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Sample records for flow cytometry platforms

  1. In vitro flow cytometry-based screening platform for cellulase engineering

    PubMed Central

    Körfer, Georgette; Pitzler, Christian; Vojcic, Ljubica; Martinez, Ronny; Schwaneberg, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Ultrahigh throughput screening (uHTS) plays an essential role in directed evolution for tailoring biocatalysts for industrial applications. Flow cytometry-based uHTS provides an efficient coverage of the generated protein sequence space by analysis of up to 107 events per hour. Cell-free enzyme production overcomes the challenge of diversity loss during the transformation of mutant libraries into expression hosts, enables directed evolution of toxic enzymes, and holds the promise to efficiently design enzymes of human or animal origin. The developed uHTS cell-free compartmentalization platform (InVitroFlow) is the first report in which a flow cytometry-based screened system has been combined with compartmentalized cell-free expression for directed cellulase enzyme evolution. InVitroFlow was validated by screening of a random cellulase mutant library employing a novel screening system (based on the substrate fluorescein-di-β-D-cellobioside), and yielded significantly improved cellulase variants (e.g. CelA2-H288F-M1 (N273D/H288F/N468S) with 13.3-fold increased specific activity (220.60 U/mg) compared to CelA2 wildtype: 16.57 U/mg). PMID:27184298

  2. Standardization of microparticle enumeration across different flow cytometry platforms: results of a multicenter collaborative workshop.

    PubMed

    Cointe, S; Judicone, C; Robert, S; Mooberry, M J; Poncelet, P; Wauben, M; Nieuwland, R; Key, N S; Dignat-George, F; Lacroix, R

    2017-01-01

    Essentials The clinical enumeration of microparticles (MPs) is hampered by a lack of standardization. A new strategy to standardize MP counts by flow cytometry was evaluated in a multicenter study. No difference was found between instruments using forward or side scatter as the trigger parameter. This study demonstrated that beads can be used as a standardization tool for MPs. Click to hear the ISTH Academy's webinar on microvesicles SUMMARY: Background Microparticles (MPs) are extracellular vesicles resulting from the budding of cellular membranes that have a high potential as emergent biomarkers; however, their clinical relevance is hampered by methodological enumeration concerns and a lack of standardization. Flow cytometry (FCM) remains the most commonly used technique with the best capability to determine the cellular origin of single MPs. However, instruments behave variably depending on which scatter parameter (forward (FSC) or side scatter (SSC)) provides the best resolution to discriminate submicron particles. To overcome this problem, a new approach, based on two sets of selected beads adapted to FSC or SSC-optimized instruments, was recently proposed to reproducibly enumerate platelet-derived MP counts among instruments with different optical systems. Objective The objective was to evaluate this strategy in an international workshop that included 44 laboratories accounting for 52 cytometers of 14 types. Methods/Results Using resolution capability and background noise level as criteria to qualify the instruments, the standardization strategy proved to be compatible with 85% (44/52) of instruments. All instruments correctly ranked the platelet MP (PMP) levels of two platelet-free plasma samples. The inter-laboratory variability of PMP counts was 37% and 28% for each sample. No difference was found between instruments using forward or side-scattered light as the relative sizing parameter. Conclusions Despite remaining limitations, this study is the first to

  3. Photoacoustic flow cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Galanzha, Ekaterina I.; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2016-01-01

    Conventional flow cytometry using scattering and fluorescent detection methods has been a fundamental tool of biological discoveries for many years. Invasive extraction of cells from a living organism, however, may lead to changes in cell properties and prevents the long-term study of cells in their native environment. Here, we summarize recent advances of new generation flow cytometry for in vivo noninvasive label-free or targeted detection of cells in blood, lymph, bone, cerebral and plant vasculatures using photoacoustic (PA) detection techniques, multispectral high-pulse-repetition-rate lasers, tunable ultrasharp (up to 0.8 nm) rainbow plasmonic nanoprobes, positive and negative PA contrasts, in vivo magnetic enrichment, time-of-flight cell velocity measurement, PA spectral analysis, and integration of PA, photothermal (PT), fluorescent, and Raman methods. Unique applications of this tool are reviewed with a focus on ultrasensitive detection of normal blood cells at different functional states (e.g., apoptotic and necrotic) and rare abnormal cells including circulating tumor cells (CTCs), cancer stem cells, pathogens, clots, sickle cells as well as pharmokinetics of nanoparticles, dyes, microbubbles and drug nanocarriers. Using this tool we discovered that palpation, biopsy, or surgery can enhance CTC release from primary tumors, increasing the risk of metastasis. The novel fluctuation flow cytometry provided the opportunity for the dynamic study of blood rheology including red blood cell aggregation and clot formation in different medical conditions (e.g., blood disorders, cancer, or surgery). Theranostics, as a combination of PA diagnosis and PT nanobubble-amplified multiplex therapy, was used for eradication of CTCs, purging of infected blood, and thrombolysis of clots using PA guidance to control therapy efficiency. In vivo flow cytometry using a portable fiber-based devices can provide a breakthrough platform for early diagnosis of cancer, infection and

  4. Lasers in flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Telford, William G

    2011-01-01

    Laser technology has advanced tremendously since the first gas lasers were incorporated into early flow cytometers. Gas lasers have been largely replaced by solid-state laser technology, making virtually any desirable visible light wavelength available for flow cytometry. Multiwavelength, white light, and wavelength tunable lasers are poised to enhance our analytical capabilities even further. In this chapter, I summarize the role that lasers play in cytometry, and the practical characteristics that make a laser appropriate for flow cytometry. I then review the latest single wavelength lasers available for flow cytometry, and how they can be used to excite the ever-expanding array of available fluorochromes. Finally, I review the contribution and potential of the latest tunable laser technology to flow cytometry, and show several examples of these novel sources integrated into production instruments. Technical details and critical parameters for successful application of these lasers for biomedical analysis are covered in depth.

  5. Microflow1, a sheathless fiber-optic flow cytometry biomedical platform: demonstration onboard the international space station.

    PubMed

    Dubeau-Laramée, Geneviève; Rivière, Christophe; Jean, Isabelle; Mermut, Ozzy; Cohen, Luchino Y

    2014-04-01

    A fiber-optic based flow cytometry platform was designed to build a portable and robust instrument for space applications. At the core of the Microflow1 is a unique fiber-optic flow cell fitted to a fluidic system and fiber coupled to the source and detection channels. A Microflow1 engineering unit was first tested and benchmarked against a commercial flow cytometer as a reference in a standard laboratory environment. Testing in parabolic flight campaigns was performed to establish Microflow1's performance in weightlessness, before operating the new platform on the International Space Station. Microflow1 had comparable performances to commercial systems, and operated remarkably and robustly in weightlessness (microgravity). Microflow1 supported immunophenotyping as well as microbead-based multiplexed cytokine assays in the space environment and independently of gravity levels. Results presented here provide evidence that this fiber-optic cytometer technology is inherently compatible with the space environment with negligible compromise to analytical performance.

  6. Flow cytometry of sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Gledhill, B.L.

    1987-09-21

    This brief paper summarizes automated flow cytometric determination of sperm morphology and flow cytometry/sorting of sperm with application to sex preselection. In the latter context, mention is made of results of karyotypic determination of sex chromosome ratios in albumin-processed human sperm. 23 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  7. Prostate extracellular vesicles in patient plasma as a liquid biopsy platform for prostate cancer using nanoscale flow cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Al-Zahrani, Ali A.; Pardhan, Siddika; Brett, Sabine I.; Guo, Qiu Q.; Yang, Jun; Wolf, Philipp; Power, Nicholas E.; Durfee, Paul N.; MacMillan, Connor D.; Townson, Jason L.; Brinker, Jeffrey C.; Fleshner, Neil E.; Izawa, Jonathan I.; Chambers, Ann F.; Chin, Joseph L.; Leong, Hon S.

    2016-01-01

    distinguishing metastatic PCa and localized PCa patients. Nanoscale flow cytometry of PMPs presents an emerging biomarker platform for various stages of prostate cancer. PMID:26814433

  8. Cell Surface Profiling Using High-Throughput Flow Cytometry: A Platform for Biomarker Discovery and Analysis of Cellular Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Gedye, Craig A.; Hussain, Ali; Paterson, Joshua; Smrke, Alannah; Saini, Harleen; Sirskyj, Danylo; Pereira, Keira; Lobo, Nazleen; Stewart, Jocelyn; Go, Christopher; Ho, Jenny; Medrano, Mauricio; Hyatt, Elzbieta; Yuan, Julie; Lauriault, Stevan; Kondratyev, Maria; van den Beucken, Twan; Jewett, Michael; Dirks, Peter; Guidos, Cynthia J.; Danska, Jayne; Wang, Jean; Wouters, Bradly; Neel, Benjamin; Rottapel, Robert; Ailles, Laurie E.

    2014-01-01

    Cell surface proteins have a wide range of biological functions, and are often used as lineage-specific markers. Antibodies that recognize cell surface antigens are widely used as research tools, diagnostic markers, and even therapeutic agents. The ability to obtain broad cell surface protein profiles would thus be of great value in a wide range of fields. There are however currently few available methods for high-throughput analysis of large numbers of cell surface proteins. We describe here a high-throughput flow cytometry (HT-FC) platform for rapid analysis of 363 cell surface antigens. Here we demonstrate that HT-FC provides reproducible results, and use the platform to identify cell surface antigens that are influenced by common cell preparation methods. We show that multiple populations within complex samples such as primary tumors can be simultaneously analyzed by co-staining of cells with lineage-specific antibodies, allowing unprecedented depth of analysis of heterogeneous cell populations. Furthermore, standard informatics methods can be used to visualize, cluster and downsample HT-FC data to reveal novel signatures and biomarkers. We show that the cell surface profile provides sufficient molecular information to classify samples from different cancers and tissue types into biologically relevant clusters using unsupervised hierarchical clustering. Finally, we describe the identification of a candidate lineage marker and its subsequent validation. In summary, HT-FC combines the advantages of a high-throughput screen with a detection method that is sensitive, quantitative, highly reproducible, and allows in-depth analysis of heterogeneous samples. The use of commercially available antibodies means that high quality reagents are immediately available for follow-up studies. HT-FC has a wide range of applications, including biomarker discovery, molecular classification of cancers, or identification of novel lineage specific or stem cell markers. PMID:25170899

  9. Imaging flow cytometry for phytoplankton analysis.

    PubMed

    Dashkova, Veronika; Malashenkov, Dmitry; Poulton, Nicole; Vorobjev, Ivan; Barteneva, Natasha S

    2017-01-01

    This review highlights the concepts and instrumentation of imaging flow cytometry technology and in particular its use for phytoplankton analysis. Imaging flow cytometry, a hybrid technology combining speed and statistical capabilities of flow cytometry with imaging features of microscopy, is rapidly advancing as a cell imaging platform that overcomes many of the limitations of current techniques and contributed significantly to the advancement of phytoplankton analysis in recent years. This review presents the various instrumentation relevant to the field and currently used for assessment of complex phytoplankton communities' composition and abundance, size structure determination, biovolume estimation, detection of harmful algal bloom species, evaluation of viability and metabolic activity and other applications. Also we present our data on viability and metabolic assessment of Aphanizomenon sp. cyanobacteria using Imagestream X Mark II imaging cytometer. Herein, we highlight the immense potential of imaging flow cytometry for microalgal research, but also discuss limitations and future developments.

  10. Two-Photon Flow Cytometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhog, Cheng Frank; Ye, Jing Yong; Norris, Theodore B.; Myc, Andrzej; Cao, Zhengyl; Bielinska, Anna; Thomas, Thommey; Baker, James R., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Flow cytometry is a powerful technique for obtaining quantitative information from fluorescence in cells. Quantitation is achieved by assuring a high degree of uniformity in the optical excitation and detection, generally by using a highly controlled flow such as is obtained via hydrodynamic focusing. In this work, we demonstrate a two-beam, two- channel detection and two-photon excitation flow cytometry (T(sup 3)FC) system that enables multi-dye analysis to be performed very simply, with greatly relaxed requirements on the fluid flow. Two-photon excitation using a femtosecond near-infrared (NIR) laser has the advantages that it enables simultaneous excitation of multiple dyes and achieves very high signal-to-noise ratio through simplified filtering and fluorescence background reduction. By matching the excitation volume to the size of a cell, single-cell detection is ensured. Labeling of cells by targeted nanoparticles with multiple fluorophores enables normalization of the fluorescence signal and thus ratiometric measurements under nonuniform excitation. Quantitative size measurements can also be done even under conditions of nonuniform flow via a two-beam layout. This innovative detection scheme not only considerably simplifies the fluid flow system and the excitation and collection optics, it opens the way to quantitative cytometry in simple and compact microfluidics systems, or in vivo. Real-time detection of fluorescent microbeads in the vasculature of mouse ear demonstrates the ability to do flow cytometry in vivo. The conditions required to perform quantitative in vivo cytometry on labeled cells will be presented.

  11. Analyzing the Tumor Microenvironment by Flow Cytometry.

    PubMed

    Young, Yoon Kow; Bolt, Alicia M; Ahn, Ryuhjin; Mann, Koren K

    2016-01-01

    Flow cytometry is an essential tool for studying the tumor microenvironment. It allows us to quickly quantify and identify multiple cell types in a heterogeneous sample. A brief overview of flow cytometry instrumentation and the appropriate considerations and steps in building a good flow cytometry staining panel are discussed. In addition, a lymphoid tissue and solid tumor leukocyte infiltrate flow cytometry staining protocol and an example of flow cytometry data analysis are presented.

  12. Flow cytometry apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Pinkel, D.

    1987-11-30

    An obstruction across the flow chamber creates a one-dimensional convergence of a sheath fluid. A passageway in the obstruction directs flat cells near to the area of one-dimensional convergence in the sheath fluid to provide proper orientation of flat cells at fast rates. 6 figs.

  13. Flow cytometry apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Pinkel, Daniel

    1991-01-01

    An obstruction across the flow chamber creates a one dimensional convergence of a sheath fluid. A passageway in the construction directs flat cells near to the area of one dimensional convergence in the sheath fluid to provide proper orientation of flat cells at fast rates.

  14. Field evaluation in Chad of community usage of CD4 T lymphocyte counting by alternative single-platform flow cytometry

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Field and community evaluation of the routine usage of CD4 T counting platforms is essential in resource-poor countries for efficient and cost-effective monitoring of HIV-infected adults and children attending health care centers. Methods We herein addressed the principal issues raised by the implementation of the single-platform, volumetric Auto40 flow cytometer (Apogee Flow Systems Ltd, Hemel Hempstead, UK) in 8 community HIV monitoring laboratories of different levels throughout Chad. This is a country with particularly difficult conditions, both in terms of climate and vast geographical territory, making the decentralization of the therapeutic management of HIV-infected patients challenging. Results The routine usage of the Auto40 flow cytometers for a period of 5 years (2008–2013) confirms the reliability and robustness of the analyzer for community-based CD4 T cell enumeration in terms of both absolute numbers and percentages to enable accurate monitoring of HIV-infected adults and children. However, our observations suggest that the Auto40 mini flow cytometer is not suitable for all laboratories as it is oversized and ultimately very expensive. Conclusion The Chad experience with the Auto40 flow cytometer suggests that its usage in resource-limited settings should be mainly reserved to reference (level 1) or district (level 2) laboratories, rather than to laboratories of health care centres (level 3). PMID:24083615

  15. Teaching phagocytosis using flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Boothby, John T; Kibler, Ruthann; Rech, Sabine; Hicks, Robert

    2004-05-01

    Investigative microbiology on protists in a basic teaching laboratory environment is limited by student skill level, ease of microbial culture and manipulation, instrumentation, and time. The flow cytometer is gaining use as a mainstream instrument in research and clinical laboratories, but has had minimal application in teaching laboratories. Although the cost of a flow cytometer is currently prohibitive for many microbiology teaching environments and the number of trained instructors and teaching materials is limited, in many ways the flow cytometer is an ideal instrument for teaching basic microbiology. We report here on a laboratory module to study phagocytosis in Tetrahymena sp. using flow cytometry in a basic microbiology teaching laboratory. Students and instructors found the flow cytometry data analysis program, Paint-AGate(PRO-TM), to be very intuitive and easy to learn within a short period of time. Assessment of student learning about Tetrahymena sp., phagocytosis, flow cytometry, and investigative microbiology using an inquiry-based format demonstrated an overall positive response from students.

  16. Masks in imaging flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Dominical, Venina; Samsel, Leigh; McCoy, J Philip

    2017-01-01

    Data analysis in imaging flow cytometry incorporates elements of flow cytometry together with other aspects of morphological analysis of images. A crucial early step in this analysis is the creation of a mask to distinguish the portion of the image upon which further examination of specified features can be performed. Default masks are provided by the manufacturer of the imaging flow cytometer but additional custom masks can be created by the individual user for specific applications. Flawed or inaccurate masks can have a substantial negative impact on the overall analysis of a sample, thus great care must be taken to ensure the accuracy of masks. Here we discuss various types of masks and cite examples of their use. Furthermore we provide our insight for how to approach selecting and assessing the optimal mask for a specific analysis.

  17. Supercontinuum white light lasers for flow cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Telford, William G.; Subach, Fedor V.; Verkhusha, Vladislav V.

    2009-01-01

    Excitation of fluorescent probes for flow cytometry has traditionally been limited to a few discrete laser lines, an inherent limitation in our ability to excite the vast array of fluorescent probes available for cellular analysis. In this report, we have used a supercontinuum (SC) white light laser as an excitation source for flow cytometry. By selectively filtering the wavelength of interest, almost any laser wavelength in the visible spectrum can be separated and used for flow cytometric analysis. The white light lasers used in this study were integrated into a commercial flow cytometry platform, and a series of high-transmission bandpass filters used to select wavelength ranges from the blue (~480 nm) to the long red (>700 nm). Cells labeled with a variety of fluorescent probes or expressing fluorescent proteins were then analyzed, in comparison with traditional lasers emitting at wavelengths similar to the filtered SC source. Based on a standard sensitivity metric, the white light laser bandwidths produced similar excitation levels to traditional lasers for a wide variety of fluorescent probes and expressible proteins. Sensitivity assessment using fluorescent bead arrays confirmed that the SC laser and traditional sources resulted in similar levels of detection sensitivity. Supercontinuum white light laser sources therefore have the potential to remove a significant barrier in flow cytometric analysis, namely the limitation of excitation wavelengths. Almost any visible wavelength range can be made available for excitation, allowing access to virtually any fluorescent probe, and permitting “fine-tuning” of excitation wavelength to particular probes. PMID:19072836

  18. Supercontinuum white light lasers for flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Telford, William G; Subach, Fedor V; Verkhusha, Vladislav V

    2009-05-01

    Excitation of fluorescent probes for flow cytometry has traditionally been limited to a few discrete laser lines, an inherent limitation in our ability to excite the vast array of fluorescent probes available for cellular analysis. In this report, we have used a supercontinuum (SC) white light laser as an excitation source for flow cytometry. By selectively filtering the wavelength of interest, almost any laser wavelength in the visible spectrum can be separated and used for flow cytometric analysis. The white light lasers used in this study were integrated into a commercial flow cytometry platform, and a series of high-transmission bandpass filters used to select wavelength ranges from the blue (approximately 480 nm) to the long red (>700 nm). Cells labeled with a variety of fluorescent probes or expressing fluorescent proteins were then analyzed, in comparison with traditional lasers emitting at wavelengths similar to the filtered SC source. Based on a standard sensitivity metric, the white light laser bandwidths produced similar excitation levels to traditional lasers for a wide variety of fluorescent probes and expressible proteins. Sensitivity assessment using fluorescent bead arrays confirmed that the SC laser and traditional sources resulted in similar levels of detection sensitivity. Supercontinuum white light laser sources therefore have the potential to remove a significant barrier in flow cytometric analysis, namely the limitation of excitation wavelengths. Almost any visible wavelength range can be made available for excitation, allowing access to virtually any fluorescent probe, and permitting "fine-tuning" of excitation wavelength to particular probes.

  19. Bacteria detection by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Karo, Oliver; Wahl, Alexandra; Nicol, Sven-Boris; Brachert, Julia; Lambrecht, Bernd; Spengler, Hans-Peter; Nauwelaers, Frans; Schmidt, Michael; Schneider, Christian K; Müller, Thomas H; Montag, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Since bacterial infection of the recipient has become the most frequent infection risk in transfusion medicine, suitable methods for bacteria detection in blood components are of great interest. Platelet concentrates are currently the focus of attention, as they are stored under temperature conditions, which enable the multiplication of most bacteria species contaminating blood donations. Rapid methods for bacteria detection allow testing immediately before transfusion in a bed-side like manner. This approach would overcome the sampling error observed in early sampling combined with culturing of bacteria and would, at least, prevent the transfusion of highly contaminated blood components leading to acute septic shock or even death of the patient. Flow cytometry has been demonstrated to be a rapid and feasible approach for detection of bacteria in platelet concentrates. The general aim of the current study was to develop protocols for the application of this technique under routine conditions. The effect of improved test reagents on practicability and sensitivity of the method is evaluated. Furthermore, the implementation of fluorescent absolute count beads as an internal standard is demonstrated. A simplified pre-incubation procedure has been undertaken to diminish the detection limit in a pragmatic manner. Additionally, the application of bacteria detection by flow cytometry as a culture method is shown, i.e., transfer of samples from platelet concentrates into a satellite bag, incubation of the latter at 37 degrees C, and measuring the contaminating bacteria in a flow cytometer.

  20. Inertial microfluidics for flow cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Carlo, Dino

    2010-08-01

    Inertial components of the Navier-Stokes equations are usually not considered in microfluidic flows but have recently been shown to be of great practical use for continuous manipulation of particles and cells. After introducing the physical basis of the counter-intuitive self focusing of particles in a single inlet flow, I will discuss our current best focusing systems, and I will present results on using inertial focusing to create an extreme throughput flow cytometer for blood analysis. This system is an imaging cytometer implementation that can image 1 million focused blood cells per second, with the capability to increase to 20 million cells per second with appropriate wide-field of view imaging systems. The microfluidic device consists of 256 parallel high-aspect ratio microchannels in each of which two streams of focused cells assemble. These cells also form regular trains in the direction of flow such that cell coincidence is a rare occurrence, far below Poisson statistics suggest. Controlled inertially focused streams of particles are poised to provide next-generation filter-less filters and simplified flow cytometry instruments which ultimately may aid in water treatment environmental cleanup and cost-effective medical diagnostics.

  1. Flow cytometry: retrospective, fundamentals and recent instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Picot, Julien; Guerin, Coralie L; Le Van Kim, Caroline; Boulanger, Chantal M

    2012-03-01

    Flow cytometry is a complete technology given to biologists to study cellular populations with high precision. This technology elegantly combines sample dimension, data acquisition speed, precision and measurement multiplicity. Beyond the statistical aspect, flow cytometry offers the possibility to physically separate sub-populations. These performances come from the common endeavor of physicists, biophysicists, biologists and computer engineers, who succeeded, by providing new concepts, to bring flow cytometry to current maturity. The aim of this paper is to present a complete retrospective of the technique and remind flow cytometry fundamentals before focusing on recent commercial instrumentation.

  2. Flow cytometry: basic principles and applications.

    PubMed

    Adan, Aysun; Alizada, Günel; Kiraz, Yağmur; Baran, Yusuf; Nalbant, Ayten

    2017-03-01

    Flow cytometry is a sophisticated instrument measuring multiple physical characteristics of a single cell such as size and granularity simultaneously as the cell flows in suspension through a measuring device. Its working depends on the light scattering features of the cells under investigation, which may be derived from dyes or monoclonal antibodies targeting either extracellular molecules located on the surface or intracellular molecules inside the cell. This approach makes flow cytometry a powerful tool for detailed analysis of complex populations in a short period of time. This review covers the general principles and selected applications of flow cytometry such as immunophenotyping of peripheral blood cells, analysis of apoptosis and detection of cytokines. Additionally, this report provides a basic understanding of flow cytometry technology essential for all users as well as the methods used to analyze and interpret the data. Moreover, recent progresses in flow cytometry have been discussed in order to give an opinion about the future importance of this technology.

  3. In Vivo Flow Cytometry: A Horizon of Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Tuchin, Valery V.; Tárnok, Attila; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2012-01-01

    Flow cytometry has been a fundamental tool of biological discovery for many years. Invasive extraction of cells from a living organism, however, may lead to changes in cell properties and prevents studying cells in their native environment. These problems can be overcome by use of in vivo flow cytometry which provides detection and imaging of circulating normal and abnormal cells directlyin blood or lymph flow. The goal of this mini-review is to provide a brief history, features and challenges of this new generation of flow cytometry methods and instruments. Spectrum of possibilities of in vivo flow cytometry in biological science (e.g., cell metabolism, immune function, or apoptosis) and medical fields (e.g., cancer, infection, cardiovascular disorder) including integrated photoacoustic-photothermal theranostics of circulating abnormal cells are discussed with focus on recent advances of this new platform. PMID:21915991

  4. DNA polymorphism identity determination using flow cytometry

    DOEpatents

    Nolan, John P.; White, P. Scott; Cai, Hong

    2001-01-01

    DNA polymorphism identity determination using flow cytometry. Primers designed to be immobilized on microspheres are allowed to anneal to the DNA strand under investigation, and are extended by either DNA polymerase using fluorescent dideoxynucleotides or ligated by DNA ligase to fluorescent reporter oligonucleotides. The fluorescence of either the dideoxynucleotide or the reporter oligonucleotide attached to the immobilized primer is measured by flow cytometry, thereby identifying the nucleotide polymorphism on the DNA strand.

  5. Multiplex immunoassay for persistent organic pollutants in tilapia: Comparison of imaging- and flow cytometry-based platforms using spectrally encoded paramagnetic microspheres

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent developments in spectrally encoded microspheres (SEMs)-based technologies provide high multiplexing possibilities. Most SEMs-based assays required a flow cytometer with sophisticated fluidics and optics. The new imaging superparamagnetic SEMs-based platform transports SEMs with considerably ...

  6. Flow Cytometry: Impact On Early Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Bruce S.; Sklar, Larry A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Modern flow cytometers can make optical measurements of 10 or more parameters per cell at tens-of-thousands of cells per second and over five orders of magnitude dynamic range. Although flow cytometry is used in most drug discovery stages, “sip-and-spit” sampling technology has restricted it to low sample throughput applications. The advent of HyperCyt sampling technology has recently made possible primary screening applications in which tens-of-thousands of compounds are analyzed per day. Target-multiplexing methodologies in combination with extended multi-parameter analyses enable profiling of lead candidates early in the discovery process, when the greatest numbers of candidates are available for evaluation. The ability to sample small volumes with negligible waste reduces reagent costs, compound usage and consumption of cells. Improved compound library formatting strategies can further extend primary screening opportunities when samples are scarce. Dozens of targets have been screened in 384- and 1536-well assay formats, predominantly in academic screening lab settings. In concert with commercial platform evolution and trending drug discovery strategies, HyperCyt-based systems are now finding their way into mainstream screening labs. Recent advances in flow-based imaging, mass spectrometry and parallel sample processing promise dramatically expanded single cell profiling capabilities to bolster systems level approaches to drug discovery. PMID:25805180

  7. Cell-based screening using high-throughput flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Black, Christopher B; Duensing, Thomas D; Trinkle, Linda S; Dunlay, R Terry

    2011-02-01

    This review describes the use of high-throughput flow cytometry for performing multiplexed cell-based and bead-based screens. With the many advances in cell-based analysis and screening, flow cytometry has historically been underutilized as a screening tool largely due to the limitations in handling large numbers of samples. However, there has been a resurgence in the use of flow cytometry due to a combination of innovations around instrumentation and a growing need for cell-based and bead-based applications. The HTFC™ Screening System (IntelliCyt Corporation, Albuquerque, NM) is a novel flow cytometry-based screening platform that incorporates a fast sample-loading technology, HyperCyt®, with a two-laser, six-parameter flow cytometer and powerful data analysis capabilities. The system is capable of running multiplexed screening assays at speeds of up to 40 wells per minute, enabling the processing of a 96- and 384-well plates in as little as 3 and 12 min, respectively. Embedded in the system is HyperView®, a data analysis software package that allows rapid identification of hits from multiplexed high-throughput flow cytometry screening campaigns. In addition, the software is incorporated into a server-based data management platform that enables seamless data accessibility and collaboration across multiple sites. High-throughput flow cytometry using the HyperCyt technology has been applied to numerous assay areas and screening campaigns, including efflux transporters, whole cell and receptor binding assays, functional G-protein-coupled receptor screening, in vitro toxicology, and antibody screening.

  8. Spaceflight Flow Cytometry: Design Challenges and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pappas, Dimitri; Kao, Shih-Hsin; Jeevarajan, Antony S.

    2004-01-01

    Future space exploration missions will require analytical technology capable of providing both autonomous medical care to the crew and investigative capabilities to researchers. While several promising candidate technologies exist for further development, flow cytometry is an attractive technology as it offers both crew health and a wide array of biochemistry and immunology assays. While flow cytometry has been widely used for cellular analysis in both clinical and research settings, the requirements for proper operation in spaceflight impose constraints on any instrument designs. The challenges of designing a spaceflight-ready flow cytometer are discussed, as well as some preliminary results using a prototype system.

  9. Uses of flow cytometry in virology.

    PubMed Central

    McSharry, J J

    1994-01-01

    This article reviews some of the published applications of flow cytometry for in vitro and in vivo detection and enumeration of virus-infected cells. Sample preparation, fixation, and permeabilization techniques for a number of virus-cell systems are evaluated. The use of flow cytometry for multiparameter analysis of virus-cell interactions for simian virus 40, herpes simplex viruses, human cytomegalovirus, and human immunodeficiency virus and its use for determining the effect of antiviral compounds on these virus-infected cells are reviewed. This is followed by a brief description of the use of flow cytometry for the analysis of several virus-infected cell systems, including blue tongue virus, hepatitis C virus, avian reticuloendotheliosis virus, African swine fever virus, woodchuck hepatitis virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, feline leukemia virus, Epstein-Barr virus, Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus, and Friend murine leukemia virus. Finally, the use of flow cytometry for the rapid diagnosis of human cytomegalovirus and human immunodeficiency virus in peripheral blood cells of acutely infected patients and the use of this technology to monitor patients on antiviral therapy are reviewed. Future prospects for the rapid diagnosis of in vivo viral and bacterial infections by flow cytometry are discussed. Images PMID:7530594

  10. Microfluidic devices and methods for integrated flow cytometry

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, Nimisha; Singh, Anup K.

    2011-08-16

    Microfluidic devices and methods for flow cytometry are described. In described examples, various sample handling and preparation steps may be carried out within a same microfluidic device as flow cytometry steps. A combination of imaging and flow cytometry is described. In some examples, spiral microchannels serve as incubation chambers. Examples of automated sample handling and flow cytometry are described.

  11. Flow cytometry applications in the food industry.

    PubMed

    Comas-Riu, Jaume; Rius, Núria

    2009-08-01

    Flow cytometry has become a valuable tool in food microbiology. By analysing large numbers of cells individually using light-scattering and fluorescence measurements, this technique reveals both cellular characteristics and the levels of cellular components. Flow cytometry has been developed to rapidly enumerate microorganisms; to distinguish between viable, metabolically active and dead cells, which is of great importance in food development and food spoilage; and to detect specific pathogenic microorganisms by conjugating antibodies with fluorochromes, which is of great use in the food industry. In addition, high-speed multiparametric data acquisition, analysis and cell sorting, which allow other characteristics of individual cells to be studied, have increased the interest of food microbiologists in this technique. This mini-review gives an overview of the principles of flow cytometry and examples of the application of this technique in the food industry.

  12. Near infrared lasers in flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Telford, William G

    2015-07-01

    Technology development in flow cytometry has closely tracked laser technology, the light source that flow cytometers almost exclusively use to excite fluorescent probes. The original flow cytometers from the 1970s and 1980s used large water-cooled lasers to produce only one or two laser lines at a time. Modern cytometers can take advantage of the revolution in solid state laser technology to use almost any laser wavelength ranging from the ultraviolet to the near infrared. Commercial cytometers can now be equipped with many small solid state lasers, providing almost any wavelength needed for cellular analysis. Flow cytometers are now equipped to analyze 20 or more fluorescent probes simultaneously, requiring multiple laser wavelengths. Instrument developers are now trying to increase this number by designing fluorescent probes that can be excited by laser wavelength at the "edges" of the visible light range, in the near ultraviolet and near-infrared region. A variety of fluorescent probes have been developed that excite with violet and long wavelength ultraviolet light; however, the near-infrared range (660-800 nm) has yet seen only exploitation in flow cytometry. Fortunately, near-infrared laser diodes and other solid state laser technologies appropriate for flow cytometry have been in existence for some time, and can be readily incorporated into flow cytometers to accelerate fluorescent probe development. The near infrared region represents one of the last "frontiers" to maximize the number of fluorescent probes that can be analyzed by flow cytometry. In addition, near infrared fluorescent probes used in biomedical tracking and imaging could also be employed for flow cytometry with the correct laser wavelengths. This review describes the available technology, including lasers, fluorescent probes and detector technology optimal for near infrared signal detection.

  13. Solid state yellow and orange lasers for flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Veena; Karpov, Vladimir; Linton, Claudette; Subach, Fedor V; Verkhusha, Vladislav V; Telford, William G

    2008-06-01

    Diode and DPSS lasers emitting a variety of wavelengths are now commonly incorporated into flow cytometers, greatly increasing our capacity to excite a wide variety of fluorochromes. Until recently, however, virtually no practical technology existed for generating yellow or orange laser light for flow cytometry that was compatible with smaller instrumentation. In this study, we evaluate several new solid state laser systems that emit from the 570 to 600 nm as excitation sources for flow cytometry. DPSS 580, 589, and 592 nm sources were integrated into a cuvette-based flow cytometer (BD LSR II) and a stream-in-air cell sorter (FACSVantage DiVa), and used to excite a variety of yellow, orange, and red excited fluorochromes, including Texas Red, APC, and its tandem conjugates, and the genetically encoded red fluorescent protein HcRed and the more recently developed Katushka. All laser sources were successfully incorporated into the indicated flow cytometry platforms. The yellow and orange sources (particularly 592 nm) were ideal for exciting Texas Red, and provided excitation of APC and its tandems that was comparable to a traditional red laser source, albeit at higher power levels than red sources. Yellow and orange laser light was optimal for exciting HcRed and Katushka. Practical yellow and orange laser sources are now available for flow cytometry. This technology fills an important gap in the laser wavelengths available for flow, now almost any fluorochrome requiring visible light excitation can be accommodated.

  14. Flow cytometry in plant breeding.

    PubMed

    Ochatt, Sergio J

    2008-07-01

    Since the first report on the flow cytometric study of plant material 35 years ago, analyzing the nuclear DNA content of field bean, an ever increasing number of applications of FCM has been developed and applied in plant science and industry, but a similar length of time elapsed before the appearance of the first complete volume devoted to FCM of plant cells. Most published information on the uses of FCM addresses various aspects of animal (including human) cell biology, thus failing to provide a pertinent substitute. FCM represents an ideal means for the analysis of both cells and subcellular particles, with a potentially large number of parameters analyzed both rapidly, simultaneously, and quantitatively, thereby furnishing statistically exploitable data and allowing for an accurate and facilitated detection of subpopulations. It is, indeed, the summation of these facts that has established FCM as an important, and sometimes essential, tool for the understanding of fundamental mechanisms and processes underlying plant growth, development, and function. In this review, special attention is paid to FCM as applied to plant cells in the context of plant breeding, and some new and less well-known uses of it for plants will be discussed.

  15. Flow Cytometry Analyses of Adipose Tissue Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kae Won; Morris, David L.; Lumeng, Carey N.

    2014-01-01

    Within adipose tissue, multiple leukocyte interactions contribute to metabolic homeostasis in health as well as to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance with obesity. Adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) are the predominant leukocyte population in fat and contribute to obesity-induced inflammation. Characterization of ATMs and other leukocytes in the stromal vascular fraction from fat has benefited from the use of flow cytometry and flow-assisted cell sorting techniques. These methods permit the immunophenotyping, quantification, and purification of these unique cell populations from multiple adipose tissue depots in rodents and humans. Proper isolation, quantification, and characterization of ATM phenotypes are critical for understanding their role in adipose tissue function and obesity-induced metabolic diseases. Here, we present the flow cytometry protocols for phenotyping ATMs in lean and obese mice employed by our laboratory. PMID:24480353

  16. Flow cytometry what you see matters: Enhanced clinical detection using image-based flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    McFarlin, Brian K; Gary, Melody A

    2017-01-01

    Image-based flow cytometry combines the throughput of traditional flow cytometry with the ability to visually confirm findings and collect novel data that would not be possible otherwise. Since image-based flow cytometry borrows measurement parameters and analysis techniques from microscopy, it is possible to collect unique measures (i.e. nuclear translocation, co-localization, cellular synapse, cellular endocytosis, etc.) that would not be possible with traditional flow cytometry. The ability to collect unique outcomes has led many researchers to develop novel assays for the monitoring and detection of a variety of clinical conditions and diseases. In many cases, investigators have innovated and expanded classical assays to provide new insight regarding clinical conditions and chronic disease. Beyond human clinical applications, image-based flow cytometry has been used to monitor marine biology changes, nano-particles for solar cell production, and particle quality in pharmaceuticals. This review article summarizes work from the major scientists working in the field of image-based flow cytometry.

  17. Future clinical role for flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Ashcroft, R G

    1988-01-01

    It appears that there is an essential, not just supportive, role for flow cytometry in the clinical context, particularly in providing early information in clinical oncology. High flow rate enumeration and sorting of rare cells, combined with microscopy, offer immediate benefits in the clinical processing of at least some cancers. These benefits would be in diagnosis (perhaps very early detection of metastatic cells in the present prediagnostic phase of solid tumor growth), monitoring, prognosis, and therapy. Importantly, flow cytometric measures can be implemented immediately, and measurement times are short. The value of high flow rate operation of existing facilities in clinical, "supportive" flow cytometry should be better appreciated, if only because shorter measurement times and on-line analysis would make the existing facilities more cost effective: higher throughput for the same overheads. Finally, the wisdom of employing nonsorting cytometers for clinical use should be strongly questioned. Thus, what future impact will the application of flow sorting have in clinical fields old and new, e.g., in bacterial infection measurements in peripheral blood? In particular, nonsorting machines will be unable to adopt the "essential" clinical role I have proposed here.

  18. Flow cytometry for health monitoring in space

    SciTech Connect

    Jett, J.H.; Martin, J.C.; Saunders, G.C.; Stewart, C.C.

    1984-01-01

    Monitoring the health of space station or lunar base residents will be necessary to provide knowledge of the physiological status of astronauts. Flow cytometric techniques are uniquely capable of providing cellular, chromosome, hormone level and enzyme level information. The use of dyes provides the basis for fluorescently labeling specific cellular components. Laser induced fluorescence from stained cells is quantitated in a flow cytometer to measure cellular components such as DNA, RNA and protein. One major application of a flow cytometer will be to perform a complete blood count including hematocrit, hemoglobin content, and numbers of platelets, erythrocytes, granulocytes, lymphocytes and monocytes. A newly developed flow cytometry based fluoroimmunoassay will be able to measure levels of serum enzymes and hormones. It will also be possible to quantitate radiation exposure and some forms of chromosome damage with flow cytometric measurements. With relatively simple modifications to existing technology, it will be possible to construct a flight rated cytometer. 11 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

  19. Resources for flow and image cytometry

    SciTech Connect

    Cassidy, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes resources available to the flow and image cytometry community. I have been asked to limit the discussion to resources available in the United States, so reference to resources exclusively available in Japan, Europe, or Australia are not included. It is not the intention of this paper to include each and every resource available, rather, to describe the types available and give some examples. Included in this manuscript are listings of some of the examples of resources which readers may find useful. Addresses of commercial companies are not included in the interest of space. Most of the examples listed advertise on a regular basis in journals publishing in cytometry fields. The resources to be described are divided into five categories: instrument resources, computer and software resources, standards, physical or user'' resources, and instructional resources. Each of these resources will be discussed separately. 4 tabs.

  20. Optimized flow cytometry isolation of murine spermatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Gaysinskaya, Valeriya; Soh, Ina Y.; van der Heijden, Godfried W.; Bortvin, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Meiotic prophase I (MPI), is an initial stage of meiosis characterized by intricate homologous chromosome interactions, synapsis and DNA recombination. These processes depend on the complex, but poorly understood early MPI events of homologous chromosome search, alignment and pairing. Detailed molecular investigation of these early events requires isolation of individual MPI substages. Enrichment for Pachytene (P) and Diplotene (D) substages of late MPI was previously accomplished using flow cytometry. However, separation of early MPI spermatocytes, specifically, of Leptotene (L) and Zygotene (Z) substages, has been a challenge due to these cells’ similar characteristics. In this report, we describe an optimized Hoechst-33342 (Hoechst)-based flow cytometry approach for isolating individual MPI populations from adult murine testis. We get significant enrichment for individual L and Z spermatocytes, previously inseparable from each other, and optimize the isolation of other MPI substages. Our flow cytometry approach is a combination of three optimized strategies. The first is optimization of testis dissociation protocol that yields more consistent and reproducible testicular single cell suspension. The second involves optimization of flow cytometric gating protocol where a critical addition to the standard protocol for cell discrimination based on Hoechst fluorescence, involves a back-gating technique based on light scattering parameters. This step specifies selection of individual MPI substages. The third, is an addition of DNA content restriction to the gating protocol to minimize contamination from non-meiotic cells. Finally, we confirm significant enrichment of high-purity Preleptotene (PreL), L, Z, P and D MPI spermatocytes using stage-specific marker distribution. The technique will facilitate understanding of the molecular events underlying meiotic prophase I. PMID:24664803

  1. Multiparameter Flow Cytometry For Clinical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Carleton C.

    1989-06-01

    Flow Cytometry facilities are well established and provide immunophenotyping and DNA content measurement services. The application of immunophenotyping has been primarily in monitoring therapy and in providing further information to aid in the definitive diagnosis of immunological and neoplastic disease such as: immunodeficiency disease, auto immune disease, organ transplantation, and leukemia and lymphoma. DNA content measurements have been particularly important in determining the fraction of cycling cells and presence of aneuploid cells in neoplasia. This information has been useful in the management of patients with solid tumors.

  2. Mixture modeling approach to flow cytometry data.

    PubMed

    Boedigheimer, Michael J; Ferbas, John

    2008-05-01

    Flow Cytometry has become a mainstay technique for measuring fluorescent and physical attributes of single cells in a suspended mixture. These data are reduced during analysis using a manual or semiautomated process of gating. Despite the need to gate data for traditional analyses, it is well recognized that analyst-to-analyst variability can impact the dataset. Moreover, cells of interest can be inadvertently excluded from the gate, and relationships between collected variables may go unappreciated because they were not included in the original analysis plan. A multivariate non-gating technique was developed and implemented that accomplished the same goal as traditional gating while eliminating many weaknesses. The procedure was validated against traditional gating for analysis of circulating B cells in normal donors (n = 20) and persons with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (n = 42). The method recapitulated relationships in the dataset while providing for an automated and objective assessment of the data. Flow cytometry analyses are amenable to automated analytical techniques that are not predicated on discrete operator-generated gates. Such alternative approaches can remove subjectivity in data analysis, improve efficiency and may ultimately enable construction of large bioinformatics data systems for more sophisticated approaches to hypothesis testing.

  3. Application of flow cytometry to wine microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Longin, Cédric; Petitgonnet, Clément; Guilloux-Benatier, Michèle; Rousseaux, Sandrine; Alexandre, Hervé

    2017-04-01

    Flow cytometry (FCM) is a powerful technique allowing detection and enumeration of microbial populations in food and during food process. Thanks to the fluorescent dyes used and specific probes, FCM provides information about cell physiological state and allows enumeration of a microorganism in a mixed culture. Thus, this technique is increasingly used to quantify pathogen, spoilage microorganisms and microorganisms of interest. Since one decade, FCM applications to the wine field increase greatly to determine population and physiological state of microorganisms performing alcoholic and malolactic fermentations. Wine spoilage microorganisms were also studied. In this review we briefly describe FCM principles. Next, a deep revision concerning enumeration of wine microorganisms by FCM is presented including the fluorescent dyes used and techniques allowing a yeast and bacteria species specific enumeration. Then, the last chapter is dedicated to fluorescent dyes which are used to date in fluorescent microscopy but applicable in FCM. This chapter also describes other interesting "future" techniques which could be applied to study the wine microorganisms. Thus, this review seeks to highlight the main advantages of the flow cytometry applied to wine microbiology.

  4. Honey Bee Hemocyte Profiling by Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Marringa, William J.; Krueger, Michael J.; Burritt, Nancy L.; Burritt, James B.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple stress factors in honey bees are causing loss of bee colonies worldwide. Several infectious agents of bees are believed to contribute to this problem. The mechanisms of honey bee immunity are not completely understood, in part due to limited information about the types and abundances of hemocytes that help bees resist disease. Our study utilized flow cytometry and microscopy to examine populations of hemolymph particulates in honey bees. We found bee hemolymph includes permeabilized cells, plasmatocytes, and acellular objects that resemble microparticles, listed in order of increasing abundance. The permeabilized cells and plasmatocytes showed unexpected differences with respect to properties of the plasma membrane and labeling with annexin V. Both permeabilized cells and plasmatocytes failed to show measurable mitochondrial membrane potential by flow cytometry using the JC-1 probe. Our results suggest hemolymph particulate populations are dynamic, revealing significant differences when comparing individual hive members, and when comparing colonies exposed to diverse conditions. Shifts in hemocyte populations in bees likely represent changing conditions or metabolic differences of colony members. A better understanding of hemocyte profiles may provide insight into physiological responses of honey bees to stress factors, some of which may be related to colony failure. PMID:25285798

  5. Absolute counting of neutrophils in whole blood using flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Brunck, Marion E G; Andersen, Stacey B; Timmins, Nicholas E; Osborne, Geoffrey W; Nielsen, Lars K

    2014-12-01

    Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) is used clinically to monitor physiological dysfunctions such as myelosuppression or infection. In the research laboratory, ANC is a valuable measure to monitor the evolution of a wide range of disease states in disease models. Flow cytometry (FCM) is a fast, widely used approach to confidently identify thousands of cells within minutes. FCM can be optimised for absolute counting using spiked-in beads or by measuring the sample volume analysed. Here we combine the 1A8 antibody, specific for the mouse granulocyte protein Ly6G, with flow cytometric counting in straightforward FCM assays for mouse ANC, easily implementable in the research laboratory. Volumetric and Trucount™ bead assays were optimized for mouse neutrophils, and ANC values obtained with these protocols were compared to ANC measured by a dual-platform assay using the Orphee Mythic 18 veterinary haematology analyser. The single platform assays were more precise with decreased intra-assay variability compared with ANC obtained using the dual protocol. Defining ANC based on Ly6G expression produces a 15% higher estimate than the dual protocol. Allowing for this difference in ANC definition, the flow cytometry counting assays using Ly6G can be used reliably in the research laboratory to quantify mouse ANC from a small volume of blood. We demonstrate the utility of the volumetric protocol in a time-course study of chemotherapy induced neutropenia using four drug regimens.

  6. Evaluation of platelet turnover by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Salvagno, G L; Montagnana, M; Degan, M; Marradi, P L; Ricetti, M M; Riolfi, P; Poli, G; Minuz, P; Santonastaso, C L; Guidi, G C

    2006-05-01

    The number of circulating newly produced platelets depends on the thrombopoietic capacity of bone marrow as well as platelet removal from the bloodstream. Flow cytometric analysis with thiazole orange (TO), a fluorescent dye that crosses platelet membranes and binds intracellular RNA, has been used to measure circulating reticulated platelets (RPs) with high RNA content as an index of platelet turnover. We first assessed the specificity of TO flow cytometry and then applied this method in the diagnosis of thrombocytopenia caused by impaired platelet production or increased destruction. We also explored the utility of TO flow cytometry to predict thrombocytopoiesis after chemotherapy-induced bone marrow aplasia. Venous blood, anticoagulated with K(2)EDTA, was incubated with 0.6 microg/ml TO plus an anti-GPIIIa monoclonal antibody. The mean percentage of RPs in control subjects (n = 23) was 6.13 +/- 3.09%. RPs were 10.41 +/- 9.02% in patients (n = 10) with hematological malignancies during aplasia induced by chemotherapy and a significant increase in RPs (35.45 +/- 6.11%) was seen in the recovery phase. In 10 patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, the percentage of TO positive platelets was 67.81 +/- 18.79 (P < 0.001 vs. controls). In patients with thrombocytopenia associated with hepatic cirrhosis (n = 21; 21.04 +/- 16.21%, P < 0.001 vs. controls) or systemic lupus erythematosus (n = 6, 29.08 +/- 15.57%; P < 0.001 vs. controls) increases in TO-stained platelets were also observed. Measurement of TO positive platelets may be a reliable tool for the laboratory identification of platelet disorders, with a higher sensitivity than measurement of platelet volume. Measurement of RPs may also prove useful to recognize the underlying pathogenetic mechanisms in thrombocytopenia.

  7. Diagnosis of Fanconi's anemia by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Miglierina, R; Le Coniat, M; Gendron, M; Berger, R

    1990-01-01

    FA is a progressive bone marrow aplasia genetically transmitted by a recessive autosomal gene or genes. In our laboratory, cytogenetic diagnosis is based on evaluation of the chromosomal breakage of mitotic cell derived from patient blood-cell cultures and sensitized by nitrogen mustard (NM). We have observed, in parallel with this test, fluctuations of the cell cycle of PHA- stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes from FA patients as compared with controls. FA cells treated with NM show a dramatic and significant increase in G2/M phase after 72 hr in vitro culture, compared with untreated or control cells (normal controls and non-FA patients). This test is rapid and simple, as it consists in staining cells with a DNA dye (propidium iodide), followed by a flow cytometry analysis of the cell cycle phases. Our results in twelve patients are correlated with the cytogenetic results.

  8. Dynamic proliferation assessment in flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Diermeier-Daucher, Simone; Brockhoff, Gero

    2010-09-01

    Dynamic proliferation assessment via flow cytometry is legitimately supposed to be the most powerful tool for recording cell cycle kinetics in-vitro. The preeminent feature is a single cell-based multi-informative analysis by temporal high-resolution. Flow cytometric approaches are based on labeling of proliferating cells via thymidine substitution by a base analog (e.g., 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine, BrdU) that is added to cell cultures either for a short period of time (pulse labeling) or continuously until cell harvesting. This unit describes the alternative use of the thymidine analog 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) in place of BrdU for three different applications: (1) dynamic proliferation assessment by EdU pulse cell labeling; (2) the same approach as (1) but in combination with live/dead cell discrimination; and (3) dynamic cell cycle analysis based on continuous cell labeling with EdU and Hoechst fluorochrome quenching. In contrast to the detection of BrdU incorporation, EdU-positive cells can be identified by taking advantage of click chemistry, which facilitates a simplified and fast cell preparation. Further analysis options but also limitations of the utilization of EdU are discussed.

  9. Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Bao, Ning; Paris, Leela L.; Geahlen, Robert L.; Lu, Chang

    2009-01-01

    Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) has been widely used to explore biological events that are close to the cell membrane by illuminating fluorescent molecules using the evanescent wave. However, TIRFM is typically limited to the examination of a low number of cells and the results do not reveal potential heterogeneity in the cell population. In this report, we develop an analytical tool referred to as total internal reflection fluorescence flow cytometry (TIRF-FC) to examine the region of the cell membrane with a throughput of ~100–150 cells/s and single cell resolution. We use an elastomeric valve that is partially closed to force flowing cells in contact with the glass surface where the evanescent field resides. We demonstrate that TIRF-FC is able to detect the differences in the subcellular location of an intracellular fluorescent protein. Proper data processing and analysis allows TIRF-FC to be quantitative. With the high throughput, TIRF-FC will be a very useful tool for generating information on cell populations with events and dynamics close to the cell surface. PMID:19007249

  10. Applications of Flow Cytometry to Clinical Microbiology†

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez-Barrientos, Alberto; Arroyo, Javier; Cantón, Rafael; Nombela, César; Sánchez-Pérez, Miguel

    2000-01-01

    Classical microbiology techniques are relatively slow in comparison to other analytical techniques, in many cases due to the need to culture the microorganisms. Furthermore, classical approaches are difficult with unculturable microorganisms. More recently, the emergence of molecular biology techniques, particularly those on antibodies and nucleic acid probes combined with amplification techniques, has provided speediness and specificity to microbiological diagnosis. Flow cytometry (FCM) allows single- or multiple-microbe detection in clinical samples in an easy, reliable, and fast way. Microbes can be identified on the basis of their peculiar cytometric parameters or by means of certain fluorochromes that can be used either independently or bound to specific antibodies or oligonucleotides. FCM has permitted the development of quantitative procedures to assess antimicrobial susceptibility and drug cytotoxicity in a rapid, accurate, and highly reproducible way. Furthermore, this technique allows the monitoring of in vitro antimicrobial activity and of antimicrobial treatments ex vivo. The most outstanding contribution of FCM is the possibility of detecting the presence of heterogeneous populations with different responses to antimicrobial treatments. Despite these advantages, the application of FCM in clinical microbiology is not yet widespread, probably due to the lack of access to flow cytometers or the lack of knowledge about the potential of this technique. One of the goals of this review is to attempt to mitigate this latter circumstance. We are convinced that in the near future, the availability of commercial kits should increase the use of this technique in the clinical microbiology laboratory. PMID:10755996

  11. An active, collaborative approach to learning skills in flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Kathryn; Linden, Matthew D; Lee-Pullen, Tracey; Fragall, Clayton; Erber, Wendy N; Röhrig, Kimberley J

    2016-06-01

    Advances in science education research have the potential to improve the way students learn to perform scientific interpretations and understand science concepts. We developed active, collaborative activities to teach skills in manipulating flow cytometry data using FlowJo software. Undergraduate students were given compensated clinical flow cytometry listmode output (FCS) files and asked to design a gating strategy to diagnose patients with different hematological malignancies on the basis of their immunophenotype. A separate cohort of research trainees was given uncompensated data files on which they performed their own compensation, calculated the antibody staining index, designed a sequential gating strategy, and quantified rare immune cell subsets. Student engagement, confidence, and perceptions of flow cytometry were assessed using a survey. Competency against the learning outcomes was assessed by asking students to undertake tasks that required understanding of flow cytometry dot plot data and gating sequences. The active, collaborative approach allowed students to achieve learning outcomes not previously possible with traditional teaching formats, for example, having students design their own gating strategy, without forgoing essential outcomes such as the interpretation of dot plots. In undergraduate students, favorable perceptions of flow cytometry as a field and as a potential career choice were correlated with student confidence but not the ability to perform flow cytometry data analysis. We demonstrate that this new pedagogical approach to teaching flow cytometry is beneficial for student understanding and interpretation of complex concepts. It should be considered as a useful new method for incorporating complex data analysis tasks such as flow cytometry into curricula.

  12. Immunological techniques: ELISA, flow cytometry, and immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Ford, Pauline J

    2010-01-01

    Techniques to analyze the host immune response elicited by the presence of oral microorganisms and their products are central to our understanding of the local and systemic effects of oral diseases. This immune response has been extensively investigated for periodontal disease. The local response may result in lesions involving the gingival tissues and depending upon host susceptibility and microbial virulence may lead to local tissue destruction. More recently, however, the importance of the systemic inflammatory and immune response to oral organisms has been recognized. These systemic responses have been associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and preterm low birth weight. A number of techniques are used extensively by researchers investigating humoral and cellular immune responses to oral organisms both in local oral tissues and fluids and systemically in peripheral blood. These are enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to quantify specific antibody and cytokines in serum, gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), and saliva; characterization of T cells from peripheral blood and gingival tissues using flow cytometry; and immunohistological analysis of the inflammatory cell infiltrate in gingival tissues.

  13. Flow cytometry: A powerful technology for measuring biomarkers

    SciTech Connect

    Jett, J.H.

    1994-09-01

    A broad definition of a biomarker is that it is a measurable characteristic of a biological system that changes upon exposure to a physical or chemical insult. While the definition can be further refined, it is sufficient for the purposes of demonstrating the advantages of flow cytometry for making quantitative measurements of biomarkers. Flow cytometry and cell sorting technologies have emerged during the past 25 years to take their place alongside other essential tools used in biology such as optical and electron microscopy. This paper describes the basics of flow cytometry technology, provides illustrative examples of applications of the technology in the field of biomarkers, describes recent developments in flow cytometry that have not yet been applied to biomarker measurements, and projects future developments of the technology. The examples of uses of flow cytometry for biomarker quantification cited in this paper are meant to be illustrative and not exhaustive in the sense of providing a review of the field.

  14. In Vivo Flow Cytometry of Circulating Tumor-Associated Exosomes

    PubMed Central

    Sarimollaoglu, Mustafa; Nedosekin, Dmitry A.; Jamshidi-Parsian, Azemat; Kore, Rajshekhar A.

    2016-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) demonstrated the potential as prognostic markers of metastatic development. However, the incurable metastasis can already be developed at the time of initial diagnosis with the existing CTC assays. Alternatively, tumor-associated particles (CTPs) including exosomes can be a more valuable prognostic marker because they can be released from the primary tumor long before CTCs and in larger amount. However, little progress has been made in high sensitivity detection of CTPs, especially in vivo. We show here that in vivo integrated photoacoustic (PA) and fluorescence flow cytometry (PAFFC) platform can provide the detection of melanoma and breast-cancer-associated single CTPs with endogenously expressed melanin and genetically engineered proteins or exogenous dyes as PA and fluorescent contrast agents. The two-beam, time-of-light PAFFC can measure the sizes of CTCs and CTPs and identify bulk and rolling CTCs and CTC clusters, with no influence on blood flow instability. This technique revealed a higher concentration of CTPs than CTCs at an early cancer stage. Because a single tumor cell can release many CTPs and in vivo PAFFC can examine the whole blood volume, PAFFC diagnostic platform has the potential to dramatically improve (up to 105-fold) the sensitivity of cancer diagnosis. PMID:27965916

  15. Visible and near infrared fluorescence spectral flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Nolan, John P; Condello, Danilo; Duggan, Erika; Naivar, Mark; Novo, David

    2013-03-01

    There is a long standing interest in measuring complete emission spectra from individual cells in flow cytometry. We have developed flow cytometry instruments and analysis approaches to enable this to be done routinely and robustly. Our spectral flow cytometers use a holographic grating to disperse light from single cells onto a CCD for high speed, wavelength-resolved detection. Customized software allows the single cell spectral data to be displayed and analyzed to produce new spectra-derived parameters. We show that familiar reference and calibration beads can be employed to quantitatively assess instrument performance. We use microspheres stained with six different quantum dots to compare a virtual bandpass filter approach with classic least squares (CLS) spectral unmixing, and then use antibody capture beads and CLS unmixing to demonstrate immunophenotyping of peripheral blood mononuclear cells using spectral flow cytometry. Finally, we characterize and evaluate several near infrared (NIR) emitting fluorophores for use in spectral flow cytometry. Spectral flow cytometry offers a number of attractive features for single cell analysis, including a simplified optical path, high spectral resolution, and streamlined approaches to quantitative multiparameter measurements. The availability of robust instrumentation, software, and analysis approaches will facilitate the development of spectral flow cytometry applications.

  16. Visible and Near Infrared Fluorescence Spectral Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Nolan, John P.; Condello, Danilo; Duggan, Erika; Naivar, Mark; Novo, David

    2013-01-01

    There is a long standing interest in measuring complete emission spectra from individual cells in flow cytometry. We have developed flow cytometry instruments and analysis approaches to enable this to be done routinely and robustly. Our spectral flow cytometers use a holographic grating to disperse light from single cells onto a CCD for high speed, wavelength-resolved detection. Customized software allows the single cell spectral data to be displayed and analyzed to produce new spectra-derived parameters. We show that familiar reference and calibration beads can be employed to quantitatively assess instrument performance. We use microspheres stained with six different quantum dots to compare a virtual bandpass filter approach with classic least squares (CLS) spectral unmixing, and then use antibody capture beads and CLS unmixing to demonstrate immunophenotyping of peripheral blood mononuclear cells using spectral flow cytometry. Finally, we characterize and evaluate several near infrared (NIR) emitting fluorophores for use in spectral flow cytometry. Spectral flow cytometry offers a number of attractive features for single cell analysis, including a simplified optical path, high spectral resolution, and streamlined approaches to quantitative multiparameter measurements. The availability of robust instrumentation, software, and analysis approaches will facilitate the development of spectral flow cytometry applications. PMID:23225549

  17. Computational analysis of high-throughput flow cytometry data

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, J Paul; Rajwa, Bartek; Patsekin, Valery; Davisson, Vincent Jo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Flow cytometry has been around for over 40 years, but only recently has the opportunity arisen to move into the high-throughput domain. The technology is now available and is highly competitive with imaging tools under the right conditions. Flow cytometry has, however, been a technology that has focused on its unique ability to study single cells and appropriate analytical tools are readily available to handle this traditional role of the technology. Areas covered Expansion of flow cytometry to a high-throughput (HT) and high-content technology requires both advances in hardware and analytical tools. The historical perspective of flow cytometry operation as well as how the field has changed and what the key changes have been discussed. The authors provide a background and compelling arguments for moving toward HT flow, where there are many innovative opportunities. With alternative approaches now available for flow cytometry, there will be a considerable number of new applications. These opportunities show strong capability for drug screening and functional studies with cells in suspension. Expert opinion There is no doubt that HT flow is a rich technology awaiting acceptance by the pharmaceutical community. It can provide a powerful phenotypic analytical toolset that has the capacity to change many current approaches to HT screening. The previous restrictions on the technology, based on its reduced capacity for sample throughput, are no longer a major issue. Overcoming this barrier has transformed a mature technology into one that can focus on systems biology questions not previously considered possible. PMID:22708834

  18. International Society for Advancement of Cytometry (ISAC) flow cytometry shared resource laboratory (SRL) best practices.

    PubMed

    Barsky, Lora W; Black, Michele; Cochran, Matthew; Daniel, Benjamin J; Davies, Derek; DeLay, Monica; Gardner, Rui; Gregory, Michael; Kunkel, Desiree; Lannigan, Joanne; Marvin, James; Salomon, Robert; Torres, Carina; Walker, Rachael

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to define minimal standards for a flow cytometry shared resource laboratory (SRL) and provide guidance for best practices in several important areas. This effort is driven by the desire of International Society for the Advancement of Cytometry (ISAC) members in SRLs to define and maintain standards of excellence in flow cytometry, and act as a repository for key elements of this information (e.g. example SOPs/training material, etc.). These best practices are not intended to define specifically how to implement these recommendations, but rather to establish minimal goals for an SRL to address in order to achieve excellence. It is hoped that once these best practices are established and implemented they will serve as a template from which similar practices can be defined for other types of SRLs. Identification of the need for best practices first occurred through discussions at the CYTO 2013 SRL Forum, with the most important areas for which best practices should be defined identified through several surveys and SRL track workshops as part of CYTO 2014. © 2016 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  19. An Active, Collaborative Approach to Learning Skills in Flow Cytometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Kathryn; Linden, Matthew D.; Lee-Pullen, Tracey; Fragall, Clayton; Erber, Wendy N.; Röhrig, Kimberley J.

    2016-01-01

    Advances in science education research have the potential to improve the way students learn to perform scientific interpretations and understand science concepts. We developed active, collaborative activities to teach skills in manipulating flow cytometry data using FlowJo software. Undergraduate students were given compensated clinical flow…

  20. A Semiconductor Microlaser for Intracavity Flow Cytometry

    SciTech Connect

    Akhil, O.; Copeland, G.C.; Dunne, J.L.; Gourley, P.L.; Hendricks, J.K.; McDonald, A.E.

    1999-01-20

    Semiconductor microlasers are attractive components for micro-analysis systems because of their ability to emit coherent intense light from a small aperture. By using a surface-emitting semiconductor geometry, we were able to incorporate fluid flow inside a laser microcavity for the first time. This confers significant advantages for high throughput screening of cells, particulates and fluid analytes in a sensitive microdevice. In this paper we discuss the intracavity microfluidics and present preliminary results with flowing blood and brain cells.

  1. Lymphoid Neoplasia: Correlations Between Morphology and Flow Cytometry.

    PubMed

    Rout, Emily D; Avery, Paul R

    2017-01-01

    Cytology is commonly used to diagnose lymphoma and leukemia. Frequently, a diagnosis of lymphoproliferative disease can be obtained via cytology, and some of the common subtypes of canine lymphoma and leukemia can have characteristic cytologic features. Flow cytometry is a critical tool in the objective diagnosis and further characterization of lymphoma and leukemia. Features of the immunophenotype, such as expression of certain cell surface proteins or cell size, can provide important prognostic information. This review describes the cytologic features, flow cytometry immunophenotype, and immunophenotypic prognostic information for 6 major types of canine lymphoma and leukemia.

  2. Cellular Image Analysis and Imaging by Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Basiji, David A.; Ortyn, William E.; Liang, Luchuan; Venkatachalam, Vidya; Morrissey, Philip

    2007-01-01

    Synopsis Imaging flow cytometry combines the statistical power and fluorescence sensitivity of standard flow cytometry with the spatial resolution and quantitative morphology of digital microscopy. The technique is a good fit for clinical applications by providing a convenient means for imaging and analyzing cells directly in bodily fluids. Examples are provided of the discrimination of cancerous from normal mammary epithelial cells and the high throughput quantitation of FISH probes in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The FISH application will be further enhanced by the integration of extended depth of field imaging technology with the current optical system. PMID:17658411

  3. Advantages of full spectrum flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Claire K; Mourant, Judith R

    2013-03-01

    A charge coupled device-based flow-cytometer for the measurement of full spectra was implemented and characterized. The spectral resolution was better than 1.5 nm and the coefficient of variation for fluorescence from flow check beads was 5% or better. Both cell and bead data were analyzed by fitting to measured component spectra. Separation of flow check and align flow beads, which have similar spectra, was nearly identical whether using a spectral analysis or a scatter analysis. After mixing, cells stained with ethidium bromide or propidium iodide were measured at different timepoints. The contribution of these 12 nm separated emission spectra could be separately quantified and the kinetic process of the samples becoming homogeneous due to fluorophor dissociation and rebinding was observed. Principle component analysis was used to reduce noise and alternating least squares (ALS) was used to analyze one set of noise-reduced cell data without knowledge of the component spectra. The component spectra obtained via ALS are very similar to the measured component spectra. The contributions of ethidium bromide and propidium iodide to the individual spectra are also similar to those obtained via the spectral fitting procedure.

  4. Multispectral flow cytometry: The consequences of increased light collection.

    PubMed

    Feher, Kristen; von Volkmann, Konrad; Kirsch, Jenny; Radbruch, Andreas; Popien, Jan; Kaiser, Toralf

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, multispectral flow cytometry systems have come to attention. They differ from conventional flow cytometers in two key ways: a multispectral flow cytometer collects the full spectral information at the single cell level and the detector configuration is fixed and not explicitly tuned to a particular staining panel. This brings about clear hardware advantages, as a closed system should be highly stable, and ease-of-use should be improved if used in conjunction with custom unmixing software. An open question remains: what are the benefits of multispectral over conventional flow cytometry in terms of sensitivity and resolution? To probe this, we use Q (detection efficiency) and B (background) values and develop a novel "multivariate population overlap factor" to characterize the cytometer performance. To verify the usefulness of our factor, we perform representative experiments and compare our overlap factor to Q and B. Finally, we conclude that the increased light collection of multispectral flow cytometry does indeed lead to increased sensitivity, an improved detection limit, and a higher resolution. © 2016 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  5. Ultrafast quantitative time-stretch imaging flow cytometry of phytoplankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Queenie T. K.; Lau, Andy K. S.; Tang, Anson H. L.; Wong, Kenneth K. Y.; Tsia, Kevin K.

    2016-03-01

    Comprehensive quantification of phytoplankton abundance, sizes and other parameters, e.g. biomasses, has been an important, yet daunting task in aquatic sciences and biofuel research. It is primarily because of the lack of effective tool to image and thus accurately profile individual microalgae in a large population. The phytoplankton species are highly diversified and heterogeneous in terms of their sizes and the richness in morphological complexity. This fact makes time-stretch imaging, a new ultrafast real-time optical imaging technology, particularly suitable for ultralarge-scale taxonomic classification of phytoplankton together with quantitative image recognition and analysis. We here demonstrate quantitative imaging flow cytometry of single phytoplankton based on quantitative asymmetric-detection time-stretch optical microscopy (Q-ATOM) - a new time-stretch imaging modality for label-free quantitative phase imaging without interferometric implementations. Sharing the similar concept of Schlieren imaging, Q-ATOM accesses multiple phase-gradient contrasts of each single phytoplankton, from which the quantitative phase profile is computed. We employ such system to capture, at an imaging line-scan rate of 11.6 MHz, high-resolution images of two phytoplankton populations (scenedesmus and chlamydomonas) in ultrafast microfluidic flow (3 m/s). We further perform quantitative taxonomic screening analysis enabled by this technique. More importantly, the system can also generate quantitative phase images of single phytoplankton. This is especially useful for label-free quantification of biomasses (e.g. lipid droplets) of the particular species of interest - an important task adopted in biofuel applications. Combining machine learning for automated classification, Q-ATOM could be an attractive platform for continuous and real-time ultralarge-scale single-phytoplankton analysis.

  6. The Intersection of Flow Cytometry with Microfluidics and Microfabrication

    PubMed Central

    Piyasena, Menake E.; Graves, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    A modern flow cytometer can analyze and sort particles on a one by one basis at rates of 50,000 particles per second. Flow cytometers can also measure as many as 17 channels of fluorescence, several angles of scattered light, and other non-optical parameters such as particle impedance. More specialized flow cytometers can provide even greater analysis power, such as single molecule detection, imaging, and full spectral collection, at reduced rates. These capabilities have made flow cytometers an invaluable tool for numerous applications including cellular immunophenotyping, CD4+ T-cell counting, multiplex microsphere analysis, high-throughput screening, and rare cell analysis and sorting. Many bio-analytical techniques have been influenced by the advent of microfluidics as a component in analytical tools and flow cytometry is no exception. Here we detail the functions and uses of a modern flow cytometer, review the recent and historical contributions of microfluidics and microfabricated devices to field of flow cytometry, examine current application areas, and suggest opportunities for the synergistic application of microfabrication approaches to modern flow cytometry. PMID:24488050

  7. Recent advances of flow cytometry in fundamental and applied microbiology.

    PubMed

    Fouchet, P; Jayat, C; Héchard, Y; Ratinaud, M H; Frelat, G

    1993-01-01

    This review focuses on the recent applications of flow cytometry (FCM) in microbiological research (1987-mid 1992). It tries to give a scope of the important breakthroughs which occurred in this field during this period. The technical difficulties of microorganism analysis by flow cytometry is briefly appraised. The significance and the limits of the different microbial cell parameters attainable by flow analyses are systematically evaluated: light scatter for cell size and structure, fluorescence measurements for quantification of cellular components, microbial antigen detection and cell physiological activity estimation. Emphasis is given on the new technological advances which appeared in the last two years. The second part of the review is devoted to the analysis of the usefulness of flow cytometric approach in the different fields of microbiology: fundamental studies in microbial physiology, differentiation, microbial ecology and aquatic sciences, medical microbiology, parasitology, microbial pharmacology and biotechnology.

  8. Critical assessment of automated flow cytometry data analysis techniques.

    PubMed

    Aghaeepour, Nima; Finak, Greg; Hoos, Holger; Mosmann, Tim R; Brinkman, Ryan; Gottardo, Raphael; Scheuermann, Richard H

    2013-03-01

    Traditional methods for flow cytometry (FCM) data processing rely on subjective manual gating. Recently, several groups have developed computational methods for identifying cell populations in multidimensional FCM data. The Flow Cytometry: Critical Assessment of Population Identification Methods (FlowCAP) challenges were established to compare the performance of these methods on two tasks: (i) mammalian cell population identification, to determine whether automated algorithms can reproduce expert manual gating and (ii) sample classification, to determine whether analysis pipelines can identify characteristics that correlate with external variables (such as clinical outcome). This analysis presents the results of the first FlowCAP challenges. Several methods performed well as compared to manual gating or external variables using statistical performance measures, which suggests that automated methods have reached a sufficient level of maturity and accuracy for reliable use in FCM data analysis.

  9. Sizing of DNA fragments by flow cytometry

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.E.; Goodwin, P.M.; Ambrose, W.P.; Martin, J.C.; Marrone, B.L.; Jett, J.H.; Keller, R.A.

