experiments with human blood to quantify thrombus formation in response to the applied passive flow control. Thrombus formation was quantified over time by an assay for thrombin-antithrombin III (TAT III). In comparing results with and without vortex generators, significantly lower mean TAT III levels were observed at one time point for the case with vortex generators. Also, the TAT III growth rate of the case with vortex generators was significantly lower. While no differences in jet spreading were found with and without vortex generators, lower peak turbulent stresses were observed for the case with vortex generators. The results thus demonstrate the potential of applying passive flow control to cardiovascular hardware in order to mitigate the hemodynamic factors leading to thrombus formation.

  6. Electrical servo actuator bracket. [fuel control valves on jet engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, R. V. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    An electrical servo actuator is mounted on a support arm which is allowed to pivot on a bolt through a fixed mounting bracket. The actuator is pivotally connected to the end of the support arm by a bolt which has an extension allowed to pass through a slot in the fixed mounting bracket. An actuator rod extends from the servo actuator to a crank arm which turns a control shaft. A short linear thrust of the rod pivots the crank arm through about 90 for full-on control with the rod contracted into the servo actuator, and full-off control when the rod is extended from the actuator. A spring moves the servo actuator and actuator rod toward the control crank arm once the actuator rod is fully extended in the full-off position. This assures the turning of the control shaft to a full-off position. A stop bolt and slot are provided to limit pivot motion. Once fully extended, the spring pivots the motion.

  7. Unsteady-flow velocity measurements around an intake valve of a reciprocating engine

    SciTech Connect

    El Tahry, S.H.; Khalighi, B.; Kuziak, W.R. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    In the present work, measurements of the velocity profiles in the valve curtain area of an internal combustion engine were made using hot-wire anemometry. The three components of velocity were measured under a variety of engine speeds, valve lifts, and inlet pipe configurations. From an analysis of the results, it was found that during the intake stroke, a region spanning about 60 crank angle degrees and centered at the middle of the intake stroke could be identified where transient effects had little effect on the intake velocity profiles. In this region, the velocity profiles were fairly insensitive to engine speed and to the type of inlet pipe used, but were sensitive to the valve lift. Surrounding this region, in the early and late parts of the intake stroke, the profiles were found to be influenced by transient effects and were sensitive to engine speed, type of inlet pipe, and valve lift.

  8. Improved pointing at trackable targets by integrating control valve signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, R. W.; Laverty, C. R.; Colby, M. J.

    1982-01-01

    A compact, low-cost add-on electronic module has been developed for the STRAP III control system to improve pointing at trackable targets. The module provides peak-to-peak limit cycle excursions of + or - 5 arcseconds while tracking a +3 magnitude or brighter star. This is achieved without using rate-integrating gyroscopes, thus reducing payload length, weight, cost, and preparation time. This module has flown successfully five times. In May 1981, it improved the performance of a two-startracker attitude control system with TV camera and joystick control which pointed at a nontrackable target. This paper describes the operation of the module, how it alters the ordinary STRAP III operation, and how it was developed using an analog-computer-based rocket flight simulator.

  9. Expanding Robust HCCI Operation with Advanced Valve and Fuel Control Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Szybist, J. P.; Confer, K.

    2012-09-11

    Delphi Automotive Systems and ORNL established this CRADA to advance the commercialization potential of the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) advanced combustion strategy for gasoline engine platforms. HCCI combustion has been shown by others to produce high diesel-like efficiency on a gasoline engine platform while simultaneously producing low NOX and particulate matter emissions. However, the commercialization barriers that face HCCI combustion are significant, with requirements for a more active engine control system, likely with next-cycle closed-loop feedback control, and with advanced valve train technologies to enable negative valve overlap conditions. In the partnership between Delphi and ORNL, each organization brought a unique and complementary set of skills to the project. Delphi has made a number of breakthroughs with production-intent valve train technologies and controls in recent years to make a part time production-intent HCCI engine plausible. ORNL has extensive knowledge and expertise with HCCI combustion, and also has a versatile research engine with hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) that is useful for guiding production of a cam-based HCCI system. Partnering these knowledge bases and capabilities was essential towards making progress to better understand HCCI combustion and the commercialization barriers that it faces. ORNL and Delphi maintained strong collaboration throughout the project. Meetings were held regularly, with additional reports, presentations, and meetings as necessary to maintain progress. Delphi provided guidance to ORNL regarding operational strategies to investigate on their single-cylinder research engine with HVA and data from their experimental multi-cylinder engine for modeling. ORNL provided single-cylinder engine data and modeling results.

  10. Transient Flows in a Pipe System with Pump Shut-Down and the Simultaneous Closing of a Spherical Valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zh.

    2016-11-01

    Because of the limited value of the wave propagation speed in water the propagation of a pressure surge in transient flows can be tracked in the time series. This enables both the pressure head and the flow velocity in pipe flows to be determined as a function of both the coordinate along the pipe and the time. The propagation of the pressure surge includes both wave transmission and reflection. The latter occurs where the flow section is changed. The wave tracking method has been demonstrated as highly accurate and subsequently was applied to much more complex hydraulic systems, in which the pump is shut off and the spherical valve is simultaneously progressively closed. A combined four-quadrant characteristic of the pump and a spherical valve has been worked out, with which the computational procedure for the transient flow in the complex system could be significantly simplified. It has been demonstrated that not only the pressure surge in the hydraulic system but also the rotational speed of the pump could be satisfactorily computed. The computational algorithm has been demonstrated as quite simple, so that all calculations could be performed simply by means of the Microsoft Excel module.

  11. Assessment of transmitral flow after mitral valve edge-to-edge repair using High-speed particle image velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeyhani, Morteza; Shahriari, Shahrokh; Labrosse, Michel; Kadem, Lyes

    2013-11-01

    Approximately 500,000 people in North America suffer from mitral valve regurgitation (MR). MR is a disorder of the heart in which the mitral valve (MV) leaflets do not close securely during systole. Edge-to-edge repair (EtER) technique can be used to surgically treat MR. This technique produces a double-orifice configuration for the MV. Under these un-physiological conditions, flow downstream of the MV forms a double jet structure that may disturb the intraventricular hemodynamics. Abnormal flow patterns following EtER are mainly characterized by high-shear stress and stagnation zones in the left ventricle (LV), which increase the potential of blood component damage. In this study, a custom-made prosthetic bicuspid MV was used to analyze the LV flow patterns after EtER by means of digital particle image velocimetry (PIV). Although the repair of a MV using EtER technique is an effective approach, this study confirms that EtER leads to changes in the LV flow field, including the generation of a double mitral jet flow and high shear stress regions.

  12. Development and verification of methods for predicting flow rates through leaks in valves and couplings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, John M.

    1993-01-01

    This is the final report of a research effort which addresses the title problem. The report discusses two broad models of flows, which represent the following extreme cases: (1) inertia-dominated flow, where friction is relatively insignificant; and (2) friction-dominated flow where inertia is insignificant. In class (2), the leak channel might consist of the gap between a scratch in a plastic seal and a polished metal plate against which the seal is pressed. Here, the cross section of the leak channel is modeled as a flat bottomed crescent. A publication generated under the present grant period presents an exact solution of the equations of fully-developed laminar pipe flow of a liquid in the case of a crescent beneath a hyperbolic arc. A Master's thesis project supported by the present grant presents the corresponding solution beneath a circular arc. A second publication reviews the flow of a gas through the same channel, which may be analyzed by a standard one-dimensional model (Fanno flow) for an engineering approximation. Finally, the report discusses the design and progress in the fabrication of a leak-test cell, in which one may measure the flow of fluid through a controlled flaw in a seal. The aim of such measurements is to furnish data for comparison with the predictions of the theory.

  13. A solenoid failure detection system for cold gas attitude control jet valves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, P. A.

    1970-01-01

    The development of a solenoid valve failure detection system is described. The technique requires the addition of a radioactive gas to the propellant of a cold gas jet attitude control system. Solenoid failure is detected with an avalanche radiation detector located in the jet nozzle which senses the radiation emitted by the leaking radioactive gas. Measurements of carbon monoxide leakage rates through a Mariner type solenoid valve are presented as a function of gas activity and detector configuration. A cylindrical avalanche detector with a factor of 40 improvement in leak sensitivity is proposed for flight systems because it allows the quantity of radioactive gas that must be added to the propellant to be reduced to a practical level.

  14. Physics of forebody flow control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Font, Gabriel I.

    1993-01-01

    Performance in the high angle of attack regime is required by many different types of aircraft. Military aircraft, such as fighters, utilize flight in this regime to improve maneuverability. Civilian aircraft, such as supersonic or hypersonic transports, will also need to operate in this regime during take off and landing, due to their small highly swept wings. Flight at high angles of attack is problematic due to the vortices being created on the nose of the aircraft. The vortices tend to become asymmetric and produce side forces. At the same time, the rudders are less effective because they are becoming immersed in the flow separating from the wings and fuselage. Consequently, the side force produced by the vortices on the nose tend to destabilize the aircraft. This situation may be corrected through the use of a forebody flow control system such as tangential slot blowing. In this concept, a jet is blown from the nose in an effort to alter the flow field around the nose and diminish the destabilizing side force. Alternately, the jet may be used to create a side force which could be used to augment the rudders. This would allow the size of the rudders to be decreased which would, in turn, diminish the cruise drag. Therefore, the use of a tangential slot blowing system has the potential for improving both the maneuver performance and the cruise performance of an aircraft. The present study was conducted to explore the physics of forebody flow control. The study consisted of two major thrusts: (1) exploration of forebody flow control with tangential slot blowing; (2) investigation of flow and field response to a general perturbation.

  15. Development and marketing of a prosthetic urinary control valve system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tenney, J. B., Jr.; Rabinowitz, R.; Rogers, D. W.; Harrison, H. N.

    1983-01-01

    An implantable prosthetic for the control of urinary incontinence was developed and marketed. Three phases are presented: bench development studies, animal trials, and human clinical trials. This work was performed under the direction of a Research Team at Rochester General Hospital (RGH). Bench trials were completed on prototype hardware and provided early verification of the device's ability to withstand repeated cyclic testing. Configurational variants were evaluated and a preferred design concept was established. Silicone rubber (medical grade) was selected as the preferred material for the prosthesis.

  16. Stemless Ball Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burgess, Robert K.; Yakos, David; Walthall, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    This invention utilizes a new method of opening and closing a ball valve. Instead of rotating the ball with a perpendicular stem (as is the case with standard ball valves), the ball is rotated around a fixed axis by two guide pins. This innovation eliminates the leak point that is present in all standard ball valves due to the penetration of an actuation stem through the valve body. The VOST (Venturi Off-Set-Technology) valve has been developed for commercial applications. The standard version of the valve consists of an off-set venturi flow path through the valve. This path is split at the narrowest portion of the venturi, allowing the section upstream from the venturi to be rotated. As this rotation takes place, the venturi becomes restricted as one face rotates with respect to the other, eventually closing off the flow path. A spring-loaded seal made of resilient material is embedded in the upstream face of the valve, making a leak-proof seal between the faces; thus a valve is formed. The spring-loaded lip seal is the only seal that can provide a class six, or bubble-tight, seal against the opposite face of the valve. Tearing action of the seal by high-velocity gas on this early design required relocation of the seal to the downstream face of the valve. In the stemless embodiment of this valve, inner and outer magnetic cartridges are employed to transfer mechanical torque from the outside of the valve to the inside without the use of a stem. This eliminates the leak path caused by the valve stems in standard valves because the stems penetrate through the bodies of these valves.

  17. Passively actuated valve

    SciTech Connect

    Modro, S. Michael; Ougouag, Abderrafi M.

    2005-09-20

    A passively actuated valve for isolating a high pressure zone from a low pressure zone and discontinuing the isolation when the pressure in the high pressure zone drops below a preset threshold. If the pressure in the high pressure zone drops below the preset threshold, the valve opens and allows flow from the high pressure zone to the low pressure zone. The valve remains open allowing pressure equalization and back-flow should a pressure inversion between the two pressure zone occur.

  18. A Novel Implantable Glaucoma Valve Using Ferrofluid

    PubMed Central

    Paschalis, Eleftherios I.; Chodosh, James; Sperling, Ralph A.; Salvador-Culla, Borja; Dohlman, Claes

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To present a novel design of an implantable glaucoma valve based on ferrofluidic nanoparticles and to compare it with a well-established FDA approved valve. Setting Massachusetts Eye & Ear Infirmary, Boston, USA. Methods A glaucoma valve was designed using soft lithography techniques utilizing a water-immiscible magnetic fluid (ferrofluid) as a pressure-sensitive barrier to aqueous flow. Two rare earth micro magnets were used to calibrate the opening and closing pressure. In-vitro flow measurements were performed to characterize the valve and to compare it to Ahmed™ glaucoma valve. The reliability and predictability of the new valve was verified by pressure/flow measurements over a period of three months and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis over a period of eight weeks. In vivo assessment was performed in three rabbits. Results In the in vitro experiments, the opening and closing pressures of the valve were 10 and 7 mmHg, respectively. The measured flow/pressure response was linearly proportional and reproducible over a period of three months (1.8 µl/min at 12 mmHg; 4.3 µl/min at 16 mmHg; 7.6 µl/min at 21 mmHg). X-ray diffraction analysis did not show oxidization of the ferrofluid when exposed to water or air. Preliminary in vivo results suggest that the valve is biocompatible and can control the intraocular pressure in rabbits. Conclusions The proposed valve utilizes ferrofluid as passive, tunable constriction element to provide highly predictable opening and closing pressures while maintaining ocular tone. The ferrofluid maintained its magnetic properties in the aqueous environment and provided linear flow to pressure response. Our in-vitro tests showed reliable and reproducible results over a study period of three months. Preliminary in-vivo results were very promising and currently more thorough investigation of this device is underway. PMID:23840691

  19. Determination of YAV-8B Reaction Control System bleed flow usage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borchers, Paul F.; Moralez, Ernesto, III; Merrick, Vernon K.; Stortz, Michael W.; Eames, David J. H.

    1992-01-01

    Using a calibrated Rolls-Royce Pegasus engine, total Reaction Control System (RCS) bleed flow rates have been measured on a YAV-8B Harrier during typical short takeoff, transition, hover and vertical landing maneuvers. Using existing aircraft instrumentation and pressure taps located in the RCS ducts, bleed flow rates at each RCS valve were also measured directly during flight and ground tests. These data were compared with the calibrated engine data and with the RCS part of a YAV-8B mathematical model used in piloted simulation at NASA Ames Research Center. Areas of disagreement were small, being confined to the estimation of closed RCS valve leakages and the modeling of the RCS butterfly valve pressure losses.

  20. Fluid flow rate control device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinicke, Robert H. (Inventor); Mohtar, Rafic (Inventor); Nelson, Richard O. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A poppet is modulated between closed and full open positions by a brushless DC motor operating magnetically through a housing to drive a permanent magnet rotor which carries the poppet. The rotor is supported on several parallel cables which are stationarily fixed at one end and attached to the rotor at the other end, whereby rotation of the rotor twists the cables, causing axial foreshortening and axial translation of rotor and poppet. Axial translation is enhanced by placing a spacer between the cables, intermediate their ends. A permanent magnet ring is disposed around the valve seat directly axially attracting the rotor to a valve closed position.

  1. Multiverse data-flow control.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Benjamin; Waser, Jürgen; Ribičić, Hrvoje; Fuchs, Raphael; Peikert, Ronald

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we present a data-flow system which supports comparative analysis of time-dependent data and interactive simulation steering. The system creates data on-the-fly to allow for the exploration of different parameters and the investigation of multiple scenarios. Existing data-flow architectures provide no generic approach to handle modules that perform complex temporal processing such as particle tracing or statistical analysis over time. Moreover, there is no solution to create and manage module data, which is associated with alternative scenarios. Our solution is based on generic data-flow algorithms to automate this process, enabling elaborate data-flow procedures, such as simulation, temporal integration or data aggregation over many time steps in many worlds. To hide the complexity from the user, we extend the World Lines interaction techniques to control the novel data-flow architecture. The concept of multiple, special-purpose cursors is introduced to let users intuitively navigate through time and alternative scenarios. Users specify only what they want to see, the decision which data are required is handled automatically. The concepts are explained by taking the example of the simulation and analysis of material transport in levee-breach scenarios. To strengthen the general applicability, we demonstrate the investigation of vortices in an offline-simulated dam-break data set.

