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Sample records for flow resistance

  1. Wetland flow resistance determination using Landsat data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gervin, J. C.; Shih, S. F.

    1979-01-01

    In the past, one value of the roughness coefficient has frequently been used to represent the flow resistance characteristics of an entire natural wetland throughout the year. To improve the simulation of water flow through these natural vegetation communities, Landsat imagery and in situ flow measurements were combined to produce a more detailed representation of flow resistance. The vegetation in a typical marshland drainage basin in south Florida was classified into five categories using Landsat data. Flow measurements were then performed at characteristic sites in the basin. The measurements were taken at various depths during months of significant flow to examine the effect of seasonal growth. This information was then combined with the areal distribution of the vegetation as measured by satellite to more accurately simulate resistance to water flow in a natural marshland drainage basin.

  2. Effects of expiratory flow resistance on inspiratory work of breathing.

    PubMed

    Banner, M J; Downs, J B; Kirby, R R; Smith, R A; Boysen, P G; Lampotang, S

    1988-04-01

    To minimize work of breathing, airway pressure should not fluctuate during spontaneous breathing with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). However, flow resistance in the inspiratory limb of the breathing circuit and an inadequate continuous gas flow rate result in airway pressure fluctuation and increased work of breathing. Flow resistance of the expiratory pressure/exhalation valve also directly affects the level of airway pressure during spontaneous inhalation with CPAP (the greater the resistance of the valve, the greater the decrease in airway pressure and work of breathing). We compared this effect with three types of expiratory pressure valves: a threshold resistor with low resistance to flow, an inflatable balloon (mushroom) valve with moderate resistance to flow, and a variable-orifice flow resistor with a high resistance to flow. Work increased up to threefold with the balloon valve and more than tenfold with the flow resistor compared with the threshold resistor. To apply CPAP, expiratory pressure valves with low resistance to flow should be used to minimize fluctuations in airway pressure and, thus, in the work of spontaneous breathing. PMID:3280260

  3. Power formula for open-channel flow resistance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, Cheng-lung

    1988-01-01

    This paper evaluates various power formulas for flow resistance in open channels. Unlike the logarithmic resistance equation that can be theoretically derived either from Prandtl's mixing-length hypothesis or von Karman's similarity hypothesis, the power formula has long had an appearance of empiricism. Nevertheless, the simplicity in the form of the power formula has made it popular among the many possible forms of flow resistance formulas. This paper reexamines the concept and rationale of the power formulation, thereby addressing some critical issues in the modeling of flow resistance.

  4. Flow resistance of ice slurry in bends and elbow pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niezgoda-Żelasko, B.; Żelasko, J.

    2014-08-01

    The present paper covers the flow of ice slurry made of a 10.6% ethanol solution through small-radius bends and elbow pipes. The paper presents the results of experimental research on the flow resistances of Bingham-fluid ice slurry in bends and elbows. The research, performed for three pipe diameters and a relative bend radius of 1<=D/di<=2, has made it possible to take into consideration the influence of friction resistances as well the of the flow geometry on the total local resistance coefficients. The study attempts to make the local resistance coefficient dependent on the Dean number defined for a generalized Reynolds number according to Metzner-Reade

  5. Flow resistance in open channels with fixed movable bed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simoes, Francisco J.

    2010-01-01

    In spite of an increasingly large body of research by many investigators, accurate quantitative prediction of open channel flow resistance remains a challenge. In general, the relations between the elements influencing resistance (turbulence, boundary roughness, and channel shape features, such as discrete obstacles, bars, channel curvature, recirculation areas, secondary circulation, etc.) and mean flow variables are complex and poorly understood. This has resulted in numerous approaches to compute friction using many and diverse variables and equally diverse prescriptions for their use. In this paper, a new resistance law for surface (grain) resistance, the resistance due to the flow viscous effects on the channel boundary roughness elements, is presented for the cases of flow in the transition (5 < Re* <70) and fully rough (Re* ≥ 70) turbulent flow regimes, where Re* is the Reynolds number based on shear velocity and sediment particle mean diameter. It is shown that the new law is sensitive to bed movement without requiring previous knowledge of sediment transport conditions. Comparisons between computation and measurements, as well as comparisons with other well-known existing roughness predictors, are presented to demonstrate its accuracy and range of application. It is shown that the method accurately predicts total friction losses in channels and natural rivers with plane beds, regardless of sediment transport conditions. This work is useful to hydraulic engineers involved with the derivation of depth-discharge relations in open channel flow and with the estimation of sediment transport rates for the case of bedload transport.

  6. Mass flow sensor utilizing a resistance bridge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fralick, Gustave C. (Inventor); Hwang, Danny P. (Inventor); Wrbanek, John D. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A mass flow sensor to be mounted within a duct and measures the mass flow of a fluid stream moving through the duct. The sensor is an elongated thin quartz substrate having a plurality of platinum strips extending in a parallel relationship on the strip, with certain of the strips being resistors connected to an excitation voltage. The resistors form the legs of a Wheatstone bridge. The resistors are spaced a sufficient distance inwardly from the leading and trailing edges of the substrate to lie within the velocity recovery region so that the measured flow is the same as the actual upstream flow. The resistor strips extend at least half-way through the fluid stream to include a substantial part of the velocity profile of the stream. Certain of the resistors detect a change in temperature as the fluid stream moves across the substrate to provide an output signal from the Wheatstone bridge which is representative of the fluid flow. A heater is located in the midst of the resistor array to heat the air as it passes over the array.

  7. The Steady Flow Resistance of Perforated Sheet Materials in High Speed Grazing Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Syed, Asif A.; Yu, Jia; Kwan, H. W.; Chien, E.; Jones, Michael G. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of high speed grazing air flow on the acoustic resistance of perforated sheet materials used in the construction of acoustically absorptive liners placed in commercial aircraft engine nacelles. Since DC flow resistance of porous sheet materials is known to be a major component of the acoustic resistance of sound suppression liners, the DC flow resistance of a set of perforated face-sheets and linear 'wiremesh' face-sheets was measured in a flow duct apparatus (up to Mach 0.8). Samples were fabricated to cover typical variations in perforated face-sheet parameters, such as hole diameter, porosity and sheet thickness, as well as those due to different manufacturing processes. The DC flow resistance data from perforated sheets were found to correlate strongly with the grazing flow Mach number and the face-sheet porosity. The data also show correlation against the boundary layer displacement thickness to hole-diameter ratio. The increase in resistance with grazing flow for punched aluminum sheets is in good agreement with published results up to Mach 0.4, but is significantly larger than expected above Mach 0.4. Finally, the tests demonstrated that there is a significant increase in the resistance of linear 'wiremesh' type face-sheet materials.

  8. Upscaling the overland flow resistance coefficient for vegetated surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Ivanov, V. Y.; Katopodes, N.

    2011-12-01

    Estimation of hydraulic resistance for overland flows plays a crucial role in modeling rainfall-runoff, flood routing, and soil erosion processes. The resistance affects not only the accurate calculations of flow variables, but also the predictions of their derivative outcomes. In particular, resistance is highly spatially variable and controlled by local flow conditions and bed characteristics in hillslopes vegetated with patches of shrubs or woody plants. Numerous studies sought general ways of relating hydraulic resistance to roughness coefficients. A typical approach in determining the Darcy-Weisbach friction factor (f) is to relate it to the Reynolds number (Re). The case is applicable when flow completely submerges roughness elements. On the other hand, when the surface covered with stones, organic litter, or vegetation is not fully submerged by the flow, the f-Re relationship does not hold. Flow dimensionless variables other than Re may become predominant in determining the resistance. There is little information on how to determine the roughness coefficient of vegetated hillslopes of arbitrary scale as a function of flow variables and bed characteristics. Although many field or laboratory studies have attempted to address the problem, most of them were carried out in channels and over a limited range of possible flow conditions. The objective of this study was to investigate the upscaling properties of the resistance coefficient by resolving the details of the flow process at an extremely fine-scale. The domain was conceptualized as a sloped plane with a number of "obstacles" of centimeter scale (i.e., representing vegetation stems) that have infinitely long height. A number of simulations were designed with a numerical model resolving the two-dimensional form of Saint-Venant equations representing the propagation of dynamic wave. The simulations explored how the resistance coefficient varied with different vegetation covers, domain slopes, flow rates and

  9. Cerebral blood flow links insulin resistance and baroreflex sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Ryan, John P; Sheu, Lei K; Verstynen, Timothy D; Onyewuenyi, Ikechukwu C; Gianaros, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Insulin resistance confers risk for diabetes mellitus and associates with a reduced capacity of the arterial baroreflex to regulate blood pressure. Importantly, several brain regions that comprise the central autonomic network, which controls the baroreflex, are also sensitive to the neuromodulatory effects of insulin. However, it is unknown whether peripheral insulin resistance relates to activity within central autonomic network regions, which may in turn relate to reduced baroreflex regulation. Accordingly, we tested whether resting cerebral blood flow within central autonomic regions statistically mediated the relationship between insulin resistance and an indirect indicator of baroreflex regulation; namely, baroreflex sensitivity. Subjects were 92 community-dwelling adults free of confounding medical illnesses (48 men, 30-50 years old) who completed protocols to assess fasting insulin and glucose levels, resting baroreflex sensitivity, and resting cerebral blood flow. Baroreflex sensitivity was quantified by measuring the magnitude of spontaneous and sequential associations between beat-by-beat systolic blood pressure and heart rate changes. Individuals with greater insulin resistance, as measured by the homeostatic model assessment, exhibited reduced baroreflex sensitivity (b = -0.16, p < .05). Moreover, the relationship between insulin resistance and baroreflex sensitivity was statistically mediated by cerebral blood flow in central autonomic regions, including the insula and cingulate cortex (mediation coefficients < -0.06, p-values < .01). Activity within the central autonomic network may link insulin resistance to reduced baroreflex sensitivity. Our observations may help to characterize the neural pathways by which insulin resistance, and possibly diabetes mellitus, relates to adverse cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:24358272

  10. Suppression of turbulent resistivity in turbulent Couette flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, Jiahe; Colgate, Stirling A.; Sonnenfeld, Richard G.; Nornberg, Mark D.; Li, Hui; Colgate, Arthur S.; Westpfahl, David J.; Romero, Van D.; Martinic, Joe

    2015-07-01

    Turbulent transport in rapidly rotating shear flow very efficiently transports angular momentum, a critical feature of instabilities responsible both for the dynamics of accretion disks and the turbulent power dissipation in a centrifuge. Turbulent mixing can efficiently transport other quantities like heat and even magnetic flux by enhanced diffusion. This enhancement is particularly evident in homogeneous, isotropic turbulent flows of liquid metals. In the New Mexico dynamo experiment, the effective resistivity is measured using both differential rotation and pulsed magnetic field decay to demonstrate that at very high Reynolds number rotating shear flow can be described entirely by mean flow induction with very little contribution from correlated velocity fluctuations.

  11. Suppression of turbulent resistivity in turbulent Couette flow

    SciTech Connect

    Si, Jiahe Sonnenfeld, Richard G.; Colgate, Arthur S.; Westpfahl, David J.; Romero, Van D.; Martinic, Joe; Colgate, Stirling A.; Li, Hui; Nornberg, Mark D.

    2015-07-15

    Turbulent transport in rapidly rotating shear flow very efficiently transports angular momentum, a critical feature of instabilities responsible both for the dynamics of accretion disks and the turbulent power dissipation in a centrifuge. Turbulent mixing can efficiently transport other quantities like heat and even magnetic flux by enhanced diffusion. This enhancement is particularly evident in homogeneous, isotropic turbulent flows of liquid metals. In the New Mexico dynamo experiment, the effective resistivity is measured using both differential rotation and pulsed magnetic field decay to demonstrate that at very high Reynolds number rotating shear flow can be described entirely by mean flow induction with very little contribution from correlated velocity fluctuations.

  12. Innovative Method for Greatly Reducing Flow Resistance and Obtaining Well-Ordered Continuous Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Weiyi

    2009-11-01

    In this paper, firstly, the experiment on the flow resistance of the aerated pipe flow is introduced. And some experimental research on comparison between different volumes of air entrained is presented. Secondly, the characteristics of Gravity Pipe Flow under the action of Torricelli's Vacuum, shortly called as GPFUTV are dissertated, including creative and functional design, fundamental principle, etc. Under GPFUTV condition the water flow in the tube is full-pipe and continuous, colorless and non-aerated, high-speed and non-rotational as distinguished from laminar flow. Thirdly, an appeal in relation to the experimental research, the applied studies and basic theory research is given. For instance, the well-known Reynolds' experiment under GPFUTV condition, the potential for GPFUTV to be developed for deep seawater suction technology, seawater intake pipe of OTEC and lifting technology for deep ocean mining in Fe-Mn concretions, flow stability and flow resistance under GPFUTV condition, etc.

  13. Resistive interchange modes and plasma flow structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paccagnella, Roberto

    2011-10-01

    Interchange modes are ubiquitous in magnetic confinement systems and are likely to determine or influence their transport properties. For example a good agreement between theory predictions for linear interchange modes and experimental results has been found recently in a Reverse Field Pinch device. In this work a set of magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) equations that describe the dynamical evolution for the pressure driven interchange modes in a magnetic confinement system are studied. Global and local solutions relevant for tokamaks and Reversed Field Pinches (RFPs) configurations are considered. The emphasis is especially in the characterization of the plasma flow structures associated with the dominant modes.

  14. Flux-flow resistivity of three high-temperature superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, Y.S.; Evans, D.J.; Hull, J.R.; Seol, S.Y.

    1996-10-01

    Results of experiments on flux-flow resistivity (the relationship of voltage to current) of three high-temperature superconductors are described. The superconductors are a melt-cast BSCCO 2212 rod, a single filament BSCCO powder-in-tube (PIT) tape, and a multifilament PIT tape. The flux-flow resistivity of these superconductors was measured at three temperatures: 77 K (saturated liquid nitrogen), 87 K (saturated liquid argon), and 67 K (subcooled liquid nitrogen). Implications of the present results for practical applications are discussed.

  15. Electrical resistance sensors record spring flow timing, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, E.A.; Monroe, S.A.; Springer, A.E.; Blasch, K.W.; Bills, D.J.

    2006-01-01

    Springs along the south rim of the Grand Canyon, Arizona, are important ecological and cultural resources in Grand Canyon National Park and are discharge points for regional and local aquifers of the Coconino Plateau. This study evaluated the applicability of electrical resistance (ER) sensors for measuring diffuse, low-stage (<1.0 cm) intermittent and ephemeral flow in the steep, rocky spring-fed tributaries of the south rim. ER sensors were used to conduct a baseline survey of spring flow timing at eight sites in three spring-fed tributaries in Grand Canyon. Sensors were attached to a nearly vertical rock wall at a spring outlet and were installed in alluvial and bedrock channels. Spring flow timing data inferred by the ER sensors were consistent with observations during site visits, with flow events recorded with collocated streamflow gauging stations and with local precipitation gauges. ER sensors were able to distinguish the presence of flow along nearly vertical rock surfaces with flow depths between 0.3 and 1.0 cm. Laboratory experiments confirmed the ability of the sensors to monitor the timing of diffuse flow on impervious surfaces. A comparison of flow patterns along the stream reaches and at springs identified the timing and location of perennial and intermittent flow, and periods of increased evapotranspiration.

  16. Electrical resistance sensors record spring flow timing, Grand Canyon, Arizona.

    PubMed

    Adams, Eric A; Monroe, Stephen A; Springer, Abraham E; Blasch, Kyle W; Bills, Donald J

    2006-01-01

    Springs along the south rim of the Grand Canyon, Arizona, are important ecological and cultural resources in Grand Canyon National Park and are discharge points for regional and local aquifers of the Coconino Plateau. This study evaluated the applicability of electrical resistance (ER) sensors for measuring diffuse, low-stage (<1.0 cm) intermittent and ephemeral flow in the steep, rocky spring-fed tributaries of the south rim. ER sensors were used to conduct a baseline survey of spring flow timing at eight sites in three spring-fed tributaries in Grand Canyon. Sensors were attached to a nearly vertical rock wall at a spring outlet and were installed in alluvial and bedrock channels. Spring flow timing data inferred by the ER sensors were consistent with observations during site visits, with flow events recorded with collocated streamflow gauging stations and with local precipitation gauges. ER sensors were able to distinguish the presence of flow along nearly vertical rock surfaces with flow depths between 0.3 and 1.0 cm. Laboratory experiments confirmed the ability of the sensors to monitor the timing of diffuse flow on impervious surfaces. A comparison of flow patterns along the stream reaches and at springs identified the timing and location of perennial and intermittent flow, and periods of increased evapotranspiration.

  17. Electrical resistance sensors record spring flow timing, Grand Canyon, Arizona.

    PubMed

    Adams, Eric A; Monroe, Stephen A; Springer, Abraham E; Blasch, Kyle W; Bills, Donald J

    2006-01-01

    Springs along the south rim of the Grand Canyon, Arizona, are important ecological and cultural resources in Grand Canyon National Park and are discharge points for regional and local aquifers of the Coconino Plateau. This study evaluated the applicability of electrical resistance (ER) sensors for measuring diffuse, low-stage (<1.0 cm) intermittent and ephemeral flow in the steep, rocky spring-fed tributaries of the south rim. ER sensors were used to conduct a baseline survey of spring flow timing at eight sites in three spring-fed tributaries in Grand Canyon. Sensors were attached to a nearly vertical rock wall at a spring outlet and were installed in alluvial and bedrock channels. Spring flow timing data inferred by the ER sensors were consistent with observations during site visits, with flow events recorded with collocated streamflow gauging stations and with local precipitation gauges. ER sensors were able to distinguish the presence of flow along nearly vertical rock surfaces with flow depths between 0.3 and 1.0 cm. Laboratory experiments confirmed the ability of the sensors to monitor the timing of diffuse flow on impervious surfaces. A comparison of flow patterns along the stream reaches and at springs identified the timing and location of perennial and intermittent flow, and periods of increased evapotranspiration. PMID:16961484

  18. Turbulent Mixing and Flow Resistance over Dunes and Scours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorrell, R. M.; Arfaie, A.; Burns, A. D.; Eggenhuisen, J. T.; Ingham, D. B.; McCaffrey, W. D.

    2014-12-01

    Flows in both submarine and fluvial channels are subject to lower boundary roughness. Lower boundary roughness occurs as frictional roughness suffered by the flow as it moves over the bed (skin friction) or drag suffered by the flow as it moves past a large obstacle (form drag). Critically, to overcome such roughness the flow must expend (lose) energy and momentum. However, whilst overcoming bed roughness the degree of turbulent mixing in the flow may be enhanced increasing the potential energy of the flow. This is of key importance to density driven flows as the balance between kinetic energy lost and potential energy gained (through turbulent diffusion of suspended particulate material) may critically affect the criterion for autosuspension. Moreover, this effect of lower boundary roughness may go as far as helping to explain why, even on shallow slopes, channelized submarine density currents can run out over ultra long distances. Such effects are also important in fluvial systems, where they will be responsible for maximizing or minimizing sediment capacity and competence in different flow environments. Numerical simulations are performed at a high Reynolds number (O (106)) for a series of crestal length to height ratio (c/h) at a fixed width to height ratio (w/h). Here, we present key findings of shear flow over a range of idealized bedform shapes. We show how the total basal shear stress is split into skin friction and form drag and identify how the respective magnitudes vary as a function of bedform shape and scale. Moreover we demonstrate how said bedforms affect the balance of energy lost (frictional) and energy gained (turbulent mixing). Overall, results demonstrate a slow reduction in turbulent mixing and flow resistance with decreasing bedform side slope angle. This suggests that both capacity and competence of the flow may be reduced through decrease in of the potential energy of the flow as a result of change in slope angles.

  19. Lyapunov stability of flowing magnetohydrodynamic plasmas surrounded by resistive walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasso, H.; Throumoulopoulos, G. N.

    2011-07-01

    A general stability condition for plasma-vacuum systems with resistive walls is derived by using the Frieman Rotenberg Lagrangian stability formulation [Rev. Mod. Phys. 32, 898 (1960)]. It is shown that the Lyapunov stability limit for external modes does not depend upon the gyroscopic term but upon the sign of the perturbed potential energy only. In the absence of dissipation in the plasma such as viscosity, it is expected that the flow cannot stabilize the system.

  20. Resistance to Water Flow in the Sorghum Plant 1

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Wayne S.; Ritchie, Joe T.

    1980-01-01

    Knowledge of the location and magnitude of the resistance to water flow in a plant is fundamental for describing whole plant response to water stress. The reported magnitudes of these resistances vary widely, principally because of the difficulty of measuring water potential within the plant. A number of interrelated experiments are described in which the water potential of a covered, nontranspiring leaf attached to a transpiring sorghum plant (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench) was used as a measure of the potential at the root-shoot junction. This allowed a descriptive evaluation of plant resistance to be made. The water potentials of a covered, nontranspiring leaf and a nonabsorbing root in solution, both attached to an otherwise actively transpiring and absorbing plant, were found to be similar. This supported the hypothesis that covered leaf water potential was equilibrating at a point shared by the vascular connections of both leaves and roots, i.e. the nodal complex of the root-shoot junction or crown. The difference in potential between a covered and exposed leaf together with calculated individual leaf transpiration rates were used to evaluate the resistance between the plant crown and the exposed leaf lamina called the connection resistance. There was an apparent decrease in the connection resistance as the transpiration rate increased; this is qualitatively explained as plant capacitance. Assuming that the covered leaf water potential was equal to that in the root xylem at the point of water absorption in the experimental plants with relatively short root axes, calculated radial root resistances were strongly dependent on the transpiration rate. For plants with moderate to high transpiration rates the roots had a slightly larger resistance than the shoots. PMID:16661138

  1. Response time correlations for platinum resistance thermometers in flowing fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pandey, D. K.; Ash, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    The thermal response of two types of Platinum Resistance Thermometers (PRT's), which are being considered for use in the National Transonic Wind Tunnel Facility, were studied. Response time correlations for each PRT, in flowing water, oil and air, were established separately. A universal correlation, tau WOA = 2.0 + 1264, 9/h, for a Hy-Cal Sensor (with a reference resistance of 100 ohm) within an error of 20% was established while the universal correlation for the Rosemount Sensor (with a reference resistance of 1000 ohm), tau OA = 0.122 + 1105.6/h, was found with a maximum percentage error of 30%. The correlation for the Rosemount Sensor was based on air and oil data only which is certainly not sufficient to make a correlation applicable to every condition. Therefore, the correlation needs more data to be gathered in different fluids. Also, it is necessary to state that the calculation of the parameter, h, was based on the available heat transfer correlations, whose accuracies are already reported in literature uncertain within 20-30%. Therefore, the universal response constant correlations established here for the Hy-Cal and Rosemount sensors are consistent with the uncertainty in the input data and are recommended for future use in flowing liquids and gases.

  2. Quantifying Flow Resistance of Mountain Streams Using the HHT Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Fu, X.

    2014-12-01

    This study quantifies the flow resistance of mountain streams with gravel bed and remarkable bed forms. The motivation is to follow the previous ideas (Robert, A. 1990) that the bed surface can be divided into micro-scale and macro-scale roughness, respectively. We processed the field data of longitudinal bed profiles of the Longxi River, Sichuan Province, China, using the Hilbert-Huang Transformation Method (HHT). Each longitudinal profile was decomposed into a set of curves with different frequencies of spatial fluctuation. The spectrogram was accordingly obtained. We supposed that a certain high and low frequency curves correspond to the micro- and macro-roughness of stream bed, respectively. We specified the characteristic height and length with the spectrogram, which represent the macro bed form accounting for bed form roughness. We then estimated the bed form roughness as being proportional to the ratio of the height to length multiplied by the height(Yang et al,2005). We also assumed the parameter, Sp, defined as the sinuosity of the highest frequency curve as the measure of the micro-scale roughness. We then took into account the effect of bed material sizes through using the product of d50/R and Sp, where d50 is the sediment median size and R is the hydraulic radius. The macro- and micro-scale roughness parameters were merged together nonlinearly to evaluate the flow resistance caused by the interplaying friction and form drag forces. Validation results show that the square of the determinant coefficient can reach as high as 0.84 in the case of the Longxi River. Future studies will focus on the verification against more field data as well as the combination of skin friction and form drag. Key words: flow resistance; roughness; HHT; spectrogram; form drag Robert, A. (1990), Boundary roughness in coarse-grained channels, Prog. Phys. Geogr., 14(1), 42-69. Yang, S.-Q., S.-K. Tan, and S.-Y. Lim. (2005), Flow resistance and bed form geometry in a wide alluvial

  3. Energy structure of MHD flow coupling with outer resistance circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Z. Y.; Liu, Y. J.; Chen, Y. Q.; Peng, Z. L.

    2015-08-01

    Energy structure of MHD flow coupling with outer resistance circuit is studied to illuminate qualitatively and quantitatively the energy relation of this basic MHD flow system with energy input and output. Energy structure are analytically derived based on the Navier-Stocks equations for two-dimensional fully-developed flow and generalized Ohm's Law. The influences of applied magnetic field, Hall parameter and conductivity on energy structure are discussed based on the analytical results. Associated energies in MHD flow are deduced and validated by energy conservation. These results reveal that energy structure consists of two sub structures: electrical energy structure and internal energy structure. Energy structure and its sub structures provide an integrated theoretical energy path of the MHD system. Applied magnetic field and conductivity decrease the input energy, dissipation by fluid viscosity and internal energy but increase the ratio of electrical energy to input energy, while Hall parameter has the opposite effects. These are caused by their different effects on Bulk velocity, velocity profiles, voltage and current in outer circuit. Understanding energy structure helps MHD application designers to actively adjust the allocation of different parts of energy so that it is more reasonable and desirable.

  4. Resistance of Metallic Screens in a Cryogenic Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Alexander; Stief, Malte

    The propellant behaviour in cryogenic upper stages tanks imposes challenging requirements on the design, especially for future upper stages designed for multiple restarts and long ballistic flight phases. The main challenge is the supply of the propellants to the feed system prior to the engine reignition. During the entire mission the engine requires a gaseous and bubble free liquid supply of propellant at the required thermodynamic conditions. The current research focus is to prepare the initial steps for the maturation of the Propellant Management Device (PMD) technology for cryogenic tank systems. Main components of such a PMD are metallic screens. The metallic screens are used as barrier for any gas bubbles within the fluid stream approaching the space craft engines. The screen characteristics are of fundamental importance for the PMD and feed system design. The paper presents a summary on available experimental screen data with regard to the flow resistance and gives a comparison with theoretical and empirical predictions found in literature. The lack on comparable data with regard to space craft applications and the need on further research with cryogenic flows is demonstrated. The DLR Institute of Space Systems is preparing various cryogenic tests to collect the desired information about the flow properties of such metallic screens. The planned test setup and the foreseen experiments will be presented.

  5. Evaluation of flow resistance in gravel-bed rivers through a large field data set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rickenmann, Dieter; Recking, Alain

    2011-07-01

    A data set of 2890 field measurements was used to test the ability of several conventional flow resistance equations to predict mean flow velocity in gravel bed rivers when used with no calibration. The tests were performed using both flow depth and discharge as input since discharge may be a more reliable measure of flow conditions in shallow flows. Generally better predictions are obtained when using flow discharge as input. The results indicate that the Manning-Strickler and the Keulegan equations show considerable disagreement with observed flow velocities for flow depths smaller than 10 times the characteristic grain diameter. Most equations show some systematic deviation for small relative flow depth. The use of new definitions for dimensionless variables in terms of nondimensional hydraulic geometry equations allows the development of a new flow resistance equation. The best overall performance is obtained by the Ferguson approach, which combines two power law flow resistance equations that are different for deep and shallow flows. To use this approach with flow discharge as input, a logarithmic matching equation in terms of the new dimensionless variables is proposed. For the domains of intermediate and large-scale roughness, the field data indicate a considerable increase in flow resistance as compared with the domain of small-scale roughness. The Ferguson approach is used to discuss the importance of flow resistance partitioning for bed load transport calculations at flow conditions with intermediate- and large-scale roughness in natural gravel, cobble, and boulder bed streams.

  6. Resistive Network Optimal Power Flow: Uniqueness and Algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, CW; Cai, DWH; Lou, X

    2015-01-01

    The optimal power flow (OPF) problem minimizes the power loss in an electrical network by optimizing the voltage and power delivered at the network buses, and is a nonconvex problem that is generally hard to solve. By leveraging a recent development on the zero duality gap of OPF, we propose a second-order cone programming convex relaxation of the resistive network OPF, and study the uniqueness of the optimal solution using differential topology, especially the Poincare-Hopf Index Theorem. We characterize the global uniqueness for different network topologies, e.g., line, radial, and mesh networks. This serves as a starting point to design distributed local algorithms with global behaviors that have low complexity, are computationally fast, and can run under synchronous and asynchronous settings in practical power grids.

  7. A mixing layer theory for flow resistance in shallow streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katul, Gabriel; Wiberg, Patricia; Albertson, John; Hornberger, George

    2002-11-01

    A variety of surface roughness characterizations have emerged from nineteenth and twentieth century studies of channel hydraulics. When the water depth h is much larger than the characteristic roughness height ks, roughness formulations such as Manning's n and the friction factor f can be explicitly related to the momentum roughness height zo in the log-law formulation for turbulent boundary layers, thereby unifying roughness definitions for a given surface. However, when h is comparable to (or even smaller than) ks, the log-law need not be valid. Using a newly proposed mixing layer analogy for the inflectional velocity profile within and just above the roughness layer, a model for the flow resistance in shallow flows is developed. The key model parameter is the characteristic length scale describing the depth of the Kelvin-Helmholtz wave instability. It is shown that the new theory, originally developed for canopy turbulence, recovers much of the earlier roughness results for flume experiments and shallow gravel streams. This study is the first to provide such a unifying framework between canopy atmospheric turbulence and shallow gravel stream roughness characterization. The broader implication of this study is to support the merger of a wealth of surface roughness characterizations independently developed in nineteenth and twentieth century hydraulics and atmospheric sciences and to establish a connection between roughness formulations across traditionally distinct boundary layer types.

  8. Measurement of flow diverter hydraulic resistance to model flow modification in and around intracranial aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Szikora, István; Paál, György

    2014-01-01

    Flow diverters (FDs) have been successfully applied in the recent decade to the treatment of intracranial aneurysms by impairing the communication between the flows in the parent artery and the aneurysm and, thus, the blood within the aneurysm sac. It would be desirable to have a simple and accurate computational method to follow the changes in the peri- and intraaneurysmal flow caused by the presence of FDs. The detailed flow simulation around the intricate wire structure of the FDs has three disadvantages: need for high amount of computational resources and highly skilled professionals to prepare the computational grid, and also the lack of validation that makes the invested effort questionable. In this paper, we propose a porous layer method to model the hydraulic resistance (HR) of one or several layers of the FDs. The basis of this proposal is twofold: first, from an application point of view, the only interesting parameter regarding the function of the FD is its HR; second, we have developed a method to measure the HR with a simple apparatus. We present the results of these measurements and demonstrate their utility in numerical simulations of patient-specific aneurysm simulations. PMID:24936307

  9. Resistance formulas in hydraulics-based models for routing debris flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, Cheng-lung; Ling, Chi-Hai

    1997-01-01

    The one-dimensional, cross-section-averaged flow equations formulated for routing debris flows down a narrow valley are identical to those for clear-water flow, except for the differences in the values of the flow parameters, such as the momentum (or energy) correction factor, resistance coefficient, and friction slope. Though these flow parameters for debris flow in channels with cross-sections of arbitrary geometric shape can only be determined empirically, the theoretical values of such parameters for debris flow in wide channels exist. This paper aims to derive the theoretical resistance coefficient and friction slope for debris flow in wide channels using a rheological model for highly-concentrated, rapidly-sheared granular flows, such as the generalized viscoplastic fluid (GVF) model. Formulating such resistance coefficient or friction slope is equivalent to developing a generally applicable resistance formula for routing debris flows. Inclusion of a nonuniform term in the expression of the resistance formula proves useful in removing the customary assumption that the spatially varied resistance at any section is equal to what would take place with the same rate of flow passing the same section under conditions of uniformity. This in effect implies an improvement in the accuracy of unsteady debris-flow computation.

  10. Effect of mild atherosclerosis on flow resistance in a coronary artery casting of man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Back, L. H.; Cho, Y. I.; Crawford, D. W.; Cuffel, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    An in-vitro flow study was conducted in a mildly atherosclerotic main coronary artery casting of man using sugar-water solutions simulating blood viscosity. Steady flow results indicated substantial increases in pressure drop, and thus flow resistance at the same Reynolds number, above those for Poiseuille flow by 30 to 100 percent in the physiological Reynolds number range from about 100 to 400. Time-averaged pulsatile flow data showed additional 5 percent increases in flow resistance above the steady flow results. Both pulsatile and steady flow data from the casting were found to be nearly equal to those from a straight, axisymmetric model of the casting up to a Reynolds number of about 200, above which the flow resistance of the casting became gradually larger than the corresponding values from the axisymmetric model.

  11. Effects of grazing flow on the steady-state flow resistance and acoustic impedance of thin porous-faced liners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hersh, A. S.; Walker, B.

    1978-01-01

    The effects of grazing flow on the steady state flow resistance and acoustic impedance of seven Feltmetal and three Rigimesh thin porous faced liners were studied. The steady-state flow resistance of the ten specimens was measured using standard fluid mechanical experimental techniques. The acoustic impedance was measured using the two microphone method. The principal findings of the study are that the effects of grazing flow were measured and found to be small; small differences were measured between steady-state and acoustic resistance, and a semi-empirical model was derived that correlated the steady-state resistance data of the seven Feltmetal liners and the face sheet reactance of both the Feltmetal and Rigimesh liners.

  12. a Method of Measuring the Dynamic Flow Resistance and the Acoustic Measurement of the Effective Static Flow Resistance in Stratified Rockwool Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picard, M. A.; Solana, P.; Urchueguía, J. F.

    1998-09-01

    In our work we have analyzed different stratified rockwool samples, with considerable differences regarding density, mean pore diameter, and porosity, by means of a new method for the measurement of the dynamic flow resistance based on the electrical analogy. This method enables us to measure this parameter without the need for placing the sample between two microphones. Our experimental results have been compared to those obtained with a different measurement scheme and, from a theoretical point of view, we have examined the extent to which the capillary pore approximation can be utilized in intermediate flow regimes and Poiseuille flow regimes and in real situations. For this purpose, a static flow resistivity, which was also approximated using an acoustic method and a commonly accepted theoretical approximation, was calculated based on a microscopic study of the samples and the fibre's diameter. Regarding the conclusions obtained, the results show that the new experimental procedure for determining the dynamic flow resistance is of interest in the intermediate and Poiseuille flow regimes in which, within the limitation of our experimental set-up, good results were obtained. The acoustic procedure for measuring a static flow resistivity delivered good results only for a regime close to Poiseuille, which was obtained only with higher density samples.

  13. A technique for improved assessment of flow resistance characteristics of natural wetlands using Landsat data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gervin, J. C.; Shih, S. F.

    1981-01-01

    In the past, one value of the roughness coefficient has frequently been used to represent the flow resistance characteristics of the entire natural wetland throughout the year. To improve the simulation of water flow through these natural vegetation communities, Landsat imagery and in situ flow measurements could be combined to produce a more detailed representation of flow resistance. The vegetation in a typical marshland drainage basin in south Florida was classified into five major categories using Landsat data. Flow measurements were then performed at characteristic sites in the basin. The measurements were taken at various depths during months of significant flow to examine the effect of seasonal growth. This information can be compared with the areal extent of the vegetation measured by satellite to more accurately simulate resistance to water flow in natural marshland drainage basins.

  14. Oxidation resistance of selected mechanical carbons at 650 deg C in dry flowing air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, G. P.; Wisander, D. W.

    1973-01-01

    Oxidation experiments were conducted with several experimental mechanical carbons at 650 C in air flowing at 28 cu cm/sec (STP). Experiments indicate that boron carbide addition and zinc phosphate treatment definitely improved oxidation resistance. Impregnation with coal tar pitch before final graphitization had some beneficial effect on oxidation resistance and it markedly improved flexure strength and hardness. Graphitization temperature alone did not affect oxidation resistance, but with enough added boron carbide the oxidation resistance was increased although the hardness greatly decreased.

  15. Flow resistance dynamics in step-pool channels: 2. Partitioning between grain, spill, and woody debris resistance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilcox, A.C.; Nelson, J.M.; Wohl, E.E.

    2006-01-01

    In step-pool stream channels, flow resistance is created primarily by bed sediments, spill over step-pool bed forms, and large woody debris (LWD). In order to measure resistance partitioning between grains, steps, and LWD in step-pool channels we completed laboratory flume runs in which total resistance was measured with and without grains and steps, with various LWD configurations, and at multiple slopes and discharges. Tests of additive approaches to resistance partitioning found that partitioning estimates are highly sensitive to the order in which components are calculated and that such approaches inflate the values of difficult-to-measure components that are calculated by subtraction from measured components. This effect is especially significant where interactions between roughness features create synergistic increases in resistance such that total resistance measured for combinations of resistance components greatly exceeds the sum of those components measured separately. LWD contributes large proportions of total resistance by creating form drag on individual pieces and by increasing the spill resistance effect of steps. The combined effect of LWD and spill over steps was found to dominate total resistance, whereas grain roughness on step treads was a small component of total resistance. The relative contributions of grain, spill, and woody debris resistance were strongly influenced by discharge and to a lesser extent by LWD density. Grain resistance values based on published formulas and debris resistance values calculated using a cylinder drag approach typically underestimated analogous flume-derived values, further illustrating sources of error in partitioning methods and the importance of accounting for interaction effects between resistance components. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  16. Differences in blood flow volume and vascular resistance between free flaps: assessment in 58 cases.

    PubMed

    Takanari, Keisuke; Kamei, Yuzuru; Toriyama, Kazuhiro; Yagi, Shunjiro; Torii, Shuhei

    2009-01-01

    In free-flap transfer, blood flow in the transferred flap contributes to wound healing and to resistance against infection in the recipient site. Successful reconstructions using free tissue transfers may be required to define and choose flaps with abundant blood flow in necessary cases. We investigated blood flow in the flap by transit-time ultrasound flowmeter in 58 free-flap transfers. Flow volume was compared between flap tissues as vascular resistance in the flap was calculated. Fasciocutaneous and osteocutaneous flaps had relatively low blood flow volume, myocutaneous flaps had more, and intraperitoneal flaps had still higher blood flow volume. These differences were statistically significant. Vascular resistance significantly decreased in the same order of comparison. Our findings will help in selecting the most suitable flaps for reconstructive surgery. PMID:18942044

  17. Low-Load Resistance Training with Blood Flow Occlusion as a Countermeasure to Disuse Atrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Cook, S. B.

    2009-01-01

    Decreases in strength and neuromuscular function are observed following prolonged disuse. Exercise countermeasures to prevent muscle dysfunction during disuse typically involve high intensity resistance training. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of low-load resistance training with a blood flow occlusion to mitigate muscle loss and dysfunction during 30 days of unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS).

  18. On the magnetic reconnection of resistive tearing mode with the dynamic flow effects

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, A.; Li, Jiquan Kishimoto, Y.

    2015-04-15

    Magnetic reconnection usually occurs in turbulent environments, which may not only provide anomalous resistivity to enhance reconnection rates but also significantly modify the reconnection process through direct nonlinear interaction with magnetic islands. This study presents numerical simulations investigating the effects of an imposed dynamic flow on magnetic reconnection, based on a two-dimensional reduced resistive MHD model. Results show that while the linear stability properties of the resistive tearing mode are moderately affected by the dynamic flow, nonlinear evolution is significantly modified by radial parity, amplitude, and frequency of the dynamic flow. After the slowly evolving nonlinear Rutherford stage, the reconnection process is found to progress in two phases by including the dynamic flow. A Sweet-Parker like current sheet is formed in the first phase. Afterwards, plasmoid instability is triggered in the second phase, where multiple plasmoids are continuously generated and ejected along the current sheet, leading to an impulsive bursty reconnection. The reconnection rate is considerably enhanced in the range of low resistivity as compared to without flow. We found that plasmoid instability onset and evolution are strongly influenced by the frequency and radial parity of the dynamic flows. The scaling of effective reconnection rates with the flow is found to be independent of resistivity.

  19. Carbon dioxide induced changes in cerebral blood flow and flow velocity: role of cerebrovascular resistance and effective cerebral perfusion pressure

    PubMed Central

    Grüne, Frank; Kazmaier, Stephan; Stolker, Robert J; Visser, Gerhard H; Weyland, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    In addition to cerebrovascular resistance (CVR) zero flow pressure (ZFP), effective cerebral perfusion pressure (CPPe) and the resistance area product (RAP) are supplemental determinants of cerebral blood flow (CBF). Until now, the interrelationship of PaCO2-induced changes in CBF, CVR, CPPe, ZFP, and RAP is not fully understood. In a controlled crossover trial, we investigated 10 anesthetized patients aiming at PaCO2 levels of 30, 37, 43, and 50 mm Hg. Cerebral blood flow was measured with a modified Kety-Schmidt-technique. Zero flow pressure and RAP was estimated by linear regression analysis of pressure–flow velocity relationships of the middle cerebral artery. Effective cerebral perfusion pressure was calculated as the difference between mean arterial pressure and ZFP, CVR as the ratio CPPe/CBF. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way RM-ANOVA. When comparing hypocapnia with hypercapnia, CBF showed a significant exponential reduction by 55% and mean VMCA by 41%. Effective cerebral perfusion pressure linearly decreased by 17% while ZFP increased from 14 to 29 mm Hg. Cerebrovascular resistance increased by 96% and RAP by 39% despite these concordant changes in mean CVR and Doppler-derived RAP correlation between these variables was weak (r=0.43). In conclusion, under general anesthesia hypocapnia-induced reduction in CBF is caused by both an increase in CVR and a decrease in CPPe, as a consequence of an increase in ZFP. PMID:25873428

  20. 42 CFR 84.155 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... Respirators § 84.155 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirator; minimum requirements. The resistance to air flowing from the...

  1. 42 CFR 84.155 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... Respirators § 84.155 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirator; minimum requirements. The resistance to air flowing from the...

  2. 42 CFR 84.155 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... Respirators § 84.155 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirator; minimum requirements. The resistance to air flowing from the...

  3. 42 CFR 84.155 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... Respirators § 84.155 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirator; minimum requirements. The resistance to air flowing from the...

  4. Identification of the full anisotropic flow resistivity tensor for multiple glass wool and melamine foam samples.

    PubMed

    Van der Kelen, Christophe; Göransson, Peter

    2013-12-01

    The flow resistivity tensor, which is the inverse of the viscous permeability tensor, is one of the most important material properties for the acoustic performance of porous materials used in acoustic treatments. Due to the manufacturing processes involved, these porous materials are most often geometrically anisotropic on a microscopic scale, and for demanding applications, there is a need for improved characterization methods. This paper discusses recent refinements of a method for the identification of the anisotropic flow resistivity tensor. The inverse estimation is verified for three fictitious materials with different degrees of anisotropy. Measurements are performed on nine glass wool samples and seven melamine foam samples, and the anisotropic flow resistivity tensors obtained are validated by comparison to measurements performed on uni-directional cylindrical samples, extracted from the same, previously measured cubic samples. The variability of flow resistivity in the batch of material from which the glass wool is extracted is discussed. The results for the melamine foam suggest that there is a relation between the direction of highest flow resistivity, and the rise direction of the material.

  5. Experimental study on heat transfer and flow resistance in improved latticework cooling channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Hongwu; Wang, Kai; Zhu, Jianqin; Pan, Wenyan

    2013-06-01

    Characteristics of heat transfer and flow resistance of the latticework (vortex) cooling channel with ribs truncated at their two ends were theoretically and experimentally studied compared with regular and smooth channels of the same configuration. The results showed: the heat transfer efficiency of the latticework channel with two slots was better than those of regular and smooth channels of the same configuration, its flow resistance situation in the slotted channel becomes quite complex; The flow resistances of 2 mm- and 4 mm-slotted channels were obviously lower than that of the regular channel, but they are still much higher than that of the smooth channel; Compared with the regular channel, the total heat transfer efficiencies of the slotted channels were pretty improved, among them the 4-mm slotted channel has the biggest enhancement. From the experimental results, it is obvious that the latticework channel with proper slots has a great prospect in the design of the inner cooling channels of turbine blades.