    1993-02-01

    Individual, stained DNA fragments were sized using a modified flow cytometer with high sensitivity fluorescence detection. The fluorescent intercalating dye ethidium homodimer was used to stain stoichiometrically lambda phage DNA and a Kpn I digest of lambda DNA. Stained, individual fragments of DNA were passed through a low average power, focused, mode-locked laser beam, and the fluorescence from each fragment was collected and quantified. Time-gated detection was used to discriminate against Raman scattering from the water solvent. The fluorescence burst from each fragment was related directly to its length, thus providing a means to size small quantities of kilobase lengths of DNA quickly. Improvements of several orders of magnitude in analysis time and sample size over current gel electrophoresis techniques were realized. Fragments of 17.1,29.9, and 48.5 thousand base pairs were well resolved, and were sized in 164 seconds. Less than one pg of DNA was required for analysis. We have demonstrated sizing of individual, stained DNA fragments with resolution approaching that of gel electrophoresis for moderately large fragments, but with significant reductions in the analysis time and the amount of sample required. Furthermore, system response is linear with DNA fragment length, in contrast to the logarithmic response in gel electrophoresis. There exists the potential to perform this sizing using relatively simple instrumentation, i.e. a continuous wave laser of low power and current mode detection.

  10. Sizing of DNA fragments by flow cytometry

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.E.; Goodwin, P.M.; Ambrose, W.P.; Martin, J.C.; Marrone, B.L.; Jett, J.H.; Keller, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    Individual, stained DNA fragments were sized using a modified flow cytometer with high sensitivity fluorescence detection. The fluorescent intercalating dye ethidium homodimer was used to stain stoichiometrically lambda phage DNA and a Kpn I digest of lambda DNA. Stained, individual fragments of DNA were passed through a low average power, focused, mode-locked laser beam, and the fluorescence from each fragment was collected and quantified. Time-gated detection was used to discriminate against Raman scattering from the water solvent. The fluorescence burst from each fragment was related directly to its length, thus providing a means to size small quantities of kilobase lengths of DNA quickly. Improvements of several orders of magnitude in analysis time and sample size over current gel electrophoresis techniques were realized. Fragments of 17.1,29.9, and 48.5 thousand base pairs were well resolved, and were sized in 164 seconds. Less than one pg of DNA was required for analysis. We have demonstrated sizing of individual, stained DNA fragments with resolution approaching that of gel electrophoresis for moderately large fragments, but with significant reductions in the analysis time and the amount of sample required. Furthermore, system response is linear with DNA fragment length, in contrast to the logarithmic response in gel electrophoresis. There exists the potential to perform this sizing using relatively simple instrumentation, i.e. a continuous wave laser of low power and current mode detection.

  11. Analysis of repetitive DNA in chromosomes by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Brind'Amour, Julie; Lansdorp, Peter M

    2011-06-01

    We developed a flow cytometry method, chromosome flow fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), called CFF, to analyze repetitive DNA in chromosomes using FISH with directly labeled peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes. We used CFF to measure the abundance of interstitial telomeric sequences in Chinese hamster chromosomes and major satellite sequences in mouse chromosomes. Using CFF we also identified parental homologs of human chromosome 18 with different amounts of repetitive DNA.

  12. CRITICAL ASSESSMENT OF AUTOMATED FLOW CYTOMETRY DATA ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

    PubMed Central

    Aghaeepour, Nima; Finak, Greg; Hoos, Holger; Mosmann, Tim R.; Gottardo, Raphael; Brinkman, Ryan; Scheuermann, Richard H.

    2013-01-01

    Traditional methods for flow cytometry (FCM) data processing rely on subjective manual gating. Recently, several groups have developed computational methods for identifying cell populations in multidimensional FCM data. The Flow Cytometry: Critical Assessment of Population Identification Methods (FlowCAP) challenges were established to compare the performance of these methods on two tasks – mammalian cell population identification to determine if automated algorithms can reproduce expert manual gating, and sample classification to determine if analysis pipelines can identify characteristics that correlate with external variables (e.g., clinical outcome). This analysis presents the results of the first of these challenges. Several methods performed well compared to manual gating or external variables using statistical performance measures, suggesting that automated methods have reached a sufficient level of maturity and accuracy for reliable use in FCM data analysis. PMID:23396282

  13. Microfluidic Impedance Flow Cytometry Enabling High-Throughput Single-Cell Electrical Property Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jian; Xue, Chengcheng; Zhao, Yang; Chen, Deyong; Wu, Min-Hsien; Wang, Junbo

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews recent developments in microfluidic impedance flow cytometry for high-throughput electrical property characterization of single cells. Four major perspectives of microfluidic impedance flow cytometry for single-cell characterization are included in this review: (1) early developments of microfluidic impedance flow cytometry for single-cell electrical property characterization; (2) microfluidic impedance flow cytometry with enhanced sensitivity; (3) microfluidic impedance and optical flow cytometry for single-cell analysis and (4) integrated point of care system based on microfluidic impedance flow cytometry. We examine the advantages and limitations of each technique and discuss future research opportunities from the perspectives of both technical innovation and clinical applications. PMID:25938973

  14. Managing Multi-center Flow Cytometry Data for Immune Monitoring.

    PubMed

    White, Scott; Laske, Karoline; Welters, Marij Jp; Bidmon, Nicole; van der Burg, Sjoerd H; Britten, Cedrik M; Enzor, Jennifer; Staats, Janet; Weinhold, Kent J; Gouttefangeas, Cécile; Chan, Cliburn

    2014-01-01

    With the recent results of promising cancer vaccines and immunotherapy1-5, immune monitoring has become increasingly relevant for measuring treatment-induced effects on T cells, and an essential tool for shedding light on the mechanisms responsible for a successful treatment. Flow cytometry is the canonical multi-parameter assay for the fine characterization of single cells in solution, and is ubiquitously used in pre-clinical tumor immunology and in cancer immunotherapy trials. Current state-of-the-art polychromatic flow cytometry involves multi-step, multi-reagent assays followed by sample acquisition on sophisticated instruments capable of capturing up to 20 parameters per cell at a rate of tens of thousands of cells per second. Given the complexity of flow cytometry assays, reproducibility is a major concern, especially for multi-center studies. A promising approach for improving reproducibility is the use of automated analysis borrowing from statistics, machine learning and information visualization21-23, as these methods directly address the subjectivity, operator-dependence, labor-intensive and low fidelity of manual analysis. However, it is quite time-consuming to investigate and test new automated analysis techniques on large data sets without some centralized information management system. For large-scale automated analysis to be practical, the presence of consistent and high-quality data linked to the raw FCS files is indispensable. In particular, the use of machine-readable standard vocabularies to characterize channel metadata is essential when constructing analytic pipelines to avoid errors in processing, analysis and interpretation of results. For automation, this high-quality metadata needs to be programmatically accessible, implying the need for a consistent Application Programming Interface (API). In this manuscript, we propose that upfront time spent normalizing flow cytometry data to conform to carefully designed data models enables automated

  15. Managing Multi-center Flow Cytometry Data for Immune Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    White, Scott; Laske, Karoline; Welters, Marij JP; Bidmon, Nicole; van der Burg, Sjoerd H; Britten, Cedrik M; Enzor, Jennifer; Staats, Janet; Weinhold, Kent J; Gouttefangeas, Cécile; Chan, Cliburn

    2014-01-01

    With the recent results of promising cancer vaccines and immunotherapy1–5, immune monitoring has become increasingly relevant for measuring treatment-induced effects on T cells, and an essential tool for shedding light on the mechanisms responsible for a successful treatment. Flow cytometry is the canonical multi-parameter assay for the fine characterization of single cells in solution, and is ubiquitously used in pre-clinical tumor immunology and in cancer immunotherapy trials. Current state-of-the-art polychromatic flow cytometry involves multi-step, multi-reagent assays followed by sample acquisition on sophisticated instruments capable of capturing up to 20 parameters per cell at a rate of tens of thousands of cells per second. Given the complexity of flow cytometry assays, reproducibility is a major concern, especially for multi-center studies. A promising approach for improving reproducibility is the use of automated analysis borrowing from statistics, machine learning and information visualization21–23, as these methods directly address the subjectivity, operator-dependence, labor-intensive and low fidelity of manual analysis. However, it is quite time-consuming to investigate and test new automated analysis techniques on large data sets without some centralized information management system. For large-scale automated analysis to be practical, the presence of consistent and high-quality data linked to the raw FCS files is indispensable. In particular, the use of machine-readable standard vocabularies to characterize channel metadata is essential when constructing analytic pipelines to avoid errors in processing, analysis and interpretation of results. For automation, this high-quality metadata needs to be programmatically accessible, implying the need for a consistent Application Programming Interface (API). In this manuscript, we propose that upfront time spent normalizing flow cytometry data to conform to carefully designed data models enables

  16. Laser rastering flow cytometry: fast cell counting and identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vacca, G.; Junnarkar, M. R.; Goldblatt, N. R.; Yee, M. W.; Van Slyke, B. M.; Briese, T. C.

    2009-02-01

    We describe the concept of laser rastering flow cytometry, where a rapidly scanning laser beam allows counting and classification of cells at much higher rates than currently possible. Modifications to existing flow cytometers to implement the concept include an acousto-optic deflector, fast analog-to-digital conversion, and a two-step digital-signal-processing scheme that handles the high data rates and provides key assay information. Results are shown that prove the concept, demonstrating the ability to resolve closely spaced cells and to measure cells at rates more than an order of magnitude faster than on conventional flow-cytometer-based hematology analyzers.

  17. Step-specific Sorting of Mouse Spermatids by Flow Cytometry.

    PubMed

    Simard, Olivier; Leduc, Frédéric; Acteau, Geneviève; Arguin, Mélina; Grégoire, Marie-Chantal; Brazeau, Marc-André; Marois, Isabelle; Richter, Martin V; Boissonneault, Guylain

    2015-12-31

    The differentiation of mouse spermatids is one critical process for the production of a functional male gamete with an intact genome to be transmitted to the next generation. So far, molecular studies of this morphological transition have been hampered by the lack of a method allowing adequate separation of these important steps of spermatid differentiation for subsequent analyses. Earlier attempts at proper gating of these cells using flow cytometry may have been difficult because of a peculiar increase in DNA fluorescence in spermatids undergoing chromatin remodeling. Based on this observation, we provide details of a simple flow cytometry scheme, allowing reproducible purification of four populations of mouse spermatids fixed with ethanol, each representing a different state in the nuclear remodeling process. Population enrichment is confirmed using step-specific markers and morphological criterions. The purified spermatids can be used for genomic and proteomic analyses.

  18. Analyzing Schizosaccharomyces pombe DNA Content by Flow Cytometry.

    PubMed

    Boye, Erik; Anda, Silje; Rothe, Christiane; Stokke, Trond; Grallert, Beáta

    2016-06-01

    Flow cytometry can be used to measure the DNA content of individual cells. The data are usually presented as DNA histograms that can be used to examine the cells' progression through the cell cycle. Under standard growth conditions, fission yeast cells do not complete cytokinesis until after G1 phase; therefore, DNA histograms show one major peak representing cells in G1 (2×1C DNA) and G2 phase (1×2C DNA). By analysis of the duration of the fluorescence signal as well as the intensity of the DNA-related signal, it is possible to discriminate between cells in M/G1, S, and G2 This protocol describes how to prepare cells for flow cytometry and analyze them. We also describe the application of barcoding for more accurate comparison of samples.

  19. Flow cytometry as a tool to quantify oyster defence mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Goedken, Michael; De Guise, Sylvain

    2004-04-01

    The fast growing oyster aquaculture industry is greatly hindered by Perkinsus marinus and Haplosporidium nelsoni which can kill up to 80% of the production. The relationship between parasites and oyster defence mechanisms is unclear. Two defence mechanisms of the Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica) were quantified at the single cell level utilising flow cytometry. Phagocytosis was measured using fluorescent beads. Respiratory burst activity was quantified as the H2O2-specific increase in dichlorofluorescein-associated fluorescence upon stimulation. These two assays distinguished three populations of haemocytes (granulocytes, hyalinocytes and intermediate cells) with unique functional characteristics. Granulocytes were most active at phagocytosis and H2O2 production while hyalinocytes were relatively inactive. The intermediate cells had moderate phagocytic and respiratory burst activity. Flow cytometry can rapidly, accurately and directly quantify the morphology and function of a large number of individual cells, and will lead to a better understanding of the bivalve immune system.

  20. Using Flow Cytometry to Measure Phagocytic Uptake in Earthworms†

    PubMed Central

    Fuller-Espie, Sheryl L.

    2010-01-01

    This laboratory module familiarizes students with flow cytometry while acquiring quantitative reasoning skills during data analysis. Leukocytes, also known as coelomocytes (including hyaline and granular amoebocytes, and chloragocytes), from Eisenia hortensis (earthworms) are isolated from the coelomic cavity and used for phagocytosis of fluorescent Escherichia coli. Students learn how to set up in vitro cellular assays and become familiar with theoretical principles of flow cytometry. Histograms based on fluorescence and scatter properties combined with gating options permit students to restrict their analyses to particular subsets of coelomocytes when measuring phagocytosis, a fundamentally important innate immune mechanism used in earthworms. Statistical analysis of data is included in laboratory reports which serve as the primary assessment instrument. PMID:23653715

  1. Ploidy Determination in Agrostis Using Flow Cytometry and Morphological Traits.

    PubMed

    Bonos, Stacy A.; Plumley, Karen A.; Meyer, William A.

    2002-01-01

    The taxonomic classification of the genus Agrostis is one of the most complicated of the grass genera. Classification based upon morphological and anatomical characters is difficult and complicated by the presence of intermediate forms and the misapplication of names. Determining ploidy levels of new germplasm can assist in species determination and is necessary before initiating breeding or genetics studies. The objectives of this study were to (i) evaluate the use of laser flow cytometry as a quick, reliable tool to determine ploidy level and aid in Agrostis species determination, and (ii) identify morphological characters associated with DNA content or ploidy level. The six Agrostis species evaluated were A. canina L. subsp. canina, A. canina L. subsp. montana (Hartm.) Hartm., A. palustris Huds. [= A. stolonifera var. palustris (Huds.) Farw.], A. tenuis Sibth. (= A. capillaris L.), A. castellana Boiss. & Reut., and A. alba L. Ploidy level was determined by flow cytometry and root tip chromosome counts. Plant height, panicle height, flag leaf length, flag leaf width, and highest internode length of mature field-grown spaced plants were measured. Significant differences in 2C DNA content were found between species (P < 0.01) differing in ploidy level. Flow cytometry was effective in differentiating between diploid, tetraploid, and hexaploid species. Chromosome numbers previously reported and those observed in this study were positively correlated with 2C nuclear DNA content (r = 0.98, P < 0.01). Flag leaf length was the only morphological measurement taken that was significantly positively correlated to DNA content (r = 0.98, P < 0.001). The results of this study indicate that laser flow cytometry is a quick, reliable tool to determine ploidy levels and infer certain species of AGROSTIS: This technique will aid breeders to quickly and accurately determine ploidy levels of new germplasm collections.

  2. Analysis of Human and Mouse Neutrophil Phagocytosis by Flow Cytometry.

    PubMed

    Fine, Noah; Barzilay, Oriyah; Glogauer, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Neutrophils are primary phagocytes that recognize their targets through surface chemistry, either through Pattern Recognition Receptor (PPR) interaction with Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs) or through immunoglobulin (Ig) or complement mediated recognition. Opsonization can be important for target recognition, and phagocytosis by neutrophils in whole blood can be greatly enhanced due to the presence of blood serum components and platelets. Powerful and sensitive flow cytometry based methods are presented to measure phagocytosis by human blood neutrophils and mouse peritoneal neutrophils.

  3. A CLIPS expert system for clinical flow cytometry data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salzman, G. C.; Duque, R. E.; Braylan, R. C.; Stewart, C. C.

    1990-01-01

    An expert system is being developed using CLIPS to assist clinicians in the analysis of multivariate flow cytometry data from cancer patients. Cluster analysis is used to find subpopulations representing various cell types in multiple datasets each consisting of four to five measurements on each of 5000 cells. CLIPS facts are derived from results of the clustering. CLIPS rules are based on the expertise of Drs. Stewart, Duque, and Braylan. The rules incorporate certainty factors based on case histories.

  4. Immunophenotyping by slide-based cytometry and by flow cytometry are comparable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerstner, Andreas O.; Laffers, Wiebke; Mittag, Anja; Daehnert, Ingo; Lenz, Domnik; Bootz, Friedrich; Bocsi, Jozsef; Tarnok, Attila

    2005-03-01

    Immunophenotyping of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) is performed by flow cytometry (FCM) as the golden standard. Slide based cytometry systems for example laser scanning cytometer (LSC) can give additional information (repeated staining and scanning, morphology). In order to adequately judge on the clinical usefulness of immunophenotyping by LSC it is obligatory to compare it with the long established FCM assays. We performed this study to systematically compare the two methods, FCM and LSC for immunophenotyping and to test the correlation of the results. Leucocytes were stained with directly labeled monoclonal antibodies with whole blood staining method. Aliquots of the same paraformaldehyde fixed specimens were analyzed in a FACScan (BD-Biosciences) using standard protocols and parallel with LSC (CompuCyte) after placing to glass slide, drying and fixation by aceton and 7-AAD staining. Calculating the percentage distribution of PBLs obtained by LSC and by FCM shows very good correlation with regression coefficients close to 1.0 for the major populations (neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes), as well as for the lymphocyte sub-populations (T-helper-, T-cytotoxic-, B-, NK-cells). LSC can be recommended for immunophenotyping of PBLs especially in cases where only very limited sample volumes are available or where additional analysis of the cells" morphology is important. There are limitations in the detection of rare leucocytes or weak antigens where appropriate amplification steps for immunofluorescence should be engaged.

  5. Sample handling for kinetics and molecular assembly in flow cytometry

    SciTech Connect

    Sklar, L.A. |; Seamer, L.C.; Kuckuck, F.; Prossnitz, E.; Edwards, B.; Posner, G.

    1998-07-01

    Flow cytometry discriminates particle associated fluorescence from the fluorescence of the surrounding medium. It permits assemblies of macromolecular complexes on beads or cells to be detected in real-time with precision and specificity. The authors have investigated two types of robust sample handling systems which provide sub-second resolution and high throughput: (1) mixers which use stepper-motor driven syringes to initiate chemical reactions in msec time frames; and (2) flow injection controllers with valves and automated syringes used in chemical process control. In the former system, the authors used fast valves to overcome the disparity between mixing 100 {micro}ls of sample in 100 msecs and delivering sample to a flow cytometer at 1 {micro}l/sec. Particles were detected within 100 msec after mixing, but turbulence was created which lasted for 1 sec after injection of the sample into the flow cytometer. They used optical criteria to discriminate particles which were out of alignment due to the turbulent flow. Complex sample handling protocols involving multiple mixing steps and sample dilution have also been achieved. With the latter system they were able to automate sample handling and delivery with intervals of a few seconds. The authors used a fluidic approach to defeat turbulence caused by sample introduction. By controlling both sheath and sample with individual syringes, the period of turbulence was reduced to {approximately} 200 msecs. Automated sample handling and sub-second resolution should permit broad analytical and diagnostic applications of flow cytometry.

  6. Pitfalls in the use of multicolour flow cytometry in haematology.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Ulrika; Macey, Marion

    2011-07-01

    Multicolour flow cytometry in haematology has developed considerably in recent years. The ability to analyse eight or more colours of fluorescence on millions of cells in a matter of minutes has enabled the provision of rapid and reliable measures of minimal residual disease for clinicians. The use of multicolour analysis has also enabled more specific characterisation of presenting leukaemias and lymphomas. However, there has not been a concomitant increase in the knowledge and experience of the flow cytometrists to deal with certain problems associated with this more complex analysis.

  7. Label-free high-throughput imaging flow cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahjoubfar, A.; Chen, C.; Niazi, K. R.; Rabizadeh, S.; Jalali, B.

    2014-03-01

    Flow cytometry is an optical method for studying cells based on their individual physical and chemical characteristics. It is widely used in clinical diagnosis, medical research, and biotechnology for analysis of blood cells and other cells in suspension. Conventional flow cytometers aim a laser beam at a stream of cells and measure the elastic scattering of light at forward and side angles. They also perform single-point measurements of fluorescent emissions from labeled cells. However, many reagents used in cell labeling reduce cellular viability or change the behavior of the target cells through the activation of undesired cellular processes or inhibition of normal cellular activity. Therefore, labeled cells are not completely representative of their unaltered form nor are they fully reliable for downstream studies. To remove the requirement of cell labeling in flow cytometry, while still meeting the classification sensitivity and specificity goals, measurement of additional biophysical parameters is essential. Here, we introduce an interferometric imaging flow cytometer based on the world's fastest continuous-time camera. Our system simultaneously measures cellular size, scattering, and protein concentration as supplementary biophysical parameters for label-free cell classification. It exploits the wide bandwidth of ultrafast laser pulses to perform blur-free quantitative phase and intensity imaging at flow speeds as high as 10 meters per second and achieves nanometer-scale optical path length resolution for precise measurements of cellular protein concentration.

  8. Beam shaping in flow cytometry with diffractive optical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Weidong; Li, Derong; Jian, Peng

    2016-10-01

    Focusing elements are usually employed in the flow cytometry to focus the input laser beam into elliptically shaped Gaussian beam in order to increase power for excitation of fluorescence for high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). While in order to ensure repeatable and reliable signal generation for accurate population discrimination - despite slight deviations of the cell from the flow centre, the shaped beam should be a cubic diffraction region with uniform power intensity across the cell flow stream. However, it is hard for beam shaping with refractive optical elements. In this paper, we present a beam shaping system in flow cytometry with diffractive optical elements (DOEs) to shape the input laser beam to a cubic diffraction region with uniform power intensity. The phase distribution of the DOE is obtained by using the inverse Fresnel diffraction based layered holographic stereogram, and the cubic diffraction region with uniform power intensity within the cell flow channel is well reconstructed. Simulation results demonstrate the good performance of the new beam shaping system.

  9. Analysis of chromosome damage for biodosimetry using imaging flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Beaton, L A; Ferrarotto, C; Kutzner, B C; McNamee, J P; Bellier, P V; Wilkins, R C

    2013-08-30

    The dicentric chromosome assay (DCA), which involves counting the frequency of dicentric chromosomes in mitotic lymphocytes and converting it to a dose-estimation for ionizing radiation exposure, is considered to be the gold standard for radiation biodosimetry. Furthermore, for emergency response, the DCA has been adapted for triage by simplifying the scoring method [1]. With the development of new technologies such as the imaging flow cytometer, it may now be possible to adapt this microscope-based method to an automated cytometry method. This technology allows the sensitivity of microscopy to be maintained while adding the increased throughput of flow cytometry. A new protocol is being developed to adapt the DCA to the imaging cytometer in order to further increase the rapid determination of a biological dose. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated from ex vivo irradiated whole blood samples using a density gradient separation method and cultured with PHA and Colcemid. After 48h incubation, the chromosomes were isolated, stained for DNA content with propidium iodide (PI) and labelled with a centromere marker. Stained chromosomes were then analyzed on the ImageStream(×) (EMD-Millipore, Billerica, MA). Preliminary results indicate that individual chromosomes can be identified and mono- and dicentric chromosomes can be differentiated by imaging cytometry. A dose response curve was generated using this technology. The details of the method and the dose response curve are presented and compared to traditional microscope scoring. Imaging cytometry is a new technology which enables the rapid, automated analysis of fluorescently labelled chromosomes. Adapting the dicentric assay to this technology has the potential for high throughput analysis for mass casualty events.

  10. Centromeric index measurement by slit-scan flow cytometry

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, J.N.; Gray, J.W.; Peters, D.C.; Van Dilla, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    A report is given of the application of slit-scan flow cytometry (SSFCM) in the classification of muntjac, Chinese hamster, and human chromosomes according to centromeric index (CI) and total fluorescence. Chromosomes were isolated from mitotic cells, stained with propidium iodide and processed through the SSFCM where fluorescence profiles were measured. The centromere for each profile was taken as the point of maximum difference between the measured profile and a standard profile having no centromeric dip. The areas under the profile on either side of the centromere were then calculated and the CI was calculated as the ratio of the larger area to the total area under the profile. Relative DNA contents for each chromosome were taken to be proportional to the total fluorescence. Mean CI's for muntjac chromosomes 1, 2, and X + 3 were 0.52, 0.88, and 0.73, respectively; CI's for Chinese hamster M3-1 chromosomes 1, 2, 5, 8, and M2 were 0.53, 0.55, 0.57, 0.77, and 0.86, respectively; and average CI's for chromosome groups 4 + t (X;5), 6 + 7 + Y, 9 + M1, and 10 + 11 were 0.56, 0.82, 0.58, and 0.60, respectively. These results were, on average, within 4.4% of CI measurements made by image cytometry. CI's measured for human chromosomes 9 through 12, were, on average, within 2.0% of those made by image cytometry.

  11. Identification of contact and respiratory sensitizers using flow cytometry

    SciTech Connect

    Goutet, Michele . E-mail: michele.goutet@inrs.fr; Pepin, Elsa; Langonne, Isabelle; Huguet, Nelly; Ban, Masarin

    2005-06-15

    Identification of the chemicals responsible for respiratory and contact allergies in the industrial area is an important occupational safety issue. This study was conducted in mice to determine whether flow cytometry is an appropriate method to analyze and differentiate the specific immune responses to the respiratory sensitizer trimellitic anhydride (TMA) and to the contact sensitizer dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) used at concentrations with comparable immunogenic potential. Mice were exposed twice on the flanks (days 0, 5) to 10% TMA or 1% DNCB and challenged three times on the ears (days 10, 11, 12) with 2.5% TMA or 0.25% DNCB. Flow cytometry analyses were conducted on draining lymph node cells harvested on days 13 and 18. Comparing TMA and DNCB immune responses on day 13, we found obvious differences that persisted for most of them on day 18. An increased proportion of IgE+ cells correlated to total serum IgE level and an enhancement of MHC II molecule expression were observed in the lymph node B lymphocytes from TMA-treated mice. The percentage of IL-4-producing CD4+ lymphocytes and the IL-4 receptor expression were clearly higher following TMA exposure. In contrast, higher proportions of IL-2-producing cells were detected in CD4+ and CD8+ cells from DNCB-treated mice. Both chemicals induced a significant increase in the percentage of IFN-{gamma}-producing cells among CD8+ lymphocytes but to a greater proportion following TMA treatment. In conclusion, this study encourages the use of flow cytometry to discriminate between contact and respiratory sensitizers by identifying divergent expression of immune response parameters.

  12. Ultraviolet 320 nm laser excitation for flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Telford, William; Stickland, Lynn; Koschorreck, Marco

    2017-02-27

    Although multiple lasers and high-dimensional analysis capability are now standard on advanced flow cytometers, ultraviolet (UV) lasers (usually 325-365 nm) remain an uncommon excitation source for cytometry. This is primarily due to their cost, and the small number of applications that require this wavelength. The development of the Brilliant Ultraviolet (BUV fluorochromes, however, has increased the importance of this formerly niche excitation wavelength. Historically, UV excitation was usually provided by water-cooled argon- and krypton-ion lasers. Modern flow cytometers primary rely on diode pumped solid state lasers emitting at 355 nm. While useful for all UV-excited applications, DPSS UV lasers are still large by modern solid state laser standards, and remain very expensive. Smaller and cheaper near UV laser diodes (NUVLDs) emitting at 375 nm make adequate substitutes for 355 nm sources in many situations, but do not work as well with very short wavelength probes like the fluorescent calcium chelator indo-1. In this study, we evaluate a newly available UV 320 nm laser for flow cytometry. While shorter in wavelength that conventional UV lasers, 320 is close to the 325 nm helium-cadmium wavelength used in the past on early benchtop cytometers. A UV 320 nm laser was found to excite almost all Brilliant Ultraviolet dyes to nearly the same level as 355 nm sources. Both 320 nm and 355 nm sources worked equally well for Hoechst and DyeCycle Violet side population analysis of stem cells in mouse hematopoetic tissue. The shorter wavelength UV source also showed excellent excitation of indo-1, a probe that is not compatible with NUVLD 375 nm sources. In summary, a 320 nm laser module made a suitable substitute for conventional 355 nm sources. This laser technology is available in a smaller form factor than current 355 nm units, making it useful for small cytometers with space constraints. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  13. Stochastic Measurement Models for Quantifying Lymphocyte Responses Using Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Kan, Andrey; Pavlyshyn, Damian; Markham, John F.; Dowling, Mark R.; Heinzel, Susanne; Zhou, Jie H. S.; Marchingo, Julia M.; Hodgkin, Philip D.

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive immune responses are complex dynamic processes whereby B and T cells undergo division and differentiation triggered by pathogenic stimuli. Deregulation of the response can lead to severe consequences for the host organism ranging from immune deficiencies to autoimmunity. Tracking cell division and differentiation by flow cytometry using fluorescent probes is a major method for measuring progression of lymphocyte responses, both in vitro and in vivo. In turn, mathematical modeling of cell numbers derived from such measurements has led to significant biological discoveries, and plays an increasingly important role in lymphocyte research. Fitting an appropriate parameterized model to such data is the goal of these studies but significant challenges are presented by the variability in measurements. This variation results from the sum of experimental noise and intrinsic probabilistic differences in cells and is difficult to characterize analytically. Current model fitting methods adopt different simplifying assumptions to describe the distribution of such measurements and these assumptions have not been tested directly. To help inform the choice and application of appropriate methods of model fitting to such data we studied the errors associated with flow cytometry measurements from a wide variety of experiments. We found that the mean and variance of the noise were related by a power law with an exponent between 1.3 and 1.8 for different datasets. This violated the assumptions inherent to commonly used least squares, linear variance scaling and log-transformation based methods. As a result of these findings we propose a new measurement model that we justify both theoretically, from the maximum entropy standpoint, and empirically using collected data. Our evaluation suggests that the new model can be reliably used for model fitting across a variety of conditions. Our work provides a foundation for modeling measurements in flow cytometry experiments thus

  14. Sensitive Detection of Proteopathic Seeding Activity with FRET Flow Cytometry.

    PubMed

    Furman, Jennifer L; Holmes, Brandon B; Diamond, Marc I

    2015-12-08

    Increasing evidence supports transcellular propagation of toxic protein aggregates, or proteopathic seeds, as a mechanism for the initiation and progression of pathology in several neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and the related tauopathies. The potentially critical role of tau seeds in disease progression strongly supports the need for a sensitive assay that readily detects seeding activity in biological samples. By combining the specificity of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), the sensitivity of flow cytometry, and the stability of a monoclonal cell line, an ultra-sensitive seeding assay has been engineered and is compatible with seed detection from recombinant or biological samples, including human and mouse brain homogenates. The assay employs monoclonal HEK 293T cells that stably express the aggregation-prone repeat domain (RD) of tau harboring the disease-associated P301S mutation fused to either CFP or YFP, which produce a FRET signal upon protein aggregation. The uptake of proteopathic tau seeds (but not other proteins) into the biosensor cells stimulates aggregation of RD-CFP and RD-YFP, and flow cytometry sensitively and quantitatively monitors this aggregation-induced FRET. The assay detects femtomolar concentrations (monomer equivalent) of recombinant tau seeds, has a dynamic range spanning three orders of magnitude, and is compatible with brain homogenates from tauopathy transgenic mice and human tauopathy subjects. With slight modifications, the assay can also detect seeding activity of other proteopathic seeds, such as α-synuclein, and is also compatible with primary neuronal cultures. The ease, sensitivity, and broad applicability of FRET flow cytometry makes it useful to study a wide range of protein aggregation disorders.

  15. Cell-cooling in flow cytometry by Peltier elements.

    PubMed

    Göttlinger, C; Meyer, K L; Weichel, W; Müller, W; Raftery, B; Radbruch, A

    1986-05-01

    We have built a cooling device for cell suspensions in flow cytometry that makes use of the Peltier effect (Barnard RD, Thermo electricity in Metals and Alloys, Taylor and Francis, London; Siemens-Z 34:383-88, 1963). The prototype described here is used for cooling collection tubes during long-duration cell sorting and is capable of maintaining a temperature of 2-5 degrees C in a cell suspension of up to 3 ml. In general, Peltier element-based cooling is useful for equilibrating the temperature of small volumes of fluids. Furthermore, Peltier element-based cooling devices are easy to build and handle.

  16. Reticulocyte quantification by flow cytometry, image analysis, and manual counting.

    PubMed

    Schimenti, K J; Lacerna, K; Wamble, A; Maston, L; Iaffaldano, C; Straight, M; Rabinovitch, A; Lazarus, H M; Jacobberger, J W

    1992-01-01

    Reticulocyte counting by flow cytometry with thiazole orange was compared to manual or automated counting of new methylene blue stained blood smears. Forty-nine samples were compared for manual counting from randomly chosen clinical samples. Two hundred and eighty-nine samples from bone marrow transplant patients were compared during the period before and through chemo-irradiation and engraftment. The slopes of correlation plots were less than 1 when flow cytometric data were the dependent variable, suggesting that thiazole orange is less sensitive than new methylene blue. In a third study, 407 samples from bone marrow transplant patients were compared after increasing the thiazole orange concentration. The reticulocyte fluorescence distribution was divided into four groups of the brightest (youngest) 40, 60, 80, and 100% of reticulocytes. The slopes from regression analysis were 0.25, 0.49, 0.78, and 1.14, respectively. This demonstrates that thiazole orange is more sensitive than new methylene blue because the window of analysis includes an increased fraction of mature reticulocytes. In addition, the precision of each assay as measured. The rank order of precision from high to low was flow cytometry > image analysis > manual counting.

  17. Wide-field fluorescent microscopy and fluorescent imaging flow cytometry on a cell-phone.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hongying; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2013-04-11

    Fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometry are widely used tools in biomedical research and clinical diagnosis. However these devices are in general relatively bulky and costly, making them less effective in the resource limited settings. To potentially address these limitations, we have recently demonstrated the integration of wide-field fluorescent microscopy and imaging flow cytometry tools on cell-phones using compact, light-weight, and cost-effective opto-fluidic attachments. In our flow cytometry design, fluorescently labeled cells are flushed through a microfluidic channel that is positioned above the existing cell-phone camera unit. Battery powered light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are butt-coupled to the side of this microfluidic chip, which effectively acts as a multi-mode slab waveguide, where the excitation light is guided to uniformly excite the fluorescent targets. The cell-phone camera records a time lapse movie of the fluorescent cells flowing through the microfluidic channel, where the digital frames of this movie are processed to count the number of the labeled cells within the target solution of interest. Using a similar opto-fluidic design, we can also image these fluorescently labeled cells in static mode by e.g. sandwiching the fluorescent particles between two glass slides and capturing their fluorescent images using the cell-phone camera, which can achieve a spatial resolution of e.g. - 10 μm over a very large field-of-view of - 81 mm(2). This cell-phone based fluorescent imaging flow cytometry and microscopy platform might be useful especially in resource limited settings, for e.g. counting of CD4+ T cells toward monitoring of HIV+ patients or for detection of water-borne parasites in drinking water.

  18. Zebrafish thrombocyte aggregation by whole blood aggregometry and flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Sundaramoorthi, Hemalatha; Panapakam, Rekha; Jagadeeswaran, Pudur

    2015-01-01

    Zebrafish has become an excellent model system to study mammalian hemostasis. Despite our extensive efforts to develop technologies to measure zebrafish hemostasis and even with previously established thrombocyte qualitative and quantitative functional assays, quantifying thrombocyte function for high throughput applications has been a challenge. In this paper, we have developed two quantitative methods to estimate thrombocyte aggregation: one by whole blood aggregometry and the other by flow cytometry. We found that it is possible to conduct whole blood aggregometry using only 2 µl of blood and the currently available aggregometer. Each of three agonists, arachidonic acid, ADP, and collagen yielded impedance curves similar to those obtained with human blood. We were also able to use flow cytometry to indirectly quantify the extent of thrombocyte aggregation by labeling whole blood with mepacrine, aggregating in the presence of each of the above agonists, separating the aggregates from the white blood cells by centrifugation, and then sorting the resulting white cell fraction for thrombocyte numbers. These methods have high throughput capabilities and have the potential to be used in large scale screens to detect and characterize mutants with thrombocyte functional defects or to identify genes involved in thrombocyte function by large scale knockdowns.

  19. Measurement and Characterization of Apoptosis by Flow Cytometry.

    PubMed

    Telford, William; Tamul, Karen; Bradford, Jolene

    2016-07-01

    Apoptosis is an important mechanism in cell biology, playing a critical regulatory role in virtually every organ system. It has been particularly well characterized in the immune system, with roles ranging from immature immune cell development and selection to down-regulation of the mature immune response. Apoptosis is also the primary mechanism of action of anti-cancer drugs. Flow cytometry has been the method of choice for analyzing apoptosis in suspension cells for more than 25 years. Numerous assays have been devised to measure both the earliest and latest steps in the apoptotic process, from the earliest signal-transduction events to the late morphological changes in cell shape and granularity, proteolysis, and chromatin condensation. These assays are particularly powerful when combined into multicolor assays determining several apoptotic characteristics simultaneously. The multiparametric nature of flow cytometry makes this technology particularly suited to measuring apoptosis. In this unit, we will describe the four main techniques for analyzing caspase activity in apoptotic cells, combined with annexin V and cell permeability analysis. These relatively simple multiparametric assays are powerful techniques for assessing cell death. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  20. Defining human dendritic cell progenitors by multiparametric flow cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Breton, Gaëlle; Lee, Jaeyop; Liu, Kang; Nussenzweig, Michel C

    2015-01-01

    Human dendritic cells (DCs) develop from progressively restricted bone marrow (BM) progenitors: these progenitor cells include granulocyte, monocyte and DC progenitor (GMDP) cells; monocyte and DC progenitor (MDP) cells; and common DC progenitor (CDP) and DC precursor (pre-DC) cells. These four DC progenitors can be defined on the basis of the expression of surface markers such as CD34 and hematopoietin receptors. In this protocol, we describe five multiparametric flow cytometry panels that can be used as a tool (i) to simultaneously detect or phenotype the four DC progenitors, (ii) to isolate DC progenitors to enable in vitro differentiation or (iii) to assess the in vitro differentiation and proliferation of DC progenitors. The entire procedure from isolation of cells to flow cytometry can be completed in 3–7 h. This protocol provides optimized antibody panels, as well as gating strategies, for immunostaining of BM and cord blood specimens to study human DC hematopoiesis in health, disease and vaccine settings. PMID:26292072

  1. In vitro hematocrit measurement using spectrally encoded flow cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Zeidan, Adel; Golan, Lior; Yelin, Dvir

    2016-01-01

    Measuring key physiological parameters of small blood samples extracted from patients could be useful for real-time clinical diagnosis at the point of care. An important parameter required from all blood tests is the blood hematocrit, a measure of the fractional volume occupied by the red cells within the blood. In this work, we present a method for in vitro evaluation of hematocrit based on the data acquired using spectrally encoded flow cytometry. Analysis of the reflectance confocal images of blood within a flow chamber resulted in an error as low as 1.7% in the measured hematocrit. The technique could be used as part of an in vitro diagnostic system that measures important blood parameters at the point of care. PMID:27867734

  2. Digital Analysis and Sorting of Fluorescence Lifetime by Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Houston, Jessica P.; Naivar, Mark A.; Freyer, James P.

    2010-01-01

    Frequency-domain flow cytometry techniques are combined with modifications to the digital signal processing capabilities of the Open Reconfigurable Cytometric Acquisition System (ORCAS) to analyze fluorescence decay lifetimes and control sorting. Real-time fluorescence lifetime analysis is accomplished by rapidly digitizing correlated, radiofrequency modulated detector signals, implementing Fourier analysis programming with ORCAS’ digital signal processor (DSP) and converting the processed data into standard cytometric list mode data. To systematically test the capabilities of the ORCAS 50 MS/sec analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and our DSP programming, an error analysis was performed using simulated light scatter and fluorescence waveforms (0.5–25 ns simulated lifetime), pulse widths ranging from 2 to 15 µs, and modulation frequencies from 2.5 to 16.667 MHz. The standard deviations of digitally acquired lifetime values ranged from 0.112 to >2 ns, corresponding to errors in actual phase shifts from 0.0142° to 1.6°. The lowest coefficients of variation (<1%) were found for 10-MHz modulated waveforms having pulse widths of 6 µs and simulated lifetimes of 4 ns. Direct comparison of the digital analysis system to a previous analog phase-sensitive flow cytometer demonstrated similar precision and accuracy on measurements of a range of fluorescent microspheres, unstained cells and cells stained with three common fluorophores. Sorting based on fluorescence lifetime was accomplished by adding analog outputs to ORCAS and interfacing with a commercial cell sorter with a radiofrequency modulated solid-state laser. Two populations of fluorescent microspheres with overlapping fluorescence intensities but different lifetimes (2 and 7 ns) were separated to ~98% purity. Overall, the digital signal acquisition and processing methods we introduce present a simple yet robust approach to phase-sensitive measurements in flow cytometry. The ability to simply and inexpensively

  3. Opto-fluidics based microscopy and flow cytometry on a cell phone for blood analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hongying; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2015-01-01

    Blood analysis is one of the most important clinical tests for medical diagnosis. Flow cytometry and optical microscopy are widely used techniques to perform blood analysis and therefore cost-effective translation of these technologies to resource limited settings is critical for various global health as well as telemedicine applications. In this chapter, we review our recent progress on the integration of imaging flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy on a cell phone using compact, light-weight and cost-effective opto-fluidic attachments integrated onto the camera module of a smartphone. In our cell-phone based opto-fluidic imaging cytometry design, fluorescently labeled cells are delivered into the imaging area using a disposable micro-fluidic chip that is positioned above the existing camera unit of the cell phone. Battery powered light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are butt-coupled to the sides of this micro-fluidic chip without any lenses, which effectively acts as a multimode slab waveguide, where the excitation light is guided to excite the fluorescent targets within the micro-fluidic chip. Since the excitation light propagates perpendicular to the detection path, an inexpensive plastic absorption filter is able to reject most of the scattered light and create a decent dark-field background for fluorescent imaging. With this excitation geometry, the cell-phone camera can record fluorescent movies of the particles/cells as they are flowing through the microchannel. The digital frames of these fluorescent movies are then rapidly processed to quantify the count and the density of the labeled particles/cells within the solution under test. With a similar opto-fluidic design, we have recently demonstrated imaging and automated counting of stationary blood cells (e.g., labeled white blood cells or unlabeled red blood cells) loaded within a disposable cell counting chamber. We tested the performance of this cell-phone based imaging cytometry and blood analysis platform

  4. Single-platform, volumetric, CD45-assisted pan-leucogating flow cytometry for CD4 T lymphocytes monitoring of HIV infection according to the WHO recommendations for resource-constrained settings

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Validation of new affordable CD4 T cell measurement technologies is crucial specifically in resource-poor countries for antiretroviral treatment eligibility and immunologic CD4 monitoring of HIV-infected patients. Methods The absolute and percentage CD4 T cell counts of 258 HIV-1-infected blood samples (182 adults and 76 children), living in N’Djamena, Chad, were performed by single-platform, volumetric, CD45-assisted pan-leucogating Auto40 flow cytometer (Apogee Flow Systems Ltd, Hemel Hempstead, UK) comparing to the FACSCalibur flow cytometer as a reference method. Results Absolute and percentage CD4 T cell counts obtained by Auto40 and FACSCalibur of 258 HIV-1-infected blood samples were highly correlated (r = 0.99 and r = 0.96, respectively). The mean absolute bias and percent bias between Apogee Auto40 and FACSCalibur absolute CD4 T cell counts, were −9.4 cells/μl with limits of agreement from −15 to 93 cells/μl, and +2.0% with limits of agreement from −0.9 to 4.9%, respectively. The mean of absolute bias and percent bias between Apogee Auto40 and FACSCalibur of CD4 percentage results were +0.4% (95% CI: -0.02 – 0.86) with limits of agreement from −2.4 to 0.3%, and +3.0% with limits of agreement from −6.6 to 0.6%, respectively. The Auto40 counting allowed to identify the majority of adults with CD4 T cells below 200 cells/μl (sensitivity: 89%; specificity: 99%) or below 350 cells/μl (sensitivity: 94%; specificity:98%); and of children below 750 cells/μl (sensitivity: 99%; specificity: 96%) or below 25% CD4+ (sensitivity: 94%; specificity: 98%). Conclusion The Auto40 analyzer is an alternative flow cytometer for CD4 T lymphocyte enumeration to be used in routine for immunological monitoring according to the current WHO recommendations in HIV-infected adults as well as children living in resource-constrained settings like Chad. PMID:23631664

  5. Assessment of erythrocyte shape by flow cytometry techniques

    PubMed Central

    Piagnerelli, M; Boudjeltia, K Zouaoui; Brohee, D; Vereerstraeten, A; Piro, P; Vincent, J‐L; Vanhaeverbeek, M

    2007-01-01

    Background Red blood cell (RBC) rheology is altered in different diseases, including acute conditions such as patients in intensive care units (ICU) with sepsis or with an inflammatory reaction due to postoperative states or intracerebral haemorrhage, or chronic conditions such as diabetes mellitus or terminal renal failure. Several techniques are available to assess alterations in RBC rheology, especially deformability, but they are too cumbersome to be used on a large number of cells. Objective To develop a new, rapid flow cytometry technique for easy assessment of RBC shape in patients. Methods In flow cytometry, healthy human RBC shape shows a bimodal distribution related to the biconcave form. On this histogram, the second Pearson coefficient of dissymmetry (PCD) representing the asymmetry of this histogram and the spherical index (M2:M1) were calculated, both representing the spherical shape. This technique was used in healthy volunteers (n = 17) and in diseases characterised by abnormalities in RBC rheology, including terminal renal failure requiring haemodialysis (n = 28), diabetes mellitus (n = 18), sepsis (n = 19) and acute inflammatory states (postoperative, intracerebral haemorrhage, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, epilepsy or severe drug intoxication; n = 21). Multivariate analysis was performed to determine the factors influencing RBC shape. Results Measurement of RBC shape was highly reproducible. A good correlation was observed between the PCD and the spherical index, except in the critically ill patients without sepsis. RBCs were more spherical in patients with terminal renal failure (PCD −0.56 (0.14), p<0.05), diabetes mellitus (PCD −0.59 (0.23), p<0.05), sepsis (PCD −0.58 (0.22), p<0.05) or an acute inflammatory state (PCD −0.65 (0.29), p<0.05) than in healthy volunteers (PCD −0.89 (0.12)). The spherical index was also increased in all populations compared with healthy volunteers (terminal renal failure 2

  6. Control of continuous polyhydroxybutyrate synthesis using calorimetry and flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Maskow, Thomas; Müller, Susann; Lösche, Andreas; Harms, Hauke; Kemp, Richard

    2006-02-20

    The substrate-carbon flow can be controlled in continuous bioreactor cultures by the medium composition, for example, by the C/N ratio. The carbon distribution is optimal when a maximum fraction flows into the desired product and the residual is just sufficient to compensate for the dilution of the microbial catalyst. Undershooting of the latter condition is reflected immediately by changes in the Gibbs energy dissipation and cellular states. Two calorimetric measurement principles were applied to optimize the continuous synthesis of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) by Variovorax paradoxus DSM4065 during growth with constantly increasing supply rates of fructose or toxic phenol. Firstly, the changed slope of the heat production rate in a complete heat balanced bioreactor (CHB) indicated optimum carbon channeling into PHB. The extent of the alteration depended directly on the toxic properties of the substrate. Secondly, a flow through calorimeter was connected with the bioreactor as a "measurement loop." The optimum substrate carbon distribution was indicated by a sudden change in the heat production rate independent of substrate toxicity. The sudden change was explained mathematically and exploited for the long-term control of phenol conversion into PHB. LASER flow cytometry measurements distinguished between subpopulations with completely different PHB-content. Populations grown on fructose preserved a constant ratio of two subpopulations with double and quadruple sets of DNA. Cells grown on phenol comprised a third subpopulation with a single DNA set. Rising phenol concentrations caused this subpopulation to increase. It may thus be considered as an indicator of chemostress.

  7. Separating the signal from the noise: Expanding flow cytometry into the sub-micron range.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cytometry Part A Special Section: Separating the signal from the noise: Expanding flow cytometry into the sub-micron range. The current Cytometry Part A Special Section presents three studies that utilize cytometers to study sub-micron particles. The three studies involve the 1...

  8. A simple diagnostic test for Fanconi anemia by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Miglierina, R; Le Coniat, M; Berger, R

    1991-03-01

    A simple diagnostic test for Fanconi anemia (FA) by flow cytometry is proposed. It is based on the cell cycle disturbances of FA cells and their sensitisation by alkylating agents. Following PHA-stimulation of whole blood cell cultures in the presence or absence of nitrogen mustard, the accumulation of cells in G2/M phase was measured. A sharp increase of cells in G2/M was observed in cultures from FA patients when nitrogen mustard was added. This increase allows one to distinguish FA patients from patients with anemias of other origin, healthy controls, and FA heterozygotes, as effectively as chromosome breakage studies. The rapidity of the test and its reliability as demonstrated on the ten FA patients studied, will make the diagnosis of FA easier in centers without cytogenetic laboratory facilities.

  9. An improved flow cytometry assay to monitor phagosome acidification.

    PubMed

    Colas, Chloé; Menezes, Shinelle; Gutiérrez-Martínez, Enric; Péan, Claire B; Dionne, Marc S; Guermonprez, Pierre

    2014-10-01

    Phago-lysosome formation is important for cell-autonomous immunity to intracellular pathogens, antigen presentation and metabolism. A hallmark feature of phago-lysosomal compartments is that they undergo progressive luminal acidification controlled by the activation of vacuolar V-ATPase. Acidification is required for many enzymatic processes taking place in phago-lysosomes, like proteolysis, and supports the microbicidal activity of macrophages. Here we present a new quantitative methodology to assess phagosome acidification by flow cytometry based on the use of bi-fluorescent particles. This method relies on the use of UV polystyrene beads labelled with the acid sensor pHrodo-succinimidyl ester (pHrodo(TM) SE red) and enables us to dissociate particle association with phagocytes from their engulfment in acidified compartments. This methodology is well suited to monitor the acidification of phagosomes formed in vivo after fluorescent bead administration.

  10. Applications of Flow Cytometry to Characterize Bacterial Physiological Responses

    PubMed Central

    Contreras-Garduño, Jorge A.; Pedraza-Reyes, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Although reports of flow cytometry (FCM) applied to bacterial analysis are increasing, studies of FCM related to human cells still vastly outnumber other reports. However, current advances in FCM combined with a new generation of cellular reporter probes have made this technique suitable for analyzing physiological responses in bacteria. We review how FCM has been applied to characterize distinct physiological conditions in bacteria including responses to antibiotics and other cytotoxic chemicals and physical factors, pathogen-host interactions, cell differentiation during biofilm formation, and the mechanisms governing development pathways such as sporulation. Since FCM is suitable for performing studies at the single-cell level, we describe how this powerful technique has yielded invaluable information about the heterogeneous distribution of differently and even specialized responding cells and how it may help to provide insights about how cell interaction takes place in complex structures, such as those that prevail in bacterial biofilms. PMID:25276788

  11. Detection of Apoptotic Versus Autophagic Cell Death by Flow Cytometry.

    PubMed

    Sica, Valentina; Maiuri, M Chiara; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Different modes of regulated cell death (RCD) can be initiated by distinct molecular machineries and their morphological manifestations can be difficult to discriminate. Moreover, cells responding to stress often activate an adaptive response centered around autophagy, and whether such a response is cytoprotective or cytotoxic cannot be predicted based on morphological parameters only. Molecular definitions are therefore important to understand various RCD subroutines from a mechanistic perspective. In vitro, various forms of RCD including apoptosis and autophagic cell death can be easily discriminated from each other with assays that involve chemical or pharmacological interventions targeting key components of either pathway. Here, we detail a straightforward method to discriminate apoptosis from autophagic cell death by flow cytometry, based on the broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk and the genetic inhibition of ATG5.

  12. Bead-Based Assays for Biodetection: From Flow-Cytometry to Microfluidics

    SciTech Connect

    Ozanich, Richard M.; Antolick, Kathryn C.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.; Bunch, Kyle J.; Dockendorff, Brian P.; Grate, Jay W.; Nash, Michael A.; Tyler, Abby J.

    2009-05-04

    ABSTRACT The potential for the use of biological agents by terrorists is a real threat. Two approaches for detection of biological species will be described: 1) The use of microbead arrays for multiplexed flow cytometry detection of cytokines and botulinum neurotoxin simulant, and 2) a microfluidic platform for capture and separation of different size superparamagnetic nanoparticles followed by on-chip fluorescence detection of the sandwich complex. The methods and automated fluidic systems used for trapping functionalized microbeads will be described. This approach allows sample, assay reagents, and wash solutions to be perfused over a micro-column of beads, resulting in faster and more sensitive assays. The automated fluidic approach resulted in up to five-fold improvements in assay sensitivity/speed as compared to identical assays performed in a typical manual batch mode. A second approach for implementing multiplexed bead-based assays without using flow cytometry detection is currently under development. The goal of the microfluidic-based approach is to achieve rapid (<20 minutes), multiplexed (> 3 bioagents) detection using a simple and low-cost, integrated microfluidic/optical detection platform. Using fiber-optic guided laser-induced fluorescence, assay detection limits were shown to be in the 100’s of picomolar range (10’s of micrograms per liter) for botulinum neurotoxin simulant without any optimization of the microfluidic device or optical detection approach. Video taping magnetic nanoparticle capture and release was used to improve understanding of the process and revealed interesting behavior.

  13. Bead-based assays for biodetection: from flow-cytometry to microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozanich, Richard M., Jr.; Antolick, Kathryn; Bruckner-Lea, Cynthia J.; Bunch, Kyle J.; Dockendorff, Brian P.; Grate, Jay W.; Nash, Michael A.; Tyler, Abby; Warner, Cynthia L.; Warner, Marvin G.

    2009-05-01

    The potential for the use of biological agents by terrorists is a real threat. Two approaches for antibody-based detection of biological species are described in this paper: 1) The use of microbead arrays for multiplexed flow cytometry detection of cytokines and botulinum neurotoxin simulant, and 2) a microfluidic platform for capture and separation of different size superparamagnetic nanoparticles followed by on-chip fluorescence detection of the sandwich complex. These approaches both involve the use of automated fluidic systems for trapping antibody-functionalized microbeads, which allows sample, assay reagents, and wash solutions to be perfused over a micro-column of beads, resulting in faster and more sensitive immunoassays. The automated fluidic approach resulted in up to five-fold improvements in immunoassay sensitivity/speed as compared to identical immunoassays performed in a typical manual batch mode. A second approach for implementing multiplexed bead-based immunoassays without using flow cytometry detection is currently under development. The goal of the microfluidic-based approach is to achieve rapid (<20 minutes), multiplexed (>= 3 bioagents) detection using a simple and low-cost, integrated microfluidic/optical detection platform. Using fiber-optic guided laser-induced fluorescence, assay detection limits were shown to be in the 100's of picomolar range (10's of micrograms per liter) for botulinum neurotoxin simulant without any optimization of the microfluidic device or optical detection approach.

  14. Technical advances in flow cytometry-based diagnosis and monitoring of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria

    PubMed Central

    Correia, Rodolfo Patussi; Bento, Laiz Cameirão; Bortolucci, Ana Carolina Apelle; Alexandre, Anderson Marega; Vaz, Andressa da Costa; Schimidell, Daniela; Pedro, Eduardo de Carvalho; Perin, Fabricio Simões; Nozawa, Sonia Tsukasa; Mendes, Cláudio Ernesto Albers; Barroso, Rodrigo de Souza; Bacal, Nydia Strachman

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To discuss the implementation of technical advances in laboratory diagnosis and monitoring of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria for validation of high-sensitivity flow cytometry protocols. Methods: A retrospective study based on analysis of laboratory data from 745 patient samples submitted to flow cytometry for diagnosis and/or monitoring of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Results: Implementation of technical advances reduced test costs and improved flow cytometry resolution for paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria clone detection. Conclusion: High-sensitivity flow cytometry allowed more sensitive determination of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria clone type and size, particularly in samples with small clones. PMID:27759825

  15. Digital analysis and sorting of fluorescence lifetime by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Houston, Jessica P; Naivar, Mark A; Freyer, James P

    2010-09-01

    Frequency-domain flow cytometry techniques are combined with modifications to the digital signal-processing capabilities of the open reconfigurable cytometric acquisition system (ORCAS) to analyze fluorescence decay lifetimes and control sorting. Real-time fluorescence lifetime analysis is accomplished by rapidly digitizing correlated, radiofrequency (RF)-modulated detector signals, implementing Fourier analysis programming with ORCAS' digital signal processor (DSP) and converting the processed data into standard cytometric list mode data. To systematically test the capabilities of the ORCAS 50 MS/sec analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and our DSP programming, an error analysis was performed using simulated light scatter and fluorescence waveforms (0.5-25 ns simulated lifetime), pulse widths ranging from 2 to 15 micros, and modulation frequencies from 2.5 to 16.667 MHz. The standard deviations of digitally acquired lifetime values ranged from 0.112 to >2 ns, corresponding to errors in actual phase shifts from 0.0142 degrees to 1.6 degrees. The lowest coefficients of variation (<1%) were found for 10-MHz modulated waveforms having pulse widths of 6 micros and simulated lifetimes of 4 ns. Direct comparison of the digital analysis system to a previous analog phase-sensitive flow cytometer demonstrated similar precision and accuracy on measurements of a range of fluorescent microspheres, unstained cells, and cells stained with three common fluorophores. Sorting based on fluorescence lifetime was accomplished by adding analog outputs to ORCAS and interfacing with a commercial cell sorter with a RF-modulated solid-state laser. Two populations of fluorescent microspheres with overlapping fluorescence intensities but different lifetimes (2 and 7 ns) were separated to approximately 98% purity. Overall, the digital signal acquisition and processing methods we introduce present a simple yet robust approach to phase-sensitive measurements in flow cytometry. The ability to

  16. Modeling flow cytometry data for cancer vaccine immune monitoring.

    PubMed

    Frelinger, Jacob; Ottinger, Janet; Gouttefangeas, Cécile; Chan, Cliburn

    2010-09-01

    Flow cytometry (FCM) is widely used in cancer research for diagnosis, detection of minimal residual disease, as well as immune monitoring and profiling following immunotherapy. In all these applications, the challenge is to detect extremely rare cell subsets while avoiding spurious positive events. To achieve this objective, it helps to be able to analyze FCM data using multiple markers simultaneously, since the additional information provided often helps to minimize the number of false positive and false negative events, hence increasing both sensitivity and specificity. However, with manual gating, at most two markers can be examined in a single dot plot, and a sequential strategy is often used. As the sequential strategy discards events that fall outside preceding gates at each stage, the effectiveness of the strategy is difficult to evaluate without laborious and painstaking back-gating. Model-based analysis is a promising computational technique that works using information from all marker dimensions simultaneously, and offers an alternative approach to flow analysis that can usefully complement manual gating in the design of optimal gating strategies. Results from model-based analysis will be illustrated with examples from FCM assays commonly used in cancer immunotherapy laboratories.

  17. Microchip-based flow cytometry for effective detection and count

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Canjun; Zhang, Zhiyi; Lin, Min; Cao, Xudong; Zhang, Feiling

    2009-06-01

    High-throughput detection and identification of foodborne pathogens are in increasing demand for rapid bacteria detections in food safety and quality monitoring. As an effective method, microchip-based flow cytometry (microcytometery) has a potential to be less expensive and high throughout, and requires less bulky instrumentation than conventional methods. In this work, a low-cost and robust microcytometer with a simple optical setup was developed for demonstrating the high-throughput identification of foodborne bacterial pathogens that integrate sample flow focusing and detection into one testing procedure. High performance identification capability was achieved through simultaneously detecting the fluorescence and scatter light emitted from micro-fabricated channel, after designing and optimizing the laser shaping optical system and the micro-channel structure to improve the excitation light intensity as well as the detection sensitivity. In our configuration, the simple testing configuration with the collection angle of 42° in the orthogonal plane to micro chip presents the best SNR for both signals through simulation and systematic measurements. As a result, the maximum throughput of 83particles/s for the fluorescence-labelled bead with diameter of 1.013μm was obtained as well as the high detection efficiency (above 99%) and the correlation percentage (above 99.5%). Apart from the high detection sensitivity and identification power, this microcytometer also has the advantages of simple optical structure, compactness and ease in building.

  18. Diagnostic flow cytometry for low-grade myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Kiyoyuki

    2008-12-01

    It has long been considered that flow cytometry (FCM) has little role in clinical practice in the diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). However, recent advances in the analytical method and knowledge of MDS FCM are changing this stereotype. This paper reviews the concept and current status of FCM in the diagnosis of low-grade MDS. The diagnosis of low-grade MDS in the absence of ringed sideroblasts and chromosomal aberration is not always straightforward, and a report from a recent international working conference has proposed FCM as an adjunctive diagnostic test for such cases. Currently, only a limited number of laboratories are applying FCM to the diagnosis of MDS. Furthermore, standard analytical methods in FCM for MDS have not been established, and no single FCM parameter is sufficiently sensitive and specific to make the diagnosis of MDS. To establish MDS FCM as a widely accepted, dependable diagnostic tool, prospective studies should increase flow parameters that can be analysed reproducibly and determine their sensitivity and specificity, either alone or in combination. CD34+ cell-related parameters that are applicable for diagnosing low-grade MDS in many laboratories are introduced here.

  19. Evaluation of a green laser pointer for flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Habbersett, Robert C; Naivar, Mark A; Woods, Travis A; Goddard, Gregory R; Graves, Steven W

    2007-10-01

    Flow cytometers typically incorporate expensive lasers with high-quality (TEM00) output beam structure and very stable output power, significantly increasing system cost and power requirements. Red diode lasers minimize power consumption and cost, but limit fluorophore selection. Low-cost DPSS laser pointer modules could possibly offer increased wavelength selection but presumed emission instability has limited their use. A $160 DPSS 532 nm laser pointer module was first evaluated for noise characteristics and then used as the excitation light source in a custom-built flow cytometer for the analysis of fluorescent calibration and alignment microspheres. Eight of ten modules tested were very quiet (RMS noise < or = 0.6% between 0 and 5 MHz). With a quiet laser pointer module as the light source in a slow-flow system, fluorescence measurements from alignment microspheres produced CVs of about 3.3%. Furthermore, the use of extended transit times and < or =1 mW of laser power produced both baseline resolution of all 8 peaks in a set of Rainbow microspheres, and a detection limit of <20 phycoerythrin molecules per particle. Data collected with the transit time reduced to 25 micros (in the same instrument but at 2.4 mW laser output) demonstrated a detection limit of approximately 75 phycoerythrin molecules and CVs of about 2.7%. The performance, cost, size, and power consumption of the tested laser pointer module suggests that it may be suitable for use in conventional flow cytometry, particularly if it were coupled with cytometers that support extended transit times.

  20. Hardware-software complex for diagnostics of breast cancer on the basis of flow cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selchuk, V. Y.; Shamilov, F. A.; Beznos, O. A.; Vorotnikov, I. K.; Polyakov, E. V.; Tupitsyn, N. N.

    2017-01-01

    The method of multicolor flow cytometry makes it possible to quantify the disseminated tumor cells (DTC) in patients with solid tumors. Application of the method multi-color flow cytometry showed its efficiency and accuracy in the detection of DTC in patients with breast cancer.

  1. Reevaluating multicolor flow cytometry to assess microbial viability.

    PubMed

    Buysschaert, Benjamin; Byloos, Bo; Leys, Natalie; Van Houdt, Rob; Boon, Nico

    2016-11-01

    Flow cytometry is a rapid and quantitative method to determine bacterial viability. Although different stains can be used to establish viability, staining protocols are inconsistent and lack a general optimization approach. Very few "true" multicolor protocols, where dyes are combined in one sample, have been developed for microbiological applications. In this mini-review, the discrepancy between protocols for cell-permeant nucleic acid and functional stains are discussed as well as their use as viability dyes. Furthermore, optimization of staining protocols for a specific setup are described. Original data using the red-excitable SYTO dyes SYTO 59 to 64 and SYTO 17, combined with functional stains, for double and triple staining applications is also included. As each dye and dye combination behaves differently within a certain combination of medium matrix, microorganism, and instrument, protocols need to be tuned to obtain reproducible results. Therefore, single, double, and triple stains are reviewed, including the different parameters that influence staining such as stain kinetics, optimal stain concentration, and the effect of the chelator EDTA as membrane permeabilizer. In the last section, we highlight the need to investigate the stability of multicolor assays to ensure correct results as multiwell autoloaders are now commonly used.

  2. Detection of circulating breast cancer cells using photoacoustic flow cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, Kiran

    According to the American Cancer Society, more than 200,000 new cases of breast cancer are expected to be diagnosed this year. Moreover, about 40,000 women died from breast cancer last year alone. As breast cancer progresses in an individual, it can transform from a localized state to a metastatic one with multiple tumors distributed through the body, not necessarily contained within the breast. Metastasis is the spread of cancer through the body by circulating tumor cells (CTCs) which can be found in the blood and lymph of the diagnosed patient. Diagnosis of a metastatic state by the discovery of a secondary tumor can often come too late and hence, significantly reduce the patient's chance of survival. There is a current need for a CTC detection method which would diagnose metastasis before the secondary tumor occurs or reaches a size resolvable by current imaging systems. Since earlier detection would improve prognosis, this study proposes a method of labeling of breast cancer cells for detection with a photoacoustic flow cytometry system as a model for CTC detection in human blood. Gold nanoparticles and fluorescent polystyrene nanoparticles are proposed as contrast agents for T47D, the breast cancer cell line of choice. The labeling, photoacoustic detection limit, and sensitivity are first characterized and then applied to a study to show detection from human blood.

  3. Quantitative assessment of Mycoplasma hemadsorption activity by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    García-Morales, Luis; González-González, Luis; Costa, Manuela; Querol, Enrique; Piñol, Jaume

    2014-01-01

    A number of adherent mycoplasmas have developed highly complex polar structures that are involved in diverse aspects of the biology of these microorganisms and play a key role as virulence factors by promoting adhesion to host cells in the first stages of infection. Attachment activity of mycoplasma cells has been traditionally investigated by determining their hemadsorption ability to red blood cells and it is a distinctive trait widely examined when characterizing the different mycoplasma species. Despite the fact that protocols to qualitatively determine the hemadsorption or hemagglutination of mycoplasmas are straightforward, current methods when investigating hemadsorption at the quantitative level are expensive and poorly reproducible. By using flow cytometry, we have developed a procedure to quantify rapidly and accurately the hemadsorption activity of mycoplasmas in the presence of SYBR Green I, a vital fluorochrome that stains nucleic acids, allowing to resolve erythrocyte and mycoplasma cells by their different size and fluorescence. This method is very reproducible and permits the kinetic analysis of the obtained data and a precise hemadsorption quantification based on standard binding parameters such as the dissociation constant K d. The procedure we developed could be easily implemented in a standardized assay to test the hemadsorption activity of the growing number of clinical isolates and mutant strains of different mycoplasma species, providing valuable data about the virulence of these microorganisms.

  4. Applications of flow cytometry in environmental microbiology and biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Bergquist, Peter L; Hardiman, Elizabeth M; Ferrari, Belinda C; Winsley, Tristrom

    2009-05-01

    Flow cytometry (FCM) is a technique for counting, examining and sorting microscopic particles suspended in a stream of fluid. It uses the principles of light scattering, light excitation and the emission from fluorescent molecules to generate specific multiparameter data from particles and cells. The cells are hydrodynamically focussed in a sheath solution before being intercepted by a focused light source provided by a laser. FCM has been used primarily in medical applications but is being used increasingly for the examination of individual cells from environmental samples. It has found uses in the isolation of both culturable and hitherto non-culturable bacteria present infrequently in environmental samples using appropriate growth conditions. FCM lends itself to high-throughput applications in directed evolution for the analysis of single cells or cell populations carrying mutant genes. It is also suitable for encapsulation studies where individual bacteria are compartmentalised with substrate in water-in-oil-in-water emulsions or with individual genes in transcriptional/translational mixtures for the production of mutant enzymes. The sensitivity of the technique has allowed the examination of gene optimisation by a procedure known as random or neutral drift where screening and selection is based on the retention of some predetermined level of activity through multiple rounds of mutagenesis.

  5. Monitoring circulating apoptotic cells by in-vivo flow cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xunbin; Tan, Yuan; Chen, Yun; Zhang, Li; Li, Yan; Liu, Guangda; Wu, Bin; Wang, Chen

    2008-02-01

    Chemotherapies currently constitute one main venue of cancer treatment. For a large number of adult and elderly patients, however, treatment options are poor. These patients may suffer from disease that is resistant to conventional chemotherapy or may not be candidates for curative therapies because of advanced age or poor medical conditions. To control disease in these patients, new therapies must be developed that are selectively targeted to unique characteristics of tumor cell growth and metastasis. A reliable early evaluation and prediction of response to the chemotherapy is critical to its success. Chemotherapies induce apoptosis in tumor cells and a portion of such apoptotic cancer cells may be present in the circulation. However, the fate of circulating tumor cells is difficult to assess with conventional methods that require blood sampling. We report the in situ measurement of circulating apoptotic cells in live animals using in vivo flow cytometry, a novel method that enables real-time detection and quantification of circulating cells without blood extraction. Apoptotic cells are rapidly cleared from the circulation with a half-life of ~10 minutes. Real-time monitoring of circulating apoptotic cells can be useful for detecting early changes in disease processes, as well as for monitoring response to therapeutic intervention.

  6. Impedance Flow Cytometry: A Novel Technique in Pollen Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lambalk, Joep; Ottiger, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction An efficient and reliable method to estimate plant cell viability, especially of pollen, is important for plant breeding research and plant production processes. Pollen quality is determined by classical methods, like staining techniques or in vitro pollen germination, each having disadvantages with respect to reliability, analysis speed, and species dependency. Analysing single cells based on their dielectric properties by impedance flow cytometry (IFC) has developed into a common method for cellular characterisation in microbiology and medicine during the last decade. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the potential of IFC in plant cell analysis with the focus on pollen. Method Developing and mature pollen grains were analysed during their passage through a microfluidic chip to which radio frequencies of 0.5 to 12 MHz were applied. The acquired data provided information about the developmental stage, viability, and germination capacity. The biological relevance of the acquired IFC data was confirmed by classical staining methods, inactivation controls, as well as pollen germination assays. Results Different stages of developing pollen, dead, viable and germinating pollen populations could be detected and quantified by IFC. Pollen viability analysis by classical FDA staining showed a high correlation with IFC data. In parallel, pollen with active germination potential could be discriminated from the dead and the viable but non-germinating population. Conclusion The presented data demonstrate that IFC is an efficient, label-free, reliable and non-destructive technique to analyse pollen quality in a species-independent manner. PMID:27832091

  7. Investigation of platelet function and platelet disorders using flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Rubak, Peter; Nissen, Peter H; Kristensen, Steen D; Hvas, Anne-Mette

    2016-01-01

    Patients with thrombocytopenia or platelet disorders are at risk of severe bleeding. We report the development and validation of flow cytometry assays to diagnose platelet disorders and to assess platelet function independently of platelet count. The assays were developed to measure glycoprotein levels (panel 1) and platelet function (panel 2) in sodium citrated blood. Twenty healthy volunteers and five patients diagnosed with different platelet disorders were included. Glycoprotein expression levels of the receptors Ia, Ib, IIb, IIIa and IX were measured and normalised with forward scatter (FS) as a measurement of platelet size. Platelet function was assessed by CD63, P-selectin and bound fibrinogen in response to arachidonic acid, adenosine diphosphate (ADP), collagen-related peptide, ristocetin and thrombin receptor-activation peptide-6. All patients except one with suspected δ-granule defect showed aberrant levels of glycoproteins in panel 1. Glanzmann's thrombasthenia and genetically verified Bernard-Soulier syndrome could be diagnosed using panel 1. All patients showed reduced platelet function according to at least one agonist. Using panel 2 it was possible to diagnose Bernard-Soulier syndrome, δ-granule defect and GPVI disorder. By combining the two assays, we were able to diagnose different platelet disorders and investigate platelet function independent of platelet count.