  2. Control of submersible vortex flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, D. M.; Donaldson, C. D.

    1990-01-01

    Vortex flows produced by submersibles typically unfavorably influence key figures of merit such as acoustic and nonacoustic stealth, control effectiveness/maneuverability, and propulsor efficiency/body drag. Sources of such organized, primarily longitudinal, vorticity include the basic body (nose and sides) and appendages (both base/intersection and tip regions) such as the fairwater, dive planes, rear control surfaces, and propulsor stators/tips. Two fundamentally different vortex control approaches are available: (1) deintensification of the amplitude and/or organization of the vortex during its initiation process; and (2) downstream vortex disablement. Vortex control techniques applicable to the initiation region (deintensification approach) include transverse pressure gradient minimization via altered body cross section, appendage dillets, fillets, and sweep, and various appendage tip and spanload treatment along with the use of active controls to minimize control surface size and motions. Vortex disablement can be accomplished either via use of control vortices (which can also be used to steer the vortices off-board), direct unwinding, inducement of vortex bursting, or segmentation/tailoring for enhanced dissipation. Submersible-applicable vortex control technology is also included derived from various aeronautical applications such as mitigation of the wing wake vortex hazard and flight aircraft maneuverability at high angle of attack as well as the status of vortex effects upon, and mitigation of, nonlinear control forces on submersibles. Specific suggestions for submersible-applicable vortex control techniques are presented.

  3. Numerical simulation of the non-Newtonian blood flow through a mechanical aortic valve. Non-Newtonian blood flow in the aortic root

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vita, F.; de Tullio, M. D.; Verzicco, R.

    2016-04-01

    This work focuses on the comparison between Newtonian and non-Newtonian blood flows through a bileaflet mechanical heart valve in the aortic root. The blood, in fact, is a concentrated suspension of cells, mainly red blood cells, in a Newtonian matrix, the plasma, and consequently its overall behavior is that of a non-Newtonian fluid owing to the action of the cells' membrane on the fluid part. The common practice, however, assumes the blood in large vessels as a Newtonian fluid since the shear rate is generally high and the effective viscosity becomes independent of the former. In this paper, we show that this is not always the case even in the aorta, the largest artery of the systemic circulation, owing to the pulsatile and transitional nature of the flow. Unexpectedly, for most of the pulsating cycle and in a large part of the fluid volume, the shear rate is smaller than the threshold level for the blood to display a constant effective viscosity and its shear thinning character might affect the system dynamics. A direct inspection of the various flow features has shown that the valve dynamics, the transvalvular pressure drop and the large-scale features of the flow are very similar for the Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid models. On the other hand, the mechanical damage of the red blood cells (hemolysis), induced by the altered stress values in the flow, is larger for the non-Newtonian fluid model than for the Newtonian one.

  4. Safety valve

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, Ulf C.

    1984-01-01

    The safety valve contains a resilient gland to be held between a valve seat and a valve member and is secured to the valve member by a sleeve surrounding the end of the valve member adjacent to the valve seat. The sleeve is movable relative to the valve member through a limited axial distance and a gap exists between said valve member and said sleeve.

  5. A capillary valve for microfluidic systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, Eric B.; Kanouff, Michael P.; Rush, Brian M.

    2004-10-01

    Microfluidic systems are becoming increasingly complicated as the number of applications grows. The use of microfluidic systems for chemical and biological agent detection, for example, requires that a given sample be subjected to many process steps, which requires microvalves to control the position and transport of the sample. Each microfluidic application has its own specific valve requirements and this has precipitated the wide variety of valve designs reported in the literature. Each of these valve designs has its strengths and weaknesses. The strength of the valve design proposed here is its simplicity, which makes it easy to fabricate, easy to actuate, and easy to integrate with a microfluidic system. It can be applied to either gas phase or liquid phase systems. This novel design uses a secondary fluid to stop the flow of the primary fluid in the system. The secondary fluid must be chosen based on the type of flow that it must stop. A dielectric fluid must be used for a liquid phase flow driven by electroosmosis, and a liquid with a large surface tension should be used to stop a gas phase flow driven by a weak pressure differential. Experiments were carried out investigating certain critical functions of the design. These experiments verified that the secondary fluid can be reversibly moved between its 'valve opened' and 'valve closed' positions, where the secondary fluid remained as one contiguous piece during this transport process. The experiments also verified that when Fluorinert is used as the secondary fluid, the valve can break an electric circuit. It was found necessary to apply a hydrophobic coating to the microchannels to stop the primary fluid, an aqueous electrolyte, from wicking past the Fluorinert and short-circuiting the valve. A simple model was used to develop valve designs that could be closed using an electrokinetic pump, and re-opened by simply turning the pump off and allowing capillary forces to push the secondary fluid back into its

  6. Analysis of velocity fluctuations downstream of a bileaflet mechanical heart valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forleo, Marcio; Dasi, Lakshmi

    2010-11-01

    Bileaflet mechanical heart valves are widely used to replace diseased aortic heart valves. The stresses induced by the rich and unsteady non-physiological flow structures have been the focus to evaluate red blood cells damage and platelet activation, develop flow control strategies, or improve valve designs. In this study, we analyzed the flow fields obtained downstream of a bileaflet mechanical heart valve using time-resolved particle image velocimetry under pulsatile and steady flow conditions. Our study demonstrates the rich dynamics downstream of the valve and weighs the relevance of unsteady effects vs inertia effects on the different flow structures. Power spectrum analyses of the turbulent fluctuations highlight the highly anisotropic influence and the limited applicability of classical self-similar turbulence theory in describing the small-scale structures in the immediate vicinity of the valve.

  7. Fluid control in microfluidic devices using a fluid conveyance extension and an absorbent microfluidic flow modulator.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Po Ki

    2013-05-07

    This article presents a simple method for controlling fluid in microfluidic devices without the need for valves or pumps. A fluid conveyance extension is fluidly coupled to the enclosed outlet chamber of a microfluidic device. After a fluid is introduced into the microfluidic device and saturates the fluid conveyance extension, a fluid flow in the microfluidic device is generated by contacting an absorbent microfluidic flow modulator with the fluid conveyance extension to absorb the fluid from the fluid conveyance extension through capillary action. Since the fluid in the microfluidic device is fluidly coupled with the fluid conveyance extension and the fluid conveyance extension is fluidly coupled with the absorbent microfluidic flow modulator, the absorption rate of the absorbent microfluidic flow modulator, which is the rate at which the absorbent microfluidic flow modulator absorbs fluid, matches the fluid flow rate in the microfluidic device. Thus, the fluid flow rate in the microfluidic device is set by the absorption rate of the absorbent microfluidic flow modulator. Sheath flow and fluid switching applications are demonstrated using this simple fluid control method without the need for valves or pumps. Also, the ability to control the fluid flow rate in the microfluidic device is demonstrated using absorbent microfluidic flow modulators with various absorbent characteristics and dimensions.

  8. TWO-WAY FREEZE VALVE

    DOEpatents

    Lantz, K.D.; Clark, P.M.

    1960-01-01

    A valve for closing off the flow of radioactive and corrosive gases and liquids or mixtures thereof and forming a leak tight barrier is described. This valve has no mechanical moving parts which would require design to close tolerances and retention of the usual seal tighthess. Instead, there is provided a cavity in which a fusible metal is contained. Heating and cooling are provided to exercise control over the state of the metal. Baffle chambers are utilized to separate the molten fusible metal from the gas or liquid which is being passed through and return the molten metal to its cavity.

  9. Active bypass flow control for a seal in a gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Ebert, Todd A.; Kimmel, Keith D.

    2017-01-10

    An active bypass flow control system for controlling bypass compressed air based upon leakage flow of compressed air flowing past an outer balance seal between a stator and rotor of a first stage of a gas turbine in a gas turbine engine is disclosed. The active bypass flow control system is an adjustable system in which one or more metering devices may be used to control the flow of bypass compressed air as the flow of compressed air past the outer balance seal changes over time as the outer balance seal between the rim cavity and the cooling cavity wears. In at least one embodiment, the metering device may include a valve formed from one or more pins movable between open and closed positions in which the one pin at least partially bisects the bypass channel to regulate flow.

  10. A review of design and modeling of magnetorheological valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd Fatah, Abdul Yasser; Mazlan, Saiful Amri; Koga, Tsuyoshi; Zamzuri, Hairi; Zeinali, Mohammadjavad; Imaduddin, Fitrian

    2015-01-01

    Following recent rapid development of researches in utilizing Magnetorheological (MR) fluid, a smart material that can be magnetically controlled to change its apparent viscosity instantaneously, a lot of applications have been established to exploit the benefits and advantages of using the MR fluid. One of the most important applications for MR fluid in devices is the MR valve, where it uses the popular flow or valve mode among the available working modes for MR fluid. As such, MR valve is widely applied in a lot of hydraulic actuation and vibration reduction devices, among them are dampers, actuators and shock absorbers. This paper presents a review on MR valve, discusses on several design configurations and the mathematical modeling for the MR valve. Therefore, this review paper classifies the MR valve based on the coil configuration and geometrical arrangement of the valve, and focusing on four different mathematical models for MR valve: Bingham plastic, Herschel-Bulkley, bi-viscous and Herschel-Bulkley with pre-yield viscosity (HBPV) models for calculating yield stress and pressure drop in the MR valve. Design challenges and opportunities for application of MR fluid and MR valve are also highlighted in this review. Hopefully, this review paper can provide basic knowledge on design and modeling of MR valve, complementing other reviews on MR fluid, its applications and technologies.

  11. What Is Mitral Valve Prolapse?

    MedlinePlus

    ... may not close tightly. These flaps normally help seal or open the valve. Much of the time, ... and tricuspid valves close. They form a tight seal that prevents blood from flowing back into the ...

  12. External and Turbomachinery Flow Control Working Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmadi, G.; Alstrom, B.; Colonius, T.; Dannenhoffer, J.; Glauser, M.; Helenbrook, B.; Higuchi, H.; Hodson, H.; Jha, R.; Kabiri, P.; LaGraff, J.; Low,K.; McKeon, B.; Morrison, J.; Obcid, S.; Orbaker, A.; Samimy, M.; Schmit, R.; Seifert, A.; Seume, J.; Shahabi, A.; Shea, P.; Ukeiley, L.; Wallace, R.

    2010-01-01

    Broad Flow Control Issues: a) Understanding flow physics. b) Specific control objective(s). c) Actuation. d) Sensors. e) Integrated active flow control system. f) Development of design tools (CFD, reduced order models, controller design, understanding and utilizing instabilities and other mechanisms, e.g., streamwise vorticity).

  13. A valve with seat-slope proportional to flow area at all poppet positions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillaume, D. W.; DeVries, D.

    1991-01-01

    An adjustable gas-blending apparatus is hypothesized that would maintain a consistent mixture over a broad range of flowrates. The design equations for the unique valve seat required for such an apparatus are developed and solved numerically. An example seat is calculated and illustrated in table form. For preliminary study, a prototype is constructed and empirical data are presented which substantiate the design.

  14. Flow Cage Assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Apparatus, systems and methods for implementing flow cages and flow cage assemblies in association with high pressure fluid flows and fluid valves are provided. Flow cages and flow assemblies are provided to dissipate the energy of a fluid flow, such as by reducing fluid flow pressure and/or fluid flow velocity. In some embodiments the dissipation of the fluid flow energy is adapted to reduce erosion, such as from high-pressure jet flows, to reduce cavitation, such as by controllably increasing the flow area, and/or to reduce valve noise associated with pressure surge.

  15. Contamination avoidance devices for poppettype shutoff valves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Endicott, D. L.

    1973-01-01

    The determination of the cycle life is reported of the scal closure of a typical poppet-type shutoff valve in an uncontaminated GH2 environment and then compared this component performance with simulated operation with GN2 and LN2 containing controlled amounts of AL2O3 contaminant particles. The original valve design was tested for contamination damage tolerance characteristics under full-flow and cyclic-operating conditions, redesigned to improve the damage tolerance to contaminants, and then retested. The redesigned valve was found to have acceptable tolerance characteristics under all full-flow conditions and cyclic operation with small (25-75 microns) particulate contamination. The tolerance characteristics of the valve under cyclic conditions with large (75-250 microns) particulate contamination was improved but was not found to be completely satisfactory.

  16. Experimental investigation on a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) parallel flow field design with external two-valve regulation on cathode channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Shijie; Bachman, John C.; Santamaria, Anthony; Park, Jae Wan

    2013-11-01

    Parallel/interdigitated/serpentine flow field PEM fuel cells have similar performance under low overvoltage operation. At higher overvoltage, interdigitated/serpentine flow field performance may exceed parallel flow field designs due to better water removal and more uniform reactant distribution by convective reactant flow in the GDL under land area, i.e. cross flow. However, serpentine flow field design suffers from high pumping losses and the risk of local flooding at channel U-bends. Additionally, interdigitated flow field designs may have higher local flooding risk in the inlet channels and relatively large pumping requirement at low current densities. In this study, a novel parallel flow field design with external two-valve regulation on the cathode was presented. Two valves introduced continuous pressure differences to two separate manifolds in the cathode that induce cross flow across the land areas. Moreover, both valves remained partially open to maintain a good water removal from flow channels. Comparative test results showed the proposed design surpasses performance of both parallel and interdigitated flow field design at operation current density of 0.7 A cm-2 or higher. The performance enhancement is 10.9% at peak power density point (0.387 W cm-2 @ 0.99 A cm-2) compared to parallel flow field taking into account pumping losses.

  17. Plasma Flow Control Optimized Airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voikov, Vladimir; Patel, Mehul

    2005-11-01

    Recent advances in flow control research have demonstrated that plasma actuators can be efficient in different aerodynamic applications, particularly in providing flight control without conventional moving surfaces. The concept involves the use of a laminar airfoil design that employs a separation ramp at the trailing edge that can be manipulated by a plasma actuator to control lift, similar to trailing-edge flaps. The advantages are lower drag by a combination of the laminar flow design, and elimination of parasitic drag associated with wing-flap junctions. This work involves numerical simulations and experiments on a HSNLF(1)-0213 airfoil. The numerical results are obtained using an unsteady, compressible Navier-Stokes simulation that includes a model for the plasma actuators. The experiments are performed on a 2-D airfoil section that is mounted on a lift-drag force balance. The results demonstrate lift enhancement produced by the plasma actuator that is comparable to a plane flap. They also reveal an optimum actuator unsteady frequency that scales with the length of the separated region and local velocity, and is associated with the generation of a train of spanwise vortices. Other scaling including the effect of Reynolds number is presented.

  18. [Quantitative comparison of ventilator-induced work during simulated CPAP in eight demand-flow valve ventilators].

    PubMed

    Nishimura, M; Imanaka, H; Taenaka, N; Yoshiya, I; Takezawa, J

    1989-08-01

    The ventilator-induced work during continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) mode in demand-valve ventilators was evaluated by using a piston pump as a simulator for active breathing. A piston pump delivered and withdrew a stroke volume of 500 ml at rates of 10, 20 and 40 cycle.min-1 with a sinusoidal waveform. A hot-wire flowmeter and a differential pressure transducer were interposed between the pump and ventilators and their signals were fed to a microcomputer to display a pressure-volume loop. The area of the loop was divided into the four parts. Inspiratory work associated with the opening of the demand valve was represented by the area of baseline airway pressure (BPa) during inspiration. The remaining area during inspiration reflected the work done by the ventilators. Expiratory work for overcoming the flow resistance of the expiratory apparatus was represented by the area above BPa during exhalation. The fourth was the area below the baseline during exhalation. The Puritan-Bennett 7200a, the Bear 5, the Siemens Servo 900C, the Hamilton Veolar, the Bird 6400ST, the Engström Erica, the Dräger EV-A, and the CPU-1 were examined at varying CPAP and pressure support levels. Because of demand valve oscillation throughout inspiration, the inspiratory workload of the Bear 5, the Siemens Servo 900C, the Hamilton Veolar, the Bird 6400ST, and the Dräger EV-A could not be calculated. Expiratory flow-resistive work was higher in the Siemens Servo 900C and the Bird 6400ST than the others. The present system can assess the entire performance of ventilators, and may serve to compare ventilators' performance.

  19. Bio-mimetic Flow Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Haecheon

    2009-11-01

    Bio-mimetic engineering or bio-mimetics is the application of biological methods and systems found in nature to the study and design of engineering systems and modern technology (from Wikipedia). The concept itself is old, but successful developments have been made recently, especially in the research field of flow control. The objective of flow control based on the bio-mimetic approach is to develop novel concepts for reducing drag, increasing lift and enhancing aerodynamic performance. For skin friction reduction, a few ideas have been suggested such as the riblet from shark, compliant surface from dolphin, microbubble injection and multiple front-body curvature from penguin, and V-shaped protrusion from sailfish. For form drag reduction, several new attempts have been also made recently. Examples include the V-shaped spanwise grooves from saguaro cactus, overall shape of box fish, longitudinal grooves on scallop shell, bill of swordfish, hooked comb on owl wing, trailing-edge protrusion on dragonfly wing, and fillet. For the enhancement of aerodynamic performance, focuses have been made on the birds, fish and insects: e.g., double layered feather of landing bird, leading-edge serration of humpback-whale flipper, pectoral fin of flying fish, long tail on swallowtail-butterfly wing, wing flapping motion of dragonfly, and alula in birds. Living animals adapt their bodies to better performance in multi purposes, but engineering requires single purpose in most cases. Therefore, bio-mimetic approaches often produce excellent results more than expected. However, they are sometimes based on people's wrong understanding of nature and produce unwanted results. Successes and failures from bio-mimetic approaches in flow control will be discussed in the presentation.

