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Sample records for flow field study

  1. Flow field studies on yawed, stranded cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batill, S. M.; Nelson, R. C.; Nebres, J. V.

    A study of the flowfield near yawed, stranded cables was conducted in order to investigate the mechanisms associated with the generation of both steady and unsteady fluid forces on the cables. Rigid cable models and a circular cylinder were tested in a wind tunnel at four different cable angles over a Reynolds number range from 6000 to 14,600 based on the nominal cable diameter. The smoke-wire and the kerosene smoke flow visualization techniques were used to qualitatively evaluate the flowfields associated with each cable geometry.

  2. Compound Lava Flow Fields on Planetary Surfaces: Hawaiian Analogue Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crown, D. A.; Byrnes, J. M.; Ramsey, M. S.

    2002-12-01

    Quantitative, process-oriented analyses of planetary volcanism have primarily been based on analogue studies of single-lobed lava flows emplaced as discrete units. Comparative analyses of compound lava flow fields on the Earth and terrestrial planets are being conducted in order to include volcanic styles characterized by complex distributary systems, stratigraphic relationships, and emplacement histories. Field observations, differential Global Positioning Systems (dGPS) measurements, and visible, thermal, and radar remote sensing are being used to characterize Hawaiian lava flow fields and develop techniques for analyses of planetary flow fields using datasets with high spatial and/or spectral resolution, such as MOC and THEMIS. These terrestrial studies allow flow field surface morphology, topography, and lava textures as well as detailed maps of distributary networks to be used to examine flow field growth and development. Information on flow field evolution is provided by delineating relationships between remote sensing signatures, surface morphology, and lava transport processes and by identifying input parameters for flowfield emplacement models. Investigations of the Mauna Ulu (1969-1974) and Puu Oo (1983-present) flow fields (Kilauea Volcano, HI) have focused on understanding the nature of distributary networks at various scales in order to determine spatial and temporal variations in lava transport. Initial work at Mauna Ulu has included analyses of 1) the distribution, network morphometry, and volumetric significance of lava channels in the medial zone of the flow field, and 2) the distribution, lava texture, and volumetric significance of breakouts from surface conduits and subsurface storage. Analyses of the temporal evolution of individual conduit systems provide the basis for interpretation of complex patterns of overlapping surface units that characterize local flow stratigraphy. Reconstruction of lava transport networks and relationships to surface

  3. Ex-situ experimental studies on serpentine flow field design for redox flow battery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jyothi Latha, T.; Jayanti, S.

    2014-02-01

    Electrolyte distribution using parallel flow field for redox flow battery (RFB) applications shows severe non-uniformity, while the conventional design of using the carbon felt itself as the flow distributor gives too high pressure drop. An optimized flow field design for uniform flow distribution at a minimal parasitic power loss is therefore needed for RFB systems. Since the materials and geometrical dimensions in RFBs are very different from those used in fuel cells, the hydrodynamics of the flow fields in RFBs is likely to be very different. In the present paper, we report on a fundamental study of the hydrodynamics of a serpentine flow field relevant to RFB applications. The permeability of the porous medium has been measured under different compression ratios and this is found to be in the range of 5-8 × 10-11 m2. The pressure drop in two serpentine flow fields of different geometric characteristics has been measured over a range of Reynolds numbers. Further analysis using computational fluid dynamics simulations brings out the importance of the compression of the porous medium as an additional parameter in determining the flow distribution and pressure drop in these flow fields.

  4. Numerical study of a ramjet dump combustor flow field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, J. P.

    1983-01-01

    Increased interest in ramjet propulsion systems with higher performance requirements and tighter constraints on system size and weight has lead to the need for improved techniques for analyzing and designing such systems. A computer program has been developed to analyze the turbulent reacting flow field in a ramjet dump combustor configuration. The program solves the axisymmetric Navier-Stokes and species equations throughout the engine diffuser and combustor providing a unified analysis of the complete engine flow field, including flow separation, fuel-air mixing, and preliminary results with chemical reaction. Details of the program development are given, along with a comparison of program results with data from a dump combustor simulation experiment, to allow assessment of the flow field modeling that is employed.

  5. Numerical study of scramjet and ramjet flow fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, A.; Drummond, J. P.

    1983-01-01

    Two computer programs have been developed to numerically calculate complex, two-dimensional flow fields in scramjets. The first program is written for inlet analysis whereas the second program is written primarily for combustor analysis. Both programs solve the full two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations by a well-known explicit, predictor-corrector technique. Turbulence is modeled by an algebraic eddy-viscosity model. The combustor program also includes one or more species conservation equations to calculate mixing and reacting flows. The hydrogen/air chemistry in this program is modeled by a complete reaction model. The combustor program has been recently modified to analyze axisymmetric ramjet dump combustor flow field. Results from these computer programs are presented that predict the flow in several scramjet inlet configurations, two model scramjet engine configurations, and in a dump combustor simulator. Computed results are also compared with available experimental data to allow assessment of the programs.

  6. Study of flow fields induced by surface dielectric barrier discharge actuator in low-pressure air

    SciTech Connect

    Che, Xueke E-mail: st@mail.iee.ac.cn; Nie, Wansheng; Tian, Xihui; Hou, Zhiyong; He, Haobo; Zhou, Penghui; Zhou, Siyin; Yang, Chao; Shao, Tao E-mail: st@mail.iee.ac.cn

    2014-04-15

    Surface dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD) is a promising method for a flow control. Flow fields induced by a SDBD actuator driven by the ac voltage in static air at low pressures varying from 1.0 to 27.7 kPa are measured by the particle image velocimetry method. The influence of the applied ac voltage frequency and magnitude on the induced flow fields is studied. The results show that three different classes of flow fields (wall jet flow field, complex flow field, and vortex-shape flow field) can be induced by the SDBD actuator in the low-pressure air. Among them, the wall jet flow field is the same as the tangential jet at atmospheric pressure, which is, together with the vertical jet, the complex flow field. The vortex-shape flow field is composed of one vertical jet which points towards the wall and two opposite tangential jets. The complex and the vortex-shape flow fields can be transformed to the wall jet flow field when the applied ac voltage frequency and magnitude are changed. It is found that the discharge power consumption increases initially, decreases, and then increases again at the same applied ac voltage magnitude when the air pressure decreases. The tangential velocity of the wall jet flow field increases when the air pressure decreases. It is however opposite for the complex flow field. The variation of the applied ac voltage frequency influences differently three different flow fields. When the applied ac voltage magnitude increases at the same applied ac voltage frequency, the maximal jet velocity increases, while the power efficiency increases only initially and then decreases again. The discharge power shows either linear or exponential dependences on the applied ac voltage magnitude.

  7. Numerical Study of Flow Motion and Patterns Driven by a Rotating Permanent Helical Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wenzhi; Wang, Xiaodong; Wang, Bo; Baltaretu, Florin; Etay, Jacqueline; Fautrelle, Yves

    2016-10-01

    Liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic flow driven by a rotating permanent helical magnetic field in a cylindrical container is numerically studied. A three-dimensional numerical simulation provides insight into the visualization of the physical fields, including the magnetic field, the Lorentz force density, and the flow structures, especially the flow patterns in the meridional plane. Because the screen parameter is sufficiently small, the model is decoupled into electromagnetic and hydrodynamic components. Two flow patterns in the meridional plane, i.e., the global flow and the secondary flow, are discovered and the impact of several system parameters on their transition is investigated. Finally, a verifying model is used for comparison with the previous experiment.

  8. Numerical Study of Flow Motion and Patterns Driven by a Rotating Permanent Helical Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wenzhi; Wang, Xiaodong; Wang, Bo; Baltaretu, Florin; Etay, Jacqueline; Fautrelle, Yves

    2016-08-01

    Liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic flow driven by a rotating permanent helical magnetic field in a cylindrical container is numerically studied. A three-dimensional numerical simulation provides insight into the visualization of the physical fields, including the magnetic field, the Lorentz force density, and the flow structures, especially the flow patterns in the meridional plane. Because the screen parameter is sufficiently small, the model is decoupled into electromagnetic and hydrodynamic components. Two flow patterns in the meridional plane, i.e., the global flow and the secondary flow, are discovered and the impact of several system parameters on their transition is investigated. Finally, a verifying model is used for comparison with the previous experiment.

  9. Study of Spray Disintegration in Accelerating Flow Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nurick, W. H.

    1972-01-01

    An analytical and experimental investigation was conducted to perform "proof of principlem experiments to establish the effects of propellant combustion gas velocity on propella'nt atomization characteristics. The propellants were gaseous oxygen (GOX) and Shell Wax 270. The fuel was thus the same fluid used in earlier primary cold-flow atomization studies using the frozen wax method. Experiments were conducted over a range in L* (30 to 160 inches) at two contraction ratios (2 and 6). Characteristic exhaust velocity (c*) efficiencies varied from SO to 90 percent. The hot fire experimental performance characteristics at a contraction ratio of 6.0 in conjunction with analytical predictions from the drovlet heat-up version of the Distributed Energy Release (DER) combustion computer proDam showed that the apparent initial dropsize compared well with cold-flow predictions (if adjusted for the gas velocity effects). The results also compared very well with the trend in perfomnce as predicted with the model. significant propellant wall impingement at the contraction ratio of 2.0 precluded complete evaluation of the effect of gross changes in combustion gas velocity on spray dropsize.

  10. Computational study of generic hypersonic vehicle flow fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayan, Johnny R.

    1994-01-01

    The geometric data of the generic hypersonic vehicle configuration included body definitions and preliminary grids for the forebody (nose cone excluded), midsection (propulsion system excluded), and afterbody sections. This data was to be augmented by the nose section geometry (blunt conical section mated with the noncircular cross section of the forebody initial plane) along with a grid and a detailed supersonic combustion ramjet (scramjet) geometry (inlet and combustor) which should be merged with the nozzle portion of the afterbody geometry. The solutions were to be obtained by using a Navier-Stokes (NS) code such as TUFF for the nose portion, a parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) solver such as the UPS and STUFF codes for the forebody, a NS solver with finite rate hydrogen-air chemistry capability such as TUFF and SPARK for the scramjet and a suitable solver (NS or PNS) for the afterbody and external nozzle flows. The numerical simulation of the hypersonic propulsion system for the generic hypersonic vehicle is the major focus of this entire work. Supersonic combustion ramjet is such a propulsion system, hence the main thrust of the present task has been to establish a solution procedure for the scramjet flow. The scramjet flow is compressible, turbulent, and reacting. The fuel used is hydrogen and the combustion process proceeds at a finite rate. As a result, the solution procedure must be capable of addressing such flows.

  11. Numerical studies on flow fields around buildings in an Urban street canyon and cross-road

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xueling; Hu, Fei

    2005-03-01

    The questions on how vortices are constructed and on the relationship between the flow patterns and concentration distributions in real street canyons are the most pressing questions in pollution control studies. In this paper, the very large eddy simulation (VLES) and large eddy simulation (LES) are applied to calculate the flow and pollutant concentration fields in an urban street canyon and a cross-road respectively. It is found that the flow separations are not only related to the canyon aspect ratios, but also with the flow velocities and wall temperatures. And the turbulent dispersions are so strongly affected by the flow fields that the pollutant concentration distributions can be distinguished from the different aspect ratios, flow velocities and wall temperatures.

  12. Fundamental study of flow field generated by rotorcraft blades using wide-field shadowgraph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parthasarathy, S. P.; Cho, Y. I.; Back, L. H.

    1985-01-01

    The vortex trajectory and vortex wake generated by helicopter rotors are visualized using a wide-field shadowgraph technique. Use of a retro-reflective Scotchlite screen makes it possible to investigate the flow field generated by full-scale rotors. Tip vortex trajectories are visible in shadowgraphs for a range of tip Mach number of 0.38 to 0.60. The effect of the angle of attack is substantial. At an angle of attack greater than 8 degrees, the visibility of the vortex core is significant even at relatively low tip Mach numbers. The theoretical analysis of the sensitivity is carried out for a rotating blade. This analysis demonstrates that the sensitivity decreases with increasing dimensionless core radius and increases with increasing tip Mach number. The threshold value of the sensitivity is found to be 0.0015, below which the vortex core is not visible and above which it is visible. The effect of the optical path length is also discussed. Based on this investigation, it is concluded that the application of this wide-field shadowgraph technique to a large wind tunnel test should be feasible. In addition, two simultaneous shadowgraph views would allow three-dimensional reconstruction of vortex trajectories.

  13. Field-Flow Fractionation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Karin D.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a technique for separating samples that range over 15 orders of magnitude in molecular weight. Discusses theory, apparatus, and sample preparation techniques. Lists several types of field-flow fractionation (FFF) and their uses: sedimentation FFF, thermal FFF, flow FFF, electrical FFF, and steric FFF. (ML)

  14. Feasibility study of red blood cell debulking by magnetic field-flow fractionation with step-programmed flow.

    PubMed

    Moore, Lee R; Williams, P Stephen; Nehl, Franziska; Abe, Koji; Chalmers, Jeffrey J; Zborowski, Maciej

    2014-02-01

    Emerging applications of rare cell separation and analysis, such as separation of mature red blood cells from hematopoietic cell cultures, require efficient methods of red blood cell (RBC) debulking. We have tested the feasibility of magnetic RBC separation as an alternative to centrifugal separation using an approach based on the mechanism of magnetic field-flow fractionation (MgFFF). A specially designed permanent magnet assembly generated a quadrupole field having a maximum field of 1.68 T at the magnet pole tips, zero field at the aperture axis, and a nearly constant radial field gradient of 1.75 T/mm (with a negligible angular component) inside a cylindrical aperture of 1.9 mm (diameter) and 76 mm (length). The cell samples included high-spin hemoglobin RBCs obtained by chemical conversion of hemoglobin to methemoglobin (met RBC) or by exposure to anoxic conditions (deoxy RBC), low-spin hemoglobin obtained by exposure of RBC suspension to ambient air (oxy RBC), and mixtures of deoxy RBC and cells from a KG-1a white blood cell (WBC) line. The observation that met RBCs did not elute from the channel at the lower flow rate of 0.05 mL/min applied for 15 min but quickly eluted at the subsequent higher flow rate of 2.0 mL/min was in agreement with FFF theory. The well-defined experimental conditions (precise field and flow characteristics) and a well-established FFF theory verified by studies with model cell systems provided us with a strong basis for making predictions about potential practical applications of the magnetic RBC separation.

  15. Background-oriented schlieren for the study of large flow fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trolinger, James D.; Buckner, Ben; L'Esperance, Drew

    2015-09-01

    Modern digital recording and processing techniques combined with new lighting methods and relatively old schlieren visualization methods move flow visualization to a new level, enabling a wide range of new applications and a possible revolution in the visualization of very large flow fields. This paper traces the evolution of schlieren imaging from Robert Hooke, who, in 1665, employed candles and lenses, to modern digital background oriented schlieren (BOS) systems, wherein image processing by computer replaces pure optical image processing. New possibilities and potential applications that could benefit from such a capability are examined. Example applications include viewing the flow field around full sized aircraft, large equipment and vehicles, monitoring explosions on bomb ranges, cooling systems, large structures and even buildings. Objectives of studies include aerodynamics, aero optics, heat transfer, and aero thermal measurements. Relevant digital cameras, light sources, and implementation methods are discussed.

  16. Experimental study of effects of tip geometry on the flow field in a turbine cascade passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Hongwei; Wang, Lixiang

    2015-02-01

    This study investigates the effects of blade tip geometry on the flow field of a turbine cascade at the incidence angle of 0 degree experimentally. The tests were performed in a low-speed turbine cascade wind tunnel. The Reynolds number based on the blade chord was about 172300 at the exit. Traverses of the exit flow field were made in order to measure the overall performance. The effects of using flat tip and grooved tip with a chord-wise channel were studied. The case with the flat tip is referenced as the baseline. The tip clearances are all 1 mm measuring 0.84 percent of the blade span. The depth of channel is 2mm. The flow field at 10% chord downstream from the cascade trailing edge was measured at 38 span-wise positions and 26 pitch-wise positions using a mini five-hole pressure probe. The static pressure distribution on the tip end wall is measured at 16 pitch-wise stations and 17 chord-wise stations. Results show that there exists great pressure gradient in the pressure side for the flat tip and the pressure side squealer tip, which means strong leakage flow. The pressure gradient from the pressure side to the suction side is greatly decreased for the grooved tip, and the resulting leakage flow is weaker. The core of the leakage vortex moves closer to the suction side for the pressure side squealer tip and farther away from the suction side for the suction side squealer tip. The pressure side squealer has little advantages over the flat tip in improving the flow capacity and reducing the overall losses. The suction side squealer tip and grooved tip can effectively decrease the intensity of the tip leakage vortex, improve the flow capacity and reduce loss of the turbine cascade passage and the grooved tip performs the best.

  17. Emplacement of lava flow fields: Application of terrestrial studies to Alba Patera, Mars

    SciTech Connect

    Lopes, R.M.C. ); Kilburn, C.R.J. )

    1990-08-30

    Morphological data are at present the major source of information for extraterrestrial lavas. Effusion conditions must therefore be inferred from the final shapes of flow fields, generally using terrestrial lavas as analogues and so presupposing similar emplacement regimes on Earth and other planets. Studies of terrestrial lavas suggest that the overall development of flow fields is systematic and that a general, normalized relation can be established linking the final dimensions of a flow field (specifically, average thickness and the ratio of maximum width to maximum length) to underlying slope and eruption duration, independent of explicit knowledge of discharge rate, gravitational acceleration, lava density, and rheology. This relation is applied to lavas on the Martian volcano Alba Patera, on which two distinct planimetric types of lava flow fields are identified, and eruption durations, average discharge rates, and average velocities are obtained. Imposing the constraint of a terrestrial emplacement regime, the model yields internally consistent results for subliquidus lavas and suggests that, at least for basaltic-basaltic andesitic compositions, the essential conditions of eruption may have been similar to those currently observed on Earth.

  18. A field study of coherent flow structures over low angle dunes: Fraser Estuary, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, R. W.; Hendershot, M. L.; Venditti, J. G.; Kostaschuk, R. A.; Allison, M. A.; Church, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    Aqueous dunes are present in nearly all sand bedded alluvial channels and can significantly influence flow resistance and sediment transport and deposition. The geometry of these bedforms can take on a high angle asymmetrical or low angle symmetrical shape. While advances have been made in understanding the mean and turbulent flow over high angle dunes, far less progress has been made in detailing flow over low angle dunes, commonly observed in large rivers, due to difficulties measuring near the bed and quantifying the turbulence over these bedforms. This field study documents the flow over low angle dunes in the Fraser Estuary, British Columbia, using an acoustic Doppler profiler (aDcp) to measure 3-D flow characteristics and a multi-beam echo sounder (MBES) to provide high-resolution bed topography. Measurements were made over a dune field (~1 km long and ~0.5 wide) through two semi-diurnal tidal cycles during the 2010 freshet. We examine the coupling between the bedform morphology and the generation of coherent flow structures. Bedforms in the dune field range from low-angle symmetric to higher angle asymmetric and vary over tidal cycles; however, none display the classic angle of repose geometry. Mean flow velocity increases on falling tide while it decreases the rising tide. At lower tides, large scale motions caused by topographic forcing emerge on stoss slopes and rise up over the crest producing variations in suspended sediment over the bedforms. Our analysis is intended to contribute insight into what controls the occurrence of low angle bedforms in rivers.

  19. Morphologic and Chronologic Studies of Lava Flow Fields in the Southern Tharsis Region of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crown, D. A.; Ramsey, M. S.; Berman, D. C.

    2012-03-01

    The current investigation examines styles and sequences of volcanism in southern Tharsis, Mars. Geologic and flow field mapping reveal changes in flow morphology and age from south of Arsia Mons to the southern extent of Daedalia Planum.

  20. Numerical calculations of flow fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D.; Vogel, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    Numerical calculations were made of flow fields generated by various aerodynamic configurations. Data cover flow fields generated by a finitely thick lifting three dimensional wing with subsonic tips moving at supersonic speeds, cross flow instability associated with lifting delta wing configurations such as space shuttles, and flow fields produced by a lifting elliptic cone. Finite difference techniques were used to determine elliptic cone flow.

  1. Subsurface flow in a soil-mantled subtropical dolomite karst slope: A field rainfall simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Z. Y.; Chen, H. S.; Zhang, W.; Xu, Q. X.; Wang, S.; Wang, K. L.

    2015-12-01

    Soil and epikarst co-evolve resulting in complex structures, but their coupled structural effects on hydrological processes are poorly understood in karst regions. This study examined the plot-scale subsurface flow characteristics from an integrated soil-epikarst system perspective in a humid subtropical cockpit karst region of Southwest China. A trench was excavated to the epikarst lower boundary for collecting individual subsurface flows in five sections with different soil thicknesses. Four field rainfall simulation experiments were carried out under different initial moisture conditions (dry and wet) and rainfall intensities (114 mm h- 1 (high) and 46 mm h- 1 (low) on average). The soil-epikarst system was characterized by shallow soil overlaying a highly irregular epikarst surface with a near-steady infiltration rate of about 35 mm h- 1. The subsurface flows occurred mainly along the soil-epikarst interface and were dominated by preferential flow. The subsurface flow hydrographs showed strong spatial variability and had high steady-state coefficients (0.52 and 0.36 for high and low rainfall intensity events). Irregular epikarst surface combining with high vertical drainage capacity resulted in high threshold rainfall depths for subsurface flows: 67 mm and 263 mm for initial wet and dry conditions, respectively. The above results evidenced that the irregular and permeable soil-epikarst interface was a crucial component of soil-epikarst architecture and consequently should be taken into account in the hydrological modeling for karst regions.

  2. Study of Flow-Field Interactions in a Transonic Compressor using DPIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estevadeordal, Jordi; Gogineni, Sivaram; Goss, Larry; Copenhaver, William; Gorrell, Steve; Koch, Peter

    1999-11-01

    The unsteadiness and spatial structures in a high-through-flow, axial-flow transonic compressor are captured using Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (DPIV). The measurements are made using both single-color and two-color DPIV systems. A special optical probe was designed for laser delivery through the inlet guide vanes (IGVs). Viewing windows on the compressor housing allow optical access. Submicron sized smoke particles are used for seeding the compressor flow and the DPIV system is synchronized with the blade passage. The interactions between the coherent structures from the IGVs with the rotor blades and the bow shock are studied for various configurations. The coherent structures interactions with the potential field of the leading edge of the blades and the shock as a function of the blade position are analyzed for a full blade passage through the wake. Comparisons are made with unsteady numerical simulations.

  3. Sedimentation field flow fractionation and flow field flow fractionation as tools for studying the aging effects of WO₃ colloids for photoelectrochemical uses.

    PubMed

    Contado, Catia; Argazzi, Roberto

    2011-07-01

    WO₃ colloidal suspensions obtained through a simple sol-gel procedure were subjected to a controlled temperature aging process whose time evolution in terms of particle mass and size distribution was followed by sedimentation field flow fractionation (SdFFF) and flow field flow fractionation (FlFFF). The experiments performed at a temperature of 60 °C showed that in a few hours the initially transparent sol of WO₃ particles, whose size was less than 25 nm, undergoes a progressive size increase allowing nanoparticles to reach a maximum equivalent spherical size of about 130 nm after 5 h. The observed shift in particle size distribution maxima (SdFFF), the broadening of the curves (FlFFF) and the SEM-TEM observations suggest a mixed mechanism of growth-aggregation of initial nanocrystals to form larger particles. The photoelectrochemical properties of thin WO₃ films obtained from the aged suspensions at regular intervals, were tested in a biased photoelectrocatalytic cell with 1M H₂SO₄ under solar simulated irradiation. The current-voltage polarization curves recorded in the potential range 0-1.8 V (vs. SCE) showed a diminution of the maximum photocurrent from 3.7 mA cm⁻² to 2.8 mA cm⁻² with aging times of 1h and 5h, respectively. This loss of performance was mainly attributed to the reduction of the electroactive surface area of the sintered particles as suggested by the satisfactory linear correlation between the integrated photocurrent and the cyclic voltammetry cathodic wave area of the W(VI)→W(V) process measured in the dark. PMID:21168138

  4. Sedimentation field flow fractionation and flow field flow fractionation as tools for studying the aging effects of WO₃ colloids for photoelectrochemical uses.

    PubMed

    Contado, Catia; Argazzi, Roberto

    2011-07-01

    WO₃ colloidal suspensions obtained through a simple sol-gel procedure were subjected to a controlled temperature aging process whose time evolution in terms of particle mass and size distribution was followed by sedimentation field flow fractionation (SdFFF) and flow field flow fractionation (FlFFF). The experiments performed at a temperature of 60 °C showed that in a few hours the initially transparent sol of WO₃ particles, whose size was less than 25 nm, undergoes a progressive size increase allowing nanoparticles to reach a maximum equivalent spherical size of about 130 nm after 5 h. The observed shift in particle size distribution maxima (SdFFF), the broadening of the curves (FlFFF) and the SEM-TEM observations suggest a mixed mechanism of growth-aggregation of initial nanocrystals to form larger particles. The photoelectrochemical properties of thin WO₃ films obtained from the aged suspensions at regular intervals, were tested in a biased photoelectrocatalytic cell with 1M H₂SO₄ under solar simulated irradiation. The current-voltage polarization curves recorded in the potential range 0-1.8 V (vs. SCE) showed a diminution of the maximum photocurrent from 3.7 mA cm⁻² to 2.8 mA cm⁻² with aging times of 1h and 5h, respectively. This loss of performance was mainly attributed to the reduction of the electroactive surface area of the sintered particles as suggested by the satisfactory linear correlation between the integrated photocurrent and the cyclic voltammetry cathodic wave area of the W(VI)→W(V) process measured in the dark.

  5. Chronologic Studies of Lava Flow Fields in the Southern Tharsis Region of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crown, D. A.; Berman, D. C.; Herrick, E.

    2014-12-01

    The current investigation examines the styles and sequences of volcanism in the southern Tharsis region of Mars. High-resolution images are being used to produce geologic and flow field maps of the region south of Arsia Mons and in Daedalia Planum. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Context Camera (CTX; ~5 m/pixel) images allow reconstruction of complex volcanic surfaces, including delineation of individual flow lobes and superposition relationships within a flow field. Flow field mapping reveals complex flow patterns and local interfingering and overlapping relationships. Populations of small, superposed impact craters are used to derive relative and absolute age constraints for individual flows and flow sequences. Mapping has revealed differences in flow morphology, flow age, and flow surface texture across the region. Results to-date show a general progression from younger (~100 My-old) flows with elongate, sinuous morphologies to the northeast (closer to Arsia Mons) to older (~500 My- to ~1 Gy-old) broader lobes and sheet flows to the southwest. At the southern margin of the Tharsis region, older (~3.7 Gy) volcanic plains have been identified where Tharis flows contact the ancient highlands.

  6. Experimental and numerical studies on plasma behavior flowing across perpendicular magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takezaki, T.; Takahashi, K.; Sasaki, T.; Kikuchi, T.; Harada, N.

    2016-05-01

    To understand particle acceleration mechanisms in a collisionless shock, we have investigated the behaviors of a one-dimensional fast plasma flow in a perpendicular magnetic field by experimental and numerical simulations in a laboratory scale experiment. The velocity of the plasma flow generated by a taper-cone-shaped plasma focus device has varied by the gradient of the perpendicular magnetic field. The plasma flow has accelerated by applying the magnetic field with the negative gradient. To clarify the behavior of the plasma flow in the perpendicular magnetic field, numerical simulations based on an electromagnetic hybrid particle-in-cell (PIC) method have been carried out. These results indicate that the magnetic field gradient affects the plasma flow velocity.

  7. A numerical study of turbulent flow over complex aeolian dune fields: the White Sands National Monument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, W. W.; Chamecki, M.; Kocurek, G.; Mohrig, D. C.

    2013-12-01

    The structure and dynamics of fully-developed turbulent flows responding to aeolian dune fields are studied using large-eddy simulation with an immersed boundary method. An aspect of particular importance in these flows is the downwind migration of coherent motions associated with Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities which originate at the dune crests. These instabilities are responsible for enhanced downward transport of high momentum fluid via the so-called turbulent sweep mechanism. However, the presence of such structures and their role in determining the bulk characteristics of fully developed dune field sublayer aerodynamics has received relatively limited attention. Moreover, many existing studies address mostly symmetric or mildly asymmetric dune forms. The White Sands National Monument is a field of aeolian gypsum sand dunes located in the Tularosa Basin in southern New Mexico. Aeolian processes at the site result in a complex, anisotropic dune field. In the dune field sublayer, the flow statistics resemble a mixing layer: at approximately the dune crest height, vertical profiles of streamwise velocity exhibit an inflection and turbulent Reynolds stresses are maximum; below this, the streamwise and vertical velocity fluctuations are positively and negatively skewed, respectively. We evaluate the spatial structure of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities present in the dune field sublayer -- shear length, Ls, and vortex spacing, Lambda_x -- and show that Ls = m Lambda_x, where m is approximately 8 in the different sections considered (for turbulent mixing layers, 7 < m < 10, Rogers and Moser, 1994: Phys. Fluids A, 6, 903-922). These results guide discussion on the statistics of aerodynamic drag across the dunes; probability density functions of time-series of aerodynamic drag for the dunes are shown to exhibit skewness and variance much greater than values reported for turbulent boundary layer flow over an homogeneous roughness distribution. Thus, we propose that

  8. A coupled field study of subsurface fracture flow and colloid transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Tang, Xiang-Yu; Weisbrod, Noam; Zhao, Pei; Reid, Brian J.

    2015-05-01

    Field studies of subsurface transport of colloids, which may act as carriers of contaminants, are still rare. This is particularly true for heterogeneous and fractured matrices. To address this knowledge gap, a 30-m long monitoring trench was constructed at the lower end of sloping farmland in central Sichuan, southwest China. During the summer of 2013, high resolution dynamic and temporal fracture flow discharging from the interface between fractured mudrock and impermeable sandstone was obtained at intervals of 5 min (for fast rising stages), 30-60 min (for slow falling stages) or 15 min (at all other times). This discharge was analyzed to elucidate fracture flow and colloid transport in response to rainfall events. Colloid concentrations were observed to increase quickly once rainfall started (∼15-90 min) and reached peak values of up to 188 mg/L. Interestingly, maximum colloid concentration occurred prior to the arrival of flow discharge peak (i.e. maximum colloid concentration was observed before saturation of the soil layer). Rainfall intensity (rather than its duration) was noted to be the main factor controlling colloid response and transport. Dissolved organic carbon concentration and δ18O dynamics in combination with soil water potential were used to apportion water sources of fracture flow at different stages. These approaches suggested the main source of the colloids discharged to be associated with the flushing of colloids from the soil mesopores and macropores. Beyond the scientific interest of colloid mobilization and transport at the field scale, these results have important implications for a region of about 160,000 km2 in southwest China that featured similar hydrogeologic settings as the experimental site. In this agriculture-dominated area, application of pesticides and fertilizers to farmland is prevalent. These results highlight the need to avoid such applications immediately before rainfall events in order to reduce rapid migration to

  9. Study of unsteady flow field over a forward-looking endoatmospheric hit-to-kill interceptor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, H. Q.; Antonison, Mark

    1993-01-01

    Forward-looking recessed aperture interceptor has significant aero-optical and aero-thermal advantages. Previous experimental studies have shown that the flow field in front of a forward-looking cavity is unsteady and the bow shock oscillates at the cavity fundamental resonant frequency. In this study, an advanced CFD code is applied to study the above unsteady phenomena. The code is first validated against the experiments and good comparisons are found. The numerical parametric study shows that the existence of oscillatory bow shock is very sensitive to the cavity geometry. At a FOV of 60 deg, the initial transient quickly dampens out to a steady state. With a decrease of FOV, an unsteady oscillatory flow field is sustained after initial transient and the amplitude of oscillation is a function of FOV. For FOV of 20 deg, the amplitude of pressure oscillation is 25 percent of the mean value in the cavity. For a FOV of 10 deg, it can be as high as 50 percent.

  10. Aggregation behavior of fullerenes in aqueous solutions: a capillary electrophoresis and asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation study.

    PubMed

    Astefanei, Alina; Núñez, Oscar; Galceran, Maria Teresa; Kok, Wim Th; Schoenmakers, Peter J

    2015-10-01

    In this work, the electrophoretic behavior of hydrophobic fullerenes [buckminsterfullerene (C60), C70, and N-methyl-fulleropyrrolidine (C60-pyrr)] and water-soluble fullerenes [fullerol (C60(OH)24); polyhydroxy small gap fullerene, hydrated (C120(OH)30); C60 pyrrolidine tris acid (C60-pyrr tris acid); and (1,2-methanofullerene C60)-61-carboxylic acid (C60CHCOOH)] in micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECC) was evaluated. The aggregation behavior of the water-soluble compounds in MECC at different buffer and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) concentrations and pH values of the background electrolyte (BGE) was studied by monitoring the changes observed in the electrophoretic pattern of the peaks. Broad and distorted peaks that can be attributed to fullerene aggregation were obtained in MECC which became narrower and more symmetric by working at low buffer and SDS concentrations (below the critical micelle concentration, capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) conditions). For the characterization of the suspected aggregates formed (size and shape), asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used. The results showed that the increase in the buffer concentration promoted the aggregation of the particles, while the presence of SDS micelles revealed multiple peaks corresponding to particles of different aggregation degrees. Furthermore, MECC has been applied for the first time for the analysis of C60 in two different cosmetic products (i.e., anti-aging serum and facial mask).

  11. Field, laboratory and numerical approaches to studying flow through mangrove pneumatophores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chua, V. P.

    2014-12-01

    The circulation of water in riverine mangrove swamps is expected to be influenced by mangrove roots, which in turn affect the nutrients, pollutants and sediments transport in these systems. Field studies were carried out in mangrove areas along the coastline of Singapore where Avicennia marina and Sonneratia alba pneumatophore species are found. Geometrical properties, such as height, diameter and spatial density of the mangrove roots were assessed through the use of photogrammetric methods. Samples of these roots were harvested from mangrove swamps and their material properties, such as bending strength and Young's modulus were determined in the laboratory. It was found that the pneumatophores under hydrodynamic loadings in a mangrove environment could be regarded as fairly rigid. Artificial root models of pneumatophores were fabricated from downscaling based on field observations of mangroves. Flume experiments were performed and measurements of mean flow velocities, Reynolds stress and turbulent kinetic energy were made. The boundary layer formed over the vegetation patch is fully developed after x = 6 m with a linear mean velocity profile. High shear stresses and turbulent kinetic energy were observed at the interface between the top portion of the roots and the upper flow. The experimental data was employed to calibrate and validate three-dimensional simulations of flow in pneumatophores. The simulations were performed with the Delft3D-FLOW model, where the vegetation effect is introduced by adding a depth-distributed resistance force and modifying the k-ɛ turbulence model. The model-predicted profiles for mean velocity, turbulent kinetic energy and concentration were compared with experimental data. The model calibration is performed by adjusting the horizontal and vertical eddy viscosities and diffusivities. A skill assessment of the model is performed using statistical measures that include the Pearson correlation coefficient (r), the mean absolute error

  12. Lava Flow Fields of Southern Tharsis, Mars: Mapping, Morphologic, and Chronologic Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crown, D. A.; Ramsey, M. S.; Berman, D. C.

    2011-03-01

    Mapping of lava flows fields in the southern Arsia Mons and Daedalia Planum regions of Mars combined with analyses of flow morphology and populations of small impact craters are used to document the styles, magnitudes, and ages of volcanism in southern Tharsis.

  13. The Flow Field Downstream of a Dynamic Low Aspect Ratio Circular Cylinder: A Parametric Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gildersleeve, Samantha; Dan, Clingman; Amitay, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Flow past a static, low aspect ratio cylinder (pin) has shown the formation of vortical structures, namely the horseshoe and arch-type vortex. These vortical structures may have substantial effects in controlling flow separation over airfoils. In the present experiments, the flow field associated with a low aspect ratio cylinder as it interacts with a laminar boundary layer under static and dynamic conditions was investigated through a parametric study over a flat plate. As a result of the pin being actuated in the wall-normal direction, the structures formed in the wake of the pin were seen to be a strong function of actuation amplitude, driving frequency, and aspect ratio of the cylinder. The study was conducted at a Reynolds number of 1875, based on the local boundary layer thickness, with a free stream velocity of 10 m/s. SPIV data were collected for two aspect ratios of 0.75 and 1.125, actuation amplitudes of 6.7% and 16.7%, and driving frequencies of 175 Hz and 350 Hz. Results indicate that the presence and interactions between vortical structures are altered in comparison to the static case and suggest increased large-scale mixing when the pin is driven at the shedding frequency (350 Hz). Supported by the Boeing Company.

  14. Mach 10 computational study of a three-dimensional scramjet inlet flow field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Scott D.

    1995-01-01

    The present work documents the computational results for a combined computational and experimental parametric study of the internal aerodynamics of a generic three-dimensional sidewall-compression scramjet inlet configuration at Mach 10. The three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code SCRAMIN was chosen for the computational portion of the study because it uses a well-known and well-proven numerical scheme and has shown favorable comparison with experiment at Mach numbers between 2 and 6. One advantage of CFD was that it provided flow field data for a detailed examination of the internal flow characteristics in addition to the surface properties. The experimental test matrix at Mach 10 included three geometric contraction ratios (3, 5, and 9), three Reynolds numbers (0.55 x 10(exp 6) per foot, 1.14 x 10(exp 6) per foot, and 2.15 x 10(exp 6) per foot), and three cowl positions (at the throat and two forward positions). Computational data for two of these configurations (the contraction ratio of 3, Re = 2.15 x 10(exp 6) per foot, at two cowl positions) are presented along with a detailed analysis of the flow interactions in successive computational planes.

  15. Mach 10 computational study of a three-dimensional scramjet inlet flow field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Scott D.

    1995-01-01

    The present work documents the computational results for a combined computational and experimental parametric study of the internal aerodynamics of a generic three-dimensional sidewall-compression scramjet inlet configuration at Mach 10. The three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code SCRAMIN was chosen for the computational portion of the study because it uses a well-known and well-proven numerical scheme and has shown favorable comparison with experiment at Mach numbers between 2 and 6. One advantage of CFD was that it provided flow field data for a detailed examination of the internal flow characteristics in addition to the surface properties. The experimental test matrix at mach 10 included three geometric contraction ratios (3, 5, and 9), three Reynolds numbers (0.55 x 10(exp 6) per foot, 1.14 x 10(exp 6) per foot, and 2.15 x 10(exp 6) per foot), and three cowl positions (at the throat and two forward positions). Computational data for two of these configurations (the contraction ratio of 3, Re = 2.15 x 10 (exp 6) per foot, at two cowl positions) are presented along with a detailed analysis of the flow interactions in successive computational planes.

  16. Flow field study comparing design iterations of a 50 cc left ventricular assist device

    PubMed Central

    Nanna, Jason C.; Wivholm, Jennifer A.; Deutsch, Steven; Manning, Keefe B.

    2011-01-01

    The REMATCH study shows that implanted ventricular assist devices improve survival time and quality of life when used as a permanent therapy in patients who do not qualify for heart transplant. The success of the pulsatile 70 cc stroke volume left ventricular assist device (LVAD) developed by Penn State has led to the development of a 50 cc stroke volume pump for use in patients with smaller chest cavities to benefit a larger patient population. The initial 50 cc pump shows regions of in vivo thrombus formation which correlate to low wall shear rates within the device. In an in vitro evaluation of three new designs (V-2, V-3, V-4) of the 50 cc LVAD, identical except for the location and orientation of their outlet ports, particle image velocimetry (PIV) is used to capture planar flow field data within the pumps. V-2 has an outlet port which is located parallel to the inlet. In V-3, the outlet port is rotated away from the inlet port, with the intention of minimizing the amount of fluid turning needed to exit the device. With V-4 the outlet port is moved to the center of the pump in order to prolong the desirable rotational flow. PIV data were taken at 6 planar locations within the pump. While the modifications to the outlet port locations serve their intended purpose, they also introduce unwanted changes in the flow. Poorer wall washing and weaker rotational flow are observed with V-3 and V-4. While the differences between the devices are subtle, the device that has the most desirable flow characteristics is V-2. PMID:21734560

  17. Flow field studies on a micro-air-vehicle-scale cycloidal rotor in forward flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lind, Andrew H.; Jarugumilli, Tejaswi; Benedict, Moble; Lakshminarayan, Vinod K.; Jones, Anya R.; Chopra, Inderjit

    2014-12-01

    This paper examines the flow physics and principles of force production on a cycloidal rotor (cyclorotor) in forward flight. The cyclorotor considered here consists of two blades rotating about a horizontal axis, with cyclic pitch angle variation about the blade quarter-chord. The flow field at the rotor mid-span is analyzed using smoke flow visualization and particle image velocimeV are compared with flow fields predicted using 2D CFD and time-averaged force measurements acquired in an open-jet wind tunnel at three advance ratios. It is shown that the experimental flow field is nearly two dimensional at μ = 0.73 allowing for qualitative comparisons to be made with CFD. The incoming flow velocity decreases in magnitude as the flow passes through the retreating (upper) half of the rotor and is attributed to power extraction by the blades. A significant increase in flow velocity is observed across the advancing (lower) half of the rotor. The aerodynamic analysis demonstrates that the blades accelerate the flow through the lower aft region of the rotor, where they operate in a high dynamic pressure environment. This is consistent with CFD-predicted values of instantaneous aerodynamic forces which reveal that the aft section of the rotor is the primary region of force production. Phase-averaged flow field measurements showed two blade wakes in the flow, formed by each of the two blades. Analysis of the blades at several azimuthal positions revealed two significant blade-wake interactions. The locations of these blade-wake interactions are correlated with force peaks in the CFD-predicted instantaneous blade forces and highlight their importance to the generation of lift and propulsive force of the cyclorotor.

  18. Preliminary study of the effect of the turbulent flow field around complex surfaces on their acoustic characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, W. A.; Boldman, D.

    1978-01-01

    Fairly extensive measurements have been conducted of the turbulent flow around various surfaces as a basis for a study of the acoustic characteristics involved. In the experiments the flow from a nozzle was directed upon various two-dimensional surface configurations such as the three-flap model. A turbulent flow field description is given and an estimate of the acoustic characteristics is provided. The developed equations are based upon fundamental theories for simple configurations having simple flows. Qualitative estimates are obtained regarding the radiation pattern and the velocity power law. The effect of geometry and turbulent flow distribution on the acoustic emission from simple configurations are discussed.

  19. Morphological complexities and hazards during the emplacement of channel-fed `a`ā lava flow fields: A study of the 2001 lower flow field on Etna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Applegarth, L. J.; Pinkerton, H.; James, M. R.; Calvari, S.

    2010-08-01

    Long-lived basaltic eruptions often produce structurally complex, compound `a`ā flow fields. Here we reconstruct the development of a compound flow field emplaced during the 2001 eruption of Mt. Etna (Italy). Following an initial phase of cooling-limited advance, the reactivation of stationary flows by superposition of new units caused significant channel drainage. Later, blockages in the channel and effusion rate variations resulted in breaching events that produced two new major flow branches. We also examined small-scale, late-stage ‘squeeze-up’ extrusions that were widespread in the flow field. We classified these as ‘flows’, ‘tumuli’ or ‘spines’ on the basis of their morphology, which depended on the rheology, extrusion rate and cooling history of the lava. Squeeze-up flows were produced when the lava was fluid enough to drain away from the source bocca, but fragmented to produce blade-like features that differed markedly from `a`ā clinker. As activity waned, increased cooling and degassing led to lava arriving at boccas with a higher yield strength. In many cases this was unable to flow after extrusion, and laterally extensive, near-vertical sheets of lava developed. These are considered to be exogenous forms of tumuli. In the highest yield strength cases, near-solid lava was extruded from the flow core as a result of ramping, forming spines. The morphology and location of the squeeze-ups provides insight into the flow rheology at the time of their formation. Because they represent the final stages of activity of the flow, they may also help to refine estimates of the most advanced rheological states in which lava can be considered to flow. Our observations suggest that real-time monitoring of compound flow field evolution may allow complex processes such as channel breaching and bocca formation to be forecast. In addition, documenting the occurrence and morphology of squeeze-ups may allow us to determine whether there is any risk of a

  20. Numerical and experimental study of unsteady flow field and vibration in radial inflow turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Kreuz-Ihli, T.; Filsinger, D.; Schulz, A.; Wittig, S.

    2000-04-01

    The blades of turbocharger impellers are exposed to unsteady aerodynamic forces, which cause blade vibrations and may lead to failures. An indispensable requirement for a safe design of radial inflow turbines is a detailed knowledge of the exciting forces. Up to now, only a few investigations relating to unsteady aerodynamic forces in radial turbines have been presented. To give a detailed insight into the complex phenomena, a comprehensive research project was initiated at the Institut fuer Thermische Stroemungsmaschinen, at the University of Karlsruhe. A turbocharger test rig was installed in the high-pressure, high-temperature laboratory of the institute. The present paper gives a description of the test rig design and the measuring techniques. The flow field in a vaneless radial inflow turbine was analyzed using laser-Doppler anemometry. First results of unsteady flow field investigations in the turbine scroll and unsteady phase-resolved measurements of the flow field in the turbine rotor will be discussed. Moreover, results from finite element calculations analyzing frequencies and mode shapes are presented. As vibrations in turbines of turbochargers are assumed to be predominantly excited by unsteady aerodynamic forces, a method to predict the actual transient flow in a radial turbine utilizing the commercial Navier-Stokes solver TASCflow3d was developed. Results of the unsteady calculations are presented and comparisons with the measured unsteady flow field are made. As a major result, the excitation effect of the tongue region in a vaneless radial inflow turbine can be demonstrated.

  1. Cyclical magnetic field flow fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasci, T. O.; Johnson, W. P.; Gale, B. K.

    2012-04-01

    In this study, a new magnetic field flow fractionation (FFF) system was designed and modeled by using finite element simulations. Other than current magnetic FFF systems, which use static magnetic fields, our system uses cyclical magnetic fields. Results of the simulations show that our cyclical magnetic FFF system can be used effectively for the separation of magnetic nanoparticles. Cyclical magnetic FFF system is composed of a microfluidic channel (length = 5 cm, height = 30 μm) and 2 coils. Square wave currents of 1 Hz (with 90 deg of phase difference) were applied to the coils. By using Comsol Multiphysics 3.5a, magnetic field profile and corresponding magnetic force exerted on the magnetite nanoparticles were calculated. The magnetic force data were exported from Comsol to Matlab. In Matlab, a parabolic flow profile with maximum flow speed of 0.4 mL/h was defined. Particle trajectories were obtained by the calculation of the particle speeds resulted from both magnetic and hydrodynamic forces. Particle trajectories of the particles with sizes ranging from 10 to 50 nm were simulated and elution times of the particles were calculated. Results show that there is a significant difference between the elution times of the particles so that baseline separation of the particles can be obtained. In this work, it is shown that by the application of cyclical magnetic fields, the separation of magnetic nanoparticles can be done efficiently.

  2. Study of Fluid Flow Control in Protein Crystallization using Strong Magnetic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran, Narayanan; Leslie, Fred; Ciszak, Ewa

    2002-01-01

    positioning the crystal growth cell so that the magnetic susceptibility force counteracts terrestrial gravity. The general objective is to test the hypothesis of convective control using a strong magnetic field and magnetic field gradient and to understand the nature of the various forces that come into play. Specifically we aim to delineate causative factors and to quantify them through experiments, analysis and numerical modeling. Once the basic understanding is obtained, the study will focus on testing the hypothesis on proteins of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC), proteins E1 and E3. Obtaining high crystal quality of these proteins is of great importance to structural biologists since their structures need to be determined. Specific goals for the investigation are: 1. To develop an understanding of convection control in diamagnetic fluids with concentration gradients through experimentation and numerical modeling. Specifically solutal buoyancy driven convection due to crystal growth will be considered. 2. To develop predictive measures for successful crystallization in a magnetic field using analyses and numerical modeling for use in future protein crystal growth experiments. This will establish criteria that can be used to estimate the efficacy of magnetic field flow damping on crystallization of candidate proteins. 3. To demonstrate the understanding of convection damping by high magnetic fields to a class of proteins that is of interest and whose structure is as yet not determined. 4. To compare quantitatively, the quality of the grown crystals with and without a magnetic field. X-ray diffraction techniques will be used for the comparative studies. In a preliminary set of experiments, we studied crystal dissolution effects in a 5 Tesla magnet available at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Using a Schlieren setup, a 1mm crystal of Alum (Aluminum-Potassium Sulfate) was introduced in a 75% saturated solution and the resulting dissolution plume was observed

  3. Rheo-Optical Studies on a Polymer Liquid Crystal Under the Influence of Flow or Magnetic Fields.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasarao, Mohan

    1990-01-01

    The response of a lyotropic liquid crystal to an external perturbing field (flow or magnetic field) has been studied. Solutions of rodlike poly(1,4-phenylene -2,6-benzobisthiazole) (PBT) in methane sulfonic acid (MSA) have been used. The study is primarily limited to the anisotropic phase. Two molecular weights were used, both forming a liquid-crystalline phase above 3% by weight of the polymer in solution. Flow birefringence measurements were attempted to characterize flow-induced orientation in the nematic phase. However, a stable, uniform, steady-state flow condition was not reached. The transmitted intensities of polarized light, both with and without an analyzer, fluctuate rapidly, indicating that a stable, uniform flow did not obtain in torsional shear flow. By contrast, a constant stress was measured above 100 units of strain. During the course of this study, we were successful in obtaining monodomain nematic solutions. Monodomains were used to study the response of the material to external fields (flow or magnetic field). Experiments were done in the twist geometry in an effort to obtain the twist elastic constant for the solutions. We found that an instability is created on the application of a magnetic field, producing a phase grating. The instability has been characterized by light microscopy, fluorescence polarization and conoscopy. Theoretical description of this instability is unavailable as yet. We have demonstrated that the instability involves a three -dimensional flow pattern which gives rise to a reorientation of the director in three dimensions. Monodomains were used to study the flow properties of PBT solutions. Microscopic observations were made on textures created during flow. Conoscopy was used to study the director distortion at the onset of shear flows. We have established that alpha_2/ alpha_3 is less than zero, giving rise to unstable flow conditions. Situations with flow parallel and perpendicular to the director were examined. We have

  4. Field and numerical studies of flow structure in Lake Shira (Khakassia) in summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakubaylik, Tatyana; Kompaniets, Lidia

    2014-05-01

    Investigations of Lake Shira are conducted within a multidisciplinary approach that includes the study of biodiversity, biochemistry, geology of lake sediments, as well as its hydrophysics. Our report focuses on field measurements in the lake during the 2009 - 2013 and numerical modeling of flow structure. The flow velocity, temperature and salinity distribution and fluctuations of the thermocline (density) were measured in summer. An analysis of spatial and temporal variability of the major hydrophysical characteristics leads us to conclusion that certain meteorological conditions may cause internal waves in this lake. Digital terrain model is constructed from measurements of Lake bathymetry allowing us to carry out numerical simulation. Three-dimensional primitive equation numerical model GETM is applied to simulate hydrophysical processes in Lake Shira. The model is hydrostatic and Boussinesq. An algorithm of high order approximation is opted for calculating the equations of heat and salt transfer. Temperature and salinity distributions resulting from field observations are taken as initial data for numerical simulations. Model calculations as well as calculations with appropriate real wind pattern being observed on Lake Shira have been carried out. In the model calculations we follow (1). Significant differences are observed between model calculations with constant wind and calculations with real wind pattern. Unsteady wind pattern leads to the appearance of horizontal vortexes and a significant increase of vertical fluctuations in temperature (density, impurities). It causes lifting of the sediments to the upper layers at the areas where the thermocline contacts the bottom. It is important for understanding the overall picture of the processes occurring in the lake in summer. Comparison of the results of numerical experiments with the field data shows the possibility of such a phenomena in Lake Shira. The work was supported by the Russian Foundation for

  5. Supersonic reacting internal flow fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, J. Philip

    1989-01-01

    The national program to develop a trans-atmospheric vehicle has kindled a renewed interest in the modeling of supersonic reacting flows. A supersonic combustion ramjet, or scramjet, has been proposed to provide the propulsion system for this vehicle. The development of computational techniques for modeling supersonic reacting flow fields, and the application of these techniques to an increasingly difficult set of combustion problems are studied. Since the scramjet problem has been largely responsible for motivating this computational work, a brief history is given of hypersonic vehicles and their propulsion systems. A discussion is also given of some early modeling efforts applied to high speed reacting flows. Current activities to develop accurate and efficient algorithms and improved physical models for modeling supersonic combustion is then discussed. Some new problems where computer codes based on these algorithms and models are being applied are described.

  6. 3-D Flow Field Diagnostics and Validation Studies using Stereoscopic Tracking Velocimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cha, Soyoung Stephen; Ramachandran, Narayanan; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The measurement of 3-D three-component velocity fields is of great importance in both ground and space experiments for understanding materials processing and fluid physics. Here, we present the investigation results of stereoscopic tracking velocimetry (STV) for measuring 3-D velocity fields. The effort includes diagnostic technology development, experimental velocity measurement, and comparison with analytical and numerical computation. The advantages of STV stems from the system simplicity for building compact hardware and in software efficiency for continual near-real-time process monitoring. It also has illumination flexibility for observing volumetric flow fields from arbitrary directions. STV is based on stereoscopic CCD observations of particles seeded in a flow. Neural networks are used for data analysis. The developed diagnostic tool is tested with a simple directional solidification apparatus using Succinonitrile. The 3-D velocity field in the liquid phase is measured and compared with results from detailed numerical computations. Our theoretical, numerical, and experimental effort has shown STV to be a viable candidate for reliably quantifying the 3-D flow field in materials processing and fluids experiments.

  7. Magnetic Nanoparticle Drug Carriers and their Study by Quadrupole Magnetic Field-Flow Fractionation

    PubMed Central

    Williams, P. Stephen; Carpino, Francesca; Zborowski, Maciej

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticle drug carriers continue to attract considerable interest for drug targeting in the treatment of cancers and other pathological conditions. The efficient delivery of therapeutic levels of drug to a target site while limiting nonspecific, systemic toxicity requires optimization of the drug delivery materials, the applied magnetic field, and the treatment protocol. The history and current state of magnetic drug targeting is reviewed. While initial studies involved micron-sized and larger carriers, and work with these microcarriers continues, it is the sub-micron carriers or nanocarriers that are of increasing interest. An aspect of magnetic drug targeting using nanoparticle carriers that has not been considered is then addressed. This aspect involves the variation in the magnetic properties of the nanocarriers. Quadrupole magnetic field-flow fractionation (QMgFFF) is a relatively new technique for characterizing magnetic nanoparticles. It is unique in its capability of determining the distribution in magnetic properties of a nanoparticle sample in suspension. The development and current state of this technique is also reviewed. Magnetic nanoparticle drug carriers have been found by QMgFFF analysis to be highly polydisperse in their magnetic properties, and the strength of response of the particles to magnetic field gradients is predicted to vary by orders of magnitude. It is expected that the least magnetic fraction of a formulation will contribute the most to systemic toxicity, and the depletion of this fraction will result in a more effective drug carrying material. A material that has a reduced systemic toxicity will allow higher doses of cytotoxic drugs to be delivered to the tumor with reduced side effects. Preliminary experiments involving a novel method of refining a magnetic nanoparticle drug carrier to achieve this result are described. QMgFFF is used to characterize the refined and unrefined material. PMID:19591456

  8. Numerical study on three-dimensional flow field of continuously rotating detonation in a toroidal chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xu-Dong; Fan, Bao-Chun; Gui, Ming-Yue; Pan, Zhen-Hua; Dong, Gang

    2012-02-01

    Gaseous detonation propagating in a toroidal chamber was numerically studied for hydrogen/oxygen/nitrogen mixtures. The numerical method used is based on the three-dimensional Euler equations with detailed finiterate chemistry. The results show that the calculated streak picture is in qualitative agreement with the picture recorded by a high speed streak camera from published literature. The three-dimensional flow field induced by a continuously rotating detonation was visualized and distinctive features of the rotating detonations were clearly depicted. Owing to the unconfined character of detonation wavelet, a deficit of detonation parameters was observed. Due to the effects of wall geometries, the strength of the outside detonation front is stronger than that of the inside portion. The detonation thus propagates with a constant circular velocity. Numerical simulation also shows three-dimensional rotating detonation structures, which display specific feature of the detonationshock combined wave. Discrete burning gas pockets are formed due to instability of the discontinuity. It is believed that the present study could give an insight into the interesting properties of the continuously rotating detonation, and is thus beneficial to the design of continuous detonation propulsion systems.

  9. Integrated flow field (IFF) structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pien, Shyhing M. (Inventor); Warshay, Marvin (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    The present disclosure relates in part to a flow field structure comprising a hydrophilic part and a hydrophobic part communicably attached to each other via a connecting interface. The present disclosure further relates to electrochemical cells comprising the aforementioned flow fields.

  10. Visualization study on the static flow field around a straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Tagawa, Kotaro

    2010-03-01

    Visual experiments based on the smoke wire way were carried out on a small model of Straight-blade Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (SB-VAWT) to invest the relationship between the static flow field characteristics and the rotor azimuth angle. The test rotor had 3 blades with NACA0018 aerofoil. The rotor diameter and blade chord were 0.3m and 0.07m, respectively. Visual photos of the static flow path lines in and around the rotor were obtained at every 5 degrees of the azimuth angle. Further, numerical computations of the static flow filed were also carried out for comparison with the same situation as the visual tests and the static torques at different azimuth angles were calculated. According to the results of visual tests and computations, the dependence of the starting performance on the azimuth angle was discussed. The solidity is an important factor affecting the starting performance of the SB-VAWT.

  11. Visualization study on the static flow field around a straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Tagawa, Kotaro

    2009-12-01

    Visual experiments based on the smoke wire way were carried out on a small model of Straight-blade Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (SB-VAWT) to invest the relationship between the static flow field characteristics and the rotor azimuth angle. The test rotor had 3 blades with NACA0018 aerofoil. The rotor diameter and blade chord were 0.3m and 0.07m, respectively. Visual photos of the static flow path lines in and around the rotor were obtained at every 5 degrees of the azimuth angle. Further, numerical computations of the static flow filed were also carried out for comparison with the same situation as the visual tests and the static torques at different azimuth angles were calculated. According to the results of visual tests and computations, the dependence of the starting performance on the azimuth angle was discussed. The solidity is an important factor affecting the starting performance of the SB-VAWT.

  12. Constraining Eruptive Conditions From Lava Flow Morphometry: A Case Study With Field Evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowles, Z. R.; Clarke, A.; Greeley, R.

    2007-12-01

    Volcanism is widely recognized as one of the primary factors affecting the surfaces of solid planets and satellites throughout the solar system. Basaltic lava is thought to be the most common composition based on observed features typical of basaltic eruptions found on Earth. Lava flows are one of the most easily recognizable landforms on planetary surfaces and their features may provide information about eruption dynamics, lava rheology, and potential hazards. More recently, researchers have taken a multi-faceted approach to combine remote sensing, field observations and quantitative modeling to constrain volcanic activity on Earth and other planets. Here we test a number of published models, including empirically derived relationships from Mt. Etna and Kilauea, models derived from laboratory experiments, and theoretical models previously applied to remote sensing of planetary surfaces, against well-documented eruptions from the literature and field observations. We find that the Graetz (Hulme and Felder, 1977, Phil.Trans., 285, 227 - 234) method for estimating effusion rates compares favorably with published eruption data, while, on the other hand, inverting lava flow length prediction models to estimate effusion rates leads to several orders of magnitude in error. The Graetz method also better constrains eruption duration. Simple radial spreading laws predict Hawaiian lava flow lengths quite well, as do using the thickness of the lava flow front and chilled crust. There was no observed difference between results from models thought to be exclusive to aa or pahoehoe flow fields. Interpreting historic conditions should therefore follow simple relationships to observable morphologies no matter the composition or surface texture. We have applied the most robust models to understand the eruptive conditions and lava rheology of the Batamote Mountains near Ajo, AZ, an eroded shield volcano in southern Arizona. We find effusion rates on the order of 100 - 200 cubic

  13. Study of Fluid Flow Control in Protein Crystallization using Strong Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandran, Narayanan; Leslie, Fred; Ciszak, Ewa

    2002-11-01

    positioning the crystal growth cell so that the magnetic susceptibility force counteracts terrestrial gravity. The general objective is to test the hypothesis of convective control using a strong magnetic field and magnetic field gradient and to understand the nature of the various forces that come into play. Specifically we aim to delineate causative factors and to quantify them through experiments, analysis and numerical modeling. Once the basic understanding is obtained, the study will focus on testing the hypothesis on proteins of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC), proteins E1 and E3. Obtaining high crystal quality of these proteins is of great importance to structural biologists since their structures need to be determined. Specific goals for the investigation are: 1. To develop an understanding of convection control in diamagnetic fluids with concentration gradients through experimentation and numerical modeling. Specifically solutal buoyancy driven convection due to crystal growth will be considered. 2. To develop predictive measures for successful crystallization in a magnetic field using analyses and numerical modeling for use in future protein crystal growth experiments. This will establish criteria that can be used to estimate the efficacy of magnetic field flow damping on crystallization of candidate proteins. 3. To demonstrate the understanding of convection damping by high magnetic fields to a class of proteins that is of interest and whose structure is as yet not determined. 4. To compare quantitatively, the quality of the grown crystals with and without a magnetic field. X-ray diffraction techniques will be used for the comparative studies. In a preliminary set of experiments, we studied crystal dissolution effects in a 5 Tesla magnet available at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Using a Schlieren setup, a 1mm crystal of Alum (Aluminum-Potassium Sulfate) was introduced in a 75% saturated solution and the resulting dissolution plume was observed

  14. Study of Fluid Flow Control in Protein Crystallization using Strong Magnetic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran, Narayanan; Leslie, Fred; Ciszak, Ewa

    2002-01-01

    positioning the crystal growth cell so that the magnetic susceptibility force counteracts terrestrial gravity. The general objective is to test the hypothesis of convective control using a strong magnetic field and magnetic field gradient and to understand the nature of the various forces that come into play. Specifically we aim to delineate causative factors and to quantify them through experiments, analysis and numerical modeling. Once the basic understanding is obtained, the study will focus on testing the hypothesis on proteins of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC), proteins E1 and E3. Obtaining high crystal quality of these proteins is of great importance to structural biologists since their structures need to be determined. Specific goals for the investigation are: 1. To develop an understanding of convection control in diamagnetic fluids with concentration gradients through experimentation and numerical modeling. Specifically solutal buoyancy driven convection due to crystal growth will be considered. 2. To develop predictive measures for successful crystallization in a magnetic field using analyses and numerical modeling for use in future protein crystal growth experiments. This will establish criteria that can be used to estimate the efficacy of magnetic field flow damping on crystallization of candidate proteins. 3. To demonstrate the understanding of convection damping by high magnetic fields to a class of proteins that is of interest and whose structure is as yet not determined. 4. To compare quantitatively, the quality of the grown crystals with and without a magnetic field. X-ray diffraction techniques will be used for the comparative studies. In a preliminary set of experiments, we studied crystal dissolution effects in a 5 Tesla magnet available at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Using a Schlieren setup, a 1mm crystal of Alum (Aluminum-Potassium Sulfate) was introduced in a 75% saturated solution and the resulting dissolution plume was observed

  15. Bonneville Second Powerhouse Tailrace and High Flow Outfall: ADCP and drogue release field study

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Christopher B.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Guensch, Gregory R.

    2001-03-20

    The Bonneville Project is one of four US Army Corps of Engineers operated dams along the Lower Columbia River. Each year thousands of smelt pass through this Project on their way to the Pacific Ocean. High flow outfalls, if specifically designed for fish passage, are thought to have as good or better smelt survival rates as spillways. To better understand the hydrodynamic flow field around an operating outfall, the Corps of Engineers commissioned measurement of water velocities in the tailrace of the Second Powerhouse. These data also are necessary for proper calibration and verification of three-dimensional numerical models currently under development at PNNL. Hydrodynamic characterization of the tailrace with and without the outfall operating was accomplished through use of a surface drogue and acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP). Both the ADCP and drogue were linked to a GPS (global positioning system); locating the data in both space and time. Measurements focused on the area nearest to the high flow outfall, however several ADCP transects and drogue releases were performed away from the outfall to document ambient flow field conditions when the outfall was not operating.

  16. Experimental study of the flow field inside a whirling annular seal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Gerald L.; Deotte, Robert E., Jr.; Thames, H. Davis, III

    1992-09-01

    The flow field inside a whirling annular seal was measured using a 3-D Laser Doppler Anemometer (LDA) system. The seal investigated has a clearance of 1.27 mm, a length of 37.3 mm, and is mounted on a drive shaft with a 50 percent eccentricity ratio. This results in the rotor whirling at the same speed as the shaft rotation (whirl ratio = 1.0). The seal is operated at Reynolds number of 12,000 and a Taylor number of 6,300 (3,600 rpm). The 3-D LDA system is equipped with a rotary encoding system which is used to produce phase averaged measurements of the entire mean velocity vector field and Reynolds stress tensor field from 0.13 mm upstream to 0.13 mm downstream of the seal. The mean velocity field reveals a highly three dimensional flow field with large radial velocities near the inlet of the seal as well as a recirculation zone on the rotor surface. The location of maximum mean axial velocity migrates from the pressure side of the rotor at the inlet to the suction side at turbulence kinetic energy. However, turbulence production and dissipation attain equilibrium fairly quickly with remaining relatively constant over the last half of the seal.

  17. Experimental study of the flow field inside a whirling annular seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Gerald L.; Deotte, Robert E., Jr.; Thames, H. Davis, III

    1992-01-01

    The flow field inside a whirling annular seal was measured using a 3-D Laser Doppler Anemometer (LDA) system. The seal investigated has a clearance of 1.27 mm, a length of 37.3 mm, and is mounted on a drive shaft with a 50 percent eccentricity ratio. This results in the rotor whirling at the same speed as the shaft rotation (whirl ratio = 1.0). The seal is operated at Reynolds number of 12,000 and a Taylor number of 6,300 (3,600 rpm). The 3-D LDA system is equipped with a rotary encoding system which is used to produce phase averaged measurements of the entire mean velocity vector field and Reynolds stress tensor field from 0.13 mm upstream to 0.13 mm downstream of the seal. The mean velocity field reveals a highly three dimensional flow field with large radial velocities near the inlet of the seal as well as a recirculation zone on the rotor surface. The location of maximum mean axial velocity migrates from the pressure side of the rotor at the inlet to the suction side at turbulence kinetic energy. However, turbulence production and dissipation attain equilibrium fairly quickly with remaining relatively constant over the last half of the seal.