  8. Detecting endotoxin with a flow cytometry-based magnetic aptasensor.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Ming-Yan; Chen, Li-Juan; Jiang, Hao; Tan, Lin; Luo, Zhao-Feng; Wang, Yan-Mei

    2014-12-01

    Endotoxin, which is also known as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), is a marker for intruding gram-negative pathogens. It is essential to detect endotoxin quickly and sensitively in a complex milieu. A new flow cytometry (FCM)-based magnetic aptasensor assay that employs two endotoxin-binding aptamers and magnetic beads has been developed to detect endotoxin. The endotoxin-conjugated sandwich complex on magnetic beads was observed by scanning confocal laser microscopy. The resulting magnetic aptasensor rapidly detected (<1 min) endotoxin within a broad dynamic detection range of 10(-8) to 10(0)mg/ml in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA), RNA, sucrose, and glucose, which are most likely to coexist with endotoxin in the majority of biological liquids. Only 2 μl of magnetic aptasensor was required to quantify the endotoxin solution. Furthermore, the magnetic aptasensor could be regenerated seven times and still presented an outstanding response to the endotoxin solution. Therefore, the magnetic aptasensor exhibited high sensitivity, selectivity, and reproducibility, thereby serving as a powerful tool for the quality control and high-throughput detection of endotoxin in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

  9. Diagnostic Utility of Flow Cytometry in Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Della Porta, Matteo G.; Picone, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    The pathological hallmark of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) is marrow dysplasia, which represents the basis of the WHO classification of these disorders. This classification provides clinicians with a useful tool for defining the different subtypes of MDS and individual prognosis. The WHO proposal has raised some concern regarding minimal diagnostic criteria particularly in patients with normal karyotype without robust morphological markers of dysplasia (such as ring sideroblasts or excess of blasts). Therefore, there is clearly need to refine the accuracy to detect marrow dysplasia. Flow cytometry (FCM) immunophenotyping has been proposed as a tool to improve the evaluation of marrow dysplasia. The rationale for the application of FCM in the diagnostic work up of MDS is that immunophenotyping is an accurate method for quantitative and qualitative evaluation of hematopoietic cells and that MDS have been found to have abnormal expression of several cellular antigens. To become applicable in clinical practice, FCM analysis should be based on parameters with sufficient specificity and sensitivity, data should be reproducible between different operators, and the results should be easily understood by clinicians. In this review, we discuss the most relevant progresses in detection of marrow dysplasia by FCM in MDS PMID:28293405

  10. Techniques for the Analysis of Extracellular Vesicles Using Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Inglis, Heather; Norris, Philip; Danesh, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular Vesicles (EVs) are small, membrane-derived vesicles found in bodily fluids that are highly involved in cell-cell communication and help regulate a diverse range of biological processes. Analysis of EVs using flow cytometry (FCM) has been notoriously difficult due to their small size and lack of discrete populations positive for markers of interest. Methods for EV analysis, while considerably improved over the last decade, are still a work in progress. Unfortunately, there is no one-size-fits-all protocol, and several aspects must be considered when determining the most appropriate method to use. Presented here are several different techniques for processing EVs and two protocols for analyzing EVs using either individual detection or a bead-based approach. The methods described here will assist with eliminating the antibody aggregates commonly found in commercial preparations, increasing signal–to-noise ratio, and setting gates in a rational fashion that minimizes detection of background fluorescence. The first protocol uses an individual detection method that is especially well suited for analyzing a high volume of clinical samples, while the second protocol uses a bead-based approach to capture and detect smaller EVs and exosomes. PMID:25867010

  11. Alkaline unwinding flow cytometry assay to measure nucleotide excision repair.

    PubMed

    Thyagarajan, Bharat; Anderson, Kristin E; Lessard, Christopher J; Veltri, Gregory; Jacobs, David R; Folsom, Aaron R; Gross, Myron D

    2007-03-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER), one of the DNA repair pathways, is the primary mechanism for repair of bulky adducts caused by physical and chemical agents, such as UV radiation, cisplatin and 4-nitroquinolones. Variations in DNA repair may be a significant risk factor for several cancers, but its measurement in epidemiological studies has been hindered by the high variability, complexity and laborious nature of currently available assays. An alkaline unwinding flow cytometric assay using UV-C radiation as a DNA-damaging agent was adapted for measurement of NER-mediated breaks. This assay was based on the principle of alkaline unwinding of strand breaks in double-stranded DNA to yield single-stranded DNA with the number of strand breaks being proportional to the amount of DNA damage. This assay measured 50,000 events per sample with several samples being analyzed per specimen, thereby providing very reliable measurements, which can be performed on a large-scale basis. Using area under the curve (AUC) to quantitate amount of NER-mediated breaks, this assay was able to detect increased NER-mediated breaks with increasing doses of UV-C radiation. The assay detected NER-mediated breaks in lymphocytes from normal donors and not in xeroderma pigmentosum lymphoblastoid cell lines indicating specificity for the detection of NER-mediated breaks. The assay measured NER-mediated breaks within G(1), S and G(2)/M phases of the cell cycle; thereby decreasing variability in measurements of NER-mediated breaks due to differences in cell cycle phases. Intraindividual variability for AUC after 120 min of repair was 15% with interindividual variability being approximately 43% for cells in the G(1) phase, indicating substantial between-subject variation and relatively low within-subject variation. Thus, the alkaline unwinding flow cytometry-based assay provides a high-throughput method for the specific measurement of NER-mediated breaks in lymphocytes.

  12. Understanding microbial/DOM interactions using fluorescence and flow cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Bethany; Rushworth, Cathy; Attridge, John; Anesio, Alexandre; Cox, Tim; Reynolds, Darren

    2015-04-01

    The transformation and movement of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) within freshwater aquatic systems is an important factor in the global cycling of carbon. DOC within aquatic systems is known to underpin the microbial food web and therefore plays an essential role in supporting and maintaining the aquatic ecosystem. Despite this the interactions between bacteria and dissolved organic matter (DOM) are not well understood, although the literature indicates that the microbial processing of bioavailable DOM is essential during the production of autochthonous, labile, DOM. DOM can be broadly characterised by its fluorescing properties and Coble et al. (2014) define terrestrially derived DOM as exhibiting "peak C" fluorescence, whilst labile microbially derived DOM is defined as showing "peak T" fluorescence. Our work explores the microbial/DOM interactions by analysing aquatic samples using fluorescence excitation and emission matrices (EEMs) in conjunction with microbial consumption of dissolved oxygen. Environmental and synthetic water samples were subjected to fluorescence characterisation using both fluorescence spectroscopy and in situ fluorescence sensors (Chelsea Technologies Group Ltd.). PARAFAC analysis and peak picking were performed on EEMs and compared with flow cytometry data, used to quantify bacterial numbers present within samples. Synthetic samples were created using glucose, glutamic acid, nutrient-rich water and a standard bacterial seed. Synthetic samples were provided with terrestrially derived DOM via the addition of an aliquot of environmental water. Using a closed system approach, samples were incubated over time (up to a maximum of 20 days) and analysed at pre-defined intervals. The main focus of our work is to improve our understanding of microbial/DOM interactions and how these interactions affect both the DOM characteristics and microbial food web in freshwater aquatic systems. The information gained, in relation to the origin, microbial

  13. How fruit developmental biology makes use of flow cytometry approaches.

    PubMed

    Pirrello, Julien; Bourdon, Matthieu; Cheniclet, Catherine; Bourge, Mickaël; Brown, Spencer C; Renaudin, Jean-Pierre; Frangne, Nathalie; Chevalier, Christian

    2014-02-01

    Fleshy fruit species such as tomato are important because of their nutritional and economic value. Several stages of fruit development such as ovary formation, fruit set, and fruit maturation have already been the subject of many developmental studies. However, fruit growth per se has been much less addressed. Fruit growth like all plant organs depends upon the developmental processes of cell division and cell expansion. The activity of cell divisions sets the number of cells that will compose the fruit; the cell expansion activity then determines its final size. Among the various mechanisms that may influence the determination of cell size, endopolyploidy by the means of endoreduplication, i.e. genome amplification in the absence of mitosis, appears to be of great importance in fleshy fruits. In tomato fruit, endoreduplication is associated with DNA-dependent cell expansion: cell size can reach spectacular levels such as hundreds of times its initial size (e.g. >0.5 mm in diameter), with as much as a 256-fold increase in nuclear DNA content. Using tomato fruit development as a model, recent investigations combining the use of flow cytometry, cellular imaging and molecular analyses have provided new data in favor of the long-standing karyoplasmic ratio theory, stating that cells tend to adjust their cytoplasmic volume to the nuclear DNA content. By establishing a highly structured cellular system where multiple physiological functions are integrated, endoreduplication acts as a morphogenetic factor supporting cell growth during tomato fruit development. In the context of plant breeding, deciphering the mechanisms controlling fruit growth, in particular those connecting the process of nuclear endoreduplication with modulation of gene expression, the regulation of cell size and final fruit size and composition, is necessary to understand better the establishment of fleshy fruit quality traits.

  14. Aequorea green fluorescent protein analysis by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Ropp, J D; Donahue, C J; Wolfgang-Kimball, D; Hooley, J J; Chin, J Y; Hoffman, R A; Cuthbertson, R A; Bauer, K D

    1995-12-01

    The isolation and expression of the cDNA for the green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the bioluminescent jellyfish Aequorea victoria has highlighted its potential use as a marker for gene expression in a variety of cell types (Chalfie et al.: Science 263: 802-805, 1994). The longer wavelength peak (470 nm) of GFP's bimodal absorption spectrum better matches standard fluorescein filter sets; however, it has a considerably lower amplitude than the major absorption peak at 395. In an effort to increase the sensitivity of GFP with routinely available instrumentation, Heim et al. (Nature 373:663-664, 1995) have generated a GFP mutant (serine-65 to threonine; S65T-GFP) which possesses a single absorption peak centered at 490 nm. We have constructed this mutant in order to determine whether it or wild-type GFP (wt-GFP) afforded greater sensitivity when excited near their respective absorption maxima. Using the conventionally available 488 nm and ultraviolet (UV) laser lines from the argon ion laser as well as the 407 nm line from a krypton ion laser with enhanced violet emission, we were able to closely match the absorption maxima of both the S65T and wild-type forms of Aequorea GFP and analyze differences in fluorescence intensity of transiently transfected 293 cells with flow cytometry. The highest fluorescence signal was observed with 488 nm excitation of S65T-GFP relative to all other laser line/GFP pairs. The wt-GFP fluorescence intensity, in contrast, was significantly higher at 407 nm relative to either 488 nm or UV. These results were consistent with parallel spectrofluorometric analysis of the emission spectrum for wt-GFP and S65T-GFP. The relative contribution of cellular autofluorescence at each wavelength was also investigated and shown to be significantly reduced at 407 nm relative to either UV or 488 nm.

  15. Aequorea green fluorescent protein analysis by flow cytometry

    SciTech Connect

    Ropp, J.D.; Cuthbertson, R.A.; Donahue, C.J.; Wolfgang-Kimball, D.

    1995-12-01

    The isolation and expression of the cDNA for the green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the bioluminescent jellyfish Aequorea victoria has highlighted its potential use as a marker for gene expression in a variety of cell types. The longer wavelength peak (470 nm) of GFP`s bimodal absorption spectrum better matches standard fluorescein filter sets; however, it has a considerably lower amplitude than the major absorption peak at 395. In an effort to increase the sensitivity of GFP with routinely available instrumentation, Heim et al. have generated a GFP mutant (serine-65 to threonine; S65T-GFP) which possesses a single absorption peak centered at 490 nm. We have constructed this mutant in order to determine whether it or wild-type GFP (wt-GFP) afforded greater sensitivity when excited near their respective absorption maxima. Using the conventionally available 488 nm and ultraviolet (UV) laser lines from the argon ion laser as well as the 407 nm line from a krypton ion laser with enhanced violet emission, we were able to closely match the absorption maxima of both the S65T and wild-type forms of Aequorea GFP and analyze differences in fluorescence intensity of transiently transfected 293 cells with flow cytometry. The highest fluorescence signal was observed with 488 nm excitation of S65T-GFP relative to all other laser line/GFP pairs. The wt-GFP fluorescence intensity, in contrast, was significantly higher at 407 nm relative to either 488 nm or UV. These results were consistent with parallel spectrofluorometric analysis of the emission spectrum for wt-GFP and S65T- GFP. The relative contribution of cellular autofluorescence at each wavelength was also investigated and shown to be significantly reduced at 407 nm relative to either UV or 488 nm. 29 refs., 5 figs.

  16. Staging and monitoring of childhood rhabdomyosarcoma with flow cytometry

    PubMed Central

    SHEN, HONGQIANG; TANG, YONGMIN; DONG, AO; LI, HUAMEI; SHEN, DIYING; YANG, SHILONG; TANG, HONGFENG; GU, WEIZHONG; SHU, QIANG

    2014-01-01

    Patients with metastatic rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) have a poor prognosis. The detection of contaminating RMS cells in the bone marrow (BM) is important in clinical staging and risk assessment. The cytological examination of the BM remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of RMS, but has a limited sensitivity. In the present study, 32 BM and two cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 11 patients with suspected metastasis were analyzed by flow cytometry (FCM) with ganglioside D2 (GD2) conjugated with fluorescein isothiocyanate, cluster of differentiation (CD)90-phycoerythrin, CD45-peridinin chlorophyll protein and CD56-allophycocyanin monoclonal antibody cocktail in parallel to morphological examination at diagnosis or during treatment. Five samples (14.7%) were positive for RMS onup morphological examination. By FCM, 16 samples (47.1%) were positive for RMS. A significant difference was identified between the two methods. The four-color FCM assay successfully detected RMS cells in BM samples to a level of 0.01% (1 per 104 cells). RMS cells demonstrated a phenotype with CD56+/CD90+/CD45−/GD2− expression, which is different from the CD56+/CD90+/CD45−/GD2+ expression phenotype in neuroblastoma cells. The follow-up of four patients by FCM demonstrated that two patients became minimal residual disease-negative following two and four cycles of chemotherapy, respectively, and survived. The other two cases remained FCM-positive despite receiving four courses of chemotherapy and consequently succumbed to progressive disease. In addition, FCM analysis of the CSF samples from one patient confirmed a diagnosis of CSF metastasis with RMS. In conclusion, FCM may have a role not only in staging and monitoring the effects of therapy, but also in providing diagnostic confirmation of CSF metastasis with RMS. PMID:24944652

  17. Applications of imaging flow cytometry in the diagnostic assessment of acute leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Grimwade, Lizz F; Fuller, Kathryn A; Erber, Wendy N

    2017-01-01

    Automated imaging flow cytometry integrates flow cytometry with digital microscopy to produce high-resolution digital imaging with quantitative analysis. This enables cell identification based on morphology (cell size, shape), antigen expression, quantification of fluorescence signal intensity and localisation of detected signals (i.e. surface, cytoplasm, nuclear). We describe applications of imaging flow cytometry for the diagnostic assessment of acute leukaemia. These bone marrow malignancies are traditionally diagnosed and classified by cell morphology, phenotype and cytogenetic abnormalities. Traditionally morphology is assessed by light microscopy, phenotyping by conventional flow cytometry and genetics by karyotype and fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) on interphase nuclei/metaphase spreads of cells on slides. Imaging flow cytometry adds a new dimension to the diagnostic assessment of these neoplasms. We describe three specific applications: From this we conclude that imaging flow cytometry offers benefits over conventional diagnostic methods. Specifically the ability to visualise the cells of interest, the pattern and localisation of expressed antigens and assess cytogenetic abnormalities in one integrated automated high-throughput test. Imaging flow cytometry presents a new paradigm for the diagnostic assessment of leukaemia.

  18. Good Cell, Bad Cell: Flow Cytometry Reveals T-cell Subsets Important in HIV Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chattopadhyay, Pratip K.; Roederer, Mario

    2010-01-01

    Flow cytometry is a key technology in the study of HIV disease. In this article, we review various cellular markers that can be measured in the setting of pathogenesis or vaccination studies, including markers of activation, differentiation, senescence, immune suppression, and function. In addition, we discuss important considerations for making these measurements. Finally, we examine how flow cytometry studies have taught researchers about the disease process, and the potential for flow cytometry technology to guide treatment decisions and evaluate vaccine candidates in the future. PMID:20583275

  19. Analysis of Individual Molecular Events of DNA Damage Response by Flow and Image Assisted Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew; Traganos, Frank; Zhao, Hong; Halicka, H. Dorota; Skommer, Joanna; Wlodkowic, Donald

    2010-01-01

    This chapter describes molecular mechanisms of DNA damage response (DDR) and presents flow- and image-assisted cytometric approaches to assess these mechanisms and measure the extent of DDR in individual cells. DNA damage was induced by cell treatment with oxidizing agents, UV light, DNA topoisomerase I or II inhibitors, cisplatin, tobacco smoke, and by exogenous and endogenous oxidants. Chromatin relaxation (decondensation) is an early event of DDR chromatin that involves modification of high mobility group proteins (HMGs) and histone H1 and was detected by cytometry by analysis of the susceptibility of DNA in situ to denaturation using the metachromatic fluorochrome acridine orange. Translocation of the MRN complex consisting of Meiotic Recombination 11 Homolog A (Mre11), Rad50 homolog and Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome 1 (NMR1) into DNA damage sites was assessed by laser scanning cytometry as the increase in the intensity of maximal pixel as well as integral value of Mre11 immunofluorescence. Examples of cytometric detection of activation of Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), and Check 2 (Chk2) protein kinases using phospho-specific Abs targeting Ser1981 and Thr68 of these proteins, respectively are also presented. We also discuss approaches to correlate activation of ATM and Chk2 with phosphorylation of p53 on Ser15 and histone H2AX on Ser139 as well as with cell cycle position and DNA replication. The capability of laser scanning cytometry to quantify individual foci of phosphorylated H2AX and/or ATM that provides more dependable assessment of the presence of DNA double-strand breaks is outlined. The new microfluidic Lab-on-a-Chip platforms for interrogation of individual cells offer a novel approach for DDR cytometric analysis. PMID:21722802

  20. Preparing a Minimum Information about a Flow Cytometry Experiment (MIFlowCyt) compliant manuscript using the International Society for Advancement of Cytometry (ISAC) FCS file repository (FlowRepository.org).

    PubMed

    Spidlen, Josef; Breuer, Karin; Brinkman, Ryan

    2012-07-01

    FlowRepository.org is a Web-based flow cytometry data repository provided by the International Society for Advancement of Cytometry (ISAC). It supports storage, annotation, analysis, and sharing of flow cytometry datasets. A fundamental tenet of scientific research is that published results should be open to independent validation and refutation. With FlowRepository, researchers can annotate their datasets in compliance with the Minimum Information about a Flow Cytometry Experiment (MIFlowCyt) standard, thus greatly facilitating third-party interpretation of their data. In this unit, we will mainly focus on the deposition, sharing, and annotation of flow cytometry data.

  1. Visualization of pulmonary clearance mechanisms via noninvasive optical imaging validated by near-infrared flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Haiying; Gunsten, Sean P; Zhegalova, Natalia G; Bloch, Sharon; Achilefu, Samuel; Christopher Holley, J; Schweppe, Daniel; Akers, Walter; Brody, Steven L; Eades, William C; Berezin, Mikhail Y

    2015-05-01

    In vivo optical imaging with near-infrared (NIR) probes is an established method of diagnostics in preclinical and clinical studies. However, the specificities of these probes are difficult to validate ex vivo due to the lack of NIR flow cytometry. To address this limitation, we modified a flow cytometer to include an additional NIR channel using a 752 nm laser line. The flow cytometry system was tested using NIR microspheres and cell lines labeled with a combination of visible range and NIR fluorescent dyes. The approach was verified in vivo in mice evaluated for immune response in lungs after intratracheal delivery of the NIR contrast agent. Flow cytometry of cells obtained from the lung bronchoalveolar lavage demonstrated that the NIR dye was taken up by pulmonary macrophages as early as 4-h post-injection. This combination of optical imaging with NIR flow cytometry extends the capability of imaging and enables complementation of in vivo imaging with cell-specific studies.

  2. An open-source solution for advanced imaging flow cytometry data analysis using machine learning.

    PubMed

    Hennig, Holger; Rees, Paul; Blasi, Thomas; Kamentsky, Lee; Hung, Jane; Dao, David; Carpenter, Anne E; Filby, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Imaging flow cytometry (IFC) enables the high throughput collection of morphological and spatial information from hundreds of thousands of single cells. This high content, information rich image data can in theory resolve important biological differences among complex, often heterogeneous biological samples. However, data analysis is often performed in a highly manual and subjective manner using very limited image analysis techniques in combination with conventional flow cytometry gating strategies. This approach is not scalable to the hundreds of available image-based features per cell and thus makes use of only a fraction of the spatial and morphometric information. As a result, the quality, reproducibility and rigour of results are limited by the skill, experience and ingenuity of the data analyst. Here, we describe a pipeline using open-source software that leverages the rich information in digital imagery using machine learning algorithms. Compensated and corrected raw image files (.rif) data files from an imaging flow cytometer (the proprietary .cif file format) are imported into the open-source software CellProfiler, where an image processing pipeline identifies cells and subcellular compartments allowing hundreds of morphological features to be measured. This high-dimensional data can then be analysed using cutting-edge machine learning and clustering approaches using "user-friendly" platforms such as CellProfiler Analyst. Researchers can train an automated cell classifier to recognize different cell types, cell cycle phases, drug treatment/control conditions, etc., using supervised machine learning. This workflow should enable the scientific community to leverage the full analytical power of IFC-derived data sets. It will help to reveal otherwise unappreciated populations of cells based on features that may be hidden to the human eye that include subtle measured differences in label free detection channels such as bright-field and dark-field imagery.

  3. Flow cytometry in the exploration of the physiopathology of occupational lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Curran, A. D.

    1999-01-01

    Flow cytometry is a simple analytical technique used for the investigation of cells taken from various sources. Cells are identified by both their physical characteristics and the presence or absence of specific molecules on the cell surface. These molecules may be either phenotypic, or induced by a specific stimulus. Flow cytometry has been used to identify the nature and extent of the immune response in several occupational respiratory conditions including occupational asthma, irritant induced respiratory problems, and asbestos related lung disease. Also, it may be of value in monitoring workplace exposure to some hazardous materials. Although of limited diagnostic value at present, the technique has provided an insight into the modulation of immune cells, and their function, in people exposed to hazardous materials in the workplace. In this review, the principals of flow cytometry will be explored and the use of flow cytometry to investigate occupational respiratory disease will be discussed.   PMID:10658559

  4. Implementation of erythroid lineage analysis by flow cytometry in diagnostic models for myelodysplastic syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Cremers, Eline M.P.; Westers, Theresia M.; Alhan, Canan; Cali, Claudia; Visser-Wisselaar, Heleen A.; Chitu, Dana A.; van der Velden, Vincent H.J.; te Marvelde, Jeroen G.; Klein, Saskia K.; Muus, Petra; Vellenga, Edo; de Greef, Georgina E.; Legdeur, Marie-Cecile C.J.C.; Wijermans, Pierre W.; Stevens-Kroef, Marian J.P.L.; da Silva-Coelho, Pedro; Jansen, Joop H.; Ossenkoppele, Gert J.; van de Loosdrecht, Arjan A.

    2017-01-01

    Flow cytometric analysis is a recommended tool in the diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndromes. Current flow cytometric approaches evaluate the (im)mature myelo-/monocytic lineage with a median sensitivity and specificity of ~71% and ~93%, respectively. We hypothesized that the addition of erythroid lineage analysis could increase the sensitivity of flow cytometry. Hereto, we validated the analysis of erythroid lineage parameters recommended by the International/European LeukemiaNet Working Group for Flow Cytometry in Myelodysplastic Syndromes, and incorporated this evaluation in currently applied flow cytometric models. One hundred and sixty-seven bone marrow aspirates were analyzed; 106 patients with myelodysplastic syndromes, and 61 cytopenic controls. There was a strong correlation between presence of erythroid aberrancies assessed by flow cytometry and the diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndromes when validating the previously described erythroid evaluation. Furthermore, addition of erythroid aberrancies to two different flow cytometric models led to an increased sensitivity in detecting myelodysplastic syndromes: from 74% to 86% for the addition to the diagnostic score designed by Ogata and colleagues, and from 69% to 80% for the addition to the integrated flow cytometric score for myelodysplastic syndromes, designed by our group. In both models the specificity was unaffected. The high sensitivity and specificity of flow cytometry in the detection of myelodysplastic syndromes illustrates the important value of flow cytometry in a standardized diagnostic approach. The trial is registered at www.trialregister.nl as NTR1825; EudraCT n.: 2008-002195-10 PMID:27658438

  5. Image and flow cytometry: companion techniques for adherent and non-adherent cell analysis and sorting.

    PubMed

    Métézeau, P

    1993-01-01

    Flow cytometry (FMC) is an analytical and preparative technique whereas image analysis is only applied to cell analysis. Recently, image analysis has been adapted as a preparative method using a new technique: image cytometry for analysis and sorting (ICAS). FCM and ICAS are complementary. Flow cytometry allows rapid, quantitative and precise study of fluorescence and light scattering in a large number of cells in suspension, while ICAS analyses fewer cells (adherent cells or tissue) on the basis of fluorescence, morphology and size. ICAS can use these criteria to destroy unwanted cells and hence sort selected cells. ICAS can also be used for confocal microscopy and laser surgery.

  6. [Assessment of bactericidal and growth-inhibiting activity of blood serum using flow cytometry and photometry].

    PubMed

    Budikhina, A S; Mikhaĭlova, N A; Bitkova, E E; Khvatov, V B; Pinegin, B V

    2007-01-01

    Method of measurement of biological fluids bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus using laser flow cytometry has been developed and proposed for clinical use. Overall bactericidal activity of sera of healthy donors has been assessed by this method. Strong positive correlation between bactericidal activity measured by flow cytometry and ability of the sera of healthy donors to inhibit bacterial growth assessed by photometric method was determined. High degree of positive correlation between results of cytometry and classical microbiological method of measurement of mentioned parameters has been shown.

  7. Imaging Flow Cytometry for the Study of Erythroid Cell Biology and Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Samsel, Leigh; McCoy, J Philip

    2015-01-01

    Erythroid cell maturation and diseases affecting erythrocytes are frequently accompanied by morphologic and immunophenotypic changes to these cells. In the past, these changes have been assessed primarily through the use of manual microscopy, which substantially limits the statistical rigor, throughput, and objectivity of these studies. Imaging flow cytometry provides a technology to examine both the morphology of cells as well as to quantify the staining intensity and signal distribution of numerous fluorescent markers on a cell-by-cell basis with high throughput in a statistically robust manner, and thus is ideally suited to studying erythroid cell biology. To date imaging flow cytometry has been used to study erythrocytes in three areas: 1) erythroid cell maturation, 2) sickle cell disease, and 3) infectious diseases such as malaria. In the maturation studies, imaging flow cytometry can closely recapitulate known stages of maturation and has led to the identification of a new population of erythroid cell precursors. In sickle cell disease, imaging flow cytometry provides a robust method to quantify sickled erythrocytes and to identify cellular aggregates linked to morbidities, and in malaria, imaging flow cytometry has been used to screen for new chemotherapeutic agents. These studies have demonstrated the value of imaging flow cytometry for investigations of erythrocyte biology and pathology. PMID:25858229

  8. Simplified protocol for flow cytometry analysis of fluorescently labeled exosomes and microvesicles using dedicated flow cytometer

    PubMed Central

    Pospichalova, Vendula; Svoboda, Jan; Dave, Zankruti; Kotrbova, Anna; Kaiser, Karol; Klemova, Dobromila; Ilkovics, Ladislav; Hampl, Ales; Crha, Igor; Jandakova, Eva; Minar, Lubos; Weinberger, Vit; Bryja, Vitezslav

    2015-01-01

    Flow cytometry is a powerful method, which is widely used for high-throughput quantitative and qualitative analysis of cells. However, its straightforward applicability for extracellular vesicles (EVs) and mainly exosomes is hampered by several challenges, reflecting mostly the small size of these vesicles (exosomes: ~80–200 nm, microvesicles: ~200–1,000 nm), their polydispersity, and low refractive index. The current best and most widely used protocol for beads-free flow cytometry of exosomes uses ultracentrifugation (UC) coupled with floatation in sucrose gradient for their isolation, labeling with lipophilic dye PKH67 and antibodies, and an optimized version of commercial high-end cytometer for analysis. However, this approach requires an experienced flow cytometer operator capable of manual hardware adjustments and calibration of the cytometer. Here, we provide a novel and fast approach for quantification and characterization of both exosomes and microvesicles isolated from cell culture media as well as from more complex human samples (ascites of ovarian cancer patients) suitable for multiuser labs by using a flow cytometer especially designed for small particles, which can be used without adjustments prior to data acquisition. EVs can be fluorescently labeled with protein-(Carboxyfluoresceinsuccinimidyl ester, CFSE) and/or lipid- (FM) specific dyes, without the necessity of removing the unbound fluorescent dye by UC, which further facilitates and speeds up the characterization of microvesicles and exosomes using flow cytometry. In addition, double labeling with protein- and lipid-specific dyes enables separation of EVs from common contaminants of EV preparations, such as protein aggregates or micelles formed by unbound lipophilic styryl dyes, thus not leading to overestimation of EV numbers. Moreover, our protocol is compatible with antibody labeling using fluorescently conjugated primary antibodies. The presented methodology opens the possibility for

  9. Rapid Patterning of 1-D Collagenous Topography as an ECM Protein Fibril Platform for Image Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Niannan; Li, Xia; Bertulli, Cristina; Li, Zhaoying; Patharagulpong, Atipat; Sadok, Amine; Huang, Yan Yan Shery

    2014-01-01

    Cellular behavior is strongly influenced by the architecture and pattern of its interfacing extracellular matrix (ECM). For an artificial culture system which could eventually benefit the translation of scientific findings into therapeutic development, the system should capture the key characteristics of a physiological microenvironment. At the same time, it should also enable standardized, high throughput data acquisition. Since an ECM is composed of different fibrous proteins, studying cellular interaction with individual fibrils will be of physiological relevance. In this study, we employ near-field electrospinning to create ordered patterns of collagenous fibrils of gelatin, based on an acetic acid and ethyl acetate aqueous co-solvent system. Tunable conformations of micro-fibrils were directly deposited onto soft polymeric substrates in a single step. We observe that global topographical features of straight lines, beads-on-strings, and curls are dictated by solution conductivity; whereas the finer details such as the fiber cross-sectional profile are tuned by solution viscosity. Using these fibril constructs as cellular assays, we study EA.hy926 endothelial cells' response to ROCK inhibition, because of ROCK's key role in the regulation of cell shape. The fibril array was shown to modulate the cellular morphology towards a pre-capillary cord-like phenotype, which was otherwise not observed on a flat 2-D substrate. Further facilitated by quantitative analysis of morphological parameters, the fibril platform also provides better dissection in the cells' response to a H1152 ROCK inhibitor. In conclusion, the near-field electrospun fibril constructs provide a more physiologically-relevant platform compared to a featureless 2-D surface, and simultaneously permit statistical single-cell image cytometry using conventional microscopy systems. The patterning approach described here is also expected to form the basics for depositing other protein fibrils, seen among

  10. Confocal Microscopy and Flow Cytometry System Performance: Assessment of QA Parameters that affect data Quanitification

    EPA Science Inventory

    Flow and image cytometers can provide useful quantitative fluorescence data. We have devised QA tests to be used on both a flow cytometer and a confocal microscope to assure that the data is accurate, reproducible and precise. Flow Cytometry: We have provided two simple perform...

  11. Multiplexed microbead immunoassays by flow cytometry for molecular profiling: Basic concepts and proteomics applications.

    PubMed

    Krishhan, V V; Khan, Imran H; Luciw, Paul A

    2009-01-01

    Flow cytometry was originally established as an automated method for measuring optical or fluorescence characteristics of cells or particles in suspension. With the enormous increase in development of reliable electronics, lasers, micro-fluidics, as well as many advances in immunology and other fields, flow cytometers have become user-friendlier, less-expensive instruments with an increasing importance for both basic research and clinical applications. Conventional uses of flow cytometry include immunophenotyping of blood cells and the analysis of the cell cycle. Importantly, methods for labeling microbeads with unique combinations of fluorescent spectral signatures have made multiplex analysis of soluble analytes (i.e. the ability to detect multiple targets in a single test sample) feasible by flow cytometry. The result is a rapid, high-throughput, sensitive, and reproducible detection technology for a wide range of biomedical applications requiring detection of proteins (in cells and biofluids) and nucleic acids. Thus, novel methods of flow cytometry are becoming important for diagnostic purposes (e.g. identifying multiple clinical biomarkers for a wide range of diseases) as well as for developing novel therapies (e.g. elucidating drug mechanisms and potential toxicities). In addition, flow cytometry for multiplex analysis, coupled with automated sample handling devices, has the potential to significantly enhance proteomics research, particularly analysis of post-translational modifications of proteins, on a large scale. Inherently, flow cytometry methods are strongly rooted in the laws of the physics of optics, fluidics, and electromagnetism. This review article describes principles and early sources of flow cytometry, provides an introduction to the multiplex microbead technology, and discusses its applications and advantages in comparison to other methods. Anticipated future directions, particularly for translational research in medicine, are also discussed.

  12. Drug Discovery Testing Compounds in Patients Samples by Automated Flow Cytometry.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Pilar; Gorrochategui, Julián; Primo, Daniel; Robles, Alicia; Rojas, José Luis; Espinosa, Ana Belén; Gómez, Cristina; Martínez-López, Joaquín; Bennett, Teresa A; Ballesteros, Joan

    2017-03-01

    Functional ex vivo assays that predict a patient's clinical response to anticancer drugs for guiding cancer treatment have long been a goal, but few have yet proved to be reliable. To address this, we have developed an automated flow cytometry platform for drug screening that evaluates multiple endpoints with a robust data analysis system that can capture the complex mechanisms of action across different compounds. This system, called PharmaFlow, is used to test peripheral blood or bone marrow samples from patients diagnosed with hematological malignancies. Functional assays that use the whole sample, retaining all the microenvironmental components contained in the sample, offer an approach to ex vivo testing that may give results that are clinically relevant. This new approach can help to predict the patients' response to existing treatments or to drugs under development, for hematological malignancies or other tumors. In addition, relevant biomarkers can be identified that determine the patient's sensitivity, resistance, or toxicity to a given treatment. We propose that this approach, which better recapitulates the human microenvironment, constitutes a more predictive assay for personalized medicine and preclinical drug discovery.

  13. In vitro micronucleus assay for the analysis of total particulate matter in cigarette smoke: comparison of flow cytometry and laser scanning cytometry with microscopy.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jianhua; Gao, Qian; Mi, Qili; Li, Xuemei; Miao, Mingming; Cheng, Peng; Luo, Ying

    2013-08-15

    The possible genotoxicity of the total particulate matter (TPM) in cigarette smoke has typically been evaluated using the in vitro micronucleus assay. In recent years, automated scoring techniques have been developed to replace the manual counting process in this assay. However, these automated scoring techniques have not been applied in routine genotoxicity assays for the analysis of TPM to improve the assay efficiency. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were treated with TPM produced from 14 types of cigarettes at five concentrations (25-200μg/ml) without exogenous metabolic activation. The three following methods were used to score the micronucleus (MN) frequency: (a) flow cytometry with SYTOX and EMA dyes, which differentially stain micronuclei and apoptotic/necrotic chromatin to enhance assay reliability; (b) laser scanning cytometry with FITC and PI dyes, which is a system that combines the analytical capabilities of flow and image cytometry; and (c) visual microcopy with Giemsa dye. The test results obtained using the three methods were compared using correlation analysis. The key findings for this set of compounds include the following: (a) both flow cytometry- and laser scanning cytometry-based methods were effective for MN identification, (b) the three scoring methods could detect dose-dependent micronucleus formation for the 14 types of TPM, and (c) the MN frequencies that were measured in the same samples by flow cytometry, laser scanning cytometry, and visual microscopy were highly correlated, and there were no significant differences (p>0.05). In conclusion, both flow cytometry and laser scanning cytometry can be used to evaluate the MN frequency induced by TPM without exogenous metabolic activation. The simpler and faster processing and the high correlation of the results make these two automatic methods appropriate tools for use in in vitro micronucleus assays for the analysis of TPM using CHO cells.

  14. First proposed panels on acute leukemia for four-color immunophenotyping by flow cytometry from the Brazilian group of flow cytometry-GBCFLUX.

    PubMed

    Ikoma, Maura R V; Sandes, Alex F; Thiago, Leandro S; Cavalcanti Júnior, Geraldo B; Lorand-Metze, Irene G H; Costa, Elaine S; Pimenta, Glicinia; Santos-Silva, Maria C; Bacal, Nydia S; Yamamoto, Mihoko; Souto, Elizabeth X

    2015-01-01

    Multiparameter flow cytometry is a highly sensitive, fast, and specific diagnostic technology with a wide range of applicability in hematology. Although well-established eight-color immunophenotyping panels are already available, most Brazilian clinical laboratories are equipped with four-color flow cytometer facilities. Based on this fact, the Brazilian Group of Flow Cytometry (Grupo Brasileiro de Citometria de Fluxo, GBCFLUX) for standardization of clinical flow cytometry has proposed an antibody panel designed to allow precise diagnosis and characterization of acute leukemia (AL) within resource-restricted areas. Morphological analysis of bone marrow smears, together with the screening panel, is mandatory for the primary identification of AL. The disease-oriented panels proposed here are divided into three levels of recommendations (mandatory, recommendable, and optional) in order to provide an accurate final diagnosis, as well as allow some degree of flexibility based on available local resources and patient-specific needs. The proposed panels will be subsequently validated in an interlaboratory study to evaluate its effectiveness on the diagnosis and classification of AL. (Assoc editor comm. 2).

  15. Detection of Intracellular ADAMTS13, a Secreted Zinc-metalloprotease, via Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    S., Geetha; Allen, Courtni E.; Hunt, Ryan; Plum, Elizabeth; Garfield, Susan; Friedman, Scott L.; Soejima, Kenji; Sauna, Zuben E.; Kimchi-Sarfaty, Chava

    2009-01-01

    Background ADAMTS13 is a secreted metalloprotease that cleaves von Willebrand Factor multimers and maintains proper homeostasis. A severe deficiency in ADAMTS13 triggers a disorder known as thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). At present, ADAMTS13 expression levels are determined by immunoblotting. Methods We established a flow cytometry methodology to detect intracellular ADAMTS13 in liver and kidney cells using a polyclonal antibody, BL154G, and several monoclonal antibodies previously used to detect ADAMTS13 by immunoblotting. Results were validated using confocal microscopy, immunoblotting and an activity assay (FRETS-VWF73). Results We show that labeling ADAMTS13 with specific antibodies and detection by flow cytometry yields results that are comparable to previously established methods for ADAMTS13 detection. Specifically, we compared the endogenous expression levels of ADAMTS13 in various liver cell lines using flow cytometry and obtained results that parallel immunoblot analysis. Knock-down of ADAMTS13 expression via targeted siRNA resulted in significantly reduced median signal, displaying the sensitivity of this detection method. A further analysis of reliability and specificity was achieved through plasmid DNA and transfection reagent dose response studies. Conclusions The flow cytometry method described here is useful in determining the expression of both endogenous and recombinant forms of intracellular ADAMTS13. Flow cytometry is a convenient, efficient and cost effective way to measure the expression levels of ADAMTS13. PMID:19526483

  16. Use of flow cytometry for rapid and accurate enumeration of live pathogenic Leptospira strains.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Célia; Crussard, Steve; Simon-Dufay, Nathalie; Pialot, Daniel; Bomchil, Natalia; Reyes, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Enumeration of Leptospira, the causative agent of leptospirosis, is arduous mainly because of its slow growth rate. Rapid and reliable tools for numbering leptospires are still lacking. The current standard for Leptospira cultures is the count on Petroff-Hausser chamber under dark-field microscopy, but this method remains time-consuming, requires well-trained operators and lacks reproducibility. Here we present the development of a flow-cytometry technique for counting leptospires. We showed that upon addition of fluorescent dyes, necessary to discriminate the bacterial population from debris, several live Leptospira strains could be enumerated at different physiologic states. Flow cytometry titers were highly correlated to counts with Petroff-Hausser chambers (R(2)>0.99). Advantages of flow cytometry lie in its rapidity, its reproducibility significantly higher than Petroff-Hausser method and its wide linearity range, from 10(4) to 10(8)leptospires/ml. Therefore, flow cytometry is a fast, reproducible and sensitive tool representing a promising technology to replace current enumeration techniques of Leptospira in culture. We were also able to enumerate Leptospira in artificially infected urine and blood with a sensitivity limit of 10(5)leptospires/ml and 10(6)leptospires/ml, respectively, demonstrating the feasibility to use flow cytometry as first-line tool for diagnosis or bacterial dissemination studies.

  17. Amphiphilic mediated sample preparation for micro-flow cytometry

    DOEpatents

    Clague, David S.; Wheeler, Elizabeth K.; Lee, Abraham P.

    2006-07-25

    A flow cytometer includes a flow cell for detecting the sample, an oil phase in the flow cell, a water phase in the flow cell, an oil-water interface between the oil phase and the water phase, a detector for detecting the sample at the oil-water interface, and a hydrophobic unit operatively connected to the sample. The hydrophobic unit is attached to the sample. The sample and the hydrophobic unit are placed in an oil and water combination. The sample is detected at the interface between the oil phase and the water phase.

  18. Amphiphilic mediated sample preparation for micro-flow cytometry

    DOEpatents

    Clague, David S.; Wheeler, Elizabeth K.; Lee, Abraham P.

    2009-03-17

    A flow cytometer includes a flow cell for detecting the sample, an oil phase in the flow cell, a water phase in the flow cell, an oil-water interface between the oil phase and the water phase, a detector for detecting the sample at the oil-water interface, and a hydrophobic unit operatively connected to the sample. The hydrophobic unit is attached to the sample. The sample and the hydrophobic unit are placed in an oil and water combination. The sample is detected at the interface between the oil phase and the water phase.

  19. Quantifying autophagy: Measuring LC3 puncta and autolysosome formation in cells using multispectral imaging flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Pugsley, Haley R

    2017-01-01

    The use of multispectral imaging flow cytometry has been gaining popularity due to its quantitative power, high throughput capabilities, multiplexing potential and its ability to acquire images of every cell. Autophagy is a process in which dysfunctional organelles and cellular components that accumulate during growth and differentiation are degraded via the lysosome and recycled. During autophagy, cytoplasmic LC3 is processed and recruited to the autophagosomal membranes; the autophagosome then fuses with the lysosome to form the autolysosome. Therefore, cells undergoing autophagy can be identified by visualizing fluorescently labeled LC3 puncta and/or the co-localization of fluorescently labeled LC3 and lysosomal markers. Multispectral imaging flow cytometry is able to collect imagery of large numbers of cells and assess autophagy in an objective, quantitative, and statistically robust manner. This review will examine the four predominant methods that have been used to measure autophagy via multispectral imaging flow cytometry.

  20. Methodology and Application of Flow Cytometry for Investigation of Human Malaria Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Grimberg, Brian T.

    2011-01-01

    Historically, examinations of the inhibition of malaria parasite growth/invasion, whether using drugs or antibodies, have relied on the use of microscopy or radioactive hypoxanthine uptake. These are considered gold standards for measuring the effectiveness of antimalarial treatments, however, these methods have well known shortcomings. With the advent of flow cytometry coupled with the use of fluorescent DNA stains allowed for increased speed, reproducibility, and qualitative estimates of the effectiveness of antibodies and drugs to limit malaria parasite growth which addresses the challenges of traditional techniques. Because materials and machines available to research facilities are so varied, different methods have been developed to investigate malaria parasites by flow cytometry. This review is intended to serve as a reference guide for advanced users and importantly, as a primer for new users, to support expanded use and improvements to malaria flow cytometry, particularly in endemic countries. PMID:21296083

  1. An integrated, multiparametric flow cytometry chip using "microfluidic drifting" based three-dimensional hydrodynamic focusing.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xiaole; Nawaz, Ahmad Ahsan; Lin, Sz-Chin Steven; Lapsley, Michael Ian; Zhao, Yanhui; McCoy, J Philip; El-Deiry, Wafik S; Huang, Tony Jun

    2012-06-01

    In this work, we demonstrate an integrated, single-layer, miniature flow cytometry device that is capable of multi-parametric particle analysis. The device integrates both particle focusing and detection components on-chip, including a "microfluidic drifting" based three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamic focusing component and a series of optical fibers integrated into the microfluidic architecture to facilitate on-chip detection. With this design, multiple optical signals (i.e., forward scatter, side scatter, and fluorescence) from individual particles can be simultaneously detected. Experimental results indicate that the performance of our flow cytometry chip is comparable to its bulky, expensive desktop counterpart. The integration of on-chip 3D particle focusing with on-chip multi-parametric optical detection in a single-layer, mass-producible microfluidic device presents a major step towards low-cost flow cytometry chips for point-of-care clinical diagnostics.

  2. Flow Cytometry, a Versatile Tool for Diagnosis and Monitoring of Primary Immunodeficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Aubert, Geraldine

    2016-01-01

    Genetic defects of the immune system are referred to as primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs). These immunodeficiencies are clinically and immunologically heterogeneous and, therefore, pose a challenge not only for the clinician but also for the diagnostic immunologist. There are several methodological tools available for evaluation and monitoring of patients with PIDs, and of these tools, flow cytometry has gained prominence, both for phenotyping and functional assays. Flow cytometry allows real-time analysis of cellular composition, cell signaling, and other relevant immunological pathways, providing an accessible tool for rapid diagnostic and prognostic assessment. This minireview provides an overview of the use of flow cytometry in disease-specific diagnosis of PIDs, in addition to other broader applications, which include immune phenotyping and cellular functional measurements. PMID:26912782

  3. Evidence for P-Glycoprotein Involvement in Cell Volume Regulation Using Coulter Sizing in Flow Cytometry.

    PubMed

    Pasquier, Jennifer; Rioult, Damien; Abu-Kaoud, Nadine; Hoarau-Véchot, Jessica; Marin, Matthieu; Le Foll, Frank

    2015-06-24

    The regulation of cell volume is an essential function that is coupled to a variety of physiological processes such as receptor recycling, excitability and contraction, cell proliferation, migration, and programmed cell death. Under stress, cells undergo emergency swelling and respond to such a phenomenon with a regulatory volume decrease (RVD) where they release cellular ions, and other osmolytes as well as a concomitant loss of water. The link between P-glycoprotein, a transmembrane transporter, and cell volume regulation is controversial, and changes in cells volume are measured using microscopy or electrophysiology. For instance, by using the patch-clamp method, our team demonstrated that chloride currents activated in the RVD were more intense and rapid in a breast cancer cell line overexpressing the P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The Cell Lab Quanta SC is a flow cytometry system that simultaneously measures electronic volume, side scatter and three fluorescent colors; altogether this provides unsurpassed population resolution and accurate cell counting. Therefore, here we propose a novel method to follow cellular volume. By using the Coulter-type channel of the cytometer Cell Lab Quanta SC MPL (multi-platform loading), we demonstrated a role for the P-gp during different osmotic treatments, but also a differential activity of the P-gp through the cell cycle. Altogether, our data strongly suggests a role of P-gp in cell volume regulation.

  4. Evidence for P-Glycoprotein Involvement in Cell Volume Regulation Using Coulter Sizing in Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Pasquier, Jennifer; Rioult, Damien; Abu-Kaoud, Nadine; Hoarau-Véchot, Jessica; Marin, Matthieu; Le Foll, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The regulation of cell volume is an essential function that is coupled to a variety of physiological processes such as receptor recycling, excitability and contraction, cell proliferation, migration, and programmed cell death. Under stress, cells undergo emergency swelling and respond to such a phenomenon with a regulatory volume decrease (RVD) where they release cellular ions, and other osmolytes as well as a concomitant loss of water. The link between P-glycoprotein, a transmembrane transporter, and cell volume regulation is controversial, and changes in cells volume are measured using microscopy or electrophysiology. For instance, by using the patch-clamp method, our team demonstrated that chloride currents activated in the RVD were more intense and rapid in a breast cancer cell line overexpressing the P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The Cell Lab Quanta SC is a flow cytometry system that simultaneously measures electronic volume, side scatter and three fluorescent colors; altogether this provides unsurpassed population resolution and accurate cell counting. Therefore, here we propose a novel method to follow cellular volume. By using the Coulter-type channel of the cytometer Cell Lab Quanta SC MPL (multi-platform loading), we demonstrated a role for the P-gp during different osmotic treatments, but also a differential activity of the P-gp through the cell cycle. Altogether, our data strongly suggests a role of P-gp in cell volume regulation. PMID:26114386

  5. A novel quantitative kinase assay using bacterial surface display and flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Henriques, Sónia Troeira; Thorstholm, Louise; Huang, Yen-Hua; Getz, Jennifer A; Daugherty, Patrick S; Craik, David J

    2013-01-01

    The inhibition of tyrosine kinases is a successful approach for the treatment of cancers and the discovery of kinase inhibitor drugs is the focus of numerous academic and pharmaceutical laboratories. With this goal in mind, several strategies have been developed to measure kinase activity and to screen novel tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Nevertheless, a general non-radioactive and inexpensive approach, easy to implement and adapt to a range of applications, is still missing. Herein, using Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase, an oncogenic target and a model protein for cancer studies, we describe a novel cost-effective high-throughput screening kinase assay. In this approach, named the BacKin assay, substrates displayed on a Bacterial cell surface are incubated with Kinase and their phosphorylation is examined and quantified by flow cytometry. This approach has several advantages over existing approaches, as using bacteria (i.e. Escherichia coli) to display peptide substrates provides a self renewing solid support that does not require laborious chemical strategies. Here we show that the BacKin approach can be used for kinetic and mechanistic studies, as well as a platform to characterize and identify small-molecule or peptide-based kinase inhibitors with potential applications in drug development.

  6. High-throughput autofluorescence flow cytometry of breast cancer metabolism (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Amy T.; Cannon, Taylor M.; Higginbotham, Jim N.; Skala, Melissa C.

    2016-02-01

    Tumor heterogeneity poses challenges for devising optimal treatment regimens for cancer patients. In particular, subpopulations of cells can escape treatment and cause relapse. There is a need for methods to characterize tumor heterogeneity of treatment response. Cell metabolism is altered in cancer (Warburg effect), and cells use the autofluorescent cofactor NADH in numerous metabolic reactions. Previous studies have shown that microscopy measurements of NADH autofluorescence are sensitive to treatment response in breast cancer, and these techniques typically assess hundreds of cells per group. An alternative approach is flow cytometry, which measures fluorescence on a single-cell level and is attractive for characterizing tumor heterogeneity because it achieves high-throughput analysis and cell sorting in millions of cells per group. Current applications for flow cytometry rely on staining with fluorophores. This study characterizes flow cytometry measurements of NADH autofluorescence in breast cancer cells. Preliminary results indicate flow cytometry of NADH is sensitive to cyanide perturbation, which inhibits oxidative phosphorylation, in nonmalignant MCF10A cells. Additionally, flow cytometry is sensitive to higher NADH intensity for HER2-positive SKBr3 cells compared with triple-negative MDA-MB-231 cells. These results agree with previous microscopy studies. Finally, a mixture of SKBr3 and MDA-MB-231 cells were sorted into each cell type using NADH intensity. Sorted cells were cultured, and microscopy validation showed the expected morphology for each cell type. Ultimately, flow cytometry could be applied to characterize tumor heterogeneity based on treatment response and sort cell subpopulations based on metabolic profile. These achievements could enable individualized treatment strategies and improved patient outcomes.

  7. Flow cytometry data analysis: comparing large multivariate data sets using classification trees

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, J.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes a method to compare flow cytometry data sets, which typically contain 50,000 six-parameter measurements each. By this method, the data points in two such data sets are divided into subpopulations using a binary classification tree generated from the data. The {chi}{sup 2} test is then used to establish the homogeneity of the two data sets based on how their data are distributed across these subpopulations. Preliminary results indicate that this comparison method is sufficiently sensitive to detect differences between flow cytometry data sets that are too subtle for human investigators to notice.

  8. Flow cytometry as an improved method for the titration of Chlamydiaceae and other intracellular bacteria.

    PubMed

    Käser, T; Pasternak, J A; Hamonic, G; Rieder, M; Lai, K; Delgado-Ortega, M; Gerdts, V; Meurens, F

    2016-05-01

    Chlamydiaceae is a family of intracellular bacteria causing a range of diverse pathological outcomes. The most devastating human diseases are ocular infections with C. trachomatis leading to blindness and genital infections causing pelvic inflammatory disease with long-term sequelae including infertility and chronic pelvic pain. In order to enable the comparison of experiments between laboratories investigating host-chlamydia interactions, the infectious titer has to be determined. Titer determination of chlamydia is most commonly performed via microscopy of host cells infected with a serial dilution of chlamydia. However, other methods including fluorescent ELISpot (Fluorospot) and DNA Chip Scanning Technology have also been proposed to enumerate chlamydia-infected cells. For viruses, flow cytometry has been suggested as a superior alternative to standard titration methods. In this study we compared the use of flow cytometry with microscopy and Fluorospot for the titration of C. suis as a representative of other intracellular bacteria. Titer determination via Fluorospot was unreliable, while titration via microscopy led to a linear read-out range of 16 - 64 dilutions and moderate reproducibility with acceptable standard deviations within and between investigators. In contrast, flow cytometry had a vast linear read-out range of 1,024 dilutions and the lowest standard deviations given a basic training in these methods. In addition, flow cytometry was faster and material costs were lower compared to microscopy. Flow cytometry offers a fast, cheap, precise, and reproducible alternative for the titration of intracellular bacteria like C. suis. © 2016 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  9. National flow cytometry and sorting research resource. Annual progress report, July, 1, 1994--June 30, 1995, Year 12

    SciTech Connect

    Jett, J.H.

    1995-04-27

    Research progress utilizing flow cytometry is described. Topics include: rapid kinetics flow cytometry; characterization of size determinations for small DNA fragments; statistical analysis; energy transfer measurements of molecular confirmation in micelles; and enrichment of Mus spretus chromosomes by dual parameter flow sorting and identification of sorted fractions by fluorescence in-situ hybridization onto G-banded mouse metaphase spreads.

  10. Nuclear DNA content analysis of plant seeds by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Sliwinska, Elwira

    2006-02-01

    Procedures describing the utilization of seeds or their parts for flow cytometric determination of plant ploidy and endopolyploidy, genome size, and cell cycle activity are presented. The methods have been developed for a single-fluorescence-parameter flow cytometer, equipped with light sources for 488-nm and UV-light illumination. The procedures presented in this unit utilize the two most widely used fluorochromes for plant DNA content analysis, propidium iodide (PI) and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). These methods provide an alternative to estimation of DNA content based on the fluorescence of DNA in cell nuclei isolated from plant leaves. In some instances seeds are more suitable for analysis than leaves, e.g., when plant material must be transported for a long distances or stored for prolonged periods before flow cytometric analysis, or when leaves contain fluorochrome-staining inhibitors. In addition, flow cytometric determination of nuclear replication stages in seeds gives information about their physiological status (e.g., maturity, advancement of germination), which is valuable to seed producers and technologists.

  11. Statistical mixture modeling for cell subtype identification in flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Chan, Cliburn; Feng, Feng; Ottinger, Janet; Foster, David; West, Mike; Kepler, Thomas B

    2008-08-01

    Statistical mixture modeling provides an opportunity for automated identification and resolution of cell subtypes in flow cytometric data. The configuration of cells as represented by multiple markers simultaneously can be modeled arbitrarily well as a mixture of Gaussian distributions in the dimension of the number of markers. Cellular subtypes may be related to one or multiple components of such mixtures, and fitted mixture models can be evaluated in the full set of markers as an alternative, or adjunct, to traditional subjective gating methods that rely on choosing one or two dimensions. Four color flow data from human blood cells labeled with FITC-conjugated anti-CD3, PE-conjugated anti-CD8, PE-Cy5-conjugated anti-CD4, and APC-conjugated anti-CD19 Abs was acquired on a FACSCalibur. Cells from four murine cell lines, JAWS II, RAW 264.7, CTLL-2, and A20, were also stained with FITC-conjugated anti-CD11c, PE-conjugated anti-CD11b, PE-Cy5-conjugated anti-CD8a, and PE-Cy7-conjugated-CD45R/B220 Abs, respectively, and single color flow data were collected on an LSRII. The data were fitted with a mixture of multivariate Gaussians using standard Bayesian statistical approaches and Markov chain Monte Carlo computations. Statistical mixture models were able to identify and purify major cell subsets in human peripheral blood, using an automated process that can be generalized to an arbitrary number of markers. Validation against both traditional expert gating and synthetic mixtures of murine cell lines with known mixing proportions was also performed. This article describes the studies of statistical mixture modeling of flow cytometric data, and demonstrates their utility in examples with four-color flow data from human peripheral blood samples and synthetic mixtures of murine cell lines.

  12. Computational prediction of manually gated rare cells in flow cytometry data1

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Rare cell identification is an interesting and challenging question in flow cytometry data analysis. In the literature, manual gating is a popular approach to distill flow cytometry data and drill down to the rare cells of interest, based on prior knowledge of measured protein markers and visual inspection of the data. Several computational algorithms have been proposed for rare cell identification. To compare existing algorithms and promote new developments, FlowCAP-III put forward one computational challenge that focused on this question. The challenge provided flow cytometry data for 202 training samples and two manually gated rare cell types for each training sample, roughly 0.02% and 0.04% of the cells, respectively. In addition, flow cytometry data for 203 testing samples were provided, and participants were invited to computationally identify the rare cells in the testing samples. Accuracy of the identification results was evaluated by comparing to manual gating of the testing samples. We participated in the challenge, and developed a method that combined the Hellinger divergence, a downsampling trick and the ensemble SVM. Our method achieved the highest accuracy in the challenge. PMID:25755118

  13. Visualization of Pulmonary Clearance Mechanisms via Noninvasive Optical Imaging Validated by Near-Infrared Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Haiying; Gunsten, Sean P.; Zhegalova, Natalia G.; Bloch, Sharon; Achilefu, Samuel; Holley, J. Christopher; Schweppe, Daniel; Akers, Walter; Brody, Steven L.; Eades, William; Berezin, Mikhail Y.

    2016-01-01

    In vivo optical imaging with near-infrared (NIR) probes is an established method of diagnostics in preclinical and clinical studies. However, the specificities of these probes are difficult to validate ex vivo due to the lack of NIR flow cytometry. To address this limitation, we modified a flow cytometer to include an additional NIR channel using a 752 nm laser line. The flow cytometry system was tested using NIR microspheres and cell lines labeled with a combination of visible range and NIR fluorescent dyes. The approach was verified in vivo in mice evaluated for immune response in lungs after intratracheal delivery of the NIR contrast agent. Flow cytometry of cells obtained from the lung bronchoalveolar lavage demonstrated that the NIR dye was taken up by pulmonary macrophages as early as four-hours post-injection. This combination of optical imaging with NIR flow cytometry extends the capability of imaging and enables complementation of in vivo imaging with cell-specific studies. PMID:25808737

  14. Minimal residual disease analysis by eight-color flow cytometry in relapsed childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Karawajew, Leonid; Dworzak, Michael; Ratei, Richard; Rhein, Peter; Gaipa, Giuseppe; Buldini, Barbara; Basso, Giuseppe; Hrusak, Ondrej; Ludwig, Wolf-Dieter; Henze, Günter; Seeger, Karl; von Stackelberg, Arend; Mejstrikova, Ester; Eckert, Cornelia

    2015-07-01

    Multiparametric flow cytometry is an alternative approach to the polymerase chain reaction method for evaluating minimal residual disease in treatment protocols for primary acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Given considerable differences between primary and relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia treatment regimens, flow cytometric assessment of minimal residual disease in relapsed leukemia requires an independent comprehensive investigation. In the present study we addressed evaluation of minimal residual disease by flow cytometry in the clinical trial for childhood relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia using eight-color flow cytometry. The major challenge of the study was to reliably identify low amounts of residual leukemic cells against the complex background of regeneration, characteristic of follow-up samples during relapse treatment. In a prospective study of 263 follow-up bone marrow samples from 122 patients with B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia, we tested various B-cell markers, adapted the antibody panel to the treatment protocol, and evaluated its performance by a blinded parallel comparison with the polymerase chain reaction data. The resulting eight-color single-tube panel showed a consistently high overall concordance (P<0.001) and, under optimal conditions, sensitivity similar to that of the reference polymerase chain reaction method. Overall, evaluation of minimal residual disease by flow cytometry can be successfully integrated into the clinical management of relapsed childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia either as complementary to the polymerase chain reaction or as an independent risk stratification tool. ALL-REZ BFM 2002 clinical trial information: NCT00114348.

  15. Flow Cytometry Sorting to Separate Viable Giant Viruses from Amoeba Co-culture Supernatants

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Jacques Y. B.; Langlois, Thierry; Andreani, Julien; Sorraing, Jean-Marc; Raoult, Didier; Camoin, Laurence; La Scola, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Flow cytometry has contributed to virology but has faced many drawbacks concerning detection limits, due to the small size of viral particles. Nonetheless, giant viruses changed many concepts in the world of viruses, as a result of their size and hence opened up the possibility of using flow cytometry to study them. Recently, we developed a high throughput isolation of viruses using flow cytometry and protozoa co-culture. Consequently, isolating a viral mixture in the same sample became more common. Nevertheless, when one virus multiplies faster than others in the mixture, it is impossible to obtain a pure culture of the minority population. Here, we describe a robust sorting system, which can separate viable giant virus mixtures from supernatants. We tested three flow cytometry sorters by sorting artificial mixtures. Purity control was assessed by electron microscopy and molecular biology. As proof of concept, we applied the sorting system to a co-culture supernatant taken from a sample containing a viral mixture that we couldn't separate using end point dilution. In addition to isolating the quick-growing Mimivirus, we sorted and re-cultured a new, slow-growing virus, which we named “Cedratvirus.” The sorting assay presented in this paper is a powerful and versatile tool for separating viral populations from amoeba co-cultures and adding value to the new field of flow virometry. PMID:28111619

  16. Flow Cytometry Sorting to Separate Viable Giant Viruses from Amoeba Co-culture Supernatants.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Jacques Y B; Langlois, Thierry; Andreani, Julien; Sorraing, Jean-Marc; Raoult, Didier; Camoin, Laurence; La Scola, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Flow cytometry has contributed to virology but has faced many drawbacks concerning detection limits, due to the small size of viral particles. Nonetheless, giant viruses changed many concepts in the world of viruses, as a result of their size and hence opened up the possibility of using flow cytometry to study them. Recently, we developed a high throughput isolation of viruses using flow cytometry and protozoa co-culture. Consequently, isolating a viral mixture in the same sample became more common. Nevertheless, when one virus multiplies faster than others in the mixture, it is impossible to obtain a pure culture of the minority population. Here, we describe a robust sorting system, which can separate viable giant virus mixtures from supernatants. We tested three flow cytometry sorters by sorting artificial mixtures. Purity control was assessed by electron microscopy and molecular biology. As proof of concept, we applied the sorting system to a co-culture supernatant taken from a sample containing a viral mixture that we couldn't separate using end point dilution. In addition to isolating the quick-growing Mimivirus, we sorted and re-cultured a new, slow-growing virus, which we named "Cedratvirus." The sorting assay presented in this paper is a powerful and versatile tool for separating viral populations from amoeba co-cultures and adding value to the new field of flow virometry.

  17. Receptor occupancy assessment by flow cytometry as a pharmacodynamic biomarker in biopharmaceutical development

    PubMed Central

    Schwickart, Martin; Schneider, Amy K.; Vainshtein, Inna; Del Nagro, Christopher; Standifer, Nathan; Roskos, Lorin K.

    2015-01-01

    Receptor occupancy (RO) assays are designed to quantify the binding of therapeutics to their targets on the cell surface and are frequently used to generate pharmacodynamic (PD) biomarker data in nonclinical and clinical studies of biopharmaceuticals. When combined with the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile, RO data can establish PKPD relationships, which are crucial for informing dose decisions. RO is commonly measured by flow cytometry on fresh blood specimens and is subject to numerous technical and logistical challenges. To ensure that reliable and high quality results are generated from RO assays, careful assay design, key reagent characterization, data normalization/reporting, and thorough planning for implementation are of critical importance during development. In this article, the authors share their experiences and perspectives in these areas and discuss challenges and potential solutions when developing and implementing a flow cytometry‐based RO method in support of biopharmaceutical drug development. © 2015 The Authors Cytometry Part B: Clinical Cytometry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26054054

  18. Ultrasonic analyte concentration and application in flow cytometry

    DOEpatents

    Kaduchak, Gregory; Goddard, Greg; Salzman, Gary; Sinha, Dipen; Martin, John C.; Kwiatkowski, Christopher; Graves, Steven

    2008-03-11

    The present invention includes an apparatus and corresponding method for concentrating analytes within a fluid flowing through a tube using acoustic radiation pressure. The apparatus includes a function generator that outputs a radio frequency electrical signal to a transducer that transforms the radio frequency electric signal to an acoustic signal and couples the acoustic signal to the tube. The acoustic signal is converted within the tube to acoustic pressure that concentrates the analytes within the fluid.

  19. Ultrasonic analyte concentration and application in flow cytometry

    DOEpatents

    Kaduchak, Gregory; Goddard, Greg; Salzman, Gary; Sinha, Dipen; Martin, John C.; Kwiatkowski, Christopher; Graves, Steven

    2015-07-07

    The present invention includes an apparatus and corresponding method for concentrating analytes within a fluid flowing through a tube using acoustic radiation pressure. The apparatus includes a function generator that outputs a radio frequency electrical signal to a transducer that transforms the radio frequency electric signal to an acoustic signal and couples the acoustic signal to the tube. The acoustic signal is converted within the tube to acoustic pressure that concentrates the analytes within the fluid.

  20. Ultrasonic analyte concentration and application in flow cytometry

    SciTech Connect

    Kaduchak, Gregory; Goddard, Greg; Salzman, Gary; Sinha, Dipen; Martin, John C.; Kwiatkowski, Christopher; Graves, Steven

    2014-07-22

    The present invention includes an apparatus and corresponding method for concentrating analytes within a fluid flowing through a tube using acoustic radiation pressure. The apparatus includes a function generator that outputs a radio frequency electrical signal to a transducer that transforms the radio frequency electric signal to an acoustic signal and couples the acoustic signal to the tube. The acoustic signal is converted within the tube to acoustic pressure that concentrates the analytes within the fluid.

  1. Circulation times of cancer cells by in vivo flow cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li; Li, Yan; Gu, Zhengqin; Chen, Tong; Wang, Cheng; Wei, Xunbin

    2012-03-01

    Liver cancer is one of the most common malignancies in the world, with approximately 1,000,000 cases reported every year. Hepatocellular carcinoma may metastasize to lung, bones, kidney, and many other organs. Surgical resection, liver transplantation, chemotherapy and radiation therapy are the foundation of current HCC therapies. However the outcomes are poor: the survival rate is almost zero for metastatic HCC patients. Molecular mechanisms of HCC metastasis need to be understood better and new therapies must be developed. A recently developed "in vivo flow cytometer" combined with real-time confocal fluorescence imaging are used to assess spreading and the circulation kinetics of liver tumor cells. The in vivo flow cytometer has the capability to detect and quantify continuously the number and flow characteristics of fluorescently labeled cells in vivo in real time without extracting blood sample. We have measured the depletion kinetics of two related human HCC cell lines, high-metastatic HCCLM3 cells and low-metastatic HepG2 cells, which were from the same origin and obtained by repetitive screenings in mice. >60% HCCLM3 cells are depleted within the first hour. Interestingly, the low-metastatic HepG2 cells possess noticeably slower depletion kinetics. In comparison, <40% HepG2 cells are depleted within the first hour. The differences in depletion kinetics might provide insights into early metastasis processes.

  2. Cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry: principles and applications.

    PubMed

    Jayat, C; Ratinaud, M H

    1993-01-01

    Numerous flow cytometric analyses are based on DNA content studies. We have considered firstly monoparametric cell cycle analyses, which only take DNA content into account, but are sometimes of limited interest. Then, we have presented multiparametric analyses, which can be used to improve cycle phase identification by taking simultaneously into account DNA and other cellular components, or by considering some events occurring during cell cycle. Finally, we have discussed monoparametric and multiparametric cell cycle analysis interest in various application fields, particularly in pharmacology, toxicology, tumoral pathology and higher plant system studies.

  3. Sex-sorting sperm using flow cytometry/cell sorting.

    PubMed

    Garner, Duane L; Evans, K Michael; Seidel, George E

    2013-01-01

    The sex of mammalian offspring can be predetermined by flow sorting relatively pure living populations of X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm. This method is based on precise staining of the DNA of sperm with the nucleic acid-specific fluorophore, Hoechst 33342, to differentiate between the subpopulations of X- and Y-sperm. The fluorescently stained sperm are then sex-sorted using a specialized high speed sorter, MoFlo(®) SX XDP, and collected into biologically supportive media prior to reconcentration and cryopreservation in numbers adequate for use with artificial insemination for some species or for in vitro fertilization. Sperm sorting can provide subpopulations of X- or Y-bearing bovine sperm at rates in the 8,000 sperm/s range while maintaining; a purity of 90% such that it has been applied to cattle on a commercial basis. The sex of offspring has been predetermined in a wide variety of mammalian species including cattle, swine, horses, sheep, goats, dogs, cats, deer, elk, dolphins, water buffalo as well as in humans using flow cytometric sorting of X- and Y-sperm.

  4. Detection of single lambda DNA fragments by flow cytometry

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.E.; Goodwin, P.M.; Ambrose, W.P.; Martin, J.C.; Marrone, B.L.; Keller, R.A. )

    1993-01-01

    The authors have demonstrated flow cytometric detection and sizing of single pieces of fluorescently stained lambda DNA (48.5 kb) and individual Kpn I restriction fragments of lambda DNA at 17.05 kb and 29.95 kb. DNA fragments were stained stoichiometrically with an intercalating dye such that the fluorescence from each fragment was directly proportional to fragment length. Laser powers range from 10 to 100 mW and transit times through the focused laser beam were several milliseconds. Measurements were made using time-resolved single photon counting of the detected fluorescence emission from individual stained DNA fragments. Samples were analyzed at rates of about 50 fragments per second. The measured fluorescence intensities are linearly correlated with DNA fragment length over the range measured. Detection sensitivity and resolution needed for analysis of small pieces of DNA are discussed and a comparison of single photon counting measurements of DNA fragments to measurements using more conventional flow cytometers is made. Applications of this methodology to DNA sizing and DNA fingerprinting are discussed.

  5. Comparison of clustering methods for high-dimensional single-cell flow and mass cytometry data.

    PubMed

    Weber, Lukas M; Robinson, Mark D

    2016-12-01

    Recent technological developments in high-dimensional flow cytometry and mass cytometry (CyTOF) have made it possible to detect expression levels of dozens of protein markers in thousands of cells per second, allowing cell populations to be characterized in unprecedented detail. Traditional data analysis by "manual gating" can be inefficient and unreliable in these high-dimensional settings, which has led to the development of a large number of automated analysis methods. Methods designed for unsupervised analysis use specialized clustering algorithms to detect and define cell populations for further downstream analysis. Here, we have performed an up-to-date, extensible performance comparison of clustering methods for high-dimensional flow and mass cytometry data. We evaluated methods using several publicly available data sets from experiments in immunology, containing both major and rare cell populations, with cell population identities from expert manual gating as the reference standard. Several methods performed well, including FlowSOM, X-shift, PhenoGraph, Rclusterpp, and flowMeans. Among these, FlowSOM had extremely fast runtimes, making this method well-suited for interactive, exploratory analysis of large, high-dimensional data sets on a standard laptop or desktop computer. These results extend previously published comparisons by focusing on high-dimensional data and including new methods developed for CyTOF data. R scripts to reproduce all analyses are available from GitHub (https://github.com/lmweber/cytometry-clustering-comparison), and pre-processed data files are available from FlowRepository (FR-FCM-ZZPH), allowing our comparisons to be extended to include new clustering methods and reference data sets. © 2016 The Authors. Cytometry Part A published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of ISAC.

  6. Flow cytometry in mastocytosis: utility as a diagnostic and prognostic tool.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Muñoz, Laura; Teodosio, Cristina; Morgado, Jose Mario T; Perbellini, Omar; Mayado, Andrea; Alvarez-Twose, Ivan; Matito, Almudena; Jara-Acevedo, María; García-Montero, Andrés C; Orfao, Alberto; Escribano, Luis

    2014-05-01

    This article presents information for the identification and characterization of mast cells from bone marrow and other tissues using multiparametric flow cytometry. In addition, it provides guidelines for the application of this technique in the subclassification of systemic mastocytosis and assessment of the long-term prognosis of patients individually.