  20. System for remotely servicing a top loading captive ball valve

    DOEpatents

    Berry, Stephen M.; Porter, Matthew L.

    1996-01-01

    An attachment for facilitating servicing of a valve, the valve including: an assembly composed of a valve seat defining a flow path, a flow control member movable relative to the valve seat for blocking or unblocking the valve seat, and a control device including a stem coupled to the flow control member and operable for moving the flow control member relative to the valve seat; a housing for receiving the assembly, the housing having an opening via which the assembly can be removed from, and installed in, the housing, and the housing having a plurality of threaded studs which surround the opening and project away from the housing; a valve housing cover for closing and sealing the opening in the housing, the cover having a first bore for passage of the stem of the control device when the assembly is installed in the housing and a plurality of second bores each located for passage of a respective stud when the cover closes the opening in the housing. A plurality of threaded nuts are engageable with the studs for securing the cover to the housing when the cover closes the opening in the housing, wherein the attachment comprises: a plurality of nut guide devices removable from the housing and each operatively associated with a respective stud for retaining a respective nut and guiding the respective nut into alignment with the respective stud to enable the respective nut to be rotated into engagement with the respective stud; and aligning the nut guide devices with the studs.

  1. Flow Control Using Neural Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    FEB 93 - 31 DEC 96 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5 . FUNDING NUMBERS FLOW CONTROL USING NEURAL NETWORKS F49620-93-1-0135 61102F 6. AUTHOR(S) 2307/BS THORWALD...OFFICE OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH (AFOSRO AGENCY REPORT NUMBER 110 DUNCAN AVENUE, ROOM B115 BOLLING AFB DC 20332- 8050 11. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 12a...signals. Figure 5 shows a time series for an actuator that performs a ramp motion in the streamwise direction over about 1 % of the TS period and remains

  2. Analysis and compensation for the cascade dead-zones in the proportional control valve.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bing; Su, Qi; Zhang, Junhui; Lu, Zhenyu

    2017-01-01

    The four-way proportional directional control valve has been widely used as the main stage spring constant for the two-stage proportional control valve (PDV). Since a tradeoff should be made between manufacturing costs and static performance, two symmetry dead-zones are introduced in the main stage spring constant: the center dead-zone caused by the center floating position and the intermediate dead-zone caused by the intermediate position. Though the intermediate dead-zone is much smaller than the center dead-zone, it has significant effect on the dynamic position tracking performance. In this paper, the cascade dead-zones problem in a typical two-stage PDV is analyzed and a cascade dead-zones model is proposed for the main stage spring constant. Then, a cascade dead-zones inverse method is improved with gain estimation and dead-zone detection to compensate the dead-zone nonlinearity. Finally, a digital controller is designed for verification. The comparative experimental results indicate that it is effective to reduce the large position tracking error when the proposed method is applied.

  3. A preliminary durability study of two types of low-profile pericardial bioprosthetic valves through the use of accelerated fatigue testing and flow characterization.

    PubMed

    Schuster, P R; Wagner, J W

    1989-02-01

    Bioprosthetic heart valves are being used more often because of certain advantages they have over artificial valves. The bioprostheses are less thrombogenic, cause a lower incidence of hemolysis, and usually fail in a slow progressive manner. A combination of flow characterization and accelerated testing was used to assess the durability of two types of pericardial valves, the Ionescu-Shiley Low Profile Mitral and the Carpentier-Edwards Low Profile Aortic valve. The flow characterization work was done in an aortic chamber designed for in vivo simulation. The function of the valve was monitored between different stages of the accelerated testing using laser Doppler anemometry. Accelerated testing was performed at 1300 cardiac cycles per minute, and physiologic conditions both in closing pressures and the ambient temperature were maintained. Results indicated a change in flow characteristics owing to cyclic loading of the leaflet tissue. The flow orifice increased over time leading to a decrease in peak velocity. Future developments in Doppler ultrasound may facilitate non-invasive assessment of these peak velocity variations. Calcification of the tissue was not considered, since this was an in vitro study.

  4. 49 CFR 192.381 - Service lines: Excess flow valve performance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... above, the rated closure flow rate specified by the manufacturer; and (ii) Upon closure, reduce gas flow... 5 percent of the manufacturer's specified closure flow rate, up to a maximum of 20 cubic feet per... flow rate is below the manufacturer's minimum specified closure flow rate. (b) An excess flow...

  5. The aerodynamic performance of several flow control devices for internal flow systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckert, W. T.; Wettlaufer, B. M.; Mort, K. W.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental reseach and development program was undertaken to develop and document new flow-control devices for use in the major modifications to the 40 by 80 Foot wind tunnel at Ames Research Center. These devices, which are applicable to other facilities as well, included grid-type and quasi-two-dimensional flow straighteners, louver panels for valving, and turning-vane cascades with net turning angles from 0 deg to 90 deg. The tests were conducted at model scale over a Reynolds number range from 2 x 100,000 to 17 x 100,000, based on chord. The results showed quantitatively the performance benefits of faired, low-blockage, smooth-surface straightener systems, and the advantages of curved turning-vanes with hinge-line gaps sealed and a preferred chord-to-gap ratio between 2.5 and 3.0 for 45 deg or 90 deg turns.

  6. Optimal design of high damping force engine mount featuring MR valve structure with both annular and radial flow paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Q. H.; Choi, S. B.; Lee, Y. S.; Han, M. S.

    2013-11-01

    This paper focuses on the optimal design of a compact and high damping force engine mount featuring magnetorheological fluid (MRF). In the mount, a MR valve structure with both annular and radial flows is employed to generate a high damping force. First, the configuration and working principle of the proposed MR mount is introduced. The MRF flows in the mount are then analyzed and the governing equations of the MR mount are derived based on the Bingham plastic behavior of the MRF. An optimal design of the MR mount is then performed to find the optimal structure of the MR valve to generate a maximum damping force with certain design constraints. In addition, the gap size of MRF ducts is empirically chosen considering the ‘lockup’ problem of the mount at high frequency. Performance of the optimized MR mount is then evaluated based on finite element analysis and discussions on performance results of the optimized MR mount are given. The effectiveness of the proposed MR engine mount is demonstrated via computer simulation by presenting damping force and power consumption.

  7. Miniature Latching Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, A. David; Benson, Glendon M.

    2008-01-01

    A miniature latching valve has been invented to satisfy a need for an electrically controllable on/off pneumatic valve that is lightweight and compact and remains in the most recently commanded open or closed state when power is not supplied. The valve includes a poppet that is moved into or out of contact with a seat to effect closure or opening, respectively, of the flow path. Motion of the poppet is initiated by electrical heating of one of two opposing pairs of nickel/titanium shape-memory alloy (SMA) wires above their transition temperature: heated wires contract to their remembered length, applying tension to pull the poppet toward or away from the seat. A latch consisting mainly of a bistable Belleville washer (a conical spring) made of a hardened stainless steel operates between two stable positions corresponding to the fully closed or fully open state, holding the poppet in one of these positions when power is not applied to either pair of SMA wires. To obtain maximum actuation force and displacement, the SMA wires must be kept in tension. The mounting fixtures at the ends of the wires must support large tensile stresses without creating stress concentrations that would limit the fatigue lives of the wires. An earlier design provided for each wire to be crimped in a conical opening with a conical steel ferrule that was swaged into the opening to produce a large, uniformly distributed holding force. In a subsequent design, the conical ferrule was replaced with a larger crimped cylindrical ferrule depicted in the figure. A major problem in designing the valve was to protect the SMA wires from a bake-out temperature of 300 C. The problem was solved by incorporating the SMA wires into an actuator module that is inserted into a barrel of the valve body and is held in place by miniature clip rings.

  8. Mechanobiological oscillators control lymph flow

    PubMed Central

    Kunert, Christian; Baish, James W.; Liao, Shan; Padera, Timothy P.; Munn, Lance L.

    2015-01-01

    The ability of cells to sense and respond to physical forces has been recognized for decades, but researchers are only beginning to appreciate the fundamental importance of mechanical signals in biology. At the larger scale, there has been increased interest in the collective organization of cells and their ability to produce complex, “emergent” behaviors. Often, these complex behaviors result in tissue-level control mechanisms that manifest as biological oscillators, such as observed in fireflies, heartbeats, and circadian rhythms. In many cases, these complex, collective behaviors are controlled—at least in part—by physical forces imposed on the tissue or created by the cells. Here, we use mathematical simulations to show that two complementary mechanobiological oscillators are sufficient to control fluid transport in the lymphatic system: Ca2+-mediated contractions can be triggered by vessel stretch, whereas nitric oxide produced in response to the resulting fluid shear stress causes the lymphatic vessel to relax locally. Our model predicts that the Ca2+ and NO levels alternate spatiotemporally, establishing complementary feedback loops, and that the resulting phasic contractions drive lymph flow. We show that this mechanism is self-regulating and robust over a range of fluid pressure environments, allowing the lymphatic vessels to provide pumping when needed but remain open when flow can be driven by tissue pressure or gravity. Our simulations accurately reproduce the responses to pressure challenges and signaling pathway manipulations observed experimentally, providing an integrated conceptual framework for lymphatic function. PMID:26283382

  9. Large Scale Magnetostrictive Valve Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richard, James A.; Holleman, Elizabeth; Eddleman, David

    2008-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center's Valves, Actuators and Ducts Design and Development Branch developed a large scale magnetostrictive valve actuator. The potential advantages of this technology are faster, more efficient valve actuators that consume less power and provide precise position control and deliver higher flow rates than conventional solenoid valves. Magnetostrictive materials change dimensions when a magnetic field is applied; this property is referred to as magnetostriction. Magnetostriction is caused by the alignment of the magnetic domains in the material s crystalline structure and the applied magnetic field lines. Typically, the material changes shape by elongating in the axial direction and constricting in the radial direction, resulting in no net change in volume. All hardware and testing is complete. This paper will discuss: the potential applications of the technology; overview of the as built actuator design; discuss problems that were uncovered during the development testing; review test data and evaluate weaknesses of the design; and discuss areas for improvement for future work. This actuator holds promises of a low power, high load, proportionally controlled actuator for valves requiring 440 to 1500 newtons load.

  10. Magnetorheological valve based actuator for improvement of passively controlled turbocharger system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahiuddin, I.; Mazlan, S. A.; Imaduddin, F.; Ubaidillah, Ichwan, B.

    2016-03-01

    Variable geometry turbochargers have been widely researched to fulfil the current engine stringent regulations. The passively controlled turbocharger (PCT) concept has been proposed to reduce energy consumption by utilizing the emission energy to move the actuator. However, it only covered a small range operating condition. Therefore, a magnetorheological(MR) Valve device, as typical smart material devices to enhance a passive device, is proposed to improve the PCT. Even though the benefits have been considered for the compactness and easiness to connect to an electrical system, the number of publications regarding the MR application within engine system is hard to be found. Therefore, this paper introduces a design of an MR Valve in a turbocharger. The main challenge is to make sure its capability to produce a sufficient total pressure drop. To overcome the challenge, its material properties, shape and pressure drop calculation has been analyzed to fulfil the requirement. Finally, to get a more understanding of actuator performance, the actuator response was simulated by treating the exhaust gas pressure as an input. It shows that the new MR actuator has a potential dynamic to improve the PCT controllability.

  11. Propellant isolation shutoff valve program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merritt, F. L.

    1973-01-01

    An analysis and design effort directed to advancing the state-of-the-art of space storable isolation valves for control of flow of the propellants liquid fluorine/hydrazine and Flox/monomethylhydrazine is discussed. Emphasis is on achieving zero liquid leakage and capability of withstanding missions up to 10 years in interplanetary space. Included is a study of all-metal poppet sealing theory, an evaluation of candidate seal configurations, a valve actuator trade-off study and design description of a pneumo-thermally actuated soft metal poppet seal valve. The concepts and analysis leading to the soft seal approach are documented. A theoretical evaluation of seal leakage versus seal loading, related finishes and yield strengths of various materials is provided. Application of a confined soft aluminum seal loaded to 2 to 3 times yield strength is recommended. Use of either an electro-mechanical or pneumatic actuator appears to be feasible for the application.

  12. Surge-damping vacuum valve

    DOEpatents

    Bullock, Jack C.; Kelly, Benjamin E.

    1980-01-01

    A valve having a mechanism for damping out flow surges in a vacuum system which utilizes a slotted spring-loaded disk positioned adjacent the valve's vacuum port. Under flow surge conditions, the differential pressure forces the disk into sealing engagement with the vacuum port, thereby restricting the flow path to the slots in the disk damping out the flow surge.

  13. Automatic Mesh Generation of Hybrid Mesh on Valves in Multiple Positions in Feedline Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Douglass H.; Ito, Yasushi; Dorothy, Fredric W.; Shih, Alan M.; Peugeot, John

    2010-01-01

    Fluid flow simulations through a valve often require evaluation of the valve in multiple opening positions. A mesh has to be generated for the valve for each position and compounding. The problem is the fact that the valve is typically part of a larger feedline system. In this paper, we propose to develop a system to create meshes for feedline systems with parametrically controlled valve openings. Herein we outline two approaches to generate the meshes for a valve in a feedline system at multiple positions. There are two issues that must be addressed. The first is the creation of the mesh on the valve for multiple positions. The second is the generation of the mesh for the total feedline system including the valve. For generation of the mesh on the valve, we will describe the use of topology matching and mesh generation parameter transfer. For generation of the total feedline system, we will describe two solutions that we have implemented. In both cases the valve is treated as a component in the feedline system. In the first method the geometry of the valve in the feedline system is replaced with a valve at a different opening position. Geometry is created to connect the valve to the feedline system. Then topology for the valve is created and the portion of the topology for the valve is topology matched to the standard valve in a different position. The mesh generation parameters are transferred and then the volume mesh for the whole feedline system is generated. The second method enables the user to generate the volume mesh on the valve in multiple open positions external to the feedline system, to insert it into the volume mesh of the feedline system, and to reduce the amount of computer time required for mesh generation because only two small volume meshes connecting the valve to the feedline mesh need to be updated.

  14. Control of flow through a vapor generator

    DOEpatents

    Radcliff, Thomas D.

    2005-11-08

    In a Rankine cycle system wherein a vapor generator receives heat from exhaust gases, provision is made to avoid overheating of the refrigerant during ORC system shut down while at the same time preventing condensation of those gases within the vapor generator when its temperature drops below a threshold temperature by diverting the flow of hot gases to ambient and to thereby draw ambient air through the vapor generator in the process. In one embodiment, a bistable ejector is adjustable between one position, in which the hot gases flow through the vapor generator, to another position wherein the gases are diverted away from the vapor generator. Another embodiment provides for a fixed valve ejector with a bias towards discharging to ambient, but with a fan on the downstream side of said vapor generator for overcoming this bias.

  15. Temperature-Operated Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Andrew D.

    1994-01-01

    Bimetallic valve stem positions orifice at end of inner pipe orifice so liquid flows to outlet when temperature lies within small range of preset value. If liquid too cold or too hot, orifices misaligned and liquid returned to source. Such as in shower, valve prevents outflow of dangerously hot or uncomfortably cold water.

  16. CAM operated fuel valve

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, S.T.; Katchka, J.R.

    1991-09-03

    This patent describes improvement in a fuel control valve construction comprising a housing means having an inlet means adapted to be interconnected to a fuel source and a main outlet means adapted to be interconnected to a main burner means, the housing means having a main valve seat for interconnecting the inlet means with the main outlet means, the housing means having a movable main valve member for opening and closing the main valve seat, the housing means having a movable lever operatively associated with the main valve member and having a manually operable actuator means for controlling the operating positions of the lever, the lever having an intermediate cam follower portion and opposed ends disposed on each side of the cam follower portion with one end of the opposed ends being pivotally mounted to the housing means and with the other end of the opposed ends for operating the main valve member, the housing means having biasing means operatively interconnected to the lever to tend to pivot the lever in one direction that opens the main valve member away from its the main valve seat. The improvement comprises; the housing means has a thermostatically controlled means that is operatively associated with the lever and is adapted to engage and hold the lever in a position wherein the main valve member is in a closed condition against its the main valve seat when the thermostatically controlled means is in one operating condition thereof and the actuator means is in the on condition thereof.