  18. An experimental study of the flow field surrounding a subsonic jet in a cross flow. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, Robert Foster

    1993-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the flow interaction of a 5.08 cm (2.00 in.) diameter round subsonic jet exhausting perpendicularly to a flat plate in a subsonic cross flow was conducted in the NASA Ames 7x1O ft. Wind Tunnel Number One. Flat plate surface pressures were measured at 400 locations in a 30.48 cm (12.0 in.) concentric circular array surrounding the jet exit. Results from these measurements are provided in tabular and graphical form for jet-to-crossflow velocity ratios ranging from 4 to 12, and for jet exit Mach numbers ranging from 0.50 to 0.93. Laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) three component velocity measurements were made in selected regions in the developed jet plume and near the flat plate surface, at a jet Mach number of 0.50 and jet-to-crossflow velocity ratios of 6 and 8. The results of both pressure and LDV measurements are compared with the results of previous experiments. In addition, pictures of the jet plume shape at jet velocity ratios ranging from 4 to 12 were obtained using schleiren photography. The LDV measurements are consistent with previous work, but more extensive measurements will be necessary to provide a detailed picture of the flow field. The surface pressure results compare closely with previous work and provide a useful characterization of jet induced surface pressures. The results demonstrate the primary influence of jet velocity ratio and the secondary influence of jet Mach number in determining such surface pressures.

  19. Study of Radially Varying Magnetic Field on Blood Flow through Catheterized Tapered Elastic Artery with Overlapping Stenosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeem, S.; Ijaz, S.

    2015-11-01

    A precise model has been developed for studying the influence of metallic nanoparticles on blood flow through catheterized tapered elastic arteries with radially varying magnetic field. The model is solved under the mild stenosis approximation by considering blood as viscous fluid. The influence of different flow parameters associated with this problem such as Hartmann number, nanoparticle volume fraction, Grashof number and heat source or sink parameter is analyzed by plotting the graphs of the wall shear stress, resistance impedance to blood flow and stream lines. The influence of the radially varying magnetic field on resistance impedance to flow is analyzed and it is observed that the significantly strong magnetic force tends to increase in resistance.

  20. Oxidation flow reactors (OFRs): overview of recent field and modeling studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez, Jose-Luis; Palm, Brett B.; Peng, Zhe; Hu, Weiwei; Ortega, Amber M.; Li, Rui; Campuzano-Jost, Pedro; Day, Douglas A.; Stark, Harald; Brune, William H.; de Gouw, Joost; Schroder, Jason

    2016-04-01

    Oxidation flow reactors (OFRs) are popular tools for studying SOA formation and aging in both laboratory and field experiments. In an OFR, the concentration of an oxidant (OH, O3, or NO3) can be increased, leading to hours-months of equivalent atmospheric oxidation during the several-minute OFR residence time. Using gas- and particle-phase measurements from several recent field campaigns, we demonstrate SOA formation after oxidation of ambient air in an OFR. Typically, more SOA formation is observed from nighttime air than daytime air. This indicates that the concentration of SOA-forming gases in ambient air is relatively higher at night. Measured ambient VOCs are not able to explain the magnitude of SOA formation in the OFR, suggesting that typically unmeasured S/IVOCs (possibly VOC oxidation products or direct emissions) play a substantial intermediary role in ambient SOA formation. We also present highlights from recent OFR oxidant chemistry modeling studies. HOx, Ox, and photolysis chemistry was modeled for two common OH production methods (utilizing 185+254 nm UV light, or 254 nm only). OH exposure (OHexp) can be estimated within a factor of ~2 using model-derived equations, and can be verified in situ using VOC decay measurements. OHexp is strongly dependent on external OH reactivity, which may cause significant OH suppression in some circumstances (e.g., lab/source studies with high precursor concentrations). UV light photolysis and reaction with oxygen atoms are typically not major reaction pathways. Modeling the fate of condensable low-volatility organic gases (LVOCs) formed in an OFR suggests that LVOC fate is dependent on particle condensational sink. E.g., for the range of particle condensational sink at a remote pine forest, anywhere from 20-80% of produced LVOCs were predicted to condense onto aerosols for an OHexp of ~1 day, with the remainder lost to OFR or sampling line walls. Similar to large chamber wall loss corrections, a correction is needed

  1. Numerical study of the DLC film flow field in the ECR-PECVD reaction chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lih, F.-L.; Tai, C.-H.; Leong, J.-C.

    2014-07-01

    This paper mainly investigates the optimum parameters for the fabrication of uniform diamond-like carbon (DLC) films on the electron cyclotron resonance plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (ECR-PECVD) reaction chamber by analyzing the effect of the reacting gas velocity on the film properties. This work makes use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach to model surface chemical reactions, flow and temperature fields, as well as heat and mass transfer phenomena. The simulation has shown that natural convection and mass transfer affect the recirculating flow within the reactor and, therefore, the distribution of material deposition. In other words, as a result of attaching an endplate (baffle) at the top of the substrate, the deposition rate of the substrate is appreciably enhanced. However, the surface uniformity of the substrate is obviously deteriorated.

  2. Numerical study of renormalization group flows of nuclear effective field theory without pions on a lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Koji; Sasabe, Satoru; Yahiro, Masanobu

    2016-08-01

    We formulate the next-to-leading-order nuclear effective field theory without pions in the two-nucleon sector on a spatial lattice and investigate nonperturbative renormalization group flows in the strong-coupling region by diagonalizing the Hamiltonian numerically. The cutoff (proportional to the inverse of the lattice constant) dependence of the coupling constants is obtained by changing the lattice constant with the binding energy and the asymptotic normalization constant for the ground state being fixed. We argue that the critical line can be obtained by looking at the finite-size dependence of the ground-state energy. We determine the relevant operator and locate the nontrivial fixed point, as well as the physical flow line corresponding to the deuteron in the two-dimensional plane of dimensionless coupling constants. It turns out that the location of the nontrivial fixed point is very close to the one obtained by the corresponding analytic calculation, but the relevant operator is quite different.

  3. A study of the round jet/plane wall flow field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foss, J. F.; Kleis, S. J.

    1971-01-01

    Impingement angles, between the axisymmetric jet axis and the plane wall, from zero to 15 degrees have been examined for nozzle heights of 0.75, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 diameters and for: (1) a fully developed pipe flow, and (2) a relatively uniform exit velocity condition. Velocity measurements have been used to define isotach contours and to determine mass, momentum and energy flux values for the near field (within five diameters) of the jet. Surface pressure measurements have been used to define surface pressure forces and jet centerline trajectories. The geometric and flow conditions examined and the interpretation of the results have been motivated by the externally blown flap STOL aircraft application.

  4. Numerical studies of the fluid and optical fields associated with complex cavity flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwood, Christopher A.

    1992-01-01

    Numerical solutions for the flowfield about several cavity configurations have been computed using the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations. Comparisons between numerical and experimental results are made in two dimensions for free shear layers and a rectangular cavity, and in three dimensions for the transonic aero-window problem of the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). Results show that dominant acoustic frequencies and magnitudes of the self excited resonant cavity flows compare well with the experiment. In addition, solution sensitivity to artificial dissipation and grid resolution levels are determined. Optical path distortion due to the flow field is modelled geometrically and is found to match the experiment. The fluid field was computed using a diagonalized scheme within an overset mesh framework. An existing code, OVERFLOW, was utilized with the additions of characteristic boundary condition and output routines required for reduction of the unsteady data. The newly developed code is directly applicable to a generalized three dimensional structured grid zone. Details are provided in a paper included in Appendix A.

  5. Transport studies in polymer electrolyte fuel cell with porous metallic flow field at ultra high current density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srouji, Abdul-Kader

    Achieving cost reduction for polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC) requires a simultaneous effort in increasing power density while reducing precious metal loading. In PEFCs, the cathode performance is often limiting due to both the slow oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), and mass transport limitation caused by limited oxygen diffusion and liquid water flooding at high current density. This study is motivated by the achievement of ultra-high current density through the elimination of the channel/land (C/L) paradigm in PEFC flow field design. An open metallic element (OME) flow field capable of operating at unprecedented ultra-high current density (3 A/cm2) introduces new advantages and limitations for PEFC operation. The first part of this study compares the OME with a conventional C/L flow field, through performance and electrochemical diagnostic tools such as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results indicate the uniqueness of the OME's mass transport improvement. No sign of operation limitation due to flooding is noted. The second part specifically examines water management at high current density using the OME flow field. A unique experimental setup is developed to measure steady-state and transient net water drag across the membrane, in order to characterize the fundamental aspects of water transport at high current density with the OME. Instead of flooding, the new limitation is identified to be anode side dry-out of the membrane, caused by electroosmotic drag. The OME improves water removal from the cathode, which immediately improves oxygen transport and performance. However, the low water content in the cathode reduces back diffusion of water to the membrane, and electroosmotic drag dominates at high current density, leading to dry-out. The third part employs the OME flow field as a tool that avoids C/L effects endemic to a typical flow field, in order to study oxygen transport resistance at the catalyst layer of a PEFC. In open literature, a

  6. The design of a low-speed wind tunnel for studying the flow field of insects' flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hong-yan; Zhang, Peng-fei; Ma, Yun; Ning, Jian-guo

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, low-speed smoke wind tunnel has been designed and fabricated for the insects' flow field visualization. The test section and the contraction section of the tunnel are optimized and determined as to size by the method of computational fluid dynamics. And fairing devices are equipped in different sections to reduce the turbulence intensity and increase the flow uniformity in the experimental sections. For the smoke visualization of small insects, the smokeemitting equipment has been specially designed and carefully debugged. Composed of wind tunnel, light source and high-speed camera, experimental platform for visualization and filming of insect flight flow field has been established. Besides, the feasible and stable method for insect fixing has been designed. With the smoke wind tunnel, flow filed visualization experiment for the honeybee's flapping was conducted and smoke flow filed in the experiment was recorded and analyzed. Near-filed and far-filed vortex structure when the honeybee fly can be recorded clearly. The experimental results indicate that the experimental platform is appropriate for flow filed study on insects flapping.

  7. Analytical and numerical study on cooling flow field designs performance of PEM fuel cell with variable heat flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afshari, Ebrahim; Ziaei-Rad, Masoud; Jahantigh, Nabi

    2016-06-01

    In PEM fuel cells, during electrochemical generation of electricity more than half of the chemical energy of hydrogen is converted to heat. This heat of reactions, if not exhausted properly, would impair the performance and durability of the cell. In general, large scale PEM fuel cells are cooled by liquid water that circulates through coolant flow channels formed in bipolar plates or in dedicated cooling plates. In this paper, a numerical method has been presented to study cooling and temperature distribution of a polymer membrane fuel cell stack. The heat flux on the cooling plate is variable. A three-dimensional model of fluid flow and heat transfer in cooling plates with 15 cm × 15 cm square area is considered and the performances of four different coolant flow field designs, parallel field and serpentine fields are compared in terms of maximum surface temperature, temperature uniformity and pressure drop characteristics. By comparing the results in two cases, the constant and variable heat flux, it is observed that applying constant heat flux instead of variable heat flux which is actually occurring in the fuel cells is not an accurate assumption. The numerical results indicated that the straight flow field model has temperature uniformity index and almost the same temperature difference with the serpentine models, while its pressure drop is less than all of the serpentine models. Another important advantage of this model is the much easier design and building than the spiral models.

  8. Feasibility study of whole-field pressure measurements in gas flows: molecular tagging manometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Rajat; Naguib, Ahmed M.; Koochesfahani, Manoochehr M.

    2010-07-01

    Outlined in this paper are the theoretical foundation, implementation framework and experimental demonstration of a new diagnostic technique for non-intrusive, whole-field measurement of pressure within gasses. The new technique, which is referred to as molecular tagging manometry (MTM), relies on oxygen quenching of phosphorescence emission from photo-excited tracers in oxygen-containing gases. As the pressure increases, the density of oxygen becomes larger, leading to a shorter emission lifetime: a working principle that is similar to pressure sensitive paint but applied within the body of the flow rather than on the wall. Using an experimental apparatus that is built around a pressure vessel, the viability of MTM is demonstrated for the first time using acetone as a tracer. Furthermore, the experimentally recorded response is compared to theoretical predictions, and the sensitivity of MTM’s response to the uncertainty of various parameters is analyzed.

  9. Design Feasibility Study of Whole-Field Pressure Measurements in Gas Flows: Molecular Tagging Manometry (MTM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koochesfahani, M. M.; Basu, R.; Naguib, A. M.

    2009-11-01

    We present the theoretical foundation, implementation framework and experimental demonstration of a new diagnostic technique for non-intrusive, whole-field measurement of pressure within gasses. The new technique, which is referred to as Molecular Tagging Manometry (MTM), relies on oxygen quenching of phosphorescence emission from photo-excited tracers in oxygen-containing gases. As the pressure increases, the density of oxygen becomes larger, leading to a shorter emission lifetime: a working principle that is similar to pressure sensitive paint (PSP) but applied within the body of the flow. Using an experimental apparatus that is built around a pressure vessel, the viability of MTM is demonstrated for the first time using acetone as a tracer.

  10. Rotorcraft Downwash Flow Field Study to Understand the Aerodynamics of Helicopter Brownout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wadcock, Alan J.; Ewing, Lindsay A.; Solis, Eduardo; Potsdam, Mark; Rajagopalan, Ganesh

    2008-01-01

    Rotorcraft brownout is caused by the entrainment of dust and sand particles in helicopter downwash, resulting in reduced pilot visibility during low, slow flight and landing. Recently, brownout has become a high-priority problem for military operations because of the risk to both pilot and equipment. Mitigation of this problem has focused on flight controls and landing maneuvers, but current knowledge and experimental data describing the aerodynamic contribution to brownout are limited. This paper focuses on downwash characteristics of a UH-60 Blackhawk as they pertain to particle entrainment and brownout. Results of a full-scale tuft test are presented and used to validate a high-fidelity Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculation. CFD analysis for an EH-101 Merlin helicopter is also presented, and its flow field characteristics are compared with those of the UH-60.

  11. Numerical study of evaluating the optical quality of supersonic flow fields.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Zhao, Yan; Xu, Dong; Yang, Qiuying

    2007-08-10

    A numerical method based on the uniform and hexahedral grids generated from computational fluid dynamics is presented for the analysis of aero-optical performance. A single grid is taken as a cell with isotropy and homogeneity inside, and it is assumed that the light rays transmit grid by grid. Ray tracing is employed to track the transmission through the flow of supersonic fluids, and a recursive algorithm is derived. The line-of-sight errors and optical path differences produced by the mean density fields were calculated, the phase variances brought from the density fluctuations were computed, and the Strehl ratios were figured out. This method potentially provides a solution for the prediction of aero-optical effects.

  12. Study of VTOL in ground-effect flow field including temperature effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, W. G.; Jenkins, R. C.; Kalemaris, S. G.; Siclari, M. J.

    1982-01-01

    Detailed pressure, temperature, and velocity data were obtained for twin-fan configurations in-ground-effect and flow models to aid in predicting pressures and upwash forces on aircraft surfaces were developed. For the basic experiments, 49.5 mm-diameter jets were used, oriented normal to a simulated round plane, with pressurized, heated air providing a jet. The experimental data consisted of: (1) the effect of jet height and temperature on the ground, model, and upwash pressures, and temperatures, (2) the effect of simulated aircraft surfaces on the isolated flow field, (3) the jet-induced forces on a three-dimensional body with various strakes, (4) the effects of non-uniform coannular jets. For the uniform circular jets, temperature was varied from room temperature (24 C) to 232 C. Jet total pressure was varied between 9,300 Pascals and 31,500 Pascals. For the coannular jets, intended to represent turbofan engines, fan temperature was maintained at room temperature while core temperature was varied from room temperature to 437 C. Results are presented.

  13. Palladium Catalysis in Horizontal-Flow Treatment Wells: Field-Scale Design and Laboratory Study

    SciTech Connect

    Munakata, N; Cunningham, J A; Reinhard, M; Ruiz, R; Lebron, C

    2002-03-01

    This paper discusses the field-scale design and associated laboratory experiments for a new groundwater remediation system that combines palladium-catalyzed hydrodehalogenation with the use of dual horizontal-flow treatment wells (HFTWs). Palladium (Pd) catalysts can treat a wide range of halogenated compounds, often completely and rapidly dehalogenating them. The HFTW system recirculates water within the treatment zone and provides the opportunity for multiple treatment passes, thereby enhancing contaminant removal. The combined Pd/HFTW system is scheduled to go on line in mid-2002 at Edwards Air Force Base in southeastern California, with groundwater contaminated with 0.5 to 1.5 mg/L of trichloroethylene (TCE). Laboratory work, performed in conjunction with the field-scale design, provided reaction rates for field-scale design and information on long-term catalyst behavior. The apparent first-order reaction rate constant for TCE was 0.43/min, corresponding to a half-life of 1.6 min. Over the long term (1 to 2 months), the reaction rate decreased, indicating catalyst deactivation. The data show three distinct deactivation rates: a slow rate of 0.03/day over approximately the first month, followed by faster deactivation at 0.16 to 0.19/day. The final, fastest deactivation (0.55/day) was attributed to an artifact of the laboratory setup, which caused unnaturally high sulfide concentrations through bacterial reduction of sulfate to sulfide, a known catalyst poison. Sodium hypochlorite recovered the catalyst activity, and is expected to maintain activity in the field with periodic pulses to regenerate the catalyst and control growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria.

  14. Laboratory and Field Studies of Fracture Flow and Its Extension in Underground Settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. S.; Hudson, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    Basic studies of fracture flow, such as the cubic law, were widely cited for over four decades and used in understanding processes in fractured media. We evaluate the fracture flow law implications and its extensions. The understanding of fluid flow through fractured rocks is important for progress in the many existing and proposed engineering projects dedicated to the support of mankind. Moreover, the characterization of this understanding is crucial during the use of the supporting computer modeling—which is becoming evermore ambitious and ubiquitous. The calculations and resultant outputs need to be validated, both in order to ensure appropriate engineering decisions and because there is increasing emphasis on the use of the Earth's resources, their sustainability and more accountability of engineers' decisions. Within this context, there remain many unknowns: how do we establish the geometrical and hydro-geological properties of fractures in a specific rock mass?; how do we establish the link between the hydro-geological fracture properties and other variables such as the in situ stress state?; and how do we validate the results at the full scale? Concurrently with the laboratory and numerical studies of fracture flows, we have made progresses in developing underground research laboratories (URLs) in both hard and soft rocks, in housing large halls for particle detections at great depths, and in testing the energy and resource recovery capacities and the waste disposal potentials through borehole complexes. In addition to existing worldwide networks for radioactive wastes, we initiate comparisons of different underground laboratories and facilities, including also physics laboratories and borehole complexes. The 2011-2012 findings of a Commission for the International Society for Rock Mechanics on URL Networking are summarized. Side drifts of roadway tunnels, dedicated facilities with tunneling and shafting to reach desired depths, and levels in active and

  15. Study of flow field of burning particles in a pyrotechnic flame based on particle image and particle velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, R.; Xu, H. Q.; Li, Y.; Zhu, C. G.

    2014-11-01

    Studying the burning particles in the pyrotechnic flame is important to acquire the decomposition mechanism and spectral radiance of pyrotechnics. The high speed video (HSV) and particle image velocimetry (PIV) were used in this paper to analyze the flow field and velocity of burning particles in the flame of pyrotechnics. The binary image was obtained through gray scale treatment and adaptive threshold segmentation from HSV and PIV data, by which the coordinate of each particle was marked. On the basis, the movement trajectory of each particle during combustion was pursued by the most recent guidelines algorithm of cancroids matching. Through the method proposed in this study, the velocity variation of each particle was obtained, the approximate distribution of particle quantity at each zone was visualized and the mathematical model of pyrotechnic particle velocity flow field was established.

  16. Passive treatment using coal combustion products: An innovative vertical flow constructed wetland field study

    SciTech Connect

    Nairn, R.W.; Mercer, M.N.; Everett, J.W.

    1999-07-01

    Designs of constructed wetlands for acid mine drainage (AMD) treatment have evolved substantially during the past decade. Current research focuses on the study of vertical-flow treatment systems containing labile organic substrates. Also known as successive alkalinity producing systems (SAPS), these systems emphasize contact of acidic waters with the substrate, thus maximizing biological alkalinity generation, via bacterial sulfate reduction, and abiotic alkalinity generation via carbonate dissolution processes. in this study, a coal combustion product (CCP) was utilized to generate supplementary alkalinity in addition to that provided by traditional substrate materials of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) and high CaCO{sub 3} content limestone. Although limestone is commonly utilized for abiotic alkalinity generation in AMC treatment wetlands, CCPs are not. The preliminary effectiveness of this innovative vertical flow passive treatment system was evaluated during the initial year of operation. The wetlands are successfully retaining iron, aluminum and manganese and are increasing pH, alkalinity, dissolved oxygen (from ,1.0 to >13 mg/L, due to biological productivity), and calcium (from 31 to 385 mg/L, presumably due to limestone and hydrated fly ash dissolution). No hydraulic conductivity problems have been encountered in the initial year of operation. CCPs may offer an attractive alternative, or supplementary, alkalinity generating source for AMD treatment wetlands.

  17. Performance of High-Flow-Rate Samplers for Respirable Crystalline Silica Measurement Under Field Conditions: Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Coggins, Marie A.; Healy, Catherine B.; Lee, Taekhee; Harper, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Restoration stone work regularly involves work with high-silica-content materials (e.g., sandstone), but low-silica-content materials (<2 % quartz) such as limestone and lime mortar are also used. A combination of short sample duration and low silica content makes the quantification of worker exposure to respirable crystalline silica (RCS) difficult. This problem will be further compounded by the introduction of lower occupational exposure standards for RCS. The objective of this work was to determine whether higher-flow samplers might be an effective tool in characterizing lower RCS concentrations. A short study was performed to evaluate the performance of three high-flow samplers (FSP10, CIP10-R, and GK2.69) using side-by-side sampling with low-flow samplers (SIMPEDS and 10-mm nylon cyclones) for RCS exposure measurement at a restoration stonemasonry field site. A total of 19 side-by-side sample replicates for each high-flow and low-flow sampler pair were collected from work tasks involving limestone and sandstone. RESULTS. Most of the RCS (quartz) masses collected with the high-flow-rate samplers were above the limit of detection (62 % to 84 %) relative to the low-flow-rate samplers (58 % to 78 %). The average of the respirable mass concentration ratios for CIP10-R/SIMPEDS, GK2.69/10-mm nylon, FSP10/SIMPEDS, and FSP10/10-mm nylon pairs and the range of the quartz concentration ratios for the CIP10-R/SIMPEDS, CIP10-R/10-mm nylon, GK2.69/10-mm nylon, FSP10/SIMPEDS, and FSP10/10-mm nylon pairs included unity with an average close to unity, indicating no likely difference between the reported values for each sampler. Workers reported problems related to the weight of the sampling pumps for the high-flow-rate samplers. Respirable mass concentration data suggest that the high-flow-rate samplers evaluated would be appropriate for sampling respirable dust concentrations during restoration stone work. Results from the comparison of average quartz concentration ratios

  18. Architecture and emplacement of flood basalt flow fields: case studies from the Columbia River Basalt Group, NW USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vye-Brown, C.; Self, S.; Barry, T. L.

    2013-03-01

    The physical features and morphologies of collections of lava bodies emplaced during single eruptions (known as flow fields) can be used to understand flood basalt emplacement mechanisms. Characteristics and internal features of lava lobes and whole flow field morphologies result from the forward propagation, radial spread, and cooling of individual lobes and are used as a tool to understand the architecture of extensive flood basalt lavas. The features of three flood basalt flow fields from the Columbia River Basalt Group are presented, including the Palouse Falls flow field, a small (8,890 km2, ˜190 km3) unit by common flood basalt proportions, and visualized in three dimensions. The architecture of the Palouse Falls flow field is compared to the complex Ginkgo and more extensive Sand Hollow flow fields to investigate the degree to which simple emplacement models represent the style, as well as the spatial and temporal developments, of flow fields. Evidence from each flow field supports emplacement by inflation as the predominant mechanism producing thick lobes. Inflation enables existing lobes to transmit lava to form new lobes, thus extending the advance and spread of lava flow fields. Minimum emplacement timescales calculated for each flow field are 19.3 years for Palouse Falls, 8.3 years for Ginkgo, and 16.9 years for Sand Hollow. Simple flow fields can be traced from vent to distal areas and an emplacement sequence visualized, but those with multiple-layered lobes present a degree of complexity that make lava pathways and emplacement sequences more difficult to identify.

  19. Bypass Flow Study

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Schultz

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of the fluid dynamics experiments in the MIR (Matched Index of-Refraction) flow system at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is to develop benchmark databases for the assessment of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solutions of the momentum equations, scalar mixing, and turbulence models for the flow ratios between coolant channels and bypass gaps in the interstitial regions of typical prismatic standard fuel element (SFE) or upper reflector block geometries of typical Modular High-temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (MHTGR) in the limiting case of negligible buoyancy and constant fluid properties. The experiments use Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to measure the velocity fields that will populate the bypass flow study database.

  20. Magma flow directions inferred from field evidence and magnetic fabric studies of the Streitishvarf composite dike in east Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, Per I.; Riishuus, Morten S.; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Elming, Sten-Åke

    2011-09-01

    Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and rock magnetic studies have been made on three outcrops separated by 12 km along strike (NNE-SSW) on the Streitishvarf composite dike in east Iceland. Samples for this study have been collected from the inner quartz-porphyry part of the dike, which show clear field evidence of a lateral flow component from north to south at one of the sites. This flow component is consistent with margin AMS results from all three sites. The quartz-porphyry has a substantial bulk magnetic susceptibility (10 - 2 SI) mainly carried by magnetically soft titanium-poor titanomagnetite (MDF ~ 15 mT). The ferrimagnetic grains yield a characteristic remanent magnetization in all three sites which gives a virtual geomagnetic pole at latitude 52.6° S and longitude 319.6° E. The degree of anisotropy is low ( PJ = 1.033) and the magnetic fabrics shifts from oblate to prolate shapes depending on dike margin and outcrop. The magnetic fabric has been interpreted according to the imbrication model, using the minor susceptibility axis as shear plane indicator. The absolute directions given by the minor susceptibility are then quantified using vector algebra. The magma flow is indicated as an upward directed flow, flowing from north to south with an inclination between 30° and 64°, with a 95% confidence ellipse of 3°-9°. A model for the intrusion of the Streitishvarf dike has been constructed where a magma pocket with felsic magma is punctured by a mafic dike, enabling the felsic magma to rise and extend to the south within the pathway created. The results of this study confirm the applicability of AMS in studies of magma flow directions in igneous dikes of felsic composition.

  1. Comparative study of the vorticity field in turbulent flows: Theory, experiments and computations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, F.

    1991-12-31

    We have carried out a comprehensive study of unexcited and excited elliptic jets, addressing the effects of initial conditions, aspect ratio, excitation frequency, and excitation amplitude. We have studied the dynamics of the preferred mode structure and interactions of coherent structure in the near field of elliptic jets. The dynamics of elliptic jets are quite different from the extensively studied plane and circular jets -- owing mainly to the fact that the azimuthal curvature variation of a vortical structure causes a nonuniform self-induction and hence complex three-dimensional deformation. Such deformation, combined with properly selected excitation, can substantially alter entrainment and other turbulence phenomenon, thus suggesting a preference for the elliptic shape in many jet applications. In the following, we mention a few key results.

  2. Experimental visualization of temperature fields and study of heat transfer enhancement in oscillatory flow in a grooved channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, C.; Kang, E.

    An experimental study was conducted of incompressible, moderate Reynolds number flow of air over heated rectangular blocks in a two-dimensional, horizontal channel. Holographic interferometry combined with high-speed cinematography was used to visualize the unsteady temperature fields in self- sustained oscillatory flow. Experiments were conducted in the laminar, transitional and turbulent flow regimes for Reynolds numbers in the range from Re=520 to Re=6600. Interferometric measurements were obtained in the thermally and fluiddynamically periodically fully developed flow region on the ninth heated block. Flow oscillations were first observed between Re=1054 and Re=1318. The period of oscillations, wavelength and propagation speed of the Tollmien-Schlichting waves in the main channel were measured at two characteristic flow velocities, Re=1580 and Re=2370. For these Reynolds numbers it was observed that two to three waves span one geometric periodicity length. At Re=1580 the dominant oscillation frequency was found to be around 26Hz and at Re=2370 the frequency distribution formed a band around 125Hz. Results regarding heat transfer and pressure drop are presented as a function of the Reynolds number, in terms of the block-average Nusselt number and the local Nusselt number as well as the friction factor. Measurements of the local Nusselt number together with visual observations indicate that the lateral mixing caused by flow instabilities is most pronounced along the upstream vertical wall of the heated block in the groove region, and it is accompanied by high heat transfer coefficients. At Reynolds numbers beyond the onset of oscillations the heat transfer in the grooved channel exceeds the performance of the reference geometry, the asymmetrically heated parallel plate channel.

  3. Study of Fluid Flow Control In Protein Crystallization Using Strong Magnetic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran, N.; Leslie, F.; Ciszak, E.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    positioning the crystal growth cell so that the magnetic susceptibility force counteracts terrestrial gravity. The general objective is to test the hypothesis of convective control using a strong magnetic field and magnetic field gradient and to understand the nature of the various forces that come into play. Specifically we aim to delineate causative factors and to quantify them through experiments, analysis and numerical modeling. Once the basic understanding is obtained, the study will focus on testing the hypothesis on proteins of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC), proteins E1 and E3. Obtaining high crystal quality of these proteins is of great importance to structural biologists since their structures need to be determined.

  4. An Experimental Study of Continuous Plasma Flows Driven by a Confined Arc in a Transverse Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barger, R. L.; Brooks, J. D.; Beasley, W. D.

    1961-01-01

    A crossed-field, continuous-flow plasma accelerator has been built and operated. The highest measured velocity of the flow, which was driven by the interaction of the electric and magnetic fields, was about 500 meters per second. Some of the problems discussed are ion slip, stability and uniformity of the discharge, effect of the magnetic field on electron emission, use of preionization, and electrode contamination.

  5. Heat-flow studies in the northwest geysers geothermal field, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Colin F.; Galanis, S. Peter; Moses, Thomas H.; Grubb, Frederick V.; ,

    1993-01-01

    Temperature and thermal conductivity data were acquired from 3 idle production wells in the Northwest Geysers. Heat-flow profiles derived from data recorded in the caprock which overlies the steam reservoir reveal a decrease of heat flow with depth in 2 of the 3 wells. These observations contradict the generally accepted theory that conductive heat flow is constant with depth within The Geysers caprock. There are several possible explanations for this, but the available data suggest that these profiles reflect a local recession or cooling of the reservoir top within the past 5000 to 10000 years.

  6. FLOW FIELDS IN SUPERSONIC INLETS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorenson, R. L.

    1994-01-01

    This computer program is designed to calculate the flow fields in two-dimensional and three-dimensional axisymmetric supersonic inlets. The method of characteristics is used to compute arrays of points in the flow field. At each point the total pressure, local Mach number, local flow angle, and static pressure are calculated. This program can be used to design and analyze supersonic inlets by determining the surface compression rates and throat flow properties. The program employs the method of characteristics for a perfect gas. The basic equation used in the program is the compatibility equation which relates the change in stream angle to the change in entropy and the change in velocity. In order to facilitate the computation, the flow field behind the bow shock wave is broken into regions bounded by shock waves. In each region successive rays are computed from a surface to a shock wave until the shock wave intersects a surface or falls outside the cowl lip. As soon as the intersection occurs a new region is started and the previous region continued only in the area in which it is needed, thus eliminating unnecessary calculations. The maximum number of regions possible in the program is ten, which allows for the simultaneous calculations of up to nine shock waves. Input to this program consists of surface contours, free-stream Mach number, and various calculation control parameters. Output consists of printed and/or plotted results. For plotted results an SC-4020 or similar plotting device is required. This program is written in FORTRAN IV to be executed in the batch mode and has been implemented on a CDC 7600 with a central memory requirement of approximately 27k (octal) of 60 bit words.

  7. Influence of Mine Drainage on Surrounding Groundwater Flow Field in Hilly Area, Case Study Huoqiu, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuezan, Tao; Peigui, Liu; Zenghui, Guo; Dan, Wu

    2010-05-01

    Groundwater dependent ecosystems are much vulnerable, especially in hilly area. However, in order to ensure the safe operation of mining, plenty of mine drainage inevitably results in groundwater depth decreasing dramatically. The surrounding ecological environment may suffer a great destruction. In this paper, analysis of the underground mining effect on ecosystem is discussed in hilly area of Huoqiu, China. Based on the geological model and numerical simulation, groundwater level of the Quaternary aquifer is analyzed to determine whether the ecosystem will be affected. It is achieved that the area of accumulative groundwater drawdown above 5m is 183.5km2 after five years continuous mining, accounting for 13.87% of the study area. While at the end of ten years, the area is increased to 209km2. And it is mainly distributed between Madian town and Zhouyoufang town. In some area, there happens aquifer depletion and annual flow of surface water decreasing owing to the groundwater level decline. Finally, the distribution of vegetation undergoes great changes. Key words: mine drainage; accumulative groundwater drawdown; numerical simulation; ecological environment

  8. Numerical study of changing the geometry of the flow field of a PEM fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khazaee, I.; Sabadbafan, H.

    2016-05-01

    The geometry of channels of a PEM fuel cell is an important parameter that affects the performance of it that the lower voltage loss in polarization curve can indicate the better performance. In this study a complete three-dimensional and single phase model is used to investigate the effect of increasing the number of serpentine channels in the bipolar plates and also increasing the area (depth) of channels of a PEM fuel cell with rectangular, triangular and elliptical cross-section geometry. A single set of conservation equations which are valid for the flow channels, gas-diffusion electrodes, catalyst layers, and the membrane region is developed and numerically solved using a finite volume based computational fluid dynamics technique. The results show that there are good agreement with the numerical results and experimental results of the previous work of authors. Also the results show that by increasing the number of channels from one to four and eight, the performance improved about 18 % and by decreasing the area of channels from 2 to 1 mm2 the performance improved about 13 %.

  9. Field and modelling studies of immiscible fluid flow above a contaminated water-table aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herkelrath, W.N.; Essaid, H.I.; Hess, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    A method was developed for measuring the spatial distribution of immiscible liquid contaminants in the subsurface. Fluid saturation distributions measured at a crude-oil spill site were used to test a numerical multiphase flow model.

  10. Silica Measurement with High Flow Rate Respirable Size Selective Samplers: A Field Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Taekhee; Harper, Martin; Kashon, Michael; Lee, Larry A; Healy, Catherine B; Coggins, Marie A; Susi, Pam; O'Brien, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    High and low flow rate respirable size selective samplers including the CIP10-R (10 l min(-1)), FSP10 (11.2 l min(-1)), GK2.69 (4.4 l min(-1)), 10-mm nylon (1.7 l min(-1)), and Higgins-Dewell type (2.2 l min(-1)) were compared via side-by-side sampling in workplaces for respirable crystalline silica measurement. Sampling was conducted at eight different occupational sites in the USA and five different stonemasonry sites in Ireland. A total of 536 (268 pairs) personal samples and 55 area samples were collected. Gravimetric analysis was used to determine respirable dust mass and X-ray diffraction analysis was used to determine quartz mass. Ratios of respirable dust mass concentration, quartz mass concentration, respirable dust mass, and quartz mass from high and low flow rate samplers were compared. In general, samplers did not show significant differences greater than 30% in respirable dust mass concentration and quartz mass concentration when outliers (ratio <0.3 or >3.0) were removed from the analysis. The frequency of samples above the limit of detection and limit of quantification of quartz was significantly higher for the CIP10-R and FSP10 samplers compared to low flow rate samplers, while the GK2.69 cyclone did not show significant difference from low flow rate samplers. High flow rate samplers collected significantly more respirable dust and quartz than low flow rate samplers as expected indicating that utilizing high flow rate samplers might improve precision in quartz measurement. Although the samplers did not show significant differences in respirable dust and quartz concentrations, other practical attributes might make them more or less suitable for personal sampling.

  11. Silica Measurement with High Flow Rate Respirable Size Selective Samplers: A Field Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Taekhee; Harper, Martin; Kashon, Michael; Lee, Larry A.; Healy, Catherine B.; Coggins, Marie A.; Susi, Pam; O’Brien, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    High and low flow rate respirable size selective samplers including the CIP10-R (10 l min−1), FSP10 (11.2 l min−1), GK2.69 (4.4 l min−1), 10-mm nylon (1.7 l min−1), and Higgins-Dewell type (2.2 l min−1) were compared via side-by-side sampling in workplaces for respirable crystalline silica measurement. Sampling was conducted at eight different occupational sites in the USA and five different stonemasonry sites in Ireland. A total of 536 (268 pairs) personal samples and 55 area samples were collected. Gravimetric analysis was used to determine respirable dust mass and X-ray diffraction analysis was used to determine quartz mass. Ratios of respirable dust mass concentration, quartz mass concentration, respirable dust mass, and quartz mass from high and low flow rate samplers were compared. In general, samplers did not show significant differences greater than 30% in respirable dust mass concentration and quartz mass concentration when outliers (ratio <0.3 or >3.0) were removed from the analysis. The frequency of samples above the limit of detection and limit of quantification of quartz was significantly higher for the CIP10-R and FSP10 samplers compared to low flow rate samplers, while the GK2.69 cyclone did not show significant difference from low flow rate samplers. High flow rate samplers collected significantly more respirable dust and quartz than low flow rate samplers as expected indicating that utilizing high flow rate samplers might improve precision in quartz measurement. Although the samplers did not show significant differences in respirable dust and quartz concentrations, other practical attributes might make them more or less suitable for personal sampling. PMID:26608952

  12. A study of leeside flow field heat transfer on Shuttle Orbiter configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baranowski, L. C.; Kipp, H. W.

    1984-01-01

    A coupled inviscid and viscous theoretical solution of the flow about the entire configuration is the desirable and comprehensive approach to defining thermal environments about the space shuttle orbiter. Simplified methods for predicting entry heating on leeside surfaces of the orbiter are considered. Wind tunnel heat transfer and oil flow data at Mach 6 and 10 and Reynolds numbers ranging from 500,000 to 73 million were used to develop correlations for the wing upper surface and the top surface of the fuselage. These correlations were extrapolated to flight Reynolds number and compared with heating data obtained during the shuttle STS-2 reentry. Efforts directed toward the wing leeside surface resulted in an approach which generally agreed with the flight data. Heating predictions for the upper fuselage were less successful due to the extreme complexity of local flow interactions and the associated heating environment.

  13. Rheology and Morphology of a Trachybasaltic Lava Flow: a Case Study from the Cima Volcanic Field (CA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldati, A.; Beem, J. R.; Robertson, T.; Gomez, F. G.; Whittington, A. G.

    2015-12-01

    Subliquidus rheology of a trachybasaltic lava was measured in the laboratory for the first time. Field observations of the parent flow focused on surface morphology characterization, which was later quantified in terms of surface roughness. The studied lava flow was emitted during the Holocene by a monogenetic cinder cone in the Cima Volcanic Field (CA). Surface morphology transitions from smooth pahoehoe ropes near the vent to jagged `a`a blocks over the majority of the flow. A variety of 2 m2 outcrops were photographed using a hand-held DSLR camera, and their surface texture was reconstructed with photogrammetry. The roughness of each outcrop, effectively described by the standard deviation between the real photogrammetric point cloud and the best-fitting surface, was quantified at different spatial scales, ranging from 0.5 cm to 200 m. We found that the roughness of the flow increases linearly as spatial resolution decreases, with a slope break corresponding to the average size of the outcrop lava blocks. The rheology of Cima lavas was determined by concentric cylinder viscometry in the 1220 °C to 1160 °C temperature range. The obtained rheological flow curves indicate a Bingham rheology, with clearly detected yield strength ranging from 25 Pa at the higher temperatures up to 650 Pa at the lower temperatures. Plagioclase crystallization begins at 1170 °C, likely playing a key role in promoting yield strength escalation. Viscosity increases by one order of magnitude (from 94 to 1116 Pa·s) over the 60 °C span of cooling considered, remaining consistently lower than most basaltic melts due to the high alkali content (6 wt%). The rheological and morphological results are being integrated, in order to assess if it is possible to identify the rheological fingerprint of the active flow on the preserved flow morphology. The composition-dependence of the morphological pahoehoe to `a`a transition in a rheological map is being assessed by comparing our results to

  14. A combined field and modeling study of groundwater flow in a tidal marsh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Yuqiang; Li, Hailong

    2011-05-01

    Bald mud beaches were found among the mangrove marshes in Dongzhaigang National Nature Reserve, Hainan, China. To investigate the possible reasons for this phenomenon, the intertidal zones of a mangrove transect and a bald beach transect with similar topography and same tidal actions were selected for comparison study. Along both transects, observed water table variations were significant in the high and low intertidal zones and negligible in the middle intertidal zones. Field investigations and observations invite two speculations: (1) existence of a high-permeability zone on each transect which underlies the low-permeability surface mud sediments and outcrops in the high intertidal zone, and (2) considerable inland freshwater recharge along the mangrove transect but negligible freshwater recharge along the bald beach transect. Two-dimensional numerical simulations based on these speculations gave results in line with the observed water table. The bald beach is most probably due to the lack of enough freshwater for generating a brackish beach soil condition essential to mangrove growth. It is also indicated that seawater infiltrated the high-permeability zone through its outcrop near the high intertidal zone, and discharged from the tidal river bank in the vicinity of the low tide line, thereby forming a tide-induced seawater-groundwater circulation which may provide considerable contribution to the total submarine groundwater discharge.

  15. Fundamental studies of materials, designs, and models development for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell flow field distributors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikam, Vaibhav Vilas

    Fuel cells are becoming a popular source of energy due to their promising performance and availability. However, the high cost of fuel cell stack forbids its deployment to end user. Moreover, bipolar plate is one of the critical components in current polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) system, causing severe increase in manufacturing cost. The objective of this research work is to develop new materials, design and manufacturing process for bipolar plates. The materials proposed for use were tested for corrosion resistance in simulated fuel cell conditions. After corrosion studies copper alloy (C17200) and Low Temperature Carburized (LTC) SS 316 were selected as an alternative material for bipolar plate. It was observed that though the copper alloy offered good resistance in corrosive atmosphere, the major advantage of using the alloys was good conductivity even after formation of corrosion layer compared to SS 316. However, LTC SS 316 achieved the best corrosion resistance (ever reported in current open literature at relatively low cost) with decreased contact resistance, as compared to SS 316. Due to the expensive and tedious machining for bipolar plate manufacturing, the conventional machining process was not used. Bipolar plates were manufactured from thin corrugated sheets formed of the alloy. This research also proposed a novel single channel convoluted flow field design which was developed by increasing the tortuosity of conventional serpentine design. The CFD model for novel single channel convoluted design showed uniform distribution of velocity over the entire three dimensional domain. The novel design was further studied using pressure drop and permeability models. These modeling calculations showed substantial benefit in using corrugated sheet design and novel single channel convoluted flow field design. All the concepts of materials (except for LTC SS 316), manufacturing and design are validated using various tests like long term stability

  16. Thermal effects of groundwater flow through subarctic fens: A case study based on field observations and numerical modeling

    DOE PAGES

    Sjöberg, Ylva; Coon, Ethan; K. Sannel, A. Britta; Pannetier, Romain; Harp, Dylan; Frampton, Andrew; Painter, Scott L.; Lyon, Steve W.

    2016-02-05

    Modeling and observation of ground temperature dynamics are the main tools for understanding current permafrost thermal regimes and projecting future thaw. Until recently, most studies on permafrost have focused on vertical ground heat fluxes. Groundwater can transport heat in both lateral and vertical directions but its influence on ground temperatures at local scales in permafrost environments is not well understood. In this paper, we combine field observations from a subarctic fen in the sporadic permafrost zone with numerical simulations of coupled water and thermal fluxes. At the Tavvavuoma study site in northern Sweden, ground temperature profiles and groundwater levels weremore » observed in boreholes. These observations were used to set up one- and two-dimensional simulations down to 2 m depth across a gradient of permafrost conditions within and surrounding the fen. Two-dimensional scenarios representing the fen under various hydraulic gradients were developed to quantify the influence of groundwater flow on ground temperature. Our observations suggest that lateral groundwater flow significantly affects ground temperatures. This is corroborated by modeling results that show seasonal ground ice melts 1 month earlier when a lateral groundwater flux is present. Further, although the thermal regime may be dominated by vertically conducted heat fluxes during most of the year, isolated high groundwater flow rate events such as the spring freshet are potentially important for ground temperatures. Finally, as sporadic permafrost environments often contain substantial portions of unfrozen ground with active groundwater flow paths, knowledge of this heat transport mechanism is important for understanding permafrost dynamics in these environments.« less

  17. Visualizing vector field topology in fluid flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helman, James L.; Hesselink, Lambertus

    1991-01-01

    Methods of automating the analysis and display of vector field topology in general and flow topology in particular are discussed. Two-dimensional vector field topology is reviewed as the basis for the examination of topology in three-dimensional separated flows. The use of tangent surfaces and clipping in visualizing vector field topology in fluid flows is addressed.

  18. Chemical speciation studies on DU contaminated soils using flow field flow fractionation linked to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (FlFFF-ICP-MS).

    PubMed

    Brittain, S R; Cox, A G; Tomos, A D; Paterson, E; Siripinyanond, A; McLeod, C W

    2012-03-01

    Flow field flow fractionation (FlFFF) in combination with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to study the chemical speciation of U and trace metals in depleted uranium (DU) contaminated soils. A chemical extraction procedure using sodium pyrophosphate, followed by isolation of humic and fulvic substances was applied to two dissimilar DU contaminated sample types (a sandy soil and a clay-rich soil), in addition to a control soil. The sodium pyrophosphate fractions of the firing range soils (Eskmeals and Kirkcudbright) were found to contain over 50% of the total U (measured after aqua regia digestion), compared to approximately 10% for the control soil. This implies that the soils from the contaminated sites contained a large proportion of the U within more easily mobile soil fractions. Humic and fulvic acid fractions each gave characteristic peak maxima for analytes of interest (Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb and U), with the fulvic acid fraction eluting at a smaller diameter (approximately 2.1 nm on average) than the humic fraction (approximately 2.4 nm on average). DU in the fulvic acid fraction gave a bimodal peak, not apparent for other trace elements investigated, including natural U. This implies that DU interacts with the fulvic acid fraction in a different way to all other elements studied. PMID:22237634

  19. Study on aggregation behavior of low density lipoprotein in hen egg yolk plasma by asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation coupled with multiple detectors.

    PubMed

    Dou, Haiyang; Magnusson, Emma; Choi, Jaeyeong; Duan, Fei; Nilsson, Lars; Lee, Seungho

    2016-02-01

    In this study, asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled online with UV, multiangle light scattering (MALS), and fluorescence (FS) detectors (AF4-UV-MALS-FS) was employed for separation and characterization of egg yolk plasma. AF4 provided separation of three major components of the egg yolk plasma i.e. soluble proteins, low density lipoproteins (LDL) and their aggregates, based on their respective hydrodynamic sizes. Identification of LDL was confirmed by staining the sample with a fluorescent dye, Nile Red. The effect of carrier liquids on aggregation of LDL was investigated. Collected fractions of soluble proteins were characterized using sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Moreover, the effect of heat and enzymatic treatment on egg yolk plasma was investigated. The results suggest that enzymatic treatment with phospholipase A2 (PLA2) significantly enhances the heat stability of LDL. The results show that AF4-UV-MALS-FS is a powerful tool for the fractionation and characterization of egg yolk plasma components.

  20. Field study and simulation of diurnal temperature effects on infiltration and variably saturated flow beneath an ephemeral stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ronan, A.D.; Prudic, D.E.; Thodal, C.E.; Constantz, J.

    1998-01-01

    Two experiments were performed to investigate flow beneath an ephemeral stream and to estimate streambed infiltration rates. Discharge and stream-area measurements were used to determine infiltration rates. Stream and subsurface temperatures were used to interpret subsurface flow through variably saturated sediments beneath the stream. Spatial variations in subsurface temperatures suggest that flow beneath the streambed is dependent on the orientation of the stream in the canyon and the layering of the sediments. Streamflow and infiltration rates vary diurnally: Stream flow is lowest in late afternoon when stream temperature is greatest and highest in early morning when stream temperature is least. The lower afternoon streamflow is attributed to increased infiltration rates; evapotranspiration is insufficient to account for the decreased streamflow. The increased infiltration rates are attributed to viscosity effects on hydraulic conductivity from increased stream temperatures. The first set of field data was used to calibrate a two-dimensional variably saturated flow model that includes heat transport. The model was calibrated to (1) temperature fluctuations in the subsurface and (2) infiltration rates determined from measured stream flow losses. The second set of field data was to evaluate the ability to predict infiltration rates on the basis of temperature measurements alone. Results indicate that the variably saturated subsurface flow depends on downcanyon layering of the sediments. They also support the field observations in indicating that diurnal changes in infiltration can be explained by temperature dependence of hydraulic conductivity. Over the range of temperatures and flows monitored, diurnal stream temperature changes can be used to estimate streambed infiltration rates. It is often impractical to maintain equipment for determining infiltration rates by traditional means; however, once a model is calibrated using both infiltration and temperature data

  1. A field study of the effects of soil structure and irrigation method on preferential flow of pesticides in unsaturated soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghodrati, Masoud; Jury, William A.

    1992-10-01

    A large number of field plot experiments were performed to characterize the downward flow of three pesticides (atrazine, napropamide and prometryn) and a water tracer (chloride) under various soil water regimes and soil surface conditions. Each experiment consisted of the uniform application of a 0.4-cm pulse of a solution containing a mixture of the four chemicals to the surface of a 1.5 × 1.5-m plot. The plot was then irrigated with 12 cm of water and soil samples were collected and analyzed to a depth of 150 cm. In all, 64 different plots were employed to study individual as well as interactive effects of such variables as irrigation method (continuous or intermittent sprinkling or ponding), pesticide formulation method (technical grade dissolved in water, wettable powder, or emulsifiable concentrate), and tillage (undisturbed or tilled and repacked surface layer) on pesticide transport. While all three pesticides were expected to be retained in the top 10-20 cm, there was considerable movement below this zone. When averaged over all the treatments, 18.8% of the recovered mass of atrazine, 9.4% of the prometryn and 16.4% of the napropamide were found between 30- and 150cm depth. Moreover, all pesticides were highly mobile in the surface 30 cm regardless of their adsorption coefficient. There were occureences of extreme mobility or "preferential flow" of pesticide under every experimental condition except where the pesticides were applied in wettable powder form to plots which had their surface tilled and repacked. This finding implies that there may be fine preferential flow pathways through which solution may move but particulates may not.

  2. Graphics and Flow Visualization of Computer Generated Flow Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kathong, M.; Tiwari, S. N.

    1987-01-01

    Flow field variables are visualized using color representations described on surfaces that are interpolated from computational grids and transformed to digital images. Techniques for displaying two and three dimensional flow field solutions are addressed. The transformations and the use of an interactive graphics program for CFD flow field solutions, called PLOT3D, which runs on the color graphics IRIS workstation are described. An overview of the IRIS workstation is also described.

  3. A field study of air flow and turbulent features of advection fog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, J. D.

    1979-01-01

    The setup and initial operation of a set of specialized meteorological data collection hardware are described. To study the life cycle of advection fogs at a lake test site, turbulence levels in the fog are identified, and correlated with the temperature gradients and mean wind profiles. A meteorological tower was instrumented to allow multiple-level measurements of wind and temperature on a continuous basis. Additional instrumentation was: (1)hydrothermograph, (2)microbarograph, (3)transmissometers, and (4)a boundary layer profiler. Two types of fogs were identified, and important differences in the turbulence scales were noted.

  4. A combined field and modeling study of groundwater flow in a tidal marsh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Y. Q.; Li, H. L.

    2012-03-01

    Bald mud beaches were found among the mangrove marshes in Dongzhaigang National Nature Reserve, Hainan, China. To investigate the possible reasons for this phenomenon, the intertidal zones of a mangrove transect and a bald beach transect with similar topography and tidal actions were selected for comparison study. Along both transects, observed water table variations were significant in the high and low intertidal zones and negligible in the middle intertidal zones. Despite the same tidal actions and above-mentioned similarities, observed groundwater salinity was significantly smaller along the mangrove transect (average 23.0 ppt) than along the bald beach transect (average 28.5 ppt). These observations invite one hypothesis: the hydraulic structure of tidal marsh and freshwater availability may be the main hydrogeological factors critical to mangrove development. Two-dimensional numerical simulations corroborated the speculation and gave results in line with the observed water table. The two transects investigated were found to have a mud-sand two-layered structure: a surface zone of low-permeability mud and an underlying high-permeability zone that outcrops at the high and low tide lines. The freshwater recharge from inland is considerable along the mangrove transect but negligible along the bald beach transect. The high-permeability zone may provide opportunity for the plants in the mangrove marsh to uptake freshwater and oxygen through their roots extending downward into the high-permeability zone, which may help limit the buildup of salt in the root zone caused by evapotranspiration and enhance salt removal, which may further increase the production of marsh grasses and influence their spatial distribution. The bald beach is most probably due to the lack of enough freshwater for generating a brackish beach soil condition essential to mangrove growth. It is also indicated that seawater infiltrated the high-permeability zone through its outcrop near the high

  5. An experimental study into the influence of aquatic plant motion characteristics on the generation of a fluvial turbulent flow field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, R. J.; Marjoribanks, T.; Parsons, D. R.; Thomas, R. E.

    2015-12-01

    Aquatic vegetation has a determining effect on flow and consequently sediment transport as it generates both skin friction and form drag. The measurement of flow above the vegetation canopy has received much attention and there is now a good process understanding of mean and turbulent flow, although, much of this research has focused on rigid vegetation with relatively simple morphology. However, vegetation immersed in a flow experiences several forces (buoyancy; drag; virtual mass; Basset; and Saffman) which are counteracted by the properties of the vegetation (flexural rigidity; modulus of elasticity; the plant area exposed to the flow and; the packing density of the stems). The ratio of these forces determines the plant motion characteristics which are generally classified as either i) erect with no movement; ii) gently swaying; iii) strong, coherent swaying or; iv) prone. Here we report on an investigation into the influence of plant motion on the turbulence structure in the mixing zone as vortices in this region have been shown to account for the majority of the momentum transport between the canopy and the open flow. We report on a series of flume experiments where flow over a canopy of surrogate aquatic vegetation was measured using PIV at a spatial resolution of ~1mm2 and at a temporal resolution of 100 Hz. This provided whole flow field measurements for all three components of flow over the vegetation canopy. Plant motion characteristics were altered by modifying the flow Reynolds number through both velocity and depth. The influences of plant stem length were also assessed. The measured flows were analysed by standard Reynolds decomposition approaches and Eulerian and Lagrangian coherent flow structure identification methods. Kelvin-Helmholtz and Görtler-type vortices were identified within the canopy shear layer that are generated close to the canopy top and evolve downstream into span-wise roller vortices, which expand with both distance and time. When

  6. Flow field of flexible flapping wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallstrom, Erik

    The agility and maneuverability of natural fliers would be desirable to incorporate into engineered micro air vehicles (MAVs). However, there is still much for engineers to learn about flapping flight in order to understand how such vehicles can be built for efficient flying. The goal of this study is to develop a methodology for capturing high quality flow field data around flexible flapping wings in a hover environment and to interpret it to gain a better understanding of how aerodynamic forces are generated. The flow field data was captured using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and required that measurements be taken around a repeatable flapping motion to obtain phase-averaged data that could be studied throughout the flapping cycle. Therefore, the study includes the development of flapping devices with a simple repeatable single degree of freedom flapping motion. The acquired flow field data has been examined qualitatively and quantitatively to investigate the mechanisms behind force production in hovering flight and to relate it to observations in previous research. Specifically, the flow fields have been investigated around a rigid wing and several carbon fiber reinforced flexible membrane wings. Throughout the whole study the wings were actuated with either a sinusoidal or a semi-linear flapping motion. The semi-linear flapping motion holds the commanded angular velocity nearly constant through half of each half-stroke while the sinusoidal motion is always either accelerating or decelerating. The flow fields were investigated by examining vorticity and vortex structures, using the Q criterion as the definition for the latter, in two and three dimensions. The measurements were combined with wing deflection measurements to demonstrate some of the key links in how the fluid-structure interactions generated aerodynamic forces. The flow fields were also used to calculate the forces generated by the flapping wings using momentum balance methods which yielded

  7. Field emission microplasma actuation for microchannel flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sashank Tholeti, Siva; Shivkumar, Gayathri; Alexeenko, Alina A.

    2016-06-01

    Microplasmas offer attractive flow control methodology for gas transport in microsystems where large viscous losses make conventional pumping methods highly inefficient. We study microscale flow actuation by dielectric-barrier discharge (DBD) with field emission (FE) of electrons, which allows lowering the operational voltage from kV to a few hundred volts and below. A feasibility study of FE-DBD for flow actuation is performed using 2D particle-in-cell method with Monte Carlo collisions (PIC/MCC) at 10 MHz in nitrogen at atmospheric pressure. The free diffusion dominated, high velocity field emission electrons create a large positive space charge and a body force on the order of 106 N m-3. The body force and Joule heat decrease with increase in dielectric thickness and electrode thickness. The body force also decreases at lower pressures. The plasma body force distribution along with the Joule heating is then used in the Navier-Stokes simulations to quantify the flow actuation in a microchannel. Theoretical analysis and simulations for plasma actuated planar Poiseuille flow show that the gain in flow rate is inversely proportional to Reynolds number. This theoretical analysis is in good agreement with the simulations for a microchannel with closely placed actuators under incompressible conditions. Flow rate of FE-DBD driven 2D microchannel is around 100 ml min-1 mm-1 for an input power of 64 μW mm-1. The gas temperature rises by 1500 K due to the Joule heating, indicating FE-DBD’s potential for microcombustion, micropropulsion and chemical sensing in addition to microscale pumping and mixing applications.

  8. Granular temperature field of monodisperse granular flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gollin, Devis; Bowman, Elisabeth; Shepley, Paul

    2015-04-01

    For dry granular flows as well as solid-fluid mixtures such as debris avalanches, the momentum transfer is carried by frictional and collisional stresses. The latter may be described by the granular temperature, which provides a measure of the energy contained within the fluctuating nature of the granular motion. Thus, granular temperature can be used as a valuable means to infer the ability of a granular system to flow. Granular materials are known for the difficulties they pose in obtaining accurate microscale laboratory measurements. This is why many theories, such as the kinetic theory of granular gases, are primarily compared to numerical simulations. However, thanks to recent advancements in optical techniques along with high-speed recording systems, experimentalists are now able to obtain robust measurements of granular temperature. At present, the role of granular temperature in granular flows still entails conjecture. As a consequence, it is extremely important to provide experimental data against which theories and simulations can be judged. This investigation focuses on dry granular flows of sand and spherical beads performed on a simple inclined chute geometry. Fluctuation velocity, granular temperature and velocity patterns are obtained by means of particle image velocimetry (PIV). Flow behaviour is probed for different spatial (interrogation sizes) and temporal (frame rates) resolutions. Through the variation of these parameters an attempt to demonstrate the consistency of the degree of unsteadiness within the flow is made. In many studies a uniform stationary flow state is usually sought or preferably assumed for the simplicity it provides in the calculations. If one tries to measure microscale fields such as granular temperature, this assumption may be inappropriate. Thus, a proper definition of the flow regime should be made in order to estimate the correct flow properties. In addition, PIV analysis is compared against particle tracking velocimetry

  9. Knowledge-based flow field zoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Alison E.

    1988-01-01

    Automation flow field zoning in two dimensions is an important step towards easing the three-dimensional grid generation bottleneck in computational fluid dynamics. A knowledge based approach works well, but certain aspects of flow field zoning make the use of such an approach challenging. A knowledge based flow field zoner, called EZGrid, was implemented and tested on representative two-dimensional aerodynamic configurations. Results are shown which illustrate the way in which EZGrid incorporates the effects of physics, shape description, position, and user bias in a flow field zoning.

  10. Analytical and experimental study of the acoustics and the flow field characteristics of cavitating self-resonating water jets

    SciTech Connect

    Chahine, G.L.; Genoux, P.F.; Johnson, V.E. Jr.; Frederick, G.S.

    1984-09-01

    Waterjet nozzles (STRATOJETS) have been developed which achieve passive structuring of cavitating submerged jets into discrete ring vortices, and which possess cavitation incipient numbers six times higher than obtained with conventional cavitating jet nozzles. In this study we developed analytical and numerical techniques and conducted experimental work to gain an understanding of the basic phenomena involved. The achievements are: (1) a thorough analysis of the acoustic dynamics of the feed pipe to the nozzle; (2) a theory for bubble ring growth and collapse; (3) a numerical model for jet simulation; (4) an experimental observation and analysis of candidate second-generation low-sigma STRATOJETS. From this study we can conclude that intensification of bubble ring collapse and design of highly resonant feed tubes can lead to improved drilling rates. The models here described are excellent tools to analyze the various parameters needed for STRATOJET optimizations. Further analysis is needed to introduce such important factors as viscosity, nozzle-jet interaction, and ring-target interaction, and to develop the jet simulation model to describe the important fine details of the flow field at the nozzle exit.

  11. Flow-Field Surveys for Rectangular Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, K. B. M. Q.

    2012-01-01

    Flow field survey results for three rectangular nozzles are presented for a low subsonic condition obtained primarily by hot-wire anemometry. The three nozzles have aspect ratios of 2:1, 4:1 and 8:1. A fourth case included has 2:1 aspect ratio with chevrons added to the long edges. Data on mean velocity, turbulent normal and shear stresses as well as streamwise vorticity are presented covering a streamwise distance up to sixteen equivalent diameters from the nozzle exit. These detailed flow properties, including initial boundary layer characteristics, are usually difficult to measure in high speed flows and the primary objective of the study is to aid ongoing and future computational and noise modeling efforts.

  12. Couette flow in ferrofluids with magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Jitender; Bajaj, Renu

    2005-06-01

    Instability of a viscous, incompressible ferrofluid flow in an annular space between two coaxially rotating cylinders in the presence of axial magnetic field has been investigated numerically. The magnetic field perturbations in fluid in the gap between the cylinders have been taken into consideration and these have been observed to stabilize the Couette flow.

  13. Interaction of bentonite colloids with Cs, Eu, Th and U in presence of humic acid: A flow field-flow fractionation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouby, Muriel; Geckeis, Horst; Lützenkirchen, Johannes; Mihai, Silvia; Schäfer, Thorsten

    2011-07-01

    The interaction of Cs(I), Eu(III), Th(IV) and U(VI) with montmorillonite colloids was investigated in natural Grimsel Test Site groundwater over a 3 years period. The asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation combined with various detectors was applied to study size variations of colloids and to monitor colloid association of trace metals. The colloids suspended directly in the low ionic strength ( I), slightly alkaline granitic groundwater ( I = 10 -3 mol/L, pH 9.6) showed a gradual agglomeration with a size distribution shift from initially 10-200 nm to 50-400 nm within over 3 years. The Ca 2+ concentration of 2.1 × 10 -4 mol/L in the ground water is believed to be responsible for the slow agglomeration due to Ca 2+ ion exchange against Li + and Na + at the permanently charged basal clay planes. Furthermore, the Ca 2+ concentration lies close to the critical coagulation concentration (CCC) of 10 -3 mol L -1 for clay colloids. Slow destabilization may delimit clay colloid migration in this specific groundwater over long time scales. Eu(III) and Th(IV) are found predominantly bound to clay colloids, while U(VI) prevails as the UO 2(OH) 3- complex and Cs(I) remains mainly as aquo ion under our experimental conditions. Speciation calculations qualitatively represent the experimental data. A focus was set on the reversibility of metal ion-colloid binding. Addition of humic acid as a competing ligand induces rapid metal ion dissociation from clay colloids in the case of Eu(III) even after previous aging for about 3 years. Interestingly only partial dissociation occurs in the case of Th(IV). Experiments and calculations prove that the humate complexes dominate the speciation of all metal ions under given conditions. The partial irreversibility of clay bound Th(IV) is presently not understood but might play an important role for the colloid-mediated transport of polyvalent actinides over wide distances in natural groundwater.

  14. Lattice-based flow field modeling.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaoming; Zhao, Ye; Fan, Zhe; Li, Wei; Qiu, Feng; Yoakum-Stover, Suzanne; Kaufman, Arie E

    2004-01-01

    We present an approach for simulating the natural dynamics that emerge from the interaction between a flow field and immersed objects. We model the flow field using the Lattice Boltzmann Model (LBM) with boundary conditions appropriate for moving objects and accelerate the computation on commodity graphics hardware (GPU) to achieve real-time performance. The boundary conditions mediate the exchange of momentum between the flow field and the moving objects resulting in forces exerted by the flow on the objects as well as the back-coupling on the flow. We demonstrate our approach using soap bubbles and a feather. The soap bubbles illustrate Fresnel reflection, reveal the dynamics of the unseen flow field in which they travel, and display spherical harmonics in their undulations. Our simulation allows the user to directly interact with the flow field to influence the dynamics in real time. The free feather flutters and gyrates in response to lift and drag forces created by its motion relative to the flow. Vortices are created as the free feather falls in an otherwise quiescent flow. PMID:15527053

  15. SRMAFTE facility checkout model flow field analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dill, Richard A.; Whitesides, Harold R.

    1992-01-01

    The Solid Rocket Motor Air Flow Equipment (SRMAFTE) facility was constructed for the purpose of evaluating the internal propellant, insulation, and nozzle configurations of solid propellant rocket motor designs. This makes the characterization of the facility internal flow field very important in assuring that no facility induced flow field features exist which would corrupt the model related measurements. In order to verify the design and operation of the facility, a three-dimensional computational flow field analysis was performed on the facility checkout model setup. The checkout model measurement data, one-dimensional and three-dimensional estimates were compared, and the design and proper operation of the facility was verified. The proper operation of the metering nozzles, adapter chamber transition, model nozzle, and diffuser were verified. The one-dimensional and three-dimensional flow field estimates along with the available measurement data are compared.

