Flow cytofluorometric monitoring of leukocyte apoptosis in experimental cholera
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lotsmanova, Ekaterina Y.; Kravtsov, Alexander L.; Livanova, Ludmila F.; Kobkova, Irina M.; Kuznetsov, Oleg S.; Shchukovskaya, Tatyana N.; Smirnova, Nina I.; Kutyrev, Vladimir V.
2003-10-01
Flow cytofluorometric DNA analysis was applied to determine of the relative contents of proliferative (more then 2C DNA per cell) and apoptotic (less then 2C DNA per cell) leukocytes in blood of adult rabbits, challenged with 10,000 times the 50 % effective dose of Vibrio cholerae virulent strain by the RITARD technique. It has been shown that irreversible increase the percentage of cells carrying DNA in the degradation stage brings to disbalance between the genetically controlled cell proliferation and apoptosis that leads to animal death from the cholera infection. Such fatal changes were not observed in challenging of immunized animals that were not died. Thus received data show that the flow cytofluorometric measurements may be used for detection of transgressions in homeostasis during acute infection diseases, for outlet prognosis of the cholera infection.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kravtsov, Alexander L.; Grebenyukova, Tatyana P.; Bobyleva, Elena V.; Golovko, Elena M.; Malyukova, Tatyana A.; Lyapin, Mikhail N.; Kostyukova, Tatyana A.; Yezhov, Igor N.; Kuznetsov, Oleg S.
2001-05-01
Human leukocytes containing less than 2C DNA per cell (damaged or dead cells) were detected and quantified by flow cytometry and DNA-specific staining with ethidium bromide and mithramycin in whole blood infected with Staphylococcus aureus or Yersinia pestis. Addition of live S. aureus to the blood (100 microbe cells per one leukocyte) resulted in rapid degradation of leukocyte DNA within 3 to 6 hours of incubation at 37 degree(s)C. However, only about 50 percent cells were damaged and the leukocytes with the intact genetic apparatus could be found in the blood for a period up to 24 hours. The leukocyte injury was preceded by an increase of DNA per cell content (as compared to the normal one) that was likely to be connected with the active phagocytosis of S. aureus by granulocytes (2C DNA of diploid phagocytes plus the all bacterial DNA absorbed). In response to the same dose of actively growing (at 37 degree(s)C) virulent Y. pestis cells, no increase in DNA content per cell could be observed in the human blood leukocytes. The process of the leukocyte DNA degradation started after a 6-hour incubation, and between 18 to 24 hours of incubation about 90 percent leukocytes (phagocytes and lymphocytes) lost their specific DNA fluorescence. These results demonstrated a high potential of flow cytometry in comparative analysis in vitro of the leukocyte DNA degradation process in human blood in response to bacteria with various pathogenic properties. They agree with the modern idea of an apoptotic mechanism of immunosuppression in plague.
Cytofluorometric Quantification of Cell Death Elicited by NLR Proteins.
Sica, Valentina; Manic, Gwenola; Kroemer, Guido; Vitale, Ilio; Galluzzi, Lorenzo
2016-01-01
Nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat containing (NLR) proteins, also known as NOD-like receptors, are critical components of the molecular machinery that senses intracellular danger signals to initiate an innate immune response against invading pathogens or endogenous sources of hazard. The best characterized effect of NLR signaling is the secretion of various cytokines with immunostimulatory effects, including interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18. Moreover, at least under specific circumstances, NLRs can promote regulated variants of cell death. Here, we detail two protocols for the cytofluorometric quantification of cell death-associated parameters that can be conveniently employed to assess the lethal activity of specific NLRs or their ligands.
Tsuchida, M; Konishi, M; Takai, K; Naito, K; Fujikura, Y; Fukumoto, T
1994-01-01
The expression of T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) alpha beta was investigated in rat CD4- CD8- thymocytes during thymic reconstitution after the exposure of animals to irradiation or glucocorticoid. The effect of the immunosuppressant FK506 on the expression of TCR alpha beta in rat CD4- CD8- thymocytes was also examined. The percentage of CD4- CD8- thymocytes constituted 2.6% of total thymocytes and that of CD4- CD8- TCR alpha beta high cells constituted 12.6% of CD4- CD8- thymocytes in normal adult Lewis rats. The percentage of CD4- CD8- TCR alpha beta high cells increased during thymic reconstitution after irradiation, and maximally constituted 28.6% of CD4- CD8- thymocytes on day 7. Similar results were obtained during thymic reconstitution after glucocorticoid treatment. In contrast, continuous treatment with FK506 for 7 days markedly decreased not only the percentages of CD4+ CD8- TCR alpha beta high and CD4- CD8+ TCR alpha beta high thymocytes, but also that of CD4- CD8- TCR alpha beta high thymocytes. These results indicate that rat CD4- CD8- thymocytes contain a subpopulation of mature (TCR alpha beta high) cells. The possible implications of the existence of this subpopulation with regard to thymocyte differentiation and maturation are discussed. PMID:7530693
Flow Analysis: A Novel Approach For Classification.
Vakh, Christina; Falkova, Marina; Timofeeva, Irina; Moskvin, Alexey; Moskvin, Leonid; Bulatov, Andrey
2016-09-01
We suggest a novel approach for classification of flow analysis methods according to the conditions under which the mass transfer processes and chemical reactions take place in the flow mode: dispersion-convection flow methods and forced-convection flow methods. The first group includes continuous flow analysis, flow injection analysis, all injection analysis, sequential injection analysis, sequential injection chromatography, cross injection analysis, multi-commutated flow analysis, multi-syringe flow injection analysis, multi-pumping flow systems, loop flow analysis, and simultaneous injection effective mixing flow analysis. The second group includes segmented flow analysis, zone fluidics, flow batch analysis, sequential injection analysis with a mixing chamber, stepwise injection analysis, and multi-commutated stepwise injection analysis. The offered classification allows systematizing a large number of flow analysis methods. Recent developments and applications of dispersion-convection flow methods and forced-convection flow methods are presented.
Flow Analysis: A Novel Approach For Classification.
Vakh, Christina; Falkova, Marina; Timofeeva, Irina; Moskvin, Alexey; Moskvin, Leonid; Bulatov, Andrey
2016-09-01
We suggest a novel approach for classification of flow analysis methods according to the conditions under which the mass transfer processes and chemical reactions take place in the flow mode: dispersion-convection flow methods and forced-convection flow methods. The first group includes continuous flow analysis, flow injection analysis, all injection analysis, sequential injection analysis, sequential injection chromatography, cross injection analysis, multi-commutated flow analysis, multi-syringe flow injection analysis, multi-pumping flow systems, loop flow analysis, and simultaneous injection effective mixing flow analysis. The second group includes segmented flow analysis, zone fluidics, flow batch analysis, sequential injection analysis with a mixing chamber, stepwise injection analysis, and multi-commutated stepwise injection analysis. The offered classification allows systematizing a large number of flow analysis methods. Recent developments and applications of dispersion-convection flow methods and forced-convection flow methods are presented. PMID:26364745
Comprehensive Faculty Flow Analysis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bloomfield, Stefan D.
1977-01-01
A comprehensive faculty flow model developed to forecast a "committed resources index" analyzes the future flexibility of a university. The model's construction, implementation, and assessment are described. (Editor/LBH)
Miniaturized flow injection analysis system
Folta, James A.
1997-01-01
A chemical analysis technique known as flow injection analysis, wherein small quantities of chemical reagents and sample are intermixed and reacted within a capillary flow system and the reaction products are detected optically, electrochemically, or by other means. A highly miniaturized version of a flow injection analysis system has been fabricated utilizing microfabrication techniques common to the microelectronics industry. The microflow system uses flow capillaries formed by etching microchannels in a silicon or glass wafer followed by bonding to another wafer, commercially available microvalves bonded directly to the microflow channels, and an optical absorption detector cell formed near the capillary outlet, with light being both delivered and collected with fiber optics. The microflow system is designed mainly for analysis of liquids and currently measures 38.times.25.times.3 mm, but can be designed for gas analysis and be substantially smaller in construction.
Miniaturized flow injection analysis system
Folta, J.A.
1997-07-01
A chemical analysis technique known as flow injection analysis is described, wherein small quantities of chemical reagents and sample are intermixed and reacted within a capillary flow system and the reaction products are detected optically, electrochemically, or by other means. A highly miniaturized version of a flow injection analysis system has been fabricated utilizing microfabrication techniques common to the microelectronics industry. The microflow system uses flow capillaries formed by etching microchannels in a silicon or glass wafer followed by bonding to another wafer, commercially available microvalves bonded directly to the microflow channels, and an optical absorption detector cell formed near the capillary outlet, with light being both delivered and collected with fiber optics. The microflow system is designed mainly for analysis of liquids and currently measures 38{times}25{times}3 mm, but can be designed for gas analysis and be substantially smaller in construction. 9 figs.
Flow analysis system and method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hill, Wayne S. (Inventor); Barck, Bruce N. (Inventor)
1998-01-01
A non-invasive flow analysis system and method wherein a sensor, such as an acoustic sensor, is coupled to a conduit for transmitting a signal which varies depending on the characteristics of the flow in the conduit. The signal is amplified and there is a filter, responsive to the sensor signal, and tuned to pass a narrow band of frequencies proximate the resonant frequency of the sensor. A demodulator generates an amplitude envelope of the filtered signal and a number of flow indicator quantities are calculated based on variations in amplitude of the amplitude envelope. A neural network, or its equivalent, is then used to determine the flow rate of the flow in the conduit based on the flow indicator quantities.
Analysis of flow reversal test
Cheng, L.Y.; Tichler, P.R.
1996-03-01
A series of tests has been conducted to measure the dryout power associated with a flow transient whereby the coolant in a heated channel undergoes a change in flow direction. An analysis of the test was made with the aid of a system code, RELAP5. A dryout criterion was developed in terms of a time-averaged void fraction calculated by RELAP5 for the heated channel. The dryout criterion was also compared with several CHF correlations developed for the channel geometry.
Flow Analysis Tool White Paper
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Boscia, Nichole K.
2012-01-01
Faster networks are continually being built to accommodate larger data transfers. While it is intuitive to think that implementing faster networks will result in higher throughput rates, this is often not the case. There are many elements involved in data transfer, many of which are beyond the scope of the network itself. Although networks may get bigger and support faster technologies, the presence of other legacy components, such as older application software or kernel parameters, can often cause bottlenecks. Engineers must be able to identify when data flows are reaching a bottleneck that is not imposed by the network and then troubleshoot it using the tools available to them. The current best practice is to collect as much information as possible on the network traffic flows so that analysis is quick and easy. Unfortunately, no single method of collecting this information can sufficiently capture the whole endto- end picture. This becomes even more of a hurdle when large, multi-user systems are involved. In order to capture all the necessary information, multiple data sources are required. This paper presents a method for developing a flow analysis tool to effectively collect network flow data from multiple sources and provide that information to engineers in a clear, concise way for analysis. The purpose of this method is to collect enough information to quickly (and automatically) identify poorly performing flows along with the cause of the problem. The method involves the development of a set of database tables that can be populated with flow data from multiple sources, along with an easyto- use, web-based front-end interface to help network engineers access, organize, analyze, and manage all the information.
Subchannel analysis with flow blockages
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sabotinov, L.
1985-05-01
The steady state single-phase three-dimensional flow in the rod bundle geometry of a nuclear pressurized water reactor was calculated with the PHOENICS 84 program. Flow blockages, which may occur under accident conditions, are simulated. Results show that PHOENICS-84 can be applied to calculation of the three-dimensional fields of velocities in fuel rod bundles containing complete flow blockages in cells. The code can treat recirculation zones.
Recurrent flow analysis in spatiotemporally chaotic 2-dimensional Kolmogorov flow
Lucas, Dan Kerswell, Rich R.
2015-04-15
Motivated by recent success in the dynamical systems approach to transitional flow, we study the efficiency and effectiveness of extracting simple invariant sets (recurrent flows) directly from chaotic/turbulent flows and the potential of these sets for providing predictions of certain statistics of the flow. Two-dimensional Kolmogorov flow (the 2D Navier-Stokes equations with a sinusoidal body force) is studied both over a square [0, 2π]{sup 2} torus and a rectangular torus extended in the forcing direction. In the former case, an order of magnitude more recurrent flows are found than previously [G. J. Chandler and R. R. Kerswell, “Invariant recurrent solutions embedded in a turbulent two-dimensional Kolmogorov flow,” J. Fluid Mech. 722, 554–595 (2013)] and shown to give improved predictions for the dissipation and energy pdfs of the chaos via periodic orbit theory. Analysis of the recurrent flows shows that the energy is largely trapped in the smallest wavenumbers through a combination of the inverse cascade process and a feature of the advective nonlinearity in 2D. Over the extended torus at low forcing amplitudes, some extracted states mimic the statistics of the spatially localised chaos present surprisingly well recalling the findings of Kawahara and Kida [“Periodic motion embedded in plane Couette turbulence: Regeneration cycle and burst,” J. Fluid Mech. 449, 291 (2001)] in low-Reynolds-number plane Couette flow. At higher forcing amplitudes, however, success is limited highlighting the increased dimensionality of the chaos and the need for larger data sets. Algorithmic developments to improve the extraction procedure are discussed.
Analysis of lipid flow on minimal surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bahmani, Fatemeh; Christenson, Joel; Rangamani, Padmini
2016-03-01
Interaction between the bilayer shape and surface flow is important for capturing the flow of lipids in many biological membranes. Recent microscopy evidence has shown that minimal surfaces (planes, catenoids, and helicoids) occur often in cellular membranes. In this study, we explore lipid flow in these geometries using a `stream function' formulation for viscoelastic lipid bilayers. Using this formulation, we derive two-dimensional lipid flow equations for the commonly occurring minimal surfaces in lipid bilayers. We show that for three minimal surfaces (planes, catenoids, and helicoids), the surface flow equations satisfy Stokes flow equations. In helicoids and catenoids, we show that the tangential velocity field is a Killing vector field. Thus, our analysis provides fundamental insight into the flow patterns of lipids on intracellular organelle membranes that are characterized by fixed shapes reminiscent of minimal surfaces.
Analysis of Cortical Flow Models In Vivo
Benink, Hélène A.; Mandato, Craig A.; Bement, William M.
2000-01-01
Cortical flow, the directed movement of cortical F-actin and cortical organelles, is a basic cellular motility process. Microtubules are thought to somehow direct cortical flow, but whether they do so by stimulating or inhibiting contraction of the cortical actin cytoskeleton is the subject of debate. Treatment of Xenopus oocytes with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) triggers cortical flow toward the animal pole of the oocyte; this flow is suppressed by microtubules. To determine how this suppression occurs and whether it can control the direction of cortical flow, oocytes were subjected to localized manipulation of either the contractile stimulus (PMA) or microtubules. Localized PMA application resulted in redirection of cortical flow toward the site of application, as judged by movement of cortical pigment granules, cortical F-actin, and cortical myosin-2A. Such redirected flow was accelerated by microtubule depolymerization, showing that the suppression of cortical flow by microtubules is independent of the direction of flow. Direct observation of cortical F-actin by time-lapse confocal analysis in combination with photobleaching showed that cortical flow is driven by contraction of the cortical F-actin network and that microtubules suppress this contraction. The oocyte germinal vesicle serves as a microtubule organizing center in Xenopus oocytes; experimental displacement of the germinal vesicle toward the animal pole resulted in localized flow away from the animal pole. The results show that 1) cortical flow is directed toward areas of localized contraction of the cortical F-actin cytoskeleton; 2) microtubules suppress cortical flow by inhibiting contraction of the cortical F-actin cytoskeleton; and 3) localized, microtubule-dependent suppression of actomyosin-based contraction can control the direction of cortical flow. We discuss these findings in light of current models of cortical flow. PMID:10930453
Pump energy and flow balance analysis
Carlson, G.F.
1982-10-01
The purpose is to illustrate simple circuit flow analysis techniques that will enable design engineers to identify and provide protection against short circuiting (flow unbalance) for new design. Removal of short circuit fears should help reduce the tendency to oversize HVAC pumps. Presented analysis techniques will establish methods for flow balance in existing buildings and will permit a considerable reduction in pump power requirements. Explains the relationship between pump power draw and operating cost. Shows how, for any given total system flow rate, the actual flow rate entering each riser and, consequently, each terminal unit can be determined. Generalizes that if the driving differential head across the subcircuit remains constant, then if the subcircuit head loss (exclusive of the valve) at design flow is very low, flow change in the subcircuit caused by a change in balance valve setting will be of high order and will follow balance valve characteristics; and if the subcircuit head loss is high, adjustment of the balance valve will only cause a minor order flow change. These simplified techniques should provide protection against flow unbalance and oversizing of HVAC pumps.
LFSTAT - Low-Flow Analysis in R
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koffler, Daniel; Laaha, Gregor
2013-04-01
The calculation of characteristic stream flow during dry conditions is a basic requirement for many problems in hydrology, ecohydrology and water resources management. As opposed to floods, a number of different indices are used to characterise low flows and streamflow droughts. Although these indices and methods of calculation have been well documented in the WMO Manual on Low-flow Estimation and Prediction [1], a comprehensive software was missing which enables a fast and standardized calculation of low flow statistics. We present the new software package lfstat to fill in this obvious gap. Our software package is based on the statistical open source software R, and expands it to analyse daily stream flow data records focusing on low-flows. As command-line based programs are not everyone's preference, we also offer a plug-in for the R-Commander, an easy to use graphical user interface (GUI) provided for R which is based on tcl/tk. The functionality of lfstat includes estimation methods for low-flow indices, extreme value statistics, deficit characteristics, and additional graphical methods to control the computation of complex indices and to illustrate the data. Beside the basic low flow indices, the baseflow index and recession constants can be computed. For extreme value statistics, state-of-the-art methods for L-moment based local and regional frequency analysis (RFA) are available. The tools for deficit characteristics include various pooling and threshold selection methods to support the calculation of drought duration and deficit indices. The most common graphics for low flow analysis are available, and the plots can be modified according to the user preferences. Graphics include hydrographs for different periods, flexible streamflow deficit plots, baseflow visualisation, recession diagnostic, flow duration curves as well as double mass curves, and many more. From a technical point of view, the package uses a S3-class called lfobj (low-flow objects). This
SRMAFTE facility checkout model flow field analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dill, Richard A.; Whitesides, Harold R.
1992-01-01
The Solid Rocket Motor Air Flow Equipment (SRMAFTE) facility was constructed for the purpose of evaluating the internal propellant, insulation, and nozzle configurations of solid propellant rocket motor designs. This makes the characterization of the facility internal flow field very important in assuring that no facility induced flow field features exist which would corrupt the model related measurements. In order to verify the design and operation of the facility, a three-dimensional computational flow field analysis was performed on the facility checkout model setup. The checkout model measurement data, one-dimensional and three-dimensional estimates were compared, and the design and proper operation of the facility was verified. The proper operation of the metering nozzles, adapter chamber transition, model nozzle, and diffuser were verified. The one-dimensional and three-dimensional flow field estimates along with the available measurement data are compared.
Advanced stability analysis for laminar flow control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Orszag, S. A.
1981-01-01
Five classes of problems are addressed: (1) the extension of the SALLY stability analysis code to the full eighth order compressible stability equations for three dimensional boundary layer; (2) a comparison of methods for prediction of transition using SALLY for incompressible flows; (3) a study of instability and transition in rotating disk flows in which the effects of Coriolis forces and streamline curvature are included; (4) a new linear three dimensional instability mechanism that predicts Reynolds numbers for transition to turbulence in planar shear flows in good agreement with experiment; and (5) a study of the stability of finite amplitude disturbances in axisymmetric pipe flow showing the stability of this flow to all nonlinear axisymmetric disturbances.
Rapid Flow Analysis Studies with Spectroscopic Detectors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thalib, Amlius
A rapid flow analysis study based on segmented flow and flow injection principles is described in this thesis. The main objective of this study was to establish the response characteristics in continuous flow analysis systems in order to improve sampling rates with several types of spectroscopic detectors. It was found from flame photometric studies that non-segmented flowing streams are applicable to rapid flow analysis with automatic sample aspiration. Calcium was used as a typical example and determined at sampling rates up to 360 h('-1) with a detection limit of 0.05 mg L(' -1). A rapid flow system is reported using direct aspiration for AAS analysis with both manual injection and automatic aspiration techniques, and found to give sampling rates of up to 600-720 samples h('-1). Speed of analysis was reduced by about 50% when using an external peristaltic pump in the flow system design, due to increased sample dispersion. A novel aspect of a rapid flow injection approach reported with ICPAES detection includes the method of injecting samples via a peristaltic pump with simultaneous computer data processing. Determination of serum cations (Na, K, Ca, Mg and Fe) was demonstrated as an example of an application of the technique at sampling rates of 240 h('-1). Precision and detection limits for 13 elements in a single standard solution are reported. The use of automated aspiration sampling is also reported in this method for comparison. Further studies on flow characteristics were carried out by a combination of the rapid flow system with very short sampling times as low as 2 seconds using UV-visible spectrophotometric detection. Analysis of human blood serum samples was used as an example where total protein and inorganic phosphate were determined at sampling rates of 240 h('-1) and 360 h('-1) respectively. The novel aspects of the results from these studies include the very rapid sample throughput developed with simple and inexpensive experimental approaches in
Flow field analysis of slush fixing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dreher, Anthony; Bell, Robert; Flaska, Todd; Lozano, Martin
1990-10-01
This paper describes an approach to the selection, design, and analysis of a mixing and transfer system for a hypersonic vehicle that uses slush hydrogen as a main propellant. The goal of the analysis was to assure the 'off-bottom' suspension of the slush and, thus, to ensure proper flow of fuel to the engines. As a results of the analysis, system requirements were established, several candidate systems were evaluated, and a mixing-and-transfer system was selected.
LV software for supersonic flow analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bell, William A.
1992-01-01
The NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) maintains a leadership position in research into advanced aerospace propulsion systems. For the next generation of aircraft, engine designs continue to involve complex, high-speed flows. Performing the detailed flow diagnostics to properly evaluate these designs requires advanced instrumentation to probe these highly turbulent flows. The hostile flow environment often requires nonintrusive measurement techniques such as the laser velocimeter (LV). Since the LV is a proven instrument for nonintrusive flow measurement, it can provide quantitative velocity data with minimal interference to the flow. Based on anticipated flow conditions, laser velocimeter systems were procured from TSI, Inc. The initial system utilized counter processor technology, but later procurements this past year include a more advanced, correlator-based processor, which significantly improves the overall LV performance. To meet the needs of advanced research into propulsion, this instrument must be integrated into an existing VAX/VMS computer system for data acquisition, processing, and presentation. The work done under this grant before this period concentrated on developing the software required to setup and acquire data from the TSI MI-990 multichannel interface, and the RMR 1989 rotating machinery resolver. With the basis established for controlling the operation of the LV system, software development this past year shifted in emphasis from instrumentation control and data acquisition to data analysis and presentation. The progress of the program is reported.
Analysis of vortex flow through porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hassanipour, Fatemeh
2012-05-01
This study presents a numerical analysis of a two-dimensional flow propagating through porous media. The vortical flow is produced by a piston-cylinder vortex ring generator. The objective is to understand the flow behavior in porous media as a function of impingement velocity and porous media properties, e.g. porosity and permeability. The results show that the formation of vortices and flow pattern in porous media strongly depend on the permeability of the porous media but only has a weak dependence on the porosity and Reynolds number. The average vorticity over the porous media is calculated for various velocities, porosities and permeabilities. The results reveal that when Reynolds number is low, neither porosity nor permeability have any significant effect on average vorticity. However for high Reynolds numbers, the average vorticity is affected by permeability but not by porosity.
A clinical flow cytometry data analysis assistant
Salzman, G.C. ); Stewart, C.C. ); Duque, R.E. ); Braylan, R.C. . Coll. of Medicine)
1990-01-01
A rule-based expert system is being developed to assist clinicians in the analysis of multivariate flow cytometry data for patients with leukemias or lymphomas. The cells are stained with fluorescently labeled monoclonal antibodies and the cell fluorescence is measured with a flow cytometer. Cluster analysis is used to isolate subpopulations in the data on which the clinical decisions are made. Symbolic facts for the expert system are instantiated using these numerical data and the knowledge of the clinicians and experts in flow cytometry. The first prototype used a decision tree and rigid rules. Is successfully classified only nine of eleven leukemia cases. A second prototype incorporating certainty factors into the rules is now being developed that should remove the need for a rigid decision tree. 9 refs.
Equilibria with incompressible flows from symmetry analysis
Kuiroukidis, Ap E-mail: gthroum@cc.uoi.gr; Throumoulopoulos, G. N. E-mail: gthroum@cc.uoi.gr
2015-08-15
We identify and study new nonlinear axisymmetric equilibria with incompressible flow of arbitrary direction satisfying a generalized Grad Shafranov equation by extending the symmetry analysis presented by Cicogna and Pegoraro [Phys. Plasmas 22, 022520 (2015)]. In particular, we construct a typical tokamak D-shaped equilibrium with peaked toroidal current density, monotonically varying safety factor, and sheared electric field.
Through flow analysis within axial flow turbomachinery blade rows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Girigoswami, H.
1986-09-01
Using Katsanis' Through Flow Code, inviscid flow through an axial flow compressor rotor blade as well as flow through inlet guide vanes are analyzed and the computed parameters such as meridional velocity distribution, axial velocity distribution along radial lines, and velocity distribution over blade surfaces are presented.
Computational Analysis of Human Blood Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Panta, Yogendra; Marie, Hazel; Harvey, Mark
2009-11-01
Fluid flow modeling with commercially available computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software is widely used to visualize and predict physical phenomena related to various biological systems. In this presentation, a typical human aorta model was analyzed assuming the blood flow as laminar with complaint cardiac muscle wall boundaries. FLUENT, a commercially available finite volume software, coupled with Solidworks, a modeling software, was employed for the preprocessing, simulation and postprocessing of all the models.The analysis mainly consists of a fluid-dynamics analysis including a calculation of the velocity field and pressure distribution in the blood and a mechanical analysis of the deformation of the tissue and artery in terms of wall shear stress. A number of other models e.g. T branches, angle shaped were previously analyzed and compared their results for consistency for similar boundary conditions. The velocities, pressures and wall shear stress distributions achieved in all models were as expected given the similar boundary conditions. The three dimensional time dependent analysis of blood flow accounting the effect of body forces with a complaint boundary was also performed.
Flow sorting of microorganisms for molecular analysis.
Wallner, G; Fuchs, B; Spring, S; Beisker, W; Amann, R
1997-01-01
Not only classical cultivation-based methods but also the new molecular approaches may result in incomplete and selective information on the natural diversity of microbial communities. Flow sorting of microorganisms from environmental samples allows the deliberate selection of cell populations of interest from highly diverse systems for molecular analysis. Several cellular parameters that can be measured by flow cytometry are useful as sort criteria. Here, we report sorting of bacteria from activated sludge, lake water, and lake sediment according to differences in light scattering, DNA content, and/or affiliation to certain phylogenetic groups as assessed by fluorescein-labeled, rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes. Microscopy of the sorted cells showed that populations of originally low abundance could be strongly enriched by flow sorting (up to 280-fold), depending on the original abundance of the cells of interest and the type of sample sorted. The purity of the cells of interest could be further increased by repeated sorting, but this increase was limited by cell aggregation in the case of activated-sludge samples. It was possible to amplify almost full-length 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) fragments from sorted microbial cells by PCR, even after fixation with paraformaldehyde and in situ hybridization. Dot blot hybridization and sequencing demonstrated that most of the amplified rDNA originated from those cells that had been selected for by flow sorting. Comparative analysis of 16S rDNA sequences revealed previously unknown species of magnetotactic or activated-sludge bacteria. PMID:9361408
Dual throat thruster cold flow analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lundgreen, R. B.; Nickerson, G. R.; Obrien, C. J.
1978-01-01
The concept was evaluated with cold flow (nitrogen gas) testing and through analysis for application as a tripropellant engine for single-stage-to-orbit type missions. Three modes of operation were tested and analyzed: (1) Mode 1 Series Burn, (2) Mode 1 Parallel Burn, and (3) Mode 2. Primary emphasis was placed on the Mode 2 plume attachment aerodynamics and performance. The conclusions from the test data analysis are as follows: (1) the concept is aerodynamically feasible, (2) the performance loss is as low as 0.5 percent, (3) the loss is minimized by an optimum nozzle spacing corresponding to an AF-ATS ratio of about 1.5 or an Le/Rtp ratio of 3.0 for the dual throat hardware tested, requiring only 4% bleed flow, (4) the Mode 1 and Mode 2 geometry requirements are compatible and pose no significant design problems.
Infrastructure Analysis Tools: A Focus on Cash Flow Analysis (Presentation)
Melaina, M.; Penev, M.
2012-09-01
NREL has developed and maintains a variety of infrastructure analysis models for the U.S. Department of Energy. Business case analysis has recently been added to this tool set. This presentation focuses on cash flow analysis. Cash flows depend upon infrastructure costs, optimized spatially and temporally, and assumptions about financing and revenue. NREL has incorporated detailed metrics on financing and incentives into the models. Next steps in modeling include continuing to collect feedback on regional/local infrastructure development activities and 'roadmap' dynamics, and incorporating consumer preference assumptions on infrastructure to provide direct feedback between vehicles and station rollout.
Recent Electrochemical and Optical Sensors in Flow-Based Analysis
Chailapakul, Orawon; Ngamukot, Passapol; Yoosamran, Alongkorn; Siangproh, Weena; Wangfuengkanagul, Nattakarn
2006-01-01
Some recent analytical sensors based on electrochemical and optical detection coupled with different flow techniques have been chosen in this overview. A brief description of fundamental concepts and applications of each flow technique, such as flow injection analysis (FIA), sequential injection analysis (SIA), all injection analysis (AIA), batch injection analysis (BIA), multicommutated FIA (MCFIA), multisyringe FIA (MSFIA), and multipumped FIA (MPFIA) were reviewed.
Flow simulation and analysis of high-power flow batteries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knudsen, E.; Albertus, P.; Cho, K. T.; Weber, A. Z.; Kojic, A.
2015-12-01
The cost of a flow battery system can be reduced by increasing its power density and thereby reducing its stack area. If per-pass utilizations are held constant, higher battery power densities can only be achieved using higher flow rates. Here, a 3D computational fluid dynamics model of a flow battery flow field and electrode is used to analyze the implications of increasing flow rates to high power density operating conditions. Interdigitated and serpentine designs, and cell sizes ranging from 10 cm2 to 400 cm2, are simulated. The results quantify the dependence of pressure loss on cell size and design, demonstrating that the details of the passages that distribute flow between individual channels and the inlet and outlet have a major impact on pressure losses in larger cells. Additionally, in-cell flow behavior is analyzed as a function of cell size and design. Flow structures are interrogated to show how and where electrode parameters influence pressure drops, and how regions where transport is slow are correlated with the presence of experimentally observed cell degradation.
Cross Flow Parameter Calculation for Aerodynamic Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Norman, David, Jr. (Inventor)
2014-01-01
A system and method for determining a cross flow angle for a feature on a structure. A processor unit receives location information identifying a location of the feature on the structure, determines an angle of the feature, identifies flow information for the location, determines a flow angle using the flow information, and determines the cross flow angle for the feature using the flow angle and the angle of the feature. The flow information describes a flow of fluid across the structure. The flow angle comprises an angle of the flow of fluid across the structure for the location of the feature.
Stability Analysis of Flow Past a Wingtip
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Edstrand, Adam; Schmid, Peter; Taira, Kunihiko; Cattafesta, Louis
2015-11-01
Trailing vortices are commonly associated with diminished aircraft performance by increasing induced drag and producing a wake hazard on following aircraft. Previously, stability analyses have been performed on the Batchelor vortex (Heaton et al., 2009), which models a far field axisymmetric vortex, and airfoil wakes (Woodley & Peake, 1997). Both analyses have shown various instabilities present in these far field vortex-wake flows. This complicates the design of control devices by excluding consideration of near field interactions between the wake and vortex shed from the wing. In this study, we perform temporal and spatial bi-global stability analyses on the near field wake of the flow field behind a NACA0012 wing computed from direct numerical simulation at a chord Reynolds number of 1000. The results identify multiple instabilities including a vortex instability, wake instability, and mixed instability that includes interaction between the wake and vortex. As these modes exhibit wave packets, we perform a wave packet analysis (Obrist & Schmid, 2010), which enables the prediction of spatial mode structures at low computational cost. Furthermore, a bi-global parabolized stability analysis is performed, highlighting disparities between the parallel and parabolized analysis. ONR Grant N00014010824 and NSF PIRE Grant OISE-0968313.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Childs, Dara W.
1993-01-01
The bulk-flow analysis results for this contract are incorporated in the following publications: 'Fluid-Structure Interaction Forces at Pump-Impeller Shroud Surfaces for Axial Vibration Analysis'; 'Centrifugal Acceleration Modes for Incompressible Fluid in the Leakage Annulus Between a Shrouded Pump Impeller and Its Housing'; 'Influence of Impeller Shroud Forces on Pump Rotordynamics'; 'Pressure Oscillation in the Leakage Annulus Between a Shrouded Impeller and Its Housing Due to Impeller-Discharge-Pressure Disturbances'; and 'Compressibility Effects on Rotor Forces in the Leakage Path Between a Shrouded Pump Impeller and Its Housing'. These publications are summarized and included in this final report. Computational Fluid Mechanics (CFD) results developed by Dr. Erian Baskharone are reported separately.
A study of grout flow pattern analysis
Lee, S. Y.; Hyun, S.
2013-01-10
A new disposal unit, designated as Salt Disposal Unit no. 6 (SDU6), is being designed for support of site accelerated closure goals and salt nuclear waste projections identified in the new Liquid Waste System plan. The unit is cylindrical disposal vault of 380 ft diameter and 43 ft in height, and it has about 30 million gallons of capacity. Primary objective was to develop the computational model and to perform the evaluations for the flow patterns of grout material in SDU6 as function of elevation of grout discharge port, and slurry rheology. A Bingham plastic model was basically used to represent the grout flow behavior. A two-phase modeling approach was taken to achieve the objective. This approach assumes that the air-grout interface determines the shape of the accumulation mound. The results of this study were used to develop the design guidelines for the discharge ports of the Saltstone feed materials in the SDU6 facility. The focusing areas of the modeling study are to estimate the domain size of the grout materials radially spread on the facility floor under the baseline modeling conditions, to perform the sensitivity analysis with respect to the baseline design and operating conditions such as elevation of discharge port, discharge pipe diameter, and grout properties, and to determine the changes in grout density as it is related to grout drop height. An axi-symmetric two-phase modeling method was used for computational efficiency. Based on the nominal design and operating conditions, a transient computational approach was taken to compute flow fields mainly driven by pumping inertia and natural gravity. Detailed solution methodology and analysis results are discussed here.
Flow cytometric DNA analysis of corneal epithelium.
Burns, E R; Roberson, M C; Brown, M F; Shock, J P; Pipkin, J L; Hinson, W G; Anson, J F
1990-03-01
We have modified an existing technique in order to perform DNA analysis by flow cytometry (FCM) of corneal epithelium from the mouse, rat, chicken, rabbit, and human. This protocol permitted an investigation of human corneal scrapings from several categories: normal, aphakic bullous keratopathy (ABK), keratoconus (KC), Fuch's dystrophy, edema, epithelial dysplasia, and lipid degeneration. No abnormal characteristic cell-kinetic profile was detected when averaged DNA histograms were compared statistically between the normal and either ABK, KC, edema, or Fuch's dystrophy groups. Abnormal DNA histograms were recorded for cell samples that were taken 1) from three individuals who had epithelial dysplasia and 2) from one individual diagnosed with lipid degeneration. The former condition was characterized by histograms that had a subpopulation of cells with an aneuploid amount of DNA or had higher than normal percentages of cells in the S and G2 + M phases of the cell cycle. Corneal cells from the patient who had lipid degeneration had an abnormally high percentage of cells in the G2 + M phases of the cell cycle. The availability of accurate DNA flow cytometric analysis of corneal epithelium allows further studies on this issue from both experimental and clinical situations.
Unsaturated Zone Flow Patterns and Analysis
C. Ahlers
2001-10-17
This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) documents the development of an expected-case model for unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport that will be described in terms of the representativeness of models of the natural system. The expected-case model will provide an evaluation of the effectiveness of the natural barriers, assess the impact of conservatism in the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA), and support the development of further models and analyses for public confidence building. The present models used in ''Total System Performance Assessment for the Site Recommendation'' (Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor (CRWMS M&O) 2000 [1532461]) underestimate the natural-barrier performance because of conservative assumptions and parameters and do not adequately address uncertainty and alternative models. The development of an expected case model for the UZ natural barrier addresses issues regarding flow-pattern analysis and modeling that had previously been treated conservatively. This is in line with the Repository Safety Strategy (RSS) philosophy of treating conservatively those aspects of the UZ flow and transport system that are not important for achieving regulatory dose (CRWMS M&O 2000 [153246], Section 1.1.1). The development of an expected case model for the UZ also provides defense-in-depth in areas requiring further analysis of uncertainty and alternative models. In general, the value of the conservative case is to provide a more easily defensible TSPA for behavior of UZ flow and transport processes at Yucca Mountain. This AMR has been prepared in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' (Bechtel SAIC Company (BSC) 2001 [155051], Section 1.3 - Work Package 4301213UMG). The work scope is to examine the data and current models of flow and transport in the Yucca Mountain UZ to identify models and analyses where conservatism may be reduced and
PRELIMINARY DESIGN ANALYSIS OF AXIAL FLOW TURBINES
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Glassman, A. J.
1994-01-01
A computer program has been developed for the preliminary design analysis of axial-flow turbines. Rapid approximate generalized procedures requiring minimum input are used to provide turbine overall geometry and performance adequate for screening studies. The computations are based on mean-diameter flow properties and a stage-average velocity diagram. Gas properties are assumed constant throughout the turbine. For any given turbine, all stages, except the first, are specified to have the same shape velocity diagram. The first stage differs only in the value of inlet flow angle. The velocity diagram shape depends upon the stage work factor value and the specified type of velocity diagram. Velocity diagrams can be specified as symmetrical, zero exit swirl, or impulse; or by inputting stage swirl split. Exit turning vanes can be included in the design. The 1991 update includes a generalized velocity diagram, a more flexible meanline path, a reheat model, a radial component of velocity, and a computation of free-vortex hub and tip velocity diagrams. Also, a loss-coefficient calibration was performed to provide recommended values for airbreathing engine turbines. Input design requirements include power or pressure ratio, mass flow rate, inlet temperature and pressure, and rotative speed. The design variables include inlet and exit diameters, stator angle or exit radius ratio, and number of stages. Gas properties are input as gas constant, specific heat ratio, and viscosity. The program output includes inlet and exit annulus dimensions, exit temperature and pressure, total and static efficiencies, flow angles, blading angles, and last stage absolute and relative Mach numbers. This program is written in FORTRAN 77 and can be ported to any computer with a standard FORTRAN compiler which supports NAMELIST. It was originally developed on an IBM 7000 series computer running VM and has been implemented on IBM PC computers and compatibles running MS-DOS under Lahey FORTRAN, and
Uncertainty analysis of flow rate measurement for multiphase flow using CFD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Joon-Hyung; Jung, Uk-Hee; Kim, Sung; Yoon, Joon-Yong; Choi, Young-Seok
2015-10-01
The venturi meter has an advantage in its use, because it can measure flow without being much affected by the type of the measured fluid or flow conditions. Hence, it has excellent versatility and is being widely applied in many industries. The flow of a liquid containing air is a representative example of a multiphase flow and exhibits complex flow characteristics. In particular, the greater the gas volume fraction (GVF), the more inhomogeneous the flow becomes. As a result, using a venturi meter to measure the rate of a flow that has a high GVF generates an error. In this study, the cause of the error occurred in measuring the flow rate for the multiphase flow when using the venturi meter for analysis by CFD. To ensure the reliability of this study, the accuracy of the multiphase flow models for numerical analysis was verified through comparison between the calculated results of numerical analysis and the experimental data. As a result, the Grace model, which is a multiphase flow model established by an experiment with water and air, was confirmed to have the highest reliability. Finally, the characteristics of the internal flow field about the multiphase flow analysis result generated by applying the Grace model were analyzed to find the cause of the uncertainty occurring when measuring the flow rate of the multiphase flow using the venturi meter. A phase separation phenomenon occurred due to a density difference of water and air inside the venturi, and flow inhomogeneity happened according to the flow velocity difference of each phase. It was confirmed that this flow inhomogeneity increased as the GVF increased due to the uncertainty of the flow measurement.
Computer program for compressible flow network analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilton, M. E.; Murtaugh, J. P.
1973-01-01
Program solves problem of an arbitrarily connected one dimensional compressible flow network with pumping in the channels and momentum balancing at flow junctions. Program includes pressure drop calculations for impingement flow and flow through pin fin arrangements, as currently found in many air cooled turbine bucket and vane cooling configurations.
Space Station resource node flow field analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kania, Lee; Kumar, Ganesh; Mcconnaughey, Paul
1991-01-01
An analysis of the flow field within the Space Station Freedom resource node with operational intermodule ventilation and temperature/humidity control ventilation systems has been conducted. The INS3D code, an incompressible, steady-state Navier-Stokes solver has been used to assess the design of the ventilation system via quantification of the level of fluid mixing and identification of 'dead air' regions and short-circuit ventilation. Numerical results indicate significant short-circuit ventilation in the forward and midsections of the node and insufficient fluid mixing is found to exist in the aft node section. These results as well as results from a solution grid dependence study are presented.
Data-Flow Based Model Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Saad, Christian; Bauer, Bernhard
2010-01-01
The concept of (meta) modeling combines an intuitive way of formalizing the structure of an application domain with a high expressiveness that makes it suitable for a wide variety of use cases and has therefore become an integral part of many areas in computer science. While the definition of modeling languages through the use of meta models, e.g. in Unified Modeling Language (UML), is a well-understood process, their validation and the extraction of behavioral information is still a challenge. In this paper we present a novel approach for dynamic model analysis along with several fields of application. Examining the propagation of information along the edges and nodes of the model graph allows to extend and simplify the definition of semantic constraints in comparison to the capabilities offered by e.g. the Object Constraint Language. Performing a flow-based analysis also enables the simulation of dynamic behavior, thus providing an "abstract interpretation"-like analysis method for the modeling domain.
Methodologies and techniques for analysis of network flow data
Bobyshev, A.; Grigoriev, M.; /Fermilab
2004-12-01
Network flow data gathered at the border routers and core switches is used at Fermilab for statistical analysis of traffic patterns, passive network monitoring, and estimation of network performance characteristics. Flow data is also a critical tool in the investigation of computer security incidents. Development and enhancement of flow based tools is an on-going effort. This paper describes the most recent developments in flow analysis at Fermilab.
Green chemistry and the evolution of flow analysis. A review.
Melchert, Wanessa R; Reis, Boaventura F; Rocha, Fábio R P
2012-02-10
Flow analysis has achieved its majority as a well-established tool to solve analytical problems. Evolution of flow-based approaches has been analyzed by diverse points of view, including historical aspects, the commutation concept and the impact on analytical methodologies. In this overview, the evolution of flow analysis towards green analytical chemistry is demonstrated by comparing classical procedures implemented with different flow approaches. The potential to minimize reagent consumption and waste generation and the ability to implement processes unreliable in batch to replace toxic chemicals are also emphasized. Successful applications of greener approaches in flow analysis are also discussed, focusing on the last 10 years. PMID:22244133
Green chemistry and the evolution of flow analysis. A review.
Melchert, Wanessa R; Reis, Boaventura F; Rocha, Fábio R P
2012-02-10
Flow analysis has achieved its majority as a well-established tool to solve analytical problems. Evolution of flow-based approaches has been analyzed by diverse points of view, including historical aspects, the commutation concept and the impact on analytical methodologies. In this overview, the evolution of flow analysis towards green analytical chemistry is demonstrated by comparing classical procedures implemented with different flow approaches. The potential to minimize reagent consumption and waste generation and the ability to implement processes unreliable in batch to replace toxic chemicals are also emphasized. Successful applications of greener approaches in flow analysis are also discussed, focusing on the last 10 years.
Multiscale analysis of turbulent Couette-Poiseuille flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Tie
2004-11-01
It is well known that the turbulent Couette-Poiseuille flow has both shear driven and pressure driven mechanisms. The pure pressure driven Poiseuille flow and the pure shear driven Couette flow are just the two extremes of Couette-Poiseuille flow. Here the mean momentum balance equation of the fully developed turbulent Couette-Poiseuille flow is studied using a new multiscale analysis. The analysis reveals a close relation between the structure of Couette-Poiseuille flow and the hierarchy structures of boundary layer identified by Fife et al. (2004). The skin friction coefficient of Couette-Poiseuille flow is presented in a new way based on the analysis, showing the close relation between Poiseuille, Couette and Couette-Poiseuille flows. The maximum Reynolds shear stresses locations and values, the shape of the Reynolds shear stress, and the relation between the zero Reynolds shear stress location and the maximum velocity location are also presented.
Analysis of Leakage Flows in Turbomachinery
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sindir, M. M.
1986-01-01
Navier-Stokes calculations predict leakage flow in high-pressure fuel pump. Accurate calculation of internal turbomachinery flow dynamics helps spot possible failure modes and establishes coupling between cyclic loading and structural dynamics. Approach also useful in analyzing two-and quasi-three-dimensional leakage flows in other turbomachinery components.
Cluster analysis of multiple planetary flow regimes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mo, Kingtse; Ghil, Michael
1987-01-01
A modified cluster analysis method was developed to identify spatial patterns of planetary flow regimes, and to study transitions between them. This method was applied first to a simple deterministic model and second to Northern Hemisphere (NH) 500 mb data. The dynamical model is governed by the fully-nonlinear, equivalent-barotropic vorticity equation on the sphere. Clusters of point in the model's phase space are associated with either a few persistent or with many transient events. Two stationary clusters have patterns similar to unstable stationary model solutions, zonal, or blocked. Transient clusters of wave trains serve as way stations between the stationary ones. For the NH data, cluster analysis was performed in the subspace of the first seven empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs). Stationary clusters are found in the low-frequency band of more than 10 days, and transient clusters in the bandpass frequency window between 2.5 and 6 days. In the low-frequency band three pairs of clusters determine, respectively, EOFs 1, 2, and 3. They exhibit well-known regional features, such as blocking, the Pacific/North American (PNA) pattern and wave trains. Both model and low-pass data show strong bimodality. Clusters in the bandpass window show wave-train patterns in the two jet exit regions. They are related, as in the model, to transitions between stationary clusters.
Theoretical analysis of tsunami generation by pyroclastic flows
Watts, P.; Waythomas, C.F.
2003-01-01
Pyroclastic flows are a common product of explosive volcanism and have the potential to initiate tsunamis whenever thick, dense flows encounter bodies of water. We evaluate the process of tsunami generation by pyroclastic flow by decomposing the pyroclastic flow into two components, the dense underflow portion, which we term the pyroclastic debris flow, and the plume, which includes the surge and coignimbrite ash cloud parts of the flow. We consider five possible wave generation mechanisms. These mechanisms consist of steam explosion, pyroclastic debris flow, plume pressure, plume shear, and pressure impulse wave generation. Our theoretical analysis of tsunami generation by these mechanisms provides an estimate of tsunami features such as a characteristic wave amplitude and wavelength. We find that in most situations, tsunami generation is dominated by the pyroclastic debris flow component of a pyroclastic flow. This work presents information sufficient to construct tsunami sources for an arbitrary pyroclastic flow interacting with most bodies of water. Copyright 2003 by the American Geophysical Union.
Analysis of Pulsed Flow Modification Alternatives, Lower Missouri River, 2005
Jacobson, Robert B.
2008-01-01
The graphical, tabular, and statistical data presented in this report resulted from analysis of alternative flow regime designs considered by a group of Missouri River managers, stakeholders, and scientists during the summer of 2005. This plenary group was charged with designing a flow regime with increased spring flow pulses to support reproduction and survival of the endangered pallid sturgeon. Environmental flow components extracted from the reference natural flow regime were used to design and assess performance of alternative flow regimes. The analysis is based on modeled flow releases from Gavins Point Dam (near Yankton, South Dakota) for nine design alternatives and two reference scenarios; the reference scenarios are the run-of-the-river and the water-control plan implemented in 2004. The alternative designs were developed by the plenary group with the goal of providing pulsed spring flows, while retaining traditional social and economic uses of the river.
Gas flow analysis in melting furnaces
Kiss, L.I.; Bui, R.T.; Charette, A.; Bourgeois, T.
1998-12-01
The flow structure inside round furnaces with various numbers of burners, burner arrangement, and exit conditions has been studied experimentally with the purpose of improving the flow conditions and the resulting heat transfer. Small-scale transparent models were built according to the laws of geometric and dynamic similarity. Various visualization and experimental techniques were applied. The flow pattern in the near-surface regions was visualized by the fluorescent minituft and popcorn techniques; the flow structure in the bulk was analyzed by smoke injection and laser sheet illumination. For the study of the transient effects, high-speed video photography was applied. The effects of the various flow patterns, like axisymmetric and rotational flow, on the magnitude and uniformity of the residence time, as well as on the formation of stagnation zones, were discussed. Conclusions were drawn and have since been applied for the improvement of furnace performance.
Asymptotic analysis of plane turbulent Couette-Poiseuille flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lund, K. O.; Bush, W. B.
1980-01-01
Matched asymptotic expansions are used to describe turbulent Couette-Poiseuille flow (plane duct flow with a pressure gradient and a moving wall). A special modification of conventional eddy-diffusivity closure accounts for the experimentally observed non-coincidence of the locations of zero shear stress and maximum velocity. An asymptotic solution is presented which is valid as the Reynolds number tends to infinity for the whole family of Couette-Poiseuille flows (adverse, favorable, and zero pressure gradients in combination with a moving wall). It is shown that plane Poiseuille flow is a limiting case of Couette-Poiseuille flow. The solution agrees with experimental data for plane Couette flow, for the limiting plane Poiseuille flow, and for a special case having zero net flow and an adverse pressure gradient. The asymptotic analysis shows that conventional eddy diffusivity closures are inadequate for general Couette-Poiseuille flows.
Analysis of seawater flow through optical fiber
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fernández López, Sheila; Carrera Ramírez, Jesús; Rodriguez Sinobar, Leonor; Benitez, Javier; Rossi, Riccardo; Laresse de Tetto, Antonia
2015-04-01
The relation between sea and coastal aquifer is very important to the human populations living in coastal areas. The interrelation involves the submarine ground water discharge of relatively fresh water to the sea and the intrusion of sea water into the aquifer, which impairs the quality of ground water. The main process in seawater intrusion is managed by fluid-density effects which control the displacement of saline water. The underlain salinity acts as the restoring force, while hydrodynamic dispersion and convection lead to a mixing and vertical displacement of the brine. Because of this, a good definition of this saltwater-freshwater interface is needed what is intimately joined to the study of the movements (velocity fields) of fresh and salt water. As it is well known, the flow of salt water studied in seawater intrusion in stationary state, is nearly null or very low. However, in the rest of cases, this flux can be very important, so it is necessary its study to a better comprehension of this process. One possible manner of carry out this analysis is through the data from optical fiber. So, to research the distribution and velocity of the fresh and saltwater in the aquifer, a fiber optic system (OF) has been installed in Argentona (Baix Maresme, Catalonia). The main objective is to obtain the distributed temperature measurements (OF-DTS) and made progress in the interpretation of the dynamic processes of water. For some applications, the optical fiber acts as a passive temperature sensor but in our case, the technique Heated Active Fiber Optic will be used. This is based on the thermal response of the ground as a heat emission source is introduced. The thermal properties of the soil, dependent variables of soil water content, will make a specific temperature distribution around the cable. From the analyzed data we will deduce the velocity field, the real objective of our problem. To simulate this phenomenon and the coupled transport and flow problem
Parametric and experimental analysis using a power flow approach
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cuschieri, J. M.
1990-01-01
A structural power flow approach for the analysis of structure-borne transmission of vibrations is used to analyze the influence of structural parameters on transmitted power. The parametric analysis is also performed using the Statistical Energy Analysis approach and the results are compared with those obtained using the power flow approach. The advantages of structural power flow analysis are demonstrated by comparing the type of results that are obtained by the two analytical methods. Also, to demonstrate that the power flow results represent a direct physical parameter that can be measured on a typical structure, an experimental study of structural power flow is presented. This experimental study presents results for an L shaped beam for which an available solution was already obtained. Various methods to measure vibrational power flow are compared to study their advantages and disadvantages.
Analysis and control of cavity flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kourta, A.; Vitale, E.
2008-07-01
A flow above a cavity leads to an unsteady separated flow. This configuration exhibits an intense aeroacoustic coupling, where very intense aerodynamic noise can be emitted. Moreover, a majority of tangential flow above a cavity has an oscillatory character, resulting from a strong coupling between the acoustic and the flow dynamics. In the present work, we are interested in characterizing the dynamics and the frequency distribution of a cavity flow. First, the dynamics of the cavity are analyzed and the frequency distribution is established, which is followed by a study of nonlinear interaction. An open loop control using a synthetic jet is then applied in order to reduce noise generation. Finally, by choosing suitable jet parameters a significant noise reduction is obtained.
Natural laminar flow airfoil analysis and trade studies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1979-01-01
An analysis of an airfoil for a large commercial transport cruising at Mach 0.8 and the use of advanced computer techniques to perform the analysis are described. Incorporation of the airfoil into a natural laminar flow transport configuration is addressed and a comparison of fuel requirements and operating costs between the natural laminar flow transport and an equivalent turbulent flow transport is addressed.
Fractal analysis of flow of the river Warta
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Radziejewski, Maciej; Kundzewicz, Zbigniew W.
1997-12-01
A long time series (170 years) of daily flows of the river Warta (Poland) are subject to fractal analysis. A binary variable (renewal stream) illustrating excursions of the process of flow is examined. The raw series is subject to de-seasonalization and normalization. Fractal dimensions of crossings of Warta flows are determined using a novel variant of the box-counting method. Temporal variability of the flow process is studied by determination of fractal dimensions for shifted horizons of 10 or 30 years length. Spectral properties are compared between the time series of flows, and the fractional Brownian motion which describes both the fractal structure of the process and the Hurst phenomenon. The approach may be useful in further studies of non-stationary of the process of flow, analysis of extreme hydrological events and synthetic flow generation.
Multiphase Flow Analysis in Hydra-TH
Christon, Mark A.; Bakosi, Jozsef; Francois, Marianne M.; Lowrie, Robert B.; Nourgaliev, Robert
2012-06-20
This talk presents an overview of the multiphase flow efforts with Hydra-TH. The presentation begins with a definition of the requirements and design principles for multiphase flow relevant to CASL-centric problems. A brief survey of existing codes and their solution algorithms is presented before turning the model formulation selected for Hydra-TH. The issues of hyperbolicity and wellposedness are outlined, and a three candidate solution algorithms are discussed. The development status of Hydra-TH for multiphase flow is then presented with a brief summary and discussion of future directions for this work.
Correlation functions and cumulants in elliptic flow analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kovchegov, Yuri V.; Tuchin, Kirill L.
2003-04-01
We consider various methods of flow analysis in heavy ion collisions and compare experimental data on corresponding observables to the predictions of our saturation model proposed earlier [Nucl. Phys. A 708 (2002) 413]. We demonstrate that, due to the nature of the standard flow analysis, azimuthal distribution of particles with respect to reaction plane determined from the second order harmonics should always be proportional to cos2( φ- ΨR) independent of the physical origin of particle correlations (flow or non-flow). The amplitude of this distribution is always physical and proportional to v2. Two-particle correlations analysis is, therefore, a more reliable way of extracting the shape of physical azimuthal anisotropy. We demonstrate that two-particle correlation functions generated in our minijet model of particle production [Nucl. Phys. A 708 (2002) 413] are in good agreement with the data reported by PHENIX. We discuss the role of non-flow correlations in the cumulant flow analysis and demonstrate using a simple example that if the flow is weak, higher order cumulants analysis does not significantly reduce the contribution of non-flow correlations to elliptic flow observable v2 in RHIC data.
Finite element analysis of inviscid subsonic boattail flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chima, R. V.; Gerhart, P. M.
1981-01-01
A finite element code for analysis of inviscid subsonic flows over arbitrary nonlifting planar or axisymmetric bodies is described. The code solves a novel primitive variable formulation of the coupled irrotationality and compressible continuity equations. Results for flow over a cylinder, a sphere, and a NACA 0012 airfoil verify the code. Computed subcritical flows over an axisymmetric boattailed afterbody compare well with finite difference results and experimental data. Interative coupling with an integral turbulent boundary layer code shows strong viscous effects on the inviscid flow. Improvements in code efficiency and extensions to transonic flows are discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hamrick, Joseph T; Ginsburg, Ambrose; Osborn, Walter M
1952-01-01
A method is presented for analysis of the compressible flow between the hub and the shroud of mixed-flow impellers of arbitrary design. Axial symmetry was assumed, but the forces in the meridional (hub to shroud) plane, which are derived from tangential pressure gradients, were taken into account. The method was applied to an experimental mixed-flow impeller. The analysis of the flow in the meridional plane of the impeller showed that the rotational forces, the blade curvature, and the hub-shroud profile can introduce severe velocity gradients along the hub and the shroud surfaces. Choked flow at the impeller inlet as determined by the analysis was verified by experimental results.
Three-dimensional analysis of partially open butterfly valve flows
Huang, C.; Kim, R.H.
1996-09-01
A numerical simulation of butterfly valve flows is a useful technique to investigate the physical phenomena of the flow field. A three-dimensional numerical analysis was carried out on incompressible fluid flows in a butterfly valve by using FLUENT, which solves difference equations. Characteristics of the butterfly valve flows at different valve disk angles with a uniform incoming velocity were investigated. Comparisons of FLUENT results with other results, i.e., experimental results, were made to determine the accuracy of the employed method. Results of the three-dimensional analysis may be useful in the valve design.
Visualization, Selection, and Analysis of Traffic Flows.
Scheepens, Roeland; Hurter, Christophe; van de Wetering, Huub; van Wijk, Jarke J
2016-01-01
Visualization of the trajectories of moving objects leads to dense and cluttered images, which hinders exploration and understanding. It also hinders adding additional visual information, such as direction, and makes it difficult to interactively extract traffic flows, i.e., subsets of trajectories. In this paper we present our approach to visualize traffic flows and provide interaction tools to support their exploration. We show an overview of the traffic using a density map. The directions of traffic flows are visualized using a particle system on top of the density map. The user can extract traffic flows using a novel selection widget that allows for the intuitive selection of an area, and filtering on a range of directions and any additional attributes. Using simple, visual set expressions, the user can construct more complicated selections. The dynamic behaviors of selected flows may then be shown in annotation windows in which they can be interactively explored and compared. We validate our approach through use cases where we explore and analyze the temporal behavior of aircraft and vessel trajectories, e.g., landing and takeoff sequences, or the evolution of flight route density. The aircraft use cases have been developed and validated in collaboration with domain experts.
Visualization, Selection, and Analysis of Traffic Flows.
Scheepens, Roeland; Hurter, Christophe; van de Wetering, Huub; van Wijk, Jarke J
2016-01-01
Visualization of the trajectories of moving objects leads to dense and cluttered images, which hinders exploration and understanding. It also hinders adding additional visual information, such as direction, and makes it difficult to interactively extract traffic flows, i.e., subsets of trajectories. In this paper we present our approach to visualize traffic flows and provide interaction tools to support their exploration. We show an overview of the traffic using a density map. The directions of traffic flows are visualized using a particle system on top of the density map. The user can extract traffic flows using a novel selection widget that allows for the intuitive selection of an area, and filtering on a range of directions and any additional attributes. Using simple, visual set expressions, the user can construct more complicated selections. The dynamic behaviors of selected flows may then be shown in annotation windows in which they can be interactively explored and compared. We validate our approach through use cases where we explore and analyze the temporal behavior of aircraft and vessel trajectories, e.g., landing and takeoff sequences, or the evolution of flight route density. The aircraft use cases have been developed and validated in collaboration with domain experts. PMID:26390467
Linear stability analysis of swirling turbulent flows with turbulence models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gupta, Vikrant; Juniper, Matthew
2013-11-01
In this paper, we consider the growth of large scale coherent structures in turbulent flows by performing linear stability analysis around a mean flow. Turbulent flows are characterized by fine-scale stochastic perturbations. The momentum transfer caused by these perturbations affects the development of larger structures. Therefore, in a linear stability analysis, it is important to include the perturbations' influence. One way to do this is to include a turbulence model in the stability analysis. This is done in the literature by using eddy viscosity models (EVMs), which are first order turbulence models. We extend this approach by using second order turbulence models, in this case explicit algebraic Reynolds stress models (EARSMs). EARSMs are more versatile than EVMs, in that they can be applied to a wider range of flows, and could also be more accurate. We verify our EARSM-based analysis by applying it to a channel flow and then comparing the results with those from an EVM-based analysis. We then apply the EARSM-based stability analysis to swirling pipe flows and Taylor-Couette flows, which demonstrates the main benefit of EARSM-based analysis. This project is supported by EPSRC and Rolls-Royce through a Dorothy Hodgkin Research Fellowship.
Flow analysis in Brazil: contributions over the last four decades.
Batista, Alex D; Sasaki, Milton K; Rocha, Fábio R P; Zagatto, Elias A G
2014-08-01
The main contributions of Brazilian researchers to the field of flow analysis are reviewed, with an emphasis on historical developments, conceptual aspects, system design, and analytical applications. Contributions after the advent of flow injection analysis are highlighted. Novel approaches (e.g. zone merging, zone sampling, zone trapping, multi-site detection, and multi-commutation), flow modalities (e.g. monosegmented flow analysis, flow-batch analysis, multi-pumping flow analysis), as well as the pioneering implementation of different detection techniques (e.g. potentiometry, turbidimetry, flame atomic absorption spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry, and gravimetry) and analytical steps (e.g. titrations, membrane-less gas diffusion, and electrolytic dissolution) are highlighted. Strategies to improve analytical figures of merit and the use of the flow analyser as a tool for teaching purposes are also discussed. Contributions from Brazilian workers in the context of system miniaturization, "green" chemistry, analysis of complex samples, novel strategies and materials for in-line analyte separation/concentration, and proposals for expert systems are also highlighted. The large-scale analysis of samples of agronomical, environmental, industrial, and clinical relevance is emphasized. PMID:24886858
Statistical Distribution of Inflation on Lava Flows: Analysis of Flow Surfaces on Earth and Mars
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Glazel, L. S.; Anderson, S. W.; Stofan, E. R.; Baloga, S.