  6. Determining the combined effect of the lymphatic valve leaflets and sinus on resistance to forward flow.

    PubMed

    Wilson, John T; van Loon, Raoul; Wang, Wei; Zawieja, David C; Moore, James E

    2015-10-15

    The lymphatic system is vital to a proper maintenance of fluid and solute homeostasis. Collecting lymphatics are composed of actively contracting tubular vessels segmented by bulbous sinus regions that encapsulate bi-leaflet check valves. Valve resistance to forward flow strongly influences pumping performance. However, because of the sub-millimeter size of the vessels with flow rates typically <1 ml/h and pressures of a few cmH2O, resistance is difficult to measure experimentally. Using a newly defined idealized geometry, we employed an uncoupled approach where the solid leaflet deflections of the open valve were computed and lymph flow calculations were subsequently performed. We sought to understand: 1) the effect of sinus and leaflet size on the resulting deflections experienced by the valve leaflets and 2) the effects on valve resistance to forward flow of the fully open valve. For geometries with sinus-to-root diameter ratios >1.39, the average resistance to forward flow was 0.95×10(6)[g/(cm4 s)]. Compared to the viscous pressure drop that would occur in a straight tube the same diameter as the upstream lymphangion, valve leaflets alone increase the pressure drop up to 35%. However, the presence of the sinus reduces viscous losses, with the net effect that when combined with leaflets the overall resistance is less than that of the equivalent continuing straight tube. Accurately quantifying resistance to forward flow will add to the knowledge used to develop therapeutics for treating lymphatic disorders and may eventually lead to understanding some forms of primary lymphedema. PMID:26315921

  7. Determining the combined effect of the lymphatic valve leaflets and sinus on resistance to forward flow.

    PubMed

    Wilson, John T; van Loon, Raoul; Wang, Wei; Zawieja, David C; Moore, James E

    2015-10-15

    The lymphatic system is vital to a proper maintenance of fluid and solute homeostasis. Collecting lymphatics are composed of actively contracting tubular vessels segmented by bulbous sinus regions that encapsulate bi-leaflet check valves. Valve resistance to forward flow strongly influences pumping performance. However, because of the sub-millimeter size of the vessels with flow rates typically <1 ml/h and pressures of a few cmH2O, resistance is difficult to measure experimentally. Using a newly defined idealized geometry, we employed an uncoupled approach where the solid leaflet deflections of the open valve were computed and lymph flow calculations were subsequently performed. We sought to understand: 1) the effect of sinus and leaflet size on the resulting deflections experienced by the valve leaflets and 2) the effects on valve resistance to forward flow of the fully open valve. For geometries with sinus-to-root diameter ratios >1.39, the average resistance to forward flow was 0.95×10(6)[g/(cm4 s)]. Compared to the viscous pressure drop that would occur in a straight tube the same diameter as the upstream lymphangion, valve leaflets alone increase the pressure drop up to 35%. However, the presence of the sinus reduces viscous losses, with the net effect that when combined with leaflets the overall resistance is less than that of the equivalent continuing straight tube. Accurately quantifying resistance to forward flow will add to the knowledge used to develop therapeutics for treating lymphatic disorders and may eventually lead to understanding some forms of primary lymphedema.

  8. Effect of submerged flexible vegetation on flow structure and resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Järvelä, Juha

    2005-06-01

    Flume studies were carried out to investigate flow structure above flexible vegetation. A new data set of mean velocity profiles and turbulence characteristics is reported from experiments with wheat. The flow above the wheat reasonably followed the log law. Maximum values of the turbulence intensity urms and Reynolds stress -uw¯ were found approximately at the level of the maximum observed deflected plant height. A recent approach for describing vertical velocity profiles above aquatic vegetation [Stephan, U., 2002. Zum Fließwiderstandsverhalten flexibler Vegetation. Wiener Mitteilungen 180. Doctoral Thesis. Institute of Hydraulics, Hydrology and Water Resources Management, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Vienna.] was evaluated with these new data, which represent a different vegetal roughness type. The approach proved to be successful beyond the original scope. However, a new definition for the shear velocity based on the deflected plant height is suggested. The benefit of this modification is that complex turbulence measurements can be avoided, which enhances the practical applicability of the approach.

  9. Human Muscle Gene Expression Following Resistance Exercise and Blood Flow Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, Micah J.; Fujita, Satoshi; Takashi, Abe; Dreyer, Hans C.; Volpi, Elena; Rasmussen, Blake B.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Blood flow restriction in combination with low-intensity resistance exercise (REFR) increases skeletal muscle size to a similar extent as compared to traditional high-intensity resistance exercise training. However, there are limited data describing the molecular adaptations that occur after REFR. PURPOSE To determine whether (hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha) HIF-1α and REDD1 mRNA is expressed differently in REFR compared to low-intensity resistance exercise with no blood flow restriction (CONTROL). Secondly, to determine if low-intensity resistance exercise is able to induce changes in mRNA expression of several anabolic and catabolic genes as typically seen with high-intensity resistance exercise. METHODS Six subjects were studied at baseline and 3h after a bout of leg resistance exercise (20% 1RM) in REFR and CONTROL subjects. Each subject participated in both groups with 3 weeks separating each visit. Muscle biopsy samples were analyzed for mRNA expression using qRT-PCR. RESULTS Our primary finding was that there were no differences between CONTROL and REFR for any of the selected genes at 3h post-exercise (P>0.05). However, low-intensity resistance exercise increased HIF-1α, p21, MyoD and muscle RING finger 1 (MuRF1) mRNA expression and decreased REDD1 and Myostatin mRNA expression in both groups (P<0.05). CONCLUSION Low-intensity resistance exercise can alter skeletal muscle mRNA expression of several genes associated with muscle growth and remodeling such as REDD1, HIF-1α, MyoD, MuRF1, and Myostatin. Further, the results from REFR and CONTROL were similar indicating that the changes in early post-exercise gene expression were due to the low-intensity resistance exercise bout and not blood flow restriction. PMID:18317375

  10. Dam-break flows with resistance as agents of sediment transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmett, M.; Moodie, T. B.

    2008-08-01

    When a semi-infinite body of fluid initially at rest behind a vertical retaining wall is suddenly released by the removal of the barrier, the resulting flow over either a horizontal or a sloping bed is referred to as a dam-break flow. When resistance to the flow is neglected, the exact solution in the case of a horizontal bed with or without "tail water" may be obtained on the basis of shallow-water theory via the method of characteristics, and the results are well known. The inclusion of the effects of resistance in the form of basal friction that are needed in order to bring the mathematical solutions into closer harmony with the experimental results modifies the wave speed and flow profile near the head of the wave significantly and the simple exact solution of the shallow-water equations can no longer be employed as a reasonable description of the flow field. It is our intention here to study dam-break flows as agents of sediment transport taking into account basal friction and the attendant changes in depth profiles near the head, as well as the effects of particle concentrations on the flow dynamics including both erosion and deposition of particles arising through the interaction of the flow with the bed material. We shall consider shallow flows over dry beds and investigate the effects of changes in the depositional and erosional models employed as well as in the nature of the drag acting on the flow. These models offer some insight into the transport of sediment in the worst case scenario of complete and instantaneous collapse of a dam. They are also anticipated to provide information on other sheet flow events where particle transport plays a significant role in the flow dynamics.

  11. Measurement of the resistivity of porous materials with an alternating air-flow method.

    PubMed

    Dragonetti, Raffaele; Ianniello, Carmine; Romano, Rosario A

    2011-02-01

    Air-flow resistivity is a main parameter governing the acoustic behavior of porous materials for sound absorption. The international standard ISO 9053 specifies two different methods to measure the air-flow resistivity, namely a steady-state air-flow method and an alternating air-flow method. The latter is realized by the measurement of the sound pressure at 2 Hz in a small rigid volume closed partially by the test sample. This cavity is excited with a known volume-velocity sound source implemented often with a motor-driven piston oscillating with prescribed area and displacement magnitude. Measurements at 2 Hz require special instrumentation and care. The authors suggest an alternating air-flow method based on the ratio of sound pressures measured at frequencies higher than 2 Hz inside two cavities coupled through a conventional loudspeaker. The basic method showed that the imaginary part of the sound pressure ratio is useful for the evaluation of the air-flow resistance. Criteria are discussed about the choice of a frequency range suitable to perform simplified calculations with respect to the basic method. These criteria depend on the sample thickness, its nonacoustic parameters, and the measurement apparatus as well. The proposed measurement method was tested successfully with various types of acoustic materials.

  12. Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Biofilm Formation Over A Separated Flow Region Under Steady And Pulsatile Flow Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salek, M. Mehdi; Martinuzzi, Robert

    2012-02-01

    Several researchers have observed that the formation, morphology and susceptibility of bacterial biofilms are affected by the local hydrodynamic condition and, in particular, shear stresses acting on the fluid-biofilm interface. A backwards facing step (BFS) experimental model has been widely utilized as an in vitro model to examine and characterize the effect of flow separation and recirculation zones comparable to those present within various medical devices as well as those observed in vivo. The specific geometry of BFS covers a vide range of flow features observed in physiological or environmental conditions. The hypothesis of this study is that the flow behavior and structures can effectively contribute to the transport and attachment of cells and affecting the morphology of adhered colonies as well as suspended structures (i.e. biofilm streamers). Hence, the formation of the recirculation region occurring within a backward facing step (BFS) under steady and pulsatile conditions as well as three-dimensional flow structures arising close to the side walls are investigated to correlate to biofilms behavior. This hypothesis is investigated using a backward facing step incorporated into a flow cell under steady and pulsatile flow regimes to study the growth of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) UC18 as the study microorganism.

  13. Field-derived relationships for flow velocity and resistance in high-gradient streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Comiti, F.; Mao, L.; Wilcox, A.; Wohl, E.E.; Lenzi, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    We measured velocity and channel geometry in 10 reaches (bed gradient = 0.08-0.21) of a predominantly step-pool channel, the Rio Cordon, Italy, over a range of discharges (3-80% of the bankfull discharge). The resulting data were used to compute flow resistance. At-a-station hydraulic geometry relations indicate that in most reaches, the exponent describing the rate of velocity increases with discharge was between 0.48 and 0.6, which is within the range of published values for pool-riffle channels. The Rio Cordon data are also combined with published hydraulics data from step-pool streams to explore non-dimensional relationships between velocity and flow resistance and factors including unit discharge, channel gradient, and step geometry. Multiple regression analysis of this combined field dataset indicated that dimensionless unit discharge (q*) is the most important independent variable overall in explaining variations in velocity and flow resistance, followed by channel slope and the ratio of step height to step length. Empirical equations are provided both for dimensionless velocity and flow resistance, but prediction of the former variable appears more reliable. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of hypercapnia and inspiratory flow-resistive loading on respiratory activity in chronic airways obstruction.

    PubMed Central

    Altose, M D; McCauley, W C; Kelsen, S G; Cherniack, N S

    1977-01-01

    The respiratory responses to hypercapnia alone and to hypercapnia and flow-resistive loading during inspiration were studied in normal individuals and in eucapnic and hypercapnic patients with chronic airways obstruction. Responses were assessed in terms of minute ventilation and occlusion pressure (mouth pressure during airway occlusion 100 ms after the onset of inspiration). Ventilatory responses to CO2 (deltaV/deltaPCO2) were distinctly subnormal in both groups of patients with airways obstruction. The two groups of patients, however, showed different occlusion pressure responses to CO2 (deltaP100/deltaPCO2): deltaP100/deltaPCO2 was normal in the eucapnic patients but subnormal in the hypercapnic patients. Flow-resistive loading during inspiration reduced deltaV/deltaPCO2 both in normal subjects and in patients with airways obstruction. The occlusion pressure response to CO2 increased in normal subjects during flow-resistive loading but remained unchanged in both groups of patients with chronic airways obstruction. These results indicate that while chemosensitivity as determined by deltaP100/deltaPCO2 is impaired only in hypercapnic patients with chronic airways obstruction, an acute increase in flow resistance elicits a subnormal increase in respiratory efferent activity in both eucapnic and hypercapnic patients. PMID:838862

  15. Acute hypervolaemia increases gastroduodenal resistance to the flow of liquid in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Xavier-Neto, J; dos Santos, A A; Rola, F H

    1990-01-01

    The effect of volume expansion of extracellular fluid on gastroduodenal resistance to the flow of isotonic saline was assessed in three groups of rats using intravenous infusions of isotonic, isotonic-isoncotic, and isotonic-isoncotic-isohaemic solutions. The gastroduodenal segment of 29 male Wistar rats was barostatically perfused at a constant pressure gradient of 4 cm H2O and changes in flow (ml/minute) were taken as a reflection of changes in gastroduodenal resistance. Isotonic expansion led to a 33% drop in gastroduodenal flow compared with the normovolaemic period in the same animals (p less than 0.01). Extracellular fluid expansion with isotonic-isoncotic and isotonic-isoncotic-isohaemic solutions was associated with reductions in gastroduodenal flow of 29% (p less than 0.05) and 31% (p less than 0.01) respectively. The increase in gastroduodenal resistance is due to hypervolaemia per se and not to haemodilution, decreases in plasma oncotic pressure, or electrolyte imbalance. The effect of hypervolaemia on gastroduodenal resistance, which was reversed by small haemorrhages (0.5-1.0 ml per 100 g body weight), may be due to changes in tonus or phasic motor activity, or both, and may be part of the homeostatic processes that help the organism minimise liquid volume excess. PMID:2210444

  16. Evidence of population resistance to extreme low flows in a fluvial-dependent fish species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katz, Rachel A.; Freeman, Mary C.

    2015-01-01

    Extreme low streamflows are natural disturbances to aquatic populations. Species in naturally intermittent streams display adaptations that enhance persistence during extreme events; however, the fate of populations in perennial streams during unprecedented low-flow periods is not well-understood. Biota requiring swift-flowing habitats may be especially vulnerable to flow reductions. We estimated the abundance and local survival of a native fluvial-dependent fish species (Etheostoma inscriptum) across 5 years encompassing historic low flows in a sixth-order southeastern USA perennial river. Based on capturemark-recapture data, the study shoal may have acted as a refuge during severe drought, with increased young-of-the-year (YOY) recruitment and occasionally high adult immigration. Contrary to expectations, summer and autumn survival rates (30 days) were not strongly depressed during low-flow periods, despite 25%-80% reductions in monthly discharge. Instead, YOY survival increased with lower minimum discharge and in response to small rain events that increased low-flow variability. Age-1+ fish showed the opposite pattern, with survival decreasing in response to increasing low-flow variability. Results from this population dynamics study of a small fish in a perennial river suggest that fluvial-dependent species can be resistant to extreme flow reductions through enhanced YOY recruitment and high survival

  17. Electrical resistance tomography to monitor unsaturated moisture flow in cementitious materials

    SciTech Connect

    Hallaji, Milad; Seppänen, Aku; Pour-Ghaz, Mohammad

    2015-03-15

    Traditionally the electrically-based assessment of the moisture flow in cement-based materials relies on two- or four-point measurements. In this paper, imaging of moisture distribution with electrical resistance tomography (ERT) is considered. Especially, the aim is to study whether ERT could give information on unsaturated moisture flows in cases where the flow is non-uniform. In the experiment, the specimens are monitored with ERT during the water ingress. The ERT reconstructions are compared with neutron radiographs, which provide high resolution information on the 2D distribution of the moisture. The results indicate that ERT is able to detect the moisture movement and to show approximately the shape and position of the water front even if the flow is nonuniform.

  18. 42 CFR 84.155 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirator; minimum requirements. 84.155 Section... Respirators § 84.155 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type... shall not exceed 25 mm. (1 inch) of water-column height when the air flow into the...

  19. A flow cytometric screening test for detergent-resistant surface antigens in monocytes.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Zsuzsanna; Orsó, Evelyn; Werner, Tobias; Boettcher, Alfred; Schmitz, Gerd

    2006-03-01

    Rafts resemble cholesterol- and glycosphingolipid-enriched, liquid-ordered plasma membrane microdomains, showing resistance to nonionic detergents, and are involved in various cellular processes. In the present study, we have tested surface antigens on resting and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human peripheral blood monocytes for their detergent resistance (i.e. raft-association), by flow cytometry. Constitutive (CD14, CD32, CD55), or LPS-induced (CD81) raft-association, and detergent solubility (i.e. exclusion of rafts) (CD71) of monocyte antigens in the presence of 0.01% Triton X-100 are clearly demonstrated. Flow cytometric detergent insolubility is a powerful tool for rapid screening the raft-association of monocyte antigens in a whole-blood assay.

  20. Flow pattern transition accompanied with sudden growth of flow resistance in two-dimensional curvilinear viscoelastic flows.

    PubMed

    Yatou, Hiroki

    2010-09-01

    We numerically find three types of steady solutions of viscoelastic flows and flow pattern transitions between them in a two-dimensional wavy-walled channel for low to moderate Weissenberg (Wi) and Reynolds (Re) numbers using a spectral element method. The solutions are called "convective," "transition," and "elastic" in ascending order of Wi. In the convective region in the Wi-Re parameter space, convective effect and pressure gradient balance on average. As Wi increases, elastic effect becomes comparable, and the first transition sets in. Through the transition, a separation vortex disappears, and a jet flow induced close to the wall by the viscoelasticity moves into the bulk; the viscous drag significantly drops, and the elastic wall friction rises sharply. This transition is caused by an elastic force in the streamwise direction due to the competition of the convective and elastic effects. In the transition region, the convective and elastic effects balance. When the elastic effect becomes greater than the convective effect, the second transition occurs but it is relatively moderate. The second transition seems to be governed by the so-called Weissenberg effect. These transitions are not sensitive to driving forces. By a scaling analysis, it is shown that the stress component is proportional to the Reynolds number on the boundary of the first transition in the Wi-Re space. This scaling coincides well with the numerical result.

  1. Heat Transfer and Hydraulic Flow Resistance for Streams of High Velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lelchuk, V. L.

    1943-01-01

    Problems of hydraulic flow resistance and heat transfer for streams with velocities comparable with acoustic have present great importance for various fields of technical science. Especially, they have great importance for the field of heat transfer in designing and constructing boilers.of the "Velox" type. In this article a description of experiments and their results as regards definition of the laws of heat transfer in differential form for high velocity air streams inside smooth tubes are given.

  2. Heat Flow Pattern and Thermal Resistance Modeling of Anisotropic Heat Spreaders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falakzaadeh, F.; Mehryar, R.

    2016-08-01

    To ensure safe operating temperatures of the ever smaller heat generating electronic devices, drastic measures should be taken. Heat spreaders are used to increase surface area, by spreading the heat without necessarily transferring it to the ambient in the first place. The heat flow pattern is investigated in heat spreaders and the fundamental differences regarding how heat conducts in different materials is addressed. Isotropic materials are compared with anisotropic ones having a specifically higher in-plane thermal conductivity than through plane direction. Thermal resistance models are proposed for anisotropic and isotropic heat spreaders in compliance with the order of magnitude of dimensions used in electronics packaging. After establishing thermal resistance models for both the isotropic and anisotropic cases, numerical results are used to find a correlation for predicting thermal resistance in anisotropic heat spreaders with high anisotropy ratios.

  3. "Unexpected" behaviour of the internal resistance of a vanadium redox flow battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudolph, S.; Schröder, U.; Bayanov, I. M.; Hage-Packhäuser, S.

    2016-02-01

    This article presents the results of experimental and theoretical studies of energy losses owing to the internal resistance of vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs). A dependence of the internal cell resistance (ICR) on the electric current was measured and calculated. During the cyclic operation of a test battery, the internal resistance was halved by increasing the electric current from 3 A to 9 A. This is due to a strongly non-linear dependence of an over-potential of the electrochemical reactions on the current density. However, the energy efficiency does not increase due to a squared dependence of the energy losses on the increasing electric current. The energy efficiency of the test battery versus the electric current was measured and simulated. The deviation between the simulation results and experimental data is less than ±3.5%.

  4. Local Evolution of Pyrethroid Resistance Offsets Gene Flow Among Aedes aegypti Collections in Yucatan State, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Saavedra-Rodriguez, Karla; Beaty, Meaghan; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Denham, Steven; Garcia-Rejon, Julian; Reyes-Solis, Guadalupe; Machain-Williams, Carlos; Loroño-Pino, Maria Alba; Flores-Suarez, Adriana; Ponce-Garcia, Gustavo; Beaty, Barry; Eisen, Lars; Black, William C.

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the major vector of the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV1–4). Previous studies have shown that Ae. aegypti in Mexico have a high effective migration rate and that gene flow occurs among populations that are up to 150 km apart. Since 2000, pyrethroids have been widely used for suppression of Ae. aegypti in cities in Mexico. In Yucatan State in particular, pyrethroids have been applied in and around dengue case households creating an opportunity for local selection and evolution of resistance. Herein, we test for evidence of local adaptation by comparing patterns of variation among 27 Ae. aegypti collections at 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): two in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene para known to confer knockdown resistance, three in detoxification genes previously associated with pyrethroid resistance, and eight in putatively neutral loci. The SNPs in para varied greatly in frequency among collections, whereas SNPs at the remaining 11 loci showed little variation supporting previous evidence for extensive local gene flow. Among Ae. aegypti in Yucatan State, Mexico, local adaptation to pyrethroids appears to offset the homogenizing effects of gene flow. PMID:25371186

  5. A review on the mechanisms of blood-flow restriction resistance training-induced muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Stephen John; Hussain, Syed Robiul

    2015-02-01

    It has traditionally been believed that resistance training can only induce muscle growth when the exercise intensity is greater than 65% of the 1-repetition maximum (RM). However, more recently, the use of low-intensity resistance exercise with blood-flow restriction (BFR) has challenged this theory and consistently shown that hypertrophic adaptations can be induced with much lower exercise intensities (<50% 1-RM). Despite the potent hypertrophic effects of BFR resistance training being demonstrated by numerous studies, the underlying mechanisms responsible for such effects are not well defined. Metabolic stress has been suggested to be a primary factor responsible, and this is theorised to activate numerous other mechanisms, all of which are thought to induce muscle growth via autocrine and/or paracrine actions. However, it is noteworthy that some of these mechanisms do not appear to be mediated to any great extent by metabolic stress but rather by mechanical tension (another primary factor of muscle hypertrophy). Given that the level of mechanical tension is typically low with BFR resistance exercise (<50% 1-RM), one may question the magnitude of involvement of these mechanisms aligned to the adaptations reported with BFR resistance training. However, despite the low level of mechanical tension, it is plausible that the effects induced by the primary factors (mechanical tension and metabolic stress) are, in fact, additive, which ultimately contributes to the adaptations seen with BFR resistance training. Exercise-induced mechanical tension and metabolic stress are theorised to signal a number of mechanisms for the induction of muscle growth, including increased fast-twitch fibre recruitment, mechanotransduction, muscle damage, systemic and localised hormone production, cell swelling, and the production of reactive oxygen species and its variants, including nitric oxide and heat shock proteins. However, the relative extent to which these specific mechanisms are

  6. Development of myoelectric control type speaking valve with low flow resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ooe, Katsutoshi; Sakurai, Kohei; Mimaki, Shinya

    2015-12-01

    We aimed to develop welfare devices for patients with phonation disorder. One of these devices is the electrical controltype speaking valve system. The conventional speaking valves have one-way valve architecture, they open when the user breathes in, and they close when user breathes out and produce voices. This type is very simple and tough, but some users feel closeness in case of exhalation without phonation. This problem is caused by its mechanism what can not be controlled by user's will. Therefore, we proposed an electrical control-type speaking valve system to resolve this problem. This valve is controlled by neck myoelectric signal of sternohyoid muscle. From our previous report, it was clarified that this valve had better performance about easy-to-breath. Furthermore, we proposed the compact myoelectric control-type speaking valve system. The new-type speaking valve was enough small to attach the human body, and its opening area is larger than that of conventional one. Additionally, we described the improvement of flow channel shape by using of FEM analysis. According to the result of the analysis, it was clarified that the shape-improved speaking valve gets the low flow resistance channel in case of inspiration. In this report, we tried to make the flow resistance lower by the shape of current plates, in case of both inspiration and exhalation. From the result of FEM analysis, our speaking valve could get better flow channel than older one.

  7. Comparison of shear flow formation between resonant and non-resonant resistive interchange modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unemura, T.; Hamaguchi, S.; Wakatani, M.

    1999-11-01

    It is known that the poloidal shear flow is produced from the nonlinear resistive interchange modes(A. Hasegawa and M. Wakatani, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59) 1581 (1987)(B.A. Carreras and V. E. Lynch, Phys. Fluids B 5) 1795 (1993). Since the non-resonant resistive modes also become unstable(K. Ichiguchi, Y. Nakamura and M. Wakatani, Nucl. Fusion 31) 2073 (1991), the nonlinear behavior is compared between the resonant and non-resonant modes from the point of view of poloidal flow formation. For understanding the difference, we studied single helicity (m,n)=(3,2) mode in a cylindrical geometry.Rotational transform profile, ι(r), was changed. First, we assumed ι(r)=0.51+0.39r^2, and increased ι(0). This change represents a finite beta effect in currentless stellarators. When the resonant surface exists with ι(r_s)=2/3, the poloidal flow are created near the resonant surface. And, in the case when no resonant surface exists but ι_min ~ 2/3, the non-resonant (3,2) mode grows and poloidal shear flow is also generated; however, the magnitude decreases sharply with the increase of ι_min.

  8. Longitudinal Hydraulic Resistance Parameters of Cryocooler and Stirling Regenerators in Steady Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clearman, W. M.; Ghiaasiaan, S. M.; Cha, J. S.; Kirkconnell, C. S.; Desai, P. V.

    2008-03-01

    The results of an ongoing research program aimed at the measurement and correlation of anisotropic hydrodynamic parameters of widely-used cryocooler regenerator fillers are presented. The hydrodynamic parameters associated with steady, longitudinal flow are addressed in this paper. An experimental apparatus consisting of a cylindrical test section packed with regenerator fillers is used for the measurement of axial permeability and Forchheimer coefficients, with pure helium as the working fluid. The regenerator fillers that are tested include stainless steel 325 and 400-mesh screens with 69.69% porosity, stainless steel 400-mesh sintered mesh filler with 61.65% porosity, stainless steel foam metal with 55.47% porosity, and micro machined nickel disks with 26.8% porosity. The test section is subjected to a steady flow of helium at one end, and is open to the atmosphere at the other end. The instrumentation includes pressure transducers and a high-precision flow meter. For each filler material, the pressures at inlet to the regenerator are measured under steady flow conditions over a wide range of flow rates and a CFD assisted methodology is then used for the analysis and interpretation of the measured data. The viscous and inertial resistance parameter values, and the corresponding permeability and inertial coefficients, obtained using CFD are then compared with the corresponding values that are separately measured under steady-periodic flow conditions.

  9. Mechanical resistance properties of gravel used in subsurface flow constructed wetlands: implications for clogging.

    PubMed

    Pedescoll, Anna; Passos, Fabiana; Alba, Elisenda; García, Joan; Puigagut, Jaume

    2011-01-01

    Gravel constitutes the filter medium in subsurface flow constructed wetlands (SSF CWs) and its porosity and hydraulic conductivity decrease over time (clogging), limiting the lifespan of the systems. Using gravel of poor quality accelerates clogging in wetlands. In this study, gravel samples from six different wetland systems were compared with regards to their mineral composition and mechanical resistance properties. Results showed that both mineralogy and texture are related to mechanical resistance. Accordingly, gravel with high content of quartz (> 80%) showed a lower percentage of broken particles (0.18-1.03%) than those with lower content of quartz (2.42-4.56% media broken). Although granite is formed by high durability minerals, its non-uniform texture results in a lower resistance to abrasion (ca. 10% less resistance than calcareous gravel). Therefore, it is recommended to use gravels composed mainly of quartz or, when it is not available, limestone gravels (rounded and uniform) are recommended instead. The resistance to abrasion (LAA test) seems to be a good indicator to determine the mechanical properties of gravels used in CWs. It is recommended to use gravels with LAA below 30% in order to avoid a rapid clogging due to gravel crumbling and subsequent mineral solids accumulation.

  10. Analysis of the impact of biomechanical traits of European black Poplar on riverbank flow resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battista Chirico, Giovanni; Saulino, Luigi; Pasquino, Vittorio; Villani, Paolo; Rita, Angelo; Todaro, Luigi; Saracino, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Predicting the effects of riparian plants on river flow dynamics is fundamental for an appropriate river management. Riparian woody vegetation enhances bank cohesion and provides ecosystem services by mitigating nutrient and sediment loads to the river flow and enhancing biodiversity. However riparian trees also contribute to river flow resistance and thus can have a significant impact on flow dynamics during flood events. The flow-plant interaction mainly depends on plant morphological characters (e.g. diameter, height, canopy size, foliage density) and biomechanical properties, such as its flexural rigidity. This study aims at testing the hypothesis that the hydrodynamic behaviour of the European black Poplar (∖textit{Populus nigra} L.), a common woody riparian plant, is influenced by specific biomechanical traits developed as result of its adaptation to different river ecosystems. We examine the morphological and biomechanical properties of living stems of black Poplar sampled in two different riverine environments in Southern Italy located only a few kilometres apart. The two sample sets of living stems exhibit similar morphological traits but significantly different Young module of elasticity. We compared the drag forces that the flow would exert on these two different sets of plants for a wide range of flow velocities, by employing a numerical model that accounts for the bending behaviour of the woody plant due to the hydrodynamic load, under the hypothesis of complete submergence. A Monte Carlo approach was applied in order to account for the stochastic variability of the morphological and mechanical parameters affecting plant biomechanical behaviour. We identified a threshold value of the plant diameter, above which the two sets of European black Poplars are subjected to drag forces that differ by more than 25{∖%} on average, for flow velocities larger than 1 m/s.

  11. Inspiratory flow rates during hard work when breathing through different respirator inhalation and exhalation resistances.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Karen; Caretti, David; Scott, William; Johnson, Arthur; Koh, Frank

    2006-09-01

    There has been a long-standing debate regarding the adequacy of airflow rates used in respirator certification testing and whether these test flow rates underestimate actual values. This study investigated breath by breath inspiratory peak flow rate, minute ventilation, and instantaneous flow rates of eight young, healthy volunteers walking on a treadmill at 80-85% of maximal aerobic capacity until exhaustion while wearing an air-purifying respirator with one of eight combinations of inhalation and exhalation resistance. An analysis of variance was performed to identify differences among the eight conditions. Scheffe's post hoc analysis indicated which means differed. The group of conditions with the highest average value for each parameter was identified and considered to represent a worst-case scenario. Data was reported for these conditions. A Gaussian distribution was fit to the data and the 99.9% probability levels determined. The 99.9% probability level for the peak and instantaneous flow rates were 374 L/min and 336 L/min, respectively. The minute ventilation distribution was not Gaussian. Less than 1% of the recorded minute ventilations exceeded 135 L/min. Instantaneous flow rates exceeded the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's respirator test standards of 64, 85, and 100 L/min constant flow 91%, 87%, and 82% of the time, respectively. The recorded minute ventilations exceeded the 40 L/min minute ventilation test standard (for tests with a sinusoidal flow pattern) 100% of the time. This study showed that young, healthy respirator wearers generated peak flow rates, minute ventilations, and instantaneous flow rates that consistently exceeded current test standards. Their flow rates should be higher than those of a respirator wearer performing occupational work and could be considered upper limits. Testing respirators and respirator cartridges using a sinusoidal breathing pattern with a minute ventilation of 135 L/min (peak flow rate

  12. Structural resistance of reinforced concrete buildings under pyroclastic flows: a study of the Vesuvian area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrazzuoli, S. M.; Zuccaro, G.

    2004-05-01

    The analysis of the effects of pyroclastic flows on humans and on buildings represents the main tool to define the boundary of the most hazardous area around an active volcano such as Somma-Vesuvius. Estimation of the lateral pressure on buildings derived from analogies with the damages observed after a nuclear explosion [Valentine (1998) J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 87, 117-140] lead to pressure values and/or structural resistance which are not realistic (too high). Recent evidence [Baxter (2000) Human and Structural Vulnerability Assessment for Emergency Planning in a Future Eruption of Vesuvius. Final Report EC Project ENV4-CT98-0699; Young et al. (1997) EOS, Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, 78, 401] have shown that beyond 2-3 km from the vent, even after a great eruption, resistance to collapse of buildings affected by a pyroclastic flow is still possible. Neri et al. [(2000) Numerical simulation of pyroclastic flows. In: Human and Human and Structural Vulnerability Assessment for Emergency Planning in a Future Eruption of Vesuvius. Final Report EC Project ENV4-CT98-0699], by means of a numerical model of a collapsing column, show that the peak overpressures of the pyroclastic flows range from 1 to 2 kPa at a distance from the vent of about 4-5 km, where important historical centres of the Vesuvian area are located. A detailed analysis of urban settlement of the area [Cherubini et al. (2001) Vulnerabilita' Sismica dell'Area Vesuviana. Gruppo Nazionale per la Difesa dai Terremoti, CNR, Roma] has shown that most of the people live in reinforced concrete (r.c.) structures, not designed to resist horizontal seismic actions. The present work is aimed at analyzing the collapse limit load of r.c. structures to horizontal pressure for different structural design typologies (strong aseismic, weak aseismic, strong non-aseismic, weak non-aseismic). The simulations performed have also taken into account the specific features of the r.c. structures of the area (local building

  13. Hydraulic resistance to overland flow on surfaces with partially submerged vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jongho; Ivanov, Valeriy Y.; Katopodes, Nikolaos D.

    2012-10-01

    This study investigates numerically the characteristics of upscaling the Manning resistance coefficient (nt) for areas covered by partially submerged vegetation elements, such as shrub or tree stems. A number of high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations were carried out corresponding to scenarios with different domain slopes (S), inflow rates (Q), bed roughness (nb), and vegetation cover fractions (Vf). Using simulations performed at fine space-time scales, two methods were developed for computing the upscaled Manning coefficient, termed "Equivalent Roughness Surface (ERS)" and "Equivalent Friction Slope (EFS)." Results obtained with these two methods indicate that both yield highly correlated estimates of nt. The effects of four independent variables (Vf, S, Q, and nb) on nt were further investigated. First, as Vf increases, nt also grows. Second, two distinct modes of the relationship between S and nt for a fixed Vf and Q emerge: a positive dependence at low-flow rates and a negative dependence at high-flow rates. For a fixed Vf and S, two distinct modes of the relationship between Q and nt are also identified: a positive dependence at mild domain slopes and a negative dependence at steep slopes. A regression analysis shows that the two conflicting trends can occur depending on whether the variability of flow depth with respect to S (or Q) is greater than the ratio of h and S (or Q). Third, a rougher soil bed (i.e., larger values of nb) implies a higher resistance due to vegetation. Last, the study argues that nt increases as h increases and decreases as V increases. A generic regression relation that includes all four of the above variables and the difference nt - nb (i.e., the additional resistance due to partially submerged vegetation representing the sum of the form and wave resistances) was developed. The range of applicability of this relation is given by the following conditions: Vf ≤ 0.5, 0.1 ≤ S ≤ 1.1, and 0.0001 ≤ Q ≤ 0.01. The difference nt

  14. Observing the drop of resistance in the flow of a superfluid Fermi gas.

    PubMed

    Stadler, David; Krinner, Sebastian; Meineke, Jakob; Brantut, Jean-Philippe; Esslinger, Tilman

    2012-11-29

    The ability of particles to flow with very low resistance is characteristic of superfluid and superconducting states, leading to their discovery in the past century. Although measuring the particle flow in liquid helium or superconducting materials is essential to identify superfluidity or superconductivity, no analogous measurement has been performed for superfluids based on ultracold Fermi gases. Here we report direct measurements of the conduction properties of strongly interacting fermions, observing the well-known drop in resistance that is associated with the onset of superfluidity. By varying the depth of the trapping potential in a narrow channel connecting two atomic reservoirs, we observed variations of the atomic current over several orders of magnitude. We related the intrinsic conduction properties to the thermodynamic functions in a model-independent way, by making use of high-resolution in situ imaging in combination with current measurements. Our results show that, as in solid-state systems, current and resistance measurements in quantum gases provide a sensitive probe with which to explore many-body physics. Our method is closely analogous to the operation of a solid-state field-effect transistor and could be applied as a probe for optical lattices and disordered systems, paving the way for modelling complex superconducting devices. PMID:23192151

  15. Corticomotor Excitability is Increased Following an Acute Bout of Blood Flow Restriction Resistance Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Brandner, Christopher Roy; Warmington, Stuart Anthony; Kidgell, Dawson John

    2015-01-01

    We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate whether an acute bout of resistance exercise with blood flow restriction (BFR) stimulated changes in corticomotor excitability (motor evoked potential, MEP) and short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI), and compared the responses to two traditional resistance exercise methods. Ten males completed four unilateral elbow flexion exercise trials in a balanced, randomized crossover design: (1) heavy-load (HL: 80% one-repetition maximum [1-RM]); (2) light-load (LL; 20% 1-RM) and two other light-load trials with BFR applied; (3) continuously at 80% resting systolic blood pressure (BFR-C); or (4) intermittently at 130% resting systolic blood pressure (BFR-I). MEP amplitude and SICI were measured using TMS at baseline, and at four time-points over a 60 min post-exercise period. MEP amplitude increased rapidly (within 5 min post-exercise) for BFR-C and remained elevated for 60 min post-exercise compared with all other trials. MEP amplitudes increased for up to 20 and 40 min for LL and BFR-I, respectively. These findings provide evidence that BFR resistance exercise can modulate corticomotor excitability, possibly due to altered sensory feedback via group III and IV afferents. This response may be an acute indication of neuromuscular adaptations that underpin changes in muscle strength following a BFR resistance training programme. PMID:26696864

  16. Diversity assessment of heat resistance of Listeria monocytogenes strains in a continuous-flow heating system.

    PubMed

    van der Veen, Stijn; Wagendorp, Arjen; Abee, Tjakko; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H J

    2009-05-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that has the ability to survive relatively high temperatures compared with other nonsporulating foodborne pathogens. This study was performed to determine whether L. monocytogenes strains with relatively high heat resistances are adequately inactivated in a high-temperature, short-time pasteurization process (72 degrees C for 15 s). To obtain heat-resistant strains, 48 strains were exposed to 55 degrees C for up to 3 h. The energy of activation constant and inactivation constant of strains that survived best (strains 1E and NV8) were subsequently determined in a continuous-flow-through system. Strain Scott A was taken along as a reference. The 3 strains were cultured in whole milk and in brain heart infusion broth at 30 and 7 degrees C. Strains 1E and NV8 were significantly more heat resistant than was strain Scott A after growth in brain heart infusion broth at 30 degrees C and after growth in milk at 7 degrees C. From the inactivation parameters, it was calculated that exposure to high-temperature, short-time pasteurization (72 degrees C for 15 s) will result in 12.1-, 14.2-, and 87.5-log reductions for the strains 1E, NV8, and Scott A, respectively. These results demonstrate that industrial pasteurization conditions suffice to inactivate the most heat-resistant L. monocytogenes strains tested in this study.

  17. Correction of Flow Resistances of Plants Measured From Covered and Exposed Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Neil C.

    1981-01-01

    The difference in water potential between an enclosed nontranspiring leaf and an adjacent exposed transpiring leaf, and the transpiration rate of a similarly exposed leaf, were used to calculate the change in hydraulic resistance of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) leaves throughout the day and at various rates of transpiration. Since cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) leaves enclosed in aluminum foil alone had enclosed leaf water potentials about 0.06 megapascals lower than similar leaves enclosed in a polyethylene bag shielded with aluminum foil, the sorghum and sunflower leaves were enclosed in polyethylene bags shielded with aluminum foil. Enclosing the exposed leaf in a plastic sheath just prior to excision led to the water potential measured by the pressure chamber technique being 0.3 to 0.4 megapascals higher at rapid transpiration rates than in exposed leaves not sheathed just prior to excision. This error, previously shown to arise from rapid water loss after excision, led to an overestimation of the leaf hydraulic resistance in both species. Correction of the error reduced the resistance by 40 to 90% in irrigated sorghum and by about 40% in irrigated and unirrigated sunflower. After correction, the hydraulic resistances were still flow-dependent, but the dependency was markedly reduced in sorghum. PMID:16662056

  18. Passive microfluidic control of two merging streams by capillarity and relative flow resistance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Jin; Lim, Yong Taik; Yang, Haesik; Shin, Yong Beom; Kim, Kyuwon; Lee, Dae-Sik; Park, Se Ho; Kim, Youn Tae

    2005-10-01

    In the progress of microfluidic devices, a simple and precise control of multiple streams has been essential for complex microfluidic networks. Consequently, microfluidic devices, which have a simple structure, typically use external energy sources to control the multiple streams. Here, we propose a pure passive scheme that uses capillarity without using external force or external regulation to control the merging of two streams and even to regulate their volumetric flow rate (VFR). We accomplish this process by controlling the geometry of two inlets and a junction, and by regulating the hydrophilicity of a substrate. Additionally, we use the relative flow resistance to control the VFR ratio of the merged two streams. Our results will significantly simplify the control of multiple streams without sacrificing precision.

  19. Nonlinear Viscous Water at Nanoporous Two-Dimensional Interfaces Resists High-Speed Flow through Cooperativity.

    PubMed

    Qin, Zhao; Buehler, Markus J

    2015-06-10

    Recently emerging ultrathin two-dimensional carbon materials provide potentially game-changing membranes for water filtration. Here we discover a changed water behavior at the nanoscale that is significantly distinct from its bulk state as water flows through two-dimensional carbon allotropes. We find that water exhibits a very high viscosity due to the cooperativity of water molecules that enhances the nonbonded H-bond interactions with the dense lattice of carbon structures, which renders flow significantly more viscous, with a resistance that is inversely proportional to the sixth power of the characteristic length of the nanopores. This is in contrast to a constant value as assumed in conventional knowledge. Our findings reveal how water molecules behave drastically different from their bulk state under extreme nanoconfinement conditions. These insights enable us to incorporate the size analysis of particles in variant untreated water into membrane design and propose the design of more efficient devices with higher filtration throughput and greater mechanical resilience.

  20. Pollen-mediated intraspecific gene flow from herbicide resistant oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Hüsken, Alexandra; Dietz-Pfeilstetter, Antje

    2007-10-01

    The cultivation of genetically modified (GM) herbicide resistant oilseed rape (Brassica napus) has increased over the past few years. The transfer of herbicide resistance genes via pollen (gene flow) from GM crops to non-GM crops is of relevance for the realisation of co-existence of different agricultural cultivation forms as well as for weed management. Therefore the likelihood of pollen-mediated gene flow has been investigated in numerous studies. Despite the difficulty to compare different experiments with varying levels of outcrossing, we performed a literature search for world-wide studies on cross-fertilisation in fully fertile oilseed rape. The occurrence and frequency of pollen-mediated intraspecific gene flow (outcrossing rate) can vary according to cultivar, experimental design, local topography and environmental conditions. The outcrossing rate from one field to another depends also on the size and arrangement of donor and recipient populations and on the ratio between donor and recipient plot size. The outcrossing levels specified in the presented studies are derived mostly from experiments where the recipient field is either surrounding the donor field (continuous design) or is located as a patch at different distances from the donor field (discontinuous design). Reports of gene flow in Brassica napus generally show that the amount of cross-fertilisation decreases as the distance from the pollen source increases. The evidence given in various studies reveals that the bulk of GM cross-fertilisation occurs within the first 10 m of the recipient field. The removal of the first 10 m of a non-transgenic field facing a GM crop might therefore be more efficient for reducing the total level of cross-fertilisation in a recipient sink population than to recommend separation distances. Future experiments should investigate cross-fertilisation with multiple adjacent donor fields at the landscape level under different spatial distributions of rapeseed cultivars

  1. Correlations between flow resistance and geometry in a model of the human nose.

    PubMed

    Schreck, S; Sullivan, K J; Ho, C M; Chang, H K

    1993-10-01

    The relationship between the pressure losses within the nasal airways and nasal geometry were studied in a 3:1 scale model. The geometry of the model was based on magnetic resonance images of the skull of a healthy male subject. Pressure measurements, flow visualization, and hot-wire anemometry studies were performed at flow rates that, in vivo, corresponded to flows of between 0.05 and 1.50 l/s. The influence of nasal congestion and the collapse of the external nares were examined by using modeling clay to simulate local constrictions in the cross section. A dimensionless analysis of the pressure losses within three sections of the airway revealed the influence of various anatomic dimensions on nasal resistance. The region of the exterior nose behaves as a contraction-expansion nozzle in which the pressure losses are a function of the smallest cross-sectional area. Losses in the interior nose resemble those associated with channel flow. The nasopharynx is modeled as a sharp bend in a circular duct. Good correspondence was found between the predicted and actual pressure losses in the model under conditions that stimulated local obstructions and congestion.

  2. Generation of rotational flows in toroidally confined visco-resistive magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Jorge; Bos, Wouter; Schneider, Kai; Montgomery, David

    2015-11-01

    We investigate by numerical simulation the generation of rotational flows in a toroid confining a conducting magnetofluid. A current is driven by the application of externally supported electric and magnetic fields. We show how the properties and intensity of the rotations are regulated by dimensionless numbers (Lundquist and viscous Lundquist) that contain the resistivity and viscosity of the magnetofluid. At the magnetohydrodynamic level (uniform mass density and incompressible magnetofluids), rotational flows appear in toroidal, driven MHD. The evolution of these flows with the transport coefficients, geometry, and safety factor are described. Two different toroidal geometries are considered, one with an up-down symmetric and the other with an asymmetric cross section. We show that there exists a fundamental difference between both studied cases: the volume-averaged angular momentum is zero for the symmetric case, while for the asymmetric cross section a finite volume-averaged angular momentum appears. We observe a breaking in the up-down symmetry of the flow and a toroidal preferred direction emerges.