  16. Improved visualization of flow field measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, Jeffrey Hilton

    1991-01-01

    A capability is proposed that makes it feasible to apply to measured flow field data the visualization tools developed to display numerical solutions for computational fluid dynamic problems. The measurement monitor surface (MMS) methodology was used for the analysis of flow field measurements within a low-aspect-ratio transonic axial-flow fan rotor acquired with two-dimensional laser anemometry. It is shown that the MMS method may be utilized to generate input for the multidimensional processing and analytical tools developed for numerical flow field simulation data. Thus an experimenter utilizing an interactive graphics program could illustrate scalar quantities such as Mach number by profiles, contour lines, carpet plots, and surfaces employing various color intensities. Also, flow directionality can be shown by the display of vector fields and particle traces.

  17. Field Flows of Dark Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Cahn, Robert N.; de Putter, Roland; Linder, Eric V.

    2008-07-08

    Scalar field dark energy evolving from a long radiation- or matter-dominated epoch has characteristic dynamics. While slow-roll approximations are invalid, a well defined field expansion captures the key aspects of the dark energy evolution during much of the matter-dominated epoch. Since this behavior is determined, it is not faithfully represented if priors for dynamical quantities are chosen at random. We demonstrate these features for both thawing and freezing fields, and for some modified gravity models, and unify several special cases in the literature.

  18. Numerical calculations of flow fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. M.; Vogel, J. M.

    1972-01-01

    The solutions to the equations of motion for inviscid fluid flow around a pointed elliptic cone at incidence are presented. The numerical method used, MacCormack's second order preferential predictor-corrector finite difference approximation, is applied to the fluid flow equations derived in conservation-law form. The entropy boundary condition, hitherto unused for elliptic cone problems, is investigated and compared to reflection boundary condition solutions. The stagnation streamline movement of the inclined elliptic cone is noted and surface pressure coefficients are plotted. Also presented are solutions for an elliptic cone and a circular cone at zero incidence and a circular cone at a small angle of attack. Comparisons are made between these present solutions and previously published theory.

  19. Modeling of flow field in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karvonen, Suvi; Hottinen, Tero; Saarinen, Jaakko; Himanen, Olli

    Isothermal two- and three-dimensional polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell cathode flow field models were implemented to study the behavior of reactant and reaction product gas flow in a parallel channel flow field. The focus was on the flow distribution across the channels and the total pressure drop across the flow field. The effect of the density and viscosity variation in the gas resulting from the composition change due to cell reactions was studied and the models were solved with governing equations based on three different approximations. The focus was on showing how a uniform flow profile can be achieved by improving an existing channel design. The modeling results were verified experimentally. A close to uniform flow distribution was achieved in a parallel channel system.

  20. Decorrelation Times of Photospheric Fields and Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welsch, B. T.; Kusano, K.; Yamamoto, T. T.; Muglach, K.

    2012-01-01

    We use autocorrelation to investigate evolution in flow fields inferred by applying Fourier Local Correlation Tracking (FLCT) to a sequence of high-resolution (0.3 "), high-cadence (approx = 2 min) line-of-sight magnetograms of NOAA active region (AR) 10930 recorded by the Narrowband Filter Imager (NFI) of the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) aboard the Hinode satellite over 12 - 13 December 2006. To baseline the timescales of flow evolution, we also autocorrelated the magnetograms, at several spatial binnings, to characterize the lifetimes of active region magnetic structures versus spatial scale. Autocorrelation of flow maps can be used to optimize tracking parameters, to understand tracking algorithms f susceptibility to noise, and to estimate flow lifetimes. Tracking parameters varied include: time interval Delta t between magnetogram pairs tracked, spatial binning applied to the magnetograms, and windowing parameter sigma used in FLCT. Flow structures vary over a range of spatial and temporal scales (including unresolved scales), so tracked flows represent a local average of the flow over a particular range of space and time. We define flow lifetime to be the flow decorrelation time, tau . For Delta t > tau, tracking results represent the average velocity over one or more flow lifetimes. We analyze lifetimes of flow components, divergences, and curls as functions of magnetic field strength and spatial scale. We find a significant trend of increasing lifetimes of flow components, divergences, and curls with field strength, consistent with Lorentz forces partially governing flows in the active photosphere, as well as strong trends of increasing flow lifetime and decreasing magnitudes with increases in both spatial scale and Delta t.

  1. Flow volumes for interactive vector field visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Max, N.; Becker, B.; Crawfis, R.

    1993-04-06

    Flow volumes are the volumetric equivalent of stream lines. They provide more information about the vector field being visualized than do stream lines or ribbons. Presented is an efficient method for producing flow volumes, composed of transparently rendered tetrahedra, for use in an interactive system. The problems of rendering, subdivision, sorting, rendering artifacts, and user interaction are dealt with.

  2. Study on dynamics of the influence exerted by plasma on gas flow field in non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qaisrani, M. Hasnain; Xian, Yubin; Li, Congyun; Pei, Xuekai; Ghasemi, Maede; Lu, Xinpei

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, first, steady state of the plasma jet at different operating conditions is investigated through Schlieren photography with and without applying shielding gas. Second, the dynamic process for the plasma impacting on the gas flow field is studied. When the discharge is ignited, reduction in laminar flow occurs. However, when the gas flow rate is too low or too high, this phenomenon is not obvious. What is more, both frequency and voltage have significant impact on the effect of plasma on the gas flow, but the former is more significant. Shielding gas provides a curtain for plasma to propagate further. High speed camera along with Schlieren photography is utilized to study the impact of plasma on the gas flow when plasma is switched on and off. The transition of the gas flow from laminar to turbulent or vice versa happens right after the turbulent front. It is concluded that appearance and propagation of turbulence front is responsible for the transition of the flow state.

  3. Two-phase numerical study of the flow field formed in water pump sump: influence of air entrainment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayeul-Lainé, A. C.; Simonet, S.; Bois, G.; Issa, A.

    2012-11-01

    In a pump sump it is imperative that the amount of non-homogenous flow and entrained air be kept to a minimum. Free air-core vortex occurring at a water-intake pipe is an important problem encountered in hydraulic engineering. These vortices reduce pump performances, may have large effects on the operating conditions and lead to increase plant operating costs.This work is an extended study starting from 2006 in LML and published by ISSA and al. in 2008, 2009 and 2010. Several cases of sump configuration have been numerically investigated using two specific commercial codes and based on the initial geometry proposed by Constantinescu and Patel. Fluent and Star CCM+ codes are used in the previous studies. The results, obtained with a structured mesh, were strongly dependant on main geometrical sump configuration such as the suction pipe position, the submergence of the suction pipe on one hand and the turbulence model on the other hand. Part of the results showed a good agreement with experimental investigations already published. Experiments, conducted in order to select best positions of the suction pipe of a water-intake sump, gave qualitative results concerning flow disturbances in the pump-intake related to sump geometries and position of the pump intake. The purpose of this paper is to reproduce the flow pattern of experiments and to confirm the geometrical parameter that influences the flow structure in such a pump. The numerical model solves the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations and VOF multiphase model. STAR CCM+ with an adapted mesh configuration using hexahedral mesh with prism layer near walls was used. Attempts have been made to calculate two phase unsteady flow for stronger mass flow rates and stronger submergence with low water level in order to be able to capture air entrainment. The results allow the knowledge of some limits of numerical models, of mass flow rates and of submergences for air entrainment. In the validation of this

  4. Experimental results for a hypersonic nozzle/afterbody flow field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaid, Frank W.; Keener, Earl R.; Hui, Frank C. L.

    1995-01-01

    This study was conducted to experimentally characterize the flow field created by the interaction of a single-expansion ramp-nozzle (SERN) flow with a hypersonic external stream. Data were obtained from a generic nozzle/afterbody model in the 3.5 Foot Hypersonic Wind Tunnel at the NASA Ames Research Center, in a cooperative experimental program involving Ames and McDonnell Douglas Aerospace. The model design and test planning were performed in close cooperation with members of the Ames computational fluid dynamics (CFD) team for the National Aerospace Plane (NASP) program. This paper presents experimental results consisting of oil-flow and shadow graph flow-visualization photographs, afterbody surface-pressure distributions, rake boundary-layer measurements, Preston-tube skin-friction measurements, and flow field surveys with five-hole and thermocouple probes. The probe data consist of impact pressure, flow direction, and total temperature profiles in the interaction flow field.

  5. Controlling flow direction in nanochannels by electric field strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiang; Zhao, Tianshou; Li, Zhigang

    2015-08-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are conducted to study the flow behavior of CsF solutions in nanochannels under external electric fields E . It is found that the channel surface energy greatly affects the flow behavior. In channels of high surface energy, water molecules, on average, move in the same direction as that of the electric field regardless of the strength of E . In low surface energy channels, however, water transports in the opposite direction to the electric field at weak E and the flow direction is changed when E becomes sufficiently large. The direction change of water flow is attributed to the coupled effects of different water-ion interactions, inhomogeneous water viscosity, and ion distribution changes caused by the electric field. The flow direction change observed in this work may be employed for flow control in complex micro- or nanofluidic systems.

  6. Advancement of Shock-wave Induced Spraying Process through the Study of Gas and Particle Flow Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi Esfahani, Mohammad

    This research advances the knowledge of the working principles of the Shock-wave Induced Spraying Process (SISP), a thermal spray material deposition technique. Pulses created by a fast acting valve pass through a heated line increasing energy content and interacting with metered batches of heated or non-heated powder introduced into the line. The powder is accelerated to high velocities before bonding to the substrate upon impact. Advantages over other cold spray processes include cost savings and a more effective transfer of thermal energy to the powder. The shock-wave occurring near the substrate in other cold spray processes is avoided. The SISP flow field is resolved by using a computational model. The two-dimensional model accounts for the valve, gas heater, a tapered nozzle at the tip of the device, and preheating of the powder. It is implemented with a commercial computational fluid dynamics code. Comparisons are made with one-dimensional predictions, and measurements of pressure and temperature. Particle flow predictions are validated using particle velocity and adhesion measurements. A flow region of both high temperature and velocity gas, favorable to material deposition, forms which is not present in comparable steady-state cold spray processes. Increasing gas pressure increases the gas speed, while increasing temperature increases speed and temperature of this region. Using helium results in greater energy levels but for shorter periods of time. This indicates the need for a powder feeder which places particles in the flow at correct instants and durations of time. The effects of particle flow parameters on system performance are examined. It is found that the device must be operated at very high main heater and powder heater temperatures: 900 °C and 700 °C respectively to achieve a coating with stainless steel using nitrogen as the driving gas. It is also shown that a heater length range of 0.9 m to 1.4 m results in the greatest likelihood of

  7. Experimental and computational studies on the flow fields in aortic aneurysms associated with deployment of AAA stent-grafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiwen; Yao, Zhaohui; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Shangdong

    2007-10-01

    Pulsatile flow fields in rigid abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) models were investigated numerically, and the simulation results are found in good agreement with particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements. There are one or more vortexes in the AAA bulge, and a fairly high wall shear stress exists at the distal end, and thus the AAA is in danger of rupture. Medical treatment consists of inserting a vascular stent-graft in the AAA, which would decrease the blood impact to the inner walls and reduce wall shear stress so that the rupture could be prevented. A new computational model, based on porous medium model, was developed and results are documented. Therapeutic effect of the stent-graft was verified numerically with the new model.

  8. Study on blood flow containing nanoparticles through porous arteries in presence of magnetic field using analytical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemi, Seiyed E.; Hatami, M.; Sarokolaie, A. Kalani; Ganji, D. D.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, flow analysis for a third grade non-Newtonian blood in porous arteries in presence of magnetic field is simulated analytically and numerically. Blood is considered as the third grade non-Newtonian fluid containing nanoparticles. Collocation Method (CM) and Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method (OHAM) are used to solve the Partial Differential Equation (PDE) governing equation which a good agreement between them was observed in the results. The influences of the some physical parameters such as Brownian motion parameter, pressure gradient and thermophoresis parameter, etc. on temperature, velocity and nanoparticles concentration profiles are considered. For instance, increasing the thermophoresis parameter (Nt) caused an increase in temperature values in whole domain and an increase in nanoparticles concentration near the inner wall.

  9. Numerical study of the SSME nozzle flow fields during transient operations: A comparison of the animated results with test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ten-See; Dumas, Catherine

    1993-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model has been applied to study the transient flow phenomena of the nozzle and exhaust plume of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), fired at sea level. The CFD model is a time accurate, pressure based, reactive flow solver. A six-species hydrogen/oxygen equilibrium chemistry is used to describe the chemical-thermodynamics. An adaptive upwinding scheme is employed for the spatial discretization, and a predictor, multiple corrector method is used for the temporal solution. Both engine start-up and shut-down processes were simulated. The elapse time is approximately five seconds for both cases. The computed results were animated and compared with the test. The images for the animation were created with PLOT3D and FAST and then animated with ABEKAS. The hysteresis effects, and the issues of free-shock separation, restricted-shock separation and the end-effects were addressed.

  10. Flow field visualization about external axial corners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talcott, N. A., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to visualize the flow field about external axial corners. The investigation was initiated to provide answers to questions about the inviscid flow pattern for continuing numerical investigations. Symmetrical and asymmetrical corner models were tested at a Reynolds number per meter of 60,700,000. Oil-flow and vapor-screen photographs were taken for both models at angle of attack and yaw. The paper presents the results of the investigation in the form of oil-flow photographs and the surrounding shock wave location obtained from the vapor screens.

  11. Flow Fields at Tooting Crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouginis-Mark, P. J.; Garbeil, H.

    2007-12-01

    HiRISE images of the impact crater Tooting (~29 km dia., located at 23.4°N, 207.5°E) on Mars have revealed a remarkable series of lobate flows on the southern rim, wall and floor of the crater. The origin of these flows has not yet been determined, but their spatial distribution and morphology could indicate that they are flows of impact melt, mudflows, or lava flows. Tooting crater shows numerous signs of being very young (very few superposed impact craters, very high depth/diameter ratio, high thermal inertia ejecta, and a well preserved set of secondary craters), and so allows detailed analysis of these unusual flows, which appear to be almost pristine. We have developed a 2-meter digital elevation model of Tooting using stereo HiRISE images to characterize the flows, which in general are <10 m thick. Four distinct flow fields have been identified: (1) an extensive flow field on the S rim that appears to be solidified melt sheet ~2.5 km x 1.7 km in size that has four 200 to 600 m long flows with festoon ridges on their surface. (2) A single lobate flow on the SW rim that originates from a smooth "catchment area" of low relief close to the crater rim crest. Five discrete segments of this flow exist, including a 1.3 km segment with a discrete 15 m wide central channel and three lobate distal margins. (3) A set of 7 lobes ~700 m long on the inner S wall. These lobes have very well defined central channels ~25 m wide and levees <4 m wide. (4) A lobe complex on S floor that includes lobes >30 m thick and 300 m wide. These flows no doubt formed in an unusual environment, probably including extensive amounts of impact melt, volatiles released from the substrate, and highly unstable slopes on the crater rim. Tooting crater therefore displays a novel planetary flow field; the correct identification of the origin of these flows holds significance for understanding the role of volatiles in the impact cratering process, the potential of thermal anomalies existing within

  12. Improved modeling techniques for turbomachinery flow fields

    SciTech Connect

    Lakshminarayana, B.; Fagan, J.R. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    This program has the objective of developing an improved methodology for modeling turbomachinery flow fields, including the prediction of losses and efficiency. Specifically, the program addresses the treatment of the mixing stress tensor terms attributed to deterministic flow field mechanisms required in steady-state Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) models for turbomachinery flow fields. These mixing stress tensors arise due to spatial and temporal fluctuations (in an absolute frame of reference) caused by rotor-stator interaction due to various blade rows and by blade-to-blade variation of flow properties. This will be accomplished in a cooperative program by Penn State University and the Allison Engine Company. These tasks include the acquisition of previously unavailable experimental data in a high-speed turbomachinery environment, the use of advanced techniques to analyze the data, and the development of a methodology to treat the deterministic component of the mixing stress tenor.

  13. Geology of the Tyrrhenus Mons Lava Flow Field, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crown, David A.; Mest, Scott C.

    2014-11-01

    The ancient, eroded Martian volcano Tyrrhenus Mons exhibits a central caldera complex, layered flank deposits dissected by radial valleys, and a 1000+ km-long flow field extending to the southwest toward Hellas Planitia. Past studies suggested an early phase of volcanism dominated by large explosive eruptions followed by subsequent effusive activity at the summit and to the southwest. As part of a new geologic mapping study of northeast Hellas, we are examining the volcanic landforms and geologic evolution of the Tyrrhenus Mons flow field, including the timing and nature of fluvial activity and effects on volcanic units. New digital geologic mapping incorporates THEMIS IR (100 m/pixel) and CTX (5 m/pixel) images as well as constraints from MOLA topography.Mapping results to-date include delineation of the boundaries of the flow field, identification and mapping of volcanic and erosional channels within the flow field, and mapping and analysis of lava flow lobes. THEMIS IR and CTX images allow improved discrimination of the numerous flow lobes that are observed in the flow field, including refinement of the margins of previously known flows and identification of additional and smaller lobes. A prominent sinuous rille extending from Tyrrhenus Mons’ summit caldera is a major feature that supplied lava to the flow field. Smaller volcanic channels are common throughout the flow field; some occur in segments along crests of local topographic highs and may delineate lava tubes. In addition to volcanic channels, the flow field surface is characterized by several types of erosional channels, including wide troughs with scour marks, elongate sinuous channels, and discontinuous chains of elongate pits and troughs. High-resolution images reveal the widespread and significant effects of fluvial activity in the region, and further mapping studies will examine spatial and temporal interactions between volcanism and fluvial processes.

  14. Hypervelocity atmospheric flight: Real gas flow fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, John T.

    1990-01-01

    Flight in the atmosphere is examined from the viewpoint of including real gas phenomena in the flow field about a vehicle flying at hypervelocity. That is to say, the flow field is subject not only to compressible phenomena, but is dominated by energetic phenomena. There are several significant features of such a flow field. Spatially, its composition can vary by both chemical and elemental species. The equations which describe the flow field include equations of state and mass, species, elemental, and electric charge continuity; momentum; and energy equations. These are nonlinear, coupled, partial differential equations that were reduced to a relatively compact set of equations of a self-consistent manner (which allows mass addition at the surface at a rate comparable to the free-stream mass flux). The equations and their inputs allow for transport of these quantities relative to the mass-averaged behavior of the flow field. Thus transport of mass by chemical, thermal, pressure, and forced diffusion; transport of momentum by viscosity; and transport of energy by conduction, chemical considerations, viscosity, and radiative transfer are included. The last of these complicate the set of equations by making the energy equation a partial integrodifferential equation. Each phenomenon is considered and represented mathematically by one or more developments. The coefficients which pertain are both thermodynamically and chemically dependent. Solutions of the equations are presented and discussed in considerable detail, with emphasis on severe energetic flow fields. For hypervelocity flight in low-density environments where gaseous reactions proceed at finite rates, chemical nonequilibrium is considered and some illustrations are presented. Finally, flight where the flow field may be out of equilibrium, both chemically and thermodynamically, is presented briefly.

  15. Hypervelocity atmospheric flight: Real gas flow fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, John T.

    1989-01-01

    Flight in the atmosphere is examined from the viewpoint of including real gas phenomena in the flow field about a vehicle flying at hypervelocity. That is to say, the flow field is subject not only to compressible phenomena, but is dominated by energetic phenomena. There are several significant features of such a flow field. Spatially, its composition can vary by both chemical and elemental species. The equations which describe the flow field include equations of state and mass, species, elemental, and electric charge continuity; momentum; and energy equations. These are nonlinear, coupled, partial differential equations that have been reduced to a relatively compact set of equations in a self-consistent manner (which allows mass addition at the surface at a rate comparable to the free-stream mass flux). The equations and their inputs allow for transport of these quantities relative to the mass-average behavior of the flow field. Thus transport of mass by chemical, thermal, pressure, and forced diffusion; transport of momentum by viscosity; and transport of energy by conduction, chemical considerations, viscosity, and radiative transfer are included. The last of these complicate the set of equations by making the energy equations a partial integrodifferential equation. Each phenomenon is considered and represented mathematically by one or more developments. The coefficients which pertain are both thermodynamically and chemically dependent. Solutions of the equations are presented and discussed in considerable detail, with emphasis on severe energetic flow fields. Hypervelocity flight in low-density environments where gaseous reactions proceed at finite rates chemical nonequilibrium is considered, and some illustrations are presented. Finally, flight where the flow field may be out of equilibrium, both chemically and thermodynamically, is presented briefly.

  16. Flow Fields Over Unsteady Three Dimensional Dunes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, R. J.; Reesink, A.; Parsons, D. R.; Ashworth, P. J.; Best, J.

    2013-12-01

    The flow field over dunes has been extensively measured in laboratory conditions and there is general understanding on the nature of the flow over dunes formed under equilibrium flow conditions. However, fluvial systems typically experience unsteady flow and therefore the sediment-water interface is constantly responding and reorganizing to these unsteady flows, over a range of both spatial and temporal scales. This is primarily through adjustment of bed forms (including ripples, dunes and bar forms) which then subsequently alter the flow field. This paper investigates, through the application of a numerical model, the influence of these roughness elements on the overall flow and the increase in flow resistance. A series of experiments were undertaken in a flume, 16m long and 2m wide, where a fine sand (D50 of 239μm) mobile bed was water worked under a range of unsteady hydraulic conditions to generate a series of quasi-equilibrium three dimensional bed forms. During the experiments flow was measured with acoustic Doppler velocimeters, (aDv's). On four occasions the flume was drained and the bed topography measured with terrestrial LiDAR to create digital elevation models. This data provide the necessary boundary conditions and validation data for a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model, which provided a three dimensional time dependent prediction of flow over the four static beds. The numerical predicted flow is analyzed through a series of approaches, and included: i) standard Reynolds decomposition to the flow fields; ii) Eulerian coherent structure detection methods based on the invariants of the velocity gradient tensor; iii) Lagrangian coherent structure identification methods based upon direct Lyapunov exponents (DLE). The results show that superimposed bed forms can cause changes in the nature of the classical separated flow region in particularly the number of locations where vortices are shed and the point of flow reattachment, which may be important for

  17. Images constructed from computed flow fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yates, Leslie A.

    1992-01-01

    A method for constructing interferograms, schlieren, and shadowgraphs from ideal- and real-gas, two- and three-dimensional computed flow fields is described. The computational grids can be structured or unstructured, and multiple grids are an option. The constructed images are compared to experimental images for several types of flow, including a ramp, a blunt-body, a nozzle, and a reacting flow. The constructed images simulate the features observed in the experimental images. They are sensitive to errors in the flow-field solutions and can be used to identify solution errors. In addition, techniques for obtaining phase shifts from experimental finite-fringe interferograms and for removing experimentally induced phase-shift errors are discussed. Both the constructed images and calculated phase shifts can be used for validation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes.

  18. Space Station resource node flow field analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kania, Lee; Kumar, Ganesh; Mcconnaughey, Paul

    1991-01-01

    An analysis of the flow field within the Space Station Freedom resource node with operational intermodule ventilation and temperature/humidity control ventilation systems has been conducted. The INS3D code, an incompressible, steady-state Navier-Stokes solver has been used to assess the design of the ventilation system via quantification of the level of fluid mixing and identification of 'dead air' regions and short-circuit ventilation. Numerical results indicate significant short-circuit ventilation in the forward and midsections of the node and insufficient fluid mixing is found to exist in the aft node section. These results as well as results from a solution grid dependence study are presented.

  19. Flow Field Measurement of Mixing Driven by Buoyancy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batur, C.; Zhong, H.

    2003-01-01

    Mixing driven by buoyancy-induced flows inside a cavity consists of stretching and folding of an interface. Measurement of the flow field using particle imaging velocimetry shows that during stretching the flow field has a single elliptic point, thus dominated by a single vortex. However, global bifurcation that results in folding introduces a hyperbolic point whereby the flow field degenerates to multiple vortex interactions. The short-lived coherent structure observed during mixing which results in the Rayleigh- Taylor morphology is attributed to vortex interactions. The mixing characteristics of non-homogeneous fluids driven by buoyancy are important towards understanding transport phenomenon in a microgravity environment. Mixing consists of stretching and folding of an interface due to a flow field whose intensity depends on the body force. For miscible liquids, the characteristic of the flow field determines whether mass transport is governed by diffusion or bulk stirring which induces mixing. For technologically important processes, transport of mass is governed by the coupling of the body force to scalar gradients such as concentration and or temperature' 2 3 . In order to lend insight into these classes of problems we consider a model experimental system to study mixing driven by buoyancy-induced flows. The characteristics of mixing is addressed from detail measurements of the flow field using particle imaging velocimetry (PIV), and its corresponding interface dynamics using image processing techniques.

  20. Computational interferometric description of nested flow fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havener, A. George; Obergefell, L. A.

    1987-01-01

    Computer graphics and theoretical descriptions of density are used to obtain computer generated flow visualizations called computational interferograms. Computational interferograms are pictorially analogous to optical interferograms, and examples showing the fringe pattern for the flow about a sharp tip cone in a supersonic air stream are presented. To ascertain the effect of unsteady behavior, local density disturbances are added to the steady state flow field. This introduces irregularities to the computational interferogram like those seen in the optical interferograms. These theoretical disturbances can be varied in geometry, density description, translated with time, and strengthened or dissipated. The accuracy of computational interferometry relies on the accuracy of the theoretical density descriptions and therefore, it provides a way of verifying existing models of flow fields, especially those containing unsteady or turbulent behavior. In addition to being a unique method of flow visualization, computational interferometry can be used to develop and modify theories or numerical solutions to both simple and complex flow fields. The presented research is a general description of this process.

  1. Improved visualization of flow field measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, Jeffrey Hilton

    1991-01-01

    A capability was developed that makes it possible to apply to measured flow field data the visualization tools developed to display numerical solutions for computational fluid dynamic problems. The measurement monitor surface (MMS) procedure was applied to the analysis of flow field measurements within a low aspect ratio transonic axial flow fan rotor obtained with 2-D laser anemometry. The procedure generates input for the visualization tools developed to display numerical solutions for computational fluid dynamics problems. The relative Mach number contour plots obtained by this method resemble the conventional contour plots obtained by more traditional methods. The results show that the MMS procedure can be used to generate input for the multidimensional processing and analysis tools developed for data from numerical flow field simulations. They show that an experimenter can apply the MMS procedure to his data and then use an interactive graphics program to display scalar quantities like the Mach number by profiles, carpet plots, contour lines, and surfaces using various colors. Also, flow directionality can be shown by display of vector fields and particle traces.

  2. Flow Transitions in a Rotating Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volz, M. P.; Mazuruk, K.

    1996-01-01

    Critical Rayleigh numbers have been measured in a liquid metal cylinder of finite height in the presence of a rotating magnetic field. Several different stability regimes were observed, which were determined by the values of the Rayleigh and Hartmann numbers. For weak rotating magnetic fields and small Rayleigh numbers, the experimental observations can be explained by the existence of a single non-axisymmetric meridional roll rotating around the cylinder, driven by the azimuthal component of the magnetic field. The measured dependence of rotational velocity on magnetic field strength is consistent with the existence of laminar flow in this regime.

  3. Microgravity Geyser and Flow Field Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochstein, J. I.; Marchetta, J. G.; Thornton, R. J.

    2006-01-01

    Modeling and prediction of flow fields and geyser formation in microgravity cryogenic propellant tanks was investigated. A computational simulation was used to reproduce the test matrix of experimental results performed by other investigators, as well as to model the flows in a larger tank. An underprediction of geyser height by the model led to a sensitivity study to determine if variations in surface tension coefficient, contact angle, or jet pipe turbulence significantly influence the simulations. It was determined that computational geyser height is not sensitive to slight variations in any of these items. An existing empirical correlation based on dimensionless parameters was re-examined in an effort to improve the accuracy of geyser prediction. This resulted in the proposal for a re-formulation of two dimensionless parameters used in the correlation; the non-dimensional geyser height and the Bond number. It was concluded that the new non-dimensional geyser height shows little promise. Although further data will be required to make a definite judgement, the reformulation of the Bond number provided correlations that are more accurate and appear to be more general than the previously established correlation.

  4. Unsteady fluid dynamic model for propeller induced flow fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Joseph; Ashby, Dale L.; Yon, Steven

    1991-01-01

    A potential flow based three-dimensional panel method was modified to treat time dependent flow conditions in which the body's geometry may vary with time. The main objective of this effort was the study of a flow field due to a propeller rotating relative to a nonrotating body which is otherwise moving at a constant forward speed. Calculated surface pressure, thrust and torque coefficient data for a four-bladed marine propeller/body compared favorably with previously published experimental results.

  5. Enhanced capture of magnetic microbeads using combination of reduced magnetic field strength and sequentially switched electroosmotic flow--a numerical study.

    PubMed

    Das, Debarun; Al-Rjoub, Marwan F; Banerjee, Rupak K

    2015-05-01

    Magnetophoretic immunoassay is a widely used technique in lab-on-chip systems for detection and isolation of target cells, pathogens, and biomolecules. In this method, target pathogens (antigens) bind to specific antibodies coated on magnetic microbeads (mMBs) which are then separated using an external magnetic field for further analysis. Better capture of mMB is important for improving the sensitivity and performance of magnetophoretic assay. The objective of this study was to develop a numerical model of magnetophoretic separation in electroosmotic flow (EOF) using magnetic field generated by a miniaturized magnet and to evaluate the capture efficiency (CE) of the mMBs. A finite-volume solver was used to compute the trajectory of mMBs under the coupled effects of EOF and external magnetic field. The effect of steady and time varying (switching) electric fields (150-450 V/cm) on the CE was studied under reduced magnetic field strength. During switching, the electric potential at the inlet and outlet of the microchannel was reversed or switched, causing reversal in flow direction. The CE was a function of the momentum of the mMB in EOF and the applied magnetic field strength. By switching the electric field, CE increased from 75% (for steady electric field) to 95% for lower electric fields (150-200 V/cm) and from 35% to 47.5% for higher electric fields (400-450 V/cm). The CE was lower at higher EOF electric fields because the momentum of the mMB overcame the external magnetic force. Switching allowed improved CE due to the reversal and decrease in EOF velocity and increase in mMB residence time under the reduced magnetic field strength. These improvements in CE, particularly at higher electric fields, made sequential switching of EOF an efficient separation technique of mMBs for use in high throughput magnetophoretic immunoassay devices. The reduced size of the magnet, along with the efficient mMB separation technique of switching can lead to the development

  6. Improved modeling techniques for turbomachinery flow fields

    SciTech Connect

    Lakshminarayana, B.; Fagan, J.R. Jr.

    1995-10-01

    This program has the objective of developing an improved methodology for modeling turbomachinery flow fields, including the prediction of losses and efficiency. Specifically, the program addresses the treatment of the mixing stress tensor terms attributed to deterministic flow field mechanisms required in steady-state Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) models for turbo-machinery flow fields. These mixing stress tensors arise due to spatial and temporal fluctuations (in an absolute frame of reference) caused by rotor-stator interaction due to various blade rows and by blade-to-blade variation of flow properties. These tasks include the acquisition of previously unavailable experimental data in a high-speed turbomachinery environment, the use of advanced techniques to analyze the data, and the development of a methodology to treat the deterministic component of the mixing stress tensor. Penn State will lead the effort to make direct measurements of the momentum and thermal mixing stress tensors in high-speed multistage compressor flow field in the turbomachinery laboratory at Penn State. They will also process the data by both conventional and conditional spectrum analysis to derive momentum and thermal mixing stress tensors due to blade-to-blade periodic and aperiodic components, revolution periodic and aperiodic components arising from various blade rows and non-deterministic (which includes random components) correlations. The modeling results from this program will be publicly available and generally applicable to steady-state Navier-Stokes solvers used for turbomachinery component (compressor or turbine) flow field predictions. These models will lead to improved methodology, including loss and efficiency prediction, for the design of high-efficiency turbomachinery and drastically reduce the time required for the design and development cycle of turbomachinery.

  7. Effect of flow field on the performance of an all-vanadium redox flow battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S.; Jayanti, S.

    2016-03-01

    A comparative study of the electrochemical energy conversion performance of a single-cell all-vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) fitted with three flow fields has been carried out experimentally. The charge-discharge, polarization curve, Coulombic, voltage and round-trip efficiencies of a 100 cm2 active area VRFB fitted with serpentine, interdigitated and conventional flow fields have been obtained under nearly identical experimental conditions. The effect of electrolyte circulation rate has also been investigated for each flow field. Stable performance has been obtained for each flow field for at least 40 charge/discharge cycles. Ex-situ measurements of pressure drop have been carried out using water over a range of Reynolds numbers. Together, the results show that the cell fitted with the serpentine flow field gives the highest energy efficiency, primarily due to high voltaic efficiency and also the lowest pressure drop. The electrolyte flow rate is seen to have considerable effect on the performance; a high round-trip energy efficiency of about 80% has been obtained at the highest flow rate with the serpentine flow field. The data offer interesting insights into the effect of electrolyte circulation on the performance of VRFB.

  8. Biofilm responses to smooth flow fields and chemical gradients in novel microfluidic flow cells

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jisun L.; Au, Kelly H.; Huynh, Kimberly T.

    2013-01-01

    We present two novel microfluidic flow cells developed to provide reliable control of flow distributions and chemical gradients in biofilm studies. We developed a single-inlet microfluidic flow cell to support biofilm growth under a uniform velocity field, and a double-inlet flow cell to provide a very smooth transverse concentration gradient. Both flow cells consist of a layer of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) bonded to glass cover slips and were fabricated using the replica molding technique. We demonstrate the capabilities of the flow cells by quantifying flow patterns before and after growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms through particle imaging velocimetry, and by evaluating concentration gradients within the double-inlet microfluidic flow cell. Biofilm growth substantially increased flow complexity by diverting flow around biomass, creating high- and low-velocity regions and surface friction. Under a glucose gradient in the double-inlet flow cell, P. aeruginosa biofilms grew in proportion to the local glucose concentration, producing distinct spatial patterns in biofilm biomass relative to the imposed glucose gradient. When biofilms were subjected to a ciprofloxacin gradient, spatial patterns of fractions of dead cells were also in proportion to the local antibiotic concentration. These results demonstrate that the microfluidic flow cells are suitable for quantifying flow complexities resulting from flow-biofilm interactions and investigating spatial patterns of biofilm growth under chemical gradients. These novel microfluidic flow cells will facilitate biofilm research that requires flow control and in situ imaging, particularly investigations of biofilm-environment interactions. PMID:24038055

  9. Biofilm responses to smooth flow fields and chemical gradients in novel microfluidic flow cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Jisun L; Au, Kelly H; Huynh, Kimberly T; Packman, Aaron I

    2014-03-01

    We present two novel microfluidic flow cells developed to provide reliable control of flow distributions and chemical gradients in biofilm studies. We developed a single-inlet microfluidic flow cell to support biofilm growth under a uniform velocity field, and a double-inlet flow cell to provide a very smooth transverse concentration gradient. Both flow cells consist of a layer of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) bonded to glass cover slips and were fabricated using the replica molding technique. We demonstrate the capabilities of the flow cells by quantifying flow patterns before and after growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms through particle imaging velocimetry, and by evaluating concentration gradients within the double-inlet microfluidic flow cell. Biofilm growth substantially increased flow complexity by diverting flow around biomass, creating high- and low-velocity regions and surface friction. Under a glucose gradient in the double-inlet flow cell, P. aeruginosa biofilms grew in proportion to the local glucose concentration, producing distinct spatial patterns in biofilm biomass relative to the imposed glucose gradient. When biofilms were subjected to a ciprofloxacin gradient, spatial patterns of fractions of dead cells were also in proportion to the local antibiotic concentration. These results demonstrate that the microfluidic flow cells are suitable for quantifying flow complexities resulting from flow-biofilm interactions and investigating spatial patterns of biofilm growth under chemical gradients. These novel microfluidic flow cells will facilitate biofilm research that requires flow control and in situ imaging, particularly investigations of biofilm-environment interactions. PMID:24038055

  10. A validation study of a rapid field-based rating system for discriminating among flow permanence classes of headwater streams in South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Ken M; Wenerick, William R; Kostich, Mitch S

    2013-11-01

    Rapid field-based protocols for classifying flow permanence of headwater streams are needed to inform timely regulatory decisions. Such an existing method was developed for and has been used in North Carolina since 1998. The method uses ordinal scoring of 26 geomorphology, hydrology, and biology attributes of streams. The attribute scores are summed and compared to threshold scores to assign a flow permanence class. Our study objective was to evaluate the method's ability to classify the flow permanence of forested stream reaches from Piedmont and Southeastern Plains ecoregions in South Carolina. Ephemeral reaches scored significantly lower than intermittent and perennial reaches, but scores from intermittent and perennial reaches did not differ. Scores collected in the dry and wet seasons were strongly correlated, indicating that the method was seasonally stable. Scores had positive nonlinear relationships with the maximum recorded wet duration and the proportion of the record that reaches were wet, but were not related to drying frequency. Scores of the presence of baseflow in the dry season were more important in flow permanence classification than those from the wet season. Other important attributes and parameters in discriminating flow classes were macrobenthos, rooted upland plants, bankfull width, drainage area, and ecoregion. Although the North Carolina method did not consistently differentiate intermittent from perennial reaches, the indicator-based approach is a strong foundation from which to build a protocol for South Carolina. Adding measures like bankfull width and drainage area, weighting by ecoregion, or shifting thresholds may be warranted modifications for South Carolina. PMID:24000112

  11. A validation study of a rapid field-based rating system for discriminating among flow permanence classes of headwater streams in South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Ken M; Wenerick, William R; Kostich, Mitch S

    2013-11-01

    Rapid field-based protocols for classifying flow permanence of headwater streams are needed to inform timely regulatory decisions. Such an existing method was developed for and has been used in North Carolina since 1998. The method uses ordinal scoring of 26 geomorphology, hydrology, and biology attributes of streams. The attribute scores are summed and compared to threshold scores to assign a flow permanence class. Our study objective was to evaluate the method's ability to classify the flow permanence of forested stream reaches from Piedmont and Southeastern Plains ecoregions in South Carolina. Ephemeral reaches scored significantly lower than intermittent and perennial reaches, but scores from intermittent and perennial reaches did not differ. Scores collected in the dry and wet seasons were strongly correlated, indicating that the method was seasonally stable. Scores had positive nonlinear relationships with the maximum recorded wet duration and the proportion of the record that reaches were wet, but were not related to drying frequency. Scores of the presence of baseflow in the dry season were more important in flow permanence classification than those from the wet season. Other important attributes and parameters in discriminating flow classes were macrobenthos, rooted upland plants, bankfull width, drainage area, and ecoregion. Although the North Carolina method did not consistently differentiate intermittent from perennial reaches, the indicator-based approach is a strong foundation from which to build a protocol for South Carolina. Adding measures like bankfull width and drainage area, weighting by ecoregion, or shifting thresholds may be warranted modifications for South Carolina.

  12. Ferrofluid pipe flow in an oscillating magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krekhov, Alexei P.; Shliomis, Mark I.; Kamiyama, Shinichi

    2005-03-01

    Ferrofluid pipe flow in an oscillating magnetic field along the pipe axis is studied theoretically in a wide range of the flow rate. The field-dependent part of viscosity (it can be positive or negative) reveals significant dependence on the flow vorticity, i.e., ferrofluids exhibit non-Newtonian behavior. This is manifested in an alteration of the velocity profile—it ceases to be parabolic—and deviation of the flow rate from the value prescribed by Poiseuille's formula. The presented model based on the conventional ferrohydrodynamic equations and an assumption of the ferrofluid structure fits well experimental data recently obtained by Schumacher, Sellien, Konke, Cader, and Finlayson ["Experiment and simulation of laminar and turbulent ferrofluid pipe flow in an oscillating magnetic field," Phys. Rev. E 67, 026308 (2003)].

  13. Flow fields of low pressure vent exhausts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scialdone, John J.

    1989-01-01

    The flow field produced by low pressure gas vents are described based on experimental data obtained from tests in a large vacuum chamber. The gas density, pressure, and flux at any location in the flow field are calculated based on the vent plume description and the knowledge of the flow rate and velocity of the venting gas. The same parameters and the column densities along a specified line of sight traversing the plume are also obtained and shown by a computer-generated graphical representation. The fields obtained with a radially scanning Pitot probe within the exhausting gas are described by a power of the cosine function, the mass rate and the distance from the exit port. The field measurements were made for gas at pressures ranging from 2 to 50 torr venting from pipe fittings with diameters of 3/16 inch to 1-1/2 inches I.D. (4.76 mm to 38.1 mm). The N(2) mass flow rates ranged from 2E-4 to 3.7E-1 g/s.

  14. Digital enhancement of flow field images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kudlinski, Robert A.; Park, Stephen K.

    1988-01-01

    Most photographs of experimentally generated fluid flow fields have inherently poor photographic quality, specifically low contrast. Thus, there is a need to establish a process for quickly and accurately enhancing these photographs to provide improved versions for physical interpretation, analysis, and publication. A sequence of digital image processing techniques which have been demonstrated to effectively enhance such photographs is described.

  15. Field performance of the Gallagher flow conditioner

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, J.E.; LaNasa, P.J.

    1995-12-31

    This paper contains a summary of the current {open_quotes}state of the art{close_quotes} for flow conditioners, the basis for the Gallagher Flow Conditioner (GFC), and experimental results from several evaluations. Experimental results for the GFC indicate a maximum metering uncertainty of approximately plus or minus one-tenth of one percent ({+-} 0.10%) due to upstream flow disturbances for orifice meters and virtually zero for other inferential flowmeters. Experiments have been conducted at five commercial laboratories, seven field laboratories, line sizes form 25 to 460 mm (1 to 18 inch), over a Reynolds number range of 2,000 to 3,000,000, for three inferential flowmeters -orifice, turbine and vortex. The GFC has been tested in a multitude of fluid applications --- natural gas, dry air, nine different crude oils, polymer-grade ethylene, etcetera. In these applications the flowing stream has ranged from clean to very dirty. Based on independently conducted research results, it is the authors` opinions that the GFC {open_quotes}isolates{close_quotes} flowmeters from piping-induced disturbances and, thereby, allows more accurate metering of fluids flowing in pipelines. The device achieves the optimal flow conditioner objectives and maintains pseudofully developed flow in a pipe with respect to the axial position.

  16. Flow cytometry total cell counts: a field study assessing microbiological water quality and growth in unchlorinated drinking water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Liu, G; Van der Mark, E J; Verberk, J Q J C; Van Dijk, J C

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the application of flow cytometry total cell counts (TCCs) as a parameter to assess microbial growth in drinking water distribution systems and to determine the relationships between different parameters describing the biostability of treated water. A one-year sampling program was carried out in two distribution systems in The Netherlands. Results demonstrated that, in both systems, the biomass differences measured by ATP were not significant. TCC differences were also not significant in treatment plant 1, but decreased slightly in treatment plant 2. TCC values were found to be higher at temperatures above 15°C than at temperatures below 15°C. The correlation study of parameters describing biostability found no relationship among TCC, heterotrophic plate counts, and Aeromonas. Also no relationship was found between TCC and ATP. Some correlation was found between the subgroup of high nucleic acid content bacteria and ATP (R (2) = 0.63). Overall, the results demonstrated that TCC is a valuable parameter to assess the drinking water biological quality and regrowth; it can directly and sensitively quantify biomass, detect small changes, and can be used to determine the subgroup of active HNA bacteria that are related to ATP.

  17. Studies on reactive flows

    SciTech Connect

    Sheu, Wenjenn.

    1989-01-01

    Theoretical, numerical and experimental studies are presented on the upstream interactions between premixed flamelets in turbulent combustions, the effect of centrifugal acceleration due to the rotation on Bunsen flames, extinction of counterflow diffusion flames in a counter-rotating finite jet, and nonplanar flame configurations in stagnation point flow. The processes during the upstream flame interactions are numerically investigated using two ozone decomposition planar flames propagating towards each other. The flame temperature and speed during the whole interaction process are also analyzed. One basic kind of rotational effects on the shape and stability of the premixed flames stabilized in Bunsen burner is theoretically and experimentally studied. The relation between the flame stabilization by the burner rim and rotation across the flame is examined. In addition the stable and unstable flame configuration are identified. In the study of the extinction characteristics of diffusion flames in opposed-jet flows with angular velocities which are equal in magnitude but opposite in directions, the extinction characteristics with vorticity in the flow were explored. The general configurations of premixed flame fronts in a stagnation point flow is pursued. Some flame shapes other than planar flames were verified. A simple mathematical model is given to provide the explicit expressions of flame fronts. The implications of these studies to the modeling of turbulent combustion are discussed.

  18. Micromodel foam flow study

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, K.T.; Radke, C.J.

    1990-10-01

    Foams are often utilized as part of enhanced oil recovery techniques. This report presents the results of a micromodel foam flow study. Micromodels are valuable tools in uncovering capillary phenomena responsible for lamellae generation and coalescence during foam flow in porous media. Among the mechanisms observed are snap-off, weeping-flow breakup, and lamella division and leave behind. Coalescence mechanisms include dynamic capillary-pressure-induced lamella drainage and gas diffusion. These phenomena are sensitive to the mode of injection, the local capillary environment, and the geometry of the pore structure. An important consideration in presenting a tractable model of foam flow behavior is the ability to identify the pore-level mechanisms having the greatest impact on foam texture. The predominant mechanisms will vary depending upon the application for foam as an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) fluid. Both simultaneous gas and surfactant injection and surfactant alternating with gas injection (SAG) have been used to create foam for mobility control in EOR projects. The model developed is based on simultaneous gas and surfactant injection during steady-state conditions into a Berea sandstone core. The lamellae generation and coalescence mechanisms included in this model are snap-off, lamella division, and dynamic capillary-pressure-induced lamella drainage. This simplified steady-state model serves as a foundation for developing more complete rate expressions and for extending the population balance to handle transient foam flow behavior. 70 refs., 30 figs.

  19. Nitrification cessation and recovery in an aerated saturated vertical subsurface flow treatment wetland: Field studies and microscale biofilm modeling.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Clodagh; Rajabzadeh, Amin R; Weber, Kela P; Nivala, Jaime; Wallace, Scott D; Cooper, David J

    2016-06-01

    In aerated treatment wetlands, oxygen availability is not a limiting factor in sustaining a high level of nitrification in wastewater treatment. In the case of an air blower failure, nitrification would cease, potentially causing adverse effects to the nitrifying bacteria. A field trial was completed investigating nitrification loss when aeration is switched off, and the system recovery rate after the aeration is switched back on. Loss of dissolved oxygen was observed to be more rapid than loss of nitrification. Nitrate was observed in the effluent long after the aeration was switched off (48h+). A complementary modeling study predicted nitrate diffusion out of biofilm over a 48h period. After two weeks of no aeration in the established system, nitrification recovered within two days, whereas nitrification establishment in a new system was previously observed to require 20-45days. These results suggest that once established resident nitrifying microbial communities are quite robust. PMID:26967335

  20. The Flow Field Inside Ventricle Assist Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Einav, Shmuel; Rosenfeld, Moshe; Avrahami, Idit

    2000-11-01

    The evaluation of innovative ventricle assist devices (VAD), is of major importance. A New Left Heart Assist Device, with an improved energy converter unit, has been investigated both numerically and experimentally. For this purpose, an experimental Continuous Digital Particle Imagining Velocimetry (CDPIV) is combined with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. These tools complement each other to result into a comprehensive description of the complex 3D, viscous and time-dependent flow field inside the artificial ventricle. A 3D numerical model was constructed to simulate the VAD pump and a time-depended CFD analysis with moving walls was performed to predict the flow behaviour in the VAD during the cardiac cycle. A commercial finite element package was used to solve the Navier-Stokes equations (FIDAP, Fluent Inc., Evanston). In the experimental analysis, an optically clear elastic model of the VAD was placed inside a 2D CDPIV system. The CDPIV system is capable of sampling 15 velocity vector fields per second based on image-pairs intervals lower than 0.5 millisecond. Continuous sequences of experimental images, followed by their calculated velocity transient fields, are given as animated presentation of the distensible VAD. These results are used for validating the CFD simulations. Once validated, the CFD results provide a detailed 3D and time dependent description of the flow field, allowing the identification of stagnation or high shear stress regions.

  1. Numerical study of the ferrofluid flow and heat transfer through a rectangular duct in the presence of a non-uniform transverse magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aminfar, H.; Mohammadpourfard, M.; Ahangar Zonouzi, S.

    2013-02-01

    This paper investigates numerically the hydro-thermal characteristics of a ferrofluid (water and 4 vol% Fe3O4) in a vertical rectangular duct which is exposed to a non-uniform transverse magnetic field generated by an electric current going through a wire located parallelly under the duct. The two phase mixture model and the control volume technique have been used to study the flow. The results show that applying the aforementioned magnetic field increases the Nusselt number and friction factor and also creates a pair of vortices that enhances heat transfer and prevents sedimentation of nano-particles. Furthermore, unlike the axial non-uniform magnetic field, the increase of the Nusselt number for the transverse magnetic field is considerable in all length along the duct and it is also concluded that with increasing the Reynolds number, the effect of the transverse non-uniform magnetic field on the Nusselt number is more than that of the axial non-uniform magnetic field.

  2. Computation of flow pressure fields from magnetic resonance velocity mapping.

    PubMed

    Yang, G Z; Kilner, P J; Wood, N B; Underwood, S R; Firmin, D N

    1996-10-01

    Magnetic resonance phase velocity mapping has unrivalled capacities for acquiring in vivo multi-directional blood flow information. In this study, the authors set out to derive both spatial and temporal components of acceleration, and hence differences of pressure in a flow field using cine magnetic resonance velocity data. An efficient numerical algorithm based on the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible Newtonian fluid was used. The computational approach was validated with in vitro flow phantoms. This work aims to contribute to a better understanding of cardiovascular dynamics and to serve as a basis for investigating pulsatile pressure/flow relationships associated with normal and impaired cardiovascular function. PMID:8892202

  3. Turbulence modelling of flow fields in thrust chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. P.; Kim, Y. M.; Shang, H. M.

    1993-01-01

    Following the consensus of a workshop in Turbulence Modelling for Liquid Rocket Thrust Chambers, the current effort was undertaken to study the effects of second-order closure on the predictions of thermochemical flow fields. To reduce the instability and computational intensity of the full second-order Reynolds Stress Model, an Algebraic Stress Model (ASM) coupled with a two-layer near wall treatment was developed. Various test problems, including the compressible boundary layer with adiabatic and cooled walls, recirculating flows, swirling flows, and the entire SSME nozzle flow were studied to assess the performance of the current model. Detailed calculations for the SSME exit wall flow around the nozzle manifold were executed. As to the overall flow predictions, the ASM removes another assumption for appropriate comparison with experimental data to account for the non-isotropic turbulence effects.

  4. Flow Field of a Human Cough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertzberg, Jean

    2005-11-01

    Cough generated infectious aerosols are of interest while developing strategies for the mitigation of disease risks ranging from the common cold to SARS. In this work, the velocity field of human cough was measured using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The project subjects (total 29) coughed into an enclosure seeded with stage fog for most measurements. Cough flow speed profiles, average widths of the cough jet, waveform, and maximum cough speeds were measured. Maximum cough speeds ranged from 1.5 m/s to 28.8 m/s. No correlation was found for maximum cough flow speeds to height or gender. The slow growth of the width of the cough flow suggests that a cough may penetrate farther into a room than a steady jet of similar volume. The velocity profile was found to scale with the square root of downstream distance.

  5. Field Emission Microplasma Actuated Microchannel Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tholeti, Siva Sashank; Shivkumar, Gayathri; Alexeenko, Alina

    2015-11-01

    Flow actuation by dielectric barrier discharges (DBD) involve no moving parts and provide high power density for flow enhancement, heating and mixing applications in microthrusters, micropumps and microcombustors. Conventional micro-DBDs require voltages ~ kV for flow enhancement of a few m/s for 500 μm high channel. However for gaps <10 microns, field emission lowers the breakdown voltage following modified Paschen curve. We consider a micropump concept that takes advantage of the field emission from a micro-DBD with dielectric thickness of 3 μm and a peak voltage of -325 V at 10 MHz. At 760 Torr, for electrode thickness of 1 μm, Knudsen number with respect to the e-nitrogen collisions is 0.1. So, kinetic approach of particle-in-cell method with Monte Carlo collisions is applied in nitrogen at 300 K to resolve electron (ne) and ion (ni) number densities. Body force, fb = eE(ni-ne) , where, e is electron charge and E is electric field. The major source of heating from plasma is Joule heating, J.E, where J is current density. At 760 Torr, for fb,avg = 1 mN/cubic mm and J.E = 8 W/cubic mm, micro-DBD induced a flow with a velocity of 4.1 m/s for a 64 mW/m power input for a channel height of 500 μm. The PIC/MCC plasma simulations are coupled to a CFD solver for analysis of the resulting flow actuation in microchannels at various Reynolds numbers. This work was supported by NSF ECCS Grant No. 1202095.

  6. Effect of elongational flow on ferrofuids under a magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Altmeyer, S; Do, Younghae; Lopez, J M

    2013-07-01

    To set up a mathematical model for the flow of complex magnetic fluids, noninteracting magnetic particles with a small volume or an even point size are typically assumed. Real ferrofluids, however, consist of a suspension of particles with a finite size in an almost ellipsoid shape as well as with particle-particle interactions that tend to form chains of various lengths. To come close to the realistic situation for ferrofluids, we investigate the effect of elongational flow incorporated by the symmetric part of the velocity gradient field tensor, which could be scaled by a so-called transport coefficient λ(2). Based on the hybrid finite-difference and Galerkin scheme, we study the flow of a ferrofluid in the gap between two concentric rotating cylinders subjected to either a transverse or an axial magnetic field with the transport coefficient. Under the influence of a transverse magnetic field with λ(2)=0, we show that basic state and centrifugal unstable flows are modified and are inherently three-dimensional helical flows that are either left-winding or right-winding in the sense of the azimuthal mode-2, which is in contrast to the generic cases. That is, classical modulated rotating waves rotate, but these flows do not. We find that under elongational flow (λ(2)≠0), the flow structure from basic state and centrifugal instability flows is modified and their azimuthal vorticity is linearly changed. In addition, we also show that the bifurcation threshold of the supercritical centrifugal unstable flows under a magnetic field depends linearly on the transport coefficient, but it does not affect the general stabilization effect of any magnetic field. PMID:23944545

  7. On the no-field method for void time determination in flow field-flow fractionation.

    PubMed

    Martin, Michel; Hoyos, Mauricio

    2011-07-01

    Elution time measurements of colloidal particles injected in a symmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (flow FFF) system when the inlet and outlet cross-flow connections are closed have been performed. This no-field method has been proposed earlier for void time (and void volume) determination in flow FFF Giddings et al. (1977). The elution times observed were much larger than expected on the basis of the channel geometrical volume and the flow rate. In order to explain these discrepancies, a flow model allowing the carrier liquid to flow through the porous walls toward the reservoirs located behind the porous elements and along these reservoirs was developed. The ratio between the observed elution time and expected one is found to depend only on a parameter which is a function of the effective permeability and thickness of the porous elements and of the channel thickness and length. The permeabilities of the frits used in the system were measured. Their values lead to predicted elution times in reasonable agreement with experimental ones, taking into account likely membrane protrusion inside the channel on system assembly. They comfort the basic feature of the flow model, in the no-field case. The carrier liquid mostly bypasses the channel to flow along the system mainly in the reservoir. It flows through the porous walls toward the reservoirs near channel inlet and again through the porous walls from the reservoirs to the channel near channel outlet before exiting the system. In order to estimate the extent of this bypassing process, it is desirable that the hydrodynamic characteristics of the permeable elements (permeability and thickness) are provided by flow FFF manufacturers. The model applies to symmetrical as well as asymmetrical flow FFF systems. PMID:21256498

  8. Sultan - forced flow, high field test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Horvath, I.; Vecsey, G.; Weymuth, P.; Zellweger, J.

    1981-09-01

    Three European laboratories: CNEN (Frascati, I) ECN (Petten, NL) and SIN (Villigen, CH) decided to coordinate their development efforts and to install a common high field forced flow test facility at Villigen Switzerland. The test facility SULTAN (Supraleiter Testanlage) is presently under construction. As a first step, an 8T/1m bore solenoid with cryogenic periphery will be ready in 1981. The cryogenic system, data acquisition system and power supplies which are contributed by SIN are described. Experimental feasibilities, including cooling, and instrumentation are reviewed. Progress of components and facility construction is described. Planned extension of the background field up to 12T by insert coils is outlined. 5 refs.

  9. Field-flow fractionation of chromosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Giddings, J.C.

    1990-09-01

    Research continued on field flow fractionation of chromosomes. Progress in the past year can be organized into three main categories: (1) chromosome sample preparation; (2) preliminary chromosome fractionation; (3) fractionation of a polystyrene aggregate model which approximates the chromosome shape. We have been successful in isolating metaphase chromosomes from the Chinese hamster. We also received a human chromosome sample from Dr. Carolyn Bell-Prince of Los Alamos National Laboratory. Results are discussed. 2 figs.

  10. Flow Driven by an Archimedean Helical Permanent Magnetic Field. Part I: Flow Patterns and Their Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bo; Wang, Xiaodong; Etay, Jacqueline; Na, Xianzhao; Zhang, Xinde; Fautrelle, Yves

    2016-04-01

    In this study, an Archimedean helical permanent magnetic field was constructed and its driving effects on liquid metal were examined. A magnetic stirrer was constructed using a series of arc-like magnets. The helical distribution of its magnetic field, which was confirmed via Gauss probe measurements and numerical simulations, can be considered a combination of rotating and traveling magnetic fields. The characteristics of the flow patterns, particularly the transitions between the meridian secondary flow (two vortices) and the global axial flow (one vortex), driven by this magnetic field were quantitatively measured using ultrasonic Doppler velocimetry. The transient and modulated flow behaviors will be presented in a companion article. The D/ H dimension ratio was used to characterize the transitions of these two flow patterns. The results demonstrated that the flow patterns depend on not only the intrinsic structure of the magnetic field, e.g., the helix lead angle, but also the performance parameters, e.g., the dimensional ratio of the liquid bulk. The notable opposing roles of these two flow patterns in the improvement of macrosegregations when imposing such magnetic fields near the solidifying front were qualitatively addressed.

  11. Aerodynamic Flow Field Measurements for Automotive Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepner, Timothy E.

    1999-01-01

    The design of a modern automotive air handling system is a complex task. The system is required to bring the interior of the vehicle to a comfortable level in as short a time as possible. A goal of the automotive industry is to predict the interior climate of an automobile using advanced computational fluid dynamic (CFD) methods. The development of these advanced prediction tools will enable better selection of engine and accessory components. The goal of this investigation was to predict methods used by the automotive industry. To accomplish this task three separate experiments were performed. The first was a laboratory setup where laser velocimeter (LV) flow field measurements were made in the heating and air conditioning unit of a Ford Windstar. The second involved flow field measurements in the engine compartment of a Ford Explorer, with the engine running idle. The third mapped the flow field exiting the center dashboard panel vent inside the Explorer, while the circulating fan operated at 14 volts. All three experiments utilized full-coincidence three-component LV systems. This enabled the mean and fluctuating velocities to be measured along with the Reynolds stress terms.

  12. Unsteady Flow Field in a Multistage Axial Flow Compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suryavamshi, N.; Lakshminarayana, B.; Prato, J.

    1997-01-01

    The flow field in a multistage compressor is three-dimensional, unsteady, and turbulent with substantial viscous effects. Some of the specific phenomena that has eluded designers include the effects of rotor-stator and rotor-rotor interactions and the physics of mixing of velocity, pressure, temperature and velocity fields. An attempt was made, to resolve experimentally, the unsteady pressure and temperature fields downstream of the second stator of a multistage axial flow compressor which will provide information on rotor-stator interaction effects and the nature of the unsteadiness in an embedded stator of a three stage axial flow compressor. Detailed area traverse measurements using pneumatic five hole probe, thermocouple probe, semi-conductor total pressure probe (Kulite) and an aspirating probe downstream of the second stator were conducted at the peak efficiency operating condition. The unsteady data was then reduced through an ensemble averaging technique which splits the signal into deterministic and unresolved components. Auto and cross correlation techniques were used to correlate the deterministic total temperature and velocity components (acquired using a slanted hot-film probe at the same measurement locations) and the gradients, distributions and relative weights of each of the terms of the average passage equation were then determined. Based on these measurements it was observed that the stator wakes, hub leakage flow region, casing endwall suction surface corner region, and the casing endwall region away from the blade surfaces were the regions of highest losses in total pressure, lowest efficiency and highest levels of unresolved unsteadiness. The deterministic unsteadiness was found to be high in the hub and casing endwall regions as well as on the pressure side of the stator wake. The spectral distribution of hot-wire and kulite voltages shows that at least eight harmonics of all three rotor blade passing frequencies are present at this

  13. Morphology, stratigraphy, and surface roughness properties of Venusian lava flow fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrnes, Jeffrey M.; Crown, David A.

    2002-10-01

    Morphologic characteristics, flow stratigraphy, and radar backscatter properties of five lava flow fields on Venus (Turgmam Fluctus, Zipaltonal Fluctus, Tuli Mons/Uilata Fluctus, Var Mons, and Mylitta Fluctus) were examined to understand flow field emplacement mechanisms and relationships to other surface processes. These analyses indicate that the flow fields studied developed through emplacement of numerous, thin flow units, presumably over extended periods of time. Although the Venusian fields display flow morphologies similar to those observed within terrestrial flow fields, the Venusian flow units are significantly larger and have a larger range of radar backscatter coefficients. Both simple and compound flow emplacement appear to have occurred within the flow fields. A potential correlation between flow rheology and radar brightness is suggested by differences in planform morphology, apparent flow thickness, and apparent sensitivity to topography between bright and dark flows. Distributary flow morphologies may result from tube-fed flows, and postemplacement modification by processes such as flow inflation and crustal foundering is consistent with discrete zones of increased radar brightness within individual flow lobes. Mapping of these flow fields does not indicate any simple evolutionary trend in eruptive/resurfacing style within the flow fields, or any consistent temporal sequence relative to other tectonic and volcanic features.

  14. Microbial Field Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Chisholm, J.L.

    1990-11-01

    This report covers progress made during the first year of the Microbial Field Pilot Study project. Information on reservoir ecology and characterization, facility and treatment design, core experiments, bacterial mobility, and mathematical modeling are addressed. To facilitate an understanding of the ecology of the target reservoir analyses of the fluids which support bacteriological growth and the microbiology of the reservoir were performed. A preliminary design of facilities for the operation of the field pilot test was prepared. In addition, procedures for facilities installation and for injection treatments are described. The Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit (SEVVSU), the site of the proposed field pilot study, is described physically, historically, and geologically. The fields current status is presented and the ongoing reservoir simulation is discussed. Core flood experiments conducted during the last year were used to help define possible mechanisms involved in microbial enhanced oil recovery. Two possible mechanisms, relative permeability effects and changes in the capillary number, are discussed and related to four Berea core experiments' results. The experiments were conducted at reservoir temperature using SEVVSU oil, brine, and bacteria. The movement and activity of bacteria in porous media were investigated by monitoring the growth of bacteria in sandpack cores under no flow conditions. The rate of bacteria advancement through the cores was determined. A mathematical model of the MEOR process has been developed. The model is a three phase, seven species, one dimensional model. Finite difference methods are used for solution. Advection terms in balance equations are represented with a third- order upwind differencing scheme to reduce numerical dispersion and oscillations. The model is applied to a batch fermentation example. 52 refs., 26 figs., 21 tabs.

  15. Meeting in Florida: Using Asymmetric Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (AF4) to Determine C60 Colloidal Size Distributions

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study of nanomaterials in environmental systems requires robust and specific analytical methods. Analytical methods which discriminate based on particle size and molecular composition are not widely available. Asymmetric Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (AF4) is a separation...

  16. Flow Driven by an Archimedean Helical Permanent Magnetic Field. Part II: Transient and Modulated Flow Behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bo; Wang, Xiaodong; Fautrelle, Yves; Etay, Jacqueline; Na, Xianzhao; Baltaretu, Florin

    2016-08-01

    The present study considers the transient and modulated flow behaviors of liquid metal driven by a helical permanent magnetic field. The transient process, in which the fluid at rest experiences an increase in the angular velocity, is observed both in secondary and global axial flow with duration time less than 1 second. The flow fields are measured quantitatively to reveal the evolution of the transient flow, and the transient process is due to the variation of the electromagnetic force. Besides, the modulated flow behaviors of global axial flow, which is significantly different from that of secondary flow, is expected to avoid flow-induced macrosegregation in solidification process if the modulated time is suitable because its direction reversed periodically with the modulated helical stirrer. In addition, an optimal modulation frequency, under which the magnetic field could efficiently stir the solute at the solidification front, exists both in secondary and global axial flow (0.1 Hz and 0.625 Hz, respectively). Future investigations will focus on additional metallic alloy solidification experiments.

  17. Whole field velocity measurements in three-dimensional periodic flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Urmila Chennuru

    To quantify flows around rotorcraft, rapid measurements of scalar and vector fields are needed over large volumes. The techniques used must be suitable for large test facilities. This thesis studies methods for acquiring and reconstructing four-dimensional, spatio-temporal measurements of flow properties in periodic flows. It involves both the theoretical studies needed for algorithm development and the solution of practical problems required to enable multi-dimensional velocity field measurement in flows typical of full-scale rotorcraft. Resolving the four-dimensional flowfield is viewed as a problem in the tomographic reconstruction of scalar and vector fields. Theoretical formulations reconstructing n-dimensional scalar fields from (n-1)-dimensional projections are studied. This work was a precursor to the extraction of three-component, three-dimensional velocity fields from planar Spatial Cross-Correlation Velocimetry (SCV). SCV measures a planar displacement field by cross-correlating two time-separated images of the flow. A scalable system that uses inexpensive pulsed white light sources and enables large-area imaging has been integrated for use in full-scale test facilities. The flowfield around a V22 half-model was studied using this technique. SCV discovered the existence of a transient upflow above the rotor plane, unique to compressible rotor flows, and verified other flow features. Measurements in a turbofan engine test cell validated system performance in the highly turbulent and vibrating test environment, under time limitations typical of industry testing. Studies of a two-bladed rotor in axial flight revealed basic vortex pairing and merger phenomena. These tests provided the first proof that full-scale rotor wakes at high Reynolds number and Mach number are cleanly periodic when facility interference effects are eliminated. A method was developed to compute the 3D, three-component, periodic velocity field by integrating 2D, phase-resolved, SCV data

  18. Directed Plasma Flow across Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Presura, R.; Stepanenko, Y.; Neff, S.; Sotnikov, V. I.