  7. Application of flow cytometry to monitor assimilable organic carbon (AOC) and microbial community changes in water.

    PubMed

    Elhadidy, Ahmed M; Van Dyke, Michele I; Peldszus, Sigrid; Huck, Peter M

    2016-11-01

    Flow cytometry is an efficient monitoring tool for rapid cell counting, and can be applied to research on water quality and treatment. In this study, a method that employs flow cytometry and a natural microbial inoculum to determine assimilable organic carbon (AOC) was adapted for use with challenging surface waters that have a high organic and particle content, and subsequently applied in a long term river water study. AOC method optimization showed that river water bacteria could pass through a 0.2μm membrane filter, and therefore membrane filtration combined with heat treatment was required for sample sterilization. Preparation of the natural river inoculum with an acceptable yield value could only be achieved when grown using the natural water source, since growth was limited on different types of inorganic minimal media and in natural spring water. The resulting flow cytometry AOC method was reliable and reproducible, and results were comparable to the standard plate count AOC method. Size exclusion chromatography showed that both high and low molecular weight organic matter fractions were utilized by the natural AOC inoculum. Flow cytometry was used to measure both AOC levels and total cell counts in a long term study to monitor the water quality of a river which was used as a drinking water source. The method could distinguish between high nucleic acid (HNA) and low nucleic acid (LNA) groups of bacteria, and HNA bacteria were found to respond faster than LNA bacteria to seasonal changes in nutrients and water temperature.

  8. Flow cytometry of sputum: assessing inflammation and immune response elements in the bronchial airways**

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: The evaluation of sputum leukocytes by flow cytometry is an opportunity to assess characteristics of cells residing in the central airways, yet it is hampered by certain inherent properties of sputum including mucus and large amounts of contaminating cells and debris. ...

  9. 78 FR 5186 - Clinical Flow Cytometry in Hematologic Malignancies; Public Workshop; Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-24

    ... in the diagnosis of leukemia and lymphoma and more recently in the detection of minimal residual... leukemia (CLL); (3) Third-party flow cytometry data analysis software; and (4) Overview of FDA regulation... (77 FR 76051, December 26, 2012). An FDA workshop for acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) MRD was...

  10. Teaching the Microbial Growth Curve Concept Using Microalgal Cultures and Flow Cytometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forget, Nathalie; Belzile, Claude; Rioux, Pierre; Nozais, Christian

    2010-01-01

    The microbial growth curve is widely studied within microbiology classes and bacteria are usually the microbial model used. Here, we describe a novel laboratory protocol involving flow cytometry to assess the growth dynamics of the unicellular microalgae "Isochrysis galbana." The algal model represents an appropriate alternative to…

  11. Evaluating the spore genome sizes of ferns and lycophytes: a flow cytometry approach.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Li-Yaung; Huang, Yi-Jia; Chang, JenYu; Chiou, Wen-Liang; Huang, Yao-Moan

    2017-03-01

    Ferns and lycophytes produce spores to initiate the gametophyte stage for sexual reproduction. Approximately 10% of these seedless vascular plants are apomictic, and produce genomic unreduced spores. Genome size comparisons between spores and leaves are a reliable, and potentially easier way to determine their reproductive mode compared to traditional approaches. However, estimation of the spore genome sizes of these plants has not been attempted. We attempted to evaluate the spore genome sizes of ferns and lycophytes using flow cytometry, collected spores from selected species representing different spore physical properties and taxonomic groups, and sought to optimize bead-vortexing conditions. By evaluating the spore and sporophyte genome sizes, we examined whether reproductive modes could be ascertained from these flow cytometry results. We proposed two separate sets of optimized bead-vortexing conditions for the nuclear extraction of green and nongreen spores. We further successfully extracted spore nuclei of 19 families covering most orders, and the qualities and quantities of these extractions satisfied the C-value criteria. These evaluated genome sizes further supported the reproductive modes reported previously. In the current study, flow cytometry was used for the first time to evaluate the spore genome sizes of ferns and lycophytes. This use of spore flow cytometry provides a new, efficient approach to ascertaining the reproductive modes of these plants.

  12. Flow Cytometry To Assess Cerebrospinal Fluid Fungal Burden in Cryptococcal Meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Lisa M.; Schutz, Charlotte; Scriba, Thomas J.; Wilkinson, Robert J.; Boulware, David R.; Meintjes, Graeme; Lalloo, David G.; Urban, Britta C.

    2015-01-01

    Fungal burden in the cerebrospinal fluid is an important determinant of mortality in cryptococcal meningitis, but its use in aiding clinical decision making is hampered by the time involved to perform quantitative cultures. Here, we demonstrate the potential of flow cytometry as a novel and rapid technique to address this issue. PMID:26719441

  13. Data File Standard for Flow Cytometry, Version FCS 3.1

    SciTech Connect

    Spidlen, Josef; Moore, Wayne; Parks, David; Goldberg, Michael; Bray, Chris; Gorombey, Peter; Hyun, Bill; Hubbard, Mark; Lange, Simon; Lefebvre, Ray; Leif, Robert; Novo, David; Ostruszka, Leo; Treister, Adam; Wood, James; Murphy, Robert F.; Roederer, Mario; Sudar, Damir; Zigon, Robert; Brinkman, Ryan R.; Brierre, Pierre

    2009-11-10

    The flow cytometry data file standard provides the specifications needed to completely describe flow cytometry data sets within the confines of the file containing the experimental data. In 1984, the first Flow Cytometry Standard format for data files was adopted as FCS 1.0. This standard was modified in 1990 as FCS 2.0 and again in 1997 as FCS 3.0. We report here on the next generation flow cytometry standard data file format. FCS 3.1 is a minor revision based on suggested improvements from the community. The unchanged goal of the standard is to provide a uniform file format that allows files created by one type of acquisition hardware and software to be analyzed by any other type. The FCS 3.1 standard retains the basic FCS file structure and most features of previous versions of the standard. Changes included in FCS 3.1 address potential ambiguities in the previous versions and provide a more robust standard. The major changes include simplified support for international characters and improved support for storing compensation. The major additions are support for preferred display scale, a standardized way of capturing the sample volume, information about originality of the data file, and support for plate and well identification in high throughput, plate based experiments. Please see the normative version of the FCS 3.1 specification in Supporting Information for this manuscript (or at http://www.isac-net.org/ in the Current standards section) for a complete list of changes.

  14. Flow cytometry-based DNA hybridization and polymorphism analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, H.; Kommander, K.; White, P.S.; Nolan, J.P.

    1998-07-01

    Functional analysis of the humane genome, including the quantification of differential gene expression and the identification of polymorphic sites and disease genes, is an important element of the Human Genome Project. Current methods of analysis are mainly gel-based assays that are not well-suited to rapid genome-scale analyses. To analyze DNA sequence on a large scale, robust and high throughput assays are needed. The authors are developing a suite of microsphere-based approaches employing fluorescence detection to screen and analyze genomic sequence. The approaches include competitive DNA hybridization to measure DNA or RNA targets in unknown samples, and oligo ligation or extension assays to analyze single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Apart from the advances of sensitivity, simplicity, and low sample consumption, these flow cytometric approaches have the potential for high throughput multiplexed analysis using multicolored microspheres and automated sample handling.

  15. Flow-cytometry-based DNA hybidization and polymorphism analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Hong; Kommander, Kristina; White, P. S.; Nolan, John P.

    1998-05-01

    Functional analysis of the human genome, including the quantification of differential gene expression and the identification of polymorphic sites and disease genes, is an important element of the Human Genome Project. Current methods of analysis are mainly gel-based assays that are not well- suited to rapid genome-scale analyses. To analyze DNA sequence on a large scale, robust and high throughput assays are needed. We are developing a suite of microsphere-based approaches employing fluorescence detection to screen and analyze genomic sequence. Our approaches include competitive DNA hybridization to measure DNA or RNA targets in unknown samples, and oligo ligation or extension assays to analyze single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Apart from the advantages of sensitivity, simplicity, and low sample consumption, these flow cytometric approaches have the potential for high throughput multiplexed analysis using multicolored microspheres and automated sample handling.

  16. Considerations for the control of background fluorescence in clinical flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Hulspas, Ruud; O'Gorman, Maurice R G; Wood, Brent L; Gratama, Jan W; Sutherland, D Robert

    2009-11-01

    Accurate measurement of antigen-positive cells by flow cytometry can be hampered by background fluorescence of antigen-negative cells and other particles (e.g., debris). This article focuses on three major causes of background (autofluorescence, spectral overlap, and undesirable antibody binding) by reviewing individual aspects of flow cytometric measurements that contribute to these causes. The appropriate use of controls facilitates a thorough understanding of these contributing factors as well as the development of robust cell labeling protocols intended for routine flow cytometric analysis. We present a set of recommendations that enables the user to develop an optimized cell labeling protocol that minimizes background and maximizes the ability to reliably distinguish between a positive and a negative population of cells. These recommendations are also intended to augment existing guidelines designed to aid in the formulation of a consensus regarding the utility of flow cytometry for the analysis of clinical samples.

  17. Quantifying spore viability of the honey bee pathogen Nosema apis using flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yan; Lee-Pullen, Tracey F; Heel, Kathy; Millar, A Harvey; Baer, Boris

    2014-05-01

    Honey bees are hosts to more than 80 different parasites, some of them being highly virulent and responsible for substantial losses in managed honey bee populations. The study of honey bee pathogens and their interactions with the bees' immune system has therefore become a research area of major interest. Here we developed a fast, accurate and reliable method to quantify the viability of spores of the honey bee gut parasite Nosema apis. To verify this method, a dilution series with 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% live N. apis was made and SYTO 16 and Propidium Iodide (n = 35) were used to distinguish dead from live spores. The viability of spores in each sample was determined by flow cytometry and compared with the current method based on fluorescence microscopy. Results show that N. apis viability counts using flow cytometry produced very similar results when compared with fluorescence microscopy. However, we found that fluorescence microscopy underestimates N. apis viability in samples with higher percentages of viable spores, the latter typically being what is found in biological samples. A series of experiments were conducted to confirm that flow cytometry allows the use of additional fluorescent dyes such as SYBR 14 and SYTOX Red (used in combination with SYTO 16 or Propidium Iodide) to distinguish dead from live spores. We also show that spore viability quantification with flow cytometry can be undertaken using substantially lower dye concentrations than fluorescence microscopy. In conclusion, our data show flow cytometry to be a fast, reliable method to quantify N. apis spore viabilities, which has a number of advantages compared with existing methods.

  18. In vivo plant flow cytometry: A first proof-of-concept

    PubMed Central

    Nedosekin, Dmitry A.; Khodakovskaya, Mariya V.; Biris, Alexandru S.; Wang, Daoyuan; Xu, Yang; Villagarcia, Hector; Galanzha, Ekaterina I.; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2011-01-01

    In vivo flow cytometry has facilitated advances in the ultrasensitive detection of tumor cells, bacteria, nanoparticles, dyes, and other normal and abnormal objects directly in blood and lymph circulatory systems. Here, we propose in vivo plant flow cytometry for the real-time noninvasive study of nanomaterial transport in xylem and phloem plant vascular systems. As a proof of this concept, we demonstrate in vivo real-time photoacoustic monitoring of quantum dot-carbon nanotube conjugate uptake and uptake by roots and spreading through stem to leaves in a tomato plant. In addition, in vivo scanning cytometry using multimodal photoacoustic, photothermal, and fluorescent detection schematics provided multiplex detection and identification of nanoparticles accumulated in plant leaves in the presence of intensive absorption, scattering, and autofluorescent backgrounds. The use of a portable fiber-based photoacoustic flow cytometer for studies of plant vasculature was demonstrated. These integrated cytometry modalities using both endogenous and exogenous contrast agents have a potential to open new avenues of in vivo study of the nutrients, products of photosynthesis and metabolism, nanoparticles, infectious agents, and other objects transported through plant vasculature. PMID:21905208

  19. In vivo plant flow cytometry: a first proof-of-concept.

    PubMed

    Nedosekin, Dmitry A; Khodakovskaya, Mariya V; Biris, Alexandru S; Wang, Daoyuan; Xu, Yang; Villagarcia, Hector; Galanzha, Ekaterina I; Zharov, Vladimir P

    2011-10-01

    In vivo flow cytometry has facilitated advances in the ultrasensitive detection of tumor cells, bacteria, nanoparticles, dyes, and other normal and abnormal objects directly in blood and lymph circulatory systems. Here, we propose in vivo plant flow cytometry for the real-time noninvasive study of nanomaterial transport in xylem and phloem plant vascular systems. As a proof of this concept, we demonstrate in vivo real-time photoacoustic monitoring of quantum dot-carbon nanotube conjugates uptake by roots and spreading through stem to leaves in a tomato plant. In addition, in vivo scanning cytometry using multimodal photoacoustic, photothermal, and fluorescent detection schematics provided multiplex detection and identification of nanoparticles accumulated in plant leaves in the presence of intensive absorption, scattering, and autofluorescent backgrounds. The use of a portable fiber-based photoacoustic flow cytometer for studies of plant vasculature was demonstrated. These integrated cytometry modalities using both endogenous and exogenous contrast agents have a potential to open new avenues of in vivo study of the nutrients, products of photosynthesis and metabolism, nanoparticles, infectious agents, and other objects transported through plant vasculature.

  20. Non-linear optical flow cytometry using a scanned, Bessel beam light-sheet.

    PubMed

    Collier, Bradley B; Awasthi, Samir; Lieu, Deborah K; Chan, James W

    2015-05-29

    Modern flow cytometry instruments have become vital tools for high-throughput analysis of single cells. However, as issues with the cellular labeling techniques often used in flow cytometry have become more of a concern, the development of label-free modalities for cellular analysis is increasingly desired. Non-linear optical phenomena (NLO) are of growing interest for label-free analysis because of the ability to measure the intrinsic optical response of biomolecules found in cells. We demonstrate that a light-sheet consisting of a scanned Bessel beam is an optimal excitation geometry for efficiently generating NLO signals in a microfluidic environment. The balance of photon density and cross-sectional area provided by the light-sheet allowed significantly larger two-photon fluorescence intensities to be measured in a model polystyrene microparticle system compared to measurements made using other excitation focal geometries, including a relaxed Gaussian excitation beam often used in conventional flow cytometers.

  1. Magnetic fingerprints of rolling cells for quantitative flow cytometry in whole blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisbeck, Mathias; Helou, Michael Johannes; Richter, Lukas; Kappes, Barbara; Friedrich, Oliver; Hayden, Oliver

    2016-09-01

    Over the past 50 years, flow cytometry has had a profound impact on preclinical and clinical applications requiring single cell function information for counting, sub-typing and quantification of epitope expression. At the same time, the workflow complexity and high costs of such optical systems still limit flow cytometry applications to specialized laboratories. Here, we present a quantitative magnetic flow cytometer that incorporates in situ magnetophoretic cell focusing for highly accurate and reproducible rolling of the cellular targets over giant magnetoresistance sensing elements. Time-of-flight analysis is used to unveil quantitative single cell information contained in its magnetic fingerprint. Furthermore, we used erythrocytes as a biological model to validate our methodology with respect to precise analysis of the hydrodynamic cell diameter, quantification of binding capacity of immunomagnetic labels, and discrimination of cell morphology. The extracted time-of-flight information should enable point-of-care quantitative flow cytometry in whole blood for clinical applications, such as immunology and primary hemostasis.

  2. Magnetic fingerprints of rolling cells for quantitative flow cytometry in whole blood

    PubMed Central

    Reisbeck, Mathias; Helou, Michael Johannes; Richter, Lukas; Kappes, Barbara; Friedrich, Oliver; Hayden, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, flow cytometry has had a profound impact on preclinical and clinical applications requiring single cell function information for counting, sub-typing and quantification of epitope expression. At the same time, the workflow complexity and high costs of such optical systems still limit flow cytometry applications to specialized laboratories. Here, we present a quantitative magnetic flow cytometer that incorporates in situ magnetophoretic cell focusing for highly accurate and reproducible rolling of the cellular targets over giant magnetoresistance sensing elements. Time-of-flight analysis is used to unveil quantitative single cell information contained in its magnetic fingerprint. Furthermore, we used erythrocytes as a biological model to validate our methodology with respect to precise analysis of the hydrodynamic cell diameter, quantification of binding capacity of immunomagnetic labels, and discrimination of cell morphology. The extracted time-of-flight information should enable point-of-care quantitative flow cytometry in whole blood for clinical applications, such as immunology and primary hemostasis. PMID:27596736

  3. Advances in small animal mesentery models for in vivo flow cytometry, dynamic microscopy, and drug screening

    PubMed Central

    Galanzha, Ekaterina I; Tuchin, Valery V; Zharov, Vladimir P

    2007-01-01

    Using animal mesentery with intravital optical microscopy is a well-established experimental model for studying blood and lymph microcirculation in vivo. Recent advances in cell biology and optical techniques provide the basis for extending this model for new applications, which should generate significantly improved experimental data. This review summarizes the achievements in this specific area, including in vivo label-free blood and lymph photothermal flow cytometry, super-sensitive fluorescence image cytometry, light scattering and speckle flow cytometry, microvessel dynamic microscopy, infrared (IR) angiography, and high-speed imaging of individual cells in fast flow. The capabilities of these techniques, using the rat mesentery model, were demonstrated in various studies; e.g., real-time quantitative detection of circulating and migrating individual blood and cancer cells, studies on vascular dynamics with a focus on lymphatics under normal conditions and under different interventions (e.g. lasers, drugs, nicotine), assessment of lymphatic disturbances from experimental lymphedema, monitoring cell traffic between blood and lymph systems, and high-speed imaging of cell transient deformability in flow. In particular, the obtained results demonstrated that individual cell transportation in living organisms depends on cell type (e.g., normal blood or leukemic cells), the cell’s functional state (e.g., live, apoptotic, or necrotic), and the functional status of the organism. Possible future applications, including in vivo early diagnosis and prevention of disease, monitoring immune response and apoptosis, chemo- and radio-sensitivity tests, and drug screening, are also discussed. PMID:17226898

  4. Waveguide detection of right-angle-scattered light in flow cytometry

    DOEpatents

    Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.

    2000-01-01

    A transparent flow cell is used as an index-guided optical waveguide. A detector for the flow cell but not the liquid stream detects the Right-Angle-Scattered (RAS) Light exiting from one end of the flow cell. The detector(s) could view the trapped RAS light from the flow cell either directly or through intermediate optical light guides. If the light exits one end of the flow cell, then the other end of the flow cell can be given a high-reflectivity coating to approximately double the amount of light collected. This system is more robust in its alignment than the traditional flow cytometry systems which use imaging optics, such as microscope objectives.

  5. Detection of Intracellular Factor VIII Protein in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells by Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Gouri Shankar; Tseng, Sandra C.; Howard, Tom E.; Sauna, Zuben E.

    2013-01-01

    Flow cytometry is widely used in cancer research for diagnosis, detection of minimal residual disease, as well as immune monitoring and profiling following immunotherapy. Detection of specific host proteins for diagnosis predominantly uses quantitative PCR and western blotting assays. In this study, we optimized a flow cytometry-based detection assay for Factor VIII protein in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). An indirect intracellular staining (ICS) method was standardized using monoclonal antibodies to different domains of human Factor VIII protein. The FVIII protein expression level was estimated by calculating the mean and median fluorescence intensities (MFI) values for each monoclonal antibody. ICS staining of transiently transfected cell lines supported the method's specificity. Intracellular FVIII protein expression was also detected by the monoclonal antibodies used in the study in PBMCs of five blood donors. In summary, our data suggest that intracellular FVIII detection in PBMCs of hemophilia A patients can be a rapid and reliable method to detect intracellular FVIII levels. PMID:23555096

  6. Establishment and application of a flow cytometry-based method for detecting histone acetylation levels.

    PubMed

    Jianhui, Li; Chunfu, Wang; Fan, Bai; Yan, Zhuang; Zhuojun, Mao; Yongtao, Sun

    2016-06-20

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors, which have also received attention in AIDS and other diseases, are a new class of anticancer drugs developed in recent years. However, there is still a lack of a unified and reliable method for detecting histone acetylation levels in basic and clinical research. In this study, we developed a flow cytometry-based method to detect histone acetylation levels by comparing different sample processing temperature (on ice vs. room temperature), permeabilization method (intracellular vs. nuclear), antibody dose (antibody titration) and antibody incubation time (time gradient) using whole blood and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In addition, we applied this optimized method in in vitro experiment and clinical trial of Chidamide (the only China FDA approved HDACi), the result of which confirmed that the flow cytometry-based method for detecting histone acetylation levels is a reliable, fast and convenient method which can be used in basic and clinical research.

  7. Monitoring of microbial communities by flow cytometry and rRNA-targeted hybridization probes

    SciTech Connect

    Wallner, G.; Amann, R. |

    1995-12-31

    Flow cytometry in combination with ribosomal RNA (rRNA) based fluorescence in situ hybridization is a new technique for the analysis of microbial communities. Oligonucleotide probes directed against ribosomal RNA allow the identification of species or groups of microorganisms. Combined with flow cytometry, up to several thousand cells per second can be classified. In addition to the identification and specific enumeration of microorganisms, further information on the distribution of cell size, DNA and ribosome content -- and therefore an assessment of activity -- within the entire community of subpopulations can be obtained. This technique is much more accurate, informative, and rapid than classical culture-dependent methods. Data of activated sludge samples hybridized with fluorescein labelled oligonucleotides and counterstained with the DNA-specific dye Hoechst 33342 are presented as examples for its applicability to complex microbial communities.

  8. Fixation and long-term storage of human lymphocytes for surface marker analysis by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Lal, R B; Edison, L J; Chused, T M

    1988-05-01

    A method to preserve stained human lymphocytes for subsequent cell surface analysis by flow cytometry (FCM) is described. Cells stained with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and phycoerythrin (PE)-conjugated monoclonal antibodies and then fixed in 1% paraformaldehyde, followed by extensive washing and resuspension in 1% BSA medium, could be stored at 4 degrees C for at least 2 weeks prior to FCM analysis without significant alteration in the light scatter or fluorescence properties of the cells. Furthermore, the method was also suitable for analyzing lymphocytes that express T-cell activation markers in certain disease conditions. In addition, we have identified monoclonal antibody combinations that discriminate different lymphocyte subsets that are satisfactory for multiparameter analysis after 2 weeks of storage. This method should prove useful for enumerating lymphocyte subsets in field study sites remote from flow cytometry laboratories.

  9. Analysis of polyethylene glycol (PEG) fusion in cultured neuroblastoma cells via flow cytometry: Techniques & optimization.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Ashley N; Bamba, Ravinder; Pollins, Alonda C; Thayer, Wesley P

    2017-02-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) has long been used as a membrane fusogen, but recently it has been adopted as a technique for peripheral nerve repair. Vertebrate models using PEG fusion have shown improved outcomes when PEG is applied during repair of severed peripheral nerves. The cellular mechanism of PEG fusion in the peripheral nerve repair model has not previously been assessed via flow cytometry. PEG fusion was assessed in this experiment by dying B35 rat neuroblastoma cells with different color fluorescent labels. The different color cells were combined and PEG was applied in concentrations of 50%, 75% and 100%. The amount of cell fusion was assessed via flow cytometry as the percentage of double positive cells. Results showed increasing fusion and decreasing viability with increasing concentrations of PEG.

  10. In Vivo Photoswitchable Flow Cytometry for Direct Tracking of Single Circulating Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nedosekin, Dmitry A.; Verkhusha, Vladislav V.; Melerzanov, Alexander V.; Zharov, Vladimir P.; Galanzha, Ekaterina I.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Photoswitchable fluorescent proteins (PSFPs) that change their color in response to light have led to breakthroughs in studying static cells. However, using PSFPs to study cells in dynamic conditions is challenging. Here we introduce a method for in vivo ultrafast photoswitching of PSFPs that provides labeling and tracking of single circulating cells. Using in vivo multicolor flow cytometry, this method demonstrated the capability for studying recirculation, migration, and distribution of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) during metastasis progression. In tumor-bearing mice, it enabled monitoring of real-time dynamics of CTCs released from primary tumor, identifying dormant cells, and imaging of CTCs colonizing a primary tumor (self-seeding) or existing metastasis (reseeding). Integration of genetically encoded PSFPs, fast photoswitching, flow cytometry, and imaging makes in vivo single cell analysis in the circulation feasible to provide insights into the behavior of CTCs and potentially immune-related and bacterial cells in circulation. PMID:24816228

  11. Monitoring of microbial communities by flow cytometry and rRNA-targeted hybridization probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallner, Guenter; Amann, Rudolf

    1995-10-01

    Flow cytometry in combination with ribosomal RNA (rRNA) based fluorescence in situ hybridization is a new technique for the analysis of microbial communities. Oligonucleotide probes directed against ribosomal RNA allow the identification of species or groups of micro- organisms. Combined with flow cytometry, up to several thousand cells per second can be classified. In addition to the identification and specific enumeration of micro-organisms, further information on the distribution of cell size, DNA and ribosome content -- and therefore an assessment of activity -- within the entire community or subpopulations can be obtained. This technique is much more accurate, informative, and rapid than classical culture-dependent methods. Data of activated sludge samples hybridized with fluorescein labeled oligonucleotides and counterstained with the DNA-specific dye Hoechst 33342 are presented as examples for its applicability to complex microbial communities.

  12. Rapid parallel flow cytometry assays of active GTPases using effector beads.

    PubMed

    Buranda, Tione; BasuRay, Soumik; Swanson, Scarlett; Agola, Jacob; Bondu, Virginie; Wandinger-Ness, Angela

    2013-11-15

    We describe a rapid assay for measuring the cellular activity of small guanine triphosphatases (GTPases) in response to a specific stimulus. Effector-functionalized beads are used to quantify in parallel multiple GTP-bound GTPases in the same cell lysate by flow cytometry. In a biologically relevant example, five different Ras family GTPases are shown for the first time to be involved in a concerted signaling cascade downstream of receptor ligation by Sin Nombre hantavirus.

  13. Assessment of Granulocyte Subset Activation: New Information from Image-Based Flow Cytometry.

    PubMed

    McFarlin, Brian K; Venable, Adam S; Henning, Andrea L; Williams, Randall R; Prado, Eric A

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of granulocyte function can provide important information about the state of the body's innate immune system. Existing flow cytometry methods that lack image-based analysis capabilities fail to fully evaluate granulocyte function. In the present method, we combine simultaneous detection of phagocytosis and oxidative burst in granulocytes to identify unique subsets of activated granulocytes. This analysis method provides novel information about granulocytes that allows our lab and others to evaluate the effectiveness of nutritional and lifestyle countermeasures, designed to improve immunity.

  14. Detection of Antineutrophil Autoantibodies by Flow Cytometry: Use of Unfixed Neutrophils as Antigenic Targets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    Coombs’ Sera from neutropenic patients with a variety of associated positive hemolytic anemia , chronic hepatitis, and lympho- clinical conditions...Liss, Inc.* for enhanced binding of IgG to normal target Key words: neutrophils, immunology, flow cytometry, autoimmunity , irnunoglobulins, neutro- A...however, can be time-consuming, te- autoimmune neutropenia and from normal volunteers by ven- dious, difficult to quantitate, and of limited

  15. Strategies for the synthesis and screening of glycoconjugates. 2. Covalent immobilization for flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Vetter, D; Tate, E M; Gallop, M A

    1995-01-01

    Glycosylamines are readily available carbohydrate derivatives that undergo acylation reactions with homobifunctional N-hydroxysuccinimidyl esters. The product glycosylamides carry a spacer group equipped with one active ester functionality. This route provides well-defined glycoconjugates, which may be cross-linked to various amino-functionalized resins. Carbohydrate recognition of the resulting sugar-bead conjugates is probed by lectin immunostaining or flow cytometry using a fluorescently labeled lectin.

  16. Subcellular localization-dependent changes in EGFP fluorescence lifetime measured by time-resolved flow cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Gohar, Ali Vaziri; Cao, Ruofan; Jenkins, Patrick; Li, Wenyan; Houston, Jessica P.; Houston, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    Intracellular protein transport and localization to subcellular regions are processes necessary for normal protein function. Fluorescent proteins can be fused to proteins of interest to track movement and determine localization within a cell. Currently, fluorescence microscopy combined with image processing is most often used to study protein movement and subcellular localization. In this contribution we evaluate a high-throughput time-resolved flow cytometry approach to correlate intracellular localization of human LC3 protein with the fluorescence lifetime of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). Subcellular LC3 localization to autophagosomes is a marker of the cellular process called autophagy. In breast cancer cells expressing native EGFP and EGFP-LC3 fusion proteins, we measured the fluorescence intensity and lifetime of (i) diffuse EGFP (ii) punctate EGFP-LC3 and (iii) diffuse EGFP-ΔLC3 after amino acid starvation to induce autophagy-dependent LC3 localization. We verify EGFP-LC3 localization with low-throughput confocal microscopy and compare to fluorescence intensity measured by standard flow cytometry. Our results demonstrate that time-resolved flow cytometry can be correlated to subcellular localization of EGFP fusion proteins by measuring changes in fluorescence lifetime. PMID:24010001

  17. Discovering cell types in flow cytometry data with random matrix theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yang; Nussenblatt, Robert; Losert, Wolfgang

    Flow cytometry is a widely used experimental technique in immunology research. During the experiments, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from a single patient, labeled with multiple fluorescent stains that bind to different proteins, are illuminated by a laser. The intensity of each stain on a single cell is recorded and reflects the amount of protein expressed by that cell. The data analysis focuses on identifying specific cell types related to a disease. Different cell types can be identified by the type and amount of protein they express. To date, this has most often been done manually by labelling a protein as expressed or not while ignoring the amount of expression. Using a cross correlation matrix of stain intensities, which contains both information on the proteins expressed and their amount, has been largely ignored by researchers as it suffers from measurement noise. Here we present an algorithm to identify cell types in flow cytometry data which uses random matrix theory (RMT) to reduce noise in a cross correlation matrix. We demonstrate our method using a published flow cytometry data set. Compared with previous analysis techniques, we were able to rediscover relevant cell types in an automatic way. Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742.

  18. Unfold High-Dimensional Clouds for Exhaustive Gating of Flow Cytometry Data.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Flow cytometry is able to measure the expressions of multiple proteins simultaneously at the single-cell level. A flow cytometry experiment on one biological sample provides measurements of several protein markers on or inside a large number of individual cells in that sample. Analysis of such data often aims to identify subpopulations of cells with distinct phenotypes. Currently, the most widely used analytical approach in the flow cytometry community is manual gating on a sequence of nested biaxial plots, which is highly subjective, labor intensive, and not exhaustive. To address those issues, a number of methods have been developed to automate the gating analysis by clustering algorithms. However, completely removing the subjectivity can be quite challenging. This paper describes an alternative approach. Instead of automating the analysis, we develop novel visualizations to facilitate manual gating. The proposed method views single-cell data of one biological sample as a high-dimensional point cloud of cells, derives the skeleton of the cloud, and unfolds the skeleton to generate 2D visualizations. We demonstrate the utility of the proposed visualization using real data, and provide quantitative comparison to visualizations generated from principal component analysis and multidimensional scaling.

  19. Characterisation of the green turtle's leukocyte subpopulations by flow cytometry and evaluation of their phagocytic activity.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, F A; Franco-Noguez, S Y; Gonzalez-Ballesteros, E; Negrete-Philippe, A C; Flores-Romo, L

    2014-06-01

    Phagocytosis is a fundamental aspect of innate immunity that is conserved across many species making it a potentially useful health-assessment tool for wildlife. In non-mammalian vertebrates, heterophils, monocytes, macrophages, melanomacrophages, and thrombocytes all have phagocytic properties. Recently, B lymphocytes from fish, amphibians, and aquatic turtles have also showed phagocytic capacity. Phagocytes can be studied by flow cytometry; however, the use of this tool is complicated in reptiles partly because nucleated erythrocytes complicate the procedure. We separated green turtle leukocytes by density gradient centrifugation and identified subpopulations by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Additionally, we assessed their ability to phagocytize Fluorspheres and Ovoalbumin-Alexa. We found that heterophils and lymphocytes but not monocytes could be easily identified by flow cytometry. While heterophils from adults and juvenile turtles were equally able to phagocytize fluorspheres, adults had significantly more phagocytic ability for OVA-Alexa. Lymphocytes had a mild phagocytic activity with fluorospheres (27-38 %; 39-45 %) and OVA-Alexa (35-46 %; 14-22 %) in juvenile and adult green turtles, respectively. Confocal microscopy confirmed phagocytosis of fluorospheres in both heterophils and lymphocytes. This provides the first evidence that green turtle lymphocytes have phagocytic activity and that this assay could potentially be useful to measure one aspect of innate immunity in this species.

  20. In Vivo Assessment of Rodent Plasmodium Parasitemia and Merozoite Invasion by Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Lelliott, Patrick M.; McMorran, Brendan J.; Foote, Simon J.; Burgio, Gaetan

    2015-01-01

    During blood stage infection, malaria parasites invade, mature, and replicate within red blood cells (RBCs). This results in a regular growth cycle and an exponential increase in the proportion of malaria infected RBCs, known as parasitemia. We describe a flow cytometry based protocol which utilizes a combination of the DNA dye Hoechst, and the mitochondrial membrane potential dye, JC-1, to identify RBCs which contain parasites and therefore the parasitemia, of in vivo blood samples from Plasmodium chabaudi adami DS infected mice. Using this approach, in combination with fluorescently conjugated antibodies, parasitized RBCs can be distinguished from leukocytes, RBC progenitors, and RBCs containing Howell-Jolly bodies (HJ-RBCs), with a limit of detection of 0.007% parasitemia. Additionally, we outline a method for the comparative assessment of merozoite invasion into two different RBC populations. In this assay RBCs, labeled with two distinct compounds identifiable by flow cytometry, are transfused into infected mice. The relative rate of invasion into the two populations can then be assessed by flow cytometry based on the proportion of parasitized RBCs in each population over time. This combined approach allows the accurate measurement of both parasitemia and merozoite invasion in an in vivo model of malaria infection. PMID:25867202

  1. RBC aggregation in dextran solutions can be measured by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lian; Kaewprayoon, Waraporn; Zhou, Hong; Georgieva, Radostina; Bäumler, Hans

    2017-01-01

    The impact of macromolecules on RBC aggregation continues to be of interest, nevertheless present measurements still have limitations and need improvement. We applied flow cytometry to measure RBC aggregation in dextran T500 (Dx500) solution. The samples were fixed in the aggregated state by glutaraldehyde. Fixed RBC exhibit auto fluorescence, which can be detected by flow cytometry. Single cells, doublets, triplets and larger aggregates can be distinguished quantitatively and quickly due to the correlation between auto fluorescence intensity and number of RBC per measured event. With the increase in concentration of Dx500, percentages of all aggregates and bigger aggregates increased significantly at concentration of 2%, 4% and 6%, while decreased when the concentration reached 8% and 10%. The percentage of bigger aggregates in concentration of 4% was higher than that in 2% and 6%. The data of flow cytometry was confirmed by microscopic observation and are in good agreement with the literature. The method provide additional advantages to the conventional measurement of RBC aggregation. It gets the distribution of single cells and aggregates as derived from the microscopic observation with hematocrit of physiological level. It uses sample volume as 1/5∼1/10 as needed in sendimentation and photometricmethods.

  2. Flow cytometry community fingerprinting and amplicon sequencing for the assessment of landfill leachate cellulolytic bioaugmentation.

    PubMed

    Kinet, R; Dzaomuho, P; Baert, J; Taminiau, B; Daube, G; Nezer, C; Brostaux, Y; Nguyen, F; Dumont, G; Thonart, P; Delvigne, F

    2016-08-01

    Flow cytometry (FCM) is a high throughput single cell technology that is actually becoming widely used for studying phenotypic and genotypic diversity among microbial communities. This technology is considered in this work for the assessment of a bioaugmentation treatment in order to enhance cellulolytic potential of landfill leachate. The experimental results reveal the relevant increase of leachate cellulolytic potential due to bioaugmentation. Cytometric monitoring of microbial dynamics along these assays is then realized. The flow FP package is used to establish microbial samples fingerprint from initial 2D cytometry histograms. This procedure allows highlighting microbial communities' variation along the assays. Cytometric and 16S rRNA gene sequencing fingerprinting methods are then compared. The two approaches give same evidence about microbial dynamics throughout digestion assay. There are however a lack of significant correlation between cytometric and amplicon sequencing fingerprint at genus or species level. Same phenotypical profiles of microbiota during assays matched to several 16S rRNA gene sequencing ones. Flow cytometry fingerprinting can thus be considered as a promising routine on-site method suitable for the detection of stability/variation/disturbance of complex microbial communities involved in bioprocesses.

  3. In vivo, label-free, and noninvasive detection of melanoma metastasis by photoacoustic flow cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Rongrong; Wang, Cheng; Hu, Cheng; Wang, Xueding; Wei, Xunbin

    2014-02-01

    Melanoma, a malignant tumor of melanocytes, is the most serious type of skin cancer in the world. It accounts for about 80% of deaths of all skin cancer. For cancer detection, circulating tumor cells (CTCs) serve as a marker for metastasis development, cancer recurrence, and therapeutic efficacy. Melanoma tumor cells have high content of melanin, which has high light absorption and can serve as endogenous biomarker for CTC detection without labeling. Here, we have developed an in vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry (PAFC) to monitor the metastatic process of melanoma cancer by counting CTCs of melanoma tumor bearing mice in vivo. To test in vivo PAFC's capability of detecting melanoma cancer, we have constructed a melanoma tumor model by subcutaneous inoculation of highly metastatic murine melanoma cancer cells, B16F10. In order to effectively distinguish the targeting PA signals from background noise, we have used the algorithm of Wavelet denoising method to reduce the background noise. The in vivo flow cytometry (IVFC) has shown a great potential for detecting circulating tumor cells quantitatively in the blood stream. Compared with fluorescence-based in vivo flow cytometry (IVFC), PAFC technique can be used for in vivo, label-free, and noninvasive detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs).

  4. Procoagulant and platelet-derived microvesicle absolute counts determined by flow cytometry correlates with a measurement of their functional capacity

    PubMed Central

    Ayers, Lisa; Harrison, Paul; Kohler, Malcolm; Ferry, Berne

    2014-01-01

    Background Flow cytometry is the most commonly used technology to measure microvesicles (MVs). Despite reported limitations of this technique, MV levels obtained using conventional flow cytometry have yielded many clinically relevant findings, such as associations with disease severity and ability to predict clinical outcomes. This study aims to determine if MV enumeration by flow cytometry correlates with a measurement of their functional capacity, as this may explain how flow cytometry generates clinically relevant results. Methods One hundred samples from healthy individuals and patients with obstructive sleep apnoea were analysed by conventional flow cytometry (FACSCalibur) and by three functional MV assays: Zymuphen MP-activity in which data were given as phosphatidylserine equivalent, STA® Phospholipid Procoag Assay expressed as clotting time and Endogenous Thrombin Potential (ETP) reflecting in vitro thrombin generation. Correlations were determined by Spearman correlation. Results Absolute counts of lactadherin+ procoagulant MVs generated by flow cytometry weakly correlated with the results obtained from the Zymuphen MP-activity (r=0.5370, p<0.0001); correlated with ETP (r=0.7444, p<0.0001); negatively correlated with STA® Phospholipid Procoag Assay clotting time (−0.7872, p<0.0001), reflecting a positive correlation between clotting activity and flow cytometry. Levels of Annexin V+ procoagulant and platelet-derived MVs were also associated with functional assays. Absolute counts of MVs derived from other cell types were not correlated with the functional results. Conclusions Quantitative results of procoagulant and platelet-derived MVs from conventional flow cytometry are associated with the functional capability of the MVs, as defined by three functional MV assays. Flow cytometry is a valuable technique for the quantification of MVs from different cellular origins; however, a combination of several analytical techniques may give the most comprehensive

  5. Comparison of nucleolar organiser regions and DNA flow cytometry in the evaluation of pleural effusion.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, M. S.; Tsai, M. S.; Hwang, J. J.; Wang, T. H.

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND--In conventional cytological diagnosis of pleural effusions the assessment of morphological features plays an important part. However, false negative and false positive results may occur. In this study conventional cytology was compared with flow cytometric DNA analysis and the argyrophil staining technique for nucleolar organiser regions (AgNOR) to characterise benign and malignant effusions. METHODS--Pleural effusions from 71 patients (38 with benign lung disease, 33 with proven adenocarcinoma of lung) were studied by conventional cytology, flow cytometric DNA analysis, and the AgNOR technique. Tumour cell ploidy was determined by flow cytometry. In an attempt to detect the cell proliferative state, flow cytometric S phase fraction and the AgNOR technique were used. The correlations among conventional cytology, flow cytometric DNA ploidy, S phase fraction analysis, and nucleolar organiser regions were investigated. RESULTS--All the 38 benign pleural effusions were diploid. There were 17 (52%) aneuploid and 16 (48%) diploid malignant pleural effusions. Based on these results this type of DNA analysis had a sensitivity of 52% and a specificity of 100%. The mean (SD) numbers of flow cytometric S phase fractions of benign and malignant cases were 5.32 (1.67)% and 12.45 (3.93)% respectively. The mean numbers of S phase fractions of diploid malignant cases were higher than diploid benign cases. In each case the number of AgNORs was counted in 100 cells. The mean number of AgNOR dots per nucleus was 12.57 (3.64) for malignant pleural effusion cells and 3.96 (1.39) for benign pleural effusion cells. The mean number of AgNOR dots was 14.45 (3.36) for aneuploid malignant pleural effusion cells and 10.57 (2.82) for diploid malignant pleural effusion cells. The AgNOR numbers were higher in diploid malignant cells than in diploid benign cells. There was a significant correlation between the S phase fraction determined by flow cytometry and the mean number of Ag

  6. Flow Cytometry with Gold Nanoparticles and their Clusters as scattering Contrast Agents: FDTD Simulation of Light-Cell Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Tanev, Stoyan; Sun, Wenbo; Pond, James; Tuchin, Valery V.; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2010-01-01

    The formulation of the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) approach is presented in the framework of its potential applications to in vivo flow cytometry based on light scattering. The consideration is focused on comparison of light scattering by a single biological cell alone in controlled refractive index matching conditions and by cells labeled by gold nanoparticles. The optical schematics including phase contrast (OPCM) microscopy as a prospective modality for in vivo flow cytometry is also analyzed. The validation of the FDTD approach for the simulation of flow cytometry may open a new avenue in the development of advanced cytometric techniques based on scattering effects from nanoscale targets. PMID:19670359

  7. Flow cytometry with gold nanoparticles and their clusters as scattering contrast agents: FDTD simulation of light-cell interaction.

    PubMed

    Tanev, Stoyan; Sun, Wenbo; Pond, James; Tuchin, Valery V; Zharov, Vladimir P

    2009-09-01

    The formulation of the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) approach is presented in the framework of its potential applications to in-vivo flow cytometry based on light scattering. The consideration is focused on comparison of light scattering by a single biological cell alone in controlled refractive-index matching conditions and by cells labeled by gold nanoparticles. The optical schematics including phase contrast (OPCM) microscopy as a prospective modality for in-vivo flow cytometry is also analyzed. The validation of the FDTD approach for the simulation of flow cytometry may open up a new avenue in the development of advanced cytometric techniques based on scattering effects from nanoscale targets.

  8. Detection of Trypanosoma brucei Variant Surface Glycoprotein Switching by Magnetic Activated Cell Sorting and Flow Cytometry.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Danae; Mugnier, Monica R; Boothroyd, Catherine E; Papavasiliou, F Nina

    2016-10-19

    Trypanosoma brucei, a protozoan parasite that causes both Human and Animal African Trypanosomiasis (known as sleeping sickness and nagana, respectively) cycles between a tsetse vector and a mammalian host. It evades the mammalian host immune system by periodically switching the dense, variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) that covers its surface. The detection of antigenic variation in Trypanosoma brucei can be both cumbersome and labor intensive. Here, we present a method for quantifying the number of parasites that have 'switched' to express a new VSG in a given population. The parasites are first stained with an antibody against the starting VSG, and then stained with a secondary antibody attached to a magnetic bead. Parasites expressing the starting VSG are then separated from the rest of the population by running the parasites over a column attached to a magnet. Parasites expressing the dominant, starting VSG are retained on the column, while the flow-through contains parasites that express a new VSG as well as some contaminants expressing the starting VSG. This flow-through population is stained again with a fluorescently labeled antibody against the starting VSG to label contaminants, and propidium iodide (PI), which labels dead cells. A known number of absolute counting beads that are visible by flow cytometry are added to the flow-through population. The ratio of beads to number of cells collected can then be used to extrapolate the number of cells in the entire sample. Flow cytometry is used to quantify the population of switchers by counting the number of PI negative cells that do not stain positively for the starting, dominant VSG. The proportion of switchers in the population can then be calculated using the flow cytometry data.

  9. [Research progress on multiple myeloma immunophenotyping and minimal residual disease detected by flow cytometry].

    PubMed

    Li, Han-Qing; Zhai, Yong-Ping

    2015-02-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a haematological malignancy characterized by the accumulation of monoclonal plasma cells in the bone marrow and remained incurable. Flow cytometry has been widely used in the detection of immunophenotype and minimal residual disease, diagnosis, monitoring and prognosis of MM. Normal plasma cells and malignant plasma cells can be distinguished according to different cell surface antigen expression. The clinical significane of many immune markes has been elucidated. However, the clinical significance of some phenotype remains controversial, the detection scheme and gating strategy are not unified. This review discusses the recent research progress on detection of MM immunophenotype and minimal residual disease by flow cytovetry.

  10. Deformation of double emulsions under conditions of flow cytometry hydrodynamic focusing.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shaohua; Huck, Wilhelm T S; Balabani, Stavroula

    2015-11-21

    Water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) microfluidics double emulsions offer a new route to compartmentalise reagents into isolated aqueous microenvironments while maintaining an aqueous carrier fluid phase; this enables compatibility with commercial flow cytometry systems such as fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Double emulsion (inner core) deformation under hydrodynamic focusing conditions that mimic the environment double emulsions experience in flow cytometry applications is of particular importance for droplet stability and cell viability. This paper reports on an experimental study of the dynamic deformation of aqueous cores of w/o/w double emulsions under hydrodynamic focusing, with the sheath flow directed at 45° to the sample flow. A number of factors affecting the inner core deformation and recovery were examined. Deformation was found to depend significantly on the core or shell viscosity, the droplet-to-sheath flow velocity ratio, and core and shell sizes. Core deformation was found to depend more on the type of surfactant rather concentration with high molecular weight surfactant exhibiting a negligible effect on deformation whereas low molecular weight surfactant enhancing deformation at low concentrations due to their lateral mobility at the interface.

  11. Flow Cytometry as a Tool for Quality Control of Fluorescent Conjugates Used in Immunoassays

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida Santiago, Marta; de Paula Fonseca e Fonseca, Bruna; da Silva Marques, Christiane de Fátima; Domingos da Silva, Edimilson

    2016-01-01

    The use of antibodies in immunodiagnostic kits generally implies the conjugation of these proteins with other molecules such as chromophores or fluorochromes. The development of more sensitive quality control procedures than spectrophotometry is essential to assure the use of better fluorescent conjugates since the fluorescent conjugates are critical reagents for a variety of immunodiagnostic kits. In this article, we demonstrate a new flow cytometric protocol to evaluate conjugates by molecules of equivalent soluble fluorochromes (MESF) and by traditional flow cytometric analysis. We have coupled microspheres with anti-IgG-PE and anti-HBSAg-PE conjugates from distinct manufactures and/or different lots and evaluated by flow cytometry. Their fluorescence intensities were followed for a period of 18 months. Our results showed that there was a great difference in the fluorescence intensities between the conjugates studied. The differences were observed between manufactures and lots from both anti-IgG-PE and anti-HBSAg-PE conjugates. Coefficients of variation (CVs) showed that this parameter can be used to determine better coupling conditions, such as homogenous coupling. The MESF analysis, as well as geometric mean evaluation by traditional flow cytometry, showed a decrease in the values for all conjugates during the study and were indispensable tools to validate the results of stability tests. Our data demonstrated the feasibility of the flow cytometric method as a standard quality control of immunoassay kits. PMID:27936034

  12. Clinical utility of flow cytometry in the study of erythropoiesis and nonclonal red cell disorders.

    PubMed

    Chesney, Alden; Good, David; Reis, Marciano

    2011-01-01

    Erythropoiesis involves proliferation and differentiation of small population of hematopoietic stem cells resident in the bone marrow into mature red blood cells. The determination of the cellular composition of the blood is a valuable tool in the diagnosis of diseases and monitoring of therapy. Flow cytometric analysis is increasingly being used to characterize the heterogeneous cell populations present in the blood and the hematopoietic cell differentiation and maturation pathways of the bone marrow. Here we discuss the role of flow cytometry in the study of erythropoiesis and nonclonal red blood cell disorders. First, we discuss flow cytometric analysis of reticulocytes. Next, we review salient quantitative methods that can be used for detection of fetal-maternal hemorrhage (FMH). We also discuss flow cytometric analysis of high hemoglobin F (HbF) in Sickle Cell Disease (SCD), hereditary spherocytosis (HS), red cell survival and red cell volume. We conclude by discussing cell cycle of erythroid cells.

  13. Two New Nuclear Isolation Buffers for Plant DNA Flow Cytometry: A Test with 37 Species

    PubMed Central

    Loureiro, João; Rodriguez, Eleazar; Doležel, Jaroslav; Santos, Conceição

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims After the initial boom in the application of flow cytometry in plant sciences in the late 1980s and early 1990s, which was accompanied by development of many nuclear isolation buffers, only a few efforts were made to develop new buffer formulas. In this work, recent data on the performance of nuclear isolation buffers are utilized in order to develop new buffers, general purpose buffer (GPB) and woody plant buffer (WPB), for plant DNA flow cytometry. Methods GPB and WPB were used to prepare samples for flow cytometric analysis of nuclear DNA content in a set of 37 plant species that included herbaceous and woody taxa with leaf tissues differing in structure and chemical composition. The following parameters of isolated nuclei were assessed: forward and side light scatter, propidium iodide fluorescence, coefficient of variation of DNA peaks, quantity of debris background, and the number of particles released from sample tissue. The nuclear genome size of 30 selected species was also estimated using the buffer that performed better for a given species. Key Results In unproblematic species, the use of both buffers resulted in high quality samples. The analysis of samples obtained with GPB usually resulted in histograms of DNA content with higher or similar resolution than those prepared with the WPB. In more recalcitrant tissues, such as those from woody plants, WPB performed better and GPB failed to provide acceptable results in some cases. Improved resolution of DNA content histograms in comparison with previously published buffers was achieved in most of the species analysed. Conclusions WPB is a reliable buffer which is also suitable for the analysis of problematic tissues/species. Although GPB failed with some plant species, it provided high-quality DNA histograms in species from which nuclear suspensions are easy to prepare. The results indicate that even with a broad range of species, either GPB or WPB is suitable for preparation of high

  14. Flow cytometry protocols for surface and intracellular antigen analyses of neural cell types.

    PubMed

    Menon, Vishal; Thomas, Ria; Ghale, Arun R; Reinhard, Christina; Pruszak, Jan

    2014-12-18

    Flow cytometry has been extensively used to define cell populations in immunology, hematology and oncology. Here, we provide a detailed description of protocols for flow cytometric analysis of the cluster of differentiation (CD) surface antigens and intracellular antigens in neural cell types. Our step-by-step description of the methodological procedures include: the harvesting of neural in vitro cultures, an optional carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE)-labeling step, followed by surface antigen staining with conjugated CD antibodies (e.g., CD24, CD54), and subsequent intracellar antigen detection via primary/secondary antibodies or fluorescently labeled Fab fragments (Zenon labeling). The video demonstrates the most critical steps. Moreover, principles of experimental planning, the inclusion of critical controls, and fundamentals of flow cytometric analysis (identification of target population and exclusion of debris; gating strategy; compensation for spectral overlap) are briefly explained in order to enable neurobiologists with limited prior knowledge or specific training in flow cytometry to assess its utility and to better exploit this powerful methodology.

  15. A Flow Cytometry Method for Rapidly Assessing Mycobacterium tuberculosis Responses to Antibiotics with Different Modes of Action

    PubMed Central

    Hendon-Dunn, Charlotte Louise; Doris, Kathryn Sarah; Thomas, Stephen Richard; Allnutt, Jonathan Charles; Marriott, Alice Ann Neville; Hatch, Kim Alexandra; Watson, Robert James; Bottley, Graham; Marsh, Philip David; Taylor, Stephen Charles

    2016-01-01

    Current methods for assessing the drug susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are lengthy and do not capture information about viable organisms that are not immediately culturable under standard laboratory conditions as a result of antibiotic exposure. We have developed a rapid dual-fluorescence flow cytometry method using markers for cell viability and death. We show that the fluorescent marker calcein violet with an acetoxy-methyl ester group (CV-AM) can differentiate between populations of M. tuberculosis growing at different rates, while Sytox green (SG) can differentiate between live and dead mycobacteria. M. tuberculosis was exposed to isoniazid or rifampin at different concentrations over time and either dual stained with CV-AM and SG and analyzed by flow cytometry or plated to determine the viability of the cells. Although similar trends in the loss of viability were observed when the results of flow cytometry and the plate counting methods were compared, there was a lack of correlation between these two approaches, as the flow cytometry analysis potentially captured information about cell populations that were unable to grow under standard conditions. The flow cytometry approach had an additional advantage in that it could provide insights into the mode of action of the drug: antibiotics targeting the cell wall gave a flow cytometry profile distinct from those inhibiting intracellular processes. This rapid drug susceptibility testing method could identify more effective antimycobacterials, provide information about their potential mode of action, and accelerate their progress to the clinic. PMID:26902767

  16. A Flow Cytometry Method for Rapidly Assessing Mycobacterium tuberculosis Responses to Antibiotics with Different Modes of Action.

    PubMed

    Hendon-Dunn, Charlotte Louise; Doris, Kathryn Sarah; Thomas, Stephen Richard; Allnutt, Jonathan Charles; Marriott, Alice Ann Neville; Hatch, Kim Alexandra; Watson, Robert James; Bottley, Graham; Marsh, Philip David; Taylor, Stephen Charles; Bacon, Joanna

    2016-07-01

    Current methods for assessing the drug susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are lengthy and do not capture information about viable organisms that are not immediately culturable under standard laboratory conditions as a result of antibiotic exposure. We have developed a rapid dual-fluorescence flow cytometry method using markers for cell viability and death. We show that the fluorescent marker calcein violet with an acetoxy-methyl ester group (CV-AM) can differentiate between populations of M. tuberculosis growing at different rates, while Sytox green (SG) can differentiate between live and dead mycobacteria. M. tuberculosis was exposed to isoniazid or rifampin at different concentrations over time and either dual stained with CV-AM and SG and analyzed by flow cytometry or plated to determine the viability of the cells. Although similar trends in the loss of viability were observed when the results of flow cytometry and the plate counting methods were compared, there was a lack of correlation between these two approaches, as the flow cytometry analysis potentially captured information about cell populations that were unable to grow under standard conditions. The flow cytometry approach had an additional advantage in that it could provide insights into the mode of action of the drug: antibiotics targeting the cell wall gave a flow cytometry profile distinct from those inhibiting intracellular processes. This rapid drug susceptibility testing method could identify more effective antimycobacterials, provide information about their potential mode of action, and accelerate their progress to the clinic.

  17. Cytology, immunopathology and flow cytometry in the diagnosis of pleural and peritoneal effusions.

    PubMed

    Croonen, A M; van der Valk, P; Herman, C J; Lindeman, J

    1988-06-01

    There were 106 pleural and peritoneal effusions studied in order to investigate the contribution of immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry to routine cytologic diagnosis. A panel of antibodies (to cytokeratin, vimentin, human milk fat globule, epithelial membrane antigen and carcinoembryonic antigen) was applied to aceton-fixed slides, using immunoperoxydase and immunofluorescence methods. Flow cytometry was performed using a double labeling method, i.e., propidium iodide for DNA staining and keratin for labeling of epithelial cells. In this way DNA aneuploidy was more evident in the histograms when the fluid contained many reactive nonepithelial cells (lymphocytes). A designation of marker profiles was made for the three most frequently occurring diagnoses, i.e., reactive mesothelial proliferation (I), adenocarcinoma (II), and malignant mesothelioma (III). For the differentiation between adenocarcinoma and malignant mesothelioma, carcinoembryonic antigen was the most useful marker as 75% of the adenocarcinomas was carcinoembryonic antigen-positive and the malignant mesotheliomas were consistently negative. Furthermore, evident DNA-aneuploidy strongly supported the diagnosis of adenocarcinoma, as most malignant mesotheliomas were DNA-euploid, even though occasional DNA-aneuploidy was found in malignant mesotheliomas when different effusions from the same patient were examined. For the differentiation between reactive mesothelial cells and malignant mesothelioma human milk fat globule and/or epithelial membrane antigen, in this study proved to be most reliable, their presence strongly indicating malignancy. It is stressed that the method used (fixation, antibodies, washing procedures) can influence these findings. In 16 patients (17%) performing immunopathology and/or flow cytometry meant an important contribution to diagnosis.

  18. Detection of Salmonella typhimurium in dairy products with flow cytometry and monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    McClelland, R G; Pinder, A C

    1994-01-01

    Flow cytometry, combined with fluorescently labelled monoclonal antibodies, offers advantages of speed and sensitivity for the detection of specific pathogenic bacteria in foods. We investigated the detection of Salmonella typhimurium in eggs and milk. Using a sample clearing procedure, we determined that the detection limit was on the order of 10(3) cells per ml after a total analysis time of 40 min. After 6 h of nonselective enrichment, the detection limits were 10 cells per ml for milk and 1 cell per ml for eggs, even in the presence of a 10,000-fold excess of Escherichia coli cells. Images PMID:7811064

  19. A Case of Blastic Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Neoplasm Extensively Studied by Flow Cytometry and Immunohistochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Cesana, Clara; Cittone, Micol Giulia; Bandiera, Laura; Scarpati, Barbara; Mancini, Valentina; Soriani, Silvia; Veronese, Silvio; Truini, Mauro; Rossini, Silvano; Cairoli, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is a rare hematologic malignancy with aggressive clinical course and poor prognosis. Diagnosis is based on detection of CD4+ CD56+, CD123high, TCL-1+, and blood dendritic cell antigen-2/CD303+ blasts, together with the absence of lineage specific antigens on tumour cells. In this report we present a case of BPDCN presenting with extramedullary and bone marrow involvement, extensively studied by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry, who achieved complete remission after acute lymphoblastic leukemia like chemotherapy and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

  20. Micro Flow Cytometry Miniaturisation - Towards in-situ Optical Phytoplankton Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zmijan, R.; Abi Kaed Bey, S.; Mowlem, M. C.; Morgan, H.

    2012-04-01

    The use of flow cytometry for studies of temporal and spatial variability of phytoplankton populations is a valuable tool contributing to research relating carbon biogeochemistry and climate change. Early designs and marine deployments of such devices started over two decades ago [1-3]. Miniaturisation and cost reduction without sacrificing performance remains a major challenge but would enable mass production and deployment. Large numbers of measurement nodes (e.g. as part of a global ocean observation system) would be possible which would increase data available over both spatial and temporal scales. This research presents two different design approaches for miniaturisation and integration of optics into a microfluidic cytometer chip. The proposed solutions are suitable for micro cytometers with external components coupled with optical fibres and were simulated and optimised using ray tracing software (Zemax). The two designs address light delivery for excitation of particles within the measurement region of the cytometer. One uses an integrated micro lens (fabricated in the chip) and the other a ball shaped micro lens manufactured separately and then inserted into the chip. Both approaches collimate the excitation light beam (from an off chip diode laser coupled with an optical fibre) into the fluidic channel. The predicted (by ray tracing) excitation beam widths are 70 and 80 µm for the integrated and the ball lens respectively, and are in agreement with experimental data presented. The proposed cytometer chip design is compatible with low cost materials (acrylic glass, cyclo-olefines) and manufacturing methods (micro milling, hot embossing, injection moulding). 1. Dubelaar, G.B.J. and P.L. Gerritzen, CytoBuoy: a step forward towards using flow cytometry in operational oceanography. Scientia Marina, 2000. 64(2): p. 255-265. 2. Peeters, J.C.H., et al., Optical Plankton Analyzer - a Flow Cytometer for Plankton Analysis .1. Design Considerations. Cytometry, 1989

  1. A structured population modeling framework for quantifying and predicting gene expression noise in flow cytometry data.

    PubMed

    Flores, Kevin B

    2013-07-01

    We formulated a structured population model with distributed parameters to identify mechanisms that contribute to gene expression noise in time-dependent flow cytometry data. The model was validated using cell population-level gene expression data from two experiments with synthetically engineered eukaryotic cells. Our model captures the qualitative noise features of both experiments and accurately fit the data from the first experiment. Our results suggest that cellular switching between high and low expression states and transcriptional re-initiation are important factors needed to accurately describe gene expression noise with a structured population model.

  2. A flow cytometry-based assay for measuring invasion of red blood cells by Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Bei, Amy K; Desimone, Tiffany M; Badiane, Aida S; Ahouidi, Ambroise D; Dieye, Tandakha; Ndiaye, Daouda; Sarr, Ousmane; Ndir, Omar; Mboup, Souleymane; Duraisingh, Manoj T

    2010-04-01

    Variability in the ability of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum to invade human erythrocytes is postulated to be an important determinant of disease severity. Both the parasite multiplication rate and erythrocyte selectivity are important parameters that underlie such variable invasion. We have established a flow cytometry-based method for simultaneously calculating both the parasitemia and the number of multiply-infected erythrocytes. Staining with the DNA-specific dye SYBR Green I allows quantitation of parasite invasion at the ring stage of parasite development. We discuss in vitro and in vivo applications and limitations of this method in relation to the study of parasite invasion.

  3. Flow cytometry analysis of porcine platelets: optimized methods for best results.

    PubMed

    Krajewski, Stefanie; Kurz, Julia; Wendel, Hans Peter; Straub, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Animal models are essential tools for the in vivo evaluation of pharmacological modulation of platelet function and the mechanisms underlying thrombosis. In particular, pigs are being increasingly used in cardiovascular and platelet research. One standard method for the investigation of platelet function under experimental conditions is flow cytometry. However, this approach is limited by a shortage of feasible antibodies and a lack of incubation protocols with regard to porcine platelets. This study aimed to establish a method for the investigation of porcine platelets in flow cytometry. Platelets from pigs and human donors were stained with various commercially available specific antibodies against platelet receptors CD41a, CD42bα, CD62P, activated CD41/CD61, and platelet-bound fibrinogen. Staining procedures were performed in undiluted or diluted whole blood (WB) or platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Samples were treated with PBS buffer as control or with adenosine diphosphate (ADP) to induce platelet activation. Flow cytometry was performed using standard methodology. Furthermore, platelet counts were determined and ADP-induced platelet aggregations of both species were examined to confirm that the agonist ADP reliably activates human as well as porcine platelets. Five of the investigated antibodies bound to human, but not to porcine platelets only. However, two chicken-derived antibodies directed against CD62P (09-143) and fibrinogen (09-038) as well as a monoclonal mouse anti-CD62P (KO2.5) and a polyclonal rabbit anti-fibrinogen antibody (F0111) allowed reliable detection of porcine platelet activation. Moreover, binding intensity of the 09-143 antibody was increased when incubated in porcine PRP compared to WB, whereas antibody binding of both anti-fibrinogen antibodies to porcine platelets was only observed when incubated in a WB-buffer solution. KO2.5 antibody binding was detectable employing PRP as well as the WB-buffer solution. The feasibility of our new

  4. In vivo flow cytometry and time-resolved near-IR angiography and lymphography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galanzha, Ekaterina I.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Brock, Robert W.; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2007-05-01

    Integration of photoacoustic and photothermal techniques with high-speed, high-resolution transmission and fluorescence microscopy shows great potential for in vivo flow cytometry and indocyanine green (ICG) near-infrared (IR) angiography of blood and lymph microvessels. In particular, the capabilities of in vivo flow cytometry using rat mesentery and nude mouse ear models are demonstrated for real-time quantitative detection of circulating and migrating individual blood and cancer cells in skin, mesentery, lymph nodes, liver, kidney; studying vascular dynamics with a focus on lymphatics; monitoring cell traffic between blood and lymph systems; high-speed imaging of cell deformability in flow; and label-free real-time monitoring of single cell extravasation from blood vessel lumen into tissue. As presented, the advantages of ICG IR-angiography include estimation of time resolved dye dynamics (appearance and clearance) in blood and lymph microvessels using fluorescent and photoacoustic modules of the integrated technique. These new approaches are important for monitoring and quantifying metastatic and apoptotic cells; comparative measurements of plasma and cell velocities; analysis of immune responses; monitoring of circulating macromolecules, chylomicrons, bacteria, viruses and nanoparticles; molecular imaging. In the future, we believe that the integrated technique presented will have great potential for translation to early disease diagnoses (e.g. cancer) or assessment of innovative therapeutic interventions in humans.

  5. Detection and capture of breast cancer cells with photoacoustic flow cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, Kiran; Goldschmidt, Benjamin S.; Viator, John A.

    2016-08-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, breast cancer is the most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer related deaths among women. Metastasis-the presence of secondary tumors caused by the spread of cancer cells via the circulatory or lymphatic systems-significantly worsens the prognosis of any breast cancer patient. A technique is developed to detect circulating breast cancer cells in human blood using a photoacoustic flow cytometry method. A Q-switched laser is used to interrogate thousands of blood cells with one pulse as they flow through the beam path. Cells that are optically absorbing, either naturally or artificially, emit an ultrasound wave as a result of the photoacoustic (PA) effect. Breast cancer cells are targeted with chromophores through immunochemistry in order to enhance optical absorption. After which, the PA cytometry device is calibrated to demonstrate the ability to detect single cells. Cultured breast cancer cells are added to whole blood to reach a biologically relevant concentration of about 25 to 45 breast cancer cells per 1 mL of blood. An in vitro PA flow cytometer is used to detect and isolate these cells followed by capture with the use of a micromanipulator. This method can not only be used to determine the disease state of the patient and the response to therapy but also it can be used for genetic testing and in vitro drug trials since the circulating cell can be captured and studied.

  6. Quantitative analysis of gold and carbon nanoparticles in mammalian cells by flow cytometry light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Gang; Liu, Naicheng; Wang, Zhenheng; Shi, Tongguo; Gan, Jingjing; Wang, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Junfeng

    2017-02-01

    Nanoparticle-based applications for diagnostics and therapeutics have been extensively studied. These applications require a profound understanding of the fate of nanoparticles (NPs) in cellular environments. However, until now, few analytical methods are available and most of them rely on fluorescent properties or special elements of NPs; therefore, for NPs without observable optical properties or special elements, the existing methods are hardly applicable. In this study, we introduce a flow cytometry light scattering (FCLS)-based approach that quantifies in situ NPs accurately in mammalian cells. Continuous cells of heterogeneous human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2 cells), mouse peritoneal macrophages (MPM), and human adenocarcinomic alveolar basal epithelia (A549 cells) were cultured with NPs with certain concentrations and size. The intensity of the flow cytometric side scattered light, which indicates the quantity of NPs in the cells, was analyzed. The result shows an accurate size- and dose-dependent uptake of Au NPs (5, 30, 250 nm) in Caco-2 cells. The size- and dose- dependence of Au NPs (5, 30, 250 nm) and carbon NPs (50, 500 nm) in cells was validated by transmission electron microscope (TEM). This paper demonstrates the great potential of flow cytometry light scattering in the quantitative study of the size and dose effect on in situ metallic or non-metallic NPs in mammalian cells.

  7. Characterization of porcine peripheral blood leukocytes by light-scattering flow cytometry.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, F I; Williams, T J; el-Awar, F Y; Pang, V F; Hahn, E C

    1987-01-01

    As a basis for other experiments using flow cytometry of porcine peripheral blood leukocytes, cell fractions were isolated by various methods and analyzed by forward angle light scatter and 90 degree light scatter. Cytospin smears of cell samples were also studied by leukocyte differential counts and nonspecific esterase staining. Three main populations of peripheral blood leukocytes [lymphocytes, monocytes, and granulocytes (primarily neutrophils)], were defined in the log 90 degree light scatter by forward angle light scatter histogram. Partial overlap was observed between lymphocyte and monocyte, and between monocyte and granulocyte domains. Correlation between leukocyte differential counts and flow cytometric quantification based on bitmap statistics of appropriate domains was between r = 0.872-0.892 for lymphocyte and granulocyte. Percoll density gradients were used for subfractionation of leukocyte populations, especially for the enrichment of granulocytes. The specific densities were calculated for lymphocytes (1.0585-1.0819 g/cc), monocytes (1.0585-1.0702 g/cc), granulocyte (1.0819-1.0936 g/cc), and erythrocytes (greater than 1.0952 g/cc). We suggest that light scatter characterization is a basis for future studies of porcine blood by flow cytometry. PMID:3453262

  8. Optimization of buffer solutions to analyze inflammatory cytokines in gingival crevicular fluid by multiplex flow cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Ríos-Lugo, María-Judith; Martin, Conchita; Alarcón, José-Antonio; Esquifino, Ana; Solano, Patricia; Sanz, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    Objective: the aim of this study was to test two buffer solutions in order to attain a reliable and reproducible analysis of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, OPG, OPN and OC), in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) by flow cytometry. Material and Methods: GCF samples from healthy volunteers were collected with perio-paper strips and diluted either in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) or Tris-HCl buffer, with and without protease inhibitors (PI). Cytokine immunoassays were carried out by flow cytometry (Luminex Xmap 200) generating standard curves. Results: standards curves generated with the use of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) demonstrated best adjustment for cytokines IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNF- α levels, when using Tris-HCl (p<0.05). Conclusions: The use of PBS buffer with the addition of PI provided reliable measurements of inflammatory biomarkers in GCF samples of healthy volunteers. Key words:Curve fitting, flow cytometer, immunoassay buffer, crevicular fluid, cytokines. PMID:24880451

  9. A cytometry microparticle platform approach for screening tobacco microRNA changes after agrobacterium delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Joshua D.; Chen, Qiang; Mason, Hugh S.

    2016-08-01

    Abstract Key message nta-miR-398 is significantly up-regulated while nta-miR-428d is significantly down-regulated in tobacco after agroinfiltration AbstractMicroRNAs are a class of non-coding regulatory RNAs that can modulate development as well as alter innate antiviral defenses in plants. In this study we explored host changes at the microRNA level within tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) after expression of a recombinant anti-Ebola GP1 antibody through Agrobacterium tumefaciens agroinfiltration delivery. A multiplex nanoparticle-based cytometry assay tracked the host expression changes of 53 tobacco microRNAs. Our results revealed that the most abundant microRNAs in actively growing leaves corresponded to nanoparticle probes specific to nta-mir-6149 and nta-miR-168b. After agroinfiltration, probes targeting nta-mir-398 and nta-mir-482d were significantly altered in their respective expression levels and were further verified through RT-qPCR analysis. To our knowledge this study is the first to profile microRNA expression in tobacco after agroinfiltration using a multiplex nanoparticle approach.

  10. An Improved Flow Cytometry Method For Precise Quantitation Of Natural-Killer Cell Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crucian, Brian; Nehlsen-Cannarella, Sandra; Sams, Clarence

    2006-01-01

    The ability to assess NK cell cytotoxicity using flow cytometry has been previously described and can serve as a powerful tool to evaluate effector immune function in the clinical setting. Previous methods used membrane permeable dyes to identify target cells. The use of these dyes requires great care to achieve optimal staining and results in a broad spectral emission that can make multicolor cytometry difficult. Previous methods have also used negative staining (the elimination of target cells) to identify effector cells. This makes a precise quantitation of effector NK cells impossible due to the interfering presence of T and B lymphocytes, and the data highly subjective to the variable levels of NK cells normally found in human peripheral blood. In this study an improved version of the standard flow cytometry assay for NK activity is described that has several advantages of previous methods. Fluorescent antibody staining (CD45FITC) is used to positively identify target cells in place of membranepermeable dyes. Fluorescent antibody staining of target cells is less labor intensive and more easily reproducible than membrane dyes. NK cells (true effector lymphocytes) are also positively identified by fluorescent antibody staining (CD56PE) allowing a simultaneous absolute count assessment of both NK cells and target cells. Dead cells are identified by membrane disruption using the DNA intercalating dye PI. Using this method, an exact NK:target ratio may be determined for each assessment, including quantitation of NK target complexes. Backimmunoscatter gating may be used to track live vs. dead Target cells via scatter properties. If desired, NK activity may then be normalized to standardized ratios for clinical comparisons between patients, making the determination of PBMC counts or NK cell percentages prior to testing unnecessary. This method provides an exact cytometric determination of NK activity that highly reproducible and may be suitable for routine use in the

  11. Use of flow cytometry for analysis of phage-mediated killing of Enterobacter aerogenes.

    PubMed

    Verthé, Kristof; Verstraete, Willy

    2006-09-01

    In this study, the use of flow cytometry to analyze phage-mediated killing of Enterobacter aerogenes under varying conditions of temperature and nutrient availability was assessed. Bacteriophage UZ1, specific for an E. aerogenes strain, was applied at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 1 and 1000 to a Teflon surface, artificially infected with its host at a level of 4.5 log cells. After incubation for 20 h, bacteriophages were quantified using the soft agar layer method. For the quantification of bacterial cells, plate counting and flow cytometric analysis of live/dead stained cells were performed in parallel. At an MOI of 1, phage treatment was successful only after incubation under nutrient-rich conditions at 37 degrees C: E. aerogenes cells were not detected and a tenfold increase in phage UZ1 was observed. At a MOI of 1000, no E. aerogenes cells could be cultured after incubation at 37 and 4 degrees C. However, flow cytometric analysis revealed that lysis did not occur at 4 degrees C but was achieved during subsequent plate culture. In conclusion, the use of flow cytometry enabled identification of culture-based bias during plate culture. The flow cytometric assay used in this study proved to be rapid, as this culture-independent method does not require lengthy incubation periods post-sampling. The bacteriophage-mediated killing of E. aerogenes cells on Teflon surfaces indicated that disinfection of E. aerogenes with bacteriophage UZ1 can be successful when high MOIs are achieved, while at low multiplicities of infection conditions favorable for phage replication are required.