2003-01-01
The surface morphology of a lava flow results from processes that take place during the emplacement of the flow. Certain types of features, such as tumuli, lava rises and lava rise pits, are indicators of flow inflation or endogenous growth of a lava flow. Tumuli in particular have been identified as possible indicators of tube location, indicating that their distribution on the surface of a lava flow is a junction of the internal pathways of lava present during flow emplacement. However, the distribution of tumuli on lava flows has not been examined in a statistically thorough manner. In order to more rigorously examine the distribution of tumuli on a lava flow, we examined a discrete flow lobe with numerous lava rises and tumuli on the 1969 - 1974 Mauna Ulu flow at Kilauea, Hawaii. The lobe is located in the distal portion of the flow below Holei Pali, which is characterized by hummocky pahoehoe flows emplaced from tubes. We chose this flow due to its discrete nature allowing complete mapping of surface morphologies, well-defined boundaries, well-constrained emplacement parameters, and known flow thicknesses. In addition, tube locations for this Mauna Ulu flow were mapped by Holcomb (1976) during flow emplacement. We also examine the distribution of tumuli on the distal portion of the hummocky Thrainsskjoldur flow field provided by Rossi and Gudmundsson (1996). Analysis of the Mauna Ulu and Thrainsskjoldur flow lobes and the availability of high-resolution MOC images motivated us to look for possible tumuli-dominated flow lobes on the surface of Mars. We identified a MOC image of a lava flow south of Elysium Mons with features morphologically similar to tumuli. The flow is characterized by raised elliptical to circular mounds, some with axial cracks, that are similar in size to the tumuli measured on Earth. One potential avenue of determining whether they are tumuli is to look at the spatial distribution to see if any patterns similar to those of tumuli
Flow analysis of C. elegans swimming
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Montenegro-Johnson, Thomas; Gagnon, David; Arratia, Paulo; Lauga, Eric
2015-11-01
Improved understanding of microscopic swimming has the potential to impact numerous biomedical and industrial processes. A crucial means of analyzing these systems is through experimental observation of flow fields, from which it is important to be able to accurately deduce swimmer physics such as power consumption, drag forces, and efficiency. We examine the swimming of the nematode worm C. elegans, a model system for undulatory micro-propulsion. Using experimental data of swimmer geometry and kinematics, we employ the regularized stokeslet boundary element method to simulate the swimming of this worm outside the regime of slender-body theory. Simulated flow fields are then compared with experimentally extracted values confined to the swimmer beat plane, demonstrating good agreement. We finally address the question of how to estimate three-dimensional flow information from two-dimensional measurements.
Heat transfer analysis for peripheral blood flow measurement system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagata, Koji; Hattori, Hideharu; Sato, Nobuhiko; Ichige, Yukiko; Kiguchi, Masashi
2009-06-01
Some disorders such as circulatory disease and metabolic abnormality cause many problems to peripheral blood flow condition. Therefore, frequent measurement of the blood flow condition is bound to contribute to precaution against those disorders and to control of conditions of the diseases. We propose a convenient means of blood flow volume measurement at peripheral part, such as fingertips. Principle of this measurement is based on heat transfer characteristics of peripheral part containing the blood flow. Transition response analysis of skin surface temperature has provided measurement model of the peripheral blood flow volume. We developed the blood flow measurement system based on that model and evaluated it by using artificial finger under various temperature conditions of ambience and internal fluid. The evaluation results indicated that proposed method could estimate the volume of the fluid regardless of temperature condition of them. Finally we applied our system to real finger testing and have obtained results correlated well with laser Doppler blood flow meter values.
Theoretical analysis on flow characteristics of melt gear pump
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, R. J.; Wang, J. Q.; Kong, F. Y.
2016-05-01
The relationship between Geometric parameters and theoretical flow of melt gear pump is revealed, providing a theoretical basis to melt gear pump design. The paper has an analysis of meshing movement of melt gear pump on the condition of four different tooth numbers, stack movement law and flow ripple. The regulation of flow pulsation coefficient is researched by MATLAB software. The modulus formula of melt gear pump is proposed, consistent with actual situation.
Thermohydrodynamic analysis of cryogenic liquid turbulent flow fluid film bearings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Andres, Luis San
1993-01-01
A thermohydrodynamic analysis is presented and a computer code developed for prediction of the static and dynamic force response of hydrostatic journal bearings (HJB's), annular seals or damper bearing seals, and fixed arc pad bearings for cryogenic liquid applications. The study includes the most important flow characteristics found in cryogenic fluid film bearings such as flow turbulence, fluid inertia, liquid compressibility and thermal effects. The analysis and computational model devised allow the determination of the flow field in cryogenic fluid film bearings along with the dynamic force coefficients for rotor-bearing stability analysis.
A theoretical analysis of vertical flow equilibrium
Yortsos, Y.C.
1992-01-01
The assumption of Vertical Flow Equilibrium (VFE) and of parallel flow conditions, in general, is often applied to the modeling of flow and displacement in natural porous media. However, the methodology for the development of the various models is rather intuitive, and no rigorous method is currently available. In this paper, we develop an asymptotic theory using as parameter the variable R{sub L} = (L/H){radical}(k{sub V})/(k{sub H}). It is rigorously shown that present models represent the leading order term of an asymptotic expansion with respect to 1/R{sub L}{sup 2}. Although this was numerically suspected, it is the first time that is is theoretically proved. Based on the general formulation, a series of models are subsequently obtained. In the absence of strong gravity effects, they generalize previous works by Zapata and Lake (1981), Yokoyama and Lake (1981) and Lake and Hirasaki (1981), on immiscible and miscible displacements. In the limit of gravity-segregated flow, we prove conditions for the fluids to be segregated and derive the Dupuit and Dietz (1953) approximations. Finally, we also discuss effects of capillarity and transverse dispersion.
Quantitative transverse flow measurement using OCT speckle decorrelation analysis
Liu, Xuan; Huang, Yong; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.; Mathews, Scott A.; Kang, Jin U.
2014-01-01
We propose an inter-Ascan speckle decorrelation based method that can quantitatively assess blood flow normal to the direction of the OCT imaging beam. To validate this method, we performed a systematic study using both phantom and in vivo animal models. Results show that our speckle analysis method can accurately extract transverse flow speed with high spatial and temporal resolution. PMID:23455305
Substance Flow Analysis of Mercury in China
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hui, L. M.; Wang, S.; Zhang, L.; Wang, F. Y.; Wu, Q. R.
2015-12-01
In previous studies, the emission of anthropogenic atmospheric Hg in China as well as single sector have been examined a lot. However, there might have been more Hg released as solid wastes rather than air. Hg stored in solid wastes may be released to air again when the solid wastes experience high temperature process or cause local pollution if the solid wastes are stacked casually for a long time. To trace the fate of Hg in China, this study developed the substance flow of Hg in 2010 covering all the sectors summarized in table 1. Below showed in Figure 1, the total Hg input is 2825t. The unintentional input of Hg, mined Hg, and recycled Hg account for 57%, 32% and 11% respectively. Figure 2 provides the detail information of substance flow of Hg. Byproducts from one sector may be used as raw materials of another, causing cross Hg flow between sectors. The Hg input of cement production is 303 t, of which 34% comes from coal and limestone, 33% comes from non-ferrous smelting, 23% comes from coal combustion, 7% comes from iron and steel production and 3% comes from mercury mining. Hg flowing to recycledHg production is 639 t, mainly from Hg contained in waste active carbon and mercuric chloride catalyst from VCM production and acid sludge from non-ferrous smelting. There are 20 t mercury flowing from spent mercury adding products to incineration. Figure1 and Figure 2 also show that 46% of the output Hg belongs to "Lagged release", which means this part of mercury might be released later. The "Lagged release" Hg includes 809 t Hg contained in stacked byproducts form coal combustion, non-ferrous smelting, iron and steel production, Al production, cement production and mercury mining, 161t Hg stored in the pipeline of VCM producing, 10 t Hg in fluorescent lamps that are in use and 314 t mercury stored in materials waiting to be handled with in recycled mercury plants. There is 112 t Hg stored in landfill and 129 t Hg exported abroad with the export of mercury adding
Power flow analysis of two coupled plates with arbitrary characteristics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cuschieri, J. M.
1990-01-01
In the last progress report (Feb. 1988) some results were presented for a parametric analysis on the vibrational power flow between two coupled plate structures using the mobility power flow approach. The results reported then were for changes in the structural parameters of the two plates, but with the two plates identical in their structural characteristics. Herein, limitation is removed. The vibrational power input and output are evaluated for different values of the structural damping loss factor for the source and receiver plates. In performing this parametric analysis, the source plate characteristics are kept constant. The purpose of this parametric analysis is to determine the most critical parameters that influence the flow of vibrational power from the source plate to the receiver plate. In the case of the structural damping parametric analysis, the influence of changes in the source plate damping is also investigated. The results obtained from the mobility power flow approach are compared to results obtained using a statistical energy analysis (SEA) approach. The significance of the power flow results are discussed together with a discussion and a comparison between the SEA results and the mobility power flow results. Furthermore, the benefits derived from using the mobility power flow approach are examined.
Computational Analysis of Multi-Rotor Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yoon, Seokkwan; Lee, Henry C.; Pulliam, Thomas H.
2016-01-01
Interactional aerodynamics of multi-rotor flows has been studied for a quadcopter representing a generic quad tilt-rotor aircraft in hover. The objective of the present study is to investigate the effects of the separation distances between rotors, and also fuselage and wings on the performance and efficiency of multirotor systems. Three-dimensional unsteady Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a spatially 5th order accurate scheme, dual-time stepping, and the Detached Eddy Simulation turbulence model. The results show that the separation distances as well as the wings have significant effects on the vertical forces of quadroror systems in hover. Understanding interactions in multi-rotor flows would help improve the design of next generation multi-rotor drones.
Analysis of Fluid Flow over a Surface
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McCloud, Peter L. (Inventor)
2013-01-01
A method, apparatus, and computer program product for modeling heat radiated by a structure. The flow of a fluid over a surface of a model of the structure is simulated. The surface has a plurality of surface elements. Heat radiated by the plurality of surface elements in response to the fluid flowing over the surface of the model of the structure is identified. An effect of heat radiated by at least a portion of the plurality of surface elements on each other is identified. A model of the heat radiated by the structure is created using the heat radiated by the plurality of surface elements and the effect of the heat radiated by at least a portion of the plurality of surface elements on each other.
Covariant Lyapunov analysis of chaotic Kolmogorov flows.
Inubushi, Masanobu; Kobayashi, Miki U; Takehiro, Shin-ichi; Yamada, Michio
2012-01-01
Hyperbolicity is an important concept in dynamical system theory; however, we know little about the hyperbolicity of concrete physical systems including fluid motions governed by the Navier-Stokes equations. Here, we study numerically the hyperbolicity of the Navier-Stokes equation on a two-dimensional torus (Kolmogorov flows) using the method of covariant Lyapunov vectors developed by Ginelli et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 130601 (2007)]. We calculate the angle between the local stable and unstable manifolds along an orbit of chaotic solution to evaluate the hyperbolicity. We find that the attractor of chaotic Kolmogorov flows is hyperbolic at small Reynolds numbers, but that smaller angles between the local stable and unstable manifolds are observed at larger Reynolds numbers, and the attractor appears to be nonhyperbolic at a certain Reynolds numbers. Also, we observed some relations between these hyperbolic properties and physical properties such as time correlation of the vorticity and the energy dissipation rate.
Bingham Plastic Analysis of ER Valve Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peel, D. J.; Bullough, W. A.
Yield shear stresses and shear rates at a valve wall are derived from experimental results on a series of concentric cylinder valves. The fluid constitutive equation used for this purpose is that of a Bingham Plastic. Valve plates (which are such that the radial gap is small compared to its mean pitch) are taken to be parallel so far as the derivation of the flow ν's pressure ν's geometry model is concerned. A range of electrode separations from 0.5 to 1.0mm are used with flow velocities being limited to the region where the viscous pressure drop component is below that caused by the electro stress. Results show that (away from the region of low shear rates and high voltages) the wall stresses for equivalent conditions are comparable for different valves, for a range of applied field strengths and mean flow velocities. Thus, provided the hysteretic region is avoided the fluid can be treated as a Bingham continuum with some stated reservations. However, this is only applied with precision for the truly corresponding situations defined in the paper.
Immobilized Bioluminescent Reagents in Flow Injection Analysis.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nabi, Abdul
Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Bioluminescent reactions exhibits two important characteristics from an analytical viewpoint; they are selective and highly sensitive. Furthermore, bioluminescent emissions are easily measured with a simple flow-through detector based on a photomultiplier tube and the rapid and reproducible mixing of sample and expensive reagent is best achieved by a flow injection manifold. The two most important bioluminescent systems are the enzyme (luciferase)/substrate (luciferin) combinations extracted from fireflies (Photinus pyralis) and marine bacteria (Virio harveyi) which requires ATP and NAD(P)H respectively as cofactors. Reactions that generate or consume these cofactors can also be coupled to the bioluminescent reaction to provide assays for a wide range of clinically important species. A flow injection manifold for the study of bioluminescent reactions is described, as are procedures for the extraction, purification and immobilization of firefly and bacterial luciferase and oxidoreductase. Results are presented for the determination of ATP using firefly system and the determination of other enzymes and substrates participating in ATP-converting reactions e.g. creatine kinase, ATP-sulphurylase, pyruvate kinase, creatine phosphate, pyrophosphate and phophoenolypyruvate. Similarly results are presented for the determination of NAD(P)H, FMN, FMNH_2 and several dehydrogenases which produce NAD(P)H and their substrates, e.g. alcohol, L-lactate, L-malate, L-glutamate, Glucose-6-phosphate and primary bile acid.
Asymptotic and numerical analysis of electrohydrodynamic flows of dielectric liquid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suh, Y. K.; Baek, K. H.; Cho, D. S.
2013-08-01
We perform an asymptotic analysis of electrohydrodynamic (EHD) flow of nonpolar liquid subjected to an external, nonuniform electric field. The domain of interest covers the bulk as well as the thin dissociation layers (DSLs) near the electrodes. Outer (i.e., bulk) equations for the ion transport in hierarchical order of perturbation parameters can be expressed in linear form, whereas the inner (i.e., DSL) equations take a nonlinear form. We derive a simple formula in terms of various parameters which can be used to estimate the relative importance of the DSL-driven flow compared with the bulk-driven flow. EHD flow over a pair of cylindrical electrodes is then solved asymptotically and numerically. It is found that in large geometric scale and high ion concentration the EHD flow is dominated by the bulk-charge-induced flow. As the scale and concentration are decreased, the DSL-driven slip velocity increases and the resultant flow tends to dominate the domain and finally leads to flow reversal. We also conduct a flow-visualization experiment to verify the analysis and attain good agreement between the two results with parameter tuning. We finally show, based on the comparison of experimental and numerical solutions, that the rate of free-ion generation (dissociation) should be less than the one predicted from the existing formula.
Linear Stability Analysis of Couette Flow with a Porous Wall
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tilton, Nils; Cortelezzi, Luca
2006-11-01
It is well known that plane Couette flow in a channel with perfectly smooth, impermeable walls is linearly stable for all Reynolds numbers. Little attention has been given in literature to the stability of plane Couette flow when at least one of the walls is porous. In this study, we consider a channel delimited by an impermeable moving wall, which drives the flow, and a stationary, rigid, homogeneous, isotropic, porous block. We perform a three-dimensional linear stability analysis of the fully developed laminar flow in both the channel and the porous block. We restrict the study to sufficiently small permeabilities in order to neglect inertial effects in the porous flow. We solve the coupled linear stability problem, arising from the adjacent channel and porous flows, using a spectral collocation technique. The linear stability analysis takes account of the coupling between the two disturbance fields through boundary conditions recently derived by Ochoa-Tapia and Whitaker (Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 38, 1995). We find that Couette flow over a permeable wall is no longer absolutely stable. While the critical Reynolds number tends to infinity as the permeability tends to zero, it decreases drastically for higher permeabilities. We also find a new channel mode and new class of modes in the porous region. We compare and discuss these results in terms of the recently published results of a three-dimensional linear stability analysis of a channel flow with porous walls (Tilton and Cortelezzi, Phys. Fluids 18, 051702, 2006).
Thermohydrodynamic Analysis of Cryogenic Liquid Turbulent Flow Fluid Film Bearings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
SanAndres, Luis
1996-01-01
Computational programs developed for the thermal analysis of tilting and flexure-pad hybrid bearings, and the unsteady flow and transient response of a point mass rotor supported on fluid film bearings are described. The motion of a cryogenic liquid on the thin film annular region of a fluid film bearing is described by a set of mass and momentum conservation, and energy transport equations for the turbulent bulk-flow velocities and pressure, and accompanied by thermophysical state equations for evaluation of the fluid material properties. Zeroth-order equations describe the fluid flow field for a journal static equilibrium position, while first-order (linear) equations govern the fluid flow for small amplitude-journal center translational motions. Solution to the zeroth-order flow field equations provides the bearing flow rate, load capacity, drag torque and temperature rise. Solution to the first-order equations determines the rotordynamic force coefficients due to journal radial motions.
SSME 3-D Turnaround Duct flow analysis - CFD predictions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brankovic, Andreja; Stowers, Steven T.; Mcconnaughey, Paul
1988-01-01
CFD analysis is presently employed to obtain an improved flowfield for an individual flowpath in the case of the Space Shuttle Main Engine's High Pressure Fuel Turbopump Turn-Around Duct (TAD), which conducts the flow exiting from the gas turbines into the fuel bowl. It is demonstrated that the application of CFD to TAD flow analysis, giving attention to the duct's configuration and to the number, shape, and alignment of the diffuser struts, can enhance understanding of flow physics and result in improved duct design and performance.
Parametric and experimental analysis using a power flow approach
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cuschieri, J. M.
1988-01-01
Having defined and developed a structural power flow approach for the analysis of structure-borne transmission of structural vibrations, the technique is used to perform an analysis of the influence of structural parameters on the transmitted energy. As a base for comparison, the parametric analysis is first performed using a Statistical Energy Analysis approach and the results compared with those obtained using the power flow approach. The advantages of using structural power flow are thus demonstrated by comparing the type of results obtained by the two methods. Additionally, to demonstrate the advantages of using the power flow method and to show that the power flow results represent a direct physical parameter that can be measured on a typical structure, an experimental investigation of structural power flow is also presented. Results are presented for an L-shaped beam for which an analytical solution has already been obtained. Furthermore, the various methods available to measure vibrational power flow are compared to investigate the advantages and disadvantages of each method.
Spherical harmonic analysis of steady photospheric flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hathaway, David H.
1987-01-01
A technique is presented in which full disk Doppler velocity measurements are analyzed using spherical harmonic functions to determine the characteristics of the spectrum of spherical harmonic modes and the nature of steady photospheric flows. Synthetic data are constructed in order to test the technique. In spite of the mode mixing due to the lack of information about the motions on the backside of the sun, solar rotation and differential rotation can be accurately measured and monitored for secular changes, and meridional circulations with small amplitudes can be measured. Furthermore, limb shift measurements can be accurately obtained, and supergranules can be fully resolved and separated from giant cells by their spatial characteristics.
Climate Informed Low Flow Frequency Analysis Using Nonstationary Modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, D.; Guo, S.; Lian, Y.
2014-12-01
Stationarity is often assumed for frequency analysis of low flows in water resources management and planning. However, many studies have shown that flow characteristics, particularly the frequency spectrum of extreme hydrologic events,were modified by climate change and human activities and the conventional frequency analysis without considering the non-stationary characteristics may lead to costly design. The analysis presented in this paper was based on the more than 100 years of daily flow data from the Yichang gaging station 44 kilometers downstream of the Three Gorges Dam. The Mann-Kendall trend test under the scaling hypothesis showed that the annual low flows had significant monotonic trend, whereas an abrupt change point was identified in 1936 by the Pettitt test. The climate informed low flow frequency analysis and the divided and combined method are employed to account for the impacts from related climate variables and the nonstationarities in annual low flows. Without prior knowledge of the probability density function for the gaging station, six distribution functions including the Generalized Extreme Values (GEV), Pearson Type III, Gumbel, Gamma, Lognormal, and Weibull distributions have been tested to find the best fit, in which the local likelihood method is used to estimate the parameters. Analyses show that GEV had the best fit for the observed low flows. This study has also shown that the climate informed low flow frequency analysis is able to exploit the link between climate indices and low flows, which would account for the dynamic feature for reservoir management and provide more accurate and reliable designs for infrastructure and water supply.
Gradient Flow Analysis on MILC HISQ Ensembles
Brown, Nathan; Bazavov, Alexei; Bernard, Claude; DeTar, Carleton; Foley, Justin; Gottlieb, Steven; Heller, Urs M.; Hetrick, J. E.; Komijani, Javad; Laiho, Jack; Levkova, Ludmila; Oktay, M. B.; Sugar, Robert; Toussaint, Doug; Van de Water, Ruth S.; Zhou, Ran
2014-11-14
We report on a preliminary scale determination with gradient-flow techniques on the $N_f = 2 + 1 + 1$ HISQ ensembles generated by the MILC collaboration. The ensembles include four lattice spacings, ranging from 0.15 to 0.06 fm, and both physical and unphysical values of the quark masses. The scales $\\sqrt{t_0}/a$ and $w_0/a$ are computed using Symanzik flow and the cloverleaf definition of $\\langle E \\rangle$ on each ensemble. Then both scales and the meson masses $aM_\\pi$ and $aM_K$ are adjusted for mistunings in the charm mass. Using a combination of continuum chiral perturbation theory and a Taylor series ansatz in the lattice spacing, the results are simultaneously extrapolated to the continuum and interpolated to physical quark masses. Our preliminary results are $\\sqrt{t_0} = 0.1422(7)$fm and $w_0 = 0.1732(10)$fm. We also find the continuum mass-dependence of $w_0$.
Stochastic uncertainty analysis for unconfined flow systems
Liu, Gaisheng; Zhang, Dongxiao; Lu, Zhiming
2006-01-01
A new stochastic approach proposed by Zhang and Lu (2004), called the Karhunen-Loeve decomposition-based moment equation (KLME), has been extended to solving nonlinear, unconfined flow problems in randomly heterogeneous aquifers. This approach is on the basis of an innovative combination of Karhunen-Loeve decomposition, polynomial expansion, and perturbation methods. The random log-transformed hydraulic conductivity field (InKS) is first expanded into a series in terms of orthogonal Gaussian standard random variables with their coefficients obtained as the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the covariance function of InKS- Next, head h is decomposed as a perturbation expansion series ??A(m), where A(m) represents the mth-order head term with respect to the standard deviation of InKS. Then A(m) is further expanded into a polynomial series of m products of orthogonal Gaussian standard random variables whose coefficients Ai1,i2(m)...,im are deterministic and solved sequentially from low to high expansion orders using MODFLOW-2000. Finally, the statistics of head and flux are computed using simple algebraic operations on Ai1,i2(m)...,im. A series of numerical test results in 2-D and 3-D unconfined flow systems indicated that the KLME approach is effective in estimating the mean and (co)variance of both heads and fluxes and requires much less computational effort as compared to the traditional Monte Carlo simulation technique. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.
Application of flow analysis in determination of selected radionuclides.
Kołacińska, Kamila; Trojanowicz, Marek
2014-07-01
The subject of this article is the review of developed applications of flow analysis methods for determination of radionuclides hard-to-detect in reactor cooling waters ((90)Sr, (239,240)Pu, and (241)Am), and also (99)Tc, which are released to the environment primarily through nuclear fuel processing. Flow analysis, which developed for decades parallel to flow methods of chemical synthesis, is widely employed in modern chemical analysis, mainly for environmental, food analysis and pharmaceutical applications. It allows the simplification of design of analytical instruments and procedures, the shortening of analysis time, improvement of precision, and often the automation of whole analytical procedure. All those factors can be also advantageous for determination of critical radionuclides for process needs and protection of environment. The review is based on 84 references, published mainly in leading analytical journals. PMID:24840425
Space shuttle booster multi-engine base flow analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tang, H. H.; Gardiner, C. R.; Anderson, W. A.; Navickas, J.
1972-01-01
A comprehensive review of currently available techniques pertinent to several prominent aspects of the base thermal problem of the space shuttle booster is given along with a brief review of experimental results. A tractable engineering analysis, capable of predicting the power-on base pressure, base heating, and other base thermal environmental conditions, such as base gas temperature, is presented and used for an analysis of various space shuttle booster configurations. The analysis consists of a rational combination of theoretical treatments of the prominent flow interaction phenomena in the base region. These theories consider jet mixing, plume flow, axisymmetric flow effects, base injection, recirculating flow dynamics, and various modes of heat transfer. Such effects as initial boundary layer expansion at the nozzle lip, reattachment, recompression, choked vent flow, and nonisoenergetic mixing processes are included in the analysis. A unified method was developed and programmed to numerically obtain compatible solutions for the various flow field components in both flight and ground test conditions. Preliminary prediction for a 12-engine space shuttle booster base thermal environment was obtained for a typical trajectory history. Theoretical predictions were also obtained for some clustered-engine experimental conditions. Results indicate good agreement between the data and theoretical predicitons.
An integral turbulent kinetic energy analysis of free shear flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peters, C. E.; Phares, W. J.
1973-01-01
Mixing of coaxial streams is analyzed by application of integral techniques. An integrated turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) equation is solved simultaneously with the integral equations for the mean flow. Normalized TKE profile shapes are obtained from incompressible jet and shear layer experiments and are assumed to be applicable to all free turbulent flows. The shear stress at the midpoint of the mixing zone is assumed to be directly proportional to the local TKE, and dissipation is treated with a generalization of the model developed for isotropic turbulence. Although the analysis was developed for ducted flows, constant-pressure flows were approximated with the duct much larger than the jet. The axisymmetric flows under consideration were predicted with reasonable accuracy. Fairly good results were also obtained for the fully developed two-dimensional shear layers, which were computed as thin layers at the boundary of a large circular jet.
Flow field analysis for a class of waverider configurations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moitra, Anutosh
1990-01-01
A package of computer codes for analysis of flow fields for waverider configurations is described. The package consists of a surface/volume grid generator and a finite-volume flow solver. The grid generator defines body geometries and computational grids by an algebraic homotopy procedure. The algebraic procedure is versatile in its application and can readily generate configurations in the class of blended wing-body geometries. This code has the ability to produce a wide variety of geometries in the given class with varying geometrical attributes. The flow solver employs a finite-volume formation and solves the explicit, Runge-Kutta integration technique. The method or flow simulation incorporates several techniques for acceleration of the convergence of the interaction process and an entropy corrected enthalpy damping procedure for efficient computation of high Mach number flows.
Uncertainty analysis of power monitoring transit time ultrasonic flow meters
Orosz, A.; Miller, D. W.; Christensen, R. N.; Arndt, S.
2006-07-01
A general uncertainty analysis is applied to chordal, transit time ultrasonic flow meters that are used in nuclear power plant feedwater loops. This investigation focuses on relationships between the major parameters of the flow measurement. For this study, mass flow rate is divided into three components, profile factor, density, and a form of volumetric flow rate. All system parameters are used to calculate values for these three components. Uncertainty is analyzed using a perturbation method. Sensitivity coefficients for major system parameters are shown, and these coefficients are applicable to a range of ultrasonic flow meters used in similar applications. Also shown is the uncertainty to be expected for density along with its relationship to other system uncertainties. One other conclusion is that pipe diameter sensitivity coefficients may be a function of the calibration technique used. (authors)
Development of a three-dimensional turbulent duct flow analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eiseman, P. R.; Levy, R.; Mcdonald, H.; Briley, W. R.
1978-01-01
A method for computing three-dimensional turbulent subsonic flow in curved ducts is described. An approximate set of governing equations is given for viscous flows which have a primary flow direction. The derivation is coordinate invariant, and the resulting equations are expressed in terms of tensors. General tube-like coordinates were developed for a general class of geometries applicable to many internal flow problems. The coordinates are then particularized to pipes having superelliptic cross sections whose shape can vary continuously between a circle and a near rectangle. The analysis is applied to a series of relevant aerodynamic problems including transition from nearly square to round pipes and flow through a pipe with an S-shaped bend.
Stability Analysis of Flow Induced by the Traveling Magnetic Field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mazuruk, Konstantin
2003-01-01
Re-circulating flow in molten metal columns can be conveniently induced by the axisymmetric traveling magnetic field. A number of applications can benefit from this technique, such as mixing under microgravity environment, or.crysta1 growth from metallic melts. For small magnetic field excitations, the flow is laminar and stationary. As the imposed field increases, a more complex flow will set up in the cylindrical column. Conditions for stable laminar flow are of importance for practical applications. In this work, a linear stability analysis is performed in order to determine the onset of the bifurcation in the system. Here the analysis is restricted to the axisymmetric modes and the low-frequency regime.
Stability Analysis of Flow Induced by the Traveling Magnetic Field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mazuruk, Konstantin
2003-01-01
Re-circulating flow in molten metal columns can be conveniently induced by the axisymmetric traveling magnetic field. A number of applications can benefit from this technique, such as mixing under microgravity environment, or crysta1 growth from metallic melts. For small magnetic field excitations, the flow is laminar and stationary. As the imposed field increases, a more complex flow will set up in the cylindrical column. Conditions for stable laminar flow are of importance for practical applications. In this work, a linear stability analysis is performed in order to determine the onset of the bifurcation in the system. Here the analysis is restricted to the axisymmetric modes and the low-frequency regime.
Assessment of Fluorescent Particles for Surface Flow Analysis
Tauro, Flavia; Mocio, Gabriele; Rapiti, Emiliano; Grimaldi, Salvatore; Porfiri, Maurizio
2012-01-01
In this paper, a systematic performance assessment of the measurement system for surface flow analysis developed by our group in (Tauro et al., Sensors, 2010) is presented. The system is based on the detection of buoyant fluorescent microspheres through a low-cost apparatus, which incorporates light sources to elicit fluorescence response and a digital camera to identify the particles' transit. Experiments are conducted using green fluorescent particles and further tests are executed to evaluate the system performance for red and orange particles varying in emission wavelength, degree of biocompatibility, and cost. The influence of the following parameters on surface flow sensing using fluorescent beads is investigated: (i) distance of the light sources from the water surface, (ii) presence of an ad-hoc filter tuned at the particle emission wavelength, (iii) camera resolution and frame rate, (iv) flow regime, and (v) ambient light. Experimental results are used to inform implementation guidelines for surface flow analysis in natural environments. PMID:23202234
Precipitator inlet particulate distribution flow analysis
LaRose, J.A.; Averill, A.
1994-12-31
The B and W Rothemuhle precipitators located at PacifiCorp`s Wyodak Generating Station in Gillette, Wyoming have, for the past two years, been experiencing discharge wire breakage. The breakage is due to corrosion of the wires: however, the exact cause of the corrosion is unknown. One aspect thought to contribute to the problem is an unbalance of ash loading among the four precipitators. Plant operation has revealed that the ash loading to precipitator C appears to be the heaviest of the four casing, and also appears to have the most severe corrosion. Data from field measurements showed that the gas flows to the four precipitators are fairly uniform, within {+-}9% of the average. The ash loading data showed a large maldistribution among the precipitators. Precipitator C receives 60% more ash than the next heaviest loaded precipitator. A numerical model was created which showed the same results. The model was then utilized to determine design modifications to the existing flue and turning vanes to improve the ash loading distribution. The resulting design was predicted to improve the ash loading to all the precipitators, within {+-}10% of the average.
Power flows and Mechanical Intensities in structural finite element analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hambric, Stephen A.
1989-01-01
The identification of power flow paths in dynamically loaded structures is an important, but currently unavailable, capability for the finite element analyst. For this reason, methods for calculating power flows and mechanical intensities in finite element models are developed here. Formulations for calculating input and output powers, power flows, mechanical intensities, and power dissipations for beam, plate, and solid element types are derived. NASTRAN is used to calculate the required velocity, force, and stress results of an analysis, which a post-processor then uses to calculate power flow quantities. The SDRC I-deas Supertab module is used to view the final results. Test models include a simple truss and a beam-stiffened cantilever plate. Both test cases showed reasonable power flow fields over low to medium frequencies, with accurate power balances. Future work will include testing with more complex models, developing an interactive graphics program to view easily and efficiently the analysis results, applying shape optimization methods to the problem with power flow variables as design constraints, and adding the power flow capability to NASTRAN.
AutoGate: automating analysis of flow cytometry data.
Meehan, Stephen; Walther, Guenther; Moore, Wayne; Orlova, Darya; Meehan, Connor; Parks, David; Ghosn, Eliver; Philips, Megan; Mitsunaga, Erin; Waters, Jeffrey; Kantor, Aaron; Okamura, Ross; Owumi, Solomon; Yang, Yang; Herzenberg, Leonard A; Herzenberg, Leonore A
2014-05-01
Nowadays, one can hardly imagine biology and medicine without flow cytometry to measure CD4 T cell counts in HIV, follow bone marrow transplant patients, characterize leukemias, etc. Similarly, without flow cytometry, there would be a bleak future for stem cell deployment, HIV drug development and full characterization of the cells and cell interactions in the immune system. But while flow instruments have improved markedly, the development of automated tools for processing and analyzing flow data has lagged sorely behind. To address this deficit, we have developed automated flow analysis software technology, provisionally named AutoComp and AutoGate. AutoComp acquires sample and reagent labels from users or flow data files, and uses this information to complete the flow data compensation task. AutoGate replaces the manual subsetting capabilities provided by current analysis packages with newly defined statistical algorithms that automatically and accurately detect, display and delineate subsets in well-labeled and well-recognized formats (histograms, contour and dot plots). Users guide analyses by successively specifying axes (flow parameters) for data subset displays and selecting statistically defined subsets to be used for the next analysis round. Ultimately, this process generates analysis "trees" that can be applied to automatically guide analyses for similar samples. The first AutoComp/AutoGate version is currently in the hands of a small group of users at Stanford, Emory and NIH. When this "early adopter" phase is complete, the authors expect to distribute the software free of charge to .edu, .org and .gov users.
Meanline Analysis of Turbines with Choked Flow in the Object-Oriented Turbomachinery Analysis Code
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hendricks, Eric S.
2016-01-01
The Object-Oriented Turbomachinery Analysis Code (OTAC) is a new meanline/streamline turbomachinery modeling tool being developed at NASA GRC. During the development process, a limitation of the code was discovered in relation to the analysis of choked flow in axial turbines. This paper describes the relevant physics for choked flow as well as the changes made to OTAC to enable analysis in this flow regime.
Precessing rotating flows with additional shear: Stability analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salhi, A.; Cambon, C.
2009-03-01
We consider unbounded precessing rotating flows in which vertical or horizontal shear is induced by the interaction between the solid-body rotation (with angular velocity Ω0 ) and the additional “precessing” Coriolis force (with angular velocity -ɛΩ0 ), normal to it. A “weak” shear flow, with rate 2ɛ of the same order of the Poincaré “small” ratio ɛ , is needed for balancing the gyroscopic torque, so that the whole flow satisfies Euler’s equations in the precessing frame (the so-called admissibility conditions). The base flow case with vertical shear (its cross-gradient direction is aligned with the main angular velocity) corresponds to Mahalov’s [Phys. Fluids A 5, 891 (1993)] precessing infinite cylinder base flow (ignoring boundary conditions), while the base flow case with horizontal shear (its cross-gradient direction is normal to both main and precessing angular velocities) corresponds to the unbounded precessing rotating shear flow considered by Kerswell [Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn. 72, 107 (1993)]. We show that both these base flows satisfy the admissibility conditions and can support disturbances in terms of advected Fourier modes. Because the admissibility conditions cannot select one case with respect to the other, a more physical derivation is sought: Both flows are deduced from Poincaré’s [Bull. Astron. 27, 321 (1910)] basic state of a precessing spheroidal container, in the limit of small ɛ . A Rapid distortion theory (RDT) type of stability analysis is then performed for the previously mentioned disturbances, for both base flows. The stability analysis of the Kerswell base flow, using Floquet’s theory, is recovered, and its counterpart for the Mahalov base flow is presented. Typical growth rates are found to be the same for both flows at very small ɛ , but significant differences are obtained regarding growth rates and widths of instability bands, if larger ɛ values, up to 0.2, are considered. Finally, both flow cases
Low flow analysis of the lower Drava River
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mijuskovic-Svetinovic, T.; Maricic, S.
2008-11-01
Understanding the regime and the characteristics of low streamflows is of vital importance in several aspects. It is essential for the effective planning, designing, constructing, maintaining, using and managing different water management systems and structures. In addition, frequent running and assessing of estimates of low stream-flow statistics are especially important when different aspects of water quality are considered. This paper attempts to present the results of a stochastic analysis of the River Drava low flow from the gauging station, Donji Miholjac [located at rkm 77+700]. Currently, almost all specialists apply the truncation method in low-flows analysis. Taking this into consideration, it is possible to accept the definition of a low streamflow, as a period when the analysed characteristics are either, equal to or lower than the truncation level of drought. The same method has been applied in this analysis. The calculating method applied takes into account all the essential components of the afore-mentioned process. This includes a number of elements, such as the deficit, duration or the time of the occurrence of low flows, the number of times, the maximum deficit and the maximum duration of the low flows in the analysed time period. Moreover, this paper determines computational values for deficits and for the duration of low flow in different return periods.
Power flow analysis of two coupled plates with arbitrary characteristics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cuschieri, J. M.
1988-01-01
The limitation of keeping two plates identical is removed and the vibrational power input and output are evaluated for different area ratios, plate thickness ratios, and for different values of the structural damping loss factor for the source plate (plate with excitation) and the receiver plate. In performing this parametric analysis, the source plate characteristics are kept constant. The purpose of this parametric analysis is to be able to determine the most critical parameters that influence the flow of vibrational power from the source plate to the receiver plate. In the case of the structural damping parametric analysis, the influence of changes in the source plate damping is also investigated. As was done previously, results obtained from the mobility power flow approach will be compared to results obtained using a statistical energy analysis (SEA) approach. The significance of the power flow results are discussed together with a discussion and a comparison between SEA results and the mobility power flow results. Furthermore, the benefits that can be derived from using the mobility power flow approach, are also examined.
Stability investigations of airfoil flow by global analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morzynski, Marek; Thiele, Frank
1992-01-01
As the result of global, non-parallel flow stability analysis the single value of the disturbance growth-rate and respective frequency is obtained. This complex value characterizes the stability of the whole flow configuration and is not referred to any particular flow pattern. The global analysis assures that all the flow elements (wake, boundary and shear layer) are taken into account. The physical phenomena connected with the wake instability are properly reproduced by the global analysis. This enhances the investigations of instability of any 2-D flows, including ones in which the boundary layer instability effects are known to be of dominating importance. Assuming fully 2-D disturbance form, the global linear stability problem is formulated. The system of partial differential equations is solved for the eigenvalues and eigenvectors. The equations, written in the pure stream function formulation, are discretized via FDM using a curvilinear coordinate system. The complex eigenvalues and corresponding eigenvectors are evaluated by an iterative method. The investigations performed for various Reynolds numbers emphasize that the wake instability develops into the Karman vortex street. This phenomenon is shown to be connected with the first mode obtained from the non-parallel flow stability analysis. The higher modes are reflecting different physical phenomena as for example Tollmien-Schlichting waves, originating in the boundary layer and having the tendency to emerge as instabilities for the growing Reynolds number. The investigations are carried out for a circular cylinder, oblong ellipsis and airfoil. It is shown that the onset of the wake instability, the waves in the boundary layer, the shear layer instability are different solutions of the same eigenvalue problem, formulated using the non-parallel theory. The analysis offers large potential possibilities as the generalization of methods used till now for the stability analysis.
Analysis of the stochastic excitability in the flow chemical reactor
Bashkirtseva, Irina
2015-11-30
A dynamic model of the thermochemical process in the flow reactor is considered. We study an influence of the random disturbances on the stationary regime of this model. A phenomenon of noise-induced excitability is demonstrated. For the analysis of this phenomenon, a constructive technique based on the stochastic sensitivity functions and confidence domains is applied. It is shown how elaborated technique can be used for the probabilistic analysis of the generation of mixed-mode stochastic oscillations in the flow chemical reactor.
CFD study on flow characteristics of pump sump and performance analysis of the mixed flow pump
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Y. X.; Kim, C. G.; Lee, Y. H.
2013-12-01
Head-capacity curves provided by the pump manufacturer are obtained on the condition of no vortices flowing into the pump intake. The efficiency and performance of pumping stations depend not only on the performance of the selected pumps but also on the proper design of the intake sumps. A faulty design of pump sump can lead to the occurrence of swirl and vortices, which reduce the pump performance. Therefore, sump model test is necessary in order to check the flow condition around intake structure. Numerical simulation is a good facility for reducing the time and cost involved throughout the design process. In this study, the commercial software ANSYS CFX-13.0 has been used for the CFD analysis of the pump sump. The effect of an anti-vortex device (AVD) for the submerged vortex has been examined. Hydraulic performances for the head rise, shaft power, pump efficiencies versus flow rate are studied by the performance curves. In addition, numerical simulation of cavitation phenomenon in a mixed flow pump has been performed by calculating the full cavitation model with k-ε turbulence model. According to the result, the efficacy of the AVD to ensure the uniform flow conditions around the pump intake is confirmed. From the numerical analysis, the inception of cavitation is observed on the suction surface where the leading edges meet the tip, and then the cavitation zone expands.
Advances in the analysis and prediction of turbulent viscoelastic flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gatski, T. B.; Thais, L.; Mompean, G.
2014-08-01
It has been well-known for over six decades that the addition of minute amounts of long polymer chains to organic solvents, or water, can lead to significant turbulent drag reduction. This discovery has had many practical applications such as in pipeline fluid transport, oil well operations, vehicle design and submersible vehicle projectiles, and more recently arteriosclerosis treatment. However, it has only been the last twenty-five years that the full utilization of direct numerical simulation of such turbulent viscoelastic flows has been achieved. The unique characteristics of viscoelastic fluid flow are dictated by the nonlinear differential relationship between the flow strain rate field and the extra-stress induced by the additive polymer. A primary motivation for the analysis of these turbulent fluid flows is the understanding of the effect on the dynamic transfer of energy in the turbulent flow due to the presence of the extra-stress field induced by the presence of the viscoelastic polymer chain. Such analyses now utilize direct numerical simulation data of fully developed channel flow for the FENE-P (Finite Extendable Nonlinear Elastic - Peterlin) fluid model. Such multi-scale dynamics suggests an analysis of the transfer of energy between the various component motions that include the turbulent kinetic energy, and the mean polymeric and elastic potential energies. It is shown that the primary effect of the interaction between the turbulent and polymeric fields is to transfer energy from the turbulence to the polymer.
Image Cross-Correlation Analysis of Time Varying Flows.
Marquezin, Cassia A; Ceffa, Nicolò G; Cotelli, Franco; Collini, Maddalena; Sironi, Laura; Chirico, Giuseppe
2016-07-19
In vivo studies of blood circulation pathologies have great medical relevance and need methods for the characterization of time varying flows at high spatial and time resolution in small animal models. We test here the efficacy of the combination of image correlation techniques and single plane illumination microscopy (SPIM) in characterizing time varying flows in vitro and in vivo. As indicated by numerical simulations and by in vitro experiments on straight capillaries, the complex analytical form of the cross-correlation function for SPIM detection can be simplified, in conditions of interest for hemodynamics, to a superposition of Gaussian components, easily amenable to the analysis of variable flows. The possibility to select a wide field of view with a good spatial resolution along the collection optical axis and to compute the cross-correlation between regions of interest at varying distances on a single time stack of images allows one to single out periodic flow components from spurious peaks on the cross-correlation functions and to infer the duration of each flow component. We apply this cross-correlation analysis to the blood flow in Zebrafish embryos at 4 days after fertilization, measuring the average speed and the duration of the systolic and diastolic phases.
River flow fluctuation analysis: Effect of watershed area
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hirpa, Feyera A.; Gebremichael, Mekonnen; Over, Thomas M.
2010-12-01
This study presents the results of a detailed river flow fluctuation analysis on daily records from 14 stations in the Flint River Basin in Georgia in the southeastern United States with special focus on the effect of watershed area on long memory of river flow fluctuations. The areas of the watersheds draining to the stations range from 23 to 19,606 km2. The climatic and seasonal trends are removed using the detrended fluctuation analysis technique. Results show that (1) river flow fluctuations have two distinct scaling regimes, and the scaling break is delayed for large watershed areas; (2) large watersheds have more persistent river flow fluctuations and stronger long memory (i.e., for lag times beyond the scale break) than small watersheds do; (3) the long memory of river flow fluctuations does not come from the long memory of precipitation; (4) a linear reservoir unit hydrograph transfer function approach does not capture correctly the basin processes that convert short-memory precipitation to long-memory streamflow; and (5) the degree of multifractality of river flow fluctuations decreases with increasing watershed area. The results clearly indicate that watershed area is an important factor in the long-memory studies of streamflow such as streamflow prediction.
Receptivity of a TVD Scheme in Incompressible Flow Analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shin, Byeong Rog
A TVD upwind scheme originally designed for compressible flow is applied to the SMAC finite-difference method for incompressible flow analysis. The receptivity and validity of this application are investigated by an evaluation of the accuracy, stability and convergence rate for the SMAC method combined with the TVD scheme. Using this method, three-dimensional developing entry flows through a square-curved duct are calculated and compared with available experimental data as well as some computational results obtained by QUICKs and third-order upwind schemes. Such comparisons show that the numerical method applying the TVD scheme has the highest computational efficiency without a sharp loss of accuracy, resulting in confidence in the application this scheme to incompressible flow computations.
Production flow analysis: a tool for designing a lean hospital.
Karvonen, Sauli; Korvenranta, Heikki; Paatela, Mikael; Seppälä, Timo
2007-01-01
Production flow analysis (PFA) was used in the planning process for a new acute care hospital. The PFA demonstrated that functional organisation--for example, with centralised medical imaging-- generates a lot of back and forth patient transfers between functional units. This to-and-fro patient flow increases lead times of care processes and also exposes the patients to unnecessary complications. PFA produced an ideal patient flow model and layout model for the acute care hospital. Thus, PFA revealed information for use in proximity ranking of different units of the hospital; the planning team then decided which units should be placed next to each other. Medical imaging should be essentially ubiquitous, to achieve simple, high-velocity patient flow. Thus, a modern decentralized layout model for medical imaging was planned. Furthermore, PFA enables optimizing transfer routes for patients and also, e.g., lift capacity in the hospital.
Finite element analysis of aeroacoustic jet-flap flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, A. J.; Manhardt, P. D.
1977-01-01
A computational analysis was performed on the steady, turbulent aerodynamic flowfields associated with a jet-blown flap. For regions devoid of flow separation, a parabolic approximation to the governing time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations was applied. Numerical results are presented for the symmetry plane flow of a slot-nozzle planar jet flap geometry, including prediction of flowfield evolution within the secondary mixing region immediately downstream of the trailing edge. Using a two equation turbulence kinetic energy closure model, rapid generation and decay of large spatial gradients in mean and correlated fluctuating velocity components within the immediate wake region were predicted. Modifications to the turbulent flow structure, as induced by porous surface treatment of the flap, were evaluated. The recirculating flow within a representative discrete slot in the surface was evaluated, using the two dimensional, time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations.
Flow Analysis of X-34 Main Propulsion System Feedlines
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vu, Bruce; Garcia, Robert
2000-01-01
The X-34 Main Propulsion System (MPS) configuration includes the liquid oxygen (LOX) and rocket propellant #1 (RP-1) feedlines. The flow analyses of these feedlines were performed and documented in previous studies. These analyses predicted a relatively low inlet distortion and nearly even flow split at the engine interface. The new design for these MPS feedlines has been recommended recently. The new configuration includes a tighter radius in the RP-1 feedline and a neck-down section between the gimbals. Conversely, the LOX feedline is very similar to the previous design. There were concerns that this new RP-1 configuration might generate a greater flow distortion at the engine interface than the original design. To resolve this issue, a Computation Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis was conducted to determine the flow Field in the new RP-1 feedlines.
FLDA: Latent Dirichlet Allocation Based Unsteady Flow Analysis.
Hong, Fan; Lai, Chufan; Guo, Hanqi; Shen, Enya; Yuan, Xiaoru; Li, Sikun
2014-12-01
In this paper, we present a novel feature extraction approach called FLDA for unsteady flow fields based on Latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) model. Analogous to topic modeling in text analysis, in our approach, pathlines and features in a given flow field are defined as documents and words respectively. Flow topics are then extracted based on Latent Dirichlet allocation. Different from other feature extraction methods, our approach clusters pathlines with probabilistic assignment, and aggregates features to meaningful topics at the same time. We build a prototype system to support exploration of unsteady flow field with our proposed LDA-based method. Interactive techniques are also developed to explore the extracted topics and to gain insight from the data. We conduct case studies to demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed approach. PMID:26356968
Production flow analysis: a tool for designing a lean hospital.
Karvonen, Sauli; Korvenranta, Heikki; Paatela, Mikael; Seppälä, Timo
2007-01-01
Production flow analysis (PFA) was used in the planning process for a new acute care hospital. The PFA demonstrated that functional organisation--for example, with centralised medical imaging-- generates a lot of back and forth patient transfers between functional units. This to-and-fro patient flow increases lead times of care processes and also exposes the patients to unnecessary complications. PFA produced an ideal patient flow model and layout model for the acute care hospital. Thus, PFA revealed information for use in proximity ranking of different units of the hospital; the planning team then decided which units should be placed next to each other. Medical imaging should be essentially ubiquitous, to achieve simple, high-velocity patient flow. Thus, a modern decentralized layout model for medical imaging was planned. Furthermore, PFA enables optimizing transfer routes for patients and also, e.g., lift capacity in the hospital. PMID:17621771
Analysis of turbulent separated flows including heat transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barnett, M.; Carter, J. E.
1986-01-01
An analysis based upon Interacting Boundary-Layer Theory is used to predict the flow fields and heat transfer characteristics of low speed turbulent separated flows. The calculated results are compared with experimental data. The turbulence model of Cebeci and Smith is utilized, and a sensitivity study is performed with the model to determine the ability of the present approach to predict wuch flows. Favorable comparisons with experimental data for the pressure distributions have been obtained. Unfavorable agreement with experimental data for the Stanton number distribution has been obtained for a separated flow with heat transfer considered. Modification of the turbulent Prandtl number improved the qualitative agreement of the theoretical results with the experimental data.
Traking of Laboratory Debris Flow Fronts with Image Analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Queiroz de Oliveira, Gustavo; Kulisch, Helmut; Fischer, Jan-Thomas; Scheidl, Christian; Pudasaini, Shiva P.
2015-04-01
Image analysis technique is applied to track the time evolution of rapid debris flow fronts and their velocities in laboratory experiments. These experiments are parts of the project avaflow.org that intends to develop a GIS-based open source computational tool to describe wide spectrum of rapid geophysical mass flows, including avalanches and real two-phase debris flows down complex natural slopes. The laboratory model consists of a large rectangular channel 1.4m wide and 10m long, with adjustable inclination and other flow configurations. The setup allows investigate different two phase material compositions including large fluid fractions. The large size enables to transfer the results to large-scale natural events providing increased measurement accuracy. The images are captured by a high speed camera, a standard digital camera. The fronts are tracked by the camera to obtain data in debris flow experiments. The reflectance analysis detects the debris front in every image frame; its presence changes the reflectance at a certain pixel location during the flow. The accuracy of the measurements was improved with a camera calibration procedure. As one of the great problems in imaging and analysis, the systematic distortions of the camera lens are contained in terms of radial and tangential parameters. The calibration procedure estimates the optimal values for these parameters. This allows us to obtain physically correct and undistorted image pixels. Then, we map the images onto a physical model geometry, which is the projective photogrammetry, in which the image coordinates are connected with the object space coordinates of the flow. Finally, the physical model geometry is rewritten in the direct linear transformation form, which allows for the conversion from one to another coordinate system. With our approach, the debris front position can then be estimated by combining the reflectance, calibration and the linear transformation. The consecutive debris front
A critical review on photochemical conversions in flow analysis.
Rocha, Diogo L; Kamogawa, Marcos Y; Rocha, Fábio R P
2015-10-01
Photochemical conversions are cost-effective and environmental friendly processes that require mild experimental conditions and avoid generation of highly acidic wastes. Treated samples are then compatible with most of the analytical techniques. These characteristics become more relevant when the photoconversions are accomplished to flow analysis, thus allowing exploitation of incomplete reactions, the effective use of the photogenerated unstable radicals and in-line sample treatment. Decreasing of reagent consumption and waste generation, sample processing in a closed environment, and improvement of efficiency of the photochemical processes are other inherent advantages. These aspects are critically reviewed in this article, which emphasizes applications to fractionation and speciation analysis, photo-induced luminescence, miniaturization, and in-line waste treatment. Design of flow-through photochemical cells, use of auxiliary reagents in homogeneous and heterogeneous media, and configurations of flow manifolds are also discussed. PMID:26481985
A multicommutated tester of bioreactors for flow analysis.
Pokrzywnicka, Marta; Kamiński, Jacek; Michalec, Michał; Koncki, Robert; Tymecki, Łukasz
2016-11-01
Enzymes are often used in the modern analytical procedures allowing selective recognition and conversion of target analytes into easily detected products. In flow analysis systems, enzymes are predominantly applied in the immobilized forms as flow-through bioreactors. In this research the multicommutated flow analysis (MCFA) system for evaluation and comparison of analytical parameters of bioreactors has been developed. The MCFA manifold allows simultaneous testing up to four bioreactors, but if necessary their number can be easily increased. The system allows comparison of several parameters of tested bioreactors including activity, repeatability, reproducibility, operational and storage stability. The performance of developed bioreactor tester is presented using urea-urease model system based on plastic open-tubular bioreactor with covalently immobilized enzyme. Product of enzymatic reaction is detected using two different chemical methods and by dedicated optoelectronic ammonium detectors. Moreover, the utility of developed MCFA manifold for evaluation of other enzyme bioreactors is demonstrated. PMID:27591609
Tularosa Basin Play Fairway Analysis: Methodology Flow Charts
Adam Brandt
2015-11-15
These images show the comprehensive methodology used for creation of a Play Fairway Analysis to explore the geothermal resource potential of the Tularosa Basin, New Mexico. The deterministic methodology was originated by the petroleum industry, but was custom-modified to function as a knowledge-based geothermal exploration tool. The stochastic PFA flow chart uses weights of evidence, and is data-driven.
Determination of Reaction Stoichiometries by Flow Injection Analysis.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rios, Angel; And Others
1986-01-01
Describes a method of flow injection analysis intended for calculation of complex-formation and redox reaction stoichiometries based on a closed-loop configuration. The technique is suitable for use in undergraduate laboratories. Information is provided for equipment, materials, procedures, and sample results. (JM)
Flow Analysis on a Limited Volume Chilled Water System
Zheng, Lin
2012-07-31
LANL Currently has a limited volume chilled water system for use in a glove box, but the system needs to be updated. Before we start building our new system, a flow analysis is needed to ensure that there are no high flow rates, extreme pressures, or any other hazards involved in the system. In this project the piping system is extremely important to us because it directly affects the overall design of the entire system. The primary components necessary for the chilled water piping system are shown in the design. They include the pipes themselves (perhaps of more than one diameter), the various fitting used to connect the individual pipes to form the desired system, the flow rate control devices (valves), and the pumps that add energy to the fluid. Even the most simple pipe systems are actually quite complex when they are viewed in terms of rigorous analytical considerations. I used an 'exact' analysis and dimensional analysis considerations combined with experimental results for this project. When 'real-world' effects are important (such as viscous effects in pipe flows), it is often difficult or impossible to use only theoretical methods to obtain the desired results. A judicious combination of experimental data with theoretical considerations and dimensional analysis are needed in order to reduce risks to an acceptable level.
Immobilized enzymes in flow-injection analysis: present and trends
Ruz, J.; Lázaro, F.; de Castro, M. D. Luque
1988-01-01
An overview of the use of immobilized enzymes in flow-injection analysis (FIA) is presented. The joint use of FIA and immobilized enzymes means that analytical procedures are easily automated, analytical costs are reduced and methods are faster. The future possibilities for this combination are discussed. PMID:18925183
Study of design and analysis methods for transonic flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murman, E. M.
1977-01-01
An airfoil design program and a boundary layer analysis were developed. Boundary conditions were derived for ventilated transonic wind tunnels and performing transonic windtunnel wall calculations. A computational procedure for rotational transonic flow in engine inlet throats was formulated. Results and conclusions are summarized.
Flow quantitation by radio frequency analysis of contrast echocardiography.
Rovai, D; Lombardi, M; Mazzarisi, A; Landini, L; Taddei, L; Distante, A; Benassi, A; L'Abbate, A
1993-03-01
Contrast echocardiography has the potential for measuring cardiac output and regional blood flow. However, accurate quantitation is limited both by the use of non-standard contrast agents and by the electronic signal distortion inherent to the echocardiographic instruments. Thus, the aim of this study is to quantify flow by combining a stable contrast agent and a modified echo equipment, able to sample the radio frequency (RF) signal from a region of interest (ROI) in the echo image. The contrast agent SHU-454 (0.8 ml) was bolus injected into an in vitro calf vein, at 23 flow rates (ranging from 376 to 3620 ml/min) but constant volume and pressure. The ROI was placed in the centre of the vein, the RF signal was processed in real time and transferred to a personal computer to generate time-intensity curves. In the absence of recirculation, contrast washout slope and mean transit time (MTT) of curves (1.11-8.52 seconds) yielded excellent correlations with flow: r = 0.93 and 0.95, respectively. To compare the accuracy of RF analysis with that of conventional image processing as to flow quantitation, conventional images were collected in the same flow model by two different scanners: a) the mechanical sector scanner used for RF analysis, and b) a conventional electronic sector scanner. These images were digitized off-line, mean videodensity inside an identical ROI was measured and time-intensity curves were built. MTT by RF was shorter than by videodensitometric analysis of the images generated by the same scanner (p < 0.001). In contrast, MTT by RF was longer than by the conventional scanner (p < 0.001). Significant differences in MTT were also found with changes in the gain setting controls of the conventional scanner. To study the stability of the contrast effect, 6 contrast injections (20 ml) were performed at a constant flow rate during recirculation: the spontaneous decay in RF signal intensity (t1/2 = 64 +/- 8 seconds) was too long to affect MTT significantly
A CLIPS expert system for clinical flow cytometry data analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Salzman, G. C.; Duque, R. E.; Braylan, R. C.; Stewart, C. C.
1990-01-01
An expert system is being developed using CLIPS to assist clinicians in the analysis of multivariate flow cytometry data from cancer patients. Cluster analysis is used to find subpopulations representing various cell types in multiple datasets each consisting of four to five measurements on each of 5000 cells. CLIPS facts are derived from results of the clustering. CLIPS rules are based on the expertise of Drs. Stewart, Duque, and Braylan. The rules incorporate certainty factors based on case histories.
Sensitivity analysis of a ground-water-flow model
Torak, Lynn J.; ,
1991-01-01
A sensitivity analysis was performed on 18 hydrological factors affecting steady-state groundwater flow in the Upper Floridan aquifer near Albany, southwestern Georgia. Computations were based on a calibrated, two-dimensional, finite-element digital model of the stream-aquifer system and the corresponding data inputs. Flow-system sensitivity was analyzed by computing water-level residuals obtained from simulations involving individual changes to each hydrological factor. Hydrological factors to which computed water levels were most sensitive were those that produced the largest change in the sum-of-squares of residuals for the smallest change in factor value. Plots of the sum-of-squares of residuals against multiplier or additive values that effect change in the hydrological factors are used to evaluate the influence of each factor on the simulated flow system. The shapes of these 'sensitivity curves' indicate the importance of each hydrological factor to the flow system. Because the sensitivity analysis can be performed during the preliminary phase of a water-resource investigation, it can be used to identify the types of hydrological data required to accurately characterize the flow system prior to collecting additional data or making management decisions.
Computational Flow Analysis of a Left Ventricular Assist Device
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kiris, Cetin; Kwak, Dochan; Benkowski, Robert
1995-01-01
Computational fluid dynamics has been developed to a level where it has become an Indispensable part of aerospace research and design. Technology developed foe aerospace applications am also be utilized for the benefit of human health. For example, a flange-to-flange rocket engine fuel-pump simulation includes the rotating and non-rotating components: the flow straighteners, the impeller, and diffusers A Ventricular Assist Device developed by NASA Johnson Space Center and Baylor College of Medicine has a design similar to a rocket engine fuel pump in that it also consists of a flow straightener, an impeller, and a diffuser. Accurate and detailed knowledge of the flowfield obtained by incompressible flow calculations can be greatly beneficial to designers in their effort to reduce the cost and improve the reliability of these devices. In addition to the geometric complexities, a variety of flow phenomena are encountered in biofluids Then include turbulent boundary layer separation, wakes, transition, tip vortex resolution, three-dimensional effects, and Reynolds number effects. In order to increase the role of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) in the design process the CFD analysis tools must be evaluated and validated so that designers gain Confidence in their use. The incompressible flow solver, INS3D, has been applied to flow inside of a liquid rocket engine turbopump components and extensively validated. This paper details how the computational flow simulation capability developed for liquid rocket engine pump component analysis has bean applied to the Left Ventricular Assist Device being developed jointly by NASA JSC and Baylor College of Medicine.