  3. Session rating of perceived exertion following resistance exercise with blood flow restriction.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Amilton; Gadelha, André B; Ferreira-Junior, João B; Vieira, Carlos A; Soares, Edgard de Melo Keene von Koenig; Cadore, Eduardo L; Wagner, Dale R; Bottaro, Martim

    2015-09-01

    Session ratings of perceived exertion (SRPE) provide a valid and reliable indicator of resistance exercise session intensity. However, there is a lack of studies on the effects of resistance exercise with blood flow restriction (BFR) on SRPE. Thus, the aim of this study is to compare the effects of resistance exercise at high intensity versus low intensity with BFR on internal training load measured by SRPE. Thirteen young (22.2 ± 3.8 years) resistance-trained men (training experience 3.2 ± 2.4 years) participated in the study protocol. After determining one maximum repetition (1-RM), the subjects were assigned to two groups in a counterbalanced design (i) high-intensity exercise (HIE, performed one training session at 80% of 1-RM) and (ii) low intensity with BFR (BFR, performed an exercise session at 50% of 1-RM with BFR). During each session, subjects performed three sets of unilateral elbow flexion leading to concentric failure with a 1-min rest interval between sets. A cuff around the arm, inflated at 110 mmHg, was used continuously for BFR. The SRPE was reported 30 min after the end of the session. The low intensity with BFR showed lower total work (197.13 ± 63.49 versus 300.92 ± 71.81 kg; P = 0.002) and higher SRPE (9 versus 6; P = 0.007) than high-intensity resistance exercise. The present results indicate that BFR is an important factor to increase internal training load. Future studies should investigate the physiological stress imposed by different training methods rather than just quantify the external training load such as intensity or volume.

  4. Monitoring snowmelt induced unsaturated flow and transport using electrical resistivity tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, Helen K.; Hardbattle, Carol; Binley, Andrew; Winship, Peter; Jakobsen, Leif

    2002-10-01

    The flow and transport of a non-reactive tracer and melt water was monitored in a heterogeneous coarse sandy unsaturated zone in southeastern Norway, during the snowmelt of 2001. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) as well as conventional suction cup techniques was employed. A frozen solution of NaBr in water was supplied as a line source on the ground surface above two parallel vertical profiles monitored by the two measurement systems prior to the onset of snowmelt. The two monitored vertical profiles were separated by approximately 1 m. The results were analysed by visual comparison of images and by the use of spatial moments analysis. The two measurement approaches showed that the system was affected by the presence of preferential flow paths during the early stages of the snowmelt, perhaps due to ice near the surface, but the major part of the plume moves uniformly later in the snow-melting period. After most of the tracer plume has reached the depth monitored by both systems (i.e. below 0.4 m depth) there is a good consistency between the two datasets. Spatial moment calculations on the basis of ERT cannot be used to describe the movement of tracer alone, as the resistivity is affected by changes in both saturation levels and tracer concentration. Nevertheless, ERT appears to be an appropriate method to characterise regions of localised high infiltration in this type of soil. The method therefore constitutes a possible alternative and supplement to suction cups in a monitoring system.

  5. Blood flow restricted and traditional resistance training performed to fatigue produce equal muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Farup, J; de Paoli, F; Bjerg, K; Riis, S; Ringgard, S; Vissing, K

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the hypertrophic potential of load-matched blood-flow restricted resistance training (BFR) vs free-flow traditional resistance training (low-load TRT) performed to fatigue. Ten healthy young subjects performed unilateral BFR and contralateral low-load TRT elbow flexor dumbbell curl with 40% of one repetition maximum until volitional concentric failure 3 days per week for 6 weeks. Prior to and at 3 (post-3) and 10 (post-10) days post-training, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to estimate elbow flexor muscle volume and muscle water content accumulation through training. Acute changes in muscle thickness following an early vs a late exercise bout were measured with ultrasound to determine muscle swelling during the immediate 0-48 h post-exercise. Total work was threefold lower for BFR compared with low-load TRT (P < 0.001). Both BRF and low-load TRT increased muscle volume by approximately 12% at post-3 and post-10 (P < 0.01) with no changes in MRI-determined water content. Training increased muscle thickness during the immediate 48 h post-exercise (P < 0.001) and to greater extent with BRF (P < 0.05) in the early training phase. In conclusion, BFR and low-load TRT, when performed to fatigue, produce equal muscle hypertrophy, which may partly rely on transient exercise-induced increases in muscle water content.

  6. Overland flow resistances on varying slope gradients and partitioning on grassed slopes under simulated rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Chengzhong; Ma, Lan; Wainwright, John; Shangguan, Zhouping

    2016-04-01

    It is still unclear how slope steepness (S) and revegetation affect resistance (f) to overland flow. A series of experiments on runoff hydraulics was conducted on granular surfaces (bare soil and sandpaper) and grassed surfaces, including grass plots (GP), GP with litter (GL), and GP without leaves (GS) under simulated rainfall and inflow (30flow rate, or Re (Reynolds number), with downward cross sections and a good f-Re relation (f = KRe-1). There exists a good f-Re relation for granular surfaces and a good f-Fr relation (Fr, Froude number) for grass plots. A greater f occurred at the gentle and steep slopes for the granular surfaces, while f decreased with increasing slopes for the grass treatments. The different f-S relations suggest that f is not a simple function of S. When Re≈1000, the sowing rye grass with level lines increased f by approximately 100 times and decreased bed shear stress to approximately 5%. The contribution of grass leaves, stems, litter, and grain surface to total resistance in the grass plots were averagely 52%, 32%, 16%, and 1%. The greater resistance from leaves may result from the leaves lying at the plot surface impacted by raindrop impact. These results are beneficial to understand the dynamics of runoff and erosion on hillslopes impacted by vegetation restoration.

  7. Negative differential electrolyte resistance in a solid-state nanopore resulting from electroosmotic flow bistability.

    PubMed

    Luo, Long; Holden, Deric A; White, Henry S

    2014-03-25

    A solid-state nanopore separating two aqueous solutions containing different concentrations of KCl is demonstrated to exhibit negative differential resistance (NDR) when a constant pressure is applied across the nanopore. NDR refers to a decrease in electrical current when the voltage applied across the nanopore is increased. NDR results from the interdependence of solution flow (electroosmotic and pressure-engendered) with the distributions of K+ and Cl- within the nanopore. A switch from a high-conductivity state to a low-conductivity state occurs over a very narrow voltage window (<2 mV) that depends on the nanopore geometry, electrolyte concentration, and nanopore surface charge density. Finite element simulations based on a simultaneous solution of the Navier-Stokes, Poisson, and Nernst-Planck equations demonstrate that NDR results from a positive feedback mechanism between the ion distributions and electroosmotic flow, yielding a true bistability in fluid flow and electrical current at a critical applied voltage, i.e., the NDR "switching potential". Solution pH and Ca2+ were separately employed as chemical stimuli to investigate the dependence of the NDR on the surface charge density. The NDR switching potential is remarkably sensitive to the surface charge density, and thus to pH and the presence of Ca2+, suggesting possible applications in chemical sensing.

  8. Effects of aging and exercise training on skeletal muscle blood flow and resistance artery morphology

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Michael W.; Stabley, John N.; Dominguez, James M.; Davis, Robert T.; McCullough, Danielle J.; Muller-Delp, Judy M.; Delp, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    With old age, blood flow to the high-oxidative red skeletal muscle is reduced and blood flow to the low-oxidative white muscle is elevated during exercise. Changes in the number of feed arteries perforating the muscle are thought to contribute to this altered hyperemic response during exercise. We tested the hypothesis that exercise training would ameliorate age-related differences in blood flow during exercise and feed artery structure in skeletal muscle. Young (6–7 mo old, n = 36) and old (24 mo old, n = 25) male Fischer 344 rats were divided into young sedentary (Sed), old Sed, young exercise-trained (ET), and old ET groups, where training consisted of 10–12 wk of treadmill exercise. In Sed and ET rats, blood flow to the red and white portions of the gastrocnemius muscle (GastRed and GastWhite) and the number and luminal cross-sectional area (CSA) of all feed arteries perforating the muscle were measured at rest and during exercise. In the old ET group, blood flow was greater to GastRed (264 ± 13 and 195 ± 9 ml·min−1·100 g−1 in old ET and old Sed, respectively) and lower to GastWhite (78 ± 5 and 120 ± 6 ml·min−1·100 g−1 in old ET and old Sed, respectively) than in the old Sed group. There was no difference in the number of feed arteries between the old ET and old Sed group, although the CSA of feed arteries from old ET rats was larger. In young ET rats, there was an increase in the number of feed arteries perforating the muscle. Exercise training mitigated old age-associated differences in blood flow during exercise within gastrocnemius muscle. However, training-induced adaptations in resistance artery morphology differed between young (increase in feed artery number) and old (increase in artery CSA) animals. The altered blood flow pattern induced by exercise training with old age would improve the local matching of O2 delivery to consumption within the skeletal muscle. PMID:23042906

  9. Quantifying Flow Resistance in Rivers and on Floodplains During Large Floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kean, J. W.; Smith, J. D.

    2003-12-01

    In an effort to improve predictions of peak discharge at ungaged sites by reducing the uncertainty in estimates of channel roughness, a series of processed-based methods have been developed over the past several years to quantify the flow resistance of common channel roughness elements using simple measurements of their geometric properties. These methods have been recently incorporated into a flow model and have been applied to predict the velocity, discharge, and boundary shear stress in a 150-m densely vegetated reach of the Rock Creek Branch of the Whitewater River, Kansas. This is done without calibration using measured stage together with detailed measurements of the channel geometry and the size, shape, and spacings of the small-scale topographic features and plant stems in the channel. Topographic features on the bed and banks of the channel are characterized by a sequence of Gaussian shaped elements, which have drag coefficients known from recent experiments. Woody vegetation is modeled as randomly distributed rigid vertical cylinders. The model explicitly calculates drag on the roughness elements and includes the effects of friction on lateral boundaries on the flow and boundary shear stress. Model predictions of discharge during a moderate flow event are in agreement with the measured discharge at a USGS gaging station at the entrance to the study reach. The model is then used to explore the effect of floodplain roughness on the flow and boundary shear stress during a hypothetical overbank event. The model shows that drag on the vegetation substantially reduces the flow velocity on the floodplain, which results in increased velocities and boundary shear stress in the main portion of the channel relative to the case with no vegetation present. When used in conjunction with information on the critical shear stress of the bed and bank material, the model can be used to determine whether or not a given event can alter the channel topography and to evaluate

  10. Impact of the postpump resistance on pressure-flow waveform and hemodynamic energy level in a neonatal pulsatile centrifugal pump.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shigang; Haines, Nikkole; Richardson, J Scott; Dasse, Kurt A; Undar, Akif

    2009-01-01

    This study tested the impact of different postpump resistances on pulsatile pressure-flow waveforms and hemodynamic energy output in a mock extracorporeal system. The circuit was primed with a 40% glycerin-water mixture, and a PediVAS centrifugal pump was used. The pre- and postpump pressures and flow rates were monitored via a data acquisition system. The postpump resistance was adjusted using a Hoffman clamp at the outlet of the pump. Five different postpump resistances and rotational speeds were tested with nonpulsatile (NP: 5000 RPM) and pulsatile (P: 4000 RPM) modes. No backflow was found when using pulsatile flow. With isoresistance, increased arterial resistances decreased pump flow rates (NP: from 1,912 ml/min to 373 ml/min; P: from 1,485 ml/min to 288 ml/min), increased postpump pressures (NP: from 333 mm Hg to 402 mm Hg; P: from 223 mm Hg to 274 mm Hg), and increased hemodynamic energy output with pulsatile mode. Pump flow rate correlated linearly with rotational speed (RPMs) of the pump, whereas postpump pressures and hemodynamic energy outputs showed curvilinear relationships with RPMs. The maximal pump flow rate also increased from 618 ml/min to 4,293 ml/min with pulsatile mode and from 581 ml/min to 5,665 ml/min with nonpulsatile mode. Results showed that higher postpump resistance reduced the pump flow range, and increased postpump pressure and surplus hemodynamic energy output with pulsatile mode. Higher rotational speeds also generated higher pump flow rates, postpump pressures, and increased pulsatility.

  11. Removal of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes from domestic sewage by constructed wetlands: Effect of flow configuration and plant species.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Ying, Guang-Guo; Wei, Xiao-Dong; Liu, You-Sheng; Liu, Shuang-Shuang; Hu, Li-Xin; He, Liang-Ying; Chen, Zhi-Feng; Chen, Fan-Rong; Yang, Yong-Qiang

    2016-11-15

    This study aims to investigate the removal of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in raw domestic wastewater by various mesocosm-scale constructed wetlands (CWs) with different flow configurations or plant species including the constructed wetland with or without plant. Six mesocosm-scale CWs with three flow types (surface flow, horizontal subsurface flow and vertical subsurface flow) and two plant species (Thaliadealbata Fraser and Iris tectorum Maxim) were set up in the outdoor. 8 antibiotics including erythromycin-H2O (ETM-H2O), monensin (MON), clarithromycin (CTM), leucomycin (LCM), sulfamethoxazole (SMX), trimethoprim (TMP), sulfamethazine (SMZ) and sulfapyridine (SPD) and 12 genes including three sulfonamide resistance genes (sul1, sul2 and sul3), four tetracycline resistance genes (tetG, tetM, tetO and tetX), two macrolide resistance genes (ermB and ermC), two chloramphenicol resistance genes (cmlA and floR) and 16S rRNA (bacteria) were determined in different matrices (water, particle, substrate and plant phases) from the mesocosm-scale systems. The aqueous removal efficiencies of total antibiotics ranged from 75.8 to 98.6%, while those of total ARGs varied between 63.9 and 84.0% by the mesocosm-scale CWs. The presence of plants was beneficial to the removal of pollutants, and the subsurface flow CWs had higher pollutant removal than the surface flow CWs, especially for antibiotics. According to the mass balance analysis, the masses of all detected antibiotics during the operation period were 247,000, 4920-10,600, 0.05-0.41 and 3500-60,000μg in influent, substrate, plant and effluent of the mesocosm-scale CWs. In the CWs, biodegradation, substrate adsorption and plant uptake all played certain roles in reducing the loadings of nutrients, antibiotics and ARGs, but biodegradation was the most important process in the removal of these pollutants. PMID:27443461

  12. Removal of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes from domestic sewage by constructed wetlands: Effect of flow configuration and plant species.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Ying, Guang-Guo; Wei, Xiao-Dong; Liu, You-Sheng; Liu, Shuang-Shuang; Hu, Li-Xin; He, Liang-Ying; Chen, Zhi-Feng; Chen, Fan-Rong; Yang, Yong-Qiang

    2016-11-15

    This study aims to investigate the removal of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in raw domestic wastewater by various mesocosm-scale constructed wetlands (CWs) with different flow configurations or plant species including the constructed wetland with or without plant. Six mesocosm-scale CWs with three flow types (surface flow, horizontal subsurface flow and vertical subsurface flow) and two plant species (Thaliadealbata Fraser and Iris tectorum Maxim) were set up in the outdoor. 8 antibiotics including erythromycin-H2O (ETM-H2O), monensin (MON), clarithromycin (CTM), leucomycin (LCM), sulfamethoxazole (SMX), trimethoprim (TMP), sulfamethazine (SMZ) and sulfapyridine (SPD) and 12 genes including three sulfonamide resistance genes (sul1, sul2 and sul3), four tetracycline resistance genes (tetG, tetM, tetO and tetX), two macrolide resistance genes (ermB and ermC), two chloramphenicol resistance genes (cmlA and floR) and 16S rRNA (bacteria) were determined in different matrices (water, particle, substrate and plant phases) from the mesocosm-scale systems. The aqueous removal efficiencies of total antibiotics ranged from 75.8 to 98.6%, while those of total ARGs varied between 63.9 and 84.0% by the mesocosm-scale CWs. The presence of plants was beneficial to the removal of pollutants, and the subsurface flow CWs had higher pollutant removal than the surface flow CWs, especially for antibiotics. According to the mass balance analysis, the masses of all detected antibiotics during the operation period were 247,000, 4920-10,600, 0.05-0.41 and 3500-60,000μg in influent, substrate, plant and effluent of the mesocosm-scale CWs. In the CWs, biodegradation, substrate adsorption and plant uptake all played certain roles in reducing the loadings of nutrients, antibiotics and ARGs, but biodegradation was the most important process in the removal of these pollutants.

  13. Effect of wall edge suction on the performance of a short annular dump diffuser with exit passage flow resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, A. J.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of wall edge suction on the performance of a short annular dump diffuser having a perforated plate flow resistance device in the exit passage was evaluated. Testing was conducted with air at near ambient pressure and temperature at inlet Mach numbers of 0.18 and 0.27 with suction rates up to 13.5 percent. Results show that pressure recovery downstream of the perforated plate was improved significantly by suction. Optimum performance was obtained with the flow resistance plate located at one inlet passage height downstream of the dump plane.

  14. Longitudinal Hydraulic Resistance Parameters of Cryocooler and Stirling Regenerators in Periodic Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, J. S.; Ghiaasiaan, S. M.; Kirkconnell, C. S.

    2008-03-01

    The results of an on going research program aimed at the measurement and correlation of anisotropic hydrodynamic parameters of widely-used cryocooler regenerator fillers are presented. The hydrodynamic parameters associated with longitudinal periodic flow are addressed in this paper. An experimental apparatus consisting of a cylindrical test section packed with regenerator fillers is used for the measurement of axial permeability and Forchheimer coefficients, with pure helium as the working fluid. The regenerator fillers that are tested include stainless steel 400-mesh screens with 69.2% porosity, stainless steel 325-mesh screens with 69.2% porosity, stainless steel 400-mesh sintered filler with 62% porosity, stainless steel sintered foam metal with 55.47% porosity, and nickel micro-machined disks with 26.8% porosity. The test section is connected to a Stirling type compressor on one end and to a constant volume chamber on the other end. The instrumentation includes piezoelectric pressure transducers at both ends of the regenerator and a hot wire anemometer at the inlet of the regenerator. For each filler material, time histories of local pressures at both ends of the regenerator are measured under steady periodic conditions over a wide range of oscillation frequencies (5—60 Hz). A CFD assisted methodology is then used for the analysis and interpretation of the measured data. The viscous resistance coefficient and the inertial resistance coefficient values obtained in this way are correlated in terms of the relevant dimensionless parameters.

  15. Evaluation of GenoFlow DR-MTB Array Test for Detection of Rifampin and Isoniazid Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Molina-Moya, B.; Kazdaglis, G.; Lacoma, A.; Prat, C.; Gómez, A.; Villar-Hernández, R.; García-García, E.; Haba, L.; Maldonado, J.; Samper, S.; Ruiz-Manzano, J.; Ausina, V.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the GenoFlow DR-MTB array test (DiagCor Bioscience, Hong Kong) on 70 cultured isolates and 50 sputum specimens. The GenoFlow array test showed good sensitivity and specificity compared to the phenotypic Bactec 460TB. This array accurately detected mutations in rpoB, katG, and inhA associated with resistance to rifampin and isoniazid. PMID:26865688

  16. Evaluation of GenoFlow DR-MTB Array Test for Detection of Rifampin and Isoniazid Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Molina-Moya, B; Kazdaglis, G; Lacoma, A; Prat, C; Gómez, A; Villar-Hernández, R; García-García, E; Haba, L; Maldonado, J; Samper, S; Ruiz-Manzano, J; Ausina, V; Domínguez, J

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the GenoFlow DR-MTB array test (DiagCor Bioscience, Hong Kong) on 70 cultured isolates and 50 sputum specimens. The GenoFlow array test showed good sensitivity and specificity compared to the phenotypic Bactec 460TB. This array accurately detected mutations inrpoB,katG, andinhAassociated with resistance to rifampin and isoniazid. PMID:26865688

  17. A computational study of the effect of windscreen shape and flow resistivity on turbulent wind noise reduction.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Zheng, Z C; Wilson, D K

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, numerical simulations are used to study the turbulent wind noise reduction effect of microphone windscreens with varying shapes and flow resistivities. Typical windscreen shapes consisting of circular, elliptical, and rectangular cylinders are investigated. A turbulent environment is generated by placing a solid circular cylinder upstream of the microphone. An immersed-boundary method with a fifth-order weighted essentially non-oscillatory scheme is implemented to enhance the simulation accuracy for high-Reynolds number flow around the solid cylinder as well as at the interface between the open air and the porous material comprising the windscreen. The Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible flow are solved in the open air. For the flow inside the porous material, a modified form of the Zwikker-Kosten equation is solved. The results show that, on average, the circular and horizontal ellipse windscreens have similar overall wind noise reduction performance, while the horizontal ellipse windscreen with medium flow resistivity provides the most effective wind noise reduction among all the considered cases. The vertical ellipse windscreen with high flow resistivity, in particular, increases the wind noise because of increased self-generation of turbulence.

  18. Change in portal flow after liver transplantation: effect on hepatic arterial resistance indices and role of spleen size.

    PubMed

    Bolognesi, Massimo; Sacerdoti, David; Bombonato, Giancarlo; Merkel, Carlo; Sartori, Giovanni; Merenda, Roberto; Nava, Valeria; Angeli, Paolo; Feltracco, Paolo; Gatta, Angelo

    2002-03-01

    Information on changes in splanchnic hemodynamics after liver transplantation is incomplete. In particular, data on long-term changes are lacking, and the relationship between changes in arterial and portal parameters is still under debate. The effect of liver transplantation on splanchnic hemodynamics was analyzed with echo-Doppler in 41 patients with cirrhosis who were followed for up to 4 years. Doppler parameters were also evaluated in 7 patients transplanted for acute liver failure and in 35 controls. In cirrhotics, portal blood velocity and flow increased immediately after transplantation (from 9.1 plus minus 3.7 cm/sec to 38.3 plus minus 14.6 and from 808 plus minus 479 mL/min to 2,817 plus minus 1,153, respectively, P <.001). Hepatic arterial resistance index (pulsatility index) also augmented (from 1.36 plus minus 0.32 to 2.34 plus minus 1.29, P <.001) and was correlated with portal blood velocity and flow. The early changes in these parameters were related, in agreement with the hepatic buffer response theory. Portal flow returned to normal values after 2 years. Superior mesenteric artery flow normalized after 3 to 6 months. Splenomegaly persisted after 4 years, when spleen size was related to portal blood flow. In 7 patients transplanted for acute liver failure, portal flow, and hepatic arterial resistance index were normal after transplantation. In conclusion, a high portal flow was present in cirrhotics until 2 years after transplantation, probably because of maintenance of elevated splenic flow. An early increase in hepatic arterial resistance indices is a common finding, but it is transient and is related to the increase in portal blood flow. A normal time course of portal-hepatic hemodynamics was detected in patients transplanted for acute liver failure.

  19. Root-soil air gap and resistance to water flow at the soil-root interface of Robinia pseudoacacia.

    PubMed

    Liu, X P; Zhang, W J; Wang, X Y; Cai, Y J; Chang, J G

    2015-12-01

    During periods of water deficit, growing roots may shrink, retaining only partial contact with the soil. In this study, known mathematical models were used to calculate the root-soil air gap and water flow resistance at the soil-root interface, respectively, of Robinia pseudoacacia L. under different water conditions. Using a digital camera, the root-soil air gap of R. pseudoacacia was investigated in a root growth chamber; this root-soil air gap and the model-inferred water flow resistance at the soil-root interface were compared with predictions based on a separate outdoor experiment. The results indicated progressively greater root shrinkage and loss of root-soil contact with decreasing soil water potential. The average widths of the root-soil air gap for R. pseudoacacia in open fields and in the root growth chamber were 0.24 and 0.39 mm, respectively. The resistance to water flow at the soil-root interface in both environments increased with decreasing soil water potential. Stepwise regression analysis demonstrated that soil water potential and soil temperature were the best predictors of variation in the root-soil air gap. A combination of soil water potential, soil temperature, root-air water potential difference and soil-root water potential difference best predicted the resistance to water flow at the soil-root interface.

  20. Blood Flow Restriction Enhances Post–Resistance Exercise Angiogenic Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    LARKIN, KELLY A.; MACNEIL, R. GAVIN; DIRAIN, MARVIN; SANDESARA, BHANUPRESAD; MANINI, TODD M.; BUFORD, THOMAS W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of blood flow restriction (BFR) on muscle oxygenation during low-intensity resistance exercise as well as postexercise expression of molecules related to physiological angiogenesis. Methods Using a randomized cross-over design, six apparently healthy young adults (22 ± 1 yr) performed 120 unilateral knee extensions at 40% of 1 repetition maximum with and without BFR (CNTRL). Near-infrared spectroscopy was used to measure oxygenation of the vastus lateralis during exercise. Serum and muscle expression of Post–Resistance vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were determined preexercise, 4 h postexercise, and 24 h postexercise. Transcript (mRNA) expression of VEGF and other angiogenic genes was also determined. Results BFR increased muscle hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations during exercise (14.4 ± 1.6 vs. 0.9 ± 1.6, P = 0.002), driven largely by an increase in deoxygenated Hb (11.0 ± 2.5 vs. 0.5 ± 1.1, P = 0.030). BFR also increased (P < 0.05) transcript expression of VEGF, VEGF-R2, hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha, inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and neuronal NOS. The most dramatic change in response to BFR was an increase in VEGF mRNA at 4 h postexercise (4.1 ± 0.6 vs. 0.6 ± 0.2-fold change, P = 0.028). Compared with control, transcript expression of endothelial NOS, serum VEGF, or muscle protein expression of VEGF was not altered in response to BFR (P > 0.05). Conclusion Acute BFR increases postexercise expression of mRNA related to skeletal muscle angiogenesis, plausibly in response to changes in muscle Hb concentrations. PMID:22677927

  1. Arterial stiffness and blood flow adaptations following eight weeks of resistance exercise training in young and older women.

    PubMed

    Rossow, Lindy M; Fahs, Christopher A; Thiebaud, Robert S; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Kim, Daeyeol; Mouser, James G; Shore, Erin A; Beck, Travis W; Bemben, Debra A; Bemben, Michael G

    2014-05-01

    Resistance training is recommended for all adults of both sexes. The arterial stiffness and limb blood flow responses to resistance training in young and older women have not been well-studied. The purpose of this study was to examine arterial stiffness and blood flow adaptations to high-intensity resistance exercise training in young and older women. Young (aged 18-25) and older (aged 50-64) women performed full-body high-intensity resistance exercise three times per week for eight weeks. The following measurements were performed twice prior to training and once following training: carotid to femoral and femoral to tibialis posterior pulse wave velocity (PWV), blood pressure, heart rate, resting forearm blood flow and forearm reactive hyperemia. Data was analyzed by ANOVAs with alpha set at 0.05. Correlations were also examined between changes in arterial stiffness and baseline arterial stiffness values. Older subjects had higher carotid-femoral PWV than younger subjects. No significant effects were found for femoral-tibialis posterior PWV or for resting forearm blood flow. Changes in carotid-femoral and femoral-tibialis posterior PWV correlated significantly with their respective baseline values. Older subjects increased peak forearm blood flow while young subjects showed no change. Total hyperemia increased significantly in both groups. In conclusion, in both young and older women, eight weeks of high-intensity resistance training appeared to improve microvascular forearm function while not changing carotid-femoral or femoral-tibialis posterior arterial stiffness. However, a large degree of individual variation was found and arterial stiffness adaptations appeared positively related to the initial stiffness values. PMID:24566193

  2. Monitoring water flows with time-lapse Electrical Resistivity Tomography on the Super-Sauze landslide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gance, J.; Sailhac, P.; Malet, J.-P.; Grandjean, G.; Supper, R.; Jochum, B.; Ottowitz, D.

    2012-04-01

    This work presents results of a permanent hydro-geophysical monitoring of an active landslide developed in clay-shales. Hydrology has been proved to be a major factor controlling the Super-Sauze earthflow behavior, but it knowledge still limited mainly because of the importance of spatial heterogeneities. The geometry of the bedrock creates internal crests and gullies that can guide waterflows or create a lock and engender an excess of pore water pressure; the soil surface characteristics plays also a large role in the surface hydraulic conductivity, and therefore, on the infiltration pattern. To understand in detail these processes, it is therefore important to monitor spatially at large scale (with high resolution) those phenomena and to overcome the monitoring difficulties inherent to a fast-moving clayey earthflow. The objectives of the survey are to identify and characterize spatially and temporarily the water flow circulation within the landslide body over a period of one year. The studied profile measures 114 m long and is surveyed with 93 electrodes spaced from 0.5, 1 or 2 meter according the soil surface cracking. Four resistivity datasets of 4300 measurements are acquired each day using a gradient array since May 2011. The monitoring is performed with the GEOMON4D system, developed by the Geological Survey of Austria. To facilitate the interpretation, humidity, conductivity, temperature, and piezometer sensors are placed along the profile. Two dGPS antenna placed upstream and downstream the profile allow to correlate the results with soil displacement. Lefranc tests and granulometry results realized on several samples have shown the important heterogeneities of the near surface. The objective of this work is to present the data processing strategy for the analysis of long periods time-lapse ERT survey of natural rain events taking into account changes through time of the position of the electrodes, changes in the soil surface state and important changes

  3. Inspiratory flow resistive loading improves respiratory muscle function and endurance capacity in recreational runners.

    PubMed

    Mickleborough, T D; Nichols, T; Lindley, M R; Chatham, K; Ionescu, A A

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of inspiratory flow resistive loading (IFRL) on respiratory muscle function, exercise performance and cardiopulmonary and metabolic responses to exercise. Twenty-four recreational road runners (12 male) were randomly assigned from each gender into an IFRL group (n=8) and sham-IFRL group (n=8), which performed IFRL for 6 weeks, or a control group (n=8). Strength (+43.9%Delta), endurance (+26.6%Delta), maximum power output (+41.9%Delta) and work capacity (+38.5%Delta) of the inspiratory muscles were significantly increased (P<0.05) at rest following the study period in IFRL group only. In addition, ventilation (-25.7%Delta), oxygen consumption (-13.3%Delta), breathing frequency (-11.9%Delta), tidal volume (-16.0%Delta), heart rate (HR) (-13.1%Delta), blood lactate concentration (-38.9%Delta) and the perceptual response (-33.5%Delta) to constant workload exercise were significantly attenuated (P<0.05), concomitant with a significant improvement (P<0.05) in endurance exercise capacity (+16.4%Delta) during a treadmill run set at 80% VO2max in IFRL group only. These data suggest that IFRL can alter breathing mechanics, attenuate the oxygen cost, ventilation, HR, blood lactate and the perceptual response during constant workload exercise and improve endurance exercise performance in recreational runners.

  4. Numerical investigation of interfacial mass transport resistance and two-phase flow in PEM fuel cell air channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koz, Mustafa

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are efficient and environmentally friendly electrochemical engines. The performance of a PEMFC is adversely affected by oxygen (O2) concentration loss from the air flow channel to the cathode catalyst layer (CL). Oxygen transport resistance at the gas diffusion layer (GDL) and air channel interface is a non-negligible component of the O2 concentration loss. Simplified PEMFC performance models in the available literature incorporate the O2 resistance at the GDL-channel interface as an input parameter. However, this parameter has been taken as a constant so far in the available literature and does not reflect variable PEMFC operating conditions and the effect of two-phase flow in the channels. This study numerically calculates the O2 transport resistance at the GDL-air channel interface and expresses this resistance through the non-dimensional Sherwood number (Sh). Local Sh is investigated in an air channel with multiple droplets and films inside. These water features are represented as solid obstructions and only air flow is simulated. Local variations of Sh in the flow direction are obtained as a function of superficial air velocity, water feature size, and uniform spacing between water features. These variations are expressed with mathematical expressions for the PEMFC performance models to utilize and save computational resources. The resulting mathematical correlations for Sh can be utilized in PEMFC performance models. These models can predict cell performance more accurately with the help of the results of this work. Moreover, PEMFC performance models do not need to use a look-up table since the results were expressed through correlations. Performance models can be kept simplified although their predictions will become more realistic. Since two-phase flow in channels is experienced mostly at lower temperatures, performance optimization at low temperatures can be done easier.

  5. Visualizing Hyporheic Flow Paths in Three Dimensions Using Time-Lapse Electrical Resistivity Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, B.; Hall, R. O., Jr.; Carr, B.

    2015-12-01

    The hyporheic zone, the region underneath/surrounding a stream where surface and subsurface waters - and subsequently solutes - are exchanged and interact, is important for many biogeochemical, hydrological, and ecological processes. However, it has remained difficult for researchers to sufficiently describe solute transport within the hyporheic zone, due, in part, to the great degree of heterogeneity of the subsurface. Thus, more direct and invasive sampling techniques are limited in their usefulness. We used an indirect approach for measuring the hyporheic zone, employing 3D time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), with a pole-dipole configuration, downstream of a constant-rate addition of an electrically conductive salt tracer (Cl-) as a solution via a high-precision peristaltic pump. This method allowed us to measure the extent of subsurface dynamics of streams in Wyoming's Laramie and Snowy Range mountains, as it yields a three-dimensional view of solute transport and exchange within the hyporheic zone. We found that the physical size of the hyporheic zone and the rate of exchange between the hyporheic and surface waters, as estimated from 3D ERT, are largely related to sediment properties (i.e. grain size distribution) and the extent of tailing of the solute's breakthrough curve (length of time for the solute to flush from the subsurface post cessation of the pump upstream). Coarser sediments with a relatively large porosity, such as gravels and sands, allowed for more subsurface exchange, and larger flow paths, than finer sediments with tighter packing structures, such as clays. Stream reaches that showed a higher degree of tailing in the breakthrough curve, traditionally implying a large transient storage zone, had larger and more active hyporheic zones as measured by 3D ERT. We therefore believe further investigations with 3D ERT will better our understanding of hyporheic exchange and stream solute transport.

  6. [Myocardial ischemia during exertion. Correlations between blood levels of thromboxane B2 and changes in coronary flow and resistance].

    PubMed

    De Servi, S; Vidale, E; Mussini, A; Cafiso, A; Gavazzi, A; Falcone, C; Bramucci, E; Angoli, L; Ferrario, M; Ghio, S

    1985-01-01

    Platelet activation, with the subsequent generation of Thromboxane (Tx) A2, has been implied as a possible cause of resting as well as exercise induced myocardial ischemia. To verify the latter hypothesis, we measured the exercise release of TxB2, the stable metabolite of TxA2, in 9 patients with exertional angina and left anterior descending coronary artery disease. Three of the patients also suffered from angina at rest, due to coronary vasospasm. The great cardiac vein flow, venous efflux from the myocardial territory supplied by the left anterior descending, was determined by the thermodilution technique in the basal conditions, at peak exercise when angina and/or significant ST changes occurred, and 20 min after exercise. Simultaneous blood samples were drawn from the great cardiac vein and a peripheral artery for TxB2 measurements. Regional coronary resistances were calculated as the ratio of mean arterial pressure and coronary flow. At peak exercise the great cardiac vein flow increased and regional coronary resistances decreased in all patients, except in one who showed exercise induced coronary spasm. An increase in TxB2 release was found in 3 patients, a decrease in 3, while the remaining 3 patients did not show significant changes. After exercise the great cardiac vein flow and regional coronary resistances returned to control values in all, whereas both great cardiac vein and arterial TxB2 levels were increased in 6 patients. Our data show that no apparent relation exists between exercise-induced changes in coronary resistances and generation of TxB2.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Flow network QSAR for the prediction of physicochemical properties by mapping an electrical resistance network onto a chemical reaction poset.

    PubMed

    Ivanciuc, Ovidiu; Ivanciuc, Teodora; Klein, Douglas J

    2013-06-01

    Usual quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models are computed from unstructured input data, by using a vector of molecular descriptors for each chemical in the dataset. Another alternative is to consider the structural relationships between the chemical structures, such as molecular similarity, presence of certain substructures, or chemical transformations between compounds. We defined a class of network-QSAR models based on molecular networks induced by a sequence of substitution reactions on a chemical structure that generates a partially ordered set (or poset) oriented graph that may be used to predict various molecular properties with quantitative superstructure-activity relationships (QSSAR). The network-QSAR interpolation models defined on poset graphs, namely average poset, cluster expansion, and spline poset, were tested with success for the prediction of several physicochemical properties for diverse chemicals. We introduce the flow network QSAR, a new poset regression model in which the dataset of chemicals, represented as a reaction poset, is transformed into an oriented network of electrical resistances in which the current flow results in a potential at each node. The molecular property considered in the QSSAR model is represented as the electrical potential, and the value of this potential at a particular node is determined by the electrical resistances assigned to each edge and by a system of batteries. Each node with a known value for the molecular property is attached to a battery that sets the potential on that node to the value of the respective molecular property, and no external battery is attached to nodes from the prediction set, representing chemicals for which the values of the molecular property are not known or are intended to be predicted. The flow network QSAR algorithm determines the values of the molecular property for the prediction set of molecules by applying Ohm's law and Kirchhoff's current law to the poset

  8. Fast dynamos with finite resistivity in steady flows with stagnation points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, Yun-Tung; Finn, John M.

    1993-01-01

    Results are presented of a kinematic fast dynamo problem for two classes of steady incompressible flows: the ABC flow and the spatially aperiodic flow of Lau and Finn (1992). The numerical method used to find the solutions is described, together with convergence studies with respect to the time step and the number of points N of the spatial grid. It is shown that the growth rate and frequency can be extrapolated to N = infinity. Results are presented indicating that fast kinematic dynamos can exist in both these flows and that chaotic flow is a necessary condition. It was found that, for the ABC flow with A = B = C, there are two dynamo modes: an oscillating mode and a purely growing mode.

  9. Flux flow resistance and transmittivity in overdoped Tl{sub 2}Ba{sub 2}CuO{sub 6+{delta}}

    SciTech Connect

    Izawa, K.; Shibata, A.; Takahashi, H.; Matsuda, Y.; Hasegawa, M.; Chikumoto, N.; Beek, C.J. van der; Konczykowski, M.

    1999-12-01

    The authors have measured the surface resistance and transmittivity of overdoped Tl{sub 2}Ba{sub 2}CuO{sub 6+{delta}} in magnetic field up to 7 T in order to investigate the unusual dc resistive transition. Introduction of columnar defects largely shifts the irreversibility line to higher field, showing that the resistive transition is caused by the melting of the vortex lattice. It is found that flux flow resistance of this compound is unusual as compared with that expected from the dc resistivity.

  10. Design of a Simple Model of Candida albicans Biofilms Formed under Conditions of Flow: Development, Architecture and Drug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Uppuluri, Priya; Chaturvedi, Ashok K; Ribot, Jose Lopez

    2014-01-01

    Candida albicans biofilms on most medical devices are exposed to a flow of body fluids that provide water and nutrients to the fungal cells. While C. albicans biofilms grown in vitro under static conditions have been exhaustively studied, the same is not true for biofilms developed under continuous flow of replenishing nutrients. Here, we describe a simple flow biofilm (FB) model that can be built easily with materials commonly available in most microbiological laboratories. We demonstrate that C. albicans biofilms formed using this flow system show increased architectural complexity compared to biofilms grown under static conditions. C. albicans biofilms under continuous medium flow grow rapidly, and by 8 h show characteristics similar to 24 h statically grown biofilms. Biomass measurements and microscopic observations further revealed that after 24 h of incubation, FB were more than 2 fold thicker than biofilms grown under static conditions. Microscopic analyses revealed that the surface of these biofilms was extremely compact and wrinkled, unlike the open hyphal layer typically seen in 24 h static biofilms. Results of antifungal drug susceptibility tests showed that C. albicans cells in FB exhibited increased resistance to most clinically used antifungal agents. PMID:19370400

  11. Hydrodynamic resistance parameters for ErPr rare-earth regenerator material under steady and periodic flow conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, M. G.; Helvensteijn, B. P.; Patel, V. C.; Ghiaasiaan, S. M.; Mulcahey, T. I.; Kashani, A.; Feller, J. R.

    2014-01-01

    The regenerator, typically a microporous structure that is subject to periodic flow of a cryogenic fluid, is a critical component of pulse tube or Stirling cryocoolers, which are widely used for high-demand aerospace and defense applications. In this investigation, experiments were conducted in which steady and oscillatory flows of helium were imposed on ErPr rare-Earth regenerator filler material and mass flow and pressure drop data were recorded under ambient temperature conditions. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-assisted method was applied for the analysis and interpretation of the experimental data. The permeability and inertial coefficients that lead to agreement between the experimental data and computational simulations were iteratively obtained. The Darcy permeability and Forchheimer inertial coefficients were obtained and were found to be functions of the system charge pressure, operating frequency, and compressor piston stroke within the studied range of interest. The results also exhibit that the periodic flow hydrodynamic resistance parameters are in general different than steady flow parameters.

  12. Risk assessment of gene flow from genetically engineered virus resistant cassava to wild relatives in Africa: an expert panel report.

    PubMed

    Hokanson, Karen E; Ellstrand, Norman C; Dixon, Alfred G O; Kulembeka, Heneriko P; Olsen, Kenneth M; Raybould, Alan

    2016-02-01

    The probability and consequences of gene flow to wild relatives is typically considered in the environmental risk assessment of genetically engineered crops. This is a report from a discussion by a group of experts who used a problem formulation approach to consider existing information for risk assessment of gene flow from cassava (Manihot esculenta) genetically engineered for virus resistance to the 'wild' (naturalized) relative M. glaziovii in East Africa. Two environmental harms were considered in this case: (1) loss of genetic diversity in the germplasm pool, and (2) loss of valued species, ecosystem resources, or crop yield and quality due to weediness or invasiveness of wild relatives. Based on existing information, it was concluded that gene flow will occur, but it is not likely that this will reduce the genetic diversity in the germplasm pool. There is little existing information about the impact of the virus in natural populations that could be used to inform a prediction about whether virus resistance would lead to an increase in reproduction or survival, hence abundance of M. glaziovii. However, an increase in the abundance of M. glaziovii should be manageable, and would not necessarily lead to the identified environmental harms.

  13. Siphon-driven microfluidic passive pump with a yarn flow resistance controller.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Gi Seok; Oh, Jonghyun; Kim, Sang Bok; Dokmeci, Mehmet Remzi; Bae, Hojae; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2014-11-01

    Precise control of media delivery to cells in microfluidic systems in a simple and efficient manner is a challenge for a number of cell-based applications. Conventional syringe pumps can deliver culture media into microfluidic devices at precisely controlled flow rates, but they are bulky and require a power source. On the other hand, passive microflow-generating systems cannot maintain continuous, controllable and long-term delivery of media. We have developed an on-chip microflow control technology that combines flow rate control and passive, long-term delivery of media to microwell tissue culture chambers. Here, a passive flow is initiated using the siphon effect and a yarn flow resistor is used to regulate the flow rate in the microchannel. Using the yarn flow resistor, the medium flow rate into the microfluidic cell culture system is made adjustable to a few hundred microliters per hour. To evaluate the effects of controlled flow on microfluidic cell culture properties (feasibility test), we measured the cell alignment and cytoskeletal arrangement of endothelial cells cultured in a microwell array inside the microfluidic channel.

  14. Linear and nonlinear effect of sheared plasma flow on resistive tearing modes

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Qiming Hu, Xiwei; Yu, Q.

    2014-12-15

    The effect of sheared plasma flow on the m/n = 2/1 tearing mode is studied numerically (m and n are the poloidal and toroidal mode numbers). It is found that in the linear phase the plasma flow with a weak or moderate shear plays a stabilizing effect on tearing mode. However, the mode is driven to be more unstable by sufficiently strong sheared flow when approaching the shear Alfvén resonance (AR). In the nonlinear phase, a moderate (strong) sheared flow leads to a smaller (larger) saturated island width. The stabilization of tearing modes by moderate shear plasma flow is enhanced for a larger plasma viscosity and a lower Alfvén velocity. It is also found that in the nonlinear phase AR accelerates the plasma rotation around the 2/1 rational surface but decelerates it at the AR location, and the radial location satisfying AR spreads inwards towards the magnetic axis.

  15. Efficient removal of antibiotics in surface-flow constructed wetlands, with no observed impact on antibiotic resistance genes.

    PubMed

    Berglund, Björn; Khan, Ghazanfar Ali; Weisner, Stefan E B; Ehde, Per Magnus; Fick, Jerker; Lindgren, Per-Eric

    2014-04-01

    Recently, there have been growing concerns about pharmaceuticals including antibiotics as environmental contaminants. Antibiotics of concentrations commonly encountered in wastewater have been suggested to affect bacterial population dynamics and to promote dissemination of antibiotic resistance. Conventional wastewater treatment processes do not always adequately remove pharmaceuticals causing environmental dissemination of low levels of these compounds. Using constructed wetlands as an additional treatment step after sewage treatment plants have been proposed as a cheap alternative to increase reduction of wastewater contaminants, however this means that the natural microbial community of the wetlands becomes exposed to elevated levels of antibiotics. In this study, experimental surface-flow wetlands in Sweden were continuously exposed to antibiotics of concentrations commonly encountered in wastewater. The aim was to assess the antibiotic removal efficiency of constructed wetlands and to evaluate the impact of low levels of antibiotics on bacterial diversity, resistance development and expression in the wetland bacterial community. Antibiotic concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and the effect on the bacterial diversity was assessed with 16S rRNA-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Real-time PCR was used to detect and quantify antibiotic resistance genes and integrons in the wetlands, during and after the exposure period. The results indicated that the antibiotic removal efficiency of constructed wetlands was comparable to conventional wastewater treatment schemes. Furthermore, short-term treatment of the constructed wetlands with environmentally relevant concentrations (i.e. 100-2000 ng×l(-1)) of antibiotics did not significantly affect resistance gene concentrations, suggesting that surface-flow constructed wetlands are well-suited for wastewater treatment purposes.