  17. Development of Advanced Low Emission Injectors and High-Bandwidth Fuel Flow Modulation Valves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mansour, Adel

    2015-01-01

    Parker Hannifin Corporation developed the 3-Zone fuel nozzle for NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aviation Program to meet NASAs target of 75 LTO NOx reduction from CAEP6 regulation. The nozzle concept was envisioned as a drop-in replacement for currently used fuel nozzle stem, and is built up from laminates to provide energetic mixing suitable for lean direct injection mode at high combustor pressure. A high frequency fuel valve was also developed to provide fuel modulation for the pilot injector. Final testing result shows the LTO NOx level falling just shy of NASAs goal at 31.

  18. Numerical modelling of blood flow behaviour in the valved catheter of the PUCA-pump, a LVAD.

    PubMed

    Morsink, P L; Verkerke, G J; Grootenboer, H J; Mihaylov, D; Rakhorst, G

    1997-05-01

    Mechanical heart assistance, performed by the PUlsatile CAtheter (PUCA) pump, chronologically takes place by sucking blood from the left ventricle and ejecting it into the ascending aorta. Within the pump activity the problem of hemolysis and clotting is encountered. In this study the influence of valve geometry on blood cell damage and stagnant zones has been investigated. A variable valve length coupled to a catheter ejection gap and a variable valve angle have been studied. In case of the studied valve, optimal parameter values have been determined. Compared to small catheter ejection gaps with a corresponding valve length, blood damage is found to be less for large ejection gaps with corresponding valve dimensions. In systole a valve positioned in a 0 degree angle proves to be best, whereas in diastole a +20 degree angle is preferable. Because the system is operating in both systole and diastole, a 0 degree angle valve is applied.

  19. Influence of pre-injection control parameters on main-injection fuel quantity for an electronically controlled double-valve fuel injection system of diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Enzhe; Fan, Liyun; Chen, Chao; Dong, Quan; Ma, Xiuzhen; Bai, Yun

    2013-09-01

    A simulation model of an electronically controlled two solenoid valve fuel injection system for a diesel engine is established in the AMESim environment. The accuracy of the model is validated through comparison with experimental data. The influence of pre-injection control parameters on main-injection quantity under different control modes is analyzed. In the spill control valve mode, main-injection fuel quantity decreases gradually and then reaches a stable level because of the increase in multi-injection dwell time. In the needle control valve mode, main-injection fuel quantity increases with rising multi-injection dwell time; this effect becomes more obvious at high-speed revolutions and large main-injection pulse widths. Pre-injection pulse width has no obvious influence on main-injection quantity under the two control modes; the variation in main-injection quantity is in the range of 1 mm3.

  20. Power flow control using quadrature boosters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadanandan, Sandeep N.

    A power system that can be controlled within security constraints would be an advantage to power planners and real-time operators. Controlling flows can lessen reliability issues such as thermal limit violations, power stability problems, and/or voltage stability conditions. Control of flows can also mitigate market issues by reducing congestion on some lines and rerouting power to less loaded lines or onto preferable paths. In the traditional control of power flows, phase shifters are often used. More advanced methods include using Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) Controllers. Some examples include Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitors, Synchronous Series Static Compensators, and Unified Power Flow Controllers. Quadrature Boosters (QBs) have similar structures to phase-shifters, but allow for higher voltage magnitude during real power flow control. In comparison with other FACTS controllers QBs are not as complex and not as expensive. The present study proposes to use QBs to control power flows on a power system. With the inclusion of QBs, real power flows can be controlled to desired scheduled values. In this thesis, the linearized power flow equations used for power flow analysis were modified for the control problem. This included modifying the Jacobian matrix, the power error vector, and calculating the voltage injected by the quadrature booster for the scheduled real power flow. Two scenarios were examined using the proposed power flow control method. First, the power flow in a line in a 5-bus system was modified with a QB using the method developed in this thesis. Simulation was carried out using Matlab. Second, the method was applied to a 30-bus system and then to a 118-bus system using several QBs. In all the cases, the calculated values of the QB voltages led to desired power flows in the designated line.

  1. Valve mechanism having variable valve timing

    SciTech Connect

    Oda, H.; Masuda, S.; Morita, Y.

    1986-04-08

    This patent describes a valve mechanism for an internal combustion engine which consists of a camshaft rotatable about a longitudinal axis and having a cam formed thereon, a swingable member mounted for swinging movement about the longitudinal axis of the camshaft and formed with a tappet receiving hole. A valve tapper is received in the tappet receiving hole for a slidable movement along the tappet receiving hole. The tappet has a cam which engages the surface at one end and a stem engages the surface at the other end. A valve stem is mounted for axial movement and engaged at one end with the stem engaging, surface of the tappet to be actuated thereby. A valve timing control swingably moves the swingable member and the tappet about the camshaft axis in accordance with predetermined engine operating conditions to thereby change valve opening and valve closing timing. The control includes means for holding the swingable member at a first position. The tappet and valve stem are in contact at a first position on the stem engaging surface of the tappet and the direction of the slidable movement of the tappet is aligned with the direction of the axial movement of the valve stem at least under heavy load, high speed engine operation, and for moving the swingable member from the first position to a second position. The tappet and valve stem are in contact at a second position on the stem engaging surface of the tappet at low speed engine operation to effect a change in valve opening and valve closing timing.

  2. A normally-closed piezoelectric micro-valve with flexible stopper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Song; Lu, Song; Liu, Yong; Wang, Jiantao; Tian, Xiaochao; Liu, Guojun; Yang, Zhigang

    2016-04-01

    In the field of controlled drug delivery system, there are still many problems on those reported micro-valves, such as the small opening height, unsatisfactory particle tolerance and high cost. To solve the above problems, a novel normally-closed piezoelectric micro-valve is presented in this paper. The micro-valve was driven by circular unimorph piezoelectric vibrator and natural rubber membrane with high elasticity was used as the valve stopper. The small axial displacement of piezoelectric vibrator can be converted into a large stroke of valve stopper based on hydraulic amplification mechanism. The experiment indicates that maximum hydraulic amplification ratio is up to 14, and the cut-off pressure of the micro-valve is 39kPa in the case of no working voltage. The presented micro valve has a large flow control range (ranging from 0 to 8.75mL/min).

  3. Abnormal distribution of pulmonary blood flow in aortic valve disease. Relation between pulmonary function and chest radiograph.

    PubMed

    Goodenday, L S; Simon, G; Craig, H; Dalby, L

    1970-05-01

    Wasted ventilatory volume (V(D)) and its ratio to tidal volume (V(D)/V(T)) were measured at rest and during exertion in 17 patients with aortic valve disease. We considered V(D)/V(T) to indicate abnormal ventilation: perfusion relations if it did not decrease on exertion, or if the exercising value was greater than 40 per cent. Plain chest radiographs were independently examined for evidence of diversion of pulmonary blood to the upper lobes. There was significant agreement (p<0.05) between radiographic and pulmonary function estimations of abnormality. This suggests that the raised pulmonary venous pressure associated with left ventricular failure creates an abnormal pattern of blood flow through the lung, which is responsible for causing inadequate perfusion with respect to ventilation.

  4. Functional Changes of Diaphragm Type Shunt Valves Induced by Pressure Pulsation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chong-Sun; Suh, Chang-Min; Ra, Young-Shin

    Shunt valves used to treat patients with hydrocephalus were tested to investigate influence of pressure pulsation on their flow control characteristics. Our focus was on flow dynamic and functional changes of the small and thin diaphragms in the valves that serve as the main flow control mechanism and are made from silicone elastomer. Firstly, pressure-flow control curves were compared under pulsed and steady flow (without pulsation) conditions. Secondly, functional changes of the valves were tested after a long-term continuous pulsation with a peristaltic pump. Thirdly, flushing procedures selectively conducted by neurosurgeons were simulated with a fingertip pressed on the dome of the valves. As 20cc/hr of flow rate was adjusted at a constant pressure, application of 40mmH2O of pressure pulse increased flow rate through shunt valves more than 60%. As a 90cm length silicone catheter was connected to the valve outlet, increase in the flow rate was substantially reduced to 17.5%. Pressure-flow control characteristics of some valves showed significant changes after twenty-eight days of pressure pulsation at 1.0 Hz under 50.0cc/hr of flow rate. Flushing simulation resulted in temporary decrease in the pressure level. It took three hours to fully recover the normal pressure-flow control characteristics after the flushing. Our results suggest that shunt valves with a thin elastic diaphragm as the main flow control mechanism are sensitive to intracranial pressure pulsation or pressure spikes enough to change their pressure-flow control characteristics.

  5. Polypropylene vs silicone Ahmed valve with adjunctive mitomycin C in paediatric age group: a prospective controlled study

    PubMed Central

    El Sayed, Y; Awadein, A

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To compare the results of silicone and polypropylene Ahmed glaucoma valves (AGV) implanted during the first 10 years of life. Methods A prospective study was performed on 50 eyes of 33 patients with paediatric glaucoma. Eyes were matched to either polypropylene or silicone AGV. In eyes with bilateral glaucoma, one eye was implanted with polypropylene and the other eye was implanted with silicone AGV. Results Fifty eyes of 33 children were reviewed. Twenty five eyes received a polypropylene valve, and 25 eyes received a silicone valve. Eyes implanted with silicone valves achieved a significantly lower intraocular pressure (IOP) compared with the polypropylene group at 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years postoperatively. The average survival time was significantly longer (P=0.001 by the log-rank test) for the silicone group than for the polypropylene group and the cumulative probability of survival by the log-rank test at the end of the second year was 80% (SE: 8.0, 95% confidence interval (CI): 64–96%) in the silicone group and 56% (SE: 9.8, 95% CI: 40–90%) in the polypropylene group. The difference in the number of postoperative interventions and complications between both groups was statistically insignificant. Conclusion Silicone AGVs can achieve better IOP control, and longer survival with less antiglaucoma drops compared with polypropylene valves in children younger than 10 years. PMID:23579403

  6. Wear and wear mechanism simulation of heavy-duty engine intake valve and seat inserts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. S.; Narasimhan, S.; Larson, J. M.; Schaefer, S. K.

    1998-02-01

    A silicon-chromium alloy frequently used for heavy-duty diesel engine intake valves was tested against eight different insert materials with a valve seat wear simulator. Wear resistance of these combinations was ranked. For each test, the valve seat temperature was controlled at approximately 510 °C, the number of cycles was 864,000 (or 24 h), and the test load was 17,640 N. The combination of the silicon-chromium valve against a cast iron insert produced the least valve seat wear, whereas a cobalt-base alloy insert produced the highest valve seat wear. In the overall valve seat recession ranking, however, the combination of the silicon-chromium valve and an iron-base chromium-nickel alloy insert had the least total seat recession, whereas the silicon-chromium valve against cobalt-base alloy, cast iron, and nickel-base alloy inserts had significant seat recession. Hardness and microstructure compatibility of valve and insert materials are believed to be significant factors in reducing valve and insert wear. The test results indicate that the mechanisms of valve seat and insert wear are a complex combination of adhesion and plastic deformation. Adhesion was confirmed by material transfer, while plastic deformation was verified by shear strain (or radial flow) and abrasion. The oxide films formed during testing also played a significant role. They prevented direct metal-to-metal contact and reduced the coefficient of friction on seat surfaces, thereby reducing adhesive and deformation-controlled wear.

  7. High-Compression-Ratio; Atkinson-Cycle Engine Using Low-Pressure Direct Injection and Pneumatic-Electronic Valve Actuation Enabled by Ionization Current and Foward-Backward Mass Air Flow Sensor Feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Harold Schock; Farhad Jaberi; Ahmed Naguib; Guoming Zhu; David Hung

    2007-12-31

    This report describes the work completed over a two and one half year effort sponsored by the US Department of Energy. The goal was to demonstrate the technology needed to produce a highly efficient engine enabled by several technologies which were to be developed in the course of the work. The technologies included: (1) A low-pressure direct injection system; (2) A mass air flow sensor which would measure the net airflow into the engine on a per cycle basis; (3) A feedback control system enabled by measuring ionization current signals from the spark plug gap; and (4) An infinitely variable cam actuation system based on a pneumatic-hydraulic valve actuation These developments were supplemented by the use of advanced large eddy simulations as well as evaluations of fuel air mixing using the KIVA and WAVE models. The simulations were accompanied by experimental verification when possible. In this effort a solid base has been established for continued development of the advanced engine concepts originally proposed. Due to problems with the valve actuation system a complete demonstration of the engine concept originally proposed was not possible. Some of the highlights that were accomplished during this effort are: (1) A forward-backward mass air flow sensor has been developed and a patent application for the device has been submitted. We are optimistic that this technology will have a particular application in variable valve timing direct injection systems for IC engines. (2) The biggest effort on this project has involved the development of the pneumatic-hydraulic valve actuation system. This system was originally purchased from Cargine, a Swedish supplier and is in the development stage. To date we have not been able to use the actuators to control the exhaust valves, although the actuators have been successfully employed to control the intake valves. The reason for this is the additional complication associated with variable back pressure on the exhaust valves when

  8. Piezoelectric Microvalve for Flow Control in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bucci, B.A.; Vipperman, J.S.; Clark, W.; Hensel, J.P.; Thornton, J.D.; Kim. S.

    2006-11-01

    Maldistribution of fuel across the cells of a fuel cell stack is an issue that can contribute to poor cell performance and possible cell failure. It has been proposed that an array of microvalves could promote even distribution of fuel across a fuel cell stack. A piezoelectric microvalve has been developed for this purpose. This valve can be tuned to a nominal flow rate (and failure position) from which the actuator would either increase or decrease the flow rate and fuel. The valve can successfully regulate the flow of fuel from 0.7 to 1.1 slpm of hydrogen in the range of temperatures from 80° to 100°C and has been tested over pressure drops from 0.5 to 1 psi. A bank of these valves is currently being tested in a four-cell stack at the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory.

  9. Mechanism utilizing a single rocker arm for controlling an internal combustion engine valve

    SciTech Connect

    Burandt, C.O.

    1988-02-09

    This patent describes in combination with an internal combustion engine having a rotatable camshaft, a cam on the camshaft, a combustion chamber and a reciprocable valve member for opening and closing a valve port in communication with the combustion chamber, a mechanism for operating the valve member comprising a rocker arm having first and second angularly disposed and integrally connected legs. The first leg having a cam follower suface thereon having a first section thereof extending in the same general direction that the valve member reciprocates and having a second section thereof curving toward the valve member and toward the direction in which the valve member reciprocates, means mounting the rocker arm for rocking movement about a first axis, and means for shifting the first axis relative to the camshaft in also the same general direction the valve member reciprocates so that various portions of the first and second sections of the cam follower surface on the first leg are relatively engageable with the cam, sufficient shifting of the first axis in the same general direction producing a desmodromic action, and the second leg including a single portion thereof engaging the valve member so that only the single portion acts on the valve member.

  10. Preliminary design for hot dirty-gas control-valve test facility. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This report presents the results of a preliminary design and cost estimating effort for a facility for the testing of control valves in Hot Dirty Gas (HDGCV) service. This design was performed by Mittelhauser Corporation for the United States Department of Energy's Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The objective of this effort was to provide METC with a feasible preliminary design for a test facility which could be used to evaluate valve designs under simulated service conditions and provide a technology data base for DOE and industry. In addition to the actual preliminary design of the test facility, final design/construction/operating schedules and a facility cost estimate were prepared to provide METC sufficient information with which to evaluate this design. The bases, assumptions, and limitations of this study effort are given. The tasks carried out were as follows: METC Facility Review, Environmental Control Study, Gas Generation Study, Metallurgy Review, Safety Review, Facility Process Design, Facility Conceptual Layout, Instrumentation Design, Cost Estimates, and Schedules. The report provides information regarding the methods of approach used in the various tasks involved in the completion of this study. Section 5.0 of this report presents the results of the study effort. The results obtained from the above-defined tasks are described briefly. The turnkey cost of the test facility is estimated to be $9,774,700 in fourth quarter 1979 dollars, and the annual operating cost is estimated to be $960,000 plus utilities costs which are not included because unit costs per utility were not available from METC.