  12. Quantitative studies of chicken somatotrophs during growth and development by morphometry, immunocytochemistry, and flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Malamed, S; Deaver, D; Perez, F; Radecki, S; Gibney, J; Scanes, C G

    1997-10-01

    Changes in the male chicken somatotroph during growth and maturation have been examined by morphometric and immunocytochemical (ICC) analysis of serial sections of the anterior pituitary gland and by flow cytometry of dispersed anterior pituitary cells. ICC showed that somatotrophs are confined to the middle and caudal thirds of the anterior pituitary gland at all ages from 5 to 26 weeks. At a given age somatotrophs are of equal size at all positions along the cephalocaudal axis of the anterior pituitary gland. However, there are age-related changes: from 5 to 11 weeks rises occur in both the mean total somatotroph volume per gland (64%) and the mean number of somatotrophs (78%), while the mean volume of the single somatotroph is unchanged. From 11 to 18 weeks the mean volume of the single somatotroph decreases 41%. From 18 to 26 weeks the mean volume of the somatotroph, the mean total somatotroph volume, and the mean number per gland do not change. Flow cytometry studies suggested that somatotrophs from adults have less growth hormone (GH) than somatotrophs from young birds. The increases in total somatotroph volume and number from 5 to 11 weeks are consistent with the rise in anterior pituitary GH reported previously. Basic quantitative morphological information about age-related changes in somatotrophs is reported here. When combined with additional facts from future work, they may explain the well-documented sharp decline in circulating GH from 5 to 11 weeks.

  13. Using dual laser flow cytometry for monitoring phytoplankton composition and integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, H.; Beisker, W.; Steinberg, C.

    1995-12-31

    Dual laser flow cytometry can be used for determining phytoplankton populations in lakes and lowland rivers and streams. Apart from answering basic limnological questions such as the time course of algal blooms or the annual succession of phytoplankton composition further investigations can be made for estimating the integrity of phytoplankton community using biomass distribution spectra. Thus anthropogenic influence such as eutrophication, acidification or effects of xenobiotica can be monitored. Dual laser flow cytometry with excitation wavelengths of 458 and 528 nm was used to measure photosynthesis pigment fluorescence (chlorophyll a (CHLa), Em>665 nm) and phycoerythrin (PE, Em 575 nm) and cell density of phytoplankton organisms in water samples. CHLa is excited directly by 458 nm and by energy transfer from carotenoids (Ex 528 nm). The ratio of the two fluorescence parameters (CFR) allows to identify pigment groups in the phytoplankton population (chlorophytes and euglenophytes from chrysophytes, diatoms and dinophytes). PE-containing cyanophytes and cryptophytes can be detected by their PE fluorescence (Ex 528 nm). As a result of preliminary studies for preparing biomass spectra of phytoplankton communities measurements of protein content by staining with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC, ex 488 nm, Em 530 nm) are also shown.

  14. Performance of computer vision in vivo flow cytometry with low fluorescence contrast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markovic, Stacey; Li, Siyuan; Niedre, Mark

    2015-03-01

    Detection and enumeration of circulating cells in the bloodstream of small animals are important in many areas of preclinical biomedical research, including cancer metastasis, immunology, and reproductive medicine. Optical in vivo flow cytometry (IVFC) represents a class of technologies that allow noninvasive and continuous enumeration of circulating cells without drawing blood samples. We recently developed a technique termed computer vision in vivo flow cytometry (CV-IVFC) that uses a high-sensitivity fluorescence camera and an automated computer vision algorithm to interrogate relatively large circulating blood volumes in the ear of a mouse. We detected circulating cells at concentrations as low as 20 cells/mL. In the present work, we characterized the performance of CV-IVFC with low-contrast imaging conditions with (1) weak cell fluorescent labeling using cell-simulating fluorescent microspheres with varying brightness and (2) high background tissue autofluorescence by varying autofluorescence properties of optical phantoms. Our analysis indicates that CV-IVFC can robustly track and enumerate circulating cells with at least 50% sensitivity even in conditions with two orders of magnitude degraded contrast than our previous in vivo work. These results support the significant potential utility of CV-IVFC in a wide range of in vivo biological models.

  15. Using dual-laser flow cytometry for monitoring phytoplankton composition and integrity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Harald; Beisker, Wolfgang; Steinberg, Christian

    1995-10-01

    Dual laser flow cytometry can be used for determining phytoplankton populations in lakes and lowland rivers and streams. Apart from answering basic limnological questions such as the time course of algal blooms or the annual succession of phytoplankton composition further investigations can be made for estimating the integrity of a phytoplankton community using biomass distribution spectra. Thus anthropogenic influence such as eutrophication, acidification or effects of xenobiotica can be monitored. Dual laser flow cytometry with excitation wavelengths of 458 and 528 nm was used to measure photosynthesis pigment fluorescence (chlorophyll a (CHLa), Em greater than 665 nm) and phycoerythrin (PE, Em 575 nm) and cell density of phytoplankton organisms in water samples. CHLa is excited directly by 458 nm and by energy transfer from carotenoids (Ex 528 nm). The ratio of the two fluorescence parameters (CFR) allows users to identify pigment groups in the phytoplankton population (chlorophytes and euglenophytes from chrysophytes, diatoms and dinophytes). PE- containing cyanophytes and cryptophytes can be detected by their PE fluorescence (Ex 528 nm). As a result of preliminary studies for preparing biomass spectra of phytoplankton communities measurements of protein content by staining with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC, Ex 488 nm, Em 530 nm) are also shown.

  16. Determination of aneuploids in hop (Humulus lupulus L.) using flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Šesek, Predrag; Šuštar-Vozlič, Jelka; Bohanec, Borut

    2000-01-01

    In order to study the possibility that high-resolution flow cytometry can be used for determination of aneuploids, different genotypes of Humulus lupulus were analyzed. Triploid cultivars are bred by hybridization between diploid and tetraploid lines, and as the result of this process, some aneuploids are occasionally also formed. We analyzed eight triploid cultivars and seven putative aneuploids. Triploid cultivars Cerera, Cicero, Celeia, Cekin, Blisk, Mt. Hood, Huller Bit. and Willamette (3x = 30) were measured for nuclear DNA content using Trifolium repens as reference. No significant differences among peak positions of triploid cultivars (having an average CV value per peak of 1.94%) were found. Measurement of nuclear DNA content was also performed for seven lines: 175/75, 89/113, 89/154, 91/215, 175/17, 89/87 and 91/74 previously determined by chromosome counting to be aneuploids (CV per peak was 1.41%). A statistically lower DNA content was found for line 175/75 and higher values were measured for lines 89/154, 89/113 and 91/215. Repeated chromosome counting revealed that the number of chromosomes in line 175/75 was 29, while lines 89/154, 89/113 and 91/215 possessed 31 chromosomes. The other lines were identified as triploids. We conclude that flow cytometry can be efficiently used for determination of aneuploidy in Humulus lupulus.

  17. Noninvasive and label-free detection of circulating melanoma cells by in vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ping; Liu, Rongrong; Niu, Zhenyu; Suo, Yuanzhen; He, Hao; Wei, Xunbin

    2015-03-01

    Melanoma is a malignant tumor of melanocytes. Circulating melanoma cell has high light absorption due to melanin highly contained in melanoma cells. This property is employed for the detection of circulating melanoma cell by in vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry (PAFC). PAFC is based on photoacoustic effect. Compared to in vivo flow cytometry based on fluorescence, PAFC can employ high melanin content of melanoma cells as endogenous biomarkers to detect circulating melanoma cells in vivo. In our research, we developed in vitro experiments to prove the ability of PAFC system of detecting PA signals from melanoma cells. For in vivo experiments, we constructed a model of melanoma tumor bearing mice by inoculating highly metastatic murine melanoma cancer cells B16F10 with subcutaneous injection. PA signals were detected in the blood vessels of mouse ears in vivo. By counting circulating melanoma cells termly, we obtained the number variation of circulating melanoma cells as melanoma metastasized. Those results show that PAFC is a noninvasive and label-free method to detect melanoma metastases in blood or lymph circulation. Our PAFC system is an efficient tool to monitor melanoma metastases, cancer recurrence and therapeutic efficacy.

  18. A novel flow cytometry-based assay for the quantification of antibody-dependent pneumococcal agglutination

    PubMed Central

    van der Gaast—de Jongh, Christa E.; Diavatopoulos, Dimitri A.; de Jonge, Marien I.

    2017-01-01

    The respiratory pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of diseases such as otitis media, pneumonia, sepsis and meningitis. The first step towards infection is colonization of the nasopharynx. Recently, it was shown that agglutinating antibodies play an important role in the prevention of mucosal colonization with S. pneumoniae. Here, we present a novel method to quantify antibody-dependent pneumococcal agglutination in a high-throughput manner using flow cytometry. We found that the concentration of agglutinating antibodies against pneumococcal capsule are directly correlated with changes in the size and complexity of bacterial aggregates, as measured by flow cytometry and confirmed by light microscopy. Using the increase in size, we determined the agglutination index. The cutoff value was set by measuring a series of non-agglutinating antibodies. With this method, we show that not only anti-polysaccharide capsule antibodies are able to induce agglutination but that also anti-PspA protein antibodies have agglutinating capabilities. In conclusion, we have described and validated a novel method to quantify pneumococcal agglutination, which can be used to screen sera from murine or human vaccination studies, in a high-throughput manner. PMID:28288168

  19. Recent Advances on Multi-Parameter Flow Cytometry to Characterize Antimicrobial Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Léonard, Lucie; Bouarab Chibane, Lynda; Ouled Bouhedda, Balkis; Degraeve, Pascal; Oulahal, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    The investigation on antimicrobial mechanisms is a challenging and crucial issue in the fields of food or clinical microbiology, as it constitutes a prerequisite to the development of new antimicrobial processes or compounds, as well as to anticipate phenomenon of microbial resistance. Nowadays it is accepted that a cells population exposed to a stress can cause the appearance of different cell populations and in particular sub-lethally compromised cells which could be defined as viable but non-culturable (VBNC). Recent advances on flow cytometry (FCM) and especially on multi-parameter flow cytometry (MP-FCM) provide the opportunity to obtain high-speed information at real time on damage at single-cell level. This review gathers MP-FCM methodologies based on individual and simultaneous staining of microbial cells employed to investigate their physiological state following different physical and chemical antimicrobial treatments. Special attention will be paid to recent studies exploiting the possibility to corroborate MP-FCM results with additional techniques (plate counting, microscopy, spectroscopy, molecular biology techniques, membrane modeling) in order to elucidate the antimicrobial mechanism of action of a given antimicrobial treatment or compound. The combination of MP-FCM methodologies with these additional methods is namely a promising and increasingly used approach to give further insight in differences in microbial sub-population evolutions in response to antimicrobial treatments. PMID:27551279

  20. The role of multiparametric flow cytometry in the detection of minimal residual disease in acute leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Denise; Grigoriadis, George; Westerman, David

    2015-12-01

    Flow cytometry is the most accessible method for minimal residual disease (MRD) detection due to its availability in most haematological centres. Using a precise combination of different antibodies, immunophenotypic detection of MRD in acute leukaemia can be performed by identifying abnormal combinations or expressions of antigens on malignant cells at diagnosis, during and post treatment. These abnormal phenotypes, referred to as leukaemia-associated immunophenotypes (LAIPs) are either absent or expressed at low frequency in normal bone marrow (BM) cells and are used to monitor the behaviour and quantitate the amount of residual disease following treatment. In paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), the level of MRD by multiparametric flow cytometry (MPFC) during therapy is recognised as an important predictor of outcome. Although less extensively studied, adult ALL and adult and paediatric acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) have also demonstrated similar findings. The challenge now is incorporating this information for risk-stratification so that therapy can be tailored individually and ultimately improve outcome while also limiting treatment-related toxicity. In this review we will elaborate on the current and future role of MPFC in MRD in acute leukaemia while also addressing its limitations.

  1. Flow Cytometry Analysis Reveals That Only a Subpopulation of Mouse Sperm Undergoes Hyperpolarization During Capacitation1

    PubMed Central

    Escoffier, Jessica; Navarrete, Felipe; Haddad, Doug; Santi, Celia M.; Darszon, Alberto; Visconti, Pablo E.

    2015-01-01

    To gain fertilizing capacity, mammalian sperm should reside in the female tract for a period of time. The physiological changes that render the sperm able to fertilize are known as capacitation. Capacitation is associated with an increase in intracellular pH, an increase in intracellular calcium, and phosphorylation of different proteins. This process is also accompanied by the hyperpolarization of the sperm plasma membrane potential (Em). In the present work, we used flow cytometry to analyze changes in sperm Em during capacitation in individual cells. Our results indicate that a subpopulation of hyperpolarized mouse sperm can be clearly distinguished by sperm flow cytometry analysis. Using sperm bearing green fluorescent protein in their acrosomes, we found that this hyperpolarized subpopulation is composed of sperm with intact acrosomes. In addition, we show that the capacitation-associated hyperpolarization is blocked by high extracellular K+, by PKA inhibitors, and by SLO3 inhibitors in CD1 mouse sperm, and undetectable in Slo3 knockout mouse sperm. On the other hand, in sperm incubated in conditions that do not support capacitation, sperm membrane hyperpolarization can be induced by amiloride, high extracellular NaHCO3, and cAMP agonists. Altogether, our observations are consistent with a model in which sperm Em hyperpolarization is downstream of a cAMP-dependent pathway and is mediated by the activation of SLO3 K+ channels. PMID:25855261

  2. Immunodetection of Outer Membrane Proteins by Flow Cytometry of Isolated Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Pickles, Sarah; Arbour, Nathalie; Vande Velde, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Methods to detect and monitor mitochondrial outer membrane protein components in animal tissues are vital to study mitochondrial physiology and pathophysiology. This protocol describes a technique where mitochondria isolated from rodent tissue are immunolabeled and analyzed by flow cytometry. Mitochondria are isolated from rodent spinal cords and subjected to a rapid enrichment step so as to remove myelin, a major contaminant of mitochondrial fractions prepared from nervous tissue. Isolated mitochondria are then labeled with an antibody of choice and a fluorescently conjugated secondary antibody. Analysis by flow cytometry verifies the relative purity of mitochondrial preparations by staining with a mitochondrial specific dye, followed by detection and quantification of immunolabeled protein. This technique is rapid, quantifiable and high-throughput, allowing for the analysis of hundreds of thousands of mitochondria per sample. It is applicable to assess novel proteins at the mitochondrial surface under normal physiological conditions as well as the proteins that may become mislocalized to this organelle during pathology. Importantly, this method can be coupled to fluorescent indicator dyes to report on certain activities of mitochondrial subpopulations and is feasible for mitochondria from the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) as well as liver. PMID:25285411

  3. Assessment of ploidy stability of the somatic embryogenesis process in Quercus suber L. using flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Loureiro, J; Pinto, G; Lopes, T; Dolezel, J; Santos, C

    2005-08-01

    Flow cytometry analyses were used to verify the ploidy stability of Quercus suber L. somatic embryogenesis process. Leaf explants of two adult cork oak trees (QsG0 and QsG5) of the North of Portugal were inoculated on MS medium with 2,4-D and zeatin. After 3 months, calluses with embryogenic structures were isolated and transferred to fresh MS medium without growth regulators and somatic embryo evolution was followed. Morphologically normal somatic embryos (with two cotyledons) and abnormal somatic embryos (with one or three cotyledons) were used in this assay. Flow cytometry combined with propidium iodide staining was employed to estimate DNA ploidy levels and nuclear DNA content of somatic embryos and leaves from mother plants. No significant differences (P< or =0.05) were detected among embryos, and between the embryos and the mother plants. Also, after conversion of these embryos, no significant morphological differences were observed among the somatic embryo-derived plants. These results and further studies using converted plantlet leaves and embryogenic callus tissue indicate that embryo cultures and converted plantlets were stable with regard to ploidy level. As no major somaclonal variation was detected our primary goal of "true-to-type" propagation of cork oak using somatic embryogenesis was assured at this level. The estimation of the 2C nuclear DNA content for this species is similar to the previously obtained value.

  4. Innovative Flow Cytometry Allows Accurate Identification of Rare Circulating Cells Involved in Endothelial Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Boraldi, Federica; Bartolomeo, Angelica; De Biasi, Sara; Orlando, Stefania; Costa, Sonia; Cossarizza, Andrea; Quaglino, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although rare, circulating endothelial and progenitor cells could be considered as markers of endothelial damage and repair potential, possibly predicting the severity of cardiovascular manifestations. A number of studies highlighted the role of these cells in age-related diseases, including those characterized by ectopic calcification. Nevertheless, their use in clinical practice is still controversial, mainly due to difficulties in finding reproducible and accurate methods for their determination. Methods Circulating mature cells (CMC, CD45-, CD34+, CD133-) and circulating progenitor cells (CPC, CD45dim, CD34bright, CD133+) were investigated by polychromatic high-speed flow cytometry to detect the expression of endothelial (CD309+) or osteogenic (BAP+) differentiation markers in healthy subjects and in patients affected by peripheral vascular manifestations associated with ectopic calcification. Results This study shows that: 1) polychromatic flow cytometry represents a valuable tool to accurately identify rare cells; 2) the balance of CD309+ on CMC/CD309+ on CPC is altered in patients affected by peripheral vascular manifestations, suggesting the occurrence of vascular damage and low repair potential; 3) the increase of circulating cells exhibiting a shift towards an osteoblast-like phenotype (BAP+) is observed in the presence of ectopic calcification. Conclusion Differences between healthy subjects and patients with ectopic calcification indicate that this approach may be useful to better evaluate endothelial dysfunction in a clinical context. PMID:27560136

  5. Analysis of molecular assemblies by flow cytometry: determinants of Gi1 and by binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarvazyan, Noune A.; Neubig, Richard R.

    1998-05-01

    We report here a novel application of flow cytometry for the quantitative analysis of the high affinity interaction between membrane proteins both in detergent solutions and when reconstituted into lipid vesicles. The approach is further advanced to permit the analysis of binding to expressed protein complexes in native cell membranes. The G protein heterotrimer signal transduction function links the extracellularly activated transmembrane receptors and intracellular effectors. Upon activation, (alpha) and (beta) (gamma) subunits of G protein undergo a dissociation/association cycle on the cell membrane interface. The binding parameters of solubilized G protein (alpha) and (beta) (gamma) subunits have been defined but little is known quantitatively about their interactions in the membrane. Using a novel flow cytometry approach, the binding of low nanomolar concentrations of fluorescein-labeled G(alpha) i1 (F- (alpha) ) to (beta) (gamma) both in detergent solution and in a lipid environment was quantitatively compared. Unlabeled (beta) $gama reconstituted in biotinylated phospholipid vesicles bound F-(alpha) tightly (Kd 6 - 12 nM) while the affinity for biotinylated-(beta) (gamma) in Lubrol was even higher (Kd of 2.9 nM). The application of this approach to proteins expressed in native cell membranes will advance our understanding of G protein function in context of receptor and effector interaction. More generally, this approach can be applied to study the interaction of any fluorescently labeled protein with a membrane protein which can be expressed in Sf9 plasma membranes.

  6. Alternative flow cytometry strategies to analyze stem cells and cell death in planarians

    PubMed Central

    Peiris, Tanuja Harshani; García‐Ojeda, Marcos E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Planarians possess remarkable stem cell populations that continuously support cellular turnover and are instrumental in the regeneration of tissues upon injury. Cellular turnover and tissue regeneration in planarians rely on the proper integration of local and systemic signals that regulate cell proliferation and cell death. Thus, understanding the signals controlling cellular proliferation and cell death in planarians could provide valuable insights for maintenance of adult body homeostasis and the biology of regeneration. Flow cytometry techniques have been utilized widely to identify, isolate, and characterize planarian stem cell populations. We developed alternative flow cytometry strategies that reduce the number of reagents and the time of sample preparation to analyze stem cells and cell death in planarians. The sensitivity of these methods is validated with functional studies using RNA interference and treatment with  γ irradiation or stressful conditions that are known to trigger cell death. Altogether, we provide a community resource intended to minimize adverse effects during ex vivo studies of stem cells and cell death in planarians. PMID:27307993

  7. Fluorescent genetic barcoding in mammalian cells for enhanced multiplexing capabilities in flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Smurthwaite, Cameron A; Hilton, Brett J; O'Hanlon, Ryan; Stolp, Zachary D; Hancock, Bryan M; Abbadessa, Darin; Stotland, Aleksandr; Sklar, Larry A; Wolkowicz, Roland

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of the green fluorescent protein from Aequorea victoria has revolutionized the field of cell and molecular biology. Since its discovery a growing panel of fluorescent proteins, fluorophores and fluorescent-coupled staining methodologies, have expanded the analytical capabilities of flow cytometry. Here, we exploit the power of genetic engineering to barcode individual cells with genes encoding fluorescent proteins. For genetic engineering, we utilize retroviral technology, which allows for the expression of ectopic genetic information in a stable manner in mammalian cells. We have genetically barcoded both adherent and nonadherent cells with different fluorescent proteins. Multiplexing power was increased by combining both the number of distinct fluorescent proteins, and the fluorescence intensity in each channel. Moreover, retroviral expression has proven to be stable for at least a 6-month period, which is critical for applications such as biological screens. We have shown the applicability of fluorescent barcoded multiplexing to cell-based assays that rely themselves on genetic barcoding, or on classical staining protocols. Fluorescent genetic barcoding gives the cell an inherited characteristic that distinguishes it from its counterpart. Once cell lines are developed, no further manipulation or staining is required, decreasing time, nonspecific background associated with staining protocols, and cost. The increasing number of discovered and/or engineered fluorescent proteins with unique absorbance/emission spectra, combined with the growing number of detection devices and lasers, increases multiplexing versatility, making fluorescent genetic barcoding a powerful tool for flow cytometry-based analysis.

  8. Evaluating the morphology of erythrocyte population: An approach based on atomic force microscopy and flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sayari; Chakraborty, Ishita; Chakraborty, Monojit; Mukhopadhyay, Ashis; Mishra, Raghwendra; Sarkar, Debasish

    2016-04-01

    Erythrocyte morphology is gaining importance as a powerful pathological index in identifying the severity of any blood related disease. However, the existing technique of quantitative microscopy is highly time consuming and prone to personalized bias. On the other hand, relatively unexplored, complementary technique based on flow cytometry has not been standardized till date, particularly due to the lack of a proper morphological scoring scale. In this article, we have presented a new approach to formulate a non-empirical scoring scale based on membrane roughness (R(rms)) data obtained from atomic force microscopy. Subsequently, the respective morphological quantifier of the whole erythrocyte population, commonly known as morphological index, was expressed as a function of highest correlated statistical parameters of scattered signal profiles generated by flow cytometry. Feed forward artificial neural network model with multilayer perceptron architecture was used to develop the intended functional form. High correlation coefficient (R(2) = 0.95), even for model-formulation exclusive samples, clearly indicates the universal validity of the proposed model. Moreover, a direct pathological application of the proposed model has been illustrated in relation to patients, diagnosed to be suffering from a wide variety of cancer.

  9. A Simple and Efficient Method to Detect Nuclear Factor Activation in Human Neutrophils by Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    García-García, Erick; Uribe-Querol, Eileen; Rosales, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Neutrophils are the most abundant leukocytes in peripheral blood. These cells are the first to appear at sites of inflammation and infection, thus becoming the first line of defense against invading microorganisms. Neutrophils possess important antimicrobial functions such as phagocytosis, release of lytic enzymes, and production of reactive oxygen species. In addition to these important defense functions, neutrophils perform other tasks in response to infection such as production of proinflammatory cytokines and inhibition of apoptosis. Cytokines recruit other leukocytes that help clear the infection, and inhibition of apoptosis allows the neutrophil to live longer at the site of infection. These functions are regulated at the level of transcription. However, because neutrophils are short-lived cells, the study of transcriptionally regulated responses in these cells cannot be performed with conventional reporter gene methods since there are no efficient techniques for neutrophil transfection. Here, we present a simple and efficient method that allows detection and quantification of nuclear factors in isolated and immunolabeled nuclei by flow cytometry. We describe techniques to isolate pure neutrophils from human peripheral blood, stimulate these cells with anti-receptor antibodies, isolate and immunolabel nuclei, and analyze nuclei by flow cytometry. The method has been successfully used to detect NF-κB and Elk-1 nuclear factors in nuclei from neutrophils and other cell types. Thus, this method represents an option for analyzing activation of transcription factors in isolated nuclei from a variety of cell types. PMID:23603868

  10. Minimal residual disease monitoring by 8-color flow cytometry in mantle cell lymphoma: an EU-MCL and LYSA study

    PubMed Central

    Cheminant, Morgane; Derrieux, Coralie; Touzart, Aurore; Schmit, Stéphanie; Grenier, Adrien; Trinquand, Amélie; Delfau-Larue, Marie-Hélène; Lhermitte, Ludovic; Thieblemont, Catherine; Ribrag, Vincent; Cheze, Stéphane; Sanhes, Laurence; Jardin, Fabrice; Lefrère, François; Delarue, Richard; Hoster, Eva; Dreyling, Martin; Asnafi, Vahid; Hermine, Olivier; Macintyre, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Quantification of minimal residual disease may guide therapeutic strategies in mantle cell lymphoma. While multiparameter flow cytometry is used for diagnosis, the gold standard method for minimal residual disease analysis is real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR). In this European Mantle Cell Lymphoma network (EU-MCL) pilot study, we compared flow cytometry with RQ-PCR for minimal residual disease detection. Of 113 patients with at least one minimal residual disease sample, RQ-PCR was applicable in 97 (86%). A total of 284 minimal residual disease samples from 61 patients were analyzed in parallel by flow cytometry and RQ-PCR. A single, 8-color, 10-antibody flow cytometry tube allowed specific minimal residual disease assessment in all patients, with a robust sensitivity of 0.01%. Using this cut-off level, the true-positive-rate of flow cytometry with respect to RQ-PCR was 80%, whereas the true-negative-rate was 92%. As expected, RQ-PCR frequently detected positivity below this 0.01% threshold, which is insufficiently sensitive for prognostic evaluation and would ideally be replaced with robust quantification down to a 0.001% (10-5) threshold. In 10 relapsing patients, the transition from negative to positive by RQ-PCR (median 22.5 months before relapse) nearly always preceded transition by flow cytometry (4.5 months), but transition to RQ-PCR positivity above 0.01% (5 months) was simultaneous. Pre-emptive rituximab treatment of 2 patients at minimal residual disease relapse allowed re-establishment of molecular and phenotypic complete remission. Flow cytometry minimal residual disease is a complementary approach to RQ-PCR and a promising tool in individual mantle cell lymphoma therapeutic management. PMID:26703963

  11. Minimal residual disease monitoring by 8-color flow cytometry in mantle cell lymphoma: an EU-MCL and LYSA study.

    PubMed

    Cheminant, Morgane; Derrieux, Coralie; Touzart, Aurore; Schmit, Stéphanie; Grenier, Adrien; Trinquand, Amélie; Delfau-Larue, Marie-Hélène; Lhermitte, Ludovic; Thieblemont, Catherine; Ribrag, Vincent; Cheze, Stéphane; Sanhes, Laurence; Jardin, Fabrice; Lefrère, François; Delarue, Richard; Hoster, Eva; Dreyling, Martin; Asnafi, Vahid; Hermine, Olivier; Macintyre, Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    Quantification of minimal residual disease may guide therapeutic strategies in mantle cell lymphoma. While multiparameter flow cytometry is used for diagnosis, the gold standard method for minimal residual disease analysis is real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR). In this European Mantle Cell Lymphoma network (EU-MCL) pilot study, we compared flow cytometry with RQ-PCR for minimal residual disease detection. Of 113 patients with at least one minimal residual disease sample, RQ-PCR was applicable in 97 (86%). A total of 284 minimal residual disease samples from 61 patients were analyzed in parallel by flow cytometry and RQ-PCR. A single, 8-color, 10-antibody flow cytometry tube allowed specific minimal residual disease assessment in all patients, with a robust sensitivity of 0.01%. Using this cut-off level, the true-positive-rate of flow cytometry with respect to RQ-PCR was 80%, whereas the true-negative-rate was 92%. As expected, RQ-PCR frequently detected positivity below this 0.01% threshold, which is insufficiently sensitive for prognostic evaluation and would ideally be replaced with robust quantification down to a 0.001% (10-5) threshold. In 10 relapsing patients, the transition from negative to positive by RQ-PCR (median 22.5 months before relapse) nearly always preceded transition by flow cytometry (4.5 months), but transition to RQ-PCR positivity above 0.01% (5 months) was simultaneous. Pre-emptive rituximab treatment of 2 patients at minimal residual disease relapse allowed re-establishment of molecular and phenotypic complete remission. Flow cytometry minimal residual disease is a complementary approach to RQ-PCR and a promising tool in individual mantle cell lymphoma therapeutic management. (clinicaltrials identifiers: 00209209 and 00209222).

  12. Flow cytometry methods for the study of cell-cycle parameters of planarian stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hara; Sánchez Alvarado, Alejandro

    2009-05-01

    Due to their characteristic inaccessibility and low numbers, little is known about the cell-cycle dynamics of most stem cells in vivo. A powerful, established methodology to study cell-cycle dynamics is flow cytometry, which is used routinely to study the cell-cycle dynamics of proliferating cells in vitro. Its use in heterogeneous mixtures of cells obtained from whole animals, however, is complicated by the relatively low abundance of cycling to non-cycling cells. We report on flow cytometric methods that take advantage of the abundance of proliferating stem cells in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. The optimized protocols allow us to measure cell-cycle dynamics and follow BrdU-labeled cells specifically in complex mixtures of cells. These methods expand on the growing toolkit being developed to study stem cell biology in planarians, and open the door to detailed cytometric studies of a collectively totipotent population of adult stem cells in vivo.

  13. Artificial neural network study of whole-cell bacterial bioreporter response determined using fluorescence flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Busam, Sirisha; McNabb, Maia; Wackwitz, Anke; Senevirathna, Wasana; Beggah, Siham; Meer, Jan Roelof van der; Wells, Mona; Breuer, Uta; Harms, Hauke

    2007-12-01

    Genetically engineered bioreporters are an excellent complement to traditional methods of chemical analysis. The application of fluorescence flow cytometry to detection of bioreporter response enables rapid and efficient characterization of bacterial bioreporter population response on a single-cell basis. In the present study, intrapopulation response variability was used to obtain higher analytical sensitivity and precision. We have analyzed flow cytometric data for an arsenic-sensitive bacterial bioreporter using an artificial neural network-based adaptive clustering approach (a single-layer perceptron model). Results for this approach are far superior to other methods that we have applied to this fluorescent bioreporter (e.g., the arsenic detection limit is 0.01 microM, substantially lower than for other detection methods/algorithms). The approach is highly efficient computationally and can be implemented on a real-time basis, thus having potential for future development of high-throughput screening applications.

  14. Flow cytometry and cell sorting of heterogeneous microbial populations: the importance of single-cell analyses.

    PubMed Central

    Davey, H M; Kell, D B

    1996-01-01

    The most fundamental questions such as whether a cell is alive, in the sense of being able to divide or to form a colony, may sometimes be very hard to answer, since even axenic microbial cultures are extremely heterogeneous. Analyses that seek to correlate such things as viability, which is a property of an individual cell, with macroscopic measurements of culture variables such as ATP content, respiratory activity, and so on, must inevitably fail. It is therefore necessary to make physiological measurements on individual cells. Flow cytometry is such a technique, which allows one to analyze cells rapidly and individually and permits the quantitative analysis of microbial heterogeneity. It therefore offers many advantages over conventional measurements for both routine and more exploratory analyses of microbial properties. While the technique has been widely applied to the study of mammalian cells, is use in microbiology has until recently been much more limited, largely because of the smaller size of microbes and the consequently smaller optical signals obtainable from them. Since these technical barriers no longer hold, flow cytometry with appropriate stains has been used for the rapid discrimination and identification of microbial cells, for the rapid assessment of viability and of the heterogeneous distributions of a wealth of other more detailed physiological properties, for the analysis of antimicrobial drug-cell interactions, and for the isolation of high-yielding strains of biotechnological interest. Flow cytometric analyses provide an abundance of multivariate data, and special methods have been devised to exploit these. Ongoing advances mean that modern flow cytometers may now be used by nonspecialists to effect a renaissance in our understanding of microbial heterogeneity. PMID:8987359

  15. Measurement of Lipid Accumulation in Chlorella vulgaris via Flow Cytometry and Liquid-State ¹H NMR Spectroscopy for Development of an NMR-Traceable Flow Cytometry Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Bono Jr., Michael S.; Garcia, Ravi D.; Sri-Jayantha, Dylan V.; Ahner, Beth A.; Kirby, Brian J.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we cultured Chlorella vulgaris cells with a range of lipid contents, induced via nitrogen starvation, and characterized them via flow cytometry, with BODIPY 505/515 as a fluorescent lipid label, and liquid-state 1H NMR spectroscopy. In doing so, we demonstrate the utility of calibrating flow cytometric measurements of algal lipid content using triacylglyceride (TAG, also known as triacylglycerol or triglyceride) content per cell as measured via quantitative 1H NMR. Ensemble-averaged fluorescence of BODIPY-labeled cells was highly correlated with average TAG content per cell measured by bulk NMR, with a linear regression yielding a linear fit with r2 = 0.9974. This correlation compares favorably to previous calibrations of flow cytometry protocols to lipid content measured via extraction, and calibration by NMR avoids the time and complexity that is generally required for lipid quantitation via extraction. Flow cytometry calibrated to a direct measurement of TAG content can be used to investigate the distribution of lipid contents for cells within a culture. Our flow cytometry measurements showed that Chlorella vulgaris cells subjected to nitrogen limitation exhibited higher mean lipid content but a wider distribution of lipid content that overlapped the relatively narrow distribution of lipid content for replete cells, suggesting that nitrogen limitation induces lipid accumulation in only a subset of cells. Calibration of flow cytometry protocols using direct in situ measurement of TAG content via NMR will facilitate rapid development of more precise flow cytometry protocols, enabling investigation of algal lipid accumulation for development of more productive algal biofuel feedstocks and cultivation protocols. PMID:26267664

  16. Using multispectral imaging flow cytometry to assess an in vitro intracellular Burkholderia thailandensis infection model.

    PubMed

    Jenner, Dominic; Ducker, Catherine; Clark, Graeme; Prior, Jo; Rowland, Caroline A

    2016-04-01

    The use of in vitro models to understand the interaction of bacteria with host cells is well established. In vitro bacterial infection models are often used to quantify intracellular bacterial load by lysing cell populations and subsequently enumerating the bacteria. Modern established techniques employ the use of fluorescence technologies such as flow cytometry, fluorescent microscopy, and/or confocal microscopy. However, these techniques often lack either the quantification of large data sets (microscopy) or use of gross fluorescence signal which lacks the visual confirmation that can provide additional confidence in data sets. Multispectral imaging flow cytometry (MIFC) is a novel emerging field of technology. This technology captures a bright field and fluorescence image of cells in a flow using a charged coupled device camera. It allows the analysis of tens of thousands of single cell images, making it an extremely powerful technology. Here MIFC was used as an alternative method of analyzing intracellular bacterial infection using Burkholderia thailandensis E555 as a model organism. It has been demonstrated that the data produced using traditional enumeration is comparable to data analyzed using MIFC. It has also been shown that by using MIFC it is possible to generate other data on the dynamics of the infection model rather than viable counts alone. It has been demonstrated that it is possible to inhibit the uptake of bacteria into mammalian cells and identify differences between treated and untreated cell populations. The authors believe this to be the first use of MIFC to analyze a Burkholderia bacterial species during intracellular infection. © 2016 Crown copyright. Published by Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of ISAC.

  17. Optical analysis of nanomaterial-cell interactions: flow cytometry and digital holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mues, Sarah; Antunovic, Jan; Ossig, Rainer; Kemper, Björn; Schnekenburger, Jürgen

    2015-05-01

    The in vitro cytotoxicity assessment of engineered nanoparticles commonly involves the measurement of different endpoints like the formation of reactive oxygen species, cell viability or cell death. Usually these parameters are determined by optical readouts of enzymatically converted substrates that often interfere with the tested nanomaterials. Using cell viability (WST-8) and cell death (LDH) as parameter we have initially investigated the toxic effects of spherical (NM 300) and rod shaped (NM 302) silver nanomaterials with a matrix of four cell lines representing different functions: lung and kidney epithelial cells, macrophages and fibroblasts. In addition, we have used a label-free flow cytometer configuration to investigate interactions of particles and macrophages by side scatter signal analysis. Finally, we explored digital holographic microscopy (DHM) for multimodal label-free analysis of nanomaterial toxicity. Quantitative DHM phase images were analyzed for cell thickness, volume, density, dry mass and refractive index. We could demonstrate that silver spheres lead to more cytotoxic effects than rods in all four examined cell lines and both assay. Exemplarily a dose dependent interaction increase of cells with NM 300 and NM 302 analyzed by flow cytometry is shown. Furthermore, we found that the refractive index of cells is influenced by incubation with NM 300 in a decreasing manner. A 24 hours time-lapse measurement revealed a dose dependent decrease of dry mass and surface area development indicating reduced cell viability and cell death. Our results demonstrate digital holographic microscopy and flow cytometry as valuable label-free tools for nanomaterial toxicity and cell interaction studies.

  18. NetFCM: a semi-automated web-based method for flow cytometry data analysis.

    PubMed

    Frederiksen, Juliet; Buggert, Marcus; Karlsson, Annika C; Lund, Ole

    2014-11-01

    Multi-parametric flow cytometry (FCM) represents an invaluable instrument to conduct single cell analysis and has significantly increased our understanding of the immune system. However, due to new techniques allowing us to measure an increased number of phenotypes within the immune system, FCM data analysis has become more complex and labor-intensive than previously. We have therefore developed a semi-automatic gating strategy (NetFCM) that uses clustering and principal component analysis (PCA) together with other statistical methods to mimic manual gating approaches. NetFCM is an online tool both for subset identification as well as for quantification of differences between samples. Additionally, NetFCM can classify and cluster samples based on multidimensional data. We tested the method using a data set of peripheral blood mononuclear cells collected from 23 HIV-infected individuals, which were stimulated with overlapping HIV Gag-p55 and CMV-pp65 peptides or medium alone (negative control). NetFCM clustered the virus-specific CD8+ T cells based on IFNγ and TNF responses into distinct compartments. Additionally, NetFCM was capable of identifying HIV- and CMV-specific responses corresponding to those obtained by manual gating strategies. These data demonstrate that NetFCM has the potential to identify relevant T cell populations by mimicking classical FCM data analysis and reduce the subjectivity and amount of time associated with such analysis. © 2014 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  19. Tomographic Diffuse Fluorescence Flow Cytometry for Enumeration of Rare Circulating Cells in Vitro and in Vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zettergren, Eric William

    2011-12-01

    Accurate quantification of circulating cell populations is important in many areas of preclinical and clinical biomedical research including the study of metastasized cancers, T-Lymphotocyes and hematopoietic stem cells. Normally this is done either by extraction and analysis of small blood samples or more recently using microscopy-based in vivo fluorescence flow cytometry. In this thesis, a new technological approach to this problem is described using detection of diffuse fluorescent light from relatively large blood vessels in vivo. The 'tomographic diffuse fluorescence flow cytometer' (TDFFC) uses modulated lasers to illuminate a mouse limb and an array of optical fibers coupled to a high-sensitivity photomultiplier tube array operating in photon counting mode to detect weak fluorescence signals from cells. It is first demonstrated that the TDFFC instrument is capable of detecting fluorescent microspheres and Vybrant-DiD labeled cells with excellent accuracy in an optical flow phantom with similar size, optical properties, linear flow rates and autofluorescence as a mouse limb. Preliminary data demonstrating that the TDFFC is capable of detecting circulating cells in nude mice in vivo is also shown. Finally, a number of methods for performing coarse tomographic localization of fluorescent cells within the cross-section of a mouse limb using TDFFC data sets are described, and the feasibility of this approach is demonstrated using in vitro data sets. In principle, this device would allow interrogation of the whole blood volume of a mouse in minutes, with several orders of magnitude sensitivity improvement compared with current approaches.

  20. Novel flow cytometry approach to identify bronchial epithelial cells from healthy human airways

    PubMed Central

    Maestre-Batlle, Danay; Pena, Olga M.; Hirota, Jeremy A.; Gunawan, Evelyn; Rider, Christopher F.; Sutherland, Darren; Alexis, Neil E.; Carlsten, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Sampling various compartments within the lower airways to examine human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) is essential for understanding numerous lung diseases. Conventional methods to identify HBEC in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and wash (BW) have throughput limitations in terms of efficiency and ensuring adequate cell numbers for quantification. Flow cytometry can provide high-throughput quantification of cell number and function in BAL and BW samples, while requiring low cell numbers. To date, a flow cytometric method to identify HBEC recovered from lower human airway samples is unavailable. In this study we present a flow cytometric method identifying HBEC as CD45 negative, EpCAM/pan-cytokeratin (pan-CK) double-positive population after excluding debris, doublets and dead cells from the analysis. For validation, the HBEC panel was applied to primary HBEC resulting in 98.6% of live cells. In healthy volunteers, HBEC recovered from BAL (2.3% of live cells), BW (32.5%) and bronchial brushing samples (88.9%) correlated significantly (p = 0.0001) with the manual microscopy counts with an overall Pearson correlation of 0.96 across the three sample types. We therefore have developed, validated, and applied a flow cytometric method that will be useful to interrogate the role of the respiratory epithelium in multiple lung diseases. PMID:28165060

  1. Systematic misestimation of cell subpopulations by flow cytometry: a mathematical analysis.

    PubMed

    Petrunkina, A M; Harrison, R A P

    2010-04-15

    Various sources of variability in flow cytometric determination of cell concentration have previously been investigated with respect to andrologic applications. Although common aspects related to the variation between samples, variation between operators, and accuracy have been extensively studied, specific sources of false-count estimation have found less attention. In particular, a major and well-recognized source of misestimation of cell counts (i.e., contamination of the sample by non-sperm particles) has not to date been characterized in detail. We show here by means of original mathematical research that not only the cell counts but also the percentages of cells expressing different fluorescence patterns are affected by the presence of alien particles often neglected in studies involving flow cytometric characterization. We demonstrate that there is a systematic overestimation in the proportion of unstained (viable) cells detected by flow cytometry in cases where the non-sperm particles are not excluded from analysis by additional identification other than light-scatter characteristics. Moreover, we provide an exact mathematical estimate for the magnitude of this overestimation, and we discuss the consequences for diagnostic applications and studies on sperm physiology, specifically for studies on sperm capacitation and evaluation of cryopreserved semen. Finally, equations are derived for the correction of the flow cytometric values for use in practical applications.

  2. Study of low speed flow cytometry for diffraction imaging with different chamber and nozzle designs.

    PubMed

    Sa, Yu; Feng, Yuanming; Jacobs, Kenneth M; Yang, Jun; Pan, Ran; Gkigkitzis, Ioannis; Lu, Jun Q; Hu, Xin-Hua

    2013-11-01

    Achieving effective hydrodynamic focusing and flow stability at low speed presents a challenging design task in flow cytometry for studying phenomena such as cell adhesion and diffraction imaging of cells with low-cost cameras. We have developed different designs of flow chamber and sheath nozzle to accomplish the above goal. A 3D computational model of the chambers has been established to simulate the fluid dynamics in different chamber designs and measurements have been performed to determine the velocity and size distributions of the core fluid from the nozzle. Comparison of the simulation data with experimental results shows good agreement. With the computational model significant insights were gained for optimization of the chamber design and improvement of the cell positioning accuracy for study of slow moving cells. The benefit of low flow speed has been demonstrated also by reduced blurring in the diffraction images of single cells. Based on these results, we concluded that the new designs of chamber and sheath nozzle produce stable hydrodynamic focusing of the core fluid at low speed and allow detailed study of cellular morphology under various rheological conditions using the diffraction imaging method.

  3. Implementation of flow cytometry for quality control in four Danish bull studs.

    PubMed

    Christensen, P; Hansen, C; Liboriussen, T; Lehn-Jensen, H

    2005-02-01

    A flow cytometric method for simultaneous determination of sperm concentration and viability has recently been developed. In 2001, four Danish bull studs purchased flow cytometers and eight technicians were trained for routine analysis of raw and frozen-thawed semen. After initial training of the technicians, an experiment was carried out to document the precision of the system. The aim was also to assess if flow cytometric determination of sperm concentration could result in a more uniform production of semen doses. Results of this experiment showed high precision in the determination of sperm concentration and coefficients of variation were 3.5 and 2.4% for raw and frozen-thawed semen, respectively. Sperm viability was also assessed with high precision and coefficients of variation were 0.9% for raw semen and 1.7% for frozen-thawed semen. Furthermore, the experiment showed that package of semen doses after flow cytometric determination of sperm concentration in the raw semen results in a significantly smaller variation in the number of sperm per dose. In the second experiment, frozen semen was exchanged between the participating studs and were analysed by flow cytometry as well as by microscopic assessments by the eight technicians. Results show that the average correlation between technicians were 0.38 for motility assessments while flow cytometric agreement between technicians was significantly higher (average correlation was 0.86 for sperm viability and 0.92 for sperm concentration). The experiment also showed very high agreements between assessments within lab technician (correlations r=0.98 (sperm concentration) and r=0.99 (sperm viability)). Experiment 3 revealed that straws from the same batch varies in both concentration and viability. It is concluded that flow cytometric determination of sperm concentration and viability can be used to improve semen assessment by AI studs and result in a better quality control.

  4. [Multi-parametric Flow Cytometry for Neuroblastoma, a new and possible diagnostic tool: case report].

    PubMed

    Manrique, Belén; López Marti, Jessica; Cacciavillano, Walter; Rossi, Jorge

    2016-04-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most frequent extracranial solid tumor in childhood, representing 5.6% according to the "Registro Oncopediatrico Hospitalario Argentino". For its diagnosis, several complementary methods (radiological, biological and biochemical) are required, and Multi-parametric Flow Cytometry (MFC) arises as a potential diagnostic method, despite not having been so far extensively explored. MFC is a method that allows to obtain several information about size, internal complexity and antigenic expression by the use of a laser and fluorescent monoclonal antibodies. There are an increasing number of reports in the literature, which reveal the importance of using MFC for diagnosis and monitoring of solid tumors. The aim in this presentation is to highlight the fundamental role that MFC had in the case of a patient affected by neuroblastoma, in which an early diagnosis using this methodology allowed prompt administration of adequate treatment.

  5. A Rapid and Quantitative Flow Cytometry Method for the Analysis of Membrane Disruptive Antimicrobial Activity

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien-Simpson, Neil M.; Pantarat, Namfon; Attard, Troy J.; Walsh, Katrina A.; Reynolds, Eric C.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a microbial flow cytometry method that quantifies within 3 hours antimicrobial peptide (AMP) activity, termed Minimum Membrane Disruptive Concentration (MDC). Increasing peptide concentration positively correlates with the extent of bacterial membrane disruption and the calculated MDC is equivalent to its MBC. The activity of AMPs representing three different membranolytic modes of action could be determined for a range of Gram positive and negative bacteria, including the ESKAPE pathogens, E. coli and MRSA. By using the MDC50 concentration of the parent AMP, the method provides high-throughput, quantitative screening of AMP analogues. A unique feature of the MDC assay is that it directly measures peptide/bacteria interactions and lysed cell numbers rather than bacteria survival as with MIC and MBC assays. With the threat of multi-drug resistant bacteria, this high-throughput MDC assay has the potential to aid in the development of novel antimicrobials that target bacteria with improved efficacy. PMID:26986223

  6. Flow cytometry for bacteria: enabling metabolic engineering, synthetic biology and the elucidation of complex phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Tracy, Bryan P; Gaida, Stefan M; Papoutsakis, Eleftherios T

    2010-02-01

    Flow cytometry (FC) and FC-based cell sorting have been established as critical tools in modern cell and developmental biology. Yet, their applications in bacteria, especially in the multiparametric mode, remain limited. We argue that FC technologies have the potential to greatly accelerate the analysis and development of microbial complex phenotypes through applications of metabolic engineering, synthetic biology, and evolutionary engineering. We demonstrate the importance of FC for elucidating population heterogeneity because of developmental processes or epigenetic regulation. FC can be engaged for both synthetic and analytical applications of complex phenotypes within a single species, multispecies, and microbial-library populations. Examples include methods to identify developmental microbial stages associated with productive metabolic phenotypes, select desirable promoters from a single species or metagenomic libraries, and to screen designer riboswitches for synthetic-biology applications.

  7. CASP3 protein expression by flow cytometry in Down's syndrome subjects.

    PubMed

    Salemi, Michele; Condorelli, Rosita A; Romano, Corrado; Concetta, Barone; Romano, Carmelo; Salluzzo, Maria Grazia; Bosco, Paolo; Calogero, Aldo E

    2014-01-01

    Down's syndrome (DS), the most common chromosomal disorder, is caused by 21 trisomy and is featured by intellectual disability. Subjects with DS can develop some traits of Alzheimer disease (AD) at an earlier age than subjects without trisomy 21. Apoptosis is a programmed cell death process under both normal physiological and pathological conditions. Caspase-3 (CASP3) plays an important role in neuronal death during nervous system development and under certain pathological conditions. Furthermore, in vitro and in vivo studies report elevated expression and activation of CASP3 in models of AD. On this account, the expression of CASP3 gene was evaluated in cultures of fibroblasts of DS and normal subjects by flow cytometry. CASP3 protein was up-regulated in fibroblasts of DS. The data obtained from this study strengthen the hypothesis that the over-expression of CASP3 gene could have a role in the activation of the apoptotic pathways acting in the neurodegenerative processes in DS.

  8. Flow cytometry evidence of human granulocytes interaction with polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes: effect of nanoparticle charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renò, Filippo; Carniato, Fabio; Rizzi, Manuela; Olivero, Francesco; Pittarella, Pamela; Marchese, Leonardo

    2013-05-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) entering the human body are immediately confronted with the innate part of human immune system. In particular, monocyte and neutrophil granulocytes readily clear particles by phagocytosis, even if in the case of NPs the uptake mechanism may be classified as macropinocytosis. Among engineered nanoparticles, in the last years, siliceous materials have emerged as promising materials for several applications ranging from catalysis to biomedical. The polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) are nanodimensional, easily synthesizable molecular compounds and POSS-based systems are promising carriers for biological molecules. In this work, the ability of human granulocytes to uptake positively and negatively charged POSS was measured using a simple flow cytometry analysis based on cell size modifications. The data obtained showed that after a 30 min exposure only positive NPs were uptaken by human granulocyte using both macropinocytosis and clathrin-mediated mechanisms as demonstrated by uptake inhibition mediated by amiloride and chlorpromazine.

  9. Flow cytometry analysis of drug transport mechanisms in Haemonchus contortus susceptible or resistant to anthelmintics.

    PubMed

    Kerboeuf, D; Chambrier, P; Le Vern, Y; Aycardi, J

    1999-02-01

    The role of membrane drug-transport mechanisms in resistance to anthelmintics was examined using a flow cytometry method. This method was adapted from assays developed for the study of similar mechanisms in tumor cells. Rhodamine 123, a P-glycoprotein transport probe, associated with the reversal agent verapamil gave a significantly higher level of green fluorescence in Haemonchus contortus-resistant eggs as compared with that of susceptible eggs. In the same way, verapamilbodipy, a new fluorescent probe for the detection of multidrug resistance in cells, showed a significantly higher degree of binding to resistant eggs. The results confirm those obtained with biological drug assays using both anthelmintics and verapamil and provide a quantitative and effective methodology for the functional study of multidrug resistance in nematodes.

  10. Assessment of immune parameters of manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum in different physiological conditions using flow cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kyung-Il; Donaghy, Ludovic; Kang, Hyun-Sil; Hong, Hyun-Ki; Kim, Young-Ok; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2012-03-01

    Cellular and humoral immune parameters are often used as biomarkers to trace environmental and physiological stresses in marine bivalves. In this study, we compared various immune parameters of Manila clams ( Ruditapes philippinarum) under normal conditions and under a high level of desiccation, using flow cytometry. The immune parameters analyzed included, total hemocyte count, hemocyte mortality, hemocyte DNA damage, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and phagocytosis activity. Total hemocyte count, hemocyte DNA damage, and hemocyte mortality were significantly elevated among clams under high desiccation stress, while phagocytosis activity and spontaneous ROS production were significantly lower compared to those parameters of the control clams ( p<0.05). These data suggest that the immune parameters analyzed in this study well reflect the physiological status of clams.

  11. Monitoring of Dynamic Microbiological Processes Using Real-Time Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Arnoldini, Markus; Heck, Tobias; Blanco-Fernández, Alfonso; Hammes, Frederik

    2013-01-01

    We describe a straightforward approach to continuously monitor a variety of highly dynamic microbiological processes in millisecond resolution with flow cytometry, using standard bench-top instrumentation. Four main experimental examples are provided, namely: (1) green fluorescent protein expression by antibiotic-stressed Escherichia coli, (2) fluorescent labeling of heat-induced membrane damage in an autochthonous freshwater bacterial community, (3) the initial growth response of late stationary E. coli cells inoculated into fresh growth media, and (4) oxidative disinfection of a mixed culture of auto-fluorescent microorganisms. These examples demonstrate the broad applicability of the method to diverse biological experiments, showing that it allows the collection of detailed, time-resolved information on complex processes. PMID:24244624

  12. Analysis of DNA-guided self-assembly of microspheres using imaging flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hao; Deschner, Ryan; Allen, Peter; Cho, Younjin; Sermas, Patrick; Maurer, Alejandro; Ellington, Andrew D; Willson, C Grant

    2012-09-19

    Imaging flow cytometry was used to analyze the self-assembly of DNA-conjugated polystyrene microspheres. This technique enables quantitative analysis of the assembly process and thereby enables detailed analysis of the effect of structural and process variables on the assembly yield. In a demonstration of the potential of this technique, the influence of DNA strand base pair (bp) length was examined, and it was found that 50 bp was sufficient to drive the assembly of microspheres efficiently, forming not only dimers but also chainlike structures. The effect of stoichiometry on the yield was also examined. The analysis demonstrated that self-assembly of 50 bp microspheres can be driven nearly to completion by stoichiometric excess in a manner similar to Le Chatelier's principle in common chemical equilibrium.

  13. Rapid flow cytometry analysis of antimicrobial properties of nettle powder and cranberry powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattuniemi, Maarit; Korhonen, Johanna; Jaakkola, Mari; Räty, Jarkko; Virtanen, Vesa

    2010-11-01

    Both nettle (Urtica dioica) and cranberry (Vaccinium oxycoccus) are widely known to have good influence on health. The aim of this study was to investigate antimicrobial properties of nettle powder and cranberry powder against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and monitor the growth of the bacteria by a rapid flow cytometry (FCM) method. For FCM measurements samples were stained with fluorescent dyes. The inhibitory effects of plant material on growth of E. coli were estimated by comparing the results of control sample (E. coli) to E. coli samples with plant material. FCM offers both a brilliant tool to investigate the kinetics of the growth of bacterium, since subsamples can be taken from the same liquid medium during the growing period and with fluorescent dyes a rapid method to investigate viability of the bacterium.

  14. Flow cytometry for monitoring contaminant exposure in black-crowned night-herons.

    PubMed

    Custer, T W; Bickham, J W; Lyne, T B; Lewis, T; Ruedas, L A; Custer, C M; Melancon, M J

    1994-08-01

    The flow cytometry methods (FCM) was employed to determine cellular DNA content of black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) embryos and 10-day-old chicks collected at sites differing in types of chemical contamination. The coefficient of variation of DNA content (CV) in blood collected from embryos suggested cytogenetic damage at a side in Louisiana known to be contaminated with petroleum. Blood CV from chicks suggested genetic damage at a site in Texas also known to be contaminated with petroleum. Spleen CVs in chicks were significantly lower than respective means from the reference site. The CVs of chick blood and liver and spleen negatively correlated, suggesting recovery of spleen and liver cells after exposure to a clastogenic compound. Thus, the lower CVs may also have been indicative of genetic damage. Based on the findings of this study, FCM is a potential indicator of certain environmental contaminants in black-crowned night-herons.

  15. Quality control in the application of flow cytometry to studies of environmentally-induced genetic damage

    SciTech Connect

    McCreedy, C.D.; Robinson, J.P.; Dallas, C.E.; Jagoe, C.H.

    1999-07-01

    Flow cytometry (FCM) has been used to demonstrate altered DNA content in fish, reptiles, birds and mammals exposed to radionuclides, PAHs and other contaminants. However, artifacts resulting from sample preparation, handling, variations in instrument parameters or other factors may confound such measurements. Some artifacts resemble genotoxic responses and so could lead to erroneous positive conclusions. As part of ongoing studies of effects of various pollutants on DNA content in fishes, the authors tested sample handling and preparation methods for the induction of artifacts. The authors describe QA/QC methods, including control of staining, conditions, doublet discrimination by comparison of peak versus integral fluorescence, internal DNA standards, and the use of time versus fluorescence plots. Consistent application of these practices is essential to obtain valid measurements of DNA content in environmental samples, and neglect of these can result in poor quality data and the acceptance of incorrect hypotheses.

  16. Flow cytometry for monitoring contaminant exposure in black-crowned night-herons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Bickham, J.W.; Lyne, T.B.; Lewis, T.; Ruedas, L.A.; Custer, Christine M.; Melancon, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    The flow cytometry method (FCM) was employed to determine cellular DNA content of black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) embryos and 10-day-old chicks collected at sites differing in types of chemical contamination. The coefficient of variation of DNA content (CV) in blood collected from embryos suggested cytogenetic damage at a site in Louisiana known to be contaminated with petroleum. Blood CV from chicks suggested genetic damage at a site in Texas also known to be contaminated with petroleum. Spleen CVs in chicks were significantly lower than respective means from the reference site. The CVs of chick blood and liver and spleen negatively correlated, suggesting recovery of spleen and liver cells after exposure to a clastogenic compound. Thus, the lower CVs may also have been indicative of genetic damage. Based on the findings of this study, FCM is a potential indicator of certain environmental contaminants in black-crowned night-herons.

  17. Flow cytometry for monitoring contaminant exposure in black-crowned night-herons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Bickham, J.W.; Lyne, T.B.; Lewis, T.; Ruedas, L.A.; Custer, Christine M.; Melancon, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    The flow cytometry method (FCM) was employed to determine cellular DNA content of black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) embryos and 10-day-old chicks collected at sites differing in types of chemical contamination. The coefficient of variation of DNA content (CV) in blood collected from embryos suggested cytogenetic damage at a site in Louisiana known to be contaminated with petroleum. Blood CV from chicks suggested genetic damage at a site in Texas also known to be contaminated with petroleum. Spleen CVs in chicks were significantly lower than respective means from the reference site. the CVs of chick blood and liver and spleen negatively correlated, suggesting recovery of spleen and liver cells after exposure to a clastogenic compound. Thus, the lower CVs may also have been indicative of genetic damage. Based on the findings of this study, FCM is a potential indicator of certain environmental contaminants in black-crowned night-herons.

  18. FRET and Flow Cytometry Assays to Measure Proteopathic Seeding Activity in Biological Samples.

    PubMed

    Furman, Jennifer L; Diamond, Marc I

    2017-01-01

    Transcellular propagation of protein aggregates-or seeds-is increasingly implicated as a mechanism for disease progression in many neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease and the related tauopathies. While neuropathology generally originates in one discrete brain region, pathology progresses as disease severity advances, often along discrete neural networks. The stereotypical spread of tau pathology suggests that cell-to-cell transfer of toxic protein aggregates could underlie disease progression, and recent studies implicate seeding as a proximal marker of disease, as compared to standard histological and biochemical analyses. Commonly used metrics for protein aggregation detection, however, lack sensitivity, are not quantitative, and/or undergo subjective classification. Here, we describe a FRET and flow cytometry cell-based assay that allows for rapid and quantitative detection of protein aggregates from human and rodent biological specimens.

  19. Hierarchical modeling for rare event detection and cell subset alignment across flow cytometry samples.

    PubMed

    Cron, Andrew; Gouttefangeas, Cécile; Frelinger, Jacob; Lin, Lin; Singh, Satwinder K; Britten, Cedrik M; Welters, Marij J P; van der Burg, Sjoerd H; West, Mike; Chan, Cliburn

    2013-01-01

    Flow cytometry is the prototypical assay for multi-parameter single cell analysis, and is essential in vaccine and biomarker research for the enumeration of antigen-specific lymphocytes that are often found in extremely low frequencies (0.1% or less). Standard analysis of flow cytometry data relies on visual identification of cell subsets by experts, a process that is subjective and often difficult to reproduce. An alternative and more objective approach is the use of statistical models to identify cell subsets of interest in an automated fashion. Two specific challenges for automated analysis are to detect extremely low frequency event subsets without biasing the estimate by pre-processing enrichment, and the ability to align cell subsets across multiple data samples for comparative analysis. In this manuscript, we develop hierarchical modeling extensions to the Dirichlet Process Gaussian Mixture Model (DPGMM) approach we have previously described for cell subset identification, and show that the hierarchical DPGMM (HDPGMM) naturally generates an aligned data model that captures both commonalities and variations across multiple samples. HDPGMM also increases the sensitivity to extremely low frequency events by sharing information across multiple samples analyzed simultaneously. We validate the accuracy and reproducibility of HDPGMM estimates of antigen-specific T cells on clinically relevant reference peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples with known frequencies of antigen-specific T cells. These cell samples take advantage of retrovirally TCR-transduced T cells spiked into autologous PBMC samples to give a defined number of antigen-specific T cells detectable by HLA-peptide multimer binding. We provide open source software that can take advantage of both multiple processors and GPU-acceleration to perform the numerically-demanding computations. We show that hierarchical modeling is a useful probabilistic approach that can provide a consistent labeling

  20. Gram-typing of mastitis bacteria in milk samples using flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Langerhuus, S N; Ingvartsen, K L; Bennedsgaard, T W; Røntved, C M

    2013-01-01

    Fast identification of pathogenic bacteria in milk samples from cows with clinical mastitis is central to proper treatment. In Denmark, time to bacterial diagnosis is typically 24 to 48 h when using traditional culturing methods. The PCR technique provides a faster and highly sensitive identification of bacterial pathogens, although shipment of samples to diagnostic laboratories delays treatment decisions. Due to the lack of fast on-site tests that can identify the causative pathogens, antibiotic treatments are often initiated before bacterial identification. The present study describes a flow cytometry-based method, which can detect and distinguish gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria in mastitis milk samples. The differentiation was based on bacterial fluorescence intensities upon labeling with biotin-conjugated wheat germ agglutinin and acridine orange. Initially 19 in-house bacterial cultures (4 gram-negative and 15 gram-positive strains) were analyzed, and biotin-conjugated wheat germ agglutinin and acridine orange florescence intensities were determined for gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, respectively. Fluorescence cut-off values were established based on receiver operating characteristic curves for the 19 bacterial cultures. The method was then tested on 53 selected mastitis cases obtained from the department biobank (milk samples from 6 gram-negative and 47 gram-positive mastitis cases). Gram-negative bacteria in milk samples were detected with a sensitivity of 1 and a specificity of 0.74, when classification was based on the previously established cut-off values. However, when receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed for the 53 mastitis cases, results indicate that a sensitivity and specificity of 1 could be reached if cut-off values were reduced. This flow cytometry-based technique could potentially provide dairy farmers and attending veterinarians with on-site information on bacterial gram-type and prevent ineffective

  1. Label-free detection of circulating melanoma cells by in vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoling; Yang, Ping; Liu, Rongrong; Niu, Zhenyu; Suo, Yuanzhen; He, Hao; Gao, Wenyuan; Tang, Shuo; Wei, Xunbin

    2016-03-01

    Melanoma is a malignant tumor of melanocytes. Melanoma cells have high light absorption due to melanin highly contained in melanoma cells. This property is employed for the detection of circulating melanoma cell by in vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry (PAFC), which is based on photoacoustic effect. Compared to in vivo flow cytometry based on fluorescence, PAFC can employ high melanin content of melanoma cells as endogenous biomarkers to detect circulating melanoma cells in vivo. We have developed in vitro experiments to prove the ability of PAFC system of detecting photoacoustic signals from melanoma cells. For in vivo experiments, we have constructed a model of melanoma tumor bearing mice by inoculating highly metastatic murine melanoma cancer cells, B16F10 with subcutaneous injection. PA signals are detected in the blood vessels of mouse ears in vivo. The raw signal detected from target cells often contains some noise caused by electronic devices, such as background noise and thermal noise. We choose the Wavelet denoising method to effectively distinguish the target signal from background noise. Processing in time domain and frequency domain would be combined to analyze the signal after denoising. This algorithm contains time domain filter and frequency transformation. The frequency spectrum image of the signal contains distinctive features that can be used to analyze the property of target cells or particles. The processing methods have a great potential for analyzing signals accurately and rapidly. By counting circulating melanoma cells termly, we obtain the number variation of circulating melanoma cells as melanoma metastasized. Those results show that PAFC is a noninvasive and label-free method to detect melanoma metastases in blood or lymph circulation.

  2. Immunophenotype Discovery, Hierarchical Organization, and Template-Based Classification of Flow Cytometry Samples

    PubMed Central

    Azad, Ariful; Rajwa, Bartek; Pothen, Alex

    2016-01-01

    We describe algorithms for discovering immunophenotypes from large collections of flow cytometry samples and using them to organize the samples into a hierarchy based on phenotypic similarity. The hierarchical organization is helpful for effective and robust cytometry data mining, including the creation of collections of cell populations’ characteristic of different classes of samples, robust classification, and anomaly detection. We summarize a set of samples belonging to a biological class or category with a statistically derived template for the class. Whereas individual samples are represented in terms of their cell populations (clusters), a template consists of generic meta-populations (a group of homogeneous cell populations obtained from the samples in a class) that describe key phenotypes shared among all those samples. We organize an FC data collection in a hierarchical data structure that supports the identification of immunophenotypes relevant to clinical diagnosis. A robust template-based classification scheme is also developed, but our primary focus is in the discovery of phenotypic signatures and inter-sample relationships in an FC data collection. This collective analysis approach is more efficient and robust since templates describe phenotypic signatures common to cell populations in several samples while ignoring noise and small sample-specific variations. We have applied the template-based scheme to analyze several datasets, including one representing a healthy immune system and one of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) samples. The last task is challenging due to the phenotypic heterogeneity of the several subtypes of AML. However, we identified thirteen immunophenotypes corresponding to subtypes of AML and were able to distinguish acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) samples with the markers provided. Clinically, this is helpful since APL has a different treatment regimen from other subtypes of AML. Core algorithms used in our data analysis are

  3. Using flow cytometry to estimate pollen DNA content: improved methodology and applications

    PubMed Central

    Kron, Paul; Husband, Brian C.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Flow cytometry has been used to measure nuclear DNA content in pollen, mostly to understand pollen development and detect unreduced gametes. Published data have not always met the high-quality standards required for some applications, in part due to difficulties inherent in the extraction of nuclei. Here we describe a simple and relatively novel method for extracting pollen nuclei, involving the bursting of pollen through a nylon mesh, compare it with other methods and demonstrate its broad applicability and utility. Methods The method was tested across 80 species, 64 genera and 33 families, and the data were evaluated using established criteria for estimating genome size and analysing cell cycle. Filter bursting was directly compared with chopping in five species, yields were compared with published values for sonicated samples, and the method was applied by comparing genome size estimates for leaf and pollen nuclei in six species. Key Results Data quality met generally applied standards for estimating genome size in 81 % of species and the higher best practice standards for cell cycle analysis in 51 %. In 41 % of species we met the most stringent criterion of screening 10 000 pollen grains per sample. In direct comparison with two chopping techniques, our method produced better quality histograms with consistently higher nuclei yields, and yields were higher than previously published results for sonication. In three binucleate and three trinucleate species we found that pollen-based genome size estimates differed from leaf tissue estimates by 1·5 % or less when 1C pollen nuclei were used, while estimates from 2C generative nuclei differed from leaf estimates by up to 2·5 %. Conclusions The high success rate, ease of use and wide applicability of the filter bursting method show that this method can facilitate the use of pollen for estimating genome size and dramatically improve unreduced pollen production estimation with flow cytometry. PMID

  4. Biomass measurement by flow cytometry during solid-state fermentation of basidiomycetes.

    PubMed

    Steudler, Susanne; Böhmer, Ulrike; Weber, Jost; Bley, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Solid-state fermentation (SSF) is a robust process that is well suited to the on-site cultivation of basidiomycetes that produce enzymes for the treatment of lignocellulosics. Reliable methods for biomass quantification are essential for the analysis of fungal growth kinetics. However, direct biomass determination is not possible during SSF because the fungi grow into the substrate and use it as a nutrient source. This necessitates the use of indirect methods that are either very laborious and time consuming or can only provide biomass measurements during certain growth periods. Here, we describe the development and optimization of a new rapid method for fungal biomass determination during SSF that is based on counting fungal nuclei by flow cytometry. Fungal biomass was grown on an organic substrate and its concentration was measured by isolating the nuclei from the fungal hyphae after cell disruption, staining them with SYTOX(®) Green, and then counting them using a flow cytometer. A calibration curve relating the dry biomass of the samples to their concentrations of nuclei was established. Multiple buffers and disruption methods were tested. The results obtained were compared with values determined using the method of ergosterol determination, a classical technique for fungal biomass measurement during SSF. Our new approach can be used to measure fungal biomass on a range of different scales, from 15 mL cultures to a laboratory reactor with a working volume of 10 L (developed by the Research Center for Medical Technology and Biotechnology (fzmb GmbH)). © 2014 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  5. Study of membrane potential in T lymphocytes subpopulations using flow cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Mello de Queiroz, Fernanda; Ponte, Cristiano G; Bonomo, Adriana; Vianna-Jorge, Rosane; Suarez-Kurtz, Guilherme

    2008-01-01

    Background Ion channels are involved in the control of membrane potential (ψ) in a variety of cells. The maintenance of ψ in human T lymphocytes is essential for T-cell activation and was suggested to depend mostly on the voltage-gated Kv1.3 channel. Blockage of Kv1.3 inhibits cytokine production and lymphocyte proliferation in vitro and suppresses immune response in vivo. T lymphocytes are a heterogeneous cell population and the expression of Kv1.3 varies among cell subsets. Oxonol diBA-C4-(3) was used to determine ψ by flow cytometry. The presence of distinct T cell subsets was evaluated by immunophenotyping techniques and the contribution of Kv1.3 channels for the maintenance of ψ was investigated using selective blockers. Results The distribution of ψ in T lymphocytes varied among blood donors and did not always follow a unimodal pattern. T lymphocytes were divided into CD3+/CD45RO- and CD3+/CD45RO+ subsets, whose peak channel values of ψ were -58 ± 3.6 mV and -37 ± 4.1 mV, respectively. MgTX (specific inhibitor of Kv1.3 channels) had no significant effect in the ψ of CD3+/CD45RO- subsets but depolarized CD3+/CD45RO+ cells to -27 ± 5.1 mV. Conclusion Combination of optical methods for determination of ψ by flow cytometry with immuophenotyping techniques opens new possibilities for the study of ion channels in the biology of heterogeneous cell populations such as T lymphocyte subsets. PMID:18980671

  6. Combination of CD157 and FLAER to Detect Peripheral Blood Eosinophils by Multiparameter Flow Cytometry.

    PubMed

    Carulli, Giovanni; Marini, Alessandra; Sammuri, Paola; Domenichini, Cristiana; Ottaviano, Virginia; Pacini, Simone; Petrini, Mario

    2015-01-01

    The identification of eosinophils by flow cytometry is difficult because most of the surface antigens expressed by eosinophils are shared with neutrophils. Some methods have been proposed, generally based on differential light scatter properties, enhanced autofluorescence, lack of CD16 or selective positivity of CD52. Such methods, however, show several limitations. In the present study we report a novel method based on the analysis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked molecules. The combination of CD157 and FLAER was used, since FLAER recognizes all GPI-linked molecules, while CD157 is absent on the membrane of eosinophils and expressed by neutrophils. Peripheral blood samples from normal subjects and patients with variable percentages of eosinophils (n = 31), and without any evidence for circulating immature myeloid cells, were stained with the combination of FLAER-Alexa Fluor and CD157-PE. A FascCanto II cytometer was used. Granulocytes were gated after CD33 staining and eosinophils were identified as CD157(-)/FLAER(+) events. Neutrophils were identified as CD157(+)/FLAER(+) events. The percentages of eosinophils detected by this method showed a very significant correlation both with automated counting and with manual counting (r = 0.981 and 0.989, respectively). Sorting assays were carried out by a S3 Cell Sorter: cytospins obtained from CD157(-)/FLAER(+) events consisted of 100% eosinophils, while samples from CD157(+)/FLAER(+) events were represented only by neutrophils. In conclusion, this method shows high sensitivity and specificity in order to distinguish eosinophils from neutrophils by flow cytometry. However, since CD157 is gradually up-regulated throughout bone marrow myeloid maturation, our method cannot be applied to cases characterized by immature myeloid cells.