  16. Ecohydrologic Investigations of Shallow Lateral Subsurface Flow in Tropical Soils using Time-Lapse Surface Electrical Resistivity Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogden, F. L.; Mojica, A.; Abebe, N. A.; Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama Canal Watershed Experiment, Agua Salud Project

    2010-12-01

    The hydrologic effects of deforestation and aforestation in the tropics remain an area of active research. Hydrologic predictions of land-use change effects remain elusive. One of the unique features of catchment hydrology in the tropics is the effect of intense, continuous biological activity by insects, shrubs, trees, and small mammals. Sapprolitic soils derived from weathered bedrock cover widespread areas. These soils have low matrix permeabilities on the order of 1 mm/h, are 10 to 20 m in thickness and have relatively low activity because they have been depleted of light cations by annual rainfall over 2000 mm. As part of the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama Canal Watershed Experiment, Agua Salud Project, we have observed shallow subsurface flow in tropical soils in central Panama using an introduced salinity contrast and surface electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). In 2009 and 2010, experiments were conducted in a 30 year-old secondary succession forest, and in two former pasture sites that were planted with native timber species and teak, respectively, in 2008. At each site, saline water (NaCl tagged with LiBr) was introduced to the soil using two different methods: soil pits and ponded surface applications. Results showed the strongest response in the case of ponded surface applications with observed changes in resistivity between -50% and 50%. In soil pit applications, the change in electrical resistivity varied from -10% to 10%. Results suggest that in the case of surface application, a transient perched water table is created near the bottom of the bioturbation layer that activates the downslope macropore network and results in bulk flow velocities that are significantly higher than observed soil matrix permeabilities. When heavy rainfall occurred during tests, increased mobility of the salinity contrast more clearly showed the active layer where most flow occurred. Time-series ERT observations enabled measurements of downslope bulk

  17. Arrhenius-Type Constitutive Model for High Temperature Flow Stress in a Nickel-Based Corrosion-Resistant Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Liu, F.; Cheng, J. J.; Zuo, Q.; Chen, C. F.

    2016-04-01

    Hot deformation behavior of Nickel-based corrosion-resistant alloy (N08028) was studied in compression tests conducted in the temperature range of 1050-1200 °C and the strain rate range of 0.001-1 s-1. The flow stress behavior and microstructural evolution were observed during the hot deformation process. The results show that the flow stress increases with deformation temperature decreasing and strain rate increasing, and that the deformation activation energy ( Q) is not a constant but increases with strain rate increasing at a given strain, which is closely related with dislocation movement. On this basis, a revised strain-dependent hyperbolic sine constitutive model was established, which considered that the "material constants" in the original model vary as functions of the strain and strain rate. The flow curves of N08028 alloy predicted by the proposed model are in good agreement with the experimental results, which indicates that the revised constitutive model can estimate precisely the flow curves of N08028 alloy.

  18. Nanowell-Trapped Charged Ligand-Bearing Nanoparticle Surfaces – A Novel Method of Enhancing Flow-Resistant Cell Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Phat L.; Gamboa, Jessica R.; McCracken, Katherine E.; Riley, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    Assuring cell adhesion to an underlying biomaterial surface is vital in implant device design and tissue engineering, particularly under circumstances where cells are subjected to potential detachment from overriding fluid flow. Cell-substrate adhesion is a highly regulated process involving the interplay of mechanical properties, surface topographic features, electrostatic charge, and biochemical mechanisms. At the nanoscale level the physical properties of the underlying substrate are of particular importance in cell adhesion. Conventionally, natural, pro-adhesive, and often thrombogenic, protein biomaterials are frequently utilized to facilitate adhesion. In the present study nanofabrication techniques are utilized to enhance the biological functionality of a synthetic polymer surface, polymethymethacrylate, with respect to cell adhesion. Specifically we examine the effect on cell adhesion of combining: 1. optimized surface texturing, 2. electrostatic charge and 3. cell adhesive ligands, uniquely assembled on the substrata surface, as an ensemble of nanoparticles trapped in nanowells. Our results reveal that the ensemble strategy leads to enhanced, more than simply additive, endothelial cell adhesion under both static and flow conditions. This strategy may be of particular utility for enhancing flow-resistant endothelialization of blood-contacting surfaces of cardiovascular devices subjected to flow-mediated shear. PMID:23225491

  19. Using simulations to evaluate Mantel-based methods for assessing landscape resistance to gene flow.

    PubMed

    Zeller, Katherine A; Creech, Tyler G; Millette, Katie L; Crowhurst, Rachel S; Long, Robert A; Wagner, Helene H; Balkenhol, Niko; Landguth, Erin L

    2016-06-01

    Mantel-based tests have been the primary analytical methods for understanding how landscape features influence observed spatial genetic structure. Simulation studies examining Mantel-based approaches have highlighted major challenges associated with the use of such tests and fueled debate on when the Mantel test is appropriate for landscape genetics studies. We aim to provide some clarity in this debate using spatially explicit, individual-based, genetic simulations to examine the effects of the following on the performance of Mantel-based methods: (1) landscape configuration, (2) spatial genetic nonequilibrium, (3) nonlinear relationships between genetic and cost distances, and (4) correlation among cost distances derived from competing resistance models. Under most conditions, Mantel-based methods performed poorly. Causal modeling identified the true model only 22% of the time. Using relative support and simple Mantel r values boosted performance to approximately 50%. Across all methods, performance increased when landscapes were more fragmented, spatial genetic equilibrium was reached, and the relationship between cost distance and genetic distance was linearized. Performance depended on cost distance correlations among resistance models rather than cell-wise resistance correlations. Given these results, we suggest that the use of Mantel tests with linearized relationships is appropriate for discriminating among resistance models that have cost distance correlations <0.85 with each other for causal modeling, or <0.95 for relative support or simple Mantel r. Because most alternative parameterizations of resistance for the same landscape variable will result in highly correlated cost distances, the use of Mantel test-based methods to fine-tune resistance values will often not be effective. PMID:27516868

  20. Using simulations to evaluate Mantel-based methods for assessing landscape resistance to gene flow.

    PubMed

    Zeller, Katherine A; Creech, Tyler G; Millette, Katie L; Crowhurst, Rachel S; Long, Robert A; Wagner, Helene H; Balkenhol, Niko; Landguth, Erin L

    2016-06-01

    Mantel-based tests have been the primary analytical methods for understanding how landscape features influence observed spatial genetic structure. Simulation studies examining Mantel-based approaches have highlighted major challenges associated with the use of such tests and fueled debate on when the Mantel test is appropriate for landscape genetics studies. We aim to provide some clarity in this debate using spatially explicit, individual-based, genetic simulations to examine the effects of the following on the performance of Mantel-based methods: (1) landscape configuration, (2) spatial genetic nonequilibrium, (3) nonlinear relationships between genetic and cost distances, and (4) correlation among cost distances derived from competing resistance models. Under most conditions, Mantel-based methods performed poorly. Causal modeling identified the true model only 22% of the time. Using relative support and simple Mantel r values boosted performance to approximately 50%. Across all methods, performance increased when landscapes were more fragmented, spatial genetic equilibrium was reached, and the relationship between cost distance and genetic distance was linearized. Performance depended on cost distance correlations among resistance models rather than cell-wise resistance correlations. Given these results, we suggest that the use of Mantel tests with linearized relationships is appropriate for discriminating among resistance models that have cost distance correlations <0.85 with each other for causal modeling, or <0.95 for relative support or simple Mantel r. Because most alternative parameterizations of resistance for the same landscape variable will result in highly correlated cost distances, the use of Mantel test-based methods to fine-tune resistance values will often not be effective.

  1. Numerical Calculations Demonstrating Complete Stabilization of the Ideal Magnetohydrodynamic Resistive Wall Mode by Longitudinal Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.; Jardin, S. C.; Freidberg, J. P.; Guazzotto, L.

    2009-05-20

    The cylindrical ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability problem, including ow and a resistive wall, is cast in the standard mathematical form, ωA∙x = B∙x, without discretizing the vacuum regions surrounding the plasma. This is accomplished by means of a finite element expansion for the plasma perturbations, by coupling the plasma surface perturbations to the resistive wall using a Green's function approach, and by expanding the unknown vector, x, to include the perturbed current in the resistive wall as an additional degree of freedom. The ideal MHD resistive wall mode (RWM) can be stabilized when the plasma has a uniform equilibrium ow such that the RWM frequency resonates with the plasma's Doppler-shifted sound continuum modes. The resonance induces a singularity in the parallel component of the plasma perturbations, which must be adequately resolved. Complete stabilization within the ideal MHD model (i.e. without parallel damping being added) is achieved as the grid spacing in the region of the resonance is extrapolated to 0 step size

  2. Elimination of veterinary antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes from swine wastewater in the vertical flow constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lin; Liu, Chaoxiang; Zheng, Jiayu; Huang, Xu; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Yuhong; Zhu, Gefu

    2013-05-01

    This paper investigated the efficiency of two vertical flow constructed wetlands characterized by volcanic (CW1) and zeolite (CW2) respectively, at removing three common antibiotics (ciprofloxacin HCl, oxytetracycline HCl, and sulfamethazine) and tetracycline resistance (tet) genes (tetM, tetO, and tetW) from swine wastewater. The result indicated that the two systems could significantly reduce the wastewater antibiotics content, and elimination rates were in the following sequence: oxytetracycline HCl>ciprofloxacin HCl>sulfamethazine. The zeolite-medium system was superior to that of the volcanic-medium system vis-à-vis removal, perhaps because of the differing pH values and average pore sizes of the respective media. A higher concentration of antibiotics accumulated in the soil than in the media and vegetation, indicating that soil plays the main role in antibiotics removal from wastewater in vertical flow constructed wetlands. The characteristics of the wetland medium may also affect the antibiotic resistance gene removal capability of the system; the total absolute abundances of three tet genes and of 16S rRNA were reduced by 50% in CW1, and by almost one order of magnitude in CW2. However, the relative abundances of target tet genes tended to increase following CW1 treatment.

  3. Comparison of constitutive flow resistance equations based on the Manning and Chezy equations applied to natural rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bjerklie, D.M.; Dingman, S.L.; Bolster, C.H.

    2005-01-01

    [1] A set of conceptually derived in-bank river discharge-estimating equations (models), based on the Manning and Chezy equations, are calibrated and validated using a database of 1037 discharge measurements in 103 rivers in the United States and New Zealand. The models are compared to a multiple regression model derived from the same data. The comparison demonstrates that in natural rivers, using an exponent on the slope variable of 0.33 rather than the traditional value of 0.5 reduces the variance associated with estimating flow resistance. Mean model uncertainty, assuming a constant value for the conductance coefficient, is less than 5% for a large number of estimates, and 67% of the estimates would be accurate within 50%. The models have potential application where site-specific flow resistance information is not available and can be the basis for (1) a general approach to estimating discharge from remotely sensed hydraulic data, (2) comparison to slope-area discharge estimates, and (3) large-scale river modeling. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. The influence of vessel wall elasticity and peripheral resistance on the carotid artery flow wave form: a CFD model compared to in vivo ultrasound measurements.

    PubMed

    Maurits, N M; Loots, G E; Veldman, A E P

    2007-01-01

    The Doppler flow wave form and its derived measures such as the pulsatility index provide clinically important tools for the investigation of arterial disease. The typical shape of Doppler flow wave forms is physiologically known to be largely determined by both peripheral resistance and elastic properties of the arterial wall. In the present study we systematically investigate the influence of both vessel wall elasticity and peripheral resistance on the flow wave form obtained from a CFD-simulation of blood flow in the carotid bifurcation. Numerical results are compared to in vivo ultrasound measurements. The in vivo measurement provides a realistic geometry, local elasticities and an input flow wave form for the numerical experiment. Numerical and experimental results are compared at three different sites in the carotid branches. Peripheral resistance has a profoundly decreasing effect on velocities in the external carotid artery. If elasticity is taken into account, the computed peak systolic velocities are considerably lower and a more realistic smoothing of the flow wave form is found. Together, the results indicate that only if both vessel wall elasticity and positive peripheral resistance are taken into account, experimentally obtained Doppler flow wave forms can be reproduced numerically.

  5. An investigation into the debris flow induced by Typhoon Morakot in the Siaolin Area, Southern Taiwan, using the electrical resistivity imaging method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ping-Yu; Chen, Chien-Chih; Chang, Shu-Kai; Wang, Tzu-Bin; Wang, Chien-Ying; Hsu, Shu-Kun

    2012-03-01

    A massive debris flow induced by Typhoon Morakot buried the southern Taiwan village of Siaolin in Jiaxian township and caused the deaths of an estimated 474 people. To reconstruct the mechanisms triggering the tragic debris flow, researchers must identify the subsurface structures of the debris-flow sediments. For this purpose, we conducted 2-D, electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) surveys along networked lines where the village once stood. With the imaging results, we identified three layers, including the basement of Yenshuikeng Shale, the newly accumulated debris-flow deposits; and the old fluvial deposits amid the basement and the debris-flow sediments. According to the resistivity results, the bottom of the debris-flow deposits is under the old ground surface in three eroded areas, C1, C2 and C3. Resistivity anomalies in the debris-flow sediment layer are well correlated with the locations of houses and the major roads in the piling area (P1) and the eroded area (C2). Hence these findings indicate that the basal erosion of the debris flow may have occurred in areas C1, C2 and C3 since a specific mass movement may undercut into the basal sediments or rocks and forms a filled trench in its basement. These eroded areas may be related to different events of mass movements due to their different orientations of basal erosion. From the resistivity image we estimated the volume of debris flow is underestimated for about 24.5 per cent to the estimated volume of the debris flow from digital terrain models (DTMs) in the study area. We conclude that the volume of a debris flow may be underestimated because of the basal erosion if only data from DTMs are used for its calculations and present new means for its correction by combining DTM and ERI results.

  6. Abnormalities of CSF flow patterns in the cerebral aqueduct in treatment-resistant late-life depression: a potential biomarker of microvascular angiopathy.

    PubMed

    Naish, Josephine H; Baldwin, Robert C; Patankar, Tufail; Jeffries, Suzanne; Burns, Alistair S; Taylor, Christopher J; Waterton, John C; Jackson, Alan

    2006-09-01

    There is growing evidence that microvascular angiopathy (MVA) plays an important role in the development of dementia and affective disorders in older people. At currently available image resolutions it is not possible to image directly the vascular changes associated with MVA, but the effects on blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow may be detectable. The aim of this study was to investigate a potential biomarker for MVA based on MRI of abnormalities in CSF flow. Since there is considerable indirect evidence that treatment resistance in late-onset depressive disorder is related to MVA, we assessed the method in a group of 22 normal volunteers and 29 patients with responsive (N=21) or treatment-resistant (N=8) late-onset depressive disorder. Single-slice quantified phase-contrast (PC) images of cerebral blood and CSF flow were collected at 15 points over a cardiac cycle, and the resulting flow curves were parameterized. Significant differences in the CSF flow (width of systolic flow peak and diastolic flow volume, both P<0.01) through the cerebral aqueduct were observed for the group of treatment-resistant patients when compared to age matched controls. No significant difference was observed for a group of 21 patients with treatment-responsive depression. The findings support the hypothesis that MR measurement of CSF flow abnormalities provides a biomarker of MVA, and thus could have application in a wide range of age-related diseases.

  7. Risks and consequences of gene flow from herbicide-resistant crops: canola (Brassica napus L) as a case study.

    PubMed

    Légère, Anne

    2005-03-01

    Data from the literature and recent experiments with herbicide-resistant (HR) canola (Brassica napus L) repeatedly confirm that genes and transgenes will flow and hybrids will form if certain conditions are met. These include sympatry with a compatible relative (weedy, wild or crop), synchrony of flowering, successful fertilization and viable offspring. The chance of these events occurring is real; however, it is generally low and varies with species and circumstances. Plants of the same species (non-transgenic or with a different HR transgene) in neighbouring fields may inherit the new HR gene, potentially generating plants with single and multiple HR. For canola, seed losses at harvest and secondary dormancy ensures the persistence over time of the HR trait(s) in the seed bank, and the potential presence of crop volunteers in subsequent crops. Although canola has many wild/weedy relatives, the risk of gene flow is quite low for most of these species, except with Brassica rapa L. Introgression of genes and transgenes in B rapa populations occurs with apparently little or no fitness costs. Consequences of HR canola gene flow for the agro-ecosystem include contamination of seed lots, potentially more complex and costly control strategy, and limitations in cropping system design. Consequences for non-agricultural habitats may be minor but appear largely undocumented.

  8. Electrical Resistivity, Seismic Refraction Tomography and Drilling Logs to Identify the Heterogeneity and the Preferential Flow in a Shallow Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachhab, A.

    2015-12-01

    The study site is located at the Center for Environmental Education and Research (CEER) at Susquehanna University. Electrical Resistivity and Seismic Refraction Tomography (ERT and SRT), as well as several pumping tests were performed to identify zones of heterogeneities and hydrogeophysical characteristics of a shallow unconfined aquifer. The combination of these methods was selected to study the local geology and the subsurface preferential pathways of groundwater flow. 22 Dipole-Dipole ERT transects with 56 electrodes each and 11 SRT transects with 24 geophones each were performed. Drilling logs of 5 observation wells located within the site were also used. All drilling logs showed clearly the heterogeneity of the aquifer when compared to each other. The combination of ERT and SRT indicated that a potential zone of preferential flow is present within the aquifer and can be accurately identified based on the approach adopted in this study. The drilling logs served to specifically identify the soil and the geological formations making the heterogeneity of the aquifer. 3D ERT and SRT block diagrams were generated to connect all formations shown in the 2D tomography profiles to visualize the pathways of preferential flow and non-conductive formations. While ERT has proven to show saturated areas of the subsurface, SRT was more effective in identifying the bedrock-soil discontinuity and other near surface formations contributing to the local heterogeneity.

  9. Risks and consequences of gene flow from herbicide-resistant crops: canola (Brassica napus L) as a case study.

    PubMed

    Légère, Anne

    2005-03-01

    Data from the literature and recent experiments with herbicide-resistant (HR) canola (Brassica napus L) repeatedly confirm that genes and transgenes will flow and hybrids will form if certain conditions are met. These include sympatry with a compatible relative (weedy, wild or crop), synchrony of flowering, successful fertilization and viable offspring. The chance of these events occurring is real; however, it is generally low and varies with species and circumstances. Plants of the same species (non-transgenic or with a different HR transgene) in neighbouring fields may inherit the new HR gene, potentially generating plants with single and multiple HR. For canola, seed losses at harvest and secondary dormancy ensures the persistence over time of the HR trait(s) in the seed bank, and the potential presence of crop volunteers in subsequent crops. Although canola has many wild/weedy relatives, the risk of gene flow is quite low for most of these species, except with Brassica rapa L. Introgression of genes and transgenes in B rapa populations occurs with apparently little or no fitness costs. Consequences of HR canola gene flow for the agro-ecosystem include contamination of seed lots, potentially more complex and costly control strategy, and limitations in cropping system design. Consequences for non-agricultural habitats may be minor but appear largely undocumented. PMID:15593291

  10. Low-load resistance muscular training with moderate restriction of blood flow after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Haruyasu; Kurosawa, Hisashi; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Iwase, Yoshiyuki; Satou, Naohiro; Nakamura, Shinji

    2003-02-01

    We performed a prospective study to determine the effects of introducing low-load muscular training with moderate restriction of blood flow during the first 16 weeks after reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament. 44 subjects (average age 29 (18-52) years) were randomized into a group that trained restriction of blood flow (group R, n = 22) and a group that trained without restriction (group N, n = 22). Both groups followed the same training schedule. Evaluations of knee extensor and flexor torques before surgery and 16 weeks after it showed a significant increase in muscular strength in group R as compared to group N. The preoperative/16-week postoperative ratio of the cross-sectional area of the knee extensor muscles showed a statistically significant enlargement in group R as compared to group N. 16 weeks after surgery, the short diameters of type 1 and type 2 fibers of M. vastus lateralis tended to be larger in group R (n = 8) than in group N (n = 8), although the differences were not significant. These findings show that low-load resistance muscular training during moderate restriction of blood flow is an effective exercise for early muscular training after reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament.

  11. Semi-analytical prediction of hydraulic resistance and heat transfer for pipe and channel flows of water at supercritical pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Laurien, E.

    2012-07-01

    Within the Generation IV International Forum the Supercritical Water Reactor is investigated. For its core design and safety analysis the efficient prediction of flow and heat transfer parameters such as the wall-shear stress and the heat-transfer coefficient for pipe and channel flows is needed. For circular pipe flows a numerical model based on the one-dimensional conservation equations of mass, momentum end energy in the radial direction is presented, referred to as a 'semi-analytical' method. An accurate, high-order numerical method is employed to evaluate previously derived analytical solutions of the governing equations. Flow turbulence is modeled using the algebraic approach of Prandtl/van-Karman, including a model for the buffer layer. The influence of wall roughness is taken into account by a new modified numerical damping function of the turbulence model. The thermo-hydraulic properties of water are implemented according to the international standard of 1997. This method has the potential to be used within a sub-channel analysis code and as wall-functions for CFD codes to predict the wall shear stress and the wall temperature. The present study presents a validation of the method with comparison of model results with experiments and multi-dimensional computational (CFD) studies in a wide range of flow parameters. The focus is laid on forced convection flows related to reactor design and near-design conditions. It is found, that the method can accurately predict the wall temperature even under deterioration conditions as they occur in the selected experiments (Yamagata el al. 1972 at 24.5 MPa, Ornatski et al. 1971 at 25.5 and Swenson et al. 1963 at 22.75 MPa). Comparison of the friction coefficient under high heat flux conditions including significant viscosity and density reductions near the wall with various correlations for the hydraulic resistance will be presented; the best agreement is achieve with the correlation of Pioro et al. 2004. It is

  12. Pit membrane structure is highly variable and accounts for a major resistance to water flow through tracheid pits in stems and roots of two boreal conifer species.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Paul J; Hacke, Uwe G; Schoonmaker, Amanda L

    2015-10-01

    The flow of xylem sap in conifers is strongly dependent on the presence of a low resistance path through bordered pits, particularly through the pores present in the margo of the pit membrane. A computational fluid dynamics approach was taken, solving the Navier-Stokes equation for models based on the geometry of pits observed in tracheids from stems and roots of Picea mariana (black spruce) and Picea glauca (white spruce). Model solutions demonstrate a close, inverse relationship between the total resistance of bordered pits and the total area of margo pores. Flow through the margo was dominated by a small number of the widest pores. Particularly for pits where the margo component of flow resistance was low relative to that of the torus, pore location near the inner edge of the margo allowed for greater flow than that occurring through similar-sized pores near the outer edge of the margo. Results indicate a surprisingly large variation in pit structure and flow characteristics. Nonetheless, pits in roots have lower resistance to flow than those in stems because the pits were wider and consisted of a margo with a larger area in pores. PMID:25944400

  13. Addressing the malaria drug resistance challenge using flow cytometry to discover new antimalarials.

    PubMed

    Grimberg, Brian T; Jaworska, Maria M; Hough, Lindsay B; Zimmerman, Peter A; Phillips, James G

    2009-09-15

    A new flow cytometry method that uses an optimized DNA and RNA staining strategy to monitor the growth and development of the Plasmodium falciparum strain W2mef has been used in a pilot study and has identified Bay 43-9006 1, SU 11274 2, and TMC 125 5 as compounds that exhibit potent (<1 microM) overall and ring stage in vitro antimalarial activity.

  14. Reply to Comment on ``Maxwell, Electromagnetism, and Fluid Flow in Resistive Media''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narasimhan, T. N.

    2004-04-01

    Glenn Brown takes issue with my statement, ``It is hoped that Maxwell's contribution to the foundations of fluids in porous media will receive due attention, and that his novel approach will lead to new insights.'' He considers that, because Maxwell did not explicitly develop his theory for fluid flow in porous media, his ideas should not be treated as a contribution in that area. Brown contends that doing so is a disservice to Darcy, and is revisionist. Brown and I differ in the way we perceive science. He looks at the material I have presented from an ideological perspective of upholding Darcy's position in history. On the other hand, I do not question Darcy's valid contribution. Rather, I presented some of Maxwell's fascinating ideas that are relevant to the study of fluid flow in porous media, published in the same year Darcy published his seminal work. I have shown that the relevance of Maxwell's ideas to flow in porous media has gone unnoticed in the literature. Scientists are fallible human beings, and important ideas and thoughts are occasionally overlooked. When, on a rare occasion, we chance upon such an oversight, it is part of our scientific enterprise to bring the finding to the attention of the scientific community. It is up to the community to judge the historical significance of the new information.

  15. Efficacy of Blood Flow Restricted Low-Load Resistance Training in Women with Risk Factors for Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Neil A.; Williams, Glenn N.; Davis, Maria; Wallace, Robert B.; Mikesky, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether concurrent blood flow restriction (BFR) during low-load resistance training is an efficacious and tolerable means of improving quadriceps strength and volume in women with risk factors for symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA). Design: Randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial Setting: Exercise training clinical research laboratory Participants: Women over age 45 years with risk factors for symptomatic knee OA. Methods: Participants were randomized to either low-load resistance training (30% 1RM) alone (control) or with concurrent BFR and completed 4 weeks of 3 times per week leg-press resistance training. Those randomized to BFR wore a cuff that progressively restricted femoral blood flow over the weeks of training. Inter-group differences in outcome measures were compared using regression methods, while adjusting for BMI. Main Outcome Measures: Isotonic bilateral leg press strength, isokinetic knee extensor strength, and quadriceps volume by MRI were assessed before and after participation. Secondary measures included lower limb muscle power (leg press and stair climb). Knee pain was assessed to determine tolerance. Results: Forty women completed the program out of 45 who consented. There were no significant inter-group differences in baseline characteristics except that BMI was lower in the BFR group (p=.0223). Isotonic 1RM improved significantly more in the BFR group (28.3±4.8 kg) than in the control group (15.6±4.5 kg) (p=.0385). Isokinetic knee extensor strength scaled to body mass increased significantly more in the BFR group (0.07±0.03 Nm/kg) than in the control group (-0.05±0.03 Nm/kg) (p=.0048). Changes in quadriceps volume, leg press power, and knee-related pain did not significantly differ between groups. Conclusions: Addition of BFR to a 30% 1RM resistance training program was effective in increasing leg press and knee extensor strength in women at risk for knee OA, in comparison with the same program without BFR

  16. Lateral heat flow distribution and defect-dependent thermal resistance in an individual silicon nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung-Yong; Lee, Won-Yong; Thong, John T. L.; Kim, Gil-Sung; Lee, Sang-Kwon

    2016-03-01

    Studies aiming to significantly improve thermal properties, such as figure-of-merit, of silicon nanowires (SiNW) have focused on diameter reduction and surface or interface roughness control. However, the mechanism underlying thermal conductivity enhancement of roughness controlled NWs remains unclear. Here, we report a significant influence of stacking faults (SFs) on the lateral thermal conductivity of a single SiNW, using a combination of newly developed in situ spatially-resolved thermal resistance experiments and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy measurements. We used as-grown SiNWs tapered along the growth direction with progressively lower roughness and SFs density. The results clearly confirmed that both surface roughness and twins or SFs densities suppress the thermal conductivity of an individual SiNW. The results and measurement techniques presented here hold great potential for inspecting minute changes in thermal resistance along an individual SiNW, caused by induced SFs on the nanostructure, and for improving one-dimensional nanowire-based thermoelectric device performance.

  17. Flow Shear Effects in the Onset Physics of Resistive MHD Instabilities in Tokamaks. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, Dylan P.

    2013-04-24

    The progress in this research centers around the computational analysis of flow shear effects in the onset of a 3/2 mode driven by a 1/1 mode in DIII-D equilibria. The initial idea was to try and calculate, via nonlinear simulations with NIMROD, the effects of rotation shear on driven 3/2 and 2/1 seed island physics, in experimentally relevant DIIID equilibria. The simulations indicated that very small seed islands were directly driven, as shielding between the sawtooth and the surfaces is significant at the high Lundquist numbers of the experiment. Instead, long after the initial crash the difference in linear stability of the 3/2, which remained prevalent despite the flattening of the core profiles from the sawtooth, contributed to a difference in the eventual seed island evolution. Essentially the seed islands grew or decayed long after the sawtooth crash, and not directly from it. Effectively the dominant 1/1 mode was found to be dragging the coupled modes surrounding it at a high rate through the plasma at their surfaces. The 1/1 mode is locked to the local frame of the plasma in the core, where the flow rate is greatest. The resonant perturbations at the surrounding surfaces propagate in the 'high slip regime' in the language of Fitzpatrick. Peaked flux averaged jxb forces (see Figs. 1 and 2) agree with localized flow modifications at the surfaces in analogy with Ebrahimi, PRL 2007. We track the mode into nonlinear saturation and have found oscillatory states in the evolution. During a visit (11/09) to Tulsa by R.J. LaHaye (GA), it became clear that similar oscillatory states are observed in DIII-D for these types of discharges.

  18. Mapping microbial ecosystems and spoilage-gene flow in breweries highlights patterns of contamination and resistance.

    PubMed

    Bokulich, Nicholas A; Bergsveinson, Jordyn; Ziola, Barry; Mills, David A

    2015-01-01

    Distinct microbial ecosystems have evolved to meet the challenges of indoor environments, shaping the microbial communities that interact most with modern human activities. Microbial transmission in food-processing facilities has an enormous impact on the qualities and healthfulness of foods, beneficially or detrimentally interacting with food products. To explore modes of microbial transmission and spoilage-gene frequency in a commercial food-production scenario, we profiled hop-resistance gene frequencies and bacterial and fungal communities in a brewery. We employed a Bayesian approach for predicting routes of contamination, revealing critical control points for microbial management. Physically mapping microbial populations over time illustrates patterns of dispersal and identifies potential contaminant reservoirs within this environment. Habitual exposure to beer is associated with increased abundance of spoilage genes, predicting greater contamination risk. Elucidating the genetic landscapes of indoor environments poses important practical implications for food-production systems and these concepts are translatable to other built environments. PMID:25756611

  19. Effect of the Acceleration of Elongated Bodies of Revolution Upon the Resistance in a Compressible Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frankl, F. I.

    1949-01-01

    The problem of the motion of an elongated body of revolution in an incompressible fluid may, as is known, be solved approximately with the aid of the distribution of sources along the axis of the body. In determining the velocity field, the question of whether the body moves uniformly or with an acceleration is no factor in the problem. The presence of acceleration must be taken into account in determining the pressures acting on the body. The resistance of the body arising from the accelerated motion may be computed either directly on the basis of these pressures or with the aid of the so-called associated masses (inertia coefficients). A different condition holds in the case of the motion of bodies in a compressible gas. In this case the finite velocity of sound must be taken into account.

  20. Resistance coefficients for Stokes flow around a disk with a Navier slip condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, J. D.

    2012-09-01

    The Stokes drag and couple acting on a disk of zero thickness as it moves through Newtonian fluid are investigated for the case when slip can occur at the surface of the disk. It is shown that when the disk translates parallel to its axis, the well-known velocity field for a no-slip boundary condition exerts zero shear stress on the surface of the disk. The flow is therefore unchanged if the boundary condition on the disk is modified to a stress-free or to a Navier slip boundary condition. This invariance also holds for a disk that rotates about a diameter. However, flow around a disk that rotates about its axis, or that translates in its own plane (edgewise), is modified when the no-slip boundary condition is changed to a Navier slip condition. The fluid velocity can be expressed in terms of Hankel transforms, and the resulting dual integral equations are solved numerically. Results for the torque and drag on the disk are presented as functions of the slip length in the Navier boundary condition.

  1. Corrosion barriers processed by Al electroplating and their resistance against flowing Pb-15.7Li

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauss, Wolfgang; Konys, Jürgen; Wulf, Sven-Erik

    2014-12-01

    In the HCLL blanket design, ferritic-martensitic steels are in direct contact with the flowing liquid breeder Pb-15.7Li and have to withstand severe corrosion attack. Beyond corrosion, T-permeation from the breeder into the RAFM-steels is also an important issue and has to be reduced significantly. Earlier work showed that Al-based coatings can act as barriers for both, however, applied processes e.g. HDA or VPS exhibited strong drawbacks in the past. Meanwhile new industrial relevant coating processes, using electroplating technology are under development and called ECA (electrochemical aluminization) and ECX (electrochemical deposition from ionic liquids) process. In this study electrochemically Al-coated and heat-treated Eurofer samples were tested in PICOLO loop for exposure times up to 12,000 h (ECA) and 2000 h (first results ECX) respectively to determine corrosion properties in flowing Pb-15.7Li (550 °C, 0.1 m/s). Cross section analysis afterward corrosion testing proved the ability of thin Al-based barriers made by electrochemical techniques to protect the bare Eurofer from corrosion attack even at exposure times of 12,000 h. Determined radial corrosion rates lay between 10 and 20 μm/a. First results for ECX coated samples (2000 h) revealed more homogeneous corrosion behavior of the barrier layer itself compared to ECA.

  2. Biomass and vegetative characteristics of sawgrass grown in a tilting flume as part of a study of vegetative resistance to flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rybicki, N.B.; Reel, J.T.; Ruhl, H.A.; Gammon, P.T.; Carter, Virginia; Lee, J.K.

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is studying vegetative resistance to flow in the south Florida Everglades as part of a multidisciplinary effort to restore the South Florida Ecosystem. In order to test the flow resistance of sawgrass, one of the dominant species in the Everglades, uniform, dense stands of sawgrass were grown in a tilting flume at Stennis Space Center, Mississippi. Depth of water in the flume was controlled by adding or removing metal plates at the downstream end of the flume. A series of experiments were conducted at various flow depths, and the velocity, flow depth, and water-surface slope were measured. During each set of experiments, the sawgrass was sampled in layers from the sediment water interface for vegetative characteristics, biomass, and leaf area index. The results of the vegetation sampling are summarized in a series of tables.

  3. Changes of renal blood flow after ESWL: assessment by ASL MR imaging, contrast enhanced MR imaging, and renal resistive index.

    PubMed

    Abd Ellah, Mohamed; Kremser, Christian; Pallwein, Leo; Aigner, Friedrich; Schocke, Michael; Peschel, Reinhard; Pedross, Florian; Pinggera, Germar-Michael; Wolf, Christian; Alsharkawy, Mostafa A M; Jaschke, Werner; Frauscher, Ferdinand

    2010-10-01

    The annual incidence of stone formation is increased in the industrialised world. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy is a non-invasive effective treatment of upper urinary tract stones. This study is aimed to evaluate changes of renal blood flow in patients undergoing extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) by arterial spin labeling (ASL) MR imaging, contrast enhanced dynamic MR imaging, and renal resistive index (RI). Thirteen patients with nephrolithiasis were examined using MR imaging and Doppler ultrasound 12h before and 12h after ESWL. ASL sequence was done for both kidneys and followed by contrast enhanced MR imaging. In addition RI Doppler ultrasound measurements were performed. A significant increase in RI (p<0.001) was found in both treated and untreated kidneys. ASL MR imaging also showed significant changes in both kidneys (p<0.001). Contrast enhanced dynamic MR imaging did not show significant changes in the kidneys. ESWL causes changes in RI and ASL MR imaging, which seem to reflect changes in renal blood flow.

  4. Gas-Liquid flow characterization in bubble columns with various gas-liquid using electrical resistance tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Haibo; Yuhuan, Han; Suohe, Yang

    2009-02-01

    Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) is an advanced and new detecting technique that can measure and monitor the parameters of two-phase flow on line, such as gas-liquid bubble column. It is fit for the industrial process where the conductible medium serves as the disperse phase to present the key bubble flow characteristics in multi-phase medium. Radial variation of the gas holdup and mean holdups are investigated in a 0.160 m i. d. bubble column using ERT with two axial locations (Plane 1 and Plane 2). In all the experiments, air was used as the gas phase, tap water as liquid phase, and a series of experiments were done by adding KCl, ethanol, oil sodium, and glycerol to change liquid conductivity, liquid surface tension and viscosity. The superficial gas velocity was varied from 0.02 to 0.2 m/s. The effect of conductivity, surface tension, viscosity on the mean holdups and radial gas holdup distribution is discussed. The results showed that the gas holdup decrease with the increase of surface tension and increase with the increase of viscosity. Meanwhile, the settings of initial liquid conductivity slightly influence the gas holdup values, and the experimental data increases with the increase of the initial setting values in the same conditions.

  5. Coagulation-induced resistance to fluid flow in small-diameter vascular grafts and graft mimics measured by purging pressure

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Michael D.; Choudhary, Rewa; Kodali, Santhisri; Reichert, William M.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the coagulation-induced resistance to flow in small-diameter nonpermeable Tygon tubes and permeable expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) vascular grafts was characterized by measuring the upstream pressure needed to purge the coagulum from the tube lumen. This purging pressure was monitored using a closed system that compressed the contents of the tubes at a constant rate. The pressure system was validated using a glycerin series with well-defined viscosities and precisely controlled reductions in cross-sectional area available for flow. This system was then used to systematically probe the upstream pressure buildup as fibrin glue, platelet-rich plasma (PRP) or whole blood coagulated in small-diameter Tygon tubing and or ePTFE grafts. The maximum purging pressures rose with increased clot maturity for fibrin glue, PRP, and whole blood in both Tygon and ePTFE tubes. Although the rapidly coagulating fibrin glue in nonpermeable Tygon tubing yielded highly consistent purging curves, the significantly longer and more variable clotting times of PRP and whole blood, and the porosity of ePTFE grafts, significantly diminished the consistency of the purging curves. PMID:24591220

  6. Controls of channel morphology and sediment concentration on flow resistance in a large sand-bed river: A case study of the lower Yellow River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yuanxu; Huang, He Qing

    2016-07-01

    Accurate estimation of flow resistance is crucial for flood routing, flow discharge and velocity estimation, and engineering design. Various empirical and semiempirical flow resistance models have been developed during the past century; however, a universal flow resistance model for varying types of rivers has remained difficult to be achieved to date. In this study, hydrometric data sets from six stations in the lower Yellow River during 1958-1959 are used to calibrate three empirical flow resistance models (Eqs. (5)-(7)) and evaluate their predictability. A group of statistical measures have been used to evaluate the goodness of fit of these models, including root mean square error (RMSE), coefficient of determination (CD), the Nash coefficient (NA), mean relative error (MRE), mean symmetry error (MSE), percentage of data with a relative error ≤ 50% and 25% (P50, P25), and percentage of data with overestimated error (POE). Three model selection criterions are also employed to assess the model predictability: Akaike information criterion (AIC), Bayesian information criterion (BIC), and a modified model selection criterion (MSC). The results show that mean flow depth (d) and water surface slope (S) can only explain a small proportion of variance in flow resistance. When channel width (w) and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) are involved, the new model (7) achieves a better performance than the previous ones. The MRE of model (7) is generally < 20%, which is apparently better than that reported by previous studies. This model is validated using the data sets from the corresponding stations during 1965-1966, and the results show larger uncertainties than the calibrating model. This probably resulted from the temporal shift of dominant controls caused by channel change resulting from varying flow regime. With the advancements of earth observation techniques, information about channel width, mean flow depth, and suspended sediment concentration can be

  7. Algorithm for resistance to flow and transport in sand-bed channels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    An algorithm is developed that relates depth to discharge and determines bed- and suspended-load transport for the entire range of bed forms found in sand-bed channels; equilibrium-state geometry of lower flow regime bedforms is also predicted. A Meyer-Peter-type formulation is used to compute sand transport in the bed-load layer and for computing suspended sand transport, McLean's procedure is adopted. A bed-form classifcation scheme is developed. The algorithm produces overall geometric averages of predicted to observed depth and predicted to observed transport of 1.00. For a verification data set of 855 observations, mostly from rivers and canals, the overall geometric averages of predicted to observed depth and transport are 0.87 and 1.14. -from Author

  8. Mapping microbial ecosystems and spoilage-gene flow in breweries highlights patterns of contamination and resistance

    PubMed Central

    Bokulich, Nicholas A; Bergsveinson, Jordyn; Ziola, Barry; Mills, David A

    2015-01-01

    Distinct microbial ecosystems have evolved to meet the challenges of indoor environments, shaping the microbial communities that interact most with modern human activities. Microbial transmission in food-processing facilities has an enormous impact on the qualities and healthfulness of foods, beneficially or detrimentally interacting with food products. To explore modes of microbial transmission and spoilage-gene frequency in a commercial food-production scenario, we profiled hop-resistance gene frequencies and bacterial and fungal communities in a brewery. We employed a Bayesian approach for predicting routes of contamination, revealing critical control points for microbial management. Physically mapping microbial populations over time illustrates patterns of dispersal and identifies potential contaminant reservoirs within this environment. Habitual exposure to beer is associated with increased abundance of spoilage genes, predicting greater contamination risk. Elucidating the genetic landscapes of indoor environments poses important practical implications for food-production systems and these concepts are translatable to other built environments. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04634.001 PMID:25756611

  9. Flow resistance and suspended load in sand-bed rivers: Simplified stratification model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, S.; Parker, G.

    2004-01-01

    New methods are presented for the prediction of the flow depth, grain-size specific near-bed concentration, and bed-material suspended sediment transport rate in sand-bed rivers. The salient improvements delineated here all relate to the need to modify existing formulations in order to encompass the full range of sand-bed rivers, and in particular large, low-slope sand-bed rivers. They can be summarized as follows: (1) the inclusion of density stratification effects in a simplified manner, which have been shown in the companion paper to be particularly relevant for large, low-slope, sand-bed rivers; (2) a new predictor for near-bed entrainment rate into suspension which extends a previous relation to the range of large, low-slope sand-bed rivers; and (3) a new predictor for form drag which again extends a previous relation to include large, low-slope sand-bed rivers. Finally, every attempt has been made to cast the relations in the simplest form possible, including the development of software, so that practicing engineers may easily use the methods. ?? ASCE.

  10. Investigating Pollen and Gene Flow of WYMV-Resistant Transgenic Wheat N12-1 Using a Dwarf Male-Sterile Line as the Pollen Receptor.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shanshan; Liu, Yan; Yu, Cigang; Zhang, Zhenhua; Chen, Ming; Wang, Changyong

    2016-01-01

    Pollen-mediated gene flow (PMGF) is the main mode of transgene flow in flowering plants. The study of pollen and gene flow of transgenic wheat can help to establish the corresponding strategy for preventing transgene escape and contamination between compatible genotypes in wheat. To investigate the pollen dispersal and gene flow frequency in various directions and distances around the pollen source and detect the association between frequency of transgene flow and pollen density from transgenic wheat, a concentric circle design was adopted to conduct a field experiment using transgenic wheat with resistance to wheat yellow mosaic virus (WYMV) as the pollen donor and dwarf male-sterile wheat as the pollen receptor. The results showed that the pollen and gene flow of transgenic wheat varied significantly among the different compass sectors. A higher pollen density and gene flow frequency was observed in the downwind SW and W sectors, with average frequencies of transgene flow of 26.37 and 23.69% respectively. The pollen and gene flow of transgenic wheat declined dramatically with increasing distance from its source. Most of the pollen grains concentrated within 5 m and only a few pollen grains were detected beyond 30 m. The percentage of transgene flow was the highest where adjacent to the pollen source, with an average of 48.24% for all eight compass directions at 0 m distance. Transgene flow was reduced to 50% and 95% between 1.61 to 3.15 m, and 10.71 to 20.93 m, respectively. Our results suggest that climate conditions, especially wind direction, may significantly affect pollen dispersal and gene flow of wheat. The isolation-by-distance model is one of the most effective methods for achieving stringent transgene confinement in wheat. The frequency of transgene flow is directly correlated with the relative density of GM pollen grains in air currents, and pollen competition may be a major factor influencing transgene flow.