  11. Morphotype-Dependent Flow Characteristics in Bicuspid Aortic Valve Ascending Aortas: A Benchtop Particle Image Velocimetry Study

    PubMed Central

    McNally, Andrew; Madan, Ashish; Sucosky, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    The bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is a major risk factor for secondary aortopathy such as aortic dilation. The heterogeneous BAV morphotypes [left-right-coronary cusp fusion (LR), right-non-coronary cusp fusion (RN), and left-non-coronary cusp fusion (LN)] are associated with different dilation patterns, suggesting a role for hemodynamics in BAV aortopathogenesis. However, assessment of this theory is still hampered by the limited knowledge of the hemodynamic abnormalities generated by the distinct BAV morphotypes. The objective of this study was to compare experimentally the hemodynamics of a normal (i.e., non-dilated) ascending aorta (AA) subjected to tricuspid aortic valve (TAV), LR-BAV, RN-BAV, and NL-BAV flow. Tissue BAVs reconstructed from porcine TAVs were subjected to physiologic pulsatile flow conditions in a left-heart simulator featuring a realistic aortic root and compliant aorta. Phase-locked particle image velocimetry experiments were carried out to characterize the flow in the aortic root and in the tubular AA in terms of jet skewness and displacement, as well as mean velocity, viscous shear stress and Reynolds shear stress fields. While all three BAVs generated skewed and asymmetrical orifice jets (up to 1.7- and 4.0-fold increase in flow angle and displacement, respectively, relative to the TAV at the sinotubular junction), the RN-BAV jet was out of the plane of observation. The LR- and NL-BAV exhibited a 71% increase in peak-systolic orifice jet velocity relative to the TAV, suggesting an inherent degree of stenosis in BAVs. While these two BAV morphotypes subjected the convexity of the aortic wall to viscous shear stress overloads (1.7-fold increase in maximum peak-systolic viscous shear stress relative to the TAV-AA), the affected sites were morphotype-dependent (LR-BAV: proximal AA, NL-BAV: distal AA). Lastly, the LR- and NL-BAV generated high degrees of turbulence in the AA (up to 2.3-fold increase in peak-systolic Reynolds shear stress relative

  12. Morphotype-Dependent Flow Characteristics in Bicuspid Aortic Valve Ascending Aortas: A Benchtop Particle Image Velocimetry Study.

    PubMed

    McNally, Andrew; Madan, Ashish; Sucosky, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    The bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is a major risk factor for secondary aortopathy such as aortic dilation. The heterogeneous BAV morphotypes [left-right-coronary cusp fusion (LR), right-non-coronary cusp fusion (RN), and left-non-coronary cusp fusion (LN)] are associated with different dilation patterns, suggesting a role for hemodynamics in BAV aortopathogenesis. However, assessment of this theory is still hampered by the limited knowledge of the hemodynamic abnormalities generated by the distinct BAV morphotypes. The objective of this study was to compare experimentally the hemodynamics of a normal (i.e., non-dilated) ascending aorta (AA) subjected to tricuspid aortic valve (TAV), LR-BAV, RN-BAV, and NL-BAV flow. Tissue BAVs reconstructed from porcine TAVs were subjected to physiologic pulsatile flow conditions in a left-heart simulator featuring a realistic aortic root and compliant aorta. Phase-locked particle image velocimetry experiments were carried out to characterize the flow in the aortic root and in the tubular AA in terms of jet skewness and displacement, as well as mean velocity, viscous shear stress and Reynolds shear stress fields. While all three BAVs generated skewed and asymmetrical orifice jets (up to 1.7- and 4.0-fold increase in flow angle and displacement, respectively, relative to the TAV at the sinotubular junction), the RN-BAV jet was out of the plane of observation. The LR- and NL-BAV exhibited a 71% increase in peak-systolic orifice jet velocity relative to the TAV, suggesting an inherent degree of stenosis in BAVs. While these two BAV morphotypes subjected the convexity of the aortic wall to viscous shear stress overloads (1.7-fold increase in maximum peak-systolic viscous shear stress relative to the TAV-AA), the affected sites were morphotype-dependent (LR-BAV: proximal AA, NL-BAV: distal AA). Lastly, the LR- and NL-BAV generated high degrees of turbulence in the AA (up to 2.3-fold increase in peak-systolic Reynolds shear stress relative

  13. System for remotely servicing a top loading captive ball valve

    DOEpatents

    Berry, S.M.; Porter, M.L.

    1996-06-25

    An attachment for facilitating servicing of a valve is disclosed including: an assembly composed of a valve seat defining a flow path, a flow control member movable relative to the valve seat for blocking or unblocking the valve seat, and a control device including a stem coupled to the flow control member and operable for moving the flow control member relative to the valve seat; a housing for receiving the assembly, the housing having an opening via which the assembly can be removed from, and installed in, the housing, and the housing having a plurality of threaded studs which surround the opening and project away from the housing; a valve housing cover for closing and sealing the opening in the housing, the cover having a first bore for passage of the stem of the control device when the assembly is installed in the housing and a plurality of second bores each located for passage of a respective stud when the cover closes the opening in the housing. A plurality of threaded nuts are engageable with the studs for securing the cover to the housing when the cover closes the opening in the housing, wherein the attachment comprises: a plurality of nut guide devices removable from the housing and each operatively associated with a respective stud for retaining a respective nut and guiding the respective nut into alignment with the respective stud to enable the respective nut to be rotated into engagement with the respective stud; and aligning the nut guide devices with the studs. 7 figs.

  14. Development report, mass flow controller PN 5716068

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, W.

    1972-01-01

    The design, development, and manufacture of an all mechanical mass flow controller are discussed. A test program was conducted using inert gas as the test medium. The unit controlled the pressure within plus of minus one percent. An analytical method is presented for relating the control pressure error with error in mass flow.

  15. Pulmonary Valve Stenosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... as mild, moderate or severe, depending on a measurement of the blood pressure difference between the right ... balloon, widening the narrowed valve to increase blood flow, and then removes the balloon. The most common ...

  16. Hydrodynamic Assessment of Aortic Valves Prepared from Porcine Small Intestinal Submucosa.

    PubMed

    Ramaswamy, Sharan; Lordeus, Makensley; Mankame, Omkar V; Valdes-Cruz, Lilliam; Bibevski, Steven; Bell, Sarah M; Baez, Ivan; Scholl, Frank

    2017-03-01

    Infants and children born with severe cardiac valve lesions have no effective long term treatment options since currently available tissue or mechanical prosthetic valves have sizing limitations and no avenue to accommodate the growth of the pediatric patient. Tissue engineered heart valves (TEHVs) which could provide for growth, self-repair, infection resistance, and long-term replacement could be an ideal solution. Porcine small intestinal submucosa (PSIS) has recently emerged as a potentially attractive bioscaffold for TEHVs. PSIS may possess the ability to recruit endogenous cardiovascular cells, leading to phenotypically-matched replacement tissue when the scaffold has completely degraded. Our group has successfully implanted custom-made PSIS valves in 4 infants with critical valve defects in whom standard bioprosthetic or mechanical valves were not an option. Short term clinical follow-up has been promising. However, no hydrodynamic data has been reported to date on these valves. The purpose of this study was to assess the functional effectiveness of tri-leaflet PSIS bioscaffolds in the aortic position compared to standard tri-leaflet porcine bioprosthetic valves. Hydrodynamic evaluation of acute PSIS function was conducted using a left heart simulator in our laboratory. Our results demonstrated similar flow and pressure profiles (p > 0.05) between the PSIS valves and the control valves. However, forward flow energy losses were found to be significantly greater (p < 0.05) in the PSIS valves compared to the controls possibly as a result of stiffer material properties of PSIS relative to glutaraldehyde-fixed porcine valve tissue. Our findings suggest that optimization of valve dimensions and shape may be important in accelerating de novo valve tissue growth and avoidance of long-term complications associated with higher energy losses (e.g. left ventricular hypertrophy). Furthermore, long term animal and clinical studies will be needed in order to

  17. Three-dimensional visualization of axial velocity profiles downstream of six different mechanical aortic valve prostheses, measured with a hot-film anemometer in a steady state flow model.

    PubMed

    Hasenkam, J M; Westphal, D; Reul, H; Gormsen, J; Giersiepen, M; Stodkilde-Jorgensen, H; Paulsen, P K

    1987-01-01

    Hot-film anemometry was used for in vitro steady-state measurements downstream of six mechanical aortic valve prostheses at flow rates 10, 20 and 30 l.min-1. Three-dimensional visualizations of velocity profiles at two downstream levels were made with the valves rotated 0 and 60 degrees in relation to the sinuses of valsalvae. The velocity fields downstream of the disc valves were generally skew with increasing velocity gradients and laminar shear stresses with increasing flow rates. Furthermore, increased skewness of the velocity profiles was noticed when the major orifices of the disc valves were towards the commissure than when approaching a sinus of valsalvae. The velocity profiles downstream of the ball valve were generally flat but with considerably more disturbed flow, consistent with the findings in turbulent flow.

  18. Aortic valve orifice equation independent of valvular flow intervals: application to aortic valve area computation in aortic stenosis and comparison with the Gorlin formula.

    PubMed

    Seitz, W; Oppenheimer, L; McIlroy, M; Nelson, D; Operschall, J

    1986-12-01

    An orifice equation is derived relating the effective aortic valve area, A, the average aortic valve pressure gradient, dP, the stroke volume, SV, and the heart frequency, FH, through considerations of momentum conservation across the aortic valve. This leads to a formula consistent with Newton's second law of motion. The form of the new equation is A = (7.5 X 10(-5)) SV FH2/Pd, where A, VS, FH and Pd are expressed in cm2, ml, s-1 and mmHg, respectively. Aortic valve areas computed with the new orifice equation are found to correlate with those computed by the Gorlin formula in conditions of resting haemodynamic states at a level of r = 0.86, SE = 0.25 cm2, N = 120. The results suggest that the new formula may be considered as an independent orifice equation having a similar domain of validity as the Gorlin formula. The new equation offers the possibility of deriving additional useful haemodynamic relationships through combination with established cardiological formulas and applying it in a noninvasive Doppler ultrasonic or echocardiographic context.

  19. Effect of refrigerant flow control on the performance variation of a variable-speed heat pump operating at low outdoor temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, B.H.; O'Neal, D.L.

    1999-07-01

    An experimental study was conducted to investigate the effect of electronic flow control on the performance of a variable speed heat pump typically operating in both cooling and heating mode. For this purpose, cooling and heating capacity, EER and refrigerant mass flow rate were measured as functions of compressor speed, length of capillary tube (or valve opening of the electronic valve), refrigerant charge, and outdoor temperature. From the experimental results, it was found that performance enhancement due to the electronic flow control became more significant as the operating conditions (evaporating temperature and compressor speed) deviated from the standard condition at which capacity and EER were rated for the given capillary tube.

  20. Ground Simulator Studies of the Effects of Valve Friction, Stick Friction, Flexibility, and Backwash on Power Control System Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, B Porter

    1958-01-01

    Report presents results of tests made on a power control system by means of a ground simulator to determine the effects of various combinations of valve friction and stick friction on the ability of the pilot to control the system. Various friction conditions were simulated with a rigid control system, a flexible system, and a rigid system having some backlash. For the tests, the period and damping of the simulated airplane were held constant.

  1. Development Activities on an Advanced Propellant Flow Control Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noci, G.; Siciliano, P.; Fallerini, L.; Kutufa, N.; Rivetti, A.; Galassi, C.; Bruschi, P.; Piotto, M.

    2004-10-01

    A new generation of propellant control equipment for electric propulsion systems is needed in order to improve performance and operating ranges, symplify h/w configuration, reduce mass and dimensions, eliminate mass flow ripple, reduce time response. In this frame, the development of key components, their assembly and experimental investigation/ validation is on-going at Alenia Spazio-Laben/Business Unit Proel Tecnologie ( Proel in the following ) in the frame of an ESA GSTP program. The new components shall support different EP technologies, future EP multi-tasking capability and wide operating ranges. This paper reports about the development effort, its achievements and perspectives. 1. ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS BOL Beginning of Life CMBR Ceramic multilayer bender ring CTA Constant Temperature Anemometry. DUT Device under test EOL End of Life EP Electric Propulsion GEO Geosyncrhonous Earth Orbit GFCU Gas Flow Control Unit GIT Gridded ion thruster HET Hall Effect Thrusters LEO Low Earth Orbit LPC Low pressure capillary MEOP Maximum Expected Operating Pressure MFS Mass Flow rate Sensor NSSK North-South Station Keeping Pred Reduced pressure Ptank Tank pressure RMT Radiofrequency Magnetic Thruster RMTA Radiofrequency Magnetic Thruster Assembly ROOV Regulation and On-Off Valve SoW Statement of Work SPT Stationary Plasma Thruster.

  2. Successes and Challenges for Flow Control Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumsey, Christopher L.

    2008-01-01

    A survey is made of recent computations published for synthetic jet flow control cases from a CFD workshop held in 2004. The three workshop cases were originally chosen to represent different aspects of flow control physics: nominally 2-D synthetic jet into quiescent air, 3-D circular synthetic jet into turbulent boundary-layer crossflow, and nominally 2-D flow-control (both steady suction and oscillatory zero-net-mass-flow) for separation control on a simple wall-mounted aerodynamic hump shape. The purpose of this survey is to summarize the progress as related to these workshop cases, particularly noting successes and remaining challenges for computational methods. It is hoped that this summary will also by extension serve as an overview of the state-of-the-art of CFD for these types of flow-controlled flow fields in general.

  3. CFD Modeling for Active Flow Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, Pieter G.

    2001-01-01

    This presentation describes current work under UEET Active Flow Control CFD Research Tool Development. The goal of this work is to develop computational tools for inlet active flow control design. This year s objectives were to perform CFD simulations of fully gridded vane vortex generators, micro-vortex genera- tors, and synthetic jets, and to compare flowfield results with wind tunnel tests of simple geometries with flow control devices. Comparisons are shown for a single micro-vortex generator on a flat plate, and for flow over an expansion ramp with sidewall effects. Vortex core location, pressure gradient and oil flow patterns are compared between experiment and computation. This work lays the groundwork for evaluating simplified modeling of arrays of devices, and provides the opportunity to test simple flow control device/sensor/ control loop interaction.

  4. Successes and Challenges for Flow Control Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumsey, Christopher L.

    2008-01-01

    A survey is made of recent computations published for synthetic jet flow control cases from a CFD workshop held in 2004. The three workshop cases were originally chosen to represent different aspects of flow control physics: nominally 2-D synthetic jet into quiescent air, 3-D circular synthetic jet into turbulent boundarylayer crossflow, and nominally 2-D flow-control (both steady suction and oscillatory zero-net-mass-flow) for separation control on a simple wall-mounted aerodynamic hump shape. The purpose of this survey is to summarize the progress as related to these workshop cases, particularly noting successes and remaining challenges for computational methods. It is hoped that this summary will also by extension serve as an overview of the state-of-the-art of CFD for these types of flow-controlled flow fields in general.

  5. Local Control of Blood Flow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, Philip S.

    2011-01-01

    Organ blood flow is determined by perfusion pressure and vasomotor tone in the resistance vessels of the organ. Local factors that regulate vasomotor tone include myogenic and metabolic autoregulation, flow-mediated and conducted responses, and vasoactive substances released from red blood cells. The relative importance of each of these factors…

  6. Lock Culvert Valves; Hydraulic Design Considerations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    lock culvert valves with particular emphasis on reverse tainter valves. Hydraulic coefficients, used to quantify energy losses at valves and the jet...due to a sudden culvert expansion did increase the energy losses in the flow as the jet was dissipated. This additional head loss and associated...8 Figure 5. Loss coefficient for vertical-lift valve having a 45 degree lip

  7. ELECTROSTRICTION VALVE

    DOEpatents

    Kippenhan, D.O.

    1962-09-25

    An accurately controlled, pulse gas valve is designed capable of delivering output pulses which vary in length from one-tenth millisecond to one second or more, repeated at intervals of a few milliseconds or- more. The pulsed gas valve comprises a column formed of barium titanate discs mounted in stacked relation and electrically connected in parallel, with means for applying voltage across the discs to cause them to expand and effect a mechanical elongation axially of the column. The column is mounted within an enclosure having an inlet port and an outlet port with an internal seat in communication with the outlet port, such that a plug secured to the end of the column will engage the seat of the outlet port to close the outlet port in response to the application of voltage is regulated by a conventional electronic timing circuit connected to the column. (AEC)

  8. Self-regulating valve

    DOEpatents

    Humphreys, D.A.

    1982-07-20

    A variable, self-regulating valve having a hydraulic loss coefficient proportional to a positive exponential power of the flow rate. The device includes two objects in a flow channel and structure which assures that the distance between the two objects is an increasing function of the flow rate. The range of spacing between the objects is such that the hydraulic resistance of the valve is an increasing function of the distance between the two objects so that the desired hydraulic loss coefficient as a function of flow rate is obtained without variation in the flow area.