Low-flow analysis with a conditional Weilbull tail model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Durrans, S. Rocky
Estimates of low-flow quantiles, such as the 7-day, 10-year low flow, which are usually obtained by statistical modeling of observed data series, are widely used in water quality management. This paper presents a conditional modeling approach to low-flow analysis that employs only those data values which are less than or equal to a ceiling value. Modeling in this fashion has been motivated by the observation that annual low flows may derive from mixed processes and by the subjective nature of graphical methods, such as those employed by the U.S. Geological Survey, which are often employed in such cases. Results of Monte Carlo experiments demonstrate that the conditional modeling approach yields a low-flow quantile estimator whose bias and RMSE are comparable to more conventional modeling approaches of fitting a classical textbook probability distribution on the basis of all observed data values, even when the underlying population is of a ``well-behaved'' form. Since the complex forms of mixed low-flow data distributions are not capable of being represented by classical textbook distributions and since the conditional modeling approach performs comparably to those models even when the data derive from well-behaved probability distributions, these results imply that the conditional modeling approach is worthy of consideration for use by hydrologists. The conditional modeling approach also leads rather naturally to a scheme, much like that used in index flood methods, whereby a regional low-flow estimator might be devised. An application of the conditional modeling approach to 48 low-flow data series in Alabama is presented.
Tailings dam-break flow - Analysis of sediment transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aleixo, Rui; Altinakar, Mustafa
2015-04-01
A common solution to store mining debris is to build tailings dams near the mining site. These dams are usually built with local materials such as mining debris and are more vulnerable than concrete dams (Rico et al. 2008). of The tailings and the pond water generally contain heavy metals and various toxic chemicals used in ore extraction. Thus, the release of tailings due to a dam-break can have severe ecological consequences in the environment. A tailings dam-break has many similarities with a common dam-break flow. It is highly transient and can be severely descructive. However, a significant difference is that the released sediment-water mixture will behave as a non-Newtonian flow. Existing numerical models used to simulate dam-break flows do not represent correctly the non-Newtonian behavior of tailings under a dam-break flow and may lead to unrealistic and incorrect results. The need for experiments to extract both qualitative and quantitative information regarding these flows is therefore real and actual. The present paper explores an existing experimental data base presented in Aleixo et al. (2014a,b) to further characterize the sediment transport under conditions of a severe transient flow and to extract quantitative information regarding sediment flow rate, sediment velocity, sediment-sediment interactions a among others. Different features of the flow are also described and analyzed in detail. The analysis is made by means of imaging techniques such as Particle Image Velocimetry and Particle Tracking Velocimetry that allow extracting not only the velocity field but the Lagrangian description of the sediments as well. An analysis of the results is presented and the limitations of the presented experimental approach are discussed. References Rico, M., Benito, G., Salgueiro, AR, Diez-Herrero, A. and Pereira, H.G. (2008) Reported tailings dam failures: A review of the European incidents in the worldwide context , Journal of Hazardous Materials, 152, 846
Atlas of computerized blood flow analysis in bone disease.
Gandsman, E J; Deutsch, S D; Tyson, I B
1983-11-01
The role of computerized blood flow analysis in routine bone scanning is reviewed. Cases illustrating the technique include proven diagnoses of toxic synovitis, Legg-Perthes disease, arthritis, avascular necrosis of the hip, fractures, benign and malignant tumors, Paget's disease, cellulitis, osteomyelitis, and shin splints. Several examples also show the use of the technique in monitoring treatment. The use of quantitative data from the blood flow, bone uptake phase, and static images suggests specific diagnostic patterns for each of the diseases presented in this atlas. Thus, this technique enables increased accuracy in the interpretation of the radionuclide bone scan.
Analysis of Laminar Incompressible Flow on Semiporous Channels
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Donoughe, Patrick L
1956-01-01
Perturbation solutions for laminar incompressible flow in semiporous and fully porous channels are compared. The perturbation parameter measures the amount of suction or blowing at the porous wall. The velocity profile and the wall friction parameter are more affected by suction or blowing for the semiporous channel than for the fully porous channel. For blowing through the wall, the pressure decreases in channel direction for both channels; with sufficiently high suction rates, the analysis showed that the pressure rises in flow direction for the fully porous channel.
First analysis of anisotropic flow with Lee-Yang zeros
Bastid, N.; Barret, V.; Crochet, P.; Dupieux, P.; Lopez, X.; Basrak, Z.; Caplar, R.; Delalija, M.; Gaspariae, I.; Korolija, M.
2005-07-01
We report on the first analysis of directed and elliptic flow with the new method of Lee-Yang zeros. Experimental data are presented for Ru+Ru reactions at 1.69A GeV measured with the FOPI detector at SIS/GSI. The results obtained with several methods, based on the event-plane reconstruction, on Lee-Yang zeros, and on multiparticle cumulants (up to fifth order) applied for the first time at SIS energies, are compared. They show conclusive evidence that azimuthal correlations between nucleons and composite particles at this energy are largely dominated by anisotropic flow.
Computational Aeroacoustic Analysis of Slat Trailing-Edge Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Singer, Bart A.; Lockhard, David P.; Brentner, Kenneth S.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Berkman, Mert E.; Choudhari, Meelan
2000-01-01
An acoustic analysis based on the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings equation was performed for a high-lift system. As input, the acoustic analysis used un- steady flow data obtained from a highly resolved, time-dependent, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes calculation. The analysis strongly suggests that vor- tex shedding from the trailing edge of the slat results in a high-amplitude, high-frequency acoustic signal, similar to that which was observed in a correspond- ing experimental study of the high-lift system.
Pospichalova, Vendula; Svoboda, Jan; Dave, Zankruti; Kotrbova, Anna; Kaiser, Karol; Klemova, Dobromila; Ilkovics, Ladislav; Hampl, Ales; Crha, Igor; Jandakova, Eva; Minar, Lubos; Weinberger, Vit; Bryja, Vitezslav
2015-01-01
Flow cytometry is a powerful method, which is widely used for high-throughput quantitative and qualitative analysis of cells. However, its straightforward applicability for extracellular vesicles (EVs) and mainly exosomes is hampered by several challenges, reflecting mostly the small size of these vesicles (exosomes: ~80–200 nm, microvesicles: ~200–1,000 nm), their polydispersity, and low refractive index. The current best and most widely used protocol for beads-free flow cytometry of exosomes uses ultracentrifugation (UC) coupled with floatation in sucrose gradient for their isolation, labeling with lipophilic dye PKH67 and antibodies, and an optimized version of commercial high-end cytometer for analysis. However, this approach requires an experienced flow cytometer operator capable of manual hardware adjustments and calibration of the cytometer. Here, we provide a novel and fast approach for quantification and characterization of both exosomes and microvesicles isolated from cell culture media as well as from more complex human samples (ascites of ovarian cancer patients) suitable for multiuser labs by using a flow cytometer especially designed for small particles, which can be used without adjustments prior to data acquisition. EVs can be fluorescently labeled with protein-(Carboxyfluoresceinsuccinimidyl ester, CFSE) and/or lipid- (FM) specific dyes, without the necessity of removing the unbound fluorescent dye by UC, which further facilitates and speeds up the characterization of microvesicles and exosomes using flow cytometry. In addition, double labeling with protein- and lipid-specific dyes enables separation of EVs from common contaminants of EV preparations, such as protein aggregates or micelles formed by unbound lipophilic styryl dyes, thus not leading to overestimation of EV numbers. Moreover, our protocol is compatible with antibody labeling using fluorescently conjugated primary antibodies. The presented methodology opens the possibility for
Bifurcation analysis of a speed gradient continuum traffic flow model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ai, Wen-Huan; Shi, Zhong-Ke; Liu, Da-Wei
2015-11-01
A bifurcation analysis approach is presented based on the macroscopic traffic flow model. This method can be used to describe and predict the nonlinear traffic phenomena on the highway from a system global stability perspective. Based on a recently proposed speed gradient continuum traffic flow model, the types and stabilities of the equilibrium solutions are discussed and the existence of Hopf bifurcation and saddle-node bifurcation is proved. Then various bifurcations such as Hopf bifurcation, saddle-node bifurcation, Limit Point bifurcation of cycles, Cusp bifurcation and Bogdanov-Takens bifurcation are found and the traffic flow behaviors at some of them are analyzed. When the Hopf bifurcation is selected as the starting point of density temporal evolution, it may help to explain the stop-and-go traffic phenomena.
Air-segmented amplitude-modulated multiplexed flow analysis.
Inui, Koji; Uemura, Takeshi; Ogusu, Takeshi; Takeuchi, Masaki; Tanaka, Hideji
2011-01-01
Air-segmentation is applied to amplitude-modulated multiplexed flow analysis, which we proposed recently. Sample solutions, the flow rates of which are varied periodically, are merged with reagent and/or diluent solution. The merged stream is segmented by air-bubbles and, downstream, its absorbance is measured after deaeration. The analytes in the samples are quantified from the amplitudes of the respective wave components in the absorbance. The proposed method is applied to the determinations of a food dye, phosphate ions and nitrite ions. The air-segmentation is effective for limiting amplitude damping through the axial dispersion, resulting in an improvement in sensitivity. This effect is more pronounced at shorter control periods and longer flow path lengths.
Flow Cytometric Analysis of Immune Cells Within Murine Aorta.
Gjurich, Breanne N; Taghavie-Moghadam, Parésa L; Galkina, Elena V
2015-01-01
The immune system plays a critical role in the modulation of atherogenesis at all stages of the disease. However, there are many technical difficulties when studying the immune system within murine aortas. Common techniques such as PCR and immunohistochemistry have answered many questions about the presence of immune cells and mediators of inflammation within the aorta yet many questions remain unanswered due to the limitations of these techniques. On the other hand, cumulatively the flow cytometry approach has propelled the immunology field forward but it has been challenging to apply this technique to aortic tissues. Here, we describe the methodology to isolate and characterize the immune cells within the murine aorta and provide examples of functional assays for aortic leukocytes using flow cytometry. The method involves the harvesting and enzymatic digestion of the aorta, extracellular and intracellular protein staining, and a subsequent flow cytometric analysis. PMID:26445788
Kootenai River Instream Flow Analysis, 2004 Technical Report.
Miller, William J.; Geise, Doran; Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks Staff
2004-10-01
A modified Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM) approach was used on the mainstem Kootenai River from Libby Dam downstream to Bonners Ferry, Idaho. The objective of this study was to quantify changes in habitat for the target fish species, bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), as a function of discharge in the river. This study used physical data and habitat use information from previous studies in the 1990s. The present study adapted the one-dimensional physical data into a georeferenced data set for each study site. The hydraulic simulations were combined with habitat suitability criteria in a GIS analysis format to determine habitat area as a function of discharge. Results of the analysis showed that the quantity of suitable habitat is greater at lower discharges than higher discharges and that the more stable flow regime from 1993 through 2002 provided more stable habitat conditions when compared to the highly variable flow regime from 1983 through 1992. The daily and weekly variability under 1983-1992 conditions forces subadult bull trout to use less productive habitat during the night by repetitively wetting and drying stream channel margin area. Subadult bull trout exhibit a distinct difference between daytime and nighttime habitat use (Muhlfeld 2002). These fish utilize deeper main channel habitats during the day and move to shallow channel margin areas at night. The productivity of lower trophic levels is low within the consistently watered and dewatered marginal areas and thus these areas provide little foraging value to subadult bull trout that utilize those areas as flows increase. The more stable flow regime (for weekly or daily timesteps) from 1993-2002 should be more productive than flow regimes with high weekly or daily variability. The highly variable flows likely stress subadult bull trout and rainbow trout due to the additional movement required to find suitable habitat or through the utilization of
Further Analysis of Borehole Flow-Meters in Granular Aquifers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crisman, S. A.; Molz, F. J.
2001-12-01
The borehole flow-meter has emerged as a powerful tool for identifying conductive fractures in fractured rock aquifers and intermediate-scale heterogeneities in hydraulic conductivity (K) distributions in granular aquifers [Hess, Canadian Geotechnical J., 23, 69, 1986; Molz et al., Water Resour. Res., 25, 1677, 1989]. A common analysis technique applied to flow-meter data [Molz and Young, The Log Analyst, 3, 13, 1993] is based on a numerical study of transient flow in multi-layered aquifers by Javandel and Witherspoon [Water Resour. Res., 5, 856, 1969], the purpose of which was to determine the time required for flow to a well to become horizontal in the near vicinity of the well bore and proportional to the hydraulic conductivity distribution. Ultimately, the criterion that resulted was questioned by Ruud and Kabala [Water Resour. Res., 32, 845, 1996] and shown to be potentially lacking in some respects. The Javandel and Witherspoon study did not consider the effect of specific storage (Ss) changes fully, while the Ruud and Kabala study was limited to aquifers of 2 and 5 layers. Most aquifers are not strictly layered, and there is a significant degree of correlation between K and Ss. Therefore, the present study extends the powerful analysis technique of Javandel and Witherspoon to many layered aquifers with realistic K and Ss values. Governing equations are non-dimensionalized in such a way that dimensionless drawdown versus dimensionless time curves at different positions in the aquifer approach the unique Theis curve when flow becomes horizontal in the near-well vicinity and proportional to the corresponding K distribution in the vertical. From these results, practical criteria are derived for performing borehole flow-meter tests in granular aquifers.
AnalyzeHOLE: An Integrated Wellbore Flow Analysis Tool
Keith J. Halford
2009-10-01
Conventional interpretation of flow logs assumes that hydraulic conductivity is directly proportional to flow change with depth. However, well construction can significantly alter the expected relation between changes in fluid velocity and hydraulic conductivity. Strong hydraulic conductivity contrasts between lithologic intervals can be masked in continuously screened wells. Alternating intervals of screen and blank casing also can greatly complicate the relation between flow and hydraulic properties. More permeable units are not necessarily associated with rapid fluid-velocity increases. Thin, highly permeable units can be misinterpreted as thick and less permeable intervals or not identified at all. These conditions compromise standard flow-log interpretation because vertical flow fields are induced near the wellbore. AnalyzeHOLE, an integrated wellbore analysis tool for simulating flow and transport in wells and aquifer systems, provides a better alternative for simulating and evaluating complex well-aquifer system interaction. A pumping well and adjacent aquifer system are simulated with an axisymmetric, radial geometry in a two-dimensional MODFLOW model. Hydraulic conductivities are distributed by depth and estimated with PEST by minimizing squared differences between simulated and measured flows and drawdowns. Hydraulic conductivity can vary within a lithology but variance is limited with regularization. Transmissivity of the simulated system also can be constrained to estimates from single-well, pumping tests. Water-quality changes in the pumping well are simulated with simple mixing models between zones of differing water quality. These zones are differentiated by backtracking thousands of particles from the well screens with MODPATH. An Excel spreadsheet is used to interface the various components of AnalyzeHOLE by (1) creating model input files, (2) executing MODFLOW, MODPATH, PEST, and supporting FORTRAN routines, and (3) importing and graphically
AnalyzeHOLE - An Integrated Wellbore Flow Analysis Tool
Halford, Keith
2009-01-01
Conventional interpretation of flow logs assumes that hydraulic conductivity is directly proportional to flow change with depth. However, well construction can significantly alter the expected relation between changes in fluid velocity and hydraulic conductivity. Strong hydraulic conductivity contrasts between lithologic intervals can be masked in continuously screened wells. Alternating intervals of screen and blank casing also can greatly complicate the relation between flow and hydraulic properties. More permeable units are not necessarily associated with rapid fluid-velocity increases. Thin, highly permeable units can be misinterpreted as thick and less permeable intervals or not identified at all. These conditions compromise standard flow-log interpretation because vertical flow fields are induced near the wellbore. AnalyzeHOLE, an integrated wellbore analysis tool for simulating flow and transport in wells and aquifer systems, provides a better alternative for simulating and evaluating complex well-aquifer system interaction. A pumping well and adjacent aquifer system are simulated with an axisymmetric, radial geometry in a two-dimensional MODFLOW model. Hydraulic conductivities are distributed by depth and estimated with PEST by minimizing squared differences between simulated and measured flows and drawdowns. Hydraulic conductivity can vary within a lithology but variance is limited with regularization. Transmissivity of the simulated system also can be constrained to estimates from single-well, pumping tests. Water-quality changes in the pumping well are simulated with simple mixing models between zones of differing water quality. These zones are differentiated by backtracking thousands of particles from the well screens with MODPATH. An Excel spreadsheet is used to interface the various components of AnalyzeHOLE by (1) creating model input files, (2) executing MODFLOW, MODPATH, PEST, and supporting FORTRAN routines, and (3) importing and graphically
Analysis of Ares Crew Launch Vehicle Transonic Alternating Flow Phenomenon
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sekula, Martin K.; Piatak, David J.; Rausch, Russ D.
2012-01-01
A transonic wind tunnel test of the Ares I-X Rigid Buffet Model (RBM) identified a Mach number regime where unusually large buffet loads are present. A subsequent investigation identified the cause of these loads to be an alternating flow phenomenon at the Crew Module-Service Module junction. The conical design of the Ares I-X Crew Module and the cylindrical design of the Service Module exposes the vehicle to unsteady pressure loads due to the sudden transition between a subsonic separated and a supersonic attached flow about the cone-cylinder junction as the local flow randomly fluctuates back and forth between the two flow states. These fluctuations produce a square-wave like pattern in the pressure time histories resulting in large amplitude, impulsive buffet loads. Subsequent testing of the Ares I RBM found much lower buffet loads since the evolved Ares I design includes an ogive fairing that covers the Crew Module-Service Module junction, thereby making the vehicle less susceptible to the onset of alternating flow. An analysis of the alternating flow separation and attachment phenomenon indicates that the phenomenon is most severe at low angles of attack and exacerbated by the presence of vehicle protuberances. A launch vehicle may experience either a single or, at most, a few impulsive loads since it is constantly accelerating during ascent rather than dwelling at constant flow conditions in a wind tunnel. A comparison of a windtunnel- test-data-derived impulsive load to flight-test-data-derived load indicates a significant over-prediction in the magnitude and duration of the buffet load. I. Introduction One
Extended forward sensitivity analysis of one-dimensional isothermal flow
Johnson, M.; Zhao, H.
2013-07-01
Sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification is an important part of nuclear safety analysis. In this work, forward sensitivity analysis is used to compute solution sensitivities on 1-D fluid flow equations typical of those found in system level codes. Time step sensitivity analysis is included as a method for determining the accumulated error from time discretization. The ability to quantify numerical error arising from the time discretization is a unique and important feature of this method. By knowing the relative sensitivity of time step with other physical parameters, the simulation is allowed to run at optimized time steps without affecting the confidence of the physical parameter sensitivity results. The time step forward sensitivity analysis method can also replace the traditional time step convergence studies that are a key part of code verification with much less computational cost. One well-defined benchmark problem with manufactured solutions is utilized to verify the method; another test isothermal flow problem is used to demonstrate the extended forward sensitivity analysis process. Through these sample problems, the paper shows the feasibility and potential of using the forward sensitivity analysis method to quantify uncertainty in input parameters and time step size for a 1-D system-level thermal-hydraulic safety code. (authors)
Analysis and representation of complex structures in separated flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Helman, James; Hesselink, Lambertus
1991-01-01
We discuss our recent work on extraction and visualization of topological information in separated fluid flow data sets. As with scene analysis, an abstract representation of a large data set can greatly facilitate the understanding of complex, high-level structures. When studying flow topology, such a representation can be produced by locating and characterizing critical points in the velocity field and generating the associated stream surfaces. In 3D flows, the surface topology serves as the starting point. The 2D tangential velocity field near the surface of the body is examined for critical points. The tangential velocity field is integrated out along the principal directions of certain classes of critical points to produce curves depicting the topology of the flow near the body. The points and curves are linked to form a skeleton representing the 2D vector field topology. This skeleton provides a basis for analyzing the 3D structures associated with the flow separation. The points along the separation curves in the skeleton are used to start tangent curve integrations. Integration origins are successively refined to produce stream surfaces. The map of the global topology is completed by generating those stream surfaces associated with 3D critical points.
An analysis of the sluicing gate in pulmonary blood flow.
Fung, Y C; Zhuang, F Y
1986-05-01
For pulmonary blood flow in zone 2 condition, in which the blood pressure in the venule (pven) is lower than the alveolar gas pressure (pA), the blood exiting from the capillary sheet and entering a venule must go through a sluicing gate. The sluicing gate exists because the venule remains patent while the capillaries will collapse when the static pressure of blood falls below the alveolar gas pressure. In the original theory of sheet flow the effect of the tension in the interalveolar septa on the flow through the sluicing gate was ignored. Since the tension multiplied by the curvature of the membrane is equivalent to a lateral pressure tending to open the gate, and since the curvature of the capillary wall is high in the gate region, this effect may be important. The present analysis improves the original theory and demonstrates that the effect of membrane tension is to cause flow to increase when the venous pressure continues to decrease. The shape of the sluicing gate resembles that of a venturi tube, and can be determined by an iterative integration of the differential equations. The result forms an important link in the theory of pulmonary blood flow in zone 2 condition.
Computational Analysis of the G-III Laminar Flow Glove
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Malik, Mujeeb R.; Liao, Wei; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Li, Fei; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Chang, Chau-Lyan
2011-01-01
Under NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project, flight experiments are planned with the primary objective of demonstrating the Discrete Roughness Elements (DRE) technology for passive laminar flow control at chord Reynolds numbers relevant to transport aircraft. In this paper, we present a preliminary computational assessment of the Gulfstream-III (G-III) aircraft wing-glove designed to attain natural laminar flow for the leading-edge sweep angle of 34.6deg. Analysis for a flight Mach number of 0.75 shows that it should be possible to achieve natural laminar flow for twice the transition Reynolds number ever achieved at this sweep angle. However, the wing-glove needs to be redesigned to effectively demonstrate passive laminar flow control using DREs. As a by-product of the computational assessment, effect of surface curvature on stationary crossflow disturbances is found to be strongly stabilizing for the current design, and it is suggested that convex surface curvature could be used as a control parameter for natural laminar flow design, provided transition occurs via stationary crossflow disturbances.
PArallel Reacting Multiphase FLOw Computational Fluid Dynamic Analysis
2002-06-01
PARMFLO is a parallel multiphase reacting flow computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. It can perform steady or unsteady simulations in three space dimensions. It is intended for use in engineering CFD analysis of industrial flow system components. Its parallel processing capabilities allow it to be applied to problems that use at least an order of magnitude more computational cells than the number that can be used on a typical single processor workstation (about 106 cellsmore » in parallel processing mode versus about io cells in serial processing mode). Alternately, by spreading the work of a CFD problem that could be run on a single workstation over a group of computers on a network, it can bring the runtime down by an order of magnitude or more (typically from many days to less than one day). The software was implemented using the industry standard Message-Passing Interface (MPI) and domain decomposition in one spatial direction. The phases of a flow problem may include an ideal gas mixture with an arbitrary number of chemical species, and dispersed droplet and particle phases. Regions of porous media may also be included within the domain. The porous media may be packed beds, foams, or monolith catalyst supports. With these features, the code is especially suited to analysis of mixing of reactants in the inlet chamber of catalytic reactors coupled to computation of product yields that result from the flow of the mixture through the catalyst coaled support structure.« less
Progress Toward Efficient Laminar Flow Analysis and Design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Campbell, Richard L.; Campbell, Matthew L.; Streit, Thomas
2011-01-01
A multi-fidelity system of computer codes for the analysis and design of vehicles having extensive areas of laminar flow is under development at the NASA Langley Research Center. The overall approach consists of the loose coupling of a flow solver, a transition prediction method and a design module using shell scripts, along with interface modules to prepare the input for each method. This approach allows the user to select the flow solver and transition prediction module, as well as run mode for each code, based on the fidelity most compatible with the problem and available resources. The design module can be any method that designs to a specified target pressure distribution. In addition to the interface modules, two new components have been developed: 1) an efficient, empirical transition prediction module (MATTC) that provides n-factor growth distributions without requiring boundary layer information; and 2) an automated target pressure generation code (ATPG) that develops a target pressure distribution that meets a variety of flow and geometry constraints. The ATPG code also includes empirical estimates of several drag components to allow the optimization of the target pressure distribution. The current system has been developed for the design of subsonic and transonic airfoils and wings, but may be extendable to other speed ranges and components. Several analysis and design examples are included to demonstrate the current capabilities of the system.
Analysis of transonic flow about lifting wing-body configurations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barnwell, R. W.
1975-01-01
An analytical solution was obtained for the perturbation velocity potential for transonic flow about lifting wing-body configurations with order-one span-length ratios and small reduced-span-length ratios and equivalent-thickness-length ratios. The analysis is performed with the method of matched asymptotic expansions. The angles of attack which are considered are small but are large enough to insure that the effects of lift in the region far from the configuration are either dominant or comparable with the effects of thickness. The modification to the equivalence rule which accounts for these lift effects is determined. An analysis of transonic flow about lifting wings with large aspect ratios is also presented.
Dual Solutions for Nonlinear Flow Using Lie Group Analysis
Awais, Muhammad; Hayat, Tasawar; Irum, Sania; Saleem, Salman
2015-01-01
`The aim of this analysis is to investigate the existence of the dual solutions for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow of an upper-convected Maxwell (UCM) fluid over a porous shrinking wall. We have employed the Lie group analysis for the simplification of the nonlinear differential system and computed the absolute invariants explicitly. An efficient numerical technique namely the shooting method has been employed for the constructions of solutions. Dual solutions are computed for velocity profile of an upper-convected Maxwell (UCM) fluid flow. Plots reflecting the impact of dual solutions for the variations of Deborah number, Hartman number, wall mass transfer are presented and analyzed. Streamlines are also plotted for the wall mass transfer effects when suction and blowing situations are considered. PMID:26575996
Dual Solutions for Nonlinear Flow Using Lie Group Analysis.
Awais, Muhammad; Hayat, Tasawar; Irum, Sania; Saleem, Salman
2015-01-01
`The aim of this analysis is to investigate the existence of the dual solutions for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow of an upper-convected Maxwell (UCM) fluid over a porous shrinking wall. We have employed the Lie group analysis for the simplification of the nonlinear differential system and computed the absolute invariants explicitly. An efficient numerical technique namely the shooting method has been employed for the constructions of solutions. Dual solutions are computed for velocity profile of an upper-convected Maxwell (UCM) fluid flow. Plots reflecting the impact of dual solutions for the variations of Deborah number, Hartman number, wall mass transfer are presented and analyzed. Streamlines are also plotted for the wall mass transfer effects when suction and blowing situations are considered. PMID:26575996
Energy flow: image correspondence approximation for motion analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Liangliang; Li, Ruifeng; Fang, Yajun
2016-04-01
We propose a correspondence approximation approach between temporally adjacent frames for motion analysis. First, energy map is established to represent image spatial features on multiple scales using Gaussian convolution. On this basis, energy flow at each layer is estimated using Gauss-Seidel iteration according to the energy invariance constraint. More specifically, at the core of energy invariance constraint is "energy conservation law" assuming that the spatial energy distribution of an image does not change significantly with time. Finally, energy flow field at different layers is reconstructed by considering different smoothness degrees. Due to the multiresolution origin and energy-based implementation, our algorithm is able to quickly address correspondence searching issues in spite of background noise or illumination variation. We apply our correspondence approximation method to motion analysis, and experimental results demonstrate its applicability.
Flow Injection as a Teaching Tool for Gravimetric Analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sartini, Raquel P.; Zagatto, Elias A. G.; Oliveira, Cláudio C.
2000-06-01
A flow-injection system to carry out gravimetric analysis is presented. Students are faced with an instrumental approach for gravimetric procedures. Crucibles, muffle furnaces, and desiccators are not required. A flowing suspension is established by simultaneously injecting an aqueous sample and a precipitating reagent into two merging carrier streams. The precipitate is accumulated on a minifilter hanging under the plate of an analytical balance and is weighed inside the main stream. Since Archimedes' principle holds, a drying step is not needed. After measurement, the precipitate is dissolved and disposed of. As an application, the determination of phosphate based on precipitation with ammonium and magnesium ions in slightly alkaline medium is chosen. The proposed system is very stable and well suited for demonstration. When applied to analysis of fertilizer extracts with 0.10-1.00% w/v P, it yields precise results (RSD < 0.042) in agreement with an official spectrophotometric method.
Assessment of meanflow solutions for instability analysis of transitioning flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Iyer, Venkit
1991-01-01
Meanflow solutions of 3D supersonic flow past a cone at incidence and a swept leading edge wing have been obtained by thre methods, viz., boundary-layer, parabolized Navier-Stokes, and thin shear-layer Navier-Stokes solvers. The smoothness and accuracy of the solution profiles are compared with a view to applying the meanflow solution to boundary-layer stability analysis.
Digital Analysis and Sorting of Fluorescence Lifetime by Flow Cytometry
Houston, Jessica P.; Naivar, Mark A.; Freyer, James P.
2010-01-01
Frequency-domain flow cytometry techniques are combined with modifications to the digital signal processing capabilities of the Open Reconfigurable Cytometric Acquisition System (ORCAS) to analyze fluorescence decay lifetimes and control sorting. Real-time fluorescence lifetime analysis is accomplished by rapidly digitizing correlated, radiofrequency modulated detector signals, implementing Fourier analysis programming with ORCAS’ digital signal processor (DSP) and converting the processed data into standard cytometric list mode data. To systematically test the capabilities of the ORCAS 50 MS/sec analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and our DSP programming, an error analysis was performed using simulated light scatter and fluorescence waveforms (0.5–25 ns simulated lifetime), pulse widths ranging from 2 to 15 µs, and modulation frequencies from 2.5 to 16.667 MHz. The standard deviations of digitally acquired lifetime values ranged from 0.112 to >2 ns, corresponding to errors in actual phase shifts from 0.0142° to 1.6°. The lowest coefficients of variation (<1%) were found for 10-MHz modulated waveforms having pulse widths of 6 µs and simulated lifetimes of 4 ns. Direct comparison of the digital analysis system to a previous analog phase-sensitive flow cytometer demonstrated similar precision and accuracy on measurements of a range of fluorescent microspheres, unstained cells and cells stained with three common fluorophores. Sorting based on fluorescence lifetime was accomplished by adding analog outputs to ORCAS and interfacing with a commercial cell sorter with a radiofrequency modulated solid-state laser. Two populations of fluorescent microspheres with overlapping fluorescence intensities but different lifetimes (2 and 7 ns) were separated to ~98% purity. Overall, the digital signal acquisition and processing methods we introduce present a simple yet robust approach to phase-sensitive measurements in flow cytometry. The ability to simply and inexpensively
Cross-flow versus counter-current flow packed-bed scrubbers: a mathematical analysis
Fthenakis, V.M.
1996-02-01
Little is known about the mass transfer properties of packing media exposed to a crossflow of gas and liquid, whereas there is abundant information related to counter-current scrubbers. This paper presents a theoretical analysis of mass transfer and hydrodynamics in cross- flow packed bed scrubbers and compares those with information available for counter current towers, so that the first can be evaluated and/or designed based on data derived for the second. Mathematical models of mass transfer in cross-flow and counter- current packed bed scrubbers are presented. From those, one can predict the removal effectiveness of a crossflow scrubber from the number of transfer units (NTU) calculated for a similar counterflow operation; alternatively, when the removal effectiveness in counterflow is known, one can predict the corresponding NTU in crossflow.
Heat Flow Measurement and Analysis of Thermal Vacuum Insulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laa, C.; Hirschl, C.; Stipsitz, J.
2008-03-01
A new kind of calorimeter has been developed at Austrian Aerospace to measure specific material parameters needed for the analysis of thermal vacuum insulation. A detailed description of the measuring device and the measurement results will be given in this paper. This calorimeter facility allows to measure the heat flow through the insulation under vacuum conditions in a wide temperature range from liquid nitrogen to ambient. Both boundary temperatures can be chosen within this range. Furthermore the insulation can be characterized at high vacuum or under degraded vacuum, the latter is simulated by using helium or nitrogen gas. The mechanisms of heat transfer have been investigated, namely infrared radiation between the reflective layers of the insulation and conduction through the interleaving spacer material. A mathematical description of the heat flow through the insulation has been derived. Based on this, the heat flow for a typical insulation material has been calculated by finite element analysis by use of the sotware tool Ansys®. Such a transient calculation is needed to determine the time to reach thermal equilibrium, which is mandatory for a proper interpretation and evaluation of the measurement. The new insulation measurement results combined with the proposed type of analysis can be applied to better understand the thermal behavior of any kind of cryogenic system.
Sensitivity Analysis of Chaotic Flow around Two-Dimensional Airfoil
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blonigan, Patrick; Wang, Qiqi; Nielsen, Eric; Diskin, Boris
2015-11-01
Computational methods for sensitivity analysis are invaluable tools for fluid dynamics research and engineering design. These methods are used in many applications, including aerodynamic shape optimization and adaptive grid refinement. However, traditional sensitivity analysis methods, including the adjoint method, break down when applied to long-time averaged quantities in chaotic fluid flow fields, such as high-fidelity turbulence simulations. This break down is due to the ``Butterfly Effect'' the high sensitivity of chaotic dynamical systems to the initial condition. A new sensitivity analysis method developed by the authors, Least Squares Shadowing (LSS), can compute useful and accurate gradients for quantities of interest in chaotic dynamical systems. LSS computes gradients using the ``shadow trajectory'', a phase space trajectory (or solution) for which perturbations to the flow field do not grow exponentially in time. To efficiently compute many gradients for one objective function, we use an adjoint version of LSS. This talk will briefly outline Least Squares Shadowing and demonstrate it on chaotic flow around a Two-Dimensional airfoil.
Analysis of transient storage subject to unsteady flow: Diel flow variation in an Antarctic stream
Runkel, R.L.; McKnight, Diane M.; Andrews, E.D.
1998-01-01
Transport of dissolved material in streams and small rivers may be characterized using tracer-dilution methods and solute transport models. Recent studies have quantified stream/substream interactions using models of transient storage. These studies are based on tracer-dilution data obtained during periods of steady flow. We present a modeling framework for the analysis of transient storage in stream systems with unsteady flows. The framework couples a kinematic wave routing model with a solute transport model that includes transient storage. The routing model provides time-varying flows and cross-sectional areas that are used as input to the solute transport model. The modeling framework was used to quantify stream/substream interaction in Huey Creek, an Antarctic stream fed exclusively by glacial meltwater. Analysis of tracer-dilution data indicates that there was substantial interaction between the flowing surface water and the hyporheic (substream) zone. The ratio of storage zone area to stream cross-sectional area (A(s)/A) was >1 in all stream reaches, indicating that the substream area contributing to hyporheic exchange was large relative to stream cross-sectional area. The rate of exchange, as governed by the transient storage exchange coefficient (??), was rapid because of a high stream gradient and porous alluvial materials. Estimates of ?? generally exceed those determined for other small streams. The high degree of hyporheic exchange supports the hypothesis that weathering reactions within the hyporheos account for observed increases in solute concentration with stream length, as noted in other studies of Antarctic streams.
Analysis of Oxygen, Anaesthesia Agent and Flows in Anaesthesia Machine
Garg, Rakesh; Gupta, Ramesh Chand
2013-01-01
The technical advancement in the anaesthesia workstations has made the peri-operative anaesthesia more safer. Apart from other monitoring options, respiratory gas analysis has become an integral part of the modern anaesthesia workstations. Monitoring devices, such as an oxygen analyser with an audible alarm, carbon dioxide analyser, a vapour analyser, whenever a volatile anaesthetic is delivered have also been recommended by various anaesthesia societies. This review article discusses various techniques for analysis of flow, volumes and concentration of various anaesthetic agents including oxygen, nitrous oxide and volatile anaesthetic agents. PMID:24249881
Multi-scale analysis for environmental dispersion in wetland flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Zi; Li, Z.; Chen, G. Q.
2011-08-01
Presented in this work is a multi-scale analysis for longitudinal evolution of contaminant concentration in a fully developed flow through a shallow wetland channel. An environmental dispersion model for the mean concentration is devised as an extension of Taylor's classical formulation by a multi-scale analysis. Corresponding environmental dispersivity is found identical to that determined by the method of concentration moments. For typical contaminant constituents of chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand, total phosphorus, total nitrogen and heavy metal, the evolution of contaminant cloud is illustrated with the critical length and duration of the contaminant cloud with constituent concentration beyond some given environmental standard level.
Potential flow analysis of glaze ice accretions on an airfoil
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zaguli, R. J.
1984-01-01
The results of an analytical/experimental study of the flow fields about an airfoil with leading edge glaze ice accretion shapes are presented. Tests were conducted in the Icing Research Tunnel to measure surface pressure distributions and boundary layer separation reattachment characteristics on a general aviation wing section to which was affixed wooden ice shapes which approximated typical glaze ice accretions. Comparisons were made with predicted pressure distributions using current airfoil analysis codes as well as the Bristow mixed analysis/design airfoil panel code. The Bristow code was also used to predict the separation reattachment dividing streamline by inputting the appropriate experimental surface pressure distribution.
A guide to human in vivo microcirculatory flow image analysis.
Massey, Michael J; Shapiro, Nathan I
2016-01-01
Various noninvasive microscopic camera technologies have been used to visualize the sublingual microcirculation in patients. We describe a comprehensive approach to bedside in vivo sublingual microcirculation video image capture and analysis techniques in the human clinical setting. We present a user perspective and guide suitable for clinical researchers and developers interested in the capture and analysis of sublingual microcirculatory flow videos. We review basic differences in the cameras, optics, light sources, operation, and digital image capture. We describe common techniques for image acquisition and discuss aspects of video data management, including data transfer, metadata, and database design and utilization to facilitate the image analysis pipeline. We outline image analysis techniques and reporting including video preprocessing and image quality evaluation. Finally, we propose a framework for future directions in the field of microcirculatory flow videomicroscopy acquisition and analysis. Although automated scoring systems have not been sufficiently robust for widespread clinical or research use to date, we discuss promising innovations that are driving new development. PMID:26861691
A Survey of Flow Cytometry Data Analysis Methods
Bashashati, Ali; Brinkman, Ryan R.
2009-01-01
Flow cytometry (FCM) is widely used in health research and in treatment for a variety of tasks, such as in the diagnosis and monitoring of leukemia and lymphoma patients, providing the counts of helper-T lymphocytes needed to monitor the course and treatment of HIV infection, the evaluation of peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cell grafts, and many other diseases. In practice, FCM data analysis is performed manually, a process that requires an inordinate amount of time and is error-prone, nonreproducible, nonstandardized, and not open for re-evaluation, making it the most limiting aspect of this technology. This paper reviews state-of-the-art FCM data analysis approaches using a framework introduced to report each of the components in a data analysis pipeline. Current challenges and possible future directions in developing fully automated FCM data analysis tools are also outlined. PMID:20049163
Computational heat transfer analysis for oscillatory channel flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ibrahim, Mounir; Kannapareddy, Mohan
1993-01-01
An accurate finite-difference scheme has been utilized to investigate oscillatory, laminar and incompressible flow between two-parallel-plates and in circular tubes. The two-parallel-plates simulate the regenerator of a free-piston Stirling engine (foil type regenerator) and the channel wall was included in the analysis (conjugate heat transfer problem). The circular tubes simulate the cooler and heater of the engine with an isothermal wall. The study conducted covered a wide range for the maximum Reynolds number (from 75 to 60,000), Valensi number (from 2.5 to 700), and relative amplitude of fluid displacement (0.714 and 1.34). The computational results indicate a complex nature of the heat flux distribution with time and axial location in the channel. At the channel mid-plane we observed two thermal cycles (out of phase with the flow) per each flow cycle. At this axial location the wall heat flux mean value, amplitude and phase shift with the flow are dependent upon the maximum Reynolds number, Valensi number and relative amplitude of fluid displacement. At other axial locations, the wall heat flux distribution is more complex.
Linear Stability Analysis of a Channel Flow with Porous Walls
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tilton, Nils
2005-11-01
This study is motivated by the extensive use of wall-transpiration in numerical studies related to inhibition and control of wall-turbulence. In general, wall-transpiration has been implemented by providing the wall-normal velocity and imposing a no-slip condition on the wall-tangential velocity. Physically, however, the pores cannot be infinitesimally small and, consequently, it is important to address how the presence of the pores affects the slip velocity at the wall and the stability of the boundary layer. Moreover, our work is motivated by the existence of only few studies on the linear stability of channels with porous walls. Our study considers a parallel-plate channel with porous walls such that a longitudinal pressure gradient induces a laminar flow in both the open channel region and the porous walls. Simplified counterparts to the Orr-Sommerfeld and Squire equations are derived for the porous regions that are valid for small permeablities. The linear stability analysis takes account of the coupling between the three disturbance fields through boundary conditions recently derived by Ochoa-Tapia and Whitaker (Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, Vol. 38, 1995, pp 2635-2646). The resulting Orr-Sommerfeld spectrum and eigenfunctions reduce to those for Poiseuille flow as the permeability of the walls tends to zero, but are altered for greater values. We discuss symmetrical flows where parameters at both porous walls are identical as well as skewed flows where parameters at the two walls differ.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lo, Men-Tzung; Hu, Kun; Liu, Yanhui; Peng, C.-K.; Novak, Vera
2008-12-01
Quantification of nonlinear interactions between two nonstationary signals presents a computational challenge in different research fields, especially for assessments of physiological systems. Traditional approaches that are based on theories of stationary signals cannot resolve nonstationarity-related issues and, thus, cannot reliably assess nonlinear interactions in physiological systems. In this review we discuss a new technique called multimodal pressure flow (MMPF) method that utilizes Hilbert-Huang transformation to quantify interaction between nonstationary cerebral blood flow velocity (BFV) and blood pressure (BP) for the assessment of dynamic cerebral autoregulation (CA). CA is an important mechanism responsible for controlling cerebral blood flow in responses to fluctuations in systemic BP within a few heart-beats. The MMPF analysis decomposes BP and BFV signals into multiple empirical modes adaptively so that the fluctuations caused by a specific physiologic process can be represented in a corresponding empirical mode. Using this technique, we showed that dynamic CA can be characterized by specific phase delays between the decomposed BP and BFV oscillations, and that the phase shifts are significantly reduced in hypertensive, diabetics and stroke subjects with impaired CA. Additionally, the new technique can reliably assess CA using both induced BP/BFV oscillations during clinical tests and spontaneous BP/BFV fluctuations during resting conditions.
Modeling and analysis of electrorheological suspensions in shear flow.
Seo, Youngwook P; Seo, Yongsok
2012-02-14
A model capable of describing the flow behavior of electrorheological (ER) suspensions under different electric field strengths and over the full range of shear rates is proposed. Structural reformation in the low shear rate region is investigated where parts of a material are in an undeformed state, while aligned structures reform under the shear force. The model's predictions were compared with the experimental data of some ER fluids as well as the CCJ (Cho-Choi-Jhon) model. This simple model's predictions of suspension flow behavior with subsequent aligned structure reformation agreed well with the experimental data, both quantitatively and qualitatively. The proposed model plausibly predicted the static yield stress, whereas the CCJ model and the Bingham model predicted only the dynamic yield stress. The master curve describing the apparent viscosity was obtained by appropriate scaling both axes, which showed that a combination of dimensional analysis and flow curve analysis using the proposed model yielded a quantitatively and qualitatively precise description of ER fluid rheological behavior based on relatively few experimental measurements.
Loop flow analysis of dissolved reactive phosphorus in aqueous samples.
Ma, Jian; Li, Quanlong; Yuan, Dongxing
2014-06-01
The current flow based method for the determination of dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) suffers interference from salinity (e.g. index refractive difference) and the incidentally formed bubbles, which can be a problem for optical detection. Here we reported a simple and robust loop flow analysis (LFA) method for accurate measurement of DRP in different aqueous samples. The chemistry is based on the classic phosphomolybdenum blue (PMB) reaction and the PMB formed in a novel cross-shaped flow cell was detected at 700 nm using a miniature spectrophotometer. The effects of reagents on the kinetic formation of PMB were evaluated. The detection limit was 32 nM with an optical pathlength of 1cm and the relative standard deviations for repetitive determinations of 1, 2 and 8 µM phosphate solutions were 1.8% (n=113, without any stoppage during repeating analysis for >7h), 1.0% (n=49) and 0.39% (n=9), respectively. The analysis time was 4 min sample(-1). The effects of salinity and interfering ions (silicate and arsenate) were evaluated and showed no interference under the proposed protocol for DRP analysis. Using the LFA method, different aqueous samples with a salinity range of 0-34 were analyzed and the results showed excellent agreement with the reference method (slope 0.9982±0.0063, R(2)=0.9987, n=34). Recoveries for spiked samples varied from 95.4% to 103.7%. The proposed method showed insignificant interference from salinity, silicate and arsenate, higher reproducibility, easier operation and was free of the bubble problem. PMID:24725885
Loop flow analysis of dissolved reactive phosphorus in aqueous samples.
Ma, Jian; Li, Quanlong; Yuan, Dongxing
2014-06-01
The current flow based method for the determination of dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) suffers interference from salinity (e.g. index refractive difference) and the incidentally formed bubbles, which can be a problem for optical detection. Here we reported a simple and robust loop flow analysis (LFA) method for accurate measurement of DRP in different aqueous samples. The chemistry is based on the classic phosphomolybdenum blue (PMB) reaction and the PMB formed in a novel cross-shaped flow cell was detected at 700 nm using a miniature spectrophotometer. The effects of reagents on the kinetic formation of PMB were evaluated. The detection limit was 32 nM with an optical pathlength of 1cm and the relative standard deviations for repetitive determinations of 1, 2 and 8 µM phosphate solutions were 1.8% (n=113, without any stoppage during repeating analysis for >7h), 1.0% (n=49) and 0.39% (n=9), respectively. The analysis time was 4 min sample(-1). The effects of salinity and interfering ions (silicate and arsenate) were evaluated and showed no interference under the proposed protocol for DRP analysis. Using the LFA method, different aqueous samples with a salinity range of 0-34 were analyzed and the results showed excellent agreement with the reference method (slope 0.9982±0.0063, R(2)=0.9987, n=34). Recoveries for spiked samples varied from 95.4% to 103.7%. The proposed method showed insignificant interference from salinity, silicate and arsenate, higher reproducibility, easier operation and was free of the bubble problem.
Computational analysis of the SSME fuel preburner flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, T. S.; Farmer, R. C.
1986-01-01
A computational fluid dynamics model which simulates the steady state operation of the SSME fuel preburner is developed. Specifically, the model will be used to quantify the flow factors which cause local hot spots in the fuel preburner in order to recommend experiments whereby the control of undesirable flow features can be demonstrated. The results of a two year effort to model the preburner are presented. In this effort, investigating the fuel preburner flowfield, the appropriate transport equations were numerically solved for both an axisymmetric and a three-dimensional configuration. Continuum's VAST (Variational Solution of the Transport equations) code, in conjunction with the CM-1000 Engineering Analysis Workstation and the NASA/Ames CYBER 205, was used to perform the required calculations. It is concluded that the preburner operational anomalies are not due to steady state phenomena and must, therefore, be related to transient operational procedures.
Detection of abnormal events via optical flow feature analysis.
Wang, Tian; Snoussi, Hichem
2015-03-24
In this paper, a novel algorithm is proposed to detect abnormal events in video streams. The algorithm is based on the histogram of the optical flow orientation descriptor and the classification method. The details of the histogram of the optical flow orientation descriptor are illustrated for describing movement information of the global video frame or foreground frame. By combining one-class support vector machine and kernel principal component analysis methods, the abnormal events in the current frame can be detected after a learning period characterizing normal behaviors. The difference abnormal detection results are analyzed and explained. The proposed detection method is tested on benchmark datasets, then the experimental results show the effectiveness of the algorithm.
Detection of Abnormal Events via Optical Flow Feature Analysis
Wang, Tian; Snoussi, Hichem
2015-01-01
In this paper, a novel algorithm is proposed to detect abnormal events in video streams. The algorithm is based on the histogram of the optical flow orientation descriptor and the classification method. The details of the histogram of the optical flow orientation descriptor are illustrated for describing movement information of the global video frame or foreground frame. By combining one-class support vector machine and kernel principal component analysis methods, the abnormal events in the current frame can be detected after a learning period characterizing normal behaviors. The difference abnormal detection results are analyzed and explained. The proposed detection method is tested on benchmark datasets, then the experimental results show the effectiveness of the algorithm. PMID:25811227
Static gas analysis by a transient flow technique
Leckey, J.H.; Boeckmann, M.D.
1988-07-01
A technique is presented for using a residual gas analyzer (RGA) to analyze small concentrations of heavy gases in lighter gases in a static volume of <10 cm/sup 3/ . Passing the gas sample through a control valve causes it to enter the RGA chamber in molecular flow. This procedure results in fractionation that causes enrichment of the heavier gas during the evacuation of the sample, giving rise to a significantly higher heavy gas signal near the end of the evacuation, while maintaining low pressures in the RGA chamber that are required for linearity. This heavy gas enrichment near the end of the evacuation results in a significant reduction in its detection limit. Specific examples are presented for the analysis of argon in hydrogen and are compared to a gas-flow model of the system.
Analysis and control of supersonic vortex breakdown flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kandil, Osama A.
1990-01-01
Analysis and computation of steady, compressible, quasi-axisymmetric flow of an isolated, slender vortex are considered. The compressible, Navier-Stokes equations are reduced to a simpler set by using the slenderness and quasi-axisymmetry assumptions. The resulting set along with a compatibility equation are transformed from the diverging physical domain to a rectangular computational domain. Solving for a compatible set of initial profiles and specifying a compatible set of boundary conditions, the equations are solved using a type-differencing scheme. Vortex breakdown locations are detected by the failure of the scheme to converge. Computational examples include isolated vortex flows at different Mach numbers, external axial-pressure gradients and swirl ratios.
Analysis of a cryolava flow-like feature on Titan
Le, Corre L.; Le, Mouelic S.; Sotin, C.; Combe, J.-P.; Rodriguez, S.; Barnes, J.W.; Brown, R.H.; Buratti, B.J.; Jaumann, R.; Soderblom, J.; Soderblom, L.A.; Clark, R.; Baines, K.H.; Nicholson, P.D.
2009-01-01
This paper reports on the analysis of the highest spatial resolution hyperspectral images acquired by the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) onboard the Cassini spacecraft during its prime mission. A bright area matches a flow-like feature coming out of a caldera-like feature observed in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data recorded by the Cassini radar experiment [Lopes et al., 2007. Cryovolcanic features on Titan's surface as revealed by the Cassini Titan Radar Mapper. Icarus 186, 395-412, doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2006.09.006]. In this SAR image, the flow extends about 160 km east of the caldera. The contrast in brightness between the flow and the surroundings progressively vanishes, suggesting alteration or evolution of the composition of the cryolava during the lifetime of the eruptions. Dunes seem to cover part of this flow on its eastern end. We analyze the different terrains using the Spectral Mixing Analysis (SMA) approach of the Multiple-Endmember Linear Unmixing Model (MELSUM, Combe et al., 2008). The study area can be fully modeled by using only two types of terrains. Then, the VIMS spectra are compared with laboratory spectra of known materials in the relevant atmospheric windows (from 1 to 2.78 ??m). We considered simple molecules that could be produced during cryovolcanic events, including H2O, CO2 (using two different grain sizes), CH4 and NH3. We find that the mean spectrum of the cryoflow-like feature is not consistent with pure water ice. It can be best fitted by linear combinations of spectra of the candidate materials, showing that its composition is compatible with a mixture of H2O, CH4 and CO2.. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.
Theoretical analysis of magnetic field interactions with aortic blood flow
Kinouchi, Y.; Yamaguchi, H.; Tenforde, T.S.
1996-04-01
The flow of blood in the presence of a magnetic field gives rise to induced voltages in the major arteries of the central circulatory system. Under certain simplifying conditions, such as the assumption that the length of major arteries (e.g., the aorta) is infinite and that the vessel walls are not electrically conductive, the distribution of induced voltages and currents within these blood vessels can be calculated with reasonable precision. However, the propagation of magnetically induced voltages and currents from the aorta into neighboring tissue structures such as the sinuatrial node of the heart has not been previously determined by any experimental or theoretical technique. In the analysis presented in this paper, a solution of the complete Navier-Stokes equation was obtained by the finite element technique for blood flow through the ascending and descending aortic vessels in the presence of a uniform static magnetic field. Spatial distributions of the magnetically induced voltage and current were obtained for the aortic vessel and surrounding tissues under the assumption that the wall of the aorta is electrically conductive. Results are presented for the calculated values of magnetically induced voltages and current densities in the aorta and surrounding tissue structures, including the sinuatrial node, and for their field-strength dependence. In addition, an analysis is presented of magnetohydrodynamic interactions that lead to a small reduction of blood volume flow at high field levels above approximately 10 tesla (T). Quantitative results are presented on the offsetting effects of oppositely directed blood flows in the ascending and descending aortic segments, and a quantitative estimate is made of the effects of assuming an infinite vs. a finite length of the aortic vessel in calculating the magnetically induced voltage and current density distribution in tissue.
Navier-Stokes flow field analysis of compressible flow in a high pressure safety relief valve
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vu, Bruce; Wang, Ten-See; Shih, Ming-Hsin; Soni, Bharat
1993-12-01
The objective of this study is to investigate the complex three-dimensional flowfield of an oxygen safety pressure relieve valve during an incident, with a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis. Specifically, the analysis will provide a flow pattern that would lead to the expansion of the eventual erosion pattern of the hardware, so as to combine it with other findings to piece together a most likely scenario for the investigation. The CFD model is a pressure based solver. An adaptive upwind difference scheme is employed for the spatial discretization, and a predictor, multiple corrector method is used for the velocity-pressure coupling. The computational result indicated vortices formation near the opening of the valve which matched the erosion pattern of the damaged hardware.
Gravity flow of powder in a lunar environment. Part 2: Analysis of flow initiation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pariseau, W. G.
1971-01-01
A small displacement-small strain finite element technique utilizing the constant strain triangle and incremental constitutive equations for elasticplastic (media nonhardening and obeying a Coulomb yield condition) was applied to the analysis of gravity flow initiation. This was done in a V-shaped hopper containing a powder under lunar environmental conditions. Three methods of loading were examined. Of the three, the method of computing the initial state of stress in a filled hopper prior to drawdown, by adding material to the hopper layer by layer, was the best. Results of the analysis of a typical hopper problem show that the initial state of stress, the elastic moduli, and the strength parameters have an important influence on material response subsequent to the opening of the hopper outlet.
Navier-Stokes flow field analysis of compressible flow in a high pressure safety relief valve
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vu, Bruce; Wang, Ten-See; Shih, Ming-Hsin; Soni, Bharat
1993-01-01
The objective of this study is to investigate the complex three-dimensional flowfield of an oxygen safety pressure relieve valve during an incident, with a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis. Specifically, the analysis will provide a flow pattern that would lead to the expansion of the eventual erosion pattern of the hardware, so as to combine it with other findings to piece together a most likely scenario for the investigation. The CFD model is a pressure based solver. An adaptive upwind difference scheme is employed for the spatial discretization, and a predictor, multiple corrector method is used for the velocity-pressure coupling. The computational result indicated vortices formation near the opening of the valve which matched the erosion pattern of the damaged hardware.
Analysis of plant ribosomes with asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation.
Pitkänen, Leena; Tuomainen, Päivi; Eskelin, Katri
2014-02-01
Ribosome profiling is a technique used to separate ribosomal subunits, 80S ribosomes (monosomes), and polyribosomes (polysomes) from other RNA-protein complexes. It is traditionally performed in sucrose gradients. In this study, we used asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AsFlFFF) to characterize ribosome profiles of Nicotiana benthamiana plants. With the optimized running conditions, we were able to separate free molecules from ribosomal subunits and intact ribosomes. We used various chemical and enzymatic treatments to validate the positions of subunits, monosomes, and polysomes in the AsFlFFF fractograms. We also characterized the protein and RNA content of AsFlFFF fractions by gel electrophoresis and western blotting. The reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed that ribosomes remained bound to messenger RNAs (mRNAs) during the analysis. Therefore, we conclude that AsFlFFF can be used for ribosome profiling to study the mRNAs that are being translated. It can also be used to study the protein composition of ribosomes that are active in translation at that particular moment.
Global Qualitative Flow-Path Modeling for Local State Determination in Simulation and Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Malin, Jane T. (Inventor); Fleming, Land D. (Inventor)
1998-01-01
For qualitative modeling and analysis, a general qualitative abstraction of power transmission variables (flow and effort) for elements of flow paths includes information on resistance, net flow, permissible directions of flow, and qualitative potential is discussed. Each type of component model has flow-related variables and an associated internal flow map, connected into an overall flow network of the system. For storage devices, the implicit power transfer to the environment is represented by "virtual" circuits that include an environmental junction. A heterogeneous aggregation method simplifies the path structure. A method determines global flow-path changes during dynamic simulation and analysis, and identifies corresponding local flow state changes that are effects of global configuration changes. Flow-path determination is triggered by any change in a flow-related device variable in a simulation or analysis. Components (path elements) that may be affected are identified, and flow-related attributes favoring flow in the two possible directions are collected for each of them. Next, flow-related attributes are determined for each affected path element, based on possibly conflicting indications of flow direction. Spurious qualitative ambiguities are minimized by using relative magnitudes and permissible directions of flow, and by favoring flow sources over effort sources when comparing flow tendencies. The results are output to local flow states of affected components.
Flow-cytometry-based DNA hybidization and polymorphism analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cai, Hong; Kommander, Kristina; White, P. S.; Nolan, John P.
1998-05-01
Functional analysis of the human genome, including the quantification of differential gene expression and the identification of polymorphic sites and disease genes, is an important element of the Human Genome Project. Current methods of analysis are mainly gel-based assays that are not well- suited to rapid genome-scale analyses. To analyze DNA sequence on a large scale, robust and high throughput assays are needed. We are developing a suite of microsphere-based approaches employing fluorescence detection to screen and analyze genomic sequence. Our approaches include competitive DNA hybridization to measure DNA or RNA targets in unknown samples, and oligo ligation or extension assays to analyze single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Apart from the advantages of sensitivity, simplicity, and low sample consumption, these flow cytometric approaches have the potential for high throughput multiplexed analysis using multicolored microspheres and automated sample handling.
Energy-decomposition analysis for viscous free-surface flows.
Colagrossi, Andrea; Bouscasse, Benjamin; Marrone, Salvatore
2015-11-01
This work is dedicated to the energy decomposition analysis of a viscous free-surface flow. In the presence of a free surface, the viscous dissipation for a Newtonian liquid can be decomposed into two terms: an enstrophy component and a free-surface deformation component. The latter requires the evaluation of volume and surface integrals in the meshless framework. The analysis is based on the weakly compressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics formalism. The behavior of the energy terms is studied in standing wave problems by changing the viscosity and the wave amplitude. Finally, an analysis of a complex shallow water breaking wave case is provided. It is shown that in presence of intense breaking phenomena the two energy components are always comparable, whereas generally the free surface component is dominant on the viscous dissipation of gravity waves. PMID:26651775
Energy-decomposition analysis for viscous free-surface flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Colagrossi, Andrea; Bouscasse, Benjamin; Marrone, Salvatore
2015-11-01
This work is dedicated to the energy decomposition analysis of a viscous free-surface flow. In the presence of a free surface, the viscous dissipation for a Newtonian liquid can be decomposed into two terms: an enstrophy component and a free-surface deformation component. The latter requires the evaluation of volume and surface integrals in the meshless framework. The analysis is based on the weakly compressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics formalism. The behavior of the energy terms is studied in standing wave problems by changing the viscosity and the wave amplitude. Finally, an analysis of a complex shallow water breaking wave case is provided. It is shown that in presence of intense breaking phenomena the two energy components are always comparable, whereas generally the free surface component is dominant on the viscous dissipation of gravity waves.
Bootstrap position analysis for forecasting low flow frequency
Tasker, Gary D.; Dunne, P.
1997-01-01
A method of random resampling of residuals from stochastic models is used to generate a large number of 12-month-long traces of natural monthly runoff to be used in a position analysis model for a water-supply storage and delivery system. Position analysis uses the traces to forecast the likelihood of specified outcomes such as reservoir levels falling below a specified level or streamflows falling below statutory passing flows conditioned on the current reservoir levels and streamflows. The advantages of this resampling scheme, called bootstrap position analysis, are that it does not rely on the unverifiable assumption of normality, fewer parameters need to be estimated directly from the data, and accounting for parameter uncertainty is easily done. For a given set of operating rules and water-use requirements for a system, water managers can use such a model as a decision-making tool to evaluate different operating rules. ?? ASCE,.
Kosaka, Ryo; Nishida, Masahiro; Maruyama, Osamu; Yamane, Takashi
2011-09-01
In order to monitor the condition of patients with implantable left ventricular assist systems (LVAS), it is important to measure pump flow rate continuously and noninvasively. However, it is difficult to measure the pump flow rate, especially in an implantable axial flow blood pump, because the power consumption has neither linearity nor uniqueness with regard to the pump flow rate. In this study, a miniaturized mass-flow meter for discharged patients with an implantable axial blood pump was developed on the basis of computational analysis, and was evaluated in in-vitro tests. The mass-flow meter makes use of centrifugal force produced by the mass-flow rate around a curved cannula. An optimized design was investigated by use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. On the basis of the computational analysis, a miniaturized mass-flow meter made of titanium alloy was developed. A strain gauge was adopted as a sensor element. The first strain gauge, attached to the curved area, measured both static pressure and centrifugal force. The second strain gauge, attached to the straight area, measured static pressure. By subtracting the output of the second strain gauge from the output of the first strain gauge, the mass-flow rate was determined. In in-vitro tests using a model circulation loop, the mass-flow meter was compared with a conventional flow meter. Measurement error was less than ±0.5 L/min and average time delay was 0.14 s. We confirmed that the miniaturized mass-flow meter could accurately measure the mass-flow rate continuously and noninvasively. PMID:21537972
SOLA-LOOP. Two-Phase Flow Network Analysis
Hirt, C.W.; Oliphant, T.A.; Rivard, W.C.; Romero, N.C.; Torrey, M.D.
1992-01-13
SOLA-LOOP is designed for the solution of transient two-phase flow in networks composed of one-dimensional components. The fluid dynamics is described by a nonequilibrium, drift-flux formulation of the fluid conservation laws. Although developed for nuclear reactor safety analysis, SOLA-LOOP may be used as the basis for other types of special-purpose network codes. The program can accommodate almost any set of constitutive relations, property tables, or other special features required for different applications.