  11. Investigating Pollen and Gene Flow of WYMV-Resistant Transgenic Wheat N12-1 Using a Dwarf Male-Sterile Line as the Pollen Receptor.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shanshan; Liu, Yan; Yu, Cigang; Zhang, Zhenhua; Chen, Ming; Wang, Changyong

    2016-01-01

    Pollen-mediated gene flow (PMGF) is the main mode of transgene flow in flowering plants. The study of pollen and gene flow of transgenic wheat can help to establish the corresponding strategy for preventing transgene escape and contamination between compatible genotypes in wheat. To investigate the pollen dispersal and gene flow frequency in various directions and distances around the pollen source and detect the association between frequency of transgene flow and pollen density from transgenic wheat, a concentric circle design was adopted to conduct a field experiment using transgenic wheat with resistance to wheat yellow mosaic virus (WYMV) as the pollen donor and dwarf male-sterile wheat as the pollen receptor. The results showed that the pollen and gene flow of transgenic wheat varied significantly among the different compass sectors. A higher pollen density and gene flow frequency was observed in the downwind SW and W sectors, with average frequencies of transgene flow of 26.37 and 23.69% respectively. The pollen and gene flow of transgenic wheat declined dramatically with increasing distance from its source. Most of the pollen grains concentrated within 5 m and only a few pollen grains were detected beyond 30 m. The percentage of transgene flow was the highest where adjacent to the pollen source, with an average of 48.24% for all eight compass directions at 0 m distance. Transgene flow was reduced to 50% and 95% between 1.61 to 3.15 m, and 10.71 to 20.93 m, respectively. Our results suggest that climate conditions, especially wind direction, may significantly affect pollen dispersal and gene flow of wheat. The isolation-by-distance model is one of the most effective methods for achieving stringent transgene confinement in wheat. The frequency of transgene flow is directly correlated with the relative density of GM pollen grains in air currents, and pollen competition may be a major factor influencing transgene flow. PMID:26975052

  12. Investigating Pollen and Gene Flow of WYMV-Resistant Transgenic Wheat N12-1 Using a Dwarf Male-Sterile Line as the Pollen Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Shanshan; Liu, Yan; Yu, Cigang; Zhang, Zhenhua; Chen, Ming; Wang, Changyong

    2016-01-01

    Pollen-mediated gene flow (PMGF) is the main mode of transgene flow in flowering plants. The study of pollen and gene flow of transgenic wheat can help to establish the corresponding strategy for preventing transgene escape and contamination between compatible genotypes in wheat. To investigate the pollen dispersal and gene flow frequency in various directions and distances around the pollen source and detect the association between frequency of transgene flow and pollen density from transgenic wheat, a concentric circle design was adopted to conduct a field experiment using transgenic wheat with resistance to wheat yellow mosaic virus (WYMV) as the pollen donor and dwarf male-sterile wheat as the pollen receptor. The results showed that the pollen and gene flow of transgenic wheat varied significantly among the different compass sectors. A higher pollen density and gene flow frequency was observed in the downwind SW and W sectors, with average frequencies of transgene flow of 26.37 and 23.69% respectively. The pollen and gene flow of transgenic wheat declined dramatically with increasing distance from its source. Most of the pollen grains concentrated within 5 m and only a few pollen grains were detected beyond 30 m. The percentage of transgene flow was the highest where adjacent to the pollen source, with an average of 48.24% for all eight compass directions at 0 m distance. Transgene flow was reduced to 50% and 95% between 1.61 to 3.15 m, and 10.71 to 20.93 m, respectively. Our results suggest that climate conditions, especially wind direction, may significantly affect pollen dispersal and gene flow of wheat. The isolation-by-distance model is one of the most effective methods for achieving stringent transgene confinement in wheat. The frequency of transgene flow is directly correlated with the relative density of GM pollen grains in air currents, and pollen competition may be a major factor influencing transgene flow. PMID:26975052

  13. Vegetative resistance to flow in south Florida; summary of vegetation sampling at sites NESRS3 and P33, Shark River slough, November, 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, Virginia; Reel, J.T.; Rybicki, N.B.; Ruhl, H.A.; Gammon, P.T.; Lee, J.K.

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is one of many agencies participating in the effort to restore the South Florida Everglades. We are sampling and characterizing the vegetation at selected sites in the Everglades as part of a study to quantify vegetative flow resistance. The objectives of the vegetation sampling are (1) to provide detailed information on species composition, vegetation characteristics, vegetation structure, and biomass for quantification of vegetative resistance to flow, and (2) to use this information to classify the vegetation and to improve existing vegetation maps for use with numerical models of surface-water flow. Vegetation was sampled at two sites in the Shark River Slough in November, 1996. The data collected and presented here include those for live and dead standing sawgrass, other dead material, periphyton biomass, vegetation characteristics and structure, and leaf area index.

  14. Vegetative resistance to flow in South Florida; summary of vegetation sampling at sites NESRS3 and P33, Shark River slough, April 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, Virginia; Ruhl, H.A.; Rybicki, N.B.; Reel, J.T.; Gammon, P.T.

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is one of many agencies participating in the effort to restore the south Florida Everglades. We are sampling and characterizing the vegetation at selected sites in the Everglades as part of a study to quantify vegetative flow resistance. The objectives of the vegetative sampling are (1) to provide detailed information on species composition, vegetative characteristics, vegetative structure, and biomass for quantification of vegetative resistance to flow, and (2) to use this information to classify the vegetation and to improve existing vegetation maps for use with numerical models of surface-water flow. Vegetative sampling was conducted in the Shark River Slough in April, 1996. The data collected and presented here include live, dead, and periphyton biomass, vegetation characteristics and structure, and leaf area index.

  15. A quantitative model for flux flow resistivity and Nernst effect of vortex fluid in high-temperature superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Rong; She, Zhen-Su; Yin, Lan; State Key Laboratory for Turbulence; Complex Systems Team

    Transport properties of vortex fluid in high-temperature superconductors have been described in terms of viscous dynamics of magnetic and thermal vortices. We have constructed a quantitative model by extending the Bardeen-Stephen model of damping viscosity to include the contributions of flux pinning in low temperature and vortex-vortex interaction in high magnetic field. A uniformly accurate description of flux flow resistivity and Nernst signal is achieved for empirical data over a wide range of temperature and magnetic field strength. A discrepancy of three orders of magnitude between data and Anderson model of Nernst signal is pointed out, suggesting the existence of anomalous transport in high-temperature superconductor beyond mere quantum and thermal fluctuations. The model enables to derive a set of physical parameters characterizing the vortex dynamics from the Nernst signal, as we illustrate with an analysis of six samples of Bi2Sr2-yLayCuO6 and Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ.

  16. Superfluid Density and Flux-Flow Resistivity Measurements of Multiple-Band Superconductor β-PdBi2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Tatsunori; Imai, Yoshinori; Maeda, Atsutaka

    β -PdBi2 (Tcmax = 5 . 4 K) is a newcomer of the multiple-band superconductors, revealed by the specific heat and the upper critical field measurements, and the angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. In addition, authors of ref. observed the spin-polarized band dispersion and proposed that β-PdBi2 is a candidate of topological superconductor. However, there is less information on superconducting properties so far. In order to clarify the superconducting gap function, we measured the temperature (T) and magnetic field (B) dependence of microwave complex conductivity of β-PdBi2 single crystals. We found that the superfluid density exhibits the thermally activated T dependence, manifesting the absence of nodes in the superconducting gaps. We also found that the flux-flow resistivity increased with B with downward-convex shape. Based on some theories, we considered that such a behavior originated from the backflow of supercurrents around vortices reflecting rather small Ginzburg-Landau parameter (κ ~= 5). This work was supported by the JSPS KAKENHI (Grant Numbers 15K17697 and 26-9315), and the JSPS Research Fellowship for Young Scientists.

  17. A Method for Partitioning Surface and Subsurface Flow Using Rainfall Simulaton and Two-Dimensional Surface Electrical Resistivity Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, A. M.; Paige, G. B.; Miller, S. N.; Carr, B. J.; Holbrook, W. S.

    2014-12-01

    In semi-arid rangeland environments understanding how surface and subsurface flow processes and their interactions are influenced by watershed and rainfall characteristics is critical. However, it is difficult to resolve the temporal variations between mechanisms controlling these processes and challenging to obtain field measurements that document their interactions. Better insight into how these complex systems respond hydrologically is necessary in order to refine hydrologic models and decision support tools. We are conducting field studies integrating high resolution, two-dimensional surface electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) with variable intensity rainfall simulation, to quantify real-time partitioning of rainfall into surface and subsurface response. These studies are being conducted at the hillslope scale on long-term runoff plots on four different ecological sites in the Upper Crow Creek Watershed in southeastern Wyoming. Variable intensity rainfall rates were applied using the Walnut Gulch Rainfall Simulator in which intensities were increased incrementally from 49 to 180 mm hr-1 and steady-state runoff rates for each intensity were measured. Two 13.5 m electrode arrays at 0.5 m spacing were positioned on the surface perpendicular to each plot and potentials were measured at given time intervals prior to, during and following simulations using a dipole-dipole array configuration. The configuration allows for a 2.47 m depth of investigation in which magnitude and direction of subsurface flux can be determined. We used the calculated steady state infiltration rates to quantify the variability in the partial area runoff response on the ecological sites. Coupling this information with time-lapse difference inversions of ERI data, we are able to track areas of increasing and decreasing resistivity in the subsurface related to localized areas of infiltration during and following rainfall events. We anticipate implementing this method across a variety of

  18. Determining resistivity of a formation adjacent to a borehole having casing by generating constant current flow in portion of casing and using at least two voltage measurement electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Vail, III, William Banning

    2000-01-01

    Methods of operation of different types of multiple electrode apparatus vertically disposed in a cased well to measure information related to the resistivity of adjacent geological formations from within the cased well are described. The multiple electrode apparatus has a minimum of two spaced apart voltage measurement electrodes that electrically engage a first portion of the interior of the cased well and that provide at least first voltage information. Current control means are used to control the magnitude of any selected current that flows along a second portion of the interior of the casing to be equal to a predetermined selected constant. The first portion of the interior of the cased well is spaced apart from the second portion of the interior of the cased well. The first voltage information and the predetermined selected constant value of any selected current flowing along the casing are used in part to determine a magnitude related to the formation resistivity adjacent to the first portion of the interior of the cased well. Methods and apparatus having a plurality of voltage measurement electrodes are disclosed that provide voltage related information in the presence of constant currents flowing along the casing which is used to provide formation resistivity.

  19. Association genetics of oleoresin flow in loblolly pine: discovering genes and predicting phenotype for improved resistance to bark beetles and bioenergy potential.

    PubMed

    Westbrook, Jared W; Resende, Marcio F R; Munoz, Patricio; Walker, Alejandro R; Wegrzyn, Jill L; Nelson, C Dana; Neale, David B; Kirst, Matias; Huber, Dudley A; Gezan, Salvador A; Peter, Gary F; Davis, John M

    2013-07-01

    Rapidly enhancing oleoresin production in conifer stems through genomic selection and genetic engineering may increase resistance to bark beetles and terpenoid yield for liquid biofuels. We integrated association genetic and genomic prediction analyses of oleoresin flow (g 24 h(-1)) using 4854 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in expressed genes within a pedigreed population of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) that was clonally replicated at three sites in the southeastern United States. Additive genetic variation in oleoresin flow (h(2) ≈ 0.12-0.30) was strongly correlated between years in which precipitation varied (r(a) ≈ 0.95), while the genetic correlation between sites declined from 0.8 to 0.37 with increasing differences in soil and climate among sites. A total of 231 SNPs were significantly associated with oleoresin flow, of which 81% were specific to individual sites. SNPs in sequences similar to ethylene signaling proteins, ABC transporters, and diterpenoid hydroxylases were associated with oleoresin flow across sites. Despite this complex genetic architecture, we developed a genomic prediction model to accelerate breeding for enhanced oleoresin flow that is robust to environmental variation. Results imply that breeding could increase oleoresin flow 1.5- to 2.4-fold in one generation.

  20. A Laboratory Approach Relating Complex Resistivity Observations to Flow and Transport in Saturated and Unsaturated Hydrologic Regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Martins, S A; Daily, W D; Ramirez, A L

    2002-01-31

    Subsurface imaging technology, such as electric resistance tomography (ERT), is rapidly improving as a means for characterizing some soil properties of the near-surface hydrologic regime. While this information can be potentially useful in developing hydrologic models of the subsurface that are required for contaminant transport investigations, an image alone of the subsurface soil regime gives little or no information about how the site will respond to groundwater flow or contaminant transport. In fact, there is some question that tomographic imaging of soils alone can even provide meaningful values of hydraulic properties, such as the permeability structure, which is critical to estimates of contaminant transport at a site. The main objective of this feasibility study was to initiate research on electrical imaging not just as a way to characterize the soil structure by mapping different soil types at a site but as a means of obtaining quantitative information about how a site will respond hydrologically to an infiltration event. To this end, a scaled system of electrode arrays was constructed that simulates the subsurface electrode distribution used at the LLNL Vadose Zone Observatory (VZO) where subsurface imaging of infiltration events has been investigated for several years. The electrode system was immersed in a 10,000-gallon tank to evaluate the fundamental relationship between ERT images and targets of a given volume that approximate infiltration-induced conductivity anomalies. With LDRD funds we have explored what can be initially learned about porous flow and transport using two important electrical imaging methods--electric resistance tomography (ERT) and electric impedance tomography (EIT). These tomographic methods involve passing currents (DC or AC) between two electrodes within or between electrode arrays while measuring the electric potential at the remaining electrodes. With the aid of a computer-based numerical inversion scheme, the potentials are

  1. Development of a lateral flow test to detect metabolic resistance in Bemisia tabaci mediated by CYP6CM1, a cytochrome P450 with broad spectrum catalytic efficiency.

    PubMed

    Nauen, Ralf; Wölfel, Katharina; Lueke, Bettina; Myridakis, Antonis; Tsakireli, Dimitra; Roditakis, Emmanouil; Tsagkarakou, Anastasia; Stephanou, Euripides; Vontas, John

    2015-06-01

    Cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) is a major sucking pest in many agricultural and horticultural cropping systems globally. The frequent use of insecticides of different mode of action classes resulted in populations resisting treatments used to keep numbers under economic damage thresholds. Recently it was shown that resistance to neonicotinoids such as imidacloprid is linked to the over-expression of CYP6CM1, a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase detoxifying imidacloprid and other neonicotinoid insecticides when recombinantly expressed in insect cells. However over-expression of CYP6CM1 is also known to confer cross-resistance to pymetrozine, an insecticide not belonging to the chemical class of neonicotinoids. In addition we were able to demonstrate by LC-MS/MS analysis the metabolisation of pyriproxyfen by recombinantly expressed CYP6CM1. Based on our results CYP6CM1 is one of the most versatile detoxification enzymes yet identified in a pest of agricultural importance, as it detoxifies a diverse range of chemical classes used to control whiteflies. Therefore we developed a field-diagnostic antibody-based lateral flow assay which detects CYP6CM1 protein at levels providing resistance to neonicotinoids and other insecticides. The ELISA based test kit can be used as a diagnostic tool to support resistance management strategies based on the alternation of different modes of action of insecticides. PMID:26047106

  2. A thermal resistance method for computing surface heat flow and subsurface temperatures with application to the Uinta Basin of northeastern Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, David S.; Keho, Tim

    1982-09-01

    The thermal resistance method has been modified to test the utility of oil and gas well bottom-hole temperature data in determining heat flow and subsurface temperature patterns. Thermal resistance, defined as the quotient of a depth parameter '{Delta}{sub z}' and thermal conductivity 'k'', governs subsurface temperatures as follows: T{sub B} = T{sub 0} + q{sub 0} B {summation} z=0 ({Delta}z/k){sub i} where T{sub B} is the temperature at depth z = B, T{sub 0} is the surface temperature, q{sub 0} is surface heat flow and the thermal resistance ({Delta}z/k) is summed for all lithological units between the surface and depth B. In practice, bottom-hole temperatures are combined with a measured or estimated thermal conductivity profile to determine the surface heat flow q{sub 0}, which in turn is used for all consequent subsurface temperature computations. The method has been tested in the Tertiary Uinta Basin of northeastern Utah, a region of intermediate geologic complexity (structurally simple yet lithologically complex) where numerous oil and gas well data are available. Thermal conductivity values, determined for 852 samples from five representative wells varying in depth from 670 to 5180 meters, were used to assign average conductivities to geologic formations and to investigate the effect of facies changes on intra-formation conductivities. In situ conductivities were corrected for porosity and temperature effects. Formation thicknesses needed for the thermal resistance summation were obtained by utilizing approximately 2000 wells in the WEXPRO Petroleum Information file, the computations being expedited by describing all formation contacts as fourth order polynomial surfaces. Bottom-hole temperatures were used from 97 selected wells where multiple well logs permitted correcting temperatures for drilling effects.

  3. Cell-surface changes in cadmium-resistant Euglena: Studies using lectin-binding techniques and flow cytometry

    SciTech Connect

    Bonaly, J.; Brochiero, E.

    1994-01-01

    Most in vitro studies on contaminants focus on the short-term effects of pollutants on cells, without regard to long-term effects and the ability of cells or microorganisms to develop a specific resistance to a pollutant. Cadmium is ubiquitous environmental contaminant. This heavy metal enters the aquatic environment mainly through vapor emissions and fallout during smelting operations. Diverse mechanisms of algal resistance to toxic metals are known. Among these, the most general mechanism is the development of metal-binding proteins. In cadmium-resistant unicellular Euglena gracilis Z algae cells, the metal did not appear to be sequestered on soluble metal-binding ligands. Previous experiments have shown that resistance development is related to a diminution of cadmium penetration into cells, implicating cell surface or membrane alteration. This research investigates the mechanisms of development of cadmium resistance in Euglena cells at the cell-surface level. Sugar chains of glycoproteins and glycolipids are a predominant feature of the surface of cells. Moreover, the cell-response to environmental changes is often orchestrated through surface macromolecules such as glycoproteins. In this study, we applied this lectin method to investigate surface carbohydrate expression during and after resistance development. Our interest was twofold: (1) to learn more about the carbohydrate composition of the cell-surface of Euglena; and (2) to determine whether transition from wild cells to Cd-resistant cells changes the expression of cell-surface carbohydrates. 13 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. A new and simple technique to achieve a confluent and flow resistant endothelium on vascular ePTFE-grafts using human serum.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, L; Rådegran, K; Haegerstrand, A

    1994-03-01

    Confluent endothelialisation of vascular grafts in vitro before implantation has been suggested as a way to improve patency. With the aim of creating a confluent endothelium or expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) vascular grafts, using a minimum of allo- or xenogenic material, we have investigated the use of human serum for endothelial cell (EC) growth and adhesion to the grafts. Loss of fibronectin from the serum was measured before and after coating. After serum- or collagen I-precoating, the grafts were seeded with cultured adult human endothelial cells from the great saphenous vein and then kept under rotational culture conditions for 2 days. To evaluate the endothelial resistance to detachment the grafts were mounted in parallel to a heart-lung machine, delivering a pulsatile flow of human blood for 1 hour. Evaluation was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). By simply pressing serum through the graft wall, fibronectin corresponding to 19 micrograms/cm2 graft surface was consumed. It was possible to achieve a confluent endothelium on both serum- and collagen I-precoated grafts (n = 8). After being subjected to blood flow, SEM revealed a complete endothelial lining of the grafts (n = 12) except for two serum-precoated grafts which showed < or = 10% and between 10 and 20% denuded areas, and one collagen-coated graft that showed < or = 10% of denuded area. This method provides a way to achieve a confluent and flow resistant endothelial lining on ePTFE vascular grafts.

  5. Preparation of low flow-resistant methacrylate-based monolithic stationary phases of different hydrophobicity and the application to rapid reversed-phase liquid chromatographic separation of alkylbenzenes at high flow rate and elevated temperature.

    PubMed

    Ueki, Yuji; Umemura, Tomonari; Iwashita, Yoshikazu; Odake, Tamao; Haraguchi, Hiroki; Tsunoda, Kin-ichi

    2006-02-17

    Low flow-resistant alkyl methacrylate-based monolithic stationary phases of different hydrophobicity were constructed for reversed-phase capillary liquid chromatography by thermally initiated radical polymerization of respective methacrylate ester monomer with different alkyl chain (C2, C4, C6, C12, C18) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) in a 250 microm i.d. fused silica capillary. The hydrophobicity was basically controlled by changing the length and/or the density of the alkyl-chain, while the composition and the ratio of porogenic solvent were adjusted to obtain highly permeable rigid monoliths with adequate column efficiency. Among the prepared monolithic stationary phases, C18-methacrylate monoliths polymerized from a binary porogenic solvent of isoamyl alcohol and 1,4-buthandiol exhibited the most promising performance in terms of hydraulic resistance and column efficiency. The pressure drops of 20-cm long monolithic columns were below approximately 0.4 MPa at a normal linear velocity of 1mm/s (a flow rate of 3 microL/min), and the numbers of theoretical plates for alkylbenzenes mostly exceeded 3000 plates/20 cm. The produced monolithic columns had good mechanical strength for high pressure and temperature, and could be properly operated even at a temperature of 80 degrees C and at a pressure of at least 33 MPa. At 80 degrees C, the theoretical plate numbers reached 6000 plates/20 cm because of the enhanced mass transfer. Due to the novel hydraulic resistance and mechanical strength, the separation time could be reduced 120-fold simply by raising the flow rate and column temperature.

  6. The effect of vitamin C and/or warmth on forearm blood flow and vascular resistance in sickle cell anaemia subjects.

    PubMed

    Jaja, S I; Aisuodionwe, S I; Kehinde, M O; Gbenebitse, S

    2002-06-01

    This study seeks to examine the effects of vitamin C supplementation or/and warmth on forearm blood flow (FBF) and forearm vascular resistance (FVR) in sickle cell anaemia (SCA) subjects in the steady state. Sixteen (16) SCA subjects of both sexes (mean age, 23.4+/-1.5 yrs.) were studied. Blood pressure (BP, mm Hg) and FBF (ml/min) measurements were made at rest, with warmth stimulation, after vitamin C supplementation for 6 weeks at 300 mg per day and with warmth stimulation after vitamin C supplementation. Warmth stimulation was induced by immersing the left foot in a bowl of water at a temperature of 40 degrees C for 2 minutes. Forearm blood flow (FBF) [corrected] was measured by means of a forearm plethysmograph. Forearm vascular resistance (FVR, arbitrary units) was calculated by dividing mean arterial pressure (MAP) with FBF. Warmth stimulation at 40 C significantly decreased systolic blood pressure (SBP) (p<0.05), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (p<0.01), MAP (p<0.01) and FVR (p<0.01) but significantly increased FBF (p<0.01). Vitamin C supplementation also significantly reduced SBP (p<0.001), DBP (p<0.01), MAP (p<0.01) and FVR (p<0.05) but significantly increased FBF (p<0.01). After vitamin C supplementation, warmth stimulation potentiated the reduction in SBP (p<0.001), DBP (p<0.01), FVR (p <0.01) and increase in FBF (p<0.01). In conclusion, warmth stimulation at 40 [corrected] degrees C or vitamin C supplementation caused a decrease in arterial blood pressure, forearm vascular resistance and increase in forearm blood flow in sickle cell anaemia subjects. Pretreatment with vitamin C enhanced the vasodilator effect of warmth.

  7. Alpha-adrenergic regulation of systemic peripheral resistance and blood flow distribution in the turtle Trachemys scripta during anoxic submergence at 5 degrees C and 21 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Stecyk, J A W; Overgaard, J; Farrell, A P; Wang, T

    2004-01-01

    Anoxic exposure in the anoxia-tolerant freshwater turtle is attended by substantial decreases in heart rate and blood flows, but systemic blood pressure (P(sys)) only decreases marginally due to an increase in systemic peripheral resistance (R(sys)). Here, we investigate the role of the alpha-adrenergic system in modulating R(sys) during anoxia at 5 degrees C and 21 degrees C in the turtle Trachemys scripta, and also describe how anoxia affects relative systemic blood flow distribution (%.Q(sys)) and absolute tissue blood flows. Turtles were instrumented with an arterial cannula for measurement of P(sys) and ultrasonic flow probes on major systemic blood vessels for determination of systemic cardiac output ((.Qsys)). Alpha-adrenergic tone was assessed from vascular injections of alpha-adrenergic agonists and antagonists (phenylephrine and phentolamine, respectively) during normoxia and following either 6 h (21 degrees C) or 12 days (5 degrees C) of anoxic submergence. Coloured microspheres, injected through a left atrial cannula during normoxia and anoxia, as well as after alpha-adrenergic stimulation and blockade during anoxia at both temperatures, were used to determine relative and absolute tissue blood flows. Anoxia was associated with an increased R(sys) and functional alpha-adrenergic vasoactivity at both acclimation temperatures. However, while anoxia at 21 degrees C was associated with a high systemic alpha-adrenergic tone, the progressive increase of R(sys) at 5 degrees C was not mediated by alpha-adrenergic control. A redistribution of blood flow away from ancillary vascular beds towards more vital circulations occurred with anoxia at both acclimation temperatures. %.Q(sys) and absolute blood flow were reduced to the digestive and urogenital tissues (approximately 2- to 15-fold), while %.Q(sys) and absolute blood flows to the heart and brain were maintained at normoxic levels. The importance of liver and muscle glycogen stores in fueling anaerobic

  8. Upgrade of the gas flow control system of the resistive current leads of the LHC inner triplet magnets: Simulation and experimental validation

    SciTech Connect

    Perin, A.; Casas-Cubillos, J.; Pezzetti, M.; Almeida, M.

    2014-01-29

    The 600 A and 120 A circuits of the inner triplet magnets of the Large Hadron Collider are powered by resistive gas cooled current leads. The current solution for controlling the gas flow of these leads has shown severe operability limitations. In order to allow a more precise and more reliable control of the cooling gas flow, new flowmeters will be installed during the first long shutdown of the LHC. Because of the high level of radiation in the area next to the current leads, the flowmeters will be installed in shielded areas located up to 50 m away from the current leads. The control valves being located next to the current leads, this configuration leads to long piping between the valves and the flowmeters. In order to determine its dynamic behaviour, the proposed system was simulated with a numerical model and validated with experimental measurements performed on a dedicated test bench.

  9. Upgrade of the gas flow control system of the resistive current leads of the LHC inner triplet magnets: Simulation and experimental validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perin, A.; Almeida, M.; Casas-Cubillos, J.; Pezzetti, M.

    2014-01-01

    The 600 A and 120 A circuits of the inner triplet magnets of the Large Hadron Collider are powered by resistive gas cooled current leads. The current solution for controlling the gas flow of these leads has shown severe operability limitations. In order to allow a more precise and more reliable control of the cooling gas flow, new flowmeters will be installed during the first long shutdown of the LHC. Because of the high level of radiation in the area next to the current leads, the flowmeters will be installed in shielded areas located up to 50 m away from the current leads. The control valves being located next to the current leads, this configuration leads to long piping between the valves and the flowmeters. In order to determine its dynamic behaviour, the proposed system was simulated with a numerical model and validated with experimental measurements performed on a dedicated test bench.

  10. Calibrating remotely sensed river bathymetry in the absence of field measurements: Flow REsistance Equation-Based Imaging of River Depths (FREEBIRD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legleiter, Carl J.

    2015-04-01

    Remote sensing could enable high-resolution mapping of long river segments, but realizing this potential will require new methods for inferring channel bathymetry from passive optical image data without using field measurements for calibration. As an alternative to regression-based approaches, this study introduces a novel framework for Flow REsistance Equation-Based Imaging of River Depths (FREEBIRD). This technique allows for depth retrieval in the absence of field data by linking a linear relation between an image-derived quantity X and depth d to basic equations of open channel flow: continuity and flow resistance. One FREEBIRD algorithm takes as input an estimate of the channel aspect (width/depth) ratio A and a series of cross-sections extracted from the image and returns the coefficients of the X versus d relation. A second algorithm calibrates this relation so as to match a known discharge Q. As an initial test of FREEBIRD, these procedures were applied to panchromatic satellite imagery and publicly available aerial photography of a clear-flowing gravel-bed river. Accuracy assessment based on independent field surveys indicated that depth retrieval performance was comparable to that achieved by direct, field-based calibration methods. Sensitivity analyses suggested that FREEBIRD output was not heavily influenced by misspecification of A or Q, or by selection of other input parameters. By eliminating the need for simultaneous field data collection, these methods create new possibilities for large-scale river monitoring and analysis of channel change, subject to the important caveat that the underlying relationship between X and d must be reasonably strong.

  11. The role of mechanical properties in cavitation erosion resistance. [parameters affecting metal fatigue under cavitation flow conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gould, G. C.

    1974-01-01

    Methods for determining the correlations of erosion resistance and mechanical properties of materials are discussed. The most common method of testing cavitation erosion resistance of materials is the vibratory cavitation probe. The instrument and its operation are described. The use of the whirling arm device is considered as a second method. Metallographic investigations of the earliest stages of cavitation erosion damage of metallic materials was conducted. The materials show plastic deformation occurring during the incubation period and increasing until cracks form and metal fragments are lost. The parameters of the work done to cause material fractures are identified. The reactions obtained with specific materials are reported.

  12. Transfer of tylosin resistance between Enterococcus spp. during continuous-flow culture of feral or domestic porcine gut microbes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mixed populations of domesticated and feral pig gut microbes (RPCF and FC, respectively) were grown in continuous culture to investigate the effects of tylosin on antimicrobial resistance. Cultures established in steady state were inoculated with 9.7 log10 colony forming units (CFU) of a tylosin-re...

  13. The potential of LiDAR in recovering physical data on floodplain vegetation to parameterise flow resistance.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonarakis, A. S.; Richards, K. S.; Brasington, J.; Bithell, M.

    2006-12-01

    Hydraulic resistance of riparian forests is an unknown but important term in flood conveyance modelling. LiDAR has proven to be a very important new data source to physically characterise the floodplain vegetation. This research outlines a recent campaign, which aims to retrieve vegetative fluid resistance terms from a combination of ground and airborne laser scanning and hyperspectral remote sensing. Resistance formulas based on LAI, trunk-stem morphology, vegetation spacing, and derived allometric relationships can be parameterized directly from scan models of tree stands on an individual basis. Results are presented from two riparian-forested zones on the River Garonne, Southern France. The first zone comprised of regular planted popular, while the latter was a dense natural poplar forest. All Poplars consisted of clones with some basis on Populus nigra L. cv. "italica" and Populus deltoides. Tree morphometric properties important for the eventual use in hydraulic resistance formulas include dbh, tree and trunk height, crown dimensions, trunk location and tree spacing, and the LAI. The retrievals of these tree morphometric properties from the scans were compared to data acquired in the field. The results reveal that for all factors, the Pearson correlations between field and scan derived variables were higher than 0.90, and could reach as high as 0.99 for the trunk diameters. For certain factors such as the tree height and crown dimensions, it could be noted that the ground scan produced more accurate results than in the field, while the field provided higher certainty for the trunk diameters. The difficulty in acquiring data in the natural poplar stand can also be noted.

  14. Efficacy of Blood Flow-Restricted Low-Load Resistance Training For Quadriceps Strengthening in Men at Risk of Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Maria D.; Mikesky, Alan E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Greater quadriceps strength has been associated with lower risk of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA) in older adults. However, factors that confer elevated risk of knee OA (eg, sedentary lifestyle, obesity, and knee injury) also contribute to a reduced tolerance of resistance training programs at ≥60% 1-repetition maximum (1RM). Therefore, the current study assessed whether concurrent application of blood flow restriction (BFR) to low-load resistance training is an efficacious and tolerable means of improving quadriceps strength in men at risk of symptomatic knee OA. Methods: Men older than age 45, with a history of knee injury or elevated body mass index (BMI), were randomized to low-load resistance training (30% 1RM) either with or without concurrent BFR. Isotonic double-leg press strength and isokinetic knee extensor strength were assessed before and after 4 weeks of training 3 times/wk. Knee pain (Knee Osteoarthritis Outcome Score) was assessed for tolerance. Results: Of the 42 men (mean age 56.1 ± 7.7 years) who were randomized, 41 completed the program. There were no significant intergroup differences in age, BMI, knee pathology, or muscle strength at baseline. Although leg press 1RM improved in both control and BFR groups, there were no significant intergroup differences in primary or secondary measures of muscle strength. The BFR was not associated with worsening of knee pain, but there was a significant improvement in knee pain in the control group. Conclusions: In comparison with training without BFR, addition of BFR to 30% 1RM resistance training for 4 weeks did not confer significantly greater increases in leg press or quadriceps strength in older men with risk factors for symptomatic knee OA. PMID:26328230

  15. The Effect of Small Bubbles on Resistance Reduction of Water Flow in Co-axial Cylinders with an Inner Rotating Cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maryami, R.; Farahat, S.; Poor, M. J.

    2015-04-01

    Drawing on effective experiments and measurement technology, the present study seeks to discuss the interaction between liquid turbulent boundary layer and a crowded group of small bubbles. Experiments are carried out using a circulating water Couette-Taylor system especially designed for small bubble experiments. Couette-Taylor system has a detailed test section, which allows measuring the effect of persistent head resistance reduction caused by small bubbles in the streamwise direction. Pressure difference is measured using sensors which are mounted at the bottom and top of the system to calculate head resistance. Pressure difference and bubble behavior are measured as a function of rotational Reynolds number up to 67.8 × 103. Small bubbles are injected constantly into annulus gap using two injectors installed at the bottom of the system and they are lifted through an array of vertical cells. Water is used to avoid uncertain interfacial property of bubbles and to produce relatively mono-sized bubble distributions. The bubble sizes range approximately from 0.9 to 1.4 mm, which are identified by the image processing method. The results suggest that head resistance is decreased after the injection of small bubble in all rotational Reynolds number under study, changing from 7,000 to 67.8 × 103. Moreover, void fraction is increased from 0 to 10.33 %. A head resistance reduction greater than 75 % was achieved in this study after the maximum measured volume of air fraction was injected into fluid flow while bubbles were distinct without making any gas layer.

  16. A Pilot Study to Evaluate Renal Hemodynamics in Cirrhosis by Simultaneous Glomerular Filtration Rate, Renal Plasma Flow, Renal Resistive Indices and Biomarkers Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Mindikoglu, Ayse L.; Dowling, Thomas C.; Wong-You-Cheong, Jade J.; Christenson, Robert H.; Magder, Laurence S.; Hutson, William R.; Seliger, Stephen L.; Weir, Matthew R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Renal hemodynamic measurements are complicated to perform in patients with cirrhosis; yet they provide the best measure of risk to predict hepatorenal syndrome (HRS). Currently, there are no established biomarkers of altered renal hemodynamics in cirrhosis validated by measured renal hemodynamics. Methods In this pilot study, simultaneous measurements of glomerular filtration rate (GFR), renal plasma flow (RPF), renal resistive indices and biomarkers were performed to evaluate renal hemodynamic alterations in 10 patients with cirrhosis (3 patients without ascites, 5 with diuretic sensitive and 2 diuretic refractory ascites). Results Patients with diuretic refractory ascites had the lowest mean GFR (36.5 ml/min/1.73m2) and RPF (133.6 ml/min/1.73m2) when compared to those without ascites (GFR=82.9 ml/min/1.73m2, RPF=229.9 ml/min/1.73m2) and with diuretic-sensitive ascites (GFR=82.3 ml/min/1.73m2, RPF=344.1 ml/min/1.73m2). A higher mean filtration fraction (FF= GFR/RPF=0.36) was noted among those without ascites compared to those with ascites. Higher FF in patients without ascites is most likely secondary to the vasoconstriction in the efferent glomerular arterioles (normal FF≃0.20). In general, renal resistive indices were inversely related to FF. While patients with ascites had lower FF and higher right kidney main and arcuate artery resistive indices, those without ascites had higher FF and lower right kidney main and arcuate artery resistive indices. While cystatin C and beta-2 microglobulin performed better compared to Cr in estimating RPF; beta-trace protein, beta-2 microglobulin, SDMA, and (SDMA+ADMA) performed better in estimating right kidney arcuate artery resistive index. Conclusion The results of this pilot study showed that identification of non-invasive biomarkers of reduced RPF and increased renal resistive indices can identify cirrhotics at risk for HRS at a stage more amenable to therapeutic intervention, and reduce mortality from kidney

  17. Berberine Antifungal Activity in Fluconazole-Resistant Pathogenic Yeasts: Action Mechanism Evaluated by Flow Cytometry and Biofilm Growth Inhibition in Candida spp.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Anderson Ramos; de Andrade Neto, João Batista; da Silva, Cecília Rocha; Campos, Rosana de Sousa; Costa Silva, Rose Anny; Freitas, Daniel Domingues; do Nascimento, Francisca Bruna Stefany Aires; de Andrade, Larissa Nara Dantas; Sampaio, Letícia Serpa; Grangeiro, Thalles Barbosa; Magalhães, Hemerson Iury Ferreira; Cavalcanti, Bruno Coêlho; de Moraes, Manoel Odorico; Nobre Júnior, Hélio Vitoriano

    2016-06-01

    The incidence of fungal infections and, in particular, the incidence of fungal antibiotic resistance, which is associated with biofilm formation, have significantly increased, contributing to morbidity and mortality. Thus, new therapeutic strategies need to be developed. In this context, natural products have emerged as a major source of possible antifungal agents. Berberine is a protoberberine-type isoquinoline alkaloid isolated from the roots, rhizomes, and stem bark of natural herbs, such as Berberis aquifolium, Berberis vulgaris, Berberis aristata, and Hydrastis canadensis, and of Phellodendron amurense Berberine has been proven to have broad antibacterial and antifungal activity. In the present study, the potential antifungal effect of berberine against fluconazole-resistant Candida and Cryptococcus neoformans strains, as well as against the biofilm form of Candida spp., was assessed. The antifungal effect of berberine was determined by a broth microdilution method (the M27-A3 method of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute) and flow cytometry techniques, in which the probable mechanism of action of the compound was also assessed. For biofilm assessment, a colorimetric 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to determine the susceptibility of sessile cells. The isolates used in the study belonged to the Laboratory of Bioprospection and Experiments in Yeast (LABEL) of the Federal University of Ceará. After 24 and 72 h, fluconazole-resistant Candida and Cryptococcus neoformans strains showed berberine MICs equal to 8 μg/ml and 16 μg/ml, respectively. Cytometric analysis showed that treatment with berberine caused alterations to the integrity of the plasma and mitochondrial membranes and DNA damage, which led to cell death, probably by apoptosis. Assessment of biofilm-forming isolates after treatment showed statistically significant reductions in biofilm cell activity (P < 0.001). PMID:27021328

  18. Patient-Specific Detection of Cerebral Blood Flow Alterations as Assessed by Arterial Spin Labeling in Drug-Resistant Epileptic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Boscolo Galazzo, Ilaria; Storti, Silvia Francesca; Del Felice, Alessandra; Pizzini, Francesca Benedetta; Arcaro, Chiara; Formaggio, Emanuela; Mai, Roberto; Chappell, Michael; Beltramello, Alberto; Manganotti, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Electrophysiological and hemodynamic data can be integrated to accurately and precisely identify the generators of abnormal electrical activity in drug-resistant focal epilepsy. Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL), a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique for quantitative noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF), can provide a direct measure of variations in cerebral perfusion associated with the epileptic focus. In this study, we aimed to confirm the ASL diagnostic value in the identification of the epileptogenic zone, as compared to electrical source imaging (ESI) results, and to apply a template-based approach to depict statistically significant CBF alterations. Standard video-electroencephalography (EEG), high-density EEG, and ASL were performed to identify clinical seizure semiology and noninvasively localize the epileptic focus in 12 drug-resistant focal epilepsy patients. The same ASL protocol was applied to a control group of 17 healthy volunteers from which a normal perfusion template was constructed using a mixed-effect approach. CBF maps of each patient were then statistically compared to the reference template to identify perfusion alterations. Significant hypo- and hyperperfused areas were identified in all cases, showing good agreement between ASL and ESI results. Interictal hypoperfusion was observed at the site of the seizure in 10/12 patients and early postictal hyperperfusion in 2/12. The epileptic focus was correctly identified within the surgical resection margins in the 5 patients who underwent lobectomy, all of which had good postsurgical outcomes. The combined use of ESI and ASL can aid in the noninvasive evaluation of drug-resistant epileptic patients. PMID:25946055

  19. Berberine Antifungal Activity in Fluconazole-Resistant Pathogenic Yeasts: Action Mechanism Evaluated by Flow Cytometry and Biofilm Growth Inhibition in Candida spp.

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Anderson Ramos; de Andrade Neto, João Batista; da Silva, Cecília Rocha; Campos, Rosana de Sousa; Costa Silva, Rose Anny; Freitas, Daniel Domingues; do Nascimento, Francisca Bruna Stefany Aires; de Andrade, Larissa Nara Dantas; Sampaio, Letícia Serpa; Grangeiro, Thalles Barbosa; Magalhães, Hemerson Iury Ferreira; Cavalcanti, Bruno Coêlho; de Moraes, Manoel Odorico

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of fungal infections and, in particular, the incidence of fungal antibiotic resistance, which is associated with biofilm formation, have significantly increased, contributing to morbidity and mortality. Thus, new therapeutic strategies need to be developed. In this context, natural products have emerged as a major source of possible antifungal agents. Berberine is a protoberberine-type isoquinoline alkaloid isolated from the roots, rhizomes, and stem bark of natural herbs, such as Berberis aquifolium, Berberis vulgaris, Berberis aristata, and Hydrastis canadensis, and of Phellodendron amurense. Berberine has been proven to have broad antibacterial and antifungal activity. In the present study, the potential antifungal effect of berberine against fluconazole-resistant Candida and Cryptococcus neoformans strains, as well as against the biofilm form of Candida spp., was assessed. The antifungal effect of berberine was determined by a broth microdilution method (the M27-A3 method of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute) and flow cytometry techniques, in which the probable mechanism of action of the compound was also assessed. For biofilm assessment, a colorimetric 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to determine the susceptibility of sessile cells. The isolates used in the study belonged to the Laboratory of Bioprospection and Experiments in Yeast (LABEL) of the Federal University of Ceará. After 24 and 72 h, fluconazole-resistant Candida and Cryptococcus neoformans strains showed berberine MICs equal to 8 μg/ml and 16 μg/ml, respectively. Cytometric analysis showed that treatment with berberine caused alterations to the integrity of the plasma and mitochondrial membranes and DNA damage, which led to cell death, probably by apoptosis. Assessment of biofilm-forming isolates after treatment showed statistically significant reductions in biofilm cell activity (P < 0.001). PMID:27021328

  20. Increased plasma serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid concentrations are associated with impaired systolic and late diastolic forward flows during cardiac cycle and elevated resistive index at popliteal artery and renal insufficiency in type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria.

    PubMed

    Saito, Jun; Suzuki, Eiji; Tajima, Yoshitaka; Takami, Kazuhisa; Horikawa, Yukio; Takeda, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Although lower extremity arterial disease is frequently accompanied by diabetes mellitus, the association of circulating biomarkers with flow components during the cardiac cycle in lower-leg arteries has yet to be fully elucidated. We enrolled 165 type 2 diabetic patients with normal ankle-brachial index (ABI 1.0-1.4), comprising 106 normoalbuminuric and 59 microalbuminuric patients, and 40 age-matched nondiabetic subjects consecutively admitted to our hospital. Serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) level and plasma von Willebrand factor ristocetin cofactor activity (VWF) and vasoconstrictor serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) concentrations were measured. An automatic device was used to measure ABI and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). Flow components during the cardiac cycle, total flow volume, and resistive index at popliteal artery were evaluated using gated magnetic resonance imaging. Although estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), early diastolic flow reversal, heart rate, and ABI were similar between the groups, diabetic patients had higher log hsCRP (p<0.001), VWF (p<0.001), 5-HIAA (p=0.002), resistive index (p<0.001) and baPWV (p<0.001) and lower systolic (p=0.026) and late diastolic (p<0.001) forward flows and total flow volume (p<0.001) than nondiabetic subjects. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that 5-HIAA in microalbuminuric patients showed higher associations with systolic and late diastolic forward flows during the cardiac cycle, total flow volume and resistive index at popliteal artery, and eGFR compared to normoalbuminuric patients. In microalbuminuric patients, 5-HIAA was a significant independent determinant among these factors. Thus, increased plasma 5-HIAA levels are involved in the pathogenesis of impaired blood flow in lower extremities and renal insufficiency in diabetic patients with microalbuminuria.