  9. Controls on ostracod valve geochemistry, Part 1: Variations of environmental parameters in ostracod (micro-)habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decrouy, Laurent; Vennemann, Torsten Walter; Ariztegui, Daniel

    2011-11-01

    The variations of environmental conditions ( T°, pH, δ 13C DIC, [DIC], δ 18O, Mg/Ca, and Sr/Ca) of ostracod habitats were examined to determine the controls of environmental parameters on the chemical and isotopic composition of ostracod valves. Results of a one-year monitoring of environmental parameters at five sites, with depths of between 2 and 70 m, in Lake Geneva indicate that in littoral to sub-littoral zones (2, 5, and 13 m), the chemical composition of bottom water varies seasonally in concert with changes in temperature and photosynthetic activity. An increase of temperature and photosynthetic activity leads to an increase in δ 13C values of DIC and to precipitation of authigenic calcite, which results in a concomitant increase of Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios of water. In deeper sites (33 and 70 m), the composition of bottom water remains constant throughout the year and isotopic values and trace element contents are similar to those of deep water within the lake. The chemical composition of interstitial pore water also does not reflect seasonal variations but is controlled by calcite dissolution, aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration with reduction of sulphate and/or nitrate, and methanogenesis that may occur in the sediment pores. Relative influence of each of these factors on the pore water geochemistry depends on sediment thickness and texture, oxygen content in bottom as well as pore water. Variations of chemical compositions of the ostracod valves of this study vary according to the specific ecology of the ostracod species analysed, that is its life-cycle and its (micro-)habitat. Littoral species have compositions that are related to the seasonal variations of temperature, δ 13C values of DIC, and of Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios of water. In contrast, the compositions of profundal species are largely controlled by variations of pore fluids along sediment depth profiles according to the specific depth preference of the species. The control on the

  10. Gas flow across a wet screen - Analogy to a relief valve with hysteresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nachman, A.; Dodge, F. T.

    1983-01-01

    The flow of gas through a wet fine-mesh screen is analyzed in terms of the capillary forces of the liquid wetting the screen and the pressure difference across the screen thickness driving the gas flow. Several different types of time-dependent flow are shown to be possible. The most interesting type is one in which the pressure difference opens small channels in the liquid, which are then closed rapidly by the wetting action of the liquid. The opening and closing exhibit hysteresis, and the flow is highly oscillatory.

  11. Status and outlook of flow separation control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gad-El-hak, Mohamed; Bushnell, Dennis M.

    1991-01-01

    Under certain conditions, wall-bounded flows separate. To improve the performance of natural or man-made flow systems, it may be beneficial to delay or advance this detachment process. The present article reviews the status and outlook of separation control for both steady and unsteady flows. Both passive and active techniques to prevent or to provoke flow detachment are considered and suggestions are made for further research.

  12. VARIABLE FIRING RATE OIL BURNER USING PULSE FUEL FLOW CONTROL.

    SciTech Connect

    KRISHNA,C.R.; BUTCHER,T.A.; KAMATH,B.R.

    2004-10-01

    problem is to develop a burner, which can operate at two firing rates, with the lower rate being significantly lower than 0.5 gallons per hour. This paper describes the initial results of adopting this approach through a pulsed flow nozzle. It has been shown that the concept of flow modulation with a small solenoid valve is feasible. Especially in the second configuration tested, where the Lee valve was integrated with the nozzle, reasonable modulation in flow of the order of 1.7 could be achieved. For this first prototype, the combustion performance is still not quite satisfactory. Improvements in operation, for example by providing a sharp and positive shut-off so that there is no flow under low pressures with consequent poor atomization could lead to better combustion performance. This could be achieved by using nozzles that have shut off or check valves for example. It is recommended that more work in cooperation with the valve manufacturer could produce a technically viable system. Marketability is of course a far more complex problem to be addressed once a technically viable product is available.

  13. A novel technique of using a thyristor driven pump as the final control element and flow indicator of a flow control loop.

    PubMed

    Bera, S C; Mandal, N; Sarkar, R

    2011-07-01

    In the present paper, design of a flow control loop using a thyristor driven pump as final control element has been described. In this technique, the load current of a thyristor driven pump motor has been utilized as a mass flow sensing parameter of a fluid passing through a pipeline. This thyristor driven pump has been utilized as a final control element of a flow control loop and the speed of the pump has been selected as the manipulated variable. The non-linearity between the thyristor input signal and pump output has been eliminated by using a modified PID control technique with inverse derivative control action. Thus without using any conventional flow meter and control valve only the thyristor driven pump has been utilized both as the final control element and flow indicating device by using the proposed technique. The whole system has been designed, fabricated and tested by using tap water as the flowing liquid through a pipe line. The experimental results along with the theoretical analysis are compared and reported in the paper.

  14. Internal combustion engine and method for control

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, Daniel G

    2013-05-21

    In one exemplary embodiment of the invention an internal combustion engine includes a piston disposed in a cylinder, a valve configured to control flow of air into the cylinder and an actuator coupled to the valve to control a position of the valve. The internal combustion engine also includes a controller coupled to the actuator, wherein the controller is configured to close the valve when an uncontrolled condition for the internal engine is determined.

  15. Electrokinetic Flow Control and Propulsion for MAVs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Vehicle (pdf) Electroaerodynamic Coanda Effect – Cylinder Wake Flow Control Experiments to Active Cylinder Wake Flow Control Using Electric Field Actuators...flow separation at the leading edge - Compact geometry (low aspect-ratio below 2) gives rise to strong 3D effects Nonlinear lift characteristics and...Additional Electrode Pair at Trailing Edge has Effect of Jet Flap. - Lift Enhancement at alpha = 19° is 127% - Drag Coefficient decreases by 18% Increase of

  16. Boundary-Layer-Ingesting Inlet Flow Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Lewis R.; Allan, Brian G.; Gorton, Susan A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of a research study conducted in support of the small-scale demonstration of an active flow control system for a boundary-layer-ingesting (BLI) inlet. The effectiveness of active flow control in reducing engine inlet circumferential distortion was assessed using a 2.5% scale model of a 35% boundary-layer-ingesting flush-mounted, offset, diffusing inlet. This experiment was conducted in the NASA Langley 0.3-meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel at flight Mach numbers with a model inlet specifically designed for this type of testing. High mass flow actuators controlled the flow through distributed control jets providing the active flow control. A vortex generator point design configuration was also tested for comparison purposes and to provide a means to examine a hybrid vortex generator and control jets configuration. Measurements were made of the onset boundary layer, the duct surface static pressures, and the mass flow through the duct and the actuators. The distortion and pressure recovery were determined by 40 total pressure measurements on 8 rake arms each separated by 45 degrees and were located at the aerodynamic interface plane. The test matrix was limited to a maximum free-stream Mach number of 0.85 with scaled mass flows through the inlet for that condition. The data show that the flow control jets alone can reduce circumferential distortion (DPCP(sub avg)) from 0.055 to about 0.015 using about 2.5% of inlet mass flow. The vortex generators also reduced the circumferential distortion from 0.055 to 0.010 near the inlet mass flow design point. Lower inlet mass flow settings with the vortex generator configuration produced higher distortion levels that were reduced to acceptable levels using a hybrid vortex generator/control jets configuration that required less than 1% of the inlet mass flow.

  17. Boundary-Layer-Ingesting Inlet Flow Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Lewis R.; Allan, Brian G.; Gorton, Susan A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of a research study conducted in support of the small-scale demonstration of an active flow control system for a boundary-layer-ingesting (BLI) inlet. The effectiveness of active flow control in reducing engine inlet circumferential distortion was assessed using a 2.5% scale model of a 35% boundary-layer-ingesting flush-mounted, offset, diffusing inlet. This experiment was conducted in the NASA Langley 0.3-meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel at flight Mach numbers with a model inlet specifically designed for this type of testing. High mass flow actuators controlled the flow through distributed control jets providing the active flow control. A vortex generator point design configuration was also tested for comparison purposes and to provide a means to examine a hybrid vortex generator and control jets configuration. Measurements were made of the onset boundary layer, the duct surface static pressures, and the mass flow through the duct and the actuators. The distortion and pressure recovery were determined by 40 total pressure measurements on 8 rake arms each separated by 45 degrees and were located at the aerodynamic interface plane. The test matrix was limited to a maximum free-stream Mach number of 0.85 with scaled mass flows through the inlet for that condition. The data show that the flow control jets alone can reduce circumferential distortion (DPCPavg) from 0.055 to about 0.015 using about 2.5% of inlet mass flow. The vortex generators also reduced the circumferential distortion from 0.055 to 0.010 near the inlet mass flow design point. Lower inlet mass flow settings with the vortex generator configuration produced higher distortion levels that were reduced to acceptable levels using a hybrid vortex generator/control jets configuration that required less than 1% of the inlet mass flow.

  18. Hydrodynamic Flow Control in Marine Mammals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-06

    Hydrodynamic flow control in marine mammals Frank E. Fish,1,* Laurens E. Howle† and Mark M. Murray§ Department of Biology, West Chester University...the flow of water around the body dictates the performance of marine mammals in the aquatic environment. Morphological specializations of marine mammals ...and maneuverability. The morphological features of marine mammals for flow control can be utilized in the biomimetic design of engineered structures

  19. Serpentine Geometry Plasma Actuators for Flow Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-23

    Serpentine geometry plasma actuators for flow control Mark Riherd and Subrata Roy Citation: J. Appl. Phys. 114, 083303 (2013); doi: 10.1063...DATES COVERED 00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Serpentine geometry plasma actuators for flow control 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Serpentine geometry plasma actuators for flow

  20. The Electronic Valve Instrument (EVI), an electronic musical wind controller for playing synthesizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, Nyle A.

    2001-05-01

    The Electronic Valve Instrument (EVI) is an electronic musical wind instrument with playing techniques similar to that of a trumpet. Invented by Nyle Steiner in the early 1970's, it was designed to give the performer control of dynamics from breath pressure and the ability to make a humanly generated vibrato. Other musical paramaters can be controlled as well. It has a playing range of seven octaves (similar to that of a piano). When musical lines are played using this instrument (controller) connected to an electronic music synthesizer, the sound is much more natural sounding and expressive than when a normal musical keyboard is used. The evolution of this instrument from the pre-Midi era to it latest Midi configuration, principles of operation, synthesizer programming, and its wide use in movie and TV scoring will be discussed. The EVI has played featured musical lines in many major movie soundtracks and TV shows such as Apocalypse Now, Witness, Dead Poets Society, Fatal Attraction, No Way Out, Gorillas in the Mist, and many others. The EVI design has also been adapted as an Electronic Woodwind Instrument (EWI) by Nyle Steiner and has been manufactured and sold worldwide by the AKAI Co. in Japan.

  1. Influence of Tricuspid Bioprosthetic Mitral Valve Orientation Regarding the Flow Field Inside the Left Ventricle: In Vitro Hydrodynamic Characterization Based on 2D PIV Measurements.

    PubMed

    Bazan, Ovandir; Ortiz, Jayme P; Fukumasu, Newton K; Pacifico, Antonio L; Yanagihara, Jurandir I

    2016-02-01

    The flow patterns of a prosthetic heart valve in the aortic or mitral position can change according to its type and orientation. This work describes the use of 2D particle image velocimetry (PIV) applied to the in vitro flow fields characterization inside the upper part of a left ventricular model at various heart rates and as a function of two orientations of stented tricuspid mitral bioprostheses. In the ventricular model, each mitral bioprosthesis (27 and 31 mm diameter) was installed in two orientations, rotated by 180°, while the aortic bileaflet mechanical valve (27 mm diameter) remained in a fixed orientation. The results (N = 50) showed changes in the intraventricular flow fields according to the mitral bioprostheses positioning. Also, changes in the aortic upstream velocity profiles were noticed as a function of mitral orientations.

  2. Event-triggered logical flow control for comprehensive process integration of multi-step assays on centrifugal microfluidic platforms.

    PubMed

    Kinahan, David J; Kearney, Sinéad M; Dimov, Nikolay; Glynn, Macdara T; Ducrée, Jens

    2014-07-07

    The centrifugal "lab-on-a-disc" concept has proven to have great potential for process integration of bioanalytical assays, in particular where ease-of-use, ruggedness, portability, fast turn-around time and cost efficiency are of paramount importance. Yet, as all liquids residing on the disc are exposed to the same centrifugal field, an inherent challenge of these systems remains the automation of multi-step, multi-liquid sample processing and subsequent detection. In order to orchestrate the underlying bioanalytical protocols, an ample palette of rotationally and externally actuated valving schemes has been developed. While excelling with the level of flow control, externally actuated valves require interaction with peripheral instrumentation, thus compromising the conceptual simplicity of the centrifugal platform. In turn, for rotationally controlled schemes, such as common capillary burst valves, typical manufacturing tolerances tend to limit the number of consecutive laboratory unit operations (LUOs) that can be automated on a single disc. In this paper, a major advancement on recently established dissolvable film (DF) valving is presented; for the very first time, a liquid handling sequence can be controlled in response to completion of preceding liquid transfer event, i.e. completely independent of external stimulus or changes in speed of disc rotation. The basic, event-triggered valve configuration is further adapted to leverage conditional, large-scale process integration. First, we demonstrate a fluidic network on a disc encompassing 10 discrete valving steps including logical relationships such as an AND-conditional as well as serial and parallel flow control. Then we present a disc which is capable of implementing common laboratory unit operations such as metering and selective routing of flows. Finally, as a pilot study, these functions are integrated on a single disc to automate a common, multi-step lab protocol for the extraction of total RNA from

  3. Heart valve surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... surgery - minimally invasive Aortic valve surgery - open Bicuspid aortic valve Endocarditis Heart valve surgery Mitral valve prolapse Mitral valve surgery - minimally invasive Mitral valve surgery - open Pulmonary valve stenosis Smoking - tips on how to quit Patient Instructions ...

  4. Flow Control in a Compact Inlet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaccaro, John C.

    2011-12-01

    An experimental investigation of flow control, via various control jets actuators, was undertaken to eliminate separation and secondary flows in a compact inlet. The compact inlet studied was highly aggressive with a length-to-diameter ratio of 1.5. A brand new facility was designed and built to enable various actuation methodologies as well as multiple measurement techniques. Techniques included static surface pressure, total pressure, and stereoscopic particle image velocimetry. Experimental data were supplemented with numerical simulations courtesy of Prof. Kenneth Jansen, Dr. Onkar Sahni, and Yi Chen. The baseline flow field was found to be dominated by two massive separations and secondary flow structures. These secondary structures were present at the aerodynamic interface plane in the form of two counter-rotating vortices inducing upwash along centerline. A dominant shedding frequency of 350 Hz was measured both at the aerodynamic interface plane and along the lower surface of the inlet. Flow control experiments started utilizing a pair of control jets placed in streamwise locations where flow was found to separate. Tests were performed for a range of inlet Mach numbers from 0.2 to 0.44. Steady and unsteady static pressure measurements along the upper and lower walls of the duct were performed for various combinations of actuation. The parameters that were tested include the control jets momentum coefficient, their blowing ratio, the actuation frequency, as well as different combinations of jets. It was shown that using mass flux ratio as a criterion to define flow control is not sufficient, and one needs to provide both the momentum coefficient and the blowing ratio to quantify the flow control performance. A detailed study was undertaken on controlling the upstream separation point for an inlet Mach number of 0.44. Similar to the baseline flow field, the flow field associated with the activation of a two-dimensional control jet actuator was dominated by

  5. Preservation Of Native Aortic Valve Flow And Full Hemodynamic Support With The TORVAD™ Using A Computational Model Of The Cardiovascular System

    PubMed Central

    Gohean, Jeffrey R.; George, Mitchell J.; Chang, Kay-Won; Larson, Erik R.; Pate, Thomas D.; Kurusz, Mark; Longoria, Raul G.; Smalling, Richard W.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the stroke volume selection and operational design for the TORVAD™, a synchronous, positive-displacement ventricular assist device (VAD). A lumped parameter model was used to simulate hemodynamics with the TORVAD™ compared to those under continuous flow VAD support. Results from the simulation demonstrated that a TORVAD™ with a 30 mL stroke volume ejecting with an early diastolic counterpulse provides comparable systemic support to the HeartMate II® (HMII) (cardiac output 5.7 L/min up from 3.1 L/min in simulated heart failure). By taking advantage of synchronous pulsatility, the TORVAD™ delivers full hemodynamic support with nearly half the VAD flow rate (2.7 L/min compared to 5.3 L/min for the HMII) by allowing the left ventricle to eject during systole, thus preserving native aortic valve flow (3.0 L/min compared to 0.4 L/min for the HMII, down from 3.1 L/min at baseline). The TORVAD™ also preserves pulse pressure (26.7 mmHg compared to 12.8 mmHg for the HMII, down from 29.1 mmHg at baseline). Preservation of aortic valve flow with synchronous pulsatile support could reduce the high incidence of aortic insufficiency and valve cusp fusion reported in patients supported with continuous flow VADs. PMID:25485562

  6. Evaluation of Aortic Stenosis Severity using 4D Flow Jet Shear Layer Detection for the Measurement of Valve Effective Orifice Area

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Julio; Markl, Michael; Schnell, Susanne; Allen, Bradley; Entezari, Pegah; Mahadevia, Riti; Malaisrie, S Chris; Pibarot, Philippe; Carr, James; Barker, Alex J

    2014-01-01

    Aims The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of 4D flow MRI to assess valve effective orifice area (EOA) in patients with aortic stenosis as determined by the jet shear layer detection (JSLD) method. Methods and Results An in-vitro stenosis phantom was used for validation and in-vivo imaging was performed in 10 healthy controls and 40 patients with aortic stenosis. EOA was calculated by the JSLD method using standard 2D phase contrast MRI (PC-MRI) and 4D flow MRI measurements (EOAJSLD-2D and EOAJSLD-4D, respectively). As a reference standard, the continuity equation was used to calculate EOA (EOACE) with the 2D PC-MRI velocity field and compared to the EOAJSLD measurements. The in-vitro results exhibited excellent agreement between flow theory (EOA=0.78 cm2) and experimental measurement (EOAJSLD-4D=0.78±0.01 cm2) for peak velocities ranging from 0.9 to 3.7 m/s. In-vivo results showed good correlation and agreement between EOAJSLD-2D and EOACE (r=0.91, p<0.001; bias: −0.01±0.38cm2; agreement limits: 0.75 to −0.77cm2), and between EOAJSLD-4D and EOACE (r=0.95, p<0.001; bias: −0.09±0.26cm2; limits: 0.43 to −0.62cm2). Conclusion This study demonstrates the feasibility of measuring EOAJSLD using 4D flow MRI. The technique allows for optimization of the EOA measurement position by visualizing the 3D vena contracta, and avoids potential sources of EOACE measurement variability. PMID:24865143

  7. Replacement of the aortic valve with a bioprosthesis at the time of continuous flow ventricular assist device implantation for preexisting aortic valve dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Chamogeorgakis, Themistokles; Mountis, Maria; Gonzalez-Stawinski, Gonzalo V.