Spherical harmonic analysis of steady photospheric flows. II
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hathaway, David H.
1992-01-01
The use of the spherical harmonic functions to analyze the nearly steady flows in the solar photosphere is extended to situations in which B(0) the latitude at disk center, is nonzero and spurious velocities are present. The procedures for extracting the rotation profile and meridional circulation are altered to account for the seasonal tilt of the sun's rotation axis toward and away from the observer. A more robust and accurate method for separating the limb shift and meridional circulation signals is described. The analysis procedures include the ability to mask out areas containing spurious velocities (velocity-like signals that do not represent true flow velocities in the photosphere). The procedures are shown to work well in extracting the various flow components from realistic artificial data with a broad, continuous spectrum for the supergranulation. The presence of this supergranulation signal introduces errors of a few m/s in the measurements of the rotation profile, meridional circulation, and limb shift from a single Doppler image.
Nonclassical Symmetry Analysis of Heated Two-Dimensional Flow Problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naeem, Imran; Naz, Rehana; Khan, Muhammad Danish
2015-12-01
This article analyses the nonclassical symmetries and group invariant solution of boundary layer equations for two-dimensional heated flows. First, we derive the nonclassical symmetry determining equations with the aid of the computer package SADE. We solve these equations directly to obtain nonclassical symmetries. We follow standard procedure of computing nonclassical symmetries and consider two different scenarios, ξ1≠0 and ξ1=0, ξ2≠0. Several nonclassical symmetries are reported for both scenarios. Furthermore, numerous group invariant solutions for nonclassical symmetries are derived. The similarity variables associated with each nonclassical symmetry are computed. The similarity variables reduce the system of partial differential equations (PDEs) to a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) in terms of similarity variables. The reduced system of ODEs are solved to obtain group invariant solution for governing boundary layer equations for two-dimensional heated flow problems. We successfully formulate a physical problem of heat transfer analysis for fluid flow over a linearly stretching porous plat and, with suitable boundary conditions, we solve this problem.
Flow cytometric analysis of circulating microparticles in plasma.
Orozco, Aaron F; Lewis, Dorothy E
2010-06-01
Microparticles, which include exosomes, micro-vesicles, apoptotic bodies and apoptotic microparticles, are small (0.05 - 3 mum in diameter), membranous vesicles that can contain DNA, RNA, miRNA, intracellular proteins and express extracellular surface markers from the parental cells. They can be secreted from intracellular multivesicular bodies or released from the surface of blebbing membranes. Circulating microparticles are abundant in the plasma of normal individuals and can be derived from circulating blood cells such as platelets, red blood cells and leukocytes as well as from tissue sources, such as endothelial and placental tissues. Elevated levels of microparticles are associated with various diseases such as thrombosis (platelet microparticles), congestive heart failure (endothelial microparticles), breast cancer patients (leukocyte microparticles) and women with preeclampsia (syncytiotrophoblast microparticles). Although microparticles can be detected by microscopy, enzyme-linked immunoassays and functional assays, flow cytometry is the preferred method because of the ability to quantitate (fluorescent bead- or flow rate-based method) and because of polychromatic capabilities. However, standardization of pre-analytical and analytical modus operandi for isolating, enumerating and fluorescent labeling of microparticles remains a challenge. The primary focus of this article is to review the preliminary steps required to optimally study circulating in vivo microparticles which include: 1) centrifugation speed used, 2) quantitation of microparticles before antibody labeling, 3) levels of fluorescence intensity of antibody-labeled microparticles, 4) polychromatic flow cytometric analysis of microparticle sub-populations and 5) use of polyclonal antibodies designed for Western blotting for flow cytometry. These studies determine a roadmap to develop microparticles as biomarkers for a variety of conditions. PMID:20235276
Analysis of the Hessian for Aerodynamic Optimization: Inviscid Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arian, Eyal; Ta'asan, Shlomo
1996-01-01
In this paper we analyze inviscid aerodynamic shape optimization problems governed by the full potential and the Euler equations in two and three dimensions. The analysis indicates that minimization of pressure dependent cost functions results in Hessians whose eigenvalue distributions are identical for the full potential and the Euler equations. However the optimization problems in two and three dimensions are inherently different. While the two dimensional optimization problems are well-posed the three dimensional ones are ill-posed. Oscillations in the shape up to the smallest scale allowed by the design space can develop in the direction perpendicular to the flow, implying that a regularization is required. A natural choice of such a regularization is derived. The analysis also gives an estimate of the Hessian's condition number which implies that the problems at hand are ill-conditioned. Infinite dimensional approximations for the Hessians are constructed and preconditioners for gradient based methods are derived from these approximate Hessians.
Value flow mapping: Using networks to inform stakeholder analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cameron, Bruce G.; Crawley, Edward F.; Loureiro, Geilson; Rebentisch, Eric S.
2008-02-01
Stakeholder theory has garnered significant interest from the corporate community, but has proved difficult to apply to large government programs. A detailed value flow exercise was conducted to identify the value delivery mechanisms among stakeholders for the current Vision for Space Exploration. We propose a method for capturing stakeholder needs that explicitly recognizes the outcomes required of the value creating organization. The captured stakeholder needs are then translated into input-output models for each stakeholder, which are then aggregated into a network model. Analysis of this network suggests that benefits are infrequently linked to the root provider of value. Furthermore, it is noted that requirements should not only be written to influence the organization's outputs, but also to influence the propagation of benefit further along the value chain. A number of future applications of this model to systems architecture and requirement analysis are discussed.
Analytical parameters for amplitude-modulated multiplexed flow analysis.
Kurokawa, Yohei; Takeuchi, Masaki; Tanaka, Hideji
2010-01-01
Analytical conditions of amplitude-modulated multiplexed flow analysis, the basic concept of which was recently proposed by our group, are investigated for higher sample throughput rate. The performance of the improved system is evaluated by applying it to the determination of chloride ions. The flow rates of two sample solutions are independently varied in accordance with sinusoidal voltage signals, each having different frequency. The solutions are merged with a reagent solution and/or a diluent, while the total flow rate is held constant. Downstream, the analytical signal V(d) is monitored with a spectrophotometer. The V(d) shows a complicated profile resulting from amplitude modulated and multiplexed information on the two samples. The V(d) can, however, be deconvoluted to the contribution of each sample through fast Fourier transform (FFT). The amplitudes of the separated wave components are closely related to the concentrations of the analytes in the samples. By moving the window for FFT analysis with time, a temporal profile of the amplitudes can be obtained in real-time. Analytical conditions such as modulation period and system configuration have been optimized using aqueous solutions of Malachite Green (MG). Adequate amplitudes are obtained at the period of as low as 5 s. At this period, the calibration curve for the MG concentration of 0-30 micromol dm(-3) has enough linearity (r(2) = 0.999) and the limit of detection (3.3sigma) is 1.3 micromol dm(-3); the relative standard deviation of repeated measurements (C(MG) = 15 micromol dm(-3), n = 10) is 2.4%. The developed system has been applied to the determination of chloride ions by a mercury(II) thiocyanate method. The system can adequately follow the changes in analyte concentration. The recoveries of chloride ion spiked in real water samples (river and tap water) are satisfactory, around 100%. PMID:20631441
[Research of potassium flow and circulation based on substance flow analysis].
Bai, Hua; Zeng, Si-Yu; Dong, Xin; Chen, Ji-Ning
2013-06-01
Mass of potassium is consumed in the process of crop production, which is the dominating section of potassium flow and circulation in China. However, the degree of self-sufficiency is relatively low due to the deficient domestic resource of potassium. This study analyzed the key links of potassium issues in crop production and consumptive use in 2009 based on substance flow analysis. The results indicated that the farmland nutrient balance of input/output couldn't make even, with a heavy deficit of 50.4 kg x hm(-2) at the national level. Meanwhile, about 2.31 million ton of potash fertilizer was washed away into the hydrologic cycle, which accounts for 40.97% of chemical fertilizer applied in the whole year. Domestic wastewater in urban and rural areas was identified as another primary source for the transformation of potassium from terrestrial ecosystem to water environment system, annually contributing 671 and 547 thousand tons, which takes up 19.00% and 15.50%, respectively. And the amount of potassium in effluent of wastewater treatment plants was 505 thousand tons per year, accounting for 75.25% of the total emission in urban areas.
High-order Finite Element Analysis of Boundary Layer Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Alvin; Sahni, Onkar
2014-11-01
Numerical analysis of boundary layer flows requires careful approximations, specifically the use of a mesh with layered and graded elements near the (viscous) walls. This is referred to as a boundary layer mesh, which for complex geometries is composed of triangular elements on the walls that are inflated or extruded into the volume along the wall-normal direction up to a desired height while the rest of the domain is filled with unstructured tetrahedral elements. Linear elements with C0 inter-element continuity are employed and in some situations higher order C0 elements are also used. However, these elements only enforce continuity whereas high-order smoothness is not attained as will be the case with C1 inter-element continuity and higher. As a result, C0 elements result in a poor approximation of the high-order boundary layer behavior. To achieve greater inter-element continuity in boundary layer region, we employ B-spline basis functions along the wall-normal direction (i.e., only in the layered portion of the mesh). In the rest of the fully unstructured mesh, linear or higher order C0 elements are used as appropriate. In this study we demonstrate the benefits of finite-element analysis based on such higher order and continuity basis functions for boundary layer flows.
Fluid Flow Simulation and Energetic Analysis of Anomalocarididae Locomotion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mikel-Stites, Maxwell; Staples, Anne
2014-11-01
While an abundance of animal locomotion simulations have been performed modeling the motions of living arthropods and aquatic animals, little quantitative simulation and reconstruction of gait parameters has been done to model the locomotion of extinct animals, many of which bear little physical resemblance to their modern descendants. To that end, this project seeks to analyze potential swimming patterns used by the anomalocaridid family, (specifically Anomalocaris canadensis, a Cambrian Era aquatic predator), and determine the most probable modes of movement. This will serve to either verify or cast into question the current assumed movement patterns and properties of these animals and create a bridge between similar flexible-bodied swimmers and their robotic counterparts. This will be accomplished by particle-based fluid flow simulations of the flow around the fins of the animal, as well as an energy analysis of a variety of sample gaits. The energy analysis will then be compared to the extant information regarding speed/energy use curves in an attempt to determine which modes of swimming were most energy efficient for a given range of speeds. These results will provide a better understanding of how these long-extinct animals moved, possibly allowing an improved understanding of their behavioral patterns, and may also lead to a novel potential platform for bio-inspired underwater autonomous vehicles (UAVs).
Solid rocket booster internal flow analysis by highly accurate adaptive computational methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huang, C. Y.; Tworzydlo, W.; Oden, J. T.; Bass, J. M.; Cullen, C.; Vadaketh, S.
1991-01-01
The primary objective of this project was to develop an adaptive finite element flow solver for simulating internal flows in the solid rocket booster. Described here is a unique flow simulator code for analyzing highly complex flow phenomena in the solid rocket booster. New methodologies and features incorporated into this analysis tool are described.
Validation Analysis of the Shoal Groundwater Flow and Transport Model
A. Hassan; J. Chapman
2008-11-01
Environmental restoration at the Shoal underground nuclear test is following a process prescribed by a Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) between the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. Characterization of the site included two stages of well drilling and testing in 1996 and 1999, and development and revision of numerical models of groundwater flow and radionuclide transport. Agreement on a contaminant boundary for the site and a corrective action plan was reached in 2006. Later that same year, three wells were installed for the purposes of model validation and site monitoring. The FFACO prescribes a five-year proof-of-concept period for demonstrating that the site groundwater model is capable of producing meaningful results with an acceptable level of uncertainty. The corrective action plan specifies a rigorous seven step validation process. The accepted groundwater model is evaluated using that process in light of the newly acquired data. The conceptual model of ground water flow for the Project Shoal Area considers groundwater flow through the fractured granite aquifer comprising the Sand Springs Range. Water enters the system by the infiltration of precipitation directly on the surface of the mountain range. Groundwater leaves the granite aquifer by flowing into alluvial deposits in the adjacent basins of Fourmile Flat and Fairview Valley. A groundwater divide is interpreted as coinciding with the western portion of the Sand Springs Range, west of the underground nuclear test, preventing flow from the test into Fourmile Flat. A very low conductivity shear zone east of the nuclear test roughly parallels the divide. The presence of these lateral boundaries, coupled with a regional discharge area to the northeast, is interpreted in the model as causing groundwater from the site to flow in a northeastward direction into Fairview Valley. Steady-state flow conditions are assumed given the absence of
Olsen, H.J. . Geology Dept.)
1993-04-01
Ignimbrites of the Eocene Twin Peaks caldera (Hardyman, 1982) in central Idaho's Challis Volcanic Field comprise both caldera-fill and outflow facies. The vents and mode of emplacement of these ignimbrites are problematic, because the Twin Peaks caldera has been strongly structurally disrupted, and lineations are sparse in the ignimbrites. Six oriented samples from three separate cooling units were studied using the Fry center-to-center method (Seaman and Williams, 1992) in order to determine flow lineation and flow direction of the ignimbrites inside the caldera. Flow lineation is defined in the plane parallel to flattened pumice and assumes that phenocryst are at maximum spacing in this plane. The flow lineation then coincides with the long axis of a center-to-center ellipse. Flow direction is defined in the plane perpendicular to flattening, which is inclined with respect to the flow plane and dips towards the source of flow. Four of five samples from the upper two cooling units near the thickest part of the caldera fill have well developed center-to-center strain ellipsoids producing flow lineations oriented N35W ([+-]7[degree]). The samples from the bottom cooling unit also has a well developed strain ellipsoid, but with a lineation oriented N80E. The difference in flow lineation suggests that the lowest cooling unit had a separate vent. Strain analysis of perpendicular sections are underway to establish the flow direction of the ignimbrites.
Flow cytometric life cycle analysis in cellular radiation biology
Wood, J.C.S.
1982-01-01
Three approaches to flow cytometric histogram analysis were developed: (1) differential histogram analysis, (2) DNA histogram analysis, and (3) multiparameter data analysis. These techniques were applied to an important unresolved problem in radiation biology. The initial responses to irradiation of a mammalian cell which occur during the first two cell cycles following the irradiation are of considerable interest to the radiation biologist. During the first two post-irradiation cell cycles, cells which ultimately will survive repair radiation-induced damage, while some cells begin to express some of the radiation-induced nuclear and chomatin damage. Caffeine- and thymidine-treated, and untreated gamma-irradiated cell populations were studied with respect to the radiation-induced G2 delay, deficient DNA synthesis, and the appearance of cells with abnormal DNA contents. It is hypothesized that the measured deficiency in DNA synthesis observed in the first post-irradiation cell cycle may be a result of daughter cells from abnormal first post-irradiation mitoses.
Habib, Komal; Schibye, Peter Klausen; Vestbø, Andreas Peter; Dall, Ole; Wenzel, Henrik
2014-10-21
Neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets have become highly desirable for modern hi-tech applications. These magnets, in general, contain two key rare earth elements (REEs), i.e., neodymium (Nd) and dysprosium (Dy), which are responsible for the very high strength of these magnets, allowing for considerable size and weight reduction in modern applications. This study aims to explore the current and future potential of a secondary supply of neodymium and dysprosium from recycling of NdFeB magnets. For this purpose, material flow analysis (MFA) has been carried out to perform the detailed mapping of stocks and flows of NdFeB magnets in Denmark. A novel element of this study is the value added to the traditionally practiced MFAs at national and/or global levels by complementing them with a comprehensive sampling and elemental analysis of NdFeB magnets, taken out from a sample of 157 different products representing 18 various product types. The results show that the current amount of neodymium and dysprosium in NdFeB magnets present in the Danish waste stream is only 3 and 0.2 Mg, respectively. However, this number is estimated to increase to 175 Mg of neodymium and 11.4 Mg of dysprosium by 2035. Nevertheless, efficient recovery of these elements from a very diverse electronic waste stream remains a logistic and economic challenge.
Aqueous semi-solid flow cell: demonstration and analysis.
Li, Zheng; Smith, Kyle C; Dong, Yajie; Baram, Nir; Fan, Frank Y; Xie, Jing; Limthongkul, Pimpa; Carter, W Craig; Chiang, Yet-Ming
2013-10-14
An aqueous Li-ion flow cell using suspension-based flow electrodes based on the LiTi2(PO4)3-LiFePO4 couple is demonstrated. Unlike conventional flow batteries, the semi-solid approach utilizes fluid electrodes that are electronically conductive. A model of simultaneous advection and electrochemical transport is developed and used to separate flow-induced losses from those due to underlying side reactions. The importance of plug flow to achieving high energy efficiency in flow batteries utilizing highly non-Newtonian flow electrodes is emphasized.
Aqueous semi-solid flow cell: demonstration and analysis
Li, Z; Smith, KC; Dong, YJ; Baram, N; Fan, FY; Xie, J; Limthongkul, P; Carter, WC; Chiang, YM
2013-01-01
An aqueous Li-ion flow cell using suspension-based flow electrodes based on the LiTi2(PO4)(3)-LiFePO4 couple is demonstrated. Unlike conventional flow batteries, the semi-solid approach utilizes fluid electrodes that are electronically conductive. A model of simultaneous advection and electrochemical transport is developed and used to separate flow-induced losses from those due to underlying side reactions. The importance of plug flow to achieving high energy efficiency in flow batteries utilizing highly non-Newtonian flow electrodes is emphasized.
Geomorphic signatures on Brutsaert base flow recession analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mutzner, Raphaël.; Bertuzzo, Enrico; Tarolli, Paolo; Weijs, Steven V.; Nicotina, Ludovico; Ceola, Serena; Tomasic, Nevena; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Parlange, Marc B.; Rinaldo, Andrea
2013-09-01
This paper addresses the signatures of catchment geomorphology on base flow recession curves. Its relevance relates to the implied predictability of base flow features, which are central to catchment-scale transport processes and to ecohydrological function. Moving from the classical recession curve analysis method, originally applied in the Finger Lakes Region of New York, a large set of recession curves has been analyzed from Swiss streamflow data. For these catchments, digital elevation models have been precisely analyzed and a method aimed at the geomorphic origins of recession curves has been applied to the Swiss data set. The method links river network morphology, epitomized by time-varying distribution of contributing channel sites, with the classic parameterization of recession events. This is done by assimilating two scaling exponents, β and bG, with |dQ/dt| ∝ Qβ where Q is at-a-station gauged flow rate and N(l) ∝ N>(l>)∝G>(l>)bG where l is the downstream distance from the channel heads receding in time, N(l) is the number of draining channel reaches located at distance l from their heads, and G(l) is the total drainage network length at a distance greater or equal to l, the active drainage network. We find that the method provides good results in catchments where drainage density can be regarded as spatially constant. A correction to the method is proposed which accounts for arbitrary local drainage densities affecting the local drainage inflow per unit channel length. Such corrections properly vanish when the drainage density become spatially constant. Overall, definite geomorphic signatures are recognizable for recession curves, with notable theoretical and practical implications.
Interactive retinal blood flow analysis of the macular region.
Tian, Jing; Somfai, Gábor Márk; Campagnoli, Thalmon R; Smiddy, William E; Debuc, Delia Cabrera
2016-03-01
The study of retinal hemodynamics plays an important role to understand the onset and progression of diabetic retinopathy. In this work, we developed an interactive retinal analysis tool to quantitatively measure the blood flow velocity (BFV) and blood flow rate (BFR) in the macular region using the Retinal Function Imager (RFI). By employing a high definition stroboscopic fundus camera, the RFI device is able to assess retinal blood flow characteristics in vivo. However, the measurements of BFV using a user-guided vessel segmentation tool may induce significant inter-observer differences and BFR is not provided in the built-in software. In this work, we have developed an interactive tool to assess the retinal BFV and BFR in the macular region. Optical coherence tomography data was registered with the RFI image to locate the fovea accurately. The boundaries of the vessels were delineated on a motion contrast enhanced image and BFV was computed by maximizing the cross-correlation of pixel intensities in a ratio video. Furthermore, we were able to calculate the BFR in absolute values (μl/s). Experiments were conducted on 122 vessels from 5 healthy and 5 mild non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) subjects. The Pearson's correlation of the vessel diameter measurements between our method and manual labeling on 40 vessels was 0.984. The intraclass correlation (ICC) of BFV between our proposed method and built-in software was 0.924 and 0.830 for vessels from healthy and NPDR subjects, respectively. The coefficient of variation between repeated sessions was reduced significantly from 22.5% to 15.9% in our proposed method (p<0.001).
Flow cytometric fluorescence lifetime analysis of DNA binding fluorochromes
Crissman, Harry A.; Cui, H. H.; Steinkamp, J. A.
2002-01-01
Most flow cytometry (FCM) applications monitor fluorescence intensity to quantitate the various cellular parameters; however, the fluorescence emission also contains information relative to the fluorescence lifetime. Recent developments in FCM (Pinsky et al., 1993; Steinkamp & Crissman, 1993; Steinkamp et al., 1993), provide for the measurement of fluorescence lifetime which is also commonly referred to as fluorescence decay, or the time interval in which a fluorochrome remains in the excited state. Many unbound fluorochromes have characteristic lifetime values that are determined by their molecular structure; however, when the probe becomes bound, the lifetime value is influenced by a number of factors that affect the probe interaction with a target molecule. Monitoring the changes in the lifetime of the probe yields information relating to the molecular conformation, the functional state or activity of the molecular target. In addition, the lifetime values can be used as signatures to resolve the emissions of multiple fluorochrome labels with overlapping emission spectra that cannot be resolved by conventional FCM methodology. Such strategies can increase the number of fluorochrome combinations used in a flow cytometer with a single excitation source. Our studies demonstrate various applications of lifetime measurements for the analysis of the binding of different fluorochromes to DNA in single cells. Data presented in this session will show the utility of lifetime measurements for monitoring changes in chromatin structure associated with cell cycle progression, cellular differentiation, or DNA damage, such as induced during apoptosis. Several studies show that dyes with specificity for nucleic acids display different lifetime values when bound to DNA or to dsRNA. The Phase Sensitive Flow Cytometer is a multiparameter instrument, capable of performing lifetime measurements in conjunction with all the conventional FCM measurements. Future modifications of this
Assessing computer waste generation in Chile using material flow analysis.
Steubing, Bernhard; Böni, Heinz; Schluep, Mathias; Silva, Uca; Ludwig, Christian
2010-03-01
The quantities of e-waste are expected to increase sharply in Chile. The purpose of this paper is to provide a quantitative data basis on generated e-waste quantities. A material flow analysis was carried out assessing the generation of e-waste from computer equipment (desktop and laptop PCs as well as CRT and LCD-monitors). Import and sales data were collected from the Chilean Customs database as well as from publications by the International Data Corporation. A survey was conducted to determine consumers' choices with respect to storage, re-use and disposal of computer equipment. The generation of e-waste was assessed in a baseline as well as upper and lower scenarios until 2020. The results for the baseline scenario show that about 10,000 and 20,000 tons of computer waste may be generated in the years 2010 and 2020, respectively. The cumulative e-waste generation will be four to five times higher in the upcoming decade (2010-2019) than during the current decade (2000-2009). By 2020, the shares of LCD-monitors and laptops will increase more rapidly replacing other e-waste including the CRT-monitors. The model also shows the principal flows of computer equipment from production and sale to recycling and disposal. The re-use of computer equipment plays an important role in Chile. An appropriate recycling scheme will have to be introduced to provide adequate solutions for the growing rate of e-waste generation.
Simple and clean determination of tetracyclines by flow injection analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodríguez, Michael Pérez; Pezza, Helena Redigolo; Pezza, Leonardo
2016-01-01
An environmentally reliable analytical methodology was developed for direct quantification of tetracycline (TC) and oxytetracycline (OTC) using continuous flow injection analysis with spectrophotometric detection. The method is based on the diazo coupling reaction between the tetracyclines and diazotized sulfanilic acid in a basic medium, resulting in the formation of an intense orange azo compound that presents maximum absorption at 434 nm. Experimental design was used to optimize the analytical conditions. The proposed technique was validated over the concentration range of 1 to 40 μg mL- 1, and was successfully applied to samples of commercial veterinary pharmaceuticals. The detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) limits were 0.40 and 1.35 μg mL- 1, respectively. The samples were also analyzed by an HPLC method, and the results showed agreement with the proposed technique. The new flow injection method can be immediately used for quality control purposes in the pharmaceutical industry, facilitating monitoring in real time during the production processes of tetracycline formulations for veterinary use.
Analysis of flow behavior in fractured lithophysal reservoirs
Liu, Jianchun; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Wu, Yu-Shu
2002-09-01
This study develops a mathematical model for the analysis of pressure behavior in fractured lithophysal reservoirs. The lithophysal rock is described as a tri-continuum medium, consisting of fractures, rock matrices, and cavities. In the conceptual model, fractures have homogeneous properties throughout and interact with rock matrices and cavities that have different permeabilities and porosities. Global flow occurs through the fracture network only, while rock matrices and cavities contain the majority of fluid storage and provide fluid drainage to the fractures. Interporosity flows between the triple media are described using a pseudosteady-state concept and the system is characterized by interporosity transmissivity ratios and storativity ratio of each continuum. Pressure behavior is analyzed by examining the pressure drawdown curves, the derivative plots, and the effects of the characteristic parameters. Typical pressure responses from fractures, matrices, and cavities are represented by three semilog straight lines; the transitions by two troughs below the stabilization lines in the derivative plots. The analytical solution to the proposed model is further verified using a numerical simulation. The analytical model has also been applied to a published field-buildup well test and is able to match the pressure buildup data.
Quantitation of glycerophosphorylcholine by flow injection analysis using immobilized enzymes.
Mancini, A; Del Rosso, F; Roberti, R; Caligiana, P; Vecchini, A; Binaglia, L
1996-09-20
A method for quantitating glycerophosphorylcholine by flow injection analysis is reported in the present paper. Glycerophosphorylcholine phosphodiesterase and choline oxidase, immobilized on controlled porosity glass beads, are packed in a small reactor inserted in a flow injection manifold. When samples containing glycerophosphorylcholine are injected, glycerophosphorylcholine is hydrolyzed into choline and sn-glycerol-3-phosphate. The free choline produced in this reaction is oxidized to betain and hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide is detected amperometrically. Quantitation of glycerophosphorylcholine in samples containing choline and phosphorylcholine is obtained inserting ahead of the reactor a small column packed with a mixed bed ion exchange resin. The time needed for each determination does not exceed one minute. The present method, applied to quantitate glycerophosphorylcholine in samples of seminal plasma, gave results comparable with those obtained using the standard enzymatic-spectrophotometric procedure. An alternative procedure, making use of co-immobilized glycerophosphorylcholine phosphodiesterase and glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase for quantitating glycerophosphorylcholine, glycerophosphorylethanolamine and glycerophosphorylserine is also described. PMID:8905629
Bianalyte multicommutated flow analysis system for microproteinuria diagnostics.
Strzelak, Kamil; Misztal, Jagoda; Tymecki, Łukasz; Koncki, Robert
2016-02-01
In this work a bianalyte multicommutated flow analysis (MCFA) system for determination of microproteinuria is presented. The developed MCFA system is based on two dedicated optoelectronic flow-through detectors which allow estimation of urinary protein creatinine ratio. For total protein determination, turbidimetric Exton's method was used, whereas creatinine was determined by the photometric Jaffe reaction. The developed analytical system is fully-mechanized, easy to operate, economic in reagent consumption and characterized by satisfactory analytical parameters. It allows protein determination in the range 36-300 mg L(-1) with 33 mg L(-1) detection limit and simultaneous determination of creatinine in the range 0.045-2.50 mmol L(-1) with 0.025 mmol L(-1) detection limit. The measurement procedure for the presented MCFA system offers performing 30 peaks per hour for both analytes. To prove the analytical usefulness of the system, real human urine samples have been analyzed. The correlation and agreement between results offered by the developed system and clinical analyzers are fully acceptable.
Simple and clean determination of tetracyclines by flow injection analysis.
Rodríguez, Michael Pérez; Pezza, Helena Redigolo; Pezza, Leonardo
2016-01-15
An environmentally reliable analytical methodology was developed for direct quantification of tetracycline (TC) and oxytetracycline (OTC) using continuous flow injection analysis with spectrophotometric detection. The method is based on the diazo coupling reaction between the tetracyclines and diazotized sulfanilic acid in a basic medium, resulting in the formation of an intense orange azo compound that presents maximum absorption at 434 nm. Experimental design was used to optimize the analytical conditions. The proposed technique was validated over the concentration range of 1 to 40 μg mL(-1), and was successfully applied to samples of commercial veterinary pharmaceuticals. The detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) limits were 0.40 and 1.35 μg mL(-1), respectively. The samples were also analyzed by an HPLC method, and the results showed agreement with the proposed technique. The new flow injection method can be immediately used for quality control purposes in the pharmaceutical industry, facilitating monitoring in real time during the production processes of tetracycline formulations for veterinary use.
Transonic Flow Field Analysis for Wing-Fuselage Configurations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Boppe, C. W.
1980-01-01
A computational method for simulating the aerodynamics of wing-fuselage configurations at transonic speeds is developed. The finite difference scheme is characterized by a multiple embedded mesh system coupled with a modified or extended small disturbance flow equation. This approach permits a high degree of computational resolution in addition to coordinate system flexibility for treating complex realistic aircraft shapes. To augment the analysis method and permit applications to a wide range of practical engineering design problems, an arbitrary fuselage geometry modeling system is incorporated as well as methodology for computing wing viscous effects. Configuration drag is broken down into its friction, wave, and lift induced components. Typical computed results for isolated bodies, isolated wings, and wing-body combinations are presented. The results are correlated with experimental data. A computer code which employs this methodology is described.
Thermal hydraulic analysis of the annular flow helium heater design
Chen, N.C.; Sanders, J.P.
1982-05-01
Oak Ridge National Laboratory has conducted Core Support Performance Test (CSPT) by use of an existing facility, Component Flow Test Loop (CFTL), as part of the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) application program. A major objective of the CSPT is to study accelerated corrosion of the core graphite support structure in helium at reactor conditions. Concentration of impurities will be adjusted so that a 6-month test represents the 30-year reactor life. Thermal hydraulic and structural integrity of the graphite specimen, among other things, will be studied at high pressure of 7.24 MPa (1050 psi) and high temperature of 1000/sup 0/C (1832/sup 0/F) in a test vessel. To achieve the required high temperature at the test section, a heater bundle has to be specially designed and properly manufactured. This report presents performance characteristics of the heater that were determined from an analysis based on this design.
1992 Columbia River Salmon Flow Measures Options Analysis/EIS.
Not Available
1992-01-01
This Options Analysis/Environmental Impact Statement (OA/EIS) identifies, presents effects of, and evaluates the potential options for changing instream flow levels in efforts to increase salmon populations in the lower Columbia and Snake rivers. The potential actions would be implemented during 1992 to benefit juvenile and adult salmon during migration through eight run-of-river reservoirs. The Corps of Engineers (Corps) prepared this document in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration and the Bureau of Reclamation. The US Fish and Wildlife Service (FSWS) is a participating agency. The text and appendices of the document describe the characteristics of 10 Federal projects and one private water development project in the Columbia River drainage basin. Present and potential operation of these projects and their effects on the salmon that spawn and rear in the Columbia and Snake River System are presented. The life history, status, and response of Pacific salmon to current environmental conditions are described.
Navier-Stokes analysis of transonic cascade flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arnone, A.; Liou, M.-S.; Povinelli, L.
1990-01-01
A new kind of C-type grid is proposed, this grid is non-periodic on the wake and allows minimum skewness for cascades with high turning and large camber. Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are solved on this type of grid using a finite volume discretization and a full multigrid method which uses Runge-Kutta stepping as the driving scheme. The Baldwin-Lomax eddy-viscosity model is used for turbulence closure. A detailed numerical study is proposed for a highly loaded transonic blade. A grid independence analysis is presented in terms of pressure distribution, exit flow angles, and loss coefficient. Comparison with experiments clearly demonstrates the capability of the proposed procedure.
Task 7: Endwall treatment inlet flow distortion analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hall, E. J.; Topp, D. A.; Heidegger, N. J.; McNulty, G. S.; Weber, K. F.; Delaney, R. A.
1996-01-01
The overall objective of this study was to develop a 3-D numerical analysis for compressor casing treatment flowfields, and to perform a series of detailed numerical predictions to assess the effectiveness of various endwall treatments for enhancing the efficiency and stall margin of modern high speed fan rotors. Particular attention was given to examining the effectiveness of endwall treatments to counter the undesirable effects of inflow distortion. Calculations were performed using three different gridding techniques based on the type of casing treatment being tested and the level of complexity desired in the analysis. In each case, the casing treatment itself is modeled as a discrete object in the overall analysis, and the flow through the casing treatment is determined as part of the solution. A series of calculations were performed for both treated and untreated modern fan rotors both with and without inflow distortion. The effectiveness of the various treatments were quantified, and several physical mechanisms by which the effectiveness of endwall treatments is achieved are discussed.
Unsteady Analysis of Turbine Main Flow Coupled with Secondary Air Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hah, Chunill
2006-01-01
Two numerical approaches are used to model the interaction between the turbine main gas flow and the wheelspace cavity seal flow. The 3-D, unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are solved with a CFD code based on a structured grid to study the interaction between the turbine main gas flow and the wheelspace cavity seal flow. A CFD code based on an unstructured grid is used to solve detailed flow feature in the cavity seal which has a complex geometry. The numerical results confirm various observations from earlier experimental studies under similar flow conditions. When the flow rate through the rim cavity seal is increased, the ingestion of the main turbine flow into the rim seal area decreases drastically. However, a small amount of main gas flow is ingested to the rim seal area even with very high level of seal flow rate. This is due to the complex nature of 3-D, unsteady flow interaction near the hub of the turbine stage.
Remote calorimetric detection of urea via flow injection analysis.
Gaddes, David E; Demirel, Melik C; Reeves, W Brian; Tadigadapa, Srinivas
2015-12-01
The design and development of a calorimetric biosensing system enabling relatively high throughput sample analysis are reported. The calorimetric biosensor system consists of a thin (∼20 μm) micromachined Y-cut quartz crystal resonator (QCR) as a temperature sensor placed in close proximity to a fluidic chamber packed with an immobilized enzyme. Layer by layer enzyme immobilization of urease is demonstrated and its activity as a function of the number of layers, pH, and time has been evaluated. This configuration enables a sensing system where a transducer element is physically separated from the analyte solution of interest and is thereby free from fouling effects typically associated with biochemical reactions occuring on the sensor surface. The performance of this biosensing system is demonstrated by detection of 1-200 mM urea in phosphate buffer via a flow injection analysis (FIA) technique. Miniaturized fluidic systems were used to provide continuous flow through a reaction column. Under this configuration the biosensor has an ultimate resolution of less than 1 mM urea and showed a linear response between 0-50 mM. This work demonstrates a sensing modality in which the sensor itself is not fouled or contaminated by the solution of interest and the enzyme immobilized Kapton® fluidic reaction column can be used as a disposable cartridge. Such a system enables reuse and reliability for long term sampling measurements. Based on this concept a biosensing system is envisioned which can perform rapid measurements to detect biomarkers such as glucose, creatinine, cholesterol, urea and lactate in urine and blood continuously over extended periods of time. PMID:26479269
High throughput analysis of samples in flowing liquid
Ambrose, W. Patrick; Grace, W. Kevin; Goodwin, Peter M.; Jett, James H.; Orden, Alan Van; Keller, Richard A.
2001-01-01
Apparatus and method enable imaging multiple fluorescent sample particles in a single flow channel. A flow channel defines a flow direction for samples in a flow stream and has a viewing plane perpendicular to the flow direction. A laser beam is formed as a ribbon having a width effective to cover the viewing plane. Imaging optics are arranged to view the viewing plane to form an image of the fluorescent sample particles in the flow stream, and a camera records the image formed by the imaging optics.
Development of a three-dimensional supersonic inlet flow analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buggeln, R. C.; Mcdonald, H.; Levy, R.; Kreskovsky, J. P.
1980-01-01
A method for computing three dimensional flow in supersonic inlets is described. An approximate set of governing equations is given for viscous flows which have a primary flow direction. The governing equations are written in general orthogonal coordinates. These equations are modified in the subsonic region of the flow to prevent the phenomenon of branching. Results are presented for the two sample cases: a Mach number equals 2.5 flow in a square duct, and a Mach number equals 3.0 flow in a research jet engine inlet. In the latter case the computed results are compared with the experimental data. A users' manual is included.
Analysis of a space emergency ammonia dump using the FLOW-NET two-phase flow program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Navickas, J.; Rivard, W. C.
1992-01-01
Venting of cryogenic and non-cryogenic fluids to a vacuum or a very low pressure will take place in many space-based systems that are currently being designed. This may cause liquid freezing either internally within the flow circuit or on external spacecraft surfaces. Typical ammonia flow circuits were investigated to determine the effect of the geometric configuration and initial temperature, pressure, and void fraction on the freezing characteristics of the system. The analysis was conducted also to investigate the ranges of applicability of the FLOW-NET program. It was shown that a typical system can be vented to very low liquid fractions before freezing occurs. However, very small restrictions in the flow circuit can hasten the inception of freezing. The FLOW-NET program provided solutions over broad ranges of system conditions, such as venting of an ammonia tank, initially completely filled with liquid, through a series of contracting and expanding line cross sections to near-vacuum conditions.
Flow interaction based propagation model and bursty influence behavior analysis of Internet flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Xiao-Yu; Gu, Ren-Tao; Ji, Yue-Feng
2016-11-01
QoS (quality of service) fluctuations caused by Internet bursty flows influence the user experience in the Internet, such as the increment of packet loss and transmission time. In this paper, we establish a mathematical model to study the influence propagation behavior of the bursty flow, which is helpful for developing a deep understanding of the network dynamics in the Internet complex system. To intuitively reflect the propagation process, a data flow interaction network with a hierarchical structure is constructed, where the neighbor order is proposed to indicate the neighborhood relationship between the bursty flow and other flows. The influence spreads from the bursty flow to each order of neighbors through flow interactions. As the influence spreads, the bursty flow has negative effects on the odd order neighbors and positive effects on the even order neighbors. The influence intensity of bursty flow decreases sharply between two adjacent orders and the decreasing degree can reach up to dozens of times in the experimental simulation. Moreover, the influence intensity increases significantly when network congestion situation becomes serious, especially for the 1st order neighbors. Network structural factors are considered to make a further study. Simulation results show that the physical network scale expansion can reduce the influence intensity of bursty flow by decreasing the flow distribution density. Furthermore, with the same network scale, the influence intensity in WS small-world networks is 38.18% and 18.40% lower than that in ER random networks and BA scale-free networks, respectively, due to a lower interaction probability between flows. These results indicate that the macro-structural changes such as network scales and styles will affect the inner propagation behaviors of the bursty flow.
High Resolution Continuous Flow Analysis System for Polar Ice Cores
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dallmayr, Remi; Azuma, Kumiko; Yamada, Hironobu; Kjær, Helle Astrid; Vallelonga, Paul; Azuma, Nobuhiko; Takata, Morimasa
2014-05-01
In the last decades, Continuous Flow Analysis (CFA) technology for ice core analyses has been developed to reconstruct the past changes of the climate system 1), 2). Compared with traditional analyses of discrete samples, a CFA system offers much faster and higher depth resolution analyses. It also generates a decontaminated sample stream without time-consuming sample processing procedure by using the inner area of an ice-core sample.. The CFA system that we have been developing is currently able to continuously measure stable water isotopes 3) and electrolytic conductivity, as well as to collect discrete samples for the both inner and outer areas with variable depth resolutions. Chemistry analyses4) and methane-gas analysis 5) are planned to be added using the continuous water stream system 5). In order to optimize the resolution of the current system with minimal sample volumes necessary for different analyses, our CFA system typically melts an ice core at 1.6 cm/min. Instead of using a wire position encoder with typical 1mm positioning resolution 6), we decided to use a high-accuracy CCD Laser displacement sensor (LKG-G505, Keyence). At the 1.6 cm/min melt rate, the positioning resolution was increased to 0.27mm. Also, the mixing volume that occurs in our open split debubbler is regulated using its weight. The overflow pumping rate is smoothly PID controlled to maintain the weight as low as possible, while keeping a safety buffer of water to avoid air bubbles downstream. To evaluate the system's depth-resolution, we will present the preliminary data of electrolytic conductivity obtained by melting 12 bags of the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) ice core. The samples correspond to different climate intervals (Greenland Stadial 21, 22, Greenland Stadial 5, Greenland Interstadial 5, Greenland Interstadial 7, Greenland Stadial 8). We will present results for the Greenland Stadial -8, whose depths and ages are between 1723.7 and 1724.8 meters, and 35.520 to
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reding, J. P.; Ericsson, L. E.
1976-01-01
An exploratory analysis has been made of the aeroelastic stability of the Space Shuttle Launch Configuration, with the objective of defining critical flow phenomena with adverse aeroelastic effects and developing simple analytic means of describing the time-dependent flow-interference effects so that they can be incorporated into a computer program to predict the aeroelastic stability of all free-free modes of the shuttle launch configuration. Three critical flow phenomana have been identified: (1) discontinuous jump of orbiter wing shock, (2) inlet flow between orbiter and booster, and (3) H.O. tank base flow. All involve highly nonlinear and often discontinuous aerodynamics which cause limit cycle oscillations of certain critical modes. Given the appropriate static data, the dynamic effects of the wing shock jump and the HO tank bulbous base effect can be analyzed using the developed quasi-steady techniques. However, further analytic and experimental efforts are required before the dynamic effects of the inlet flow phenomenon can be predicted for the shuttle launch configuration.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1995-01-01
An evaluation of the effect of model inlet air temperature drift during a test run was performed to aid in the decision on the need for and/or the schedule for including heaters in the SRMAFTE. The Sverdrup acceptance test data was used to determine the drift in air temperature during runs over the entire range of delivered flow rates and pressures. The effect of this temperature drift on the model Reynolds number was also calculated. It was concluded from this study that a 2% change in absolute temperature during a test run could be adequately accounted for by the data analysis program. A handout package of these results was prepared and presented to ED35 management.
International Trade Modelling Using Open Flow Networks: A Flow-Distance Based Analysis.
Shen, Bin; Zhang, Jiang; Li, Yixiao; Zheng, Qiuhua; Li, Xingsen
2015-01-01
This paper models and analyzes international trade flows using open flow networks (OFNs) with the approaches of flow distances, which provide a novel perspective and effective tools for the study of international trade. We discuss the establishment of OFNs of international trade from two coupled viewpoints: the viewpoint of trading commodity flow and that of money flow. Based on the novel model with flow distance approaches, meaningful insights are gained. First, by introducing the concepts of trade trophic levels and niches, countries' roles and positions in the global supply chains (or value-added chains) can be evaluated quantitatively. We find that the distributions of trading "trophic levels" have the similar clustering pattern for different types of commodities, and summarize some regularities between money flow and commodity flow viewpoints. Second, we find that active and competitive countries trade a wide spectrum of products, while inactive and underdeveloped countries trade a limited variety of products. Besides, some abnormal countries import many types of goods, which the vast majority of countries do not need to import. Third, harmonic node centrality is proposed and we find the phenomenon of centrality stratification. All the results illustrate the usefulness of the model of OFNs with its network approaches for investigating international trade flows. PMID:26569618
International Trade Modelling Using Open Flow Networks: A Flow-Distance Based Analysis
Shen, Bin; Zhang, Jiang; Li, Yixiao; Zheng, Qiuhua; Li, Xingsen
2015-01-01
This paper models and analyzes international trade flows using open flow networks (OFNs) with the approaches of flow distances, which provide a novel perspective and effective tools for the study of international trade. We discuss the establishment of OFNs of international trade from two coupled viewpoints: the viewpoint of trading commodity flow and that of money flow. Based on the novel model with flow distance approaches, meaningful insights are gained. First, by introducing the concepts of trade trophic levels and niches, countries’ roles and positions in the global supply chains (or value-added chains) can be evaluated quantitatively. We find that the distributions of trading “trophic levels” have the similar clustering pattern for different types of commodities, and summarize some regularities between money flow and commodity flow viewpoints. Second, we find that active and competitive countries trade a wide spectrum of products, while inactive and underdeveloped countries trade a limited variety of products. Besides, some abnormal countries import many types of goods, which the vast majority of countries do not need to import. Third, harmonic node centrality is proposed and we find the phenomenon of centrality stratification. All the results illustrate the usefulness of the model of OFNs with its network approaches for investigating international trade flows. PMID:26569618
International Trade Modelling Using Open Flow Networks: A Flow-Distance Based Analysis.
Shen, Bin; Zhang, Jiang; Li, Yixiao; Zheng, Qiuhua; Li, Xingsen
2015-01-01
This paper models and analyzes international trade flows using open flow networks (OFNs) with the approaches of flow distances, which provide a novel perspective and effective tools for the study of international trade. We discuss the establishment of OFNs of international trade from two coupled viewpoints: the viewpoint of trading commodity flow and that of money flow. Based on the novel model with flow distance approaches, meaningful insights are gained. First, by introducing the concepts of trade trophic levels and niches, countries' roles and positions in the global supply chains (or value-added chains) can be evaluated quantitatively. We find that the distributions of trading "trophic levels" have the similar clustering pattern for different types of commodities, and summarize some regularities between money flow and commodity flow viewpoints. Second, we find that active and competitive countries trade a wide spectrum of products, while inactive and underdeveloped countries trade a limited variety of products. Besides, some abnormal countries import many types of goods, which the vast majority of countries do not need to import. Third, harmonic node centrality is proposed and we find the phenomenon of centrality stratification. All the results illustrate the usefulness of the model of OFNs with its network approaches for investigating international trade flows.
Micropollutants in urban watersheds : substance flow analysis as management tool
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rossi, L.; Copin, P. J.; Barry, A. D.; Bader, H.-P.; Scheidegger, R.; Chèvre, N.
2009-04-01
Micropollutants released by cities into water are of increasing concern as they are suspected of inducing long-term effects on both aquatic organisms and humans (eg., hormonally active substances). Substances found in the urban water cycle have different sources in the urban area and different fates in this cycle. For example, the pollutants emitted from traffic, like copper or PAHs get to surface water during rain events often without any treatment. Pharmaceuticals resulting from human medical treatments get to surface water mainly through wastewater treatment plants, where they are only partly treated and eliminated. One other source of contamination in urban areas for these compounds are combined sewer overflows (CSOs). Once in the receiving waters (lakes, rivers, groundwater), these substances may re-enter the cycle through drinking water. It is therefore crucial to study the behaviour of micropollutants in the urban water cycle and to get flexible tools for urban water management. Substance flow analysis (SFA) has recently been proposed as instrument for water pollution management in urban water systems. This kind of analysis is an extension of material flow analysis (MFA) originally developed in the economic sector and later adapted to regional investigations. In this study, we propose to test the application of SFA for a large number of classes of micropollutants to evaluate its use for urban water management. We chose the city of Lausanne as case study since the receiving water of this city (Lake Geneva) is an important source of drinking water for the surrounding population. Moreover a profound system-knowledge and many data were available, both on the sewer system and the water quality. We focus our study on one heavy metal (copper) and four pharmaceuticals (diclofenac, ibuprofen, carbamazepine and naproxen). Results conducted on copper reveals that around 1500 kg of copper enter the aquatic compartment yearly. This amount contributes to sediment
Carcinoma of the anal canal and flow cytometric DNA analysis.
Scott, N. A.; Beart, R. W.; Weiland, L. H.; Cha, S. S.; Lieber, M. M.
1989-01-01
Using flow cytometric DNA analysis of paraffin embedded tissue, DNA histograms were successfully obtained from the anal cancers of 117 patients. DNA diploid patterns were given by 82 cancers (70%) and DNA non-diploid patterns by 35 cancers (30%): 15 DNA aneuploid, 20 DNA tetraploid. Well differentiated squamous cell cancers were mainly DNA diploid, while a larger proportion of poorly differentiated and small cell cancers were DNA non-diploid. The large majority of stage A cancers were DNA diploid. A greater proportion of tumours that had invaded through the anal sphincter or had lymph node metastases or distant spread were DNA non-diploid. Prognosis was slightly poorer for patients with DNA non-diploid cancers when compared to patients with DNA diploid tumours (P = 0.08) and significantly poorer for individuals with DNA aneuploid anal cancers (P = 0.037). However, in a multivariate analysis model, the DNA ploidy pattern of an anal cancer was not of independent prognostic significance alongside tumour histology and tumour stage. PMID:2803916
Development of an Aeroelastic Analysis Including a Viscous Flow Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Bakhle, Milind A.
2001-01-01
Under this grant, Version 4 of the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes aeroelastic code (TURBO-AE) has been developed and verified. The TURBO-AE Version 4 aeroelastic code allows flutter calculations for a fan, compressor, or turbine blade row. This code models a vibrating three-dimensional bladed disk configuration and the associated unsteady flow (including shocks, and viscous effects) to calculate the aeroelastic instability using a work-per-cycle approach. Phase-lagged (time-shift) periodic boundary conditions are used to model the phase lag between adjacent vibrating blades. The direct-store approach is used for this purpose to reduce the computational domain to a single interblade passage. A disk storage option, implemented using direct access files, is available to reduce the large memory requirements of the direct-store approach. Other researchers have implemented 3D inlet/exit boundary conditions based on eigen-analysis. Appendix A: Aeroelastic calculations based on three-dimensional euler analysis. Appendix B: Unsteady aerodynamic modeling of blade vibration using the turbo-V3.1 code.
Uncertainty Analysis of the Grazing Flow Impedance Tube
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brown, Martha C.; Jones, Michael G.; Watson, Willie R.
2012-01-01
This paper outlines a methodology to identify the measurement uncertainty of NASA Langley s Grazing Flow Impedance Tube (GFIT) over its operating range, and to identify the parameters that most significantly contribute to the acoustic impedance prediction. Two acoustic liners are used for this study. The first is a single-layer, perforate-over-honeycomb liner that is nonlinear with respect to sound pressure level. The second consists of a wire-mesh facesheet and a honeycomb core, and is linear with respect to sound pressure level. These liners allow for evaluation of the effects of measurement uncertainty on impedances educed with linear and nonlinear liners. In general, the measurement uncertainty is observed to be larger for the nonlinear liners, with the largest uncertainty occurring near anti-resonance. A sensitivity analysis of the aerodynamic parameters (Mach number, static temperature, and static pressure) used in the impedance eduction process is also conducted using a Monte-Carlo approach. This sensitivity analysis demonstrates that the impedance eduction process is virtually insensitive to each of these parameters.
Aerothermal Analysis of the Project Fire II Afterbody Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wright, Michael J.; Loomis, Mark; Papadopoulos, Periklis; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used to simulate the wake flow and afterbody heating of the Project Fire II ballistic reentry to Earth at 11.4 km/sec. Laminar results are obtained over a portion of the trajectory between the initial heat pulse and peak afterbody heating. Although non-catalytic forebody convective heating results are in excellent agreement with previous computations, initial predictions of afterbody heating were about a factor of two below the experimental values. Further analysis suggests that significant catalysis may be occurring on the afterbody heat shield. Computations including finite-rate catalysis on the afterbody surface are in good agreement with the data over the early portion of the trajectory, but are conservative near the peak afterbody heating point, especially on the rear portion of the conical frustum. Further analysis of the flight data from Fire II shows that peak afterbody heating occurs before peak forebody heating, a result that contradicts computations and flight data from other entry vehicles. This result suggests that another mechanism, possibly pyrolysis, may be occurring during the later portion of the trajectory, resulting in less total heat transfer than the current predictions.
Scientific Visualization Using the Flow Analysis Software Toolkit (FAST)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bancroft, Gordon V.; Kelaita, Paul G.; Mccabe, R. Kevin; Merritt, Fergus J.; Plessel, Todd C.; Sandstrom, Timothy A.; West, John T.
1993-01-01
Over the past few years the Flow Analysis Software Toolkit (FAST) has matured into a useful tool for visualizing and analyzing scientific data on high-performance graphics workstations. Originally designed for visualizing the results of fluid dynamics research, FAST has demonstrated its flexibility by being used in several other areas of scientific research. These research areas include earth and space sciences, acid rain and ozone modelling, and automotive design, just to name a few. This paper describes the current status of FAST, including the basic concepts, architecture, existing functionality and features, and some of the known applications for which FAST is being used. A few of the applications, by both NASA and non-NASA agencies, are outlined in more detail. Described in the Outlines are the goals of each visualization project, the techniques or 'tricks' used lo produce the desired results, and custom modifications to FAST, if any, done to further enhance the analysis. Some of the future directions for FAST are also described.
Stormwater harvesting and WSUD frequent flow management: a compatibility analysis.
Brodie, I
2012-01-01
Harvesting stormwater from urban catchments provides a supplementary water resource and, due to the physical abstraction of polluted water, also leads to environmental benefits. These benefits include the reduction of frequent ecosystem disturbance during small storms and less waterway erosion; hydrological impacts which are currently addressed by Water Sensitive Urban Design guidelines for stormwater frequent flow management (FFM). Although FFM and stormwater harvesting share the same store-release behaviour, they have a very different underlying basis to their design and operation. This paper explores the level of compatibility between these two systems and hence the potential for their integration. It was found by water balance analysis that the harvesting storage required to maximise most yields is similar to the recommended storage volume for FFM. This analysis was performed for a temperate-climate location in South East Queensland under historically low rainfalls. Environmental benefits associated with runoff quantity and pollutant load reductions are highest when the capture storage is rapidly emptied after storms. PMID:22744693
Flow cytometric analysis of crayfish haemocytes activated by lipopolysaccharides
Cardenas, W.; Dankert, J.R.; Jenkins, J.A.
2004-01-01
Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria are strong stimulators of white river crayfish, Procambarus zonangulus, haemocytes in vitro. Following haemocyte treatment with LPS and with LPS from rough mutant R5 (LPS Rc) from Salmonella minnesota, flow cytometric analysis revealed a conspicuous and reproducible decrease in cell size as compared to control haemocytes. These LPS molecules also caused a reduction in haemocyte viability as assessed by flow cytometry with the fluorescent dyes calcein-AM and ethidium homodimer. The onset of cell size reduction was gradual and occurred prior to cell death. Haemocytes treated with LPS from S. minnesota without the Lipid A moiety (detoxified LPS) decreased in size without a reduction of viability. The action of LPS on crayfish haemocytes appeared to be related to the activation of the prophenoloxidase system because phenoloxidase (PO)-specific activity in the supernatants from control and detoxified LPS-treated cells was significantly lower than that from LPS and LPS-Rc treated cells (P < 0.05). Furthermore, addition of trypsin inhibitor to the LPS treatments caused noticeable delays in cell size and viability changes. These patterns of cellular activation by LPS formulations indicated that crayfish haemocytes react differently to the polysaccharide and lipid A moieties of LPS, where lipid A is cytotoxic and the polysaccharide portion is stimulatory. These effects concur with the general pattern of mammalian cell activation by LPS, thereby indicting commone innate immune recognition mechanisms to bacterial antigens between cells from mammals and invertebrates. These definitive molecular approaches used to verify and identify mechanisms of invertbrate haemocyte responses to LPS could be applied with other glycoconjugates, soluble mediators, or xenobiotic compounds.
In vitro pulsatility analysis of axial-flow and centrifugal-flow left ventricular assist devices.
Stanfield, J Ryan; Selzman, Craig H
2013-03-01
Recently, continuous-flow ventricular assist devices (CF-VADs) have supplanted older, pulsatile-flow pumps, for treating patients with advanced heart failure. Despite the excellent results of the newer generation devices, the effects of long-term loss of pulsatility remain unknown. The aim of this study is to compare the ability of both axial and centrifugal continuous-flow pumps to intrinsically modify pulsatility when placed under physiologically diverse conditions. Four VADs, two axial- and two centrifugal-flow, were evaluated on a mock circulatory flow system. Each VAD was operated at a constant impeller speed over three hypothetical cardiac conditions: normo-tensive, hypertensive, and hypotensive. Pulsatility index (PI) was compared for each device under each condition. Centrifugal-flow devices had a higher PI than that of axial-flow pumps. Under normo-tension, flow PI was 0.98 ± 0.03 and 1.50 ± 0.02 for the axial and centrifugal groups, respectively (p < 0.01). Under hypertension, flow PI was 1.90 ± 0.16 and 4.21 ± 0.29 for the axial and centrifugal pumps, respectively (p = 0.01). Under hypotension, PI was 0.73 ± 0.02 and 0.78 ± 0.02 for the axial and centrifugal groups, respectively (p = 0.13). All tested CF-VADs were capable of maintaining some pulsatile-flow when connected in parallel with our mock ventricle. We conclude that centrifugal-flow devices outperform the axial pumps from the basis of PI under tested conditions.
Power flow as a complement to statistical energy analysis and finite element analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cuschieri, J. M.
1987-01-01
Present methods of analysis of the structural response and the structure-borne transmission of vibrational energy use either finite element (FE) techniques or statistical energy analysis (SEA) methods. The FE methods are a very useful tool at low frequencies where the number of resonances involved in the analysis is rather small. On the other hand SEA methods can predict with acceptable accuracy the response and energy transmission between coupled structures at relatively high frequencies where the structural modal density is high and a statistical approach is the appropriate solution. In the mid-frequency range, a relatively large number of resonances exist which make finite element method too costly. On the other hand SEA methods can only predict an average level form. In this mid-frequency range a possible alternative is to use power flow techniques, where the input and flow of vibrational energy to excited and coupled structural components can be expressed in terms of input and transfer mobilities. This power flow technique can be extended from low to high frequencies and this can be integrated with established FE models at low frequencies and SEA models at high frequencies to form a verification of the method. This method of structural analysis using power flo and mobility methods, and its integration with SEA and FE analysis is applied to the case of two thin beams joined together at right angles.
Analysis of the transient compressible vapor flow in heat pipe
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jang, Jong Hoon; Faghri, Amir; Chang, Won Soon
1989-01-01
The transient compressible one-dimensional vapor flow dynamics in a heat pipe is modeled. The numerical results are obtained by using the implicit non-iterative Beam-Warming finite difference method. The model is tested for simulated heat pipe vapor flow and actual flow in cylindrical heat pipes. A good comparison of the present transient results for the simulated heat pipe vapor flow with the previous results of a two-dimensional numerical model is achieved and the steady state results are in agreement with the existing experimental data. The transient behavior of the vapor flow under subsonic, sonic, and supersonic speeds and high mass flow rates are successfully predicted. The one-dimensional model also describes the vapor flow dynamics in cylindrical heat pipes at high temperatures.
Method and apparatus for coal analysis and flow measurement
Rollwitz, W.L.; King, J.D.
1985-07-23
A flow meter apparatus and method for measuring the flow, composition and heat content of coal is set forth. In the preferred and illustrated embodiment, the free or unpaired electron population of flowing coal is measured by electron magnetic resonance (EMR); the hydrogen nucleii population is measured by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). By calibration utilizing a standard specimen for a given type of coal, a profile for various types of coal can be obtained wherein measurement data is converted into an indication of the heat content typically measured in BTU per pound. This enables provision of a volumetric flow meter, a flow meter indicating flow in calorie content. This device enables integration to provide total heat content flow. Other variables describing the coal can be obtained.
The Flow of International Students from a Macro Perspective: A Network Analysis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Barnett, George A.; Lee, Moosung; Jiang, Ke; Park, Han Woo
2016-01-01
This paper provides a network analysis of the international flow of students among 210 countries and the factors determining the structure of this flow. Among these factors, bilateral hyperlink connections between countries and the number of telephone minutes (communication variables) are the most important predictors of the flow's structure,…
Assessment of climate change and its impact on forest stream flow using wavelet analysis
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Characterization of stream flow is essential to water resource management, water supply planning, environmental protection, and ecological restoration; while climate change can exacerbate stream flow and add instability to the flow. In this study, the wavelet analysis technique was employed to asse...
"Just Clicks": An Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis of Professional Dancers' Experience of Flow
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hefferon, Kate M.; Ollis, Stewart
2006-01-01
The subjective experience of flow in professional dancers was analyzed using interpretive phenomenological analysis (IPA). Flow is believed to be a psychological state in which the mind and body "just click", creating optimal performance. Unfortunately, sport and performance research have severely neglected reviewing the flow experience in…
Analysis of Employment Flow of Landscape Architecture Graduates in Agricultural Universities
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yao, Xia; He, Linchun
2012-01-01
A statistical analysis of employment flow of landscape architecture graduates was conducted on the employment data of graduates major in landscape architecture in 2008 to 2011. The employment flow of graduates was to be admitted to graduate students, industrial direction and regional distribution, etc. Then, the features of talent flow and factors…
Finol, Ender A; Amon, Cristina H
2003-01-01
Blood flow in human arteries is dominated by time-dependent transport phenomena. In particular, in the abdominal segment of the aorta under a patient's average resting conditions, blood exhibits laminar flow patterns that are influenced by secondary flows induced by adjacent branches and in irregular vessel geometries. The flow dynamics becomes more complex when there is a pathological condition that causes changes in the normal structural composition of the vessel wall, for example, in the presence of an aneurysm. An aneurysm is an irreversible dilation of a blood vessel accompanied by weakening of the vessel wall. This work examines the importance of hemodynamics in the characterization of pulsatile blood flow patterns in individual Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) models. These patient-specific computational models have been developed for the numerical simulation of the momentum transport equations utilizing the Finite Element Method (FEM) for the spatial and temporal discretization. We characterize pulsatile flow dynamics in AAAs for average resting conditions by means of identifying regions of disturbed flow and quantifying the disturbance by evaluating wall pressure and wall shear stresses at the aneurysm wall. PMID:14515766
F-111 natural laminar flow glove flight test data analysis and boundary layer stability analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Runyan, L. J.; Navran, B. H.; Rozendaal, R. A.