    2008-04-01

    The Hall effect plays a significant role in the penetration of plasma flows across magnetic field. For example, its effect may become dominant in the solar wind penetration into the magnetosphere, in the magnetic field advection in wire array z-pinch precursors, or in the arcing of magnetically insulated transmission lines. An experiment performed at the Nevada Terawatt Facility explored the penetration of plasma with large Hall parameter (˜10) across ambient magnetic field. The plasma was produced by ablation with the short pulse high intensity laser Leopard (0.35 ps, 10^17W/cm^2) and the magnetic field with the pulsed power generator Zebra (50 T). The expanding plasma assumed a jet configuration and propagated beyond a distance consistent with a diamagnetic bubble model. Without magnetic field, the plasma expansion was close to hemispherical. The ability to produce the plasma and the magnetic field with distinct generators allows a controlled, quasi-continuous variation of the Hall parameter and other plasma parameters making the experiments useful for benchmarking numerical simulations.

  19. Flow field simulation for a corncob incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C.H.

    1999-02-01

    This article utilizes the standard k-{epsilon} turbulent model to simulate a corncob incinerator using the PISO algorithm with computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The flow patterns of the incinerator equipped with secondary air inlets are predicted and compared for the various geometrical layouts. It is demonstrated that a wider recirculation zone can be found while the inclined angles of inlets increased, so a longer residence time and higher combustion efficiency will be expected. The longer distance between primary and secondary inlets will facilitate the formation of recirculation zone in this bigger space. The more the number of the secondary air inlets, the less the resident air in the top recirculation zone near the exit of the furnace. By using the CFD technique, the flow field of the incinerator can be understood more precisely, and it can serve as an excellent design tool. Furthermore, the computational program can be composed with FORTRAN and set up on a PC, and can easily be analyzed to get the flow field of the corncob incinerator.

  20. Transient rheological behavior of natural polysaccharide xanthan gum solutions in start-up shear flow fields: An experimental study using a strain-controlled rheometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ji-Seok; Kim, Yong-Seok; Song, Ki-Won

    2015-08-01

    The objective of the present study is to experimentally investigate the transient rheological behavior of concentrated xanthan gum solutions in start-up shear flow fields. Using a strain-controlled rheometer, a number of constant shear rates were suddenly imposed to aqueous xanthan gum solutions with different concentrations and the resultant shear stress responses were measured with time. The main findings obtained from this study can be summarized as follows: (1) For all shear rates imposed, however low it may be, the shear stress is rapidly increased with time (stress overshoot) upon inception of steady shear flow before passing through the maximum stress value and then gradually decreased with time (stress decay) until reaching a steady state flow. (2) As the imposed shear rate is increased, a more pronounced stress overshoot takes place and the maximum stress value becomes larger, whereas both times at which the maximum stress is observed and needed to reach a steady state flow are shortened. (3) The maximum shear stress is linearly increased with shear rate in a double logarithmic scale and becomes larger with increasing concentration at equal shear rates. In addition, the time at which the maximum stress occurs exhibits a linear relationship with the inverse of shear rate in a double logarithmic scale for all xanthan gum solutions, regardless of their concentrations. (4) The shear stress is sharply increased with an increase in strain until reaching the maximum stress at small range of deformations. The maximum stress is observed at similar strain values, irrespective of the imposed shear rates lower than 10 1/s. (5) The Bird-Leider model can be successfully used with regard to quantitatively predicting the transient behavior of concentrated xanthan gum solutions. However, this model has a fatal weakness in terms of describing a decrease in shear stress (stress decay).

  1. Microbial field pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Chisholm, J.L.

    1992-03-01

    The objective of this project is to perform a microbial enhanced oil recovery field pilot in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit (SEVVSU) in Payne County, Oklahoma. Indigenous, anaerobic, nitrate reducing bacteria will be stimulated to selectively plug flow paths which have been referentially swept by a prior waterflood. This will force future flood water to invade bypassed regions of the reservoir and increase sweep efficiency. This report covers progress made during the second year, January 1, 1990 to December 31, 1990, of the Microbial Field Pilot Study project. Information on reservoir ecology, surface facilities design, operation of the unit, core experiments, modeling of microbial processes, and reservoir characterization and simulation are presented in the report. To better understand the ecology of the target reservoir, additional analyses of the fluids which support bacteriological growth and the microbiology of the reservoir were performed. The results of the produced and injected water analysis show increasing sulfide concentrations with respect to time. In March of 1990 Mesa Limited Partnership sold their interest in the SEVVSU to Sullivan and Company. In April, Sullivan and Company assumed operation of the field. The facilities for the field operation of the pilot were refined and implementation was begun. Core flood experiments conducted during the last year were used to help define possible mechanisms involved in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The experiments were performed at SEVVSU temperature using fluids and inoculum from the unit. The model described in last year's report was further validated using results from a core flood experiment. The model was able to simulate the results of one of the core flood experiments with good quality.

  2. Microbial field pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Chisholm, J.L.

    1992-03-01

    The objective of this project is to perform a microbial enhanced oil recovery field pilot in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit (SEVVSU) in Payne County, Oklahoma. Indigenous, anaerobic, nitrate reducing bacteria will be stimulated to selectively plug flow paths which have been referentially swept by a prior waterflood. This will force future flood water to invade bypassed regions of the reservoir and increase sweep efficiency. This report covers progress made during the second year, January 1, 1990 to December 31, 1990, of the Microbial Field Pilot Study project. Information on reservoir ecology, surface facilities design, operation of the unit, core experiments, modeling of microbial processes, and reservoir characterization and simulation are presented in the report. To better understand the ecology of the target reservoir, additional analyses of the fluids which support bacteriological growth and the microbiology of the reservoir were performed. The results of the produced and injected water analysis show increasing sulfide concentrations with respect to time. In March of 1990 Mesa Limited Partnership sold their interest in the SEVVSU to Sullivan and Company. In April, Sullivan and Company assumed operation of the field. The facilities for the field operation of the pilot were refined and implementation was begun. Core flood experiments conducted during the last year were used to help define possible mechanisms involved in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The experiments were performed at SEVVSU temperature using fluids and inoculum from the unit. The model described in last year`s report was further validated using results from a core flood experiment. The model was able to simulate the results of one of the core flood experiments with good quality.

  3. Solution to Shape Identification of Steady-state Viscous Flow Fields to Prescribe Flow Velocity Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katamine, Eiji; Kanai, Ryoma

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents a numerical solution to shape identification problem of steady-state viscous flow fields. In this study, a shape identification problem is formulated for flow velocity distribution prescribed problem, while the total dissipated energy is constrained to less than a desired value, in the viscous flow field. The square error integral between the actual flow velocity distributions and the prescribed flow velocity distributions in the prescribed sub-domains is used as the objective functional. Shape gradient of the shape identification problem is derived theoretically using the Lagrange multiplier method, adjoint variable method, and the formulae of the material derivative. Reshaping is carried out by the traction method proposed as an approach to solving shape optimization problems. The validity of proposed method is confirmed by results of 2D numerical analysis.

  4. Vibrational relaxation in hypersonic flow fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Willard E.; Miner, Gilda A.; Heinbockel, John H.

    1993-01-01

    Mathematical formulations of vibrational relaxation are derived from first principles for application to fluid dynamic computations of hypersonic flow fields. Relaxation within and immediately behind shock waves is shown to be substantially faster than that described in current numerical codes. The result should be a significant reduction in nonequilibrium radiation overshoot in shock layers and in radiative heating of hypersonic vehicles; these results are precisely the trends needed to bring theoretical predictions more in line with flight data. Errors in existing formulations are identified and qualitative comparisons are made.

  5. Rectangular subsonic jet flow field measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Gerald L.; Swan, David H.

    1990-01-01

    Flow field measurements of three subsonic rectangular cold air jets are presented. The three cases had aspect ratios of 1x2, 1x4 at a Mach number of 0.09 and an aspect ratio of 1x2 at a Mach number of 0.9. All measurements were made using a 3-D laser Doppler anemometer system. The data includes the mean velocity vector, all Reynolds stress tensor components, turbulent kinetic energy and velocity correlation coefficients. The data are presented in tabular and graphical form. No analysis of the measured data or comparison to other published data is made.

  6. Variability modes in core flows inverted from geomagnetic field models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pais, M. A.; Morozova, A. L.; Schaeffer, N.

    2014-01-01

    The flow of liquid metal inside the Earth's core produces the geomagnetic field and its time variations. Understanding the variability of those deep currents is crucial to improve the forecast of geomagnetic field variations and may provide relevant information on the core dynamics. The main goal of this study is to extract and characterize the leading variability modes of core flows over centennial periods, and to assess their statistical robustness. To this end, we use flows that we invert from two geomagnetic field models (`gufm1' and `COV-OBS'), and apply principal component analysis and singular value decomposition of coupled fields. The quasi-geostrophic (QG) flows inverted from both geomagnetic field models show similar features. However, `COV-OBS' flows have a less energetic mean and larger time variability. The statistical significance of flow components is tested from analyses performed on subareas of the whole domain. Bootstrapping methods are also used to extract significant flow features required by both `gufm1' and `COV-OBS'. Three main empirical circulation modes emerge, simultaneously constrained by both geomagnetic field models and expected to be robust against the particular a priori used to build them (large-scale QG dynamics). Mode 1 exhibits three large vortices at medium/high latitudes, with opposite circulation under the Atlantic and the Pacific hemispheres. Mode 2 interestingly accounts for most of the variations of the Earth's core angular momentum. In this mode, the regions close to the tangent cylinder and to the equator are correlated, and oscillate with a period between 80 and 90 yr. Each of these two modes is energetic enough to alter the mean flow, sometimes reinforcing the eccentric gyre, and other times breaking it up into smaller circulations. The three main circulation modes added to the mean flow account for about 70 per cent of the flows variability, 90 per cent of the rms total velocities, and 95 per cent of the secular

  7. Effective contaminant detection networks in uncertain groundwater flow fields.

    PubMed

    Hudak, P F

    2001-01-01

    A mass transport simulation model tested seven contaminant detection-monitoring networks under a 40 degrees range of groundwater flow directions. Each monitoring network contained five wells located 40 m from a rectangular landfill. The 40-m distance (lag) was measured in different directions, depending upon the strategy used to design a particular monitoring network. Lagging the wells parallel to the central flow path was more effective than alternative design strategies. Other strategies allowed higher percentages of leaks to migrate between monitoring wells. Results of this study suggest that centrally lagged groundwater monitoring networks perform most effectively in uncertain groundwater-flow fields.

  8. Field-flow fractionation of chromosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Giddings, J.C.

    1993-04-01

    The first topic of this project involved the preparation, fractionation by sedimentation/steric Field Flow Fractionation (FFF), and modeling of metaphase chromosomes. After numerous unsuccessful attempts to prepare chromosomes, we have implemented a procedure (in collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory) to prepare metaphase chromosomes from Chinese hamster cells. Extensive experimentation was necessary to identify a suitable FFF channel surface to minimize chromosome adsorption and a carrier liquid to stabilize and disperse the chromosomes. Under suitable operating conditions, the Chinese hamster chromosomes were purified from cell debris and partially fractionated. The purified, preenriched chromosomes that can be prepared by sedimentation/steric FFF or produced continuously by continuous SPLITT fractionation provide an enriched feed material for subsequent flow cytometry. In the second project component, flow FFF permitted successful separations of single- from double-stranded circular DNA, double-stranded circular DNAs of various sizes, and linear double-stranded DNA fragments of various lengths. Diffusion coefficients extracted from retention data agreed well with literature data as well as predictions of major polymer theories. The capacity of FFF separations was evaluated to examine potential applications to long DNA chains.

  9. Experimental studies of transonic flow field near a longitudinally slotted wind tunnel wall. Ph.D. Thesis - George Washington Univ., 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everhart, Joel L.; Bobbitt, Percy J.

    1994-01-01

    The results of detailed parametric experiments are presented for the near-wall flow field of a longitudinally slotted transonic wind tunnel. Existing data are reevaluated and new data obtained in the Langley 6- by 19-inch Transonic Wind Tunnel are presented and analyzed. In the experiments, researchers systematically investigate many pertinent wall-geometry variables such as the wall openness and the number of slots along with the free stream Mach number and model angle of attack. Flow field surveys on the plane passing through the centerline of the slot were conducted and are presented. The effects of viscosity on the slot flow are considered in the analysis. The present experiments, combined with those of previous investigations, give a more complete physical characterization of the flow near and through the slotted wall of a transonic wind tunnel.

  10. Field methods for measuring concentrated flow erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, C.; Pérez, R.; James, M. R.; Quinton, J. N.; Taguas, E. V.; Gómez, J. A.

    2012-04-01

    techniques (3D) for measuring erosion from concentrated flow (pole, laser profilemeter, photo-reconstruction and terrestrial LiDAR) The comparison between two- and three-dimensional methods has showed the superiority of the 3D techniques for obtaining accurate cross sectional data. The results from commonly-used 2D methods can be subject to systematic errors in areal cross section that exceed magnitudes of 10 % on average. In particular, the pole simplified method has showed a clear tendency to understimate areas. Laser profilemeter results show that further research on calibrating optical devices for a variety of soil conditions must be carried out to improve its performance. For volume estimations, photo-reconstruction results provided an excellent approximation to terrestrial laser data and demonstrate that this new remote sensing technique has a promising application field in soil erosion studies. 2D approaches involved important errors even over short measurement distances. However, as well as accuracy, the cost and time requirements of a technique must be considered.

  11. Several examples where turbulence models fail in inlet flow field analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Bernhard H.

    Computational uncertainties in turbulence modeling for three dimensional inlet flow fields include flows approaching separation, strength of secondary flow field, three dimensional flow predictions of vortex liftoff, and influence of vortex-boundary layer interactions; computational uncertainties in vortex generator modeling include representation of generator vorticity field and the relationship between generator and vorticity field. The objectives of the inlet flow field studies presented in this document are to advance the understanding, prediction, and control of intake distortion and to study the basic interactions that influence this design problem.

  12. Theoretical and Experimental Studies of the Transonic Flow Field and Associated Boundary Conditions near a Longitudinally-Slotted Wind-Tunnel Wall. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everhart, Joel Lee

    1988-01-01

    A theoretical examination of the slotted-wall flow field is conducted to determine the appropriate wall pressure drop (or boundary condition) equation. This analysis improves the understanding of the fluid physics of these types of flow fields and helps in evaluating the uncertainties and limitations existing in previous mathematical developments. It is shown that the resulting slotted-wall boundary condition contains contributions from the airfoil-induced streamline curvature and the non-linear, quadratic, slot crossflow in addition to an often neglected linear term which results from viscous shearing in the slot. Existing and newly acquired experimental data are examined in the light of this formulation and theoretical developments.

  13. Electric field evidence for tailward flow at substorm onset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishida, A.; Tulunay, Y. K.; Mozer, F. S.; Cattell, C. A.; Hones, E. W., Jr.; Birn, J.

    1983-01-01

    Electric field observations made near the neutral sheet of the magnetotail provide additional support for the view that reconnection occurs in the near-earth region of the tail. Southward turnings of the magnetic field that start at, or shortly after, substorm onsets are accompanied by enhancements in the dawn-to-dusk electric field, resulting in a tailward E x B drift velocity. Both the magnetic and the electric fields in the tailward-flowing plasma are nonuniform and vary with inferred spatial scales of several earth radii in the events examined in this paper. These nonuniformities may be the consequence of the tearing-mode process. The E x B flow was also towards the neutral sheet and away from midnight in the events studied.

  14. Fluctuating pressures in flow fields of jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, J. C.; Haviland, J. K.

    1976-01-01

    The powered lift configurations under present development for STOL aircraft are the externally blown flap (EBF), involving direct jet impingement on the aircraft flaps, and the upper surface blown (USB), where the jet flow is attached on the upper surface of the wing and directed downwards. Towards the goal of developing scaling laws to predict unsteady loads imposed on the structural components of these STOL aircraft from small model tests, the near field fluctuating pressure behavior for the simplified cases of a round free cold jet and the same jet impinging on a flat plate was investigated. Examples are given of coherences, phase lags (giving convection velocities), and overall fluctuating pressure levels measured. The fluctuating pressure levels measured on the flat plate are compared to surface fluctuating pressure levels measured on full-scale powered-lift configuration models.

  15. Rectangular subsonic jet flow field measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Gerald L.; Swan, David H.

    1989-01-01

    Flow field measurements are presented of 3 subsonic rectangular cold air jets. The 3 cases presented had aspect ratios of 1 x 2, 1 x 4 at a Mach number of 0.09 and an aspect ratio of 1 x 2 at a Mach number of 0.9. All measurements were made using a 3-D laser Doppler anemoneter system. The presented data includes the mean velocity vector, all Reynolds stress tensor components, turbulent kinetic energy and velocity correlation coefficients. The data is presented in tabular and graphical form. No analysis of the measured data or comparison to other published data is made. All tabular data are available in ASCII format on MS-DOS compatible disks.

  16. Studies of shear flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kline, S. J.; Johnston, J. P.; Moffat, R. J.

    1986-03-01

    The objective of the work reported is construction of zonal models for accurate prediction of turbulent flows in rapid-running computer programs. The work follows the ideas set down in the discussion of zonal modeling by S. J. Kline in Vol. 2 of the Proceedings of the 1980-81 AFOSR-Stanford Conference on Complex Turbulent Flows. This discussion noted that the fast-running models available lack sufficient span to predict all classes of turbulent flows of engineering importance in a standard, invariant form. It therefore suggested that the models be treated as zonal. In the zonal approach, the constants in th models are adjusted for each important zone of the flow, where the word zone implies a region with a particular type of flow physics. In the proposal for the work, it was also noted that the parametrization of the flows and the selection of appropriate constants would ultimately need to be guided by the domain over which accurate results could be obtained, and that might well be different from pre-conceptions embodied in conventional taxonomies of the flows.

  17. A validation study of a rapid field-based rating system for discriminating among flow permanence classes of headwater streams in South Carolina

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rapid field-based protocols for classifying flow permanence of headwater streams are needed to inform timely regulatory decisions. Such an existing method was developed for and has been used in North Carolina since 1997. The method uses ordinal scoring of 26 geomorphology, hydr...

  18. Computational Analysis of Flow Field Inside Coral Colony

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Md Monir; Staples, Anne

    2015-11-01

    Development of the flow field inside coral colonies is a key issue for understanding coral natural uptake, photosynthesis and wave dissipation capabilities. But most of the computations and experiments conducted earlier, measured the flow outside the coral reef canopies. Experimental studies are also constrained due to the limitation of measurement techniques and limited environmental conditions. Numerical simulations can be an answer to overcome these shortcomings. In this work, a detailed, three-dimensional simulation of flow around a single coral colony was developed to examine the interaction between coral geometry and hydrodynamics. To simplify grid generation and minimize computational cost, Immersed Boundary method (IBM) was implemented. The computation of IBM involves identification of the interface between the solid body and the fluid, establishment of the grid/interface relation and identification of the forcing points on the grid and distribution of the forcing function on the corresponding points. LES was chosen as the framework to capture the turbulent flow field without requiring extensive modeling. The results presented will give insight into internal coral colony flow fields and the interaction between coral and surrounding ocean hydrodynamics.

  19. Solar-Cycle Evolution of Subsurface Flows and Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosovichev, Alexander G.; Zhao, Junwei

    2016-05-01

    Local helioseismology and magnetic field measurements from the HMI instrument on SDO provide unique high-resolution data that allow us to investigate detailed dynamics of the upper convection zone and its relation to the magnetic field evolution during the first five years of the current solar cycle. This study is focused on the understanding the role of the near-surface shear layer (NSSL) in the dynamo process, generation, emergence and transport of the solar magnetic flux. The helioseismology data represent 3D flow maps in the depth range of 0-20 Mm, obtained uninterruptedly every 8 hours for almost the whole solar disk with the spatial sampling of two arcsec. We calculate the flow characteristics (such as divergence, vorticity and kinetic helicity) on different spatio-temporal scales from supergranulation to global-scale zonal and meridional flows. We investigate the multi-scale organization of the subsurface flows, including the inflows into active regions, the hemispheric `flip-flop’ asymmetry of variations of the meridional flows, the structure and dynamics of torsional oscillations, and compare the flow behavior with the evolution of the observed magnetic activity of the current cycle.

  20. Development of the 1990 Kalapana Flow Field, Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattox, T.N.; Heliker, C.; Kauahikaua, J.; Hon, K.

    1993-01-01

    The 1990 Kalapana flow field is a complex patchwork of tube-fed pahoehoe flows erupted from the Kupaianaha vent at a low effusion rate (approximately 3.5 m3/s). These flows accumulated over an 11-month period on the coastal plain of Kilauea Volcano, where the pre-eruption slope angle was less than 2??. the composite field thickened by the addition of new flows to its surface, as well as by inflation of these flows and flows emplaced earlier. Two major flow types were identified during the development of the flow field: large primary flows and smaller breakouts that extruded from inflated primary flows. Primary flows advanced more quickly and covered new land at a much higher rate than breakouts. The cumulative area covered by breakouts exceeded that of primary flows, although breakouts frequently covered areas already buried by recent flows. Lava tubes established within primary flows were longer-lived than those formed within breakouts and were often reoccupied by lava after a brief hiatus in supply; tubes within breakouts were never reoccupied once the supply was interrupted. During intervals of steady supply from the vent, the daily areal coverage by lava in Kalapana was constant, whereas the forward advance of the flows was sporadic. This implies that planimetric area, rather than flow length, provides the best indicator of effusion rate for pahoehoe flow fields that form on lowangle slopes. ?? 1993 Springer-Verlag.

  1. Study of the size-based environmental availability of metals associated to natural organic matter by stable isotope exchange and quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry coupled to asymmetrical flow field flow fractionation.

    PubMed

    Laborda, F; Ruiz-Beguería, S; Bolea, E; Castillo, J R

    2011-07-01

    The determination of the isotopically exchangeable fraction of metals in environmental solid samples (soils, composts, sediments, sludges, etc.) is used to know the amount of metal potentially available (E-value). Stable isotopes can be used for determination of E-values through the analysis of the aqueous phases from spiked suspensions. However, the presence of isotopically non-exchangeable metal forms in the aqueous phase led to overestimation of the E-values. In this paper, a method for monitoring the degree of isotopic exchange in function of the molecular mass and/or size of the metal form has been developed based on the direct coupling of asymmetrical flow field flow fractionation (AsFlFFF) with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for on-line isotope ratio measurements. ICP-MS data acquisition parameters were stressed to avoid degradation of isotope ratio precision. Two sets of fractionation conditions were selected: a colloids separation, which allowed the separation of substances up to 1 μm, and a macromolecules separation, designed to resolve small size substances up to 50 kDa. The methodology was applied to study the environmental availability of copper and lead in compost samples, where metals are mainly associated to different forms of organic matter. No significant differences on isotopic exchange were observed over the size range studied, validating the E-values determined by direct analysis of the aqueous phases.

  2. Field-flow orientation effects in magnetorheological fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltimore, Craig Victor

    Magnetorheological (MR) materials are suspensions of micron-sized magnetically polarized particles in a liquid medium. When subject to magnetic fields, these particles form a micro-structure which endow the MR material with solid-like properties. Devices constructed with MR materials can achieve controllable force levels that have use in vibration mitigation. The orientation of the magnetic field is a key design parameter. To date research and device development has been concerned with MR material flow perpendicular the applied magnetic field. This relationship of material flow to applied magnetic field is known as perpendicular field/flow. This emphasis on perpendicular field/flow application describes only a limited view of MR material behavior. This work makes original contributions to the magnetorheological research literature through experimentation in MR material flow parallel to the applied magnetic field. This relationship of MR material flowing parallel to an applied magnetic field is known as parallel field/flow. These experiments show the high magnitudes of flux density associated with perpendicular field/flow are difficult to achieve in parallel field/flow. These low flux densities do not create a strong reordering of MR material micro-structure. The net effect is, in parallel field/flow application, that a visco-elastic behavior describes the response as opposed to Bingham behavior. This work also analyzes the experimental data to demonstrate the decrease in device response time, for parallel field/flow orientations, due to the elimination of the iron magnetic circuit (typical in perpendicular field/flow applications). MR fluid material properties are determined through Poiseuille flow.

  3. Assessment of real-time PCR based methods for quantification of pollen-mediated gene flow from GM to conventional maize in a field study.

    PubMed

    Pla, Maria; La Paz, José-Luis; Peñas, Gisela; García, Nora; Palaudelmàs, Montserrat; Esteve, Teresa; Messeguer, Joaquima; Melé, Enric

    2006-04-01

    Maize is one of the main crops worldwide and an increasing number of genetically modified (GM) maize varieties are cultivated and commercialized in many countries in parallel to conventional crops. Given the labeling rules established e.g. in the European Union and the necessary coexistence between GM and non-GM crops, it is important to determine the extent of pollen dissemination from transgenic maize to other cultivars under field conditions. The most widely used methods for quantitative detection of GMO are based on real-time PCR, which implies the results are expressed in genome percentages (in contrast to seed or grain percentages). Our objective was to assess the accuracy of real-time PCR based assays to accurately quantify the contents of transgenic grains in non-GM fields in comparison with the real cross-fertilization rate as determined by phenotypical analysis. We performed this study in a region where both GM and conventional maize are normally cultivated and used the predominant transgenic maize Mon810 in combination with a conventional maize variety which displays the characteristic of white grains (therefore allowing cross-pollination quantification as percentage of yellow grains). Our results indicated an excellent correlation between real-time PCR results and number of cross-fertilized grains at Mon810 levels of 0.1-10%. In contrast, Mon810 percentage estimated by weight of grains produced less accurate results. Finally, we present and discuss the pattern of pollen-mediated gene flow from GM to conventional maize in an example case under field conditions. PMID:16604462

  4. Assessment of real-time PCR based methods for quantification of pollen-mediated gene flow from GM to conventional maize in a field study.

    PubMed

    Pla, Maria; La Paz, José-Luis; Peñas, Gisela; García, Nora; Palaudelmàs, Montserrat; Esteve, Teresa; Messeguer, Joaquima; Melé, Enric

    2006-04-01

    Maize is one of the main crops worldwide and an increasing number of genetically modified (GM) maize varieties are cultivated and commercialized in many countries in parallel to conventional crops. Given the labeling rules established e.g. in the European Union and the necessary coexistence between GM and non-GM crops, it is important to determine the extent of pollen dissemination from transgenic maize to other cultivars under field conditions. The most widely used methods for quantitative detection of GMO are based on real-time PCR, which implies the results are expressed in genome percentages (in contrast to seed or grain percentages). Our objective was to assess the accuracy of real-time PCR based assays to accurately quantify the contents of transgenic grains in non-GM fields in comparison with the real cross-fertilization rate as determined by phenotypical analysis. We performed this study in a region where both GM and conventional maize are normally cultivated and used the predominant transgenic maize Mon810 in combination with a conventional maize variety which displays the characteristic of white grains (therefore allowing cross-pollination quantification as percentage of yellow grains). Our results indicated an excellent correlation between real-time PCR results and number of cross-fertilized grains at Mon810 levels of 0.1-10%. In contrast, Mon810 percentage estimated by weight of grains produced less accurate results. Finally, we present and discuss the pattern of pollen-mediated gene flow from GM to conventional maize in an example case under field conditions.

  5. Drop Breakup in Fixed Bed Flows as Model Stochastic Flow Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaqfeh, Eric S. G.; Mosler, Alisa B.; Patel, Prateek

    1999-01-01

    We examine drop breakup in a class of stochastic flow fields as a model for the flow through fixed fiber beds and to elucidate the general mechanisms whereby drops breakup in disordered, Lagrangian unsteady flows. Our study consists of two parallel streams of investigation. First, large scale numerical simulations of drop breakup in a class of anisotropic Gaussian fields will be presented. These fields are generated spectrally and have been shown in a previous publication to be exact representations of the flow in a dilute disordered bed of fibers if close interactions between the fibers and the drops are dynamically unimportant. In these simulations the drop shape is represented by second and third order small deformation theories which have been shown to be excellent for the prediction of drop breakup in steady strong flows. We show via these simulations that the mechanisms of drop breakup in these flows are quite different than in steady flows. The predominant mechanism of breakup appears to be very short lived twist breakups. Moreover, the occurrence of breakup events is poorly predicted by either the strength of the local flow in which the drop finds itself at breakup, or the degree of deformation that the drop achieves prior to breakup. It is suggested that a correlation function of both is necessary to be predictive of breakup events. In the second part of our research experiments are presented where the drop deformation and breakup in PDMS/polyisobutylene emulsions is considered. We consider very dilute emulsions such that coalescence is unimportant. The flows considered are simple shear and the flow through fixed fiber beds. Turbidity, small angle light scattering, dichroism and microscopy are used to interrogate the drop deformation process in both flows. It is demonstrated that breakup at very low capillary numbers occurs in both flows but larger drop deformation occurs in the fixed bed flow. Moreover, it is witnessed that breakup in the bed occurs

  6. Lava flow superposition: the reactivation of flow units in compound flow fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Applegarth, Jane; Pinkerton, Harry; James, Mike; Calvari, Sonia

    2010-05-01

    Long-lived basaltic eruptions often produce compound `a`ā lava flow fields that are constructed of many juxtaposed and superposed flow units. We have examined the processes that result from superposition when the underlying flows are sufficiently young to have immature crusts and deformable cores. It has previously been recognised that the time elapsed between the emplacement of two units determines the fate of the underlying flow[1], because it controls the rheological contrast between the units. If the time interval is long, the underlying flow is able to cool, degas and develop a rigid crust, so that it shows no significant response to loading, and the two units are easily discernable stratigraphically. If the interval is short, the underlying flow has little time to cool, so the two units may merge and cool as a single unit, forming a ‘multiple' flow[1]. In this case, the individual units are more difficult to distinguish post-eruption. The effects of superposition in intermediate cases, when underlying flows have immature roofs, are less well understood, and have received relatively little attention in the literature, possibly due to the scarcity of observations. However, the lateral and vertical coalescence of lava tubes has been described on Mt. Etna, Sicily[2], suggesting that earlier tubes can be reactivated and lengthened as a result of superposition. Through our recent analysis of images taken by INGV Catania during the 2001 eruption of Mt. Etna (Sicily), we have observed that the emplacement of new surface flows can reactivate underlying units by squeezing the still-hot flow core away from the site of loading. We have identified three different styles of reactivation that took place during that eruption, which depend on the time interval separating the emplacement of the two flows, and hence the rheological contrast between them. For relatively long time intervals (> 2 days), hence high rheological contrasts, superposition can cause an overpressure

  7. Extensive lava flow fields on Venus: Preliminary investigation of source elevation and regional slope variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magee-Roberts, K.; Head, James W., III; Lancaster, M. G.

    1992-01-01

    Large-volume lava flow fields have been identified on Venus, the most areally extensive of which are known as fluctus and have been subdivided into six morphologic types. Sheetlike flow fields (Type 1) lack the numerous, closely spaced, discrete lava flow lobes that characterize digitate flow fields. Transitional flow fields (Type 2) are similar to sheetlike flow fields but contain one or more broad flow lobes. Digitate flow fields are divided further into divergent (Types 3-5) and subparallel (Type 6) classes on the basis of variations in the amount of downstream flow divergence. As a result of our previous analysis of the detailed morphology, stratigraphy, and tectonic associations of Mylitta Fluctus, we have formulated a number of questions to apply to all large flow fields on Venus. In particular, we would like to address the following: (1) eruption conditions and style of flow emplacement (effusion rate, eruption duration), (2) the nature of magma storage zones (presence of neutral buoyancy zones, deep or shallow crustal magma chambers), (3) the origin of melt and possible link to mantle plumes, and (4) the importance of large flow fields in plains evolution. To answer these questions we have begun to examine variations in flow field dimension and morphology; the distribution of large flow fields in terms of elevation above the mean planetary radius; links to regional tectonic or volcanic structures (e.g., associations with large shield edifices, coronae, or rift zones); statigraphic relationships between large flow fields, volcanic plains, shields, and coronae; and various models of flow emplacement in order to estimate eruption parameters. In this particular study, we have examined the proximal elevations and topographic slopes of 16 of the most distinctive flow fields that represent each of the 6 morphologic types.

  8. Time-to-Passage Judgments in Nonconstant Optical Flow Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Hecht, Heiko

    1995-01-01

    The time until an approaching object will pass an observer (time to passage, or TTP) is optically specified by a global flow field even in the absence of local expansion or size cues. Kaiser and Mowafy have demonstrated that observers are in fact sensitive to this global flow information. The present studies investigate two factors that are usually ignored in work related to TTP: (1) non-constant motion functions and (2) concomitant eye rotation. Non-constant velocities violate an assumption of some TTP derivations, and eye rotations may complicate heading extraction. Such factors have practical significance, for example, in the case of a pilot accelerating an aircraft or executing a roll. In our studies, a flow field of constant-sized stars was presented monocularly on a large screen. TIP judgments had to be made on the basis of one target star. The flow field varied in its acceleration pattern and its roll component. Observers did not appear to utilize acceleration information. In particular, TTP with decelerating motion were consistently underestimated. TTP judgments were fairly robust with respect to roll, even when roll axis and track vector were decoupled. However, substantial decoupling between heading and track vector led to a decrement in performance, in both the presence and the absence of roll.

  9. An investigation of swirl flow field in pneumatic conveying duct

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xijun; Dong, Jinzhong

    1992-10-01

    The swirl flow field of a pneumatic conveying system is investigated experimentally. The swirl is imparted to the flow by the use of swirl vanes. A five-hole probe is used for measuring the tangential angle of flow, axial velocity, static pressure of flow, and swirl number in the flow sections of a conveying system. It is shown that the existence of a central screw conveyer produces the contrary swirl flow under some of the swirl vane angle conditions. The larger axial velocity is produced in the outer annular layer of flow. The maximum value of the swirl number in the flow sections agrees with a simplified theoretical relation.

  10. Magnetohydrodynamic channel flows with weak transverse magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Rothmayer, A P

    2014-07-28

    Magnetohydrodynamic flow of an incompressible fluid through a plane channel with slowly varying walls and a magnetic field applied transverse to the channel is investigated in the high Reynolds number limit. It is found that the magnetic field can first influence the hydrodynamic flow when the Hartmann number reaches a sufficiently large value. The magnetic field is found to suppress the steady and unsteady viscous flow near the channel walls unless the wall shapes become large.

  11. Flow-Field Surveys for Rectangular Nozzles. Supplement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, K. B. M. Q.

    2012-01-01

    Flow field survey results for three rectangular nozzles are presented for a low subsonic condition obtained primarily by hot-wire anemometry. The three nozzles have aspect ratios of 2:1, 4:1 and 8:1. A fourth case included has 2:1 aspect ratio with chevrons added to the long edges. Data on mean velocity, turbulent normal and shear stresses as well as streamwise vorticity are presented covering a streamwise distance up to sixteen equivalent diameters from the nozzle exit. These detailed flow properties, including initial boundary layer characteristics, are usually difficult to measure in high speed flows and the primary objective of the study is to aid ongoing and future computational and noise modeling efforts. This supplement contains data files, charts and source code.

  12. Asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation in the field of nanomedicine.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Michael; Holzschuh, Stephan; Traeger, Anja; Fahr, Alfred; Schubert, Ulrich S

    2014-06-01

    Asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) is a widely used and versatile technique in the family of field-flow fractionations, indicated by a rapidly increasing number of publications. It represents a gentle separation and characterization method, where nonspecific interactions are reduced to a minimum, allows a broad separation range from several nano- up to micrometers and enables a superior characterization of homo- and heterogenic systems. In particular, coupling to multiangle light scattering provides detailed access to sample properties. Information about molar mass, polydispersity, size, shape/conformation, or density can be obtained nearly independent of the used material. In this Perspective, the application and progress of AF4 for (bio)macromolecules and colloids, relevant for "nano" medical and pharmaceutical issues, will be presented. The characterization of different nanosized drug or gene delivery systems, e.g., polymers, nanoparticles, micelles, dendrimers, liposomes, polyplexes, and virus-like-particles (VLP), as well as therapeutic relevant proteins, antibodies, and nanoparticles for diagnostic usage will be discussed. Thereby, the variety of obtained information, the advantages and pitfalls of this emerging technique will be highlighted. Additionally, the influence of different fractionation parameters in the separation process is discussed in detail. Moreover, a comprehensive overview is given, concerning the investigated samples, fractionation parameters as membrane types and buffers used as well as the chosen detectors and the corresponding references. The perspective ends up with an outlook to the future.

  13. Granular flows through vertical pipes controlled by an electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; Hou, Meiying; Lu, Kunquan; Jiang, Zehui; Lam, Lui

    2001-12-01

    The flow of granular nickel particles moving down vertical pipes from a hopper in the presence of a local, horizontal ac electric field is studied experimentally. The flow is initiated by opening the bottom outlet of the pipe after the pipe is fully filled with particles from the hopper. The mass of particles flowing out of the pipe is measured as a function of time by an electronic balance. The time dependence of the steady-state flow rate Q, under each fixed voltage V, is obtained. Depending on the magnitude of V, two types of flow behaviors are observed. For low V (flow rates QA2 and, later in time, QB. The particles measured by QA2 originate from the pipe above the electrodes, and those by QB coming initially from the hopper. For high V (>=Vc), no interface exists and the whole region between the hopper and the electrodes are densely filled; only one constant flow rate QA2 is observed. (The precise meaning of QA2 and QB are defined in the text.) The steady-state flow rates QA2 and QB measured for each V, are plotted as a function of V. The flow rate QA2 is a monotonically decreasing function of V, which can be approximately fitted by a power law, with an exponent of -0.8, while QB is found to be voltage independent. These features result from a competition between the blocking effect of the electric-field region and the gravity-driven pushing effect from the hopper outlet. The local electric field is able to retard the downward movement of a dense column existing above it, but is ineffective in doing so when the column above is dilute in density.

  14. On the relation between photospheric flow fields and the magnetic field distribution on the solar surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, George W.; Title, A. M.; Topka, K. P.; Tarbell, T. D.; Shine, R. A.

    1988-01-01

    Using the technique of local correlation tracking on a 28 minute time sequence of white-light images of solar granulation, the horizontal flow field on the solar surface is measured. The time series was obtained by the Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter (SOUP) on Spacelab 2 (Space Shuttle flight 51-F) and is free from atmospheric blurring and distortion. The SOUP flow fields have been compared with carefully aligned magnetograms taken over a nine hour period at the Big Bear Solar Observatory before, during, and after the SOUP images. The flow field and the magnetic field agree in considerable detail: vectors which define the flow of the white-light intensity pattern (granulation) point toward magnetic field regions, magnetic fields surround flow cells, and magnetic features move along the flow arrows. The projected locations of free particles ('corks') in the measured flow field congregate at the same locations where the magnetic field is observed.

  15. Mixing, chemical reaction and flow field development in ducted rockets

    SciTech Connect

    Vanka, S.P.; Craig, R.R.; Stull, F.D.

    1984-09-01

    Calculations have been made of the three-dimensional mixing, chemical reaction, and flow field development in a typical ducted rocket configuration. The governing partial differential equations are numerically solved by an iterative finite-difference solution procedure. The physical models include the k approx. epsilon turbulence model, one-step reaction, and mixing controlled chemical reaction rate. Radiation is neglected. The mean flow structure, fuel dispersal patterns, and temperature field are presented in detail for a base configuration with 0.058 m (2 in.) dome height, 45/sup 0/ side arm inclination, and with gaseous ethylene injected from the dome plate at an eccentric location. In addition, the influences of the geometrical parameters such as dome height, inclination of the side arms, and location of the fuel injector are studied.

  16. Field measurement of basal forces generated by erosive debris flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCoy, S.W.; Tucker, G.E.; Kean, J.W.; Coe, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    It has been proposed that debris flows cut bedrock valleys in steeplands worldwide, but field measurements needed to constrain mechanistic models of this process remain sparse due to the difficulty of instrumenting natural flows. Here we present and analyze measurements made using an automated sensor network, erosion bolts, and a 15.24 cm by 15.24 cm force plate installed in the bedrock channel floor of a steep catchment. These measurements allow us to quantify the distribution of basal forces from natural debris‒flow events that incised bedrock. Over the 4 year monitoring period, 11 debris‒flow events scoured the bedrock channel floor. No clear water flows were observed. Measurements of erosion bolts at the beginning and end of the study indicated that the bedrock channel floor was lowered by 36 to 64 mm. The basal force during these erosive debris‒flow events had a large‒magnitude (up to 21 kN, which was approximately 50 times larger than the concurrent time‒averaged mean force), high‒frequency (greater than 1 Hz) fluctuating component. We interpret these fluctuations as flow particles impacting the bed. The resulting variability in force magnitude increased linearly with the time‒averaged mean basal force. Probability density functions of basal normal forces were consistent with a generalized Pareto distribution, rather than the exponential distribution that is commonly found in experimental and simulated monodispersed granular flows and which has a lower probability of large forces. When the bed sediment thickness covering the force plate was greater than ~ 20 times the median bed sediment grain size, no significant fluctuations about the time‒averaged mean force were measured, indicating that a thin layer of sediment (~ 5 cm in the monitored cases) can effectively shield the subjacent bed from erosive impacts. Coarse‒grained granular surges and water‒rich, intersurge flow had very similar basal force distributions despite

  17. Testing flow-through air samplers for use in near-field vapour drift studies by measuring pyrimethanil in air after spraying.

    PubMed

    Geoghegan, Trudyanne S; Hageman, Kimberly J; Hewitt, Andrew J

    2014-03-01

    Pesticide volatilisation and subsequent vapour drift reduce a pesticide's efficiency and contribute to environmental contamination. High-volume air samplers (HVSs) are often used to measure pesticide concentrations in air but these samplers are expensive to purchase and require network electricity, limiting the number and type of sites where they can be deployed. The flow-through sampler (FTS) presents an opportunity to overcome these limitations. The FTS is a wind-driven passive sampler that has been developed to quantify organic contaminants in remote ecosystems. FTSs differ from other passive samplers in that they turn into the wind and use the wind to draw air through the sampling media. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the FTS in a near-field pesticide vapour drift study by comparing the concentrations of pyrimethanil in air measured using one HVS and three FTSs placed in the same location. Pyrimethanil was sprayed onto a vineyard as part of normal pest management procedures. Air samples were collected every eight hours for 48 h. The volume of air sampled by the FTSs was calculated using the measured relationship between ambient wind speed and the wind speed inside the sampler as determined with a separate wind tunnel study. The FTSs sampled 1.7 to 40.6 m(3) of air during each 8 h sampling period, depending on wind speed, whereas the mean volume sampled by the HVS was 128.7 m(3). Mean pyrimethanil concentrations ranged from 0.4 to 3.2 μg m(-3) of air. Inter-sampler reproducibility, as represented by percent relative standard deviation, for the three FTSs was ∼20%. The largest difference in FTS-derived versus HVS-derived pyrimethanil concentrations occurred during the lowest wind-speed period. During this period, it is likely that the FTS predominately acted like a traditional diffusion-based passive sampler. As indicated by both types of sampler, pyrimethanil concentrations in air changed by a factor of ∼2 during the two days after spaying

  18. Reconstruction of velocity fields in electromagnetic flow tomography.

    PubMed

    Lehtikangas, Ossi; Karhunen, Kimmo; Vauhkonen, Marko

    2016-06-28

    Electromagnetic flow meters (EMFMs) are the gold standard in measuring flow velocity in process industry. The flow meters can measure the mean flow velocity of conductive liquids and slurries. A drawback of this approach is that the velocity field cannot be determined. Asymmetric axial flows, often encountered in multiphase flows, pipe elbows and T-junctions, are problematic and can lead to serious systematic errors. Recently, electromagnetic flow tomography (EMFT) has been proposed for measuring velocity fields using several coils and a set of electrodes attached to the surface of the pipe. In this work, a velocity field reconstruction method for EMFT is proposed. The method uses a previously developed finite-element-based computational forward model for computing boundary voltages and a Bayesian framework for inverse problems. In the approach, the vz-component of the velocity field along the longitudinal axis of the pipe is estimated on the pipe cross section. Different asymmetric velocity fields encountered near pipe elbows, solids-in-water flows in inclined pipes and in stratified or multiphase flows are tested. The results suggest that the proposed reconstruction method could be used to estimate velocity fields in complicated pipe flows in which the conventional EMFMs have limited accuracy. This article is part of the themed issue 'Supersensing through industrial process tomography'. PMID:27185961

  19. Reconstruction of velocity fields in electromagnetic flow tomography.

    PubMed

    Lehtikangas, Ossi; Karhunen, Kimmo; Vauhkonen, Marko

    2016-06-28

    Electromagnetic flow meters (EMFMs) are the gold standard in measuring flow velocity in process industry. The flow meters can measure the mean flow velocity of conductive liquids and slurries. A drawback of this approach is that the velocity field cannot be determined. Asymmetric axial flows, often encountered in multiphase flows, pipe elbows and T-junctions, are problematic and can lead to serious systematic errors. Recently, electromagnetic flow tomography (EMFT) has been proposed for measuring velocity fields using several coils and a set of electrodes attached to the surface of the pipe. In this work, a velocity field reconstruction method for EMFT is proposed. The method uses a previously developed finite-element-based computational forward model for computing boundary voltages and a Bayesian framework for inverse problems. In the approach, the vz-component of the velocity field along the longitudinal axis of the pipe is estimated on the pipe cross section. Different asymmetric velocity fields encountered near pipe elbows, solids-in-water flows in inclined pipes and in stratified or multiphase flows are tested. The results suggest that the proposed reconstruction method could be used to estimate velocity fields in complicated pipe flows in which the conventional EMFMs have limited accuracy. This article is part of the themed issue 'Supersensing through industrial process tomography'.

  20. The prediction of runoff flow directions on tilled fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takken, Ingrid; Govers, Gerard; Steegen, An; Nachtergaele, Jeroen; Guérif, Jérome

    2001-07-01

    On tilled fields runoff directions may be affected by tillage induced oriented roughness, causing runoff to flow along tillage lines instead of topographic direction. That this has an important effect on runoff and erosion patterns was already reported [Ludwig et al., Catena 25 (1995); Desmet and Govers, Catena 29 (1997); Souchère et al., J. Hydrol. 206 (1998); Takken et al., Catena 37 (1999)]. However, limited research has been carried out to develop models that can be used to predict whether flow will be in tillage or topographic direction. In this study a wide range of data was collected on runoff patterns observed in an agricultural catchment in the Belgian loess belt. The data show that for more than 75% of the mapped areas on hillslopes the flow was in direction of tillage. The data were analysed to develop two logistic regression models to predict runoff direction. The first model uses topographic slope, the angle between the tillage orientation and aspect direction and the degree of oriented roughness as input. In the second model, the effect of discharge on the flow direction is also considered using unit contributing area as a substitute variable. However, the application of the second model is complicated and error-prone. Furthermore, application of both models to a validation dataset showed only a minor increase in model performance when upslope area is included (95 vs. 93% of correct predictions). Therefore, it may be better to predict flow directions without taking discharge into account. The model without unit contributing area predicted very well the spatial variation of flow directions within a field surveyed by [Desmet and Govers, Catena 29 (1997)]. Including this logistic model in runoff and erosion models will result in much better predictions of runoff and erosion patterns than can be obtained by using the traditional approach of calculating a runoff pattern based on topography only.

  1. A Field Course Based on the Community Energy Flow Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Colin; Phillipson, John

    1977-01-01

    The concept of community energy flow provides a basis for a field course. This paper describes the methodology used in a field course for estimating parameters and for monitoring physical environmental variables. The paper culminates in the construction of a model of energy flow through the community. (Author/MA)

  2. Influence of flow field scaling on flashback of swirl flames

    SciTech Connect

    Blesinger, G.; Koch, R.; Bauer, H.-J.

    2010-04-15

    In this paper, the effect of geometrical scaling on the onset of flashback into a cylindrical premixing zone of a swirl flame is investigated. We discriminate two types of flashback. In the first type of flashback the flame propagates upstream inside an already present axial recirculation zone. This flashback is caused by turbulent burning along the vortex axis (TBVA) and is controlled by flame extinction inside the recirculation zone. The second type of flashback is caused by combustion induced vortex breakdown (CIVB). This type of flashback is characterised by the aerodynamic influence of the combustion heat release that leads to propagation of the axial recirculation zone and the flame in upstream direction. To study the effects of geometrical scaling on the flow fields and the two types of flashback, the operation of two geometrically scaled burners are compared at equal Reynolds number. By this method it is possible to observe the flashback phenomena in similar swirl flow fields but with different turbulent scales affecting the combustion process. To check flow field similarity and to indentify the flashback type, the non-reacting and reacting flow fields have been examined by planar particle imaging velocimetry and simultaneous recording of the flame luminescence. It is shown that geometrical scaling of the burner shifts the equivalence ratio at which flashback occurs and that this shift is different for the two types of flashback. Consistency and inconsistency with known scaling and stability criterions is discussed. Analysing the fluid dynamics and turbulent combustion gives a first explanation of why CIVB and TBVA are affected differently by geometrical scaling at constant Reynolds number which is in good agreement with the experimental observations. (author)

  3. Computational and Experimental Flow Field Analyses of Separate Flow Chevron Nozzles and Pylon Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massey, Steven J.; Thomas, Russell H.; AbdolHamid, Khaled S.; Elmiligui, Alaa A.

    2003-01-01

    A computational and experimental flow field analyses of separate flow chevron nozzles is presented. The goal of this study is to identify important flow physics and modeling issues required to provide highly accurate flow field data which will later serve as input to the Jet3D acoustic prediction code. Four configurations are considered: a baseline round nozzle with and without a pylon, and a chevron core nozzle with and without a pylon. The flow is simulated by solving the asymptotically steady, compressible, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations using an implicit, up-wind, flux-difference splitting finite volume scheme and standard two-equation kappa-epsilon turbulence model with a linear stress representation and the addition of a eddy viscosity dependence on total temperature gradient normalized by local turbulence length scale. The current CFD results are seen to be in excellent agreement with Jet Noise Lab data and show great improvement over previous computations which did not compensate for enhanced mixing due to high temperature gradients.

  4. Steady hydromagnetic flows in open magnetic fields. II - Global flows with static zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsinganos, K.; Low, B. C.

    1989-01-01

    A theoretical study of an axisymmetric steady stellar wind with a static zone is presented, with emphasis on the situation where the global magnetic field is symmetrical about the stellar equator and is partially open. In this scenario, the wind escapes in open magnetic fluxes originating from a region at the star pole and a region at an equatorial belt of closed magnetic field in static equilibrium. The two-dimensional balance of the pressure gradient and the inertial, gravitational, and Lorentz forces in different parts of the flow are studied, along with the static interplay between external sources of energy (heating and/or cooling) distributed in the flow and the pressure distribution.

  5. Holocene Flows of the Cima Volcanic Field, Mojave Desert, Part 2: Flow Rheology from Laboratory Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, T.; Whittington, A. G.; Soldati, A.; Sehlke, A.; Beem, J. R.; Gomez, F. G.

    2014-12-01

    Lava flow morphology is often utilized as an indicator of rheological behavior during flow emplacement. Rheological behavior can be characterized by the viscosity and yield strength of lava, which in turn are dependent on physical and chemical properties including crystallinity, vesicularity, and bulk composition. We are studying the rheology of a basaltic lava flow from a monogenetic Holocene cinder cone in the Cima lava field (Mojave Desert, California). The flow is roughly 2.5 km long and up to 700m wide, with a well-developed central channel along much of its length. Samples were collected along seven different traverses across the flow, along with real-time kinematic (RTK) GPS profiles to allow levee heights and slopes to be measured. Surface textures change from pahoehoe ropes near the vent to predominantly jagged `a`a blocks over the majority of the flow, including all levees and the toe. Chemically the lava shows little variation, plotting on the trachybasalt-basanite boundary on the total alkali-silica diagram. Mineralogically the lava is dominated by plagioclase, clinopyroxene and olivine phenocrysts, with abundant flow-aligned plagioclase microcrystals. The total crystal fraction is ~50% near the vent, with higher percentages in the distal portion of the flow. Vesicularity varies between ~10 and more than ~60%. Levees are ~10-15m high with slopes typically ~25-35˚, suggesting a yield strength at final emplacement of ~150,000 Pa. The effective emplacement temperature and yield strength of lava samples will be determined using the parallel-plate technique. We will test the hypothesis that these physical and rheological properties of the lava during final emplacement correlate with spatial patterns in flow morphology, such as average slope and levee width, which have been determined using remote sensing observations (Beem et al. 2014).

  6. Additional flow field studies of the GA(W)-1 airfoil with 30-percent chord Fowler flap including slot-gap variations and cove shape modifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentz, W. H., Jr.; Ostowari, C.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental measurements were made to determine the effects of slot gap opening and flap cove shape on flap and airfoil flow fields. Test model was the GA(W)-1 airfoil with 0.30c Fowler flap deflected 35 degrees. Tests were conducted with optimum, wide and narrow gaps, and with three cove shapes. Three test angles were selected, corresponding to pre-stall and post-stall conditions. Reynolds number was 2,200,000 and Mach number was 0.13. Force, surface pressure, total pressure, and split-film turbulence measurements were made. Results were compared with theory for those parameters for which theoretical values were available.

  7. Field theoretical approach for bio-membrane coupled with flow field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oya, Y.; Kawakatsu, T.

    2013-02-01

    Shape deformation of bio-membranes in flow field is well known phenomenon in biological systems, for example red blood cell in blood vessel. To simulate such deformation with use of field theoretical approach, we derived the dynamical equation of phase field for shape of membrane and coupled the equation with Navier-Stokes equation for flow field. In 2-dimensional simulations, we found that a bio-membrane in a Poiseuille flow takes a parachute shape similar to the red blood cells.

  8. Left ventricular systolic intraventricular flow field assessment in hyperthyroidism patients using vector flow mapping.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bin-Yu; Wang, Jing; Xie, Ming-Xing; Liu, Man-Wei; Lv, Qing

    2015-08-01

    Intraventricular hydrodynamics is considered an important component of cardiac function assessment. Vector flow mapping (VFM) is a novel flow visualization method to describe cardiac pathophysiological condition. This study examined use of new VFM and flow field for assessment of left ventricular (LV) systolic hemodynamics in patients with simple hyperthyroidism (HT). Thirty-seven simple HT patients were enrolled as HT group, and 38 gender- and age-matched healthy volunteers as control group. VFM model was used to analyze LV flow field at LV apical long-axis view. The following flow parameters were measured, including peak systolic velocity (Vs), peak systolic flow (Fs), total systolic negative flow (SQ) in LV basal, middle and apical level, velocity gradient from the apex to the aortic valve (ΔV), and velocity according to half distance (V1/2). The velocity vector in the LV cavity, stream line and vortex distribution in the two groups were observed. The results showed that there were no significant differences in the conventional parameters such as left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD) and left atrium diameter (LAD) between HT group and control group (P>0.05). Compared with the control group, a brighter flow and more vortexes were detected in HT group. Non-uniform distribution occurred in the LV flow field, and the stream lines were discontinuous in HT group. The values of Vs and Fs in three levels, SQ in middle and basal levels, ΔV and V1/2 were higher in HT group than in control group (P<0.01). ΔV was positively correlated with serum free thyroxin (FT4) (r=0.48, P<0.01). Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that LVEDD, FT4, and body surface area (BSA) were the influence factors of ΔV. The unstable left ventricular systolic hydrodynamics increased in a compensatory manner in simple HT patients. The present study indicated that VFM may be used for early detection of abnormal ventricle contraction in

  9. The impact of hillslope groundwater dynamics and landscape functioning in event-flow generation: a field study in the Rietholzbach catchment, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Freyberg, Jana; Rao, P. Suresh C.; Radny, Dirk; Schirmer, Mario

    2015-08-01

    A reliable prediction of hydrograph responses in mountainous headwater catchments requires a mechanistic understanding of the coupled hydro-climatic processes in these regions. This study shows that only a small fraction of the total area in a pre-Alpine headwater catchment actively regulates streamflow responses to hydro-climatic forcing, which facilitates the application of a parsimonious framework for hydrograph time-series prediction. Based on landscape analysis and hydrometric data from the Upper Rietholzbach catchment (URHB, 0.94 km2, northeast Switzerland), a conceptual model was established. Here, the rainfall-event-driven contribution of surface runoff and subsurface flow (event flow) accounts for around 50 % of total river discharge. The event-flow hydrograph is generated from approximately 25 % of the entire area consisting of riparian zones (8 %) and adjacent hillslopes (17 %), each with characteristic streamflow-generating mechanisms. Baseflow generation is attributed to deep groundwater discharge from a fractured-rock aquifer covering ˜75 % of the catchment area. A minimalistic model, that represents event flow as depletion of two parallel linear reservoirs, verified the conceptual model of the URHB with adequate hydrograph simulations ( R 2 = 0.67, Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) = 0.64). Hereby, the expansion of the event-flow contributing areas was found to be particularly significant during long and high-intensity rainfall events. These findings provide a generalized approach for the large-scale characterization of groundwater recharge and hydrological behavior of mountainous catchments with similar landscape properties.

  10. Inverted annular flow experimental study

    SciTech Connect

    De Jarlais, G.; Ishii, M.

    1985-04-01

    Steady-state inverted annular flow of Freon 113 in up flow was established in a transparent test section. Using a special inlet configuration consisting of long aspect-ratio liquid nozzles coaxially centered within a heated quartz tube, idealized inverted annular flow initial geometry (cylindrical liquid core surrounded by coaxial annulus of gas) could be established. Inlet liquid and gas flowrates, liquid subcooling, and gas density (using various gas species) were measured and varied systematically. The hydrodynamic behavior of the liquid core, and the subsequent downstream break-up of this core into slugs, ligaments and/or droplets of various sizes, was observed. In general, for low inlet liquid velocities it was observed that after the initial formation of roll waves on the liquid core surface, an agitated region of high surface area, with attendant high momentum and energy transfers, occurs. This agitated region appears to propagate downsteam in a quasi-periodic pattern. Increased inlet liquid flow rates, and high gas annulus flow rates tend to diminish the significance of this agitated region. Observed inverted annular flow (and subsequent downstream flow pattern) hydrodynamic behavior is reported, and comparisons are drawn to data generated by previous experimenters studying post-CHF flow.

  11. Doppler Global Velocimetry Measurements for Supersonic Flow Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, James F.

    2005-01-01

    The application of Doppler Global Velocimetry (DGV) to high-speed flows has its origins in the original development of the technology by Komine et al (1991). Komine used a small shop-air driven nozzle to generate a 200 m/s flow. This flow velocity was chosen since it produced a fairly large Doppler shift in the scattered light, resulting in a significant transmission loss as the light passed through the Iodine vapor. This proof-of-concept investigation showed that the technology was capable of measuring flow velocity within a measurement plane defined by a single-frequency laser light sheet. The effort also proved that velocity measurements could be made without resolving individual seed particles as required by other techniques such as Fringe- Type Laser Velocimetry and Particle Image Velocimetry. The promise of making planar velocity measurements with the possibility of using 0.1-micron condensation particles for seeding, Dibble et al (1989), resulted in the investigation of supersonic jet flow fields, Elliott et al (1993) and Smith and Northam (1995) - Mach 2.0 and 1.9 respectively. Meyers (1993) conducted a wind tunnel investigation above an inclined flat plate at Mach 2.5 and above a delta wing at Mach 2.8 and 4.6. Although these measurements were crude from an accuracy viewpoint, they did prove that the technology could be used to study supersonic flows using condensation as the scattering medium. Since then several research groups have studied the technology and developed solutions and methodologies to overcome most of the measurement accuracy limitations:

  12. Three Dimensional Viscous Flow Field in an Axial Flow Turbine Nozzle Passage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ristic, D.; Lakshminarayana, B.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this investigation is experimental and computational study of three dimensional viscous flow field in the nozzle passage of an axial flow turbine stage. The nozzle passage flow field has been measured using a two sensor hot-wire probe at various axial and radial stations. In addition, two component LDV measurements at one axial station (x/c(sum m) = 0.56) were performed to measure the velocity field. Static pressure measurements and flow visualization, using a fluorescent oil technique, were also performed to obtain the location of transition and the endwall limiting streamlines. A three dimensional boundary layer code, with a simple intermittency transition model, was used to predict the viscous layers along the blade and endwall surfaces. The boundary layers on the blade surface were found to be very thin and mostly laminar, except on the suction surface downstream of 70% axial chord. Strong radial pressure gradient, especially close to the suction surface, induces strong cross flow components in the trailing edge regions of the blade. On the end-walls the boundary layers were much thicker, especially near the suction corner of the casing surface, caused by secondary flow. The secondary flow region near the suction-casing surface corner indicates the presence of the passage vortex detached from the blade surface. The corner vortex is found to be very weak. The presence of a closely spaced rotor downstream (20% of the nozzle vane chord) introduces unsteadiness in the blade passage. The measured instantaneous velocity signal was filtered using FFT square window to remove the periodic unsteadiness introduced by the downstream rotor and fans. The filtering decreased the free stream turbulence level from 2.1% to 0.9% but had no influence on the computed turbulence length scale. The computation of the three dimensional boundary layers is found to be accurate on the nozzle passage blade surfaces, away from the end-walls and the secondary flow region. On

  13. Analysis on the design and property of flow field plates of innovative direct methanol fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ho; Kao, Mu-Jung; Chen, Chih-Hao; Kuo, Chin-Guo; Lee, Kuang-Ying

    2014-10-01

    The paper uses technology of lithography process to etch flow fields on single side of a printed circuit board (PCB), and combines flow field plate with collector plate to make innovative anode flow field plates and cathode flow field plates required in direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC), and meanwhile makes membrane electrode assembly (MEA) and methanol fuel plate. The flow field plates are designed to be in the form of serpentine flow field. The paper measured the assembled DMFC to achieve the overall efficiency of DMFC under the conditions of different screw torques and different concentration, flow rate and temperature of methanol. Experimental results show that when the flow field width of flow field plate is 1 mm, the screw torque is 16 kgf/cm, and the concentration, flow rate and temperature of methanol-water are 1 M, 180 ml/h and 50 degrees C respectively, the prepared DMFC can have better power density of 5.5 mW/cm2, 5.4 mW/cm2, 11.2 mW/cm2 and 11.8 mW/cm2. Besides, the volume of the DMFC designed and assembled by the study is smaller than the generally existing DMFC by 40%. PMID:25942924

  14. Field-Flow Fractionation of Carbon Nanotubes and Related Materials

    SciTech Connect

    John P. Selegue

    2011-11-17

    During the grant period, we carried out FFF studies of carbonaceous soot, single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes, carbon nano-onions and polyoxometallates. FFF alone does not provide enough information to fully characterize samples, so our suite of characterization techniques grew to include light scattering (especially Photon Correlation Spectroscopy), scanning and transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and spectroscopic methods. We developed convenient techniques to deposit and examine minute FFF fractions by electron microscopy. In collaboration with Arthur Cammers (University of Kentucky), we used Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (Fl-FFF) to monitor the solution-phase growth of keplerates, a class of polyoxometallate (POM) nanoparticles. We monitored the evolution of Mo-POM nanostructures over the course of weeks by by using flow field-flow fractionation and corroborated the nanoparticle structures by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Total molybdenum in the solution and precipitate phases was monitored by using inductively coupled plasma analyses, and total Mo-POM concentration by following the UV-visible spectra of the solution phase. We observe crystallization-driven formation of (Mo132) keplerate and solution phase-driven evolution of structurally related nanoscopic species (3-60 nm). FFF analyses of other classes of materials were less successful. Attempts to analyze platelets of layered materials, including exfoliated graphite (graphene) and TaS2 and MoS2, were disappointing. We were not able to optimize flow conditions for the layered materials. The metal sulfides react with the aqueous carrier liquid and settle out of suspension quickly because of their high density.

  15. Flow damping due to stochastization of the magnetic field

    PubMed Central

    Ida, K.; Yoshinuma, M.; Tsuchiya, H.; Kobayashi, T.; Suzuki, C.; Yokoyama, M.; Shimizu, A.; Nagaoka, K.; Inagaki, S.; Itoh, K.; Akiyama, T.; Emoto, M.; Evans, T.; Dinklage, A.; Du, X.; Fujii, K.; Goto, M.; Goto, T.; Hasuo, M.; Hidalgo, C.; Ichiguchi, K.; Ishizawa, A.; Jakubowski, M.; Kamiya, K.; Kasahara, H.; Kawamura, G.; Kato, D.; Kobayashi, M.; Morita, S.; Mukai, K.; Murakami, I.; Murakami, S.; Narushima, Y.; Nunami, M.; Ohdach, S.; Ohno, N.; Osakabe, M.; Pablant, N.; Sakakibara, S.; Seki, T.; Shimozuma, T.; Shoji, M.; Sudo, S.; Tanaka, K.; Tokuzawa, T.; Todo, Y.; Wang, H.; Yamada, H.; Takeiri, Y.; Mutoh, T.; Imagawa, S.; Mito, T.; Nagayama, Y.; Watanabe, K. Y.; Ashikawa, N.; Chikaraishi, H.; Ejiri, A.; Furukawa, M.; Fujita, T.; Hamaguchi, S.; Igami, H.; Isobe, M.; Masuzaki, S.; Morisaki, T.; Motojima, G.; Nagasaki, K.; Nakano, H.; Oya, Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Sakamoto, R.; Sakamoto, M.; Sanpei, A.; Takahashi, H.; Tokitani, M.; Ueda, Y.; Yoshimura, Y.; Yamamoto, S.; Nishimura, K.; Sugama, H.; Yamamoto, T.; Idei, H.; Isayama, A.; Kitajima, S.; Masamune, S.; Shinohara, K.; Bawankar, P. S.; Bernard, E.; von Berkel, M.; Funaba, H.; Huang, X. L.; Ii, T.; Ido, T.; Ikeda, K.; Kamio, S.; Kumazawa, R.; Moon, C.; Muto, S.; Miyazawa, J.; Ming, T.; Nakamura, Y.; Nishimura, S.; Ogawa, K.; Ozaki, T.; Oishi, T.; Ohno, M.; Pandya, S.; Seki, R.; Sano, R.; Saito, K.; Sakaue, H.; Takemura, Y.; Tsumori, K.; Tamura, N.; Tanaka, H.; Toi, K.; Wieland, B.; Yamada, I.; Yasuhara, R.; Zhang, H.; Kaneko, O.; Komori, A.

    2015-01-01

    The driving and damping mechanism of plasma flow is an important issue because flow shear has a significant impact on turbulence in a plasma, which determines the transport in the magnetized plasma. Here we report clear evidence of the flow damping due to stochastization of the magnetic field. Abrupt damping of the toroidal flow associated with a transition from a nested magnetic flux surface to a stochastic magnetic field is observed when the magnetic shear at the rational surface decreases to 0.5 in the large helical device. This flow damping and resulting profile flattening are much stronger than expected from the Rechester–Rosenbluth model. The toroidal flow shear shows a linear decay, while the ion temperature gradient shows an exponential decay. This observation suggests that the flow damping is due to the change in the non-diffusive term of momentum transport. PMID:25569268

  16. Field-flow fractionation of nucleic acids and proteins under large-scale gradient magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaka, M.