  1. Adiponectin enhances bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell resistance to flow shear stress through AMP-activated protein kinase signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lin; Fan, Chongxi; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Yang; Wang, Dongjin; Deng, Chao; Hu, Wei; Ma, Zhiqiang; Jiang, Shuai; Di, Shouyi; Qin, Zhigang; Lv, Jianjun; Sun, Yang; Yi, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Adiponectin has been demonstrated to protect the cardiovascular system and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). However, it is unclear whether adiponectin can protect BMSCs against flow shear stress (FSS). In this study, our aim was to explore the effects of adiponectin on BMSCs and to explore the role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling in this process. Shear stress significantly inhibits the survival and increases the apoptosis of BMSCs in an intensity-dependent manner. The expression levels of TGF-β, bFGF, VEGF, PDGF, and Bcl2 are simultaneously reduced, and the phosphorylation levels of AMPK and ACC, as well as the expression level of Bax, are increased. Supplementation with adiponectin promotes the survival of BMSCs; reverses the changes in the expression levels of TGF-β, bFGF, VEGF, PDGF, Bcl2, and Bax; and further amplifies the phosphorylation of AMPK and ACC. Furthermore, the protective effects of adiponectin can be partially neutralized by AMPK siRNA. In summary, we have demonstrated for the first time that adiponectin can effectively protect BMSCs from FSS and that this effect depends, at least in part, on the activation of AMPK signaling. PMID:27418435

  2. Adiponectin enhances bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell resistance to flow shear stress through AMP-activated protein kinase signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lin; Fan, Chongxi; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Yang; Wang, Dongjin; Deng, Chao; Hu, Wei; Ma, Zhiqiang; Jiang, Shuai; Di, Shouyi; Qin, Zhigang; Lv, Jianjun; Sun, Yang; Yi, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Adiponectin has been demonstrated to protect the cardiovascular system and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). However, it is unclear whether adiponectin can protect BMSCs against flow shear stress (FSS). In this study, our aim was to explore the effects of adiponectin on BMSCs and to explore the role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling in this process. Shear stress significantly inhibits the survival and increases the apoptosis of BMSCs in an intensity-dependent manner. The expression levels of TGF-β, bFGF, VEGF, PDGF, and Bcl2 are simultaneously reduced, and the phosphorylation levels of AMPK and ACC, as well as the expression level of Bax, are increased. Supplementation with adiponectin promotes the survival of BMSCs; reverses the changes in the expression levels of TGF-β, bFGF, VEGF, PDGF, Bcl2, and Bax; and further amplifies the phosphorylation of AMPK and ACC. Furthermore, the protective effects of adiponectin can be partially neutralized by AMPK siRNA. In summary, we have demonstrated for the first time that adiponectin can effectively protect BMSCs from FSS and that this effect depends, at least in part, on the activation of AMPK signaling. PMID:27418435

  3. Monitoring CO 2 sequestration into deep saline aquifer and associated salt intrusion using coupled multiphase flow modeling and time lapse electrical resistivity tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Chuan Lu; CHI Zhang; Hai Hanag; Timothy C. Johnson

    2014-04-01

    Successful geological storage and sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) require efficient monitoring of the migration of CO2 plume during and after large-scale injection in order to verify the containment of the injected CO2 within the target formation and to evaluate potential leakage risk. Field studies have shown that surface and cross-borehole electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) can be a useful tool in imaging and characterizing solute transport in heterogeneous subsurface. In this synthetic study, we have coupled a 3-D multiphase flow model with a parallel 3-D time-lapse ERT inversion code to explore the feasibility of using time-lapse ERT for simultaneously monitoring the migration of CO2 plume in deep saline formation and potential brine intrusion into shallow fresh water aquifer. Direct comparisons of the inverted CO2 plumes resulting from ERT with multiphase flow simulation results indicate the ERT could be used to delineate the migration of CO2 plume. Detailed comparisons on the locations, sizes and shapes of CO2 plume and intruded brine plumes suggest that ERT inversion tends to underestimate the area review of the CO2 plume, but overestimate the thickness and total volume of the CO2 plume. The total volume of intruded brine plumes is overestimated as well. However, all discrepancies remain within reasonable ranges. Our study suggests that time-lapse ERT is a useful monitoring tool in characterizing the movement of injected CO2 into deep saline aquifer and detecting potential brine intrusion under large-scale field injection conditions.

  4. The effect of warmth or/and vitamin E supplementation on forearm blood flow and forearm vascular resistance in sickle cell and non sickle cell anaemia subjects.

    PubMed

    Jaja, S I; Gbadamosi, T A; Kehinde, M O; Gbenebitse, S

    2003-03-01

    The effects of warmth stimulation and/or supplementation with vitamin E (300 mg/day for 6 weeks) on forearm blood flow (FBF) and forearm vascular resistance (FVR) were measured in 8 sickle cell anaemia (SCA) (mean age = 22.8 + 0.8 years) and 11 non sickle cell anaemia (NSCA) subjects (mean age = 23.2 + 1.1 years) of both sexes. Warmth stimulation was induced by immersing the left foot in warm water at 400C for 2 minutes. Forearm blood flow was measured with the venous occlusion plethysmography method. Warmth increased FBF (p <0.01 in each group) and reduced FVR (p <0.05) in NSCA subjects. The change in FBF was greater (p < 0.05) in the NSCA subjects than in the SCA subjects. Supplementation with vitamin E reduced systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) (p < 0.001 in each case) in the NSCA subjects but had little or no effect on the SCA subjects. Vitamin E increased FBF in NSCA subjects (p < 0.05) and SCA subjects (p < 0.01) and decreased FVR in both groups (p < 0.05 in NSCA and p < 0.01 in SCA subjects). The change in FVR seen in the NSCA subjects was less (p < 0.01) than the change in SCA subjects. After supplementation with vitamin E, warmth further decreased SBP (p < 0.01 in each group) and FVR (p < 0.01 in each case) and increased FBF in both groups (p < 0.01 respectively). The changes caused by warmth after vitamin E supplementation on the blood pressure parameters, FBF and FVR were similar in the two groups of subjects.

  5. In-Plane Anisotropy of Flux-Flow Resistivity in Layered Organic Superconductor λ-(BETS)2GaCl4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuzuka, Syuma; Uji, Shinya; Terashima, Taichi; Tsuchiya, Satoshi; Sugii, Kaori; Zhou, Biao; Kobayashi, Akiko; Kobayashi, Hayao

    2014-01-01

    We recently observed in-plane fourfold-symmetric anisotropy in the flux-flow resistivity (FFR) of d-wave organic superconductor κ-(ET)2Cu(NCS)2. Origin of the fourfold-symmetric anisotropy was discussed in terms of the interplay between the Josephson-vortex dynamics and the superconducting gap structure. Here, we report the in-plane anisotropy of the FFR of layered organic superconductor λ-(BETS)2GaCl4. The in-plane angular dependence is mainly described by twofold symmetry. The dip structure appears when the magnetic field is applied parallel to the c-axis. These results are different from the case of κ-(ET)2Cu(NCS)2, even though the Fermi-surface topology of λ-(BETS)2GaCl4 is much similar to that of κ-(ET)2Cu(NCS)2. The different anisotropic behavior is discussed in terms of interlayer coupling strength.

  6. Penetration depth and flux-flow resistivity measurements of BaFe2(As0.55P0.45)2 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, T.; Imai, Y.; Takahashi, H.; Nakajima, M.; Iyo, A.; Eisaki, H.; Maeda, A.

    2014-09-01

    We measured the surface impedance of BaFe2(As0.55P0.45)2 single crystals under finite magnetic fields by using a microwave technique. We found that the penetration depth increased as λ(T)=λ(0)+A×Tn with an exponent of n≈1.7 in the temperature region of 0.1flow resistivity showed an almost H-linear dependence and a remarkably rapid enhancement in the low-H region; ρf/ρn≈αH/Hc2 with a gradient of α>2.5. Such a behavior is similar to that of SrFe2(As,P)2. By comparing these with results of 111-materials and SrFe2(As0.7P0.3)2, it has been clarified that the gap anisotropy dominates the gradient α of iron-based materials.

  7. Anti-methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Compound Isolation from Halophilic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens MHB1 and Determination of Its Mode of Action Using Electron Microscope and Flow Cytometry Analysis.

    PubMed

    Jeyanthi, Venkadapathi; Velusamy, Palaniyandi

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to purify, characterize and evaluate the antibacterial activity of bioactive compound against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The anti-MRSA compound was produced by a halophilic bacterial strain designated as MHB1. The MHB1 strain exhibited 99 % similarity to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens based on 16S rRNA gene analysis. The culture conditions of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens MHB1 were optimized using nutritional and environmental parameters for enhanced anti-MRSA compound production. The pure bioactive compound was isolated using silica gel column chromatography and Semi-preparative High-performance liquid chromatography (Semi-preparative HPLC). The Thin layer chromatography, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and proton NMR ((1)H NMR) analysis indicated the phenolic nature of the compound. The molecular mass of the purified compound was 507 Da as revealed by Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. The compound inhibited the growth of MRSA with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 62.5 µg mL(-1). MRSA bacteria exposed to 4× MIC of the compound and the cell viability was determined using flow cytometric analysis. Scanning electron microscope and Transmission electron microscope analysis was used to determine the ultrastructural changes in bacteria. This is the first report on isolation of anti-MRSA compound from halophilic B. amyloliquefaciens MHB1 and could act as a promising biocontrol agent. PMID:27570306

  8. High dietary sodium reduces brachial artery flow-mediated dilation in humans with salt-sensitive and salt-resistant blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Evan L; Brian, Michael S; Ramick, Meghan G; Lennon-Edwards, Shannon; Edwards, David G; Farquhar, William B

    2015-06-15

    Recent studies demonstrate that high dietary sodium (HS) impairs endothelial function in those with salt-resistant (SR) blood pressure (BP). The effect of HS on endothelial function in those with salt-sensitive (SS) BP is not currently known. We hypothesized that HS would impair brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) to a greater extent in SS compared with SR adults. Ten SR (age 42 ± 5 yr, 5 men, 5 women) and 10 SS (age 39 ± 5 yr, 5 men, 5 women) healthy, normotensive participants were enrolled in a controlled feeding study consisting of a run-in diet followed by a 7-day low dietary sodium (LS) (20 mmol/day) and a 7-day HS (300 mmol/day) diet in random order. Brachial artery FMD and 24-h BP were assessed on the last day of each diet. SS BP was individually assessed and defined as a change in 24-h mean arterial pressure (MAP) of >5 mmHg between the LS and HS diets (ΔMAP: SR -0.6 ± 1.2, SS 7.7 ± 0.4 mmHg). Brachial artery FMD was lower in both SS and SR individuals during the HS diet (P < 0.001), and did not differ between groups (P > 0.05) (FMD: SR LS 10.6 ± 1.3%, SR HS 7.2 ± 1.5%, SS LS 12.5 ± 1.7%, SS HS 7.8 ± 1.4%). These data indicate that an HS diet impairs brachial artery FMD to a similar extent in adults with SS BP and SR BP.

  9. Effect of carbon dioxide, osmotic potential of nutrient solution, and light intensity on transpiration and resistance to flow of water in pepper plants.

    PubMed

    Janes, B E

    1970-01-01

    The rate of transpiration, temperature of the leaves, and relative water content of leaves of pepper plants were measured in a small chamber in which the temperature, relative humidity, and carbon dioxide concentration of recirculated air were controlled and measured. The data reported were obtained by noting the response of pepper plants to all combinations of the following treatments: high light, 1.5 x 10(6) ergs per square centimeter per second; low light, 3.0 x 10(4) ergs per square centimeter per second; three levels of CO(2): 50, 268, and 730 parts per million; nutrient solution osmotic potentials of -0.5, -5.0, -7.5, and -9.5 bars.The rate of transpiration of pepper plants was reduced by a decrease in osmotic potential of the nutrient solution, an increase in CO(2) concentration in the ambient air, and a decrease in light intensity. The response, as measured by transpiration, to the three variables, light, CO(2), and osmotic potential indicated that each variable influenced a different and independent mechanism. A change in a single variable produced essentially the same percentage change at all levels of the other variables. The rate of movement of water from roots to leaves was in response to water potential gradient and not the actual potential in the leaves.The resistance to flow of water through the plants (R) was estimated by dividing the difference between the water potentials of the solution and the leaves by the rate of transpiration. The data indicated an increase in R as the rate of transpiration decreased. The type and size of errors encountered in the estimation of R and location of R within the plant are discussed. PMID:16657285

  10. Mitral valve repair at the time of continuous-flow left ventricular assist device implantation confers meaningful decrement in pulmonary vascular resistance.

    PubMed

    Taghavi, Sharven; Hamad, Eman; Wilson, Lynn; Clark, Rachael; Jayarajan, Senthil N; Uriel, Nir; Goldstein, Daniel J; Takayama, Hiroo; Naka, Yoshifumi; Mangi, Abeel A

    2013-01-01

    We hypothesized that the addition of mitral valve replacement or repair (MVR) to implantation of continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (cf-LVAD) may further decrease pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) over Heartmate II (HMII) implantation alone. Patients undergoing MVR with concomitant HMII implantation were compared with those undergoing HMII implantation alone. Of the 57 patients undergoing cf-LVAD implantation, 21 (36.8%) underwent concomitant MVR and 36 (63.2%) underwent cf-LVAD implantation alone. Patients receiving MVR had greater decrement in PVR (59.4% vs. 35.2%, p = 0.01). Decrease in end-diastolic diameter was greater for patients receiving MVR but did not reach statistical significance (18.2 vs. 13.5 mm, p = 0.33). Duration of mechanical ventilation (121.6 vs. 181.4 hours, p = 0.45) and inotropic support (162.4 vs. 153.2 hours, p = 0.86), change in creatinine (0.19 vs. -0.26 mg/dl, p = 0.34), increase in bilirubin (2.54 vs. 1.55 mg/dl, p = 0.63), intensive care unit stay (168.0 vs. 231.5 hours, p = 0.38), and overall length of stay (32.0 vs. 42.5 days, p = 0.75) were similar. There was no difference in survival at 3 months (89.7% vs. 83.3%) and 1 year (83.7 vs. 67.3%, p = 0.34). Addition of MVR may result in greater decrement of PVR than HMII implantation alone. This may permit certain patients thought to be ineligible for transplantation to become candidates.

  11. High dietary sodium reduces brachial artery flow-mediated dilation in humans with salt-sensitive and salt-resistant blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Evan L.; Brian, Michael S.; Ramick, Meghan G.; Lennon-Edwards, Shannon; Edwards, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that high dietary sodium (HS) impairs endothelial function in those with salt-resistant (SR) blood pressure (BP). The effect of HS on endothelial function in those with salt-sensitive (SS) BP is not currently known. We hypothesized that HS would impair brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) to a greater extent in SS compared with SR adults. Ten SR (age 42 ± 5 yr, 5 men, 5 women) and 10 SS (age 39 ± 5 yr, 5 men, 5 women) healthy, normotensive participants were enrolled in a controlled feeding study consisting of a run-in diet followed by a 7-day low dietary sodium (LS) (20 mmol/day) and a 7-day HS (300 mmol/day) diet in random order. Brachial artery FMD and 24-h BP were assessed on the last day of each diet. SS BP was individually assessed and defined as a change in 24-h mean arterial pressure (MAP) of >5 mmHg between the LS and HS diets (ΔMAP: SR −0.6 ± 1.2, SS 7.7 ± 0.4 mmHg). Brachial artery FMD was lower in both SS and SR individuals during the HS diet (P < 0.001), and did not differ between groups (P > 0.05) (FMD: SR LS 10.6 ± 1.3%, SR HS 7.2 ± 1.5%, SS LS 12.5 ± 1.7%, SS HS 7.8 ± 1.4%). These data indicate that an HS diet impairs brachial artery FMD to a similar extent in adults with SS BP and SR BP. PMID:26078434

  12. Resistance-resistant antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Oldfield, Eric; Feng, Xinxin

    2014-12-01

    New antibiotics are needed because drug resistance is increasing while the introduction of new antibiotics is decreasing. We discuss here six possible approaches to develop 'resistance-resistant' antibiotics. First, multitarget inhibitors in which a single compound inhibits more than one target may be easier to develop than conventional combination therapies with two new drugs. Second, inhibiting multiple targets in the same metabolic pathway is expected to be an effective strategy owing to synergy. Third, discovering multiple-target inhibitors should be possible by using sequential virtual screening. Fourth, repurposing existing drugs can lead to combinations of multitarget therapeutics. Fifth, targets need not be proteins. Sixth, inhibiting virulence factor formation and boosting innate immunity may also lead to decreased susceptibility to resistance. Although it is not possible to eliminate resistance, the approaches reviewed here offer several possibilities for reducing the effects of mutations and, in some cases, suggest that sensitivity to existing antibiotics may be restored in otherwise drug-resistant organisms.

  13. Diagnosing Hydrologic Flow Paths in Forest and Pasture Land Uses within the Panama Canal Watershed Using Simulated Rainfall and Electrical Resistivity Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogden, F. L.; Mojica, A.; Kempema, E. W.; Briceno, J. C.; Regina, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrological processes in the humid tropics are poorly understood and an important topic when it comes to water management in the seasonal tropics. The Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama Canal Watershed Experiment, Agua Salud Project, seeks to understand these processes and quantify the long-term effects of different land cover and use across the Panama Canal Watershed. In this study we used an ARS-type rainfall simulator to apply rainfall rates up to 200 mm per hour over a 2m by 6m area on deep saprolitic soils in forest and pasture land covers. A salinity contrast added to the applied rainwater allowed observation of bulk flow paths and velocities in the subsurface. The observed effects of land cover and land use on hydrological response were striking. In the forest site, we were unable to produce surface runoff even after the application of 600 mm of rainfall in three hours, and observed flow in soils down to approximately 2 m depth, and no downslope macropore flow. In the pasture site, surface runoff was produced, and we measured the permeability of the area with applied rainfall. Observed flow paths were much shallower, less than 1 m depth, with significant macropore flow observed at downslope positions. We hypothesize that land use and land cover have significant impacts on flow paths as they affect creation, connectivity, and function of biologically created macropores in the soil.

  14. Characterization of an antibiotic resistant clostridium hathewayi strain from a continuous flow exclusion chemostat culture derived from the cecal contents of a feral pig

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chemostat model has been an important tool in studying intestinal microflora. To date, several competitive exclusion products have been developed from such studies as prophylactic treatment against pathogenic bacteria. A continuous flow chemostat model of a feral pig was developed using inocul...

  15. Study of low resistivity and high work function ITO films prepared by oxygen flow rates and N2O plasma treatment for amorphous/crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cells.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Shahzada Qamar; Oh, Woong-Kyo; Kim, Sunbo; Ahn, Shihyun; Le, Anh Huy Tuan; Park, Hyeongsik; Lee, Youngseok; Dao, Vinh Ai; Velumani, S; Yi, Junsin

    2014-12-01

    Pulsed DC magnetron sputtered indium tin oxide (ITO) films deposited on glass substrates with lowest resistivity of 2.62 x 10(-4) Ω x cm and high transmittance of about 89% in the visible wavelength region. We report the enhancement of ITO work function (Φ(ITO)) by the variation of oxygen (O2) flow rate and N2O surface plasma treatment. The Φ(ITO) increased from 4.43 to 4.56 eV with the increase in O2 flow rate from 0 to 4 sccm while surface treatment of N2O plasma further enhanced the ITO work function to 4.65 eV. The crystallinity of the ITO films improved with increasing O2 flow rate, as revealed by XRD analysis. The ITO work function was increased by the interfacial dipole resulting from the surface rich in O- ions and by the dipole moment formed at the ITO surface during N2O plasma treatment. The ITO films with high work functions can be used to modify the front barrier height in heterojunction with intrinsic thin layer (HIT) solar cells. PMID:25971043

  16. Resistance-Resistant Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Oldfield, Eric; Feng, Xinxin

    2014-01-01

    New antibiotics are needed because as drug resistance is increasing, the introduction of new antibiotics is decreasing. Here, we discuss six possible approaches to develop ‘resistance-resistant’ antibiotics. First, multi-target inhibitors in which a single compound inhibits more than one target may be easier to develop than conventional combination therapies with two new drugs. Second, inhibiting multiple targets in the same metabolic pathway is expected to be an effective strategy due to synergy. Third, discovering multiple-target inhibitors should be possible by using sequential virtual screening. Fourth, re-purposing existing drugs can lead to combinations of multi-target therapeutics. Fifth, targets need not be proteins. Sixth, inhibiting virulence factor formation and boosting innate immunity may also lead to decreased susceptibility to resistance. Although it is not possible to eliminate resistance, the approaches reviewed here offer several possibilities for reducing the effects of mutations and in some cases suggest that sensitivity to existing antibiotics may be restored, in otherwise drug resistant organisms. PMID:25458541

  17. New flow cytometric method for detection of minimally expressed multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein on normal and acute leukemia cells using biotinylated MRK16 and streptavidin-RED670 conjugate.

    PubMed

    Takeshita, A; Shinjo, K; Ohnishi, K; Ohno, R

    1995-06-01

    To evaluate the expression of multidrug resistance (MDR) on normal and leukemia cells, we examined P-glycoprotein (P-gp) by a newly devised flow cytometric method, utilizing a biotinylated monoclonal antibody (mAb) against P-gp (MRK16), a streptavidin-RED670 conjugate (SA-RED670) and appropriate emission filters. The combination of biotinylated MRK16 (b-MRK16) and SA-RED670 resulted in higher sensitivity as compared with standard methods such as the use of streptavidin-phycoerythrin (SA-PE) conjugate. The sensitivity was examined in K562, K562/ADR, NOMO-1, NOMO-1/ADR and HL60 cells, and compared with the data obtained from reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of mdr-1 gene. P-gp positivity on flow cytometry was 10.4%, 99.9%, 1.4%, 90.4% and 0%, respectively. Mdr-1 mRNA was well expressed in K562/ADR and NOMO-1/ADR cells, but not in NOMO-1 and HL60 cells. In K562 cells, mdr-1 was found after 40 cycles of PCR, but not 25 cycles. These data are well correlated with those from the flow cytometry. We then studied the P-gp expression on normal peripheral blood cells and acute leukemia cells. P-gp was little expressed on peripheral lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes. It was also little expressed on blast cells from 5 patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (AML) and 5 acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) expressed P-gp at diagnosis, ranging from 8.5% to 34.5% (16.9 +/- 11.8%) and from 2.3% to 45.6% (24.0 +/- 17.8%), respectively. All 9 relapsed or refractory cases expressed P-gp, ranging from 21.1% to 99.8% (52.2 +/- 29.9%). Significant differences were found in APL, CD34-positive and relapse and refractory cases (P = 0.0006, 0.0007 and 0.0088, respectively). These results indicate that this flow cytometric analysis is useful for the evaluation of clinical MDR status and can identify a group of patients with resistant leukemia. PMID:7622426

  18. Giant suppression of flux-flow resistivity in heavy-ion irradiated Tl2Ba2Ca2Cu3O10 films - Influence of linear defects on vortex transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budhani, R. C.; Suenaga, M.; Liou, S. H.

    1992-01-01

    A large shift of the onset of flux-flow resistivity and the irreversibility line H(irr)(T) to higher temperatures is observed in Tl2Ba2Ca2Cu3O10 films containing linear defects created by Ag(+21) ion irradiation. The H(irr)(T), which has a characteristic L shape in highly anisotropic Tl and Bi based cuprates, becomes more like that of YBa2Cu3O7 in the presence of these defects. The Jc at 77 K also shows a large increase as a result of flux localization at the defects. The transport data indicate that in the H-T plane above H(irr)(T) of the unirradiated material, an ensemble of unoccupied defects is required for effective pinning of each flux line in the system.

  19. Antibiotic Resistance

    MedlinePlus

    ... lives. But there is a growing problem of antibiotic resistance. It happens when bacteria change and become able ... resistant to several common antibiotics. To help prevent antibiotic resistance Don't use antibiotics for viruses like colds ...

  20. Drug Resistance

    MedlinePlus

    HIV Treatment Drug Resistance (Last updated 3/1/2016; last reviewed 3/1/2016) Key Points As HIV multiplies in the ... the risk of drug resistance. What is HIV drug resistance? Once a person becomes infected with HIV, ...

  1. Evaluation of interactions between metal ions and nonionic surfactants in high-concentration HCl using low-pressure high-performance liquid chromatography with low-flow-resistance polystyrene-based monolithic column.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Tomohiko; Kitagawa, Shinya; Ohtani, Hajime; Kinoshita, Takehiko; Ishigaki, Yuzo; Shibata, Nobuyuki; Nii, Susumu

    2013-10-01

    A method for evaluating the interactions between metal ions and nonionic surfactants in aqueous solutions containing high-concentration HCl, using gas pressure-driven low-pressure high-performance liquid chromatography (LP-HPLC) as a highly acid-resistant HPLC system, was developed. To construct the LP-HPLC for this purpose, poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene)-based low-flow-resistance monolithic columns tolerant to highly acidic conditions were prepared using low-conversion thermal polymerization. Thermal polymerization at 65 °C for 1.5 h (monomer conversions, 33% for styrene and 59% for divinylbenzene) allowed preparation of a column with both high separation efficiency (around 60,000 plates m(-1) for alkylbenzenes) and a quite low back pressure of 0.14 MPa at a linear flow rate of 1 mm s(-1) (2.8 × 10(-13) m(2) in permeability). The base column prepared under the above conditions was coated with a nonionic surfactant, polyoxyethylene nonylphenyl ether (PONPE, average oxyethylene unit numbers (n) = 3, 7.5, 15, and 20), and used for evaluation of the interactions between PONPEs and metal ions in 6 M HCl. The interactions between PONPEs and Au(III), Ga(III), Fe(III), Zn(II), and Cu(II) were successfully evaluated using both breakthrough and chromatographic methods. Furthermore, a study of the effect of the polyoxyethylene (POE) chain length revealed that the use of PONPE with the longer POE moiety enhanced the magnitude of the interaction together with the increase in the amount of oxyethylene (OE) units coated on the monolith. Moreover, the interactions of metal ions with a single OE unit were almost constant in the range of n = 7.5-20, whereas the suppression of the interaction between Au(III) with the shortest PONPE chain (n = 3) was also observed. PMID:23884474

  2. Further characterisation of the in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) assay for the flow cytometric analysis of apoptosis in drug resistant and drug sensitive leukaemic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, R.S.; Chresta, C.M.; Herberg, A.A.

    1995-07-01

    Apoptosis, originally defined by specific morphological changes, is characterized biochemically by non-random cleavage of DNA. Depending on cell type, this DNA cleavage proceeds from 300 and 50 kbp fragments prior to, concomitantly with, or in the absence of 180 bp integer fragmentation. Incorporation into fragmented DNA of biotin-labelled nucleotides by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) has recently become a standard flow cytometric assay for the identification and quantitation of apoptosis. Nucleotide incorportion is visualized using avidin-tagged fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). Here, we characterize this assay further in three different hemopoietic cell lines. Drug-induced DNA damage is not identified by the TdT assay unless it is coupled to the apoptotic response. This was demonstrated using cells in which activation of the oncogenic Abelson-encoded protein tyrosine kinase suppressed drug-induced apoptosis, but did not inhibit drug-induced DNA damage (by melphalan, hydroxyurea, or etoposide). Furthermore, the TdT assay identifies DNA fragments formed during apoptosis induced by etoposide and N-methylformamide in HL60 and MOLT-4 cells, including those high molecular weight DNA fragments formed in MOLT-4 cells which were not further cleaved to 180-200 bp integer fragments. Our results support the use of flow cytometry and the TdT assay to reliably measure apoptotic cells in heterogeneous cell samples. 55 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. On the corrosion resistance of AISI 316L-type stainless steel coated with manganese and annealed with flow of oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savaloni, Hadi; Agha-Taheri, Ensieh; Abdi, Fateme

    2016-06-01

    AISI 316L-type stainless steel was coated with 300-nm-thick Mn thin films and post-annealed at 673 K with a constant flow of oxygen (250 cm3/min). The films crystallographic and morphological structures were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) before corrosion test and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) after corrosion test. Corrosion behavior of the samples in 0.3, 0.5 and 0.6 M NaCl solutions was investigated by means of potentiodynamic and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. Results showed that the corrosion inhibition of annealed Mn/SS316L in all NaCl solutions with different concentrations is higher than that of bare SS316L. A correlation is achieved between the structural variation of the films with the potentiodynamic and EIS corrosion results.

  4. U.S. EPA regulation of plant-incorporated protectants: assessment of impacts of gene flow from pest-resistant plants.

    PubMed

    Wozniak, Chris A; Martinez, Jeannette C

    2011-06-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency licenses pesticide-expressing plants under the authority of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). Transgenes and their pesticidal products represent pesticides under FIFRA and are referred to as plant-incorporated protectants (PIPs). When sexually compatible wild relatives (SCWR) are sympatric with PIP crops, there is a need to assess the potential for adverse effects to man and the environment resulting from transgene introgression in accord with FIFRA requirements. Genetic compatibility, introgression, weediness of SCWR × PIP hybrids, seed dispersal, and dormancy, among other parameters, as well as effects on other species (herbivores and beneficial insects), all need to be considered as part of the risk assessment for experimental use under Section 5 or registration under Section 3 of FIFRA. EPA is currently developing data requirements and guidance toward addressing potential gene flow impacts from PIPs.

  5. Fire resistant nuclear fuel cask

    DOEpatents

    Heckman, Richard C.; Moss, Marvin

    1979-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to a fire resistant nuclear fuel cask employing reversibly thermally expansible bands between adjacent cooling fins such that normal outward flow of heat is not interfered with, but abnormal inward flow of heat is impeded or blocked.

  6. Tuning Fluidic Resistance via Liquid Crystal Microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Anupam

    2013-01-01

    Flow of molecularly ordered fluids, like liquid crystals, is inherently coupled with the average local orientation of the molecules, or the director. The anisotropic coupling—typically absent in isotropic fluids—bestows unique functionalities to the flowing matrix. In this work, we harness this anisotropy to pattern different pathways to tunable fluidic resistance within microfluidic devices. We use a nematic liquid crystalline material flowing in microchannels to demonstrate passive and active modulation of the flow resistance. While appropriate surface anchoring conditions—which imprint distinct fluidic resistances within microchannels under similar hydrodynamic parameters—act as passive cues, an external field, e.g., temperature, is used to actively modulate the flow resistance in the microfluidic device. We apply this simple concept to fabricate basic fluidic circuits, which can be hierarchically extended to create complex resistance networks, without any additional design or morphological patterning of the microchannels. PMID:24256819

  7. Shroud leakage flow discouragers

    DOEpatents

    Bailey, Jeremy Clyde; Bunker, Ronald Scott

    2002-01-01

    A turbine assembly includes a plurality of rotor blades comprising a root portion, an airfoil having a pressure sidewall and a suction sidewall, and a top portion having a cap. An outer shroud is concentrically disposed about said rotor blades, said shroud in combination with said tip portions defining a clearance gap. At least one circumferential shroud leakage discourager is disposed within the shroud. The leakage discourager(s) increase the flow resistance and thus reduce the flow of hot gas flow leakage for a given pressure differential across the clearance gap to improve overall turbine efficiency.

  8. Antibiotic Resistance

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Antibiotic Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... these products really help. To Learn More about Antibiotic Resistance Get Smart About Antibiotics (Video) Fact Sheets and ...

  9. RESISTIVITY METHODS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resistivity methods were among the first geophysical techniques developed. The basic concept originated with Conrad Schlumberger, who conducted the initial resistivity field tests in Normandy, France during 1912. The resistivity method, employed in its earliest and most conventional form, uses an ex...

  10. Local Control of Blood Flow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, Philip S.

    2011-01-01

    Organ blood flow is determined by perfusion pressure and vasomotor tone in the resistance vessels of the organ. Local factors that regulate vasomotor tone include myogenic and metabolic autoregulation, flow-mediated and conducted responses, and vasoactive substances released from red blood cells. The relative importance of each of these factors…

  11. Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance

    MedlinePlus

    ... Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance Antibiotic-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci (VRE) Multidrug-Resistant Neisseria ...

  12. Transgenic resistance.

    PubMed

    Cillo, Fabrizio; Palukaitis, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Transgenic resistance to plant viruses is an important technology for control of plant virus infection, which has been demonstrated for many model systems, as well as for the most important plant viruses, in terms of the costs of crop losses to disease, and also for many other plant viruses infecting various fruits and vegetables. Different approaches have been used over the last 28 years to confer resistance, to ascertain whether particular genes or RNAs are more efficient at generating resistance, and to take advantage of advances in the biology of RNA interference to generate more efficient and environmentally safer, novel "resistance genes." The approaches used have been based on expression of various viral proteins (mostly capsid protein but also replicase proteins, movement proteins, and to a much lesser extent, other viral proteins), RNAs [sense RNAs (translatable or not), antisense RNAs, satellite RNAs, defective-interfering RNAs, hairpin RNAs, and artificial microRNAs], nonviral genes (nucleases, antiviral inhibitors, and plantibodies), and host-derived resistance genes (dominant resistance genes and recessive resistance genes), and various factors involved in host defense responses. This review examines the above range of approaches used, the viruses that were tested, and the host species that have been examined for resistance, in many cases describing differences in results that were obtained for various systems developed in the last 20 years. We hope this compilation of experiences will aid those who are seeking to use this technology to provide resistance in yet other crops, where nature has not provided such.

  13. Resistance mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Cag, Yasemin; Caskurlu, Hulya; Fan, Yanyan; Cao, Bin

    2016-01-01

    By definition, the terms sepsis and septic shock refer to a potentially fatal infectious state in which the early administration of an effective antibiotic is the most significant determinant of the outcome. Because of the global spread of resistant bacteria, the efficacy of antibiotics has been severely compromised. S. pneumonia, Escherichia coli (E. coli), Klebsiella, Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas are the predominant pathogens of sepsis and septic shock. It is common for E. coli, Klebsiella, Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas to be resistant to multiple drugs. Multiple drug resistance is caused by the interplay of multiple resistance mechanisms those emerge via the acquisition of extraneous resistance determinants or spontaneous mutations. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs), carbapenemases, aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes (AMEs) and quinolone resistance determinants are typically external and disseminate on mobile genetic elements, while porin-efflux mechanisms are activated by spontaneous modifications of inherited structures. Porin and efflux mechanisms are frequent companions of multiple drug resistance in Acinetobacter and P. aeruginosa, but only occasionally detected among E. coli and Klebsiella. Antibiotic resistance became a global health threat. This review examines the major resistance mechanisms of the leading microorganisms of sepsis. PMID:27713884

  14. Transgenic resistance.

    PubMed

    Cillo, Fabrizio; Palukaitis, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Transgenic resistance to plant viruses is an important technology for control of plant virus infection, which has been demonstrated for many model systems, as well as for the most important plant viruses, in terms of the costs of crop losses to disease, and also for many other plant viruses infecting various fruits and vegetables. Different approaches have been used over the last 28 years to confer resistance, to ascertain whether particular genes or RNAs are more efficient at generating resistance, and to take advantage of advances in the biology of RNA interference to generate more efficient and environmentally safer, novel "resistance genes." The approaches used have been based on expression of various viral proteins (mostly capsid protein but also replicase proteins, movement proteins, and to a much lesser extent, other viral proteins), RNAs [sense RNAs (translatable or not), antisense RNAs, satellite RNAs, defective-interfering RNAs, hairpin RNAs, and artificial microRNAs], nonviral genes (nucleases, antiviral inhibitors, and plantibodies), and host-derived resistance genes (dominant resistance genes and recessive resistance genes), and various factors involved in host defense responses. This review examines the above range of approaches used, the viruses that were tested, and the host species that have been examined for resistance, in many cases describing differences in results that were obtained for various systems developed in the last 20 years. We hope this compilation of experiences will aid those who are seeking to use this technology to provide resistance in yet other crops, where nature has not provided such. PMID:25410101

  15. Flow Meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-01-01

    Hedland Flow Meters manufactures a complete line of flow meters used in industrial operations to monitor the flow of oil, water or other liquids, air and other compressed gases, including caustics or corrosive liquids/gases. The company produces more than 1,000 types of flow meters featuring rugged construction, simplicity of installation and the ability to operate in any position.

  16. Resistant Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Doroszko, Adrian; Janus, Agnieszka; Szahidewicz-Krupska, Ewa; Mazur, Grzegorz; Derkacz, Arkadiusz

    2016-01-01

    Resistant hypertension is a severe medical condition which is estimated to appear in 9-18% of hypertensive patients. Due to higher cardiovascular risk, this disorder requires special diagnosis and treatment. The heterogeneous etiology, risk factors and comorbidities of resistant hypertension stand in need of sophisticated evaluation to confirm the diagnosis and select the best therapeutic options, which should consider lifestyle modifications as well as pharmacological and interventional treatment. After having excluded pseudohypertension, inappropriate blood pressure measurement and control as well as the white coat effect, suspicion of resistant hypertension requires an analysis of drugs which the hypertensive patient is treated with. According to one definition - ineffective treatment with 3 or more antihypertensive drugs including diuretics makes it possible to diagnose resistant hypertension. A multidrug therapy including angiotensin - converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, beta blockers, diuretics, long-acting calcium channel blockers and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists has been demonstrated to be effective in resistant hypertension treatment. Nevertheless, optional, innovative therapies, e.g. a renal denervation or baroreflex activation, may create a novel pathway of blood pressure lowering procedures. The right diagnosis of this disease needs to eliminate the secondary causes of resistant hypertension e.g. obstructive sleep apnea, atherosclerosis and renal or hormonal disorders. This paper briefly summarizes the identification of the causes of resistant hypertension and therapeutic strategies, which may contribute to the proper diagnosis and an improvement of the long term management of resistant hypertension.

  17. Managing Resistance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maag, John W.

    2000-01-01

    This article presents some considerations and ideas for managing students' resistance. They are organized around four topics: the impact of context on behavior, the importance of being comprehensive and nonrestrictive in behavior, the adaptive function of resistant behavior, and the benefit of joining children in their frame of reference.…

  18. Quantification of thermal and contact resistances of scanning thermal probes

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kyeongtae E-mail: meyhofer@umich.edu Jeong, Wonho; Lee, Woochul; Sadat, Seid; Thompson, Dakotah; Meyhofer, Edgar E-mail: meyhofer@umich.edu; Reddy, Pramod E-mail: meyhofer@umich.edu

    2014-11-17

    Scanning thermal probes are widely used for imaging temperature fields with nanoscale resolution, for studying near-field radiative heat transport and for locally heating samples. In all these applications, it is critical to know the thermal resistance to heat flow within the probe and the thermal contact resistance between the probe and the sample. Here, we present an approach for quantifying the aforementioned thermal resistances using picowatt resolution heat flow calorimeters. The measured contact resistance is found to be in good agreement with classical predictions for thermal contact resistance. The techniques developed here are critical for quantitatively probing heat flows at the nanoscale.

  19. Resisting HRD's Resistance to Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bierema, Laura L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to empirically illustrate how human resource development (HRD) resists and omits issues of diversity in academic programs, textbooks, and research; analyze the research on HRD and diversity over a ten-year period; discuss HRD's resistance to diversity; and offer some recommendations for a more authentic…

  20. Resistivity analysis

    DOEpatents

    Bruce, Michael R.; Bruce, Victoria J.; Ring, Rosalinda M.; Cole, Edward Jr. I.; Hawkins, Charles F.; Tangyungong, Paiboon

    2006-06-13

    According to an example embodiment of the present invention a semiconductor die having a resistive electrical connection is analyzed. Heat is directed to the die as the die is undergoing a state-changing operation to cause a failure due to suspect circuitry. The die is monitored, and a circuit path that electrically changes in response to the heat is detected and used to detect that a particular portion therein of the circuit is resistive. In this manner, the detection and localization of a semiconductor die defect that includes a resistive portion of a circuit path is enhanced.

  1. Antimicrobial Resistance

    MedlinePlus

    ... and health professionals can play their part; rewarding innovation and development of new treatment options and other ... and industry can help tackle resistance by: fostering innovation and research and development of new vaccines, diagnostics, ...

  2. Antimicrobial Resistance

    MedlinePlus

    ... antibiotic are known as methicillin-resistant S. aureus or MRSA. Antibiotics and other antimicrobial drugs first became widely ... factors for infection are known as community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA). Recently, several cases overseas and in ...

  3. Lantibiotic Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Draper, Lorraine A.; Ross, R. Paul

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The dramatic rise in the incidence of antibiotic resistance demands that new therapeutic options will have to be developed. One potentially interesting class of antimicrobials are the modified bacteriocins termed lantibiotics, which are bacterially produced, posttranslationally modified, lanthionine/methyllanthionine-containing peptides. It is interesting that low levels of resistance have been reported for lantibiotics compared with commercial antibiotics. Given that there are very few examples of naturally occurring lantibiotic resistance, attempts have been made to deliberately induce resistance phenotypes in order to investigate this phenomenon. Mechanisms that hinder the action of lantibiotics are often innate systems that react to the presence of any cationic peptides/proteins or ones which result from cell well damage, rather than being lantibiotic specific. Such resistance mechanisms often arise due to altered gene regulation following detection of antimicrobials/cell wall damage by sensory proteins at the membrane. This facilitates alterations to the cell wall or changes in the composition of the membrane. Other general forms of resistance include the formation of spores or biofilms, which are a common mechanistic response to many classes of antimicrobials. In rare cases, bacteria have been shown to possess specific antilantibiotic mechanisms. These are often species specific and include the nisin lytic protein nisinase and the phenomenon of immune mimicry. PMID:25787977

  4. Lantibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Draper, Lorraine A; Cotter, Paul D; Hill, Colin; Ross, R Paul

    2015-06-01

    The dramatic rise in the incidence of antibiotic resistance demands that new therapeutic options will have to be developed. One potentially interesting class of antimicrobials are the modified bacteriocins termed lantibiotics, which are bacterially produced, posttranslationally modified, lanthionine/methyllanthionine-containing peptides. It is interesting that low levels of resistance have been reported for lantibiotics compared with commercial antibiotics. Given that there are very few examples of naturally occurring lantibiotic resistance, attempts have been made to deliberately induce resistance phenotypes in order to investigate this phenomenon. Mechanisms that hinder the action of lantibiotics are often innate systems that react to the presence of any cationic peptides/proteins or ones which result from cell well damage, rather than being lantibiotic specific. Such resistance mechanisms often arise due to altered gene regulation following detection of antimicrobials/cell wall damage by sensory proteins at the membrane. This facilitates alterations to the cell wall or changes in the composition of the membrane. Other general forms of resistance include the formation of spores or biofilms, which are a common mechanistic response to many classes of antimicrobials. In rare cases, bacteria have been shown to possess specific antilantibiotic mechanisms. These are often species specific and include the nisin lytic protein nisinase and the phenomenon of immune mimicry. PMID:25787977

  5. Flow Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Flow Technology Inc. worked with Lewis Research Center to develop a system for monitoring two different propellants being supplied to a spacecraft rocket thruster. They then commercialized the technology in the Microtrack, an extremely precise low-flow calibration system. Moog Inc., one of the device's primary users, measures the flow rate or the speed at which hydraulic oil flows through pin sized holes in disc shaped sapphires with the Microtrack. Using this data, two orifices with exactly the same flow rate can be matched as a pair and used as masters in servovalve production. The microtrack can also be used to calibrate other equipment.

  6. Methods of airway resistance assessment.

    PubMed

    Urbankowski, Tomasz; Przybyłowski, Tadeusz

    2016-01-01

    Airway resistance is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of the airflow in the airways. The most frequent methods used to measure airway resistance are whole-body plethysmography, the interrupter technique and the forced oscillation technique. All these methods allow to measure resistance during respiration at the level close to tidal volume, they do not require forced breathing manoeuvres or deep breathing during measurement. The most popular method for measuring airway resistance is whole-body plethysmography. The results of plethysmography include among others the following parameters: airway resistance (Raw), airway conductance (Gaw), specific airway resistance (sRaw) and specific airway conductance (sGaw). The interrupter technique is based on the assumption that at the moment of airway occlusion, air pressure in the mouth is equal to the alveolar pressure . In the forced oscillation technique (FOT), airway resistance is calculated basing on the changes in pressure and flow caused by air vibration. The methods for measurement of airway resistance that are described in the present paper seem to be a useful alternative to the most common lung function test - spirometry. The target group in which these methods may be widely used are particularly the patients who are unable to perform spirometry.

  7. Flow Diode and Method for Controlling Fluid Flow Origin of the Invention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyson, Rodger W (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A flow diode configured to permit fluid flow in a first direction while preventing fluid flow in a second direction opposite the first direction is disclosed. The flow diode prevents fluid flow without use of mechanical closures or moving parts. The flow diode utilizes a bypass flowline whereby all fluid flow in the second direction moves into the bypass flowline having a plurality of tortuous portions providing high fluidic resistance. The portions decrease in diameter such that debris in the fluid is trapped. As fluid only travels in one direction through the portions, the debris remains trapped in the portions.

  8. [Resistant fungi].

    PubMed

    Vehreschild, M J G T; Cornely, O A

    2015-11-01

    Particularly in the area of hematology/oncology and intensive care medicine, infections due to resistant fungi are to be expected. Emergence of resistance in fungi is a less dynamic process than in bacteria; it can, however, have an equally important impact on treatment strategies. In the following article, the most important resistance patterns of yeasts and molds (Candida albicans , Aspergillus fumigatus, the order Mucorales and the genus Fusarium) will be presented and discussed. Their diagnosis mostly being based on blood cultures, resistance testing for yeasts is usually readily available. Culture-based therapeutic adjustments in mold infections are, however, only rarely possible, as most antifungal therapies for these infections are initiated on an empirical basis after identification of typical infiltrates on a CT scan. Response to therapy is then evaluated on the basis of clinical signs and symptoms in combination with follow-up CT scans. In case of therapeutic failure or appearance of suspicious infiltrates under antifungal prophylaxis, an open or CT-guided biopsy is recommended to allow efficient adaptation of antifungal treatment. In individual cases, particularly in patients diagnosed with mucormycosis, resection of the focus of infection may be necessary to achieve a satisfactory treatment response.