1984-01-01
An analysis of 34 selected flight test data cases from a NASA flight program incorporating a natural laminar flow airfoil into partial wing gloves on the F-111 TACT airplane is given. This analysis determined the measured location of transition from laminar to turbulent flow. The report also contains the results of a boundary layer stability analysis of 25 of the selected cases in which the crossflow (C-F) and Tollmien-Schlichting (T-S) disturbance amplification factors are correlated with the measured transition location. The chord Reynolds numbers for these cases ranges from about 23 million to 29 million, the Mach numbers ranged from 0.80 to 0.85, and the glove leading-edge sweep angles ranged from 9 deg to 25 deg. Results indicate that the maximum extent of laminar flow varies from 56% chord to 9-deg sweep on the upper surface, and from 51% chord at 16-deg sweep to 6% chord at 25-deg sweep on the lower. The results of the boundary layer stability analysis indicate that when both C-F and T-S disturbances are amplified, an interaction takes place which reduces the maximum amplification factor of either type of disturbance that can be tolerated without causing transition.
Flow-Based Network Analysis of the Caenorhabditis elegans Connectome
Bacik, Karol A.; Schaub, Michael T.; Billeh, Yazan N.; Barahona, Mauricio
2016-01-01
We exploit flow propagation on the directed neuronal network of the nematode C. elegans to reveal dynamically relevant features of its connectome. We find flow-based groupings of neurons at different levels of granularity, which we relate to functional and anatomical constituents of its nervous system. A systematic in silico evaluation of the full set of single and double neuron ablations is used to identify deletions that induce the most severe disruptions of the multi-resolution flow structure. Such ablations are linked to functionally relevant neurons, and suggest potential candidates for further in vivo investigation. In addition, we use the directional patterns of incoming and outgoing network flows at all scales to identify flow profiles for the neurons in the connectome, without pre-imposing a priori categories. The four flow roles identified are linked to signal propagation motivated by biological input-response scenarios. PMID:27494178
PIV Analysis of Cavitation Flow Characteristics of He II
Harada, K.; Murakami, M.
2006-04-27
In the present experimental study cavitation phenomena in both He I and He II flows were investigated through the application of the PIV technique and visual observation under the saturated vapor pressure condition. The cavitation flow was generated in the downstream regions of a Venturi channel and a converging jet nozzle driven by a contracting metal bellows. It is seen that cavitation inception is a kind of stochastic process and has definite temperature dependence. The spatial distribution of the cavitation bubble velocity is measured by using the PIV technique. Some differences in the cavitating flow pattern and the void fraction are found between He II and He I cavitating flows. The PIV result indicates that the void fraction for He II flow is larger than that for He I flow.
CFD Analysis for Flow of Liquids in Coils
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bandyopadhyay, Tarun Kanti; Das, Sudip Kumar
2016-04-01
The effects of liquid flow rate, coil diameter, pseudo plasticity of the liquids on the frictional pressure drop for the flow through helical coils have been reported through experimental investigation. Numerical modeling is carried using Fluent 6.3 software to find its applicability in the flow system. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are carried out using laminar non-Newtonian pseudo plastic power law model for laminar flow and k-ɛ model for turbulent flow for water. Water and dilute solution of Sodium Carboxy Methyl Cellulose (SCMC) as a non-Newtonian pseudo plastic fluid used for the study. Both hexahedral and tetrahedral grids are used for this simulation. The CFD results show the very good agreement with the experimental values. The comparison of the non-Newtonian liquid flow and water are also reported.
Flow cytometry reliability analysis and variations in sugarcane DNA content.
Oliveira, A C L; Pasqual, M; Bruzi, A T; Pio, L A S; Mendonça, P M S; Soares, J D R
2015-01-01
The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of flow cytometry analysis and the use of this technique to differentiate species and varieties of sugarcane (Saccharum spp) according to their relative DNA content. We analyzed 16 varieties and three species belonging to this genus. To determine a reliable protocol, we evaluated three extraction buffers (LB01, Marie, and Tris·MgCl2), the presence and absence of RNase, six doses of propidium iodide (10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 μg), four periods of exposure to propidium iodide (0, 5, 10, and 20 min), and seven external reference standards (peas, beans, corn, radish, rye, soybean, and tomato) with reference to the coefficient of variation and the DNA content. For statistical analyses, we used the programs Sisvar(®) and Xlstat(®). We recommend using the Marie extraction buffer and at least 15 μg propidium iodide. The samples should not be analyzed immediately after the addition of propidium iodide. The use of RNase is optional, and tomato should be used as an external reference standard. The results show that sugarcane has a variable genome size (8.42 to 12.12 pg/2C) and the individuals analyzed could be separated into four groups according to their DNA content with relative equality in the genome sizes of the commercial varieties.
Automatic analysis of ciliary beat frequency using optical flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Figl, Michael; Lechner, Manuel; Werther, Tobias; Horak, Fritz; Hummel, Johann; Birkfellner, Wolfgang
2012-02-01
Ciliary beat frequency (CBF) can be a useful parameter for diagnosis of several diseases, as e.g. primary ciliary dyskinesia. (PCD). CBF computation is usually done using manual evaluation of high speed video sequences, a tedious, observer dependent, and not very accurate procedure. We used the OpenCV's pyramidal implementation of the Lukas-Kanade algorithm for optical flow computation and applied this to certain objects to follow the movements. The objects were chosen by their contrast applying the corner detection by Shi and Tomasi. Discrimination between background/noise and cilia by a frequency histogram allowed to compute the CBF. Frequency analysis was done using the Fourier transform in matlab. The correct number of Fourier summands was found by the slope in an approximation curve. The method showed to be usable to distinguish between healthy and diseased samples. However there remain difficulties in automatically identifying the cilia, and also in finding enough high contrast cilia in the image. Furthermore the some of the higher contrast cilia are lost (and sometimes found) by the method, an easy way to distinguish the correct sub-path of a point's path have yet to be found in the case where the slope methods doesn't work.
Axial and Centrifugal Compressor Mean Line Flow Analysis Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Veres, Joseph P.
2009-01-01
This paper describes a method to estimate key aerodynamic parameters of single and multistage axial and centrifugal compressors. This mean-line compressor code COMDES provides the capability of sizing single and multistage compressors quickly during the conceptual design process. Based on the compressible fluid flow equations and the Euler equation, the code can estimate rotor inlet and exit blade angles when run in the design mode. The design point rotor efficiency and stator losses are inputs to the code, and are modeled at off design. When run in the off-design analysis mode, it can be used to generate performance maps based on simple models for losses due to rotor incidence and inlet guide vane reset angle. The code can provide an improved understanding of basic aerodynamic parameters such as diffusion factor, loading levels and incidence, when matching multistage compressor blade rows at design and at part-speed operation. Rotor loading levels and relative velocity ratio are correlated to the onset of compressor surge. NASA Stage 37 and the three-stage NASA 74-A axial compressors were analyzed and the results compared to test data. The code has been used to generate the performance map for the NASA 76-B three-stage axial compressor featuring variable geometry. The compressor stages were aerodynamically matched at off-design speeds by adjusting the variable inlet guide vane and variable stator geometry angles to control the rotor diffusion factor and incidence angles.
Linear Instability Analysis for Toroidal Plasma Flow Equilibria
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varadarajan, V.; Miley, G. H.
1996-02-01
The non-self-adjoint Frieman-Rotenberg equation for the linear ideal magnetohydrodynamic modes in flow equilibria is numerically solved in shaped finite-aspect ratio axisymmetric tokamak geometry. A quadratic form is derived from this equation, and, in particular, the self-adjoint force operator with finite toroidal rotation is cast into a manifestly self-adjoint form. The toroidal rotational velocities in the subsonic regime are considered. The quadratic form is discretized by a mixed finite-element procedure in the radial direction and by Fourier modes in the periodic directions. The mode frequency of the unstable mode is located by root searching, and the final root refinement is obtained by a rapid inverse iteration procedure for complex roots. The real part of then= 1 internal kink mode scales linearly with the plasma rotation, and the imaginary part of the unstable mode is at least an order of magnitude higher in the presence of high plasma rotation velocities. The kink mode is also found to be unstable at high rotation velocities, even when the axis safety factor is above unity. The instability characterized by these features is termed here as the "centrifugal" instability. The centrifugal kink instability would have finite real parts, as shown by the plasma rotation observed in plasma devices such as tokamaks. To explain the features of this mode, the plasma rotation should be taken into account. Therein lies the usefulness of the computational analysis presented here.
Transonic analysis and design of axisymmetric bodies in nonuniform flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chang, Jen-Fu; Lan, C. Edward
1987-01-01
An inviscid nonuniform axisymmetric transonic code was developed for applications in analysis and design. Propfan slipstream effect on pressure distribution for a body with and without sting was investigated. Results show that nonuniformity causes pressure coefficient to be more negative and shock strength to be stronger and more rearward. Sting attached to a body reduced the pressure peak and moves the rear shock forward. Extent and Mach profile shapes of the nonuniformity region appeared to have little effect on the pressure distribution. Increasing nonuniformity magnitude made pressure coefficient more negative and moved the shock rearward. Design study was conducted with the CONMIN optimizer for an ellipsoid and a body with the NACA-0012 counter. For the ellipsoid, the general trend showed that to reduce the pressure drag, the front portion of the body should be thinner and the contour of the rear portion should be flatter than the ellipsoid. For the design of a body with a sharp trailing edge in transonic flow with an initial shape given by the NACA-0012 contour, the pressure drag was reduced by decreasing the nose radius and increasing the thickness in the aft portion. Drag reduction percentages are given.
Analysis of Alcove 8/Niche 3 Flow and Transport Tests
H.H. Liu
2006-09-01
The purpose of this report is to document analyses of the Alcove 8/Niche 3 flow and transport tests, with a focus on the large-infiltration-plot tests and compare pre-test model predictions with the actual test observations. The tests involved infiltration that originated from the floor of Alcove 8 (located in the Enhanced Characterization of Repository Block (ECRB) Cross Drift) and observations of seepage and tracer transport at Niche 3 (located in the Main Drift of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF)). The test results are relevant to drift seepage and solute transport in the unsaturated zone (UZ) of Yucca Mountain. The main objective of this analysis was to evaluate the modeling approaches used and the importance of the matrix diffusion process by comparing simulation and actual test observations. The pre-test predictions for the large plot test were found to differ from the observations and the reasons for the differences were documented in this report to partly address CR 6783, which concerns unexpected test results. These unexpected results are discussed and assessed with respect to the current baseline unsaturated zone radionuclide transport model in Sections 6.2.4, 6.3.2, and 6.4.
Information Flow in the Launch Vehicle Design/Analysis Process
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Humphries, W. R., Sr.; Holland, W.; Bishop, R.
1999-01-01
This paper describes the results of a team effort aimed at defining the information flow between disciplines at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) engaged in the design of space launch vehicles. The information flow is modeled at a first level and is described using three types of templates: an N x N diagram, discipline flow diagrams, and discipline task descriptions. It is intended to provide engineers with an understanding of the connections between what they do and where it fits in the overall design process of the project. It is also intended to provide design managers with a better understanding of information flow in the launch vehicle design cycle.
Extension of a three-dimensional viscous wing flow analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weinberg, Bernard C.; Chen, Shyi-Yaung; Thoren, Stephen J.; Shamroth, Stephen J.
1990-01-01
Three-dimensional unsteady viscous effects can significantly influence the performance of fixed and rotary wing aircraft. These effects are important in both flows about helicopter rotors in forward flight and flows about 3-D (swept and tapered) supercritical wings. A computational procedure for calculating such flow field is developed, and therefore would be of great value in the design process as well as in understanding the corresponding flow phenomena. The procedure is based upon an alternating direction technique employing the Linearized Block Implicit method for solving 3-D viscous flow problems. In order to demonstrate the viability of this method, 2-D and 3-D problems are computed. These include the flow over a 2-D NACA 0012 airfoil under steady and oscillating conditions, and the steady, skewed, 3-D flow on a flat plate. Although actual 3-D flows over wings were not obtained, the ground work was laid for considering such flows. The description of the computational procedure and results are given.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caballero, C. I.; Alva-Valdivia, L. M.; Morales-Barrera, W.; Rodríguez, S. R.
2013-05-01
The results of an AMS analysis carried on 36 sites from a late Miocene - Holocene volcanic stratigraphic sequence from the eastern Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt is presented. 22 sites (450 samples) belong to lava flows, mainly of basaltic composition, from different emission centers from the Xalapa Monogenitc Volcanic Field, (Rodríguez et al 2010, González-Mercado, 2005), "Cofre de Perote Vent Cluster" (CPVC), "Naolinco Volcanic Field" (NVF), (Siebert and Carrasco-Núñez, 2002), and the Chiconquiaco-Palma Sola volcanic complex (López-Infanzón, 1991; Ferrari et al., 2005). 14 sites belong to the widely distributed El Castillo rhyolitic ignimbrite dated 2.44 to 2.21 Ma (Morales-Barrera, 2009) which is a non-welded to welded ignimbrite. AMS measurements were performed with a KLY2 Kappabridge and processed with Anisoft software using Jelinek statistics. Sometimes a density distribution analysis was also performed when magnetic fabric showed more dispersed distribution patterns. AMS ellipsoids from basalt sites show mostly prolate shapes, while those from ignimbrites show mostly oblate shapes, which may partly due to magnetic mineralogy and also to flow dynamics. Flow directions were mostly obtained from the imbrication angle of magnetic foliation (evaluated from kmin axis mean as corresponding to its pole) and considering the symmetry of the axes distribution. Flow direction inferences are discussed in relation with flow source when it is clearly evident from geologic field observations, as it is usually the case with basalt lava flows. While in ignimbrites, flow inferences from petrographic and facies distributions are compared with AMS flow inferences, showing agreement between them in some cases but not in others, may be due to local tilting occurring after ignimbrite emplacement.
Benson, R.D.
1988-01-01
The James River, which originates in North Dakota and joins the Missouri River near Yankton, South Dakota, is about 747 miles long, with about 474 river miles located in South Dakota. The James River basin includes 21,116 sq mi, with 14,428 sq mi located in South Dakota. Bankfull capacity of the James River in South Dakota ranges from a minimum of about 200 cu ft/sec near the mouth. Discharges that produce bankfull conditions on much of the river in South Dakota occur on an average of once in about 2 years. The 10-year flood flows, which range from 1,620 cu ft/sec (at the gage near Stratford) to 8,870 cu ft/sec (at the gage near Scotland), cause major flooding on most of the river in South Dakota. The river also has potential for extending periods of low or zero flow, especially in the northern portion within South Dakota. Generally, low flows occur from late summer until spring snowmelt. The James River at Columbia had zero flow for 623 consecutive days from July 13, 1958, through March 26, 1960. The channel pattern (channel alignment) has changed little since 1922. This channel stability indicates that channel formation is approaching a state of equilibrium. It does not appear that velocities in the river are sufficient to carry the sediment being delivered by the tributaries. (Author 's abstract)
Analysis of high speed flow, thermal and structural interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thornton, Earl A.
1994-01-01
Research for this grant focused on the following tasks: (1) the prediction of severe, localized aerodynamic heating for complex, high speed flows; (2) finite element adaptive refinement methodology for multi-disciplinary analyses; (3) the prediction of thermoviscoplastic structural response with rate-dependent effects and large deformations; (4) thermoviscoplastic constitutive models for metals; and (5) coolant flow/structural heat transfer analyses.
Analysis of nitrogen condensation in an expanding nozzle flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, F. C.
1976-01-01
Condensation of nitrogen flow in an expanding nozzle flow is analyzed using one-dimensional gas dynamic equations and the equations for nucleation and droplet growth. Effects of variations in the Tolman constant and the mass accommodation factor are discussed as well as the effect of foreign nuclei. Comparisons are made with experimental data obtained from a small, contoured nozzle.
Topological analysis of computed three-dimensional viscous flow fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deiwert, G. S.
1982-01-01
Computed solutions of the time-dependent, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations for three dimensional flows having thin shear layers are analyzed using topological concepts. Specific examples include the transonic flow over a body of revolution with conical afterbody at moderate angles of incidence to the free stream. Experimental flow-visualization techniques are simulated graphically to visualize the computed flow. Scalar and vector fluid dynamics properties such as pressure, shear stress, and vorticity on the body surface are presented as topological maps, and their relationship to one another in terms of orientation and singular points is discussed. The extrapolation from these surface topologies toward the understanding of external flow-field behavior is and demonstrated.
Stability Analysis of Large-Scale Incompressible Flow Calculations on Massively Parallel Computers
LEHOUCQ,RICHARD B.; ROMERO,LOUIS; SALINGER,ANDREW G.
1999-10-25
A set of linear and nonlinear stability analysis tools have been developed to analyze steady state incompressible flows in 3D geometries. The algorithms have been implemented to be scalable to hundreds of parallel processors. The linear stability of steady state flows are determined by calculating the rightmost eigenvalues of the associated generalize eigenvalue problem. Nonlinear stability is studied by bifurcation analysis techniques. The boundaries between desirable and undesirable operating conditions are determined for buoyant flow in the rotating disk CVD reactor.
An Ion-Selective Electrode/Flow-Injection Analysis Experiment: Determination of Potassium in Serum.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Meyerhoff, Mark E.; Kovach, Paul M.
1983-01-01
Describes a low-cost, senior-level, instrumental analysis experiment in which a home-made potassium tubular flow-through electrode is constructed and incorporated into a flow injection analysis system (FIA). Also describes experiments for evaluating the electrode's response properties, examining basic FIA concepts, and determining potassium in…
Computational analysis of high-throughput flow cytometry data
Robinson, J Paul; Rajwa, Bartek; Patsekin, Valery; Davisson, Vincent Jo
2015-01-01
Introduction Flow cytometry has been around for over 40 years, but only recently has the opportunity arisen to move into the high-throughput domain. The technology is now available and is highly competitive with imaging tools under the right conditions. Flow cytometry has, however, been a technology that has focused on its unique ability to study single cells and appropriate analytical tools are readily available to handle this traditional role of the technology. Areas covered Expansion of flow cytometry to a high-throughput (HT) and high-content technology requires both advances in hardware and analytical tools. The historical perspective of flow cytometry operation as well as how the field has changed and what the key changes have been discussed. The authors provide a background and compelling arguments for moving toward HT flow, where there are many innovative opportunities. With alternative approaches now available for flow cytometry, there will be a considerable number of new applications. These opportunities show strong capability for drug screening and functional studies with cells in suspension. Expert opinion There is no doubt that HT flow is a rich technology awaiting acceptance by the pharmaceutical community. It can provide a powerful phenotypic analytical toolset that has the capacity to change many current approaches to HT screening. The previous restrictions on the technology, based on its reduced capacity for sample throughput, are no longer a major issue. Overcoming this barrier has transformed a mature technology into one that can focus on systems biology questions not previously considered possible. PMID:22708834
Performance analysis of vortex based mixers for confined flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buschhagen, Timo
The hybrid rocket is still sparsely employed within major space or defense projects due to their relatively poor combustion efficiency and low fuel grain regression rate. Although hybrid rockets can claim advantages in safety, environmental and performance aspects against established solid and liquid propellant systems, the boundary layer combustion process and the diffusion based mixing within a hybrid rocket grain port leaves the core flow unmixed and limits the system performance. One principle used to enhance the mixing of gaseous flows is to induce streamwise vorticity. The counter-rotating vortex pair (CVP) mixer utilizes this principle and introduces two vortices into a confined flow, generating a stirring motion in order to transport near wall media towards the core and vice versa. Recent studies investigated the velocity field introduced by this type of swirler. The current work is evaluating the mixing performance of the CVP concept, by using an experimental setup to simulate an axial primary pipe flow with a radially entering secondary flow. Hereby the primary flow is altered by the CVP swirler unit. The resulting setup therefore emulates a hybrid rocket motor with a cylindrical single port grain. In order to evaluate the mixing performance the secondary flow concentration at the pipe assembly exit is measured, utilizing a pressure-sensitive paint based procedure.
Aequorea green fluorescent protein analysis by flow cytometry
Ropp, J.D.; Cuthbertson, R.A.; Donahue, C.J.; Wolfgang-Kimball, D.
1995-12-01
The isolation and expression of the cDNA for the green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the bioluminescent jellyfish Aequorea victoria has highlighted its potential use as a marker for gene expression in a variety of cell types. The longer wavelength peak (470 nm) of GFP`s bimodal absorption spectrum better matches standard fluorescein filter sets; however, it has a considerably lower amplitude than the major absorption peak at 395. In an effort to increase the sensitivity of GFP with routinely available instrumentation, Heim et al. have generated a GFP mutant (serine-65 to threonine; S65T-GFP) which possesses a single absorption peak centered at 490 nm. We have constructed this mutant in order to determine whether it or wild-type GFP (wt-GFP) afforded greater sensitivity when excited near their respective absorption maxima. Using the conventionally available 488 nm and ultraviolet (UV) laser lines from the argon ion laser as well as the 407 nm line from a krypton ion laser with enhanced violet emission, we were able to closely match the absorption maxima of both the S65T and wild-type forms of Aequorea GFP and analyze differences in fluorescence intensity of transiently transfected 293 cells with flow cytometry. The highest fluorescence signal was observed with 488 nm excitation of S65T-GFP relative to all other laser line/GFP pairs. The wt-GFP fluorescence intensity, in contrast, was significantly higher at 407 nm relative to either 488 nm or UV. These results were consistent with parallel spectrofluorometric analysis of the emission spectrum for wt-GFP and S65T- GFP. The relative contribution of cellular autofluorescence at each wavelength was also investigated and shown to be significantly reduced at 407 nm relative to either UV or 488 nm. 29 refs., 5 figs.
Analysis of ETMS Data Quality for Traffic Flow Management Decisions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chatterji, Gano B.; Sridhar, Banavar; Kim, Douglas
2003-01-01
The data needed for air traffic flow management decision support tools is provided by the Enhanced Traffic Management System (ETMS). This includes both the tools that are in current use and the ones being developed for future deployment. Since the quality of decision support provided by all these tools will be influenced by the quality of the input ETMS data, an assessment of ETMS data quality is needed. Motivated by this desire, ETMS data quality is examined in this paper in terms of the unavailability of flight plans, deviation from the filed flight plans, departure delays, altitude errors and track data drops. Although many of these data quality issues are not new, little is known about their extent. A goal of this paper is to document the magnitude of data quality issues supported by numerical analysis of ETMS data. Guided by this goal, ETMS data for a 24-hour period were processed to determine the number of aircraft with missing flight plan messages at any given instant of time. Results are presented for aircraft above 18,000 feet altitude and also at all altitudes. Since deviation from filed flight plan is also a major cause of trajectory-modeling errors, statistics of deviations are presented. Errors in proposed departure times and ETMS-generated vertical profiles are also shown. A method for conditioning the vertical profiles for improving demand prediction accuracy is described. Graphs of actual sector counts obtained using these vertical profiles are compared with those obtained using the Host data for sectors in the Fort Worth Center to demonstrate the benefit of preprocessing. Finally, results are presented to quantify the extent of data drops. A method for propagating track positions during ETMS data drops is also described.
Time series power flow analysis for distribution connected PV generation.
Broderick, Robert Joseph; Quiroz, Jimmy Edward; Ellis, Abraham; Reno, Matthew J.; Smith, Jeff; Dugan, Roger
2013-01-01
Distributed photovoltaic (PV) projects must go through an interconnection study process before connecting to the distribution grid. These studies are intended to identify the likely impacts and mitigation alternatives. In the majority of the cases, system impacts can be ruled out or mitigation can be identified without an involved study, through a screening process or a simple supplemental review study. For some proposed projects, expensive and time-consuming interconnection studies are required. The challenges to performing the studies are twofold. First, every study scenario is potentially unique, as the studies are often highly specific to the amount of PV generation capacity that varies greatly from feeder to feeder and is often unevenly distributed along the same feeder. This can cause location-specific impacts and mitigations. The second challenge is the inherent variability in PV power output which can interact with feeder operation in complex ways, by affecting the operation of voltage regulation and protection devices. The typical simulation tools and methods in use today for distribution system planning are often not adequate to accurately assess these potential impacts. This report demonstrates how quasi-static time series (QSTS) simulation and high time-resolution data can be used to assess the potential impacts in a more comprehensive manner. The QSTS simulations are applied to a set of sample feeders with high PV deployment to illustrate the usefulness of the approach. The report describes methods that can help determine how PV affects distribution system operations. The simulation results are focused on enhancing the understanding of the underlying technical issues. The examples also highlight the steps needed to perform QSTS simulation and describe the data needed to drive the simulations. The goal of this report is to make the methodology of time series power flow analysis readily accessible to utilities and others responsible for evaluating
A 2-D oscillating flow analysis in Stirling engine heat exchangers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ahn, Kyung H.; Ibrahim, Mounir B.
1991-01-01
A two-dimensional oscillating flow analysis was conducted, simulating the gas flow inside Stirling heat exchangers. Both laminar and turbulent oscillating pipe flow were investigated numerically for Re(max) = 1920 (Va = 80), 10800 (Va = 272), 19300 (Va = 272), and 60800 (Va = 126). The results are compared with experimental results of previous investigators. Also, predictions of the flow regime on present oscillating flow conditions were checked by comparing velocity amplitudes and phase differences with those from laminar theory and quasi-steady profile. A high Reynolds number k-epsilon turbulence model was used for turbulent oscillating pipe flow. Finally, performance evaluation of the K-epsilon model was made to explore the applicability of quasi-steady turbulent models to unsteady oscillating flow analysis.
A 2-D oscillating flow analysis in Stirling engine heat exchangers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ahn, Kyung H.; Ibrahim, Mounir B.
1991-01-01
A two dimensional oscillating flow analysis was conducted, simulating the gas flow inside Stirling heat exchangers. Both laminar and turbulent oscillating pipe flow were investigated numerically for Re(max) = 1920 (Va = 80), 10800 (Va = 272), 19300 (Va = 272), and 60800 (Va = 126). The results are compared with experimental results of previous investigators. Also, predictions of the flow regime on present oscillating flow conditions were checked by comparing velocity amplitudes and phase differences with those from laminar theory and quasi-steady profile. A high Reynolds number k-epsilon turbulence model was used for turbulent oscillating pipe flow. Finally, performance evaluation of the K-epsilon model was made to explore the applicability of quasi-steady turbulent models to unsteady oscillating flow analysis.
Fractal analysis: A new remote sensing tool for lava flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bruno, B. C.; Taylor, G. J.; Rowland, S. K.; Lucey, P. G.; Self, S.
1992-01-01
Many important quantitative parameters have been developed that relate to the rheology and eruption and emplacement mechanics of lavas. This research centers on developing additional, unique parameters, namely the fractal properties of lava flows, to add to this matrix of properties. There are several methods of calculating the fractal dimension of a lava flow margin. We use the 'structured walk' or 'divider' method. In this method, we measure the length of a given lava flow margin by walking rods of different lengths along the margin. Since smaller rod lengths transverse more smaller-scaled features in the flow margin, the apparent length of the flow outline will increase as the length of the measuring rod decreases. By plotting the apparent length of the flow outline as a function of the length of the measuring rod on a log-log plot, fractal behavior can be determined. A linear trend on a log-log plot indicates that the data are fractal. The fractal dimension can then be calculated from the slope of the linear least squares fit line to the data. We use this 'structured walk' method to calculate the fractal dimension of many lava flows using a wide range of rod lengths, from 1/8 to 16 meters, in field studies of the Hawaiian islands. We also use this method to calculate fractal dimensions from aerial photographs of lava flows, using lengths ranging from 20 meters to over 2 kilometers. Finally, we applied this method to orbital images of extraterrestrial lava flows on Venus, Mars, and the Moon, using rod lengths up to 60 kilometers.
Non-invasive pulmonary blood flow analysis and blood pressure mapping derived from 4D flow MRI
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Delles, Michael; Rengier, Fabian; Azad, Yoo-Jin; Bodenstedt, Sebastian; von Tengg-Kobligk, Hendrik; Ley, Sebastian; Unterhinninghofen, Roland; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Dillmann, Rüdiger
2015-03-01
In diagnostics and therapy control of cardiovascular diseases, detailed knowledge about the patient-specific behavior of blood flow and pressure can be essential. The only method capable of measuring complete time-resolved three-dimensional vector fields of the blood flow velocities is velocity-encoded magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), often denoted as 4D flow MRI. Furthermore, relative pressure maps can be computed from this data source, as presented by different groups in recent years. Hence, analysis of blood flow and pressure using 4D flow MRI can be a valuable technique in management of cardiovascular diseases. In order to perform these tasks, all necessary steps in the corresponding process chain can be carried out in our in-house developed software framework MEDIFRAME. In this article, we apply MEDIFRAME for a study of hemodynamics in the pulmonary arteries of five healthy volunteers. The study included measuring vector fields of blood flow velocities by phase-contrast MRI and subsequently computing relative blood pressure maps. We visualized blood flow by streamline depictions and computed characteristic values for the left and the right pulmonary artery (LPA and RPA). In all volunteers, we observed a lower amount of blood flow in the LPA compared to the RPA. Furthermore, we visualized blood pressure maps using volume rendering and generated graphs of pressure differences between the LPA, the RPA and the main pulmonary artery. In most volunteers, blood pressure was increased near to the bifurcation and in the proximal LPA, leading to higher average pressure values in the LPA compared to the RPA.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tan, Yan
Prediction and control of optical wave front distortions and aberrations in a high energy laser beam due to interaction with an unsteady highly non-uniform flow field is of great importance in the development of directed energy weapon systems for Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAV). The unsteady shear layer over the weapons bay cavity is the primary cause of this distortion of the optical wave front. The large scale vortical structure of the shear layer over the cavity can be significantly reduced by employing an active flow control technique combined with passive flow control. This dissertation explores various active and passive control methods to suppress the cavity oscillations and thereby improve the aero-optics of cavity flow. In active flow control technique, a steady or a pulsed jet is applied at the sharp leading edge of cavities of different aspect ratios L/D (=2, 4, 15), where L and D are the width and the depth of a cavity respectively. In the passive flow control approach, the sharp leading or trailing edge of the cavity is modified into a round edge of different radii. Both of these active and passive flow control approaches are studied independently and in combination. Numerical simulations are performed, with and without active flow control for subsonic free stream flow past two-dimensional sharp and round leading or trailing edge cavities using Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) equations with a two-equation Shear Stress Transport (SST) turbulence model or a hybrid SST/Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model. Aero-optical analysis is developed and applied to all the simulation cases. Index of refraction and Optical Path Difference (OPD) are compared for flow fields without and with active flow control. Root-Mean-Square (RMS) value of OPD is calculated and compared with the experimental data, where available. The effect of steady and pulsed blowing on buffet loading on the downstream face of the cavity is also computed. Using the numerical
Similarity analysis of compressor tip clearance flow structure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, G. T.; Greitzer, E. M.; Tan, C. S.; Marble, F. E.
1991-01-01
A new approach is presented for analyzing compressor tip clearance flow. The basic idea is that the clearance velocity field can be (approximately) decomposed into independent throughflow and crossflow, since chordwise pressure gradients are much smaller than normal pressure gradients in the clearance region. As in the slender body approximation in external aerodynamics, this description implies that the three-dimensional steady clearance flow can be viewed as a two-dimensional, unsteady flow. Using this approach, a similarity scaling for the crossflow in the clearance region is developed and a generalized description of the clearance vortex is derived. Calculations based on the similarity scaling agree well with a wide range of experimental data in regard to flow features such as crossflow velocity field, static pressure field, and tip clearance vortex trajectory.
Flow diagram analysis of electrical fatalities in construction industry.
Chi, Chia-Fen; Lin, Yuan-Yuan; Ikhwan, Mohamad
2012-01-01
The current study reanalyzed 250 electrical fatalities in the construction industry from 1996 to 2002 into seven patterns based on source of electricity (power line, energized equipment, improperly installed or damaged equipment), direct contact or indirect contact through some source of injury (boom vehicle, metal bar or pipe, and other conductive material). Each fatality was coded in terms of age, company size, experience, performing tasks, source of injury, accident cause and hazard pattern. The Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detector (CHAID) was applied to the coded data of the fatal electrocution to find a subset of predictors that might derive meaningful classifications or accidents scenarios. A series of Flow Diagrams was constructed based on CHAID result to illustrate the flow of electricity travelling from electrical source to human body. Each of the flow diagrams can be directly linked with feasible prevention strategies by cutting the flow of electricity. PMID:22317293
Oregon Cascades Play Fairway Analysis: Faults and Heat Flow maps
Adam Brandt
2015-11-15
This submission includes a fault map of the Oregon Cascades and backarc, a probability map of heat flow, and a fault density probability layer. More extensive metadata can be found within each zip file.
Two-Dimensional Flow Control Analysis on the Hump Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Viken, Sally A.
2007-01-01
Computational analyses have been conducted on the Wall-mounted Glauert-Goldschmied type body ("hump" model) with the Full Unstructured Navier-Stokes 2-D (FUN2D) flow solver developed at NASA LaRC. This investigation uses the time-accurate Reynolds-averaged Navier- Stokes (RANS) approach to predict aerodynamic performance of the active flow control experimental database for the hump model. The workshop is designed to assess the current capabilities of different classes of turbulent flow solution methodologies, such as RANS, to predict flow fields induced by synthetic jets and separation control geometries. The hump model being studied is geometrically similar to that previously tested both experimentally and computationally at NASA LaRC [ref. 1 and 2, respectively].
Flow diagram analysis of electrical fatalities in construction industry.
Chi, Chia-Fen; Lin, Yuan-Yuan; Ikhwan, Mohamad
2012-01-01
The current study reanalyzed 250 electrical fatalities in the construction industry from 1996 to 2002 into seven patterns based on source of electricity (power line, energized equipment, improperly installed or damaged equipment), direct contact or indirect contact through some source of injury (boom vehicle, metal bar or pipe, and other conductive material). Each fatality was coded in terms of age, company size, experience, performing tasks, source of injury, accident cause and hazard pattern. The Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detector (CHAID) was applied to the coded data of the fatal electrocution to find a subset of predictors that might derive meaningful classifications or accidents scenarios. A series of Flow Diagrams was constructed based on CHAID result to illustrate the flow of electricity travelling from electrical source to human body. Each of the flow diagrams can be directly linked with feasible prevention strategies by cutting the flow of electricity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sohn, Jeong L.
1988-08-01
The purpose of the study is the evaluation of the numerical accuracy of FIDAP (Fluid Dynamics Analysis Package). Accordingly, four test problems in laminar and turbulent incompressible flows are selected and the computational results of these problems compared with other numerical solutions and/or experimental data. These problems include: (1) 2-D laminar flow inside a wall-driven cavity; (2) 2-D laminar flow over a backward-facing step; (3) 2-D turbulent flow over a backward-facing step; and (4) 2-D turbulent flow through a turn-around duct.
Application Guide for AFINCH (Analysis of Flows in Networks of Channels) Described by NHDPlus
Holtschlag, David J.
2009-01-01
AFINCH (Analysis of Flows in Networks of CHannels) is a computer application that can be used to generate a time series of monthly flows at stream segments (flowlines) and water yields for catchments defined in the National Hydrography Dataset Plus (NHDPlus) value-added attribute system. AFINCH provides a basis for integrating monthly flow data from streamgages, water-use data, monthly climatic data, and land-cover characteristics to estimate natural monthly water yields from catchments by user-defined regression equations. Images of monthly water yields for active streamgages are generated in AFINCH and provide a basis for detecting anomalies in water yields, which may be associated with undocumented flow diversions or augmentations. Water yields are multiplied by the drainage areas of the corresponding catchments to estimate monthly flows. Flows from catchments are accumulated downstream through the streamflow network described by the stream segments. For stream segments where streamgages are active, ratios of measured to accumulated flows are computed. These ratios are applied to upstream water yields to proportionally adjust estimated flows to match measured flows. Flow is conserved through the NHDPlus network. A time series of monthly flows can be generated for stream segments that average about 1-mile long, or monthly water yields from catchments that average about 1 square mile. Estimated monthly flows can be displayed within AFINCH, examined for nonstationarity, and tested for monotonic trends. Monthly flows also can be used to estimate flow-duration characteristics at stream segments. AFINCH generates output files of monthly flows and water yields that are compatible with ArcMap, a geographical information system analysis and display environment. Chloropleth maps of monthly water yield and flow can be generated and analyzed within ArcMap by joining NHDPlus data structures with AFINCH output. Matlab code for the AFINCH application is presented.
Application guide for AFINCH (Analysis of Flows in Networks of Channels) described by NHDPlus
Holtschlag, David J.
2009-01-01
AFINCH (Analysis of Flows in Networks of CHannels) is a computer application that can be used to generate a time series of monthly flows at stream segments (flowlines) and water yields for catchments defined in the National Hydrography Dataset Plus (NHDPlus) value-added attribute system. AFINCH provides a basis for integrating monthly flow data from streamgages, water-use data, monthly climatic data, and land-cover characteristics to estimate natural monthly water yields from catchments by user-defined regression equations. Images of monthly water yields for active streamgages are generated in AFINCH and provide a basis for detecting anomalies in water yields, which may be associated with undocumented flow diversions or augmentations. Water yields are multiplied by the drainage areas of the corresponding catchments to estimate monthly flows. Flows from catchments are accumulated downstream through the streamflow network described by the stream segments. For stream segments where streamgages are active, ratios of measured to accumulated flows are computed. These ratios are applied to upstream water yields to proportionally adjust estimated flows to match measured flows. Flow is conserved through the NHDPlus network. A time series of monthly flows can be generated for stream segments that average about 1-mile long, or monthly water yields from catchments that average about 1 square mile. Estimated monthly flows can be displayed within AFINCH, examined for nonstationarity, and tested for monotonic trends. Monthly flows also can be used to estimate flow-duration characteristics at stream segments. AFINCH generates output files of monthly flows and water yields that are compatible with ArcMap, a geographical information system analysis and display environment. Chloropleth maps of monthly water yield and flow can be generated and analyzed within ArcMap by joining NHDPlus data structures with AFINCH output. Matlab code for the AFINCH application is presented.
Analysis of Flow Angularity Repeatability Tests in the NTF
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hemsch, Michael J.
2006-01-01
An extensive data base of flow angularity repeatability measurements from four NTF check standard model tests is analyzed for statistical consistency and to characterize the results for prediction of angle-of-attack uncertainty for customer tests. A procedure for quality assurance for flow angularity measurements during customer tests is also presented. The efficacy of the procedure is tested using results from a customer test.
Analysis of groundwater flow in mountainous, headwater catchments with permafrost
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Evans, Sarah G.; Ge, Shemin; Liang, Sihai
2015-12-01
Headwater catchments have a direct impact on the water resources of downstream lowland regions as they supply freshwater in the form of surface runoff and discharging groundwater. Often, these mountainous catchments contain expansive permafrost that may alter the natural topographically controlled groundwater flow system. As permafrost could degrade with climate change, it is imperative to understand the effect of permafrost on groundwater flow in headwater catchments. This study characterizes groundwater flow in mountainous headwater catchments and evaluates the effect of permafrost in the context of climate change on groundwater movement using a three-dimensional, finite element, hydrogeologic model. The model is applied to a representative headwater catchment on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China. Results from the model simulations indicate that groundwater contributes significantly to streams in the form of baseflow and the majority of groundwater flow is from the shallow aquifer above the permafrost, disrupting the typical topographically controlled flow pattern observed in most permafrost-free headwater catchments. Under a warming scenario where mean annual surface temperature is increased by 2°C, reducing the areal extent of permafrost in the catchment, groundwater contribution to streamflow may increase three-fold. These findings suggest that, in headwater catchments, permafrost has a large influence on groundwater flow and stream discharge. Increased annual air temperatures may increase groundwater discharge to streams, which has implications for ecosystem health and the long-term availability of water resources to downstream regions.
Rossow, Molly; Gratton, Enrico; Mantulin, William M.
2009-04-19
It is important for surgeons to be able to measure blood flow in exposed arterioles during surgery. We report our progress in the development of an optical technique that will measure blood flow in surgically exposed blood vessels and enable previously difficult measurements. By monitoring optical fluctuations, the optical technique, based on Spatial Temporal Image Correlation (STICS), will directly measure the velocity of micron-scale particles--such as red blood cells. It will complement existing technology and provide qualitative measurements that were not previously possible. It relies on the concept that blood, when viewed on a small enough scale, is an inhomogeneous substance. Individual blood cells passing between a near-infrared light source and a detector will cause fluctuations in the transmitted optical signal. The speed, direction, and flow pattern of blood cells can be determined from these optical fluctuations. We present a series of computer simulations and experiments on phantom and animal systems to test this technique's ability to map complex flow patterns.
A Computer Program for Flow-Log Analysis of Single Holes (FLASH)
Day-Lewis, F. D.; Johnson, C.D.; Paillet, Frederick L.; Halford, K.J.
2011-01-01
A new computer program, FLASH (Flow-Log Analysis of Single Holes), is presented for the analysis of borehole vertical flow logs. The code is based on an analytical solution for steady-state multilayer radial flow to a borehole. The code includes options for (1) discrete fractures and (2) multilayer aquifers. Given vertical flow profiles collected under both ambient and stressed (pumping or injection) conditions, the user can estimate fracture (or layer) transmissivities and far-field hydraulic heads. FLASH is coded in Microsoft Excel with Visual Basic for Applications routines. The code supports manual and automated model calibration. ?? 2011, The Author(s). Ground Water ?? 2011, National Ground Water Association.
Multivariate data analysis methods for the interpretation of microbial flow cytometric data.
Davey, Hazel M; Davey, Christopher L
2011-01-01
Flow cytometry is an important technique in cell biology and immunology and has been applied by many groups to the analysis of microorganisms. This has been made possible by developments in hardware that is now sensitive enough to be used routinely for analysis of microbes. However, in contrast to advances in the technology that underpin flow cytometry, there has not been concomitant progress in the software tools required to analyse, display and disseminate the data and manual analysis, of individual samples remains a limiting aspect of the technology. We present two new data sets that illustrate common applications of flow cytometry in microbiology and demonstrate the application of manual data analysis, automated visualisation (including the first description of a new piece of software we are developing to facilitate this), genetic programming, principal components analysis and artificial neural nets to these data. The data analysis methods described here are equally applicable to flow cytometric applications with other cell types.
Material flow analysis of used personal computers in Japan.
Yoshida, Aya; Tasaki, Tomohiro; Terazono, Atsushi
2009-05-01
Most personal computers (PCs) are discarded by consumers after the data files have been moved to a new PC. Therefore, a used PC collection scheme should be created that does not depend on the distribution route of new PCs. In Japan, manufacturers' voluntary take-back recycling schemes were established in 2001 (for business PCs) and 2003 (for household PCs). At the same time, the export of used PCs from Japan increased, affecting the domestic PC reuse market. These regulatory and economic conditions would have changed the flow of used PCs. In this paper, we developed a method of minimizing the errors in estimating the material flow of used PCs. The method's features include utilization of both input and output flow data and elimination of subjective estimation as much as possible. Flow rate data from existing surveys were used for estimating the flow of used PCs in Japan for fiscal years (FY) 2000, 2001, and 2004. The results show that 3.92 million and 4.88 million used PCs were discarded in FY 2000 and 2001, respectively. Approximately two-thirds of the discarded PCs were disposed of or recycled within the country, one-fourth was reused within the country, and 8% were exported. In FY 2004, 7.47 million used PCs were discarded. The ratio of domestic disposal and recycling decreased to 37% in FY 2004, whereas the domestic reuse and export ratios increased to 37% and 26%, respectively. Flows from businesses to retailers in FY 2004 increased dramatically, which led to increased domestic reuse. An increase in the flow of used PCs from lease and rental companies to secondhand shops has led to increased exports. Results of interviews with members of PC reuse companies were and trade statistics were used to verify the results of our estimation of domestic reuse and export of used PCs.
Uncertainty Analysis for a Virtual Flow Meter Using an Air-Handling Unit Chilled Water Valve
Song, Li; Wang, Gang; Brambley, Michael R.
2013-04-28
A virtual water flow meter is developed that uses the chilled water control valve on an air-handling unit as a measurement device. The flow rate of water through the valve is calculated using the differential pressure across the valve and its associated coil, the valve command, and an empirically determined valve characteristic curve. Thus, the probability of error in the measurements is significantly greater than for conventionally manufactured flow meters. In this paper, mathematical models are developed and used to conduct uncertainty analysis for the virtual flow meter, and the results from the virtual meter are compared to measurements made with an ultrasonic flow meter. Theoretical uncertainty analysis shows that the total uncertainty in flow rates from the virtual flow meter is 1.46% with 95% confidence; comparison of virtual flow meter results with measurements from an ultrasonic flow meter yielded anuncertainty of 1.46% with 99% confidence. The comparable results from the theoretical uncertainty analysis and empirical comparison with the ultrasonic flow meter corroborate each other, and tend to validate the approach to computationally estimating uncertainty for virtual sensors introduced in this study.
Studies of the analyte-carrier interface in flow injection analysis
Brown, S.D.
1992-01-01
Chemical analysis in flowing solution is popular for automation of classical methods. However, most of the classical methods are not specific enough for direct multicomponent analysis of simple mixtures. This research project has the goals of study of rapid multicomponent analysis of transient species in flowing media, and investigations of chemical reactions at interfaces and of effects of competition on distribution of products from interfacial reaction. This report summarizes work done over the past 4.5 years; support has been terminated.
Fracture Mechanics Analysis of LH2 Feed Line Flow Liners
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
James, Mark A.; Dawicke, David S.; Brzowski, Matthew B.; Raju, Ivatury S.; Elliott, Kenny B.; Harris, Charles E.
2006-01-01
Inspections of the Space Shuttle Main Engine revealed fatigue cracks growing from slots in the flow liner of the liquid hydrogen (LH2) feed lines. During flight, the flow liners experience complex loading induced by flow of LH2 and the resonance characteristics of the structure. The flow liners are made of Inconel 718 and had previously not been considered a fracture critical component. However, fatigue failure of a flow liner could have catastrophic effect on the Shuttle engines. A fracture mechanics study was performed to determine if a damage tolerance approach to life management was possible and to determine the sensitivity to the load spectra, material properties, and crack size. The load spectra were derived separately from ground tests and material properties were obtained from coupon tests. The stress-intensity factors for the fatigue cracks were determined from a shell-dynamics approach that simulated the dominant resonant frequencies. Life predictions were obtained using the NASGRO life prediction code. The results indicated that adequate life could not be demonstrated for initial crack lengths of the size that could be detected by traditional NDE techniques.
Flow development and analysis of MHD generators and seawater thrusters
Doss, E.D. ); Roy, G.D. )
1992-03-01
In this paper, the flow characteristics inside magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) plasma generators and seawater thrusters are analyzed and are compared using a three-dimensional computer model that solves the governing partial differential equations for fluid flow and electrical fields. Calculations have been performed for a Faraday plasma generator and for a continuous electrode seawater thruster. The results of the calculations show that the effects caused by the interaction of the MHD forces with the fluid flow are strongly manifested in the case of the MHD generator as compared to the flow development in the MHD thruster. The existence of velocity overshoots over the sidewalls confirm previously published results for MHD generators with strong MHD interaction. For MHD thrusters, the velocity profile is found to be slightly flatter over the sidewall as compared to that over the electrode wall. As a result, distinct enhancement of the skin friction exists over the sidewalls of MHD generators in comparison to that of MHD thrusters. Plots of velocity profiles and skin friction distributions are presented to illustrate and compare the flow development in MHD generators and thrusters.
Numerical analysis of mixing enhancement for micro-electroosmotic flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, G. H.; He, Y. L.; Tao, W. Q.
2010-05-01
Micro-electroosmotic flow is usually slow with negligible inertial effects and diffusion-based mixing can be problematic. To gain an improved understanding of electroosmotic mixing in microchannels, a numerical study has been carried out for channels patterned with wall blocks, and channels patterned with heterogeneous surfaces. The lattice Boltzmann method has been employed to obtain the external electric field, electric potential distribution in the electrolyte, the flow field, and the species concentration distribution within the same framework. The simulation results show that wall blocks and heterogeneous surfaces can significantly disturb the streamlines by fluid folding and stretching leading to apparently substantial improvements in mixing. However, the results show that the introduction of such features can substantially reduce the mass flow rate and thus effectively prolongs the available mixing time when the flow passes through the channel. This is a non-negligible factor on the effectiveness of the observed improvements in mixing efficiency. Compared with the heterogeneous surface distribution, the wall block cases can achieve more effective enhancement in the same mixing time. In addition, the field synergy theory is extended to analyze the mixing enhancement in electroosmotic flow. The distribution of the local synergy angle in the channel aids to evaluate the effectiveness of enhancement method.
Computational Analysis of Flow Field Inside Coral Colony
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hossain, Md Monir; Staples, Anne
2015-11-01
Development of the flow field inside coral colonies is a key issue for understanding coral natural uptake, photosynthesis and wave dissipation capabilities. But most of the computations and experiments conducted earlier, measured the flow outside the coral reef canopies. Experimental studies are also constrained due to the limitation of measurement techniques and limited environmental conditions. Numerical simulations can be an answer to overcome these shortcomings. In this work, a detailed, three-dimensional simulation of flow around a single coral colony was developed to examine the interaction between coral geometry and hydrodynamics. To simplify grid generation and minimize computational cost, Immersed Boundary method (IBM) was implemented. The computation of IBM involves identification of the interface between the solid body and the fluid, establishment of the grid/interface relation and identification of the forcing points on the grid and distribution of the forcing function on the corresponding points. LES was chosen as the framework to capture the turbulent flow field without requiring extensive modeling. The results presented will give insight into internal coral colony flow fields and the interaction between coral and surrounding ocean hydrodynamics.
First-order analysis of optical flow in monkey brain.
Orban, G A; Lagae, L; Verri, A; Raiguel, S; Xiao, D; Maes, H; Torre, V
1992-01-01
Optical flow is a rich source of information about the three-dimensional motion and structure of the visual environment. Little is known of how the brain derives this information. One possibility is that it analyzes first-order elementary components of optical flow, such as expansion, rotation, and shear. Using a combination of physiological recordings and modeling techniques, we investigated the contribution of the middle superior temporal area (MST), a third-order cortical area in the dorsal visual pathway that receives inputs from the medial temporal area (MT). The results show (i) that MST cells, but not MT cells, are selective for elementary flow components (EFCs) alone or their combination with translation, (ii) that MST cells selective for an EFC do not extract this component from a more complex motion pattern, and (iii) that position invariance as observed in MST is compatible with an input arrangement from MT cells matching the selectivity of MST neurons. PMID:1557363
Analysis of a solar collector field water flow network
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rohde, J. E.; Knoll, R. H.
1976-01-01
A number of methods are presented for minimizing the water flow variation in the solar collector field for the Solar Building Test Facility at the Langley Research Center. The solar collector field investigated consisted of collector panels connected in parallel between inlet and exit collector manifolds to form 12 rows. The rows were in turn connected in parallel between the main inlet and exit field manifolds to complete the field. The various solutions considered included various size manifolds, manifold area change, different locations for the inlets and exits to the manifolds, and orifices or flow control valves. Calculations showed that flow variations of less than 5 percent were obtainable both inside a row between solar collector panels and between various rows.
On the Analysis of Flows in Vibrating Channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zandi, Sahab; Mohammadi, Alireza; Floryan, Jerzy Maciej
2015-11-01
Pressure losses in channels with vibrating walls have been analyzed. Surface vibrations were assumed to have the form of travelling waves. The waves can have arbitrary profiles. The spectrally accurate immersed boundary conditions (IBC) method based on the Fourier expansions in the flow direction and the Chebyshev expansions in the transverse direction has been developed. The results show dependence of the pressure losses on the phase speed of the waves, with the waves propagating in the downstream direction reducing the pressure gradient required to maintain a fixed flow rate. A drag increase is observed when the waves propagate with a phase speed similar to the flow velocity. Analytical solution demonstrates that the drag changes result from the nonlinear interactions and vary proportionally to A2 for small enough A, where A stands for the wave amplitude. This work has been carried out with support from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) of Canada.
Analysis of Motorcycle Weave Mode by using Energy Flow Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marumo, Yoshitaka; Katayama, Tsuyoshi
The activation mechanism of motorcycle weave mode is clarified within the framework of the energy flow method, which calculates energy flow of mechanical forces in each motion. It is demonstrated that only a few mechanical forces affect the stability of the weave mode from among a total of about 40 mechanical forces. The activation of the lateral, yawing and rolling motions destabilize the weave mode, while activation of the steering motion stabilizes the weave mode. A detailed investigation of the energy flow of the steering motion reveals that the steering motion plays an important role in clarifying the characteristics of the weave mode. As activation of the steering motion progresses the phase of the front tire side force, and the weave mode is consequently stabilized. This paper provides a design guide for stabilizing the weave mode and the wobble mode compatibility.
Meanline Analysis of Turbines with Choked Flow in the Object-Oriented Turbomachinery Analysis Code
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hendricks, Eric S.
2016-01-01
The prediction of turbomachinery performance characteristics is an important part of the conceptual aircraft engine design process. During this phase, the designer must examine the effects of a large number of turbomachinery design parameters to determine their impact on overall engine performance and weight. The lack of detailed design information available in this phase necessitates the use of simpler meanline and streamline methods to determine the turbomachinery geometry characteristics and provide performance estimates prior to more detailed CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) analyses. While a number of analysis codes have been developed for this purpose, most are written in outdated software languages and may be difficult or impossible to apply to new, unconventional designs. The Object-Oriented Turbomachinery Analysis Code (OTAC) is currently being developed at NASA Glenn Research Center to provide a flexible meanline and streamline analysis capability in a modern object-oriented language. During the development and validation of OTAC, a limitation was identified in the code's ability to analyze and converge turbines as the flow approached choking. This paper describes a series of changes which can be made to typical OTAC turbine meanline models to enable the assessment of choked flow up to limit load conditions. Results produced with this revised model setup are provided in the form of turbine performance maps and are compared to published maps.
Flow Analysis By High Speed Photography And Pictures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Werle, H.
1985-02-01
At the ONERA hydrodynamic visualization laboratory, high-speed photography and cinematography are used for analysing flow-phenomena around fixed or mobile models in the test section of three vertical water tunnels, operating by gravity draining. These studies in water are based on the hydraulic analogy of aerodynamic incompressible flows. Flow visualization is archieved by liquid tracers (dye emissions) or gaseous tracers (fine air bubbles in suspension in water). In many cases, the pictures at normal speed or long exposure time are insufficient, for they do not permit to distinguish all the details of the phenomena, due to an averaging or motion effect. Furthermore they must be completed with high speed pictures. This is illustrated by a few visua-lization examples recently obtained on following themes - two dimensional flow around a fixed cylinder, first at the start of the flow (symmetrical vortex), then in steady regime (periodic vortex street) ; - laminar-turbulent transition in a boundary layer along a cylindrical body at zero angle of attack ; - flow separation around a sphere and wake in steady regime at small and high Reynolds numbers; - flow separation around a profile, first with fixed incidence, then with harmonic oscillations in pitch ; - core structure of a longitudinal vortex issued from a wing first organized, then disintegrated under the effect of a lengthwise pressure gradient (vortex breakdown) ; - mixing zone around a turbulent axisymmetric jet, characterized by the formation of large vortex struc-tures ; - hovering tests of an helicopter rotor, first at the start of the rotation, then in established regime, finally in cruise flight ; - case of a complete helicopter model in cruise-flight, with air-intake simulation, gas exhaust and tail rotor ; - flow around a complete delta-wing aircraft model at mean or high angle of attack, first in steady regime, then with harmonic oscillations in yaw or pitch. These results illustrate the contribution of
Complex network analysis of phase dynamics underlying oil-water two-phase flows
Gao, Zhong-Ke; Zhang, Shan-Shan; Cai, Qing; Yang, Yu-Xuan; Jin, Ning-De
2016-01-01
Characterizing the complicated flow behaviors arising from high water cut and low velocity oil-water flows is an important problem of significant challenge. We design a high-speed cycle motivation conductance sensor and carry out experiments for measuring the local flow information from different oil-in-water flow patterns. We first use multivariate time-frequency analysis to probe the typical features of three flow patterns from the perspective of energy and frequency. Then we infer complex networks from multi-channel measurements in terms of phase lag index, aiming to uncovering the phase dynamics governing the transition and evolution of different oil-in-water flow patterns. In particular, we employ spectral radius and weighted clustering coefficient entropy to characterize the derived unweighted and weighted networks and the results indicate that our approach yields quantitative insights into the phase dynamics underlying the high water cut and low velocity oil-water flows. PMID:27306101
Complex network analysis of phase dynamics underlying oil-water two-phase flows.
Gao, Zhong-Ke; Zhang, Shan-Shan; Cai, Qing; Yang, Yu-Xuan; Jin, Ning-De
2016-01-01
Characterizing the complicated flow behaviors arising from high water cut and low velocity oil-water flows is an important problem of significant challenge. We design a high-speed cycle motivation conductance sensor and carry out experiments for measuring the local flow information from different oil-in-water flow patterns. We first use multivariate time-frequency analysis to probe the typical features of three flow patterns from the perspective of energy and frequency. Then we infer complex networks from multi-channel measurements in terms of phase lag index, aiming to uncovering the phase dynamics governing the transition and evolution of different oil-in-water flow patterns. In particular, we employ spectral radius and weighted clustering coefficient entropy to characterize the derived unweighted and weighted networks and the results indicate that our approach yields quantitative insights into the phase dynamics underlying the high water cut and low velocity oil-water flows. PMID:27306101
Complex network analysis of phase dynamics underlying oil-water two-phase flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Zhong-Ke; Zhang, Shan-Shan; Cai, Qing; Yang, Yu-Xuan; Jin, Ning-De
2016-06-01
Characterizing the complicated flow behaviors arising from high water cut and low velocity oil-water flows is an important problem of significant challenge. We design a high-speed cycle motivation conductance sensor and carry out experiments for measuring the local flow information from different oil-in-water flow patterns. We first use multivariate time-frequency analysis to probe the typical features of three flow patterns from the perspective of energy and frequency. Then we infer complex networks from multi-channel measurements in terms of phase lag index, aiming to uncovering the phase dynamics governing the transition and evolution of different oil-in-water flow patterns. In particular, we employ spectral radius and weighted clustering coefficient entropy to characterize the derived unweighted and weighted networks and the results indicate that our approach yields quantitative insights into the phase dynamics underlying the high water cut and low velocity oil-water flows.
Scaling analysis of gas-liquid two-phase flow pattern in microgravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Jinho
1993-01-01
A scaling analysis of gas-liquid two-phase flow pattern in microgravity, based on the dominant physical mechanism, was carried out with the goal of predicting the gas-liquid two-phase flow regime in a pipe under conditions of microgravity. The results demonstrated the effect of inlet geometry on the flow regime transition. A comparison of the predictions with existing experimental data showed good agreement.
Interpreting the Dispositional Flow Scale-2 scores: a pilot study of latent class factor analysis.
Kawabata, Masato; Mallett, Clifford J
2012-01-01
The present study examined the extent to which scores on the Dispositional Flow Scale-2 (DFS-2) could differentiate individuals who frequently experience flow characteristics in physical activity from those who do not. A total of 993 participants completed the Japanese version of the DFS-2. Latent class factor analysis (LCFA), which combines the strengths of both latent class analysis and factor analysis, was conducted on the DFS-2 responses. Six classes were identified through a series of LCFAs and the patterns of the item-average scores for the nine flow attributes were found to be parallel among these classes. The top two and bottom two classes (19.3% and 13.4% of the whole sample) were considered the groups who experience flow characteristics frequently and seldom, respectively. These results indicated that individuals who often experience flow attributes in physical activity could be differentiated from those who do not based on their DFS-2 scores. PMID:22709370
[Analysis of patient flow by radiology information system].
Nakano, Tsutomu; Murakami, Seiichi
2010-03-20
HIS (hospital information system) and PACS (picture archiving and communication system) have become widely popular in clinical offices, and use of RIS (radiology information system) in the department of radiology has spread, creating networking between HIS, PACS, and diagnostic systems. RIS receives patient data and order data from HIS and sends them to the diagnostic systems. On the other hand, the RIS sends the implementation record and accounting data to HIS. When receiving and transmitting of these data are done by the RIS, the event's time is recorded in the RIS as attendant data. This paper proposes a way to analyze patient flow from the records of the event's time. The method counts the number of the accepted examinations y(i) (i = 0, 1, ... N) and the completed examinations z(i) every divided time t from the RIS work list, and computes the following three characteristic values related to patient flow. Those values are average expended time T; T = ( Sigma z(i ) i t - Sigma y(i ) i t ) / Sigma y(i) ,number of exam queue q(i); q(i) = Sigma y(i) - Sigma z(i) , and dissolved time of queue w(i); w(i) = q(i ) ( t / z(i) ). The method analyzes patient flow of radiology using these characteristic values. It also performs a simulation of the flow in cases of equipment trouble.
Sensitivity analysis of permeability parameters for flows on Barcelona networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rarità, Luigi; D'Apice, Ciro; Piccoli, Benedetto; Helbing, Dirk
We consider the problem of optimizing vehicular traffic flows on an urban network of Barcelona type, i.e. square network with streets of not equal length. In particular, we describe the effects of variation of permeability parameters, that indicate the amount of flow allowed to enter a junction from incoming roads. On each road, a model suggested by Helbing et al. (2007) [11] is considered: free and congested regimes are distinguished, characterized by an arrival flow and a departure flow, the latter depending on a permeability parameter. Moreover we provide a rigorous derivation of the model from fluid dynamic ones, using recent results of Bretti et al. (2006) [3]. For solving the dynamics at nodes of the network, a Riemann solver maximizing the through flux is used, see Coclite et al. (2005) [4] and Helbing et al. (2007) [11]. The network dynamics gives rise to complicate equations, where the evolution of fluxes at a single node may involve time-delayed terms from all other nodes. Thus we propose an alternative hybrid approach, introducing additional logic variables. Finally we compute the effects of variations on permeability parameters over the hybrid dynamics and test the obtained results via simulations.
Preliminary analysis of phosphorus flow in Hue Citadel.