    2007-05-01

    For the purpose of developing techniques for separating biological macromolecules, the present study reports a magnetic chromatography system employing high performance liquid chromatography and superconducting magnets of 14 and 5T. We observed chromatograms of catalase and albumin, which were eluded from columns that were exposed to magnetic fields of up to 14T with a maximum gradient of 90T/m. Without the magnetic fields, the chromatograms of the macromolecules showed a clear peak, while the chromatograms changed to have separated peaks for the same molecules after exposure to gradient magnetic fields. When the chromatocolumn was placed so the magnetic forces were opposite to the direction of flow, the albumin molecules separated into two groups. In addition, the chromatograms of catalase exposed to the magnetic fields indicated that the retention times of the two kinds of magnetically separated catalase were relatively changed if the column-field configuration was changed. Probably, the balance of paramagnetism in the heme and diamagnetism in the protein controlled the transport velocity under the influence of the gradient magnetic fields. In addition, the transport velocity of DNA molecules in the flow with a high gradient magnetic field was observed using a time-resolved spectrophotometric system.

  17. Determining the dynamics of magma flow within intrusions: Insights from field and petrographic studies of dikes and sills of the Inner Hebrides, Scotland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavanagh, J. L.; Martin, S.; Biggin, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    Investigating the factors that influence magma flow dynamics within intrusions is important for understanding how magma migrates through the crust and erupts at the surface. Studying extinct volcanoes where erosion has exposed their plumbing systems provides insights into the final stages of magma movement. Fieldwork was conducted on the Isles of Mull and Skye, Western Scotland to study how magma flow is preserved within intrusions. On the Isle of Mull, 2-8m thick tholeiitic dolerite sills of the Loch Scridain Sill Complex (c.58Ma), crop out along the northern and southern coasts of the Ross of Mull, intruding into Paleogene lavas (c.60Ma) and Moine Supergroup Psammites respectively. Large columnar jointing is present perpendicular to the sill margins and is cross cut by arcuate fracture planes with parallel vesicle concentrations. Raised lineations were found on planar surfaces striking in similar directions to the arcuate fractures. These lineations have a range in strike from 148° to 172° and are inferred to be magma flow indicators. On the Isle of Skye, fieldwork was conducted in a disused quarry at Invertote where stacked olivine dolerite sills from the Little Minch Sill Complex (c.60Ma) intrude into Jurassic sediments. The sills are 0.5 to 8m thick, their contacts being defined by contrasts in jointing frequency, crystal layering, occurrence of gabbro lenses and variations in mineral proportion, size and composition. A series of five distinct sills crop out, with two N-S striking dikes cross-cutting the site. Pahoehoe ropes were found preserved on exposed contacts of one dike, which helped to infer the magma flow direction. Detailed sampling was carried out and petrographic thin sections analysed to describe the crystalline fabrics across the length and breadth of the intrusions. The results of the petrographic study are compared with magnetic fabrics from AMS and AARM analysis techniques to provide an independent quantification of flow trajectories.

  18. Subgrid resolution of flow and force fields.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buneman, O.

    1973-01-01

    By means of spline fitting, both while converting a Lagrangian distribution of field sources onto an Eulerian grid, and while interpolating the field from its Eulerian grid to the Lagrangian positions of the responding elements, one achieves effective resolution down to about one-eight of a grid mesh unit. One also avoids discontinuities and noise due to cell boundary crossings.

  19. Simultaneous 3D Strain and Flow Fields Measurement of a Model Artery under Unsteady Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toloui, Mostafa; Sheng, Jian

    2011-11-01

    Fluid-Structure Interaction imposes challenges in both aero-elasticity and biomedical studies. A simultaneous solid deformation and fluid flow measurement technique based on digital in-line holographic particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) has been developed. It allows us to measure concurrently 3D strain field of a deforming structure and the unsteady flow near it. To facilitate the measurement, both wall and flow are seeded with tracer particles distinguished by size. The motion of these tracers provides the 3D deformation of the wall and the 3D velocity distribution of the flow separately. A fully index matched facility including transparent artery and NaI solution is constructed to enable observations near the wall or through the complex geometry. An arterial model with the inner diameter of 9.5 mm and the thickness of 0.9 mm is manufactured from the cross-linked transparent PDMS at the mixing ratio of 1:10 and doped with mono-dispersed 19 μm polystyrene particles. A cinematic holographic PTV system is used to trace the 3D particle motion in the model and flow simultaneously. Preliminary study is performed within a sample volume of 15 × 15 × 75 mm with the spatial resolution of 7.4 μm in lateral and 10 μm in depth. Uncertainty and accuracy analysis will be reported. NSF Grant No: CBET-0844647.

  20. A color video display technique for flow field surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winkelmann, A. E.; Tsao, C. P.

    1982-01-01

    Color video display techniques for flow field surveys are presented. The following techniques were examined: traverse device, used for flow field surveys above and behind finite wing models; flow chart of data reduction for color video display technique; location of spanwise survey stations above and behind wing; hot wire data at first three survey stations on fully stalled wing; hot wire data at last three stations behind fully stalled wing; hot wire and pitch probe data; magnitude of velocity, yaw angle, pitch angle, and cross flow direction from 5 tube survey at X/C = 2.70 behind fully stalled wing.

  1. The 3D Flow Field Around an Embedded Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Jeffrey; Artymowicz, Pawel; Wu, Yanqin

    2015-10-01

    3D modifications to the well-studied 2D flow topology around an embedded planet have the potential to resolve long-standing problems in planet formation theory. We present a detailed analysis of the 3D isothermal flow field around a 5 Earth-mass planet on a fixed circular orbit, simulated using our graphics processing unit hydrodynamics code PEnGUIn. We find that, overall, the horseshoe region has a columnar structure extending vertically much beyond the Hill sphere of the planet. This columnar structure is only broken for some of the widest horseshoe streamlines, along which high altitude fluid descends rapidly into the planet’s Bondi sphere, performs one horseshoe turn, and exits the Bondi sphere radially in the midplane. A portion of this flow exits the horseshoe region altogether, which we refer to as the “transient” horseshoe flow. The flow continues as it rolls up into a pair of up-down symmetric horizontal vortex lines shed into the wake of the planet. This flow, unique to 3D, affects both planet accretion and migration. It prevents the planet from sustaining a hydrostatic atmosphere due to its intrusion into the Bondi sphere, and leads to a significant corotation torque on the planet, unanticipated by 2D analysis. In the reported simulation, starting with a {{Σ }}˜ {r}-3/2 radial surface density profile, this torque is positive and partially cancels with the negative differential Lindblad torque, resulting in a factor of three slower planet migration rate. Finally, we report 3D effects can be suppressed by a sufficiently large disk viscosity, leading to results similar to 2D.

  2. An experimental study of the flow of gas along synthetic faults of varying orientation to the stress field: Implications for performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuss, Robert J.; Harrington, Jon F.; Noy, David J.; Sathar, Shanvas; Norris, Simon

    2015-05-01

    Critical stress theory states that fault transmissivity is strongly dependent upon orientation with respect to the stress tensor. This paper describes an experimental study aimed at verifying critical stress theory using a bespoke angled shear rig designed to examine the relationship between gas flows along a kaolinite-filled synthetic fault as a function of fault dip. A total of 22 gas injection experiments were conducted on faults oriented 0°, 15°, 30°, and 45° to horizontal; both with and without active shear. Gas flow was seen to be complex; repeat gas injection testing showed a consistent gas entry pressure but considerably different, nonrepeatable, gas peak or breakthrough pressure. Gas flow occurred along discrete, dilatant pathways. The physics governing the pressure at which these features formed was repeatable; however, permeability was dependent on the number, distribution, and geometry of the resultant pathways. The nonrepeatable gas response suggests that the number of pathways was dependent on very subtle variations in gouge properties. No fault orientations were seen to exhibit nonflow characteristics, although critical stress theory predicted that two of the investigated fault angles should be effective seals. However, a small variation in gas entry pressure was seen with fault angle as a result of varying normal and shear stress acting on the gouge material. Shear was seen to enhance gas movement by reducing gas entry pressure and increased permeability once gas became mobile. Therefore, in kaolinite gouge-filled faults, shear is not an effective self-sealing mechanism to gas flow.

  3. Microbial field pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this project is to perform a microbially enhanced oil recovery field pilot test in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit (SEVVSU) in Payne County, Oklahoma. Indigenous, anaerobic, nitrate-reducing bacteria will be stimulated to selectively plug flow paths which have been preferentially swept by a prior waterflood. This will force future flood water to invade bypassed regions or the reservoir and increase sweep efficiency. Injection of nutrient stimulates the growth and metabolism of reservoir bacteria, which produces beneficial products to enhance oil recovery. Sometimes, chemical treatments are used to clean or condition injection water. Such a chemical treatment has been initiated by Sullivan and Company at the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit. The unit injection water was treated with a mixture of water, methanol, isopropyl alcohol, and three proprietary chemicals. To determine if the chemicals would have an impact on the pilot, it was important to determine the effects of the chemical additives on the growth and metabolism of the bacteria from wells in this field. Two types of media were used: a mineral salts medium with molasses and nitrate, and this medium with 25 ppm of the treatment chemicals added. Samples were collected anaerobically from each of two wells, 1A-9 and 7-2. A sample from each well was inoculated and cultured in the broth tubes of molasses-nitrate medium with and without the chemicals. Culturing temperature was 35{degrees}C. Absorbance, pressure and cell number were checked to determine if the chemicals affected the growth and metabolism of bacteria in the brine samples. 12 figs.

  4. Microbial field pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Coates, J.D.; Chisholm, J.L.

    1993-05-01

    A multi-well microbially enhanced oil recovery field pilot has been performed in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit in Payne County, Oklahoma. The primary emphasis of the experiment was preferential plugging of high permeability zones for the purpose of improving waterflood sweep efficiency. Studies were performed to determine reservoir chemistry, ecology, and indigenous bacteria populations. Growth experiments were used to select a nutrient system compatible with the reservoir that encouraged growth of a group of indigenous nitrate-using bacteria and inhibit growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria. A specific field pilot area behind an active line drive waterflood was selected. Surface facilities were designed and installed. Injection protocols of bulk nutrient materials were prepared to facilitate uniform distribution of nutrients within the pilot area. By the end of December, 1991, 82.5 tons (75.0 tonnes) of nutrients had been injected in the field. A tracer test identified significant heterogeneity in the SEVVSU and made it necessary to monitor additional production wells in the field. The tracer tests and changes in production behavior indicate the additional production wells monitored during the field trial were also affected. Eighty two and one half barrels (13.1 m[sup 3]) of tertiary oil have been recovered. Microbial activity has increased CO[sub 2] content as indicated by increased alkalinity. A temporary rise in sulfide concentration was experienced. These indicate an active microbial community was generated in the field by the nutrient injection. Pilot area interwell pressure interference test results showed that significant permeability reduction occurred. The interwell permeabilities in the pilot area between the injector and the three pilot production wells were made more uniform which indicates a successful preferential plugging enhanced oil recovery project.

  5. Gradient isolator for flow field of fuel cell assembly

    DOEpatents

    Ernst, William D.

    1999-01-01

    Isolator(s) include isolating material and optionally gasketing material strategically positioned within a fuel cell assembly. The isolating material is disposed between a solid electrolyte and a metal flow field plate. Reactant fluid carried by flow field plate channel(s) forms a generally transverse electrochemical gradient. The isolator(s) serve to isolate electrochemically a portion of the flow field plate, for example, transversely outward from the channel(s), from the electrochemical gradient. Further, the isolator(s) serve to protect a portion of the solid electrolyte from metallic ions.

  6. Gradient isolator for flow field of fuel cell assembly

    DOEpatents

    Ernst, W.D.

    1999-06-15

    Isolator(s) include isolating material and optionally gasketing material strategically positioned within a fuel cell assembly. The isolating material is disposed between a solid electrolyte and a metal flow field plate. Reactant fluid carried by flow field plate channel(s) forms a generally transverse electrochemical gradient. The isolator(s) serve to isolate electrochemically a portion of the flow field plate, for example, transversely outward from the channel(s), from the electrochemical gradient. Further, the isolator(s) serve to protect a portion of the solid electrolyte from metallic ions. 4 figs.

  7. The applicability of Brillouin scattering to flow field diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laiosa, J.; Lederman, S.

    1979-01-01

    To fill the void between turbulence theory and experiment; particularly in the flow fields consisting of monatomic gases, for example in wind tunnels, means of measuring fluctuating quantities are needed. In the area of density fluctuation measurement, the optical method of Brillouin scattering was suggested. This was based on the theory, that the Brillouin scattered intensity is proportional to a function of density. In this investigation the potential of this method as a diagnostic tool was studied. Here the density fluctuations in gases were sought. Continuous wave lasers and interferometers were used as the primary illuminating source and scattered light filters respectively.

  8. PIV Measurements of Bioreactor Flow Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neitzel, G. P.; Brown, J. B.

    1999-11-01

    Spinner-flask bioreactors are operated with several stationary tissue constructs mounted on long needles; the culture medium is stirred by a magnetic stir bar at the vessel bottom. Flow-visualization and PIV measurements have been performed in a scaled-up model system in which the curved, outer vessel wall has been eliminated and the vessel body, culture-medium simulant and tissue-construct models are all index-of-refraction matched. Measurements in the vicinity of the tissue constructs indicate high instantaneous shear stresses at some locations, which may be detrimental to tissue growth. Since the flow is driven by a periodic source, turbulence properties are determined using phase-locked ensemble averaging.

  9. Flow field analysis of slush fixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreher, Anthony; Bell, Robert; Flaska, Todd; Lozano, Martin

    1990-10-01

    This paper describes an approach to the selection, design, and analysis of a mixing and transfer system for a hypersonic vehicle that uses slush hydrogen as a main propellant. The goal of the analysis was to assure the 'off-bottom' suspension of the slush and, thus, to ensure proper flow of fuel to the engines. As a results of the analysis, system requirements were established, several candidate systems were evaluated, and a mixing-and-transfer system was selected.

  10. Horizontal flow fields observed in Hinode G-band images. II. Flow fields in the final stages of sunspot decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, M.; Balthasar, H.; Deng, N.; Liu, C.; Shimizu, T.; Wang, H.; Denker, C.

    2012-02-01

    Context. Generation and dissipation of magnetic fields is a fundamental physical process on the Sun. In comparison to flux emergence and the initial stages of sunspot formation, the demise of sunspots still lacks a comprehensive description. Aims: The evolution of sunspots is most commonly discussed in terms of their intensity and magnetic field. Here, we present additional information about the three-dimensional flow field in the vicinity of sunspots towards the end of their existence. Methods: We present a subset of multi-wavelengths observations obtained with the Japanese Hinode mission, the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), and the Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT) at Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife, Spain during the time period 2010 November 18-23. Horizontal proper motions were derived from G-band and Ca ii H images, whereas line-of-sight velocities were extracted from VTT echelle Hα λ656.28 nm spectra and Fe i λ630.25 nm spectral data of the Hinode/Spectro-Polarimeter, which also provided three-dimensional magnetic field information. The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board SDO provided continuum images and line-of-sight magnetograms, in addition to the high-resolution observations for the entire disk passage of the active region. Results: We perform a quantitative study of photospheric and chromospheric flow fields in and around decaying sunspots. In one of the trailing sunspots of active region NOAA 11126, we observe moat flow and moving magnetic features (MMFs), even after its penumbra had decayed. We also detect a superpenumbral structure around this pore. We find that MMFs follow well-defined, radial paths from the spot all the way to the border of a supergranular cell surrounding the spot. In contrast, flux emergence near the other sunspot prevents the establishment of similar well ordered flow patterns, which could be discerned around a tiny pore of merely 2 Mm diameter. After the disappearance of the sunspots/pores, a coherent patch of abnormal

  11. A novel potential/viscous flow coupling technique for computing helicopter flow fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summa, J. Michael; Strash, Daniel J.; Yoo, Sungyul

    1990-01-01

    Because of the complexity of helicopter flow field, a zonal method of analysis of computational aerodynamics is required. Here, a new procedure for coupling potential and viscous flow is proposed. An overlapping, velocity coupling technique is to be developed with the unique feature that the potential flow surface singularity strengths are obtained directly from the Navier-Stokes at a smoother inner fluid boundary. The closed-loop iteration method proceeds until the velocity field is converged. This coupling should provide the means of more accurate viscous computations of the near-body and rotor flow fields with resultant improved analysis of such important performance parameters as helicopter fuselage drag and rotor airloads.

  12. Investigation of Spherical-Wave-Initiated Flow Fields Around Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McFarland, Donald R.

    1959-01-01

    Measurements of the velocity flow fields and vortex movements have been made about various simple blunt models undergoing spherical blast waves with a positive overpressure of 4 pounds per square inch. A bullet-optical method was used to determine flow velocities and is applied to velocity fields in which the gradients are largely normal to the free-stream direction. The velocity flow fields are shown at various flow times following passage of the blast front for different models. Vortex movements with time are compared for square-bar models of various aspect ratios. Corner sharpness had no discernible effect on the overall disturbed velocity fields or vortex movements for the square-box models used.

  13. The vortex interaction in a propeller/stator flow field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, R. T.; Sullivan, J. P.

    1991-01-01

    The vortex interaction encounered in the flow field of a propeller and a stator has been investigated using smoke flow visualization. A stator at angle of attack was used to generate a line vortex which interacted with the helical vortex filaments generated by a propeller. Changes in the relative vortex strengths and vortex rotational directions yielded several distinct vortex structures. Axial flow in the vortex cores is determined to influence the development of the vortex interaction.

  14. Flow over periodic hills: an experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapp, Ch.; Manhart, M.

    2011-07-01

    Two-dimensional flow over periodically arranged hills was investigated experimentally in a water channel. Two-dimensional particle image velocimetry (PIV) and one-dimensional laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) measurements were undertaken at four Reynolds numbers ({5,600} le Re le {37,000}). Two-dimensional PIV field measurements were thoroughly validated by means of point-by-point 1D LDA measurements at certain positions of the flow. A detailed study of the periodicity and the homogeneity was undertaken, which demonstrates that the flow can be regarded as two-dimensional and periodic for Re ge {10,000}. We found a decreasing reattachment length with increasing Reynolds number. This is connected to a higher momentum in the near-wall zone close to flow separation which comes from the velocity speed up above the obstacle. This leads to a velocity overshoot directly above the hill crest which increases with Reynolds number as the inner layer depth decreases. The flow speed up above that layer is independent of the Reynolds number which supports the assumption of inviscid flow disturbance in the outer layer usually made in asymptotic theory for flow over small hills.

  15. On Hammershock Propagation in a Supersonic Flow Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porro, A. Robert

    2002-01-01

    A wind tunnel test program was conducted to acquire flow-field data during a supersonic propulsion system compressor stall and inlet unstart sequence. The propulsion system consisted of a mixed-compression, two-dimensional bifurcated inlet coupled to a General Electric J85-13 turbojet engine. The propulsion system was mounted beneath a large flat plate that simulated an underwing propulsion pod installation. Transient flow-field pitot pressure and wing simulator surface static pressure data were acquired during multiple compressor stall and inlet unstart events at a free-stream Mach number of 2.20. The experimental results obtained in this investigation indicate that a supersonic propulsion system compressor stall-inlet unstart transient event adversely affects the surrounding local flow field. The data show that the stall-unstart event affects the surrounding flow field on a millisecond time scale and causes a three-dimensional expanding wave front called a hammershock to propagate outward from the inlet. The flow nearest the wing simulator separates from the surface during the transient event. At the end of the transient event, a distinct process occurs wherein the affected flow field recovers to free-stream conditions and the wing simulator boundary layer reattaches to the flow surface.

  16. Particle and flow field holography: A critical survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trolinger, James D.

    1987-01-01

    A brief background is provided for the fields of particle and flow visualization holography. A summary of methods currently in use is given, followed by a discussion of more recent and unique applications. The problem of data reduction is discussed. A state of the art summary is then provided with a prognosis of the future of the field. Particle and flow visualization holography are characterized as powerful tools currently in wide use and with significant untapped potential.

  17. Synchrotron microimaging technique for measuring the velocity fields of real blood flows

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sang-Joon; Kim, Guk Bae

    2005-03-15

    Angiography and Doppler methods used for diagnosing vascular diseases give information on the shape of blood vessels and pointwise blood speed but do not provide detailed information on the flow fields inside the blood vessels. In this study, we developed a method for visualizing blood flow by using coherent synchrotron x rays. This method, which does not require the addition of any contrast agent or tracer particles, visualizes the flow pattern of blood by enhancing the diffraction and interference characteristics of the blood cells. This was achieved by optimizing the sample- (blood) to-detector (charge-coupled device camera) distance and the sample thickness. The proposed method was used to extract quantitative velocity field information from blood flowing inside an opaque microchannel by applying a two-frame particle image velocimetry algorithm to enhanced x-ray images of the blood flow. The measured velocity field data showed a flow structure typical of flow in a macrochannel.

  18. Evaluation of lateral flow assay as a field test for investigation of brucellosis outbreak in an organized buffalo farm: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Shome, R.; Filia, G.; Padmashree, B. S.; Krithiga, N.; Sahay, Swati; Triveni, K.; Shome, B. R.; Mahajan, V.; Singh, Amarjit; Rahman, H.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to evaluate lateral flow assay (LFA) as a field test for investigation of brucellosis outbreak in organized buffalo farm. Materials and Methods: A total of 153 serum samples were tested to detect the presence of brucella antibodies by LFA and three other serological tests i.e. rose bengal plate test (RBPT), protein G based indirect enzyme-linked immunoassay (iELISA), and competitive ELISA (cELISA). The performances of LFA and other serological tests were evaluated using OIE complaint cELISA as the gold standard. Results: Serological tests revealed 50% of the animals were seropositive for Brucella antibodies and correlated with clinical history of abortions, infertility, and productive failures. The newly developed assay showed 87.1% and 92.6% sensitivity and specificity, which was even higher than the specificity of RBPT. Conclusions: The investigation proved the potential usefulness of LFA for field diagnosis of brucellosis in the regions where laboratory facilities are limited. PMID:27047121

  19. Biomat flow: fluorescent dye field experiments, pore-scale modeling of flow and transport properties, and field-scale flow models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerke, K.; Sidle, R. C.; Mallants, D.; Vasilyev, R.; Karsanina, M.; Skvortsova, E. B.; Korost, D. V.

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies highlight the important role that the upper litter layer in forest soils (biomat) plays in hillslope and catchment runoff generation. This biomat layer is a very loose material with high porosity and organic content. Direct sampling is usually problematic due to limited layer thickness. Conventional laboratory measurements can mobilize solids or even cause structure failure of the sample thus making measurements unreliable. It is also difficult to assess local variation in soil properties and transition zones using these methods; thus, they may not be applicable to biomat studies. However, if the physics of flow through this layer needs to be quantified and incorporated into a model, a detailed study of hydraulic properties is necessary. Herein we show the significance of biomat flow by staining experiments in the field, study its structure and transition to mineral soil layer using X-ray micro-tomography, assess hydraulic properties and structure differences using a pore-scale modeling approach, and, finally, use conventional variably-saturated flow modeling based on Richards equation to simulate flow in the hillslope. Using staining tracers we show that biomat flow in forested hillslopes can extend long distances (lateral displacement was about 1.2 times larger than for subsurface lateral flow) before infiltration occurs into deeper layers. The three-dimensional structure of an undisturbed sample (4 x 3 x 2.5 cm) of both biomat and deeper consolidated soil was obtained using an X-ray micro-tomography device with a resolution of 15 um. Local hydraulic properties (e.g., permeability and water retention curve) for numerous layers (e.g., transition zones, biomat, mineral soil) were calculated using Stokes flow FDM solution and pore-network modeling. Anisotropy, structure differences, and property fluctuations of different layers were quantified using local porosity analysis and correlation functions. Current results support the hypothesis that small

  20. Flow field characteristics of an ornithopter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juarez, Alfredo; Allen, James

    2007-11-01

    This paper details phase locked PIV measurements from a model Ornithopther flying in a wind tunnel at representative flight conditions. Testing over a range of Strouhal numbers, 0.1-0.3, shows that the unsteady wake is composed of coherent vortical structures that resemble vortex rings. A single ring is formed in the wake of each wing during one wing beat. Momentum balance from velocity field measurements are used to estimate the lift and drag of the ornithopter.

  1. The electromagnetic force field, fluid flow field and temperature profiles in levitated metal droplets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Kaddah, N.; Szekely, J.

    1982-01-01

    A mathematical representation was developed for the electromagnetic force field, the flow field, the temperature field (and for transport controlled kinetics), in a levitation melted metal droplet. The technique of mutual inductances was employed for the calculation of the electromagnetic force field, while the turbulent Navier - Stokes equations and the turbulent convective transport equations were used to represent the fluid flow field, the temperature field and the concentration field. The governing differential equations, written in spherical coordinates, were solved numerically. The computed results were in good agreement with measurements, regarding the lifting force, and the average temperature of the specimen and carburization rates, which were transport controlled.

  2. Gene flow in maize fields with different local pollen densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goggi, A. Susana; Lopez-Sanchez, Higinio; Caragea, Petrutza; Westgate, Mark; Arritt, Raymond; Clark, Craig A.

    2007-08-01

    The development of maize ( Zea mays L.) varieties as factories of pharmaceutical and industrial compounds has renewed interest in controlling pollen dispersal. The objective of this study was to compare gene flow into maize fields of different local pollen densities under the same environmental conditions. Two fields of approximately 36 ha were planted with a nontransgenic, white hybrid, in Ankeny, Iowa, USA. In the center of both fields, a 1-ha plot of a yellow-seeded stacked RR/Bt transgenic hybrid was planted as a pollen source. Before flowering, the white receiver maize of one field was detasseled in a 4:1 ratio to reduce the local pollen density (RPD). The percentage of outcross in the field with RPD was 42.2%, 6.3%, and 1.3% at 1, 10, and 35 m from the central plot, respectively. The percentage of outcross in the white maize with normal pollen density (NPD) was 30.1%, 2.7%, and 0.4%, respectively, at these distances. At distances greater than 100 m, the outcross frequency decreased below 0.1 and 0.03% in the field with RPD and NPD, respectively. A statistical model was used to compare pollen dispersal based on observed outcross percentages. The likelihood ratio test confirmed that the models of outcrossing in the two fields were significantly different ( P is practically 0). Results indicated that when local pollen is low, the incoming pollen has a competitive advantage and the level of outcross is significantly greater than when the local pollen is abundant.

  3. The effect of swirling number on the flow field of downshot flame furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Zhijun, Z.; Zili, Z.; Xiang, Z.; Xinyu, C.; Junhu, Z.; Zhengyu, H.; Jianzhong, L.; Kefa, C.

    2000-07-01

    The cold model test is adopted to study the flow field of downshot flame furnace with swirling burners in this paper. The flow field is measured with tri-hole probe. The ribbon method and fireworks tracer technology are adopted to find out the flow field distribution qualitatively. The results show that the momentum ratio of arch air and side-wall air is not the most important factor which determines the flow field when swirling burners are adopted. The effect of swirling number of arch air on the flow field is notable, and the jet will decline like normal swirling jet. Under general swirling number, the momentum ratio of arch air and side-wall air should be large enough.

  4. The sound field of a rotating monopole in a plug flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, I. V.

    2016-07-01

    A theoretical study is performed on the sound field generated by a rotating point monopole in a jet flow, the mixing layer of which is simulated by a velocity discontinuity. Its sound in the far field is compared to the sound field generated by a rotating monopole in a uniform flow in the absence of a velocity discontinuity, which makes it possible to estimate the size of the sound refraction effect.

  5. Space shuttle orbiter flow visualization study. [water tunnel study of vortex flow during atmospheric entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorincz, D. J.

    1980-01-01

    The vortex flows generated at subsonic speed during the final portion of atmospheric reentry were defined using a 0.01 scale model of the orbiter in a diagnostic water tunnel. Flow visualization photographs were obtained over an angle-of-attack range to 40 deg and sideslip angles up to 10 deg. The vortex flow field development, vortex path, and vortex breakdown characteristics were determined as a function of angle-of-attack at zero sideslip. Vortex flows were found to develop on the highly swept glove, on the wing, and on the upper surface of the fuselage. No significant asymmetries were observed at zero sideslip in the water tunnel tests. The sensitivity of the upper surface vortex flow fields to variations in sideslip angle was also studied. The vortex formed on the glove remained very stable in position above the wing up through the 10 deg of sideslip tested. There was a change in the vortex lifts under sideslip due to effective change in leading-edge sweep angles. Asymmetric flow separation occurred on the upper surface of the fuselage at small sideslip angles. The influence of vortex flow fields in sideslip on the lateral/ directional characteristics of the orbiter is discussed.

  6. Numerical Simulations of Canted Nozzle and Scarfed Nozzle Flow Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javed, Afroz; Chakraborty, Debasis

    2016-06-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques are used for the analysis of issues concerning non-conventional (canted and scarfed) nozzle flow fields. Numerical simulations are carried out for the quality of flow in terms of axisymmetric nature at the inlet of canted nozzles of a rocket motor. Two different nozzle geometries are examined. The analysis of these simulation results shows that the flow field at the entry of the nozzles is non axisymmetric at the start of the motor. With time this asymmetry diminishes, also the flow becomes symmetric before the nozzle throat, indicating no misalignment of thrust vector with the nozzle axis. The qualitative flow fields at the inlet of the nozzles are used in selecting the geometry with lesser flow asymmetry. Further CFD methodology is used to analyse flow field of a scarfed nozzle for the evaluation of thrust developed and its direction. This work demonstrates the capability of the CFD based methods for the nozzle analysis problems which were earlier solved only approximately by making simplifying assumptions and semi empirical methods.

  7. Magnetic Field Suppression of Flow in Semiconductor Melt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedoseyev, A. I.; Kansa, E. J.; Marin, C.; Volz, M. P.; Ostrogorsky, A. G.

    2000-01-01

    One of the most promising approaches for the reduction of convection during the crystal growth of conductive melts (semiconductor crystals) is the application of magnetic fields. Current technology allows the experimentation with very intense static fields (up to 80 KGauss) for which nearly convection free results are expected from simple scaling analysis in stabilized systems (vertical Bridgman method with axial magnetic field). However, controversial experimental results were obtained. The computational methods are, therefore, a fundamental tool in the understanding of the phenomena accounting during the solidification of semiconductor materials. Moreover, effects like the bending of the isomagnetic lines, different aspect ratios and misalignments between the direction of the gravity and magnetic field vectors can not be analyzed with analytical methods. The earliest numerical results showed controversial conclusions and are not able to explain the experimental results. Although the generated flows are extremely low, the computational task is a complicated because of the thin boundary layers. That is one of the reasons for the discrepancy in the results that numerical studies reported. Modeling of these magnetically damped crystal growth experiments requires advanced numerical methods. We used, for comparison, three different approaches to obtain the solution of the problem of thermal convection flows: (1) Spectral method in spectral superelement implementation, (2) Finite element method with regularization for boundary layers, (3) Multiquadric method, a novel method with global radial basis functions, that is proven to have exponential convergence. The results obtained by these three methods are presented for a wide region of Rayleigh and Hartman numbers. Comparison and discussion of accuracy, efficiency, reliability and agreement with experimental results will be presented as well.

  8. Stability Analysis of Flow Induced by the Traveling Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazuruk, Konstantin

    2003-01-01

    Re-circulating flow in molten metal columns can be conveniently induced by the axisymmetric traveling magnetic field. A number of applications can benefit from this technique, such as mixing under microgravity environment, or.crysta1 growth from metallic melts. For small magnetic field excitations, the flow is laminar and stationary. As the imposed field increases, a more complex flow will set up in the cylindrical column. Conditions for stable laminar flow are of importance for practical applications. In this work, a linear stability analysis is performed in order to determine the onset of the bifurcation in the system. Here the analysis is restricted to the axisymmetric modes and the low-frequency regime.

  9. Stability Analysis of Flow Induced by the Traveling Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazuruk, Konstantin

    2003-01-01

    Re-circulating flow in molten metal columns can be conveniently induced by the axisymmetric traveling magnetic field. A number of applications can benefit from this technique, such as mixing under microgravity environment, or crysta1 growth from metallic melts. For small magnetic field excitations, the flow is laminar and stationary. As the imposed field increases, a more complex flow will set up in the cylindrical column. Conditions for stable laminar flow are of importance for practical applications. In this work, a linear stability analysis is performed in order to determine the onset of the bifurcation in the system. Here the analysis is restricted to the axisymmetric modes and the low-frequency regime.

  10. Factors affecting measurement of channel thickness in asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation.

    PubMed

    Dou, Haiyang; Jung, Euo Chang; Lee, Seungho

    2015-05-01

    Asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) has been considered to be a useful tool for simultaneous separation and characterization of polydisperse macromolecules or colloidal nanoparticles. AF4 analysis requires the knowledge of the channel thickness (w), which is usually measured by injecting a standard with known diffusion coefficient (D) or hydrodynamic diameter (dh). An accurate w determination is a challenge due to its uncertainties arising from the membrane's compressibility, which may vary with experimental condition. In the present study, influence of factors including the size and type of the standard on the measurement of w was systematically investigated. The results revealed that steric effect and the particles-membrane interaction by van der Waals or electrostatic force may result in an error in w measurement. PMID:25817708

  11. Factors affecting measurement of channel thickness in asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation.

    PubMed

    Dou, Haiyang; Jung, Euo Chang; Lee, Seungho

    2015-05-01

    Asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) has been considered to be a useful tool for simultaneous separation and characterization of polydisperse macromolecules or colloidal nanoparticles. AF4 analysis requires the knowledge of the channel thickness (w), which is usually measured by injecting a standard with known diffusion coefficient (D) or hydrodynamic diameter (dh). An accurate w determination is a challenge due to its uncertainties arising from the membrane's compressibility, which may vary with experimental condition. In the present study, influence of factors including the size and type of the standard on the measurement of w was systematically investigated. The results revealed that steric effect and the particles-membrane interaction by van der Waals or electrostatic force may result in an error in w measurement.

  12. Regulation of DNA conformations and dynamics in flows with hybrid field microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Fangfang; Zu, Yingbo; Kumar Rajagopalan, Kartik; Wang, Shengnian

    2012-01-01

    Visualizing single DNA dynamics in flow provides a wealth of physical insights in biophysics and complex flow study. However, large signal fluctuations, generated from diversified conformations, deformation history dependent dynamics and flow induced stochastic tumbling, often frustrate its wide adoption in single molecule and polymer flow study. We use a hybrid field microfluidic (HFM) approach, in which an electric field is imposed at desired locations and appropriate moments to balance the flow stress on charged molecules, to effectively regulate the initial conformations and the deformation dynamics of macromolecules in flow. With λ-DNA and a steady laminar shear flow as the model system, we herein studied the performance of HFM on regulating DNA trapping, relaxation, coil-stretch transition, and accumulation. DNA molecules were found to get captured in the focused planes when motions caused by flow, and the electric field were balanced. The trapped macromolecules relaxed in two different routes while eventually became more uniform in size and globule conformations. When removing the electric field, the sudden stretching dynamics of DNA molecules exhibited a more pronounced extension overshoot in their transient response under a true step function of flow stress while similar behaviors to what other pioneering work in steady shear flow. Such regulation strategies could be useful to control the conformations of other important macromolecules (e.g., proteins) and help better reveal their molecular dynamics. PMID:24155864

  13. Visualization of complex flow fields, with application to the interpretation of colour flow Doppler images.

    PubMed

    Vera, N; Steinman, D A; Ethier, C R; Johnston, K W; Cobbold, R S

    1992-01-01

    The interpretation of colour flow Doppler images in regions of complex flow can be difficult. To aid in such interpretations, we have developed software which accepts as input the results of a fluid flow simulation program and produces simulated colour flow Doppler images on a workstation. This allows direct comparison between well-described flow fields and colour flow Doppler images. Application of this approach is demonstrated for flow in a two-dimensional model of a distal graft-to-vessel anastomosis, and the interpretation of the results for three-dimensional flows is briefly discussed. In addition, a method for presenting two-dimensional (vectorial) velocity data via colour coding is presented.

  14. An Empirical Method for Fast Prediction of Rarefied Flow Field around a Vertical Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Tao; Wang, Jiang-Feng

    2016-06-01

    Numerical study is conducted to investigate the effects of free-stream Knudsen (Kn) number on rarefied flow field around a vertical plate employing an unstructured DSMC method, and an empirical method for fast prediction of flow-field structure at different Kn numbers in a given inflow velocity is proposed. First, the flow at a velocity 7500m/s is simulated using a perfect-gas model with free-stream Kn changing from 0.035 to 13.36. The flow-field characteristics in these cases with varying Kn numbers are analyzed and a linear-expansion phenomenon as a function of the square of Kn is discovered. An empirical method is proposed for fast flow-field prediction at different Kn based on the least-square-fitting method. Further, the effects of chemical reactions on flow field are investigated to verify the applicability of the empirical method in the real gas conditions. Three of the cases in perfect-gas flow are simulated again by introducing five-species air chemical module. The flow properties with and without chemical reactions are compared. In the end, the variation of chemical-reaction flow field as a function of Kn is analyzed and it is shown that the empirical method are also suitable when considering chemical reactions.

  15. The turbulent flow field around a circular cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dargahi, B.

    1989-10-01

    The flow field around a circular cylinder mounted vertically on a flat bottom has been investigated experimentally. This type of flow occurs in several technical applications, e.g. local scouring around bridge piers. Hydrogen bubble flow visualization was carried out for Reynolds numbers ranging from 6,600 to 65,000. The main flow characteristic upstream of the cylinder is a system of horse-shoe vortices which are shed quasi-periodically. The number of vortices depends on Reynolds number. The vortex system was found to be independent of the vortices that are shed in the wake of the cylinder. The topology of the separated flow contains several separation and attachment lines which are Reynolds number dependent. In the wake region different flow patterns exist for each constant Reynolds number.

  16. A simple and feasible process for using multi-stage high-precision DTMs, field surveys and rainfall data to study debris flow occurrence factors of Shenmu area, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, W.-C.; Lin, B.-S.; Ho, H.-C.; Keck, J.; Yin, H.-Y.; Shan, H.-Y.

    2012-11-01

    The occurrence of typhoon Herb in 1996 caused massive landslides in the Shenmu area of Taiwan. Many people died and stream and river beds were covered by meters of debris. Debris flows almost always take place in the Shenmu area during the flood season, especially in the catchment areas around Tsushui river and Aiyuzih river. Anthropogenic and natural factors that cause debris flow occurrences are complex and numerous. The precise conditions of initiation are difficult to be identified, but three factors are generally considered to be the most important ones, i.e. rainfall characteristics, geologic conditions and topography. This study proposes a simple and feasible process that combines remote sensing technology and multi-stage high-precision DTMs from aerial orthoimages and airborne LiDAR with field surveys to establish a connection between three major occurrence factors that trigger debris flows in the Shenmu area.

  17. Magnetic field-aligned electric potentials in nonideal plasma flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schindler, K.; Hesse, M.; Birn, J.

    1991-01-01

    The electric field component parallel to the magnetic field arising from plasma flows which violate the frozen-in field condition of ideal magnetohydrodynamics is discussed. The quantity of interest is the potential U = integral E parallel ds where the integral is extended along field lines. It is shown that U can be directly related to magnetic field properties, expressed by Euler potentials, even when time-dependence is included. These results are applicable to earth's magnetosphere, to solar flares, to aligned-rotator models of compact objects, and to galactic rotation. On the basis of order-of-magnitude estimates, these results support the view that parallel electric fields associated with nonideal plasma flows might play an important role in cosmic particle acceleration.

  18. Analysis of a solar collector field water flow network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohde, J. E.; Knoll, R. H.

    1976-01-01

    A number of methods are presented for minimizing the water flow variation in the solar collector field for the Solar Building Test Facility at the Langley Research Center. The solar collector field investigated consisted of collector panels connected in parallel between inlet and exit collector manifolds to form 12 rows. The rows were in turn connected in parallel between the main inlet and exit field manifolds to complete the field. The various solutions considered included various size manifolds, manifold area change, different locations for the inlets and exits to the manifolds, and orifices or flow control valves. Calculations showed that flow variations of less than 5 percent were obtainable both inside a row between solar collector panels and between various rows.

  19. Effect of blood flow parameters on flow patterns at arterial bifurcations--studies in models.

    PubMed

    Liepsch, D W

    1990-01-01

    Atherosclerotic lesions are found primarily at arterial bends and bifurcations. Flow disturbances at these anatomic sites play a major role in atherogenesis. How hemodynamic factors such as vessel geometry, the pulsatile nature of blood flow, vessel wall elasticity and the non-Newtonian flow behavior of blood influence the flow field at these sites must be clarified. We have performed fundamental studies using a birefringent solution in a simplified rigid 90 degree T-bifurcation and pulsatile flow. The velocity distribution was measured with a laser Doppler anemometer. Flow in an elastic abdominal aorta model has been visualized using magnetic resonance imaging. In both flow studies, zones with negative velocity were found. These model measurements demonstrate that no flow parameter can be neglected. Further detailed studies are necessary to examine the interaction between fluid dynamic and cellular surface properties. PMID:2404201

  20. Field observations of a debris flow event in the Dolomites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berti, Matteo; Genevois, Rinaldo; Simoni, Alessandro; Tecca, Pia Rosella

    1999-09-01

    A debris flow event occurred in June 1997 in the Dolomites (Eastern Alps, Italy). The phenomenon was directly observed in the field and recorded by a video camera near its initiation area. The debris flow originated shortly after an intense rainstorm (25 mm in 30 min) whose runoff mobilised the loose coarse debris that filled the bottom of the channel in its upper part. The analysis of the steep headwater basin indicates a very short concentration time (9-14 min) that fits the quick hydrological response observed in the field. The debris flow mobilisation was not contemporaneous with the arrival of the peak water discharge in the initiation area probably due to the time required for the saturation of the highly conductive channel-bed material. Channel cross-section measurements taken along the flow channel indicate debris flow peak velocity and discharge ranging from 3.1 to 9.0 m/s and from 23 to 71 m 3/s, respectively. Samples collected immediately after deposition were used to determine the water content and bulk density of the material. Channel scouring, fines enrichment and transported volume increase testify erosion and entrainment of material along the flow channel. Field estimates of the rheological properties based on open channel flow of Bingham fluid indicate a yield strength of 5000±400 Pa and relatively low viscosity (60-326 Pa s), probably due to a high percentage of fines (approx. 30%).

  1. Numerical Simulation of Flow Field Within Parallel Plate Plastometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antar, Basil N.

    2002-01-01

    Parallel Plate Plastometer (PPP) is a device commonly used for measuring the viscosity of high polymers at low rates of shear in the range 10(exp 4) to 10(exp 9) poises. This device is being validated for use in measuring the viscosity of liquid glasses at high temperatures having similar ranges for the viscosity values. PPP instrument consists of two similar parallel plates, both in the range of 1 inch in diameter with the upper plate being movable while the lower one is kept stationary. Load is applied to the upper plate by means of a beam connected to shaft attached to the upper plate. The viscosity of the fluid is deduced from measuring the variation of the plate separation, h, as a function of time when a specified fixed load is applied on the beam. Operating plate speeds measured with the PPP is usually in the range of 10.3 cm/s or lower. The flow field within the PPP can be simulated using the equations of motion of fluid flow for this configuration. With flow speeds in the range quoted above the flow field between the two plates is certainly incompressible and laminar. Such flows can be easily simulated using numerical modeling with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes. We present below the mathematical model used to simulate this flow field and also the solutions obtained for the flow using a commercially available finite element CFD code.

  2. Laboratory observation of magnetic field growth driven by shear flow

    SciTech Connect

    Intrator, T. P. Feng, Y.; Sears, J.; Weber, T.; Dorf, L.; Sun, X.

    2014-04-15

    Two magnetic flux ropes that collide and bounce have been characterized in the laboratory. We find screw pinch profiles that include ion flow v{sub i}, magnetic field B, current density J, and plasma pressure. The electron flow v{sub e} can be inferred, allowing the evaluation of the Hall J×B term in a two fluid magnetohydrodynamic Ohm's Law. Flux ropes that are initially cylindrical are mutually attracted and compress each other, which distorts the cylindrical symmetry. Magnetic field is created via the ∇×v{sub e}×B induction term in Ohm's Law where in-plane (perpendicular) shear of parallel flow (along the flux rope) is the dominant feature, along with some dissipation and magnetic reconnection. We predict and measure the growth of a quadrupole out-of-plane magnetic field δB{sub z}. This is a simple and coherent example of a shear flow driven dynamo. There is some similarity with two dimensional reconnection scenarios, which induce a current sheet and thus out-of-plane flow in the third dimension, despite the customary picture that considers flows only in the reconnection plane. These data illustrate a general and deterministic mechanism for large scale sheared flows to acquire smaller scale magnetic features, disordered structure, and possibly turbulence.

  3. Fuel cell with metal screen flow-field

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, M.S.; Zawodzinski, C.

    1998-08-25

    A polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell is provided with electrodes supplied with a reactant on each side of a catalyzed membrane assembly (CMA). The fuel cell includes a metal mesh defining a rectangular flow-field pattern having an inlet at a first corner and an outlet at a second corner located on a diagonal from the first corner, wherein all flow paths from the inlet to the outlet through the square flow field pattern are equivalent to uniformly distribute the reactant over the CMA. In a preferred form of metal mesh, a square weave screen forms the flow-field pattern. In a particular characterization of the present invention, a bipolar plate electrically connects adjacent fuel cells, where the bipolar plate includes a thin metal foil having an anode side and a cathode side; a first metal mesh on the anode side of the thin metal foil; and a second metal mesh on the cathode side of the thin metal foil. In another characterization of the present invention, a cooling plate assembly cools adjacent fuel cells, where the cooling plate assembly includes an anode electrode and a cathode electrode formed of thin conducting foils; and a metal mesh flow field there between for distributing cooling water flow over the electrodes to remove heat generated by the fuel cells. 11 figs.

  4. Fuel cell with metal screen flow-field

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Mahlon S.; Zawodzinski, Christine

    2001-01-01

    A polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell is provided with electrodes supplied with a reactant on each side of a catalyzed membrane assembly (CMA). The fuel cell includes a metal mesh defining a rectangular flow-field pattern having an inlet at a first corner and an outlet at a second corner located on a diagonal from the first corner, wherein all flow paths from the inlet to the outlet through the square flow field pattern are equivalent to uniformly distribute the reactant over the CMA. In a preferred form of metal mesh, a square weave screen forms the flow-field pattern. In a particular characterization of the present invention, a bipolar plate electrically connects adjacent fuel cells, where the bipolar plate includes a thin metal foil having an anode side and a cathode side; a first metal mesh on the anode side of the thin metal foil; and a second metal mesh on the cathode side of the thin metal foil. In another characterization of the present invention, a cooling plate assembly cools adjacent fuel cells, where the cooling plate assembly includes an anode electrode and a cathode electrode formed of thin conducting foils; and a metal mesh flow field therebetween for distributing cooling water flow over the electrodes to remove heat generated by the fuel cells.

  5. Fuel cell with metal screen flow-field

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Mahlon S.; Zawodzinski, Christine

    1998-01-01

    A polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell is provided with electrodes supplied with a reactant on each side of a catalyzed membrane assembly (CMA). The fuel cell includes a metal mesh defining a rectangular flow-field pattern having an inlet at a first corner and an outlet at a second corner located on a diagonal from the first corner, wherein all flow paths from the inlet to the outlet through the square flow field pattern are equivalent to uniformly distribute the reactant over the CMA. In a preferred form of metal mesh, a square weave screen forms the flow-field pattern. In a particular characterization of the present invention, a bipolar plate electrically connects adjacent fuel cells, where the bipolar plate includes a thin metal foil having an anode side and a cathode side; a first metal mesh on the anode side of the thin metal foil; and a second metal mesh on the cathode side of the thin metal foil. In another characterization of the present invention, a cooling plate assembly cools adjacent fuel cells, where the cooling plate assembly includes an anode electrode and a cathode electrode formed of thin conducting foils; and a metal mesh flow field therebetween for distributing cooling water flow over the electrodes to remove heat generated by the fuel cells.

  6. Electrotaxis of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells in a multiple-electric-field chip with uniform flow field

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Hsieh-Fu; Peng, Shih-Wei; Wu, Chun-Ying; Chang, Hui-Fang; Cheng, Ji-Yen

    2012-01-01

    We report a new design of microfluidic chip (Multiple electric Field with Uniform Flow chip, MFUF chip) to create multiple electric field strengths (EFSs) while providing a uniform flow field simultaneously. MFUF chip was fabricated from poly-methyl methacrylates (PMMA) substrates by using CO2 laser micromachining. A microfluidic network with interconnecting segments was utilized to de-couple the flow field and the electric field (EF). Using our special design, different EFSs were obtained in channel segments that had an identical cross-section and therefore a uniform flow field. Four electric fields with EFS ratio of 7.9:2.8:1:0 were obtained with flow velocity variation of only 7.8% CV (coefficient of variation). Possible biological effect of shear force can therefore be avoided. Cell behavior under three EFSs and the control condition, where there is no EF, was observed in a single experiment. We validated MFUF chip performance using lung adenocarcinoma cell lines and then used the chip to study the electrotaxis of HSC-3, an oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line. The MFUF chip has high throughput capability for studying the EF-induced cell behavior under various EFSs, including the control condition (EFS = 0). PMID:24009650

  7. Debris flow study in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrin Jaafar, Kamal

    2016-04-01

    The phenomenon of debris flow occurs in Malaysia occasionally. The topography of Peningsular Malysia is characterized by the central mountain ranges running from south to north. Several parts of hilly areas with steep slopes, combined with high saturation of soil strata that deliberately increase the pore water pressure underneath the hill slope. As a tropical country Malaysia has very high intensity rainfall which is triggered the landslide. In the study area where the debris flow are bound to occur, there are a few factors that contribute to this phenomenon such as high rainfall intensity, very steep slope which an inclination more than 35 degree and sandy clay soil type which is easily change to liquidity soil. This paper will discuss the study of rainfall, mechanism, modeling and design of mitigation measure to avoid repeated failure in future in same area.

  8. Near field flow structure of isothermal swirling flows and reacting non-premixed swirling flames

    SciTech Connect

    Olivani, Andrea; Solero, Giulio; Cozzi, Fabio; Coghe, Aldo

    2007-04-15

    Two confined lean non-premixed swirl-stabilized flame typologies were investigated in order to achieve detailed information on the thermal and aerodynamic field in the close vicinity of the burner throat and provide correlation with the exhaust emissions. Previous finding indicated the generation of a partially premixed flame with radial fuel injection and a purely diffusive flame with co-axial injection in a swirling co-flow. In the present work, the experimental study is reported which has been conducted on a straight exit laboratory burner with no quarl cone, fuelled by natural gas and air, and fired vertically upwards with the flame stabilized at the end of two concentric pipes with the annulus supplying swirled air and the central pipe delivering the fuel. Two fuel injection typologies, co-axial and radial (i.e., transverse), leading to different mixing mechanisms, have been characterized through different techniques: particle image velocimetry (PIV) and laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) for a comprehensive analysis of the velocity field, still photography for the detection of flame front and main visible features, and thermocouples for the temperature distribution. Isothermal flow conditions have been included in the experimental investigation to provide a basic picture of the flow field and to comprehend the modifications induced by the combustion process. The results indicated that, although the global mixing process and the main flame structure are governed by the swirl motion imparted to the air stream, the two different fuel injection methodologies play an important role on mixture formation and flame stabilization in the primary mixing zone. Particularly, it has been found that, in case of axial injection, the turbulent interaction between the central fuel jet and the backflow generated by the swirl can induce an intermittent fuel penetration in the recirculated hot products and the formation of a central sooting luminous plume, a phenomenon totally

  9. Patterns in the sky: Natural visualization of aircraft flow fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, James F.; Chambers, Joseph R.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of the current publication is to present the collection of flight photographs to illustrate the types of flow patterns that were visualized and to present qualitative correlations with computational and wind tunnel results. Initially in section 2, the condensation process is discussed, including a review of relative humidity, vapor pressure, and factors which determine the presence of visible condensate. Next, outputs from computer code calculations are postprocessed by using water-vapor relationships to determine if computed values of relative humidity in the local flow field correlate with the qualitative features of the in-flight condensation patterns. The photographs are then presented in section 3 by flow type and subsequently in section 4 by aircraft type to demonstrate the variety of condensed flow fields that was visualized for a wide range of aircraft and flight maneuvers.

  10. Field-effect Flow Control in Polymer Microchannel Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sniadecki, Nathan; Lee, Cheng S.; Beamesderfer, Mike; DeVoe, Don L.

    2003-01-01

    A new Bio-MEMS electroosmotic flow (EOF) modulator for plastic microchannel networks has been developed. The EOF modulator uses field-effect flow control (FEFC) to adjust the zeta potential at the Parylene C microchannel wall. By setting a differential EOF pumping rate in two of the three microchannels at a T-intersection with EOF modulators, the induced pressure at the intersection generated pumping in the third, field-free microchannel. The EOF modulators are able to change the magnitude and direction of the pressure pumping by inducing either a negative or positive pressure at the intersection. The flow velocity is tracked by neutralized fluorescent microbeads in the microchannels. The proof-of-concept of the EOF modulator described here may be applied to complex plastic ,microchannel networks where individual microchannel flow rates are addressable by localized induced-pressure pumping.

  11. The mantle flow field beneath western North America.

    PubMed

    Silver, P G; Holt, W E

    2002-02-01

    Although motions at the surface of tectonic plates are well determined, the accompanying horizontal mantle flow is not. We have combined observations of surface deformation and upper mantle seismic anisotropy to estimate this flow field for western North America. We find that the mantle velocity is 5.5 +/- 1.5 centimeters per year due east in a hot spot reference frame, nearly opposite to the direction of North American plate motion (west-southwest). The flow is only weakly coupled to the motion of the surface plate, producing a small drag force. This flow field is probably due to heterogeneity in mantle density associated with the former Farallon oceanic plate beneath North America. PMID:11834831

  12. Swan falls instream flow study

    SciTech Connect

    Anglin, D.R.; Cummings, T.R.; Ecklund, A.E.

    1992-10-01

    The purpose of the Swan Falls Instream Flow Study was to define the relationship between streamflows and instream habitat for resident fish species and to assess the relative impact of several different hydrographs on resident fish habitat. Specific objectives included the following: (1) Conduct a literature search to compile life history, distribution, and habitat requirements for species of interest. Physical and hydrologic characteristics of the Snake River were also compiled. (2) Determine physical habitat versus discharge relationships and conduct habitat time series analysis for each species/lifestage using the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM) developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. (3) Examine the impacts on resident fish habitat of proposed hydrographs, including Swan Falls Agreement flows, relative to current conditions. (4) Characterize water quality conditions, including water temperature and dissolved oxygen, in the vicinity of the study area and determine the implications of those conditions for the resident species of interest. (5) Determine streamflows necessary to protect and maintain resident fish habitat in the study area.

  13. Basic studies of microstructure of combusting turbulent flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Fazle

    1991-03-01

    The goal is to develop a state-of-the-art measurement technique, Holographic Particle Displacement Velocimetry (HPV), which can provide instantaneous velocities everywhere in the flow field simultaneously. Another goal is to use the power of supercomputers to simulate 3D flows with heat release to study the physics of combusting turbulent flows. Computations suffer from limited flow times and Reynolds number but can provide flow properties in more detail than possible by any existing experimental techniques. Moreover, numerical simulations can provide quantities almost impossible to measure experimentally. This article discusses efforts to develop the holographic particle displacement velocimetry system and results of direct numerical numerical simulations of combusting flows.

  14. Gyral parcellation of cortical surfaces via coupled flow field tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gang; Guo, Lei; Li, Kaiming; Nie, Jingxin; Liu, Tianming

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents a novel method for parcellation of the cortical surface of human brain into gyral based regions via coupled flow field tracking. The proposed method consists of two major steps. First, the cortical surface is automatically parcellated into sulcal based regions using several procedures: estimating principal curvatures and principal directions; applying the hidden Markov random field and the Expectation-Maximization (HMRF-EM) framework for sulcal region segmentation based on the maximum principal curvature; diffusing the maximum principal direction field in order to propagate reliable and informative principal directions at gyral crests and sulcal bottoms to other flat cortical regions with noisy principal directions by minimization of an energy function; tracking the flow field towards sulcal bottoms to parcellate the cortical surfaces into sulcal basins. The sulcal parcellation provides a very good initialization for the following steps of gyral parcellation on cortical surfaces. Second, based on the sulcal parcellation results, the cortical surface is further parcellated into gyral based regions using the following procedures: extracting gyral crest segments; dilating gyral crest segments; inverting the principal direction flow field and tracking the flow field towards gyral crests in order to partition the cortical surface into a collection of gyral patches; merging gyral patches to obtain gyral parcellation of the cortical surface. The proposed algorithm pipeline is applied to nine randomly selected cortical surfaces of normal brains and promising results are obtained. The accuracy of the semi-automatic gyral parcellation is comparable to that labeled manually by experts.

  15. Electromagnetic Field Penetration Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deshpande, M.D.

    2000-01-01

    A numerical method is presented to determine electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of rectangular enclosure with apertures on its wall used for input and output connections, control panels, visual-access windows, ventilation panels, etc. Expressing EM fields in terms of cavity Green's function inside the enclosure and the free space Green's function outside the enclosure, integral equations with aperture tangential electric fields as unknown variables are obtained by enforcing the continuity of tangential electric and magnetic fields across the apertures. Using the Method of Moments, the integral equations are solved for unknown aperture fields. From these aperture fields, the EM field inside a rectangular enclosure due to external electromagnetic sources are determined. Numerical results on electric field shielding of a rectangular cavity with a thin rectangular slot obtained using the present method are compared with the results obtained using simple transmission line technique for code validation. The present technique is applied to determine field penetration inside a Boeing-757 by approximating its passenger cabin as a rectangular cavity filled with a homogeneous medium and its passenger windows by rectangular apertures. Preliminary results for, two windows, one on each side of fuselage were considered. Numerical results for Boeing-757 at frequencies 26 MHz, 171-175 MHz, and 428-432 MHz are presented.

  16. The Optic Flow Field: The Foundation of Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, D. N.

    1980-07-01

    As a basis for understanding the visual system, we need to consider the functions that vision has to perform, which are pre-eminently in the service of activity, and the circumstances in which it normally operates, namely when the head is moving. The fundamental ecological stimulus for vision is not a camera-like time-frozen image but a constantly changing optic array or flow field, the description of which must be in spatio-temporal terms. A mathematical analysis of the optic flow field is presented, revealing the information that it affords for controlling activity - information both about the topography of the environment and about the movement of the organism relative to the environment. Results of human behavioural experiments are also reported. It is suggested that the optic flow field should be the starting point in attempting to discover the physiological workings of the visual system.

  17. Heat-flow mapping at the Geysers Geothermal Field

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, R.P.

    1986-10-31

    Pertinent data were compiled for 187 temperature-gradient holes in the vicinity of The Geysers Geothermal field. Terrain-correction techniques were applied to most of the temperature-gradient data, and a temperature-gradient map was constructed. Cutting samples from 16, deep, production wells were analyzed for thermal conductivity. From these samples, the mean thermal conductivities were determined for serpentinized ultramafic rock, greenstone, and graywacke. Then, a heat flow map was made. The temperature-gradient and heat-flow maps show that The Geysers Geothermal field is part of a very large, northwesterly-trending, thermal anomaly; the commercially productive portion of the field may be 100 km/sup 2/ in area. The rate that heat energy flows through the surface by thermal conduction is estimated at 1.79 x 10/sup 9/MJ per year. The net heat energy loss from commercial production for 1983 is estimated at 180.14 x 10/sup 9/MJ.

  18. A conservative approach for flow field calculations on multiple grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kathong, Monchai; Tiwari, Surendra N.

    1988-01-01

    In the computation of flow fields about complex configurations, it is very difficult to construct body-fitted coordinate systems. An alternative approach is to use several grids at once, each of which is generated independently. This procedure is called the multiple grids or zonal grids approach and its applications are investigated in this study. The method follows the conservative approach and provides conservation of fluxes at grid interfaces. The Euler equations are solved numerically on such grids for various configurations. The numerical scheme used is the finite-volume technique with a three-state Runge-Kutta time integration. The code is vectorized and programmed to run on the CDC VPS-32 computer. Some steady state solutions of the Euler equations are presented and discussed.

  19. Topological analysis of computed three-dimensional viscous flow fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deiwert, G. S.

    1982-01-01

    Computed solutions of the time-dependent, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations for three dimensional flows having thin shear layers are analyzed using topological concepts. Specific examples include the transonic flow over a body of revolution with conical afterbody at moderate angles of incidence to the free stream. Experimental flow-visualization techniques are simulated graphically to visualize the computed flow. Scalar and vector fluid dynamics properties such as pressure, shear stress, and vorticity on the body surface are presented as topological maps, and their relationship to one another in terms of orientation and singular points is discussed. The extrapolation from these surface topologies toward the understanding of external flow-field behavior is and demonstrated.

  20. Flow field analysis for a class of waverider configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moitra, Anutosh

    1990-01-01

    A package of computer codes for analysis of flow fields for waverider configurations is described. The package consists of a surface/volume grid generator and a finite-volume flow solver. The grid generator defines body geometries and computational grids by an algebraic homotopy procedure. The algebraic procedure is versatile in its application and can readily generate configurations in the class of blended wing-body geometries. This code has the ability to produce a wide variety of geometries in the given class with varying geometrical attributes. The flow solver employs a finite-volume formation and solves the explicit, Runge-Kutta integration technique. The method or flow simulation incorporates several techniques for acceleration of the convergence of the interaction process and an entropy corrected enthalpy damping procedure for efficient computation of high Mach number flows.

  1. Flow field measurements in the cell culture unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Stephen; Wilder, Mike; Dimanlig, Arsenio; Jagger, Justin; Searby, Nancy

    2002-01-01

    The cell culture unit (CCU) is being designed to support cell growth for long-duration life science experiments on the International Space Station (ISS). The CCU is a perfused loop system that provides a fluid environment for controlled cell growth experiments within cell specimen chambers (CSCs), and is intended to accommodate diverse cell specimen types. Many of the functional requirements depend on the fluid flow field within the CSC (e.g., feeding and gas management). A design goal of the CCU is to match, within experimental limits, all environmental conditions, other than the effects of gravity on the cells, whether the hardware is in microgravity ( micro g), normal Earth gravity, or up to 2g on the ISS centrifuge. In order to achieve this goal, two steps are being taken. The first step is to characterize the environmental conditions of current 1g cell biology experiments being performed in laboratories using ground-based hardware. The second step is to ensure that the design of the CCU allows the fluid flow conditions found in 1g to be replicated from microgravity up to 2g. The techniques that are being used to take these steps include flow visualization, particle image velocimetry (PIV), and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Flow visualization using the injection of dye has been used to gain a global perspective of the characteristics of the CSC flow field. To characterize laboratory cell culture conditions, PIV is being used to determine the flow field parameters of cell suspension cultures grown in Erlenmeyer flasks on orbital shakers. These measured parameters will be compared to PIV measurements in the CSCs to ensure that the flow field that cells encounter in CSCs is within the bounds determined for typical laboratory experiments. Using CFD, a detailed simulation is being developed to predict the flow field within the CSC for a wide variety of flow conditions, including microgravity environments. Results from all these measurements and analyses of the

  2. Experimental Investigation on Liquid Metal Flow Distribution in Insulating Manifold under Uniform Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Masato; Ueki, Yoshitaka; Yokomine, Takehiko; Kunugi, Tomoaki

    2012-11-01

    Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) problem which is caused by interaction between electrical conducting fluid flow and the magnetic field is one of the biggest problem in the liquid metal blanket of the fusion reactor. In the liquid metal blanket concept, it is necessary to distribute liquid metal flows uniformly in the manifold because imbalance of flow rates should affect the heat transfer performance directly, which leads to safety problem. While the manifold is insulated electrically as well as the flow duct, the 3D-MHD effect on the flowing liquid metal in the manifold is more apparent than that in straight duct. With reference to the flow distribution in this concept, the liquid metal flow in the electrical insulating manifold under the uniform transverse magnetic field is investigated experimentally. In this study, GaInSn is selected as working fluid. The experimental system includes the electrical magnet and the manifold test section which is made of acrylic resin for perfectly electrical insulation. The liquid metal flows in a non-symmetric 180°-turn with manifold, which consists of one upward channel and two downward channels. The flow rates in each channel are measured by electromagnetic flow meters for several combinations Reynolds number and Hartman number. The effects of magnetic field on the uniformity of flow distribution are cleared.

  3. Turbulence, flow and transport: hints from reversed field pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vianello, N.; Antoni, V.; Spada, E.; Spolaore, M.; Serianni, G.; Cavazzana, R.; Bergsåker, H.; Cecconello, M.; Drake, J. R.

    2006-04-01

    The interplay between sheared E × B flows and turbulence has been experimentally investigated in the edge region of the Extrap-T2R reversed field pinch experiment. Electrostatic fluctuations are found to rule the momentum balance equation representing the main driving term for sheared flows which counterbalances anomalous viscous damping. The driving role of electrostatic fluctuations is proved by the spatial structure of the Reynolds stress and by the time behaviour of the mean energy production term which supports the existence of an energy exchange from the small scales of turbulence to the larger scales of the mean flow.

  4. Turbulence in Flowing Soap Films: Velocity, Vorticity, and Thickness Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Rivera, M.; Vorobieff, P.; Ecke, R.E.

    1998-08-01

    We report experimental measurements of the velocity, vorticity, and thickness fields of turbulent flowing soap films using a modified particle-image velocimetry technique. These data yield the turbulent energy and enstrophy of the two-dimensional flows with microscale Reynolds numbers of about 100 and demonstrate the effects of compressibility arising from variations in film thickness. Despite the compressibility of the flow, real-space correlations of velocity, vorticity, and enstrophy flux are consistent with theoretical predictions for two-dimensional turbulence. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society }

  5. The Fabrication of Flow Field Plates for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Using Lithography and Radio Frequency Sputtering.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ho; Kao, Mu-Jung; Chen, Chih-Hao; Cho, Kun-Ching; Hsu, Chun-Yao; Chen, Zhi-Lun

    2015-08-01

    This study uses lithography to etch flow fields on a single side of a printed circuit board (PCB) and combines a flow field plate with a collector plate to make innovative anode flow field plates and cathode flow field plates for a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). TiO2 thin film is also sputtered on the anode flow field plate using radio frequency (RF) sputtering. The experimental results show that the prepared DMFC has a better maximum power density of 11.928 mW/cm2. Furthermore, when a TiO2 thin film is sputtered on the flow field plate of the assembled DMFC, the maximum power density is 14.426 mW/cm2, which is actually 21% more than that for a DMFC with no TiO2 thin film coated on the flow field plate.