  7. Heterokaryotic nuclear conditions and a heterogeneous nuclear population are observed by flow cytometry in Phytophthora infestans.

    PubMed

    Catal, Mursel; King, Louis; Tumbalam, Pavani; Wiriyajitsomboon, Prissana; Kirk, William W; Adams, Gerard C

    2010-08-01

    A simple and reliable method for preparation of whole nuclei of a common oomycete, Phytophthora infestans, is described for laser flow cytometry. The ease of preparation, the absence of detectable debris and aggregates, and the precision in determinations of DNA content per nucleus improve interpretation and understanding of the genetics of the organism. Phytophthora infestans is the pathogen that causes potato and tomato late blight. The genetic flexibility of P. infestans and other oomycete pathogens has complicated understanding of the mechanisms of variation contributing to shifts in race structure and virulence profiles on important agricultural crops. Significant phenotypic and genotypic changes are being reported in the apparent absence of sexual recombination in the field. Laser flow cytometry with propidium iodide is useful in investigating the nuclear condition of the somatic colony of field strains of P. infestans. The majority of the studied strains contain a single population of nuclei in nonreplicated diplophase. However, mean DNA content per nucleus varies considerably among isolates confirming the heterogeneity of the nuclear population in regard to C-value, for field isolates. Nuclear DNA content varies from 1.75x to 0.75x that of nuclei in a standard strain from central Mexico. Some strains contain two to three populations of nuclei with differing DNA contents in the mycelium and are heterokaryons. Such a range in DNA content suggests DNA-aneuploidy, but direct confirmation of aneuploidy will require microscopy of chromosomes. Heterokaryosis and populations of nuclei of differing DNA content necessarily confound standardized assays used worldwide in crop breeding programs for determination of race profiles and virulence phenotypes of this important pathogen.

  8. Detection of microparticles from human red blood cells by multiparametric flow cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Grisendi, Giulia; Finetti, Elena; Manganaro, Daniele; Cordova, Nicoletta; Montagnani, Giuliano; Spano, Carlotta; Prapa, Malvina; Guarneri, Valentina; Otsuru, Satoru; Horwitz, Edwin M.; Mari, Giorgio; Dominici, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Background During storage, red blood cells (RBC) undergo chemical and biochemical changes referred to as “storage lesions”. These events determine the loss of RBC integrity, resulting in lysis and release of microparticles. There is growing evidence of the clinical importance of microparticles and their role in blood transfusion-related side effects and pathogen transmission. Flow cytometry is currently one of the most common techniques used to quantify and characterise microparticles. Here we propose multiparametric staining to monitor and quantify the dynamic release of microparticles by stored human RBC. Material and methods RBC units (n=10) were stored under blood bank conditions for up to 42 days. Samples were tested at different time points to detect microparticles and determine the haemolysis rate (HR%). Microparticles were identified by flow cytometry combining carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) dye, annexin V and anti-glycophorin A antibody. Results We demonstrated that CFSE can be successfully used to label closed vesicles with an intact membrane. The combination of CFSE and glycophorin A antibody was effective for monitoring and quantifying the dynamic release of microparticles from RBC during storage. Double staining with CFSE/glycophorin A was a more precise approach, increasing vesicle detection up to 4.7-fold vs the use of glycophorin A/annexin V alone. Moreover, at all the time points tested, we found a robust correlation (R=0.625; p=0.0001) between HR% and number of microparticles detected. Discussion Multiparametric staining, based on a combination of CFSE, glycophorin A antibody and annexin V, was able to detect, characterise and monitor the release of microparticles from RBC units during storage, providing a sensitive approach to labelling and identifying microparticles for transfusion medicine and, more broadly, for cell-based therapies. PMID:25369588

  9. Characterization of functional variables in epididymal alpaca (Vicugna pacos) sperm using imaging flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Santiani, Alexei; Ugarelli, Alejandra; Evangelista-Vargas, Shirley

    2016-10-01

    Epididymal alpaca sperm represent an alternative model for the study of alpaca semen. The objective of this study was to characterize the normal values of some functional variables in epididymal alpaca sperm using imaging flow cytometry. Alpaca testicles (n=150) were processed and sperm were recovered from the cauda epididymides. Only 76 samples with acceptable motility and sperm count were considered for assessment by imaging flow cytometry. Acrosome integrity and integrity/viability were assessed by FITC-PSA/PI and FITC-PNA/PI. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was assessed by MitoTracker CMXRos and MitoTracker Deep Red FM. Lipid peroxidation was evaluated using BODIPY 581/591 C11. Results show that the mean values for acrosome-intact sperm were 95.03±6.39% and 93.34±7.96%, using FITC-PSA and FITC-PNA, respectively. The mean values for acrosome-intact viable sperm were 60.58±12.12% with FITC-PSA/PI and 58.81±12.94% with FITC-PNA/PI. Greater MMP was detected in 65.03±15.92% and 59.52±19.19%, using MitoTracker CMXRos and MitoTracker Deep Red FM, respectively. Lipid peroxidation was 0.84±0.95%. Evaluation of acrosome-intact and acrosome-intact viable sperm with FITC-PSA/PI compared with. FITC-PNA/PI or MMP with MitoTracker CMXRos compared with MitoTracker Deep Red FM were correlated (P<0.05). The MMP using MitoTracker CMXRos was the only variable correlated (P<0.05) with sperm motility (r=0.3979). This report provides a basis for future research related to alpaca semen using the epididymal sperm model.

  10. Enhanced Red and Near Infrared Detection in Flow Cytometry Using Avalanche Photodiodes

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, William G.; Varadi, Gyula; Entine, Gerald; Podniesinski, Edward; Wallace, Paul K.

    2008-01-01

    Background Polychromatic flow cytometry enables detailed identification of cell phenotype using multiple fluorescent parameters. The photomultiplier tubes used to detect fluorescence in current instruments limit the sensitivity in the long wavelength spectral range. We demonstrate the flow cytometric applications of silicon avalanche photodiodes, which have improved red sensitivity and a working fluorescence detection range beyond 1000 nm. Methods A comparison of the wavelength dependent performance of the avalanche photodiode and photomultiplier tube was carried out using pulsed light emitting diode sources, calibrated test beads and biological samples. A breadboard flow cytometer test bench was constructed to compare the performance of photomultiplier tubes and avalanche photodiode detectors. The avalanche photodiode used an additional amplifier stage to match the internal gain of the photomultiplier tube. Results The resolution of the avalanche photodiode and photomultiplier tube was compared for flow cytometry applications using a pulsed light emitting diode source over the 500 nm to 1060 nm spectral range. These measurements showed the relative changes in the signal to noise performance of the APD and PMT over a broad spectral range. Both the avalanche photodiode and photomultiplier tubes were used to measure the signal to noise response for a set of 6 peak calibration beads over the 530 to 800 nm wavelength range. CD4 positive cells labeled with antibody conjugated phycoerythrin or 800 nm quantum dots were identified by simultaneous detection using the avalanche photodiode and the photomultiplier tube. The ratios of the intensities of the CD4− and CD4+ populations were found to be similar for both detectors in the visible wavelengths, but only the avalanche photodiode was able to separate these populations at wavelengths above 800 nm. Conclusions These measurements illustrate the differences in APD and PMT performance at different wavelengths and signal

  11. Use of flow cytometry to assess chondrocyte viability after laser reshaping of cartilage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasouli, Alexandre; Kim, Charlton C.; Basu, Reshmi; Wong, Brian J.

    2000-05-01

    Lasers have been shown to cause permanent shape change in cartilage via photothermally induced mechanical stress relaxation. While the biophysical properties of cartilage during laser irradiation have been studied, tissue viability following laser irradiation has not been fully characterized. In this study, cell viability staining and flow cytometry were used to determine chondrocyte viability following photothermal stress relaxation. Porcine septal cartilage slabs (10 X 25 X 1.5 mm) were irradiated with light from a Nd:YAG laser ((lambda) equals 1.32 micrometer, 25 W/cm2) while surface temperature, stress relaxation, and diffuse reflectance were recorded. Each slab received one, two, or three laser exposures (respective exposure times of 6.7, 7.2, 10 s), determined from measurements of diffuse reflectance, which correlate with mechanical stress relaxation. Irradiated samples were then divided into two groups analyzed immediately and at five days following laser exposure (the latter group was maintained in culture). Chondrocytes were isolated following serial enzymatic digestion with hyaluronidase, protease, and collagenase II for a total of 17 hours. Chondrocytes were then stained using SYTOR/DEAD RedTM (Molecular Probes; Eugene, OR) wherein live cells stained green (530 nm) and dead cells stained red (630 nm) when excited at 488 nm. A flow cytometer (FACScan, Becton Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, NJ) was then used to detect differential cell fluorescence; size; granularity; and the number of live cells, dead cells, and post irradiation debris in each treatment population. Nearly 60% of chondrocytes from reshaped cartilage samples isolated shortly after irradiation, were viable as determined using flow cytometry while non- irradiated controls were 100 percent viable. Specimens irradiated two or three times with the laser demonstrated increasing amounts of cellular debris along with a reduction in chondrocyte viability: 31 percent following two laser exposures, and 16

  12. Belgian consensus recommendations for flow cytometric immunophenotyping. The Belgian Association for Cytometry/Belgische Vereniging voor Cytometrie/Association Belge de Cytométrie.

    PubMed

    Van Bockstaele, D R; Deneys, V; Philippé, J; Bernier, M; Kestens, L; Chatelain, B; De Waele, M; Demanet, C

    1999-04-01

    This paper summarises the guidelines and recommendations that were generated during a number of discussion forums attended by the majority of Belgian cytometry laboratory professionals. These forums focused on the rational and optimal use of flow cytometric evaluations in the clinical laboratory setting. The aim was to improve the coherence of the testing panels and the quality of the results and--as such--the clinical diagnostic information. It was also the aim to provide the Belgian prescribing physician and interested laymen with an updated overview of the flow cytometric possibilities. Emphasis is placed on immunophenotyping of haematological malignancies, hematopoietic progenitor cell counting and follow-up of the viral infection caused by the human immunodeficiency virus.

  13. DNA flow cytometry of human spermatozoa: consistent stoichiometric staining of sperm DNA using a novel decondensation protocol.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Tamás; Békési, Gyöngyi; Fábián, Akos; Rákosy, Zsuzsa; Horváth, Gábor; Mátyus, László; Balázs, Margit; Jenei, Attila

    2008-10-01

    Rapid flow cytometric measurement of the frequency of aneuploid human sperms is in increasing demand but development of an exploitable method is hindered by difficulties of stoichiometric staining of sperm DNA. An aggressive decondensation protocol is needed after which cell integrity still remains intact. We used flow cytometry to examine the effect of lithium diiodosalicylate (LIS, chaotropic agent) on fluorescence intensity of propidium iodide-treated human spermatozoa from 10 normozoospermic men. When flow cytometric identification of diploid spermatozoa was achieved, validation was performed after sorting by three-color FISH. In contrast with the extremely variable histograms of nondecondensed sperms, consistent identification of haploid and diploid spermatozoa was possible if samples were decondensed with LIS prior to flow cytometry. A 76-fold enrichment of diploid sperms was observed in the sorted fractions by FISH. A significant correlation was found between the proportion of sorted cells and of diploid sperms by FISH. Application of LIS during the preparation of sperm for flow cytometry appears to ensure the stoichiometric staining of sperm DNA, making quantification of aneuploid sperm percentage possible. To our knowledge this is the first report in terms of separating spermatozoa with confirmedly abnormal chromosomal content. High correlation between the proportion of cells identified as having double DNA content by flow cytometry and diploid sperm by FISH allows rapid calculation of diploidy rate.

  14. Detection, isolation, and capture of circulating breast cancer cells with photoacoustic flow cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, Kiran; Njoroge, Martin; Goldschmidt, Benjamin S.; Gaffigan, Brian; Rood, Kyle; Viator, John A.

    2013-03-01

    According to the CDC, breast cancer is the most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer related deaths among women. Metastasis, or the presence of secondary tumors caused by the spread of cancer cells via the circulatory or lymphatic systems, significantly worsens the prognosis of any breast cancer patient. In this study, a technique is developed to detect circulating breast cancer cells in human blood using a photoacoustic flow cytometry method. A Q-switched laser with a 5 ns pulse at 532 nm is used to interrogate thousands of cells with one pulse as they flow through the beam path. Cells which are pigmented, either naturally or artificially, emit an ultrasound wave as a result of the photoacoustic (PA) effect. Breast cancer cells are targeted with chromophores through immunochemistry in order to provide pigment. After which, the device is calibrated to demonstrate a single-cell detection limit. Cultured breast cancer cells are added to whole blood to reach a biologically relevant concentration of about 25-45 breast cancer cells per 1 mL of blood. An in vitro photoacoustic flow cytometer is used to detect and isolate these cells followed by capture with the use of a micromanipulator. This method can not only be used to determine the disease state of the patient and the response to therapy, it can also be used for genetic testing and in vitro drug trials since the circulating cell can be captured and studied.

  15. Light-scattering polarization measurements as a new parameter in flow cytometry

    SciTech Connect

    de Grooth, B.G.; Terstappen, L.W.; Puppels, G.J.; Greve, J.

    1987-11-01

    Polarization measurement of orthogonal light scattering is introduced as a new optical parameter in flow cytometry. In the experimental setup, the electrical field of the incident laser beam is polarized in the direction of the sample flow. The intensity of the orthogonal light scattering polarized along the direction of the incoming laser beam is called depolarized orthogonal light scattering. Theoretical analysis shows that for small values of the detection aperture, the measured depolarization is caused by anisotropic cell structures and multiple scattering processes inside the cell. Measurements of the orthogonal depolarized light scattering in combination with the normal orthogonal light scattering of human leucocytes revealed two populations of granulocytes. By means of cell sorting it was shown that the granulocytes with a relatively high depolarization are eosinophilic granulocytes. Similar experiments with human lymphocytes revealed a minor subpopulation of yet-unidentified lymphocytes with a relative large orthogonal light-scattering depolarization. The results were obtained with an argon ion laser tuned at different wavelengths as well as with a 630-nm helium neon laser. These results show that measurement of depolarized orthogonal light scattering is a useful new parameter for flow-cytometric cell differentiation.

  16. High degree of concordance between flow cytometry and geno2pheno methods for HIV-1 tropism determination in proviral DNA.

    PubMed

    Torres, Alex José Leite; Brígido, Luis Fernando de Macedo; Abrahão, Marcos Herculano Nunes; Angelo, Ana Luiza Dias; de Jesus Ferreira, Gilcivaldo; Coelho, Luana Portes; Ferreira, João Leandro; Jorge, Célia Regina Mayoral Pedroso; Netto, Eduardo Martins; Brites, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Use of CCR5 antagonists requires previous viral tropism determination. The available methods have high cost, are time-consuming, or require highly trained personnel, and sophisticated equipment. We compared a flow cytometry-based tropism assay with geno2pheno method to determine HIV-1 tropism in AIDS patients, in Bahia, Brazil. We tested peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 102 AIDS patients under antiretroviral therapy by using a cytometry-based tropism assay and geno2pheno assay. Cellular membrane receptors were identified by using CXCR4, CCR5 and CD4 monoclonal antibodies, while detection of cytoplasmic mRNAs for gag and pol HIV regions was achieved by using a labeled probe. Genotypic identification of X4 and R5 tropic viruses was attempted by geno2pheno algorithm. There was a high degree of concordance between cytometry-based tropism assay and geno2pheno algorithm in determination of HIV-1 tropism. Cytometry-based tropism assay demonstrated higher sensitivity and specificity in comparison to geno2pheno, which was used as a gold-standard. One sample could not be amplified by geno2pheno method, but was classified as duotropic by cytometry-based tropism assay. We did not find any association between CD4+ count or plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load and tropism results. The overall performances of cytometry-based tropism assay and geno2pheno assay were almost identical in determination of HIV-1 tropism.

  17. Generalized unmixing model for multispectral flow cytometry utilizing nonsquare compensation matrices.

    PubMed

    Novo, David; Grégori, Gérald; Rajwa, Bartek

    2013-05-01

    Multispectral and hyperspectral flow cytometry (FC) instruments allow measurement of fluorescence or Raman spectra from single cells in flow. As with conventional FC, spectral overlap results in the measured signal in any given detector being a mixture of signals from multiple labels present in the analyzed cells. In contrast to traditional polychromatic FC, these devices utilize a number of detectors (or channels in multispectral detector arrays) that is larger than the number of labels, and no particular detector is a priori dedicated to the measurement of any particular label. This data-acquisition modality requires a rigorous study and understanding of signal formation as well as unmixing procedures that are employed to estimate labels abundance. The simplest extension of the traditional compensation procedure to multispectral data sets is equivalent to an ordinary least-square (LS) solution for estimating abundance of labels in individual cells. This process is identical to the technique employed for unmixing spectral data in various imaging fields. The present study shows that multispectral FC data violate key assumptions of the LS process, and use of the LS method may lead to unmixing artifacts, such as population distortion (spreading) and the presence of negative values in biomarker abundances. Various alternative unmixing techniques were investigated, including relative-error minimization and variance-stabilization transformations. The most promising results were obtained by performing unmixing using Poisson regression with an identity-link function within a generalized linear model framework. This formulation accounts for the presence of Poisson noise in the model of signal formation and subsequently leads to superior unmixing results, particularly for dim fluorescent populations. The proposed Poisson unmixing technique is demonstrated using simulated 8-channel, 2-fluorochrome data and real 32-channel, 6-fluorochrome data. The quality of unmixing is

  18. Estimation of the frequency of malformed sperm by slit scan flow cytometry

    SciTech Connect

    Halamka, J.; Gray, J.W.; Gledhill, B.L.; Lake, S.; Wyrobek, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    An investigation was made of the utility of Slit Scan Flow Cytometry (SSFCM) for measuring the frequencies of malformed sperm heads in control and mutagen treated B6C3F1/CRL mice. In SSFCM, fluorescence profiles of sperm heads stained with the DNA-specific fluorescent dye acriflavine were recorded for sperm flowing lengthwise through a 2.5-..mu..m-thick laser beam. Malformed sperm were detected as having fluorescence profiles that differed substantially from an average fluorescence profile for sperm from untreated mice. Fluorescence profiles were measured for 500 sperm per mouse from five control mice, five mice injected intraperitoneally daily for 5 days with a total of 375 mg/kg of body weight methyl methane sulfonate (MMS), and for 30 mice injected intraperitoneally daily for 5 days with total doses of procarbazine ranging from 125 mg/kg to 1250 mg/kg. Sperm were collected from the caudae epididymides 35 days after the last injection. Frequencies of malformed sperm in these samples were also estimated by visual analysis. All samples were analyzed in double blind fashion. The visual and SSFCM malformed sperm frequencies for the samples from control, MMS-treated, and procarbazine-treated mice were correlated. A dose effect was seen with both the visual and SSFCM estimates for the sperm from the procarbazine-treated mice. 8 references 3 figures.

  19. Revealing the diversity of extracellular vesicles using high-dimensional flow cytometry analyses.

    PubMed

    Marcoux, Geneviève; Duchez, Anne-Claire; Cloutier, Nathalie; Provost, Patrick; Nigrovic, Peter A; Boilard, Eric

    2016-10-27

    Extracellular vesicles (EV) are small membrane vesicles produced by cells upon activation and apoptosis. EVs are heterogeneous according to their origin, mode of release, membrane composition, organelle and biochemical content, and other factors. Whereas it is apparent that EVs are implicated in intercellular communication, they can also be used as biomarkers. Continuous improvements in pre-analytical parameters and flow cytometry permit more efficient assessment of EVs; however, methods to more objectively distinguish EVs from cells and background, and to interpret multiple single-EV parameters are lacking. We used spanning-tree progression analysis of density-normalized events (SPADE) as a computational approach for the organization of EV subpopulations released by platelets and erythrocytes. SPADE distinguished EVs, and logically organized EVs detected by high-sensitivity flow cytofluorometry based on size estimation, granularity, mitochondrial content, and phosphatidylserine and protein receptor surface expression. Plasma EVs were organized by hierarchy, permitting appreciation of their heterogeneity. Furthermore, SPADE was used to analyze EVs present in the synovial fluid of patients with inflammatory arthritis. Its algorithm efficiently revealed subtypes of arthritic patients based on EV heterogeneity patterns. Our study reveals that computational algorithms are useful for the analysis of high-dimensional single EV data, thereby facilitating comprehension of EV functions and biomarker development.

  20. A novel, rapid method to quantify intraplatelet calcium dynamics by ratiometric flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Assinger, Alice; Volf, Ivo; Schmid, Diethart

    2015-01-01

    Cytosolic free calcium ions represent important second-messengers in platelets. Therefore, quantitative measurement of intraplatelet calcium provides a popular and very sensitive tool to evaluate platelet activation and reactivity. Current protocols for determination of intracellular calcium concentrations in platelets have a number of limitations. Cuvette-based methods do not allow measurement of calcium flux in complex systems, such as whole blood, and therefore require isolation steps that potentially interfere with platelet activation. Flow cytometry has the potential to overcome this limitation, but to date the application of calibrated, quantitative readout of calcium kinetics has only been described for Indo-1. As excitation of Indo-1 requires a laser in the ultraviolet range, such measurements cannot be performed with a standard flow cytometer. Here, we describe a novel, rapid calibration method for ratiometric calcium measurement in platelets using both Ar(+)-laser excited fluorescence dyes Fluo-4 and Fura Red. We provide appropriate equations that allow rapid quantification of intraplatelet calcium fluxes by measurement of only two standardisation buffers. We demonstrate that this method allows quantitative calcium measurement in platelet rich plasma as well as in whole blood. Further, we show that this method prevents artefacts due to platelet aggregate formation and is therefore an ideal tool to determine basal and agonist induced calcium kinetics.

  1. A Novel, Rapid Method to Quantify Intraplatelet Calcium Dynamics by Ratiometric Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Assinger, Alice; Volf, Ivo; Schmid, Diethart

    2015-01-01

    Cytosolic free calcium ions represent important second-messengers in platelets. Therefore, quantitative measurement of intraplatelet calcium provides a popular and very sensitive tool to evaluate platelet activation and reactivity. Current protocols for determination of intracellular calcium concentrations in platelets have a number of limitations. Cuvette-based methods do not allow measurement of calcium flux in complex systems, such as whole blood, and therefore require isolation steps that potentially interfere with platelet activation. Flow cytometry has the potential to overcome this limitation, but to date the application of calibrated, quantitative readout of calcium kinetics has only been described for Indo-1. As excitation of Indo-1 requires a laser in the ultraviolet range, such measurements cannot be performed with a standard flow cytometer. Here, we describe a novel, rapid calibration method for ratiometric calcium measurement in platelets using both Ar+-laser excited fluorescence dyes Fluo-4 and Fura Red. We provide appropriate equations that allow rapid quantification of intraplatelet calcium fluxes by measurement of only two standardisation buffers. We demonstrate that this method allows quantitative calcium measurement in platelet rich plasma as well as in whole blood. Further, we show that this method prevents artefacts due to platelet aggregate formation and is therefore an ideal tool to determine basal and agonist induced calcium kinetics. PMID:25849642

  2. Revealing the diversity of extracellular vesicles using high-dimensional flow cytometry analyses

    PubMed Central

    Marcoux, Geneviève; Duchez, Anne-Claire; Cloutier, Nathalie; Provost, Patrick; Nigrovic, Peter A.; Boilard, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EV) are small membrane vesicles produced by cells upon activation and apoptosis. EVs are heterogeneous according to their origin, mode of release, membrane composition, organelle and biochemical content, and other factors. Whereas it is apparent that EVs are implicated in intercellular communication, they can also be used as biomarkers. Continuous improvements in pre-analytical parameters and flow cytometry permit more efficient assessment of EVs; however, methods to more objectively distinguish EVs from cells and background, and to interpret multiple single-EV parameters are lacking. We used spanning-tree progression analysis of density-normalized events (SPADE) as a computational approach for the organization of EV subpopulations released by platelets and erythrocytes. SPADE distinguished EVs, and logically organized EVs detected by high-sensitivity flow cytofluorometry based on size estimation, granularity, mitochondrial content, and phosphatidylserine and protein receptor surface expression. Plasma EVs were organized by hierarchy, permitting appreciation of their heterogeneity. Furthermore, SPADE was used to analyze EVs present in the synovial fluid of patients with inflammatory arthritis. Its algorithm efficiently revealed subtypes of arthritic patients based on EV heterogeneity patterns. Our study reveals that computational algorithms are useful for the analysis of high-dimensional single EV data, thereby facilitating comprehension of EV functions and biomarker development. PMID:27786276

  3. Lectin staining and flow cytometry reveals female-induced sperm acrosome reaction and surface carbohydrate reorganization

    PubMed Central

    Kekäläinen, Jukka; Larma, Irma; Linden, Matthew; Evans, Jonathan P.

    2015-01-01

    All cells are covered by glycans, an individually unique layer of oligo- and polysaccharides that are critical moderators of self-recognition and other cellular-level interactions (e.g. fertilization). The functional similarity between these processes suggests that gamete surface glycans may also have an important, but currently overlooked, role in sexual selection. Here we develop a user-friendly methodological approach designed to facilitate future tests of this possibility. Our proposed method is based on flow cytometric quantification of female-induced sperm acrosome reaction and sperm surface glycan modifications in the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. In this species, as with many other taxa, eggs release water-soluble factors that attract conspecific sperm (chemoattraction) and promote potentially measurable changes in sperm behavior and physiology. We demonstrate that flow cytometry is able to identify sperm from other seawater particles as well as accurately measure both acrosome reaction and structural modifications in sperm glycans. This methodological approach can increase our understanding of chemically-moderated gamete-level interactions and individual-specific gamete recognition in Mytilus sp. and other taxa with similar, easily identifiable acrosome structure. Our approach is also likely to be applicable to several other species, since carbohydrate-mediated cellular-level interactions between gametes are universal among externally and internally fertilizing species. PMID:26470849

  4. Interlaboratory assessment of mitotic index by flow cytometry confirms superior reproducibility relative to microscopic scoring.

    PubMed

    Roberts, D J; Spellman, R A; Sanok, K; Chen, H; Chan, M; Yurt, P; Thakur, A K; DeVito, G L; Murli, H; Stankowski, L F

    2012-05-01

    A flow cytometric procedure for determining mitotic index (MI) as part of the metaphase chromosome aberrations assay, developed and utilized routinely at Pfizer as part of their standard assay design, has been adopted successfully by Covance laboratories. This method, using antibodies against phosphorylated histone tails (H3PS10) and nucleic acid stain, has been evaluated by the two independent test sites and compared to manual scoring. Primary human lymphocytes were treated with cyclophosphamide, mitomycin C, benzo(a)pyrene, and etoposide at concentrations inducing dose-dependent cytotoxicity. Deming regression analysis indicates that the results generated via flow cytometry (FCM) were more consistent between sites than those generated via microscopy. Further analysis using the Bland-Altman modification of the Tukey mean difference method supports this finding, as the standard deviations (SDs) of differences in MI generated by FCM were less than half of those generated manually. Decreases in scoring variability owing to the objective nature of FCM, and the greater number of cells analyzed, make FCM a superior method for MI determination. In addition, the FCM method has proven to be transferable and easily integrated into standard genetic toxicology laboratory operations.

  5. Computationally efficient multidimensional analysis of complex flow cytometry data using second order polynomial histograms.

    PubMed

    Zaunders, John; Jing, Junmei; Leipold, Michael; Maecker, Holden; Kelleher, Anthony D; Koch, Inge

    2016-01-01

    Many methods have been described for automated clustering analysis of complex flow cytometry data, but so far the goal to efficiently estimate multivariate densities and their modes for a moderate number of dimensions and potentially millions of data points has not been attained. We have devised a novel approach to describing modes using second order polynomial histogram estimators (SOPHE). The method divides the data into multivariate bins and determines the shape of the data in each bin based on second order polynomials, which is an efficient computation. These calculations yield local maxima and allow joining of adjacent bins to identify clusters. The use of second order polynomials also optimally uses wide bins, such that in most cases each parameter (dimension) need only be divided into 4-8 bins, again reducing computational load. We have validated this method using defined mixtures of up to 17 fluorescent beads in 16 dimensions, correctly identifying all populations in data files of 100,000 beads in <10 s, on a standard laptop. The method also correctly clustered granulocytes, lymphocytes, including standard T, B, and NK cell subsets, and monocytes in 9-color stained peripheral blood, within seconds. SOPHE successfully clustered up to 36 subsets of memory CD4 T cells using differentiation and trafficking markers, in 14-color flow analysis, and up to 65 subpopulations of PBMC in 33-dimensional CyTOF data, showing its usefulness in discovery research. SOPHE has the potential to greatly increase efficiency of analysing complex mixtures of cells in higher dimensions.

  6. Determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii against fluconazole by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Morales, Bernardina Penarrieta; Junior, Ivan Neves; Trilles, Luciana; Bertho, Alvaro Luiz; Oliveira, Raquel De Vasconcellos Carvalhaes De; Nishikawa, Marilia Martins; Elias, Mônica Dos Santos; Wanke, Bodo; Lazéra, Márcia Dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have used flow cytometry (FCM) as an important alternative method to determine the antifungal susceptibility of yeasts compared to the broth microdilution Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) reference procedure. We present a comparative study of the broth microdilution method and flow cytometry to assess the in vitro antifungal susceptibility of Cryptococcus neoformans (n = 16) and C. gattii (n = 24) to fluconazole. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays by flow cytometry were defined as the lowest drug concentration that showed ∼50% of the count of acridine orange negative cells compared to that of the growth control. Categorical classification showed all C. neoformans isolates were susceptible to fluconazole. Three isolates of C. gattii were susceptible dose-dependent and the remaining 21 isolates were classified as susceptible. MICs comparison of both methodologies demonstrated 100% categorical agreement of the results obtained for C. neoformans and C. gattii. The MICs obtained with the CLSI-approved method and flow cytometry were compared by the Spearman correlation test and a significant Pv = 0.001. The flow cytometric method has the advantage of analyzing a large and constant number of cells in less time, i.e., 9 h incubation for fluconazole using acridine orange versus 72 h for broth microdilution method. In conclusion, the two methods were comparable and flow cytometry method can expedite and improve the results of in vitro susceptibility tests of C. neoformans and C. gattii against fluconazole and also allows comparative studies in vitro/in vivo more rapidly, which along with clinical data, could assist in selecting the most appropriate treatment choice.

  7. Flow cytometry and K-mer analysis estimates of the genome sizes of Bemisia tabaci B and Q (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Li T.; Wang, Shao L.; Wu, Qing J.; Zhou, Xu G.; Xie, Wen; Zhang, You J.

    2015-01-01

    The genome sizes of the B- and Q-types of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennnadius) were estimated using flow cytometry (Drosophila melanogaster as the DNA reference standard and propidium iodide (PI) as the fluorochrome) and k-mer analysis. For flow cytometry, the mean nuclear DNA content was 0.686 pg for B-type males, 1.392 pg for B-type females, 0.680 pg for Q-type males, and 1.306 pg for Q-type females. Based on the relationship between DNA content and genome size (1 pg DNA = 980 Mbp), the haploid genome size of B. tabaci ranged from 640 to 682 Mbp. For k-mer analysis, genome size of B-type by two methods were consistent highly, but the k-mer depth distribution graph of Q-type was not enough perfect and the genome size was estimated about 60 M larger than its flow cytometry result. These results corroborate previous reports of genome size based on karyotype analysis and chromosome counting. However, these estimates differ from previous flow cytometry estimates, probably because of differences in the DNA reference standard and dyeing time, which were superior in the current study. For Q-type genome size difference by two method, some discussion were also stated, and all these results represent a useful foundation for B. tabaci genomics research. PMID:26042041

  8. Application of exonuclease III-aided target recycling in flow cytometry: DNA detection sensitivity enhanced by orders of magnitude.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jie; Paulsen, Ian T; Jin, Dayong

    2013-09-03

    DNA-functionalized microspheres in conjugation with flow cytometry detection are widely used for high-throughput nucleic acid assays. Although such assays are rapid and capable of simultaneous analysis of multiple nucleic acid analytes in a single test, the intrinsic limitation in sensitivity remains challenging. Here we report a simple, highly sensitive, and reproducible method based on Exonuclease III-aided target recycling technique applied for DNA quantification in flow cytometry. By loading a high density of Cy5-labeled probe DNA on microspheres (15 μm), we achieved hitherto unreported DNA detection limit of 3.2 pM in flow cytometry bead assay, enhancing the sensitivity by a factor of over 56.8 compared to the conventional direct hybridization bead assay. Furthermore, we evaluated multiplexing capability by simultaneous detections of two target DNAs with FAM and Cy5 reporter conjugated probes. Therefore, the novel Exonuclease III-amplified flow cytometry bead assay has great potential for the rapid, sensitive, and accurate detection and quantification of nucleic acids in clinical diagnosis and biomedical research.

  9. Novel Methods of Determining Urinary Calculi Composition: Petrographic Thin Sectioning of Calculi and Nanoscale Flow Cytometry Urinalysis

    PubMed Central

    Gavin, Carson T; Ali, Sohrab N; Tailly, Thomas; Olvera-Posada, Daniel; Alenezi, Husain; Power, Nicholas E; Hou, Jinqiang; St. Amant, Andre H; Luyt, Leonard G; Wood, Stephen; Wu, Charles; Razvi, Hassan; Leong, Hon S

    2016-01-01

    Accurate determination of urinary stone composition has significant bearing on understanding pathophysiology, choosing treatment modalities and preventing recurrence. A need exists for improved methods to determine stone composition. Urine of 31 patients with known renal calculi was examined with nanoscale flow cytometry and the calculi collected during surgery subsequently underwent petrographic thin sectioning with polarized and fluorescent microscopy. Fluorescently labeled bisphosphonate probes (Alendronate-fluorescein/Alendronate-Cy5) were developed for nanoscale flow cytometry to enumerate nanocrystals that bound the fluorescent probes. Petrographic sections of stones were also imaged by fluorescent and polarized light microscopy with composition analysis correlated to alendronate +ve nanocrystal counts in corresponding urine samples. Urine samples from patients with Ca2+ and Mg2+ based calculi exhibited the highest alendronate +ve nanocrystal counts, ranging from 100–1000 nm in diameter. This novel urine based assay was in agreement with composition determined by petrographic thin sections with Alendronate probes. In some cases, high alendronate +ve nanocrystal counts indicated a Ca2+ or Mg2+ composition, as confirmed by petrographic analysis, overturning initial spectrophotometric diagnosis of stone composition. The combination of nanoscale flow cytometry and petrographic thin sections offer an alternative means for determining stone composition. Nanoscale flow cytometry of alendronate +ve nanocrystals alone may provide a high-throughput means of evaluating stone burden. PMID:26771074

  10. Immunological Tools: Engaging Students in the Use and Analysis of Flow Cytometry and Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ott, Laura E.; Carson, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are commonly used techniques associated with clinical and research applications within the immunology and medical fields. The use of these techniques is becoming increasingly valuable in many life science and engineering disciplines as well. Herein, we report the development and…

  11. Using fluorescence-activated flow cytometry to determine reactive oxygen species formation and membrane lipid peroxidation in viable boar spermatozoa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fluorescence-activated flow cytometry analyses were developed for determination of reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and membrane lipid peroxidation in live spermatozoa loaded with, respectively, hydroethidine (HE) or the lipophilic probe 4,4-difluoro-5-(4-phenyl-1,3-butadienyl)-4-bora-3a,4a-d...

  12. Utilization of flow cytometry to identify chimeral sectors in leaf tissue of Lolium multiflorum x L. arundinaceum hybrids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have identified a method whereby Lolium multiflorum (Lm) or L. arundinaceum (Fa) genomes are preferentially eliminated through a mitotic loss behavior in interspecific Lm x Fa F1 hybrids, generating either dihaploid Lm lines or Fa lines. Flow cytometry, a method for rapidly characterizing optical...

  13. Flow cytometric scoring of micronucleated erythrocytes: an efficient platform for assessing in vivo cytogenetic damage.

    PubMed

    Dertinger, Stephen D; Torous, Dorothea K; Hayashi, Makoto; MacGregor, James T

    2011-01-01

    The relative simplicity of the micronucleated erythrocyte endpoint has made it amenable to automated scoring approaches. Flow cytometry is one such scoring platform that has been employed successfully. This review describes the evolution and properties of flow cytometry-based scoring of micronucleated erythrocytes. The methodology has become widely applied to rodent blood specimens and the high throughput nature of the technology provides a number of advantages over manual microscopic scoring. For instance, the ability to efficiently survey many dose levels and many more cells per specimen relative to microscopy benefits studies that are designed to identify no observable effect levels or lowest observable effect levels. Furthermore, flow cytometry makes it practical to study species with low spontaneous reticulocyte (RET) counts and micronucleus (MN) frequencies, thereby facilitating integration of blood-based micronucleated reticulocyte (MN-RET) frequency measurements into experiments conducted across species of toxicological interest. This capability enhances genotoxicity assessments that have historically been made in dedicated MN tests performed in one species. Importantly, the feasibility of using MN-RET frequencies in blood from humans as an index of genetic damage in bone marrow opens a critical area of application that had not been practical previously. We conclude with recommendations for additional work that is needed to more fully realise the potential of flow cytometric in vivo MN scoring.

  14. Resolution of natural microbial community dynamics by community fingerprinting, flow cytometry, and trend interpretation analysis.

    PubMed

    Bombach, Petra; Hübschmann, Thomas; Fetzer, Ingo; Kleinsteuber, Sabine; Geyer, Roland; Harms, Hauke; Müller, Susann

    2011-01-01

    Natural microbial communities generally have an unknown structure and composition because of their still not yet cultivable members. Therefore, understanding the relationships among the bacterial members, prediction of their behaviour, and controlling their functions are difficult and often only partly successful endeavours to date. This study aims to test a new idea that allows to follow community dynamics on the basis of a simple concept. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA genes was used to describe a community profile that we define as composition of a community. Flow cytometry and analysis of DNA contents and forward scatter characteristics of the single cells were used to describe a community profile, which we define as structure of a community. Both approaches were brought together by a non-metric multidimensional scaling (n-MDS) for trend interpretation of changes in the complex community data sets. This was done on the basis of a graphical evaluation of the cytometric data, leading to the newly developed Dalmatian plot tool, which gave an unexpected insight into the dynamics of the unknown bacterial members of the investigated natural microbial community. The approach presented here was compared with other techniques described in the literature. The microbial community investigated in this study was obtained from a BTEX contaminated anoxic aquifer. The indigenous bacteria were allowed to colonise in situ microcosms consisting of activated carbon. These microcosms were amended with benzene and one of the electron acceptors nitrate, sulphate or ferric iron to stimulate microbial growth. The data obtained in this study indicated that the composition (via T-RFLP) and structure (via flow cytometry) of the natural bacterial community were influenced by the hydro-geochemical conditions in the test site, but also by the supplied electron acceptors, which led to distinct shifts in relative abundances of

  15. Quantification methods for human and large animal leukocytes using DNA dyes by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Pieper, Ina Laura; Radley, Gemma; Chan, Chris H H; Friedmann, Yasmin; Foster, Graham; Thornton, Catherine A

    2016-06-01

    Ovine and bovine blood is used heavily within the development of blood-handling medical devices, such as heart pumps (left ventricular assist devices, LVADs), for which blood cell damage needs to be monitored during in vitro testing. Hematology analyzers provide cell counts but no information about cell viability. The anthraquinone DNA dyes CyTRAK Orange™ and DRAQ7™ have practical and spectral properties rendering them suitable for multicolor assays. Compared to other DNA dyes such as Vybrant Dyecycle, CyTRAK Orange enables a faster staining protocol and does not require incubation at +37°C. Compared to traditional viability dyes such as propidium iodide and 7AAD, DRAQ7's unique spectral profile of excitation in both blue and red lasers and far-red emission enables identification of dual positive dead cell events and frees up detectors for use with other reagents. CyTRAK Orange and DRAQ7 could be used in combination with absolute counting bead standards to provide cell counts and viability but the combination of these dyes has previously only been used for microscopy on rodent cells. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of these dyes in combination in large animal blood samples for flow cytometry. A viability and cell counting protocol for bovine, ovine, and human leukocytes using CyTRAK Orange and DRAQ7 was prepared. Four different counting bead standards were evaluated using the Navios and FACSAria cytometers and compared to counts obtained from hematology analyzers. CyTRAK Orange successfully detected CD45(+) leukocytes in all species. The DRAQ7 single-stained dead cell counts correlated well with the CyTRAK Orange/DRAQ7 double-stained dead cell counts in human and bovine blood, but not in ovine blood, which could be related to the blood source. In conclusion, for human and bovine blood, this method works well for viability counts using different flow cytometers and bead standards. © 2016 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  16. Toward the measurement of multiple fluorescence lifetimes in flow cytometry: maximizing multi-harmonic content from cells and microspheres.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Patrick; Naivar, Mark A; Houston, Jessica P

    2015-11-01

    Flow cytometry is a powerful means for in vitro cellular analyses where multi-fluorescence and multi-angle light scattering can indicate unique biochemical or morphological features of single cells. Yet, to date, flow cytometry systems have lacked the ability to capture complex fluorescence dynamics due to the transient nature of flowing cells. In this contribution we introduce a simple approach for measuring multiple fluorescence lifetimes from a single cytometric event. We leverage square wave modulation, Fourier analysis, and high frequency digitization and show the ability to resolve more than one fluorescence lifetime from fluorescently-labelled cells and microspheres. Illustration of a flow cytometer capable of capturing multiple fluorescence lifetime measurements; creating potential for multi-parametric, time-resolved signals to be captured for every color channel.

  17. Detection of endogenous alkaline phosphatase activity in intact cells by flow cytometry using the fluorogenic ELF-97 phosphatase substrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Telford, W. G.; Cox, W. G.; Stiner, D.; Singer, V. L.; Doty, S. B.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The alkaline phosphatase (AP) substrate 2-(5'-chloro-2'-phosphoryloxyphenyl)-6-chloro-4-(3H)-quinazolinone (ELF((R))-97 for enzyme-labeled fluorescence) has been found useful for the histochemical detection of endogenous AP activity and AP-tagged proteins and oligonucleotide probes. In this study, we evaluated its effectiveness at detecting endogenous AP activity by flow cytometry. METHODS: The ELF-97 phosphatase substrate was used to detect endogenous AP activity in UMR-106 rat osteosarcoma cells and primary cultures of chick chondrocytes. Cells were labeled with the ELF-97 reagent and analyzed by flow cytometry using an argon ultraviolet (UV) laser. For comparison purposes, cells were also assayed for AP using a Fast Red Violet LB azo dye assay previously described for use in detecting AP activity by flow cytometry. RESULTS: The ELF-97 phosphatase substrate effectively detected endogenous AP activity in UMR-106 cells, with over 95% of the resulting fluorescent signal resulting from AP-specific activity (as determined by levamisole inhibition of AP activity). In contrast, less than 70% of the fluorescent signal from the Fast Red Violet LB (FRV) assay was AP-dependent, reflecting the high intrinsic fluorescence of the unreacted components. The ELF-97 phosphatase assay was also able to detect very low AP activity in chick chondrocytes that was undetectable by the azo dye method. CONCLUSIONS: The ELF-97 phosphatase assay was able to detect endogenous AP activity in fixed mammalian and avian cells by flow cytometry with superior sensitivity to previously described assays. This work also shows the applicability of ELF-97 to flow cytometry, supplementing its previously demonstrated histochemical applications. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Measurement of Separase Proteolytic Activity in Single Living Cells by a Fluorogenic Flow Cytometry Assay

    PubMed Central

    Haaß, Wiltrud; Kleiner, Helga; Müller, Martin C.; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Fabarius, Alice; Seifarth, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    ESPL1/Separase, an endopeptidase, is required for centrosome duplication and separation of sister-chromatides in anaphase of mitosis. Overexpression and deregulated proteolytic activity of Separase as frequently observed in human cancers is associated with the occurrence of supernumerary centrosomes, chromosomal missegregation and aneuploidy. Recently, we have hypothesized that increased Separase proteolytic activity in a small subpopulation of tumor cells may serve as driver of tumor heterogeneity and clonal evolution in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Currently, there is no quantitative assay to measure Separase activity levels in single cells. Therefore, we have designed a flow cytometry-based assay that utilizes a Cy5- and rhodamine 110 (Rh110)-biconjugated Rad21 cleavage site peptide ([Cy5-D-R-E-I-M-R]2-Rh110) as smart probe and intracellular substrate for detection of Separase enzyme activity in living cells. As measured by Cy5 fluorescence the cellular uptake of the fluorogenic peptide was fast and reached saturation after 210 min of incubation in human histiocytic lymphoma U937 cells. Separase activity was recorded as the intensity of Rh110 fluorescence released after intracellular peptide cleavage providing a linear signal gain within a 90–180 min time slot. Compared to conventional cell extract-based methods the flow cytometric assay delivers equivalent results but is more reliable, bypasses the problem of vague loading controls and unspecific proteolysis associated with whole cell extracts. Especially suited for the investigaton of blood- and bone marrow-derived hematopoietic cells the flow cytometric Separase assay allows generation of Separase activity profiles that tell about the number of Separase positive cells within a sample i.e. cells that currently progress through mitosis and about the range of intercellular variation in Separase activity levels within a cell population. The assay was used to quantify Separase proteolytic activity in leukemic

  19. Phagocytosis and Respiratory Burst Activity in Lumpsucker (Cyclopterus lumpus L.) Leucocytes Analysed by Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Haugland, Gyri T.; Jakobsen, Ragnhild Aakre; Vestvik, Nils; Ulven, Kristian; Stokka, Lene; Wergeland, Heidrun I.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we have isolated leucocytes from peripheral blood, head kidney and spleen from lumpsucker (Cyclopterus lumpus L.), and performed functional studies like phagocytosis and respiratory burst, as well as morphological and cytochemical analyses. Different leucocytes were identified, such as lymphocytes, monocytes/macrophages and polymorphonuclear cells with bean shaped or bilobed nuclei. In addition, cells with similar morphology as described for dendritic cells in trout were abundant among the isolated leucocytes. Flow cytometry was successfully used for measuring phagocytosis and respiratory burst activity. The phagocytic capacity and ability were very high, and cells with different morphology in all three leucocyte preparations phagocytised beads rapidly. Due to lack of available cell markers, the identity of the phagocytic cells could not be determined. The potent non-specific phagocytosis was in accordance with a high number of cells positive for myeloperoxidase, an enzyme involved in oxygen-dependent killing mechanism present in phagocytic cells. Further, high respiratory burst activity was present in the leucocytes samples, verifying a potent oxygen- dependent degradation. At present, the specific antibody immune response could not be measured, as immunoglobulin or B-cells have not yet been isolated. Therefore, analyses of the specific immune response in this fish species await further clarification. The present study presents the first analyses of lumpsucker immunity and also the first within the order Scopaeniformes. PMID:23112870

  20. Autofluorescence as a Signal to Sort Developing Glandular Trichomes by Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Bergau, Nick; Navarette Santos, Alexander; Henning, Anja; Balcke, Gerd U.; Tissier, Alain

    2016-01-01

    The industrial relevance of a number of metabolites produced in plant glandular trichomes (GTs) has spurred research on these specialized organs for a number of years. Most of the research, however, has focused on the elucidation of secondary metabolite pathways and comparatively little has been undertaken on the development and differentiation of GTs. One way to gain insight into these developmental processes is to generate stage-specific transcriptome and metabolome data. The difficulty for this resides in the isolation of early stages of development of the GTs. Here we describe a method for the separation and isolation of intact young and mature type VI trichomes from the wild tomato species Solanum habrochaites. The final and key step of the method uses cell sorting based on distinct autofluorescence signals of the young and mature trichomes. We demonstrate that sorting by flow cytometry allows recovering pure fractions of young and mature trichomes. Furthermore, we show that the sorted trichomes can be used for transcript and metabolite analyses. Because many plant tissues or cells have distinct autofluorescence components, the principles of this method can be generally applicable for the isolation of specific cell types without prior labeling. PMID:27446176

  1. Flow cytometry analysis of OKT4 epitope deficiency in South African black children.

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, E J; Goddard, E A; Bouic, P; Beatty, D W

    1994-01-01

    A case of OKT4 epitope deficiency referred for investigation with suspected immunodeficiency is described. Flow cytometry analysis of OKT4 epitope deficiency in a study group of healthy black children showed different manifestations of the lack of OKT4 epitope; a complete lack of OKT4+CD4+ peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) with normal numbers of OKT4A+ and Leu3a-CD4+ PBL, decreased percentage OKT4+CD4+ compared with OKT4A+ and Leu-3a+CD4+ PBL, decreased fluorescent staining intensity with OKT4 and a biphasic OKT4 staining pattern associated with a reduced OKT4/Leu-3a ratio. The percentage and fluorescent intensity of OKT4+CD4+ PBL in the study group were significantly lower (P < 0.0001) than Leu-3a+CD4+ and OKT4A+CD4+ PBL. There is thus considerable risk of under-estimating the number of CD4+ cells in black South Africans if the OKT4 MoAb is used. PMID:7527746

  2. Analysis of isolated zymogen granules from rat pancreas using flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    de Dios, I; Orfao, A; García-Montero, A C; Rodriguez, A I; Manso, M A

    1995-10-01

    Rat pancreatic zymogen granules were analyzed using flow cytometry to determine their heterogeneity with respect to different characteristics such as size (FSC), internal complexity (SSC) and membrane permeability to lipophilic and cationic dyes using rhodamine-123 as probe. Differences in the chemical composition of the membrane were determined using FITC-labeled lectins (concanavalin A, Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) and Tetragonolobus purpureus) displaying specific binding for different carbohydrates (D-mannose, N-acetyl D-glucosamine and L-fucose, respectively). Finally, the amylase content of zymogen granules was also analyzed using an anti-amylase antiserum. Our results show the existence of two populations of zymogen granules that can be identified on the basis of their FSC and SSC characteristics: a minor population of approximately 5% all zymogen granules with larger size (FSC) and internal complexity (SSC), and a major population clearly differentiable on the basis of a lower FSC and SSC. Rhodamine-123 uptake was similar in both subpopulations of zymogen granules. By contrast, labeling with fluoresceinated lectins and anti-amylase antiserum showed the existence of a higher content on both amylase and the monosaccharide residues analyzed for the Z2 zymogen granules. However, it is shown that those differences are strongly dependent on the FSC (size) of the granules suggesting that although the carbohydrate contents (D-mannose, N-acetyl D-glucosamine and L-fucose) and the amount of amylase differed from one granule to another, their concentration per granule was similar.

  3. Use of Flow Cytometry To Follow the Physiological States of Microorganisms in Cider Fermentation Processes

    PubMed Central

    Herrero, Mónica; Quirós, Covadonga; García, Luis A.; Díaz, Mario

    2006-01-01

    The flow cytometry (FC) technique used with certain fluorescent dyes (ChemChrome V6 [CV6], DRAQ5, and PI) has proven useful to label and to detect different physiological states of yeast and malolactic bacterium starters conducting cider fermentation over time (by performing sequential inoculation of microorganisms). First, the technique was tested with pure cultures of both types of microorganisms grown in synthetic media under different induced stress conditions. Metabolically active cells detected by FC and by the standard plate-counting method for both types of microorganisms in fresh overnight pure cultures gave good correlations between the two techniques in samples taken at this stage. Otherwise, combining the results obtained by FC and plating during alcoholic and malolactic fermentation over time in the cider-making process, different subpopulations were detected, showing significant differences between the methods. A small number of studies have applied the FC technique to analyze fermentation processes and mixed cultures over time. The results were used to postulate equations explaining the different physiological states in cell populations taken from fresh, pure overnight cultures under nonstress conditions or cells subjected to stress conditions over time, either under a pure-culture fermentation process (in this work, corresponding to alcoholic fermentation) or under mixed-fermentation conditions (for the malolactic-fermentation phase), that could be useful to improve the control of the processes. PMID:17021224

  4. Protocol for the clonal analysis of NK cell effector functions by multi-parameter flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Schönberg, Kathrin; Hejazi, Maryam; Uhrberg, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells provide a first line of defense against viral infections and prepare the ground for subsequent action of virus-specific T cells in a concerted way. Human NK cells use a sophisticated system of inhibitory and stimulatory receptors of the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) gene family, which are expressed in a clonally distributed manner. Several studies suggest that KIR play a critical role in NK cell-mediated protection against HCV and HIV infection. As each NK cell expresses an individual set of KIR receptors that enables them to sense differences in HLA class I expression, classical measurement of NK cell function by analysis of target cell killing does not enable one to define and isolate the clinically relevant NK cell effector subsets. Here, we have developed a flow cytometry-based protocol to measure cytolytic activity together with KIR expression at a clonal level. Combined analysis of KIR expression in conjunction with cell surface mobilization of CD107 enables precise enumeration of cytolytic NK cells with defined specificity for HLA class I. Moreover, via inclusion of intracellular perforin or alternatively granzyme B, NK cells with deficient loading of cytotoxic granula can be identified. The present protocol enables identification and isolation of cytotoxic NK cells on a clonal level and enables reliable measurement in healthy as well as in pathological settings such as virus infection and hematological disease.

  5. In vitro effects of nicotine on sperm motility and bio-functional flow cytometry sperm parameters.

    PubMed

    Condorelli, R A; La Vignera, S; Giacone, F; Iacoviello, L; Vicari, E; Mongioi', L; Calogero, A E

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this experimental study was to evaluate the effects of nicotine on sperm motility and on non-conventional sperm parameters in vitro. Capacitated spermatozoa isolated from 10 normozoospermic, healthy, non-smoker men were evaluated. Spermatozoa were exposed to increasing concentrations of nicotine (0, 1, 10, and 100 ng/ml) for 3 and 24 hours. Progressive motility and the following non-conventional sperm parameters, evaluated by flow cytometry, were assessed: mitochondrial membrane potential, viability, phosphatidylserine externalization, late apoptosis, degree of chromatin compactness, and DNA fragmentation. Nicotine suppressed, in a concentration-dependent manner, sperm progressive motility starting from the lowest concentration used (1 ng/ml). Similarly, it reduced the percentage of viable spermatozoa and increased the number of spermatozoa in late apoptosis, with altered chromatin compactness, or DNA fragmentation already after 3 hours of incubation. These effects were observed at a concentration similar (100 ng/ml) to that found in the seminal plasma of smokers (70 ng/ml), with the exception of the effects on sperm DNA fragmentation whose significant effect was detected also at a lower concentration (10 ng/ml). Nicotine may be regarded as a noxious component of cigarette smoke on the male reproductive function.

  6. A flow-cytometry method for analyzing the composition of membrane rafts.

    PubMed

    Morales-García, M Guadalupe; Fournié, Jean-Jacques; Moreno-Altamirano, M Maximina Bertha; Rodríguez-Luna, Gabriela; Flores, Ricardo-Mondragón; Sánchez-García, F Javier

    2008-10-01

    Membrane rafts are involved in a broad variety of biological processes. Their protein composition under growth factor stimulation, anti-inflammatory or proinflammatory microenvironments, or in the course of pathogenic infections still remains to be determined. However, current techniques aimed at the identification of particular proteins on membrane rafts are not devoid of pitfalls. Membrane rafts were obtained by detergent-free based differential centrifugation from Jurkat T cells and J774 macrophages. Membrane rafts were labeled with fluorochrome-labeled antibodies directed against different cell membrane molecules, and with fluorochrome-labeled cholera toxin B that targets GM1 and analyzed by flow cytometry. CD3, CD11a, and GM1 were shown to be differentially expressed on Jurkat T cell-derived membrane rafts, indicating heterogeneity in membrane rafts composition. On the other hand, it was shown in J774 cell-derived membrane rafts that most but not all CD14 is present in the GM1-containing membrane fragments, thus confirming the heterogeneity of membrane rafts composition in other cell lines. The method described here allows the fluorometric assessment of the relative expression of more than one membrane raft component at a time, and at a single vesicle level in a fast and sensitive manner. This method seems to be a suitable approach to evaluate the molecular heterogeneity in membrane rafts composition.

  7. Flow Cytometry-based Assay for the Monitoring of NK Cell Functions.

    PubMed

    Tognarelli, Sara; Jacobs, Benedikt; Staiger, Nina; Ullrich, Evelyn

    2016-10-30

    Natural killer (NK) cells are an important part of the human tumor immune surveillance system. NK cells are able to distinguish between healthy and virus-infected or malignantly transformed cells due to a set of germline encoded inhibitory and activating receptors. Upon virus or tumor cell recognition a variety of different NK cell functions are initiated including cytotoxicity against the target cell as well as cytokine and chemokine production leading to the activation of other immune cells. It has been demonstrated that accurate NK cell functions are crucial for the treatment outcome of different virus infections and malignant diseases. Here a simple and reliable method is described to analyze different NK cell functions using a flow cytometry-based assay. NK cell functions can be evaluated not only for the whole NK cell population, but also for different NK cell subsets. This technique enables scientists to easily study NK cell functions in healthy donors or patients in order to reveal their impact on different malignancies and to further discover new therapeutic strategies.

  8. Developmental schedule of the postnatal rat testis determined by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Malkov, M; Fisher, Y; Don, J

    1998-07-01

    Analysis of the biochemical events and the genes expressed at various postnatal developmental stages in the testis of mammals is of great importance for understanding spermatogenesis in general and meiosis in particular. A prerequisite for such an analysis is the characterization of a detailed developmental schedule of the postnatal testis. In this study we used four-parameter flow cytometry analysis to determine a detailed testicular developmental schedule in rats as compared to mice. A dot plot of forward-scatter/side-scatter of testicular cell suspensions from mature animals revealed 7 distinct subpopulations within the testis. These, when analyzed by fluorescence parameters, were divided into 4 levels of fluorescence: cells containing 4d DNA, 2d DNA, and 2 levels of haploid cells. Observing the acquisition pattern of these subpopulations during postnatal development, we were able to suggest the following developmental schedule for the rat. At postnatal Days 6-7, the testis contains somatic cells and spermatogonia cells only. By Days 13-14, leptotene spermatocytes appear; by Days 17-18, zygotene spermatocytes are present; by Days 19-20 and Days 22-23, early and late pachytene spermatocytes, respectively, are seen. Haploid round spermatids first appear at Days 24-25 and elongating spermatids by Days 30-31; by Day 36, elongated spermatozoa can be found.

  9. Evaluation of multidrug resistant phenotype by flow cytometry with monoclonal antibodies and functional tests.

    PubMed

    Lizard, G; Maynadié, M; Roignot, P; Lizard-Nacol, S; Poupon, M F

    1995-03-01

    Multidrug resistant (MDR) phenotype is characterized by a defect in drug accumulation caused by overexpression of a transmembrane glycoprotein, the P-glycoprotein (P-gp). MDR phenotype can be characterized either with monoclonal antibodies raised against P-gp or with functional tests, most often based on the incorporation of fluorescent compounds. In the present study, data obtained with the monoclonal antibodies C219, JSB1 and MRK16 are compared to those of functional tests performed by flow cytometry including uptake of daunorubicin (DNR), Rhodamine 123 (Rh 123) or Hoechst 33342. Sensitive and resistant cell lines K562S, K562R, KBA1 and KB31, derived either from a human chronic myeloid leukemia or from a human epithelial carcinoma, were used. In resistant cells, P-gp expression was revealed with either the monoclonal antibodies C219, JSB1 or MRK-16. The most specific results were obtained with MRK-16. With functional tests, no matter which dyes were used, the fluorescence was always stronger in sensitive than in resistant cells. However, with DNR and Hoechst 33342, an incorporation of these dyes was exhibited in resistant cells. This phenomenon was not observed with Rh 123, which makes it possible to distinguish clearly between sensitive and resistant cells and to detect as few as 1% of resistant cells. Because of its high sensitivity, the functional test involving incorporation of Rh 123 was successfully used in acute myeloid leukemia to detect multichemoresistant cells.

  10. An Improved Method for High-throughput Discrimination and Enumeration of Sedimentary Cells Using Flow Cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morono, Y.; Kallmeyer, J.; Terada, T.; Inagaki, F.; IODP Expedition 329 Shipboard Science Party

    2011-12-01

    Detection and enumeration of microbial life in marine subsurface environments provides primary information on the extent and habitability of the Earth's biosphere. Flow cytometry (FCM) is a powerful tool for identifying and enumerating fluorescence-stained cells with high throughput, using fluorescent intensity, range of wavelength, and cell size. FCM is widely used in medical sciences and aquatic microbial ecology. However, mineral grains and difficulties in distinguishing between life cells and non-specific background fluorescence prevented FCM to be applied for counting microbial cells in sediment or rock samples. SYBR Green I-stained cells can be distinguished from non-biological background signals based on differences in their fluorescence spectra. Here we extended this technique to FCM analysis by modifying the cell detachment protocol using a density gradient method, and then standardized an FCM cell counting method for various types of marine subsurface sediments. Microbial cells in sediment samples could effectively be detached and analyzed discriminatively with FCM. The high capacity of FCM to count particles (up to 10,000 cells/sec) and its high sensitivity will provide information about microbial cell abundance at high spatial resolution and with unprecedented accuracy. This improved cell count method will be useful to evaluate samples with high depth resolution, including narrow geochemical and geological interfaces as potential specific microbial niches, and may even help to asses very low population densities at the fringe of the biosphere.

  11. Quantification of mammalian sperm morphology by slit-scan flow cytometry

    SciTech Connect

    Benaron, D.A.; Gray, J.W.; Gledhill, B.L.; Lake, S.; Wyrobek, A.J.; Young, I.T.

    1982-03-01

    The head shapes of mammalian sperm have been measured by slit-scan flow cytometry (SSFCM). In this approach, the distribution of fluorescence along acriflavine stained mammalian sperm is recorded and used as a measure of head shape. Fluorescence profiles were measured for sperm from mice, rabbits, hamsters, and bulls, and for sperm from mice exposed to testicular x-irradiation from 0 to 900 rads. The profiles for sperm from nonirradiated animals were characteristic of each species and were reproducible from sperm to sperm. Some of the fluorescence profiles for sperm from the irradiated mice differed significantly from the profiles usually measured for sperm from exposed mice. An algorithm was developed to determine the frequency of these sperm. The estimated frequencies of atypical profiles correlated well (r . 0.99) with the frequencies of abnormally shaped sperm determined by microscopic scoring. The maximum SSFCM sensitivity (minimum detectable dose . 199 rad) was not as high as that for the visual assay (minimum detectable dose . 116 rad). However, only 100 profiles were measured by SSFCM at each dose while at least 500 sperm were scored visually at each dose. The sensitivity of the SSFCM assay should be increased substantially by measuring more profiles. The objective nature of SSFCM couple with the high correlation with results from the visually based assay of morphology suggests the use of SSFCM to measure frequencies of misshapen sperm when testing for mutagens or monitoring for effects of environmental contaminants.

  12. Quantification of mammalian sperm morphology by slit-scan flow cytometry

    SciTech Connect

    Benaron, D.A.; Gray, J.W.; Gledhill, B.L.; Lake, S.; Wyrobek, A.J.; Young, I.T.

    1982-01-01

    The head shapes of mammalian sperm were measured by slit-scan flow cytometry (SSFCM). Fluorescence profiles were measured for sperm from mice, rabbits, hamsters, and bulls, and for sperm from mice, rabbits, hamsters, and bulls, and for sperm from mice exposed to testicular x-irradiation from 0 to 900 rads. Some of the fluorescence profiles for sperm from the irradiated mice differed significantly from the profiles usually measured for sperm from unexposed mice. An algorithm was developed to determine the frequency of these sperm. The estimated frequencies of atypical profiles correlated well with the frequencies of abnormally shaped sperm determined by microscopic scoring. The maximum SSFCM sensitivity was not as high as that for the visual assay. However, only 100 profiles were measured by SSFCM at each dose while at least 500 sperm were scored visually at each dose. The sensitivity of the SSFCM assay should be increased substantially by measuring more profiles. The objective nature of SSFCM coupled with the high correlation with results from the visually based assay of morphology suggests the use of SSFCM to measure frequencies of misshapen sperm when testing for mutagens or monitoring for effects of environmental contaminants.

  13. Flow cytometry used to assess genetic damage in frogs from farm ponds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bly, B.L.; Knutson, M.G.; Sandheinrich, M.B.; Gray, B.R.; Jobe, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    Flow cytometry (FC) is a laboratory method used to detect genetic damage induced by environmental contaminants and other stressors in animals, including amphibians. We tested FC methods on three species of ranid frogs collected from farm ponds and natural wetlands in southeastern Minnesota. We compared FC metrics for Rana clamitans between ponds with direct exposure to agricultural contaminants and reference (unexposed) ponds. Concentrations of atrazine in water from our farm ponds ranged from 0.04 to 0.55 ppb. We found that R. clamitans from exposed ponds had DNA content similar to frogs from unexposed ponds. Pond-averaged C-values (a measure of DNA content) ranged from 6.53 to 7.08 for R. pipiens (n . 13), 6.55 to 6.60 for R. clamitans (n . 40) and 6.74 for R. palustris (n . 5). Among all species, the mean sample CVs ranged from 1.91 (R. palustris) to 6.31 (R. pipiens). Deformities were observed in only 2 of 796 individuals among all species and occurred in both reference and exposed ponds. Although we did not detect evidence of DNA damage associated with agriculture in our study, we demonstrated the potential of FC for screening amphibian populations for genetic damage. Metrics from a variety of amphibian species and locations as well as laboratory studies are needed to further assess the value of FC for monitoring amphibian genetic integrity in contaminated sites.

  14. Genome Sizes of Nine Insect Species Determined by Flow Cytometry and k-mer Analysis

    PubMed Central

    He, Kang; Lin, Kejian; Wang, Guirong; Li, Fei

    2016-01-01

    The flow cytometry method was used to estimate the genome sizes of nine agriculturally important insects, including two coleopterans, five Hemipterans, and two hymenopterans. Among which, the coleopteran Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus (Kuschel) had the largest genome of 981 Mb. The average genome size was 504 Mb, suggesting that insects have a moderate-size genome. Compared with the insects in other orders, hymenopterans had small genomes, which were averagely about ~200 Mb. We found that the genome sizes of four insect species were different between male and female, showing the organismal complexity of insects. The largest difference occurred in the coconut leaf beetle Brontispa longissima (Gestro). The male coconut leaf beetle had a 111 Mb larger genome than females, which might be due to the chromosome number difference between the sexes. The results indicated that insect invasiveness was not related to genome size. We also determined the genome sizes of the small brown planthopper Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén) and the parasitic wasp Macrocentrus cingulum (Brischke) using k-mer analysis with Illunima Solexa sequencing data. There were slight differences in the results from the two methods. k-mer analysis indicated that the genome size of L. striatellus was 500–700 Mb and that of M. cingulum was ~150 Mb. In all, the genome sizes information presented here should be helpful for designing the genome sequencing strategy when necessary. PMID:27932995

  15. A rapid method to assess the stage differentiation in Leishmania donovani by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Dayakar, Alti; Chandrasekaran, Sambamurthy; Prajapati, Vijay Kumar; Veronica, Jalaja; Sundar, Shyam; Maurya, Radheshyam

    2012-12-01

    In this study we describe a rapid and novel method to assess the morphological stage differentiation in Leishmania donovani by flow cytometry (FCM). FCM is fast, accurate, and inexpensive to study the stage differentiation of promastigote into L. donovani axenic amastigote (LdAxAm). The non-flourimetric FCM method is easy to perform; with requirement of little expertise, and provides unambiguous results. It is an advanced tool, requires minimal time, and no fluorescent dyes. The gradual increase of differentiation and reduction in size from promastigote stage to LdAxAm leads to peak shifting from right to left on histogram. Earlier reports assessed the stage differentiation of Leishmania by studying the expression of stage specific markers like surface or secretory proteins and genes. For validation, conventional methods like microscopic analysis are used. These methods are quite expensive, laborious and time consuming. Non-flourimetric morphological parameters were further validated by conventional methods like optical and scanning electron microscopy. Additionally, differential expression of stage specific genes (e.g. upregulation of amastin and ATP binding cassette A3 (ABCA3) transporter gene transcripts) and differential activity of enzymes (down regulation of secretory acid phosphatase (SAcP) and 3'-nucleotidase enzyme activity) in LdAxAm suggest stage differentiation. Therefore, we believe that our method is an alternative tool for high reproducibility and reliability in assessment of stage differentiation.

  16. Role of macrophages in circulating prostate cancer cells studied by in vivo flow cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Rongrong; Guo, Jin; Gu, Zhengqin; Wei, Xunbin

    2013-02-01

    Macrophages appear to be directly involved in cancer progression and metastasis. However, the role of macrophages in influencing tumor metastasis has not been fully understood. Here, we have used an emerging technique, namely in vivo flow cytometry (IVFC) to study the depletion kinetics of circulating prostate cancer cells in mice and how depletion of macrophages by the liposome-encapsulated clodronate affects the depletion kinetics. Our results show different depletion kinetics of PC-3 prostate cancer cells between macrophage-deficient group and the control group. The number of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in macrophage-deficient group decreases in a slower manner compared to the control mice group. The differences in depletion kinetics indicate that the absence of macrophages might facilitate the stay of prostate tumor cells in circulation. We speculate that macrophages might be able to arrest, phagocytose and digest PC-3 cancer cells. Therefore, the phagocytosis may mainly contribute to the differences in depletion kinetics. The developed methods here would be useful to study the relationship between macrophages and cancer metastasis in small animal tumor model.

  17. Development and Use of Flow Cytometry for Detection of Airborne Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Prigione, Valeria; Lingua, Guido; Marchisio, Valeria Filipello

    2004-01-01

    Traditional methods for the enumeration of airborne fungi are slow, tedious, and rather imprecise. In this study, the possibility of using flow cytometry (FCM) for the assessment of exposure to the fungus aerosol was evaluated. Epifluorescence microscopy direct counting was adopted as the standard for comparison. Setting up of the method was achieved with pure suspensions of Aspergillus fumigatus and Penicillium brevicompactum conidia at different concentrations, and then analyses were extended to field samples collected by an impinger device. Detection and quantification of airborne fungi by FCM was obtained combining light scatter and propidium iodide red fluorescence parameters. Since inorganic debris are unstainable with propidium iodide, the biotic component could be recognized, whereas the preanalysis of pure conidia suspensions of some species allowed us to select the area corresponding to the expected fungal population. A close agreement between FCM and epifluorescence microscopy counts was found. Moreover, data processing showed that FCM can be considered more precise and reliable at any of the tested concentrations. PMID:15006754

  18. Phagocytosis and respiratory burst activity in lumpsucker (Cyclopterus lumpus L.) leucocytes analysed by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Haugland, Gyri T; Jakobsen, Ragnhild Aakre; Vestvik, Nils; Ulven, Kristian; Stokka, Lene; Wergeland, Heidrun I

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we have isolated leucocytes from peripheral blood, head kidney and spleen from lumpsucker (Cyclopterus lumpus L.), and performed functional studies like phagocytosis and respiratory burst, as well as morphological and cytochemical analyses. Different leucocytes were identified, such as lymphocytes, monocytes/macrophages and polymorphonuclear cells with bean shaped or bilobed nuclei. In addition, cells with similar morphology as described for dendritic cells in trout were abundant among the isolated leucocytes. Flow cytometry was successfully used for measuring phagocytosis and respiratory burst activity. The phagocytic capacity and ability were very high, and cells with different morphology in all three leucocyte preparations phagocytised beads rapidly. Due to lack of available cell markers, the identity of the phagocytic cells could not be determined. The potent non-specific phagocytosis was in accordance with a high number of cells positive for myeloperoxidase, an enzyme involved in oxygen-dependent killing mechanism present in phagocytic cells. Further, high respiratory burst activity was present in the leucocytes samples, verifying a potent oxygen- dependent degradation. At present, the specific antibody immune response could not be measured, as immunoglobulin or B-cells have not yet been isolated. Therefore, analyses of the specific immune response in this fish species await further clarification. The present study presents the first analyses of lumpsucker immunity and also the first within the order Scopaeniformes.