  9. Rock flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matveyev, S. N.

    1986-01-01

    Rock flows are defined as forms of spontaneous mass movements, commonly found in mountainous countries, which have been studied very little. The article considers formations known as rock rivers, rock flows, boulder flows, boulder stria, gravel flows, rock seas, and rubble seas. It describes their genesis as seen from their morphological characteristics and presents a classification of these forms. This classification is based on the difference in the genesis of the rubbly matter and characterizes these forms of mass movement according to their source, drainage, and deposit areas.

  10. Piezoelectric axial flow microvalve

    DOEpatents

    Gemmen, Randall; Thornton, Jimmy; Vipperman, Jeffrey S.; Clark, William W.

    2007-01-09

    This invention is directed to a fuel cell operable with a quantity of fuel and a quantity of an oxidizer to produce electrical power, the fuel cell including a fuel cell body including a labyrinth system structured to permit the fuel and the oxidizer to flow therethrough; at least a first catalyst in fluid communication with the labyrinth; and at least a first microvalve operably disposed within at least a portion of the labyrinth. The microvalve utilizes a deflectable member operable upon the application of a voltage from a voltage source. The microvalve includes an elongated flow channel formed therein and extending substantially longitudinally between the first and second ends to permit substantially longitudinal flow of the fluid therethrough and between the first and second ends; and the deflectable member disposed on the valve body, the deflectable member including at least a first piezoelectric portion that is piezoelectrically operable to deflect the deflectable member between an open position and a closed position upon the application of a voltage, the deflectable member in the closed position being operable to resist the flow of the fluid through the flow channel.

  11. Basal resistance for three of the largest Greenland outlet glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapero, Daniel R.; Joughin, Ian R.; Poinar, Kristin; Morlighem, Mathieu; Gillet-Chaulet, Fabien

    2016-01-01

    Resistance at the ice-bed interface provides a strong control on the response of ice streams and outlet glaciers to external forcing, yet it is not observable by remote sensing. We used inverse methods constrained by satellite observations to infer the basal resistance to flow underneath three of the Greenland Ice Sheet's largest outlet glaciers. In regions of fast ice flow and high (>250 kPa) driving stresses, ice is often assumed to flow over a strong bed. We found, however, that the beds of these three glaciers provide almost no resistance under the fast-flowing trunk. Instead, resistance to flow is provided by the lateral margins and stronger beds underlying slower-moving ice upstream. Additionally, we found isolated patches of high basal resistivity within the predominantly weak beds. Because these small-scale (<1 ice thickness) features may be artifacts of overfitting our solution to measurement errors, we tested their robustness to different degrees of regularization.

  12. Anthelmintic resistance.

    PubMed

    Waller, P J

    1997-11-01

    Since the first reports of resistance to the broad spectrum anthelmintics were made some three decades ago, this phenomenon has changed from being considered merely as a parasitological curiosity to a state of industry crisis in certain livestock sectors. This extreme situation exists with the small ruminant industry of the tropical/sub-tropical region of southern Latin America where resistance to the entire broad spectrum anthelmintic arsenal now occurs. In contrast, the cattle industry does not appear to be threatened--or so it seems. Although field reports of resistance have been made to the range of broad spectrum anthelmintics in nematode parasites of cattle, it appears that the evolution of resistance in cattle parasites is not as dramatic as for sheep worms. However, one cannot remain confident that this state of affairs will remain static. Concern is shared amongst parasitologists that we have not looked closely enough. In regions of the world where internal parasites are considered a problem in cattle and drenching occurs frequently, no widespread surveys have been carried out. It appears that because of the very high costs and risks associated with taking a new active drug down the development track to marketing, that the pharmaceutical industry has, in general, turned away from this activity. By implication, the international small ruminant industry is too small for these companies to make the necessary investment. This begs two questions: What is the fate of the sheep (and goat) industries in those parts of the world where resistance is rampant and immediate ameliorative parasite control options are required? What will be the response if significant resistance is found in cattle parasites? There is a body of opinion which suggests that if resistance becomes an issue in the control of cattle parasites then the pharmaceutical industry will find it commercially attractive to re-enter the anthelmintic discovery and development business. This is based on the

  13. 42 CFR 84.122 - Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. 84... Masks § 84.122 Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. (a) Resistance to airflow will be... each test conducted in accordance with §§ 84.124, 84.125, and 84.126, with air flowing at a...

  14. 42 CFR 84.203 - Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. 84... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.203 Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. (a) Resistance to... mounted on a test fixture with air flowing at a continuous rate of 85 liters per minute, both before...

  15. 42 CFR 84.203 - Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. 84... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.203 Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. (a) Resistance to... mounted on a test fixture with air flowing at a continuous rate of 85 liters per minute, both before...

  16. 42 CFR 84.203 - Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. 84... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.203 Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. (a) Resistance to... mounted on a test fixture with air flowing at a continuous rate of 85 liters per minute, both before...

  17. 42 CFR 84.91 - Breathing resistance test; exhalation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; exhalation. 84.91...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.91 Breathing resistance test; exhalation. (a) Resistance to exhalation airflow will be measured in the facepiece or mouthpiece of open-circuit apparatus with air flowing at...

  18. 42 CFR 84.203 - Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. 84... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.203 Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. (a) Resistance to... mounted on a test fixture with air flowing at a continuous rate of 85 liters per minute, both before...

  19. 42 CFR 84.91 - Breathing resistance test; exhalation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; exhalation. 84.91...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.91 Breathing resistance test; exhalation. (a) Resistance to exhalation airflow will be measured in the facepiece or mouthpiece of open-circuit apparatus with air flowing at...

  20. 42 CFR 84.122 - Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. 84... Masks § 84.122 Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. (a) Resistance to airflow will be... each test conducted in accordance with §§ 84.124, 84.125, and 84.126, with air flowing at a...

  1. 42 CFR 84.122 - Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. 84... Masks § 84.122 Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. (a) Resistance to airflow will be... each test conducted in accordance with §§ 84.124, 84.125, and 84.126, with air flowing at a...

  2. 42 CFR 84.91 - Breathing resistance test; exhalation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; exhalation. 84.91...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.91 Breathing resistance test; exhalation. (a) Resistance to exhalation airflow will be measured in the facepiece or mouthpiece of open-circuit apparatus with air flowing at...

  3. 42 CFR 84.203 - Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. 84... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.203 Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. (a) Resistance to... mounted on a test fixture with air flowing at a continuous rate of 85 liters per minute, both before...

  4. 42 CFR 84.91 - Breathing resistance test; exhalation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; exhalation. 84.91...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.91 Breathing resistance test; exhalation. (a) Resistance to exhalation airflow will be measured in the facepiece or mouthpiece of open-circuit apparatus with air flowing at...

  5. The effect of filter cakes on filter medium resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, G.G.; Arconti, J.; Kanel, J.

    1994-10-01

    The high resistance of a filter medium to fluid flow is a universal problem affecting many industries. The small thickness of the filter media makes local pressure and porosity measurements impractical. Analysis of the continuum equations and boundary conditions provide a basis for defining a relative medium resistance. Experiments are conducted on three particulate materials and on three different high flow rate filter media. The results show that the increase in medium resistance varies up to about four times the resistance of a clean filter medium with no cake present. The results also show that in most cases the relative resistance is dependent upon cake height.

  6. [Resistant hypertension].

    PubMed

    Feldstein, Carlos A

    2008-04-01

    Resistant hypertension, defined as a persistent blood pressure over 140/90 mmHg despite the use of three antihypertensive drugs including a diuretic, is unusual. The diagnosis requires ruling out initially pseudoresistance and a lack of compliance with treatment. Ambulatory blood pressure recording allow the recognition of white coat hypertension. When there is a clinical or laboratory suspicion, secondary causes of hypertension should be discarded. Excessive salt intake, the presence of concomitant diseases such as diabetes mellitus, chronic renal disease, obesity, and psychiatric conditions such as panic attacks, anxiety and depression, should also be sought. The presence of target organ damage requires a more aggressive treatment of hypertension. Recent clinical studies indicate that the administration of aldosterone antagonists as a fourth therapeutic line provides significant additional blood pressure reduction, when added to previous antihypertensive regimens in subjects with resistant hypertension. The possible blood pressure lowering effects of prolonged electrical activation of carotid baroreceptors is under investigation. PMID:18769797

  7. [Resistant hypertension].

    PubMed

    Feldstein, Carlos A

    2008-04-01

    Resistant hypertension, defined as a persistent blood pressure over 140/90 mmHg despite the use of three antihypertensive drugs including a diuretic, is unusual. The diagnosis requires ruling out initially pseudoresistance and a lack of compliance with treatment. Ambulatory blood pressure recording allow the recognition of white coat hypertension. When there is a clinical or laboratory suspicion, secondary causes of hypertension should be discarded. Excessive salt intake, the presence of concomitant diseases such as diabetes mellitus, chronic renal disease, obesity, and psychiatric conditions such as panic attacks, anxiety and depression, should also be sought. The presence of target organ damage requires a more aggressive treatment of hypertension. Recent clinical studies indicate that the administration of aldosterone antagonists as a fourth therapeutic line provides significant additional blood pressure reduction, when added to previous antihypertensive regimens in subjects with resistant hypertension. The possible blood pressure lowering effects of prolonged electrical activation of carotid baroreceptors is under investigation.

  8. Introgression of resistance-conferring ALS mutations in herbicide-resistant weedy rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weedy red rice (Oryza sativa) competes aggressively with rice, reducing yields and grain quality. Clearfield™ rice, a nontransgenic, herbicide-resistant (HR) rice introduced in 2002 to control weedy rice, has resulted in some ALS-resistant weedy rice apparently due to gene flow. Studies were conduct...

  9. Pre-resistance-welding resistance check

    DOEpatents

    Destefan, Dennis E.; Stompro, David A.

    1991-01-01

    A preweld resistance check for resistance welding machines uses an open circuited measurement to determine the welding machine resistance, a closed circuit measurement to determine the parallel resistance of a workpiece set and the machine, and a calculation to determine the resistance of the workpiece set. Any variation in workpiece set or machine resistance is an indication that the weld may be different from a control weld.

  10. Roughness, resistance, and dispersion: Relationships in small streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noss, Christian; Lorke, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Although relationships between roughness, flow, and transport processes in rivers and streams have been investigated for several decades, the prediction of flow resistance and longitudinal dispersion in small streams is still challenging. Major uncertainties in existing approaches for quantifying flow resistance and longitudinal dispersion at the reach scale arise from limitations in the characterization of riverbed roughness. In this study, we characterized the riverbed roughness in small moderate-gradient streams (0.1-0.5% bed slope) and investigated its effects on flow resistance and dispersion. We analyzed high-resolution transect-based measurements of stream depth and width, which resolved the complete roughness spectrum with scales ranging from the micro to the reach scale. Independently measured flow resistance and dispersion coefficients were mainly affected by roughness at spatial scales between the median grain size and the stream width, i.e., by roughness between the micro- and the mesoscale. We also compared our flow resistance measurements with calculations using various flow resistance equations. Flow resistance in our study streams was well approximated by the equations that were developed for high gradient streams (>1%) and it was overestimated by approaches developed for sand-bed streams with a smooth riverbed or ripple bed. This article was corrected on 10 MAY 2016. See the end of the full text for details.

  11. Self-regulating flow control device

    DOEpatents

    Humphreys, Duane A.

    1984-01-01

    A variable, self-regulating valve having a hydraulic loss coefficient proportional to a positive exponential power of the flow rate. The device includes two objects in a flow channel and structure which assures that the distance between the two objects is an increasing function of the flow rate. The range of spacing between the objects is such that the hydraulic resistance of the valve is an increasing function of the distance between the two objects so that the desired hydraulic loss coefficient as a function of flow rate is obtained without variation in the flow area.

  12. VISCOPLASTIC FLUID MODEL FOR DEBRIS FLOW ROUTING.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, Cheng-lung

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes how a generalized viscoplastic fluid model, which was developed based on non-Newtonian fluid mechanics, can be successfully applied to routing a debris flow down a channel. The one-dimensional dynamic equations developed for unsteady clear-water flow can be used for debris flow routing if the flow parameters, such as the momentum (or energy) correction factor and the resistance coefficient, can be accurately evaluated. The writer's generalized viscoplastic fluid model can be used to express such flow parameters in terms of the rheological parameters for debris flow in wide channels. A preliminary analysis of the theoretical solutions reveals the importance of the flow behavior index and the so-called modified Froude number for uniformly progressive flow in snout profile modeling.

  13. Apparatus for measuring resistance change only in a cell analyzer and method for calibrating it

    DOEpatents

    Hoffman, Robert A.

    1980-01-01

    The disclosure relates to resistance only monitoring and calibration in an electrical cell analyzer. Sample and sheath fluid flows of different salinities are utilized, the sample flow being diameter modulated to produce a selected pattern which is compared to the resistance measured across the flows.

  14. Cross flow characteristics in a three fuel assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, J. H.; Euh, D. J.; Park, C. K.; Youn, Y. J.; Kwon, T. S.

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate the reactor thermal margin of APR+, reactor core flow distribution including both axial and lateral directional hydraulic resistances of fuel assemblies should be known. 3-Ch cross flow test facility has been constructed with three full-size fuel assemblies to investigate the cross flow characteristics. Performance tests have been performed. The axial and lateral directional hydraulic resistances of fuel assemblies have been measured. The test results have been compared to the CFD calculation. (authors)

  15. Empiric formulae combustor flow losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Mingqi

    1991-07-01

    Approaches to calculation of the flow losses in components of the combustor, such as diffuser, swirler, and flame tube and the flow losses in combustor under combustion conditions are investigated. The empiric formulas are derived from tests. They feature simplicity and sufficient accuracy and are applicable to design and redesign of combustor. The tests were conducted on the models of four types of diffusers, ten kinds of swirlers, seven types of flame tubes, and seven simulators of inlet flowfield distortion. In comparison with the existing methods, the presented method considerably improves the calculation of the flow losses in the diffuser. For the swirler, the correlation between flow resistance and the discharge coefficient and the formula for heating losses are determined.

  16. Flow cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinkamp, John A.

    1984-09-01

    Flow cytometry instrumentation developed from early efforts to count cells and particles in liquid suspension as they passed through a sensing device. Since the mid-1960's sophisticated instruments have been designed for analyzing cells based on various cytological, biochemical, and functional properties. These instruments have revolutionized automated cell analysis methods in that measurements are made at high speed, multiparameter data is correlated on each cell, statistical precision is high, and cells are separated in high purity from heterogeneous mixtures for identification and functional analysis. Advanced instruments capable of measuring cell volume, surface area, multicolor fluorescence, fluorescence polarization, light scatter within various angular regions, and axial light loss (extinction) at different wavelengths are being used in biomedical research for analyzing and sorting normal and abnormal cell populations. This article reviews the development of flow cytometers, the conceptual basis of flow measurements, and discusses some of the numerous applications of the technology in biology and medicine.

  17. FLOW GATING

    DOEpatents

    Poppelbaum, W.J.

    1962-12-01

    BS>This invention is a fast gating system for eiectronic flipflop circuits. Diodes connect the output of one circuit to the input of another, and the voltage supply for the receiving flip-flop has two alternate levels. When the supply is at its upper level, no current can flow through the diodes, but when the supply is at its lower level, current can flow to set the receiving flip- flop to the same state as that of the circuit to which it is connected. (AEC)

  18. Formula Gives Better Contact-Resistance Values

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieneweg, Udo; Hannaman, David J.

    1988-01-01

    Lateral currents in contact strips taken into account. Four-terminal test structures added to intergrated circuits to enable measurement of interfacial resistivities of contacts between thin conducting layers. Thin-film model simplified quasi-two-dimensional potential model that accounts adequately for complicated three-dimensional, nonuniform current densitites. Effects of nonuniformity caused by lateral current flow in strips summarized in equivalent resistance Rs and voltage Vs.

  19. Germanium Resistance Thermometer For Subkelvin Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castles, Stephen H.

    1993-01-01

    Improved germanium resistance thermometer measures temperatures as small as 0.01 K accurately. Design provides large area for electrical connections (to reduce electrical gradients and increase sensitivity to changes in temperatures) and large heat sink (to minimize resistance heating). Gold pads on top and bottom of germanium crystal distribute electrical current and flow of heat nearly uniformly across crystal. Less expensive than magnetic thermometers or superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUID's) otherwise used.

  20. Flow cytometer

    DOEpatents

    Van den Engh, G.

    1995-11-07

    A Faraday cage is described which encloses the flow chamber of a cytometer. Ground planes associated with each field deflection plate inhibit electric fields from varying the charge on designated events/droplets and further concentrates. They also increase forces applied to a passing charged event for accurate focus while concomitantly inhibiting a potential shock hazard. 4 figs.

  1. Flow cytometer

    DOEpatents

    van den Engh, Ger

    1995-01-01

    A Faraday cage enclosing the flow chamber of a cytometer and ground planes associated with each field deflection plate in concert therewith inhibit electric fields from varying the charge on designated events/droplets and further concentrates and increases forces applied to a charged event passing therethrough for accurate focus thereof while concomitantly inhibiting a potential shock hazard.

  2. Lubrication Flows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papanastasiou, Tasos C.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses fluid mechanics for undergraduates including the differential Navier-Stokes equations, dimensional analysis and simplified dimensionless numbers, control volume principles, the Reynolds lubrication equation for confined and free surface flows, capillary pressure, and simplified perturbation techniques. Provides a vertical dip coating…

  3. Cosmic Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tully, Brent; Courtois, Helene; Freedman, Wendy; Jarrett, Tom; Madore, Barry; Persson, Eric; Seibert, Mark; Shaya, Ed

    2011-05-01

    It is astonishing that only 30% of the motion of our Galaxy is understood, a fact that highlights a fundamental deficiency in our understanding of the composition of the Universe. Spitzer Cosmic Flows is the photometric component of a program to map the peculiar motions and large-scale flows of galaxies out to 200 Mpc in order to constrain the distribution of mass. This task requires measuring the peculiar velocity of galaxies, a response to the distribution of both baryonic and dark matter, densely sampled over the full sky. With an independent distance measurement, an observed galaxy redshift can be separated into cosmic expansion and peculiar velocity components. Spitzer Cosmic Flows will use IRAC 3.6 micron imaging to obtain independent distances using the correlation between galaxy luminosity and rotation rate (the mid-IR Tully-Fisher relation). The rotational velocity data is being acquired through the Cosmic Flows Large Program on the NRAO Green Bank Telescope and a complementary program of southern targets with the Parkes Telescope. Spitzer Cosmic Flows consists of five distinct samples totaling 4642 galaxies. New observations are required for 3531 galaxies and archival data exists for 1111 galaxies. Each of the samples serves a distinct purpose and/or domain while overlapping to assure a connectivity over a wide range of distances. The photometry of galaxies directly drives the peculiar velocity accuracy of this program. Spitzer IRAC 3.6 micron imaging provides the ability of a single instrument to perform the required imaging over the full sky with exquisite quality. The mid-IR traces the dominant stellar population with negligible extinction. Most importantly, the backgrounds are low from space enabling surface photometry to be extended to many exponential scale-lengths, capturing essentially all the light from the target.

  4. On Flow Stagnation in a Tube Radiator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motil, Brian; Chao, David F.; Sankovic, John M.; Zhang, Nengli

    2007-01-01

    An analysis of the physical process for occurrence of flow stagnation in a space tube-radiator is performed and the mechanism and mathematic description for the flow stagnation are presented. Two causes for pressure drop unbalance between tubes of the radiator are identified: non-uniform cooling environment and different local flow resistances between the tubes. This analysis provides a theoretical basis for experimental simulations of the flow stagnation in a ground-based lab as well as two suggested methods to experimentally simulate flow stagnation. Criteria for the flow stagnation, depending on the viscosity data regressive polynomial, are derived from the extreme condition of the pressure drop in colder tubes. A preliminary numerical calculation is conducted for a space tube-radiator model which confirms the physical and mathematical analyses. The prediction by the criteria for flow stagnation in the tube-radiator model coincides with the numerical calculation result.

  5. Hydroplaning and submarine debris flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Blasio, Fabio V.; Engvik, Lars; Harbitz, Carl B.; ElverhøI, Anders

    2004-01-01

    Examination of submarine clastic deposits along the continental margins reveals the remnants of holocenic or older debris flows with run-out distances up to hundreds of kilometers. Laboratory experiments on subaqueous debris flows, where typically one tenth of a cubic meter of material is dropped down a flume, also show high velocities and long run-out distances compared to subaerial debris flows. Moreover, they show the tendency of the head of the flow to run out ahead of the rest of the body. The experiments reveal the possible clue to the mechanism of long run-out. This mechanism, called hydroplaning, begins as the dynamic pressure at the front of the debris flow becomes of the order of the pressure exerted by the weight of the sediment. In such conditions a layer of water can intrude under the sediment with a lubrication effect and a decrease in the resistance forces between the sediment and the seabed. A physical-mathematical model of hydroplaning is presented and investigated numerically. The model is applied to both laboratory- and field-scale debris flows. Agreement with laboratory experiments makes us confident in the extrapolation of our model to natural flows and shows that long run-out distances can be naturally attained.

  6. Turbine blade tip flow discouragers

    SciTech Connect

    Bunker, R.S.

    2000-02-22

    A turbine assembly comprises a plurality of rotating blade portions in a spaced relation with a stationery shroud. The rotating blade portions comprise a root section, a tip portion and an airfoil. The tip portion has a pressure side wall and a suction side wall. A number of flow discouragers are disposed on the blade tip portion. In one embodiment, the flow discouragers extend circumferentially from the pressure side wall to the suction side wall so as to be aligned generally parallel to the direction of rotation. In an alternative embodiment, the flow discouragers extend circumferentially from the pressure side wall to the suction side wall so as to be aligned at an angle in the range between about 0{degree} to about 60{degree} with respect to a reference axis aligned generally parallel to the direction of rotation. The flow discouragers increase the flow resistance and thus reduce the flow of hot gas flow leakage for a given pressure differential across the blade tip portion so as to improve overall turbine efficiency.

  7. Cerebrospinal fluid flow in adults.

    PubMed

    Bradley, William G; Haughton, Victor; Mardal, Kent-Andre

    2016-01-01

    This chapter uses magnetic resonance imaging phase-contrast cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow measurements to predict which clinical normal-pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) patients will respond to shunting as well as which patients with Chiari I are likely to develop symptoms of syringomyelia. Symptomatic NPH patients with CSF flow (measured as the aqueductal CSF stroke volume) which is shown to be hyperdynamic (defined as twice normal) are quite likely to respond to ventriculoperitoneal shunting. The hyperdynamic CSF flow results from normal systolic brain expansion compressing the enlarged ventricles. When atrophy occurs, there is less brain expansion, decreased aqueductal CSF flow, and less likelihood of responding to shunting. It appears that NPH is a "two-hit" disease, starting as benign external hydrocephalus in infancy, followed by deep white-matter ischemia in late adulthood, which causes increased resistance to CSF outflow through the extracellular space of the brain. Using computational flow dynamics (CFD), CSF flow can be modeled at the foramen magnum and in the upper cervical spine. As in the case of NPH, hyperdynamic CSF flow appears to cause the signs and symptoms in Chiari I and can provide an additional indication for surgical decompression. CFD can also predict CSF pressures over the cardiac cycle. It has been hypothesized that elevated pressure pulses may be a significant etiologic factor in some cases of syringomyelia. PMID:27432684

  8. Turbine blade tip flow discouragers

    DOEpatents

    Bunker, Ronald Scott

    2000-01-01

    A turbine assembly comprises a plurality of rotating blade portions in a spaced relation with a stationery shroud. The rotating blade portions comprise a root section, a tip portion and an airfoil. The tip portion has a pressure side wall and a suction side wall. A number of flow discouragers are disposed on the blade tip portion. In one embodiment, the flow discouragers extend circumferentially from the pressure side wall to the suction side wall so as to be aligned generally parallel to the direction of rotation. In an alternative embodiment, the flow discouragers extend circumferentially from the pressure side wall to the suction side wall so as to be aligned at an angle in the range between about 0.degree. to about 60.degree. with respect to a reference axis aligned generally parallel to the direction of rotation. The flow discouragers increase the flow resistance and thus reduce the flow of hot gas flow leakage for a given pressure differential across the blade tip portion so as to improve overall turbine efficiency.

  9. Mechanisms of drug resistance: quinolone resistance

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, David C.; Jacoby, George A.

    2015-01-01

    Quinolone antimicrobials are synthetic and widely used in clinical medicine. Resistance emerged with clinical use and became common in some bacterial pathogens. Mechanisms of resistance include two categories of mutation and acquisition of resistance-conferring genes. Resistance mutations in one or both of the two drug target enzymes, DNA gyrase and DNA topoisomerase IV, are commonly in a localized domain of the GyrA and ParE subunits of the respective enzymes and reduce drug binding to the enzyme-DNA complex. Other resistance mutations occur in regulatory genes that control the expression of native efflux pumps localized in the bacterial membrane(s). These pumps have broad substrate profiles that include quinolones as well as other antimicrobials, disinfectants, and dyes. Mutations of both types can accumulate with selection pressure and produce highly resistant strains. Resistance genes acquired on plasmids can confer low-level resistance that promotes the selection of mutational high-level resistance. Plasmid-encoded resistance is due to Qnr proteins that protect the target enzymes from quinolone action, one mutant aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme that also modifies certain quinolones, and mobile efflux pumps. Plasmids with these mechanisms often encode additional antimicrobial resistances and can transfer multidrug resistance that includes quinolones. Thus, the bacterial quinolone resistance armamentarium is large. PMID:26190223

  10. Temperature-rate dependences of the flow stress and the resistance to fracture of a VT6 titanium alloy under shock loading at a temperature of 20 and 600°C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanel, G. I.; Garkushin, G. V.; Razorenov, S. V.

    2016-08-01

    The evolution of elastic-plastic shock compression waves in a VT6 titanium alloy is measured at a distance of 0.16-17 mm at room temperature and 600°C. The results of measuring the decay of an elastic precursors and the compression rate in a plastic shock wave are used to determine the temperature-rate dependences of the flow stress in the strain-rate range 103-107 s-1. New data for the spall strength of the alloy at normal and elevated temperatures are obtained.

  11. HIV Genotypic Resistance Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? HIV Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing, Genotypic Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Anti-retroviral Drug Resistance Testing; ARV Resistance Testing Formal name: ...

  12. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    MedlinePlus

    ... 08 Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (text version) Arabic Translation - Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) Chinese Translation - Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) French ...

  13. Systolic flow

    SciTech Connect

    Tsay, J.C.; Yuan, S. )

    1990-03-01

    This paper presents a formal algebraic notation to express the global data interacting activities of a systolic array. The notation we use is the generating function. Using generating functions, we can describe the velocity and the moving path of a data stream at any time. Several generating functions can be grouped together to form a systolic flow which can aid the specification, design, and verification of a systolic array.

  14. Flow-batch miniaturization.

    PubMed

    Monte-Filho, Severino S; Lima, Marcelo B; Andrade, Stéfani I E; Harding, David P; Fagundes, Yebá N M; Santos, Sergio R B; Lemos, Sherlan G; Araújo, Mario C U

    2011-10-30

    This study introduces the first micro-flow-batch analyzer (μFBA). A simple, low-cost, deep urethane-acrylate photo-resist ultraviolet-lithographic technique was used in its development. Details of the microfabrication process are presented including; the use of two superimposed photo-masks to improve the micro-channel and stop chamber border definition, as well as integration of an LED/phototransistor photometric pair, while using an open nylon-thread (fishing line) micro-mixing system for solutions homogenization. The system was used for photometric determination of Fe(II) in oral solution iron supplements employing the well-known 1,10-phenanthroline method, with instantaneously prepared micro-chamber calibration solutions. All analytical processes were accomplished by simply changing the timing parameters in the control software. It must be emphasized here that there was no outside preparation of the standard calibration solutions; the mixing was all done in-chamber/in-line, with all solutions maintained flowing while being proportioned for the measurement processes. The μFBA results were acceptable when compared to the reference method, and comparable to normal flow-batch systems. It was possible both to project and build a low-cost probe with high sample throughput (about 120 h(-1)), low relative standard deviations (about 1.1%), and reduced reagent consumption (30 times less than the reference method). The μFBA system based on urethane-acrylate presented satisfactory physical and chemical properties while keeping the flexibility, versatility, robustness, and multi-task characteristics of normal flow-batch analyzers. The μFBA system contributes to the advance of micro-analytical instrumentation, while realizing the basic principles of "Green Chemistry". PMID:22063532

  15. Resisting Resistors: Resistance in Critical Pedagogy Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filax, Gloria

    1997-01-01

    Contends that resistance is not adequately problematized in the critical pedagogy literature. Asserts that clarification is necessary to point out the multiple resistances in classrooms and their implications rather than situating resistance only with students and only in relation to social inequality or critical pedagogy. (16 citations) (VWC)

  16. The physics of debris flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iverson, R.M.

    1997-01-01

    permeability of the debris. Realistic models of debris flows therefore require equations that simulate inertial motion of surges in which high-resistance fronts dominated by solid forces impede the motion of low-resistance tails more strongly influenced by fluid forces. Furthermore, because debris flows characteristically originate as nearly rigid sediment masses, transform at least partly to liquefied flows, and then transform again to nearly rigid deposits, acceptable models must simulate an evolution of material behavior without invoking preternatural changes in material properties. A simple model that satisfies most of these criteria uses depth-averaged equations of motion patterned after those of the Savage-Hutter theory for gravity-driven flow of dry granular masses but generalized to include the effects of viscous pore fluid with varying pressure. These equations can describe a spectrum of debris flow behaviors intermediate between those of wet rock avalanches and sediment-laden water floods. With appropriate pore pressure distributions the equations yield numerical solutions that successfully predict unsteady, nonuniform motion of experimental debris flows.

  17. The physics of debris flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iverson, Richard M.

    1997-08-01

    permeability of the debris. Realistic models of debris flows therefore require equations that simulate inertial motion of surges in which high-resistance fronts dominated by solid forces impede the motion of low-resistance tails more strongly influenced by fluid forces. Furthermore, because debris flows characteristically originate as nearly rigid sediment masses, transform at least partly to liquefied flows, and then transform again to nearly rigid deposits, acceptable models must simulate an evolution of material behavior without invoking preternatural changes in material properties. A simple model that satisfies most of these criteria uses depth-averaged equations of motion patterned after those of the Savage-Hutter theory for gravity-driven flow of dry granular masses but generalized to include the effects of viscous pore fluid with varying pressure. These equations can describe a spectrum of debris flow behaviors intermediate between those of wet rock avalanches and sediment-laden water floods. With appropriate pore pressure distributions the equations yield numerical solutions that successfully predict unsteady, nonuniform motion of experimental debris flows.

  18. Antimicrobial resistance profiles in pathogens isolated from chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antimicrobial resistance profiles are frequently studied from the perspective of epidemiology and not so often from the perspective of population genetics. The population geneticist assumes that gene flow, vertically (generation to generation), horizontally (individual to individual) or migratory (...

  19. Zonal flow dynamics in the double tearing mode with antisymmetric shear flows

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Aohua; Li, Jiquan; Liu, Jinyuan; Kishimoto, Yasuaki

    2014-05-15

    The generation dynamics and the structural characteristics of zonal flows are investigated in the double tearing mode (DTM) with antisymmetric shear flows. Two kinds of zonal flow oscillations are revealed based on reduced resistive magnetohydrodynamics simulations, which depend on the shear flow amplitudes corresponding to different DTM eigen mode states, elaborated by Mao et al. [Phys. Plasmas 20, 022114 (2013)]. For the weak shear flows below an amplitude threshold, v{sub c}, at which two DTM eigen states with antisymmetric or symmetric magnetic island structure are degenerated, the zonal flows grow oscillatorily in the Rutherford regime during the nonlinear evolution of the DTMs. It is identified that the oscillation mechanism results from the nonlinear interaction between the distorted islands and the zonal flows through the modification of shear flows. However, for the medium shear flows above v{sub c} but below the critical threshold of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, an oscillatory growing zonal flow occurs in the linear phase of the DTM evolution. It is demonstrated that the zonal flow oscillation originates from the three-wave mode coupling or a modulation instability pumped by two DTM eigen modes with the same frequency but opposite propagating direction. With the shear flows increasing, the amplitude of zonal flow oscillation increases first and then decreases, whilst the oscillation frequency as twice of the Doppler frequency shift increases. Furthermore, impacts of the oscillatory zonal flows on the nonlinear evolution of DTM islands and the global reconnection are also discussed briefly.

  20. Optimal structure of tree-like branching networks for fluid flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kou, Jianlong; Chen, Yanyan; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Lu, Hangjun; Wu, Fengmin; Fan, Jintu

    2014-01-01

    Tree-like branching networks are very common flow or transportation systems from natural evolution. In this study, the optimal structures of tree-like branching networks for minimum flow resistance are analyzed for both laminar and turbulent flow in both smooth and rough pipes. It is found that the dimensionless effective flow resistance under the volume constraint for different flows is sensitive to the geometrical parameters of the structure. The flow resistance of the tree-like branching networks reaches a minimum when the diameter ratio β∗ satisfies β∗=Nk, where, N is the bifurcation number N=2,3,4,… and k is a constant. For laminar flow, k=-1/3, which is in agreement with the existing Murray’s law; for turbulent flow in smooth pipes, k=-3/7; for turbulent flow in rough pipes, k=-7/17. These results serve as design guidelines of efficient transport and flow systems.

  1. Pressure versus flow in biological pumps.

    PubMed

    Vogel, S

    1995-01-01

    The pumps with which organisms move fluids span nearly a ten-million-fold pressure range. As in human technology, positive displacement pumps (osmotic, valve-and-chamber, peristaltic, etc.) are used for high-pressure applications and fluid dynamic pumps (using hydrofoils, cilia, aspirators, etc.) for low pressures. But while pressure capability or system resistance dichotomizes pumps by operative mechanism, the values of a dimensionless pressure-flow index prove more relevant to their biological roles; this index is a ratio of overall pressure drop in the system to pressure drop due to viscous resistance to flow.

  2. Regulation of pulpal blood flow

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.

    1985-04-01

    The regulation of blood flow of the dental pulp was investigated in dogs and rats anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital. Pulpal blood flow was altered by variations of local and systemic hemodynamics. Macrocirculatory blood flow (ml/min/100 g) in the dental pulp was measured with both the /sup 133/Xe washout and the 15-microns radioisotope-labeled microsphere injection methods on the canine teeth of dogs, to provide a comparison of the two methods in the same tooth. Microcirculatory studies were conducted in the rat incisor tooth with microscopic determination of the vascular pattern, RBC velocity, and intravascular volumetric flow distribution. Pulpal resistance vessels have alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors. Activation of alpha-receptors by intra-arterial injection of norepinephrine (NE) caused both a reduction in macrocirculatory Qp in dogs and decreases in arteriolar and venular diameters and intravascular volumetric flow (Qi) in rats. These responses were blocked by the alpha-antagonist PBZ. Activation of beta-receptors by intra-arterial injection of isoproterenal (ISO) caused a paradoxical reduction of Qp in dogs. In rats, ISO caused a transient increase in arteriolar Qi followed by a flow reduction; arteriolar dilation was accompanied by venular constriction. These macrocirculatory and microcirculatory responses to ISO were blocked by the alpha-antagonist propranolol.

  3. Erosion resistance of irrigated soils in the republic of Azerbaijan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaev, M. P.; Gurbanov, E. A.

    2010-12-01

    It was found that the average size of water-stable aggregates in irrigated soils varies in the range 0.23-2.0 mm, and the eroding flow velocity is 0.03-0.12 m/s. A five-point scale was used for assessing erosion resistance, predicting irrigation erosion, and developing erosion control measures on irrigated soils. According to this system, gray-brown soils and light sierozems were classified as the least erosion-resistant, sierozemic and meadow-sierozemic soils as low erosion-resistant, gray-cinnamonic soils as moderately erosion-resistant, mountain gray-cinnamonic soils as highly erosion-resistant, and steppe mountain cinnamonic soils as very highly erosion-resistant ones. The determination of the erosion resistance of soils is of great importance for assessing the erosion-resistance potential of irrigated areas and developing erosion control measures.

  4. Nasal Airway Resistance: Its Measurement and Regulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Lyle H.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews studies of regulation of nasal airway resistance (Rn). Describes methods of calculating Rn by measuring pressure-flow relationship. Data are presented on improved methods for measuring Rn and effects for expiratory and inspiratory Rn after topical application of phenylephrine nasal decongestant spray. (Author/SA)

  5. Erosion-Resistant Water-Blast Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Marion L.; Rice, R. M.; Cosby, S. A.

    1988-01-01

    Design of nozzle reduces erosion of orifice by turbulent high-pressure water flowing through it. Improved performance and resistance to erosion achieved by giving interior nozzle surface long, gradual convergence before exit orifice abrupt divergence after orifice and by machining surface to smooth finish.

  6. A Conductivity Relationship for Steady-state Unsaturated Flow Processes under Optimal Flow Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H. H.

    2010-09-15

    Optimality principles have been used for investigating physical processes in different areas. This work attempts to apply an optimal principle (that water flow resistance is minimized on global scale) to steady-state unsaturated flow processes. Based on the calculus of variations, we show that under optimal conditions, hydraulic conductivity for steady-state unsaturated flow is proportional to a power function of the magnitude of water flux. This relationship is consistent with an intuitive expectation that for an optimal water flow system, locations where relatively large water fluxes occur should correspond to relatively small resistance (or large conductance). Similar results were also obtained for hydraulic structures in river basins and tree leaves, as reported in other studies. Consistence of this theoretical result with observed fingering-flow behavior in unsaturated soils and an existing model is also demonstrated.

  7. Lava Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03658 Lava Flows

    These relatively young lava flows are part of Arsia Mons.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -22.5N, Longitude 242.3E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  8. Facts about Antibiotic Resistance

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trends and Cost Español: Datos breves Facts about Antibiotic Resistance Antibiotic resistance has been called one of the world’s most ... antibiotic use is a key strategy to control antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic resistance in children is of particular concern ...

  9. Environment Flow Assessment with Flow Regime Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, J.; Ho, C. C.; Chang, L. C.

    2015-12-01

    To avoid worsen river and estuarine ecosystems cause by overusing water resources, environmental flows conservation is applied to reduce the impact of river environment. Environmental flows refer to water provided within a river, wetland or coastal zone to sustain ecosystems and benefits to human wellbeing. Environment flow assessment is now widely accepted that a naturally variable flow regime, rather than just a minimum low flow. In this study, we propose four methods, experience method, Tenant method, hydraulic method and habitat method to assess the environmental flow of base flow, flush flow and overbank flow with different discharge, frequency and occurrence period. Dahan River has been chosen as a case to demonstrate the assessment mechanism. The alternatives impact analysis of environment and human water used provides a reference for stakeholders when holding an environmental flow consultative meeting.

  10. Flow distances on open flow networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Liangzhu; Lou, Xiaodan; Shi, Peiteng; Wang, Jun; Huang, Xiaohan; Zhang, Jiang

    2015-11-01

    An open flow network is a weighted directed graph with a source and a sink, depicting flux distributions on networks in the steady state mode of an open flow system. Energetic food webs, economic input-output networks, and international trade networks are open flow network models of energy flows between species, money or value flows between industrial sectors, and goods flows between countries, respectively. An open flow network is different from a closed flow network because it considers the flows from or to the environment (the source and the sink). For instance, in energetic food webs, species obtain energy not only from other species but also from the environment (sunlight), and species also dissipate energy to the environment. Flow distances between any two nodes i and j are defined as the average number of transition steps of a random walker along the network from i to j. The conventional method for the calculation of the random walk distance on closed flow networks cannot be applied to open flow networks. Therefore, we derive novel explicit expressions for flow distances of open flow networks according to their underlying Markov matrix of the network in this paper. We apply flow distances to two types of empirical open flow networks, including energetic food webs and economic input-output networks. In energetic food webs, we visualize the trophic level of each species and compare flow distances with other distance metrics on the graph. In economic input-output networks, we rank sectors according to their average flow distances and cluster sectors into different industrial groups with strong connections. Other potential applications and mathematical properties are also discussed. To summarize, flow distance is a useful and powerful tool to study open flow systems.

  11. Comparative study of pressure-flow parameters.

    PubMed

    Eri, Lars M; Wessel, Nicolai; Tysland, Ole; Berge, Viktor

    2002-01-01

    Methods for quantification of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) are still controversial. Parameters such as detrusor opening pressure (p(det.open)), maximum detrusor pressure (p(det.max)), minimum voiding pressure (p(det.min.void)), and detrusor pressure at maximum flow rate (P(det.Qmax)) separate obstructed from nonobstructed patients to some extent, but two nomograms, the Abrams-Griffiths nomogram and the linearized passive urethral resistance relation (LinPURR), are more accepted for this purpose, along with the urethral resistance algorithm. In this retrospective, methodologic study, we evaluated the properties of these parameters with regard to test-retest reproducibility and ability to detect a moderate (pharmacologic) and a pronounced (surgical) relief of bladder outlet obstruction. We studied the pressure-flow charts of 42 patients who underwent 24 weeks of androgen suppressive therapy, 42 corresponding patients who received placebo, and 30 patients who had prostate surgery. The patients performed repeat void pressure-flow examinations before and after treatment or placebo. The various parameters were compared. Among the bladder pressure parameters, P(det.Qmax) seemed to have some advantages, supporting the belief that it is the most relevant detrusor pressure parameter to include in nomograms to quantify BOO. In assessment of a large decrease in urethral resistance, such as after TURp, resistance parameters that are based on maximum flow rate as well as detrusor pressure are preferable. PMID:11948710

  12. Variable orifice flow regulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christianson, Rollin C. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A flow regulator for high-pressure fluids at elevated temperatures includes a body having a flow passage extending between inlet and outlet openings. First and second orifice members are arranged in the flow passage so at least one of the orifice members can be moved transversely in relation to the flow passage between one operating position where the two orifice openings are aligned for establishing a maximum flow rate of fluids flowing through the flow passage and at least one other operating position in which the two openings are moderately misaligned with one another for establishing a predetermined reduced flow rate of fluids flowing through the flow passage.

  13. Abrasion resistance of linings in filament wound composite pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, S.C.

    1999-07-01

    Fiberglass filament wound composite pipe has numerous industrial applications including transportation of petroleum and natural gas. Its corrosion resistance is well known but it can be susceptible to abrasion and erosion when it is used to transport slurries or dry gas containing sand particles. However, composite pipe can be manufactured integrally with abrasion resistant linings which protect the pipe from abrasion and erosion and increase its life. Laboratory investigations were performed to determine the effect of abrasive flows through polyurea-lined and unlined glass-reinforced epoxy (GRE) pipe, ultra-high molecular weight (UHMW) polyethylene (PE) pipe, and unlined steel pipe. Results are provided for the abrasion resistance, chemical resistance, adhesion strength, elongation, tensile strength, impact resistance and hardness of selected linings. The abrasion resistance of polyurea-lined composite pipe proved to be almost as resistant to abrasion and erosion as unlined steel pipe without the electrochemical corrosion associated with steel pipe.

  14. Effects of Dorzolamide on Choroidal Blood Flow, Ciliary Blood Flow, and Aqueous Production in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Reitsamer, Herbert A.; Bogner, Barbara; Tockner, Birgit; Kiel, Jeffrey W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the effects of topical dorzolamide (a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor) on choroidal and ciliary blood flow and the relationship between ciliary blood flow and aqueous flow. Methods The experiments were performed in four groups of pentobarbital-anesthetized rabbits treated with topical dorzolamide (2%, 50 μL). In all groups, intraocular pressure (IOP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) at the eye level were measured continuously by direct cannulation. In group 1, aqueous flow was measured by fluorophotometry before and after dorzolamide treatment. In group 2, aqueous flow was measured after dorzolamide at normal MAP and while MAP was held constant at 80, 55, or 40 mm Hg with occluders on the aorta and vena cava. In group 3, the same MAP levels were used, and ciliary blood flow was measured transsclerally by laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). In group 4, choroidal blood flow was measured by LDF with the probe tip positioned in the vitreous over the posterior pole during ramp increases and decreases in MAP before and after dorzolamide. Results Dorzolamide lowered IOP by 19% (P < 0.01) and aqueous flow by 17% (P < 0.01), and increased ciliary blood flow by 18% (P < 0.01), which was associated with a significant reduction in ciliary vasculature resistance (−7%, P < 0.01). Dorzolamide shifted the relationship between ciliary blood flow and aqueous flow downward relative to the previously determined control relationship in the rabbit. Dorzolamide did not alter choroidal blood flow, choroidal vascular resistance, or the choroidal pressure flow relationship. Conclusions Acute topical dorzolamide is a ciliary vasodilator and has a direct inhibitory effect on aqueous production, but it does not have a detectable effect on choroidal hemodynamics at the posterior pole in the rabbit. PMID:19182250

  15. Pneumococcal resistance to antibiotics.

    PubMed Central

    Klugman, K P

    1990-01-01

    The geographic distribution of pneumococci resistant to one or more of the antibiotics penicillin, erythromycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline appears to be expanding, and there exist foci of resistance to chloramphenicol and rifampin. Multiply resistant pneumococci are being encountered more commonly and are more often community acquired. Factors associated with infection caused by resistant pneumococci include young age, duration of hospitalization, infection with a pneumococcus of serogroup 6, 19, or 23 or serotype 14, and exposure to antibiotics to which the strain is resistant. At present, the most useful drugs for the management of resistant pneumococcal infections are cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, vancomycin, and rifampin. If the strains are susceptible, chloramphenicol may be useful as an alternative, less expensive agent. Appropriate interventions for the control of resistant pneumococcal outbreaks include investigation of the prevalence of resistant strains, isolation of patients, possible treatment of carriers, and reduction of usage of antibiotics to which the strain is resistant. The molecular mechanisms of penicillin resistance are related to the structure and function of penicillin-binding proteins, and the mechanisms of resistance to other agents involved in multiple resistance are being elucidated. Recognition is increasing of the standard screening procedure for penicillin resistance, using a 1-microgram oxacillin disk. PMID:2187594

  16. Amplification of postwildfire peak flow by debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kean, J. W.; McGuire, L. A.; Rengers, F. K.; Smith, J. B.; Staley, D. M.