  6. Steady hydromagnetic flows in open magnetic fields. I - A class of analytic solutions. [for stellar winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, B. C.; Tsinganos, K.

    1986-01-01

    In the case of an establishment of theoretical models of the hydromagnetic solar wind, the inclusion of the effects of the magnetic field in the solar wind makes it extremely dificult to solve the mathematical problem. This paper has the objective to present a set of particular analytic solutions. The general formulation of Tsinganos (1982) is used to identify a class of analytic solutions to the equations of steady hydromagnetic flows in spherical coordinates. Flow in an open magnetic field are studied, taking into account the problem in dimensionless form, the special case of radial flows with alpha = 0, general radial flows, illustrative examples for flows in which alpha is not equal to 0, a parametric study of nonradial flows in which alpha is not equal to zero, variations in the parameter nu, and variations in the initial speed eta.

  7. Results of a study of Mach number and Reynolds number effects on the lee side vortex flow field characteristics of an ogive-cylinder-frustum-cylinder at angles of attack to 25 degrees. Volume 2: Appendix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foley, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    A listing of the data reduction computer program output for the analysis of the lee side vortex flow about an ogive-cylinder-frustum-cylinder is presented. A computed local flow property for the flow field location array at a specific body station and freestream condition is listed. Significant local flow properties are computed. The local circulation strengths in the radial and circumferential directions are analyzed.

  8. The Importance of dQ/dt on the Flow Field in a Turbodynamic Pump With Pulsatile Flow

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Fangjun; Vandenberghe, Stijn; Antaki, James F.

    2011-01-01

    Fluid dynamic analysis of turbodynamic blood pumps (TBPs) is often conducted under steady flow conditions. However, the preponderance of clinical applications for ventricular assistance involves unsteady, pulsatile flow—due to the residual contractility of the native heart. This study was undertaken to demonstrate the importance of pulsatility and the associated time derivative of the flow rate (dQ/dt) on hemodynamics within a clinical-scale TBP. This was accomplished by performing flow visualization studies on a transparent model of a centrifugal TBP interposed within a cardiovascular simulator with controllable heart rate and stroke volume. Particle image velocimetry triggered to both the rotation angle of the impeller and phase of the cardiac cycle was used to quantify the velocity field in the outlet volute and in between the impeller blades for 16 phases of the cardiac cycle. Comparison of the unsteady flow fields to corresponding steady conditions at the same (instantaneous) flow rates revealed marked differences. In particular, deceleration of flow was found to promote separation within the outlet diffuser, while acceleration served to stabilize the velocity field. The notable differences between the acceleration and deceleration phases illustrated the prominence of inertial fluid forces. These studies emphasize the importance of dQ/dt as an independent variable for thorough preclinical validation of TBPs intended for use as a ventricular assist device. PMID:19775268

  9. Turbulent Flow Field Measurements of Separate Flow Round and Chevron Nozzles with Pylon Interaction Using Particle Image Velocimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, Michael J.; Henerson, Brenda S.; Kinzie, Kevin W.

    2004-01-01

    Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements for six separate flow bypass ratio five nozzle configurations have recently been obtained in the NASA Langley Jet Noise Laboratory. The six configurations include a baseline configuration with round core and fan nozzles, an eight-chevron core nozzle at two different clocking positions, and repeats of these configurations with a pylon included. One run condition representative of takeoff was investigated for all cases with the core nozzle pressure ratio set to 1.56 and the total temperature to 828 K. The fan nozzle pressure ratio was set to 1.75 with a total temperature of 350 K, and the freestream Mach number was M = 0.28. The unsteady flow field measurements provided by PIV complement recent computational, acoustic, and mean flow field studies performed at NASA Langley for the same nozzle configurations and run condition. The PIV baseline configuration measurements show good agreement with mean flow field data as well as existing PIV data acquired at NASA Glenn. Nonetheless, the baseline configuration turbulence profile indicates an asymmetric flow field, despite careful attention to concentricity. The presence of the pylon increases the upper shear layer turbulence levels while simultaneously decreasing the turbulence levels in the lower shear layer. In addition, a slightly shorter potential core length is observed with the addition of the pylon. Finally, comparisons of computational results with PIV measurements are favorable for mean flow, slightly over-predicted for Reynolds shear stress, and underpredicted for Reynolds normal stress components.

  10. Pollen- and Seed-Mediated Transgene Flow in Commercial Cotton Seed Production Fields

    PubMed Central

    Heuberger, Shannon; Ellers-Kirk, Christa; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Carrière, Yves

    2010-01-01

    Background Characterizing the spatial patterns of gene flow from transgenic crops is challenging, making it difficult to design containment strategies for markets that regulate the adventitious presence of transgenes. Insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton is planted on millions of hectares annually and is a potential source of transgene flow. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we monitored 15 non-Bt cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, L.) seed production fields (some transgenic for herbicide resistance, some not) for gene flow of the Bt cotton cry1Ac transgene. We investigated seed-mediated gene flow, which yields adventitious Bt cotton plants, and pollen-mediated gene flow, which generates outcrossed seeds. A spatially-explicit statistical analysis was used to quantify the effects of nearby Bt and non-Bt cotton fields at various spatial scales, along with the effects of pollinator abundance and adventitious Bt plants in fields, on pollen-mediated gene flow. Adventitious Bt cotton plants, resulting from seed bags and planting error, comprised over 15% of plants sampled from the edges of three seed production fields. In contrast, pollen-mediated gene flow affected less than 1% of the seed sampled from field edges. Variation in outcrossing was better explained by the area of Bt cotton fields within 750 m of the seed production fields than by the area of Bt cotton within larger or smaller spatial scales. Variation in outcrossing was also positively associated with the abundance of honey bees. Conclusions/Significance A comparison of statistical methods showed that our spatially-explicit analysis was more powerful for understanding the effects of surrounding fields than customary models based on distance. Given the low rates of pollen-mediated gene flow observed in this study, we conclude that careful planting and screening of seeds could be more important than field spacing for limiting gene flow. PMID:21152426

  11. Characterization of Three-Stream Jet Flow Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Brenda S.; Wernet, Mark P.

    2016-01-01

    Flow-field measurements were conducted on single-, dual- and three-stream jets using two-component and stereo Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The flow-field measurements complimented previous acoustic measurements. The exhaust system consisted of externally-plugged, externally-mixed, convergent nozzles. The study used bypass-to-core area ratios equal to 1.0 and 2.5 and tertiary-to-core area ratios equal to 0.6 and 1.0. Axisymmetric and offset tertiary nozzles were investigated for heated and unheated high-subsonic conditions. Centerline velocity decay rates for the single-, dual- and three-stream axisymmetric jets compared well when axial distance was normalized by an equivalent diameter based on the nozzle system total exit area. The tertiary stream had a greater impact on the mean axial velocity for the small bypass-to-core area ratio nozzles than for large bypass-to-core area ratio nozzles. Normalized turbulence intensities were similar for the single-, dual-, and three-stream unheated jets due to the small difference (10 percent) in the core and bypass velocities for the dual-stream jets and the low tertiary velocity (50 percent of the core stream) for the three-stream jets. For heated jet conditions where the bypass velocity was 65 percent of the core velocity, additional regions of high turbulence intensity occurred near the plug tip which were not present for the unheated jets. Offsetting the tertiary stream moved the peak turbulence intensity levels upstream relative to those for all axisymmetric jets investigated.

  12. Characterization of Three-Stream Jet Flow Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Brenda S.; Wernet, Mark P.

    2016-01-01

    Flow-field measurements were conducted on single-, dual- and three-stream jets using two-component and stereo Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The flow-field measurements complimented previous acoustic measurements. The exhaust system consisted of externally-plugged, externally-mixed, convergent nozzles. The study used bypass-to-core area ratios equal to 1.0 and 2.5 and tertiary-to-core area ratios equal to 0.6 and 1.0. Axisymmetric and offset tertiary nozzles were investigated for heated and unheated high-subsonic conditions. Centerline velocity decay rates for the single-, dual- and three-stream axisymmetric jets compared well when axial distance was normalized by an equivalent diameter based on the nozzle system total exit area. The tertiary stream had a greater impact on the mean axial velocity for the small bypass-to-core area ratio nozzles than for large bypass-to-core area ratio nozzles. Normalized turbulence intensities were similar for the single-, dual-, and three-stream unheated jets due to the small difference (10%) in the core and bypass velocities for the dual-stream jets and the low tertiary velocity (50% of the core stream) for the three-stream jets. For heated jet conditions where the bypass velocity was 65% of the core velocity, additional regions of high turbulence intensity occurred near the plug tip which were not present for the unheated jets. Offsetting the tertiary stream moved the peak turbulence intensity levels upstream relative to those for all axisymmetric jets investigated.

  13. Direct numerical simulations of magnetic field effects on turbulent flow in a square duct

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhary, R.; Vanka, S. P.; Thomas, B. G.

    2010-07-01

    Magnetic fields are crucial in controlling flows in various physical processes of industrial significance. One such process is the continuous casting of steel, where different magnetic field configurations are used to control the turbulent flow of steel in the mold in order to minimize defects in the cast steel. The present study has been undertaken to understand the effects of a magnetic field on mean velocities and turbulence parameters in turbulent molten metal flow through a square duct. The coupled Navier-Stokes magnetohydrodynamic equations have been solved using a three-dimensional fractional-step numerical procedure. The Reynolds number was kept low in order to resolve all the scales in the flow without using a subgrid scale turbulence model. Computations were performed with three different grid resolutions, the finest grid having 8.4×106 cells. Because liquid metals have low magnetic Reynolds number, the induced magnetic field has been considered negligible and the electric potential method for magnetic field-flow coupling has been implemented. After validation of the computer code, computations of turbulent flow in a square duct with different Hartmann numbers were performed until complete laminarization of the flow. The time-dependent and time-averaged nature of the flow has been examined through distribution of mean velocities, turbulent fluctuations, vorticity, and turbulent kinetic energy budgets.

  14. Rapid Numerical Simulation of Viscous Axisymmetric Flow Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tweedt, Daniel L.; Chima, Rodrick V.

    1995-01-01

    A two-dimensional Navier-Stokes code has been developed for rapid numerical simulation of axisymmetric flow fields, including flow fields with an azimuthal velocity component. The azimuthal-invariant Navier-Stokes equations in a cylindrical coordinate system are mapped to a general body-fitted coordinate system, with the streamwise viscous terms then neglected by applying the thin-layer approximation. Turbulence effects are modeled using an algebraic model, typically the Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model, although a modified Cebeci-Smith model can also be used. The equations are discretized using central finite differences and solved using a multistage Runge-Kutta algorithm with a spatially varying time step and implicit residual smoothing. Results are presented for calculations of supersonic flow over a waisted body-of-revolution, transonic flow through a normal shock wave in a straight circular duct of constant cross sectional area, swirling supersonic (inviscid) flow through a strong shock in a straight radial duct, and swirling subsonic flow in an annular-to-circular diffuser duct. Comparisons between computed and experimental results are in fair to good agreement, demonstrating that the viscous code can be a useful tool for practical engineering design and analysis work.

  15. Analysis of plant ribosomes with asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation.

    PubMed

    Pitkänen, Leena; Tuomainen, Päivi; Eskelin, Katri

    2014-02-01

    Ribosome profiling is a technique used to separate ribosomal subunits, 80S ribosomes (monosomes), and polyribosomes (polysomes) from other RNA-protein complexes. It is traditionally performed in sucrose gradients. In this study, we used asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AsFlFFF) to characterize ribosome profiles of Nicotiana benthamiana plants. With the optimized running conditions, we were able to separate free molecules from ribosomal subunits and intact ribosomes. We used various chemical and enzymatic treatments to validate the positions of subunits, monosomes, and polysomes in the AsFlFFF fractograms. We also characterized the protein and RNA content of AsFlFFF fractions by gel electrophoresis and western blotting. The reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed that ribosomes remained bound to messenger RNAs (mRNAs) during the analysis. Therefore, we conclude that AsFlFFF can be used for ribosome profiling to study the mRNAs that are being translated. It can also be used to study the protein composition of ribosomes that are active in translation at that particular moment.

  16. A Volume Rendering Framework for Visualizing 3D Flow Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Hsien-Hsi; Li, Liya; Shen, Han-Wei; Tai, Wen-Kai

    In this paper, we present a volume rendering framework for visualizing 3D flow fields. We introduce the concept of coherence field which evaluates the representativeness of a given streamline set for the underlying 3D vector field. Visualization of the coherence field can provide effective visual feedback to the user for incremental insertion of more streamline seeds. Given an initial set of streamlines, a coherence volume is constructed from a distance field to measure the similarity between the existing streamlines and those in their nearby regions based on the difference between the approximate and the actual vector directions. With the visual feedback obtained from rendering the coherence volume, new streamline seeds can be selected by the user or by a heuristic seed selection algorithm to adaptively improve the coherence volume. An improved volume rendering technique that can render user-defined appearance textures is proposed to facilitate macro-visualization of 3D vector fields.

  17. Analytical solutions for flow fields near continuous wall reactive barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klammler, Harald; Hatfield, Kirk

    2008-05-01

    Permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) are widely applied for in-situ remediation of contaminant plumes transported by groundwater. Besides the goal of a sufficient contaminant remediation inside the reactive cell (residence time) the width of plume intercepted by a PRB is of critical concern. A 2-dimensional analytical approach is applied to determine the flow fields towards rectangular PRBs of the continuous wall (CW) configuration with and without impermeable side walls (but yet no funnel). The approach is based on the conformal mapping technique and assumes a homogeneous aquifer with a uniform ambient flow field. The hydraulic conductivity of the reactive material is furthermore assumed to exceed the conductivity of the aquifer by at least one order of magnitude as to neglect the hydraulic gradient across the reactor. The flow fields are analyzed regarding the widths and shapes of the respective capture zones as functions of the dimensions (aspect ratio) of the reactive cell and the ambient groundwater flow direction. Presented are an improved characterization of the advantages of impermeable side walls, a convenient approach to improved hydraulic design (including basic cost-optimization) and new concepts for monitoring CW PRBs. Water level data from a CW PRB at the Seneca Army Depot site, NY, are used for field demonstration.

  18. Analytical solutions for flow fields near continuous wall reactive barriers.

    PubMed

    Klammler, Harald; Hatfield, Kirk

    2008-05-26

    Permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) are widely applied for in-situ remediation of contaminant plumes transported by groundwater. Besides the goal of a sufficient contaminant remediation inside the reactive cell (residence time) the width of plume intercepted by a PRB is of critical concern. A 2-dimensional analytical approach is applied to determine the flow fields towards rectangular PRBs of the continuous wall (CW) configuration with and without impermeable side walls (but yet no funnel). The approach is based on the conformal mapping technique and assumes a homogeneous aquifer with a uniform ambient flow field. The hydraulic conductivity of the reactive material is furthermore assumed to exceed the conductivity of the aquifer by at least one order of magnitude as to neglect the hydraulic gradient across the reactor. The flow fields are analyzed regarding the widths and shapes of the respective capture zones as functions of the dimensions (aspect ratio) of the reactive cell and the ambient groundwater flow direction. Presented are an improved characterization of the advantages of impermeable side walls, a convenient approach to improved hydraulic design (including basic cost-optimization) and new concepts for monitoring CW PRBs. Water level data from a CW PRB at the Seneca Army Depot site, NY, are used for field demonstration.

  19. Lava flow surface textures - SIR-B radar image texture, field observations, and terrain measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddis, Lisa R.; Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.; Hayashi, Joan N.

    1990-01-01

    SIR-B images, field observations, and small-scale (cm) terrain measurements are used to study lave flow surface textures related to emplacement processes of a single Hawaiian lava flow. Although smooth pahoehoe textures are poorly characterized on the SIR-B data, rougher pahoehoe types and the a'a flow portion show image textures attributed to spatial variations in surface roughness. Field observations of six distinct lava flow textural units are described and used to interpret modes of emplacement. The radar smooth/rough boundary between pahoehoe and a'a occurs at a vertical relief of about 10 cm on this lava flow. While direct observation and measurement most readily yield information related to lava eruption and emplacement processes, analyses of remote sensing data such as those acquired by imaging radars and altimeters can provide a means of quantifying surface texture, identifying the size and distribution of flow components, and delineating textural unit boundaries.

  20. Reduction of velocity fluctuations in a turbulent flow of gallium by an external magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Berhanu, Michael; Gallet, Basile; Mordant, Nicolas; Fauve, Stéphan

    2008-07-01

    The magnetic field of planets or stars is generated by the motion of a conducting fluid through a dynamo instability. The saturation of the magnetic field occurs through the reaction of the Lorentz force on the flow. In relation to this phenomenon, we study the effect of a magnetic field on a turbulent flow of liquid gallium. The measurement of electric potential differences provides a signal related to the local velocity fluctuations. We observe a reduction of velocity fluctuations at all frequencies in the spectrum when the magnetic field is increased. PMID:18764010

  1. Reproduction of pressure field in ultrasonic-measurement-integrated simulation of blood flow.

    PubMed

    Funamoto, Kenichi; Hayase, Toshiyuki

    2013-07-01

    Ultrasonic-measurement-integrated (UMI) simulation of blood flow is used to analyze the velocity and pressure fields by applying feedback signals of artificial body forces based on differences of Doppler velocities between ultrasonic measurement and numerical simulation. Previous studies have revealed that UMI simulation accurately reproduces the velocity field of a target blood flow, but that the reproducibility of the pressure field is not necessarily satisfactory. In the present study, the reproduction of the pressure field by UMI simulation was investigated. The effect of feedback on the pressure field was first examined by theoretical analysis, and a pressure compensation method was devised. When the divergence of the feedback force vector was not zero, it influenced the pressure field in the UMI simulation while improving the computational accuracy of the velocity field. Hence, the correct pressure was estimated by adding pressure compensation to remove the deteriorating effect of the feedback. A numerical experiment was conducted dealing with the reproduction of a synthetic three-dimensional steady flow in a thoracic aneurysm to validate results of the theoretical analysis and the proposed pressure compensation method. The ability of the UMI simulation to reproduce the pressure field deteriorated with a large feedback gain. However, by properly compensating the effects of the feedback signals on the pressure, the error in the pressure field was reduced, exhibiting improvement of the computational accuracy. It is thus concluded that the UMI simulation with pressure compensation allows for the reproduction of both velocity and pressure fields of blood flow. PMID:23757190

  2. Monodisperse granular flows in viscous dispersions in a centrifugal acceleration field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera, Miguel Angel; Wu, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Granular flows are encountered in geophysical flows and innumerable industrial applications with particulate materials. When mixed with a fluid, a complex network of interactions between the particle- and fluid-phase develops, resulting in a compound material with a yet unclear physical behaviour. In the study of granular suspensions mixed with a viscous dispersion, the scaling of the stress-strain characteristics of the fluid phase needs to account for the level of inertia developed in experiments. However, the required model dimensions and amount of material becomes a main limitation for their study. In recent years, centrifuge modelling has been presented as an alternative for the study of particle-fluid flows in a reduced scaled model in an augmented acceleration field. By formulating simple scaling principles proportional to the equivalent acceleration Ng in the model, the resultant flows share many similarities with field events. In this work we study the scaling principles of the fluid phase and its effects on the flow of granular suspensions. We focus on the dense flow of a monodisperse granular suspension mixed with a viscous fluid phase, flowing down an inclined plane and being driven by a centrifugal acceleration field. The scaled model allows the continuous monitoring of the flow heights, velocity fields, basal pressure and mass flow rates at different Ng levels. The experiments successfully identify the effects of scaling the plastic viscosity of the fluid phase, its relation with the deposition of particles over the inclined plane, and allows formulating a discussion on the suitability of simulating particle-fluid flows in a centrifugal acceleration field.

  3. Can core flows inferred from geomagnetic field models explain the Earth's dynamo?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeffer, N.; Silva, E. Lora; Pais, M. A.

    2016-02-01

    We test the ability of large-scale velocity fields inferred from geomagnetic secular variation data to produce the global magnetic field of the Earth. Our kinematic dynamo calculations use quasi-geostrophic (QG) flows inverted from geomagnetic field models which, as such, incorporate flow structures that are Earth-like and may be important for the geodynamo. Furthermore, the QG hypothesis allows straightforward prolongation of the flow from the core surface to the bulk. As expected from previous studies, we check that a simple QG flow is not able to sustain the magnetic field against ohmic decay. Additional complexity is then introduced in the flow, inspired by the action of the Lorentz force. Indeed, on centennial timescales, the Lorentz force can balance the Coriolis force and strict quasi-geostrophy may not be the best ansatz. When our columnar flow is modified to account for the action of the Lorentz force, magnetic field is generated for Elsasser numbers larger than 0.25 and magnetic Reynolds numbers larger than 100. This suggests that our large-scale flow captures the relevant features for the generation of the Earth's magnetic field and that the invisible small-scale flow may not be directly involved in this process. Near the threshold, the resulting magnetic field is dominated by an axial dipole, with some reversed flux patches. Time dependence is also considered, derived from principal component analysis applied to the inverted flows. We find that time periods from 120 to 50 yr do not affect the mean growth rate of the kinematic dynamos. Finally, we note that the footprint of the inner core in the magnetic field generated deep in the bulk of the shell, although we did not include one in our computations.

  4. Dynamics of intrinsic axial flows in unsheared, uniform magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J. C.; Diamond, P. H.; Xu, X. Q.; Tynan, G. R.

    2016-05-01

    A simple model for the generation and amplification of intrinsic axial flow in a linear device, controlled shear decorrelation experiment, is proposed. This model proposes and builds upon a novel dynamical symmetry breaking mechanism, using a simple theory of drift wave turbulence in the presence of axial flow shear. This mechanism does not require complex magnetic field structure, such as shear, and thus is also applicable to intrinsic rotation generation in tokamaks at weak or zero magnetic shear, as well as to linear devices. This mechanism is essentially the self-amplification of the mean axial flow profile, i.e., a modulational instability. Hence, the flow development is a form of negative viscosity phenomenon. Unlike conventional mechanisms where the residual stress produces an intrinsic torque, in this dynamical symmetry breaking scheme, the residual stress induces a negative increment to the ambient turbulent viscosity. The axial flow shear is then amplified by this negative viscosity increment. The resulting mean axial flow profile is calculated and discussed by analogy with the problem of turbulent pipe flow. For tokamaks, the negative viscosity is not needed to generate intrinsic rotation. However, toroidal rotation profile gradient is enhanced by the negative increment in turbulent viscosity.

  5. Ion flow in a strongly sheared electric field

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Y.; Conn, R.W.; Schmitz, L.; Tynan, G. )

    1993-02-01

    Ion orbits and equilibrium ion flow in crossed electric and magnetic fields are examined for the case of a strongly nonuniform electric field such as found in edge plasmas of tokamak fusion experiments and in space plasmas. It is shown that the [bold E][times][bold B] drift approximation no longer applies, either to the motion of a single ion or to the collective response of the ion species when the absolute value of the shear parameter, [vert bar][zeta][vert bar], defined as the absolute value of the ratio of the gradient of [bold E][times][bold B] speed to ion gyrofrequency, is order one. It is also found that the ion velocity is strongly dependent on the electric field geometry. The results suggest that the existence of a strongly sheared electric field does not necessarily indicate the existence of strongly sheared plasma flow, and that the spatial shape of the electric field, when [vert bar][zeta][vert bar] is order one, may be a dominant factor in determining the resulting plasma flow speed.

  6. Preservation of Blueschist Facies Minerals Along a Shear Zone By Fast Flowing CO2-Bearing Fluids - a Field Study from the Cycladic Blueschist Unit on Syros, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleine, B. I.; Skelton, A.; Huet, B.; Pitcairn, I.

    2014-12-01

    Our study was undertaken at Fabrika Beach on the southeastern shore of Syros which belongs to the Greek Cycladic archipelago in the Aegean Sea. The island is situated within the Attic-Cycladic metamorphic core complex belt and is now located in the back-arc of the active Hellenic subduction zone. At Fabrika Beach, blueschist facies minerals are observed in haloes fringing a shear zone within greenschist facies rocks. The approximately vertical shear zone cuts a near horizontal layer of greenschist facies rocks. The blue haloes are ca. 1 m wide, and are seen on both sides of the shear zone. The haloes consist of a carbonated blueschist facies mineral assemblage. Based on petrological, geochemical and thermodynamic evidence we show that these haloes were preserved at greenschist facies conditions in response to fast flowing CO2-bearing fluid. Furthermore, we use a simple mass balance to calculate the fluid flux within the shear zone which would be required to cause the observed preservation of blueschist facies minerals. We constructed a simplified P-T vs. XCO2 pseudosection using PerPlex 6.6.6 to confirm that preservation of carbonated blueschist can occur at greenschist facies conditions in the presence of CO2-bearing fluid. The flux of CO2-bearing fluid along the shear zone was rapid with respect to the fluid flux in the surrounding rocks. Mass balance calculations reveal that the fluid flux within the shear zone was at least 100 - 2000 times larger than the fluid flux within the surrounding rocks. Mineral textures show greenschist facies minerals partially replacing blueschist minerals in the haloes supporting our interpretation that blueschist facies minerals were preserved during greenschist facies retrogression.

  7. Field GPR Monitoring of Flow Channeling in Fractured Rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoflias, G. P.; Baker, M.; Becker, M. W.

    2012-12-01

    Fractures control the flow of fluids in rocks with important implications for groundwater resources, contaminant transport, geothermal resources, sequestration of carbon dioxide, and the development of unconventional hydrocarbon resources. However, fractured rocks exhibit heterogeneous hydraulic properties that are difficult to characterize using conventional hydraulic testing methods. Flow channeling caused by fracture aperture variability is known to result in preferential pathways of rapid contaminant transport in aquifers and poor sweep efficiency in geothermal reservoirs. Time-lapse ground-penetrating radar (GPR) experiments were conducted at the Altona Flat Rock fractured sandstone field site using surface reflection to monitor saline tracer flow through a water-saturated subhorizontal bedrock fracture at a depth of 7.6 m below surface. Three-dimensional (3-D) GPR grids were acquired, each covering approximately a 100 m2 area at a 0.25 m x 0.5 m trace spacing. Radar data were acquired at 50 MHz and 100 MHz frequencies using broadside and cross-polarized dipole antenna pairs oriented parallel and orthogonal to the survey grid lines. Dipole flow hydraulic tests established by re-circulation of saline traced formation water between injection and pumping boreholes were used to set-up controlled flow of variable salinity tracers and variable direction hydraulic gradients. Natural gradient saline tracer tests were also monitored using GPR. Comparison of GPR reflection amplitudes between background clean water (9.3 mS/m) and traced water of 200 mS/m, 400 mS/m and 700 mS/m fluid electrical conductivity under East-West oriented dipole flow showed overall reflection strength increase with increasing fluid electrical conductivity. Amplitude differencing between each of the saline tracer tests and background reveals 1 m to 1.5 m wide flow channels trending across the survey area and the flow dipole field. North-South oriented dipole tests result in channeled flow

  8. Laboratory and field trials of Coriolis mass flow metering for three-phase flow measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Feibiao; Henry, Manus; Tombs, Michael

    2014-04-01

    A new three-phase flow metering technology is discussed in this paper, which combines Coriolis mass flow and water cut readings and without applying any phase separation [1]. The system has undergone formal laboratory trials at TUV NEL (National Engineering Laboratory), UK and at VNIIR (National Flow Laboratory), Kazan, Russia; a number of field trials have taken place in Russia. Laboratory trial results from the TUV NEL will be described in detail. For the 50mm (2") metering system, the total liquid flow rate ranged from 2.4 kg/s up to 11 kg/s, the water cut ranged from 0% to 100%, and the gas volume fraction (GVF) from 0 to 50%. In a formally observed trial, 75 test points were taken at a temperature of approximately 40 °C and with a skid inlet pressure of approximately 350 kPa. Over 95% of the test results fell within the desired specification, defined as follows: the total (oil + water) liquid mass flow error should fall within ± 2.5%, and the gas mass flow error within ± 5.0%. The oil mass flow error limit is ± 6.0% for water cuts less than 70%, while for water cuts between 70% and 95% the oil mass flow error limit is ± 15.0%. These results demonstrate the potential for using Coriolis mass flow metering combined with water cut metering for three-phase (oil/water/gas) measurement.

  9. Velocity-Field Measurements of an Axisymmetric Separated Flow Subjected to Amplitude-Modulated Excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trosin, Barry James

    2007-01-01

    Active flow control was applied at the point of separation of an axisymmetric, backward-facing-step flow. The control was implemented by employing a Helmholtz resonator that was externally driven by an amplitude-modulated, acoustic disturbance from a speaker located upstream of the wind tunnel. The velocity field of the separating/reattaching flow region downstream of the step was characterized using hotwire velocity measurements with and without flow control. Conventional statistics of the data reveal that the separating/reattaching flow is affected by the imposed forcing. Triple decomposition along with conditional averaging was used to distinguish periodic disturbances from random turbulence in the fluctuating velocity component. A significant outcome of the present study is that it demonstrates that amplitude-modulated forcing of the separated flow alters the flow in the same manner as the more conventional method of periodic excitation.

  10. Path planning in uncertain flow fields using ensemble method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tong; Le Maître, Olivier P.; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Knio, Omar M.

    2016-08-01

    An ensemble-based approach is developed to conduct optimal path planning in unsteady ocean currents under uncertainty. We focus our attention on two-dimensional steady and unsteady uncertain flows, and adopt a sampling methodology that is well suited to operational forecasts, where an ensemble of deterministic predictions is used to model and quantify uncertainty. In an operational setting, much about dynamics, topography, and forcing of the ocean environment is uncertain. To address this uncertainty, the flow field is parametrized using a finite number of independent canonical random variables with known densities, and the ensemble is generated by sampling these variables. For each of the resulting realizations of the uncertain current field, we predict the path that minimizes the travel time by solving a boundary value problem (BVP), based on the Pontryagin maximum principle. A family of backward-in-time trajectories starting at the end position is used to generate suitable initial values for the BVP solver. This allows us to examine and analyze the performance of the sampling strategy and to develop insight into extensions dealing with general circulation ocean models. In particular, the ensemble method enables us to perform a statistical analysis of travel times and consequently develop a path planning approach that accounts for these statistics. The proposed methodology is tested for a number of scenarios. We first validate our algorithms by reproducing simple canonical solutions, and then demonstrate our approach in more complex flow fields, including idealized, steady and unsteady double-gyre flows.

  11. Path planning in uncertain flow fields using ensemble method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tong; Le Maître, Olivier P.; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Knio, Omar M.

    2016-10-01

    An ensemble-based approach is developed to conduct optimal path planning in unsteady ocean currents under uncertainty. We focus our attention on two-dimensional steady and unsteady uncertain flows, and adopt a sampling methodology that is well suited to operational forecasts, where an ensemble of deterministic predictions is used to model and quantify uncertainty. In an operational setting, much about dynamics, topography, and forcing of the ocean environment is uncertain. To address this uncertainty, the flow field is parametrized using a finite number of independent canonical random variables with known densities, and the ensemble is generated by sampling these variables. For each of the resulting realizations of the uncertain current field, we predict the path that minimizes the travel time by solving a boundary value problem (BVP), based on the Pontryagin maximum principle. A family of backward-in-time trajectories starting at the end position is used to generate suitable initial values for the BVP solver. This allows us to examine and analyze the performance of the sampling strategy and to develop insight into extensions dealing with general circulation ocean models. In particular, the ensemble method enables us to perform a statistical analysis of travel times and consequently develop a path planning approach that accounts for these statistics. The proposed methodology is tested for a number of scenarios. We first validate our algorithms by reproducing simple canonical solutions, and then demonstrate our approach in more complex flow fields, including idealized, steady and unsteady double-gyre flows.

  12. Comparison of Orbiter PRCS Plume Flow Fields Using CFD and Modified Source Flow Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochelle, Wm. C.; Kinsey, Robin E.; Reid, Ethan A.; Stuart, Phillip C.; Lumpkin, Forrest E.

    1997-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter will use Reaction Control System (RCS) jets for docking with the planned International Space Station (ISS). During approach and backout maneuvers, plumes from these jets could cause high pressure, heating, and thermal loads on ISS components. The object of this paper is to present comparisons of RCS plume flow fields used to calculate these ISS environments. Because of the complexities of 3-D plumes with variable scarf-angle and multi-jet combinations, NASA/JSC developed a plume flow-field methodology for all of these Orbiter jets. The RCS Plume Model (RPM), which includes effects of scarfed nozzles and dual jets, was developed as a modified source-flow engineering tool to rapidly generate plume properties and impingement environments on ISS components. This paper presents flow-field properties from four PRCS jets: F3U low scarf-angle single jet, F3F high scarf-angle single jet, DTU zero scarf-angle dual jet, and F1F/F2F high scarf-angle dual jet. The RPM results compared well with plume flow fields using four CFD programs: General Aerodynamic Simulation Program (GASP), Cartesian (CART), Unified Solution Algorithm (USA), and Reacting and Multi-phase Program (RAMP). Good comparisons of predicted pressures are shown with STS 64 Shuttle Plume Impingement Flight Experiment (SPIFEX) data.

  13. [Effects of carrier liquid and flow rate on the separation in gravitational field-flow fractionation].

    PubMed

    Guo, Shuang; Zhu, Chenqi; Gao-Yang, Yaya; Qiu, Bailing; Wu, Di; Liang, Qihui; He, Jiayuan; Han, Nanyin

    2016-02-01

    Gravitational field-flow fractionation is the simplest field-flow fractionation technique in terms of principle and operation. The earth' s gravity is its external field. Different sized particles are injected into a thin channel and carried by carrier fluid. The different velocities of the carrier liquid in different places results in a size-based separation. A gravitational field-flow fractionation (GrFFF) instrument was designed and constructed. Two kinds of polystyrene (PS) particles with different sizes (20 µm and 6 µm) were chosen as model particles. In this work, the separation of the sample was achieved by changing the concentration of NaN3, the percentage of mixed surfactant in the carrier liquid and the flow rate of carrier liquid. Six levels were set for each factor. The effects of these three factors on the retention ratio (R) and plate height (H) of the PS particles were investigated. It was found that R increased and H decreased with increasing particle size. On the other hand, the R and H increased with increasing flow rate. The R and H also increased with increasing NaN3 concentration. The reason was that the electrostatic repulsive force between the particles and the glass channel wall increased. The force allowed the samples approach closer to the channel wall. The results showed that the resolution and retention time can be improved by adjusting the experimental conditions. These results can provide important values to the further applications of GrFFF technique. PMID:27382718

  14. Performance enhancement of iron-chromium redox flow batteries by employing interdigitated flow fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Y. K.; Zhou, X. L.; Zeng, L.; Yan, X. H.; Zhao, T. S.

    2016-09-01

    The catalyst for the negative electrode of iron-chromium redox flow batteries (ICRFBs) is commonly prepared by adding a small amount of Bi3+ ions in the electrolyte and synchronously electrodepositing metallic particles onto the electrode surface at the beginning of charge process. Achieving a uniform catalyst distribution in the porous electrode, which is closely related to the flow field design, is critically important to improve the ICRFB performance. In this work, the effects of flow field designs on catalyst electrodeposition and battery performance are investigated. It is found that compared to the serpentine flow field (SFF) design, the interdigitated flow field (IFF) forces the electrolyte through the porous electrode between the neighboring channels and enhances species transport during the processes of both the catalyst electrodeposition and iron/chromium redox reactions, thus enabling a more uniform catalyst distribution and higher mass transport limitation. It is further demonstrated that the energy efficiency of the ICRFB with the IFF reaches 80.7% at a high current density (320 mA cm-2), which is 8.2% higher than that of the ICRFB with the SFF. With such a high performance and intrinsically low-cost active materials, the ICRFB with the IFF offers a great promise for large-scale energy storage.

  15. Effects of Anode Flow Field Design on CO(2) Bubble Behavior in μDMFC.

    PubMed

    Li, Miaomiao; Liang, Junsheng; Liu, Chong; Sun, Gongquan; Zhao, Gang

    2009-01-01

    Clogging of anode flow channels by CO(2) bubbles is a vital problem for further performance improvements of the micro direct methanol fuel cell (μDMFC). In this paper, a new type anode structure using the concept of the non-equipotent serpentine flow field (NESFF) to solve this problem was designed, fabricated and tested. Experiments comparing the μDMFC with and without this type of anode flow field were implemented using a home-made test loop. Results show that the mean-value, amplitude and frequency of the inlet-to-outlet pressure drops in the NESFF is far lower than that in the traditional flow fields at high μDMFC output current. Furthermore, the sequential images of the CO(2) bubbles as well as the μDMFC performance with different anode flow field pattern were also investigated, and the conclusions are in accordance with those derived from the pressure drop experiments. Results of this study indicate that the non-equipotent design of the μDMFC anode flow field can effectively mitigate the CO(2) clogging in the flow channels, and hence lead to a significant promotion of the μDMFC performance.

  16. Effects of Anode Flow Field Design on CO2 Bubble Behavior in μDMFC

    PubMed Central

    Li, Miaomiao; Liang, Junsheng; Liu, Chong; Sun, Gongquan; Zhao, Gang

    2009-01-01

    Clogging of anode flow channels by CO2 bubbles is a vital problem for further performance improvements of the micro direct methanol fuel cell (μDMFC). In this paper, a new type anode structure using the concept of the non-equipotent serpentine flow field (NESFF) to solve this problem was designed, fabricated and tested. Experiments comparing the μDMFC with and without this type of anode flow field were implemented using a home-made test loop. Results show that the mean-value, amplitude and frequency of the inlet-to-outlet pressure drops in the NESFF is far lower than that in the traditional flow fields at high μDMFC output current. Furthermore, the sequential images of the CO2 bubbles as well as the μDMFC performance with different anode flow field pattern were also investigated, and the conclusions are in accordance with those derived from the pressure drop experiments. Results of this study indicate that the non-equipotent design of the μDMFC anode flow field can effectively mitigate the CO2 clogging in the flow channels, and hence lead to a significant promotion of the μDMFC performance. PMID:22412313

  17. Computational analysis of flow field around Ahmed car model passing underneath a flyover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musa, Md Nor; Osman, Kahar; Hamat, Ab Malik A.

    2012-06-01

    A flow structure around a ground vehicle has been studied by many researchers using numerous methods, either computational or experimental. However, no analysis of flow field generated by a car passing under a flyover has been carried out. One of the famous simplified models of a car is the Ahmed body that has been established to investigate the influence of the flow structure on the drag. In this paper, we investigate a flow field around Ahmed body of a single cruising condition as the vehicle passes under a flyover, using a computational method with RANS equation. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the turbulence kinetic energy and velocity magnitude developed within the wall boundary created by the flyover, to the air flow field that is generated by the Ahmed reference car. It was observed that the simulated airflow passes the vehicle was bounded by the wall of the flyover and consequently changes the pattern of the flow field. Understanding the characteristic of this flow field under a flyover is essential if one wants to maximize the recovery of the dissipated energy which, for example, can be used to power a small vertical-axis wind turbine to produce and store electrical energy for lighting under the flyover.

  18. Numerical simulation of three-dimensional boattail afterbody flow fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deiwert, G. S.

    1980-01-01

    The thin shear layer approximations of the three-dimensional, compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved for subsonic, transonic, and supersonic flow over axisymmetric boattail bodies at moderate angles of attack. The plume is modeled by a solid body configuration identical to those used in experimental tests. An implicit algorithm of second-order accuracy is used to solve the equations on the ILLIAC IV computer. The turbulence is expressed by an algebraic model applicable to three-dimensional flow fields with moderate separation. The computed results compare favorably with three different sets of experimental data reported by Reubush, Shrewsbury, and Benek, respectively

  19. Local Flow Field and Slip Length of Superhydrophobic Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Schäffel, David; Koynov, Kaloian; Vollmer, Doris; Butt, Hans-Jürgen; Schönecker, Clarissa

    2016-04-01

    While the global slippage of water past superhydrophobic surfaces has attracted wide interest, the local distribution of slip still remains unclear. Using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, we performed detailed measurements of the local flow field and slip length for water in the Cassie state on a microstructured superhydrophobic surface. We revealed that the local slip length is finite, nonconstant, anisotropic, and sensitive to the presence of surfactants. In combination with numerical calculations of the flow, we can explain all these properties by the local hydrodynamics. PMID:27081981

  20. Numerical simulation of the flow field around a complete aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shang, J. S.; Scherr, S. J.

    1986-01-01

    The present effort represents a first attempt of numerical simulation of the flow field around a complete aircraft-like, lifting configuration utilizing the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The numerical solution generated for the experimental aircraft concept X24C-10D at a Mach number of 5.95 not only exhibited accurate prediction of detailed flow properties but also of the integrated aerodynamic coefficients. In addition, the present analysis demonstrated that a page structure of data collected into cyclic blocks is an efficient and viable means for processing the Navier-Stokes equations on the CRAY XMP-22 computer with external memory device.

  1. Development of an algebraic stress/two-layer model for calculating thrust chamber flow fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C. P.; Shang, H. M.; Huang, J.

    1993-07-01

    Following the consensus of a workshop in Turbulence Modeling for Liquid Rocket Thrust Chambers, the current effort was undertaken to study the effects of second-order closure on the predictions of thermochemical flow fields. To reduce the instability and computational intensity of the full second-order Reynolds Stress Model, an Algebraic Stress Model (ASM) coupled with a two-layer near wall treatment was developed. Various test problems, including the compressible boundary layer with adiabatic and cooled walls, recirculating flows, swirling flows and the entire SSME nozzle flow were studied to assess the performance of the current model. Detailed calculations for the SSME exit wall flow around the nozzle manifold were executed. As to the overall flow predictions, the ASM removes another assumption for appropriate comparison with experimental data, to account for the non-isotropic turbulence effects.

  2. Development of an algebraic stress/two-layer model for calculating thrust chamber flow fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. P.; Shang, H. M.; Huang, J.

    1993-01-01

    Following the consensus of a workshop in Turbulence Modeling for Liquid Rocket Thrust Chambers, the current effort was undertaken to study the effects of second-order closure on the predictions of thermochemical flow fields. To reduce the instability and computational intensity of the full second-order Reynolds Stress Model, an Algebraic Stress Model (ASM) coupled with a two-layer near wall treatment was developed. Various test problems, including the compressible boundary layer with adiabatic and cooled walls, recirculating flows, swirling flows and the entire SSME nozzle flow were studied to assess the performance of the current model. Detailed calculations for the SSME exit wall flow around the nozzle manifold were executed. As to the overall flow predictions, the ASM removes another assumption for appropriate comparison with experimental data, to account for the non-isotropic turbulence effects.

  3. [Analysis of Influence on Single Eythrocyte Injury Caused by Oscillating Boundary Flow Field].

    PubMed

    Yun, Zhong; Xiang, Chuang; Cai, Chao; Xu, Junrui

    2016-02-01

    The implantable axial blood pump, driven by external electromagnet, is studied recently. It oscillats when it is running because of the elastic implanted environment and driving force disequilibrium, etc. In this paper, a model of single erythrocyte in vibrated flow field was built to simulate the deformation and force of the erythrocyte. By using the mechanical injury principle of blood in blood pump, we studied the injury of a single erythrocyte resulted from oscillating boundary flow field. The research results indicated that the shape of the erythrocyte, force and velocity field nearby, which are affected by oscillating boundary flow field, all cause injury to the erythrocyte. All the researches shown in the present paper are expected to provide theoretical foundation for lightening hemolysis by the blood pump. PMID:27382744

  4. Geometric quantification of features in large flow fields.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Wesley; Huang, Jian; Peterka, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Interactive exploration of flow features in large-scale 3D unsteady-flow data is one of the most challenging visualization problems today. To comprehensively explore the complex feature spaces in these datasets, a proposed system employs a scalable framework for investigating a multitude of characteristics from traced field lines. This capability supports the examination of various neighborhood-based geometric attributes in concert with other scalar quantities. Such an analysis wasn't previously possible because of the large computational overhead and I/O requirements. The system integrates visual analytics methods by letting users procedurally and interactively describe and extract high-level flow features. An exploration of various phenomena in a large global ocean-modeling simulation demonstrates the approach's generality and expressiveness as well as its efficacy.

  5. Numerical computation of space shuttle orbiter flow field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tannehill, John C.

    1988-01-01

    A new parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) code has been developed to compute the hypersonic, viscous chemically reacting flow fields around 3-D bodies. The flow medium is assumed to be a multicomponent mixture of thermally perfect but calorically imperfect gases. The new PNS code solves the gas dynamic and species conservation equations in a coupled manner using a noniterative, implicit, approximately factored, finite difference algorithm. The space-marching method is made well-posed by special treatment of the streamwise pressure gradient term. The code has been used to compute hypersonic laminar flow of chemically reacting air over cones at angle of attack. The results of the computations are compared with the results of reacting boundary-layer computations and show excellent agreement.

  6. Elevator mode convection in flows with strong magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Li; Zikanov, Oleg

    2015-04-15

    Instability modes in the form of axially uniform vertical jets, also called “elevator modes,” are known to be the solutions of thermal convection problems for vertically unbounded systems. Typically, their relevance to the actual flow state is limited by three-dimensional breakdown caused by rapid growth of secondary instabilities. We consider a flow of a liquid metal in a vertical duct with a heated wall and strong transverse magnetic field and find elevator modes that are stable and, thus, not just relevant, but a dominant feature of the flow. We then explore the hypothesis suggested by recent experimental data that an analogous instability to modes of slow axial variation develops in finite-length ducts, where it causes large-amplitude fluctuations of temperature. The implications for liquid metal blankets for tokamak fusion reactors that potentially invalidate some of the currently pursued design concepts are discussed.

  7. Elevator mode convection in flows with strong magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Li; Zikanov, Oleg

    2015-04-01

    Instability modes in the form of axially uniform vertical jets, also called "elevator modes," are known to be the solutions of thermal convection problems for vertically unbounded systems. Typically, their relevance to the actual flow state is limited by three-dimensional breakdown caused by rapid growth of secondary instabilities. We consider a flow of a liquid metal in a vertical duct with a heated wall and strong transverse magnetic field and find elevator modes that are stable and, thus, not just relevant, but a dominant feature of the flow. We then explore the hypothesis suggested by recent experimental data that an analogous instability to modes of slow axial variation develops in finite-length ducts, where it causes large-amplitude fluctuations of temperature. The implications for liquid metal blankets for tokamak fusion reactors that potentially invalidate some of the currently pursued design concepts are discussed.

  8. Field Observations of Canopy Flows over Complex Terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Eleanor R.; Ross, Andrew N.; Gardiner, Barry A.; Mobbs, Stephen D.

    2015-08-01

    The investigation of airflow over and within forests in complex terrain has been, until recently, limited to a handful of modelling and laboratory studies. Here, we present an observational dataset of airflow measurements inside and above a forest situated on a ridge on the Isle of Arran, Scotland. The spatial coverage of the observations all the way across the ridge makes this a unique dataset. Two case studies of across-ridge flow under near-neutral conditions are presented and compared with recent idealized two-dimensional modelling studies. Changes in the canopy profiles of both mean wind and turbulent quantities across the ridge are broadly consistent with these idealized studies. Flow separation over the lee slope is seen as a ubiquitous feature of the flow. The three-dimensional nature of the terrain and the heterogeneous forest canopy does however lead to significant variations in the flow separation across the ridge, particularly over the less steep western slope. Furthermore, strong directional shear with height in regions of flow separation has a significant impact on the Reynolds stress terms and other turbulent statistics. Also observed is a decrease in the variability of the wind speed over the summit and lee slope, which has not been seen in previous studies. This dataset should provide a valuable resource for validating models of canopy flow over real, complex terrain.

  9. Feasibility study of laminar flow bodies in fully turbulent flow

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkar, T.; Sayer, P.G.; Fraser, S.M.

    1994-12-31

    One of the most important design requirements of long range autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) is to minimize propulsive power. An important and relatively easy way of achieving this is by careful selection of hull shape. Two main schools of thought in this respect are: if laminar flow can be maintained for a long length of the body, the effective drag can be reduced; it is not possible to maintain laminar flow for a significant length of the body and hull design should be based on turbulent flow conditions. In this paper, a feasibility study of laminar flow designs is undertaken under the assumption that flow will be turbulent over the entire length. For comparison two laminar flow designs X-35 and F-57 are selected and results are compared with those of two typical torpedo shaped bodies, namely AFTERBODY1 and AFTERBODY2 of DTNSRDC. It has been shown that laminar flow bodies have 10--15% higher drag when flow is turbulent over the entire length. Hence there is some hydrodynamic risk involved in adopting such laminar bodies without further consideration.

  10. A high-performance flow-field structured iron-chromium redox flow battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Y. K.; Zhou, X. L.; An, L.; Wei, L.; Zhao, T. S.

    2016-08-01

    Unlike conventional iron-chromium redox flow batteries (ICRFBs) with a flow-through cell structure, in this work a high-performance ICRFB featuring a flow-field cell structure is developed. It is found that the present flow-field structured ICRFB reaches an energy efficiency of 76.3% with a current density of 120 mA cm-2 at 25 °C. The energy efficiency can be as high as 79.6% with an elevated current density of 200 mA cm-2 at 65 °C, a record performance of the ICRFB in the existing literature. In addition, it is demonstrated that the energy efficiency of the battery is stable during the cycle test, and that the capacity decay rate of the battery is 0.6% per cycle. More excitingly, the high performance of the flow-field structured battery significantly lowers the capital cost at 137.6 kWh-1, which is 28.2% lower than that of the conventional ICRFB for 8-h energy storage.

  11. A high-performance flow-field structured iron-chromium redox flow battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Y. K.; Zhou, X. L.; An, L.; Wei, L.; Zhao, T. S.

    2016-08-01

    Unlike conventional iron-chromium redox flow batteries (ICRFBs) with a flow-through cell structure, in this work a high-performance ICRFB featuring a flow-field cell structure is developed. It is found that the present flow-field structured ICRFB reaches an energy efficiency of 76.3% with a current density of 120 mA cm-2 at 25 °C. The energy efficiency can be as high as 79.6% with an elevated current density of 200 mA cm-2 at 65 °C, a record performance of the ICRFB in the existing literature. In addition, it is demonstrated that the energy efficiency of the battery is stable during the cycle test, and that the capacity decay rate of the battery is 0.6% per cycle. More excitingly, the high performance of the flow-field structured battery significantly lowers the capital cost at 137.6 kWh-1, which is 28.2% lower than that of the conventional ICRFB for 8-h energy storage.

  12. Potential field cellular automata model for pedestrian flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Jian, Xiao-Xia; Wong, S. C.; Choi, Keechoo

    2012-02-01

    This paper proposes a cellular automata model of pedestrian flow that defines a cost potential field, which takes into account the costs of travel time and discomfort, for a pedestrian to move to an empty neighboring cell. The formulation is based on a reconstruction of the density distribution and the underlying physics, including the rule for resolving conflicts, which is comparable to that in the floor field cellular automaton model. However, we assume that each pedestrian is familiar with the surroundings, thereby minimizing his or her instantaneous cost. This, in turn, helps reduce the randomness in selecting a target cell, which improves the existing cellular automata modelings, together with the computational efficiency. In the presence of two pedestrian groups, which are distinguished by their destinations, the cost distribution for each group is magnified due to the strong interaction between the two groups. As a typical phenomenon, the formation of lanes in the counter flow is reproduced.

  13. Fuel cell with interdigitated porous flow-field

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Mahlon S.

    1997-01-01

    A polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell is formed with an improved system for distributing gaseous reactants to the membrane surface. A PEM fuel cell has an ionic transport membrane with opposed catalytic surfaces formed thereon and separates gaseous reactants that undergo reactions at the catalytic surfaces of the membrane. The fuel cell may also include a thin gas diffusion layer having first and second sides with a first side contacting at least one of the catalytic surfaces. A macroporous flow-field with interdigitated inlet and outlet reactant channels contacts the second side of the thin gas diffusion layer for distributing one of the gaseous reactants over the thin gas diffusion layer for transport to an adjacent one of the catalytic surfaces of the membrane. The porous flow field may be formed from a hydrophilic material and provides uniform support across the backside of the electrode assembly to facilitate the use of thin backing layers.

  14. The laser measurement technology of combustion flow field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mingdong; Wang, Guangyu; Qu, Dongsheng

    2014-07-01

    The parameters of combustion flow field such as temperature, velocity, pressure and mole-fraction are of significant value in engineering application. The laser spectroscopy technology which has the non-contact and non- interference properties has become the most important method and it has more advantages than conventionally contacting measurement. Planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF/LIF) is provided with high sensibility and resolution. Filtered Rayleigh scattering (FRS) is a good measurement method for complex flow field .Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) is prosperity on development and application. This article introduced the theoretical foundation, technical principle, system structure, merits and shortages. It is helpful for researchers to know about the latest development tendency and do the related research.

  15. Unsteady Simulation of a Landing-Gear Flow Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Fei; Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Malik, Mujeeb R.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents results of an unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulation of a landing-gear flow field. The geometry of the four-wheel landing gear assembly consists of several of the fine details including the oleo-strut, two diagonal struts, a door, yokes/pin and a flat-plate simulating the wing surface. The computational results, obtained by using 13.3 million grid points, are presented with an emphasis on the characteristics of the unsteadiness ensuing from different parts of the landing-gear assembly, including vortex shedding patterns and frequencies of dominant oscillations. The results show that the presence of the diagonal struts and the door significantly influence the flow field. Owing to the induced asymmetry, vortices are shed only from one of the rear wheels and not the other. Present computations also capture streamwise vortices originating from the upstream corners of the door.

  16. Fuel cell with interdigitated porous flow-field

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, M.S.

    1997-06-24

    A polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell is formed with an improved system for distributing gaseous reactants to the membrane surface. A PEM fuel cell has an ionic transport membrane with opposed catalytic surfaces formed thereon and separates gaseous reactants that undergo reactions at the catalytic surfaces of the membrane. The fuel cell may also include a thin gas diffusion layer having first and second sides with a first side contacting at least one of the catalytic surfaces. A macroporous flow-field with interdigitated inlet and outlet reactant channels contacts the second side of the thin gas diffusion layer for distributing one of the gaseous reactants over the thin gas diffusion layer for transport to an adjacent one of the catalytic surfaces of the membrane. The porous flow field may be formed from a hydrophilic material and provides uniform support across the backside of the electrode assembly to facilitate the use of thin backing layers. 9 figs.

  17. Inverse Simulation of Field Infiltration Experiment Counting Preferential Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zumr, David; Snehota, Michal; Nemcova, Renata; Dohnal, Michal; Cislerova, Milena

    2010-05-01

    The field tension and ponded infiltration experiments were conducted to monitor and describe irregularities of moisture propagation and to estimate the soil hydraulic properties (Distric Cambisol, Korkusova Hut, Sumava). On these soils the preferential pathways have been observed in several scales with the use of dye tracers, MRI and CT imaging. Preferential behavior was detected also during laboratory infiltration experiments. The flow irregularities are credited to variable air entrapment at the beginning of infiltrations. The field infiltration experiment was carried out in a shallow pit for a period of one day. The upper boundary condition was controlled by the tension disk infiltrometer, the propagation of a water front was monitored by two tensiometers installed in two depths below the infiltration disk. The propagation of saline solution front during ponded infiltration was visualized with high resolution electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). Infiltration experiments were monitored with TDR probes, tensiometers and ERT. Zones of preferential flow were determined through analyses of photographs taken during laboratory dye tracer infiltration experiments performed on undisturbed soil samples. Connectivity, volumetric ratio and spatial development of preferential pathways were evaluated as the necessary information for numerical simulations of flow using dual-permeability approach. 2D axisymetric numerical simulations were conducted to evaluate the results of the experiment. The parameter estimator PEST coupled with the simulation code S2D_DUAL (Vogel et al., 2000) were employed. Two different approaches were used: 1. Single-domain approach based on Richards' equation. 2. Dual-permeability approach based on two interacting water flow domains (matrix and preferential domains), each governed by one Richards' equation. Concerning the existence of preferential flow on investigated soil, the dual-permeability model gives a better picture of the flow regime. The

  18. PIV measurements of coolant flow field in a diesel engine cylinder head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Hongwei; Zhang, Zhenyang; Xue, Cheng; Huang, Yunlong

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents experimental measurements of coolant flow field in the water jacket of a diesel engine cylinder head. The test was conducted at three different flow rates using a 2-D PIV system. Appropriate tracing particles were selected and delivery device was designed and manufactured before the test. The flow parameters, such as velocity, vorticity and turbulence, were used to analyze the flow field. The effects of vortex which was located between the intake valve and the exhaust valve were discussed. The experimental results showed an asymmetric distribution of velocity in the water jacket. This led to an asymmetric thermal distribution, which would shorten the service life of the cylinder head. The structure optimization to the water jacket of cylinder head was proposed in this paper. The experimental system, especially the 2-D PIV system, is a great help to study the coolant flow structure and analyze cooling mechanism in the diesel engine cylinder head.

  19. Multiphase pumps and flow meters -- Status of field testing

    SciTech Connect

    Skiftesvik, P.K.; Svaeren, J.A.

    1995-12-31

    With the development and qualification of multiphase pumps and multiphase flow meters, two new tools have been made available to the oil and gas industry for enhanced production from existing installations or new field developments. This paper presents an overview of the major achievements gained from various test installations carried out the last years using equipment qualified by Framo Engineering AS. The experience from the extensive Field Verification Programmes as described shows that multiphase pumps and meters can operate in various and often harsh well environments providing significant well stream pressure boost or acceptable phase accuracy measurements of oil, water and gas.

  20. Velocity and temperature field in MHD Falkner-Skan flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soundalgekar, V. M.; Takhar, H. S.; Singh, M.

    1981-09-01

    The paper develops an exact analysis of MHD Falkner-Skan flow of an electrically conducting, incompressible viscous fluid. The existence of similarity solutions is demonstrated when the applied magnetic field is inversely proportional to the boundary layer thickness. Numerical solutions for velocity, temperature, skin-friction and rate of heat transfer are obtained. The numerical values of skin-friction and rate of heat transfer are tabulated and the velocity and temperature are graphically exhibited.

  1. Detailed transonic flow field measurements about a supercritical airfoil section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurley, F. X.; Spaid, F. W.; Roos, F. W.; Stivers, L. S., Jr.; Bandettini, A.

    1975-01-01

    The transonic flow field about a Whitcomb-type supercritical airfoil profile was measured in detail. In addition to the usual surface pressure distributions and wake surveys, schlieren photographs were taken and velocity vector profiles were determined in the upper surface boundary layer and in the near wake. Spanwise variations in the measured pressures were also determined. The data are analyzed with the aid of an inviscid transonic finite-difference computer program as well as with boundary layer modeling and calculation schemes.

  2. Theoretical analysis of magnetic field interactions with aortic blood flow

    SciTech Connect

    Kinouchi, Y.; Yamaguchi, H.; Tenforde, T.S.

    1996-04-01

    The flow of blood in the presence of a magnetic field gives rise to induced voltages in the major arteries of the central circulatory system. Under certain simplifying conditions, such as the assumption that the length of major arteries (e.g., the aorta) is infinite and that the vessel walls are not electrically conductive, the distribution of induced voltages and currents within these blood vessels can be calculated with reasonable precision. However, the propagation of magnetically induced voltages and currents from the aorta into neighboring tissue structures such as the sinuatrial node of the heart has not been previously determined by any experimental or theoretical technique. In the analysis presented in this paper, a solution of the complete Navier-Stokes equation was obtained by the finite element technique for blood flow through the ascending and descending aortic vessels in the presence of a uniform static magnetic field. Spatial distributions of the magnetically induced voltage and current were obtained for the aortic vessel and surrounding tissues under the assumption that the wall of the aorta is electrically conductive. Results are presented for the calculated values of magnetically induced voltages and current densities in the aorta and surrounding tissue structures, including the sinuatrial node, and for their field-strength dependence. In addition, an analysis is presented of magnetohydrodynamic interactions that lead to a small reduction of blood volume flow at high field levels above approximately 10 tesla (T). Quantitative results are presented on the offsetting effects of oppositely directed blood flows in the ascending and descending aortic segments, and a quantitative estimate is made of the effects of assuming an infinite vs. a finite length of the aortic vessel in calculating the magnetically induced voltage and current density distribution in tissue.

  3. Drag with external and pressure drop with internal flows: a new and unifying look at losses in the flow field based on the second law of thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herwig, Heinz; Schmandt, Bastian

    2013-10-01

    Internal and external flows are characterized by friction factors and drag coefficients, respectively. Their definitions are based on pressure drop and drag force and thus are very different in character. From a thermodynamics point of view in both cases dissipation occurs which can uniformly be related to the entropy generation in the flow field. Therefore we suggest to account for losses in the flow field by friction factors and drag coefficients that are based on the overall entropy generation due to the dissipation in the internal and external flow fields. This second law analysis (SLA) has been applied to internal flows in many studies already. Examples of this flow category are given together with new cases of external flows, also treated by the general SLA-approach.

  4. Flow visualization and flow field measurements of a 1/12 scale tilt rotor aircraft in hover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffen, Charles D.; George, Albert R.; Hardinge, Hal; Stevenson, Ryan

    1991-01-01

    The results are given of flow visualization studies and inflow velocity field measurements performed on a 1/12 scale model of the XV-15 tilt rotor aircraft in the hover mode. The complex recirculating flow due to the rotor-wake-body interactions characteristic of tilt rotors was studied visually using neutrally buoyant soap bubbles and quantitatively using hot wire anemometry. Still and video photography were used to record the flow patterns. Analysis of the photos and video provided information on the physical dimensions of the recirculating fountain flow and on details of the flow including the relative unsteadiness and turbulence characteristics of the flow. Recirculating flows were also observed along the length of the fuselage. Hot wire anemometry results indicate that the wing under the rotor acts to obstruct the inflow causing a deficit in the inflow velocities over the inboard region of the model. Hot wire anemometry also shows that the turbulence intensities in the inflow are much higher in the recirculating fountain reingestion zone.

  5. Flow fields in soap films: Relating viscosity and film thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, V.; Weeks, Eric R.

    2009-08-01

    We follow the diffusive motion of colloidal particles in soap films with varying h/d , where h is the thickness of the film and d is the diameter of the particles. The hydrodynamics of these films are determined by looking at the correlated motion of pairs of particles as a function of separation R . The Trapeznikov approximation [A. A. Trapeznikov, Proceedings of the 2nd International Congress on Surface Activity (Butterworths, London, 1957), p. 242] is used to model soap films as an effective two-dimensional (2D) fluid in contact with bulk air phases. The flow fields determined from correlated particle motions show excellent agreement with what is expected for the theory of 2D fluids for all our films where 0.6≤h/d≤14.3 , with the 2D shear viscosity matching that predicted by Trapeznikov. However, the parameters of these flow fields change markedly for thick films (h/d>7±3) . Our results indicate that three-dimensional effects become important for these thicker films, despite the flow fields still having a 2D character.

  6. Plasma flow and magnetic field characteristics near the midtail neutral sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, R.; Baker, D. N.; Fairfield, D. H.; Mitchell, D. G.; Mcpherron, R. L.; Hones, E. W., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Using IMP 6, 7, and 8 magnetic field and plasma data, we have determined statistical occurrance properties of bulk flow and magnetic field orientation near the midtail neutral sheet. Characteristics of bulk plasma flow and magnetic field significantly change according to the radial distance down the tail. High-speed flow events (v greater than 300 km/s) are essentially restricted to the region tailward of X = -2.5 R(sub E) and are predominatly sunward or tailward. The low-speed flows were nearly equally likely to be in any direction, with the occurace rate of dustward and sunward flow being larger than that of tailward and dawnward flow. Dustward flow occurrence is highest in the region Earthward of X = -2.5 R(sub E), while sunward flow occurrence is highest in the region tailward of X = -2.5 R(sub E). The significance of the dawn-to-dust flow in the near-Earth region obtained in our study supports the idea that there exists a very effective mechanism to accelerate ions in the dawn-to-dust direction and hence the relief of pressure buildup in the near-Earth region. During high-speed flow events the relationship between B(sub Z) polarity and plasma flow direction is largely consistent with that expected from the magnetic reconnenection processes associted with substorms. There are also significant numbers of negative B9sub Z) events that are not associated with tailward flow. Mechanism other than substorm neutral line should therefore also taken into account to explain general B(sub Z) polarity in the midtail region.

  7. Experimental and theoretical study of dispersion in potential flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eames, Ian; Woods, Andy

    1998-11-01

    We examine tracer dispersion in a potential flow, where the velocity field may be writted in terms of the gradient of a scalar function. A range of relevant environmental flows, such as the flow through porous media or thin cracks, may be described to leading order as potential flows. In such flows, tracer dispersion is significantly affected by diverging and converging streamlines which may occur due to variations in permeability, crack thickness or the thickness of a porous layer. We build upon previous studies of dispersion in potential flows in order to examine the effect of geometry of porous inclusions or the spatial variation of crack thickness on plume dispersion. Complementary experimental work is also present using a Hele-Shaw cell, which consists of a uniform viscid flow between two rigid plates. By introducing various shaped obstacles of prescribed thickness between the plates, we are able to study the effect of geometry and permeability on plume dispersion. Here the streamlines correspond to the flow past porous inclusions (and the magnetic field lines past paramagnetic materials), however the velocity field is not similar. These aspects of the flow are included in our analysis.

  8. Light field optical flow for refractive surface reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iffa, Emishaw; Wetzstein, Gordon; Heidrich, Wolfgang

    2012-10-01

    This paper discusses a method to reconstruct a transparent ow surface from single camera shot with the aid of a Micro-lens array. An intentionally prepared high frequency background which is placed behind the refractive flow is captured and a curl-free optical flow algorithm is applied between pairs of images taken by different micro-lenses. The computed raw optical ow vector is a blend of motion parallax and background deformation vector due to the underlying flow. Subtracting the motion parallax, which is obtained by calibration, from the total op- optical flow vector yields the background deformation vector. The deflection vectors on each images are used to reconstruct the flow profile. A synthetic data set of fuel injection was used to evaluate the accuracy of the proposed algorithm and good agreement was achieved between the test and reconstructed data. Finally, real light field data of hot air created by a lighter flame is used to reconstruct and show a hot air plume surface.