  19. Characterization of Oligodendroglial Populations in Mouse Demyelinating Disease Using Flow Cytometry: Clues for MS Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Goings, Gwendolyn E.; Miller, Stephen D.

    2014-01-01

    Characterizing and enumerating cells of the oligodendrocyte lineage (OLCs) is crucial for understanding demyelination and therapeutic benefit in models of demyelinating disease in the central nervous system. Here we describe a novel method for the rapid, unbiased analysis of mouse OLCs using flow cytometry. The assay was optimized to maximize viable yield of OLCs and maintain OLC antigen integrity. Panels of antibodies were assembled for simultaneous analysis of seven antigens on individual cells allowing for characterization of oligodendroglial cells throughout the lineage. We verified the utility of the assay with cultured OLCs and through a time course of developmental myelination. Next we employed the assay to characterize OLC populations in two well-characterized models of demyelination: cuprizone-induced demyelination and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In EAE we observed a dramatic loss of mature oligodendrocytes coincident with a dramatic expansion of oligodendrocyte progenitors cells (OPCs) at the onset of disease suggesting an attempt of the host to repair myelin. This expanded OPC pool was maintained through remission and relapse suggesting an arrest in differentiation in the face of the chronic autoimmune T cell-mediated inflammatory response. These robust, reproducible changes in OLCs through disease provide a rapid quantitative global analysis of myelin-producing cells in the adult mouse brain and important information regarding effects of disease on oligodendroglial proliferation/differentiation which is useful for defining the pathogenesis and therapy of MS. PMID:25247590

  20. Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing of the Gram-Negative Bacteria Based on Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Saint-Ruf, Claude; Crussard, Steve; Franceschi, Christine; Orenga, Sylvain; Ouattara, Jasmine; Ramjeet, Mahendrasingh; Surre, Jérémy; Matic, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Rapidly treating infections with adequate antibiotics is of major importance. This requires a fast and accurate determination of the antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial pathogens. The most frequently used methods are slow because they are based on the measurement of growth inhibition. Faster methods, such as PCR-based detection of determinants of antibiotic resistance, do not always provide relevant information on susceptibility, particularly that which is not genetically based. Consequently, new methods, such as the detection of changes in bacterial physiology caused by antibiotics using flow cytometry and fluorescent viability markers, are being explored. In this study, we assessed whether Alexa Fluor® 633 Hydrazide (AFH), which targets carbonyl groups, can be used for antibiotic susceptibility testing. Carbonylation of cellular macromolecules, which increases in antibiotic-treated cells, is a particularly appropriate to assess for this purpose because it is irreversible. We tested the susceptibility of clinical isolates of Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, to antibiotics from the three classes: β-lactams, aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolones. In addition to AFH, we used TO-PRO®-3, which enters cells with damaged membranes and binds to DNA, and DiBAC4 (3), which enters cells with depolarized membranes. We also monitored antibiotic-induced morphological alterations of bacterial cells by analyzing light scattering signals. Although all tested dyes and light scattering signals allowed for the detection of antibiotic-sensitive cells, AFH proved to be the most suitable for the fast and reliable detection of antibiotic susceptibility. PMID:27507962

  1. DNA-based probes for flow cytometry analysis of endocytosis and recycling.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Claire; Czuba, Ewa; Chen, Moore; Villadangos, Jose A; Johnston, Angus P R; Mintern, Justine D

    2016-12-26

    The internalization of proteins plays a key role in cell development, cell signaling and immunity. We have previously developed a specific hybridization internalization probe (SHIP) to quantitate the internalization of proteins and particles into cells. Herein, we extend the utility of SHIP to examine both the endocytosis and recycling of surface receptors using flow cytometry. SHIP was used to monitor endocytosis of membrane-bound transferrin receptor (TFR) and its soluble ligand transferrin (TF). SHIP enabled measurements of the proportion of surface molecules internalized, the internalization kinetics and the proportion and rate of internalized molecules that recycle to the cell surface with time. Using this method, we have demonstrated the internalization and recycling of holo-TF and an antibody against the TFR behave differently. This assay therefore highlights the implications of receptor internalization and recycling, where the internalization of the receptor-antibody complex behaves differently to the receptor-ligand complex. In addition, we observe distinct internalization patterns for these molecules expressed by different subpopulations of primary cells. SHIP provides a convenient and high throughput technique for analysis of trafficking parameters for both cell surface receptors and their ligands.

  2. Assessing microbiological water quality in drinking water distribution systems with disinfectant residual using flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Simon; Lipphaus, Patrick; Green, James; Parsons, Simon; Weir, Paul; Juskowiak, Kes; Jefferson, Bruce; Jarvis, Peter; Nocker, Andreas

    2014-11-15

    Flow cytometry (FCM) as a diagnostic tool for enumeration and characterization of microorganisms is rapidly gaining popularity and is increasingly applied in the water industry. In this study we applied the method to obtain a better understanding of total and intact cell concentrations in three different drinking water distribution systems (one using chlorine and two using chloramines as secondary disinfectants). Chloramine tended to result in lower proportions of intact cells than chlorine over a wider residual range, in agreement with existing knowledge that chloramine suppresses regrowth more efficiently. For chlorinated systems, free chlorine concentrations above 0.5 mg L(-1) were found to be associated with relatively low proportions of intact cells, whereas lower disinfectant levels could result in substantially higher percentages of intact cells. The threshold for chlorinated systems is in good agreement with guidelines from the World Health Organization. The fact that the vast majority of samples failing the regulatory coliform standard also showed elevated proportions of intact cells suggests that this parameter might be useful for evaluating risk of failure. Another interesting parameter for judging the microbiological status of water, the biological regrowth potential, greatly varied among different finished waters providing potential help for investment decisions. For its measurement, a simple method was introduced that can easily be performed by water utilities with FCM capability.

  3. Intracellular Cytokine Staining and Flow Cytometry: Considerations for Application in Clinical Trials of Novel Tuberculosis Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Smith, Steven G; Smits, Kaatje; Joosten, Simone A; van Meijgaarden, Krista E; Satti, Iman; Fletcher, Helen A; Caccamo, Nadia; Dieli, Francesco; Mascart, Francoise; McShane, Helen; Dockrell, Hazel M; Ottenhoff, Tom H M

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular cytokine staining combined with flow cytometry is one of a number of assays designed to assess T-cell immune responses. It has the specific advantage of enabling the simultaneous assessment of multiple phenotypic, differentiation and functional parameters pertaining to responding T-cells, most notably, the expression of multiple effector cytokines. These attributes make the technique particularly suitable for the assessment of T-cell immune responses induced by novel tuberculosis vaccines in clinical trials. However, depending upon the particular nature of a given vaccine and trial setting, there are approaches that may be taken at different stages of the assay that are more suitable than other alternatives. In this paper, the Tuberculosis Vaccine Initiative (TBVI) TB Biomarker Working group reports on efforts to assess the conditions that will determine when particular assay approaches should be employed. We have found that choices relating to the use of fresh whole blood or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and frozen PBMC; use of serum-containing or serum-free medium; length of stimulation period and use of co-stimulatory antibodies can all affect the sensitivity of intracellular cytokine assays. In the case of sample material, frozen PBMC, despite some loss of sensitivity, may be more advantageous for batch analysis. We also recommend that for multi-site studies, common antibody panels, gating strategies and analysis approaches should be employed for better comparability.

  4. New method to disaggregate and analyze single isolated helminthes cells using flow cytometry: proof of concept.

    PubMed

    Nava-Castro, Karen; Hernández-Bello, Romel; Muñiz-Hernández, Saé; Escobedo, Galileo; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    In parasitology, particularly in helminthes studies, several methods have been used to look for the expression of specific molecules, such as RT-PCR, western blot, 2D-electrophoresis, and microscopy, among others. However, these methods require homogenization of the whole helminth parasite, preventing evaluation of individual cells or specific cell types in a given parasite tissue or organ. Also, the extremely high interaction between helminthes and host cells (particularly immune cells) is an important point to be considered. It is really hard to obtain fresh parasites without host cell contamination. Then, it becomes crucial to determine that the analyzed proteins are exclusively from parasitic origin, and not a consequence of host cell contamination. Flow cytometry is a fluorescence-based technique used to evaluate the expression of extra-and intracellular proteins in different type cells, including protozoan parasites. It also allows the isolation and recovery of single-cell populations. Here, we describe a method to isolate and obtain purified helminthes cells.

  5. Immune Monitoring in Cancer Vaccine Clinical Trials: Critical Issues of Functional Flow Cytometry-Based Assays

    PubMed Central

    Urbani, Francesca; Proietti, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    The development of immune monitoring assays is essential to determine the immune responses against tumor-specific antigens (TSAs) and tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) and their possible correlation with clinical outcome in cancer patients receiving immunotherapies. Despite the wide range of techniques used, to date these assays have not shown consistent results among clinical trials and failed to define surrogate markers of clinical efficacy to antitumor vaccines. Multiparameter flow cytometry- (FCM-) based assays combining different phenotypic and functional markers have been developed in the past decade for informative and longitudinal analysis of polyfunctional T-cells. These technologies were designed to address the complexity and functional heterogeneity of cancer biology and cellular immunity and to define biomarkers predicting clinical response to anticancer treatment. So far, there is still a lack of standardization of some of these immunological tests. The aim of this review is to overview the latest technologies for immune monitoring and to highlight critical steps involved in some of the FCM-based cellular immune assays. In particular, our laboratory is focused on melanoma vaccine research and thus our main goal was the validation of a functional multiparameter test (FMT) combining different functional and lineage markers to be applied in clinical trials involving patients with melanoma. PMID:24195078

  6. Genome size of Alexandrium catenella and Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis estimated by flow cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Qingwei; Sui, Zhenghong; Chang, Lianpeng; Wei, Huihui; Liu, Yuan; Mi, Ping; Shang, Erlei; Zeeshan, Niaz; Que, Zhou

    2016-08-01

    Flow cytometry (FCM) technique has been widely applied to estimating the genome size of various higher plants. However, there is few report about its application in algae. In this study, an optimized procedure of FCM was exploited to estimate the genome size of two eukaryotic algae. For analyzing Alexandrium catenella, an important red tide species, the whole cell instead of isolated nucleus was studied, and chicken erythrocytes were used as an internal reference. The genome size of A. catenella was estimated to be 56.48 ± 4.14 Gb (1C), approximately nineteen times larger than that of human genome. For analyzing Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis, an important economical red alga, the purified nucleus was employed, and Arabidopsis thaliana and Chondrus crispus were used as internal references, respectively. The genome size of Gp. lemaneiformis was 97.35 ± 2.58 Mb (1C) and 112.73 ± 14.00 Mb (1C), respectively, depending on the different internal references. The results of this research will promote the related studies on the genomics and evolution of these two species.

  7. Ploidy Levels among Species in the ‘Oxalis tuberosa Alliance’ as Inferred by Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    EMSHWILLER, EVE

    2002-01-01

    The ‘Oxalis tuberosa alliance’ is a group of Andean Oxalis species allied to the Andean tuber crop O. tuberosa Molina (Oxalidaceae), commonly known as ‘oca’. As part of a larger project studying the origins of polyploidy and domestication of cultivated oca, flow cytometry was used to survey DNA ploidy levels among Bolivian and Peruvian accessions of alliance members. In addition, this study provided a first assessment of C‐values in the alliance by estimating nuclear DNA contents of these accessions using chicken erythrocytes as internal standard. Ten Bolivian accessions of cultivated O. tuberosa were confirmed to be octoploid, with a mean nuclear DNA content of approx. 3·6 pg/2C. Two Peruvian wild Oxalis species, O. phaeotricha and O. picchensis, were inferred to be tetraploid (both with approx. 1·67 pg/2C), the latter being one of the putative progenitors of O. tuberosa identified by chloroplast‐expressed glutamine synthetase data in prior work. The remaining accessions (from 78 populations provisionally identified as 35 species) were DNA diploid, with nuclear DNA contents varying from 0·79 to 1·34 pg/2C. PMID:12102530

  8. Cell-cycle distribution of urothelial tumour cells as measured by flow cytometry.

    PubMed Central

    Collste, L. G.; Darzynkiewicz, Z.; Traganos, F.; Sharpless, T. K.; Devonec, M.; Claps, M. L.; Whitmore, W. F.; Melamed, M. R.

    1979-01-01

    The fraction of cells in S + G2 + mitosis from 54 urothelial tumours was calculated by flow cytometry after acridine orange (AO) staining of cells obtained by bladder irrigation or biopsy. Fluorescence signals emitted by the AO-stained DNA and RNA of each cell were separated optically and measured for 5,000 cells per specimen. The patients were classified by the histology of their tumours and clinical data into 5 diagnostic categories: NED (no evidence of disease, but history of bladder tumour), 3; papilloma, 8; non-invasive papillary carcinoma, 8; carcinoma in situ, 17 and invasive carcinoma, 18. The fraction of cells with DNA values in S + G2 + M of the cell cycle varied between 7 and 57% of the total, with a wide range within each diagnostic category, but no statistically significant differences between the groups. The proportion of cells in S + G2 + M from an individual tumour was not correlated with histologic grade or clinical behaviour. The possibility that some tumour cells with DNA values above G1 level are quiescent cells arrested at S or G2 is discussed. PMID:526428

  9. Foundations of identifying individual chromosomes by imaging flow cytometry with applications in radiation biodosimetry.

    PubMed

    Beaton-Green, Lindsay A; Rodrigues, Matthew A; Lachapelle, Sylvie; Wilkins, Ruth C

    2017-01-01

    Biodosimetry is an important tool for triage in the case of large-scale radiological or nuclear emergencies, but traditional microscope-based methods can be tedious and prone to scorer fatigue. While the dicentric chromosome assay (DCA) has been adapted for use in triage situations, it is still time-consuming to create and score slides. Recent adaptations of traditional biodosimetry assays to imaging flow cytometry (IFC) methods have dramatically increased throughput. Additionally, recent improvements in image analysis algorithms in the IFC software have resulted in improved specificity for spot counting of small events. In the IFC method for the dicentric chromosome analysis (FDCA), lymphocytes isolated from whole blood samples are cultured with PHA and Colcemid. After incubation, lymphocytes are treated with a hypotonic solution and chromosomes are isolated in suspension, labelled with a centromere marker and stained for DNA content with DRAQ5. Stained individual chromosomes are analyzed on the ImageStream®(X) (EMD-Millipore, Billerica, MA) and mono- and dicentric chromosome populations are identified and enumerated using advanced image processing techniques. Both the preparation of the isolated chromosome suspensions as well as the image analysis methods were fine-tuned in order to optimize the FDCA. In this paper we describe the method to identify and score centromeres in individual chromosomes by IFC and show that the FDCA method may further improve throughput for triage biodosimetry in the case of large-scale radiological or nuclear emergencies.

  10. Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Fluconazole by Flow Cytometry Correlates with Clinical Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Wenisch, Christoph; Moore, Caroline B.; Krause, Robert; Presterl, Elisabeth; Pichna, Peter; Denning, David W.

    2001-01-01

    Susceptibility testing of fungi by flow cytometry (also called fluorescence-activated cell sorting [FACS]) using vital staining with FUN-1 showed a good correlation with the standard M27-A procedure for assessing MICs. In this study we determined MICs for blood culture isolates from patients with candidemia by NCCLS M27-A and FACS methods and correlated the clinical outcome of these patients with in vitro antifungal resistance test results. A total of 24 patients with candidemia for whom one or more blood cultures were positive for a Candida sp. were included. Susceptibility testing was performed by NCCLS M27-A and FACS methods. The correlation of MICs (NCCLS M27-A and FACS) and clinical outcome was calculated. In 83% of the cases, the MICs of fluconazole determined by FACS were within 1 dilution of the MICs determined by the NCCLS M27-A method. For proposed susceptibility breakpoints, there was 100% agreement between the M27-A and FACS methods. In the FACS assay, a fluconazole MIC of <1 μg/ml was associated with cure (P < 0.001) whereas an MIC of ≥1 μg/ml was associated with death (P < 0.001). The M27-A-derived fluconazole MICs did not correlate with outcome (P = 1 and P = 0.133). PMID:11427554

  11. Determination of freeze damage on HPV vaccines by use of flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Østergaard, Erik; Frandsen, Peer Lyng; Sandberg, Eva

    2015-07-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines Gardasil, Silgard and Cervarix were labeled with antibodies against HPV strain 6 or 16/FITC conjugated secondary antibodies and analyzed by flow cytometry. The vaccines showed distinct peaks of fluorescent particles, and a shift towards decreased fluorescent particles was observed after incubation of the vaccines over night at -20 °C. Since parallel distributed vaccines could have longer route of transportation there is an increased risk of freeze damage for these types of vaccine. Shift in fluorescence of labeled vaccine particles was used to indicate whether parallel distributed Silgard, which is a vaccine type identical to Gardasil, was exposed to freeze damage during transportation, but no shift was observed. Additional experiments showed that the HPV vaccines could be degraded to smaller particles by citric acid/phosphate buffer treatment. The majority of particles detected in degraded Gardasil were very small indicating that the particles are HPV virus like particle (VLPs) labeled with antibodies, but Cervarix could only be degraded partially due to the presence of another type adjuvant in this vaccine. The described method may be useful in characterization of adjuvanted vaccines with respect to freeze damage, and to characterize vaccines containing particles corresponding to VLPs in size.

  12. Studying the numeration methods of signals with unstable background for in vivo flow cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoling; Suo, Yuanzhen; Wei, Dan; He, Hao; Wei, Xunbin

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, the in vivo flow cytometry (IVFC) has been a useful technology in detecting and quantifying the circulating cells dynamically in living animals, especially in the research related to the cell tracking and the cancer metastasis. In practice, however, the unstable background signals caused by the experiment animals' respiratory movement, limb movement and photo-bleaching of tissues' auto-fluorescence exist in many IVFC data, which could affect the accuracy of cell counting results in the following post-processing procedure, making the IVFC signals less available. Here we developed a signal processing method that could effectively correct the unstable background signals by using methods combining interpolating, fitting, automatic segmenting and wavelet-based denoising. Compared with the previously used non-correction methods, i.e., the "line-gating" method or the automatic threshold method, this method showed a higher accuracy and efficiency in counting cell numbers of IVFC signals, as well as demonstrating a better statistic results in the Pearson's correlation coefficient R2 and the mean-squared error (MSE).

  13. Optimization of the cryopreservation of biological resources, Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites, using flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Mzabi, Alexandre; Escotte-Binet, Sandie; Le Naour, Richard; Ortis, Naïma; Audonnet, Sandra; Dardé, Marie-Laure; Aubert, Dominique; Villena, Isabelle

    2015-12-01

    The conservation of Toxoplasma gondii strains isolated from humans and animals is essential for conducting studies on Toxoplasma. Conservation is the main function of the French Biological Toxoplasma Resource Centre (BRC Toxoplasma, France, http://www.toxocrb.com/). In this study, we have determined the suitability of a standard cryopreservation methodology for different Toxoplasma strains using the viability of tachyzoites assayed by flow cytometry with dual fluorescent labelling (calcein acetoxymethyl ester and propidium iodide) of tachyzoites. This method provides a comparative quantitative assessment of viability after thawing. The results helped to define and refine quality criteria before tachyzoite cryopreservation and optimization of the cryopreservation parameters. The optimized cryopreservation method uses a volume of 1.0 mL containing 8 × 10(6) tachyzoites, in Iscove's Modified Dulbecco's Medium (IMDM) containing 10% foetal calf serum (FCS). The cryoprotectant additive is 10% v/v Me2SO without incubation. A cooling rate of ∼1 °C/min to -80 °C followed, after 48 h, by storage in liquid nitrogen. Thawing was performed using a 37 °C water bath that produced a warming rate of ∼100 °C/min, and samples were then diluted 1:5 in IMDM with 5% FCS, and centrifuged and resuspended for viability assessment.

  14. A comparative study of spermatozoal chromatin using acridine orange staining and flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Lewin, L M; Golan, R; Freidlin, P; Shochat, L

    1999-10-01

    Spermatozoa obtained from fish (Clarias gariepinus), human (Homo sapiens), turkeys (Meleagris gallapova), rats (Rattus norvegicus), hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), and monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were stained with acridine orange before measuring fluorescence by flow cytometry. These mature sperm from various species produced different intensities of fluorescence while displaying similar ratios of red/green fluorescence. Comparison of the green fluorescence values for the various species showed the sequence (descending order of fluorescence values) human, turkey, monkey, hamster, rat and fish. The DNA complement (as base pairs in the haploid genome) of the various species did not increase in direct proportion to the fluorescence values. This suggests that the DNA was not equally accessible to the dye in the different species tested. The similarity in ratios of red/green fluorescence suggests that the structure of DNA in the chromatin is similar in the different species but abnormal 'satellite' populations of cells that show higher red/green fluorescence ratios than the parent population have been found in sperm samples from monkeys and from some infertile men. Their high red fluorescence intensities were not caused by RNA because treatment with RNAse did not alter the red fluorescence. It is possible that these cells contain larger amounts of denatured (single stranded) DNA.

  15. Studying the role of macrophages in circulating prostate cancer cells by in vivo flow cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Xiaojun; Guo, Jin; Gu, Zhengqin; Wei, Xunbin

    2012-12-01

    Metastasis is a very complicated multi-step process and accounts for the low survival rate of the cancerous patients. To metastasize, the malignant cells must detach from the primary tumor and migrate to secondary sites in the body through either blood or lymph circulation. Macrophages appear to be directly involved in tumor progression and metastasis. However, the role of macrophages in affecting cancer metastasis has not been fully elucidated. Here, we have utilized an emerging technique, namely in vivo flow cytometry (IVFC) to study the depletion kinetics of circulating prostate cancer cells in mice and how depletion of macrophages by the liposome-encapsulated clodronate affects the depletion kinetics. Our results show different depletion kinetics of PC-3 cells between macrophage-deficient group and the control group. The number of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in macrophage-deficient group decreases in a slower manner compared to the control mice group. The differences in depletion kinetics indicate that the absence of macrophages facilitates the stay of prostate cancer cells in circulation. We speculate that macrophages might be able to arrest, phagocytose and digest PC-3 cells. Therefore, the phagocytosis may mainly contribute to the depletion kinetic differences. The developed methods here would be useful to study the relationship between macrophages and tumor metastasis in small animal cancer model.

  16. Flow cytometry analysis of cell cycle stages in zinc deficient fetal rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Clegg, M.S.; Rogers, J.M.; Zucker, R.M.; Hurley, L.S.; Keen, C.L.

    1986-03-05

    The authors are currently studying the effects of Zn deficiency on chromatin structure, DNA synthesis, protein synthesis and cell division in the rat. Here the authors present preliminary results of nuclear DNA measurement by flow cytometry. Propidium iodide (PI) was used as a fluorescent probe for total nuclear DNA isolated from Day 18 fetal rat brain. Previously, dams were fed a control (50 ..mu..g Zn/g diet), restricted (50 ..mu..g Zn/g diet) or a Zn deficient (0.5 ..mu..g Zn/g diet) diet. Fetuses were taken at Day 18 of gestation by casaerean section. Whole brain was quickly excised and frozen rapidly in a plastic vial which was subsequently immersed in an alcohol/dry ice bath at -80/sup 0/C. Brain was thawed at 37/sup 0/C in a citrate/DMSO/pH 7.6 buffer and dissociated by several passes through a 26 gauge needle. Nuclei were isolated and stained by incubating in 50 ..mu..g/ml PI, 0.125 ..mu..g/ml RNA-ASE, 0.1% NP-40 at 25/sup 0/C. Zn deficiency resulted in a larger coefficient of variation (CV) for the Go/Gi DNA peak in fetal brain nuclei. The DNA profile of these nuclei is suggestive of a possible block at the Go/Gi-S interphase; restricted fed and ad lib fed controls showed no such blockage.

  17. Heavy Metals Effect on Cyanobacteria Synechocystis aquatilis Study Using Absorption, Fluorescence, Flow Cytometry, and Photothermal Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudkowiak, A.; Olejarz, B.; Łukasiewicz, J.; Banaszek, J.; Sikora, J.; Wiktorowicz, K.

    2011-04-01

    The toxic effect of six heavy metals on cyanobacteria Synechocystis aquatilis was studied by absorption, fluorescence, flow cytometry, and photothermal measurements. This study indicates that at the concentration used, the cyanobacteria are more sensitive to silver, copper, and mercury than to cadmium, lead, and zinc metals. Disregarding the decrease in the yields of the related radiative processes caused by photochemical processes and/or damage to phycobilisomes, no changes were detected in the efficiency of thermal deactivation processes within a few microseconds, which can indicate the lack of disturbances in the photosynthetic light reaction and the lack of damage to the photosystem caused by the heavy metal ions in the concentrations used. The results demonstrate that the relative values of fluorescence yield as well as promptly generated heat calculated for the metal-affected and unaffected (reference) bacteria are sensitive indicators of environmental pollution with heavy metal ions, whereas the complementary methods proposed could be used as a noninvasive and fast procedure for in vivo assessment of their toxicity.

  18. Flow cytometry may allow microscope-independent detection of holocentric chromosomes in plants

    PubMed Central

    Zedek, František; Veselý, Pavel; Horová, Lucie; Bureš, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Two chromosomal structures, known as monocentric and holocentric chromosomes, have evolved in eukaryotes. Acentric fragments of monocentric chromosomes are unequally distributed to daughter cells and/or lost, while holocentric fragments are inherited normally. In monocentric species, unequal distribution should generate chimeras of cells with different nuclear DNA content. We investigated whether such differences in monocentric species are detectable by flow cytometry (FCM) as (i) a decreased nuclear DNA content and (ii) an increased coefficient of variance (CV) of the G1 peak after gamma radiation-induced fragmentation. We compared 13 monocentric and 9 holocentric plant species. Unexpectedly, monocentrics and holocentrics did not differ with respect to parameters (i) and (ii) in their response to gamma irradiation. However, we found that the proportion of G2 nuclei was highly elevated in monocentrics after irradiation, while holocentrics were negligibly affected. Therefore, we hypothesize that DNA-damaging agents induce cell cycle arrest leading to endopolyploidy only in monocentric and not (or to much lesser extent) in holocentric plants. While current microscope-dependent methods for holocentrism detection are unreliable for small and numerous chromosomes, which are common in holocentrics, FCM can use somatic nuclei. Thus, FCM may be a rapid and reliable method of high-throughput screening for holocentric candidates across plant phylogeny. PMID:27255216

  19. Circulating tumor cell detection in hepatocellular carcinoma based on karyoplasmic ratios using imaging flow cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zixin; Guo, Weixing; Zhang, Dandan; Pang, Yanan; Shi, Jie; Wan, Siqin; Cheng, Kai; Wang, Jiaqi; Cheng, Shuqun

    2016-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) originate from tumor tissues and are associated with cancer prognosis. However, existing technologies for CTC detection are limited owing to a lack of specific or accurate biomarkers. Here, we developed a new method for CTC detection based on the karyoplasmic ratio, without biomarkers. Consecutive patients with liver cancer or non-cancer liver diseases were recruited. CTCs in blood samples were analyzed by imaging flow cytometry based on the karyoplasmic ratio as well as EpCAM and CD45. Microvascular invasion (MVI), tumor recurrence, and survival were recorded for all patients. A total of 56.2 ± 23.8/100,000 cells with high karyoplasmic ratios (HKR cells) were detected in cancer patients, which was higher than the number of HKR cells in the non-cancer group (7.6 ± 2.2/100,000). There was also a difference in HKR cells between liver cancer patients with and without MVI. Based on a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the threshold was 21.8 HKR cells per 100,000 peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and the area under the curve was higher than those of traditional methods (e.g., CD45 and EpCAM staining). These results indicate that the new CTC detection method was more sensitive and reliable than existing methods. Accordingly, it may improve clinical CTC detection. PMID:28009002

  20. Definition of the zebrafish genome using flow cytometry and cytogenetic mapping

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Jennifer L; Adeniyi, Adeola; Banerjee, Ruby; Dallaire, Stephanie; Maguire, Sean F; Chi, Jianxiang; Ng, Bee Ling; Zepeda, Cinthya; Scott, Carol E; Humphray, Sean; Rogers, Jane; Zhou, Yi; Zon, Leonard I; Carter, Nigel P; Yang, Fengtang; Lee, Charles

    2007-01-01

    Background The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an important vertebrate model organism system for biomedical research. The syntenic conservation between the zebrafish and human genome allows one to investigate the function of human genes using the zebrafish model. To facilitate analysis of the zebrafish genome, genetic maps have been constructed and sequence annotation of a reference zebrafish genome is ongoing. However, the duplicative nature of teleost genomes, including the zebrafish, complicates accurate assembly and annotation of a representative genome sequence. Cytogenetic approaches provide "anchors" that can be integrated with accumulating genomic data. Results Here, we cytogenetically define the zebrafish genome by first estimating the size of each linkage group (LG) chromosome using flow cytometry, followed by the cytogenetic mapping of 575 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones onto metaphase chromosomes. Of the 575 BAC clones, 544 clones localized to apparently unique chromosomal locations. 93.8% of these clones were assigned to a specific LG chromosome location using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and compared to the LG chromosome assignment reported in the zebrafish genome databases. Thirty-one BAC clones localized to multiple chromosomal locations in several different hybridization patterns. From these data, a refined second generation probe panel for each LG chromosome was also constructed. Conclusion The chromosomal mapping of the 575 large-insert DNA clones allows for these clones to be integrated into existing zebrafish mapping data. An accurately annotated zebrafish reference genome serves as a valuable resource for investigating the molecular basis of human diseases using zebrafish mutant models. PMID:17597531

  1. Photoacoustic Flow Cytometry for Single Sickle Cell Detection In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Nedosekin, Dmitry A.; Sarimollaoglu, Mustafa; Proskurnin, Mikhail A.

    2016-01-01

    Control of sickle cell disease (SCD) stage and treatment efficiency are still time-consuming which makes well-timed prevention of SCD crisis difficult. We show here that in vivo photoacoustic (PA) flow cytometry (PAFC) has a potential for real-time monitoring of circulating sickled cells in mouse model. In vivo data were verified by in vitro PAFC and photothermal (PT) and PA spectral imaging of sickle red blood cells (sRBCs) expressing SCD-associated hemoglobin (HbS) compared to normal red blood cells (nRBCs). We discovered that PT and PA signal amplitudes from sRBCs in linear mode were 2–4-fold lower than those from nRBCs. PT and PA imaging revealed more profound spatial hemoglobin heterogeneity in sRBCs than in nRBCs, which can be associated with the presence of HbS clusters with high local absorption. This hypothesis was confirmed in nonlinear mode through nanobubble formation around overheated HbS clusters accompanied by spatially selective signal amplification. More profound differences in absorption of sRBCs than in nRBCs led to notable increase in PA signal fluctuation (fluctuation PAFC mode) as an indicator of SCD. The obtained data suggest that noninvasive label-free fluctuation PAFC has a potential for real-time enumeration of sRBCs both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27699143

  2. Oil production towards biofuel from autotrophic microalgae semicontinuous cultivations monitorized by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Teresa Lopes; Reis, Alberto; Medeiros, Roberto; Oliveira, Ana Cristina; Gouveia, Luisa

    2009-11-01

    Two microalgae species (Scenedesmus obliquus and Neochloris oleoabundans) were cultivated in closed sleeve photobioreactors in order to select the best oil producer for further large-scale open raceway pond cultivations, aiming at biofuel production. Scenedesmus obliquus reached a higher maximum biomass concentration (1.41 g l(-1)) with a lower lipid content (12.8% w/w), as compared to N. oleoabundans [maximum biomass concentration of 0.92 g l(-1) with 16.5% (w/w) lipid content]. Both microalgae showed adequate fatty acid composition and iodine values as substitutes for diesel fuel. Based on these results, N. oleoabundans was selected for further open raceway pond cultivations. Under these conditions, N. oleoabundans reached a maximum biomass concentration of 2.8 g l(-1) with 11% (w/w) of lipid content. A high correlation between the Nile Red fluorescence intensity measured by flow cytometry and total lipid content assayed by the traditional gravimetric lipid analysis was found for both microalgae, making this method a suitable and quick technique for the screening of microalgae strains for lipid production and optimization of biofuel production bioprocesses. Medium growth optimization for enhancement of microalgal oil production is now in progress.

  3. A flow-cytometry-based method for detecting simultaneously five allergens in a complex food matrix.

    PubMed

    Otto, Gaetan; Lamote, Amandine; Deckers, Elise; Dumont, Valery; Delahaut, Philippe; Scippo, Marie-Louise; Pleck, Jessica; Hillairet, Caroline; Gillard, Nathalie

    2016-12-01

    To avoid carry-over contamination with allergens, food manufacturers implement quality control strategies relying primarily on detection of allergenic proteins by ELISA. Although sensitive and specific, this method allowed detection of only one allergen per analysis and effective control policies were thus based on multiplying the number of tests done in order to cover the whole range of allergens. We present in this work an immunoassay for the simultaneous detection of milk, egg, peanut, mustard and crustaceans in cookies samples. The method was based on a combination of flow cytometry with competitive ELISA where microbeads were used as sorbent surface. The test was able to detect the presence of the five allergens with median inhibitory concentrations (IC50) ranging from 2.5 to 15 mg/kg according to the allergen to be detected. The lowest concentrations of contaminants inducing a significant difference of signal between non-contaminated controls and test samples were 2 mg/kg of peanut, 5 mg/kg of crustaceans, 5 mg/kg of milk, 5 mg/kg of mustard and 10 mg/kg of egg. Assay sensitivity was influenced by the concentration of primary antibodies added to the sample extract for the competition and by the concentration of allergenic proteins bound to the surface of the microbeads.

  4. Flow cytometry study of lymphocyte subsets in malnourished and well-nourished children with bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Nájera, Oralia; González, Cristina; Toledo, Guadalupe; López, Laura; Ortiz, Rocío

    2004-05-01

    Protein-energy malnutrition is the primary cause of immune deficiency in children across the world. It has been related to changes in peripheral T-lymphocyte subsets. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of infection and malnutrition on the proportion of peripheral-lymphocyte subsets in well-nourished non-bacterium-infected (WN), well-nourished bacterium-infected (WNI), and malnourished bacterium-infected (MNI) children by flow cytometry. A prospectively monitored cohort of 15 MNI, 12 WNI, and 17 WN children was studied. All the children were 3 years old or younger and had only bacterial infections. Results showed a significant decrease in the proportion of T CD3(+) (P < 0.05 for relative and P < 0.03 for absolute values), CD4(+) (P < 0.01 for relative and absolute values), and CD8(+) (P < 0.05 for relative values) lymphocyte subsets in WNI children compared to the results seen with WN children. Additionally, B lymphocytes in MNI children showed significant lower values (CD20(+) P < 0.02 for relative and P < 0.05 for absolute values) in relation to the results seen with WNI children. These results suggest that the decreased proportions of T-lymphocyte subsets observed in WNI children were associated with infection diseases and that the incapacity to increase the proportion of B lymphocyte was associated with malnutrition. This low proportion of B lymphocytes may be associated with the mechanisms involved in the immunodeficiency of malnourished children.

  5. Flow cytometry-based methods for assessing soluble scFv activities and detecting pathogen antigens in solution

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Sean; Weigel, Kris M.; Miller, Keith D.; Ndung'u, Joseph; Buscher, Philippe; Tran, Thao N.; Baird, Cheryl L.; Cangelosi, Gerard A.

    2010-04-01

    Novel methods are reported for evaluating and utilizing single chain fragment variable (scFv) antibodies derived from yeast-display libraries. Yeast-display was used to select scFv specific to invariant surface glycoproteins (ISG) of Trypanosoma brucei. A limiting step in the isolation of scFv from nonimmune libraries is the conversion of highly active yeast-displayed scFv into soluble antibodies that can be used in standard immunoassays. Challenges include limited solubility or activity following secretion and purification of scFv. For this reason, few scFv derived from yeast-display platforms have moved into development and implementation as diagnostic reagents. To address this problem, assays were developed that employ both yeastdisplayed and secreted scFv as analytical reagents. The first is a competitive inhibition flow cytometry (CIFC) assay that detects secreted scFv by virtue of its ability to competitively inhibit the binding of biotinylated antigen to yeast-displayed scFv. The second is an epitope binning assay that uses secreted scFv toidentify additional yeast-displayed scFv that bind nonoverlapping or noncompeting epitopes on an antigen. The epitope binning assay was used not only to identify sandwich assay pairs with yeast-displayed scFv, but also to identify active soluble scFv present in low concentration in a crude expression extract. Finally, a CIFC assay was developed that bypasses entirely the need for soluble scFv expression, by using yeast displayed scFv to detect unlabeled antigen in samples. These methods will facilitate the continued development and practical implementation of scFv derived from yeast-display libraries.

  6. Blood group antigen studies using CdTe quantum dots and flow cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Cabral Filho, Paulo E; Pereira, Maria IA; Fernandes, Heloise P; de Thomaz, Andre A; Cesar, Carlos L; Santos, Beate S; Barjas-Castro, Maria L; Fontes, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    New methods of analysis involving semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum dots [QDs]) as fluorescent probes have been highlighted in life science. QDs present some advantages when compared to organic dyes, such as size-tunable emission spectra, broad absorption bands, and principally exceptional resistance to photobleaching. Methods applying QDs can be simple, not laborious, and can present high sensibility, allowing biomolecule identification and quantification with high specificity. In this context, the aim of this work was to apply dual-color CdTe QDs to quantify red blood cell (RBC) antigen expression on cell surface by flow cytometric analysis. QDs were conjugated to anti-A or anti-B monoclonal antibodies, as well as to the anti-H (Ulex europaeus I) lectin, to investigate RBCs of A1, B, A1B, O, A2, and Aweak donors. Bioconjugates were capable of distinguishing the different expressions of RBC antigens, both by labeling efficiency and by flow cytometry histogram profile. Furthermore, results showed that RBCs from Aweak donors present fewer amounts of A antigens and higher amounts of H, when compared to A1 RBCs. In the A group, the amount of A antigens decreased as A1 > A3 > AX = Ael, while H antigens were AX = Ael > A1. Bioconjugates presented stability and remained active for at least 6 months. In conclusion, this methodology with high sensibility and specificity can be applied to study a variety of RBC antigens, and, as a quantitative tool, can help in achieving a better comprehension of the antigen expression patterns on RBC membranes. PMID:26185442

  7. A microfluidics-based technique for automated and rapid labeling of cells for flow cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patibandla, Phani K.; Estrada, Rosendo; Kannan, Manasaa; Sethu, Palaniappan

    2014-03-01

    Flow cytometry is a powerful technique capable of simultaneous multi-parametric analysis of heterogeneous cell populations for research and clinical applications. In recent years, the flow cytometer has been miniaturized and made portable for application in clinical- and resource-limited settings. The sample preparation procedure, i.e. labeling of cells with antibodies conjugated to fluorescent labels, is a time consuming (˜45 min) and labor-intensive procedure. Microfluidics provides enabling technologies to accomplish rapid and automated sample preparation. Using an integrated microfluidic device consisting of a labeling and washing module, we demonstrate a new protocol that can eliminate sample handling and accomplish sample and reagent metering, high-efficiency mixing, labeling and washing in rapid automated fashion. The labeling module consists of a long microfluidic channel with an integrated chaotic mixer. Samples and reagents are precisely metered into this device to accomplish rapid and high-efficiency mixing. The mixed sample and reagents are collected in a holding syringe and held for up to 8 min following which the mixture is introduced into an inertial washing module to obtain ‘analysis-ready’ samples. The washing module consists of a high aspect ratio channel capable of focusing cells to equilibrium positions close to the channel walls. By introducing the cells and labeling reagents in a narrow stream at the center of the channel flanked on both sides by a wash buffer, the elution of cells into the wash buffer away from the free unbound antibodies is accomplished. After initial calibration experiments to determine appropriate ‘holding time’ to allow antibody binding, both modules were used in conjunction to label MOLT-3 cells (T lymphoblast cell line) with three different antibodies simultaneously. Results confirm no significant difference in mean fluorescence intensity values for all three antibodies labels (p < 0.01) between the

  8. Establishing a pure lymphocyte gate for subset analysis by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Horvatinovich, J M; Sparks, S D; Mann, K P

    1996-06-15

    Development of a more cost-effective and efficient method of performing lymphocyte subset analysis is of continuing importance in clinical flow cytometry laboratories. Current two-color methods utilize forward and right angle light scatter and multiple tubes per sample and are thereby liable to gate contamination. Methods using three-color analysis with CD45 vs. right angle light scatter (RALS) gating cannot always exclude a contaminating nonlymphoid population. We have established a two tube approach to directly measure total T cells, T suppressor, and T helper subsets, total B cells and total natural killer cells. The technique involves staining of whole blood with a mixture of five monoclonal antibodies conjugated to three fluorochromes: CD4+CD19 fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), CD3+CD33 phycoerythrin (PE), CD45 peridin chlorophyll alpha protein (PerCP), CD8+CD16 FITC, CD3+CD33 PE, and CD45 PerCP. Analysis is performed using a single laser flow cytometer. This method has equivalent recovery to and improved purity of the lymphocyte gate when compared to well-established methods. These antibody combinations additionally allow clear separation of lymphocytes from other leukocytes and debris as well as separation of the T cell helper and suppressor subsets, natural killer cells and B lymphocytes. We additionally provide preliminary data that an accurate lymphocyte subset analysis can be performed on a single tube containing five antibodies (CD4+CD19 FITC, CD3+CD33 PE, and CD45 PerCP), although some measurements are performed deductively.

  9. Real-time detection of protein trafficking with high-throughput flow cytometry (HTFC) and fluorogen-activating protein (FAP) base biosensor.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yang; Tapia, Phillip H; Jarvik, Jonathan; Waggoner, Alan S; Sklar, Larry A

    2014-01-02

    We combined fluorogen-activating protein (FAP) technology with high-throughput flow cytometry to detect real-time protein trafficking to and from the plasma membrane in living cells. The hybrid platform allows drug discovery for trafficking receptors, such as G protein-coupled receptors, receptor tyrosine kinases, and ion channels, which were previously not suitable for high-throughput screening by flow cytometry. The system has been validated using the β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) system and extended to other GPCRs. When a chemical library containing ∼ 1200 off-patent drugs was screened against cells expressing FAP-tagged β2AR, all known β2AR active ligands in the library were successfully identified, together with a few compounds that were later confirmed to regulate receptor internalization in a nontraditional manner. The unexpected discovery of new ligands by this approach indicates the potential of using this protocol for GPCR de-orphanization. In addition, screens of multiplexed targets promise improved efficiency with minor protocol modification.

  10. Leukoflow: multiparameter extended white blood cell differentiation for routine analysis by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    van de Geijn, Gert-Jan; van Rees, Vincent; van Pul-Bom, Natasja; Birnie, Erwin; Janssen, Hans; Pegels, Hans; Beunis, Marlène; Njo, Tjin

    2011-09-01

    Differential white blood cell count (dWBC) is a frequently used diagnostic tool. For most patient samples an automated blood counter produces a five-part differential count. If this dWBC does not meet pre-set criteria, microscopic dWBC is performed. Microscopy is labor intensive and requires sustained training of technicians. Inter-observer variation and statistical variation are significant, due to limited numbers of cells counted. Flow cytometry is a candidate reference method for dWBC. Advantages are immunological definitions and large number of measured cells. Our goal was to replace (part of) the microscopic dWBC by a flow cytometric dWBC, that gives additional information on blasts, myeloid precursors, and lymphocyte subsets. We designed a cocktail of antibodies (CD4, CD14, CD34, CD16, CD56, CD19, CD45, CD138, CD3, and CD71) combined with a gating strategy and flow cytometric protocol for easy identification of leukocyte populations. This assay, called Leukoflow, requires low sample volume, has few manual handling steps, and a potential turn-around-time shorter than 2 h. We determine percentages and absolute concentrations of at least 13 different cell populations. For quantification of normoblasts a second flow cytometric staining was designed. We compared microscopic dWBC with that of the automated blood counter and Leukoflow for normal and abnormal blood samples. Leukoflow results correlate well with the automated blood counter for leukocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes. Correlation with manual dWBC is lower. Blast counts reported by Leukoflow suffer less from inter-observer variation compared to manual dWBC. In addition to microscopic or cytometric dWBC-techniques T-lymphocytes, CD4-T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes, NK-cells, myeloid progenitors, plasma cells, and blasts are determined by Leukoflow. These populations give potential useful clinical information and are subject for future studies focusing on the additional clinical

  11. Whole Blood Activation Results in Altered T Cell and Monocyte Cytokine Production Profiles by Flow Cytometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crucian, Brian E.; Sams, Clarence F.

    2001-01-01

    An excellent monitor of the immune balance of peripheral circulating cells is to determine their cytokine production patterns in response to stimuli. Using flow cytometry, a positive identification of cytokine producing cells in a mixed culture may be achieved. Recently, the ability to assess cytokine production following a whole-blood activation culture has been described. In this study, whole blood activation was compared to traditional PBMC activation and the individual cytokine secretion patterns for both T cells, T cell subsets and monocytes was determined by flow cytometry. RESULTS: For T cell cytokine assessment (IFNg/IL-10 and IL-21/L-4) following PMA +ionomycin activation: (1) a Significantly greater percentages of T cells producing IFNgamma and IL-2 were observed following whole-blood culture and (2) altered T cell cytokine production kinetics were observed by varying whole blood culture times. Four-color analysiS was used to allow assessment of cytokine production by specific T cell subsets. It was found that IFNgamma production was significantly elevated in the CD3+/CD8+ T cell population as compared to the CD3+/CD8- population following five hours of whole blood activation. Conversely, IL-2 and IL-10 production were Significantly elevated in the CD3+/CD8- T cell population as compared to the CD3+/CD8+ population. Monocyte cytokine production was assessed in both culture systems following LPS activation for 24 hours. A three-color flow cytometric was used to assess two cytokines (IL-1a/IL-12 and TNFa/IL-10) in conjunction with CD14. Nearly all monocytes were stimulated to produce IL-1a, IL-12 and TNFa. equally well in both culture systems, however monocyte production of IL-10 was significantly elevated in whole blood culture as compared to PBMC culture. IL-12 producing monocytes appeared to be a distinct subpopulation of the IL-1a producing set, whereas IL-10 and TNFa producing monocytes were largely mutually exclusive. IL-10 and TNFa producing

  12. Routine detection of Epstein-Barr virus specific T-cells in the peripheral blood by flow cytometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crucian, B. E.; Stowe, R. P.; Pierson, D. L.; Sams, C. F.

    2001-01-01

    The ability to detect cytomegalovirus-specific T-cells (CD4(+)) in the peripheral blood by flow cytometry has been recently described by Picker et al. In this method, cells are incubated with viral antigen and responding (cytokine producing) T-cells are then identified by flow cytometry. To date, this technique has not been reliably used to detect Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific T-cells primarily due to the superantigen/mitogenic properties of the virus which non-specifically activate T-cells. By modifying culture conditions under which the antigens are presented, we have overcome this limitation and developed an assay to detect and quantitate EBV-specific T-cells. The detection of cytokine producing T-cells by flow cytometry requires an extremely strong signal (such as culture in the presence of PMA and ionomycin). Our data indicate that in modified culture conditions (early removal of viral antigen) the non-specific activation of T-cells by EBV is reduced, but antigen presentation will continue uninhibited. Using this method, EBV-specific T-cells may be legitimately detected using flow cytometry. No reduction in the numbers of antigen-specific T-cells was observed by the early removal of target antigen when verified using cytomegalovirus antigen (a virus with no non-specific T-cell activation properties). In EBV-seropositive individuals, the phenotype of the EBV-specific cytokine producing T-cells was evaluated using four-color flow cytometry and found to be CD45(+), CD3(+), CD4(+), CD45RA(-), CD69(+), CD25(-). This phenotype indicates the stimulation of circulating previously unactivated memory T-cells. No cytokine production was observed in CD4(+) T-cells from EBV-seronegative individuals, confirming the specificity of this assay. In addition, the use of four color cytometry (CD45, CD3, CD69, IFNgamma/IL-2) allows the total quantitative assessment of EBV-specific T-cells while monitoring the interference of EBV non-specific mitogenic activity. This method may

  13. Measuring cell cycle progression kinetics with metabolic labeling and flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Fleisig, Helen; Wong, Judy

    2012-05-22

    Precise control of the initiation and subsequent progression through the various phases of the cell cycle are of paramount importance in proliferating cells. Cell cycle division is an integral part of growth and reproduction and deregulation of key cell cycle components have been implicated in the precipitating events of carcinogenesis. Molecular agents in anti-cancer therapies frequently target biological pathways responsible for the regulation and coordination of cell cycle division. Although cell cycle kinetics tend to vary according to cell type, the distribution of cells amongst the four stages of the cell cycle is rather consistent within a particular cell line due to the consistent pattern of mitogen and growth factor expression. Genotoxic events and other cellular stressors can result in a temporary block of cell cycle progression, resulting in arrest or a temporary pause in a particular cell cycle phase to allow for instigation of the appropriate response mechanism. The ability to experimentally observe the behavior of a cell population with reference to their cell cycle progression stage is an important advance in cell biology. Common procedures such as mitotic shake off, differential centrifugation or flow cytometry-based sorting are used to isolate cells at specific stages of the cell cycle. These fractionated, cell cycle phase-enriched populations are then subjected to experimental treatments. Yield, purity and viability of the separated fractions can often be compromised using these physical separation methods. As well, the time lapse between separation of the cell populations and the start of experimental treatment, whereby the fractionated cells can progress from the selected cell cycle stage, can pose significant challenges in the successful implementation and interpretation of these experiments. Other approaches to study cell cycle stages include the use of chemicals to synchronize cells. Treatment of cells with chemical inhibitors of key

  14. Coconut genome size determined by flow cytometry: Tall versus Dwarf types.

    PubMed

    Freitas Neto, M; Pereira, T N S; Geronimo, I G C; Azevedo, A O N; Ramos, S R R; Pereira, M G

    2016-02-11

    Coconuts (Cocos nucifera L.) are tropical palm trees that are classified into Tall and Dwarf types based on height, and both types are diploid (2n = 2x = 32 chromosomes). The reproduction mode is autogamous for Dwarf types and allogamous for Tall types. One hypothesis for the origin of the Dwarf coconut suggests that it is a Tall variant that resulted from either mutation or inbreeding, and differences in genome size between the two types would support this hypothesis. In this study, we estimated the genome sizes of 14 coconut accessions (eight Tall and six Dwarf types) using flow cytometry. Nuclei were extracted from leaf discs and stained with propidium iodide, and Pisum sativum (2C = 9.07 pg DNA) was used as an internal standard. Histograms with good resolution and low coefficients of variation (2.5 to 3.2%) were obtained. The 2C DNA content ranged from 5.72 to 5.48 pg for Tall accessions and from 5.58 to 5.52 pg for Dwarf accessions. The mean genome sizes for Tall and Dwarf specimens were 5.59 and 5.55 pg, respectively. Among all accessions, Rennel Island Tall had the highest mean DNA content (5.72 pg), whereas West African Tall had the lowest (5.48 pg). The mean coconut genome size (2C = 5.57 pg, corresponding to 2723.73 Mbp/haploid set) was classified as small. Only small differences in genome size existed among the coconut accessions, suggesting that the Dwarf type did not evolve from the Tall type.

  15. Development of a novel cell sorting method that samples population diversity in flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Geoffrey W; Andersen, Stacey B; Battye, Francis L

    2015-11-01

    Flow cytometry based electrostatic cell sorting is an important tool in the separation of cell populations. Existing instruments can sort single cells into multi-well collection plates, and keep track of cell of origin and sorted well location. However currently single sorted cell results reflect the population distribution and fail to capture the population diversity. Software was designed that implements a novel sorting approach, "Slice and Dice Sorting," that links a graphical representation of a multi-well plate to logic that ensures that single cells are sampled and sorted from all areas defined by the sort region/s. Therefore the diversity of the total population is captured, and the more frequently occurring or rarer cell types are all sampled. The sorting approach was tested computationally, and using functional cell based assays. Computationally we demonstrate that conventional single cell sorting can sample as little as 50% of the population diversity dependant on the population distribution, and that Slice and Dice sorting samples much more of the variety present within a cell population. We then show by sorting single cells into wells using the Slice and Dice sorting method that there are cells sorted using this method that would be either rarely sorted, or not sorted at all using conventional single cell sorting approaches. The present study demonstrates a novel single cell sorting method that samples much more of the population diversity than current methods. It has implications in clonal selection, stem cell sorting, single cell sequencing and any areas where population heterogeneity is of importance.

  16. Flow cytometry confirms reticulate evolution and reveals triploidy in Central European Diphasiastrum taxa (Lycopodiaceae, Lycophyta)

    PubMed Central

    Bennert, H. Wilfried; Horn, Karsten; Kauth, Marion; Fuchs, Jörg; Bisgaard Jakobsen, Iben Sophie; Øllgaard, Benjamin; Schnittler, Martin; Steinberg, Matthias; Viane, Ronnie

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Interspecific Diphasiastrum hybrids have been assumed to be homoploid and to produce well-formed spores serving sexual reproduction. If this were the case, forms intermediate between hybrids and parents or hybrid swarms should be expected. The purpose of this study was: (1) to check whether homoploidy consistently applies to the three hybrids throughout their Central European range; (2) to examine whether their genome sizes confirm their parentage as assumed by morphology; and (3) to perform a screening for detection of ploidy levels other than diploid and variation in DNA content due to backcrossing. Methods Flow cytometry was used first to measure the relative DNA values [with 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining] and ploidy level as a general screening, and secondly to determine the absolute DNA 2C values [with propidium iodide (PI) staining] in a number of selected samples with the main focus on the hybrids. Key Results A considerable variation of DNA 2C values (5·26–7·52 pg) was detected between the three European Diphasiastrum species. The values of the diploid hybrids are highly constant without significant variation between regions. They are also intermediate between their assumed parents and agree closely with those calculated from their putative parents. This confirms their hybrid origin, assumed parentage and homoploid status. Considerably higher DNA amounts (9·48–10·30 pg) were obtained for three populations, suggesting that these represent triploid hybrids, an interpretation that is strongly supported by their morphology. Conclusions Diploid hybrids have retained their genetic and morphological identites throughout their Central European range, and thus no indications for diploid backcrossing were found. The triploid hybrids have probably originated from backcrossing between a diploid gametophyte of a hybrid (derived from a diplospore) and a haploid gametophyte of a diploid parental species. By repeated crossing

  17. Binding of semenogelin I to intact human spermatozoa studied by flow cytometry and surface plasmon resonance.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Magnus; Frohm, Birgitta; Malm, Johan

    2010-01-01

    Approximately 1 in 10 couples is infertile. No definite cause can be found in about 25% of those cases. Studies have indicated that seminal vesicle secretion functions as an optimizer of fertilization. The Zn(2+) binding protein semenogelin I (SgI) represents a major fraction of the proteins present in seminal vesicle fluid, and it serves as a structural component of the coagulum that is formed after ejaculation. Cleavage of SgI by prostate-specific antigen results in liquefaction of the coagulum. Fragmented SgI has antibacterial effects and inhibits spermatozoa mobility. SgI has also been found complexed to eppin on spermatozoa, and this complex has been suggested to be of importance for fertility. Here, we used flow cytometry and surface plasmon resonance to study SgI regarding its association with spermatozoa and the interaction dependency on Zn(2+). The concentration of Zn(2+) in seminal plasma is approximately 100 times higher than in blood plasma, and the metal ion is known to change the structure of SgI. We found that SgI binds to spermatozoa in a concentration-dependent and saturable manner. In solution, SgI bound to spermatozoa in a non-Zn(2+)-dependent way, whereas immobilized SgI interacts with spermatozoa only in the presence of Zn(2+). It indicates that SgI must exhibit a specific structure or free flexibility to be able to interact with that ligand. Our results indicate that the association of SgI to spermatozoa is conformation dependent and specific. These findings could constitute a basis for the development of a male contraceptive.

  18. Pollutant effects on Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg), hemocytes: screening of 23 molecules using flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Gagnaire, B; Thomas-Guyon, H; Burgeot, Th; Renault, T

    2006-01-01

    The shellfish industry is an important economic activity in France, occurring mostly in estuarine zones subject to pollution due to anthropogenic activities. The harmful effects of pollutants on species inhabiting these estuarine zones are not well known. Among marine species, bivalve mollusks--particularly Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas--may serve a model of interest. The species is sedentary and filter-feeding, which favors bioaccumulation of pollutants in their tissues. Oysters may be suitable for studies on disturbance by pollutants of physiological activities, among which defense mechanisms are poorly documented in bivalves. In this study, effects of pollutants on hemocyte functions were monitored in Pacific oyster, C. gigas. Hemocytes were exposed in vitro to selected pollutants. The strategy for investigating the effects of pollutants on hemocyte functions is based on several biomarkers, which is more relevant than that of published papers based on single-endpoint experiments. Pollutants belonging to the most important groups of xenobiotics (PAHs, PCBs, and pesticides) were selected and their effect on hemocyte activities was analyzed using flow cytometry. Twenty-three pollutants were tested and eight of them showed significant modulation of hemocyte activities. PAHs and PCB 77 induced a decrease of hemocyte activity after an incubation periods of 4 and 24 h at 200 micro mol/L. Three pesticides (2,4D, paraoxon, and chlorothalonil) modulated hemocyte activities. A mixture of eight pesticides also decreased phagocytotic activity. This study is one of the first to investigate the effects of so many pollutants on hemocyte functions at the same time and therefore allows a real comparison of different pollutant effects.

  19. Serotyping of primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates from diverse geographic locations by flow cytometry.

    PubMed Central

    Zolla-Pazner, S; O'Leary, J; Burda, S; Gorny, M K; Kim, M; Mascola, J; McCutchan, F

    1995-01-01

    The immunologic relatedness of the various human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) clades was determined with 13 human anti-HIV-1 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to six immunogenic regions of the HIV-1 structural proteins. The immunoreactivity of the native, oligomeric viral envelope glycoproteins expressed on the surfaces of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells infected in vitro with primary isolates from clades A through E was determined by flow cytometry. Some epitopes in the immunodominant region of gp41 and the C terminus of gp120 appear to be HIV-1 group specific in that they are expressed on the surfaces of cells in cultures infected with the majority of viruses tested from clades A to E. Epitopes within the V3 region appear to be clade restricted. Surprisingly, one MAb to an epitope in the C terminus of gp120 was entirely clade B specific. Staining with anti-V2 and anti-CD4 binding domain (CD4bd) reagents was infrequently detected. Anti-CD4bd MAbs stained only CD4-negative T cells because the CD4bd of gp120 appeared to be complexed with membrane CD4. When present, the epitopes of V2 and the CD4bd appeared to be expressed on cells infected with various clades. Thus, the results suggest that MAbs to gp41, the C terminus, and the V3 loop of gp120 are most useful in serotyping primary isolates of HIV-1, providing group-specific, clade-restricted, and clade-specific reagents. The use of the immunofluorescent method with the reagents described herein distinguishes infection with clade B from that with all other HIV-1 clades. With additional MAbs, this technique will allow a broadly applicable, reproducible, and practical method for serotyping HIV-1. PMID:7745728

  20. Evaluation of a prototype flow cytometry test for serodiagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Ker, Henrique Gama; Coura-Vital, Wendel; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian de Oliveira; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; das Dores Moreira, Nádia; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Machado, Evandro Marques de Menezes; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro; Araújo, Márcio Sobreira Silva; Coelho, Eduardo Antonio Ferraz; da Silveira-Lemos, Denise; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa

    2013-12-01

    Diagnosing canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is a critical challenge since conventional immunoserological tests still present some deficiencies. The current study evaluated a prototype flow cytometry serology test, using antigens and fluorescent antibodies that had been stored for 1 year at 4°C, on a broad range of serum samples. Noninfected control dogs and Leishmania infantum-infected dogs were tested, and the prototype test showed excellent performance in differentiating these groups with high sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy (100% in all analyses). When the CVL group was evaluated according to the dogs' clinical status, the prototype test showed outstanding accuracy in all groups with positive serology (asymptomatic II, oligosymptomatic, and symptomatic). However, in dogs which had positive results by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) but negative results by conventional serology (asymptomatic I), serological reactivity was not observed. Additionally, sera from 40 dogs immunized with different vaccines (Leishmune, Leish-Tec, or LBSap) did not present serological reactivity in the prototype test. Eighty-eight dogs infected with other pathogens (Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania braziliensis, Ehrlichia canis, and Babesia canis) were used to determine cross-reactivity and specificity, and the prototype test performed well, particularly in dogs infected with B. canis and E. canis (100% and 93.3% specificities, respectively). In conclusion, our data reinforce the potential of the prototype test for use as a commercial kit and highlight its outstanding performance even after storage for 1 year at 4°C. Moreover, the prototype test efficiently provided accurate CVL serodiagnosis with an absence of false-positive results in vaccinated dogs and minor cross-reactivity against other canine pathogens.

  1. Seminal plasma applied post-thawing affects boar sperm physiology: a flow cytometry study.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Gago, Rocío; Domínguez, Juan Carlos; Martínez-Pastor, Felipe

    2013-09-01

    Cryopreservation induces extensive biophysical and biochemical changes in the sperm. In the present study, we used flow cytometry to assess the capacitation-like status of frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa and its relationship with intracellular calcium, assessment of membrane fluidity, modification of thiol groups in plasma membrane proteins, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, viability, acrosomal status, and mitochondrial activity. This experiment was performed to verify the effect of adding seminal plasma on post-thaw sperm functions. To determine these effects after cryopreservation, frozen-thawed semen from seven boars was examined after supplementation with different concentrations of pooled seminal plasma (0%, 10%, and 50%) at various times of incubation from 0 to 4 hours. Incubation caused a decrease in membrane integrity and an increase in acrosomal damage, with small changes in other parameters (P > 0.05). Although 10% seminal plasma showed few differences with 0% (ROS increase at 4 hours, P < 0.05), 50% seminal plasma caused important changes. Membrane fluidity increased considerably from the beginning of the experiment, and ROS and free thiols in the cell surface increased by 2 hours of incubation. By the end of the experiment, viability decreased and acrosomal damage increased in the 50% seminal plasma samples. The addition of 50% of seminal plasma seems to modify the physiology of thawed boar spermatozoa, possibly through membrane changes and ROS increase. Although some effects were detrimental, the stimulatory effect of 50% seminal plasma could favor the performance of post-thawed boar semen, as showed in the field (García JC, Domínguez JC, Peña FJ, Alegre B, Gonzalez R, Castro MJ, Habing GG, Kirkwood RN. Thawing boar semen in the presence of seminal plasma: effects on sperm quality and fertility. Anim Reprod Sci 2010;119:160-5).

  2. Circulating Tumor Cell Detection and Capture by Photoacoustic Flow Cytometry in Vivo and ex Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Galanzha, Ekaterina I.; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2013-01-01

    Despite progress in detecting circulating tumor cells (CTCs), existing assays still have low sensitivity (1–10 CTC/mL) due to the small volume of blood samples (5–10 mL). Consequently, they can miss up to 103–104 CTCs, resulting in the development of barely treatable metastasis. Here we analyze a new concept of in vivo CTC detection with enhanced sensitivity (up to 102–103 times) by the examination of the entire blood volume in vivo (5 L in adults). We focus on in vivo photoacoustic (PA) flow cytometry (PAFC) of CTCs using label-free or targeted detection, photoswitchable nanoparticles with ultrasharp PA resonances, magnetic trapping with fiber-magnetic-PA probes, optical clearance, real-time spectral identification, nonlinear signal amplification, and the integration with PAFC in vitro. We demonstrate PAFC’s capability to detect rare leukemia, squamous carcinoma, melanoma, and bulk and stem breast CTCs and its clusters in preclinical animal models in blood, lymph, bone, and cerebrospinal fluid, as well as the release of CTCs from primary tumors triggered by palpation, biopsy or surgery, increasing the risk of metastasis. CTC lifetime as a balance between intravasation and extravasation rates was in the range of 0.5–4 h depending on a CTC metastatic potential. We introduced theranostics of CTCs as an integration of nanobubble-enhanced PA diagnosis, photothermal therapy, and feedback through CTC counting. In vivo data were verified with in vitro PAFC demonstrating a higher sensitivity (1 CTC/40 mL) and throughput (up to 10 mL/min) than conventional assays. Further developments include detection of circulating cancer-associated microparticles, and super-resolution PAFC beyond the diffraction and spectral limits. PMID:24335964

  3. Definition of leukocyte subsets in primate central nervous system by polychromatic flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, Tanja; Stahl-Hennig, Christiane; Mätz-Rensing, Kerstin; Koutsilieri, Eleni; Sopper, Sieghart

    2011-06-01

    Haematopoietic immune cell populations play an important role in the pathogenesis of numerous neurological disorders. To better understand the function of resident mononuclear phagocytes and migrating leukocytes in the central nervous system (CNS), the definition of these populations in healthy individuals is crucial. Therefore, the composition of CNS-associated leukocytes, isolated from macaque brain tissue, was assessed using multicolor flow cytometry. We established a combination of antibodies directed against nine different antigens that enabled a precise classification of all major immune cell populations in a single tube. Macrophages, dendritic cells (DCs), B and T lymphocytes, and natural killer (NK) cells were differentiated in CNS and peripheral blood. Additionally, microglia cells were detected in the brain. Using this antibody combination also allowed the discrimination of functionally different subsets among the distinct immunocyte populations, for example, CD8 positive cytotoxic T lymphocytes. About 95% of the leukocytes in the brain are microglia cells. Two additional myeloid cell populations, CD14 positive macrophages and CD11c-positive DCs, were also identified. In contrast to blood, where macrophages are more abundant, DCs outnumbered macrophages in the brain. Among lymphocytes, proportions of CD20 positive B lymphocytes were decreased, and T lymphocytes as well as NK cells were increased in brain compared to blood. Significant changes were also detected for macrophage and T-cell subpopulations. The nonexclusive expression of certain surface makers on different cell populations demanded a simultaneous classification of all intrathecal immune cells. Knowing their exact composition offers new insights on interaction and regulation in inflammatory processes and will be instrumental to monitor alterations in the course of neurological diseases.

  4. Flow Cytometry Assessment of In Vitro Generated CD138+ Human Plasma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Itoua Maïga, Rayelle; Lemieux, Jennifer; Roy, Annie; Simard, Carl; Néron, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    The in vitro CD40-CD154 interaction promotes human B lymphocytes differentiation into plasma cells. Currently, CD138 is the hallmark marker enabling the detection of human plasma cells, both in vitro and in vivo; its presence can be monitored by flow cytometry using a specific antibody. We have developed a culture system allowing for the differentiation of memory B lymphocytes. In order to detect the newly formed plasma cells, we have compared their staining using five anti-CD138 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). As a reference, we also tested human cell lines, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and bone marrow samples. The five anti-CD138 mAbs stained RPMI-8226 cells (>98%) with variable stain index (SI). The highest SI was obtained with B-A38 mAb while the lowest SI was obtained with DL-101 and 1D4 mAbs. However, the anti-CD138 mAbs were not showing equivalent CD138+ cells frequencies within the generated plasma cells. B-A38, B-B4, and MI-15 were similar (15–25%) while DL-101 mAb stained a higher proportion of CD138-positive cells (38–42%). DL-101 and B-A38 mAbs stained similar populations in bone marrow samples but differed in their capacity to bind to CD138high and CD138lo cell lines. In conclusion, such cellular fluctuations suggest heterogeneity in human plasma cell populations and/or in CD138 molecules. PMID:24689045

  5. Flow cytometry assessment of in vitro generated CD138+ human plasma cells.

    PubMed

    Itoua Maïga, Rayelle; Lemieux, Jennifer; Roy, Annie; Simard, Carl; Néron, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    The in vitro CD40-CD154 interaction promotes human B lymphocytes differentiation into plasma cells. Currently, CD138 is the hallmark marker enabling the detection of human plasma cells, both in vitro and in vivo; its presence can be monitored by flow cytometry using a specific antibody. We have developed a culture system allowing for the differentiation of memory B lymphocytes. In order to detect the newly formed plasma cells, we have compared their staining using five anti-CD138 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). As a reference, we also tested human cell lines, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and bone marrow samples. The five anti-CD138 mAbs stained RPMI-8226 cells (>98%) with variable stain index (SI). The highest SI was obtained with B-A38 mAb while the lowest SI was obtained with DL-101 and 1D4 mAbs. However, the anti-CD138 mAbs were not showing equivalent CD138(+) cells frequencies within the generated plasma cells. B-A38, B-B4, and MI-15 were similar (15-25%) while DL-101 mAb stained a higher proportion of CD138-positive cells (38-42%). DL-101 and B-A38 mAbs stained similar populations in bone marrow samples but differed in their capacity to bind to CD138(high) and CD138(lo) cell lines. In conclusion, such cellular fluctuations suggest heterogeneity in human plasma cell populations and/or in CD138 molecules.

  6. Flow cytometry crossmatching as a predictor of acute rejection in sensitized recipients of cadaveric renal transplants.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, R W; Osorio, R W; Freise, C E; Lou, C D; Garovoy, M R; Bacchetti, P; Ascher, N L; Melzer, J S; Roberts, J P; Stock, P G

    2000-04-01

    Flow cytometry crossmatching (FCXM) was developed as a more sensitive assay than the standard complement-dependent cytotoxicity crossmatch (CDCXM) for the detection of anti-donor antibodies, that mediate hyperacute rejection and graft loss in the early post-transplant period in renal transplant recipients. The role of FCXM in predicting long-term clinical outcome in renal allograft recipients is unclear. This study examines the role of FCXM in predicting long-term clinical outcome in highly sensitized recipients of cadaveric renal transplants. All patients (n = 100) with peak panel reactive antibody (PRA) levels > 30%, who received cadaveric renal transplants between 1/1/'90 and 12/31/'95 at our institution, were divided into FCXM + and FCXM - groups. The incidence of acute rejection was determined for each group during the first yr after transplant. Graft survival rates at 1, 2, and 3 yr, and creatinine levels were also compared between groups. FCXM + patients experienced a higher incidence of acute rejection during the first yr after transplant (69 vs. 45%), and a higher percentage of FCXM + patients had more than one episode of acute rejection during the first yr after transplant (34 vs. 8%) when compared to FCXM - patients. There was no statistically significant difference in 1-, 2-, or 3-yr graft survival between FCXM + and FCXM - patients (76 vs. 83, 62 vs. 80, 62 vs. 72%, respectively). These results suggest that sensitized FCXM + cadaveric renal transplant recipients have a higher incidence of acute rejection episodes in the first yr after transplant. Given the association of multiple rejection episodes with poor long-term allograft survival, FCXM may be a useful predictor of long-term clinical outcome in this sub-group of renal transplant recipients.

  7. A simple and efficient method for poly-3-hydroxybutyrate quantification in diazotrophic bacteria within 5 minutes using flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Alves, L P S; Almeida, A T; Cruz, L M; Pedrosa, F O; de Souza, E M; Chubatsu, L S; Müller-Santos, M; Valdameri, G

    2017-01-16

    The conventional method for quantification of polyhydroxyalkanoates based on whole-cell methanolysis and gas chromatography (GC) is laborious and time-consuming. In this work, a method based on flow cytometry of Nile red stained bacterial cells was established to quantify poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) production by the diazotrophic and plant-associated bacteria, Herbaspirillum seropedicae and Azospirillum brasilense. The method consists of three steps: i) cell permeabilization, ii) Nile red staining, and iii) analysis by flow cytometry. The method was optimized step-by-step and can be carried out in less than 5 min. The final results indicated a high correlation coefficient (R2=0.99) compared to a standard method based on methanolysis and GC. This method was successfully applied to the quantification of PHB in epiphytic bacteria isolated from rice roots.

  8. Fluorescein Isothiocyanate-Labeled Lectin Analysis of the Surface of the Nitrogen-Fixing Bacterium Azospirillum brasilense by Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Yagoda-Shagam, Janet; Barton, Larry L.; Reed, William P.; Chiovetti, Robert

    1988-01-01

    The cell surface of Azospirillum brasilense was probed by using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled lectins, with binding determined by fluorescence-activated flow cytometry. Cells from nitrogen-fixing or ammonium-assimilating cultures reacted similarly to FITC-labeled lectins, with lectin binding in the following order: Griffonia simplicifolia II agglutinin > Griffonia simplicifolia I agglutinin > Triticum vulgaris agglutinin > Glycine max agglutinin > Canavalia ensiformis agglutinin > Limax flavus agglutinin > Lotus tetragonolobus agglutinin. The fluorescence intensity of cells labeled with FITC-labeled G. simplicifolia I, C. ensiformis, T. vulgaris, and G. max agglutinins was influenced by lectin concentration. Flow cytometry measurements of lectin binding to cells was consistent with measurements of agglutination resulting from lectin-cell interaction. Capsules surrounding nitrogen-fixing and ammonium-assimilating cells were readily demonstrated by light and transmission electron microscopies. Images PMID:16347693

  9. A simple and efficient method for poly-3-hydroxybutyrate quantification in diazotrophic bacteria within 5 minutes using flow cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Alves, L.P.S.; Almeida, A.T.; Cruz, L.M.; Pedrosa, F.O.; de Souza, E.M.; Chubatsu, L.S.; Müller-Santos, M.; Valdameri, G.