Anh, T N Q; Harada, H; Fujii, S; Anh, P N; Lieu, P K; Tanaka, S
2016-01-01
Characteristics of waste and wastewater management can affect material flows. Our research investigates the management of waste and wastewater in urban areas of developing countries and its effects on phosphorus flow based on a case study in Hue Citadel, Hue, Vietnam. One hundred households were interviewed to gain insight into domestic waste and wastewater management together with secondary data collection. Next, a phosphorus flow model was developed to quantify the phosphorus input and output in the area. The results showed that almost all wastewater generated in Hue Citadel was eventually discharged into water bodies and to the ground/groundwater. This led to most of the phosphorus output flowing into water bodies (41.2 kg P/(ha year)) and ground/groundwater (25.3 kg P/(ha year)). Sewage from the sewer system was the largest source of phosphorus loading into water bodies, while effluent from on-site sanitation systems was responsible for a major portion of phosphorus into the ground/groundwater. This elevated phosphorus loading is a serious issue in considering surface water and groundwater protection.
Dendrochronological analysis of debris flow disturbance on Rishiri Island
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoshida, Keiji; Kikuchi, Shun-ich; Nakamura, Futoshi; Noda, Masato
1997-09-01
Abies sachalinensis dominates the alluvial fan head of the Ochiushinai Gully on Rishiri Island, Japan. This species is able to adapt to frequent disturbances by debris flows. Even-aged stands composed of A. sachalinensis or Alnus maximowiczii were found along the channel, and standing dead trees buried by debris flows were discovered at the alluvial fan head. We used dendrochronological data in order to analyse the geomorphic history of the fan head. We determined the master ring-width chronology by synchronizing ring-width variations in living trees. This master chronology was used to cross-date the establishment and death of the buried trees. Results indicated that most of the buried trees were established in the 1870s and died in the early 1950s. Further, debris flow was estimated to have occurred in the 1890s and the late 1960s based upon the distribution of even-aged stands seen in aerial photos. The ring-width variations of the trees adjacent to the channel indicate a low correlation for synchronization, while those located on the hillslope have a high correlation. A low correlation in the riparian trees can be attributed to the instability of geomorphic surfaces caused by debris flow disturbances.
Preliminary analysis of phosphorus flow in Hue Citadel.
Anh, T N Q; Harada, H; Fujii, S; Anh, P N; Lieu, P K; Tanaka, S
2016-01-01
Characteristics of waste and wastewater management can affect material flows. Our research investigates the management of waste and wastewater in urban areas of developing countries and its effects on phosphorus flow based on a case study in Hue Citadel, Hue, Vietnam. One hundred households were interviewed to gain insight into domestic waste and wastewater management together with secondary data collection. Next, a phosphorus flow model was developed to quantify the phosphorus input and output in the area. The results showed that almost all wastewater generated in Hue Citadel was eventually discharged into water bodies and to the ground/groundwater. This led to most of the phosphorus output flowing into water bodies (41.2 kg P/(ha year)) and ground/groundwater (25.3 kg P/(ha year)). Sewage from the sewer system was the largest source of phosphorus loading into water bodies, while effluent from on-site sanitation systems was responsible for a major portion of phosphorus into the ground/groundwater. This elevated phosphorus loading is a serious issue in considering surface water and groundwater protection. PMID:26744936
Remarks on the stability analysis of reactive flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Scheurer, B.
1987-01-01
A simple model of compressible reacting flow is studied. First, a dispersion relation is derived for the linearized problem making a distinction between frozen and equilibrium sound speed. Second, the stability of the Von Neumann-Richtmyer scheme applied to this model is studied. A natural generalization of the C.F.L. condition is found.
State-resolved thermochemical nonequilibrium analysis of hydrogen mixture flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gang Kim, Jae; Boyd, Iain D.
2012-08-01
The complete sets of state-to-state transition rate coefficients for both target and projectile molecules of hydrogen are derived from the predicted response surface designed by the ordinary Kriging model. A system of master equations is constructed for bound-bound and bound-free transitions with these designed transition rate coefficients, and the rovibrational number densities are numerically evaluated by implicitly integrating a system of master equations. In these master equation studies, relaxation of rotation and vibration modes, number density relaxation, reaction rate coefficients, and average rotational and vibrational energy losses due to dissociation are each considered in strong nonequilibrium conditions. A system of master equations is coupled with one-dimensional flow equations to analyze the relaxations of hydrogen in post-normal shock and nozzle expanding flows. In post-normal shock flows, at high temperature, the relaxation of the rotational mode is similar to the relaxation of the vibrational mode. In nozzle expanding flows, the relaxations of both rotational and vibrational modes appear to be frozen.
Development of flow network analysis code for block type VHTR core by linear theory method
Lee, J. H.; Yoon, S. J.; Park, J. W.; Park, G. C.
2012-07-01
VHTR (Very High Temperature Reactor) is high-efficiency nuclear reactor which is capable of generating hydrogen with high temperature of coolant. PMR (Prismatic Modular Reactor) type reactor consists of hexagonal prismatic fuel blocks and reflector blocks. The flow paths in the prismatic VHTR core consist of coolant holes, bypass gaps and cross gaps. Complicated flow paths are formed in the core since the coolant holes and bypass gap are connected by the cross gap. Distributed coolant was mixed in the core through the cross gap so that the flow characteristics could not be modeled as a simple parallel pipe system. It requires lot of effort and takes very long time to analyze the core flow with CFD analysis. Hence, it is important to develop the code for VHTR core flow which can predict the core flow distribution fast and accurate. In this study, steady state flow network analysis code is developed using flow network algorithm. Developed flow network analysis code was named as FLASH code and it was validated with the experimental data and CFD simulation results. (authors)
Complexity analysis of the turbulent environmental fluid flow time series
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mihailović, D. T.; Nikolić-Đorić, E.; Drešković, N.; Mimić, G.
2014-02-01
We have used the Kolmogorov complexities, sample and permutation entropies to quantify the randomness degree in river flow time series of two mountain rivers in Bosnia and Herzegovina, representing the turbulent environmental fluid, for the period 1926-1990. In particular, we have examined the monthly river flow time series from two rivers (the Miljacka and the Bosnia) in the mountain part of their flow and then calculated the Kolmogorov complexity (KL) based on the Lempel-Ziv Algorithm (LZA) (lower-KLL and upper-KLU), sample entropy (SE) and permutation entropy (PE) values for each time series. The results indicate that the KLL, KLU, SE and PE values in two rivers are close to each other regardless of the amplitude differences in their monthly flow rates. We have illustrated the changes in mountain river flow complexity by experiments using (i) the data set for the Bosnia River and (ii) anticipated human activities and projected climate changes. We have explored the sensitivity of considered measures in dependence on the length of time series. In addition, we have divided the period 1926-1990 into three subintervals: (a) 1926-1945, (b) 1946-1965, (c) 1966-1990, and calculated the KLL, KLU, SE, PE values for the various time series in these subintervals. It is found that during the period 1946-1965, there is a decrease in their complexities, and corresponding changes in the SE and PE, in comparison to the period 1926-1990. This complexity loss may be primarily attributed to (i) human interventions, after the Second World War, on these two rivers because of their use for water consumption and (ii) climate change in recent times.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Falconi, C. J.; Lehrenfeld, C.; Marschall, H.; Meyer, C.; Abiev, R.; Bothe, D.; Reusken, A.; Schlüter, M.; Wörner, M.
2016-01-01
The vertically upward Taylor flow in a small square channel (side length 2 mm) is one of the guiding measures within the priority program "Transport Processes at Fluidic Interfaces" (SPP 1506) of the German Research Foundation (DFG). This paper presents the results of coordinated experiments and three-dimensional numerical simulations (with three different academic computer codes) for typical local flow parameters (bubble shape, thickness of the liquid film, and velocity profiles) in different cutting planes (lateral and diagonal) for a specific co-current Taylor flow. For most quantities, the differences between the three simulation results and also between the numerical and experimental results are below a few percent. The experimental and computational results consistently show interesting three-dimensional flow effects in the rear part of the liquid film. There, a local back flow of liquid occurs in the fixed frame of reference which leads to a temporary reversal of the direction of the wall shear stress during the passage of a Taylor bubble. Notably, the axial positions of the region with local backflow and those of the minimum vertical velocity differ in the lateral and the diagonal liquid films. By a thorough analysis of the fully resolved simulation results, this previously unknown phenomenon is explained in detail and, moreover, approximate criteria for its occurrence in practical applications are given. It is the different magnitude of the velocity in the lateral film and in the corner region which leads to azimuthal pressure differences in the lateral and diagonal liquid films and causes a slight deviation of the bubble from the rotational symmetry. This deviation is opposite in the front and rear parts of the bubble and has the mentioned significant effects on the local flow field in the rear part of the liquid film.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, Sang-Wook
1987-01-01
Various experimental, analytical, and numerical analysis methods for flow-solid interaction of a nest of cylinders subjected to cross flows are reviewed. A nest of cylinders subjected to cross flows can be found in numerous engineering applications including the Space Shuttle Maine Engine-Main Injector Assembly (SSME-MIA) and nuclear reactor heat exchangers. Despite its extreme importance in engineering applications, understanding of the flow-solid interaction process is quite limited and design of the tube banks are mostly dependent on experiments and/or experimental correlation equations. For future development of major numerical analysis methods for the flow-solid interaction of a nest of cylinders subjected to cross flow, various turbulence models, nonlinear structural dynamics, and existing laminar flow-solid interaction analysis methods are included.
Analysis and control of asymmetric vortex flows and supersonic vortex breakdown
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kandil, Osama A.
1991-01-01
Topics relative to the analysis and control of asymmetric vortex flow and supersonic vortex breakdown are discussed. Specific topics include the computation of compressible, quasi-axisymmetric slender vortex flow and breakdown; supersonic quasi-axisymmetric vortex breakdown; and three-dimensional Navier-Stokes asymmetric solutions for cones and cone-cylinder configurations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zaatri, A.; Komm, R.; González Hernández, I.; Howe, R.; Corbard, T.
2006-07-01
We study the North South asymmetry of zonal and meridional components of horizontal, solar subsurface flows during the years 2001 2004, which cover the declining phase of solar cycle 23. We measure the horizontal flows from the near-surface layers to 16 Mm depth by analyzing 44 consecutive Carrington rotations of Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) Doppler images with a ring-diagram analysis technique. The meridional flow and the errors of both flow components show an annual variation related to the B 0-angle variation, while the zonal flow is less affected by the B 0-angle variation. After correcting for this effect, the meridional flow is mainly poleward but it shows a counter cell close to the surface at high latitudes in both hemispheres. During the declining phase of the solar cycle, the meridional flow mainly increases with time at latitudes poleward of about 20˚, while it mainly decreases at more equatorward latitudes. The temporal variation of the zonal flow in both hemispheres is significantly correlated at latitudes less than about 20˚. The zonal flow is larger in the southern hemisphere than the northern one, and this North South asymmetry increases with depth. Details of the North South asymmetry of zonal and meridional flow reflect the North South asymmetry of the magnetic flux. The North South asymmetries of the flows show hints of a variation with the solar cycle.
Turbulance boundary conditions for shear flow analysis, using the DTNS flow solver
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mizukami, M.
1995-01-01
The effects of different turbulence boundary conditions were examined for two classical flows: a turbulent plane free shear layer and a flat plate turbulent boundary layer with zero pressure gradient. The flow solver used was DTNS, an incompressible Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes solver with k-epsilon turbulence modeling, developed at the U.S. Navy David Taylor Research Center. Six different combinations of turbulence boundary conditions at the inflow boundary were investigated: In case 1, 'exact' k and epsilon profiles were used; in case 2, the 'exact' k profile was used, and epsilon was extrapolated upstream; in case 3, both k and epsilon were extrapolated; in case 4, the turbulence intensity (I) was 1 percent, and the turbulent viscosity (mu(sub t)) was equal to the laminar viscosity; in case 5, the 'exact' k profile was used and mu(sub t) was equal to the laminar viscosity; in case 6, the I was 1 percent, and epsilon was extrapolated. Comparisons were made with experimental data, direct numerical simulation results, or theoretical predictions as applicable. Results obtained with DTNS showed that turbulence boundary conditions can have significant impacts on the solutions, especially for the free shear layer.
Ahlgren, André; Knutsson, Linda; Wirestam, Ronnie; Nilsson, Markus; Ståhlberg, Freddy; Topgaard, Daniel; Lasič, Samo
2016-05-01
The aim of this study was to improve the accuracy and precision of perfusion fraction and blood velocity dispersion estimates in intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) imaging, using joint analysis of flow-compensated and non-flow-compensated motion-encoded MRI data. A double diffusion encoding sequence capable of switching between flow-compensated and non-flow-compensated encoding modes was implemented. In vivo brain data were collected in eight healthy volunteers and processed using the joint analysis. Simulations were used to compare the performance of the proposed analysis method with conventional IVIM analysis. With flow compensation, strong rephasing was observed for the in vivo data, approximately cancelling the IVIM effect. The joint analysis yielded physiologically reasonable perfusion fraction maps. Estimated perfusion fractions were 2.43 ± 0.81% in gray matter, 1.81 ± 0.90% in deep gray matter, and 1.64 ± 0.72% in white matter (mean ± SD, n = 8). Simulations showed improved accuracy and precision when using joint analysis of flow-compensated and non-flow-compensated data, compared with conventional IVIM analysis. Double diffusion encoding with flow compensation was feasible for in vivo imaging of the perfusion fraction in the brain. The strong rephasing implied that blood flowing through the cerebral microvascular system was closer to the ballistic limit than the diffusive limit. PMID:26952166
Nanto, S; Masuyama, T; Takano, Y; Hori, M; Nagata, S
2001-09-01
The present study seeks to estimate the difference between coronary zero flow pressure (Pzf) by analysis of the baseline pressure-flow relationship and the Pzf calculated during a long diastole in humans. Although Pzf is likely to provide meaningful information about the characteristics of coronary circulation, there are no available data on Pzf in humans because Pzf is overestimated when it is calculated during normal cardiac cycles. Actual Pzf was determined in 15 subjects by analyzing the coronary pressure-flow relationship during a long cardiac cycle induced by an intracoronary adenosine triphosphate (ATP) infusion, and it was compared with the Pzf calculated during a normal cardiac cycle in order to estimate the difference. Pzf calculated during a normal cardiac cycle was 47 +/- 15 mmHg, which decreased to 36 +/- 9mmHg after intracoronary administration of ATP (0.05 mg) whereas actual Pzf was 21 +/- 7 mmHg. Pzf calculated in a pressure-flow relationship during a normal cardiac cycle under vasodilation correlated well with that during a long diastole (r = 0.75, p < 0.01), although it was 15 +/- 6 mmHg greater than the actual Pzf. It was concluded that Pzf during a normal cardiac cycle could be used to anticipate Pzf. PMID:11548878
Numerical analysis of flow about a total temperature sensor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Von Lavante, Ernst; Bruns, Russell L., Jr.; Sanetrik, Mark D.; Lam, Tim
1989-01-01
The unsteady flowfield about an airfoil-shaped inlet temperature sensor has been investigated using the thin-layer and full Navier-Stokes equations. A finite-volume formulation of the governing equations was used in conjunction with a Runge-Kutta time stepping scheme to analyze the flow about the sensor. Flow characteristics for this configuration were established at Mach numbers of 0.5 and 0.8 for different Reynolds numbers. The results were obtained for configurations of increasing complexity; important physical phenomena such as shock formation, boundary-layer separation, and unsteady wake formation were noted. Based on the computational results, recommendations for further study and refinement of the inlet temperature sensor were made.
Analysis of screeching in a cold flow jet experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, M. E.; Slone, R. M., Jr.; Robertson, J. E.; Keefe, L.
1975-01-01
The screech phenomenon observed in a one-sixtieth scale model space shuttle test of the solid rocket booster exhaust flow noise has been investigated. A critical review is given of the cold flow test data representative of Space Shuttle launch configurations to define those parameters which contribute to screech generation. An acoustic feedback mechanism is found to be responsible for the generation of screech. A simple equation which permits prediction of screech frequency in terms of basic testing parameters such as the jet exhaust Mach number and the separating distance from nozzle exit to the surface of model launch pad is presented and is found in good agreement with the test data. Finally, techniques are recommended to eliminate or reduce the screech.
Numerical analysis of turbulent coaxial flow with internal heat generation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lin, A.; Weinstein, H.
1981-01-01
A computational method with which to obtain a physical understanding of the turbulent field of two coaxial jets entering an axisymmetric chamber is developed. Even the laminar field of this flow is quite complicated. This is due to the many different domains which exist in the field especially in the entrance region. Physically, three regions may be identified: the wall region, the initial region near the axis of symmetry and the mixing region. Advancing downstream, these regions change relative size with the ratio of the two jets' mass fluxes as the main parameter. The turbulent field of these flows is much more complicated due to the difference in the effective transport coefficients and turbulence level from region to region. However, being aware beforehand of the complications and the different regions of this field, the appropriate turbulence model and numerical scheme can be adjusted to treat the problem.
Computational Analysis of Cryogenic Flow Through a Control Valve
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Danes, Russell; Woods, Jody; Sulyma, Peter
2003-01-01
The initial efforts to develop the capability to model valves used in rocket engine component testing at Stennis Space Center are documented. An axisymmetric model of a control valve with LN2 as the working fluid was developed. The goal was to predict the effect of change in the plug/sear region of the valve prior to testing. The valve flow coefficient was predicted for a range of plug positions. Verification of the calculations was carried out to quantify the uncertainty in the numerical answer. The modeled results compared well qualitatively to experimental trends. Additionally, insights into the flow processes in the valve were obtained. Benefits from the verification process included the ability to use coarser grids and insight into ways to reduce computational time by using double precision accuracy and non-integer grid ratios. Future valve modeling activities will include shape optimization of the valve/seat region and dynamic grid modeling.
Opto-fluidic flow analysis for monitoring of immunity levels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohan, A.; Bharadwaj, A.,; Marshkole, N.; Saiyed, T.; Prabhakar, A.
2015-06-01
We describes the design, development and testing of a cost effective and miniaturized version of a flow analyzer. It is designed to detect fluorescence labeled immunocytes in human blood sample. Availing of advancements in micro fluidics and nanolithographic technique, we fabricated a PDMS based device with integrated micro channels for accommodating the optical fibers. The lensed fibers serves as the waveguides for illumination and collection of laser and scattered signals respectively. As a cell crosses the interrogation point the forward scatter, side scatter and fluorescence are detected. Photomultiplier tubes used in conventional flow cytometers have been replaced here with APDs (avalanche photo detectors) and supplemented with digital signal processing. The prototype was tested with different sized polymer beads as well as the live cells.
Topological analysis of a mixing flow generated by natural convection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Contreras, Pablo Sebastián; de la Cruz, Luis Miguel; Ramos, Eduardo
2016-01-01
We use topological tools to describe the natural convective motion and the Lagrangian trajectories of a flow generated by stepwise, alternating heating and cooling protocol of opposite vertical walls of a cubic container. The working fluid considered is Newtonian and the system is in presence of the acceleration of gravity but the nonlinear terms are neglected, i.e., we study the piece-wise steady and linear problem. For this convective mixing flow, we identify invariant surfaces formed by the Lagrangian orbits of massless tracers that are topologically equivalent to spherical shells and period-1 lines with elliptic and hyperbolic segments that are located on symmetry planes. We describe the previous features as functions of the Rayleigh number in the range 3 × 104 ≤ Ra ≤ 5 × 105. We show that this system shares properties with other systems with non-toroidal invariant surfaces.
Numerical analysis of internal waves in stratified wake flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fraunie, Philppe
2014-05-01
In laboratory investigations, increased attention has been given to internal waves generated by stationary placed oscillating sources and moving bodies in stratified fluids [1]. The main attention was paid to study flows past bodies of perfect shapes like sphere [2], cylinder [3] of thin strip [3] which are the best theoretical (analytical or numerical) studies. Due to simplicity of geometry, flow around a strip has a potential to investigate separately effects of a drag and lift forces on the body by changing the slope of the horizontally moving strip which can be placed vertically [1], horizontally [2], or be tilted under some angle to the direction of towing velocity [5]. Numeric modeling of a flow past vertical strip uniformly towing with permanent velocity in horizontal direction in a linearly stratified talk which was based on a finite differences solver adapted to the low Reynolds Navier-Stokes equation with transport equation for salinity (LES simulation [6] and RANS [7]) has demonstrated reasonable agreement with data of Schlieren visualization, density marker and probe measurements of internal wave fields. The chosen test cases allowed demonstrating the ability of selected numerical methods to represent stably stratified flows over horizontal strip [4] and hill type 2D obstacles [1, 3] with generation of internal waves. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This research work was supported by the Region Provence Alpes Côte d'Azur - Modtercom project. The work was also supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant 12-01-00128). REFERENCES [1] Chashechkin Yu.D., Mitkin V.V. Experimental study of a fine structure of 2D wakes and mixing past an obstacle in a continuously stratified fluid // Dynamics of Atmosphere and Oceans. 2001. V. 34. P. 165-187. [2] Chashechkin, Yu. D. Hydrodynamics of a sphere in a stratified fluid // Fluid Dyn. 1989. V.24(1) P. 1-7. [3] Mitkin V. V., Chashechkin Yu. D. Transformation of hanging discontinuities into vortex systems in a
Lie group analysis and similarity solution for fractional Blasius flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, Mingyang; Zheng, Liancun; Liu, Fawang; Zhang, Xinxin
2016-08-01
This paper presents an investigation for boundary layer flow of viscoelastic fluids past a flat plate. Fractional-order Blasius equation with spatial fractional Riemann-Liouville derivative is derived firstly by using Lie group transformation. The solution is obtained numerically by the generalized shooting method, employing the shifted Grünwald formula and classical fourth order Runge-Kutta method as the iterative scheme. The effects of the order of fractional derivative and the generalized Reynolds number on the velocity profiles are analyzed and discussed. Numerical results show that the smaller the value of the fractional order derivative leads to the faster velocity of viscoelastic fluids near the plate but not to hold near the outer flow. As the Reynolds number increases, the fluid is moving faster in the whole boundary layer consistently.
Thermochemical Nonequilibrium Analysis of Oxygen in Shock Tube Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neitzel, Kevin; Kim, Jae Gang; Boyd, Iain D.
The successful development of hypersonic vehicles requires a detailed knowledge of the flow physics around the vehicle. The physics knowledge and modeling confidence drives the development of the major vehicle flight systems including the thermal protection system and flight control system. Specifically, an understanding of the thermochemical nonequilibrium behavior is crucial for this flight regime. The hypersonic flight regime involves an extremely high level of energy so a small error in the modeling of the energy processes can result in drastic changes in the vehicle design, including prohibitive design requirements. This emphasizes the need for a deep understanding of the underlying flow phenomena and molecular energy transfer processes in order to adequately design a hypersonic vehicle computationally.
Analysis of Low-Speed Stall Aerodynamics of a Swept Wing with Laminar-Flow Glove
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bui, Trong
2013-01-01
This is the presentation related to the paper of the same name describing Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of low speed stall aerodynamics of a swept wing with a laminar flow wing glove.
Method and apparatus for continuous flow injection extraction analysis
Hartenstein, Steven D.; Siemer, Darryl D.
1992-01-01
A method and apparatus for a continuous flow injection batch extraction aysis system is disclosed employing extraction of a component of a first liquid into a second liquid which is a solvent for a component of the first liquid, and is immiscible with the first liquid, and for separating the first liquid from the second liquid subsequent to extraction of the component of the first liquid.
A nonlinear analysis of pulsatile flow in arteries.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ling, S. C.; Atabek, H. B.
1972-01-01
An approximate numerical method for calculating flow profiles in arteries is developed. The theory takes into account the nonlinear terms of the Navier-Stokes equations as well as the nonlinear behaviour and large deformations of the arterial wall. Through the locally measured values of the pressure, pressure gradient, and pressure-radius function, the velocity distribution and wall shear at a given location along the artery can be determined. The computed results agree well with the corresponding experimental data.
Navier-Stokes analysis of cold scramjet-afterbody flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baysal, Oktay; Engelund, Walter C.; Eleshaky, Mohamed E.
1989-01-01
The progress of two efforts in coding solutions of Navier-Stokes equations is summarized. The first effort concerns a 3-D space marching parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) code being modified to compute the supersonic mixing flow through an internal/external expansion nozzle with multicomponent gases. The 3-D PNS equations, coupled with a set of species continuity equations, are solved using an implicit finite difference scheme. The completed work is summarized and includes code modifications for four chemical species, computing the flow upstream of the upper cowl for a theoretical air mixture, developing an initial plane solution for the inner nozzle region, and computing the flow inside the nozzle for both a N2/O2 mixture and a Freon-12/Ar mixture, and plotting density-pressure contours for the inner nozzle region. The second effort concerns a full Navier-Stokes code. The species continuity equations account for the diffusion of multiple gases. This 3-D explicit afterbody code has the ability to use high order numerical integration schemes such as the 4th order MacCormack, and the Gottlieb-MacCormack schemes. Changes to the work are listed and include, but are not limited to: (1) internal/external flow capability; (2) new treatments of the cowl wall boundary conditions and relaxed computations around the cowl region and cowl tip; (3) the entering of the thermodynamic and transport properties of Freon-12, Ar, O, and N; (4) modification to the Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model to account for turbulent eddies generated by cowl walls inside and external to the nozzle; and (5) adopting a relaxation formula to account for the turbulence in the mixing shear layer.
Gyrokinetic analysis of shear flow instability in torodial geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoon, Eisung; Hahm, T. S.
2008-11-01
Motivated by recent observation of intrinsic rotation in tokamak plasmas, we study linear stability of ion gyroradius scale short wavelength fluctuations in the presence of sheared parallel flow, ion temperature gradient, and toroidal mode coupling. Our gyrokinetic approach in toroidal geometry is an extension of previous studies including those by Catto et al., [Phys. Fluids 16 1719 (1973)] Mattor and Diamond [Phys. Fluids 31 1180 (1988)], and Artun and Tang [Phys. Fluids B 4 1102 (1992)].
Crushed cement concrete substitution for construction aggregates; a materials flow analysis
Kelly, Thomas
1998-01-01
An analysis of the substitution of crushed cement concrete for natural construction aggregates is performed by using a materials flow diagram that tracks all material flows into and out of the cement concrete portion of the products made with cement concrete: highways, roads, and buildings. Crushed cement concrete is only one of the materials flowing into these products, and the amount of crushed cement concrete substituted influences the amount of other materials in the flow. Factors such as availability and transportation costs, as well as physical properties, that can affect stability and finishability, influence whether crushed cement concrete or construction aggregates should be used or predominate for a particular end use.
Analysis of hypersonic aircraft inlets using flow adaptive mesh algorithms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neaves, Michael Dean
The numerical investigation into the dynamics of unsteady inlet flowfields is applied to a three-dimensional scramjet inlet-isolator-diffuser geometry designed for hypersonic type applications. The Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations are integrated in time using a subiterating, time-accurate implicit algorithm. Inviscid fluxes are calculated using the Low Diffusion Flux Splitting Scheme of Edwards. A modified version of the dynamic solution-adaptive point movement algorithm of Benson and McRae is used in a coupled mode to dynamically resolve the features of the flow by enhancing the spatial accuracy of the simulations. The unsteady mesh terms are incorporated into the flow solver via the inviscid fluxes. The dynamic solution-adaptive grid algorithm of Benson and McRae is modified to improve orthogonality at the boundaries to ensure accurate application of boundary conditions and properly resolve turbulent boundary layers. Shock tube simulations are performed to ascertain the effectiveness of the algorithm for unsteady flow situations on fixed and moving grids. Unstarts due to a combustor and freestream angle of attack perturbations are simulated in a three-dimensional inlet-isolator-diffuser configuration.
Airfoil shape optimization using sensitivity analysis on viscous flow equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eleshaky, Mohamed E.; Baysal, Oktay
1993-01-01
An aerodynamic shape optimization method has previously been developed by the authors using the Euler equations and has been applied to supersonic-hypersonic nozzle designs. This method has also included a flowfield extrapolation (or flow prediction) method based on the Taylor series expansion of an existing CFD solution. The present paper reports on the extension of this method to the thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations in order to account for the viscous effects. Also, to test the method under highly nonlinear conditions, it has been applied to the transonic flows. Initially, the success of the flow prediction method is tested. Then, the overall method is demonstrated by optimizing the shapes of two supercritical transonic airfoils at zero angle of attack. The first one is shape optimized to achieve a minimum drag while obtaining a lift above a specified value. Whereas, the second one is shape optimized for a maximum lift while attaining a drag below a specified value. The results of these two cases indicate that the present method can produce successfully optimized aerodynamic shapes.
A numerical procedure for analysis of finite rate reacting flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shang, H. M.; Chen, Y. S.; Chen, Z. J.; Chen, C. P.; Wang, T. S.
1993-01-01
Combustion processes in rocket propulsion systems are characterized by the existence of multiple, vastly differing time and length scales, as well as flow-speeds at wide variation of Mach numbers. The chemical kinetics processes in the highly active reaction zone are characterized by much smaller scales compared to fluid convective and diffusive time scales. An operator splitting procedure for transient finite rate chemistry problems has been developed using a pressure based method, which can be applied to all speed flows without difficulties. The splitting of chemical kinetics terms formed the fluid-mechanical terms of the species equation ameliorated the difficulties associated with the disparate time scales and stiffness in the set of equations which describes highly exothermic combustion. A combined efficient ordinary differential equations (ODE) solver was used to integrate the effective chemical source terms over the residence time at each grid cell. One and two dimensional reacting flow situations were carried out to demonstrate and verify the current procedure. Different chemical kinetics with different degrees of nonlinearity have also been incorporated to test the robustness and generality of the proposed method.
Unsteady flow analysis of a two-phase hydraulic coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hur, N.; Kwak, M.; Lee, W. J.; Moshfeghi, M.; Chang, C.-S.; Kang, N.-W.
2016-06-01
Hydraulic couplings are being widely used for torque transmitting between separate shafts. A mechanism for controlling the transmitted torque of a hydraulic system is to change the amount of working fluid inside the system. This paper numerically investigates three-dimensional turbulent flow in a real hydraulic coupling with different ratios of charged working fluid. Working fluid is assumed to be water and the Realizable k-ɛ turbulence model together with the VOF method are used to investigate two-phase flow inside the wheels. Unsteady simulations are conducted using the sliding mesh technique. The primary wheel is rotating at a fixed speed of 1780 rpm and the secondary wheel rotates at different speeds for simulating different speed ratios. Results are investigated for different blade angles, speed ratios and also different water volume fractions, and are presented in the form of flow patterns, fluid average velocity and also torques values. According to the results, blade angle severely affects the velocity vector and the transmitted torque. Also in the partially-filled cases, air is accumulated in the center of the wheel forming a toroidal shape wrapped by water and the transmitted torque sensitively depends on the water volume fraction. In addition, in the fully-filled case the transmitted torque decreases as the speed ration increases and the average velocity associated with lower speed ratios are higher.
Flow Control Analysis on the Hump Model with RANS Tools
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Viken, Sally A.; Vatsa, Veer N.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Carpenter, Mark H.
2003-01-01
A concerted effort is underway at NASA Langley Research Center to create a benchmark for Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) codes. both unstructured and structured, against a data set for the hump model with actuation. The hump model was tested in the NASA Langley 0.3-m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel. The CFD codes used for the analyses are the FUN2D (Full Unstructured Navier-Stokes 2-Dimensional) code, the structured TLNS3D (Thin-Layer Navier-Stokes 3-Dimensional) code, and the structured CFL3D code, all developed at NASA Langley. The current investigation uses the time-accurate Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach to predict aerodynamic performance of the active flow control experimental database for the hump model. Two-dimensional computational results verified that steady blowing and suction and oscillatory suction/blowing can be used to significantly reduce the separated flow region on the model. Discrepancies do exist between the CFD results and experimental data in the region downstream of the slot with the largest differences in the oscillatory cases. Overall, the structured CFD codes exhibited similar behavior with each other for a wide range of control conditions, with the unstructured FUN2D code showing moderately different results in the separated flow region for the suction and oscillatory cases.
A numerical procedure for analysis of finite rate reacting flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shang, H. M.; Chen, Y. S.; Chen, Z. J.; Chen, C. P.; Wang, T. S.
1993-07-01
Combustion processes in rocket propulsion systems are characterized by the existence of multiple, vastly differing time and length scales, as well as flow-speeds at wide variation of Mach numbers. The chemical kinetics processes in the highly active reaction zone are characterized by much smaller scales compared to fluid convective and diffusive time scales. An operator splitting procedure for transient finite rate chemistry problems has been developed using a pressure based method, which can be applied to all speed flows without difficulties. The splitting of chemical kinetics terms formed the fluid-mechanical terms of the species equation ameliorated the difficulties associated with the disparate time scales and stiffness in the set of equations which describes highly exothermic combustion. A combined efficient ordinary differential equations (ODE) solver was used to integrate the effective chemical source terms over the residence time at each grid cell. One and two dimensional reacting flow situations were carried out to demonstrate and verify the current procedure. Different chemical kinetics with different degrees of nonlinearity have also been incorporated to test the robustness and generality of the proposed method.
Analysis of Developing Gas/liquid Two-Phase Flows
Elena A. Tselishcheva; Michael Z. Podowski; Steven P. Antal; Donna Post Guillen; Matthias Beyer; Dirk Lucas
2010-06-01
The goal of this work is to develop a mechanistically based CFD model that can be used to simulate process equipment operating in the churn-turbulent regime. The simulations were performed using a state-of-the-art computational multiphase fluid dynamics code, NPHASE–CMFD [Antal et al,2000]. A complete four-field model, including the continuous liquid field and three dispersed gas fields representing bubbles of different sizes, was first carefully tested for numerical convergence and accuracy, and then used to reproduce the experimental results from the TOPFLOW test facility at Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V. Institute of Safety Research [Prasser et al,2007]. Good progress has been made in simulating the churn-turbulent flows and comparison the NPHASE-CMFD simulations with TOPFLOW experimental data. The main objective of the paper is to demonstrate capability to predict the evolution of adiabatic churn-turbulent gas/liquid flows. The proposed modelling concept uses transport equations for the continuous liquid field and for dispersed bubble fields [Tselishcheva et al, 2009]. Along with closure laws based on interaction between bubbles and continuous liquid, the effect of height on air density has been included in the model. The figure below presents the developing flow results of the study, namely total void fraction at different axial locations along the TOPFLOW facility test section. The complete model description, as well as results of simulations and validation will be presented in the full paper.
Computational analysis of hypersonic flows past elliptic-cone waveriders
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yoon, Bok-Hyun; Rasmussen, Maurice L.
1991-01-01
A comprehensive study for the inviscid numerical calculation of the hypersonic flow past a class of elliptic-cone derived waveriders is presented. The theoretical background associated with hypersonic small-disturbance theory (HSDT) is reviewed. Several approximation formulas for the waverider compression surface are established. A CFD algorithm is used to calculate flow fields for the on-design case and a variety of off-design cases. The results are compared with HSDT, experiment, and other available CFD results. For the waverider shape used in previous investigations, the bow shock for the on-design condition stands off from the leading-edge tip of the waverider. It was found that this occurs because the tip was too thick according to the approximating shape formula that was used to describe the compression surface. When this was corrected, the bow shock became closer to attached as it should be. At Mach numbers greater than the design condition, a lambda-shock configuration develops near the tip of the compression surface. At negative angles of attack, other complicated shock patterns occur near the leading-edge tip. These heretofore unknown flow patterns show the power and utility of CFD for investigating novel hypersonic configurations such as waveriders.
Expert systems for flow cytometry data analysis: A preliminary report
Salzman, G.C. ); Stewart, C.C. . Lab. of Flow Cytometry); Duque, R.E. )
1990-01-01
Flow Cytometry has become an accepted technique in the clinical laboratory for rapid immunophenotyping of patient blood samples. Multiple, fluorescent labeled monoclonal antibodies are used to tag the cells, which are then analyzed one at a time at rates of several thousand cells a second. Patient samples are processed through the flow cytometer at more than one a minute. Clinicians are being overwhelmed by the large amount of data that must be analyzed to provide the information needed to assist in disease diagnosis. An expert system is being developed to assist clinicians in analyzing this multivariate flow cytometry data. The data from each sample are processed by a clustering algorithm, which finds the means of the distinct cell subpopulations in a sample. These mean values of fluorescence are translated into words such as negative,'' dim'' and bright'' and the words are combined into patterns that are matched against the premises on the left hand side of the rules used to identify the disease categories. This is a report of work in progress. 13 refs., 4 figs.
Numerical analysis of respiratory flow patterns within human upper airway
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Ying; Liu, Yingxi; Sun, Xiuzhen; Yu, Shen; Gao, Fei
2009-12-01
A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach is used to study the respiratory airflow dynamics within a human upper airway. The airway model which consists of the airway from nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx and trachea to triple bifurcation is built based on the CT images of a healthy volunteer and the Weibel model. The flow characteristics of the whole upper airway are quantitatively described at any time level of respiratory cycle. Simulation results of respiratory flow show good agreement with the clinical measures, experimental and computational results in the literature. The air mainly passes through the floor of the nasal cavity in the common, middle and inferior nasal meatus. The higher airway resistance and wall shear stresses are distributed on the posterior nasal valve. Although the airways of pharynx, larynx and bronchi experience low shear stresses, it is notable that relatively high shear stresses are distributed on the wall of epiglottis and bronchial bifurcations. Besides, two-dimensional fluid-structure interaction models of normal and abnormal airways are built to discuss the flow-induced deformation in various anatomy models. The result shows that the wall deformation in normal airway is relatively small.
Spatio-temporal curvature measures for flow-field analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zetzsche, Christoph; Barth, Erhardt; Berkmann, Joachim
1991-09-01
Intrinsic signal dimensionality, a property closely related to Gaussian curvature, is shown to be an important conceptual tool in multi-dimensional image processing for both biological and engineering sciences. Intrinsic dimensionality can reveal the relationship between recent theoretical developments in the definition of optic flow and the basic neurophysiological concept of 'end-stopping' of visual cortical cells. It is further shown how the concept may help to avoid certain problems typically arising from the common belief that an explicit computation of a flow field has to be the essential first step in the processing of spatio- temporal image sequences. Signals which cause difficulties in the computation of optic flow, mainly the discontinuities of the motion vector field, are shown to be detectable directly in the spatio-temporal input by evaluation of its three-dimensional curvature. The relevance of the suggested concept is supported by the fact that fast and efficient detection of such signals is of vital importance for ambulant observers in both the biological and the technical domain.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cole, T. W.; Frisbee, R. H.; Yavrouian, A. H.
1987-01-01
The risks posed to the NASA's Galileo spacecraft by the oxidizer flow decay during its extended mission to Jupiter is discussed. The Galileo spacecraft will use nitrogen tetroxide (NTO)/monomethyl hydrazine bipropellant system with one large engine thrust-rated at a nominal 400 N, and 12 smaller engines each thrust-rated at a nominal 10 N. These smaller thrusters, because of their small valve inlet filters and small injector ports, are especially vulnerable to clogging by iron nitrate precipitates formed by NTO-wetted stainless steel components. To quantify the corrosion rates and solubility levels which will be seen during the Galileo mission, corrosion and solubility testing experiments were performed with simulated Galileo materials, propellants, and environments. The results show the potential benefits of propellant sieving in terms of iron and water impurity reduction.
A Flow-Channel Analysis for the Mars Hopper
W. Spencer Cooley
2013-02-01
The Mars Hopper is an exploratory vehicle designed to fly on Mars using carbon dioxide from the Martian atmosphere as a rocket propellant. The propellent gasses are thermally heated while traversing a radioisotope ther- mal rocket (RTR) engine’s core. This core is comprised of a radioisotope surrounded by a heat capacitive material interspersed with tubes for the propellant to travel through. These tubes, or flow channels, can be manu- factured in various cross-sectional shapes such as a special four-point star or the traditional circle. Analytical heat transfer and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) anal- yses were performed using flow channels with either a circle or a star cross- sectional shape. The nominal total inlet pressure was specified at 2,805,000 Pa; and the outlet pressure was set to 2,785,000 Pa. The CO2 inlet tem- perature was 300 K; and the channel wall was 1200 K. The steady-state CFD simulations computed the smooth-walled star shape’s outlet temper- ature to be 959 K on the finest mesh. The smooth-walled circle’s outlet temperature was 902 K. A circle with a surface roughness specification at 0.01 mm gave 946 K and at 0.1 mm yielded 989 K. The The effects of a slightly varied inlet pressure were also examined. The analytical calculations were based on the mass flow rates computed in the CFD simulations and provided significantly higher outlet temperature results while displaying the same comparison trends. Research relating to the flow channel heat transfer studies was also done. Mathematical methods to geometrically match the cross-sectional areas of the circle and star, along with a square and equilateral triangle, were derived. A Wolfram Mathematica 8 module was programmed to analyze CFD results using Richardson Extrapolation and calculate the grid convergence index (GCI). A Mathematica notebook, also composed, computes and graphs the bulk mean temperature along a flow channel’s length while the user dynam- ically provides the input
Hua, Jia-Chen; Gunaratne, Gemunu H; Kostka, Stanislav; Jiang, Naibo; Kiel, Barry V; Gord, James R; Roy, Sukesh
2013-09-01
Dynamical systems analysis is performed for reacting flows stabilized behind four symmetric bluff bodies to determine the effects of shape on the nature of flame stability, acoustic coupling, and vortex shedding. The task requires separation of regular, repeatable aspects of the flow from experimental noise and highly irregular, nonrepeatable small-scale structures caused primarily by viscous-mediated energy cascading. The experimental systems are invariant under a reflection, and symmetric vortex shedding is observed throughout the parameter range. As the equivalence ratio-and, hence, acoustic coupling-is reduced, a symmetry-breaking transition to von Karman vortices is initiated. Combining principal-components analysis with a symmetry-based filtering, we construct bifurcation diagrams for the onset and growth of von Karman vortices. We also compute Lyapunov exponents for each flame holder to help quantify the transitions. Furthermore, we outline changes in the phase-space orbits that accompany the onset of von Karman vortex shedding and compute unstable periodic orbits (UPOs) embedded in the complex flows prior to and following the bifurcation. For each flame holder, we find a single UPO in flows without von Karman vortices and a pair of UPOs in flows with von Karman vortices. These periodic orbits organize the dynamics of the flow and can be used to reduce or control flow irregularities. By subtracting them from the overall flow, we are able to deduce the nature of irregular facets of the flows.
Experimental and numerical analysis of unsteady behaviour of high efficiency mixed-flow pump
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sedlář, Milan; Komárek, Martin; Vyroubal, Michal; Doubrava, Vít; Varchola, Michal; Hlbočan, Peter
2014-03-01
This work deals with the experimental and numerical investigation of cavitating and noncavitating flow inside a mixed-flow pump and its influence on performance curves of this pump. The experimental research has been carried out in the closed horizontal loop with the main tank capacity of 35 m3. The loop is equipped with both the compressor and the vacuum pump capable of creating different pressure levels while maintaining constant volume flow rate. Pump investigated in this project has been equipped with transparent windows, which enabled the visualization of flow and cavitation phenomena for a wide range of flow conditions. A comprehensive CFD analysis of tested pump has been done both in the cavitating and noncavitating regimes. The ANSYS CFX commercial CFD package has been used to solve URANS equations together with the Rayleigh-Plesset model and the SST-SAS turbulence model. Both the experimental research and the CFD analysis have provided a good illustration of the flow structures inside the pump and their dynamics for a wide range of flow rates and NPSH values. Flow and cavitation instabilities have been detected at suboptimal flow rates which correspond to increased values of noise and vibrations. The calculated results agree well with the measurements.
Marietti, Y; Debierre, J M; Bock, T M; Kassner, K
2001-06-01
An asymptotic interface equation for directional solidification near the absolute stability limit is extended by a nonlocal term describing a shear flow parallel to the interface. In the long-wave limit considered, the flow acts destabilizing on a planar interface. Moreover, linear stability analysis suggests that the morphology diagram is modified by the flow near onset of the Mullins-Sekerka instability. Via numerical analysis, the bifurcation structure of the system is shown to change. Besides the known hexagonal cells, structures consisting of stripes arise. Due to its symmetry-breaking properties, the flow term induces a lateral drift of the whole pattern, once the instability has become active. The drift velocity is measured numerically and described analytically in the framework of a linear analysis. At large flow strength, the linear description breaks down, which is accompanied by a transition to flow-dominated morphologies which is described in the following paper. Small and intermediate flows lead to increased order in the lattice structure of the pattern, facilitating the elimination of defects. Locally oscillating structures appear closer to the instability threshold with flow than without.
Analysis of DC gas flow in GM type double inlet pulse tube refrigerators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Shaowei; Nogawa, Masafumi; Inoue, Tatsuo
2009-02-01
In a GM type double inlet pulse tube refrigerator, a DC gas flow is an intrinsic phenomenon. It is important to understand the characteristics of the DC gas flow. In this paper, the relation between the DC gas flow, valve operating time intervals, and flow patterns in the bypass of the GM type double inlet pulse tube refrigerator is studied with a numerical simulation when a symmetric bypass is used. The governing equations of the numerical simulation based on the nodal analysis are discretized with an implicit finite volume method. The simulation result shows that the valve opening angle difference is the main parameter having influence on the DC gas flow, and the effect depends on the flow patterns in the bypass.
A comparative analysis on different nanofluid models for the oscillatory stagnation point flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nadeem, S.; Khan, A. U.; Saleem, S.
2016-08-01
In this study we have presented the comparative analysis of the oscillatory stagnation point flow of nanofluids. Both the phase flow model and Buongiorno model are discussed for oscillatory stagnation point flows and a comparison between experimental model and theoretical model is presented. The resulting partial differential equations for oscillatory two-dimensional flows are simplified in a fixed frame and a moving frame of reference subject to the assumed form of solutions. The homotopy analysis method is used to solve the reduced system of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The consequences are examined through graphs and tables. It is also found that comparatively both the Boungiorno nanofluid model and phase flow model are of compatible order for a special set of parameters but generally such results do not hold.
A power flow based model for the analysis of vulnerability in power networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zhuoyang; Chen, Guo; Hill, David J.; Dong, Zhao Yang
2016-10-01
An innovative model which considers power flow, one of the most important characteristics in a power system, is proposed for the analysis of power grid vulnerability. Moreover, based on the complex network theory and the Max-Flow theorem, a new vulnerability index is presented to identify the vulnerable lines in a power grid. In addition, comparative simulations between the power flow based model and existing models are investigated on the IEEE 118-bus system. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed model and the index are more effective in power grid vulnerability analysis.
Javadzadegan, Ashkan; Lotfi, Azadeh; Simmons, Anne; Barber, Tracie
2016-01-01
Thrombus in a femoral artery may form under stagnant flow conditions which vary depending on the local arterial waveform. Four different physiological flow waveforms - poor (blunt) monophasic, sharp monophasic, biphasic and triphasic - can exist in the femoral artery as a result of different levels of peripheral arterial disease progression. This study aims to examine the effect of different physiological waveforms on femoral artery haemodynamics. In this regard, a fluid-structure interaction analysis was carried out in idealised models of bifurcated common femoral artery. The results showed that recirculation zones occur in almost all flow waveforms; however, the sites at where these vortices are initiated, the size and structure of vortices are highly dependent on the type of flow waveform being used. It was shown that the reverse diastolic flow in biphasic and triphasic waveforms leads to the occurrence of a retrograde flow which aids in 'washout' of the disturbed flow regions. This may limit the likelihood of thrombus formation, indicating the antithrombotic role of retrograde flow in femoral arteries. Furthermore, our data revealed that the flow particles experience considerably higher residence time under blunt and sharp monophasic waveforms than under biphasic and triphasic waveforms. This confirms that the risk of atherothrombotic plaque initiation and development in femoral arteries is higher under blunt and sharp monophasic waveforms than under biphasic and triphasic flow waveforms.
Acoustic attenuation analysis program for ducts with mean flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kunze, R. K., Jr.
1972-01-01
A computerized acoustic attenuation prediction procedure has been developed to evaluate acoustically lined ducts for various geometric and environmental parameters. The analysis procedure is based on solutions to the acoustic wave equation, assuming uniform airflow on a duct cross section, combined with appropriate mathematical lining impedance models. The impedance models included in the analysis procedure are representative of either perforated sheet or porous polyimide impregnated fiberglass facing sheet coupled with a cellular backing space. Advantages and limitations of the analysis procedure are reviewed.
Well-test analysis for non-Newtonian fluid flow
Vongvuthipornchai, S.
1985-01-01
This dissertation examines pressure behavior subsequent to the injection of a non-Newtonian power-law pseudoplastic fluid. Responses at an unfractured well and at a well intercepting a planar fracture or a finite-conductivity fracture are studied. A rigorous examination of both injection and falloff responses is presented. Two approximate solutions for the transient (radial) flow presented in the literature are examined. The use of these solutions to analyze falloff data and correction factors needed are investigated. The influence of injection time on falloff data is documented. The influence of wellbore storage and skin on pressure responses is considered. The effective wellbore radius concept is used to combine the wellbore storage constant and the skin factor. Infinite-conductivity and uniform-flux idealizations are used to examine responses at wells intercepting planar fractures. Procedures to identify flow regimes are discussed. The solutions presented here may be used to determine fluid mobility, fracture half-length and the power-law index. Procedures to analyze pressure data during pseudoradial flow are also discussed. The effective wellbore radius concept is used to relate the skin factor with fracture half-length. Also, the utility of the pressure derivative techniques and the influence of injection time on the ability to analyze falloff data are documented. Lastly, pressure responses at a well intercepting a finite-conductivity fracture are examined. The parameters that govern the well response are identified. The solutions presented here may be used to obtain fracture half-length, fluid mobility and fracture conductivity, provided that the power-law index is known. All solutions were obtained by using standard finite-difference techniques.
Performance and flow analysis of vortex wind power turbines
Rangwalla, A.A.; Hsu, C.T.
1982-10-01
The theoretical study presented investigates some possible vortex flow solutions in the tornado-type wind energy system and evaluates the power coefficient that can be obtained theoretically. The actuator disc concept is applied to the vortex wind turbine configuration. The Burgers vortex model is then introduced and the performance of a turbine using it is derived. A generalized analytical solution of the model is given, followed by a numerical solution of the complete equations. The stability of a Burgers vortex is discussed. (LEW)
Analysis of receptor tyrosine kinase internalization using flow cytometry.
Li, Ning; Hill, Kristen S; Elferink, Lisa A
2008-01-01
The internalization of activated receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) by endocytosis and their subsequent down regulation in lysosomes plays a critical role in regulating the duration and intensity of downstream signaling events. Uncoupling of the RTK cMet from ligand-induced degradation was recently shown to correlate with sustained receptor signaling and increased cell tumorigenicity, suggesting that the corruption of these endocytic mechanisms could contribute to increased cMet signaling in metastatic cancers. To understand how cMet signaling for normal cell growth is controlled by endocytosis and how these mechanisms are dysregulated in metastatic cancers, we developed flow cytometry-based assays to examine cMet internalization.
Application of image processing techniques to fluid flow data analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Giamati, C. C.
1981-01-01
The application of color coding techniques used in processing remote sensing imagery to analyze and display fluid flow data is discussed. A minicomputer based color film recording and color CRT display system is described. High quality, high resolution images of two-dimensional data are produced on the film recorder. Three dimensional data, in large volume, are used to generate color motion pictures in which time is used to represent the third dimension. Several applications and examples are presented. System hardware and software is described.
Flow injection analysis biosensor for urea analysis in urine using enzyme thermistor.
Mishra, Geetesh K; Sharma, Atul; Deshpande, Kanchanmala; Bhand, Sunil
2014-10-01
There is a need for analytical methods capable of monitoring urea levels in urine for patients under clinical monitoring to appraise renal function. Herein, we present a practical method to quantify levels of urea in human urine samples using flow injection analysis-enzyme thermistor (FIA-ET) biosensor. The biosensor comprises a covalently immobilized enzyme urease (Jack bean) on aminated silica support, which selectively hydrolyzes the urea present in the sample. Under optimized conditions, the developed biosensor showed a linear response in the range of 10-1,000 mM, R (2) = 0.99, and response time of 90 s in 100 mM phosphate buffer (PB) (flow rate of 0.5 mL/min, sample volume of 0.1 mL, and pH 7.2). The urea-spiked human urine samples showed minimal matrix interference in the range of 10-1,000 mM. Recoveries were obtained (92.26-99.80 %) in the spiked urine samples. The reliability and reproducibility of the developed biosensor were found satisfactory with percent relative standard deviation (% RSD) = 0.741. The developed biosensor showed excellent operational stability up to 30 weeks with 20 % loss in original response when used continuously at room temperature. These results indicate that the developed biosensor could be very effective to detect low and high levels of urea in urine samples.
Least Squares Shadowing Sensitivity Analysis of Chaotic Flow Around a Two-Dimensional Airfoil
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Blonigan, Patrick J.; Wang, Qiqi; Nielsen, Eric J.; Diskin, Boris
2016-01-01
Gradient-based sensitivity analysis has proven to be an enabling technology for many applications, including design of aerospace vehicles. However, conventional sensitivity analysis methods break down when applied to long-time averages of chaotic systems. This breakdown is a serious limitation because many aerospace applications involve physical phenomena that exhibit chaotic dynamics, most notably high-resolution large-eddy and direct numerical simulations of turbulent aerodynamic flows. A recently proposed methodology, Least Squares Shadowing (LSS), avoids this breakdown and advances the state of the art in sensitivity analysis for chaotic flows. The first application of LSS to a chaotic flow simulated with a large-scale computational fluid dynamics solver is presented. The LSS sensitivity computed for this chaotic flow is verified and shown to be accurate, but the computational cost of the current LSS implementation is high.
Numerical analysis of hypersonic turbulent film cooling flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, Y. S.; Chen, C. P.; Wei, H.
1992-01-01
As a building block, numerical capabilities for predicting heat flux and turbulent flowfields of hypersonic vehicles require extensive model validations. Computational procedures for calculating turbulent flows and heat fluxes for supersonic film cooling with parallel slot injections are described in this study. Two injectant mass flow rates with matched and unmatched pressure conditions using the database of Holden et al. (1990) are considered. To avoid uncertainties associated with the boundary conditions in testing turbulence models, detailed three-dimensional flowfields of the injection nozzle were calculated. Two computational fluid dynamics codes, GASP and FDNS, with the algebraic Baldwin-Lomax and k-epsilon models with compressibility corrections were used. It was found that the B-L model which resolves near-wall viscous sublayer is very sensitive to the inlet boundary conditions at the nozzle exit face. The k-epsilon models with improved wall functions are less sensitive to the inlet boundary conditions. The testings show that compressibility corrections are necessary for the k-epsilon model to realistically predict the heat fluxes of the hypersonic film cooling problems.
Sensitive flow-injection spectrophotometric analysis of bromopride
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lima, Liliane Spazzapam; Weinert, Patrícia Los; Pezza, Leonardo; Pezza, Helena Redigolo
2014-12-01
A flow injection spectrophotometric procedure employing merging zones is proposed for direct bromopride determination in pharmaceutical formulations and biological fluids. The proposed method is based on the reaction between bromopride and p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (p-DAC) in acid medium, in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), resulting in formation of a violet product (λmax = 565 nm). Experimental design methodologies were used to optimize the experimental conditions. The Beer-Lambert law was obeyed in a bromopride concentration range of 3.63 × 10-7 to 2.90 × 10-5 mol L-1, with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9999. The limits of detection and quantification were 1.07 × 10-7 and 3.57 × 10-7 mol L-1, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of bromopride in pharmaceuticals and human urine, and recoveries of the drug from these media were in the ranges 99.6-101.2% and 98.6-102.1%, respectively. This new flow injection procedure does not require any sample pretreatment steps.
Sensitive flow-injection spectrophotometric analysis of bromopride.
Lima, Liliane Spazzapam; Los Weinert, Patrícia; Pezza, Leonardo; Pezza, Helena Redigolo
2014-12-10
A flow injection spectrophotometric procedure employing merging zones is proposed for direct bromopride determination in pharmaceutical formulations and biological fluids. The proposed method is based on the reaction between bromopride and p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (p-DAC) in acid medium, in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), resulting in formation of a violet product (λmax=565nm). Experimental design methodologies were used to optimize the experimental conditions. The Beer-Lambert law was obeyed in a bromopride concentration range of 3.63×10(-7) to 2.90×10(-5)molL(-1), with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9999. The limits of detection and quantification were 1.07×10(-7) and 3.57×10(-7)molL(-1), respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of bromopride in pharmaceuticals and human urine, and recoveries of the drug from these media were in the ranges 99.6-101.2% and 98.6-102.1%, respectively. This new flow injection procedure does not require any sample pretreatment steps. PMID:24992919
Analysis of horizontal flows in the solar granulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quintero Noda, C.; Shimizu, T.; Suematsu, Y.
2016-04-01
Solar limb observations sometimes reveal the presence of a satellite lobe in the blue wing of the Stokes I profile from pixels belonging to granules. The presence of this satellite lobe has been associated in the past to strong line-of-sight gradients and, as the line-of-sight component is almost parallel to the solar surface, to horizontal granular flows. We aim to increase the knowledge about these horizontal flows studying a spectropolarimetric observation of the north solar pole. We will make use of two state of the art techniques, the spatial deconvolution procedure that increases the quality of the data removing the stray light contamination, and spectropolarimetric inversions that will provide the vertical stratification of the atmospheric physical parameters where the observed spectral lines form. We inverted the Stokes profiles using a two component configuration, obtaining that one component is strongly blueshifted and displays a temperature enhancement at upper photospheric layers while the second component has low redshifted velocities and it is cool at upper layers. In addition, we examined a large number of cases located at different heliocentric angles, finding smaller velocities as we move from the centre to the edge of the granule. Moreover, the height location of the enhancement on the temperature stratification of the blueshifted component also evolves with the spatial location on the granule being positioned on lower heights as we move to the periphery of the granular structure.
Sensitivity analysis of vegetation-induced flow steering in channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bywater-Reyes, S.; Wilcox, A. C.; Lightbody, A.; Stella, J. C.
2014-12-01
Morphodynamic feedbacks result in alternating bars within channels, and the resulting convective accelerations dictate the cross-stream force balance of channels and in turn influence morphology. Pioneer woody riparian trees recruit on river bars and may steer flow and alter this force balance. This study uses two-dimensional hydraulic modeling to test the sensitivity of the flow field to riparian vegetation at the reach scale. We use two test systems with different width-to-depth ratios, substrate sizes, and vegetation structure: the gravel-bed Bitterroot River, MT and the sand-bed Santa Maria River, AZ. We model vegetation explicitly as a drag force by spatially specifying vegetation density, height, and drag coefficient, across varying hydraulic (e.g., discharge, eddy viscosity) conditions and compare velocity vectors between runs. We test variations in vegetation configurations, including the present-day configuration of vegetation in our field systems (extracted from LiDAR), removal of vegetation (e.g., from floods or management actions), and expansion of vegetation. Preliminary model runs suggest that the sensitivity of convective accelerations to vegetation reflects a balance between the extent and density of vegetation inundated and other sources of channel roughness. This research quantifies how vegetation alters hydraulics at the reach scale, a fundamental step to understanding vegetation-morphodynamic interactions.
Thermodynamic analysis of shark skin texture surfaces for microchannel flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Hao-Chun; Guo, Yang-Yu; Tan, He-Ping; Li, Yao; Xie, Gong-Nan
2016-09-01
The studies of shark skin textured surfaces in flow drag reduction provide inspiration to researchers overcoming technical challenges from actual production application. In this paper, three kinds of infinite parallel plate flow models with microstructure inspired by shark skin were established, namely blade model, wedge model and the smooth model, according to cross-sectional shape of microstructure. Simulation was carried out by using FLUENT, which simplified the computation process associated with direct numeric simulations. To get the best performance from simulation results, shear-stress transport k-omega turbulence model was chosen during the simulation. Since drag reduction mechanism is generally discussed from kinetics point of view, which cannot interpret the cause of these losses directly, a drag reduction rate was established based on the second law of thermodynamics. Considering abrasion and fabrication precision in practical applications, three kinds of abraded geometry models were constructed and tested, and the ideal microstructure was found to achieve best performance suited to manufacturing production on the basis of drag reduction rate. It was also believed that bionic shark skin surfaces with mechanical abrasion may draw more attention from industrial designers and gain wide applications with drag-reducing characteristics.
Aerothermodynamic Analysis of the Project FIRE II Afterbody Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wright, Micheal J.; Loomis, Mark; Arnold, Jim (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
35 years later, the Project FIRE II ballistic reentry to Earth at a nominal velocity of 11.4 km/s remains one of the best sources of heating data for the design of sample return capsules. The data from this flight experiment encompass both the thermochemical non-equilibrium and equilibrium flow regimes and include measurements of both radiative and total heating on the forebody and afterbody. Because of this, a number of researchers have performed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of the forebody of the FIRE II entry vehicle, with generally good results. In particular, Olynick et. al. coupled a Navier-Stokes solver (GIANTS) with a radiation code (NOVAR) and showed excellent agreement in surface heat transfer over the FIRE II trajectory between 1634 and 1651 seconds (77 km to 37 km). However, in most cases the primary motivation of the previous work was to understand and model the coupling between shock layer radiation and aerothermodynamics, and thus the simulations concentrated on the forebody flow only. To our knowledge there have been no prior published attempts to reproduce the afterbody heating data. However, an understanding of this data is critical to our efforts to design the next generation of Earth and planetary entry vehicles and to assess our need for additional flight data.
Second moment closure analysis of the backstep flow database
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parneix, S.; Laurence, D.; Durbin, P.
1996-01-01
A Second Moment Closure computation (SMC) is compared in detail with the Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) data of Le and Moin for the backstep flow at Re = 5,000 in an attempt to understand why the intensity of the backflow and, consequently, the friction coefficient in the recirculation bubble are severely underestimated. The data show that this recirculation bubble is far from being laminar except in the very near wall layer. A novel 'differential a priori' procedure was used, in which the full transport equation for one isolated component of the Reynolds stress tensor was solved using DNS data as input. Conclusions are then different from what would have been deduced by comparing a full simulation to a DNS. One cause of discrepancy was traced back to insufficient transfer of energy to the normal stress by pressure strain, but was not cured. A significant finding, confirmed by the DNS data in the core region of a channel flow, is that the coefficient that controls destruction of dissipation, C epsilon(sub 2), should be decreased by a factor of 2 when production is vanishing. This is also the case in the recirculation bubble, and a new formulation has cured 25% of the backflow discrepancy.