  9. Flow field around Vorticella: Mixing with a reciprocal stroke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepper, Rachel E.; Roper, Marcus; Stone, Howard A.

    2008-11-01

    Vorticella is a stalked protozoan. It has an extremely fast biological spring, whose contraction is among the fastest biological motions relative to size. Though the Vorticella body is typically only 30 μm across, the contracting spring accelerates it up to speeds of centimeters per second. Vorticella live in an aqueous environment attached to a solid substrate and use their spring to retract their body towards the substrate. The function of the rapid retraction is not known. Many hypothesize that it stirs the surrounding liquid and exposes the Vorticella to fresh nutrients. We evaluate this hypothesis by modeling the Vorticella as a sphere moving normal to a wall, with a stroke that moves towards the wall at high Reynolds number, and away from the wall at low Reynolds number. We approximate the flow during contraction as potential flow, while the flow during re-extension is considered Stokes flow. The analytical results are compared to the flow field obtained with a finite element (Comsol Multiphysics) simulation of the full Navier-Stokes equations.

  10. Probing and quantifying DNA-protein interactions with asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation.

    PubMed

    Ashby, Jonathan; Schachermeyer, Samantha; Duan, Yaokai; Jimenez, Luis A; Zhong, Wenwan

    2014-09-01

    Tools capable of measuring binding affinities as well as amenable to downstream sequencing analysis are needed for study of DNA-protein interaction, particularly in discovery of new DNA sequences with affinity to diverse targets. Asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) is an open-channel separation technique that eliminates interference from column packing to the non-covalently bound complex and could potentially be applied for study of macromolecular interaction. The recovery and elution behaviors of the poly(dA)n strand and aptamers in AF4 were investigated. Good recovery of ssDNAs was achieved by judicious selection of the channel membrane with consideration of the membrane pore diameter and the radius of gyration (Rg) of the ssDNA, which was obtained with the aid of a Molecular Dynamics tool. The Rg values were also used to assess the folding situation of aptamers based on their migration times in AF4. The interactions between two ssDNA aptamers and their respective protein components were investigated. Using AF4, near-baseline resolution between the free and protein-bound aptamer fractions could be obtained. With this information, dissociation constants of ∼16nM and ∼57nM were obtained for an IgE aptamer and a streptavidin aptamer, respectively. In addition, free and protein-bound IgE aptamer was extracted from the AF4 eluate and amplified, illustrating the potential of AF4 in screening ssDNAs with high affinity to targets. Our results demonstrate that AF4 is an effective tool holding several advantages over the existing techniques and should be useful for study of diverse macromolecular interaction systems.

  11. Determining 3D flow fields via multi-camera light field imaging.

    PubMed

    Truscott, Tadd T; Belden, Jesse; Nielson, Joseph R; Daily, David J; Thomson, Scott L

    2013-03-06

    In the field of fluid mechanics, the resolution of computational schemes has outpaced experimental methods and widened the gap between predicted and observed phenomena in fluid flows. Thus, a need exists for an accessible method capable of resolving three-dimensional (3D) data sets for a range of problems. We present a novel technique for performing quantitative 3D imaging of many types of flow fields. The 3D technique enables investigation of complicated velocity fields and bubbly flows. Measurements of these types present a variety of challenges to the instrument. For instance, optically dense bubbly multiphase flows cannot be readily imaged by traditional, non-invasive flow measurement techniques due to the bubbles occluding optical access to the interior regions of the volume of interest. By using Light Field Imaging we are able to reparameterize images captured by an array of cameras to reconstruct a 3D volumetric map for every time instance, despite partial occlusions in the volume. The technique makes use of an algorithm known as synthetic aperture (SA) refocusing, whereby a 3D focal stack is generated by combining images from several cameras post-capture (1). Light Field Imaging allows for the capture of angular as well as spatial information about the light rays, and hence enables 3D scene reconstruction. Quantitative information can then be extracted from the 3D reconstructions using a variety of processing algorithms. In particular, we have developed measurement methods based on Light Field Imaging for performing 3D particle image velocimetry (PIV), extracting bubbles in a 3D field and tracking the boundary of a flickering flame. We present the fundamentals of the Light Field Imaging methodology in the context of our setup for performing 3DPIV of the airflow passing over a set of synthetic vocal folds, and show representative results from application of the technique to a bubble-entraining plunging jet.

  12. Determining 3D Flow Fields via Multi-camera Light Field Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Truscott, Tadd T.; Belden, Jesse; Nielson, Joseph R.; Daily, David J.; Thomson, Scott L.

    2013-01-01

    In the field of fluid mechanics, the resolution of computational schemes has outpaced experimental methods and widened the gap between predicted and observed phenomena in fluid flows. Thus, a need exists for an accessible method capable of resolving three-dimensional (3D) data sets for a range of problems. We present a novel technique for performing quantitative 3D imaging of many types of flow fields. The 3D technique enables investigation of complicated velocity fields and bubbly flows. Measurements of these types present a variety of challenges to the instrument. For instance, optically dense bubbly multiphase flows cannot be readily imaged by traditional, non-invasive flow measurement techniques due to the bubbles occluding optical access to the interior regions of the volume of interest. By using Light Field Imaging we are able to reparameterize images captured by an array of cameras to reconstruct a 3D volumetric map for every time instance, despite partial occlusions in the volume. The technique makes use of an algorithm known as synthetic aperture (SA) refocusing, whereby a 3D focal stack is generated by combining images from several cameras post-capture 1. Light Field Imaging allows for the capture of angular as well as spatial information about the light rays, and hence enables 3D scene reconstruction. Quantitative information can then be extracted from the 3D reconstructions using a variety of processing algorithms. In particular, we have developed measurement methods based on Light Field Imaging for performing 3D particle image velocimetry (PIV), extracting bubbles in a 3D field and tracking the boundary of a flickering flame. We present the fundamentals of the Light Field Imaging methodology in the context of our setup for performing 3DPIV of the airflow passing over a set of synthetic vocal folds, and show representative results from application of the technique to a bubble-entraining plunging jet. PMID:23486112

  13. Kinetic simulation of rarefied and weakly ionized hypersonic flow fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farbar, Erin D.

    When a vehicle enters the Earth's atmosphere at the very large velocities associated with Lunar and Mars return, a strong bow shock is formed in front of the vehicle. The shock heats the air to very high temperatures, causing collisions that are sufficiently energetic to produce ionized particles. As a result, a weakly ionized plasma is formed in the region between the bow shock and the vehicle surface. The presence of this plasma impedes the transport of radio frequency waves to the vehicle, causing the phenomenon known as "communications black out". The plasma also interacts with the neutral particles in the flow field, and contributes to the heat flux at the vehicle surface. Since it is difficult to characterize these flow fields using flight or ground based experiments, computational tools play an important role in the design of reentry vehicles. It is important to include the physical phenomena associated with the presence of the plasma in the computational analysis of the flow fields about these vehicles. Physical models for the plasma phenomena are investigated using a state of the art, Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) code. Models for collisions between charged particles, plasma chemistry, and the self-induced electric field that currently exist in the literature are implemented. Using these baseline models, steady state flow field solutions are computed for the FIRE II reentry vehicle at two different trajectory points. The accuracy of each baseline plasma model is assessed in a systematic fashion, using one flight condition of the FIRE II vehicle as the test case. Experimental collision cross section data is implemented to model collisions of electrons with neutral particles. Theoretical and experimental reaction cross section data are implemented to model chemical reactions that involve electron impact, and an associative ionization reaction. One-dimensional Particle-In-Cell (PIC) routines are developed and coupled to the DSMC code, to assess the

  14. The morphology and evolution of the Stromboli 2002-2003 lava flow field--An example of a basaltic flow field emplaced on a steep slope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lodato, Luigi; Harris, A.; Spampinato, L.; Calvari, Sonia; Dehn, J.; Patrick, M.

    2007-01-01

    The use of a hand-held thermal camera during the 2002–2003 Stromboli effusive eruption proved essential in tracking the development of flow field structures and in measuring related eruption parameters, such as the number of active vents and flow lengths. The steep underlying slope on which the flow field was emplaced resulted in a characteristic flow field morphology. This comprised a proximal shield, where flow stacking and inflation caused piling up of lava on the relatively flat ground of the vent zone, that fed a medial–distal lava flow field. This zone was characterized by the formation of lava tubes and tumuli forming a complex network of tumuli and flows linked by tubes. Most of the flow field was emplaced on extremely steep slopes and this had two effects. It caused flows to slide, as well as flow, and flow fronts to fail frequently, persistent flow front crumbling resulted in the production of an extensive debris field. Channel-fed flows were also characterized by development of excavated debris levees in this zone (Calvari et al. 2005). Collapse of lava flow fronts and inflation of the upper proximal lava shield made volume calculation very difficult. Comparison of the final field volume with that expecta by integrating the lava effusion rates through time suggests a loss of ~70% erupted lava by flow front crumbling and accumulation as debris flows below sea level. Derived relationships between effusion rate, flow length, and number of active vents showed systematic and correlated variations with time where spreading of volume between numerous flows caused an otherwise good correlation between effusion rate, flow length to break down. Observations collected during this eruption are useful in helping to understand lava flow processes on steep slopes, as well as in interpreting old lava–debris sequences found in other steep-sided volcanoes subject to effusive activity.

  15. Studies of two phase flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, Larry C.

    1994-01-01

    The development of instrumentation for the support of research in two-phase flow in simulated microgravity conditions was performed. The funds were expended in the development of a technique for characterizing the motion and size distribution of small liquid droplets dispersed in a flowing gas. Phenomena like this occur in both microgravity and normal earth gravity situations inside of conduits that are carrying liquid-vapor mixtures at high flow rates. Some effort to develop a conductance probe for the measurement of liquid film thickness was also expended.

  16. The use of asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation in pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics.

    PubMed

    Fraunhofer, Wolfgang; Winter, Gerhard

    2004-09-01

    Field-flow fractionation (FFF) is a family of flexible analytical fractionating techniques which have the advantage that the separation of analytes is achieved, solely through the interaction of the sample with an external, perpendicular physical field, rather than by the interaction with a stationary phase. The rapid progress in pharmaceutical biotechnology goes along with an increasing demand in potent, high-efficient analytical methods. Thus, FFF techniques are gaining increasing attention for their ability to separate and characterize populations of polymers, colloids and particles of up to about 100 microm in size. It is the intention of this review to provide an overview on common FFF techniques, to summarize inherent advantages and limitations and to introduce both established and challenging applications in the (bio)pharmaceutical field. Thereby, asymmetrical flow FFF is addressed predominantly, since it is the most versatile applicable FFF technique.

  17. Modeling field scale unsaturated flow and transport processes

    SciTech Connect

    Gelhar, L.W.; Celia, M.A.; McLaughlin, D.

    1994-08-01

    The scales of concern in subsurface transport of contaminants from low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities are in the range of 1 to 1,000 m. Natural geologic materials generally show very substantial spatial variability in hydraulic properties over this range of scales. Such heterogeneity can significantly influence the migration of contaminants. It is also envisioned that complex earth structures will be constructed to isolate the waste and minimize infiltration of water into the facility. The flow of water and gases through such facilities must also be a concern. A stochastic theory describing unsaturated flow and contamination transport in naturally heterogeneous soils has been enhanced by adopting a more realistic characterization of soil variability. The enhanced theory is used to predict field-scale effective properties and variances of tension and moisture content. Applications illustrate the important effects of small-scale heterogeneity on large-scale anisotropy and hysteresis and demonstrate the feasibility of simulating two-dimensional flow systems at time and space scales of interest in radioactive waste disposal investigations. Numerical algorithms for predicting field scale unsaturated flow and contaminant transport have been improved by requiring them to respect fundamental physical principles such as mass conservation. These algorithms are able to provide realistic simulations of systems with very dry initial conditions and high degrees of heterogeneity. Numerical simulation of the movement of water and air in unsaturated soils has demonstrated the importance of air pathways for contaminant transport. The stochastic flow and transport theory has been used to develop a systematic approach to performance assessment and site characterization. Hypothesis-testing techniques have been used to determine whether model predictions are consistent with observed data.

  18. Microfluidic flow-focusing in ac electric fields.

    PubMed

    Tan, Say Hwa; Semin, Benoît; Baret, Jean-Christophe

    2014-03-21

    We demonstrate the control of droplet sizes by an ac voltage applied across microelectrodes patterned around a flow-focusing junction. The electrodes do not come in contact with the fluids to avoid electrochemical effects. We found several regimes of droplet production in electric fields, controlled by the connection of the chip, the conductivity of the dispersed phase and the frequency of the applied field. A simple electrical modelling of the chip reveals that the effective voltage at the tip of the liquid to be dispersed controls the production mechanism. At low voltages (≲ 600 V), droplets are produced in dripping regime; the droplet size is a function of the ac electric field. The introduction of an effective capillary number that takes into account the Maxwell stress can explain the dependance of droplet size with the applied voltage. At higher voltages (≳ 600 V), jets are observed. The stability of droplet production is a function of the fluid conductivity and applied field frequency reported in a set of flow diagrams. PMID:24401868

  19. The role neutral flow fields in controlling ionospheric dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecht, S. H.; Ledvina, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    This paper will present the latest results of high resolution 3-D hybrid particle code simulations of Mars. The research is focused on understanding the solar wind interaction with Mars and the subsequent ionospheric losses that occur as a consequence of this loss. It has been found that the loss rate of the Martian ionosphere is directly controlled by the crustal magnetic fields. This presentation will address our current research into the solar wind interaction with Mars' ionosphere and crustal fields. Specifically, current research addresses the changes seen when a realistic 3-D neutral atmosphere is included with the neutral flow fields included. This evolution of the model will examine the day night flow effect as well as the changes in loss rates. The hybrid particle code HALFSHEL contains a variety of physical and chemical models which will be discussed. These include a chemistry package that produces the ionosphere on grid resolution of 10 km altitude, as well as the Hall and Pedersen conductivities associated with plasma neutral collisions. And more recently the inclusion of a crustal magnetic field model. The specific simulations to be presented self-consistently evolve the motion of the solar wind protons, and ionospheric ions; O+ and O2+.

  20. Direct Measurement of the Flow Field around Swimming Microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drescher, Knut; Goldstein, Raymond E.; Michel, Nicolas; Polin, Marco; Tuval, Idan

    2010-10-01

    Swimming microorganisms create flows that influence their mutual interactions and modify the rheology of their suspensions. While extensively studied theoretically, these flows have not been measured in detail around any freely-swimming microorganism. We report such measurements for the microphytes Volvox carteri and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The minute (˜0.3%) density excess of V. carteri over water leads to a strongly dominant Stokeslet contribution, with the widely-assumed stresslet flow only a correction to the subleading source dipole term. This implies that suspensions of V. carteri have features similar to suspensions of sedimenting particles. The flow in the region around C. reinhardtii where significant hydrodynamic interaction is likely to occur differs qualitatively from a puller stresslet, and can be described by a simple three-Stokeslet model.

  1. Direct measurement of the flow field around swimming microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polin, Marco; Drescher, Knut; Goldstein, Raymond E.; Michel, Nicolas; Tuval, Idan

    2010-11-01

    Swimming microorganisms create flows that influence their mutual interactions and modify the rheology of their suspensions. While extensively studied theoretically, these flows have not been measured in detail around any freely-swimming microorganism. We report such measurements for the microphytes Volvox carteri and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The minute (˜0.3%) density excess of V. carteri over water leads to a strongly dominant Stokeslet contribution, with the widely-assumed stresslet flow only a correction to the subleading source dipole term. This implies that suspensions of V. carteri have features similar to suspensions of sedimenting particles. The flow in the region around C. reinhardtii where significant hydrodynamic interaction is likely to occur differs qualitatively from a "puller" stresslet, and can be described by a simple three-Stokeslet model.

  2. An Experimental Investigation of Steady and Unsteady Flow Field in an Axial Flow Turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaccaria, M.; Lakshminarayana, B.

    1997-01-01

    Measurements were made in a large scale single stage turbine facility. Within the nozzle passage measurements were made using a five hole probe, a two-component Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV), and a single sensor hot wire probe. These measurements showed weak secondary flows at midchord, and two secondary flow loss cores at the nozzle exit. The casing vortex loss core was the larger of the two. At the exit radial inward flow was found over the entire passage, and was more pronounced in the wake. Nozzle wake decay was found to be more rapid than for an isolated vane row due to the rotor's presence. The midspan rotor flow field was measured using a two-component LDV. Measurements were made from upstream of the rotor to a chord behind the rotor. The distortion of the nozzle wake as it passed through the rotor blade row was determined. The unsteadiness in the rotor flow field was determined. The decay of the rotor wake was also characterized.

  3. Interface evolution of a particle in a supersaturated solution affected by a far-field uniform flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming-Wen; Wang, Zi-Dong

    2013-09-01

    The effect of far-field uniform flow on the morphological evolution of a spherical particle in a supersaturated solution affected by a far-field uniform flow is studied by using the matched asymptotic expansion method. The analytical solution for the interface shape, concentration field, and interface velocity of the particle growth shows that the convection induced by the far-field uniform flow facilitates the growth of the spherical particle, the upstream flow imposed on the particle enhances the growth velocity of the interface when the flow comes in, the downstream flow lowers the growth velocity of the surface when the flow goes out, and the interface morphology evolves into a peach-like shape.

  4. Flow downstream of the heliospheric terminal shock - Magnetic field kinematics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nerney, S.; Suess, S. T.; Schmahl, E. J.

    1991-01-01

    A kinematic model of the interplanetary magnetic field in the heliosheath beyond the solar wind terminal shock is presented in order to evaluate the possible importance of MHD effects in that region of space. The need for this evaluation arises because the interplanetary magnetic field is compressed across the terminal shock and further amplified by the decreasing flow speed beyond the shock. Streamlines which approach the stagnation point before turning in the downstream direction lead to the strongest effects due to the extreme slowing of the solar wind and consequent compression of the embedded magnetic field. The magnetic volume force therefore cannot be neglected on streamlines that approach the heliopause in the upstream direction, where the volume containing them is a large fraction of the overall of the heliosheath in the upstream direction. The increase in the magnetic pressure may act to bring the upstream terminal shock significantly closer to the sun, potentially reconciling a conflict between models and observations.

  5. Improved Flow-Field Structures for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gurau, Bogdan

    2013-05-31

    The direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is ideal if high energy-density liquid fuels are required. Liquid fuels have advantages over compressed hydrogen including higher energy density and ease of handling. Although state-of-the-art DMFCs exhibit manageable degradation rates, excessive fuel crossover diminishes system energy and power density. Although use of dilute methanol mitigates crossover, the concomitant lowering of the gross fuel energy density (GFED) demands a complex balance-of-plant (BOP) that includes higher flow rates, external exhaust recirculation, etc. An alternative approach is redesign of the fuel delivery system to accommodate concentrated methanol. NuVant Systems Inc. (NuVant) will maximize the GFED by design and assembly of a DMFC that uses near neat methanol. The approach is to tune the diffusion of highly concentrated methanol (to the anode catalytic layer) to the back-diffusion of water formed at the cathode (i.e. in situ generation of dilute methanol at the anode layer). Crossover will be minimized without compromising the GFED by innovative integration of the anode flow-field and the diffusion layer. The integrated flow-field-diffusion-layers (IFDLs) will widen the current and potential DMFC operating ranges and enable the use of cathodes optimized for hydrogen-air fuel cells.

  6. Spatio-temporal curvature measures for flow-field analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zetzsche, Christoph; Barth, Erhardt; Berkmann, Joachim

    1991-09-01

    Intrinsic signal dimensionality, a property closely related to Gaussian curvature, is shown to be an important conceptual tool in multi-dimensional image processing for both biological and engineering sciences. Intrinsic dimensionality can reveal the relationship between recent theoretical developments in the definition of optic flow and the basic neurophysiological concept of 'end-stopping' of visual cortical cells. It is further shown how the concept may help to avoid certain problems typically arising from the common belief that an explicit computation of a flow field has to be the essential first step in the processing of spatio- temporal image sequences. Signals which cause difficulties in the computation of optic flow, mainly the discontinuities of the motion vector field, are shown to be detectable directly in the spatio-temporal input by evaluation of its three-dimensional curvature. The relevance of the suggested concept is supported by the fact that fast and efficient detection of such signals is of vital importance for ambulant observers in both the biological and the technical domain.

  7. Decoding complex flow-field patterns in visual working memory.

    PubMed

    Christophel, Thomas B; Haynes, John-Dylan

    2014-05-01

    There has been a long history of research on visual working memory. Whereas early studies have focused on the role of lateral prefrontal cortex in the storage of sensory information, this has been challenged by research in humans that has directly assessed the encoding of perceptual contents, pointing towards a role of visual and parietal regions during storage. In a previous study we used pattern classification to investigate the storage of complex visual color patterns across delay periods. This revealed coding of such contents in early visual and parietal brain regions. Here we aim to investigate whether the involvement of visual and parietal cortex is also observable for other types of complex, visuo-spatial pattern stimuli. Specifically, we used a combination of fMRI and multivariate classification to investigate the retention of complex flow-field stimuli defined by the spatial patterning of motion trajectories of random dots. Subjects were trained to memorize the precise spatial layout of these stimuli and to retain this information during an extended delay. We used a multivariate decoding approach to identify brain regions where spatial patterns of activity encoded the memorized stimuli. Content-specific memory signals were observable in motion sensitive visual area MT+ and in posterior parietal cortex that might encode spatial information in a modality independent manner. Interestingly, we also found information about the memorized visual stimulus in somatosensory cortex, suggesting a potential crossmodal contribution to memory. Our findings thus indicate that working memory storage of visual percepts might be distributed across unimodal, multimodal and even crossmodal brain regions.

  8. Method of electric field flow fractionation wherein the polarity of the electric field is periodically reversed

    DOEpatents

    Stevens, Fred J.

    1992-01-01

    A novel method of electric field flow fractionation for separating solute molecules from a carrier solution is disclosed. The method of the invention utilizes an electric field that is periodically reversed in polarity, in a time-dependent, wave-like manner. The parameters of the waveform, including amplitude, frequency and wave shape may be varied to optimize separation of solute species. The waveform may further include discontinuities to enhance separation.

  9. Effect of asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation channel geometry on separation efficiency.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Ji Yeon; Kim, Ki Hun; Lee, Ju Yong; Williams, P Stephen; Moon, Myeong Hee

    2010-06-11

    The separation efficiencies of three different asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) channel designs were evaluated using polystyrene latex standards. Channel breadth was held constant for one channel (rectangular profile), and was reduced either linearly (trapezoidal profile) or exponentially (exponential profile) along the length for the other two. The effective void volumes of the three channel types were designed to be equivalent. Theoretically, under certain flow conditions, the mean channel flow velocity of the exponential channel could be arranged to remain constant along the channel length, thereby improving separation in AF4. Particle separation obtained with the exponential channel was compared with particle separation obtained with the trapezoidal and rectangular channels. We demonstrated that at a certain flow rate condition (outflow/inflow rate=0.2), the exponential channel design indeed provided better performance with respect to the separation of polystyrene nanoparticles in terms of reducing band broadening. While the trapezoidal channel exhibited a little poorer performance than the exponential, the strongly decreasing mean flow velocity in the rectangular channel resulted in serious band broadening, a delay in retention time, and even failure of larger particles to elute. PMID:20439106

  10. Measurements of Turbulent Flow Field in Separate Flow Nozzles with Enhanced Mixing Devices - Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James

    2002-01-01

    As part of the Advanced Subsonic Technology Program, a series of experiments was conducted at NASA Glenn Research Center on the effect of mixing enhancement devices on the aeroacoustic performance of separate flow nozzles. Initial acoustic evaluations of the devices showed that they reduced jet noise significantly, while creating very little thrust loss. The explanation for the improvement required that turbulence measurements, namely single point mean and RMS statistics and two-point spatial correlations, be made to determine the change in the turbulence caused by the mixing enhancement devices that lead to the noise reduction. These measurements were made in the summer of 2000 in a test program called Separate Nozzle Flow Test 2000 (SFNT2K) supported by the Aeropropulsion Research Program at NASA Glenn Research Center. Given the hot high-speed flows representative of a contemporary bypass ratio 5 turbofan engine, unsteady flow field measurements required the use of an optical measurement method. To achieve the spatial correlations, the Particle Image Velocimetry technique was employed, acquiring high-density velocity maps of the flows from which the required statistics could be derived. This was the first successful use of this technique for such flows, and shows the utility of this technique for future experimental programs. The extensive statistics obtained were likewise unique and give great insight into the turbulence which produces noise and how the turbulence can be modified to reduce jet noise.

  11. Analytical and experimental investigation of flow fields of annular jets with and without swirling flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonson, M. R.; Smith, E. G.; Uhl, W. R.

    1974-01-01

    Analytical and experimental studies were performed to define the flowfield of annular jets, with and, without swirling flow. The analytical model treated configurations with variations of flow angularities, radius ratio, and swirl distributions. Swirl distributions characteristic of stator vanes and rotor blade rows, where the total pressure and swirl distributions are related were incorporated in the mathematical model. The experimental studies included tests of eleven nozzle models, both with and, without swirling exhaust flow. Flowfield surveys were obtained and used for comparison with the analytical model. This comparison of experimental and analytical studies served as the basis for evaluation of several empirical constants as required for application of the analysis to the general flow configuration. The analytical model developed during these studies is applicable to the evaluation of the flowfield and overall performance of the exhaust of statorless lift fan systems that contain various levels of exhaust swirl.

  12. Impact of asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation on protein aggregates stability.

    PubMed

    Bria, Carmen R M; Williams, S Kim Ratanathanawongs

    2016-09-23

    The impact of asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) on protein aggregate species is investigated with the aid of multiangle light scattering (MALS) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The experimental parameters probed in this study include aggregate stability in different carrier liquids, shear stress (related to sample injection), sample concentration (during AF4 focusing), and sample dilution (during separation). Two anti-streptavidin (anti-SA) IgG1 samples composed of low and high molar mass (M) aggregates are subjected to different AF4 conditions. Aggregates suspended and separated in phosphate buffer are observed to dissociate almost entirely to monomer. However, aggregates in citric acid buffer are partially stable with dissociation to 25% and 5% monomer for the low and high M samples, respectively. These results demonstrate that different carrier liquids change the aggregate stability and low M aggregates can behave differently than their larger counterparts. Increasing the duration of the AF4 focusing step showed no significant changes in the percent monomer, percent aggregates, or the average Ms in either sample. Syringe-induced shear related to sample injection resulted in an increase in hydrodynamic diameter (dh) as measured by batch mode DLS. Finally, calculations showed that dilution during AF4 separation is significantly lower than in size exclusion chromatography with dilution occurring mainly at the AF4 channel outlet and not during the separation. This has important ramifications when analyzing aggregates that rapidly dissociate (<∼2s) upon dilution as the size calculated by AF4 theory may be more accurate than that measured by online DLS. Experimentally, the dhs determined by online DLS generally agreed with AF4 theory except for the more well retained larger aggregates for which DLS showed smaller sizes. These results highlight the importance of using AF4 retention theory to understand the impacts of dilution on analytes. PMID

  13. An analysis of the flow field in the region of the ASRM field joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dill, Richard A.; Whitesides, Harold R.

    1992-01-01

    The flow field in the region of a solid rocket motor field joint is very important since fluid dynamic and mechanical propellant stresses can couple to cause a motor failure at a joint. Presented here is an examination of the flow field in the region of the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) field joints. The analyses were performed as a first step in assessing the design of the ASRM forward and aft field joints in order to assure the proper operation of the motor prior to further development of test firing. The analyses presented here were performed by employing a two-dimensional axisymmetric assumption. Fluent/BFC, a three dimensional full Navier-Stokes flow field code, was used to make the numerical calculations. This code utilizes a staggered grid formulation along with the SIMPLER numerical algorithm. Wall functions are used to determine the character of the laminar sublayer, and a standard kappa-epsilon turbulence model is used to close the fluid dynamic equations. The analyses performed to this date verify that the ASRM field joint design operates properly. The fluid dynamic stresses at the field joints are small due to the inherent design of the field joints. A problem observed in some other solid rocket motors is that large fluid dynamic stresses are generated at the motor joint on the downstream propellant grain due to forward facing step geometries. The design of the ASRM field joints are such that this is not a problem as shown by the analyses. Also, the analyses of the inhibitor stub left protruding into the port flow from normal propellant burn back show that more information is necessary to complete these analyses. These analyses were performed as parametric analyses in relation to the height of the inhibitor stub left protruding into the motor port. A better estimate of the amount of the inhibitor stub remaining at later burn times must be determined since the height which the inhibitor stub protrudes into the port flow drastically affects the fluid

  14. An analysis of the flow field in the region of the ASRM field joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dill, Richard A.; Whitesides, Harold R.

    1992-07-01

    The flow field in the region of a solid rocket motor field joint is very important since fluid dynamic and mechanical propellant stresses can couple to cause a motor failure at a joint. Presented here is an examination of the flow field in the region of the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) field joints. The analyses were performed as a first step in assessing the design of the ASRM forward and aft field joints in order to assure the proper operation of the motor prior to further development of test firing. The analyses presented here were performed by employing a two-dimensional axisymmetric assumption. Fluent/BFC, a three dimensional full Navier-Stokes flow field code, was used to make the numerical calculations. This code utilizes a staggered grid formulation along with the SIMPLER numerical algorithm. Wall functions are used to determine the character of the laminar sublayer, and a standard kappa-epsilon turbulence model is used to close the fluid dynamic equations. The analyses performed to this date verify that the ASRM field joint design operates properly. The fluid dynamic stresses at the field joints are small due to the inherent design of the field joints. A problem observed in some other solid rocket motors is that large fluid dynamic stresses are generated at the motor joint on the downstream propellant grain due to forward facing step geometries. The design of the ASRM field joints are such that this is not a problem as shown by the analyses. Also, the analyses of the inhibitor stub left protruding into the port flow from normal propellant burn back show that more information is necessary to complete these analyses. These analyses were performed as parametric analyses in relation to the height of the inhibitor stub left protruding into the motor port. A better estimate of the amount of the inhibitor stub remaining at later burn times must be determined since the height which the inhibitor stub protrudes into the port flow drastically affects the fluid

  15. Online recognition of the multiphase flow regime and study of slug flow in pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liejin, Guo; Bofeng, Bai; Liang, Zhao; Xin, Wang; Hanyang, Gu

    2009-02-01

    single sensor performance. Among various flow patterns of gas-liquid flow, slug flow occurs frequently in the petroleum, chemical, civil and nuclear industries. In the offshore oil and gas field, the maximum slug length and its statistical distribution are very important for the design of separator and downstream processing facility at steady state operations. However transient conditions may be encountered in the production, such as operational upsets, start-up, shut-down, pigging and blowdown, which are key operational and safety issues related to oil field development. So it is necessary to have an understanding the flow parameters under transient conditions. In this paper, the evolution of slug length along a horizontal pipe in gas-liquid flow is also studied in details and then an experimental study of flowrate transients in slug flow is provided. Also, the special gas-liquid flow phenomena easily encountered in the life span of offshore oil fields, called severe slugging, is studied experimentally and some results are presented.

  16. Density field of supersonic separated flow past an afterbody nozzle using tomographic reconstruction of BOS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatakrishnan, L.; Suriyanarayanan, P.

    2009-09-01

    The background oriented Schlieren (BOS) technique has been applied to determine the density field in an oblique shock-separated turbulent boundary flow. Measurements were made for two cases, namely, with/without jet flow from the afterbody which is a nozzle. In addition, oil flow and Schlieren visualizations were carried out—the results show certain upstream features of interest including shock excursions. The mean density field from BOS is discussed along with results from conventional Schlieren flow visualization. The data extracted from the mean density field obtained through BOS have been compared for the jet-off and jet-on cases. The data obtained also show the mean density in the base region (jet-off case) to be about 50% of the freestream density and match the isentropic values for the underexpanded jet at the exit. The study involving shock-boundary interaction, movement of freestream shock over the afterbody in the presence of a jet plume provides understanding of flow physics in a flow regime where whole field velocity measurements are extremely difficult.

  17. Simultaneous solution for core magnetic field and fluid flow beneath an electrically conducting mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voorhies, Goerte V.; Nishihama, Masahiro

    1994-04-01

    The effects of laterally homogeneous mantle electrical conductivity have been included in steady, frozen-flux core surface flow estimation along with refinements in method and weighting. The refined method allows simultaneous solution for both the initial radial geomagnetic field component at the core-mantle boundary and the subadjacent fluid motion; it also features Gauss' method for solving the nonlinear inverse problem associated with steady motional induction. The trade-off between spatial complexity of the derived flows and misfit to the weighted Definitive Geomagnetic Reference Field models is studied for various mantle conductivity profiles. For simple flow and a fixed initial geomagnetic condition a fairly high deep-mantle conductivity performs better than either insulating or weakly conducting profiles; however, a thin, very high conductivity layer at the base of the mantle performs almost as well. Simultaneous solution for both initial geomagnetic field and fluid flow reduces the misfit per degree of freedom even more than does changing the mantle conductivity profile. Moreover, when both core field and flow are estimated, the performance of the solutions and the derived flows become insensitive to the conductivity profile.

  18. Simultaneous solution for core magnetic field and fluid flow beneath an electrically conducting mantle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voorhies, Coerte V.; Nishihama, Masahiro

    1993-01-01

    The effects of laterally homogeneous mantle electrical conductivity were included in steady, frozen-flux core surface flow estimation along with refinements in method and weighting. The refined method allows simultaneous solution for both the initial radial geomagnetic field component at the core-mantle boundary (CMB) and the sub-adjacent fluid motion; it also features Gauss' method for solving the non-linear inverse problem associated with steady motional induction. The tradeoff between spatial complexity of the derived flows and misfit to the weighted Definitive Geomagnetic Reference Field models (DGRF's) is studied for various mantle conductivity profiles. For simple flow and a fixed initial geomagnetic condition, a fairly high deep-mantle conductivity performs better than either insulating or weakly conducting profiles; however, a thin, very high conductivity layer at the base of the mantle performs almost as well. Simultaneous solution for both initial geomagnetic field and flow reduces the misfit per degree of freedom even more than does changing the mantle conductivity profile. Moreover, when both core field and flow are estimated, the performance of the solutions and the derived flows become insensitive to the conductivity profile.

  19. Trace projection transformation: A new method for measurement of debris flow surface velocity fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yan; Cui, Peng; Guo, Xiaojun; Ge, Yonggang

    2016-09-01

    Spatiotemporal variation of velocity is important for debris flow dynamics. This paper presents a new method, the trace projection transformation, for accurate, non-contact measurement of a debris-flow surface velocity field based on a combination of dense optical flow and perspective projection transformation. The algorithm for interpreting and processing is implemented in C ++ and realized in Visual Studio 2012. The method allows quantitative analysis of flow motion through videos from various angles (camera positioned at the opposite direction of fluid motion). It yields the spatiotemporal distribution of surface velocity field at pixel level and thus provides a quantitative description of the surface processes. The trace projection transformation is superior to conventional measurement methods in that it obtains the full surface velocity field by computing the optical flow of all pixels. The result achieves a 90% accuracy of when comparing with the observed values. As a case study, the method is applied to the quantitative analysis of surface velocity field of a specific debris flow.

  20. Mean-Field Description of Plastic Flow in Amorphous Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jie; Wyart, Matthieu

    2016-01-01

    Failure and flow of amorphous materials are central to various phenomena including earthquakes and landslides. There is accumulating evidence that the yielding transition between a flowing and an arrested phase is a critical phenomenon, but the associated exponents are not understood, even at a mean-field level where the validity of popular models is debated. Here, we solve a mean-field model that captures the broad distribution of the mechanical noise generated by plasticity, whose behavior is related to biased Lévy flights near an absorbing boundary. We compute the exponent θ characterizing the density of shear transformation P (x )˜xθ, where x is the stress increment beyond which they yield. We find that after an isotropic thermal quench, θ =1 /2 . However, θ depends continuously on the applied shear stress; this dependence is not monotonic, and its value at the yield stress is not universal. The model rationalizes previously unexplained observations and captures reasonably well the value of exponents in three dimensions. Values of exponents in four dimensions are accurately predicted. These results support the fact that it is the true mean-field model that applies in large dimensions, and they raise fundamental questions about the nature of the yielding transition.

  1. Hybrid laminar flow control study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Hybrid laminar flow control (HLFC) in which leading edge suction is used in conjunction with wing pressure distribution tailoring to postpone boundary layer transition and reduce friction drag was examined. Airfoil design characteristics required for laminar flow control (LFC) were determined. The aerodynamic design of the HLFC wing for a 178 passenger commercial turbofan transport was developed, and a drag was estimated. Systems changes required to install HLFC were defined, and weights and fuel economy were estimated. The potential for 9% fuel reduction for a 3926-km (2120-nmi) mission is identified.

  2. Magnetic Field Generation and Particle Energization in Relativistic Shear Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Edison; Boettcher, Markus; Smith, Ian

    2012-10-01

    We present Particle-in-Cell simulation results of magnetic field generation by relativistic shear flows in collisionless electron-ion (e-ion) and electron-positron (e+e-) plasmas. In the e+e- case, small current filaments are first generated at the shear interface due to streaming instabilities of the interpenetrating particles from boundary perturbations. Such current filaments create transverse magnetic fields which coalesce into larger and larger flux tubes with alternating polarity, eventually forming ordered flux ropes across the entire shear boundary layer. Particles are accelerated across field lines to form power-law tails by semi-coherent electric fields sustained by oblique Langmuir waves. In the e-ion case, a single laminar slab of transverse flux rope is formed at the shear boundary, sustained by thin current sheets on both sides due to different drift velocities of electrons and ions. The magnetic field has a single polarity for the entire boundary layer. Electrons are heated to a fraction of the ion energy, but there is no evidence of power-law tail forming in this case.

  3. The Development of a Full Field Three-Dimensional Microscale Flow Measurement Technique for Application to Near Contact Line Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    He, Qun; Hallinan, Kevin

    1996-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to present details of the development of a new three-dimensional velocity field measurement technique which can be used to provide more insight into the dynamics of thin evaporating liquid films (not limited to just low heat inputs for the heat transfer) and which also could prove useful for the study of spreading and wetting phenomena and other microscale flows.

  4. Verifying a Simplified Fuel Oil Flow Field Measurement Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, H.; Dentz, J.; Doty, C.

    2013-07-01

    The Better Buildings program is a U.S. Department of Energy program funding energy efficiency retrofits in buildings nationwide. The program is in need of an inexpensive method for measuring fuel oil consumption that can be used in evaluating the impact that retrofits have in existing properties with oil heat. This project developed and verified a fuel oil flow field measurement protocol that is cost effective and can be performed with little training for use by the Better Buildings program as well as other programs and researchers.

  5. The significance of late-stage processes in lava flow emplacement: squeeze-ups in the 2001 Etna flow field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Applegarth, L. J.; Pinkerton, H.; James, M. R.

    2009-04-01

    The general processes associated with the formation and activity of ephemeral boccas in lava flow fields are well documented (e.g. Pinkerton & Sparks 1976; Polacci & Papale 1997). The importance of studying such behaviour is illustrated by observations of the emplacement of a basaltic andesite flow at Parícutin during the 1940s. Following a pause in advance of one month, this 8 km long flow was reactivated by the resumption of supply from the vent, which forced the rapid drainage of stagnant material in the flow front region. The material extruded during drainage was in a highly plastic state (Krauskopf 1948), and its displacement allowed hot fluid lava from the vent to be transported in a tube to the original flow front, from where it covered an area of 350,000 m2 in one night (Luhr & Simkin 1993). Determining when a flow has stopped advancing, and cannot be drained in such a manner, is therefore highly important in hazard assessment and flow modelling, and our ability to do this may be improved through the examination of relatively small-scale secondary extrusions and boccas. The 2001 flank eruption of Mt. Etna, Sicily, resulted in the emplacement of a 7 km long compound `a`ā flow field over a period of 23 days. During emplacement, many ephemeral boccas were observed in the flow field, which were active for between two and at least nine days. The longer-lived examples initially fed well-established flows that channelled fresh material from the main vent. With time, as activity waned, the nature of the extruded material changed. The latest stages of development of all boccas involved the very slow extrusion of material that was either draining from higher parts of the flow or being forced out of the flow interior as changing local flow conditions pressurised parts of the flow that had been stagnant for some time. Here we describe this late-stage activity of the ephemeral boccas, which resulted in the formation of ‘squeeze-ups' of lava with a markedly different

  6. CFD-based aero-optical analysis of flow fields over two-dimensional cavities with active flow control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Yan

    Prediction and control of optical wave front distortions and aberrations in a high energy laser beam due to interaction with an unsteady highly non-uniform flow field is of great importance in the development of directed energy weapon systems for Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAV). The unsteady shear layer over the weapons bay cavity is the primary cause of this distortion of the optical wave front. The large scale vortical structure of the shear layer over the cavity can be significantly reduced by employing an active flow control technique combined with passive flow control. This dissertation explores various active and passive control methods to suppress the cavity oscillations and thereby improve the aero-optics of cavity flow. In active flow control technique, a steady or a pulsed jet is applied at the sharp leading edge of cavities of different aspect ratios L/D (=2, 4, 15), where L and D are the width and the depth of a cavity respectively. In the passive flow control approach, the sharp leading or trailing edge of the cavity is modified into a round edge of different radii. Both of these active and passive flow control approaches are studied independently and in combination. Numerical simulations are performed, with and without active flow control for subsonic free stream flow past two-dimensional sharp and round leading or trailing edge cavities using Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) equations with a two-equation Shear Stress Transport (SST) turbulence model or a hybrid SST/Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model. Aero-optical analysis is developed and applied to all the simulation cases. Index of refraction and Optical Path Difference (OPD) are compared for flow fields without and with active flow control. Root-Mean-Square (RMS) value of OPD is calculated and compared with the experimental data, where available. The effect of steady and pulsed blowing on buffet loading on the downstream face of the cavity is also computed. Using the numerical

  7. Behavior of nanoparticle clouds around a magnetized microsphere under magnetic and flow fields.

    PubMed

    Magnet, C; Kuzhir, P; Bossis, G; Meunier, A; Nave, S; Zubarev, A; Lomenech, C; Bashtovoi, V

    2014-03-01

    When a micron-sized magnetizable particle is introduced into a suspension of nanosized magnetic particles, the nanoparticles accumulate around the microparticle and form thick anisotropic clouds extended in the direction of the applied magnetic field. This phenomenon promotes colloidal stabilization of bimodal magnetic suspensions and allows efficient magnetic separation of nanoparticles used in bioanalysis and water purification. In the present work, the size and shape of nanoparticle clouds under the simultaneous action of an external uniform magnetic field and the flow have been studied in detail. In experiments, a dilute suspension of iron oxide nanoclusters (of a mean diameter of 60 nm) was pushed through a thin slit channel with the nickel microspheres (of a mean diameter of 50 μm) attached to the channel wall. The behavior of nanocluster clouds was observed in the steady state using an optical microscope. In the presence of strong enough flow, the size of the clouds monotonically decreases with increasing flow speed in both longitudinal and transverse magnetic fields. This is qualitatively explained by enhancement of hydrodynamic forces washing the nanoclusters away from the clouds. In the longitudinal field, the flow induces asymmetry of the front and the back clouds. To explain the flow and the field effects on the clouds, we have developed a simple model based on the balance of the stresses and particle fluxes on the cloud surface. This model, applied to the case of the magnetic field parallel to the flow, captures reasonably well the flow effect on the size and shape of the cloud and reveals that the only dimensionless parameter governing the cloud size is the ratio of hydrodynamic-to-magnetic forces-the Mason number. At strong magnetic interactions considered in the present work (dipolar coupling parameter α≥2), the Brownian motion seems not to affect the cloud behavior.

  8. Ground Based Studies of Thermocapillary Flows in Levitated Drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadhal, Satwindar Singh; Trinh, Eugene H.

    1996-01-01

    Ground-based experiments together with analytical studies are presently being conducted for levitated drops. Both acoustic and electrostatic techniques are being employed to achieve levitation of drops in a gaseous environment. The scientific effort is principally on the thermal and the fluid phenomena associated with the local heating of levitated drops, both at 1-g and at low-g. In particular, the thermocapillary flow associated with local spot heating is being studied. Fairly stable acoustic levitation of drops has been achieved with some exceptions when random rotational motion of the drop persists. The flow visualization has been carried out by light scattering from smoke particles for the exterior flow and fluorescent tracer particles in the drop. The results indicate a lack of axial symmetry in the internal flow even though the apparatus and the heating are symmetric. The theoretical studies for the past year have included fundamental analyses of acoustically levitated spherical drops. The flow associated with a particle near the velocity antinode is being investigated by the singular perturbation technique. As a first step towards understanding the effect of the particle displacement from the antinode, the flow field about the node has been calculated for the first time. The effect of the acoustic field on the interior of a liquid drop has also been investigated. The results predict that the internal flow field is very weak.

  9. [Flow field test on the tangential section of polypropylene tubular membrane module annular gap in rotating linear tangential flow].

    PubMed

    Wang, Chengduan; Chen, Wenmei; Li, Jianming; Jiang, Guangming

    2002-07-01

    A new type of polypropylene tubular membrane apparatus of rotating cross flow was designed to study experimentally the flow field characteristics of the tangential section of the membrane annular gap. The authors designed rotary linear tangential flow tubular membrane separator and its test system for the first time. Through the system, the flow field of rotary linear tangential flow with the advanced Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was tested for the first time. A lot of streamlines and vorticity maps of the tangential section of separator in different operation conditions were obtained. The velocity distribution characteristics were analyzed quantitatively: 1. At non-vortex area, no matter how the operation parameters change, the velocity near to rotary tangential flow entrance was higher than the velocity far from entrance at the same radial coordinates. At vortex area, generally the flow velocity of inner vortex was lower than the outer vortex. At the vortex center, the velocity was lowest, the tangential velocity were equal to zero generally. At the vortex center zone, the tangential velocity was less than the axial velocity. 2. Under test operations, the tangential velocity and axial velocity of vortices borders are 1-2 times of average axial velocity of membrane module annular gap. The maximum tangential velocity and axial velocity of ellipse vortices were 2-6 times of average axial velocity of membrane module annular gap. 3. The vortices that are formed on the tangential section, there existed mass transfer between inner and outer parts of fluid. Much fluid of outer vortices got into the inner ones, which was able to prevent membrane tube from particles blocking up very soon. PMID:12371104

  10. A study of grout flow pattern analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S. Y.; Hyun, S.

    2013-01-10

    A new disposal unit, designated as Salt Disposal Unit no. 6 (SDU6), is being designed for support of site accelerated closure goals and salt nuclear waste projections identified in the new Liquid Waste System plan. The unit is cylindrical disposal vault of 380 ft diameter and 43 ft in height, and it has about 30 million gallons of capacity. Primary objective was to develop the computational model and to perform the evaluations for the flow patterns of grout material in SDU6 as function of elevation of grout discharge port, and slurry rheology. A Bingham plastic model was basically used to represent the grout flow behavior. A two-phase modeling approach was taken to achieve the objective. This approach assumes that the air-grout interface determines the shape of the accumulation mound. The results of this study were used to develop the design guidelines for the discharge ports of the Saltstone feed materials in the SDU6 facility. The focusing areas of the modeling study are to estimate the domain size of the grout materials radially spread on the facility floor under the baseline modeling conditions, to perform the sensitivity analysis with respect to the baseline design and operating conditions such as elevation of discharge port, discharge pipe diameter, and grout properties, and to determine the changes in grout density as it is related to grout drop height. An axi-symmetric two-phase modeling method was used for computational efficiency. Based on the nominal design and operating conditions, a transient computational approach was taken to compute flow fields mainly driven by pumping inertia and natural gravity. Detailed solution methodology and analysis results are discussed here.

  11. Phase-locked flow field analysis in a synthetic human larynx model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lodermeyer, Alexander; Becker, Stefan; Döllinger, Michael; Kniesburges, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    The fluid flow within a human larynx plays an essential role in the fluid-structure-acoustic interaction during voice production. This study addresses the flow field downstream of aerodynamically driven, synthetic vocal folds. In order to quantitatively investigate the supraglottal formation of the flow field within one oscillation cycle of the vocal folds, a phase-locked PIV technique is introduced. The pseudo-time-resolved measurement results were averaged for each phase angle. When including a supraglottal channel, the jet was deflected from the centerline of the supraglottal channel and changed the direction of deflection in different cycles. The result is a bistable flow field. Therefore, a sorting method based on the mean cyclic supraglottal pressure difference was introduced. For both states of the flow field, a recirculation area was detected, interacting with the arising glottal jet in every oscillation cycle. This interaction could be identified as the major cause for supraglottal jet deflection, and the sense of rotation of the recirculation area defined the direction of deflection. The asymmetric structure of the flow field was caused by the geometric boundary condition, i.e., due to the present supraglottal channel. An additional key factor was found to be the contact between the two vocal folds in each oscillation cycle which interrupted the jet flow periodically. Removing the supraglottal channel resulted in a symmetric jet location. When avoiding vocal fold contact, the bistable behavior vanished and the jet was steadily deflected to one lateral side. In the present study, it cannot be confirmed that the Coanda effect is responsible for the deflection.

  12. Computation of the flow field in an annular gas turbine combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cline, Michael C.; Deur, John M.; Micklow, Gerald J.; Harper, Michael R.; Kundu, Krishna P.

    1993-01-01

    The KIVA-II code was modified to calculate the 3D flow field in a typical annular gas turbine combustor. The airblast fuel nozzle, cooling baffle, cooling slots, primary and dilution jets, and effusion cooling (bleed) pads were accounted for in this calculation. The turbulence and combustion were modeled using the k-epsilon model and laminar Arrhenius kinetics, respectively. The fuel was modeled as an evaporating liquid spray. The results illustrate the complicated flow fields present in such combustors. From the results obtained to date it appears that the modified KIVA-II code can be used to study the effects of different annular combustor designs and operating conditions.

  13. Time-resolved mixing and flow-field measurements during droplet formation in a flow-focusing junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrier, Odile; Gökhan Ergin, F.; Li, Huai-Zhi; Watz, Bo B.; Funfschilling, Denis

    2015-08-01

    Highly monodispersed emulsions can be produced in microfluidic flow-focusing junctions (Anna et al 2003 Appl. Phys. Lett. 82 364-6, Baroud et al 2010 Lab Chip 10 2032-45). This is the reason why many industrial processes in the medical industry among others are based on droplet manipulation and involve at some point a step of dripping within a junction. However, only a few studies have focused on the flow field inside and outside the droplet, even though it is a necessary step for understanding the physical mechanism involved and for modeling the droplet formation process. Water-in-oil emulsions are produced in flow-focusing junctions of square cross sections. The fluids constituting the emulsion are (i) a 5.0 mPa·s silicon oil for the oil phase and (ii) distilled water containing 2.0 wt% of sodium dodecyl sulfate surfactant for the aqueous phase. Time-resolved shadow particle images are acquired using a microscale particle image velocimetry (µPIV) system and flow fields are calculated using an adaptive PIV algorithm in combination with dynamic masking. Inside the microchannel and in the permanent regime, the droplet has an internal circulation that has been well established by Sarrazin et al (AICHE J. 52 4061-70). But during the formation of a droplet in a flow-focusing junction, the flow field is not so well known, and the circulation in the finger flows forward along the sides and returns along the center. The mechanism can be described in terms of four distinct steps: droplet growth, necking, rupture, and recoil. The liquid expelled from the neck just before rupture is also well observed. The flow field and mixing are measured in detail during a complete cycle of formation of a main droplet and satellite droplets using high-speed imaging. This allows us to develop a better understanding of the different forces that are present and of the physical mechanism of droplet formation.

  14. Investigation of a supersonic cruise fighter model flow field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reubush, D. E.; Bare, E. A.

    1985-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to survey the flow field around a model of a supersonic cruise fighter configuration. Local values of angle of attack, side flow, Mach number, and total pressure ratio were measured with a single multi-holed probe in three survey areas on a model previously used for nacelle/nozzle integration investigations. The investigation was conducted at Mach numbers of 0.6, 0.9, and 1.2, and at angles of attack from 0 deg to 10 deg. The purpose of the investigation was to provide a base of experimental data with which theoretically determined data can be compared. To that end the data are presented in tables as well as graphically, and a complete description of the model geometry is included as fuselage cross sections and wing span stations. Measured local angles of attack were generally greater than free stream angle of attack above the wing and generally smaller below. There were large spanwise local angle-of-attack and side flow gradients above the wing at the higher free stream angles of attack.

  15. Planetary geomorphology field studies: Washington and Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, M. C.

    1984-01-01

    Field studies of terrestrial landforms and the processes that shape them provide new directions to the study of planetary features. Investigations discussed address principally mudflow phenomena and drainage development. At the Valley of 10,000 Smokes (Katmai, AK) and Mount St. Helens, WA, studies of the development of erosional landforms (in particular, drainage) on fresh, new surfaces permitted analysis of the result of competition between geomorphic processes. Of specific interest is the development of stream pattern as a function of the competition between perennial seepage overland flow (from glacial or groundwater sources), ephemeral overland flow (from pluvial or seasonal melt sources), and ephemeral/perennial groundwater sapping, as a function of time since initial resurfacing, material properties, and seasonal/annual environmental conditions.

  16. Control of Flowing Liquid Films by Electrostatic Fields in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffing, E. M.; Bankoff, S. G.; Schluter, R. A.; Miksis, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    The interaction of a spacially varying electric field and a flowing thin liquid film is investigated experimentally for the design of a proposed light weight space radiator. Electrodes are utilized to create a negative pressure at the bottom of a fluid film and suppress leaks if a micrometeorite punctures the radiator surface. Experimental pressure profiles under a vertical falling film, which passes under a finite electrode, show that fields of sufficient strength can be used safely in such a device. Leak stopping experiments demonstrate that leaks can be stopped with an electric field in earth gravity. A new type of electrohydrodynamic instability causes waves in the fluid film to develop into 3D cones and touch the electrode at a critical voltage. Methods previously used to calculate critical voltages for non moving films are shown to be inappropriate for this situation. The instability determines a maximum field which may be utilized in design, so the possible dependence of critical voltage on electrode length, height above the film, and fluid Reynolds number is discussed.

  17. Online Coupling of Flow-Field Flow Fractionation and Single Particle Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry: Characterization of Nanoparticle Surface Coating Thickness and Aggregation State

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surface coating thickness and aggregation state have strong influence on the environmental fate, transport, and toxicity of engineered nanomaterials. In this study, flow-field flow fractionation coupled on-line with single particle inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry i...

  18. Recent Advances in Hot Flow Anomaly Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.

    2015-12-01

    Hot flow anomalies (HFAs) are events observed near planetary bow shocks that are characterized by greatly heated solar wind plasmas and substantial flow deflection. HFAs are universal phenomena that have been observed near the bow shock of Earth, Venus, Mars, and Saturn. HFAs are not stable structures and they evolve with time. Statistical study shows that both ion and electron spectra can be used to classify young and mature HFAs. HFAs were also classified into four categories ("-+", "+-", "M", and "W") according their dynamic pressure profile. Most "W" type HFAs are mature HFAs (according to ion spectra) and most "-+" and "+-" type HFAs are young HFAs. Half of the "M" type HFAs are mature HFAs. Superposed epoch analysis result shows that variations of plasma parameters and magnetic field of mature HFAs are more dramatic than those of young HFAs, except for temperature. "M" and "W" type HFAs may be the later evolution stages of "-+" and "+-" type HFAs; on the other hand, four categories of HFAs may be due to the fact that the spacecraft crossed an HFA structure along different paths.

  19. Flows for non-smooth vector fields with subexponentially integrable divergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clop, Albert; Jiang, Renjin; Mateu, Joan; Orobitg, Joan

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we study flows associated to Sobolev vector fields with subexponentially integrable divergence. Our approach is based on the transport equation following DiPerna-Lions [17]. A key ingredient is to use a quantitative estimate of solutions to the Cauchy problem of transport equation to obtain the regularity of density functions.

  20. Transition to turbulence in Hunt's flow in a moderate magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braiden, L.; Krasnov, D.; Molokov, S.; Boeck, T.; Bühler, L.

    2016-08-01

    Pressure-driven magnetohydrodynamic duct flow in a transverse uniform magnetic field is studied by direct numerical simulation. The electric boundary conditions correspond to Hunt's flow with perfectly insulating walls parallel to the magnetic field (sidewalls) and perfectly conducting walls perpendicular to the magnetic field (Hartmann walls). The velocity distribution exhibits strong jets at the sidewalls, which are susceptible to instability even at low Reynolds numbers Re. We explore the onset of time-dependent flow and transition to states with evolved turbulence for a moderate Hartmann number Ha = 100 . At low Re time-dependence appears in the form of elongated Ting-Walker vortices at the sidewalls of the duct, which, upon increasing Re, develop into more complex structures with higher energy and then the sidewall jets partially detach from the walls. At high values of Re jet detachments disappear and the flow consists of two turbulent jets and nearly laminar core. It is also demonstrated that, there is a range of Re, where Hunt's flow exhibits a pronounced hysteresis behavior, so that different unsteady states can be observed for the same flow parameters. In this range multiple states may develop and co-exist, depending on the initial conditions.

  1. Novel Applications of Magnetic Fields for Fluid Flow Control and for Simulating Variable Gravity Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran, N.

    2005-01-01

    Static and dynamic magnetic fields have been used to control convection in many materials processing applications. In most of the applications, convection control (damping or enhancement) is achieved through the Lorentz force that can be tailored to counteract/assist dominant system flows. This technique has been successfully applied to liquids that are electrically conducting, such as high temperature melts of semiconductors, metals and alloys, etc. In liquids with low electrical conductivity such as ionic solutions of salts in water, the Lorentz force is weak and hence not very effective and alternate ways of flow control are necessary. If the salt in solution is paramagnetic then the variation of magnetic susceptibility with temperature and/or concentration can be used for flow control. For thermal buoyancy driven flows this can be accomplished in a temperature range below the Curie point of the salt. The magnetic force is proportional to the magnetic susceptibility and the product of the magnetic field and its gradient. By suitably positioning the experiment cell in the magnet, system flows can be assisted or countered, as desired. A similar approach can be extended to diamagnetic substances and fluids but the required magnetic force is considerably larger than that required for paramagnetic substances. The presentation will provide an overview of work to date on a NASA fluid physics sponsored project that aims to test the hypothesis of convective flow control using strong magnetic fields in protein crystal growth. The objective is to understand the nature of the various forces that come into play, delineate causative factors for fluid flow and to quantify them through experiments, analysis, and numerical modeling. The seminar will report specifically on the experimental results using paramagnetic salts and solutions in magnetic fields and compare them to analytical predictions. Applications of the concept to protein crystallization studies will be discussed

  2. Static magnetic fields affect capillary flow of red blood cells in striated skin muscle.

    PubMed

    Brix, Gunnar; Strieth, Sebastian; Strelczyk, Donata; Dellian, Marc; Griebel, Jürgen; Eichhorn, Martin E; Andrā, Wilfried; Bellemann, Matthias E

    2008-01-01

    Blood flowing in microvessels is one possible site of action of static magnetic fields (SMFs). We evaluated SMF effects on capillary flow of red blood cells (RBCs) in unanesthetized hamsters, using a skinfold chamber technique for intravital fluorescence microscopy. By this approach, capillary RBC velocities (v(RBC)), capillary diameters (D), arteriolar diameters (D(art)), and functional vessel densities (FVD) were measured in striated skin muscle at different magnetic flux densities. Exposure above a threshold level of about 500 mT resulted in a significant (P < 0.001) reduction of v(RBC) in capillaries as compared to the baseline value. At the maximum field strength of 587 mT, v(RBC) was reduced by more than 40%. Flow reduction was reversible when the field strength was decreased below the threshold level. In contrast, mean values determined at different exposure levels for the parameters D, D(art), and FVD did not vary by more than 5%. Blood flow through capillary networks is affected by strong SMFs directed perpendicular to the vessels. Since the influence of SMFs on blood flow in microvessels directed parallel to the field as well as on collateral blood supply could not be studied, our findings should be carefully interpreted with respect to the setting of safety guidelines.

  3. Instantaneous velocity field imaging instrument for supersonic reacting flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, M. G.; Davis, S. J.; Kessler, W. J.; Legner, H. H.; Mcmanus, K. R.; Mulhall, P. A.; Parker, T. E.; Sonnenfroh, D. M.

    1993-01-01

    The technical tasks conducted to develop and demonstrate a new gas velocity measurement technique for high enthalpy reacting flows is described. The technique is based on Doppler-shifted Planar Laser-induced Fluorescence (PLIF) imaging of the OH radical. The imaging approach permits, in principle, single-shot measurements of the 2-D distribution of a single velocity component in the measurement plane, and is thus a technique of choice for applications in high enthalpy transient flow facilities. In contrast to previous work in this area, the present program demonstrated an approach which modified the diagnostic technique to function under the constraints of practical flow conditions of engineering interest, rather than vice-versa. In order to accomplish the experimental demonstrations, the state-of-the-art in PLIF diagnostic techniques was advanced in several ways. Each of these tasks is described in detail and is intended to serve as a reference in supporting the transition of this new capability to the fielded PLIF instruments now installed at several national test facilities. Among the new results of general interest in LlF-based flow diagnostics, a detailed set of the first measurements of the collisional broadening and shifting behavior of OH (1,0) band transitions in H7-air combustion environments is included. Such measurements are critical in the design of a successful strategy for PLIF velocity imaging; they also relate to accurate concentration and temperature measurements, particularly in compressible flow regimes. Furthermore, the results shed new light on the fundamental relationship between broadening and energy transfer collisions in OH A(sup 2)Sigma(+)v(sup ') = 1. The first single-pulse, spectrally-resolved measurements of the output of common pulsed dye lasers were also produced during the course of this effort. As with the OH broadening measurements, these data are a significant aspect of a successful velocity imaging strategy, and also have

  4. Algebraic structure of general electromagnetic fields and energy flow

    SciTech Connect

    Hacyan, Shahen

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > Algebraic structure of general electromagnetic fields in stationary spacetime. > Eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the electomagnetic field tensor. > Energy-momentum in terms of eigenvectors and Killing vector. > Explicit form of reference frame with vanishing Poynting vector. > Application of formalism to Bessel beams. - Abstract: The algebraic structures of a general electromagnetic field and its energy-momentum tensor in a stationary space-time are analyzed. The explicit form of the reference frame in which the energy of the field appears at rest is obtained in terms of the eigenvectors of the electromagnetic tensor and the existing Killing vector. The case of a stationary electromagnetic field is also studied and a comparison is made with the standard short-wave approximation. The results can be applied to the general case of a structured light beams, in flat or curved spaces. Bessel beams are worked out as example.

  5. The flow field investigations of no load conditions in axial flow fixed-blade turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Gao, L.; Wang, Z. W.; Zhou, X. Z.; Xu, H. X.

    2014-03-01

    During the start-up process, the strong instabilities happened at no load operation in a low head axial flow fixed-blade turbine, with strong pressure pulsation and vibration. The rated speed can not reach until guide vane opening to some extent, and stable operation could not be maintained under the rated speed at some head, which had a negative impact on the grid-connected operation of the unit. In order to find the reason of this phenomenon, the unsteady flow field of the whole flow passage at no load conditions was carried out to analyze the detailed fluid field characteristics including the pressure pulsation and force imposed on the runner under three typical heads. The main hydraulic cause of no load conditions instability was described. It is recommended that the power station should try to reduce the no-load running time and go into the high load operation as soon as possible when connected to grid at the rated head. Following the recommendations, the plant operation practice proved the unstable degree of the unit was reduced greatly during start up and connect to the power grid.

  6. Optimization of flow field-flow fractionation for the characterization of natural colloids.

    PubMed

    El Hadri, Hind; Gigault, Julien; Chéry, Philippe; Potin-Gautier, Martine; Lespes, Gaëtane

    2014-02-01

    The methodological approach used to robustly optimize the characterization of the polydisperse colloidal phase of drain water samples is presented. The approach is based on asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation coupled to online ultraviolet/visible spectrophotometry, multi-angle light scattering, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Operating factors such as the amount of sample injected and the ratio between main-flow and cross-flow rates were considered. The evaluation of the injection and fractionation steps was performed considering the polydispersity index and the contribution to the polydispersity of the plate height, the recovery, the retention ratio and the size range of the fractionated colloids. This approach allows the polydispersity of natural colloid samples to be taken into consideration to achieve the most efficient and representative fractionation. In addition to the size characterization, elemental analysis was also evaluated using the recovery, precision, and limits of detection and quantification relative to a trace element of interest (copper) in drain water. To complete this investigation, the potential application of the methodology was assessed using several independent drain water samples from different soils. The contribution of the polydispersity to the plate height ranges from 4.8 to 8.9 cm with a mean precision of 6%. The mean colloidal recovery was 81 ± 3 %, and the mean retention ratio was 0.043-0.062. The limits of detection and quantification for copper were 0.6 and 1.8 μg L(-1), respectively.

  7. A water tunnel flow visualization study of the F-15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorincz, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    Water tunnel studies were performed to qualitatively define the flow field of the F-15 aircraft. Two lengthened forebodies, one with a modified cross-sectional shape, were tested in addition to the basic forebody. Particular emphasis was placed on defining vortex flows generated at high angles of attack. The flow visualization tests were conducted in the Northrop diagnostic water tunnel using a 1/48-scale model of the F-15. Flow visualization pictures were obtained over an angle-of-attack range to 55 deg and sideslip angles up to 10 deg. The basic aircraft configuration was investigated in detail to determine the vortex flow field development, vortex path, and vortex breakdown characteristics as a function of angle of attack and sideslip. Additional tests showed that the wing upper surface vortex flow fields were sensitive to variations in inlet mass flow ratio and inlet cowl deflection angle. Asymmetries in the vortex systems generated by each of the three forebodies were observed in the water tunnel at zero sideslip and high angles of attack.

  8. Magnetic field distribution in the plasma flow generated by a plasma focus discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Mitrofanov, K. N.; Krauz, V. I. Myalton, V. V.; Velikhov, E. P.; Vinogradov, V. P.; Vinogradova, Yu. V.

    2014-11-15

    The magnetic field in the plasma jet propagating from the plasma pinch region along the axis of the chamber in a megajoule PF-3 plasma focus facility is studied. The dynamics of plasma with a trapped magnetic flow is analyzed. The spatial sizes of the plasma jet region in which the magnetic field concentrates are determined in the radial and axial directions. The magnetic field configuration in the plasma jet is investigated: the radial distribution of the azimuthal component of the magnetic field inside the jet is determined. It is shown that the magnetic induction vector at a given point in space can change its direction during the plasma flight. Conclusions regarding the symmetry of the plasma flow propagation relative to the chamber axis are drawn.