    2015-01-01

    Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation has become a mainstay of therapy for advanced heart failure patients who are either ineligible for, or awaiting, cardiac transplantation. Controversy remains over the optimal therapeutic strategy for preexisting aortic valvular dysfunction in these patients at the time of LVAD implant. In patients with moderate to severe aortic regurgitation, surgical approaches are center specific and range from variable leaflet closure techniques to concomitant aortic valve replacement (AVR) with a bioprosthesis. In the present study, we retrospectively analyzed our outcomes in patients who underwent simultaneous AVR and LVAD implantation secondary to antecedent aortic valve pathology. Between January 2004 and June 2010, 144 patients underwent LVAD implantation at a single institution. Of these, 7 patients (4.8%) required concomitant AVR. Five of the 7 patients (71%) survived to hospital discharge and suffered no adverse events in the perioperative period. One-year survival for the discharged patients was 80%, and no prosthetic valve-related adverse events were observed in long-term follow-up. Given our experience, we conclude that bioprosthetic AVR is a plausible alternative for end-stage heart failure patients at the time of LVAD implantation. PMID:26424939

  8. Spring-Loaded Joule-Thomson Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, J. A.; Britcliffe, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    Improved design reduces clogging and maintains constant pressure drop as flow rate varies. Spring-Loaded Joule-Thomson Valve pressure drop regulated by spring pushing stainless-steel ball against soft brass seat. Pressure drop remains nearly constant, regardless of helium flow rate and of any gas contaminants frozen on valve seat. Because springloaded J-T valve maintains constant pressure drop, upstream roomtemperature throttle valve adjusts flow rate precisely for any given upstream pressure. In addition, new valve relatively invulnerable to frozen gas contaminants, which clog fixed-orifice J-T valves.

  9. Investigation of cyanobacteria in a controlled hyperbolic straining flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbaridoust, Farzan; Philip, Jimmy; Marusic, Ivan

    2016-11-01

    Here we report a systematic study on the effect of straining flow on cyanobacteria, which are a cause of significant water contamination issues worldwide. We focus on the species Anaebena Circinalis. A micro-cross channel equipped with two online computer-controlled on-chip membrane valves was designed and fabricated using standard soft-lithography. The device produces a hyperbolic straining flow on a micron-scaled region similar to G. I. Taylor's four-roll mill at larger scale. It was used to investigate the behaviour of a single filament of cynobacteria in a crowded medium under an increasing uniform strain rate flow. The velocity field and the resulting uniform strain-rate was measured in the absence of bacteria filaments using micro-PIV. A large number of single filaments of bacteria were trapped and exposed to stain-rates over 2 to 15 s-1. Previous studies have reported anecdotal evidence of suspected mechanical damage to Anaebena Circinalis for strain rates considerably lower than the maximum values studied here. In our case, no mechanical damage was observed. This work was performed in part at the Melbourne Centre for Nanofabrication (MCN) in the Victorian Node of the Australian National Fabrication Facility (ANFF).

  10. Cylinder Flow Control Using Plasma Actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, Alexey; Thomas, Flint

    2007-11-01

    In this study the results of flow control experiments utilizing single dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators to control flow separation and unsteady vortex shedding from a circular cylinder in cross-flow are reported. Two optimized quartz dielectric plasma actuators mounted on the cylinder surface utilizing an improved saw-tooth waveform high-voltage generator allowed flow control at Reynolds number approaching supercritical. Using either steady or unsteady actuation, it is demonstrated that the plasma-induced surface blowing gives rise to a local Coanda effect that promotes the maintenance of flow attachment. PIV based flow fields and wake velocity profiles obtained with hot-wire anemometry show large reductions in vortex shedding, wake width and turbulence intensity.

  11. Power flow control using distributed saturable reactors

    DOEpatents

    Dimitrovski, Aleksandar D.

    2016-02-13

    A magnetic amplifier includes a saturable core having a plurality of legs. Control windings wound around separate legs are spaced apart from each other and connected in series in an anti-symmetric relation. The control windings are configured in such a way that a biasing magnetic flux arising from a control current flowing through one of the plurality of control windings is substantially equal to the biasing magnetic flux flowing into a second of the plurality of control windings. The flow of the control current through each of the plurality of control windings changes the reactance of the saturable core reactor by driving those portions of the saturable core that convey the biasing magnetic flux in the saturable core into saturation. The phasing of the control winding limits a voltage induced in the plurality of control windings caused by a magnetic flux passing around a portion of the saturable core.

  12. Subsonic Flows through S-Ducts with Flow Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi

    An inlet duct of an aircraft connects the air intake mounted on the fuselage to the engine within the aircraft body. The ideal outflow quality of the duct is steady, uniform and of high total pressure. Recently compact S-shaped inlet ducts are drawing more attention in the design of UAVs with short propulsion system. Compact ducts usually involve strong streamwise adverse pressure gradient and transverse secondary flow, leading to large-scale harmful vortical structures in the outflow. To improve the outflow quality modern flow control techniques have to be applied. Before designing successful flow control methods a solid understanding of the baseline flow field with the duct is crucial. In this work the fundamental mechanism of how the three dimensional flow topology evolves when the relevant parameters such as the duct geometry and boundary layer thickness are varied, is studied carefully. Two distinct secondary-flow patterns are identified. For the first time the sensitivity of the flow topology to the inflow boundary layer thickness in long ducts is clearly addressed. The interaction between the transverse motion induced by the transverse pressure gradient and the streamwise separation is revealed as the crucial reason for the various flow patterns existing in short ducts. A non-symmetric flow pattern is identified for the first time in both experiments and simulations in short ducts in which the intensity of the streamwise separation and the transverse invasion are in the same order of magnitude. A theory of energy accumulation and solution bifurcation is used to give a reasonable explanation for this non-symmetry. After gaining the knowledge of where and how the harmful vortical structures are generated several flow control techniques are tested to achieve a better outflow quality. The analysis of the flow control cases also provides a deeper insight into the behavior of the three-dimensional flow within the ducts. The conventional separation control method

  13. Intraocular Pressure Control after Implantation of an Ahmed Glaucoma Valve in Eyes with a Failed Trabeculectomy

    PubMed Central

    Schimiti, Rui B; Abe, Ricardo Y; Tavares, Carla M; Vasconcellos, Jose PC; Costa, Vital P

    2016-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the results of Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) in eyes with a failed trabeculectomy. Materials and methods This retrospective study evaluated 61 eyes with a failed trabeculectomy that underwent implantation of an AGV due to uncontrolled intraocular pressure (IOP) on maximal medical therapy. Success was defined as IOP ≤ 21 mm Hg (criterion 1) or 20% reduction in IOP (criterion 2) with or without antiglaucoma medications. Persistent hypotony, loss of light perception, and reoperation for IOP control were defined as failure. Results Mean preoperative IOP and mean lOPs at 6, 12, and 24 months were 21.93 ± 6.32 mm Hg (n = 61), 14.15 ± 4.33 mm Hg (n = 59), 13.21 ± 4.44 mm Hg (n = 56), and 13.60 ± 3.27 mm Hg (n = 25) respectively. Mean number of antiglaucoma medications preoperatively and at 6, 12, and 24 months was 3.95 ± 0.85, 2.19 ± 1.38, 2.48 ± 1.44, and 2.40 ± 1.32 respectively. The reductions in the number of medications and IOP measurements were statistically significant at all time intervals (p < 0.001, Wilcoxon signed rank test). According to criterion 1, the Kaplan-Meier survival curve disclosed success rates of 75% at 12 and 24 months. According to criterion 2, the success rates were 57% at 12 months and 55% at 24 months. The most frequent complications were hypertensive phase (18%) and shallow anterior chamber (16.4%). Conclusion The AGV may effectively reduce IOP in eyes that had a failed trabeculectomy. Clinical significance The AGV is an alternative in eyes with a failed trabeculectomy. How to cite this article Schimiti RB, Abe RY, Tavares CM, Vasconcellos JPC, Costa VP. Intraocular Pressure Control after Implantation of an Ahmed Glaucoma Valve in Eyes with a Failed Trabeculectomy. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2016;10(3):97-103. PMID:27857489

  14. Transitioning Active Flow Control to Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joslin, Ronald D.; Horta, Lucas G.; Chen, Fang-Jenq

    1999-01-01

    Active Flow Control Programs at NASA, the U.S. Air Force, and DARPA have been initiated with the goals of obtaining revolutionary advances in aerodynamic performance and maneuvering compared to conventional approaches. These programs envision the use of actuators, sensors, and controllers on applications such as aircraft wings/tails, engine nacelles, internal ducts, nozzles, projectiles, weapons bays, and hydrodynamic vehicles. Anticipated benefits of flow control include reduced weight, part count, and operating cost and reduced fuel burn (and emissions), noise and enhanced safety if the sensors serve a dual role of flow control and health monitoring. To get from the bench-top or laboratory test to adaptive distributed control systems on realistic applications, reliable validated design tools are needed in addition to sub- and large-scale wind-tunnel and flight experiments. This paper will focus on the development of tools for active flow control applications.

  15. Boundary-Layer-Ingesting Inlet Flow Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Lewis R.; Allan, Brian G.; Gorton, Susan A.

    2008-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to provide the first demonstration of an active flow control system for a flush-mounted inlet with significant boundary-layer-ingestion in transonic flow conditions. The effectiveness of the flow control in reducing the circumferential distortion at the engine fan-face location was assessed using a 2.5%-scale model of a boundary-layer-ingesting offset diffusing inlet. The inlet was flush mounted to the tunnel wall and ingested a large boundary layer with a boundary-layer-to-inlet height ratio of 35%. Different jet distribution patterns and jet mass flow rates were used in the inlet to control distortion. A vane configuration was also tested. Finally a hybrid vane/jet configuration was tested leveraging strengths of both types of devices. Measurements were made of the onset boundary layer, the duct surface static pressures, and the mass flow rates through the duct and the flow control actuators. The distortion and pressure recovery were measured at the aerodynamic interface plane. The data show that control jets and vanes reduce circumferential distortion to acceptable levels. The point-design vane configuration produced higher distortion levels at off-design settings. The hybrid vane/jet flow control configuration reduced the off-design distortion levels to acceptable ones and used less than 0.5% of the inlet mass flow to supply the jets.

  16. Micro Particle Image Velocimetry Measurements of Steady Diastolic Leakage Flow in the Hinge of a St. Jude Medical® Regent™ Mechanical Heart Valve

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Brian H.; Saikrishnan, Neelakantan; Yoganathan, Ajit P.

    2013-01-01

    A number of clinical, in vitro and computational studies have shown the potential for thromboembolic complications in bileaflet mechanical heart valves (BMHV), primarily due to the complex and unsteady flows in the valve hinges. These studies have focused on quantitative and qualitative parameters such as velocity magnitude, turbulent shear stresses, vortex formation and platelet activation to identify potential for blood damage. However, experimental characterization of the whole flow fields within the valve hinges has not yet been conducted. This information can be utilized to investigate instantaneous damage to blood elements and also to validate numerical studies focusing on the hinge's complex fluid dynamics. The objective of this study was therefore to develop a high-resolution imaging system to characterize the flow fields and global velocity maps in a BMHV hinge. In this study, the steady leakage hinge flow fields representing the diastolic phase during the cardiac cycle in a 23 mm St. Jude Medical (SJM) Regent BMHV in the aortic position were characterized using a two-dimensional Micro Particle Image Velocimetry (μPIV) system. Diastolic flow was simulated by imposing a static pressure head on the aortic side. Under these conditions, a reverse flow jet from the aortic to the ventricular side was observed with velocities in the range of 1.47 to 3.24 m/s, whereas low flow regions were observed on the ventricular side of the hinge with viscous shear stress magnitude up to 60 N/m2. High velocities and viscous shearing may be associated with platelet activation & hemolysis, while low flow zones can cause thrombosis due to increased residence time in the hinge. Overall, this study provides a high spatial resolution experimental technique to map the fluid velocity in the BMHV hinge, which can be extended to investigate micron-scale flow domains in various prosthetic devices under different hemodynamic conditions. PMID:24085344

  17. klf2a couples mechanotransduction and zebrafish valve morphogenesis through fibronectin synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Steed, Emily; Faggianelli, Nathalie; Roth, Stéphane; Ramspacher, Caroline; Concordet, Jean-Paul; Vermot, Julien

    2016-01-01

    The heartbeat and blood flow signal to endocardial cell progenitors through mechanosensitive proteins that modulate the genetic program controlling heart valve morphogenesis. To date, the mechanism by which mechanical forces coordinate tissue morphogenesis is poorly understood. Here we use high-resolution imaging to uncover the coordinated cell behaviours leading to heart valve formation. We find that heart valves originate from progenitors located in the ventricle and atrium that generate the valve leaflets through a coordinated set of endocardial tissue movements. Gene profiling analyses and live imaging reveal that this reorganization is dependent on extracellular matrix proteins, in particular on the expression of fibronectin1b. We show that blood flow and klf2a, a major endocardial flow-responsive gene, control these cell behaviours and fibronectin1b synthesis. Our results uncover a unique multicellular layering process leading to leaflet formation and demonstrate that endocardial mechanotransduction and valve morphogenesis are coupled via cellular rearrangements mediated by fibronectin synthesis. PMID:27221222

  18. Effect of coarctation of the aorta and bicuspid aortic valve on flow dynamics and turbulence in the aorta using particle image velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshavarz-Motamed, Zahra; Garcia, Julio; Gaillard, Emmanuel; Maftoon, Nima; Di Labbio, Giuseppe; Cloutier, Guy; Kadem, Lyes

    2014-03-01

    Blood flow in the aorta has been of particular interest from both fluid dynamics and physiology perspectives. Coarctation of the aorta (COA) is a congenital heart disease corresponding to a severe narrowing in the aortic arch. Up to 85 % of patients with COA have a pathological aortic valve, leading to a narrowing at the valve level. The aim of the present work was to advance the state of understanding of flow through a COA to investigate how narrowing in the aorta (COA) affects the characteristics of the velocity field and, in particular, turbulence development. For this purpose, particle image velocimetry measurements were conducted at physiological flow and pressure conditions, with three different aorta configurations: (1) normal case: normal aorta + normal aortic valve; (2) isolated COA: COA (with 75 % reduction in aortic cross-sectional area) + normal aortic valve and (3) complex COA: COA (with 75 % reduction in aortic cross-sectional area) + pathological aortic valve. Viscous shear stress (VSS), representing the physical shear stress, Reynolds shear stress (RSS), representing the turbulent shear stress, and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), representing the intensity of fluctuations in the fluid flow environment, were calculated for all cases. Results show that, compared with a healthy aorta, the instantaneous velocity streamlines and vortices were deeply changed in the presence of the COA. The normal aorta did not display any regions of elevated VSS, RSS and TKE at any moment of the cardiac cycle. The magnitudes of these parameters were elevated for both isolated COA and complex COA, with their maximum values mainly being located inside the eccentric jet downstream of the COA. However, the presence of a pathologic aortic valve, in complex COA, amplifies VSS (e.g., average absolute peak value in the entire aorta for a total flow of 5 L/min: complex COA: = 36 N/m2; isolated COA = 19 N/m2), RSS (e.g., average peak value in the entire aorta for a total flow of 5

  19. Investigation of propellant flow control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebman, A. A.

    1973-01-01

    Mechanical, electromechanical, and fluidic concepts were studied as propellant flow control system for oxygen/hydrogen attitude control thrusters. A mechanical flow controller was designed, fabricated, and tested with hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen over a range of inlet pressures and temperatures. Results of these tests are presented along with a discussion of a flight-weight design. Also presented are recommendations for further design and development. A detailed coverage of the fluidics investigation is included.