Experimental Analysis of Flow over a Highly Maneuverable Airframe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spirnak, Jonathan; Benson, Michael; van Poppel, Bret; Elkins, Christopher; Eaton, John; Team HMA Team
2015-11-01
One way to reduce the collateral damage in war is by increasing the accuracy of indirect fire weapons. The Army Research Laboratory is currently developing a Highly Maneuverable Airframe (HMA) consisting of four deflecting canards to provide in-flight maneuverability while fins maintain short duration aerodynamic stability. An experiment was conducted using Magnetic Resonance Velocimetry (MRV) techniques to gather three dimensional, three-component velocity data for fluid flow over a scaled down HMA model. Tests were performed at an angle of attack of 2.3° and canard deflection angles of 0° and 2°. The resulting data serve to both validate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations and understand the flow over this complex geometry. Particular interest is given to the development of the tip and inboard vortices that originate at the canard/body junction and the canard tips to determine their effects on airframe stability. Results show the development of a strong tip vortex and four weaker inboard vortices off each canard. Although the weaker inboard vortices dissipate rapidly downstream of the canard trailing edges, the stronger tip vortices persist until reaching the fins approximately six chord lengths downstream of the canard trailing edges. Team HMA designed and built the water channel and airframe for this experiment.
Finite-Element Analysis of Multiphase Immiscible Flow Through Soils
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuppusamy, T.; Sheng, J.; Parker, J. C.; Lenhard, R. J.
1987-04-01
A finite-element model is developed for multiphase flow through soil involving three immiscible fluids: namely, air, water, and a nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL). A variational method is employed for the finite-element formulation corresponding to the coupled differential equations governing flow in a three-fluid phase porous medium system with constant air phase pressure. Constitutive relationships for fluid conductivities and saturations as functions of fluid pressures, which are derived in a companion paper by J. C. Parker et al. (this issue) and which may be calibrated from two-phase laboratory measurements, are employed in the finite-element program. The solution procedure uses backward time integration with iteration by a modified Picard method to handle the nonlinear properties. Laboratory experiments involving water displacement from soil columns by p cymene (a benzene-derivative hydrocarbon) under constant pressure were simulated by the finite-element program to validate the numerical model and formulation for constitutive properties. Transient water outflow predicted using independently measured saturation-capillary head data agreed with observed outflow data within the limits of precision of the predictions as estimated by a first-order Taylor series approximation considering parameter uncertainty due to experimental reproducability and constitutive model accuracy. Two-dimensional simulations are presented for a hypothetical field case involving introduction of NAPL near the soil surface due to leakage from an underground storage tank. Subsequent transport of NAPL in the variably saturated vadose and groundwater zones is analyzed.
Fluid Structure Interaction in a Cold Flow Test and Transient CFD Analysis of Out-of-Round Nozzles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ruf, Joseph; Brown, Andrew; McDaniels, David; Wang, Ten-See
2010-01-01
This viewgraph presentation describes two nozzle fluid flow interactions. They include: 1) Cold flow nozzle tests with fluid-structure interaction at nozzle separated flow; and 2) CFD analysis for nozzle flow and side loads of nozzle extensions with various out-of-round cases.
ANALYSIS: software for graphical analysis of multidimensional flow cytometric list mode data.
Bakker Schut, T C; Doornbos, R M; de Grooth, B G
1994-04-01
A computer program for graphical analysis of multidimensional flow cytometric list mode data is described. The program offers one-, two-, and three-dimensional inspection of an amount of data that is only limited by disk space. Subpopulations within the original data set can be identified by setting one or more two-dimensional AND gates around them. The order of measurement can be used as a parameter for evaluation of time-dependent processes. Other new parameters can be made by zooming in on a parameter, logarithmic transformation, or division of two parameters. The program is written in Turbo Pascal and it can run on any MS-DOC PC with an EGA/VGA resolution screen.
Experimental investigation and CFD analysis on cross flow in the core of PMR200
Lee, Jeong -Hun; Yoon, Su -Jong; Cho, Hyoung -Kyu; Jae, Moosung; Park, Goon -Cherl
2015-04-16
The Prismatic Modular Reactor (PMR) is one of the major Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) concepts, which consists of hexagonal prismatic fuel blocks and reflector blocks made of nuclear gradegraphite. However, the shape of the graphite blocks could be easily changed by neutron damage duringthe reactor operation and the shape change can create gaps between the blocks inducing the bypass flow.In the VHTR core, two types of gaps, a vertical gap and a horizontal gap which are called bypass gap and cross gap, respectively, can be formed. The cross gap complicates the flow field in the reactor core by connecting the coolant channel to the bypass gap and it could lead to a loss of effective coolant flow in the fuel blocks. Thus, a cross flow experimental facility was constructed to investigate the cross flow phenomena in the core of the VHTR and a series of experiments were carried out under varying flow rates and gap sizes. The results of the experiments were compared with CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) analysis results in order to verify its prediction capability for the cross flow phenomena. Fairly good agreement was seen between experimental results and CFD predictions and the local characteristics of the cross flow was discussed in detail. Based on the calculation results, pressure loss coefficient across the cross gap was evaluated, which is necessary for the thermo-fluid analysis of the VHTR core using a lumped parameter code.
Oscillatory flow at the end of parallel-plate stacks: phenomenological and similarity analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mao, Xiaoan; Jaworski, Artur J.
2010-10-01
This paper addresses the physics of the oscillatory flow in the vicinity of a series of parallel plates forming geometrically identical channels. This type of flow is particularly relevant to thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators, where a reciprocating flow is responsible for the desirable energy transfer, but it is also of interest to general fluid mechanics of oscillatory flows past bluff bodies. In this paper, the physics of an acoustically induced flow past a series of plates in an isothermal condition is studied in detail using the data provided by PIV imaging. Particular attention is given to the analysis of the wake flow during the ejection part of the flow cycle, where either closed recirculating vortices or alternating vortex shedding can be observed. This is followed by a similarity analysis of the governing Navier-Stokes equations in order to derive the similarity criteria governing the wake flow behaviour. To this end, similarity numbers including two types of Reynolds number, the Keulegan-Carpenter number and a non-dimensional stack configuration parameter, d/h, are considered and their influence on the phenomena are discussed.
Experimental investigation and CFD analysis on cross flow in the core of PMR200
Lee, Jeong -Hun; Yoon, Su -Jong; Cho, Hyoung -Kyu; Jae, Moosung; Park, Goon -Cherl
2015-04-16
The Prismatic Modular Reactor (PMR) is one of the major Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) concepts, which consists of hexagonal prismatic fuel blocks and reflector blocks made of nuclear gradegraphite. However, the shape of the graphite blocks could be easily changed by neutron damage duringthe reactor operation and the shape change can create gaps between the blocks inducing the bypass flow.In the VHTR core, two types of gaps, a vertical gap and a horizontal gap which are called bypass gap and cross gap, respectively, can be formed. The cross gap complicates the flow field in the reactor core by connectingmore » the coolant channel to the bypass gap and it could lead to a loss of effective coolant flow in the fuel blocks. Thus, a cross flow experimental facility was constructed to investigate the cross flow phenomena in the core of the VHTR and a series of experiments were carried out under varying flow rates and gap sizes. The results of the experiments were compared with CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) analysis results in order to verify its prediction capability for the cross flow phenomena. Fairly good agreement was seen between experimental results and CFD predictions and the local characteristics of the cross flow was discussed in detail. Based on the calculation results, pressure loss coefficient across the cross gap was evaluated, which is necessary for the thermo-fluid analysis of the VHTR core using a lumped parameter code.« less
Application of Effective Discharge Analysis to Environmental Flow Decision-Making.
McKay, S Kyle; Freeman, Mary C; Covich, Alan P
2016-06-01
Well-informed river management decisions rely on an explicit statement of objectives, repeatable analyses, and a transparent system for assessing trade-offs. These components may then be applied to compare alternative operational regimes for water resource infrastructure (e.g., diversions, locks, and dams). Intra- and inter-annual hydrologic variability further complicates these already complex environmental flow decisions. Effective discharge analysis (developed in studies of geomorphology) is a powerful tool for integrating temporal variability of flow magnitude and associated ecological consequences. Here, we adapt the effectiveness framework to include multiple elements of the natural flow regime (i.e., timing, duration, and rate-of-change) as well as two flow variables. We demonstrate this analytical approach using a case study of environmental flow management based on long-term (60 years) daily discharge records in the Middle Oconee River near Athens, GA, USA. Specifically, we apply an existing model for estimating young-of-year fish recruitment based on flow-dependent metrics to an effective discharge analysis that incorporates hydrologic variability and multiple focal taxa. We then compare three alternative methods of environmental flow provision. Percentage-based withdrawal schemes outcompete other environmental flow methods across all levels of water withdrawal and ecological outcomes.
Application of effective discharge analysis to environmental flow decision-making
McKay, S. Kyle; Freeman, Mary C.; Covich, A.P.
2016-01-01
Well-informed river management decisions rely on an explicit statement of objectives, repeatable analyses, and a transparent system for assessing trade-offs. These components may then be applied to compare alternative operational regimes for water resource infrastructure (e.g., diversions, locks, and dams). Intra- and inter-annual hydrologic variability further complicates these already complex environmental flow decisions. Effective discharge analysis (developed in studies of geomorphology) is a powerful tool for integrating temporal variability of flow magnitude and associated ecological consequences. Here, we adapt the effectiveness framework to include multiple elements of the natural flow regime (i.e., timing, duration, and rate-of-change) as well as two flow variables. We demonstrate this analytical approach using a case study of environmental flow management based on long-term (60 years) daily discharge records in the Middle Oconee River near Athens, GA, USA. Specifically, we apply an existing model for estimating young-of-year fish recruitment based on flow-dependent metrics to an effective discharge analysis that incorporates hydrologic variability and multiple focal taxa. We then compare three alternative methods of environmental flow provision. Percentage-based withdrawal schemes outcompete other environmental flow methods across all levels of water withdrawal and ecological outcomes.
Application of Effective Discharge Analysis to Environmental Flow Decision-Making
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McKay, S. Kyle; Freeman, Mary C.; Covich, Alan P.
2016-06-01
Well-informed river management decisions rely on an explicit statement of objectives, repeatable analyses, and a transparent system for assessing trade-offs. These components may then be applied to compare alternative operational regimes for water resource infrastructure (e.g., diversions, locks, and dams). Intra- and inter-annual hydrologic variability further complicates these already complex environmental flow decisions. Effective discharge analysis (developed in studies of geomorphology) is a powerful tool for integrating temporal variability of flow magnitude and associated ecological consequences. Here, we adapt the effectiveness framework to include multiple elements of the natural flow regime (i.e., timing, duration, and rate-of-change) as well as two flow variables. We demonstrate this analytical approach using a case study of environmental flow management based on long-term (60 years) daily discharge records in the Middle Oconee River near Athens, GA, USA. Specifically, we apply an existing model for estimating young-of-year fish recruitment based on flow-dependent metrics to an effective discharge analysis that incorporates hydrologic variability and multiple focal taxa. We then compare three alternative methods of environmental flow provision. Percentage-based withdrawal schemes outcompete other environmental flow methods across all levels of water withdrawal and ecological outcomes.
Application of Effective Discharge Analysis to Environmental Flow Decision-Making.
McKay, S Kyle; Freeman, Mary C; Covich, Alan P
2016-06-01
Well-informed river management decisions rely on an explicit statement of objectives, repeatable analyses, and a transparent system for assessing trade-offs. These components may then be applied to compare alternative operational regimes for water resource infrastructure (e.g., diversions, locks, and dams). Intra- and inter-annual hydrologic variability further complicates these already complex environmental flow decisions. Effective discharge analysis (developed in studies of geomorphology) is a powerful tool for integrating temporal variability of flow magnitude and associated ecological consequences. Here, we adapt the effectiveness framework to include multiple elements of the natural flow regime (i.e., timing, duration, and rate-of-change) as well as two flow variables. We demonstrate this analytical approach using a case study of environmental flow management based on long-term (60 years) daily discharge records in the Middle Oconee River near Athens, GA, USA. Specifically, we apply an existing model for estimating young-of-year fish recruitment based on flow-dependent metrics to an effective discharge analysis that incorporates hydrologic variability and multiple focal taxa. We then compare three alternative methods of environmental flow provision. Percentage-based withdrawal schemes outcompete other environmental flow methods across all levels of water withdrawal and ecological outcomes. PMID:26961419
Kefayati, Sarah; Poepping, Tamie L
2013-07-01
Blood flow instabilities in the carotid artery bifurcation have been highly correlated to clot formation and mobilization resulting in ischemic stroke. In this work, PIV-measured flow velocities in normal and stenosed carotid artery bifurcation models were analyzed by means of proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). Through POD analysis, transition to more complex flow was visualized and quantified for increasing stenosis severity. While no evidence of transitional flow was seen in the normal model, the 50%-stenosed model started to show characteristics of transitional flow, which became highly evident in the 70% model, with greatest manifestation during the systolic phase of the cardiac cycle. By means of a model comparison, we demonstrate two quantitative measures of the flow complexity through the power-law decay slope of the energy spectrum and the global entropy. The more complex flow in the 70%-stenosed model showed a flatter slope of energy decay (-0.91 compared to -1.34 for 50% stenosis) and higher entropy values (0.26 compared to 0.17). Finally, the minimum temporal resolution required for POD analysis of carotid artery flow was found to be 100 Hz when determined through a more typical energy-mode convergence test, as compared to 400 Hz based on global entropy values.
Flow and Heat Transfer Analysis in a Deformable Channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asghar, S.; Abbas, Z.; Mushtaq, M.; Hayat, T.
2016-07-01
An analytical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations in a semi-infinite rectangular channel with porous and uniformly expanding or contracting walls is presented to improve the existing analytical results and to provide a comparison with the exact numerical solutions. The analytical solution is obtained with the use of the homotopy analysis method (HAM) which provides a uniformly valid solution for a wide range of parameters and has a better accuracy. In addition, the heat transfer analysis is presented for the case where the channel walls are kept at a constant temperature. The analytical solution is obtained with the use of three different techniques, and a numerical solution is obtained by the shooting method. A detailed analysis and comparison of the results of all these methods is presented. Heat transfer analysis in a deformable channel has been carried out for the first time.
An Analysis of Wave Interactions in Swept-Wing Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reed, H. L.
1984-01-01
Crossflow instabilities dominate disturbance growth in the leading-edge region of swept wings. Streamwise vortices in a boundary layer strongly influence the behavior of other disturbances. Amplification of crossflow vortices near the leading edge produces a residual spanwise nonuniformity in the mid-chord regions where Tollmien-Schlichting (T-S) waves are strongly amplified. Should the T-S wave undergo double-exponential growth because of this effect, the usual transition prediction methods would fail. The crossflow/Tollmien-Schlichting wave interaction was modeled as a secondary instability. The effects of suction are included, and different stability criteria are examined. The results are applied to laminar flow control wings characteristic of energy-efficient aircraft designs.
Symmetry group analysis of an ideal plastic flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lamothe, Vincent
2012-03-01
In this paper, we study a finite-dimensional Lie point symmetry group of a system describing an ideal plastic plane flow in two dimensions in order to find analytical solutions. The infinitesimal generators that span this Lie algebra are given. We completely classify the subalgebras of codimension up to two into conjugacy classes under the action of the symmetry group. Based on invariant forms, we use Ansätze to compute symmetry reductions in such a way that the obtained solutions simultaneously cover many invariant and partially invariant solutions. We calculate solutions of algebraic, trigonometric, inverse trigonometric and elliptic type. Some solutions depending on one or two arbitrary functions of one variable have also been found. In some cases, the shape of a potentially feasible extrusion die corresponding to the solution is deduced. These tools could be used to thin, curve, undulate or shape a ring in an ideal plastic material.
Analysis of angle effect on particle flocculation in branch flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prasad, Karthik; Fink, Kathryn; Liepmann, Dorian
2014-11-01
Hollow point microneedle drug delivery systems are known to be highly susceptible to blockage, owing to their very small structures. This problem has been especially noted when delivering suspended particle solutions, such as vaccines. Attempts to reduce particle flocculation in such devices through surface treatments of the particles have been largely unsuccessful. Furthermore, the particle clog only forms at the mouths of the microneedle structures, leaving the downstream walls clear. This implies that the sudden change in length scales alter the hydrodynamic interactions, creating the conditions for particle flocculation. However, while it is known that particle flocculation occurs, the physics behind the event are obscure. We utilize micro-PIV to observe how the occurrence and formation of particle flocculation changes in relation to the angle encountered by particle laden flow into microfluidic branch structures. The results offer the ability to optimize particle flocculation in MEMS devices, increasing device efficacy and longevity.
Vandeput, Marie; Parsajoo, Cobra; Vanheuverzwijn, Jérôme; Patris, Stéphanie; Yardim, Yavuz; le Jeune, Alexandre; Sarakbi, Ahmad; Mertens, Dominique; Kauffmann, Jean-Michel
2015-01-01
A commercially available thin-layer flow-through amperometric detector, with the sensing block customized in an original design, was applied to the screening of drug compounds known as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors. AChE from electric eel was covalently immobilized onto a cysteamine modified gold disk adjacent to a silver disk working electrode. On-line studies were performed by flow injection analysis (FIA) in PBS buffer pH 7.4. Seven commercially available AChE inhibitors used in the medical field, namely neostigmine, eserine, tacrine, donepezil, rivastigmine, pyridostigmine and galantamine as well as two natural compounds, quercetin and berberine, were investigated. The same trend of inhibitory potency as described in the literature was observed. Of particular interest and in addition to the determination of the IC50 values, this flow-through system allowed the study of both, the stability of the enzyme-inhibitor complex and the kinetic of the enzyme activity recovery. PMID:25459923
The Development of Loss of Flow Analysis Method for OPR1000 Using RETRAN
Dong Hyuk Lee; Yo-Han Kim; Chang-Kyung Sung
2006-07-01
A new loss of flow transient analysis method for OPR1000 (Optimized Power Reactor 1000, previously called KSNP: Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant) based on RETRAN code were developed. The reference plant for the analysis is Ulchin Unit 3 and the transient analyzed is 4 pump coast-down. The current analysis for loss of RCS flow transient of OPR1000 uses COAST and CESEC codes. The new method uses RETRAN code to replace COAST and CESEC codes. Since the ability of RETRAN to replace CESEC has been studied in other non-LOCA transients, this paper will focus on COAST code and RCP coast-down flow rates. The results from simplified RETRAN nodalization corresponding to COAST show good agreement with RCS flow results from COAST code. The results are also compared with RETRAN base-deck for safety analysis which is more complex and show similar trends. Therefore, previous analysis method for loss of flow of OPR1000 using COAST code can be replaced with the new analysis method based on RETRAN. (authors)
Fukushima, T; Matsuzawa, T; Homma, T
1989-01-01
Pulsatile flows in glass models simulating fusiform and lateral saccular aneurysms were investigated by a flow visualization method. When resting fluid starts to flow, the initial fluid motion is practically irrotational. After a short period of time, the flow began to separate from the proximal wall of the aneurysm. Then the separation bubble or vortex grew rapidly in size and filled the whole area of the aneurysm circumferentially. During this period of time, the center of the vortex moved from the proximal end to the distal point of the aneurysm. The transient reversal flow, for instance, which may occur at the end of the ejection period, passed between the wall of the aneurysm and the centrally located vortex. When the rate and pulsatile frequency of flow were high, the vortex broke down into highly disturbed flow (or turbulence) at the distal portion of the aneurysm. The same effect was observed when the length of the aneurysm was increased. A reduction in pulsatile amplitude made the flow pattern close to that in steady flow. A finite element analysis was made to obtain velocity and pressure fields in pulsatile flow through a tube with an axisymmetric expansion. Calculations were performed with the pulsatile flows used in the visualization experiment in order to study the effects of change in the pulsatile wave form by keeping the time-mean Reynolds number and Womersley's parameter unchanged. Calculated instantaneous patterns of velocity field and stream lines agreed well with the experimental results. The appearance and disappearance of the vortex in the dilated portion and its development resulted in complex distributions of pressure and shear fields. Locally minimum and maximum values of wall shear stress occurred at points just upstream and downstream of the distal end of the expansion when the flow rate reached its peak. PMID:2605323
1996-11-01
Volume VI of the documentation for the Phase I Data Analysis Task performed in support of the current Regional Flow Model, Transport Model, and Risk Assessment for the Nevada Test Site Underground Test Area Subproject contains the groundwater flow model data. Because of the size and complexity of the model area, a considerable quantity of data was collected and analyzed in support of the modeling efforts. The data analysis task was consequently broken into eight subtasks, and descriptions of each subtask's activities are contained in one of the eight volumes that comprise the Phase I Data Analysis Documentation.
Detection of Catechol by Potentiometric-Flow Injection Analysis in the Presence of Interferents
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lunsford, Suzanne K.; Widera, Justyna; Zhang, Hong
2007-01-01
This article describes an undergraduate analytical chemistry experiment developed to teach instrumental lab skills while incorporating common interferents encountered in the real-world analysis of catechol. The lab technique incorporates potentiometric-flow injection analysis on a dibenzo-18-crown-6 dual platinum electrode to detect catechol in…
Chin-Yee, I; Keeney, M; Lohmann, R C
1991-01-01
Flow cytometric (FCM) reticulocyte analysis using thiazole orange (TO) is becoming an increasingly popular method for routine quantification of reticulocytes. The methodology is accurate, cost-effective and shows a high correlation with manual techniques. We describe our experience with the clinical application of FCM reticulocyte analysis in a general hospital setting over a 20-month period with special emphasis on technical limitations.
Finite size scaling analysis on Nagel-Schreckenberg model for traffic flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balouchi, Ashkan; Browne, Dana
2015-03-01
The traffic flow problem as a many-particle non-equilibrium system has caught the interest of physicists for decades. Understanding the traffic flow properties and though obtaining the ability to control the transition from the free-flow phase to the jammed phase plays a critical role in the future world of urging self-driven cars technology. We have studied phase transitions in one-lane traffic flow through the mean velocity, distributions of car spacing, dynamic susceptibility and jam persistence -as candidates for an order parameter- using the Nagel-Schreckenberg model to simulate traffic flow. The length dependent transition has been observed for a range of maximum velocities greater than a certain value. Finite size scaling analysis indicates power-law scaling of these quantities at the onset of the jammed phase.
Nüsse, M; Marx, K
1997-08-01
Flow cytometric techniques are described to quantify micronucleus (MN) induction in cell cultures and human lymphocytes. The advantages and disadvantages of these techniques are discussed. Because a suspension of nuclei and MN has to be prepared for flow cytometric measurements, care has to be taken to avoid unspecific debris that can influence the results. Using additional flow cytometric parameters, most of the unspecific particles in the suspension can, however, be gated out. Apoptotic cells and apoptotic bodies can overlap the MN during measurement, it is, therefore, proposed not to use the technique if apoptosis is induced by the respective treatment. Advantages of the automated flow cytometric techniques are that results can be obtained in short time intervals, the frequency of MN and the DNA distribution of MN can be measured simultaneously and flow sorting can be used for a further analysis of MN using other techniques.
Analysis of Debris Flow Behavior Using Airborne LIDAR and Image Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, G.; Yune, C. Y.; Paik, J.; Lee, S. W.
2016-06-01
The frequency of debris flow events caused by severe rainstorms has increased in Korea. LiDAR provides high-resolution topographical data that can represent the land surface more effectively than other methods. This study describes the analysis of geomorphologic changes using digital surface models derived from airborne LiDAR and aerial image data acquired before and after a debris flow event in the southern part of Seoul, South Korea in July 2011. During this event, 30 houses were buried, 116 houses were damaged, and 22 human casualties were reported. Longitudinal and cross-sectional profiles of the debris flow path reconstructed from digital surface models were used to analyze debris flow behaviors such as landslide initiation, transport, erosion, and deposition. LiDAR technology integrated with GIS is a very useful tool for understanding debris flow behavior.
Boundary-Layer Stability Analysis of the Mean Flows Obtained Using Unstructured Grids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liao, Wei; Malik, Mujeeb R.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Li, Fei; Nielsen, Eric J.; Buning, Pieter G.; Chang, Chau-Lyan; Choudhari, Meelan M.
2012-01-01
Boundary-layer stability analyses of mean flows extracted from unstructured-grid Navier- Stokes solutions have been performed. A procedure has been developed to extract mean flow profiles from the FUN3D unstructured-grid solutions. Extensive code-to-code validations have been performed by comparing the extracted mean ows as well as the corresponding stability characteristics to the predictions based on structured-grid solutions. Comparisons are made on a range of problems from a simple at plate to a full aircraft configuration-a modified Gulfstream-III with a natural laminar flow glove. The future aim of the project is to extend the adjoint-based design capability in FUN3D to include natural laminar flow and laminar flow control by integrating it with boundary-layer stability analysis codes, such as LASTRAC.
Numerical analysis of the steam flow field in shell and tube heat exchanger
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bartoszewicz, Jarosław; Bogusławski, Leon
2016-06-01
In the paper, the results of numerical simulations of the steam flow in a shell and tube heat exchanger are presented. The efficiency of different models of turbulence was tested. In numerical calculations the following turbulence models were used: k-ɛ, RNG k-ɛ, Wilcox k-ω, Chen-Kim k-ɛ, and Lam-Bremhorst k-ɛ. Numerical analysis of the steam flow was carried out assuming that the flow at the inlet section of the heat exchanger were divided into three parts. The angle of steam flow at inlet section was determined individually in order to obtain the best configuration of entry vanes and hence improve the heat exchanger construction. Results of numerical studies were verified experimentally for a real heat exchanger. The modification of the inlet flow direction according to theoretical considerations causes the increase of thermal power of a heat exchanger of about 14%.
Modeling and flow analysis of pure nylon polymer for injection molding process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nuruzzaman, D. M.; Kusaseh, N.; Basri, S.; Oumer, A. N.; Hamedon, Z.
2016-02-01
In the production of complex plastic parts, injection molding is one of the most popular industrial processes. This paper addresses the modeling and analysis of the flow process of the nylon (polyamide) polymer for injection molding process. To determine the best molding conditions, a series of simulations are carried out using Autodesk Moldflow Insight software and the processing parameters are adjusted. This mold filling commercial software simulates the cavity filling pattern along with temperature and pressure distributions in the mold cavity. In the modeling, during the plastics flow inside the mold cavity, different flow parameters such as fill time, pressure, temperature, shear rate and warp at different locations in the cavity are analyzed. Overall, this Moldflow is able to perform a relatively sophisticated analysis of the flow process of pure nylon. Thus the prediction of the filling of a mold cavity is very important and it becomes useful before a nylon plastic part to be manufactured.
Analysis of long-term trends in flow from a Large Spring Complex in northern Florida
Grubbs, Jack W.
2011-01-01
Nonparametric regression analysis of historic flow and rainfall data was used to estimate declining flows in a river draining a large spring complex in northern Florida, USA. The analysis indicated that flow declined by an estimated 23 percent from 1900 to 2009. The rate of decline appeared to increase over time, from about 0.8 cubic foot per second per year during the period from 1930-1970, to about 1.1 cubic feet per second per year over the period from 1970-2009. The estimated decline for the period prior to 1980 is consistent with evidence indicating groundwater withdrawals to the east of the study area have diverted groundwater that formerly flowed toward the Ichetucknee River under predevelopment conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Termini, D.
2009-04-01
Natural rivers are characterized by a strong hydraulic and geomorphic complexity. Many studies conducted in this field (Malthus and Mumby, 2003; Muhar, 1996) show that the accurate estimation both of the river morphological changes and of local hydraulic characteristics of flow (i.e. the local flow velocities and water depths) is necessary for the restoration and protection of biodiversity. Vegetation is a key factor to analyze the interrelated system of flow, sediment transport, and morphodynamic in rivers (Tsujimoto, 1999; Maione et al., 2000). On one hand, some kind of species of vegetation affect the habitat conditions, being crucial to the maintenance of biodiversity (Larkum et al, 2004); on the other hand, effects of vegetation on flow velocity are significant and are of crucial importance for stabilizing sediments and reducing erosion along the channel. In particular, it has been generally agreed that vegetation increases flow resistance and modifies sediment transport and deposition (Tsujimoto et al., 1996; Yen 2002). The analysis of the hydrodynamic conditions in vegetated channels is complex because vegetation is flexible in varying degrees and it oscillates in the flow changing position. Furthermore, because of temporal changing of roughness due to natural vegetative growth, the response of vegetation to the flow can change in time. In this paper the flow over real flexible vegetation is experimentally studied. A 2D-ADV (Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter) is used to measure the local flow velocities, for different vegetation concentrations and varying the discharge and the flume slope. The influence of both vegetation concentration and depth/vegetation height ratio on the measured velocity profiles is analyzed. The comparison between the velocity distribution and the turbulence intensity distribution is also presented. The spectral analysis is operated in order to verify the formation of turbulence structures inside the vegetated layer and the flow conveyance
Flow distribution analysis on the cooling tube network of ITER thermal shield
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nam, Kwanwoo; Chung, Wooho; Noh, Chang Hyun; Kang, Dong Kwon; Kang, Kyoung-O.; Ahn, Hee Jae; Lee, Hyeon Gon
2014-01-01
Thermal shield (TS) is to be installed between the vacuum vessel or the cryostat and the magnets in ITER tokamak to reduce the thermal radiation load to the magnets operating at 4.2K. The TS is cooled by pressurized helium gas at the inlet temperature of 80K. The cooling tube is welded on the TS panel surface and the composed flow network of the TS cooling tubes is complex. The flow rate in each panel should be matched to the thermal design value for effective radiation shielding. This paper presents one dimensional analysis on the flow distribution of cooling tube network for the ITER TS. The hydraulic cooling tube network is modeled by an electrical analogy. Only the cooling tube on the TS surface and its connecting pipe from the manifold are considered in the analysis model. Considering the frictional factor and the local loss in the cooling tube, the hydraulic resistance is expressed as a linear function with respect to mass flow rate. Sub-circuits in the TS are analyzed separately because each circuit is controlled by its own control valve independently. It is found that flow rates in some panels are insufficient compared with the design values. In order to improve the flow distribution, two kinds of design modifications are proposed. The first one is to connect the tubes of the adjacent panels. This will increase the resistance of the tube on the panel where the flow rate is excessive. The other design suggestion is that an orifice is installed at the exit of tube routing where the flow rate is to be reduced. The analysis for the design suggestions shows that the flow mal-distribution is improved significantly.
Flow distribution analysis on the cooling tube network of ITER thermal shield
Nam, Kwanwoo; Chung, Wooho; Noh, Chang Hyun; Kang, Dong Kwon; Kang, Kyoung-O; Ahn, Hee Jae; Lee, Hyeon Gon
2014-01-29
Thermal shield (TS) is to be installed between the vacuum vessel or the cryostat and the magnets in ITER tokamak to reduce the thermal radiation load to the magnets operating at 4.2K. The TS is cooled by pressurized helium gas at the inlet temperature of 80K. The cooling tube is welded on the TS panel surface and the composed flow network of the TS cooling tubes is complex. The flow rate in each panel should be matched to the thermal design value for effective radiation shielding. This paper presents one dimensional analysis on the flow distribution of cooling tube network for the ITER TS. The hydraulic cooling tube network is modeled by an electrical analogy. Only the cooling tube on the TS surface and its connecting pipe from the manifold are considered in the analysis model. Considering the frictional factor and the local loss in the cooling tube, the hydraulic resistance is expressed as a linear function with respect to mass flow rate. Sub-circuits in the TS are analyzed separately because each circuit is controlled by its own control valve independently. It is found that flow rates in some panels are insufficient compared with the design values. In order to improve the flow distribution, two kinds of design modifications are proposed. The first one is to connect the tubes of the adjacent panels. This will increase the resistance of the tube on the panel where the flow rate is excessive. The other design suggestion is that an orifice is installed at the exit of tube routing where the flow rate is to be reduced. The analysis for the design suggestions shows that the flow mal-distribution is improved significantly.
Fluid Structural Analysis of Urine Flow in a Stented Ureter.
Gómez-Blanco, J Carlos; Martínez-Reina, F Javier; Cruz, Domingo; Pagador, J Blas; Sánchez-Margallo, Francisco M; Soria, Federico
2016-01-01
Many urologists are currently studying new designs of ureteral stents to improve the quality of their operations and the subsequent recovery of the patient. In order to help during this design process, many computational models have been developed to simulate the behaviour of different biological tissues and provide a realistic computational environment to evaluate the stents. However, due to the high complexity of the involved tissues, they usually introduce simplifications to make these models less computationally demanding. In this study, the interaction between urine flow and a double-J stented ureter with a simplified geometry has been analysed. The Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) of urine and the ureteral wall was studied using three models for the solid domain: Mooney-Rivlin, Yeoh, and Ogden. The ureter was assumed to be quasi-incompressible and isotropic. Data obtained in previous studies from ex vivo and in vivo mechanical characterization of different ureters were used to fit the mentioned models. The results show that the interaction between the stented ureter and urine is negligible. Therefore, we can conclude that this type of models does not need to include the FSI and could be solved quite accurately assuming that the ureter is a rigid body and, thus, using the more simple Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach.
Collection, isolation, and flow cytometric analysis of human endocervical samples.
Juno, Jennifer A; Boily-Larouche, Genevieve; Lajoie, Julie; Fowke, Keith R
2014-07-06
Despite the public health importance of mucosal pathogens (including HIV), relatively little is known about mucosal immunity, particularly at the female genital tract (FGT). Because heterosexual transmission now represents the dominant mechanism of HIV transmission, and given the continual spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), it is critical to understand the interplay between host and pathogen at the genital mucosa. The substantial gaps in knowledge around FGT immunity are partially due to the difficulty in successfully collecting and processing mucosal samples. In order to facilitate studies with sufficient sample size, collection techniques must be minimally invasive and efficient. To this end, a protocol for the collection of cervical cytobrush samples and subsequent isolation of cervical mononuclear cells (CMC) has been optimized. Using ex vivo flow cytometry-based immunophenotyping, it is possible to accurately and reliably quantify CMC lymphocyte/monocyte population frequencies and phenotypes. This technique can be coupled with the collection of cervical-vaginal lavage (CVL), which contains soluble immune mediators including cytokines, chemokines and anti-proteases, all of which can be used to determine the anti- or pro-inflammatory environment in the vagina.
Analysis of non-premixed turbulent reacting flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leonard, Andy D.; Hill, James C.
1987-01-01
Studies of chemical reactions occurring in turbulent flows are important in the understanding of combustion and other applications. Current numerical methods are limited in their applications due to the numerical resolution required to completely capture all length scales, but, despite the fact that realistic combustion cannot be solved completely, numerical simulations can be used to give insight into the interaction between the processes of turbulence and chemical reaction. The objective was to investigate the effects of turbulent motion on the effects of chemical reaction to gain some insight on the interaction of turbulence, molecular diffusion, and chemical reaction to support modeling efforts. A direct turbulence simulation spectral code was modified to include the effects of chemical reaction and applied to an initial value problem of chemical reaction between non-premixed species. The influence of hydrodynamics on the instantaneous structure of the reaction was investigated. The local scalar dissipation rates and the local reaction rates were examined to determine the influence of vorticity or rate of strain on the reaction and the structure of the scalar field.
Stability analysis of traffic flow with extended CACC control models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ya-Zhou, Zheng; Rong-Jun, Cheng; Siu-Ming, Lo; Hong-Xia, Ge
2016-06-01
To further investigate car-following behaviors in the cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC) strategy, a comprehensive control system which can handle three traffic conditions to guarantee driving efficiency and safety is designed by using three CACC models. In this control system, some vital comprehensive information, such as multiple preceding cars’ speed differences and headway, variable safety distance (VSD) and time-delay effect on the traffic current and the jamming transition have been investigated via analytical or numerical methods. Local and string stability criterion for the velocity control (VC) model and gap control (GC) model are derived via linear stability theory. Numerical simulations are conducted to study the performance of the simulated traffic flow. The simulation results show that the VC model and GC model can improve driving efficiency and suppress traffic congestion. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 71571107 and 11302110). The Scientific Research Fund of Zhejiang Province, China (Grant Nos. LY15A020007, LY15E080013, and LY16G010003). The Natural Science Foundation of Ningbo City (Grant Nos. 2014A610030 and 2015A610299), the Fund from the Government of the Hong Kong Administrative Region, China (Grant No. CityU11209614), and the K C Wong Magna Fund in Ningbo University, China.
Improving the signal analysis for in vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Niu, Zhenyu; Yang, Ping; Wei, Dan; Tang, Shuo; Wei, Xunbin
2015-03-01
At early stage of cancer, a small number of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) appear in the blood circulation. Thus, early detection of malignant circulating tumor cells has great significance for timely treatment to reduce the cancer death rate. We have developed an in vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry (PAFC) to monitor the metastatic process of CTCs and record the signals from target cells. Information of target cells which is helpful to the early therapy would be obtained through analyzing and processing the signals. The raw signal detected from target cells often contains some noise caused by electronic devices, such as background noise and thermal noise. We choose the Wavelet denoising method to effectively distinguish the target signal from background noise. Processing in time domain and frequency domain would be combined to analyze the signal after denoising. This algorithm contains time domain filter and frequency transformation. The frequency spectrum image of the signal contains distinctive features that can be used to analyze the property of target cells or particles. The PAFC technique can detect signals from circulating tumor cells or other particles. The processing methods have a great potential for analyzing signals accurately and rapidly.
Stability analysis of traffic flow with extended CACC control models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ya-Zhou, Zheng; Rong-Jun, Cheng; Siu-Ming, Lo; Hong-Xia, Ge
2016-06-01
To further investigate car-following behaviors in the cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC) strategy, a comprehensive control system which can handle three traffic conditions to guarantee driving efficiency and safety is designed by using three CACC models. In this control system, some vital comprehensive information, such as multiple preceding cars’ speed differences and headway, variable safety distance (VSD) and time-delay effect on the traffic current and the jamming transition have been investigated via analytical or numerical methods. Local and string stability criterion for the velocity control (VC) model and gap control (GC) model are derived via linear stability theory. Numerical simulations are conducted to study the performance of the simulated traffic flow. The simulation results show that the VC model and GC model can improve driving efficiency and suppress traffic congestion. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 71571107 and 11302110). The Scientific Research Fund of Zhejiang Province, China (Grant Nos. LY15A020007, LY15E080013, and LY16G010003). The Natural Science Foundation of Ningbo City (Grant Nos. 2014A610030 and 2015A610299), the Fund from the Government of the Hong Kong Administrative Region, China (Grant No. CityU11209614), and the K C Wong Magna Fund in Ningbo University, China.
Stream habitat analysis using the instream flow incremental methodology
Bovee, Ken D.; Lamb, Berton L.; Bartholow, John M.; Stalnaker, Clair B.; Taylor, Jonathan; Henriksen, Jim
1998-01-01
This document describes the Instream Flow Methodology in its entirety. This also is to serve as a comprehensive introductory textbook on IFIM for training courses as it contains the most complete and comprehensive description of IFIM in existence today. This should also serve as an official guide to IFIM in publication to counteract the misconceptions about the methodology that have pervaded the professional literature since the mid-1980's as this describes IFIM as it is envisioned by its developers. The document is aimed at the decisionmakers of management and allocation of natural resources in providing them an overview; and to those who design and implement studies to inform the decisionmakers. There should be enough background on model concepts, data requirements, calibration techniques, and quality assurance to help the technical user design and implement a cost-effective application of IFIM that will provide policy-relevant information. Some of the chapters deal with basic organization of IFIM, procedural sequence of applying IFIM starting with problem identification, study planning and implementation, and problem resolution.
Collection, isolation, and flow cytometric analysis of human endocervical samples.
Juno, Jennifer A; Boily-Larouche, Genevieve; Lajoie, Julie; Fowke, Keith R
2014-01-01
Despite the public health importance of mucosal pathogens (including HIV), relatively little is known about mucosal immunity, particularly at the female genital tract (FGT). Because heterosexual transmission now represents the dominant mechanism of HIV transmission, and given the continual spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), it is critical to understand the interplay between host and pathogen at the genital mucosa. The substantial gaps in knowledge around FGT immunity are partially due to the difficulty in successfully collecting and processing mucosal samples. In order to facilitate studies with sufficient sample size, collection techniques must be minimally invasive and efficient. To this end, a protocol for the collection of cervical cytobrush samples and subsequent isolation of cervical mononuclear cells (CMC) has been optimized. Using ex vivo flow cytometry-based immunophenotyping, it is possible to accurately and reliably quantify CMC lymphocyte/monocyte population frequencies and phenotypes. This technique can be coupled with the collection of cervical-vaginal lavage (CVL), which contains soluble immune mediators including cytokines, chemokines and anti-proteases, all of which can be used to determine the anti- or pro-inflammatory environment in the vagina. PMID:25045942
Fluid Structural Analysis of Urine Flow in a Stented Ureter
Gómez-Blanco, J. Carlos; Martínez-Reina, F. Javier; Cruz, Domingo; Pagador, J. Blas; Sánchez-Margallo, Francisco M.; Soria, Federico
2016-01-01
Many urologists are currently studying new designs of ureteral stents to improve the quality of their operations and the subsequent recovery of the patient. In order to help during this design process, many computational models have been developed to simulate the behaviour of different biological tissues and provide a realistic computational environment to evaluate the stents. However, due to the high complexity of the involved tissues, they usually introduce simplifications to make these models less computationally demanding. In this study, the interaction between urine flow and a double-J stented ureter with a simplified geometry has been analysed. The Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) of urine and the ureteral wall was studied using three models for the solid domain: Mooney-Rivlin, Yeoh, and Ogden. The ureter was assumed to be quasi-incompressible and isotropic. Data obtained in previous studies from ex vivo and in vivo mechanical characterization of different ureters were used to fit the mentioned models. The results show that the interaction between the stented ureter and urine is negligible. Therefore, we can conclude that this type of models does not need to include the FSI and could be solved quite accurately assuming that the ureter is a rigid body and, thus, using the more simple Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach. PMID:27127535
Hanover, R.H.
1994-01-01
A cross-sectional analysis of ground-water flow in central-western and northwestern Ohio was done as part of the Midwestern Basins and Arches Regional Aquifer-System Analysis project. The Midwestern Basins and Arches aquifer system is composed of carbonate bedrock of Silurian and Devonian age and overlying glacial flow analysis of the Scioto and Blanchard rivers in the study area were used to describe patrems of ground-water flow, to evaluate stream-aquifer interaction, and to quantify recharge and discharge within the ground-water-flow system along a regional ground-water-flow path. The selected regional flow path begins at a regional topographic high in Logan County, Ohio, and ends in Sandusky Bay (Lake Erie), a regional topographic low. Recharge to the ground-water system along the selected regional flow path was estimated from hydrograph separation of streamflow and averaged 3.24 inches per year. Computer model simulations indicate that 84 percent of the water entering the ground-water system flows less than 5 miles from point of recharge to point of discharge and no deeper than the upper surficial aquifers. The distance and depth that ground water travels and traveltime from point of recharge to point of discharge is controlled largely by where ground water enters the flow system. Ground water entering the flow system in the vicinity of major surface- water divides generally travels further, deeper, and longer than ground water entering the flow system elsewhere along the regional flow path. Particle tracking simulations substantiate the concept that the 80-mile-long regional flow path is within a continuous ground-water basin. Estimated traveltimes for ground-water from the regional high to Sandusky Bay range from 22,000 to 40,700 years, given a range of porosities from 8 to 22 percent for the carbonate-rock aquifer.
Experimental and computational analysis of pressure response in a multiphase flow loop
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morshed, Munzarin; Amin, Al; Rahman, Mohammad Azizur; Imtiaz, Syed
2016-07-01
The characteristics of multiphase fluid flow in pipes are useful to understand fluid mechanics encountered in the oil and gas industries. In the present day oil and gas exploration is successively inducing subsea operation in the deep sea and arctic condition. During the transport of petroleum products, understanding the fluid dynamics inside the pipe network is important for flow assurance. In this case the information regarding static and dynamic pressure response, pressure loss, optimum flow rate, pipe diameter etc. are the important parameter for flow assurance. The principal aim of this research is to represents computational analysis and experimental analysis of multi-phase (L/G) in a pipe network. This computational study considers a two-phase fluid flow through a horizontal flow loop with at different Reynolds number in order to determine the pressure distribution, frictional pressure loss profiles by volume of fluid (VOF) method. However, numerical simulations are validated with the experimental data. The experiment is conducted in 76.20 mm ID transparent circular pipe using water and air in the flow loop. Static pressure transducers are used to measure local pressure response in multiphase pipeline.
Second law analysis of water flow through smooth microtubes under adiabatic conditions
Parlak, Nezaket; Guer, Mesut; Ari, Vedat; Kuecuek, Hasan; Engin, Tahsin
2011-01-15
In the study, a second law analysis for a steady-laminar flow of water in adiabatic microtubes has been conducted. Smooth microtubes with the diameters between 50 and 150 {mu}m made of fused silica were used in the experiments. Considerable temperature rises due to viscous dissipation and relatively high pressure losses of flow were observed in experiments. To identify irreversibility of flow, rate of entropy generation from the experiments have been determined in the laminar flow range of Re = 20-2200. The second law of thermodynamics was applied to predict the entropy generation. The results of model taken from the literature, proposed to predict the temperature rise caused by viscous heating, correspond well with the experimental data. The second law analysis results showed that the flow characteristics in the smooth microtubes distinguish substantially from the conventional theory for flow in the larger tubes with respect to viscous heating/dissipation (temperature rise of flow) total entropy generation rate and lost work. (author)
Analysis of two-dimensional flow of epoxy fluids through woven glass fabric
Schutz, J.B.; Smith, K.B.
1997-06-01
Fabrication of magnet coils for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor will require vacuum pressure impregnation of epoxy resin into the glass fabric of the insulation system. Flow of a fluid through a packed bed of woven glass fabric is extremely complicated, and semiempirical methods must be used to analyze these flows. The previous one-dimensional model has been modified for analysis of two-dimensional isotropic flow of epoxy resins through woven glass fabric. Several two-dimensional flow experiments were performed to validate the analysis, and to determine permeabilities of several fabric weave types. The semiempirical permeability is shown to be a characteristic of the fabric weave, and once determined, may be used to analyze flow of fluids of differing viscosities. Plain weave has a lower permeability than satin weave fabric, possibly due to the increased tortuosity of the preferential flow paths along fiber tows. A flow radius of approximately 2 meters through satin weave fabric is predicted for fluid viscosities of 0.10 Pa s (100 cps) in 20 hours, characteristic of VPI resins.
Almeida, J. R. C.; Mourao-Miranda, J.; Aizenstein, H. J.; Versace, A.; Kozel, F. A.; Lu, H.; Marquand, A.; LaBarbara, E. J.; Brammer, M.; Trivedi, M.; Kupfer, D. J.; Phillips, M. L.
2013-01-01
Differentiating bipolar from recurrent unipolar depression is a major clinical challenge. In 18 healthy females and 36 females in a depressive episode - 18 with bipolar disorder type I, 18 with recurrent unipolar depression - we applied pattern recognition analysis using subdivisions of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) blood flow at rest, measured with arterial spin labelling. Subgenual ACC blood flow classified unipolar v. bipolar depression with 81% accuracy (83% sensitivity, 78% specificity). PMID:23969484
Analysis of CO2 emission in traffic flow and numerical tests
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Wen-Xing
2013-10-01
We investigated the carbon dioxide emission rate in traffic flow analytically and numerically. The emission model was derived based on Bando’s optimal velocity model with a consideration of slope. Simulations were conducted to examine the relationship between the CO2 emission rate of vehicles and slope of road, traffic density, and road length. Analysis of the results shows that some original laws of CO2 emission in traffic flow with congestion were exhibited.
A Flow-Through Reaction Cell that Couples Time - Resolved Analysis
A Wall; P Heaney; R Mathur; J Post; J Hanson; P Eng
2011-12-31
A non-metallic flow-through reaction cell is described, designed for in situ time-resolved X-ray diffraction coupled with stable isotope analysis. The experimental setup allows the correlation of Cu isotope fractionation with changes in crystal structure during copper sulfide dissolution. This flow-through cell can be applied to many classes of fluid-mineral reactions that involve dissolution or ion exchange.
Nonequilibrium flow computations. I - An analysis of numerical formulations of conservation laws
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, Yen; Vinokur, Marcel
1989-01-01
Modern numerical techniques employing properties of flux Jacobian matrices are extended to general, nonequilibrium flows. Generalizations of the Beam-Warming scheme, Steger-Warming and van Leer Flux-vector splittings, and Roe's approximate Riemann solver are presented for 3-D, time-varying grids. The analysis is based on a thermodynamic model that includes the most general thermal and chemical nonequilibrium flow of an arbitrary gas. Various special cases are also discussed.
Nonequilibrium flow computations. 1: An analysis of numerical formulations of conservation laws
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, Yen; Vinokur, Marcel
1988-01-01
Modern numerical techniques employing properties of flux Jacobian matrices are extended to general, nonequilibrium flows. Generalizations of the Beam-Warming scheme, Steger-Warming and van Leer Flux-vector splittings, and Roe's approximate Riemann solver are presented for 3-D, time-varying grids. The analysis is based on a thermodynamic model that includes the most general thermal and chemical nonequilibrium flow of an arbitrary gas. Various special cases are also discussed.
Analysis of flow in an observation well intersecting a single fracture
Lapcevic, P.A.; Novakowski, K.S.; Paillet, Frederick L.
1993-01-01
A semi-analytical model is developed to determine transmissivity and storativity from the interpretation of transient flow in an observation well due to pumping in a source well where the two wells are connected by a single fracture. Flow rate can be determined using a heat-pulse flowmeter located above the intersection of the fracture in the observation well. The results of a field experiment were interpreted using the new model and compared with drawdown data from the same test. Good agreement between the transmissivity estimates was observed whereas estimates of storativity were found to be better determined from the analysis of flow rate. ?? 1993.
Three-Dimensional CFD Analysis on Gas Flow in Corrugated Wall Channel
Nam-il Tak; Won-Jae Lee; Jonghwa Jang
2006-07-01
A printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) is known as one of the promising types for an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) of a nuclear hydrogen production system. This paper presents fundamental numerical results on gas flow behaviors in a typical PCHE geometry. Laminar and turbulent flows were analyzed based on a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. Local friction coefficient and local Nusselt number were evaluated and compared with those by typical correlations for tubes. In the case of a turbulent flow, various turbulence models were applied. The results clearly show the significance of a careful selection of a turbulence model. (authors)
LES, DNS and RANS for the analysis of high-speed turbulent reacting flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adumitroaie, V.; Colucci, P. J.; Taulbee, D. B.; Givi, P.
1995-01-01
The purpose of this research is to continue our efforts in advancing the state of knowledge in large eddy simulation (LES), direct numerical simulation (DNS), and Reynolds averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) methods for the computational analysis of high-speed reacting turbulent flows. In the second phase of this work, covering the period 1 Aug. 1994 - 31 Jul. 1995, we have focused our efforts on two programs: (1) developments of explicit algebraic moment closures for statistical descriptions of compressible reacting flows and (2) development of Monte Carlo numerical methods for LES of chemically reacting flows.
Ott, L. J.; Khan, A. A.
1982-09-01
As part of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's technical support to large coal liquefaction projects, attempts have been made to (1) develop the methodology for characterizing and predicting multicomponent, multiphase, non-Newtonian flow behavior within letdown valves and devices, and (2) analyze the fluid flow in the entire letdown region of the process. An engineering model that can be used in the analysis of multicomponent, multiphase, flashing, flowing systems has been developed. A preliminary version of a user-oriented computer code for this model has been developed and is fully described.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anaya, A. A.; Padilla, I. Y.
2013-12-01
High productivity of karst groundwater systems is often associated with conduit flow and high matrix permeability. Spatial heterogeneities and anisotropy, among others factors, result in highly complex flow patterns in these systems. The same characteristics that make these aquifers very productive also make them highly vulnerable to contamination and a likely for contaminant exposure. The understanding of contamination fate and transport processes in these complex aquifers demand different statistical and numerical approaches, such as the Temporal Moment Analysis (TMA). TMA of solute breakthrough curves provide qualitative and quantitative results to characterize hydrodynamic variables that affect the release, mobility, persistence, and possible pathways of contaminants in karst groundwater systems. The general objective of this work is to characterize flow and transport processes in conduit and diffusion-dominated flow under low and high flow conditions using TMA in a karstified physical model. A multidimensional, laboratory-scale, Geo-Hydrobed model (GHM) containing a karstified limestone block collected from the karst aquifer formation of northern Puerto Rico are used for this purpose. Experimental work entails injecting dissolved CaCl2 and trichloroethene (TCE) in the upstream boundary of the GHM while monitoring their concentrations spatially and temporally in the limestone under different groundwater flow regimes. Results from the TMA show a highly heterogeneous system resulting in large preferential flow components and specific mass-transfer limitations zones especially in diffuse flow areas. Flow variables like velocity and Reynolds number indicates defined preferential flow paths increasing spatially as flow rate increase. TMA results show to be qualitatively consistent with a previous statistical novel approach developed using mixed models. Comparison between the dissolved CaCl2 tracer and TCE show implications for reactive contaminants in the karst
Grid sensitivity for aerodynamic optimization and flow analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sadrehaghighi, I.; Tiwari, S. N.
1993-01-01
After reviewing relevant literature, it is apparent that one aspect of aerodynamic sensitivity analysis, namely grid sensitivity, has not been investigated extensively. The grid sensitivity algorithms in most of these studies are based on structural design models. Such models, although sufficient for preliminary or conceptional design, are not acceptable for detailed design analysis. Careless grid sensitivity evaluations, would introduce gradient errors within the sensitivity module, therefore, infecting the overall optimization process. Development of an efficient and reliable grid sensitivity module with special emphasis on aerodynamic applications appear essential. The organization of this study is as follows. The physical and geometric representations of a typical model are derived in chapter 2. The grid generation algorithm and boundary grid distribution are developed in chapter 3. Chapter 4 discusses the theoretical formulation and aerodynamic sensitivity equation. The method of solution is provided in chapter 5. The results are presented and discussed in chapter 6. Finally, some concluding remarks are provided in chapter 7.
Numerical analysis on the cavitation and unsteady flow in a scroll hydraulic pump
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, S. H.; Guo, P. C.; Huang, Y.; Zuo, J. L.; Luo, X. Q.
2016-05-01
This paper presents numerical analysis of unsteady flow in a scroll hydraulic pump to discover its flow mechanism. The dynamic mesh model has to be used to simulate the flow field unsteadily. The unsteady flow patterns and pressure distributions in the suction, squeezing and discharge chamber are analysed. The suction process continues until the crank angle reaches the 320 degree. Then the pressure in the chamber rises instantaneously, and the fluid begins to flow out from the chamber. Because of the high pressure difference at the clearance, the jet flow and the vortex appear, and the large flow losses generates with them. In addition, the velocity and static pressure distribution in the two symmetry crescent suction chamber is different remarkably. One reason is that the location of suction port cannot be set symmetrically for the simplification of the pump structure. Another reason for that is the fluid is impelled by different part of the orbiting scroll. The asymmetric pressure distribution will result in the extra force on the scroll. The cavitation generates at the negative pressure region. Therefore, the unsteady simulation shows some important phenomena. The structure of the scroll pump need to be optimized to reduce the maximum pressure, weaken the jet flow, vortex and the uneven pressure distribution to ensure the pump working safely and efficiently.
Numerical analysis of blood flow through an elliptic stenosis using large eddy simulation.
Jabir, E; Lal, S Anil
2016-08-01
The presence of a stenosis caused by the abnormal narrowing of the lumen in the artery tree can cause significant variations in flow parameters of blood. The original flow, which is believed to be laminar in most situations, may turn out to turbulent by the geometric perturbation created by the stenosis. Flow may evolve to fully turbulent or it may relaminarise back according to the intensity of the perturbation. This article reports the numerical simulation of flow through an eccentrically located asymmetric stenosis having elliptical cross section using computational fluid dynamics. Large eddy simulation technique using dynamic Smagorinsky sub-grid scale model is applied to capture the turbulent features of flow. Analysis is carried out for two situations: steady inflow as ideal condition and pulsatile inflow corresponding to the actual physiological condition in common carotid artery. The spatially varying pulsatile inflow waveforms are mathematically derived from instantaneous mass flow measurements available in the literature. Carreau viscosity model is used to estimate the effect of non-Newtonian nature of blood. The present simulations for steady and pulsatile conditions show that post-stenotic flow field undergoes transition to turbulence in all cases. The characteristics of mean and turbulent flow fields have been presented and discussed in detail. PMID:27146288
Empirical analysis of the lane formation process in bidirectional pedestrian flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feliciani, Claudio; Nishinari, Katsuhiro
2016-09-01
This paper presents an experimental study on pedestrian bidirectional streams and the mechanisms leading to spontaneous lane formation by examining the flow formed by two groups of people walking toward each other in a mock corridor. Flow ratio is changed by changing each group size while maintaining comparable total flow and density. By tracking the trajectories of each pedestrian and analyzing the data obtained, five different phases were recognized as contributing to the transition from unidirectional to bidirectional flow including the spontaneous creation and dissolution of lanes. It has been shown that a statistical treatment is required to understand the fundamental characteristics of pedestrian dynamics and some two-dimensional quantities such as order parameter and rotation range were introduced to allow a more complete analysis. All the quantities observed showed a clear relationship with flow ratio and helped distinguishing between the different characteristic phases of the experiment. Results show that balanced bidirectional flow becomes the most stable configuration after lanes are formed, but the lane creation process requires pedestrians to laterally move to a largest extent compared to low flow-ratio configurations. This finding allows us to understand the reasons why balanced bidirectional flow is efficient at low densities, but quickly leads to deadlock formation at high densities.
Thermohydrodynamic Analysis of Cryogenic Liquid Turbulent Flow Fluid Film Bearings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
San Andres, Luis
1996-01-01
This report describes a thermohydrodynamic analysis and computer programs for the prediction of the static and dynamic force response of fluid film bearings for cryogenic applications. The research performed addressed effectively the most important theoretical and practical issues related to the operation and performance of cryogenic fluid film bearings. Five computer codes have been licensed by the Texas A&M University to NASA centers and contractors and a total of 14 technical papers have been published.
Novel approaches to analysis by flow injection gradient titration.
Wójtowicz, Marzena; Kozak, Joanna; Kościelniak, Paweł
2007-09-26
Two novel procedures for flow injection gradient titration with the use of a single stock standard solution are proposed. In the multi-point single-line (MP-SL) method the calibration graph is constructed on the basis of a set of standard solutions, which are generated in a standard reservoir and subsequently injected into the titrant. According to the single-point multi-line (SP-ML) procedure the standard solution and a sample are injected into the titrant stream from four loops of different capacities, hence four calibration graphs are able to be constructed and the analytical result is calculated on the basis of a generalized slope of these graphs. Both approaches have been tested on the example of spectrophotometric acid-base titration of hydrochloric and acetic acids with using bromothymol blue and phenolphthalein as indicators, respectively, and sodium hydroxide as a titrant. Under optimized experimental conditions the analytical results of precision less than 1.8 and 2.5% (RSD) and of accuracy less than 3.0 and 5.4% (relative error (RE)) were obtained for MP-SL and SP-ML procedures, respectively, in ranges of 0.0031-0.0631 mol L(-1) for samples of hydrochloric acid and of 0.1680-1.7600 mol L(-1) for samples of acetic acid. The feasibility of both methods was illustrated by applying them to the total acidity determination in vinegar samples with precision lower than 0.5 and 2.9% (RSD) for MP-SL and SP-ML procedures, respectively.
Quick Analysis Method for Estimating Debris Flow Prone Area Caused by Overflow from Landslide dam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shimizu, T.; Uchida, T.; Yamakoshi, T.; Yoshino, K.; Kisa, H.; Ishizuka, T.; Kaji, A.
2012-04-01
When earthquake or torrential rainfall cause deep catastrophic landslides, landslide dams can be formed in mountainous region. If water overflows from the landslide dams, large scale debris flow can occurs and possibly causes serious disasters in the downward region. Debris flow caused by the overflow from landslide dam is possible to affect the larger area than normal debris flow and flash flood. It is important for both a decision maker and resident in the area to recognize the disaster prone area as early as possible. For that reason, it is important to establish a quick analysis method for estimating debris flow prone area caused by overflow from landslide dams under the emergency situation. This situation requires the method to have both accuracy and speed for release. Nonetheless these two factors have trade-off relationship. We recently developed the quick analysis method to estimate debris flow disaster prone area caused by overflow from landslide dams. The method including the ways of efficient survey and numerical simulation programs called QUAD-L (QUick Analysis system for Debris flow caused by Landslide dam overflow). Our quick analysis system was actually applied to show the area for evacuation against debris flow caused by overflow from landslide dam formed by the 2011 Typhoon Talas which hit mainly the central region of Japan on September 2-4th, 2011. In addition to background of this application, since May 1st, 2011, Erosion and Sediment Control (SABO) Department of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, Japan (MLIT) launched a new scheme using above-mentioned quick analysis method.