  9. Slug-flow behavior clarified in large-diameter pipeline study

    SciTech Connect

    Fairhurst, C.P. )

    1988-10-03

    A detailed study of slug-flow characteristics has used field-measured slug data from Prudhoe Bay pipelines and tests by BP on its Magnus platform to help define new findings on this aspect of multiphase flow.

  10. Time-resolved PIV measurements of the flow field in a stenosed, compliant arterial model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geoghegan, P. H.; Buchmann, N. A.; Soria, J.; Jermy, M. C.

    2013-05-01

    Compliant (flexible) structures play an important role in several biological flows including the lungs, heart and arteries. Coronary heart disease is caused by a constriction in the artery due to a build-up of atherosclerotic plaque. This plaque is also of major concern in the carotid artery which supplies blood to the brain. Blood flow within these arteries is strongly influenced by the movement of the wall. To study these problems experimentally in vitro, especially using flow visualisation techniques, can be expensive due to the high-intensity and high-repetition rate light sources required. In this work, time-resolved particle image velocimetry using a relatively low-cost light-emitting diode illumination system was applied to the study of a compliant flow phantom representing a stenosed (constricted) carotid artery experiencing a physiologically realistic flow wave. Dynamic similarity between in vivo and in vitro conditions was ensured in phantom construction by matching the distensibility and the elastic wave propagation wavelength and in the fluid system through matching Reynolds ( Re) and Womersley number ( α) with a maximum, minimum and mean Re of 939, 379 and 632, respectively, and a α of 4.54. The stenosis had a symmetric constriction of 50 % by diameter (75 % by area). Once the flow rate reached a critical value, Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities were observed to occur in the shear layer between the main jet exiting the stenosis and a reverse flow region that occurred at a radial distance of 0.34 D from the axis of symmetry in the region on interest 0-2.5 D longitudinally downstream from the stenosis exit. The instability had an axis-symmetric nature, but as peak flow rate was approached this symmetry breaks down producing instability in the flow field. The characteristics of the vortex train were sensitive not only to the instantaneous flow rate, but also to whether the flow was accelerating or decelerating globally.

  11. Nanoparticle separation with a miniaturized asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation cartridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, David; Cattaneo, Stefano; Meier, Florian; Welz, Roland; deMello, Andrew

    2015-07-01

    Asymmetrical Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (AF4) is a separation technique applicable to particles over a wide size range. Despite the many advantages of AF4, its adoption in routine particle analysis is somewhat limited by the large footprint of currently available separation cartridges, extended analysis times and significant solvent consumption. To address these issues, we describe the fabrication and characterization of miniaturized AF4 cartridges. Key features of the scale-down platform include simplified cartridge and reagent handling, reduced analysis costs and higher throughput capacities. The separation performance of the miniaturized cartridge is assessed using certified gold and silver nanoparticle standards. Analysis of gold nanoparticle populations indicates shorter analysis times and increased sensitivity compared to conventional AF4 separation schemes. Moreover, nanoparticulate titanium dioxide populations exhibiting broad size distributions are analyzed in a rapid and efficient manner. Finally, the repeatability and reproducibility of the miniaturized platform are investigated with respect to analysis time and separation efficiency.

  12. Effect of condensation in a diffuser on the flow field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Wangxing; Ma, Jiaju

    1990-06-01

    Condensation is possible when the ambient humidity and Mach number of the air flow in the inlet are both sufficiently high. The condensation leads the average turbulence to be increased by 12-25 percent and the steady-state distortion factor DC60 to be changed in the experimental range. The condensation effect on the distortion flowfield should be considered in the study of tolerability between engine and inlet.

  13. Experimental study of periodic flow effects on spanwise vortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Molina, Cruz Daniel; Lopez Sanchez, Erick Javier; Ruiz Chavarria, Gerardo; Medina Ovando, Abraham

    2014-11-01

    We present an experimental study about the spanwise vortex produced in a flow going out of a channel in shallow waters. This vortex travels in front of the dipole. The velocity field measurement was done using the PIV technique, and DPIVsoft (https://www.irphe.fr/ ~meunier/) was used for data processing. In this case the flow has a periodic forcing to simulate ocean tides. The experiment was conducted in a channel with variable width and the measurements were made using three different values of the aspect ratio width-depth. We present results of the position, circulation of this spanwise vortex and the flow inversion effect. The change of flow direction modify the intensity of the vortex, but it does not destroy it. The vertical components of the velocity field contributes particle transport. G. Ruiz Chavarria, E. J. Lopez Sanchez and C. D. Garcia Molina acknowledge DGAPA-UNAM by support under project IN 116312 (Vorticidad y ondas no lineales en fluidos).

  14. Vertical Subsurface Flow Mixing and Horizontal Anisotropy in Coarse Fluvial Aquifers: Flow Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, E.; Huggenberger, P.

    2014-12-01

    A stochastic object-based model for hydrogeological aquifer characterization of coarse braided-river deposits has been developed based (1) on sedimentological observations of ancient coarse braided-river deposits and ground penetrating radar surveys on the floodplain of the Tagliamento River (Northeast Italy) and (2) on observations of the morphodynamics of the Tagliamento River. We assume that at each large flow event, flow-confluence scours are formed and filled during their migration, and subsequently covered by downstream moving gravel sheets of poorly sorted sediments. The object-based model mimics this behaviour: at each iteration truncated ellipsoids (scour-fill deposits) are distributed, as a marked point process, at the previous simulated floodplain surface and are followed on top by a layer with a specified thickness (gravel sheets) that define the next floodplain topography. The truncated ellipsoids have erosional and depositional properties. Compared with the scour-fills, the gravel sheets show much less variability and a much smaller hydraulic conductivities with only a vertical anisotropy. Accordingly, specific three-dimensional hydraulic conductivity tensors and porosity values are stochastically attributed to the truncated ellipsoids and the horizontal layers. This object-based model is able to simulate a large range of the morphodynamics of braided-river systems (scenarios) that result in different sediment sorting processes and, in turn, in specific hydraulic heterogeneity and connectivity patterns of high permeable units. In the context of surface water-groundwater interaction the model is used to assess the impact of some scenarios on the groundwater flow field as well as on solute transport. We evaluate the vertical mixing of the groundwater flows, the horizontal flow deviation caused by the anisotropy of the scour-fill deposits as well as the solute transport behaviour. We discuss the specific hydraulic responses in relation with the

  15. Sedimentation Field-Flow Fractionation of Nonspherical Particles

    PubMed

    Blau; Zollars

    1996-11-10

    Sedimentation field-flow fractionation (SdFFF) has proved to be a very powerful technique for the particle size analysis of submicrometer hydrosols. Recently reports have been published on the analysis of coagulated latex samples via SdFFF. In these investigations the coagulated particles do not behave as predicted by SdFFF theory but elute from the SdFFF channel more rapidly than expected. This behavior has been ascribed to the effect of particle shape on retention. In this investigation samples of monodisperse polystyrene latices were coagulated under shear to yield particles which were all alike in shape (rod-like). Analyzing these samples via SdFFF indicated that retention is determined by the maximum dimension of the particle rather than by any average size. For highly retained particles there was an additional effect acting to shorten the expected retention time due to the tumbling motion of the rod-like particles in the shear flow through the SdFFF channel.

  16. Numerical simulation of supersonic and hypersonic inlet flow fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcrae, D. Scott; Kontinos, Dean A.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the research performed by North Carolina State University and NASA Ames Research Center under Cooperative Agreement NCA2-719, 'Numerical Simulation of Supersonic and Hypersonic Inlet Flow Fields". Four distinct rotated upwind schemes were developed and investigated to determine accuracy and practicality. The scheme found to have the best combination of attributes, including reduction to grid alignment with no rotation, was the cell centered non-orthogonal (CCNO) scheme. In 2D, the CCNO scheme improved rotation when flux interpolation was extended to second order. In 3D, improvements were less dramatic in all cases, with second order flux interpolation showing the least improvement over grid aligned upwinding. The reduction in improvement is attributed to uncertainty in determining optimum rotation angle and difficulty in performing accurate and efficient interpolation of the angle in 3D. The CCNO rotational technique will prove very useful for increasing accuracy when second order interpolation is not appropriate and will materially improve inlet flow solutions.

  17. The Interaction of Focused Attention with Flow-field Sensitivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoffregen, T.

    1984-01-01

    Two studies were performed to determine whether a subject's response to naturalistic optical flow specifying egomotion would be affected by a concurrent attention task. In the first study subjects stood in a moving room in which various areas of the optical flow generated by room movement were visible. Subjects responded to room motion with strong compensatory sway when the entire room was visible. When the side walls of the room were completely obscured by stationary screens, leaving only the front wall visible, sway was significantly reduced, though it remained greater than in an eyes-closed control. In Exp. 2 subjects were presented with either the full room (large sway response) or the room with only the front wall visible (moderate response), each in combination with either a hard or easy verbal addition task. Preliminary results show that swaying in the fully visible room and in the room with only the front wall visible increased when combined with either the hard or easy tasks. These preliminary results suggest that at the least the pick-up of optical flow specifying egomotion is not affected by concurrent attentional activity.

  18. Large Eddy Simulation of Transonic Flow Field in NASA Rotor 37

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hah, Chunill

    2009-01-01

    The current paper reports on numerical investigations on the flow characteristics in a transonic axial compressor, NASA Rotor 37. The flow field was used previously as a CFD blind test case conducted by American Society of Mechanical Engineers in 1994. Since the CFD blind-test exercise, many numerical studies on the flow field in the NASA Rotor 37 have been reported. Although steady improvements have been reported in both numerical procedure and turbulence closure, it is believed that all the important aspects of the flow field have not been fully explained with numerical studies based on the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solution. Experimental data show large dip in total pressure distribution near the hub at downstream of the rotor at 100% rotor speed. Most original numerical solutions from the blind test exercise did not predict this total pressure deficit correctly. This total pressure deficit at the rotor exit was attributed to a hub corner flow separation by the author. Several subsequent numerical studies with different turbulence closure model also calculated this dip in total pressure rise. Also, several studies attributed this total pressure deficit to a small leakage flow coming from the hub in the test article. As the experimental study cannot be repeated, either explanation cannot be validated. The primary purpose of the current investigation is to investigate the transonic flow field with both RANS and a Large Eddy Simulation (LES). The RANS approach gives similar results presented at the original blind test exercise. Although the RANS calculates higher overall total pressure rise, the total pressure deficit near the hub is calculated correctly. The numerical solution shows that the total pressure deficit is due to a hub corner flow separation. The calculated pressure rise from the LES agrees better with the measured total pressure rise especially near the casing area where the passage shock interacts with the tip clearance vortex and flow

  19. [The Diagnostics of Detonation Flow External Field Based on Multispectral Absorption Spectroscopy Technology].

    PubMed

    Lü, Xiao-jing; Li, Ning; Weng, Chun-sheng

    2016-03-01

    Compared with traditional sampling-based sensing method, absorption spectroscopy technology is well suitable for detonation flow diagnostics, since it can provide with us fast response, nonintrusive, sensitive solution for situ measurements of multiple flow-field parameters. The temperature and concentration test results are the average values along the laser path with traditional absorption spectroscopy technology, while the boundary of detonation flow external field is unknown and it changes all the time during the detonation engine works, traditional absorption spectroscopy technology is no longer suitable for detonation diagnostics. The trend of line strength with temperature varies with different absorption lines. By increasing the number of absorption lines in the test path, more information of the non-uniform flow field can be obtained. In this paper, based on multispectral absorption technology, the reconstructed model of detonation flow external field distribution was established according to the simulation results of space-time conservation element and solution element method, and a diagnostic method of detonation flow external field was given. The model deviation and calculation error of the least squares method adopted were studied by simulation, and the maximum concentration and temperature calculation error was 20.1% and 3.2%, respectively. Four absorption lines of H2O were chosen and detonation flow was scanned at the same time. The detonation external flow testing system was set up for the valveless gas-liquid continuous pulse detonation engine with the diameter of 80 mm. Through scanning H2O absorption lines with a high frequency of 10 kHz, the on-line detection of detonation external flow was realized by direct absorption method combined with time-division multiplexing technology, and the reconstruction of dynamic temperature distribution was realized as well for the first time, both verifying the feasibility of the test method. The test results

  20. [The Diagnostics of Detonation Flow External Field Based on Multispectral Absorption Spectroscopy Technology].

    PubMed

    Lü, Xiao-jing; Li, Ning; Weng, Chun-sheng

    2016-03-01

    Compared with traditional sampling-based sensing method, absorption spectroscopy technology is well suitable for detonation flow diagnostics, since it can provide with us fast response, nonintrusive, sensitive solution for situ measurements of multiple flow-field parameters. The temperature and concentration test results are the average values along the laser path with traditional absorption spectroscopy technology, while the boundary of detonation flow external field is unknown and it changes all the time during the detonation engine works, traditional absorption spectroscopy technology is no longer suitable for detonation diagnostics. The trend of line strength with temperature varies with different absorption lines. By increasing the number of absorption lines in the test path, more information of the non-uniform flow field can be obtained. In this paper, based on multispectral absorption technology, the reconstructed model of detonation flow external field distribution was established according to the simulation results of space-time conservation element and solution element method, and a diagnostic method of detonation flow external field was given. The model deviation and calculation error of the least squares method adopted were studied by simulation, and the maximum concentration and temperature calculation error was 20.1% and 3.2%, respectively. Four absorption lines of H2O were chosen and detonation flow was scanned at the same time. The detonation external flow testing system was set up for the valveless gas-liquid continuous pulse detonation engine with the diameter of 80 mm. Through scanning H2O absorption lines with a high frequency of 10 kHz, the on-line detection of detonation external flow was realized by direct absorption method combined with time-division multiplexing technology, and the reconstruction of dynamic temperature distribution was realized as well for the first time, both verifying the feasibility of the test method. The test results

  1. Magnetic field flow phenomena in a falling particle receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armijo, Kenneth M.; Ho, Clifford; Anderson, Ryan; Christian, Joshua; Babiniec, Sean; Ortega, Jesus

    2016-05-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) falling particle receivers are being pursued as a desired means for utilizing low-cost, high-absorptance particulate materials that can withstand high concentration ratios (˜1000 suns), operating temperatures above 700 °C, and inherent storage capabilities which can be used to reduce to levelized cost of electricity (LCOE)1. Although previous falling particle receiver designs have proven outlet temperatures above 800 °C, and thermal efficiencies between 80-90%, performance challenges still exist to operate at higher concentration ratios above 1000 suns and greater solar absorptance levels. To increase absorptance, these receivers will require enhanced particle residence time within a concentrated beam of sunlight. Direct absorption solid particle receivers that can enhance this residence time will have the potential to achieve heat-transfer media temperatures2 over 1000 °C. However, depending on particle size and external forces (e.g., external wind and flow due to convective heat losses), optimized particle flow can be severely affected, which can reduce receiver efficiency. To reduce particle flow destabilization and increase particle residence time on the receiver an imposed magnetic field is proposed based on a collimated design for two different methodologies. These include systems with ferromagnetic and charged particle materials. The approaches will be analytically evaluated based on magnetic field strength, geometry, and particle parameters, such as magnetic moment. A model is developed using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code ANSYS FLUENT to analyze these approaches for a ˜2 MWth falling particle receiver at Sandia National Laboratories5,6. Here, assessment will be made with respect to ferromagnetic particles such as iron-oxides, as well as charged particles. These materials will be parametrically assessed (e.g., type, size, dipole moment and geometry) over a range of magnetic permeability, μ values. Modeling

  2. Investigations on proton exchange membrane fuel cells with different configurations and flow fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazim, Ayoub Mohamed

    In this study, two mathematical models are developed. The first one is a simple mathematical approach that computes all transport and electrochemical parameters inside the different layers of a fuel cell regardless of its configuration. Through heat and mass transfer analogy, convective mass transfer coefficients at different Reynolds number are determined for both concentric cylindrical and conventional proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. Concentrations of oxygen and hydrogen are then determined at each layer of the fuel cell using steady-state diffusion analysis. The concentration equations are solved together with the electrochemical equations inside the fuel cell, to obtain the fuel cell voltage and power density. The results from this simple approach compared well with the existing numerical and experimental results. The second mathematical model is to study PEM fuel cell with conventional and non-conventional namely interdigitated flow fields. Through proper handling of the boundary conditions at the gas diffusion/catalyst layer interface, the numerical solution of the model resulted in the profiles of transport and electrochemical parameters in the cathode. Parameters such as pressure distribution, velocity profile, oxygen concentration, molar flux, current density, polarization and overall power density at different cell over-potentials in both flow fields were determined. The results demonstrates the superiority of interdigitated flow field over the conventional type in terms of overall performance and illustrated the importance of the convective term of the species equation in enhancing the reaction rates, leading to a significant improvement in the fuel cell performance. The effects of different parameters, such as cathode porosity, inlet oxygen mole fraction, and operating pressure on fuel cell performance have been studied using this 2-D mathematical model. Finally, a simple efficiency and economical analysis was formulated and implemented on

  3. Extraction of skin-friction fields from surface flow visualizations as an inverse problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tianshu

    2013-12-01

    Extraction of high-resolution skin-friction fields from surface flow visualization images as an inverse problem is discussed from a unified perspective. The surface flow visualizations used in this study are luminescent oil-film visualization and heat-transfer and mass-transfer visualizations with temperature- and pressure-sensitive paints (TSPs and PSPs). The theoretical foundations of these global methods are the thin-oil-film equation and the limiting forms of the energy- and mass-transport equations at a wall, which are projected onto the image plane to provide the relationships between a skin-friction field and the relevant quantities measured by using an imaging system. Since these equations can be re-cast in the same mathematical form as the optical flow equation, they can be solved by using the variational method in the image plane to extract relative or normalized skin-friction fields from images. Furthermore, in terms of instrumentation, essentially the same imaging system for measurements of luminescence can be used in these surface flow visualizations. Examples are given to demonstrate the applications of these methods in global skin-friction diagnostics of complex flows.

  4. Field dipolarization in Saturn's magnetotail with planetward ion flows and energetic particle flow bursts: Evidence of quasi-steady reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackman, C. M.; Thomsen, M. F.; Mitchell, D. G.; Sergis, N.; Arridge, C. S.; Felici, M.; Badman, S. V.; Paranicas, C.; Jia, X.; Hospodarksy, G. B.; Andriopoulou, M.; Khurana, K. K.; Smith, A. W.; Dougherty, M. K.

    2015-05-01

    We present a case study of an event from 20 August (day 232) of 2006, when the Cassini spacecraft was sampling the region near 32 RS and 22 h LT in Saturn's magnetotail. Cassini observed a strong northward-to-southward turning of the magnetic field, which is interpreted as the signature of dipolarization of the field as seen by the spacecraft planetward of the reconnection X line. This event was accompanied by very rapid (up to ~1500 km s-1) thermal plasma flow toward the planet. At energies above 28 keV, energetic hydrogen and oxygen ion flow bursts were observed to stream planetward from a reconnection site downtail of the spacecraft. Meanwhile, a strong field-aligned beam of energetic hydrogen was also observed to stream tailward, likely from an ionospheric source. Saturn kilometric radiation emissions were stimulated shortly after the observation of the dipolarization. We discuss the field, plasma, energetic particle, and radio observations in the context of the impact this reconnection event had on global magnetospheric dynamics.

  5. Reynolds stress flow shear and turbulent energy transfer in reversed field pinch configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vianello, Nicola; Spolaore, Monica; Serianni, Gianluigi; Regnoli, Giorgio; Spada, Emanuele; Antoni, Vanni; Bergsåker, Henric; Drake, James R.

    2003-10-01

    The role of Reynolds Stress tensor on flow generation in turbulent fluids and plasmas is still an open question and the comprehension of its behavior may assist the understanding of improved confinement scenario. It is generally believed that shear flow generation may occur by an interaction of the turbulent Reynolds stress with the shear flow. It is also generally believed that this mechanism may influence the generation of zonal flow shears. The evaluation of the complete Reynolds Stress tensor requires contemporary measurements of its electrostatic and magnetic part: this requirement is more restrictive for Reversed Field Pinch configuration where magnetic fluctuations are larger than in tokamak . A new diagnostic system which combines electrostatic and magnetic probes has been installed in the edge region of Extrap-T2R reversed field pinch. With this new probe the Reynolds stress tensor has been deduced and its radial profile has been reconstructed on a shot to shot basis exploring differen plasma conditions. These profiles have been compared with the naturally occurring velocity flow profile, in particular during Pulsed Poloidal Current Drive experiment, where a strong variation of ExB flow radial profile has been registered. The study of the temporal evolution of Reynolds stress reveals the appearance of strong localized bursts: these are considered in relation with global MHD relaxation phenomena, which naturally occur in the core of an RFP plasma sustaining its configuration.

  6. Alignment of two-point statistics with respect to mean deformation field in anisotropic turbulent flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morshed, Khandakar; Dasi, Lakshmi

    2013-11-01

    We study the variations in two-point correlation functions and second-order structure functions in the strongly anisotropic turbulent flow past a backward facing step. Time-resolved particle image velocimetry measurements were performed in a stationary turbulent flow past a backward facing step at Reynolds numbers 13,600, 9,000, and 5,500 based on the maximum velocity and step size. Measurements revealed a strongly anisotropic large-scale flow with an intense turbulent free-shear layer downstream of the step. Comparison among local two-point correlation functions and second-order structure functions at varying locations within the measurement domain reveals a mechanistic relationship between the magnitude of mean flow deformation field and the spatial organization of the two-point statistics in 360 degrees. It is shown that the local spatial variation in rms velocity significantly induces local anisotropy at arbitrarily small length scales.

  7. Computational Relativistic Astrophysics Using the Flow Field-Dependent Variation Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, G. A.; Chung, T. J.

    2002-01-01

    We present our method for solving general relativistic nonideal hydrodynamics. Relativistic effects become pronounced in such cases as jet formation from black hole magnetized accretion disks which may lead to the study of gamma-ray bursts. Nonideal flows are present where radiation, magnetic forces, viscosities, and turbulence play an important role. Our concern in this paper is to reexamine existing numerical simulation tools as to the accuracy and efficiency of computations and introduce a new approach known as the flow field-dependent variation (FDV) method. The main feature of the FDV method consists of accommodating discontinuities of shock waves and high gradients of flow variables such as occur in turbulence and unstable motions. In this paper, the physics involved in the solution of relativistic hydrodynamics and solution strategies of the FDV theory are elaborated. The general relativistic astrophysical flow and shock solver (GRAFSS) is introduced, and some simple example problems for computational relativistic astrophysics (CRA) are demonstrated.

  8. Flow field computation of the NREL S809 airfoil using various turbulence models

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y.L.; Yang, S.L.; Arici, O.

    1996-10-01

    Performance comparison of three popular turbulence models, namely Baldwin-Lomas algebraic model, Chien`s Low-Reynolds-Number {kappa}-{epsilon} model, and Wilcox`s Low-Reynolds-Number {kappa}-{omega} model, is given. These models were applied to calculate the flow field around the National Renewable Energy Laboratory S809 airfoil using Total Variational Diminishing scheme. Numerical results of C{sub P}, C{sub L}, and C{sub D} are presented along with the Delft experimental data. It is shown that all three models perform well for attached flow, i.e., no flow separation at low angles of attack. However, at high angles of attack with flow separation, convergence characteristics show Wilcox`s model outperforms the other models. Results of this study will be used to guide the authors in their dynamic stall research.

  9. X-ray densitometry based void fraction flow field measurements of cavitating flow in the wake of a circular cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Tiezhi; Ganesh, Harish; Ceccio, Steven

    2015-11-01

    At sufficiently low cavitation number, the wake vortices behind bluff objects will cavitate. The presence of developed cavitation can alter the underlying vortical flow. In this study, cavitation dynamics in the wake of a circular cylinder is examined in order to determine the relationship between the void fraction in the cavity wake and the resulting modification to the flow compared to the non-cavitating flow. Cavitation in the wake of a cylinder is investigated using high-speed video cameras and cinematographic X-ray densitometry. Using synchronized top and side views from high-speed video cameras, the morphology and extent of the cavities forming on the wake of the circular cylinder is studied for a range of cavitation numbers, at a Reynolds number of 1x10-5, which lies at the transition region between sub-critical to critical regime of wake transitions. The time resolved and mean X-ray densitometry based void fraction of the spanwise and plan view averaged flow field will be related to the vortex dynamics in an attempt to understand the role of vapor production in the observed dynamics.

  10. Inductionless magnetorotational instability in a Taylor-Couette flow with a helical magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Priede, Jānis; Grants, Ilmārs; Gerbeth, Gunter

    2007-04-01

    We consider the magnetorotational instability (MRI) of a hydrodynamically stable Taylor-Couette flow with a helical external magnetic field in the inductionless approximation defined by a zero magnetic Prandtl number (Pm=0) . This leads to a considerable simplification of the problem eventually containing only hydrodynamic variables. First, we point out that magnetic field adds more dissipation while it does not change the base flow which is the only source of energy for growing perturbations. Thus, it seems unclear from the energetic point of view how such a hydrodynamically stable flow can turn unstable in the presence of a helical magnetic field as it has been found recently by Hollerbach and Rüdiger [Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 124501 (2005)]. We revisit this problem by using a Chebyshev collocation method to calculate the eigenvalue spectrum of the linearized problem. In this way, we confirm that a helical magnetic field can indeed destabilize the flow in the inductionless approximation. Second, we integrate the linearized equations in time to study the transient behavior of small amplitude perturbations, thus showing that the energy arguments are correct as well. However, there is no real contradiction between both facts. The linear stability theory predicts the asymptotic development of an arbitrary small-amplitude perturbation, while the energy stability theory yields the instant growth rate of any particular perturbation, but it does not account for the evolution of this perturbation. Thus, although switching on the magnetic field instantly increases the energy decay rate of the dominating hydrodynamic perturbation, in the same time this perturbation ceases to be an eigenmode in the presence of the magnetic field. Consequently, this perturbation is transformed with time and so becomes able to extract energy from the base flow necessary for the growth. PMID:17501021

  11. Inductionless magnetorotational instability in a Taylor-Couette flow with a helical magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priede, Jānis; Grants, Ilmārs; Gerbeth, Gunter

    2007-04-01

    We consider the magnetorotational instability (MRI) of a hydrodynamically stable Taylor-Couette flow with a helical external magnetic field in the inductionless approximation defined by a zero magnetic Prandtl number (Pm=0) . This leads to a considerable simplification of the problem eventually containing only hydrodynamic variables. First, we point out that magnetic field adds more dissipation while it does not change the base flow which is the only source of energy for growing perturbations. Thus, it seems unclear from the energetic point of view how such a hydrodynamically stable flow can turn unstable in the presence of a helical magnetic field as it has been found recently by Hollerbach and Rüdiger [Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 124501 (2005)]. We revisit this problem by using a Chebyshev collocation method to calculate the eigenvalue spectrum of the linearized problem. In this way, we confirm that a helical magnetic field can indeed destabilize the flow in the inductionless approximation. Second, we integrate the linearized equations in time to study the transient behavior of small amplitude perturbations, thus showing that the energy arguments are correct as well. However, there is no real contradiction between both facts. The linear stability theory predicts the asymptotic development of an arbitrary small-amplitude perturbation, while the energy stability theory yields the instant growth rate of any particular perturbation, but it does not account for the evolution of this perturbation. Thus, although switching on the magnetic field instantly increases the energy decay rate of the dominating hydrodynamic perturbation, in the same time this perturbation ceases to be an eigenmode in the presence of the magnetic field. Consequently, this perturbation is transformed with time and so becomes able to extract energy from the base flow necessary for the growth.

  12. Assessment of the influence of field size on maize gene flow using SSR analysis.

    PubMed

    Palaudelmàs, M; Melé, E; Monfort, A; Serra, J; Salvia, J; Messeguer, J

    2012-06-01

    One of the factors that may influence the rate of cross-fertilization is the relative size of the pollen donor and receptor fields. We designed a spatial distribution with four varieties of genetically-modified (GM) yellow maize to generate different sized fields while maintaining a constant distance to neighbouring fields of conventional white kernel maize. Samples of cross-fertilized, yellow kernels in white cobs were collected from all of the adjacent fields at different distances. A special series of samples was collected at distances of 0, 2, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 and 120 m following a transect traced in the dominant down-wind direction in order to identify the origin of the pollen through SSR analysis. The size of the receptor fields should be taken into account, especially when they extend in the same direction than the GM pollen flow is coming. From collected data, we then validated a function that takes into account the gene flow found in the field border and that is very useful for estimating the % of GM that can be found in any point of the field. It also serves to predict the total GM content of the field due to cross fertilization. Using SSR analysis to identify the origin of pollen showed that while changes in the size of the donor field clearly influence the percentage of GMO detected, this effect is moderate. This study demonstrates that doubling the donor field size resulted in an approximate increase of GM content in the receptor field of 7%. This indicates that variations in the size of the donor field have a smaller influence on GM content than variations in the size of the receptor field. PMID:21898271

  13. Assessment of the influence of field size on maize gene flow using SSR analysis.

    PubMed

    Palaudelmàs, M; Melé, E; Monfort, A; Serra, J; Salvia, J; Messeguer, J

    2012-06-01

    One of the factors that may influence the rate of cross-fertilization is the relative size of the pollen donor and receptor fields. We designed a spatial distribution with four varieties of genetically-modified (GM) yellow maize to generate different sized fields while maintaining a constant distance to neighbouring fields of conventional white kernel maize. Samples of cross-fertilized, yellow kernels in white cobs were collected from all of the adjacent fields at different distances. A special series of samples was collected at distances of 0, 2, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 and 120 m following a transect traced in the dominant down-wind direction in order to identify the origin of the pollen through SSR analysis. The size of the receptor fields should be taken into account, especially when they extend in the same direction than the GM pollen flow is coming. From collected data, we then validated a function that takes into account the gene flow found in the field border and that is very useful for estimating the % of GM that can be found in any point of the field. It also serves to predict the total GM content of the field due to cross fertilization. Using SSR analysis to identify the origin of pollen showed that while changes in the size of the donor field clearly influence the percentage of GMO detected, this effect is moderate. This study demonstrates that doubling the donor field size resulted in an approximate increase of GM content in the receptor field of 7%. This indicates that variations in the size of the donor field have a smaller influence on GM content than variations in the size of the receptor field.

  14. Size characterization and quantification of exosomes by asymmetrical-flow field-flow fractionation.

    PubMed

    Sitar, Simona; Kejžar, Anja; Pahovnik, David; Kogej, Ksenija; Tušek-Žnidarič, Magda; Lenassi, Metka; Žagar, Ema

    2015-09-15

    In the past few years extracellular vesicles called exosomes have gained huge interest of scientific community since they show a great potential for human diagnostic and therapeutic applications. However, an ongoing challenge is accurate size characterization and quantification of exosomes because of the lack of reliable characterization techniques. In this work, the emphasis was focused on a method development to size-separate, characterize, and quantify small amounts of exosomes by asymmetrical-flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) technique coupled to a multidetection system (UV and MALS). Batch DLS (dynamic light-scattering) and NTA (nanoparticle tracking analysis) analyses of unfractionated exosomes were also conducted to evaluate their shape and internal structure, as well as their number density. The results show significant influence of cross-flow conditions and channel thickness on fractionation quality of exosomes, whereas the focusing time has less impact. The AF4/UV-MALS and DLS results display the presence of two particles subpopulations, that is, the larger exosomes and the smaller vesicle-like particles, which coeluted in AF4 together with impurities in early eluting peak. Compared to DLS and AF4-MALS results, NTA somewhat overestimates the size and the number density for larger exosome population, but it discriminates the smaller particle population.

  15. Detection and identification of microorganisms using a combined flow field-flow fractionation/spectroscopy technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xiaojuan

    This doctoral project is focused on the implementation of a novel micron and sub-micron particle characterization technology for in-situ, continuous monitoring and detecting of microorganisms in water. The particle technology is based on simultaneous characterizing the joint particle property distribution (size, shape, and chemical composition) through the combined fractionation/separation and light scattering detection and interpretation techniques. Over more than a decade, field-flow fractionation (FFF) has shown to be well-suited for the separation and/or selection of bacteria (Giddings, 1993). As the most universal fractionation technique among the FFF family, flow field-flow fractionation (FFFF) has been chosen as the separation device in this research. The multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) photometer and the UV-vis/liquid core optical waveguide constitute the primary on-line light scattering detection system. The angular spectra obtained by the MALLS photometer provided information on the shape of microorganism; the multi-wavelength transmission spectra of microorganisms contain quantitative information on their size, number, shape, chemical composition and internal structure, which are essential for identification and classification of microorganisms. Both experimental results and the theoretical prediction have revealed that the particle size resolution capabilities of the FFFF fractionation system coupled with the sensitivity of the laser light scattering to particle shape, and the sensitivity of the UV-vis spectra to cell size, shape, cell orientation and chemical composition offer an integrated system for the identification and classification of microorganisms. The ability to discriminate between cell species was demonstrated by the light scattering and absorption interpretation model, which is based on light scattering theory (Rayleigh-Debye-Gans approximation), spectral deconvolution techniques, and on the approximation of the frequency

  16. Flow Charts: Visualization of Vector Fields on Arbitrary Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guo-Shi; Tricoche, Xavier; Weiskopf, Daniel; Hansen, Charles

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a novel flow visualization method called Flow Charts, which uses a texture atlas approach for the visualization of flows defined over curved surfaces. In this scheme, the surface and its associated flow are segmented into overlapping patches, which are then parameterized and packed in the texture domain. This scheme allows accurate particle advection across multiple charts in the texture domain, providing a flexible framework that supports various flow visualization techniques. The use of surface parameterization enables flow visualization techniques requiring the global view of the surface over long time spans, such as Unsteady Flow LIC (UFLIC), particle-based Unsteady Flow Advection Convolution (UFAC), or dye advection. It also prevents visual artifacts normally associated with view-dependent methods. Represented as textures, Flow Charts can be naturally integrated into hardware accelerated flow visualization techniques for interactive performance. PMID:18599918

  17. Field Flumes to Floodplains: Revealing the Influence of Flow Dynamics in Structuring Aquatic Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    Decades of research has demonstrated the role of flood pulses in energy flow and nutrient cycling in large rivers. However, the study of hydroecology in small to medium size channels has often focused on static processes occurring during steady channel baseflow. Yet storm dynamics and their ecological effects are key issues for land managers responding to accelerating land use change in urban and agricultural areas, grazing lands, and in forested watersheds. As a means to understand the role of variable flows, researchers are increasingly moving towards study designs that explicitly address natural or experimentally altered flows in streams, or manipulation of flow in controlled "stair step" of experimental discharges in smaller field flumes. Studies often focus on both dissolved and fine particulate materials, their redistribution by stormflow, and physical effects of bedform migration and expansion and contraction of surface-water storage and hyporheic zones. In this framework investigators are seeking not only to identify the factors causing "hot spots" of biogeochemical transformation in streams, but also the "hot moments" related to flow variation and its interactions with geomorphic, sediment, and solute dynamics. Examples illustrating these advancements come from studies of flash floods from urban areas and their effects of solute and sediment dynamics in a 2nd order stream, nitrogen cycling and floodplain dynamics in a 5th order river, and longer term co-evolution of pulsed flow hydraulics, geomorphic form, and sediment and nutrient retention in two contrasting river and wetland corridors in the southwestern U.S. and southern Florida.

  18. Near-Surface Flow Fields Deduced Using Correlation Tracking and Time-Distance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeRosa, Marc; Duvall, T. L., Jr.; Toomre, Juri

    1999-01-01

    Near-photospheric flow fields on the Sun are deduced using two independent methods applied to the same time series of velocity images observed by SOI-MDI on SOHO. Differences in travel times between f modes entering and leaving each pixel measured using time-distance helioseismology are used to determine sites of supergranular outflows. Alternatively, correlation tracking analysis of mesogranular scales of motion applied to the same time series is used to deduce the near-surface flow field. These two approaches provide the means to assess the patterns and evolution of horizontal flows on supergranular scales even near disk center, which is not feasible with direct line-of-sight Doppler measurements. We find that the locations of the supergranular outflows seen in flow fields generated from correlation tracking coincide well with the locations of the outflows determined from the time-distance analysis, with a mean correlation coefficient after smoothing of bar-r(sub s) = 0.840. Near-surface velocity field measurements can used to study the evolution of the supergranular network, as merging and splitting events are observed to occur in these images. The data consist of one 2048-minute time series of high-resolution (0.6" pixels) line-of-sight velocity images taken by MDI on 1997 January 16-18 at a cadence of one minute.

  19. Flow field description of the Space Shuttle Vernier reaction control system exhaust plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cerimele, Mary P.; Alred, John W.

    1987-01-01

    The flow field for the Vernier Reaction Control System (VRCS) jets of the Space Shuttle Orbiter has been calculated from the nozzle throat to the far-field region. The calculations involved the use of recently improved rocket engine nozzle/plume codes. The flow field is discussed, and a brief overview of the calculation techniques is presented. In addition, a proposed on-orbit plume measurement experiment, designed to improve future estimations of the Vernier flow field, is addressed.

  20. Evidence for a sedimentary fingerprint of an asymmetric flow field surrounding a short seamount

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnewitsch, Robert; Reyss, Jean-Louis; Chapman, David C.; Thomson, John; Lampitt, Richard S.

    2004-06-01

    Physical oceanographic modeling and field studies have shown that kilometer-scale seafloor elevations of comparable breadth and width (abyssal hills, knolls, seamounts) are surrounded by complex flow fields. Asymmetric flow fields, reversed flow and closed streamlines around the topographic feature (Taylor caps), and resonantly amplified tidal currents around the seamount rim potentially control near-bottom particle dynamics, particle deposition at the seafloor and, consequently, the formation of the sedimentary record. We combine numerical modeling and field data to study how such topographically controlled flow-field features are reflected in the sedimentary record. Sediment deposition on a topographically isolated abyssal knoll (height: 900 m) on the Porcupine Abyssal Plain in the Northeast Atlantic (water depth above the abyssal plain: 4850 m) was studied, (1) by comparing the spatial distribution of 210Pb fluxes, calculated from inventories of sedimentary excess 210Pb, with 210Pb input from the water column as recorded by sediment traps; and (2) by comparing sedimentary grain-size distributions and Zr/Al ratios (an indicator for contents of the heavy mineral zircon) at slope, summit and far-field sites. Given Rossby numbers ≥0.23, a fractional seamount height of ˜0.2, and the absence of diurnal tides it is concluded that an asymmetric flow field without Taylor cap and without amplified tidal currents around the seamount rim is the principal flow-field feature at this knoll. The results and conclusions are as follows: (1) Geochemical and grain-size patterns in the sedimentary record largely agree with the predicted pattern of flow intensity around the topographic elevation: with increasing current strength (erosiveness) there is evidence for a growing discrepancy between water column-derived and sediment-derived 210Pb fluxes, and for increasing contents of larger and heavier particles. The topographically controlled flow field distorts a homogeneous particle

  1. Magnetic Field Generation and Zonal Flows in the Gas Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, L.; Wicht, J.; Gastine, T.

    2013-12-01

    The surface dynamics of Jupiter and Saturn is dominated by a banded system of fierce zonal winds. The depth of these winds remains unclear but they are thought to be confined to the very outer envelopes where hydrogen remains molecular and the electrical conductivity is negligible. The dynamo responsible for the dipole dominated magnetic fields of both Gas Giants, on the other hand, likely operates in the deeper interior where hydrogen assumes a metallic state. We present numerical simulations that attempt to model both the zonal winds and the interior dynamo action in an integrated approach. Using the anelastic version of the MHD code MagIC, we explore the effects of density stratification and radial electrical conductivity variations. The electrical conductivity is assumed to remain constant in the thicker inner metallic region and decays exponentially towards the outer boundary throughout the molecular envelope. Our results show that the combination of stronger density stratification (Δρ≈55) and a weaker conducting outer layer is essential for reconciling dipole dominated dynamo action and a fierce equatorial zonal jet. Previous simulations with homogeneous electrical conductivity show that both are mutually exclusive, with solutions either having strong zonal winds and multipolar magnetic fields or weak zonal winds and dipole dominated magnetic fields. The particular setup explored here allows the equatorial jet to remain confined to the weaker conducting region where is does not interfere with the deeper seated dynamo action. The equatorial jet can afford to remain geostrophic and reaches throughout the whole shell. This is not an option for the additional mid to higher latitude jets, however. In dipole dominated dynamo solutions, appropriate for the Gas Giants, zonal flows remain very faint in the deeper dynamo region but increase in amplitude in the weakly conducting outer layer in some of our simulations. This suggests that the mid to high latitude jets

  2. 3D tomographic reconstruction of the internal velocity field of an immiscible drop in a shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerdraon, Paul; Dalziel, Stuart B.; Goldstein, Raymond E.; Landel, Julien R.; Peaudecerf, Francois J.

    2015-11-01

    We study experimentally the internal flow of a drop attached to a flat substrate and immersed in an immiscible shear flow. Transport inside the drop can play a crucial role in cleaning applications. Internal advection can enhance the mass transfer across the drop surface, thus increasing the cleaning rate. We used microlitre water-glycerol drops on a hydrophobic substrate. The drops were spherical and did not deform significantly under the shear flow. An oil phase of relative viscosity 0.01 to 1 was flowed over the drop. Typical Reynolds numbers inside the drops were of the order of 0.1 to 10. Using confocal microscopy, we performed 3D tomographic reconstruction of the flow field in the drop. The in-plane velocity field was measured using micro-PIV, and the third velocity component was computed from incompressibility. To our knowledge, this study gives the first experimental measurement of the three-dimensional internal velocity field of a drop in a shear flow. Numerical simulations and theoretical models published in the past 30 years predict a toroidal internal recirculation flow, for which the entire surface flows streamwise. However, our measurements reveal a qualitatively different picture with a two-lobed recirculation, featuring two stagnation points at the surface and a reverse surface flow closer to the substrate. This finding appears to be independent of Reynolds number and viscosity ratio in the ranges studied; we conjecture that the observed flow is due to the effect of surfactants at the drop surface.

  3. Introducing dielectrophoresis as a new force field for field-flow fractionation.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Y; Wang, X B; Becker, F F; Gascoyne, P R

    1997-01-01

    We present the principle of cell characterization and separation by dielectrophoretic field-flow fractionation and show preliminary experimental results. The operational device takes the form of a thin chamber in which the bottom wall supports an array of microelectrodes. By applying appropriate AC voltage signals to these electrodes, dielectrophoretic forces are generated to levitate cells suspended in the chamber and to affect their equilibrium heights. A laminar flow profile is established in the chamber so that fluid flows faster with increasing distance from the chamber walls. A cell carried in the flow stream will attain an equilibrium height, and a corresponding velocity, based on the balance of dielectrophoretic, gravitational, and hydrodynamic lift forces it experiences. We describe a theoretical model for this system and show that the cell velocity is a function of the mean fluid velocity, the voltage and frequency of the signals applied to the electrodes, and, most significantly, the cell dielectric properties. The validity of the model is demonstrated with human leukemia (HL-60) cells subjected to a parallel electrode array, and application of the device to separating HL-60 cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells is shown. PMID:9251828

  4. Optimization and evaluation of asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation of silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Loeschner, Katrin; Navratilova, Jana; Legros, Samuel; Wagner, Stephan; Grombe, Ringo; Snell, James; von der Kammer, Frank; Larsen, Erik H

    2013-01-11

    Asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF(4)) in combination with on-line optical detection and mass spectrometry is one of the most promising methods for separation and quantification of nanoparticles (NPs) in complex matrices including food. However, to obtain meaningful results regarding especially the NP size distribution a number of parameters influencing the separation need to be optimized. This paper describes the development of a separation method for polyvinylpyrrolidone-stabilized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in aqueous suspension. Carrier liquid composition, membrane material, cross flow rate and spacer height were shown to have a significant influence on the recoveries and retention times of the nanoparticles. Focus time and focus flow rate were optimized with regard to minimum elution of AgNPs in the void volume. The developed method was successfully tested for injected masses of AgNPs from 0.2 to 5.0 μg. The on-line combination of AF(4) with detection methods including ICP-MS, light absorbance and light scattering was helpful because each detector provided different types of information about the eluting NP fraction. Differences in the time-resolved appearance of the signals obtained by the three detection methods were explained based on the physical origin of the signal. Two different approaches for conversion of retention times of AgNPs to their corresponding sizes and size distributions were tested and compared, namely size calibration with polystyrene nanoparticles (PSNPs) and calculations of size based on AF(4) theory. Fraction collection followed by transmission electron microscopy was performed to confirm the obtained size distributions and to obtain further information regarding the AgNP shape. Characteristics of the absorbance spectra were used to confirm the presence of non-spherical AgNP. PMID:23261297

  5. Plasma heating, electric fields and plasma flow by electron beam ionospheric injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winckler, J. R.; Erickson, K. N.

    1990-01-01

    The electric fields and the floating potentials of a Plasma Diagnostics Payload (PDP) located near a powerful electron beam injected from a large sounding rocket into the auroral zone ionosphere have been studied. As the PDP drifted away from the beam laterally, it surveyed a region of hot plasma extending nearly to 60 m radius. Large polarization electric fields transverse to B were imbedded in this hot plasma, which displayed large ELF wave variations and also an average pattern which has led to a model of the plasma flow about the negative line potential of the beam resembling a hydrodynamic vortex in a uniform flow field. Most of the present results are derived from the ECHO 6 sounding rocket mission.

  6. Energy flow in non-equilibrium conformal field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, Denis; Doyon, Benjamin

    2012-09-01

    We study the energy current and its fluctuations in quantum gapless 1d systems far from equilibrium modeled by conformal field theory, where two separated halves are prepared at distinct temperatures and glued together at a point contact. We prove that these systems converge towards steady states, and give a general description of such non-equilibrium steady states in terms of quantum field theory data. We compute the large deviation function, also called the full counting statistics, of energy transfer through the contact. These are universal and satisfy fluctuation relations. We provide a simple representation of these quantum fluctuations in terms of classical Poisson processes whose intensities are proportional to Boltzmann weights.

  7. Enhanced flow field visualization using a flexible animation procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marconi, F.; Moretti, G.; Englund, D. C.

    1989-01-01

    A flexible and powerful procedure for transposing computer-generated images onto video tape is used in flowfield visualization. The result is animated sequences which can be used very effectively in the study of both steady and unsteady flows. The key to the procedure is the fact that the images (i.e., frames) of the animated sequence are recorded on the video tapes one at a time after they are created. Thus, the need for a mass storage system is eliminated because after a frame is recorded it is discarded.

  8. Enhanced flow field visualization using a flexible animation procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Marconi, F.; Moretti, G.; Englund, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    A flexible and powerful procedure for transposing computer-generated images onto video tape is used in flowfield visualization. The result is animated sequences which can be used very effectively in the study of both steady and unsteady flows. The key to the procedure is the fact that the images (i.e., frames) of the animated sequence are recorded on the video tapes one at a time after they are created. Thus, the need for a mass storage system is eliminated because after a frame is recorded it is discarded. 7 references.

  9. Vadose Zone Transport Field Study: Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Andy L.; Conrad, Mark E.; Daily, William D.; Fink, James B.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Gee, Glendon W.; Hoversten, Gary M.; Keller, Jason M.; Majer, Ernest L.; Murray, Christopher J.; White, Mark D.; Yabusaki, Steven B.; Zhang, Z. F.

    2006-07-31

    From FY 2000 through FY 2003, a series of vadose zone transport field experiments were conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project Science and Technology Project, now known as the Remediation and Closure Science Project, and managed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The series of experiments included two major field campaigns, one at a 299-E24-11 injection test site near PUREX and a second at a clastic dike site off Army Loop Road. The goals of these experiments were to improve our understanding of vadose zone transport processes; to develop data sets to validate and calibrate vadose zone flow and transport models; and to identify advanced monitoring techniques useful for evaluating flow-and-transport mechanisms and delineating contaminant plumes in the vadose zone at the Hanford Site. This report summarizes the key findings from the field studies and demonstrates how data collected from these studies are being used to improve conceptual models and develop numerical models of flow and transport in Hanford’s vadose zone. Results of these tests have led to a better understanding of the vadose zone. Fine-scale geologic heterogeneities, including grain fabric and lamination, were observed to have a strong effect on the large-scale behavior of contaminant plumes, primarily through increased lateral spreading resulting from anisotropy. Conceptual models have been updated to include lateral spreading and numerical models of unsaturated flow and transport have revised accordingly. A new robust model based on the concept of a connectivity tensor was developed to describe saturation-dependent anisotropy in strongly heterogeneous soils and has been incorporated into PNNL’s Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) simulator. Application to field-scale transport problems have led to a better understanding plume behavior at a number of sites where lateral spreading may have dominated waste

  10. Effect of shrouding CH4 flow rate on flow field and stirring ability of coherent jet in steelmaking process.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fuhai; Sun, Dongbai; Zhu, Rong; Su, Rongfang; Wang, Xueyi

    2016-01-01

    Characteristics of flow field and stirring ability of coherent jet with various shrouding CH4 flow rates on the molten bath were studied by combustion experiment and numerical simulation. The axial velocity and total temperature distributions of coherent jet under hot (1700 K) and cold (298 K) ambient condition were analyzed. The Eddy Dissipation Concept model was used in simulation with detail chemical kinetic mechanisms, and the numerical simulation results were agreed well with the combustion experiment in this research. Based on the simulation and experiment results, when the CH4 rate was 230, 207 and 184 Nm(3)/h, their disparity rate of average velocity and total temperature was small than 5 and 6 %, respectively, at high ambient temperature. Hence, the same stirring effect might be achieved by those three kinds of CH4 flow rates in EAF steelmaking process. According to the industrial application research, the best CH4 flow rate is 184 Nm(3)/h, which could stir molten bath well and reduce energy consumption in steelmaking process. PMID:27652186

  11. Effect of shrouding CH4 flow rate on flow field and stirring ability of coherent jet in steelmaking process.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fuhai; Sun, Dongbai; Zhu, Rong; Su, Rongfang; Wang, Xueyi

    2016-01-01

    Characteristics of flow field and stirring ability of coherent jet with various shrouding CH4 flow rates on the molten bath were studied by combustion experiment and numerical simulation. The axial velocity and total temperature distributions of coherent jet under hot (1700 K) and cold (298 K) ambient condition were analyzed. The Eddy Dissipation Concept model was used in simulation with detail chemical kinetic mechanisms, and the numerical simulation results were agreed well with the combustion experiment in this research. Based on the simulation and experiment results, when the CH4 rate was 230, 207 and 184 Nm(3)/h, their disparity rate of average velocity and total temperature was small than 5 and 6 %, respectively, at high ambient temperature. Hence, the same stirring effect might be achieved by those three kinds of CH4 flow rates in EAF steelmaking process. According to the industrial application research, the best CH4 flow rate is 184 Nm(3)/h, which could stir molten bath well and reduce energy consumption in steelmaking process.

  12. Analysis of liposomes using asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation: separation conditions and drug/lipid recovery.

    PubMed

    Kuntsche, Judith; Decker, Christiane; Fahr, Alfred

    2012-08-01

    Liposomes composed of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol were analyzed by asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation coupled with multi-angle laser light scattering. In addition to evaluation of fractionation conditions (flow conditions, sample mass, carrier liquid), radiolabeled drug-loaded liposomes were used to determine the liposome recovery and a potential loss of incorporated drug during fractionation. Neither sample concentration nor the cross-flow gradient distinctly affected the size results but at very low sample concentration (injected mass 5 μg) the fraction of larger vesicles was underestimated. Imbalance in the osmolality between the inner and outer aqueous phase resulted in liposome swelling after dilution in hypoosmotic carrier liquids. In contrast, liposome shrinking under hyperosmotic conditions was barely visible. The liposomes themselves eluted completely (lipid recoveries were close to 100%) but there was a loss of incorporated drugs during separation with a strong dependence on the octanol-water partition coefficient of the drug. Whereas corticosterone (partition coefficient ~2) was washed out more or less completely (recovery about 2%), loss of temoporfin (partition coefficient ~9) was only minor (recovery about 80%). All fractionations were well repeatable under the experimental conditions applied in the present study.

  13. Fundamentals of free flux flow: proposed studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, J. A.; Gafarov, O.; Gapud, A. A.; Wu, J. Z.

    2013-03-01

    Although much is known about free flux flow (FFF) in superconductors - in which pinning is insignificant compared to interactions between quantized vortices - there still remain questions concerning fundamental dynamics. Building on our previous work in correlating FFF with vortex core size (PRB 80, 134524), we propose three new studies examining more deeply the normal state in the vortex core and interactions between vortices. A correlation between scattering inside cores and the viscosity of FFF has not been explicitly determined; this may be investigated by probing the effect of scattering centers created by proton irradiation. Using results of previous irradiation work, one could control the extent of normal state scattering while monitoring effects on FFF. Questions also exist concerning vortex motion in channels with widths approaching that of individual vortices - as determined solely by inter-vortex interactions. Studies have suggested that flux flow through constrictions could imitate ``jamming'' in the collective motion of grains: Under certain conditions, it is possible for grains to form a barrier, blocking flow. More than just qualitatively comparing flux flow and granular flow to find evidence of jamming, we propose a new experiment for quantitatively modeling flux jamming by realizing the flux flow equivalent of granular jamming in a ``hopper''. In the same way, we also propose a FFF equivalent of another granular-flow phenomenon, ``non-Newtonian'' fluids, where rapid shear causes jamming. Funded by NSF-RUI grant, DMR-0907038.

  14. Flow of immiscible ferrofluids in a planar gap in a rotating magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Sule, Bhumika; Torres-Díaz, Isaac; Rinaldi, Carlos

    2015-07-15

    Analytical solutions are obtained for the steady, fully developed flow of two layers of immiscible ferrofluids of different thicknesses between two parallel plates. Interfacial linear and internal angular momentum balance relations are derived for the case when there is a ferrofluid-ferrofluid interface to obtain the translational and spin velocity profiles in the gap. As expected for the limit of low applied field amplitude, the magnitude of the translational velocity is directly proportional to the frequency of the applied magnetic field and to the square of the magnetic field amplitude. Expressions for the velocity profiles are obtained for the zero spin viscosity and non-zero spin viscosity cases and the effect of applied pressure gradient on the flows is studied. The spin velocity in both ferrofluid phases is in the direction of the rotating magnetic field, except for cases of extreme applied pressure gradients for which the fluid vorticity opposes the spin. We find that for the case of non-zero spin viscosity, flow reversals are predicted using representative ferrofluid property values and field conditions. The unique predictions of the solution with non-zero spin viscosity could be used to experimentally test the existence of couple stresses in ferrofluids and the validity of previously reported values of the so-called spin viscosity.

  15. Flow of immiscible ferrofluids in a planar gap in a rotating magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sule, Bhumika; Torres-Díaz, Isaac; Rinaldi, Carlos

    2015-07-01

    Analytical solutions are obtained for the steady, fully developed flow of two layers of immiscible ferrofluids of different thicknesses between two parallel plates. Interfacial linear and internal angular momentum balance relations are derived for the case when there is a ferrofluid-ferrofluid interface to obtain the translational and spin velocity profiles in the gap. As expected for the limit of low applied field amplitude, the magnitude of the translational velocity is directly proportional to the frequency of the applied magnetic field and to the square of the magnetic field amplitude. Expressions for the velocity profiles are obtained for the zero spin viscosity and non-zero spin viscosity cases and the effect of applied pressure gradient on the flows is studied. The spin velocity in both ferrofluid phases is in the direction of the rotating magnetic field, except for cases of extreme applied pressure gradients for which the fluid vorticity opposes the spin. We find that for the case of non-zero spin viscosity, flow reversals are predicted using representative ferrofluid property values and field conditions. The unique predictions of the solution with non-zero spin viscosity could be used to experimentally test the existence of couple stresses in ferrofluids and the validity of previously reported values of the so-called spin viscosity.

  16. Correlations of Surface Deformation and 3D Flow Field in a Compliant Wall Turbulent Channel Flow.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin; Zhang, Cao; Katz, Joseph

    2015-11-01

    This study focuses on the correlations between surface deformation and flow features, including velocity, vorticity and pressure, in a turbulent channel flow over a flat, compliant Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) wall. The channel centerline velocity is 2.5 m/s, and the friction Reynolds number is 2.3x103. Analysis is based on simultaneous measurements of the time resolved 3D velocity and surface deformation using tomographic PIV and Mach-Zehnder Interferometry. The volumetric pressure distribution is calculated plane by plane by spatially integrating the material acceleration using virtual boundary, omni-directional method. Conditional sampling based on local high/low pressure and deformation events reveals the primary flow structures causing the deformation. High pressure peaks appear at the interface between sweep and ejection, whereas the negative deformations peaks (dent) appear upstream, under the sweeps. The persistent phase lag between flow and deformations are presumably caused by internal damping within the PDMS. Some of the low pressure peaks and strong ejections are located under the head of hairpin vortices, and accordingly, are associated with positive deformation (bump). Others bumps and dents are correlated with some spanwise offset large inclined quasi-streamwise vortices that are not necessarily associated with hairpins. Sponsored by ONR.

  17. Validation of a three-dimensional viscous analysis of axisymmetric supersonic inlet flow fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, T. J.; Anderson, B. H.

    1983-01-01

    A three-dimensional viscous marching analysis for supersonic inlets was developed. To verify this analysis several benchmark axisymmetric test configurations were studied and are compared to experimental data. Detailed two-dimensional results for shock-boundary layer interactions are presented for flows with and without boundary layer bleed. Three dimensional calculations of a cone at angle of attack and a full inlet at attack are also discussed and evaluated. Results of the calculations demonstrate the code's ability to predict complex flow fields and establish guidelines for future calculations using similar codes.

  18. Measurements of non-reacting and reacting flow fields of a liquid swirl flame burner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, Cheng Tung; Hochgreb, Simone

    2015-03-01

    The understanding of the liquid fuel spray and flow field characteristics inside a combustor is crucial for designing a fuel efficient and low emission device. Characterisation of the flow field of a model gas turbine liquid swirl burner is performed by using a 2-D particle imaging velocimetry(PIV) system. The flow field pattern of an axial flow burner with a fixed swirl intensity is compared under confined and unconfined conditions, i.e., with and without the combustor wall. The effect of temperature on the main swirling air flow is investigated under open and non-reacting conditions. The result shows that axial and radial velocities increase as a result of decreased flow density and increased flow volume. The flow field of the main swirling flow with liquid fuel spray injection is compared to non-spray swirling flow. Introduction of liquid fuel spray changes the swirl air flow field at the burner outlet, where the radial velocity components increase for both open and confined environment. Under reacting condition, the enclosure generates a corner recirculation zone that intensifies the strength of radial velocity. The reverse flow and corner recirculation zone assists in stabilizing the flame by preheating the reactants. The flow field data can be used as validation target for swirl combustion modelling.

  19. Field Test of a DHW Distribution System: Temperature and Flow Analyses (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Barley, C. D.; Hendron, B.; Magnusson, L.

    2010-05-13

    This presentation discusses a field test of a DHW distribution system in an occupied townhome. It includes measured fixture flows and temperatures, a tested recirculation system, evaluated disaggregation of flow by measured temperatures, Aquacraft Trace Wizard analysis, and comparison.

  20. Study on an undershot cross-flow water turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishi, Yasuyuki; Inagaki, Terumi; Li, Yanrong; Omiya, Ryota; Fukutomi, Junichiro

    2014-06-01

    This study aims to develop a water turbine suitable for ultra-low heads in open channels, with the end goal being the effective utilization of unutilized hydroelectric energy in agricultural water channels. We performed tests by applying a cross-flow runner to an open channel as an undershot water turbine while attempting to simplify the structure and eliminate the casing. We experimentally investigated the flow fields and performance of water turbines in states where the flow rate was constant for the undershot cross-flow water turbine mentioned above. In addition, we compared existing undershot water turbines with our undershot cross-flow water turbine after attaching a bottom plate to the runner. From the results, we were able to clarify the following. Although the effective head for cross-flow runners with no bottom plate was lower than those found in existing runners equipped with a bottom plate, the power output is greater in the high rotational speed range because of the high turbine efficiency. Also, the runner with no bottom plate differed from runners that had a bottom plate in that no water was being wound up by the blades or retained between the blades, and the former received twice the flow due to the flow-through effect. As a result, the turbine efficiency was greater for runners with no bottom plate in the full rotational speed range compared with that found in runners that had a bottom plate.

  1. Field identification of stagnant zones in nested flow systems using geophysical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, X.; Wan, L.; Wang, J.; Yin, B.

    2013-12-01

    Periodic undulations of the water table create gravity-driven, hierarchically nested flow systems, i.e., local, intermediate and regional flow systems in drainage basins [Tóth, 1963]. The stagnant zones in nested flow systems have been assumed to be critical to accumulation of transported matter, such as metallic ions and hydrocarbons in drainage basins. However, little field research has been devoted to prove this assumption due to difficulties in groundwater sampling. In the current study, the Stratagem EH4, an electromagnetic geophysical exploration technique, is used to measure subsurface resistivity of the Cretaceous Sandstone in the Ordos Basin, Northwestern China. We obtained several two-dimensional images of variations in subsurface resistivity of cross-sections across rivers or lakes, which receive discharge from groundwater. Because the aquifer is relatively homogeneous, the spatial variation in subsurface resistivity is mainly caused by the differences in TDS of groundwater. We found that fresh groundwater with low TDS, which corresponds to local flow systems, are separated by groundwater with relatively higher TDS, which corresponds to stagnant zones caused by convergence of groundwater flow systems. This study helps shed light on the relationship between groundwater flow and distributions of hydrochemistry and also confirms that stagnant zones are loci of mineral deposition.

  2. Rapid Flow Analysis Studies with Spectroscopic Detectors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thalib, Amlius

    A rapid flow analysis study based on segmented flow and flow injection principles is described in this thesis. The main objective of this study was to establish the response characteristics in continuous flow analysis systems in order to improve sampling rates with several types of spectroscopic detectors. It was found from flame photometric studies that non-segmented flowing streams are applicable to rapid flow analysis with automatic sample aspiration. Calcium was used as a typical example and determined at sampling rates up to 360 h('-1) with a detection limit of 0.05 mg L(' -1). A rapid flow system is reported using direct aspiration for AAS analysis with both manual injection and automatic aspiration techniques, and found to give sampling rates of up to 600-720 samples h('-1). Speed of analysis was reduced by about 50% when using an external peristaltic pump in the flow system design, due to increased sample dispersion. A novel aspect of a rapid flow injection approach reported with ICPAES detection includes the method of injecting samples via a peristaltic pump with simultaneous computer data processing. Determination of serum cations (Na, K, Ca, Mg and Fe) was demonstrated as an example of an application of the technique at sampling rates of 240 h('-1). Precision and detection limits for 13 elements in a single standard solution are reported. The use of automated aspiration sampling is also reported in this method for comparison. Further studies on flow characteristics were carried out by a combination of the rapid flow system with very short sampling times as low as 2 seconds using UV-visible spectrophotometric detection. Analysis of human blood serum samples was used as an example where total protein and inorganic phosphate were determined at sampling rates of 240 h('-1) and 360 h('-1) respectively. The novel aspects of the results from these studies include the very rapid sample throughput developed with simple and inexpensive experimental approaches in

  3. EDF field operation computerization study

    SciTech Connect

    Guillot, L.; Pirus, D.

    2006-07-01

    The main control room has been the subject of extensive research and actions into improved operations assistance. On the other hand, few studies concern the need for field operation improvements, which have few assistance resources adapted to working requirements. Why? Past studies have shown the inability of technology to assume job constraints (insufficient screen readability, excessive equipment weight, prohibitive response times). Nevertheless, today new technologies can be adapted to field operations, and they justify further study. Real needs exist: local operations are often complex and are led in difficult environments where conditions prevent the use of paper-based documents. The issue is a significant risk of error which might impact plant reliability. The cumbersome nature of paper procedures, the working environment and the operational feed-back of experience led us to concentrate on the field operation to identify how it may be improved by the use of these new technologies. Such equipment would allow a better traceability and quality of actions. Possibility of communications with other plant personnel and information sharing may be also immediately available for all. This paper presents a study which intends to collect assistance requirements through an analysis of working practices and organizations with local personnel. Our aim is to identify which of those might benefit from IT support. This collection was obtained through interviews and observations. These two methods helped us to define potential needs, constraints and consequences for work organization. This paper presents the study results and findings, identifies professions which may benefit from the use of wearable computers and describes how the reliability and efficiency of human actions would be improved. Finally we identify design requirements and criteria to be used for writing the technical specifications for a test prototype. (authors)

  4. Magnetic material in mean-field dynamos driven by small scale helical flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giesecke, A.; Stefani, F.; Gerbeth, G.

    2014-07-01

    We perform kinematic simulations of dynamo action driven by a helical small scale flow of a conducting fluid in order to deduce mean-field properties of the combined induction action of small scale eddies. We examine two different flow patterns in the style of the G O Roberts flow but with a mean vertical component and with internal fixtures that are modelled by regions with vanishing flow. These fixtures represent either rods that lie in the center of individual eddies, or internal dividing walls that provide a separation of the eddies from each other. The fixtures can be made of magnetic material with a relative permeability larger than one which can alter the dynamo behavior. The investigations are motivated by the widely unknown induction effects of the forced helical flow that is used in the core of liquid sodium cooled fast reactors, and from the key role of soft iron impellers in the von-Kármán-sodium dynamo. For both examined flow configurations the consideration of magnetic material within the fluid flow causes a reduction of the critical magnetic Reynolds number of up to 25%. The development of the growth-rate in the limit of the largest achievable permeabilities suggests no further significant reduction for even larger values of the permeability. In order to study the dynamo behavior of systems that consist of tens of thousands of helical cells we resort to the mean-field dynamo theory (Krause and Rädler 1980 Mean-field Magnetohydrodynamics and Dynamo Theory (Oxford: Pergamon)) in which the action of the small scale flow is parameterized in terms of an α- and β-effect. We compute the relevant elements of the α- and the β-tensor using the so called testfield method. We find a reasonable agreement between the fully resolved models and the corresponding mean-field models for wall or rod materials in the considered range 1\\leqslant {{\\mu }_{r}}\\leqslant 20. Our results may be used for the development of global large scale models with recirculation

  5. Experiments of Flow Field Influenced by Vegetation Distribution on Floodplain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jin-Fu; Wang, Shun-Chang; Chen, Su-Chin

    2015-04-01

    The vegetation on floodplain can block river flow, raise flood level, and s