    2017-01-01

    The conventional method for quantification of polyhydroxyalkanoates based on whole-cell methanolysis and gas chromatography (GC) is laborious and time-consuming. In this work, a method based on flow cytometry of Nile red stained bacterial cells was established to quantify poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) production by the diazotrophic and plant-associated bacteria, Herbaspirillum seropedicae and Azospirillum brasilense. The method consists of three steps: i) cell permeabilization, ii) Nile red staining, and iii) analysis by flow cytometry. The method was optimized step-by-step and can be carried out in less than 5 min. The final results indicated a high correlation coefficient (R2=0.99) compared to a standard method based on methanolysis and GC. This method was successfully applied to the quantification of PHB in epiphytic bacteria isolated from rice roots. PMID:28099582

  10. Multicolor flow cytometry analysis of blood cell subsets in patients given total body irradiation before bone marrow transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Clave, E.; Socie, G.; Carosella, E.

    1995-11-01

    Bone marrow transplantation has often been closely linked with accidental or intentional therapeutical irradiation. In both situations, study of the radiosensitivity of human blood cell subsets is of interest. Using one-color flow cytometry analysis of B lymphocytes, T cell subsets, and natural killer cells, we previously reported that lymphocyte subsets exhibit equal radiosensitivity. Taking advantage of recent developments in the knowledge of leukocyte differentiation antigens and flow cytometry technology we undertook a study of blood cell subsets to search for rare populations exhibiting different radiosensitivity. Thirty patients, who were delivered a 12 Gy fractionated total body irradiation as part of their conditioning regimen before transplantation for malignant disorders, were studied using multicolor flow cytometry. T and B lymphocytes showed a sharp, radiation-induced decrease, with the B lymphocytes (cluster of differentiation (CD) 19+) being the most sensitive. When analyzed by multicolor flow cytometry all major lymphocyte subsets appeared equally sensitive to the in vivo irradiation. Therefore, all major lymphocyte subsets sharing the helper phenotype (naive or memory) and the cytotoxic phenotype appeared equally sensitive to in vivo whole body irradiation. In parallel, the CD34+ cell subset remained basically unchanged after whole body irradiation. Finally, the CD3{minus}, 56+, 16+ natural killer cell subset was relatively radioresistant (91 and 74% of its initial value, after 2 and 4 Gy, respectively) as compared to other lymphocyte subsets. Our study provides evidence that T and B cell subsets seem to be highly radiosensitive in vivo. The CD34+ progenitor/stem cells and NK cells seem to be more radioresistant. This latter result might provide clues to the understanding of the pathophysiogeny of radiation-induced aplasia and of the engrafment/rejection process following bone marrow transplantation. 20 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Enumerating Virus-Like Particles and Bacterial Populations in the Sinuses of Chronic Rhinosinusitis Patients Using Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Carlson-Jones, Jessica A. P.; Paterson, James S.; Newton, Kelly; Smith, Renee J.; Dann, Lisa M.; Speck, Peter; Mitchell, James G.; Wormald, Peter-John

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence to suggest that the sinus microbiome plays a role in the pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). However, the concentration of these microorganisms within the sinuses is still unknown. We show that flow cytometry can be used to enumerate bacteria and virus-like particles (VLPs) in sinus flush samples of CRS patients. This was achieved through trialling 5 sample preparation techniques for flow cytometry. We found high concentrations of bacteria and VLPs in these samples. Untreated samples produced the highest average bacterial and VLP counts with 3.3 ± 0.74 x 107 bacteria ml-1 and 2.4 ± 1.23 x 109 VLP ml-1 of sinus flush (n = 9). These counts were significantly higher than most of the treated samples (p < 0.05). Results showed 103 and 104 times inter-patient variation for bacteria and VLP concentrations. This wide variation suggests that diagnosis and treatment need to be personalised and that utilising flow cytometry is useful and efficient for this. This study is the first to enumerate bacterial and VLP populations in the maxillary sinus of CRS patients. The relevance of enumeration is that with increasing antimicrobial resistance, antibiotics are becoming less effective at treating bacterial infections of the sinuses, so alternative therapies are needed. Phage therapy has been proposed as one such alternative, but for dosing, the abundance of bacteria is required. Knowledge of whether phages are normally present in the sinuses will assist in gauging the safety of applying phage therapy to sinuses. Our finding, that large numbers of VLP are frequently present in sinuses, indicates that phage therapy may represent a minimally disruptive intervention towards the nasal microbiome. We propose that flow cytometry can be used as a tool to assess microbial biomass dynamics in sinuses and other anatomical locations where infection can cause disease. PMID:27171169

  12. Microfabrication and Test of a Three-Dimensional Polymer Hydro-focusing Unit for Flow Cytometry Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Ren; Feeback, Daniel L.; Wang, Wanjun

    2004-01-01

    This paper details a novel three-dimensional (3D) hydro-focusing micro cell sorter for micro flow cytometry applications. The unit was microfabricated by means of SU-8 3D lithography. The 3D microstructure for coaxial sheathing was designed, microfabricated, and tested. Three-dimensional hydro-focusing capability was demonstrated with an experiment to sort labeled tanned sheep erythrocytes (red blood cells). This polymer hydro-focusing microstructure is easily microfabricated and integrated with other polymer microfluidic structures.

  13. [DNA flow cytometry is a useful prognostic guide in the treatment of breast cancer.].

    PubMed

    Gudlaugsdottir, S; Sigurdsson, H; Agnarsson, B A; Jonasson, J G; Kristjansdottir, S; Baldursson, G; Bjornsson, S; Sveinsson, T; Egilsson, V

    1996-02-01

    It is widely agreed that the presence or absence of axillary lymph-node involvement (N) is the most reliable predictor of relapse or survival in breast cancer, together with tumor size (T) and the presence or absence of distant metastasis (M). These prognostic factors are the cornerstones of the TNM staging system. The aim of the present study was to ascertain, in all patients diagnosed with invasive primary breast cancer in Iceland during the years 1981-84 (n=347), whether flow cytometric DNA analysis of ploidy status and fraction of cells in the S-phase contribute prognostic information, addi nottional to that obtained with TNM staging variables. Paraffin fixed tumor material was available from 340 patients (98%) and DNA ploidy and S-phase fraction was assessed with flow cytometry. DNA ploidy could be analysed in 98% of tumor samples (n=334), of which 114 (34%) were diploid and 220 (66%) non-diploid. S-phase fraction could be analysed in 97% of the tumor samples (n=329), the median S-phase value was 7.0%, and was higher in non-diploid than diploid tumors (p<0.0001, 9.3% vs. 2.7%). Median duration of patient follow-up was 7.5 years. The disease-free survival at that point of time was 15% higher in patients with diploid tumors than non-diploid ones (p=0.004, 69% vs 54%). Similar survival comparison in relation to S-phase fraction was 30% when the median S-phase value was used as cut-off point (p<0.0001, S-phase<7.0% being 74% vs. S-phase ;7.0% being 44%). Multivariate analyses with regard to breast cancer survival and disease-free survival, which included both ploidy status and S-phase categories adjusting for age, tumor size and lymph node involvement, showed the S-phase value categories to be independent prognostic variables (p<0.0001). Patients with high S-phase tumors had a three-fold higher risk of recurrence than patients with low S-phase tumors. Ploidy status was not an independent prognostic variable, if however the S-phase categories were excluded from

  14. Flow cytometry analysis of human fetal osteoblast fate processes on spark plasma sintered hydroxyapatite-titanium biocomposites.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Alok; Webster, Thomas J; Biswas, Krishanu; Basu, Bikramjit

    2013-10-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA)-based biocomposites have been widely investigated for a multitude of applications and these studies have been largely driven to improve mechanical properties (toughness and strength) without compromising cytocompatibility properties. Apart from routine cell viability/proliferation analysis, limited efforts have been made to quantify the fate processes (cell proliferation, cell cycle, and cell apoptosis) of human fetal osteoblast (hFOB) cells on HA-based composites, in vitro. In this work, the osteoblast cell fate process has been studied on a model hydroxyapatite-titanium (HA-Ti) system using the flow cytometry. In order to retain both HA and Ti, the novel processing technique, that is, spark plasma sintering, was suitably adopted. The cell fate processes of hFOBs, as evaluated using a flow cytometry, revealed statistically insignificant differences among HA-10 wt % Ti and HA and control (tissue culture polystyrene surface) in terms of osteoblast apoptosis, proliferation index as well as division index. For the first time, we provide quantified flow cytometry results to demonstrate that 10 wt % Ti additions to HA do not have any significant influence on the fate processes of human osteoblast-like cells, in vitro.

  15. Flow cytometry assays of respiratory burst in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) and in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) leucocytes.

    PubMed

    Kalgraff, Cathrine A K; Wergeland, Heidrun I; Pettersen, Eirin Fausa

    2011-09-01

    The oxidation of dihydrorhodamine 123 (DHR) to the fluorescent rhodamine 123 (RHO) was detected using flow cytometry. This assay for detection of respiratory burst activity was established in peripheral blood leucocytes (PBL) and head kidney leucocytes (HKL) of Atlantic salmon and Atlantic cod. The leucocytes were stimulated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). For cod cells 10 times lower concentration of PMA had to be used compared to salmon cells, as higher concentrations were toxic and resulted in considerable cell death. The cells found to be RHO-positive were monocytes/macrophages and neutrophils based on the scatter dot plots, but for salmon also some small cells were found to have high fluorescence intensity both in the flow cytometry analyses and by fluorescence microscopy of cytospin preparations. The nature of these cells is not known. For cod leucocytes, such cells were not obvious. The instrument settings are a bit more demanding for cod, as cod cells die more easily compared to salmon cells. In both assays the limit between negative and positive cells has to be carefully considered. The presented flow cytometry protocols for measurements of respiratory burst in salmon and cod leucocytes can be applied in various studies where respiratory burst functions are involved, such as to verify if it is activated or suppressed in connection with infections and immunostimulation.

  16. Detection of IgG Anti-Leishmania Antigen by Flow Cytometry as a Diagnostic Test for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Schriefer, Albert; Magalhães, Andréa; Meyer, Roberto; Glesby, Marshall J.; Carvalho, Edgar M.; Carvalho, Lucas P.

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) relies on clinical presentation, parasite isolation, histopathologic evaluation and positive Montenegro skin test. However, the low amounts of parasites in the lesion of these individuals make parasite isolation and histopatologic diagnosis unreliable, often leading to false-negative results. Also, 15% of people living in endemic areas have sub-clinical infection characterized by positive Montenegro skin test, which may contribute to misdiagnosis. Although the main Leishmania killing mechanism is through cell-mediated immune response, antibodies against Leishmania antigens are found in infected individuals. Here our goal was to develop a new serological technique using polystyrene microspheres sensitized with soluble Leishmania antigens as a tool for the detection of IgG in serum from CL patients by flow cytometry. To validate the assay we carried out a comparative test (ELISA) commonly used as a diagnostic test for parasitic diseases. To determine cross-reactivity we used serum from patients with Chagas disease, caused by a trypanosome that has several proteins with high homology to those of the Leishmania genus. We observed that the flow cytometry technique was more sensitive than the ELISA, but, less specific. Our results show that the flow cytometry serologic test can be used to confirm CL cases in L. braziliensis transmission areas, however, presence of Chagas disease has to be ruled out in these individuals. PMID:27622535

  17. Drug testing and flow cytometry analysis on a large number of uniform sized tumor spheroids using a microfluidic device

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Bishnubrata; Peng, Chien-Chung; Liao, Wei-Hao; Lee, Chau-Hwang; Tung, Yi-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) tumor spheroid possesses great potential as an in vitro model to improve predictive capacity for pre-clinical drug testing. In this paper, we combine advantages of flow cytometry and microfluidics to perform drug testing and analysis on a large number (5000) of uniform sized tumor spheroids. The spheroids are formed, cultured, and treated with drugs inside a microfluidic device. The spheroids can then be harvested from the device without tedious operation. Due to the ample cell numbers, the spheroids can be dissociated into single cells for flow cytometry analysis. Flow cytometry provides statistical information in single cell resolution that makes it feasible to better investigate drug functions on the cells in more in vivo-like 3D formation. In the experiments, human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) are exploited to form tumor spheroids within the microfluidic device, and three anti-cancer drugs: Cisplatin, Resveratrol, and Tirapazamine (TPZ), and their combinations are tested on the tumor spheroids with two different sizes. The experimental results suggest the cell culture format (2D monolayer vs. 3D spheroid) and spheroid size play critical roles in drug responses, and also demonstrate the advantages of bridging the two techniques in pharmaceutical drug screening applications. PMID:26877244

  18. Drug testing and flow cytometry analysis on a large number of uniform sized tumor spheroids using a microfluidic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, Bishnubrata; Peng, Chien-Chung; Liao, Wei-Hao; Lee, Chau-Hwang; Tung, Yi-Chung

    2016-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) tumor spheroid possesses great potential as an in vitro model to improve predictive capacity for pre-clinical drug testing. In this paper, we combine advantages of flow cytometry and microfluidics to perform drug testing and analysis on a large number (5000) of uniform sized tumor spheroids. The spheroids are formed, cultured, and treated with drugs inside a microfluidic device. The spheroids can then be harvested from the device without tedious operation. Due to the ample cell numbers, the spheroids can be dissociated into single cells for flow cytometry analysis. Flow cytometry provides statistical information in single cell resolution that makes it feasible to better investigate drug functions on the cells in more in vivo-like 3D formation. In the experiments, human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) are exploited to form tumor spheroids within the microfluidic device, and three anti-cancer drugs: Cisplatin, Resveratrol, and Tirapazamine (TPZ), and their combinations are tested on the tumor spheroids with two different sizes. The experimental results suggest the cell culture format (2D monolayer vs. 3D spheroid) and spheroid size play critical roles in drug responses, and also demonstrate the advantages of bridging the two techniques in pharmaceutical drug screening applications.

  19. Duplex High Throughput Flow Cytometry Screen Identifies Two Novel Formylpeptide Receptor Family Probes1

    PubMed Central

    Young, Susan M.; Bologa, Cristian M.; Fara, Dan; Bryant, Bj K.; Strouse, J. Jacob; Arterburn, Jeffrey B.; Ye, Richard D.; Oprea, Tudor I.; Prossnitz, Eric R.; Sklar, Larry A.; Edwards, Bruce S.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Of recent clinical interest have been two related human G-protein coupled receptors: formylpeptide receptor (FPR), linked to anti-bacterial inflammation and malignant glioma cell metastasis; and formylpeptide receptor like-1 (FPRL1), linked to chronic inflammation in systemic amyloidosis, Alzheimer’s disease and prion diseases. In association with the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Molecular Library Screening Network, we implemented a flow cytometry based high throughput screening (HTS) approach for identifying selective small molecule FPR and FPRL1 ligands. Methods The screening assay measured the ability of test compounds to competitively displace a high-affinity, fluorescein-labeled peptide ligand from FPR, FPRL1 or both. U937 cells expressing FPR and RBL cells expressing FPRL1 were tested together in a “duplex” format. The U937 cells were color-coded with red fluorescent dye allowing their distinction during analysis. Compounds, cells and fluorescent ligand were sequentially combined (no-wash) in 15 μL assay volumes in 384-well plates. Throughput averaged ∼11 min per plate to analyze ∼4000 cells (∼2000/receptor) in a 2 μL aspirate from each well. Results/Conclusions In primary single concentration HTS of 24,304 NIH Small Molecule Repository compounds, 253 resulted in inhibition >30% (181 for FPR, 72 for FPRL1) of which 40 had selective binding inhibition constants (Ki) ≤ 4 μM (34 for FPR and 6 for FPRL1). An additional 1,446 candidate compounds were selected by structure-activity -relationship analysis of the hits and screened to identify novel ligands for FPR (3570-0208, Ki= 95 ± 10 nM) and FPRL1 (BB-V-115, Ki= 270 ± 51 nM). Each was a selective antagonist in calcium response assays and the most potent small molecule antagonist reported for its respective receptor to date. The duplex assay format reduced assay time, minimized reagent requirements, and provided selectivity information at every screening stage, thus proving

  20. Real-Time Label-Free Embolus Detection Using In Vivo Photoacoustic Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Juratli, Mazen A.; Menyaev, Yulian A.; Sarimollaoglu, Mustafa; Siegel, Eric R.; Nedosekin, Dmitry A.; Suen, James Y.; Melerzanov, Alexander V.; Juratli, Tareq A.; Galanzha, Ekaterina I.; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2016-01-01

    Thromboembolic events are one of the world’s leading causes of death among patients. Embolus or clot formations have several etiologies including paraneoplastic, post-surgery, cauterization, transplantation, or extracorporeal circuits. Despite its medical significance, little progress has been made in early embolus detection, screening and control. The aim of our study is to test the utility of the in vivo photoacoustic (PA) flow cytometry (PAFC) technique for non-invasive embolus detection in real-time. Using in vivo PAFC, emboli were non-invasively monitored in the bloodstream of two different mouse models. The tumor-free mouse model consisted of two groups, one in which the limbs were clamped to produce vessel stasis (7 procedures), and one where the mice underwent surgery (7 procedures). The melanoma-bearing mouse model also consisted of two groups, one in which the implanted tumor underwent compression (8 procedures), and one where a surgical excision of the implanted tumor was performed (8 procedures). We demonstrated that the PAFC can detect a single embolus, and has the ability to distinguish between erythrocyte–rich (red) and leukocyte/platelet-rich (white) emboli in small vessels. We show that, in tumor-bearing mice, the level of circulating emboli was increased compared to tumor-free mice (p = 0.0013). The number of circulating emboli temporarily increased in the tumor-free control mice during vessel stasis (p = 0.033) and after surgical excisions (signed-rank p = 0.031). Similar observations were noted during tumor compression (p = 0.013) and after tumor excisions (p = 0.012). For the first time, it was possible to detect unlabeled emboli in vivo non-invasively, and to confirm the presence of pigmented tumor cells within circulating emboli. The insight on embolus dynamics during cancer progression and medical procedures highlight the clinical potential of PAFC for early detection of cancer and surgery-induced emboli to prevent the fatal

  1. Duplex high-throughput flow cytometry screen identifies two novel formylpeptide receptor family probes.

    PubMed

    Young, Susan M; Bologa, Cristian M; Fara, Dan; Bryant, Bj K; Strouse, Juan Jacob; Arterburn, Jeffrey B; Ye, Richard D; Oprea, Tudor I; Prossnitz, Eric R; Sklar, Larry A; Edwards, Bruce S

    2009-03-01

    Of recent, clinical interest have been two related human G-protein coupled receptors: formylpeptide receptor (FPR), linked to antibacterial inflammation and malignant glioma cell metastasis; and FPR like-1 (FPRL1), linked to chronic inflammation in systemic amyloidosis, Alzheimer's disease, and prion diseases. In association with the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Molecular Library Screening Network, we implemented a flow-cytometry-based high-throughput screening (HTS) approach for identifying selective small molecule FPR and FPRL1 ligands. The screening assay measured the ability of test compounds to competitively displace a high-affinity, fluorescein- labeled peptide ligand from FPR, FPRL1, or both. U937 cells expressing FPR and rat basophil leukemia (RBL) cells expressing FPRL1 were tested together in a "duplex" format. The U937 cells were color coded with red-fluorescent dye allowing their distinction during analysis. Compounds, cells, and fluorescent ligand were sequentially combined (no wash) in 15 microl assay volumes in 384-well plates. Throughput averaged approximately 11 min per plate to analyze approximately 4,000 cells ( approximately 2,000/receptor) in a 2 microl aspirate from each well. In primary single concentration HTS of 24,304 NIH Small Molecule Repository compounds, 253 resulted in inhibition >30% (181 for FPR, 72 for FPRL1) of which 40 had selective binding inhibition constants (K(i)) < or = 4 microM (34 for FPR and 6 for FPRL1). An additional 1,446 candidate compounds were selected by structure-activity-relationship analysis of the hits and screened to identify novel ligands for FPR (3570-0208, K(i) = 95 +/- 10 nM) and FPRL1 (BB-V-115, K(i) = 270 +/- 51 nM). Each was a selective antagonist in calcium response assays and the most potent small molecule antagonist reported for its respective receptor to date. The duplex assay format reduced assay time, minimized reagent requirements, and provided selectivity information at every screening

  2. Shifts in the fluorescence lifetime of EGFP during bacterial phagocytosis measured by phase-sensitive flow cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenyan; Houston, Kevin D.; Houston, Jessica P.

    2017-01-01

    Phase-sensitive flow cytometry (PSFC) is a technique in which fluorescence excited state decay times are measured as fluorescently labeled cells rapidly transit a finely focused, frequency-modulated laser beam. With PSFC the fluorescence lifetime is taken as a cytometric parameter to differentiate intracellular events that are challenging to distinguish with standard flow cytometry. For example PSFC can report changes in protein conformation, expression, interactions, and movement, as well as differences in intracellular microenvironments. This contribution focuses on the latter case by taking PSFC measurements of macrophage cells when inoculated with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-expressing E. coli. During progressive internalization of EGFP-E. coli, fluorescence lifetimes were acquired and compared to control groups. It was hypothesized that fluorescence lifetimes would correlate well with phagocytosis because phagosomes become acidified and the average fluorescence lifetime of EGFP is known to be affected by pH. We confirmed that average EGFP lifetimes consistently decreased (3 to 2 ns) with inoculation time. The broad significance of this work is the demonstration of how high-throughput fluorescence lifetime measurements correlate well to changes that are not easily tracked by intensity-only cytometry, which is affected by heterogeneous protein expression, cell-to-cell differences in phagosome formation, and number of bacterium engulfed.

  3. Shifts in the fluorescence lifetime of EGFP during bacterial phagocytosis measured by phase-sensitive flow cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenyan; Houston, Kevin D.; Houston, Jessica P.

    2017-01-01

    Phase-sensitive flow cytometry (PSFC) is a technique in which fluorescence excited state decay times are measured as fluorescently labeled cells rapidly transit a finely focused, frequency-modulated laser beam. With PSFC the fluorescence lifetime is taken as a cytometric parameter to differentiate intracellular events that are challenging to distinguish with standard flow cytometry. For example PSFC can report changes in protein conformation, expression, interactions, and movement, as well as differences in intracellular microenvironments. This contribution focuses on the latter case by taking PSFC measurements of macrophage cells when inoculated with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-expressing E. coli. During progressive internalization of EGFP-E. coli, fluorescence lifetimes were acquired and compared to control groups. It was hypothesized that fluorescence lifetimes would correlate well with phagocytosis because phagosomes become acidified and the average fluorescence lifetime of EGFP is known to be affected by pH. We confirmed that average EGFP lifetimes consistently decreased (3 to 2 ns) with inoculation time. The broad significance of this work is the demonstration of how high-throughput fluorescence lifetime measurements correlate well to changes that are not easily tracked by intensity-only cytometry, which is affected by heterogeneous protein expression, cell-to-cell differences in phagosome formation, and number of bacterium engulfed. PMID:28091553

  4. Locked Nucleic Acid Flow Cytometry-fluorescence in situ Hybridization (LNA flow-FISH): A Method for Bacterial Small RNA Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-10

    Friedrich, U. & Lenke, J. Improved Enumeration of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Mesophilic Dairy Starter Cultures by Using Multiplex Quantitative Real...messenger RNA using locked nucleic acid probes. Anal. Biochem. 390, 109-114 (2009). 13. Waters, L. & Storz, G. Regulatory RNAs in bacteria . Cell. 136, 615...Video Article Locked Nucleic Acid Flow Cytometry-fluorescence in situ Hybridization (LNA flow-FISH): a Method for Bacterial Small RNA Detection Kelly

  5. Photoacoustic-fluorescence in vitro flow cytometry for quantification of absorption, scattering and fluorescence properties of the cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedosekin, D. A.; Sarimollaoglu, M.; Foster, S.; Galanzha, E. I.; Zharov, V. P.

    2013-03-01

    Fluorescence flow cytometry is a well-established analytical tool that provides quantification of multiple biological parameters of cells at molecular levels, including their functional states, morphology, composition, proliferation, and protein expression. However, only the fluorescence and scattering parameters of the cells or labels are available for detection. Cell pigmentation, presence of non-fluorescent dyes or nanoparticles cannot be reliably quantified. Herewith, we present a novel photoacoustic (PA) flow cytometry design for simple integration of absorbance measurements into schematics of conventional in vitro flow cytometers. The integrated system allow simultaneous measurements of light absorbance, scattering and of multicolor fluorescence from single cells in the flow at rates up to 2 m/s. We compared various combinations of excitation laser sources for multicolor detection, including simultaneous excitation of PA and fluorescence using a single 500 kHz pulsed nanosecond laser. Multichannel detection scheme allows simultaneous detection of up to 8 labels, including 4 fluorescent tags and 4 PA colors. In vitro PA-fluorescence flow cytometer was used for studies of nanoparticles uptake and for the analysis of cell line pigmentation, including genetically encoded melanin expression in breast cancer cell line. We demonstrate that this system can be used for direct nanotoxicity studies with simultaneous quantification of nanoparticles content and assessment of cell viability using a conventional fluorescent apoptosis assays.

  6. A novel high-throughput multi-parameter flow cytometry based method for monitoring and rapid characterization of microbiome dynamics in anaerobic systems.

    PubMed

    Dhoble, Abhishek S; Bekal, Sadia; Dolatowski, William; Yanz, Connor; Lambert, Kris N; Bhalerao, Kaustubh D

    2016-11-01

    A novel multidimensional flow cytometry based method has been demonstrated to monitor and rapidly characterize the dynamics of the complex anaerobic microbiome associated with perturbations in external environmental factors. While community fingerprinting provides an estimate of the meta genomic structure, flow cytometry provides a fingerprint of the community morphology including its autofluorescence spectrum in a high-throughput manner. Using anaerobic microbial consortia perturbed with the controlled addition of various carbon sources, it is possible to quantitatively discriminate between divergent microbiome analogous to community fingerprinting techniques using automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA). The utility of flow cytometry based method has also been demonstrated in a fully functional industry scale anaerobic digester to distinguish between microbiome composition caused by varying hydraulic retention time (HRT). This approach exploits the rich multidimensional information from flow cytometry for rapid characterization of the dynamics of microbial communities.

  7. Comparative Multi-Donor Study of IFNγ Secretion and Expression by Human PBMCs Using ELISPOT Side-by-Side with ELISA and Flow Cytometry Assays.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Jodi; Zimmerman, Ryan; Goetz, Christine; Bonnevier, Jody; Houchins, Jeffrey P; Reagan, Kevin; Kalyuzhny, Alexander E

    2015-02-11

    ELISPOT, ELISA and flow cytometry techniques are often used to study the function of immune system cells. It is tempting to speculate that these assays can be used interchangeably, providing similar information about the cytokine secreting activity of cells: the higher the number of cytokine-positive cells measured by flow cytometry, the higher the number of cytokine-secreting cells expected to be detected by ELISPOT and the larger the amount of secreted cytokine expected to be measured by ELISA. We have analyzed the expression level and secretion capacity of IFNγ from peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from five healthy donors and stimulated by calcium ionomycin mixed with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate in a non-specific manner in side-by-side testing using ELISPOT, ELISA and flow cytometry assays. In our study, we observed a general correlation in donors' ranking between ELISPOT and flow cytometry; ELISA values did not correlate with either ELISPOT or flow cytometry. However, a detailed donor-to-donor comparison between ELISPOT and flow cytometry revealed significant discrepancies: donors who have similar numbers of IFNγ-positive cells measured by flow cytometry show 2-3-fold differences in the number of spot-forming cells (SFCs) measured by ELISPOT; and donors who have the same number of SFCs measured by ELISPOT show 30% differences in the number of IFNγ-positive cells measured by flow cytometry. Significant discrepancies between donors were also found when comparing ELISA and ELISPOT techniques: donors who secreted the same amount of IFNγ measured by ELISA show six-fold differences in the number of SFCs measured by ELISPOT; and donors who have 5-7-times less secreted IFNγ measured by ELISA show a two-fold increase in the number of SFCs measured by ELISPOT compared to donors who show a more profound secretion of IFNγ measured by ELISA. The results of our study suggest that there can be a lack of correlation between IFNγ values measured by

  8. FlowCal: A User-Friendly, Open Source Software Tool for Automatically Converting Flow Cytometry Data from Arbitrary to Calibrated Units.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Hair, Sebastian M; Sexton, John T; Landry, Brian P; Olson, Evan J; Igoshin, Oleg A; Tabor, Jeffrey J

    2016-07-15

    Flow cytometry is widely used to measure gene expression and other molecular biological processes with single cell resolution via fluorescent probes. Flow cytometers output data in arbitrary units (a.u.) that vary with the probe, instrument, and settings. Arbitrary units can be converted to the calibrated unit molecules of equivalent fluorophore (MEF) using commercially available calibration particles. However, there is no convenient, nonproprietary tool available to perform this calibration. Consequently, most researchers report data in a.u., limiting interpretation. Here, we report a software tool named FlowCal to overcome current limitations. FlowCal can be run using an intuitive Microsoft Excel interface, or customizable Python scripts. The software accepts Flow Cytometry Standard (FCS) files as inputs and is compatible with different calibration particles, fluorescent probes, and cell types. Additionally, FlowCal automatically gates data, calculates common statistics, and produces publication quality plots. We validate FlowCal by calibrating a.u. measurements of E. coli expressing superfolder GFP (sfGFP) collected at 10 different detector sensitivity (gain) settings to a single MEF value. Additionally, we reduce day-to-day variability in replicate E. coli sfGFP expression measurements due to instrument drift by 33%, and calibrate S. cerevisiae Venus expression data to MEF units. Finally, we demonstrate a simple method for using FlowCal to calibrate fluorescence units across different cytometers. FlowCal should ease the quantitative analysis of flow cytometry data within and across laboratories and facilitate the adoption of standard fluorescence units in synthetic biology and beyond.

  9. Flow cytometry assay for intracellular detection of Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis virus (IPNV) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) leucocytes.

    PubMed

    Rønneseth, Anita; Pettersen, Eirin Fausa; Wergeland, Heidrun I

    2012-12-01

    Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis virus (IPNV) is traditionally detected in adherent leucocytes using immunofluorescence labelled specific antibodies, PCR or by further cultivation of infected cell material in cell lines. We present a flow cytometry (FCM) assay for detection of intracellular IPNV in salmon leucocytes, where each single cell is analysed for presence of virus. The method is established using in vitro challenge of salmon leucocytes and CHSE-214 cells. For detection of intracellular virus antigen the Cytofix/Cytoperm kit from BD is optimal compared with paraformaldehyde or acetone/methanol for cell permeabilisation. This is combined with labelling procedures allowing both internal virus antigen labelling and external antibody labelling of cell markers to identify B-cells and neutrophils. The secondary antibodies were Alexa Fluor 647 for the internal labelling and RPE for the external labelling of bound cell subtype specific antibodies. The presences of virus within cells are also demonstrated by confocal and light microscopy of infected cells. IPNV is successfully detected in blood and head kidney leucocyte samples. IPNV is found both in B-cells and neutrophils as well as in other types of leucocytes that could not be identified due to lack of cell-specific antibodies. Serial samples from cultivation of in vitro infected leucocytes and CHSE-214 cells analysed by flow cytometry showed that number of infected cells increased with increasing number of days. The flow cytometry protocol for detection of intracellular IPNV is verified using CHSE-214 cells persistently infected with IPNV. These analyses are compared with virus titre and virus infected naive CHSE-214 cells. The detection of IPNV in persistently infected cells indicates that carrier fish can be analysed, as such cells are considered to have virus titres similar to carriers.

  10. A Simplified, Sensitive Phagocytic Assay for Malaria Cultures Facilitated by Flow Cytometry of Differentially-Stained Cell Populations

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Chuu Ling; Rénia, Laurent; Tan, Kevin S. W.

    2012-01-01

    Background Phagocytosis of infected and uninfected erythrocytes is an important feature of malaria infections. Flow cytometry is a useful tool for studying phagocytic uptake of malaria-infected erythrocytes in vitro. However, current approaches are limited by the inability to discriminate between infected and uninfected erythrocytes and a failure to stain the early developmental ring stages of infected erythrocytes. The majority of infected erythrocytes in circulation are of the ring stage and these are therefore important targets to study. Methodology/Principal Findings In vitro P. falciparum cultures comprising infected and uninfected erythrocytes were labeled and exposed to cells derived from the human monocytic THP-1 cell line. Phagocytosis was assayed by flow cytometry. Dual labeling of Plasmodium DNA and erythrocyte cytoplasm with dihydroethidium and CellTrace™ Violet respectively allowed, for the first time, the detection and enumeration of phagocytes with ingested erythrocytes from both early ring- and late schizont-stage P, falciparum cultures. The sensitivity of the method was tested using varying conditions including phagocyte type (monocytes versus macrophages), parasite stage (rings versus schizonts), and negative (incubation with cytochalasin D) and positive (incubation with immune sera) effectors of phagocytosis. The current assay clearly demonstrated uptake of infected and uninfected erythrocytes exposed to phagocytes; the extent of which was dependent on the conditions mentioned. Conclusions We describe a simple, sensitive and rapid method for quantifying phagocytosis of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes, by flow cytometry. This approach can be applied for studying parasite-phagocyte interactions under a variety of conditions. The investigation of phagocytosis of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes can extend from looking solely at late-staged infected erythrocytes to include early-staged ones as well. It does away with the need to purify

  11. Dolomitization by ground-water flow systems in carbonate platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Simms, M.

    1984-09-01

    Dolomite occurs throughout the subsurface of modern carbonate platforms such as the Bahamas. Groundwater flow systems must be responsible for delivery of reactants needed for dolomitization. Reflux, freshwater lens flows, and thermal convection are large-scale flow systems that may be widespread in active platforms. The author has evaluated some aspects of the dynamics and characteristics of these processes with ground-water flow theory and by scaled sandbox experiments. Reflux is not restricted to hypersaline brines, but can occur with bankwaters of only slightly elevated salinity such as those found on the Bahama Banks today (42%). The lack of evaporites in a stratigraphic section, therefore, does not rule out the possibility that reflux may have operated. Flows associated with freshwater lenses include flow in the lens, in the mixing zone, and in the seawater beneath and offshore of the lens. Upward transfer of seawater through the platform margins occurs when surrounding cold ocean water migrates into the platform and is heated. This type of thermal convection (Kohout convection) has been studied by Francis Kohout in south Florida. The ranges of mass flux of magnesium in these processes are all comparable and are all sufficient to account for young dolomites beneath modern platforms. Each process yields dolomitized zones of characteristic shape and location and perhaps may be distinguishable in ancient rocks. The concepts presented here may have application to exploration for dolomite reservoirs in the Gulf Coast and elsewhere.

  12. Microfabrication and Test of a Three-Dimensional Polymer Hydro-focusing Unit for Flow Cytometry Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Ren; Feeback, Daniel L.; Wang, Wan-Jun

    2005-01-01

    This paper details a novel three-dimensional (3D) hydro-focusing micro cell sorter for micro flow cytometry applications. The unit was microfabricated by means of SU-8 3D lithography. The 3D microstructure for coaxial sheathing was designed, microfabricated, and tested. Three-dimensional hydrofocusing capability was demonstrated with an experiment to sort labeled tanned sheep erythrocytes (red blood cells). This polymer hydro-focusing microstructure is easily microfabricated and integrated with other polymer microfluidic structures. Keywords: SU-8, three-dimensional hydro-focusing, microfluidic, microchannel, cytometer

  13. A Simple and Rapid Method for Quality Control of Major Histocompatibility Complex-Peptide Monomers by Flow Cytometry.

    PubMed

    Chandran, P Anoop; Heidu, Sonja; Zelba, Henning; Schmid-Horch, Barbara; Rammensee, Hans-Georg; Pascolo, Steve; Gouttefangeas, Cécile

    2017-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) multimers are essential tools in T cell immunomonitoring, which are employed both in basic and clinical research, as well as for assessing clinical samples during therapy. The generation of MHC monomers loaded with synthetic peptides is an elaborate and time-consuming process. It would be beneficial to assess the quality of these monomers prior to downstream applications. In this technical note, we describe a novel flow cytometry-based, cell-free, quick, and robust assay to check the quality of MHC monomers directly after refolding or after long-term storage.

  14. Microfabrication and Test of a Three-Dimensional Polymer Hydro-Focusing Unit for Flow Cytometry Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Ren; Feedback, Daniel L.; Wang, Wanjun

    2004-01-01

    This paper details a novel three-dimensional (3D) hydro-focusing micro cell sorter for micro flow cytometry applications. The unit was micro-fabricated by means of SU-8 3D lithography. The 3D microstructure for coaxial sheathing was designed, micro-fabricated, and tested. Three-dimensional hydrofocusing capability was demonstrated with an experiment to sort labeled tanned sheep erythrocytes (red blood cells). This polymer hydro-focusing microstructure is easily micro-fabricated and integrated with other polymer microfluidic structures.

  15. Application of an optimized flow cytometry-based quantification of Platelet Activation (PACT): Monitoring platelet activation in platelet concentrates

    PubMed Central

    Roest, Mark; Henskens, Yvonne M. C.; de Laat, Bas; Huskens, Dana

    2017-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that flow cytometry is a reliable test to quantify platelet function in stored platelet concentrates (PC). It is thought that flow cytometry is laborious and hence expensive. We have optimized the flow cytometry-based quantification of agonist induced platelet activation (PACT) to a labor, time and more cost-efficient test. Currently the quality of PCs is only monitored by visual inspection, because available assays are unreliable or too laborious for use in a clinical transfusion laboratory. Therefore, the PACT was applied to monitor PC activation during storage. Study design and methods The optimized PACT was used to monitor 5 PCs during 10 days of storage. In brief, optimized PACT uses a ready-to-use reaction mix, which is stable at -20°C. When needed, a test strip is thawed and platelet activation is initiated by mixing PC with PACT. PACT was based on the following agonists: adenosine diphosphate (ADP), collagen-related peptide (CRP) and thrombin receptor-activating peptide (TRAP-6). Platelet activation was measured as P-selectin expression. Light transmission aggregometry (LTA) was performed as a reference. Results Both PACT and LTA showed platelet function decline during 10-day storage after stimulation with ADP and collagen/CRP; furthermore, PACT showed decreasing TRAP-induced activation. Major differences between the two tests are that PACT is able to measure the status of platelets in the absence of agonists, and it can differentiate between the number of activated platelets and the amount of activation, whereas LTA only measures aggregation in response to an agonist. Also, PACT is more time-efficient compared to LTA and allows high-throughput analysis. Conclusion PACT is an optimized platelet function test that can be used to monitor the activation of PCs. PACT has the same accuracy as LTA with regard to monitoring PCs, but it is superior to both LTA and conventional flow cytometry based tests with regard to labor

  16. A Simple and Rapid Method for Quality Control of Major Histocompatibility Complex–Peptide Monomers by Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Chandran, P. Anoop; Heidu, Sonja; Zelba, Henning; Schmid-Horch, Barbara; Rammensee, Hans-Georg; Pascolo, Steve; Gouttefangeas, Cécile

    2017-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) multimers are essential tools in T cell immunomonitoring, which are employed both in basic and clinical research, as well as for assessing clinical samples during therapy. The generation of MHC monomers loaded with synthetic peptides is an elaborate and time-consuming process. It would be beneficial to assess the quality of these monomers prior to downstream applications. In this technical note, we describe a novel flow cytometry-based, cell-free, quick, and robust assay to check the quality of MHC monomers directly after refolding or after long-term storage. PMID:28228758

  17. Absence of aberrant myeloid progenitors by flow cytometry is associated with favorable response to azacitidine in higher risk myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Alhan, Canan; Westers, Theresia M; van der Helm, Lieke H; Eeltink, Corien; Huls, Gerwin; Witte, Birgit I; Buchi, Francesca; Santini, Valeria; Ossenkoppele, Gert J; van de Loosdrecht, Arjan A

    2014-01-15

    Background: In intermediate-2 and high risk patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), treatment with azacitidine is associated with hematological responses and prolonged overall survival in patients who respond to therapy. However, only half of the patients that are treated will benefit from this treatment. It is a major challenge to predict which patients are likely to respond to treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive value of immunophenotyping for response to treatment with azacitidine of Int-2 and high risk MDS patients. Methods: Bone marrow aspirates were analyzed by flow cytometry in 42 patients with Int-2 and high risk MDS, chronic myelomonocytic leukemia or low blast count acute myeloid leukemia before treatment and after every third cycle of azacitidine. A flow score was calculated using the flow cytometric scoring system (FCSS). Results: The presence of myeloid progenitors with an aberrant immunophenotype was significantly associated with lack of response (p=0.02). A low pretreatment FCSS was associated with significantly better overall survival compared with a high pretreatment FCSS (p=0.03). A significant decrease in FCSS was observed in patients with complete response after three cycles azacitidine compared to patients with progressive disease (p=0.006). Conclusions: Absence of aberrant myeloid progenitor cells at baseline and/or a decrease in the FCSS during treatment identified Int-2 and high risk MDS patients who are likely to respond to treatment with azacitidine. © 2014 Clinical Cytometry Society.

  18. When are bacteria dead? A step towards interpreting flow cytometry profiles after chlorine disinfection and membrane integrity staining.

    PubMed

    Nocker, Andreas; Cheswick, Ryan; Dutheil de la Rochere, Pierre-Marie; Denis, Matthieu; Léziart, Tangui; Jarvis, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Flow cytometry is increasingly employed by drinking water providers. Its use with appropriate fluorescent stains allows the distinction between intact and membrane-damaged bacteria, which makes it ideally suited for assessment of disinfection efficiency. In contrast to plate counting, the technology allows the visualization of the gradual loss of membrane integrity. Although this sensitivity per se is very positive, it creates the problem of how this detailed viability information compares with binary plate counts where a colony is either formed or not. Guidelines are therefore needed to facilitate interpretation of flow cytometry results and to determine a degree of membrane damage where bacteria can be considered 'dead'. In this study we subjected Escherichia coli and environmental microorganisms in real water to increasing chlorine concentrations. Resulting flow cytometric patterns after membrane integrity staining were compared with culturability and in part with redox activity. For laboratory-grown bacteria, culturability was lost at lower disinfectant concentrations than membrane integrity making the latter a conservative viability parameter. No recovery from chlorine was observed for four days. For real water, loss of membrane integrity had to be much more substantial to completely suppress colony formation, probably due to the heterogenic composition of the natural microbial community with different members having different susceptibilities to the disinfectant.

  19. Quantification of mucosal mononuclear cells in tissues with a fluorescent bead-based polychromatic flow cytometry assay.

    PubMed

    Reeves, R Keith; Evans, Tristan I; Gillis, Jacqueline; Wong, Fay E; Connole, Michelle; Carville, Angela; Johnson, R Paul

    2011-03-31

    Since the vast majority of infections occur at mucosal surfaces, accurate characterization of mucosal immune cells is critically important for understanding transmission and control of infectious diseases. Standard flow cytometric analysis of cells obtained from mucosal tissues can provide valuable information on the phenotype of mucosal leukocytes and their relative abundance, but does not provide absolute cell counts of mucosal cell populations. We developed a bead-based flow cytometry assay to determine the absolute numbers of multiple mononuclear cell types in colorectal biopsies of rhesus macaques. Using 10-color flow cytometry panels and pan-fluorescent beads, cells were enumerated in biopsy specimens by adding a constant ratio of beads per mg of tissue and then calculating cell numbers/mg of tissue based on cell-to-bead ratios determined at the time of sample acquisition. Testing in duplicate specimens showed the assay to be highly reproducible (Spearman R=0.9476, P<0.0001). Using this assay, we report enumeration of total CD45(+) leukocytes, CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, B cells, NK cells, CD14(+) monocytes, and myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells in colorectal biopsies, with cell numbers in normal rhesus macaques varying from medians of 4486 cells/mg (T cells) to 3 cells/mg (plasmacytoid dendritic cells). This assay represents a significant advancement in rapid, accurate quantification of mononuclear cell populations in mucosal tissues and could be applied to provide absolute counts of a variety of different cell populations in diverse tissues.

  20. Flow cytometry based profiling of leukocytes: A new method for diagnosis of tropical theileriosis in crossbred cattle

    PubMed Central

    Jagtap, Ramesh B.; Gupta, Amit; Chaphalkar, Sushama R.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: In India, dairy industries are important for the livelihood of small scale farmers and dairy owners. Tropical theileriosis, mostly affecting dairy cattle and buffaloes is a major threat to dairy and related industries. Tropical theileriosis is caused by Theileria annulata, a hemoprotozoan parasite transmitted by Ixodid ticks of Hyalomma spp. In the present study, we examined the clinical signs, hematological parameters and flow cytometric profile of whole blood in 30 theileriosis affected crossbred cattle. The aim of our study is to analyze, in comparison with clinical and hematological diagnosis, whether flow cytometry based profiling of leukocytes could be used as better, quick and alternative method for diagnosis and screening of bovine tropical theileriosis in crossbred cattle. Materials and Methods: In this study, we screened parasites in 30 peripheral blood samples from clinical cases of theileriosis by Giemsa’s staining technique in crossbred cattle. Hematological analysis was done to estimate hemoglobin (Hb) content, total red blood cell (RBC) count, total leukocyte count and differential leukocyte count. Further, flow cytometric analysis of whole blood was carried out to study leukocytes profile in affected cattle. Results: Microscopic examination of stained blood films revealed the presence of piroplasms in erythrocytes and schizonts in lymphocytes. Hematological examination revealed significant (p<0.05) decrease of Hb percent (Hb %), reduced total RBC and total leukocytes, lymphocytosis, eosinopenia, and neutropenia compared to that of apparently healthy cattle. Flow cytometric profiling of leukocytes revealed the severe effect on shape, size, and granularity of leukocytes, marked decrease in granulocytes and 3-5 fold increase in lymphocytes count compared to clinically healthy cattle. Thus, in both methods, namely conventional and flow cytometric analysis, marked lymphocytosis and decrease in other blood cell counts were observed compared to

  1. In vivo imaging flow cytometry based on laser scanning two-photon microscopy at kHz cross-sectional frame rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Lingjie; Tang, Jianyong; Cui, Meng

    2016-03-01

    In vivo flow cytometry has found numerous applications in biology and pharmacology. However, conventional cytometry does not provide the detailed morphological information that is needed to fully determine the phenotype of individual circulating cells. Imaging cytometry, capable of visualizing the morphology and dynamics of the circulating cells at high spatiotemporal resolution, is highly desired. Current wide-field based image cytometers are limited in the imaging depth and provide only two-dimensional resolution. For deep tissue imaging, laser scanning two-photon fluorescence microscopy (TPM) is widely adopted. However, for applications in flow cytometry, the axial scanning speed of current TPMs is inadequate to provide high-speed cross-sectional imaging of vasculature. We have integrated an optical phase-locked ultrasound lens into a standard TPM and achieved microsecond-scale axial scanning. With a galvo scanner for transverse scanning, we achieved kHz cross-sectional frame rate. Here we report its applications for in vivo deformability cytometry and in vivo imaging flow cytometry, and demonstrate the capability of imaging dynamical morphologies of flowing cells, distinguishing cells and cellular clusters, and simultaneously quantifying different cell populations based on their fluorescent labels.

  2. Imaging flow cytometry for automated detection of hypoxia-induced erythrocyte shape change in sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    van Beers, Eduard J; Samsel, Leigh; Mendelsohn, Laurel; Saiyed, Rehan; Fertrin, Kleber Y; Brantner, Christine A; Daniels, Mathew P; Nichols, James; McCoy, J Philip; Kato, Gregory J

    2014-06-01

    In preclinical and early phase pharmacologic trials in sickle cell disease, the percentage of sickled erythrocytes after deoxygenation, an ex vivo functional sickling assay, has been used as a measure of a patient's disease outcome. We developed a new sickle imaging flow cytometry assay (SIFCA) and investigated its application. To perform the SIFCA, peripheral blood was diluted, deoxygenated (2% oxygen) for 2 hr, fixed, and analyzed using imaging flow cytometry. We developed a software algorithm that correctly classified investigator tagged "sickled" and "normal" erythrocyte morphology with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 99.1%. The percentage of sickled cells as measured by SIFCA correlated strongly with the percentage of sickle cell anemia blood in experimentally admixed samples (R = 0.98, P ≤ 0.001), negatively with fetal hemoglobin (HbF) levels (R = -0.558, P = 0.027), negatively with pH (R = -0.688, P = 0.026), negatively with pretreatment with the antisickling agent, Aes-103 (5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural) (R = -0.766, P = 0.002), and positively with the presence of long intracellular fibers as visualized by transmission electron microscopy (R = 0.799, P = 0.002). This study shows proof of principle that the automated, operator-independent SIFCA is associated with predictable physiologic and clinical parameters and is altered by the putative antisickling agent, Aes-103. SIFCA is a new method that may be useful in sickle cell drug development.

  3. Is flow cytometry crossmatch analysis using sera with different dilutions important for pretransplant analysis? A case report.

    PubMed

    Sağıroğlu, T; Tozkır, H; Kılıçarslan-Ayna, T; Yağcı, M A; Sezer, A; Carin, M

    2012-01-01

    The most effective form of treatment for chronic renal failure is kidney transplantation from a cadaver or a living donor. For a kidney transplant to be successful, tissue compatibility and a lack of donor-specific anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies in the circulation of the patient are vital, in addition to ABO blood group compatibility. The presence of anti-HLA antibodies is assayed before transplantation using various methods, but because organ rejections have been observed in previous studies, different techniques are required to detect anti-HLA antibodies. Today, flow cytometry crossmatching is one of the most important and effective techniques in testing for donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies (DSAs). If weakly positive serum is assayed after serial dilution, it can yield high positivity. Herein, we describe the differences between the results for diluted and undiluted weakly positive sera studied using the flow cytometry crossmatch (FCXM) technique. In a recent study, the sera of weakly FCXM-positive patients were diluted 1/50, and the FCXM test was repeated. The use of diluted serum eliminated the effect of the prozone so that the DSAs could be detected.

  4. Evaluation of Ultrasound-Induced Damage to Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by Flow Cytometry and Transmission Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiao; Ahn, Juhee; Liu, Donghong; Chen, Shiguo; Ye, Xingqian

    2016-01-01

    As a nonthermal sterilization technique, ultrasound has attracted great interest in the field of food preservation. In this study, flow cytometry and transmission electron microscopy were employed to investigate ultrasound-induced damage to Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. For flow cytometry studies, single staining with propidium iodide (PI) or carboxyfluorescein diacetate (cFDA) revealed that ultrasound treatment caused cell death by compromising membrane integrity, inactivating intracellular esterases, and inhibiting metabolic performance. The results showed that ultrasound damage was independent of initial bacterial concentrations, while the mechanism of cellular damage differed according to the bacterial species. For the Gram-negative bacterium E. coli, ultrasound worked first on the outer membrane rather than the cytoplasmic membrane. Based on the double-staining results, we inferred that ultrasound treatment might be an all-or-nothing process: cells ruptured and disintegrated by ultrasound cannot be revived, which can be considered an advantage of ultrasound over other nonthermal techniques. Transmission electron microscopy studies revealed that the mechanism of ultrasound-induced damage was multitarget inactivation, involving the cell wall, cytoplasmic membrane, and inner structure. Understanding of the irreversible antibacterial action of ultrasound has great significance for its further utilization in the food industry. PMID:26746712

  5. Validation of Flow Cytometry and Magnetic Bead-Based Methods to Enrich CNS Single Cell Suspensions for Quiescent Microglia.

    PubMed

    Volden, T A; Reyelts, C D; Hoke, T A; Arikkath, J; Bonasera, S J

    2015-12-01

    Microglia are resident mononuclear phagocytes within the CNS parenchyma that intimately interact with neurons and astrocytes to remodel synapses and extracellular matrix. We briefly review studies elucidating the molecular pathways that underlie microglial surveillance, activation, chemotaxis, and phagocytosis; we additionally place these studies in a clinical context. We describe and validate an inexpensive and simple approach to obtain enriched single cell suspensions of quiescent parenchymal and perivascular microglia from the mouse cerebellum and hypothalamus. Following preparation of regional CNS single cell suspensions, we remove myelin debris, and then perform two serial enrichment steps for cells expressing surface CD11b. Myelin depletion and CD11b enrichment are both accomplished using antigen-specific magnetic beads in an automated cell separation system. Flow cytometry of the resultant suspensions shows a significant enrichment for CD11b(+)/CD45(+) cells (perivascular microglia) and CD11b(+)/CD45(-) cells (parenchymal microglia) compared to starting suspensions. Of note, cells from these enriched suspensions minimally express Aif1 (aka Iba1), suggesting that the enrichment process does not evoke significant microglial activation. However, these cells readily respond to a functional challenge (LPS) with significant changes in the expression of molecules specifically associated with microglia. We conclude that methods employing a combination of magnetic-bead based sorting and flow cytometry produce suspensions highly enriched for microglia that are appropriate for a variety of molecular and cellular assays.

  6. Evaluation of two new fluorochromes, TOTO and YOYO, for DNA content analysis in cells and chromosomes by flow cytometry

    SciTech Connect

    Hirons, G.T.; Crissman, H.A. )

    1993-01-01

    The fluorochromes TOTO and YOYO were evaluated for their effectiveness in staining for DNA content analysis by flow cytometry (FCM). The dyes are dimers of thiazole orange (TO) and yellow oxazole (YO), respectively (Molecular Probes, Eugene, OR), and both have a very high quantum efficiency. Spectrofluorometric analysis showed that TOTO and YOYO had little fluorescence until bound to DNA or RNA. YOYO, the brighter of the two dyes, had an emission peak at [approximately]510 nm and TOTO at [approximately]530 nm. Analysis by flow cytometry indicated that cells stained with either dye at a concentration of [approximately]4.0 [mu]M could be preferentially excited at either 457 or 488 nm. Unfixed nuclei and fixed cells both treated with RNase, stained with either TOTO or YOYO, and analyzed by FCM yielded coefficients of variation (CV) comparable to CVs obtained for the same samples stained with mithramycin (MI) when excited at 457 nm and propidium iodide (PI) when excited at 488 nm. Both TOTO and YOYO are also being evaluated for their effectiveness in staining Chinese hamster embryo chromosomes; these results are being compared with results obtained with PI stained chromosomes.

  7. Flow cytometry analysis of hormone receptors on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells to identify stress-induced neuroendocrine effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meehan, R. T.

    1986-01-01

    Understanding the role of circulating peptide hormones in the pathogenesis of space-flight induced disorders would be greatly facilitated by a method which monitors chronic levels of hormones and their effects upon in vivo cell physiology. Single and simultaneous multiparameter flow cytometry analysis was employed to identify subpopulations of mononuclear cells bearing receptors for ACTH, Endorphin, and Somatomedin-C using monoclonal antibodies and monospecific antisera with indirect immunofluorescence. Blood samples were obtained from normal donors and subjects participating in decompression chamber studies (acute stress), medical student academic examination (chronic stress), and a drug study (Dexamethasone). Preliminary results indicate most ACTH and Endorphin receptor positive cells are monocytes and B-cells, exhibit little diurnal variation but the relative percentages of receptor positive cells are influenced by exposure to various stressors and ACTH inhibition. This study demonstrates the capability of flow cytometry analysis to study cell surface hormone receptor regulation which should allow insight into neuroendocrine modulation of the immune and other cellular systems during exposure to stress or microgravity.

  8. Fluorescent in situ hybridization with rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes to identify small phytoplankton by flow cytometry.

    PubMed Central

    Simon, N; LeBot, N; Marie, D; Partensky, F; Vaulot, D

    1995-01-01

    Because of their tiny size (0.2 to 2 microns), oceanic picophytoplanktonic cells (either cultured strains or natural communities) are difficult to identify, and some basic questions concerning their taxonomy, physiology, and ecology are still largely unanswered. The present study was designed to test the suitability of in situ hybridization with rRNA fluorescent probes detected by flow cytometry for the identification of small photosynthetic eukaryotes. Oligonucleotide probes targeted against regions of the 18S rRNAs of Chlorophyta lineage (CHLO probe) and of non-Chlorophyta (NCHLO probe) algal species were designed. The CHLO and NCHLO probes, which differed by a single nucleotide, allowed discrimination of chlorophyte from nonchlorophyte cultured strains. The sensitivity of each probe was dependent upon the size of the cells and upon their growth stage. The mean fluorescence was 8 to 80 times higher for specifically labeled than for nonspecifically labeled cells in exponential growth phase, but it decreased sharply in stationary phase. Such taxon-specific probes should increase the applicability of flow cytometry for the rapid identification of cultured pico- and nanoplanktonic strains, especially those that lack taxonomically useful morphological features. PMID:7618862

  9. Long-term effects of triethylenemelamine exposure on mouse testis cells and sperm chromatin structure assayed by flow cytometry

    SciTech Connect

    Evenson, D.P.; Baer, R.K.; Jost, L.K. )

    1989-01-01

    The toxic and potentially mutagenic actions of triethylenemelamine (TEM) on mouse body and testis weights, testicular cell kinetics, sperm production, sperm head morphology, and sperm chromatin structure were assessed in two experiments. The first experiment examined effects of four dose levels of TEM, assayed 1, 4, or 10 wk after toxic exposure. In the second study, effects from five dosage levels were measured at 1, 4, and 10 wk, and the highest dosage level was evaluated over 44 wk. TEM produced an expected dose related loss of spermatogenic activity and subsequent recovery as determined by dual-parameter (DNA, RNA) flow cytometry (FCM) measurements of testicular cells. Both testicular weights and caudal sperm reserves remained generally below controls after 44 wk recovery following exposure to the highest dosage. Chromatin structure alterations, defined as increased susceptibility to DNA denaturation in situ, and sperm head morphology were highly correlated with dose and with each other. Sperm head morphology and sperm chromatic structure remained abnormal at 44 wk for the 1.0 mg/kg TEM dosage, suggesting that the abnormalities, present long after the initial toxic response, may be a result of mutation. This study demonstrates that flow cytometry provides a unique, rapid, and efficient means to measure effects of reproductive toxins and potential mutagens.

  10. Rapid detection of total and viable Legionella pneumophila in tap water by immunomagnetic separation, double fluorescent staining and flow cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Keserue, Hans‐Anton; Baumgartner, Andreas; Felleisen, Richard; Egli, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Summary We developed a rapid detection method for Legionella pneumophila (Lp) by filtration, immunomagnetic separation, double fluorescent staining, and flow cytometry (IMS‐FCM method). The method requires 120 min and can discriminate ‘viable’ and ‘membrane‐damaged’ cells. The recovery is over 85% of spiked Lp SG 1 cells in 1 l of tap water and detection limits are around 50 and 15 cells per litre for total and viable Lp, respectively. The method was compared using water samples from house installations in a blind study with three environmental laboratories performing the ISO 11731 plating method. In 53% of the water samples from different taps and showers significantly higher concentrations of Lp were detected by flow cytometry. No correlation to the plate culture method was found. Since also ‘viable but not culturable’ (VNBC) cells are detected by our method, this result was expected. The IMS‐FCM method is limited by the specificity of the used antibodies; in the presented case they target Lp serogroups 1–12. This and the fact that no Lp‐containing amoebae are detected may explain why in 21% of all samples higher counts were observed using the plate culture method. Though the IMS‐FCM method is not yet fit to completely displace the established plating method (ISO 11731) for routine Lp monitoring, it has major advantages to plating and can quickly provide important insights into the ecology of this pathogen in water distribution systems. PMID:23062200

  11. Multiparametric flow cytometry allows rapid assessment and comparison of lactic acid bacteria viability after freezing and during frozen storage.

    PubMed

    Rault, Aline; Béal, Catherine; Ghorbal, Sarrah; Ogier, Jean-Claude; Bouix, Marielle

    2007-08-01

    Freezing is widely used for the long-term preservation of lactic acid bacteria, but often affects their viability and technological properties. Different methods are currently employed to determine bacterial cryotolerance, but they all require several hours or days before achieving results. The aim of this study was to establish the advantages of multiparametric flow cytometry by using two specific fluorescent probes to provide rapid assessment of the viability of four strains of Lactobacillus delbrueckii after freezing and during frozen storage. The relevance of carboxyfluorescein diacetate and propidium iodide to quantify bacterial viability was proven. When bacterial suspensions were simultaneously stained with these two fluorescent probes, three major subpopulations were identified: viable, dead and injured cells. The cryotolerance of four L. delbrueckii strains was evaluated by quantifying the relative percentages of each subpopulation before and after freezing, and throughout one month of storage at -80 degrees C. Results displayed significant differences in the resistance to freezing and frozen storage of the four strains when they were submitted to the same freezing and storage procedures. Whereas resistant strains displayed less than 10% of dead cells after one month of storage, one sensitive strain exhibited more than 50% of dead cells, together with 14% of stressed cells after freezing. Finally, this study proved that multiparametric flow cytometry was a convenient and rapid tool to evaluate the viability of lactic acid bacteria, and was well correlated with plate count results. Moreover, it made it possible to differentiate strains according to their susceptibility to freezing and frozen storage.

  12. Prediction of flocculation ability of brewing yeast inoculates by flow cytometry, proteome analysis, and mRNA profiling.

    PubMed

    Heine, Franziska; Stahl, Frank; Sträuber, Heike; Wiacek, Claudia; Benndorf, Dirk; Repenning, Cornelia; Schmidt, Frank; Scheper, Thomas; von Bergen, Martin; Harms, Hauke; Müller, Susann

    2009-02-01

    The ability of brewing yeast to flocculate is an important feature for brewing of qualitatively good beer. Flocculation involves two main cell wall structures, which are the flocculation proteins (flocculins) and mannans, to which these flocculins bind. Unfortunately, in practice, the flocculation ability may get lost after several repitches. Flow cytometry was employed to analyze glucose and mannose structures of the cell surface by application of fluorescent lectins. Validation of the expression of the flocculin genes Lg-FLO1, FLO1, FLO5, and FLO9 was carried out using microarray techniques. SDS-PAGE, western blot, and ESI-MS/MS analyses served to isolate and determine yeast cell flocculins. Mannose and glucose labeling with fluorescent lectins allowed differentiating powdery and flocculent yeast cells under laboratory conditions. Using microarray techniques and proteomics, the four flocculation genes Lg-FLO1, FLO1, FLO5, FLO9, and the protein Lg-Flo1p were identified as factors of major importance for flocculation. The expression of the genes was several times higher in flocculent yeast cells than in powdery ones. Flow cytometry is a fast and simple method to quantify the proportions of powdery and flocculent yeast cells in suspensions under defined cultivation conditions. However, differentiation under industrial conditions will require mRNA and protein expression profiling.

  13. The use of the cyanobacteria, Cyanobium sp., as a suitable organism for toxicity testing by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Alquezar, Ralph; Anastasi, Amie

    2013-06-01

    Cyanobacteria are commonly found in a number of temperate and tropical bioregions, and provide important roles in fuelling many nutrient poor freshwater and marine ecosystems. Although cyanobacteria commonly occur in these environments, little is known about the use of cyanobacteria as suitable organisms for toxicity studies. Here, we propose the use of the unicellular cyanobacteria Cyanobium sp., as a potential species for tropical toxicity testing using flow cytometry. Cyanobium sp. was isolated from a composite sample of sea water in Halifax Bay, North Queensland, Australia. After careful isolation, cleaning and purification, Cyanobium sp. was used to determine the toxicity of copper, cobalt, and nickel at pH 8, and ammonia at pH 7 and 8. EC₁₀/₅₀ values were calculated using growth inhibition data determined via flow cytometry, which was found to provide rapid, accurate results, with the ability to define multiple endpoints. Cyanobium sp. was particularly sensitive to copper, cobalt and nickel, however, thrived at elevated concentrations of ammonia, irrespective of pH value. The results indicate that Cyanobium sp. is a useful test organism for tropical marine metal toxicity studies, however, is unsuitable for nutrient studies, particularly ammonia.

  14. A novel flow cytometry-based tool for determining the efficiency of human cytomegalovirus infection in THP-1 derived macrophages.

    PubMed

    Li, Huifen; Mao, Genxiang; Carlson, Joshua; Leng, Sean X

    2015-09-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (hCMV) is a ubiquitous pathogen that causes congenital infection and severe infections in immunocompromised patients. Chronic hCMV infection may also play an important role in immunosenescence and adverse health outcomes in older adults. THP-1, a human monocytic cell line and its derived macrophages serve as a useful cell culture model for mechanistic studies of hCMV infection and its underlying biology. A major methodological challenge is the lack of a quick and reliable tool to accurately determine the efficiency of hCMV infection in THP-1 derived macrophages. In this study, we developed a flow cytometry based method using commercially available monoclonal antibody (MAb) against hCMV immediate early (IE) antigen that can accurately determine infection efficiency. We used 0.5% formaldehyde for fixation, 90% methanol for permeabilization, and incubation with FITC conjugated MAb at 37°C. The method was tested by hCMV infection with laboratory Towne strain in the presence or absence of hydrocortisone. It was also compared with the routine flow cytometry protocol using Cytofix/Cytoperm solution and with immunofluorescence. The results indicate that this new method is reliable and time saving for accurate determination of infection efficiency. It may facilitate further investigations into the underlying biological mechanisms of hCMV infection.

  15. Vancomycin-induced Immune Thrombocytopenia Proven by the Detection of Vancomycin-dependent Anti-platelet Antibody with Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Yamanouchi, Jun; Hato, Takaaki; Shiraishi, Sanshiro; Takeuchi, Kazuto; Yakushijin, Yoshihiro; Yasukawa, Masaki

    2016-01-01

    Vancomycin-induced thrombocytopenia is a rare adverse reaction that may be overlooked because no specific diagnostic test is currently available. We herein report a patient with vancomycin-induced immune thrombocytopenia who was diagnosed by the detection of vancomycin-dependent anti-platelet antibody with flow cytometry. An IgG antibody in the patient's serum reacted with platelets only in the presence of vancomycin. Severe thrombocytopenia gave rise to life-threatening gastrointestinal bleeding, which was quickly resolved after effective platelet transfusion following the cessation of vancomycin administration. This report suggests that the flow cytometric test is useful for the differential diagnosis of thrombocytopenia and platelet transfusion should be performed after the cessation of vancomycin administration. PMID:27746445

  16. Flow cytometry combined with viSNE for the analysis of microbial biofilms and detection of microplastics

    PubMed Central

    Sgier, Linn; Freimann, Remo; Zupanic, Anze; Kroll, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Biofilms serve essential ecosystem functions and are used in different technical applications. Studies from stream ecology and waste-water treatment have shown that biofilm functionality depends to a great extent on community structure. Here we present a fast and easy-to-use method for individual cell-based analysis of stream biofilms, based on stain-free flow cytometry and visualization of the high-dimensional data by viSNE. The method allows the combined assessment of community structure, decay of phototrophic organisms and presence of abiotic particles. In laboratory experiments, it allows quantification of cellular decay and detection of survival of larger cells after temperature stress, while in the field it enables detection of community structure changes that correlate with known environmental drivers (flow conditions, dissolved organic carbon, calcium) and detection of microplastic contamination. The method can potentially be applied to other biofilm types, for example, for inferring community structure for environmental and industrial research and monitoring. PMID:27188265

  17. A Miniature Couette to Generate Shear for Flow Cytometry: Studying Real-Time Modulation of Intracellular Calcium in Monocytic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zwartz, Gordon J.; Chigaev, Alexandre; Foutz, Terry D.; Edwards, Bruce; Sklar, Larry A.

    2013-01-01

    Extracellular hydrodynamic forces may be transmitted to the interior of cells through the alteration of integrin conformation and affinity. Integrin activation regulates leukocyte recruitment, cell activation, and transmigration. The cellular and molecular mechanisms for integrin activation are not precisely known, although intracellular calcium signaling is involved. Flow cytometry offers a versatile way to study intracellular calcium signaling in real-time. We report a novel method to generate defined shear by using a miniature Couette. Testing involved measuring shear induced intracellular calcium signals of human monoblastoid U937 cells in suspension. The Couette was connected externally to a flow cytometer and pressurized at 6 PSI (4.1 N/m2). Cells were subjected to well-defined shear between 0 and 1000 s−1 and delivered continuously within 10 s to a FACScan at 1 μl/s. Intracellular calcium levels and the percentage of cells activated increased as shear increased in duration and intensity. PMID:22045643

  18. Flow cytometry combined with viSNE for the analysis of microbial biofilms and detection of microplastics.

    PubMed

    Sgier, Linn; Freimann, Remo; Zupanic, Anze; Kroll, Alexandra

    2016-05-18

    Biofilms serve essential ecosystem functions and are used in different technical applications. Studies from stream ecology and waste-water treatment have shown that biofilm functionality depends to a great extent on community structure. Here we present a fast and easy-to-use method for individual cell-based analysis of stream biofilms, based on stain-free flow cytometry and visualization of the high-dimensional data by viSNE. The method allows the combined assessment of community structure, decay of phototrophic organisms and presence of abiotic particles. In laboratory experiments, it allows quantification of cellular decay and detection of survival of larger cells after temperature stress, while in the field it enables detection of community structure changes that correlate with known environmental drivers (flow conditions, dissolved organic carbon, calcium) and detection of microplastic contamination. The method can potentially be applied to other biofilm types, for example, for inferring community structure for environmental and industrial research and monitoring.

  19. Locked Nucleic Acid and Flow Cytometry-Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization for the Detection of Bacterial Small Noncoding RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Kelly L.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the development and testing of a high-throughput method that enables the detection of small noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) from single bacterial cells using locked nucleic acid probes (LNA) and flow cytometry-fluorescence in situ hybridization (flow-FISH). The LNA flow-FISH method and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) were used to monitor the expression of three ncRNAs (6S, CsrB, and TPP-2) in Vibrio campbellii ATCC BAA-1116 cultures during lag phase, mid-log phase, and stationary phase. Both LNA flow-FISH and qRT-PCR revealed that CsrB and TPP-2 were highly expressed during lag phase but markedly reduced in mid-log phase and stationary phase, whereas 6S demonstrated no to little expression during lag phase but increased thereafter. Importantly, while LNA flow-FISH and qRT-PCR demonstrated similar overall expression trends, only LNA flow-FISH, which enabled the detection of ncRNAs in individual cells as opposed to the lysate-based ensemble measurements generated by qRT-PCR, was able to capture the cell-to-cell heterogeneity in ncRNA expression. As such, this study demonstrates a new method that simultaneously enables the in situ detection of ncRNAs and the determination of gene expression heterogeneity within an isogenic bacterial population. PMID:22057868

  20. Time-Domain Microfluidic Fluorescence Lifetime Flow Cytometry for High-Throughput Förster Resonance Energy Transfer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Nedbal, Jakub; Visitkul, Viput; Ortiz-Zapater, Elena; Weitsman, Gregory; Chana, Prabhjoat; Matthews, Daniel R; Ng, Tony; Ameer-Beg, Simon M

    2015-01-01

    Sensing ion or ligand concentrations, physico-chemical conditions, and molecular dimerization or conformation change is possible by assays involving fluorescent lifetime imaging. The inherent low throughput of imaging impedes rigorous statistical data analysis on large cell numbers. We address this limitation by developing a fluorescence lifetime-measuring flow cytometer for fast fluorescence lifetime quantification in living or fixed cell populations. The instrument combines a time-correlated single photon counting epifluorescent microscope with microfluidics cell-handling system. The associated computer software performs burst integrated fluorescence lifetime analysis to assign fluorescence lifetime, intensity, and burst duration to each passing cell. The maximum safe throughput of the instrument reaches 3,000 particles per minute. Living cells expressing spectroscopic rulers of varying peptide lengths were distinguishable by Förster resonant energy transfer measured by donor fluorescence lifetime. An epidermal growth factor (EGF)-stimulation assay demonstrated the technique's capacity to selectively quantify EGF receptor phosphorylation in cells, which was impossible by measuring sensitized emission on a standard flow cytometer. Dual-color fluorescence lifetime detection and cell-specific chemical environment sensing were exemplified using di-4-ANEPPDHQ, a lipophilic environmentally sensitive dye that exhibits changes in its fluorescence lifetime as a function of membrane lipid order. To our knowledge, this instrument opens new applications in flow cytometry which were unavailable due to technological limitations of previously reported fluorescent lifetime flow cytometers. The presented technique is sensitive to lifetimes of most popular fluorophores in the 0.5–5 ns range including fluorescent proteins and is capable of detecting multi-exponential fluorescence lifetime decays. This instrument vastly enhances the throughput of experiments involving