ReactionFlow: an interactive visualization tool for causality analysis in biological pathways
2015-01-01
Background Molecular and systems biologists are tasked with the comprehension and analysis of incredibly complex networks of biochemical interactions, called pathways, that occur within a cell. Through interviews with domain experts, we identified four common tasks that require an understanding of the causality within pathways, that is, the downstream and upstream relationships between proteins and biochemical reactions, including: visualizing downstream consequences of perturbing a protein; finding the shortest path between two proteins; detecting feedback loops within the pathway; and identifying common downstream elements from two or more proteins. Results We introduce ReactionFlow, a visual analytics application for pathway analysis that emphasizes the structural and causal relationships amongst proteins, complexes, and biochemical reactions within a given pathway. To support the identified causality analysis tasks, user interactions allow an analyst to filter, cluster, and select pathway components across linked views. Animation is used to highlight the flow of activity through a pathway. Conclusions We evaluated ReactionFlow by providing our application to two domain experts who have significant experience with biomolecular pathways, after which we conducted a series of in-depth interviews focused on each of the four causality analysis tasks. Their feedback leads us to believe that our techniques could be useful to researchers who must be able to understand and analyze the complex nature of biological pathways. ReactionFlow is available at https://github.com/CreativeCodingLab/ReactionFlow. PMID:26361502
Water-Level Data Analysis for the Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow and Transport Model
K. Rehfeldt
2004-10-08
This report is an updated analysis of water-level data performed to provide the ''Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow Model'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170037]) (referred to as the saturated zone (SZ) site-scale flow model or site-scale SZ flow model in this report) with the configuration of the potentiometric surface, target water-level data, and hydraulic gradients for calibration of groundwater flow models. This report also contains an expanded discussion of uncertainty in the potentiometric-surface map. The analysis of the potentiometric data presented in Revision 00 of this report (USGS 2001 [DIRS 154625]) provides the configuration of the potentiometric surface, target heads, and hydraulic gradients for the calibration of the SZ site-scale flow model (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170037]). Revision 01 of this report (USGS 2004 [DIRS 168473]) used updated water-level data for selected wells through the year 2000 as the basis for estimating water-level altitudes and the potentiometric surface in the SZ site-scale flow and transport model domain based on an alternative interpretation of perched water conditions. That revision developed computer files containing: Water-level data within the model area (DTN: GS010908312332.002); A table of known vertical head differences (DTN: GS010908312332.003); and A potentiometric-surface map (DTN: GS010608312332.001) using an alternative concept from that presented by USGS (2001 [DIRS 154625]) for the area north of Yucca Mountain. The updated water-level data presented in USGS (2004 [DIRS 168473]) include data obtained from the Nye County Early Warning Drilling Program (EWDP) Phases I and II and data from Borehole USW WT-24. This document is based on Revision 01 (USGS 2004 [DIRS 168473]) and expands the discussion of uncertainty in the potentiometric-surface map. This uncertainty assessment includes an analysis of the impact of more recent water-level data and the impact of adding data from the EWDP Phases III and IV wells. In addition to being utilized
Electric Current Analysis of CFRP using Perfect Fluid Potential Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Todoroki, Akira
A new analytical method to calculate the electric current density between two probes in carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) is presented. Unidirectional CFRP has strongly orthotropic electric conductance. Even when electric current is applied to a CFRP plate using two probes on a single surface, the electric current density is not uniform along the cross-section. The electric current is concentrated near the surface where an electric current is applied. Although it is important to know the electric current density in the CFRP plate for the analysis of lightning effects, the density is difficult to calculate using a three-dimensional finite element model. In the present study, the orthotropic coordinate is transformed into a uniform coordinate. Laplace’s equation is solved using the potential theory for a perfect fluid. Equations solved employing an infinite-body approximation are verified with a finite element model. As a result, the new analysis method is demonstrated to be efficient for unidirectional CFRP. The limitations of the method are also discussed.
Huang, Chu-Long; Abass, Olusegun K; Yu, Chang-Ping
2016-10-01
Triclosan (TCS) is a broad spectrum antibacterial agent mainly used in Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products. Its increasing use over recent decades have raised its concentration in the environment, with commonly detectable levels found along the food web-from aquatic organisms to humans in the ecosystem. To date, there is shortage of information on how to investigate TCS's systematic risk on exposed organisms including humans, due to the paucity of systematic information on TCS flows in the anthroposphere. Therefore, a more holistic approach to mass flow balancing is required, such that the systematic risk of TCS in all environmental matrices are evaluated. From the perspective of Substance Flow Analysis (SFA), this review critically summarizes the current state of knowledge on TCS production, consumption, discharge, occurrence in built and natural environments, its exposure and metabolism in humans, and also the negative effects of TCS on biota and humans. Recent risk concerns have mainly focused on TCS removal efficiencies and metabolism, but less attention is given to the effect of mass flows from source to fate during risk exposure. However, available data for TCS SFA is limited but SFA can derive logical systematic information from limited data currently available for systematic risk assessment and reduction, based on mass flow analysis. In other words, SFA tool can be used to develop a comprehensive flow chart and indicator system for the risk assessment and reduction of TCS flows in the anthroposphere, thereby bridging knowledge gaps to streamline uncertainties related to policy-making on exposure pathways within TCS flow-lines. In the final analysis, specifics on systematic TCS risk assessment via SFA, and areas of improvement on human adaptation to risks posed by emerging contaminants are identified and directions for future research are suggested. PMID:27239720
Huang, Chu-Long; Abass, Olusegun K; Yu, Chang-Ping
2016-10-01
Triclosan (TCS) is a broad spectrum antibacterial agent mainly used in Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products. Its increasing use over recent decades have raised its concentration in the environment, with commonly detectable levels found along the food web-from aquatic organisms to humans in the ecosystem. To date, there is shortage of information on how to investigate TCS's systematic risk on exposed organisms including humans, due to the paucity of systematic information on TCS flows in the anthroposphere. Therefore, a more holistic approach to mass flow balancing is required, such that the systematic risk of TCS in all environmental matrices are evaluated. From the perspective of Substance Flow Analysis (SFA), this review critically summarizes the current state of knowledge on TCS production, consumption, discharge, occurrence in built and natural environments, its exposure and metabolism in humans, and also the negative effects of TCS on biota and humans. Recent risk concerns have mainly focused on TCS removal efficiencies and metabolism, but less attention is given to the effect of mass flows from source to fate during risk exposure. However, available data for TCS SFA is limited but SFA can derive logical systematic information from limited data currently available for systematic risk assessment and reduction, based on mass flow analysis. In other words, SFA tool can be used to develop a comprehensive flow chart and indicator system for the risk assessment and reduction of TCS flows in the anthroposphere, thereby bridging knowledge gaps to streamline uncertainties related to policy-making on exposure pathways within TCS flow-lines. In the final analysis, specifics on systematic TCS risk assessment via SFA, and areas of improvement on human adaptation to risks posed by emerging contaminants are identified and directions for future research are suggested.
Analysis of basic flow regimes in a human airway model by stereo-scanning PIV
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soodt, Thomas; Pott, Desirée; Klaas, Michael; Schröder, Wolfgang
2013-06-01
The detailed understanding of the human lung flow is of high relevance for the optimization of mechanical ventilation. Therefore, the spatial and temporal development of the flow field in a realistic human lung model is investigated for several oscillatory flow regimes using stereo-scanning particle-image velocimetry (PIV). The flow in the right primary bronchus is always measured for a complete sinusoidal ventilation cycle. Three Reynolds and Womersley number sets describing viscous ( Re = 10; α = 1.5), unsteady ( Re = 40; α = 5), and convective ( Re = 150; α = 1.5) regimes are defined to cover various dominating fluid mechanical effects. In addition, multi-plane PIV measurements are performed to analyze steady laminar ( Re = 150) and turbulent ( Re = 2,650) flow at inspiration and expiration. The steady results show that the maximum velocity is shifted to the outer wall at inspiration and toward the inner wall of the bronchial bend at expiration. At inhalation, a U-shaped high-speed velocity profile develops only inside the left primary bronchus, whereas both primary bronchi contain one vortex pair. During expiration, the vortex pairs from each main bronchus merge into a two-vortex-pair system inside the trachea. From the oscillatory findings, it is evident that an undersupply for the right upper lobe is noticed at low ventilatory frequencies, whereas high-frequency flow leads to a more homogeneous ventilation. The analysis of the temporal development of the absolute velocity in the center plane shows a variable phase lag. Unlike the flow in the unsteady regime, the flow of the viscous flow domain ( α = 1.5) is in phase with the applied pressure gradient. Additionally, a premature outflow of the upper right lung lobe can be observed in the unsteady flow regime.
Unsteady flows in milli- and microsystems: analysis of wall shear rate fluctuations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huchet, F.; Legentilhomme, P.; Legrand, J.; Montillet, A.; Comiti, J.
2011-09-01
The particular benefits of microfluidic systems, in terms of heat and mass transfer enhancement, require conducting local flow diagnostics, especially when unsteady properties of the microflow can play a critical role at the reaction interface, as currently observed in the fields of bioengineering and chemical engineering. The present paper focuses on unsteady confined flows within microsystems characterized by various geometries of crossing channels and exhibiting high surface-to-volume ratios. An experimental analysis of the signal measured at microsensors embedded to the wall of microsystems is discussed. In the objective of performing flow diagnostics, including regime identification and wall flow structure recognition, two methods for electrochemical signal processing are investigated and compared within an experimental network of crossing minichannels. One method is based on the use of a transfer function, while the other, the so-called Sobolik solution (Sobolik et al . in Coll Czech Chem Commun 52:913-928, 1987), consists of finding a direct solution to the mass balance equation. Sobolik's method has been selected given its ability to provide a description, over a wide range of Reynolds numbers (317 < Re < 3,535), for all wall shear rate fluctuations, as well as for the associated mixing scales in the power spectra density (PSD). This technique is then applied to flow within micromixers composed of two crossing microchannels in order to study highly unsteady and inhomogeneous microflows. The hydraulic diameters of the studied channels are 500 and 833 μm, respectively. Two flow patterns are investigated herein: the crossing-flow type and the impinging flow (or so called co-flow) for a Reynolds number range between 173 and 3,356. The PSD of wall shear rate fluctuations reveals various flow characteristics depending on the microchannel aspect ratio.
UNDERSTANDING FLOW OF ENERGY IN BUILDINGS USING MODAL ANALYSIS METHODOLOGY
John Gardner; Kevin Heglund; Kevin Van Den Wymelenberg; Craig Rieger
2013-07-01
It is widely understood that energy storage is the key to integrating variable generators into the grid. It has been proposed that the thermal mass of buildings could be used as a distributed energy storage solution and several researchers are making headway in this problem. However, the inability to easily determine the magnitude of the building’s effective thermal mass, and how the heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system exchanges thermal energy with it, is a significant challenge to designing systems which utilize this storage mechanism. In this paper we adapt modal analysis methods used in mechanical structures to identify the primary modes of energy transfer among thermal masses in a building. The paper describes the technique using data from an idealized building model. The approach is successfully applied to actual temperature data from a commercial building in downtown Boise, Idaho.
Modeling and analysis of electrorheological suspensions in shear flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seo, Youngwook P.; Chua, Wei Huan; Seo, Yongsok
2015-05-01
A new rheological model was applied to the analysis of the electrorheological behavior of a fluid containing silica nanoparticle-decorated polyaniline nanofibers. A model's predictions were compared with the experimental data, revealing that the proposed model correctly predicted the shear stress behavior both quantitatively and qualitatively. The shear stress data of the electrorheological fluid showing aligned fibers' structural reformation as a function of the shear rate agreed well with the new model which required fewer parameters than the CCJ (Cho-Choi-Jhon) model. The static yield stress was found to be quadratically dependent on the field strength, in agreement with the predictions of the polarization model. A scaling function was used to model the yield stress behavior of the electrorheological fluid over a range of electric fields, and it correctly predicted the static yield stress behavior both quantitatively and qualitatively.
Energy Efficient Engine Low Pressure Subsystem Flow Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hall, Edward J.; Lynn, Sean R.; Heidegger, Nathan J.; Delaney, Robert A.
1998-01-01
The objective of this project is to provide the capability to analyze the aerodynamic performance of the complete low pressure subsystem (LPS) of the Energy Efficient Engine (EEE). The analyses were performed using three-dimensional Navier-Stokes numerical models employing advanced clustered processor computing platforms. The analysis evaluates the impact of steady aerodynamic interaction effects between the components of the LPS at design and off-design operating conditions. Mechanical coupling is provided by adjusting the rotational speed of common shaft-mounted components until a power balance is achieved. The Navier-Stokes modeling of the complete low pressure subsystem provides critical knowledge of component aero/mechanical interactions that previously were unknown to the designer until after hardware testing.
Gray, Mikel
2012-01-01
The voiding pressure flow study is the gold standard for evaluating micturition. Part 10 of the Traces series described techniques for evaluating micturition via the voiding pressure flow study; it focused on interpretation of results qualitatively via inspection and classification of flow pattern, detrusor contraction amplitude and duration, pelvic floor muscle response to voiding, and urethral resistance. This article discusses quantitative analysis of the voiding pressure flow study using nomograms that measure the magnitude of urethral resistance (bladder outflow obstruction) and/or detrusor contraction strength.
Validation of a three-dimensional viscous analysis of axisymmetric supersonic inlet flow fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Benson, T. J.; Anderson, B. H.
1983-01-01
A three-dimensional viscous marching analysis for supersonic inlets was developed. To verify this analysis several benchmark axisymmetric test configurations were studied and are compared to experimental data. Detailed two-dimensional results for shock-boundary layer interactions are presented for flows with and without boundary layer bleed. Three dimensional calculations of a cone at angle of attack and a full inlet at attack are also discussed and evaluated. Results of the calculations demonstrate the code's ability to predict complex flow fields and establish guidelines for future calculations using similar codes.
Initial Experiments and Analysis of Blunt-Edge Vortex Flows. Chapter 18
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Luckring, James M.
2009-01-01
A review is presented of the initial experimental results and analysis that formed the basis the Vortex Flow Experiment 2 (VFE-2). The focus of this work was to distinguish the basic effects of Reynolds number, Mach number, angle of attack, and leading edge bluntness on separation-induced leading-edge vortex flows that are common to slender wings. Primary analysis is focused on detailed static surface pressure distributions, and the results demonstrate significant effects regarding the onset and progression of leading-edge vortex separation.
Analysis of supersonic stall bending flutter in axial-flow compressor by actuator disk theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adamczyk, J. J.
1978-01-01
An analytical model was developed for predicting the onset of supersonic stall bending flutter in axial-flow compressors. The analysis is based on two-dimensional, compressible, unsteady actuator disk theory. It is applied to a rotor blade row by considering a cascade of airfoils. The effects of shock waves and flow separation are included in the model. Calculations show that the model predicts the onset, in an unshrouded rotor, of a bending flutter mode that exhibits many of the characteristics of supersonic stall bending flutter. The validity of the analysis for predicting this flutter mode is demonstrated.
Hassan, A R; Maritz, R
2016-01-01
In this paper, the analysis of a reactive hydromagnetic Poiseuille fluid flow under different chemical kinetics through a channel in the presence of a heat source is carried out. An exothermic reaction is assumed while the concentration of the material is neglected. The Adomian decomposition method together with Pade approximation technique are used to obtain the solutions of the governing nonlinear non-dimensional differential equations. Effects of various physical parameters on the velocity and temperature fields of the fluid flow are investigated. The entropy generation analysis, irreversibility distribution ratio, Bejan number and the conditions for thermal criticality for different chemical kinetics are also presented. PMID:27563527
Single-phase power distribution system power flow and fault analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Halpin, S. M.; Grigsby, L. L.
1992-01-01
Alternative methods for power flow and fault analysis of single-phase distribution systems are presented. The algorithms for both power flow and fault analysis utilize a generalized approach to network modeling. The generalized admittance matrix, formed using elements of linear graph theory, is an accurate network model for all possible single-phase network configurations. Unlike the standard nodal admittance matrix formulation algorithms, the generalized approach uses generalized component models for the transmission line and transformer. The standard assumption of a common node voltage reference point is not required to construct the generalized admittance matrix. Therefore, truly accurate simulation results can be obtained for networks that cannot be modeled using traditional techniques.
Computational analysis of high-dimensional flow cytometric data for diagnosis and discovery.
Aghaeepour, Nima; Brinkman, Ryan
2014-01-01
Recent technological advancements have enabled the flow cytometric measurement of tens of parameters on millions of cells. Conventional manual data analysis and bioinformatics tools cannot provide a complete analysis of these datasets due to this complexity. In this chapter we will provide an overview of a general data analysis pipeline both for automatic identification of cell populations of known importance (e.g., diagnosis by identification of predefined cell population) and for exploratory analysis of cohorts of flow cytometry assays (e.g., discovery of new correlates of a malignancy). We provide three real-world examples of how unsupervised discovery has been used in basic and clinical research. We also discuss challenges for evaluation of the algorithms developed for (1) identification of cell populations using clustering, (2) identification of specific cell populations, and (3) supervised analysis for discriminating between patient subgroups.
Bifurcation analysis in a vortex flow generated by an oscillatory magnetic obstacle.
Beltrán, Alberto; Ramos, Eduardo; Cuevas, Sergio; Brøns, Morten
2010-03-01
A numerical simulation and a theoretical model of the two-dimensional flow produced by the harmonic oscillation of a localized magnetic field (magnetic obstacle) in a quiescent viscous, electrically conducting fluid are presented. Nonuniform Lorentz forces produced by induced currents interacting with the oscillating magnetic field create periodic laminar flow patterns that can be characterized by three parameters: the oscillation Reynolds number, Reomega, the Hartmann number, Ha, and the dimensionless amplitude of the magnetic obstacle oscillation, D. The analysis is restricted to oscillations of small amplitude and Ha=100. The resulting flow patterns are described and interpreted in terms of position and evolution of the critical points of the instantaneous streamlines. It is found that in most of the cycle, the flow is dominated by a pair of counter rotating vortices that switch their direction of rotation twice per cycle. The transformation of the flow field present in the first part of the cycle into the pattern displayed in the second half occurs via the generation of hyperbolic and elliptic critical points. The numerical solution of the flow indicates that for low frequencies (v.e. Reomega=1), two elliptic and two hyperbolic points are generated, while for high frequencies (v.e. Reomega=100), a more complex topology involving four elliptic and two hyperbolic points appear. The bifurcation map for critical points of the instantaneous streamline is obtained numerically and a theoretical model based on a local analysis that predicts most of the qualitative properties calculated numerically is proposed. PMID:20365856
Visualization analysis of tiger-striped flow mark generation phenomena in injection molding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Owada, Shigeru; Yokoi, Hidetoshi
2016-03-01
The generation mechanism of tiger-striped flow marks of polypropylene (PP)/rubber/talc blends in injection molding was investigated by dynamic visualization analysis in a glass-inserted mold. The analysis revealed that the behavior of the melt flow front correlates with the flow mark generation. The cloudy part in the tiger-striped flow marks corresponded to the low transcription rate area of the melt diverging near the cavity wall, while the glossy part corresponded to the high transcription rate area of the melt converging toward the cavity wall side. The melt temperature at the high transcription rate area was slightly lower than that at the low transcription rate area. These phenomena resulted due to the difference in the temperature of the melt front that was caused by the asymmetric fountain flow. These results suggest the followings; At the moment when the melt is broken near the one side of cavity wall due to piling the extensional strains up to a certain level, the melt spurts out near the broken side. It results in generating asymmetric fountain flow temporarily to relax the extensional front surface, which moves toward the opposite side to form the high transcription area.
Solar large-scale flows obtained from the HMI time-distance data-analysis pipeline
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Junwei
2016-10-01
Using the subsurface flow maps obtained from the HMI time-distance data-analysis pipeline, I examine the temporal evolution of torsional oscillation, meridional flow, and long-living large-scale structures in high-latitude areas. During the 5.5-year analysis period, both the torsional oscillation and meridional flow show strong hemispheric asymmetry while persisting the converging-flow patterns toward the activity belts. Meanwhile, for both hemispheres in the mid-latitude zone, the meridional-flow speed shows an anti-correlation with the magnetic flux being transported toward the pole, slowing down (speeding up) when following-polarity (leading-polarity) magnetic flux is transported. In the latitudinal band studied, the meridional-flow speed and magnetic field remained relatively unchanged from 2012 through 2015 in the northern hemisphere, but varied substantially during the same period in the southern hemisphere. Long-living large-scale structures, characterized by their low zonal speed, are observed in high-latitude areas, but the nature and cause of these structures are unknown.
General thermal analysis of serpentine-flow flat-plate solar collector absorbers
Lund, K.O. )
1989-01-01
A thermal analysis is performed on an absorber which has general applicability to the serpentine-flow configuration. The heat conduction equation is rendered in nondimensional form for a typical panel-segment of the absorber, and shape factors are introduced for general application to various detailed flow-duct geometries. An analytical solution is obtained for the typical panel in terms of an Effectiveness-NTU relationship for that panel; the series combination of these relationships yields the overall E-NTU relationship for the entire absorber plate, for any number of panels, or serpentine-flow reversals. The results of the present analysis indicate the expected, axially varying, asymmetry of the temperature profile between the flow passes. Performance results are stated in terms of a serpentine relative performance factor, which permits direct comparison to the parallel configuration. The results indicate superior thermal performance of the serpentine-flow absorber, relative to the parallel-flow absorber, for the same number of transfer units.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bulusu, Kartik V.; Hussain, Shadman; Plesniak, Michael W.
2014-11-01
Secondary flow vortical patterns in arterial curvatures have the potential to affect several cardiovascular phenomena, e.g., progression of atherosclerosis by altering wall shear stresses, carotid atheromatous disease, thoracic aortic aneurysms and Marfan's syndrome. Temporal characteristics of secondary flow structures vis-à-vis physiological (pulsatile) inflow waveform were explored by continuous wavelet transform (CWT) analysis of phase-locked, two-component, two-dimensional particle image velocimeter data. Measurements were made in a 180° curved artery test section upstream of the curvature and at the 90° cross-sectional plane. Streamwise, upstream flow rate measurements were analyzed using a one-dimensional antisymmetric wavelet. Cross-stream measurements at the 90° location of the curved artery revealed interesting multi-scale, multi-strength coherent secondary flow structures. An automated process for coherent structure detection and vortical feature quantification was applied to large ensembles of PIV data. Metrics such as the number of secondary flow structures, their sizes and strengths were generated at every discrete time instance of the physiological inflow waveform. An autonomous data post-processing method incorporating two-dimensional CWT for coherent structure detection was implemented. Loss of coherence in secondary flow structures during the systolic deceleration phase is observed in accordance with previous research. The algorithmic approach presented herein further elucidated the sensitivity and dependence of morphological changes in secondary flow structures on quasiperiodicity and magnitude of temporal gradients in physiological inflow conditions.
Near Stall Flow Analysis in the Transonic Fan of the RTA Propulsion System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hah, Chunill
2010-01-01
Turbine-based propulsion systems for access to space have been investigated at NASA Glenn Research center. A ground demonstrator engine for validation testing has been developed as a part of the program. The demonstrator, the Revolutionary Turbine Accelerator (RTA-1), is a variable cycle turbofan ramjet designed to transition from an augmented turbofan to a ramjet that produces the thrust required to accelerate the vehicle to Mach 4. The RTA-1 is designed to accommodate a large variation in bypass ratio from sea level static to Mach 4 flight condition. A key component of this engine is a new fan stage that accommodates these large variations in bypass ratio and flow ranges. In the present study, unsteady flow behavior in the fan of the RTA-1 is studied in detail with large eddy simulation (LES) and the numerical results are compared with measured data. During the experimental study of the fan stage, humming sound was detected at 100 % speed near stall operation. The main purpose of the study is to investigate details of the unsteady flow behavior at near stall operation and to identify a possible cause of the hum. The large eddy simulation of the current flow field reproduces main features of the measured flow very well. The LES simulation indicates that non-synchronous flow instability develops as the fan operates toward the stall limit. The FFT analysis of the calculated wall pressure shows that the rotating flow instability has the characteristic frequency that is about 50% of the blade passing frequency.
Issues and approach to develop validated analysis tools for hypersonic flows: One perspective
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deiwert, George S.
1992-01-01
Critical issues concerning the modeling of low-density hypervelocity flows where thermochemical nonequilibrium effects are pronounced are discussed. Emphasis is on the development of validated analysis tools. A description of the activity in the Ames Research Center's Aerothermodynamics Branch is also given. Inherent in the process is a strong synergism between ground test and real-gas computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Approaches to develop and/or enhance phenomenological models and incorporate them into computational flow-field simulation codes are discussed. These models have been partially validated with experimental data for flows where the gas temperature is raised (compressive flows). Expanding flows, where temperatures drop, however, exhibit somewhat different behavior. Experimental data for these expanding flow conditions are sparse; reliance must be made on intuition and guidance from computational chemistry to model transport processes under these conditions. Ground-based experimental studies used to provide necessary data for model development and validation are described. Included are the performance characteristics of high-enthalpy flow facilities, such as shock tubes and ballistic ranges.
Computational analysis of flow field around Ahmed car model passing underneath a flyover
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Musa, Md Nor; Osman, Kahar; Hamat, Ab Malik A.
2012-06-01
A flow structure around a ground vehicle has been studied by many researchers using numerous methods, either computational or experimental. However, no analysis of flow field generated by a car passing under a flyover has been carried out. One of the famous simplified models of a car is the Ahmed body that has been established to investigate the influence of the flow structure on the drag. In this paper, we investigate a flow field around Ahmed body of a single cruising condition as the vehicle passes under a flyover, using a computational method with RANS equation. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the turbulence kinetic energy and velocity magnitude developed within the wall boundary created by the flyover, to the air flow field that is generated by the Ahmed reference car. It was observed that the simulated airflow passes the vehicle was bounded by the wall of the flyover and consequently changes the pattern of the flow field. Understanding the characteristic of this flow field under a flyover is essential if one wants to maximize the recovery of the dissipated energy which, for example, can be used to power a small vertical-axis wind turbine to produce and store electrical energy for lighting under the flyover.
Thermal/Pyrolysis Gas Flow Analysis of Carbon Phenolic Material
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clayton, J. Louie
2001-01-01
Provided in this study are predicted in-depth temperature and pyrolysis gas pressure distributions for carbon phenolic materials that are externally heated with a laser source. Governing equations, numerical techniques and comparisons to measured temperature data are also presented. Surface thermochemical conditions were determined using the Aerotherm Chemical Equilibrium (ACE) program. Surface heating simulation used facility calibrated radiative and convective flux levels. Temperatures and pyrolysis gas pressures are predicted using an upgraded form of the SINDA/CMA program that was developed by NASA during the Solid Propulsion Integrity Program (SPIP). Multispecie mass balance, tracking of condensable vapors, high heat rate kinetics, real gas compressibility and reduced mixture viscosity's have been added to the algorithm. In general, surface and in-depth temperature comparisons are very good. Specie partial pressures calculations show that a saturated water-vapor mixture is the main contributor to peak in-depth total pressure. Further, for most of the cases studied, the water-vapor mixture is driven near the critical point and is believed to significantly increase the local heat capacity of the composite material. This phenomenon if not accounted for in analysis models may lead to an over prediction in temperature response in charring regions of the material.
Scaling Laws in Canopy Flows: A Wind-Tunnel Analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Segalini, Antonio; Fransson, Jens H. M.; Alfredsson, P. Henrik
2013-08-01
An analysis of velocity statistics and spectra measured above a wind-tunnel forest model is reported. Several measurement stations downstream of the forest edge have been investigated and it is observed that, while the mean velocity profile adjusts quickly to the new canopy boundary condition, the turbulence lags behind and shows a continuous penetration towards the free stream along the canopy model. The statistical profiles illustrate this growth and do not collapse when plotted as a function of the vertical coordinate. However, when the statistics are plotted as function of the local mean velocity (normalized with a characteristic velocity scale), they do collapse, independently of the streamwise position and freestream velocity. A new scaling for the spectra of all three velocity components is proposed based on the velocity variance and integral time scale. This normalization improves the collapse of the spectra compared to existing scalings adopted in atmospheric measurements, and allows the determination of a universal function that provides the velocity spectrum. Furthermore, a comparison of the proposed scaling laws for two different canopy densities is shown, demonstrating that the vertical velocity variance is the most sensible statistical quantity to the characteristics of the canopy roughness.
Flow through luminescence for heavy metal analysis in seawater
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
San Vicente De la Riva, Blanca; Costa Fernandez, Jose M.; Pereiro Garcia, Rosario; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo
1999-12-01
The toxicity of heavy metals is well documented today and legislation for their control in seawater continuously becomes more and more restrictive. In order to control and ensure the marine environment quality it is demanded an effort to develop new analytical tools, which allow the analysis of trace levels of heavy metals in seawater. The measurement of luminescence (phosphorescence and fluorescence) gives rise to high sensitive, selective and innovative approaches which could be used to develop new trace metal sensing methods. In this way, we have observed that the metal-chelates formed between different sulphonic-hydroxyquinolines with heavy metals, such as lead, or the metal-chelates between mercury and purines exhibit strong room temperature phosphorescence and fluorescence, respectively. Based on the formation of such quelates, two luminescence methods are investigated for sensing of lead and mercury in seawater. Optimum experimental conditions and the analytical performance characteristics of the methods are discussed. Relative standard deviations in the order of 4% are typical at 100 ng mL-1 of Pb(II) and Hg (II). The detection limits are 0.1 and 1.4 ng mL-1 for lead and mercury, respectively. Possible interferences present in seawater, including sea water cations and anions are evaluated in detail. Finally, the methods are applied to the determination de mercury and lead in seawater samples.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Penny, M. M.; Smith, S. D.; Anderson, P. G.; Sulyma, P. R.; Pearson, M. L.
1976-01-01
A computer program written in conjunction with the numerical solution of the flow of chemically reacting gas-particle mixtures was documented. The solution to the set of governing equations was obtained by utilizing the method of characteristics. The equations cast in characteristic form were shown to be formally the same for ideal, frozen, chemical equilibrium and chemical non-equilibrium reacting gas mixtures. The characteristic directions for the gas-particle system are found to be the conventional gas Mach lines, the gas streamlines and the particle streamlines. The basic mesh construction for the flow solution is along streamlines and normals to the streamlines for axisymmetric or two-dimensional flow. The analysis gives detailed information of the supersonic flow and provides for a continuous solution of the nozzle and exhaust plume flow fields. Boundary conditions for the flow solution are either the nozzle wall or the exhaust plume boundary.
A Generalized Eulerian-Lagrangian Analysis, with Application to Liquid Flows with Vapor Bubbles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dejong, Frederik J.; Meyyappan, Meyya
1993-01-01
Under a NASA MSFC SBIR Phase 2 effort an analysis has been developed for liquid flows with vapor bubbles such as those in liquid rocket engine components. The analysis is based on a combined Eulerian-Lagrangian technique, in which Eulerian conservation equations are solved for the liquid phase, while Lagrangian equations of motion are integrated in computational coordinates for the vapor phase. The novel aspect of the Lagrangian analysis developed under this effort is that it combines features of the so-called particle distribution approach with those of the so-called particle trajectory approach and can, in fact, be considered as a generalization of both of those traditional methods. The result of this generalization is a reduction in CPU time and memory requirements. Particle time step (stability) limitations have been eliminated by semi-implicit integration of the particle equations of motion (and, for certain applications, the particle temperature equation), although practical limitations remain in effect for reasons of accuracy. The analysis has been applied to the simulation of cavitating flow through a single-bladed section of a labyrinth seal. Models for the simulation of bubble formation and growth have been included, as well as models for bubble drag and heat transfer. The results indicate that bubble formation is more or less 'explosive'. for a given flow field, the number density of bubble nucleation sites is very sensitive to the vapor properties and the surface tension. The bubble motion, on the other hand, is much less sensitive to the properties, but is affected strongly by the local pressure gradients in the flow field. In situations where either the material properties or the flow field are not known with sufficient accuracy, parametric studies can be carried out rapidly to assess the effect of the important variables. Future work will include application of the analysis to cavitation in inducer flow fields.
An FTLE analysis for reaction-diffusion fronts in fluid flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahoney, John; Mitchell, Kevin
2012-11-01
The theory of advective transport depends heavily on the elucidation of organizing structures within the fluid. In a time-independent or time-periodic flow, one can define invariant manifolds. In a time-aperiodic flow, one often employs the finite-time-lyapunov-exponent (FTLE) and Lagrangian coherent structures. It has been recently demonstrated that fronts, e.g. reaction-diffusion fronts, propagating in time-periodic flows can also depend on such organizing invariant manifolds. In this talk, we describe an FTLE analysis for propagating fronts in two-dimensional fluid flows. In particular, we employ a dimension reduction technique to the front system so that a two-dimensional FTLE approach is feasible. NSF PHY-0748828.
Non-perturbative analysis of space charge limited electron flow in critical regimes
Rokhlenko, A.; Lebowitz, J. L.
2014-08-07
The combined Eulerian-Lagrangian formalism, developed in our previous work for studying the turn on regime of a one-dimensional diode, is extended for wider versatility and better precision in the study of the time dependent space charge limited electron flow with fixed injected current. An analytical analysis is supplemented with an approximate numerical scheme which appears to be sufficiently accurate to calculate the flow evolution until the process approaches stabilization or becomes unstable. This can be compared with properties of stationary flows and showed to be in a good agreement with them. When the stabilization is impossible, the ratio of anode to cathode currents is decreasing and thus the space charge is accumulated in the diode. We discuss the limitations of our approach and give some qualitative estimates for the flow parameters when stabilization is impossible.
LES, DNS and RANS for the analysis of high-speed turbulent reacting flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Givi, Peyman
1994-01-01
The objective of this research is to continue our efforts in advancing the state of knowledge in Large Eddy Simulation (LES), Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS), and Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) methods for the analysis of high-speed reacting turbulent flows. In the first phase of this research, conducted within the past six months, focus was in three directions: RANS of turbulent reacting flows by Probability Density Function (PDF) methods, RANS of non-reacting turbulent flows by advanced turbulence closures, and LES of mixing dominated reacting flows by a dynamics subgrid closure. A summary of our efforts within the past six months of this research is provided in this semi-annual progress report.
Borazjani, Iman; Westerdale, John; McMahon, Eileen M.; Rajaraman, Prathish K.; Heys, Jeffrey J.
2013-01-01
The left ventricle (LV) pumps oxygenated blood from the lungs to the rest of the body through systemic circulation. The efficiency of such a pumping function is dependent on blood flow within the LV chamber. It is therefore crucial to accurately characterize LV hemodynamics. Improved understanding of LV hemodynamics is expected to provide important clinical diagnostic and prognostic information. We review the recent advances in numerical and experimental methods for characterizing LV flows and focus on analysis of intraventricular flow fields by echocardiographic particle image velocimetry (echo-PIV), due to its potential for broad and practical utility. Future research directions to advance patient-specific LV simulations include development of methods capable of resolving heart valves, higher temporal resolution, automated generation of three-dimensional (3D) geometry, and incorporating actual flow measurements into the numerical solution of the 3D cardiovascular fluid dynamics. PMID:23690874
Service Oriented Architectural Model for Load Flow Analysis in Power Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muthu, Balasingh Moses; Veilumuthu, Ramachandran; Ponnusamy, Lakshmi
2011-07-01
The main objective of this paper is to develop the Service Oriented Architectural (SOA) Model for representation of power systems, especially of computing load flow analysis of large interconnected power systems. The proposed SOA model has three elements namely load flow service provider, power systems registry and client. The exchange of data using XML makes the power system services standardized and adaptable. The load flow service is provided by the service provider, which is published in power systems registry for enabling universal visibility and access to the service. The message oriented style of SOA using Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) makes the service provider and the power systems client to exist in a loosely coupled environment. This proposed model, portraits the load flow services as Web services in service oriented environment. To suit the power system industry needs, it easily integrates with the Web applications which enables faster power system operations.
Investigation of the external flow analysis for density measurements at high altitude
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bienkowski, G. K.
1984-01-01
The results of analysis performed on the external flow around the shuttle orbiter nose regions at the Shuttle Upper Atmosphere Mass Spectrometer (SUMS) inlet orifice are presented. The purpose of the analysis is to quantitatively characterize the flow conditions to facilitate SUMS flight data reduction and subsequent determination of orbiter aerodynamic force coefficients in the hypersonic rarefied flow regime. Experimental determination of aerodynamic force coefficients requires accurate simultaneous measurement of forces (or acceleration) and dynamic pressure along with independent knowledge of density and velocity. The SUMS provides independent measurement of dynamic pressure; however, it does so indirectly and requires knowledge of the relationship between measured orifice conditions and the dynamic pressure which can only be determined on the basis of molecule or theory for a winged configuration. Monte Carlo direct simulation computer codes were developed for both the flow field solution at the orifice and for the internal orifice flow. These codes were used to study issues associated with geometric modeling of the orbiter nose geometry and the modeling of intermolecular collisions including rotational energy exchange and a preliminary analysis of vibrational excitation and dissociation effects. Data obtained from preliminary simulation runs are presented.
Zhang, Alex Ce; Gu, Yi; Han, Yuanyuan; Mei, Zhe; Chiu, Yu-Jui; Geng, Lina; Cho, Sung Hwan; Lo, Yu-Hwa
2016-06-20
Although a flow cytometer, being one of the most popular research and clinical tools for biomedicine, can analyze cells based on the cell size, internal structures such as granularity, and molecular markers, it provides little information about the physical properties of cells such as cell stiffness and physical interactions between the cell membrane and fluid. In this paper, we propose a computational cell analysis technique using cells' different equilibrium positions in a laminar flow. This method utilizes a spatial coding technique to acquire the spatial position of the cell in a microfluidic channel and then uses mathematical algorithms to calculate the ratio of cell mixtures. Most uniquely, the invented computational cell analysis technique can unequivocally detect the subpopulation of each cell type without labeling even when the cell type shows a substantial overlap in the distribution plot with other cell types, a scenario limiting the use of conventional flow cytometers and machine learning techniques. To prove this concept, we have applied the computation method to distinguish live and fixed cancer cells without labeling, count neutrophils from human blood, and distinguish drug treated cells from untreated cells. Our work paves the way for using computation algorithms and fluidic dynamic properties for cell classification, a label-free method that can potentially classify over 200 types of human cells. Being a highly cost-effective cell analysis method complementary to flow cytometers, our method can offer orthogonal tests in companion with flow cytometers to provide crucial information for biomedical samples. PMID:27163941
Optimal Ranking Regime analysis of TreeFlow dendrohydrological reconstructions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mauget, S. A.
2015-03-01
The Optimal Ranking Regime (ORR) method was used to identify 6-100 year time windows containing significant ranking sequences in 55 western US streamflow reconstructions, and reconstructions of the level of the Great Salt Lake and San Francisco Bay salinity during 1500-2007. The method's ability to identify optimally significant and non-overlapping runs of low and high rankings allows it to re-express a reconstruction time series as a simplified sequence of regime segments marking intra- to multi-decadal (IMD) periods of low or high streamflow, lake level, or salinity. Those ORR sequences, referred to here as Z lines, can be plotted to identify consistent regime patterns in the analysis of numerous reconstructions. The Z lines for the 57 reconstructions evaluated here show a common pattern of IMD cycles of drought and pluvial periods during the late 16th and 17th centuries, a relatively dormant period during the 18th century, and the reappearance of alternating dry and wet IMD periods during the 19th and early 20th centuries. Although this pattern suggests the possibility of similarly active and inactive oceanic modes in the North Pacific and North Atlantic, such centennial-scale patterns are not evident in the ORR analyses of reconstructed Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), El Niño-Southern Oscillation, and North Atlantic seas-surface temperature variation. But given the inconsistency in the analyses of four PDO reconstructions the possible role of centennial-scale oceanic mechanisms is uncertain. In future research the ORR method might be applied to climate reconstructions around the Pacific Basin to try to resolve this uncertainty. Given its ability to compare regime patterns in climate reconstructions derived using different methods and proxies, the method may also be used in future research to evaluate long-term regional temperature reconstructions.
Optimal ranking regime analysis of TreeFlow dendrohydrological reconstructions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mauget, S. A.
2015-08-01
The optimal ranking regime (ORR) method was used to identify 6-100-year time windows containing significant ranking sequences in 55 western US streamflow reconstructions, and reconstructions of the level of the Great Salt Lake and San Francisco Bay salinity during 1500-2007. The method's ability to identify optimally significant and non-overlapping runs of low- and high-rankings allows it to re-express a reconstruction time series as a simplified sequence of regime segments marking intra- to multi-decadal (IMD) periods of low or high streamflow, lake level, and salinity. Those ORR sequences, referred to here as Z-lines, can be plotted to identify consistent regime patterns in the analysis of numerous reconstructions. The Z-lines for the 57 reconstructions evaluated here show a common pattern of IMD cycles of drought and pluvial periods during the late 16th and 17th centuries, a relatively dormant period during the 18th century, and the reappearance of alternating dry and wet IMD periods during the 19th and early 20th centuries. Although this pattern suggests the possibility of similarly active and inactive oceanic modes in the North Pacific and North Atlantic, such centennial-scale patterns are not evident in the ORR analyses of reconstructed Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), El Niño-Southern Oscillation, and North Atlantic sea-surface temperature variation. However, given the inconsistency in the analyses of four PDO reconstructions, the possible role of centennial-scale oceanic mechanisms is uncertain. In future research the ORR method might be applied to climate reconstructions around the Pacific Basin to try to resolve this uncertainty. Given its ability to compare regime patterns in climate reconstructions derived using different methods and proxies, the method may also be used in future research to evaluate long-term regional temperature reconstructions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, F. F.; Chen, T.; Wu, D. Z.; Wang, L. Q.
2013-12-01
The internal flow evolution of the pump was induced with impeller movement. In various conditions, the peak load on centrifugal blade under the change of rotational speed or flow rate was also changed. It would cause an error when inertia load with a safety coefficient (that was difficult to ascertain) was applied in structure design. In order to accurately analyze the impeller stress under various conditions and improve the reliability of pump, based on a mixed flow pump model, the stress distribution characteristic was analyzed under different flow rates and rotational speeds. Based on a three-dimensional calculation model including impeller, guide blade, inlet and outlet, the three-dimension incompressible turbulence flow in the centrifugal pump was simulated by using the standard k-epsilon turbulence model. Based on the sequentially coupled simulation approach, a three-dimensional finite element model of impeller was established, and the fluid-structure interaction method of the blade load transfer was discussed. The blades pressure from flow simulation, together with inertia force acting on the blade, was used as the blade loading on solid surface. The Finite Element Method (FEM) was used to calculate the stress distribution of the blade respectively under inertia load, or fluid load, or combined load. The results showed that the blade stress changed with flow rate and rotational speed. In all cases, the maximum stress on the blade appeared on the pressure side near the hub, and the maximum static stress increased with the decreasing of the flow rate and the increasing of rotational speed. There was a big difference on the static stress when inertia load, fluid load and combined loads was applied respectively. In order to more accurately calculate the stress distribution, the structure analysis should be conducted due to combined loads. The results could provide basis for the stress analysis and structure optimization of pump.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noll, Christopher Thomas
The development of an unsteady compressible flow analysis and configurable code design is presented. The design is based on the generic programming approach and is implemented using the C++ programming language. The generic programming approach heralds a revolution in software engineering, when high-performance programs will be assembled rapidly from readily available, mass-produced software components and generic algorithms. Using this approach, researchers will be able to share the burden of software development across research groups and disciplines allowing more difficult problems and more complex numerical methods to be used than previously practical. The computational fluid dynamics code design presented here consists of numerous component types (concepts) and specifications for the way that they interact in an assembled program (generic algorithms). The generic nature of the design allows for numerous flow codes to be developed from it using components specific to the particular task at hand. Numerous elliptic grid generation and flow codes were developed from this design, which allows for various numerical methods to be used interchangeably. The application of particular codes, assembled using this design, to problems of interest to the fluid dynamicist is discussed. The cases include the unsteady flow simulation for flow past a circular cylinder, flow past a maneuvering airfoil, and flow generated by a multi-finned mixer geometry. A commonly used approach for generating elliptic grids is shown to be overdetermined. This analysis is corrected and used as the basis of an improved automatic elliptic grid generation system. Grid generation codes based on this system are used to generate the grids necessary for the flow simulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moser, Markus; Mehlhorn, Susanne; Janu, Stefan
2015-04-01
Generally, debris flows are caused by both small-scale intensive precipitation and long lasting rainfalls with lower intensity but high pre-wetting or both combined. The triggering mechanism of the debris flow events in Austria 2012, 2013 and 2014 were mass movements (rapid shallow landslides) on steep slopes in the upper catchments. Those masses slide with very high velocity into the torrent beds provoking hyperconcentrated flows or debris flows. In areas of the geologically unstable Greywacke zone, the torrents were cleared up onto the bedrock and the debris was deposited in the storage areas of existing debris flow breakers or in torrents without technical protection measures the debris caused catastrophic damage to residential buildings and other infrastructural facilities on the alluvial fan. Following the events, comprehensive documentation work was undertaken comprising precipitation analysis (rainfall data, weather radar data), identification and quantification of the landslide masses, cross profiles along the channel and of deposition in the storage areas or on the fan. The documentation and analysis of torrential events is an essential part of an integrated risk management. It supports the understanding of the occurred processes to mitigate future hazards. Unfortunately, the small-scale heavy rain events are not detected by the precipitation stations. Therefore, weather radar data (INCA-Data) analysis was used to determine the - usually very local - intensities which caused those catastrophic landslides and debris flows. Analysis results showed an agreement with the range of the previously known precipitation thresholds for debris flow triggering in the Alps.
Navier-Stokes, flight, and wind tunnel flow analysis for the F/A-18 aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ghaffari, Farhad
1994-01-01
Computational analysis of flow over the F/A-18 aircraft is presented along with complementary data from both flight and wind tunnel experiments. The computational results are based on the three-dimensional thin-layer Navier-Stokes formulation and are obtained from an accurate surface representation of the fuselage, leading-edge extension (LEX), and the wing geometry. However, the constraints imposed by either the flow solver and/or the complexity associated with the flow-field grid generation required certain geometrical approximations to be implemented in the present numerical model. In particular, such constraints inspired the removal of the empennage and the blocking (fairing) of the inlet face. The results are computed for three different free-stream flow conditions and compared with flight test data of surface pressure coefficients, surface tuft flow, and off-surface vortical flow characteristics that included breakdown phenomena. Excellent surface pressure coefficient correlations, both in terms of magnitude and overall trend, are obtained on the forebody throughout the range of flow conditions. Reasonable pressure agreement was obtained over the LEX; the general correlation tends to improve at higher angles of attack. The surface tuft flow and the off-surface vortex flow structures compared qualitatively well with the flight test results. To evaluate the computational results, a wind tunnel investigation was conducted to determine the effects of existing configurational differences between the flight vehicle and the numerical model on aerodynamic characteristics. In most cases, the geometrical approximations made to the numerical model had very little effect on overall aerodynamic characteristics.
Short-time Lyapunov exponent analysis and the transition to chaos in Taylor-Couette flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vastano, John A.; Moser, Robert D.
1991-01-01
The physical mechanism driving the weakly chaotic Taylor-Couette flow is investigated using the short-time Liapunov exponent analysis. In this procedure, the transition from quasi-periodicity to chaos is studied using direct numerical 3D simulations of axially periodic Taylor-Couette flow, and a partial Liapunov exponent spectrum for the flow is computed by simultaneously advancing the full solution and a set of perturbations. It is shown that the short-time Liapunov exponent analysis yields more information on the exponents and dimension than that obtained from the common Liapunov exponent calculations. Results show that the chaotic state studied here is caused by a Kelvin-Helmholtz-type instability of the outflow boundary jet of Taylor vortices.
Study of interfacial area transport and sensitivity analysis for air-water bubbly flow
Kim, S.; Sun, X.; Ishii, M.; Beus, S.G.
2000-09-01
The interfacial area transport equation applicable to the bubbly flow is presented. The model is evaluated against the data acquired by the state-of-the-art miniaturized double-sensor conductivity probe in an adiabatic air-water co-current vertical test loop under atmospheric pressure condition. In general, a good agreement, within the measurement error of plus/minus 10%, is observed for a wide range in the bubbly flow regime. The sensitivity analysis on the individual particle interaction mechanisms demonstrates the active interactions between the bubbles and highlights the mechanisms playing the dominant role in interfacial area transport. The analysis employing the drift flux model is also performed for the data acquired. Under the given flow conditions, the distribution parameter of 1.076 yields the best fit to the data.
Boundary layer stability analysis of a natural laminar flow glove on the F-111 TACT airplane
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Runyan, L. J.; Steers, L. L.
1980-01-01
A natural laminar flow airfoil has been developed as a part of the aircraft energy efficiency program. A NASA flight program incorporating this airfoil into partial wing gloves on the F-111 TACT airplane was scheduled to start in May, 1980. In support of this research effort, an extensive boundary layer stability analysis of the partial glove has been conducted. The results of that analysis show the expected effects of wing leading-edge sweep angle, Reynolds number, and compressibility on boundary layer stability and transition. These results indicate that it should be possible to attain on the order of 60% laminar flow on the upper surface and 50% laminar flow on the lower surface for sweep angles of at least 20 deg, chord Reynolds numbers of 25 x 10 to the 6th and Mach numbers from 0.81 to 0.85.
FSI analysis of the blood flow and geometrical characteristics in the thoracic aorta
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suito, Hiroshi; Takizawa, Kenji; Huynh, Viet Q. H.; Sze, Daniel; Ueda, Takuya
2014-10-01
We present a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) analysis of the blood flow and geometrical characteristics in the thoracic aorta. The FSI is handled with the sequentially-coupled arterial FSI technique. The fluid mechanics equations are solved with the ST-VMS method, which is the variational multiscale version of the deforming-spatial-domain/stabilized space-time (DSD/SST) method. We focus on the relationship between the centerline geometry of the aorta and the flow field, which influences the wall shear stress distribution. The centerlines of the aorta models we use in our analysis are extracted from the CT scans, and we assume a constant diameter. Torsion-free model geometries are generated by projecting the original centerline to its averaged plane of curvature. The flow fields for the original and projected geometries are compared to examine the influence of the torsion.
Human Factors Operability Timeline Analysis to Improve the Processing Flow of the Orion Spacecraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stambolian, Damon B.; Schlierf, Roland; Miller, Darcy; Posada, Juan; Haddock, Mike; Haddad, Mike; Tran, Donald; Henderon, Gena; Barth, Tim
2011-01-01
This slide presentation reviews the use of Human factors and timeline analysis to have a more efficient and effective processing flow. The solution involved developing a written timeline of events that included each activity within each functional flow block. Each activity had computer animation videos and pictures of the people involved and the hardware. The Human Factors Engineering Analysis Tool (HFEAT) was improved by modifying it to include the timeline of events. The HFEAT was used to define the human factors requirements and design solutions were developed for these requirements. An example of a functional flow block diagram is shown, and a view from one of the animations (i.e., short stack pallet) is shown and explained.
FLUT - A program for aeroelastic stability analysis. [of aircraft structures in subsonic flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, E. H.
1977-01-01
A computer program (FLUT) that can be used to evaluate the aeroelastic stability of aircraft structures in subsonic flow is described. The algorithm synthesizes data from a structural vibration analysis with an unsteady aerodynamics analysis and then performs a complex eigenvalue analysis to assess the system stability. The theoretical basis of the program is discussed with special emphasis placed on some innovative techniques which improve the efficiency of the analysis. User information needed to efficiently and successfully utilize the program is provided. In addition to identifying the required input, the flow of the program execution and some possible sources of difficulty are included. The use of the program is demonstrated with a listing of the input and output for a simple example.
Recent Development in Optical Chemical Sensors Coupling with Flow Injection Analysis
Ojeda, Catalina Bosch; Rojas, Fuensanta Sánchez
2006-01-01
Optical techniques for chemical analysis are well established and sensors based on these techniques are now attracting considerable attention because of their importance in applications such as environmental monitoring, biomedical sensing, and industrial process control. On the other hand, flow injection analysis (FIA) is advisable for the rapid analysis of microliter volume samples and can be interfaced directly to the chemical process. The FIA has become a widespread automatic analytical method for more reasons; mainly due to the simplicity and low cost of the setups, their versatility, and ease of assembling. In this paper, an overview of flow injection determinations by using optical chemical sensors is provided, and instrumentation, sensor design, and applications are discussed. This work summarizes the most relevant manuscripts from 1980 to date referred to analysis using optical chemical sensors in FIA.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
de Pablos, Patricia Ordonez
2006-01-01
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse knowledge transfers in transnational corporations. Design/methodology/approach: The paper develops a conceptual framework for the analysis of knowledge flow transfers in transnationals. Based on this theoretical framework, the paper propose's research hypotheses and builds a causal model that links…
The onset of absolute instability of rotating Hagen-Poiseuille flow: A spatial stability analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fernandez-Feria, R.; del Pino, C.
2002-09-01
A spatial, viscous stability analysis of Poiseuille pipe flow with superimposed solid body rotation is considered. For each value of the swirl parameter (inverse Rossby number) L>0, there exists a critical Reynolds number Rec)(L above which the flow first becomes convectively unstable to nonaxisymmetric disturbances with azimuthal wave number n=-1. This neutral stability curve confirms previous temporal stability analyses. From this spatial stability analysis, we propose here a relatively simple procedure to look for the onset of absolute instability that satisfies the so-called Briggs-Bers criterion. We find that, for perturbations with n=-1, the flow first becomes absolutely unstable above another critical Reynolds number Ret)(L>Rec)(L, provided that L>0.38, with Ret[right arrow]Rec as L[right arrow]infinity. Other values of the azimuthal wave number n are also considered. For Re>Ret)(L, the disturbances grow both upstream and downstream of the source, and the spatial stability analysis becomes inappropriate. However, for Ret, the spatial analysis provides a useful description on how convectively unstable perturbations become absolutely unstable in this kind of flow.
The onset of absolute instability of rotating Hagen-Poiseuille flow: A spatial stability analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fernandez-Feria, R.; del Pino, C.
2002-09-01
A spatial, viscous stability analysis of Poiseuille pipe flow with superimposed solid body rotation is considered. For each value of the swirl parameter (inverse Rossby number) L>0, there exists a critical Reynolds number Rec(L) above which the flow first becomes convectively unstable to nonaxisymmetric disturbances with azimuthal wave number n=-1. This neutral stability curve confirms previous temporal stability analyses. From this spatial stability analysis, we propose here a relatively simple procedure to look for the onset of absolute instability that satisfies the so-called Briggs-Bers criterion. We find that, for perturbations with n=-1, the flow first becomes absolutely unstable above another critical Reynolds number Ret(L)>Rec(L), provided that L>0.38, with Ret→Rec as L→∞. Other values of the azimuthal wave number n are also considered. For Re>Ret(L), the disturbances grow both upstream and downstream of the source, and the spatial stability analysis becomes inappropriate. However, for Re
Simulation analysis of within-day flow fluctuation effects on trout below flaming Gorge Dam.
Railsback, S. F.; Hayse, J. W.; LaGory, K. E.; Environmental Science Division; EPRI
2006-01-01
In addition to being renewable, hydropower has the advantage of allowing rapid load-following, in that the generation rate can easily be varied within a day to match the demand for power. However, the flow fluctuations that result from load-following can be controversial, in part because they may affect downstream fish populations. At Flaming Gorge Dam, located on the Green River in northeastern Utah, concern has been raised about whether flow fluctuations caused by the dam disrupt feeding at a tailwater trout fishery, as fish move in response to flow changes and as the flow changes alter the amount or timing of the invertebrate drift that trout feed on. Western Area Power Administration (Western), which controls power production on submonthly time scales, has made several operational changes to address concerns about flow fluctuation effects on fisheries. These changes include reducing the number of daily flow peaks from two to one and operating within a restricted range of flows. These changes significantly reduce the value of the power produced at Flaming Gorge Dam and put higher load-following pressure on other power plants. Consequently, Western has great interest in understanding what benefits these restrictions provide to the fishery and whether adjusting the restrictions could provide a better tradeoff between power and non-power concerns. Directly evaluating the effects of flow fluctuations on fish populations is unfortunately difficult. Effects are expected to be relatively small, so tightly controlled experiments with large sample sizes and long study durations would be needed to evaluate them. Such experiments would be extremely expensive and would be subject to the confounding effects of uncontrollable variations in factors such as runoff and weather. Computer simulation using individual-based models (IBMs) is an alternative study approach for ecological problems that are not amenable to analysis using field studies alone. An IBM simulates how a
Williams, John H.
2008-01-01
Flow logs from 24 test wells were analyzed as part of the hydraulic characterization of the metamorphosed and fractured carbonate bedrock at the Indian Point Energy Center in Buchanan, New York. The flow logs were analyzed along with caliper, optical- and acoustic-televiewer, and fluid-resistivity and temperature logs to determine the character and distribution of fracture-flow zones and estimate their transmissivities and hydraulic heads. Many flow zones were associated with subhorizontal to shallow-dipping fractured zones, southeast-dipping bedding fractures, northwest-dipping conjugate fractures, or combinations of bedding and conjugate fractures. Flow-log analysis generally provided reasonable first-order estimates of flow-zone transmissivity and head differences compared with the results of conventional hydraulic-test analysis and measurements. Selected results of an aquifer test and a tracer test provided corroborating information in support of the flow-log analysis.
Analysis of rotation-driven electrokinetic flow in microscale gap regions of rotating disk systems.
Soong, C Y; Wang, S H
2004-01-15
In the present study, a novel theoretical model is developed for the analysis of rotating thermal-fluid flow characteristics in the presence of electrokinetic effects in the microscale gap region between two parallel disks under specified electrostatic, rotational, and thermal boundary conditions. The major flow configuration considered is a rotor-stator disk system. Axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equations with consideration of electric body force stemming from streaming potential are employed in the momentum balance. Variations of the fluid viscosity and permittivity with the local fluid temperature are considered. Between two disks, the axial distribution of the electric potential is determined by the Poisson equation with the concentration distributions of positive and negative ions obtained from Nernst-Planck equations for convection-diffusion of the ions in the flow field. Effects of disk rotation and electrostatic and thermal conditions on the electrokinetic flow and thermal characteristics are investigated. The electrohydrodynamic mechanisms are addressed with an interpretation of the coupling nature of the electric and flow fields. Finally, solutions with electric potential determined by employing nonlinear or linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation and/or invoking assumptions of constant properties are compared with the predictions of the present model for justification of various levels of approximation in solution of the electrothermal flow behaviors in rotating microfluidic systems. PMID:14654411
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Athavale, M. M.; Ho, Y. H.; Prezekwas, A. J.
2005-01-01
Higher power, high efficiency gas turbine engines require optimization of the seals and secondary flow systems as well as their impact on the powerstream. This work focuses on two aspects: 1. To apply the present day CFD tools (SCISEAL) to different real-life secondary flow applications from different original equipment manufacturers (OEM s) to provide feedback data and 2. Develop a computational methodology for coupled time-accurate simulation of the powerstream and secondary flow with emphasis on the interaction between the disk-cavity and rim seals flows with the powerstream (SCISEAL-MS-TURBO). One OEM simulation was of the Allison Engine Company T-56 turbine drum cavities including conjugate heat transfer with good agreement with data and provided design feedback information. Another was the GE aspirating seal where the 3-D CFD simulations played a major role in analysis and modification of that seal configuration. The second major objective, development of a coupled flow simulation capability was achieved by using two codes MS-TURBO for the powerstream and SCISEAL for the secondary flows with an interface coupling algorithm. The coupled code was tested against data from three differed configurations: 1. bladeless-rotor-stator-cavity turbine test rig, 2. UTRC high pressure turbine test rig, and, 3. the NASA Low-Speed-Air Compressor rig (LSAC) with results and limitations discussed herein.
Numerical simulation and analysis of the internal flow in a Francis turbine with air admission
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, A.; Luo, X. W.; Ji, B.
2015-01-01
In case of hydro turbines operated at part-load condition, vortex ropes usually occur in the draft tube, and consequently generate violent pressure fluctuation. This unsteady flow phenomenon is believed harmful to hydropower stations. This paper mainly treats the internal flow simulation in the draft tube of a Francis turbine. In order to alleviate the pressure fluctuation induced by the vortex rope, air admission from the main shaft center is applied, and the water-air two phase flow in the entire flow passage of a model turbine is simulated based on a homogeneous flow assumption and SST k-ω turbulence model. It is noted that the numerical simulation reasonably predicts the pressure fluctuations in the draft tube, which agrees fairly well with experimental data. The analysis based on the vorticity transport equation shows that the vortex dilation plays a major role in the vortex evolution with air admission in the turbine draft tube, and there is large value of vortex dilation along the vortex rope. The results show that the aeration with suitable air volume fraction can depress the vortical flow, and alleviate the pressure fluctuation in the draft tube.
CFD Analysis of Thermal Control System Using NX Thermal and Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fortier, C. R.; Harris, M. F. (Editor); McConnell, S. (Editor)
2014-01-01
The Thermal Control Subsystem (TCS) is a key part of the Advanced Plant Habitat (APH) for the International Space Station (ISS). The purpose of this subsystem is to provide thermal control, mainly cooling, to the other APH subsystems. One of these subsystems, the Environmental Control Subsystem (ECS), controls the temperature and humidity of the growth chamber (GC) air to optimize the growth of plants in the habitat. The TCS provides thermal control to the ECS with three cold plates, which use Thermoelectric Coolers (TECs) to heat or cool water as needed to control the air temperature in the ECS system. In order to optimize the TCS design, pressure drop and heat transfer analyses were needed. The analysis for this system was performed in Siemens NX Thermal/Flow software (Version 8.5). NX Thermal/Flow has the ability to perform 1D or 3D flow solutions. The 1D flow solver can be used to represent simple geometries, such as pipes and tubes. The 1D flow method also has the ability to simulate either fluid only or fluid and wall regions. The 3D flow solver is similar to other Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) software. TCS performance was analyzed using both the 1D and 3D solvers. Each method produced different results, which will be evaluated and discussed.
Issues and approach to develop validated analysis tools for hypersonic flows: One perspective
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deiwert, George S.
1993-01-01
Critical issues concerning the modeling of low density hypervelocity flows where thermochemical nonequilibrium effects are pronounced are discussed. Emphasis is on the development of validated analysis tools, and the activity in the NASA Ames Research Center's Aerothermodynamics Branch is described. Inherent in the process is a strong synergism between ground test and real gas computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Approaches to develop and/or enhance phenomenological models and incorporate them into computational flowfield simulation codes are discussed. These models were partially validated with experimental data for flows where the gas temperature is raised (compressive flows). Expanding flows, where temperatures drop, however, exhibit somewhat different behavior. Experimental data for these expanding flow conditions is sparse and reliance must be made on intuition and guidance from computational chemistry to model transport processes under these conditions. Ground based experimental studies used to provide necessary data for model development and validation are described. Included are the performance characteristics of high enthalpy flow facilities, such as shock tubes and ballistic ranges.