  20. Flow compensating pressure regulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baehr, E. F. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An apparatus for regulating pressure of treatment fluid during ophthalmic procedures is described. Flow sensing and pressure regulating diaphragms are used to modulate a flow control valve. The pressure regulating diaphragm is connected to the flow control valve to urge the valve to an open position due to pressure being applied to the diaphragm by bias means such as a spring. The flow sensing diaphragm is mechanically connected to the flow control valve and urges it to an opened position because of the differential pressure on the diaphragm generated by a flow of incoming treatment fluid through an orifice in the diaphragm. A bypass connection with a variable restriction is connected in parallel relationship to the orifice to provide for adjusting the sensitivity of the flow sensing diaphragm. A multiple lever linkage system is utilized between the center of the second diaphragm and the flow control valve to multiply the force applied to the valve by the other diaphragm and reverse the direction of the force.

  1. FLUID PURIFIER AND SEALING VALVE

    DOEpatents

    Swanton, W.F.

    1962-04-24

    An improved cold trap designed to condense vapors and collect foreign particles in a flowing fluid is described. In the arrangement, a valve is provided to prevent flow reversal in case of pump failure and to act as a sealing valve. Provision is made for reducing the temperature of the fluid being processed, including a pre-cooling stage. (AEC)

  2. Modeling the Mitral Valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    The mitral valve is one of four valves in the human heart. The valve opens to allow oxygenated blood from the lungs to fill the left ventricle, and closes when the ventricle contracts to prevent backflow. The valve is composed of two fibrous leaflets which hang from a ring. These leaflets are supported like a parachute by a system of strings called chordae tendineae. In this talk, I will describe a new computational model of the mitral valve. To generate geometry, general information comes from classical anatomy texts and the author's dissection of porcine hearts. An MRI image of a human heart is used to locate the tips of the papillary muscles, which anchor the chordae tendineae, in relation to the mitral ring. The initial configurations of the valve leaflets and chordae tendineae are found by solving solving an equilibrium elasticity problem. The valve is then simulated in fluid (blood) using the immersed boundary method over multiple heart cycles in a model valve tester. We aim to identify features and mechanisms that influence or control valve function. Support from National Science Foundation, Graduate Research Fellowship Program, Grant DGE 1342536.

  3. Lightweight Valve Closes Duct Quickly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fournier, Walter L.; Burgy, N. Frank

    1991-01-01

    Expanding balloon serves as lightweight emergency valve to close wide duct. Uninflated balloon stored in housing of duct. Pad resting on burst diaphragm protects balloon from hot gases in duct. Once control system triggers valve, balloon inflates rapidly to block duct. Weighs much less than does conventional butterfly, hot-gas, or poppet valve capable of closing duct of equal diameter.

  4. Multi-Element Unstructured Analyses of Complex Valve Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulyma, Peter (Technical Monitor); Ahuja, Vineet; Hosangadi, Ashvin; Shipman, Jeremy

    2004-01-01

    The safe and reliable operation of high pressure test stands for rocket engine and component testing places an increased emphasis on the performance of control valves and flow metering devices. In this paper, we will present a series of high fidelity computational analyses of systems ranging from cryogenic control valves and pressure regulator systems to cavitating venturis that are used to support rocket engine and component testing at NASA Stennis Space Center. A generalized multi-element framework with sub-models for grid adaption, grid movement and multi-phase flow dynamics has been used to carry out the simulations. Such a framework provides the flexibility of resolving the structural and functional complexities that are typically associated with valve-based high pressure feed systems and have been difficult to deal with traditional CFD methods. Our simulations revealed a rich variety of flow phenomena such as secondary flow patterns, hydrodynamic instabilities, fluctuating vapor pockets etc. In the paper, we will discuss performance losses related to cryogenic control valves, and provide insight into the physics of the dominant multi-phase fluid transport phenomena that are responsible for the choking like behavior in cryogenic control elements. Additionally, we will provide detailed analyses of the modal instability that is observed in the operation of the dome pressure regulator valve. Such instabilities are usually not localized and manifest themselves as a system wide phenomena leading to an undesirable chatter at high flow conditions.

  5. Hydraulic lash adjuster with multi-directional check valve

    SciTech Connect

    Litwinchuk, A.; Dura, L.E.; Dekker, A.

    1989-02-28

    A hydraulic lash adjuster is described wherein a check valve is in the form of a flat reed valve that includes a part-circular flapper, a split retainer ring extending about the flapper and having spaced apart free ends, and a spring leg integrally connecting the flapper to the split retainer ring centrally of and opposite the free ends, the split retainer ring being operative to operatively secure the flat reed valve within the stepped bore of the plunger to control flow through the port.

  6. Controlling Gas-Flow Mass Ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Brian G.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed system automatically controls proportions of gases flowing in supply lines. Conceived for control of oxidizer-to-fuel ratio in new gaseous-propellant rocket engines. Gas-flow control system measures temperatures and pressures at various points. From data, calculates control voltages for electronic pressure regulators for oxygen and hydrogen. System includes commercially available components. Applicable to control of mass ratios in such gaseous industrial processes as chemical-vapor depostion of semiconductor materials and in automotive engines operating on compressed natural gas.

  7. Flow Control in a Transonic Diffuser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gartner, Jeremy; Amitay, Michael

    2014-11-01

    In some airplanes such as fighter jets and UAV, short inlet ducts replace the more conventional ducts due to their shorter length. However, these ducts are associated with low length-to-diameter ratio and low aspect ratio and, thus, experience massive separation and the presence of secondary flow structures. These flow phenomena are undesirable as they lead to pressure losses and distortion at the Aerodynamic Interface Plane (AIP), where the engine face is located. It causes the engine to perform with a lower efficiency as it would with a straight duct diffuser. Different flow control techniques were studied on the short inlet duct, with the goal to reattach the flow and minimize the distortions at the AIP. Due to the complex interaction between the separation and the secondary flow structures, the necessity to understand the flow mechanisms, and how to control them at a more fundamental level, a new transonic diffuser with an upper ramp and a straight floor was designed and built. The objective of this project is to explore the effectiveness of different flow control techniques in a high subsonic (up to Mach 0.8) diffuser, so that the quasi two-dimensional separation and the formation of secondary flow structure can be isolated using a canonical flow field. Supported by Northrop Grumman.

  8. [Measurement of flow in the Cordis-Hakin type ventricular shunt valve, used in the surveillance of hydrocephalic patients with shunts. An experimental study (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Orgogozo, J M; Castel, J P; Cohadon, F; Ducassou, D

    1975-01-01

    Using isotopes, Benabib et al. were able, in 1970 and following the work of Descuns et al., to evaluate the function of a ventricular shunt system be measuring the flow passing through it. The experimental study carried out confirmed the applicability of the method described by Benabib et al. to the Cordis-Hakim valve after substitution of the 131I used by those authors by 99mTc O4. Measurement of flow is valid only if true flow lies between 0.085 ml/mn and 1.7 ml/mn. Although with flow rates of less than 0.07 ml/mn the values obtained are overestimates, the distinction between no flow and slight flow remains definite.

  9. Optimal feedback control of turbulent channel flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bewley, Thomas; Choi, Haecheon; Temam, Roger; Moin, Parviz

    1993-01-01

    Feedback control equations were developed and tested for computing wall normal control velocities to control turbulent flow in a channel with the objective of reducing drag. The technique used is the minimization of a 'cost functional' which is constructed to represent some balance of the drag integrated over the wall and the net control effort. A distribution of wall velocities is found which minimizes this cost functional some time shortly in the future based on current observations of the flow near the wall. Preliminary direct numerical simulations of the scheme applied to turbulent channel flow indicates it provides approximately 17 percent drag reduction. The mechanism apparent when the scheme is applied to a simplified flow situation is also discussed.

  10. Magnetic Amplifier for Power Flow Control

    SciTech Connect

    2012-02-24

    GENI Project: ORNL is developing an electromagnet-based, amplifier-like device that will allow for complete control over the flow of power within the electric grid. To date, complete control of power flow within the grid has been prohibitively expensive. ORNL’s controller could provide a reliable, cost-effective solution to this problem. The team is combining two types of pre-existing technologies to assist in flow control, culminating in a prototype iron-based magnetic amplifier. Ordinarily, such a device would require expensive superconductive wire, but the magnetic iron core of ORNL’s device could serve as a low-cost alternative that is equally adept at regulating power flow.

  11. Large scale steam valve test: Performance testing of large butterfly valves and full scale high flowrate steam testing

    SciTech Connect

    Meadows, J.B.; Robbins, G.E.; Roselius, D.G.

    1995-05-01

    This report presents the results of the design testing of large (36-inch diameter) butterfly valves under high flow conditions. The two butterfly valves were pneumatically operated air-open, air-shut valves (termed valves 1 and 2). These butterfly valves were redesigned to improve their ability to function under high flow conditions. Concern was raised regarding the ability of the butterfly valves to function as required with high flow-induced torque imposed on the valve discs during high steam flow conditions. High flow testing was required to address the flow-induced torque concerns. The valve testing was done using a heavily instrumented piping system. This test program was called the Large Scale Steam Valve Test (LSSVT). The LSSVT program demonstrated that the redesigned valves operated satisfactorily under high flow conditions.

  12. 21 CFR 868.5870 - Nonrebreathing valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Identification. A nonrebreathing valve is a one-way valve that directs breathing gas flow to the patient and vents exhaled gases into the atmosphere. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  13. Simulation and experimental control of a 3-RPR parallel robot using optimal fuzzy controller and fast on/off solenoid valves based on the PWM wave.

    PubMed

    Moezi, Seyed Alireza; Rafeeyan, Mansour; Zakeri, Ehsan; Zare, Amin

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, a robust optimal fuzzy controller based on the Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) technique is proposed to control a laboratory parallel robot using inexpensive on/off solenoid valves. The controller coefficients are determined using Modified Cuckoo Optimization Algorithm. The objective function of this method is considered such that the results show the position tracking by the robot with less force and more efficiency. Regarding the results of experimental tests, the control strategy with on/off valves indicates good performance such that the maximum value of RMS of error for a circular path with increasing force on the system is 3.1mm. Furthermore, the results show the superiority of the optimal fuzzy controller compared with optimal PID controller in tracking paths with different conditions and uncertainties.

  14. Active Flow Control Stator With Coanda Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guendogdu; Vorreiter; Seume

    2010-01-01

    Active Flow Control increases the permissible aerodynamic loading. Curved surface near the trailing edge ("Coanda surface"): a) increases turning -> higher pressure ratio. b) controls boundary layer separation -> increased surge margin. Objective: Reduce the number of vanes or compressor stages. Constraints: 1. In a real compressor, the vane must still function entirely without blowing. 2. Maintain the flow exit angle of the reference stator despite the resulting increase in stator loading.

  15. SparkJet Actuators for Flow Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    from 300 to 1000 K and velocities from -100 to 400 m/sec. The rectangular zone that represents the annular energy deposition region in 3D is visible in...and Glezer, A., "Flow Reattachment Dynamics over a Thick Airfoil Controlled by Synthetic Jet Actuators," AIAA Paper No. 99-1001, 37th AIAA Aerospace...Sciences Meeting, Reno, NV, January 1999. 3 Amitay, M., and Glezer, A., "Aerodynamic Flow Control of a Thick Airfoil using Synthetic Jet Actuators

  16. Preprogrammed capillarity to passively control system-level sequential and parallel microfluidic flows

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Jin; Paczesny, Sophie; Takayama, Shuichi; Kurabayashi, Katsuo

    2013-01-01

    In microfluidics, capillarity-driven solution flow is often beneficial, owing to its inherently spontaneous motion. However, it is commonly perceived that, in an integrated microfluidic system, the passive capillarity control alone can hardly achieve well-controlled sequential and parallel flow of multiple solutions. Despite this common notion, we hereby demonstrate system-level sequential and parallel microfluidic flow processing by fully passive capillarity-driven control. After manual loading of solutions with a pipette, a network of microfluidic channels passively regulates the flow timing of the multiple solution menisci in a sequential and synchronous manner. Also, use of auxiliary channels and preprogramming of inlet-well meniscus pressure and channel fluidic conductance allow for controlling the flow direction of multiple solutions in our microfluidic system. With those components orchestrated in a single device chip, we show preprogrammed flow control of 10 solutions. The demonstrated system-level flow control proves capillarity as a useful means even for sophisticated microfluidic processing without any actively controlled valves and pumps. PMID:23598742

  17. Preprogrammed capillarity to passively control system-level sequential and parallel microfluidic flows.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Jin; Paczesny, Sophie; Takayama, Shuichi; Kurabayashi, Katsuo

    2013-06-07

    In microfluidics, capillarity-driven solution flow is often beneficial, owing to its inherently spontaneous motion. However, it is commonly perceived that, in an integrated microfluidic system, the passive capillarity control alone can hardly achieve well-controlled sequential and parallel flow of multiple solutions. Despite this common notion, we hereby demonstrate system-level sequential and parallel microfluidic flow processing by fully passive capillarity-driven control. After manual loading of solutions with a pipette, a network of microfluidic channels passively regulates the flow timing of the multiple solution menisci in a sequential and synchronous manner. Also, use of auxiliary channels and preprogramming of inlet-well meniscus pressure and channel fluidic conductance allow for controlling the flow direction of multiple solutions in our microfluidic system. With those components orchestrated in a single device chip, we show preprogrammed flow control of 10 solutions. The demonstrated system-level flow control proves capillarity as a useful means even for sophisticated microfluidic processing without any actively controlled valves and pumps.

  18. Control of Mixing and Reactive Flow Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karagozian, A. R.

    1999-01-01

    The interdisciplinary field of reactive flow control is one that holds a great deal of promise for the optimization of complex phenomena occurring in many practical systems, ranging from automobile and gas turbine engines to environmental thermal destruction systems. The fundamental underpinnings of combustion control, however, require a detailed level of understanding of complex reactive flow phenomena, and, in the case of closed-loop active control, require the ability to sense (monitor) and actuate (manipulate) flow processes in a spatially distributed manner in "near real time". Hence the ultimate growth and success of the field of reactive flow control is intimately linked: 1) to advances in the understanding, simulation, and model reduction for complex reactive flows, 2) to the development of experimental diagnostic techniques, in particular, to the development of physically robust sensors, and 3) to the development of a framework or frameworks for generation of closed loop control algorithms suitable for unsteady, nonlinear reactive flow systems. The present paper seeks to outline the potential benefits and technical challenges that exist for mixing and combustion control in fundamental as well as practical systems and to identify promising research directions that could help meet these challenges.

  19. Sliding-gate valve

    DOEpatents

    Usnick, George B.; Ward, Gene T.; Blair, Henry O.; Roberts, James W.; Warner, Terry N.

    1979-01-01

    This invention is a novel valve of the slidable-gate type. The valve is designed especially for long-term use with highly abrasive slurries. The sealing surfaces of the gate are shielded by the valve seats when the valve is fully open or closed, and the gate-to-seat clearance is swept with an inflowing purge gas while the gate is in transit. A preferred form of the valve includes an annular valve body containing an annular seat assembly defining a flow channel. The seat assembly comprises a first seat ring which is slidably and sealably mounted in the body, and a second seat ring which is tightly fitted in the body. These rings cooperatively define an annular gap which, together with passages in the valve body, forms a guideway extending normal to the channel. A plate-type gate is mounted for reciprocation in the guideway between positions where a portion of the plate closes the channel and where a circular aperture in the gate is in register with the channel. The valve casing includes opposed chambers which extend outwardly from the body along the axis of the guideway to accommodate the end portions of the gate. The chambers are sealed from atmosphere; when the gate is in transit, purge gas is admitted to the chambers and flows inwardly through the gate-to-seat-ring, clearance, minimizing buildup of process solids therein. A shaft reciprocated by an external actuator extends into one of the sealed chambers through a shaft seal and is coupled to an end of the gate. Means are provided for adjusting the clearance between the first seat ring and the gate while the valve is in service.

  20. Control methods and valve arrangement for start-up and shutdown of pressurized combustion and gasification systems integrated with a gas turbine

    DOEpatents

    Provol, Steve J.; Russell, David B.; Isaksson, Matti J.

    1994-01-01

    A power plant having a system for converting coal to power in a gas turbine comprises a coal fed pressurized circulating bed for converting coal to pressurized gases, a gas turbine having a compressor for pressurizing air for the pressurized circulating bed and expander for receiving and expanding hot combustion gases for powering a generator, a first fast acting valve for controlling the pressurized air, a second fast acting valve means for controlling pressurized gas from the compressor to the expander.