    2016-08-01

    In burned steeplands, the peak depth and discharge of postwildfire runoff can substantially increase from the addition of debris. Yet methods to estimate the increase over water flow are lacking. We quantified the potential amplification of peak stage and discharge using video observations of postwildfire runoff, compiled data on postwildfire peak flow (Qp), and a physically based model. Comparison of flood and debris flow data with similar distributions in drainage area (A) and rainfall intensity (I) showed that the median runoff coefficient (C = Qp/AI) of debris flows is 50 times greater than that of floods. The striking increase in Qp can be explained using a fully predictive model that describes the additional flow resistance caused by the emergence of coarse-grained surge fronts. The model provides estimates of the amplification of peak depth, discharge, and shear stress needed for assessing postwildfire hazards and constraining models of bedrock incision.

  17. Flow direction determination of lava flows.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, E. I.; Rhodes, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    The flow direction technique, previously applied to ash-flow sheets, can be used to determine direction of movement and locate eruptive centers for lava flows. The method provides statistically stronger and more consistent flow direction data for lava than ash-flow tuff. The accuracy and reliability of the technique was established on the porphyritic basaltic andesite of Mount Taylor, New Mexico, which erupted from a known center, the Mount Taylor Amphitheater. The technique was then applied to volcanic units with unknown sources: the John Kerr Peak Quartz Latite and mid-Tertiary andesite flows in the Mogollon Mountains, both in southwestern New Mexico. The flow direction technique indicated flow patterns and suggested source areas for each rock unit. In the Mogollon Mountains flow direction measurements were supported by independent directional criteria such as dips of cross beds, stratigraphic thickening, facies changes, and megascopic textures.-

  18. Flame-resistant textiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogg, L. C.; Stringham, R. S.; Toy, M. S.

    1980-01-01

    Flame resistance treatment for acid resistant polyamide fibers involving photoaddition of fluorocarbons to surface has been scaled up to treat 10 yards of commercial width (41 in.) fabric. Process may be applicable to other low cost polyamides, polyesters, and textiles.

  19. Antibiotics and Resistance: Glossary

    MedlinePlus

    ... induced by natural or human activity on the ecology and living organisms. Ecology The study of the relationships and interactions between ... antibiotics The Cost of Resistance Science of Resistance Ecology Antibiotics in Agriculture Antibacterial Agents Glossary References Web ...

  20. Power to Resist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossland, Janice

    1975-01-01

    Transferrable drug resistance has been observed in bacteria for over ten years. Concern now is that livestock that have been fed with grain supplemented with antibiotics for growth stimulation will infect humans with potentially dangerous resistant bacteria. (MA)

  1. Basic study on hot-wire flow meter in forced flow of liquid hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oura, Y.; Shirai, Y.; Shiotsu, M.; Murakami, K.; Tatsumoto, H.; Naruo, Y.; Nonaka, S.; Kobayashi, H.; Inatani, Y.; Narita, N.

    2014-01-01

    Liquid hydrogen (LH2) is a key issue in a carbon-free energy infrastructure at the energy storage and transportation stage. The typical features of LH2 are low viscosity, large latent heat and small density, compared with other general liquids. It is necessary to measure a mass flow of liquid hydrogen with a simple and compact method, especially in a two phase separate flow condition. We have proposed applying a hot-wire type flow meter, which is usually used a for gas flow meter, to LH2 flow due to the quite low viscosity and density. A test model of a compact LH2 hot-wire flow meter to measure local flow velocities near and around an inside perimeter of a horizontal tube by resistance thermometry was designed and made. The model flow meter consists of two thin heater wires made of manganin fixed in a 10 mm-diameter and 40 mm-length tube flow path made of GFRP. Each rigid heater wire was set twisted by 90 degrees from the inlet to the outlet along the inner wall. In other words, the wires were aslant with regard to the LH2 stream line. The heated wire was cooled by flowing LH2, and the flow velocity was obtained by means of the difference of the cooling characteristic in response to the flow velocity. In this report, we show results on the basic experiments with the model LH2 hot-wire flow meter. First, the heat transfer characteristics of the two heater wires for several LH2 flow velocities were measured. Second, the heating current was controlled to keep the wire temperature constant for various flow velocities. The relations between the flow velocity and the heating current were measured. The feasibility of the proposed model was confirmed.

  2. Liquid Bismuth Propellant Flow Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Stanojev, B. J.; Korman, V.

    2007-01-01

    Quantifying the propellant mass flow rate in liquid bismuth-fed electric propulsion systems has two challenging facets. First, the flow sensors must be capable of providing a resolvable measurement at propellant mass flow rates on the order of 10 mg/see with and uncertainty of less that 5%. The second challenge has to do with the fact that the materials from which the flow sensors are fabricated must be capable of resisting any of the corrosive effects associated with the high-temperature propellant. The measurement itself is necessary in order to properly assess the performance (thrust efficiency, Isp) of thruster systems in the laboratory environment. The hotspot sensor[I] has been designed to provide the bismuth propellant mass flow rate measurement. In the hotspot sensor, a pulse of thermal energy (derived from a current pulse and associated joule heating) is applied near the inlet of the sensor. The flow is "tagged" with a thermal feature that is convected downstream by the flowing liquid metal. Downstream, a temperature measurement is performed to detect a "ripple" in the local temperature associated with the passing "hotspot" in the propellant. By measuring the time between the upstream generation and downstream detection of the thermal feature, the flow speed can be calculated using a "time of flight" analysis. In addition, the system can be calibrated by measuring the accumulated mass exiting the system as a-function of time and correlating this with the time it takes the hotspot to convect through the sensor. The primary advantage of this technique is that it doesn't depend on an absolute measurement of temperature but, instead, relies on the observation of thermal features. This makes the technique insensitive to other externally generated thermal fluctuations. In this paper, we describe experiments performed using the hotspot flow sensor aimed at quantifying the resolution of the sensor technology. Propellant is expelled onto an electronic scale to

  3. Reversibility of antibiotic resistance

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Although theoretically attractive, the reversibility of resistance has proven difficult in practice, even though antibiotic resistance mechanisms induce a fitness cost to the bacterium. Associated resistance to other antibiotics and compensatory mutations seem to ameliorate the effect of antibiotic interventions in the community. In this paper the current understanding of the concepts of reversibility of antibiotic resistance and the interventions performed in hospitals and in the community are reviewed. PMID:24836051

  4. A New Differential Pressure Flow Meter for Measurement of Human Breath Flow: Simulation and Experimental Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Bridgeman, Devon; Tsow, Francis; Xian, Xiaojun; Forzani, Erica

    2016-01-01

    The development and performance characterization of a new differential pressure-based flow meter for human breath measurements is presented in this article. The device, called a “Confined Pitot Tube,” is comprised of a pipe with an elliptically shaped expansion cavity located in the pipe center, and an elliptical disk inside the expansion cavity. The elliptical disk, named Pitot Tube, is exchangeable, and has different diameters, which are smaller than the diameter of the elliptical cavity. The gap between the disk and the cavity allows the flow of human breath to pass through. The disk causes an obstruction in the flow inside the pipe, but the elliptical cavity provides an expansion for the flow to circulate around the disk, decreasing the overall flow resistance. We characterize the new sensor flow experimentally and theoretically, using Comsol Multiphysics® software with laminar and turbulent models. We also validate the sensor, using inhalation and exhalation tests and a reference method.

  5. Research Advances: DRPS--Let The Blood Flow!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2007-01-01

    A team from the University of Pittsburgh's McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine has shown the potential for clinical use of the drag-reducing polymer (DRP) poly(N-vinylformamide), or PNVF. The high molecular weight PNVF is shown to reduce resistance to turbulent flow in a pipe and to enhance blood flow in animal models and it also…

  6. Development of the technology for the fabrication of reliable laminar flow control panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, D. D.; Lindh, D. V.

    1977-01-01

    Various configurations of porous, perforated and slotted materials were flow tested to determine if they would meet the LFC surface smoothness and flow requirements. The candidate materials were then tested for susceptibility to clogging and for resistance to corrosion. Of the materials tested, perforated titanium, porous polyimide, and slotted assemblies demonstrated a much greater resistance to clogging than other porous materials.

  7. Rapid titration of retroviral vectors encoding intracellular antigens by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Sladek, T L; Jacobberger, J W

    1990-06-01

    Flow cytometry was used to detect cells infected with retroviral vectors encoding both simian virus 40 large T antigen and G418 resistance after indirect immunofluorescence staining using a T-antigen-specific monoclonal antibody and a fluorescein-conjugated secondary antibody. Titers of viral stocks determined by flow cytometry were equivalent to those determined by quantitation of G418-resistant colonies.

  8. Grafting for disease resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary purpose of grafting vegetables worldwide has been to provide resistance to soil-borne diseases. The potential loss of methyl bromide as a soil fumigant combined with pathogen resistance to commonly used pesticides will make resistance to soil-borne pathogens even more important in the fu...

  9. Resisting Mind Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Susan M.; Zimbardo, Philip G.

    1980-01-01

    Provides conceptual analyses of mind control techniques along with practical advice on how to resist these techniques. The authors stress that effective mind control stems more from everyday social relations than from exotic technological gimmicks. Suggestions are given for resisting persuasion, resisting systems, and challenging the system.…

  10. The air-liquid flow in a microfluidic airway tree.

    PubMed

    Song, Yu; Baudoin, Michael; Manneville, Paul; Baroud, Charles N

    2011-09-01

    Microfluidic techniques are employed to investigate air-liquid flows in the lung. A network of microchannels with five generations is made and used as a simplified model of a section of the pulmonary airway tree. Liquid plugs are injected into the network and pushed by a flow of air; they divide at every bifurcation until they reach the exits of the network. A resistance, associated with the presence of one plug in a given generation, is defined to establish a linear relation between the driving pressure and the total flow rate in the network. Based on this resistance, good predictions are obtained for the flow of two successive plugs in different generations. The total flow rate of a two-plug flow is found to depend not only on the driving pressure and lengths of the plugs, but also the initial distance between them. Furthermore, long range interactions between daughters of a dividing plug are observed and discussed, particularly when the plugs are flowing through the bifurcations. These interactions lead to different flow patterns for different forcing conditions: the flow develops symmetrically when subjected to constant pressure or high flow rate forcing, while a low flow rate driving yields an asymmetric flow.

  11. A flow transducer for cold water using ferrofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crainic, Monica Sabina; Schlett, Zeno

    2004-01-01

    As water is a limited, vulnerable, and regenerable natural resource, it is necessary that it should be protected and managed economically. Proper management requires, among other things, carrying out measurements in order to control water consumption. Flowmeters with characteristic equations based on the pressure drop are non-linear and the liquid measured is not proportional to the pressure drop. The flow meters most frequently used are those with local hydraulic resistance (Industrial Flow Measurement, Bucharest Technical House, Bucharest, 1988; Mesure des vitesse des fluides, Masson, Paris, New York, Barcelona, Milan, Mexico, San Paulo, 1986). Usually, the local hydraulic resistance for liquid flows can be obtained by decreasing the flowing section, as in the case of Venturi tubes. While Venturi tubes have a high reliability, they have some disadvantages which consist in difficult manufacturing, high price, and difficult replacement with another element for the flow section decrease. These drawbacks may be avoided by manufacturing an induction flow transducer with magnetic liquids for the measurement of the liquid flows. In this context, the article presents for the first time the operating principle and the "flow-voltage" characteristic curve of an inductive ferrofluids flow transducer for water in the case of a turbulent flow regime. The transducer uses the magnetic liquid properties and has no moving parts (components). It can be used in stationary flowing conditions. The device can be adapted to virtually any flow range by using a section pipe and an adequate U-tube manometer.

  12. Low volume flow meter

    DOEpatents

    Meixler, Lewis D.

    1993-01-01

    The low flow monitor provides a means for determining if a fluid flow meets a minimum threshold level of flow. The low flow monitor operates with a minimum of intrusion by the flow detection device into the flow. The electrical portion of the monitor is externally located with respect to the fluid stream which allows for repairs to the monitor without disrupting the flow. The electronics provide for the adjustment of the threshold level to meet the required conditions. The apparatus can be modified to provide an upper limit to the flow monitor by providing for a parallel electronic circuit which provides for a bracketing of the desired flow rate.

  13. Effects of temperature on flow and filtration of blood in a hollow fiber bundle

    SciTech Connect

    Bruttig, S.P.

    1986-03-05

    The hollow fiber bundle is a reasonable physical model for microvascular flow, filtration and permeability characteristics, when using physiological saline solutions and varying amounts of albumin. This model was used to test the rheologic properties of whole pig blood at various hematocrits (HCT), and to determine the effects of temperature (38/sup 0/, 22/sup 0/, 4/sup 0/C) on those rheologic properties. Dilutions of blood with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) were used to measure flow, filtration (CFC) and reabsorption at constant perfusion pressure (82 cm H/sub 2/O), and calculations of resistance to flow (R) and capillary pore resistance (CPR) were made from some of these measurements. Flow and CFC were inversely proportional to HCT. CFC was positively correlated with flow. Reabsorption, flow resistance and CPR were positively correlated with HCT. CPR was 100-2000 X the flow resistance. Low temperature diminished the absolute values of flow and filtration (CFC). Standardization of blood flow with PBS flow did not alter the significant effects of temperature. However, when CFC at any temperature was standardized with the CFC for PBS, temperature had no effect on CFC. These data indicate that where formed cells are excluded (pores), the main cause of cold-induced resistance to flow may be increased viscosity of the solvent. However, within the lumen, cold causes solvent-independent changes in flow, which must involve either formed-cell changes or alterations in the nature of the solutes.

  14. Cerebral blood flow assessment of preterm infants during respiratory therapy with the expiratory flow increase technique

    PubMed Central

    Bassani, Mariana Almada; Caldas, Jamil Pedro Siqueira; Netto, Abimael Aranha; Marba, Sérgio Tadeu Martins

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To assess the impact of respiratory therapy with the expiratory flow increase technique on cerebral hemodynamics of premature newborns. Methods: This is an intervention study, which included 40 preterm infants (≤34 weeks) aged 8-15 days of life, clinically stable in ambient air or oxygen catheter use. Children with heart defects, diagnosis of brain lesion and/or those using vasoactive drugs were excluded. Ultrasonographic assessments with transcranial Doppler flowmetry were performed before, during and after the increase in expiratory flow session, which lasted 5min. Cerebral blood flow velocity and resistance and pulsatility indices in the pericallosal artery were assessed. Results: Respiratory physical therapy did not significantly alter flow velocity at the systolic peak (p=0.50), the end diastolic flow velocity (p=0.17), the mean flow velocity (p=0.07), the resistance index (p=0.41) and the pulsatility index (p=0.67) over time. Conclusions: The expiratory flow increase technique did not affect cerebral blood flow in clinically-stable preterm infants. PMID:26611888

  15. Radiation coloration resistant glass

    DOEpatents

    Tomozawa, M.; Watson, E.B.; Acocella, J.

    1986-11-04

    A radiation coloration resistant glass is disclosed which is used in a radiation environment sufficient to cause coloration in most forms of glass. The coloration resistant glass includes higher proportions by weight of water and has been found to be extremely resistant to color change when exposed to such radiation levels. The coloration resistant glass is free of cerium oxide and has more than about 0.5% by weight water content. Even when exposed to gamma radiation of more than 10[sup 7] rad, the coloration resistant glass does not lose transparency. 3 figs.

  16. Radiation coloration resistant glass

    DOEpatents

    Tomozawa, Minoru; Watson, E. Bruce; Acocella, John

    1986-01-01

    A radiation coloration resistant glass is disclosed which is used in a radiation environment sufficient to cause coloration in most forms of glass. The coloration resistant glass includes higher proportions by weight of water and has been found to be extremely resistant to color change when exposed to such radiation levels. The coloration resistant glass is free of cerium oxide and has more than about 0.5% by weight water content. Even when exposed to gamma radiation of more than 10.sup.7 rad, the coloration resistant glass does not lose transparency.

  17. Inside Flow of Mosquito's Proboscis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Kenji; Terada, Nobuyuki; Mochizuki, Osamu

    2006-11-01

    Mosquito has a magnificent pump mechanism which has been never achieved by technology. We want to apply this high performance mechanism to a micro-TAS system which is designed for a daily check of blood to keep a human health. We need a high powered pump similar to a mosquito's sucking blood mechanism and a low-resistance micro channel mimicked a surface of proboscis. The details of mosquito's pump mechanism, however, have not been ascertained yet. Therefore we tried to investigate the mosquito's pump mechanism by measuring the flow due to suction. A visualization of flow was done by a confocal micro-PIV system. We could analyze the velocity vector profile in the proboscis. The velocity distribution in the proboscis is necessary to estimate the friction drag. In the experiment, a live mosquito was fixed on the glass plate and fed nano-particles near the tip of proboscis. We found that the inside flow of proboscis deviate from Hargen-Poisueuille Flow. It indicates that the surface of inside proboscis has unknown fact for the friction drag reduction.

  18. [Rodenticide resistance and consequences].

    PubMed

    Esther, A; Endepols, S; Freise, J; Klemann, N; Runge, M; Pelz, H-J

    2014-05-01

    Resistance to anticoagulant rodenticides, such as warfarin was first described in 1958. Polymorphisms in the vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1) gene and respective substitutions of amino acids in the VKOR enzyme are the major cause for rodenticide resistance. Resistant Norway rats in Germany are characterized by the Tyr139Cys genotype, which is spread throughout the northwest of the country. Resistant house mice with the VKOR variants Tyr139Cys, Leu128Ser and Arg12Trp/Ala26Ser/Ala48Thr/Arg61Leu (spretus type) are distributed over a number of locations in Germany. Resistance can reduce management attempts with consequences for stored product protection, hygiene and animal health. Anticoagulants of the first generation (warfarin, chlorophacinone, coumatetralyl) as well as bromadiolone and difenacoum are not an option for the control of resistant Norway rats. The same applies for house mice whereby the tolerance to compounds can be different between local incidences. Due to the higher toxicity and tendency to persist, the most potent anticoagulant rodenticides brodifacoum, flocoumafen and difethialone should be applied but only where resistance is known. In other cases less toxic anticoagulants should be preferred for rodent management in order to mitigate environmental risks. Resistance effects of further VKOR polymorphisms and their combinations, the spread of resistant rats and conditions supporting and reducing resistance should be investigated in order to improve resistance management strategies. PMID:24781908

  19. Nurses resisting information technology.

    PubMed

    Timmons, Stephen

    2003-12-01

    Resistance in the workplace, by nurses, has not been extensively studied from a sociological perspective. In this paper, nurses' resistance to the implementation and use of computer systems is described and analysed, on the basis of semistructured interviews with 31 nurses in three UK NHS hospitals. While the resistance was not "successful", in that it did not prevent the implementation of the systems, it nonetheless persisted. Resistance took a wide variety of forms, including attempts to minimise or "put off" use of the systems, and extensive criticism of the systems, though outright refusal to use them was very rare. Resistance was as much about the ideas and ways of working that the systems embodied as it was about the actual technology being used. The patterns of resistance can best be summed up by the phrase "resistive compliance". PMID:14622372

  20. Genetics of metabolic resistance.

    PubMed

    Richter, Otto; Langemann, Dirk; Beffa, Roland

    2016-09-01

    Herbicide resistance has become a major issue for many weeds. Metabolic resistance refers to the biochemical processes within organisms that degrade herbicides to less toxic compounds, resulting in a shift of the dose response curve. This type of resistance involves polygenic inheritance. A model is presented linking the biochemical pathway of amino acid synthesis and the detoxifying pathway of an inhibitor of the key enzyme ALS. From this model, resistance factors for each biotype are derived, which are then applied to a polygenic population genetic model for an annual weed plant. Polygenic inheritance is described by a new approach based on tensor products of heredity matrices. Important results from the model are that low dose regimes favour fast emergence of resistant biotypes and that the emergence of resistant biotypes occurs as abrupt outbreaks. The model is used to evaluate strategies for the management of metabolic resistance. PMID:27424952

  1. Pulsatile flow of Casson's fluid through stenosed arteries with applications to blood flow.

    PubMed

    Chaturani, P; Samy, R P

    1986-01-01

    The effects of non-Newtonian nature of blood and pulsatility on flow through a stenosed tube have been investigated. A perturbation method is used to analyse the flow. It is of interest to note that the thickness of the viscous flow region is non-uniform (changing with axial distance). An analytic relation between viscous flow region thickness and red cell concentration has been obtained. It is important to mention that some researchers have obtained an approximate solution for the flow rate-pressure gradient equation (assuming the ratio between the yield stress and the wall shear to be very small in comparison to unity); in the present analysis, we have obtained an exact solution for this non-linear equation without making that assumption. The approximate and exact solutions compare well with one of the exact solutions. Another important result is that the mean and steady flow rates decrease as the yield stress theta increases. For the low values of the yield stress, the mean flow rate is higher than the steady flow rate, but for high values of the yield stress, the mean flow rate behaviour is of opposite nature. The critical value of the yield stress at which the flow rate behaviour changes from one type to another has been determined. Further, it seems that there exists a value of the yield stress at which flow stops for both the flows (steady and pulsatile). It is observed that the flow stop yield value for pulsatile flow is lower than the steady flow. The most notable result of pulsatility is the phase lag between the pressure gradient and flow rate, which is further influenced by the yield stress and stenosis. Another important result of pulsatility is the mean resistance to flow is greater than its steady flow value, whereas the mean value of the wall shear for pulsatile flow is equal to steady wall shear. Many standard results regarding Casson and Newtonian fluids flow, uniform tube flow and steady flow can be obtained as the special cases of the present

  2. The flow around circular cylinders partially coated with porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruck, Bodo; Klausmann, Katharina; Wacker, Tobias

    2012-05-01

    There are indications that the flow resistance of bodies can be reduced by a porous coating or porous sheath. A few numerical investigations exists in this field, however, experimental evidence is lacking. In order to investigate this phenomenon, the drag resistance of cylinders with porous coating has been investigated qualitatively and quantitatively in wind tunnel experiments. The Reynolds number was systematically varied in the range from 104 to 1.3*105. The results show that the boundary layer over the porous surface is turbulent right from the beginning and thickens faster because of the possible vertical momentum exchange at the interface. The region of flow detachment is widened resulting in a broader area with almost vanishing low flow velocities. All in all, the measurements show that a full porous coating of the cylinders increase the flow resistance. However, the measurements show that a partial coating only on the leeward side can decrease the flow resistance of the body. This effect seems due to the fact that the recirculating velocity and the underpressure in the wake is reduced significantly through a leeward porous coating. Thus, combining a smooth non-permeable windward side with a porous-coated leeward side can lead to a reduction of the body's flow resistance. These findings can be applied advantageously in many technical areas, such as energy saving of moving bodies (cars/trains/planes) or in reducing fluid loads on submersed bodies.

  3. Laminar Flow Aircraft Certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Louis J. (Compiler)

    1986-01-01

    Various topics telative to laminar flow aircraft certification are discussed. Boundary layer stability, flaps for laminar flow airfoils, computational wing design studies, manufacturing requirements, windtunnel tests, and flow visualization are among the topics covered.

  4. EPA RESISTANCE MONITORING RESEARCH (NCR)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 2006 resistance management research program was organized around three components: development of resistance monitoring program for Bt corn using remote sensing, standardization of resistance assays, and testing of resistance management models. Each area of research has shown...

  5. Numerical and experimental characterizations of automotive catalytic converter internal flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, M.-C.; Lee, T.; Kim, J.-Y.; Cheng, C.-Y.; Li, P.; Chui, G.

    1992-07-01

    The three-dimensional non-reacting flow field inside a typical dual-monolith automotive catalytic converter subject to different flow and structural conditions is studied numerically and experimentally. In the numerical analysis, the monolith brick resistance is formulated by using the pressure gradient of a fully developed laminar duct-flow and is corrected for the entrance effect. This correlation is found to agree with experimental pressure drop data and is introduced as an additional source term into the governing nondimensional momentum equation within the monolith brick. Simulation results show that the level of gas flow maldistribution in the monolith depends on the inlet flow Reynolds number, the brick resistance, and the inlet pipe length and its bending angles. The flow distribution is found to be more uniform inside a monolith brick with a lower inlet flow Reynolds number, a larger brick resistance, a shorter inlet pipe, and a straight inlet pipe instead of a bent one. Point-velocity measurements using laser Doppler velocimetry and smoke-flow visualization techniques at selected flow sections are also conducted to verify the simulation results.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF MOLECULAR MONITORING TECHNOLOGIES TO MEASURE TRANSGENE FLOW AND INTROGRESSION IN CROP AND NON-CROP PLANT SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Gene Flow Project at the US Environmental Protection Agency, Western Ecology Division is developing methodologies for ecological risk assessments of transgene flow using Agrostis and Brassica engineered with CP4 EPSPS genes that confer resistance to glyphosate herbicide. In ...

  7. Multiphase flow calculation software

    DOEpatents

    Fincke, James R.

    2003-04-15

    Multiphase flow calculation software and computer-readable media carrying computer executable instructions for calculating liquid and gas phase mass flow rates of high void fraction multiphase flows. The multiphase flow calculation software employs various given, or experimentally determined, parameters in conjunction with a plurality of pressure differentials of a multiphase flow, preferably supplied by a differential pressure flowmeter or the like, to determine liquid and gas phase mass flow rates of the high void fraction multiphase flows. Embodiments of the multiphase flow calculation software are suitable for use in a variety of applications, including real-time management and control of an object system.

  8. Relaminarization of fluid flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narasimha, R.; Sreenivasan, K. R.

    1979-01-01

    The mechanisms of the relaminarization of turbulent flows are investigated with a view to establishing any general principles that might govern them. Three basic archetypes of reverting flows are considered: the dissipative type, the absorptive type, and the Richardson type exemplified by a turbulent boundary layer subjected to severe acceleration. A number of other different reverting flows are then considered in the light of the analysis of these archetypes, including radial Poiseuille flow, convex boundary layers, flows reverting by rotation, injection, and suction, as well as heated horizontal and vertical gas flows. Magnetohydrodynamic duct flows are also examined. Applications of flow reversion for turbulence control are discussed.

  9. Resistance and Cooling Power of Various Radiators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R H

    1928-01-01

    This reports combines the wind tunnel results of radiator tests made at the Navy Aerodynamical Laboratory in Washington during the summers of 1921, 1925, and 1926. In all, 13 radiators of various types and capacities were given complete tests for figure of merit. Twelve of these were tested for resistance to water flow and a fourteenth radiator was tested for air resistance alone, its heat dissipating capacity being known. All the tests were conducted in the 8 by 8 foot tunnel, or in its 4 by 8 foot restriction, by the writer and under conditions as nearly the same as possible. That is to say, as far as possible, the general arrangement and condition of the apparatus, the observation intervals, the ratio of water flow per unit of cooling surface, the differential temperatures, and the air speeds were the same for all.

  10. Flow structure in continuous flow electrophoresis chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deiber, J. A.; Saville, D. A.

    1982-01-01

    There are at least two ways that hydrodynamic processes can limit continiuous flow electrophoresis. One arises from the sensitivity of the flow to small temerature gradients, especially at low flow rates and power levels. This sensitivity can be suppressed, at least in principle, by providing a carefully tailored, stabilizing temperature gradient in the cooling system that surrounds the flow channel. At higher power levels another limitation arises due to a restructuring of the main flow. This restructuring is caused by buoyancy, which is in turn affected by the electro-osmotic crossflow. Approximate solutions to appropriate partial differential equations have been computed by finite difference methods. One set of results is described here to illustrate the strong coupling between the structure of the main (axial) flow and the electro-osmotic flow.

  11. A flux monitoring method for easy and accurate flow rate measurement in pressure-driven flows.

    PubMed

    Siria, Alessandro; Biance, Anne-Laure; Ybert, Christophe; Bocquet, Lydéric

    2012-03-01

    We propose a low-cost and versatile method to measure flow rate in microfluidic channels under pressure-driven flows, thereby providing a simple characterization of the hydrodynamic permeability of the system. The technique is inspired by the current monitoring method usually employed to characterize electro-osmotic flows, and makes use of the measurement of the time-dependent electric resistance inside the channel associated with a moving salt front. We have successfully tested the method in a micrometer-size channel, as well as in a complex microfluidic channel with a varying cross-section, demonstrating its ability in detecting internal shape variations.

  12. Pulsatile Flow Across a Cylinder--An Investigation of Flow in a Total Artificial Lung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yu-Chun

    2005-11-01

    The effect of pulsatility on flow across a single cylinder has been examined experimentally using particle image velocimetry. This work is motivated by the ongoing development of a total artificial lung (TAL), a device which would serve as a bridge to lung transplant. The prototype TAL consists of hollow microfibers through which oxygen-rich gas flows and blood flows around. Flow through the device is provided entirely by right heart and, therefore, is puslatile. The Peclet number of the flow is large and consequently the development of secondary flow affects the resulting gas exchange. The effects of frequency and average flow rate of pulsatile flow around a cylinder were investigated experimentally in a water tunnel and some of the results were compared with preliminary numerical results. Vortices developed behind the cylinder at lower Reynolds numbers in pulsatile flow than steady flow. The results indicate that there are critical values of the Reynolds number between 3 to 5 and Stokes numbers of 0.22, below which vortices were not observed. The findings suggest that higher Stokes and Reynolds numbers within the device could enhance vortex formation. However, this enhanced gas exchange could be at the expense of higher device resistance and increased likelihood of blood trauma. Intelligent TAL design will require consideration of these effects. This work is supported by NIH grant HL69420.

  13. Antimicrobial resistance in livestock.

    PubMed

    Catry, B; Laevens, H; Devriese, L A; Opsomer, G; De Kruif, A

    2003-04-01

    Antimicrobial resistance may become a major problem in veterinary medicine as a consequence of the intensive use and misuse of antimicrobial drugs. Related problems are now arising in human medicine, such as the appearance of multi-resistant food-borne pathogens. Product characteristics, dose, treatment interval and duration of treatment influence the selection pressure for antimicrobial drug resistance. There are theoretical, experimental and clinical indications that the emergence of de novo resistance in a pathogenic population can be prevented by minimizing the time that suboptimal drug levels are present in the infected tissue compartment. Until recently, attention has been focused on target pathogens. However, it should be kept in mind that when antimicrobial drugs are used in an individual, resistance selection mainly affects the normal body flora. In the long term, this is at least equally important as resistance selection in the target pathogens, as the horizontal transfer of resistance genes converts almost all pathogenic bacteria into potential recipients for antimicrobial resistance. Other factors contributing to the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance are the localization and size of the microbial population, and the age, immunity and contact intensity of the host. In livestock, dynamic herd-related resistance patterns have been observed in different animal species.

  14. [Resistance to antituberculous drugs].

    PubMed

    Veziris, N; Cambau, E; Sougakoff, W; Robert, J; Jarlier, V

    2005-08-01

    Mycobacteria responsible for tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis, M. bovis, M. africanum) are susceptible to a very small number of antibiotics. As soon as these drugs were used in humans all gave rise to the selection of resistant mycobacteria. Study of the mechanisms of acquired resistance, with the help of the genetics of mycobacteria, led to a more accurate understanding of the mode of action of antituberculous drugs. The antibiotics isoniazid, pyrazinamide, ethionamide and ethambutol are mycobacteria-specific because they inhibit the synthesis of mycolic acids, which are specific constituants of the bacterial wall. Mutations responsible for resistance to these drugs affect genes coding for activator enzymes (katg for isoniazid, pncA for pyrazinamide) or genes coding for their target (inhA for isoniazid/ethionamide, embB for ethambutol). With rifamycins, aminosides and quinolones, mechanisms of action and resistance are the same for mycobacteria as for non-mycobacterial organisms. No plasmid or resistance transposon has been described in M. tuberculosis. Currently a test for the quick detection of resistance to rifampicin is widely available but in the future DNA chips may allow the simultaneous detection of multiple resistances. Monitoring of antituberculous drugs shows that in France the prevalence of multiresistance ( resistance to both isoniazid and rifampicin) is 0.5%, primary resistance (before treatment) is 9%, and secondary resistance (after treatment) is 16%.

  15. Genetic resistance to flaviviruses.

    PubMed

    Brinton, Margo A; Perelygin, Andrey A

    2003-01-01

    Resistance to flavivirus-induced disease in mice was first discovered in the 1920s and was subsequently shown to be controlled by the resistant allele of a single dominant autosomal gene. While the majority of current laboratory mouse stains have a homozygous-susceptible phenotype, the resistant allele has been found to segregate in wild mouse populations in many different parts of the world. Resistance is flavivirus specific and extends to both mosquito- and tick-borne flaviviruses. Resistant animals are infected productively by flaviviruses but produce lower virus titers, especially in their brains, as compared to susceptible mice. Decreased virus production is observed in resistant animals even during a lethal infection and the times of disease onset and death are also delayed as compared to susceptible mice. An intact immune response is required to clear flaviviruses from resistant mice. The resistant phenotype is expressed constitutively and does not require interferon induction. The Flv gene was discovered using a positional cloning approach and identified as Oas1b. Susceptible mice produce a truncated Oas1b protein. A C820T transition in the fourth exon of the gene introduced a premature stop codon and was found in all susceptible mouse strains tested. Possible mechanisms by which the product of the resistant allele could confer the resistant phenotype are discussed. PMID:14689691

  16. Two-Phase Quality/Flow Meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moerk, J. Steven (Inventor); Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor); Werlink, Rudy J. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A quality and/or flow meter employs a capacitance probe assembly for measuring the dielectric constant of flow stream, particularly a two-phase flow stream including liquid and gas components.ne dielectric constant of the flow stream varies depending upon the volume ratios of its liquid and gas components, and capacitance measurements can therefore be employed to calculate the quality of the flow, which is defined as the volume ratio of liquid in the flow to the total volume ratio of gas and liquid in the flow. By using two spaced capacitance sensors, and cross-correlating the time varying capacitance values of each, the velocity of the flow stream can also be determined. A microcontroller-based processing circuit is employed to measure the capacitance of the probe sensors.The circuit employs high speed timer and counter circuits to provide a high resolution measurement of the time interval required to charge each capacitor in the probe assembly. In this manner, a high resolution, noise resistant, digital representation of each of capacitance value is obtained without the need for a high resolution A/D converter, or a high frequency oscillator circuit. One embodiment of the probe assembly employs a capacitor with two ground plates which provide symmetry to insure that accurate measurements are made thereby.

  17. Flow Split Venturi, Axially-Rotated Valve

    DOEpatents

    Walrath, David E.; Lindberg, William R.; Burgess, Robert K.; LaBelle, James

    2000-02-22

    The present invention provides an axially-rotated valve which permits increased flow rates and lower pressure drop (characterized by a lower loss coefficient) by using an axial eccentric split venturi with two portions where at least one portion is rotatable with respect to the other portion. The axially-rotated valve typically may be designed to avoid flow separation and/or cavitation at full flow under a variety of conditions. Similarly, the valve is designed, in some embodiments, to produce streamlined flow within the valve. An axially aligned outlet may also increase the flow efficiency. A typical cross section of the eccentric split venturi may be non-axisymmetric such as a semicircular cross section which may assist in both throttling capabilities and in maximum flow capacity using the design of the present invention. Such a design can include applications for freeze resistant axially-rotated valves and may be fully-opened and fully-closed in one-half of a complete rotation. An internal wide radius elbow typically connected to a rotatable portion of the eccentric venturi may assist in directing flow with lower friction losses. A valve actuator may actuate in an axial manner yet be uniquely located outside of the axial flow path to further reduce friction losses. A seal may be used between the two portions that may include a peripheral and diametrical seal in the same plane. A seal separator may increase the useful life of the seal between the fixed and rotatable portions.

  18. Aqueous outflow: Segmental and distal flow

    PubMed Central

    Swaminathan, Swarup S.; Oh, Dong-Jin; Kang, Min Hyung; Rhee, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    A prominent risk factor of primary open-angle glaucoma is ocular hypertension, a pathologic state caused by impaired outflow of aqueous humor through the trabecular meshwork within the iridocorneal angle. The juxtacanalicular region of the trabecular meshwork and the inner wall of Schlemm canal have been identified as the main contributors to aqueous outflow resistance, and both extracellular matrix within the trabecular meshwork and trabecular meshwork cell shape have been shown to affect outflow. Overexpression of multiple ECM proteins in perfused cadaveric human eyes has led to increased outflow resistance and elevated IOP. Pharmacologic agents targeting trabecular meshwork cytoskeletal arrangements have been developed after multiple studies demonstrated the importance of cell shape on outflow. Several groups have shown that aqueous outflow occurs only at certain segments of the trabecular meshwork circumferentially, a concept known as segmental flow. This is based on the theory that aqueous outflow is dependent on the presence of discrete pores within the Schlemm canal. Segmental flow has been described in the eyes of multiple species, including primate, bovine, mouse, and human samples. While the trabecular meshwork appears to be the major source of resistance, trabecular meshwork bypass procedures have been unable to achieve the degree of IOP reduction observed with trabeculectomy, reflecting the potential impact of distal flow, or flow through Schlemm canal and collector channels, on outflow. Multiple studies have demonstrated that outflow occurs preferentially near collector channels, suggesting that these distal structures may be more important to aqueous outflow than previously believed. PMID:25088623

  19. USE OF ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY PROBE FOR DETERMINATION OF HYPORHEIC FLOW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The hyporheic zone can play a significant role in nutrient behavior in watersheds. Conceptual models describe the behavior of nutrients and biota for the hyporheic ecotone, but site characterization is needed to quantiiy effects at the restoration reach scale (hundreds of meters)...

  20. Blood flow and permeability in microvessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugihara-Seki, Masako; Fu, Bingmei M.

    2005-07-01

    The mechanics of blood flow in microvessels and microvessel permeability are reviewed. In the first part, characteristics of blood flow in vivo and in vitro are described from a fluid-mechanical point of view, and mathematical models for blood flow in microvessels are presented. Possible causes of the increased flow resistance obtained in vivo compared to in vitro are examined, including the effects of irregularities of vessel lumen, the presence of endothelial surface glycocalyx and white blood cells. In the second part, the ultrastructural pathways and mechanisms whereby endothelial cells and the clefts between the cells modulate microvessel permeability to water and solutes are introduced. Previous and current models for microvessel permeability to water and solutes are reviewed. These models examine the role of structural components of interendothelial cleft, such as junction strands and surface glycocalyx, in the determination of water and solute transport across the microvessel walls. Transport models in the tissue space surrounding the microvessel are also described.

  1. Drug Resistance in Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarty, Jaya; Sundar, Shyam

    2010-01-01

    The treatment options of leishmaniasis are limited and far from satisfactory. For more than 60 years, treatment of leishmaniasis has centered around pentavalent antimonials (Sbv). Widespread misuse has led to the emergence of Sbv resistance in the hyperendemic areas of North Bihar. Other antileishmanials could also face the same fate, especially in the anthroponotic cycle. The HIV/ visceral leishmaniasis (VL) coinfected patients are another potential source for the emergence of drug resistance. At present no molecular markers of resistance are available and the only reliable method for monitoring resistance of isolates is the technically demanding in vitro amastigote-macrophage model. As the armametrium of drugs for leishmaniasis is limited, it is important that effective monitoring of drug use and response should be done to prevent the spread of resistance. Regimens of simultaneous or sequential combinations should be seriously considered to limit the emergence of resistance. PMID:20606973

  2. Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci

    PubMed Central

    Cetinkaya, Yesim; Falk, Pamela; Mayhall, C. Glen

    2000-01-01

    After they were first identified in the mid-1980s, vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) spread rapidly and became a major problem in many institutions both in Europe and the United States. Since VRE have intrinsic resistance to most of the commonly used antibiotics and the ability to acquire resistance to most of the current available antibiotics, either by mutation or by receipt of foreign genetic material, they have a selective advantage over other microorganisms in the intestinal flora and pose a major therapeutic challenge. The possibility of transfer of vancomycin resistance genes to other gram-positive organisms raises significant concerns about the emergence of vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. We review VRE, including their history, mechanisms of resistance, epidemiology, control measures, and treatment. PMID:11023964

  3. A Computer Program for Processing In Situ Permeable Flow Sensor Data

    1996-04-15

    FLOW4.02 is used to interpret data from In Situ Permeable Flow Sensors which are instruments that directly measure groundwater flow velocity in saturated, unconsolidated geologic formations (Ballard, 1994, 1996: Ballard et al., 1994: Ballard et al., in press). The program accepts as input the electrical resistance measurements from the thermistors incorporated within the flow sensors, converts the resistance data to temperatures and then uses the temperature information to calculate the groundwater flow velocity and associatedmore » uncertainty. The software includes many capabilities for manipulating, graphically displaying and writing to disk the raw resistance data, the temperature data and the calculated flow velocity information. This version is a major revision of a previously copyrighted version (FLOW1.0).« less

  4. Portable peak flow meters.

    PubMed

    McNaughton, J P

    1997-02-01

    There are several portable peak flow meters available. These instruments vary in construction and performance. Guidelines are recommended for minimum performance and testing of portable peak flow meters, with the aim of establishing a procedure for standardizing all peak flow meters. Future studies to clarify the usefulness of mechanical test apparatus and clinical trials of peak flow meters are also recommended. PMID:9098706

  5. Freshwater Flow Charts - 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiper, G V

    2003-11-21

    This report covers the following: (1) Explanation of Charts Showing Freshwater Flow in 1995; (2) Estimated U.S. Freshwater Flow in 1995 (chart); (3) Estimated California Freshwater Flow in 1995 (chart); (4) Estimated New Mexico Freshwater Flow in 1995 (chart); and (5) Web locations and credits.

  6. Brain-Flow Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Robert J.

    The brain-flow writing technique, which might also be called the "fast flow" technique, offers a particularly useful means of helping adults overcome writer's block. It also offers some bonuses in the form of enhanced creativity, improved thought-flow, and much faster writing output. There are six steps to brain-flow writing. In the first, or…

  7. Multidrug Resistant Acinetobacter

    PubMed Central

    Manchanda, Vikas; Sanchaita, Sinha; Singh, NP

    2010-01-01

    Emergence and spread of Acinetobacter species, resistant to most of the available antimicrobial agents, is an area of great concern. It is now being frequently associated with healthcare associated infections. Literature was searched at PUBMED, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Library, using the terms ‘Acinetobacter Resistance, multidrug resistant (MDR), Antimicrobial Therapy, Outbreak, Colistin, Tigecycline, AmpC enzymes, and carbapenemases in various combinations. The terms such as MDR, Extensively Drug Resistant (XDR), and Pan Drug Resistant (PDR) have been used in published literature with varied definitions, leading to confusion in the correlation of data from various studies. In this review various mechanisms of resistance in the Acinetobacter species have been discussed. The review also probes upon the current therapeutic options, including combination therapies available to treat infections due to resistant Acinetobacter species in adults as well as children. There is an urgent need to enforce infection control measures and antimicrobial stewardship programs to prevent the further spread of these resistant Acinetobacter species and to delay the emergence of increased resistance in the bacteria. PMID:20927292

  8. Meeting the resistance problem

    PubMed Central

    Brown, A. W. A.

    1963-01-01

    Because resistance to new insecticides may develop rapidly and cross resistance is often encountered, even between insecticides of different classes, there is a continual demand for the development of new compounds toxic to insects. There is at present a choice between chlorinated hydrocarbons, organophosphorus compounds, carbamates, pyrethrins, synthetic pyrethroids and thiocyanates. This paper discusses thoroughly the present status of a large number of insecticides, the cross-resistances between them, and the most effective methods of application. It also examines some of the biochemical mechanisms responsible for resistance and the attempts that have been made to use substances capable of inhibiting these mechanisms as synergists of insecticides.

  9. Effective resist profile control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chen-Yu; Wang, Chien-Wei; Huang, Chun-Ching; Chang, Ching-Yu; Ku, Yao-Ching

    2014-03-01

    To meet Moore's law, resist resolution improvement has become more and more important. However, it is difficult to improve resist resolution and keep vertical sidewall profile. For example, a high contrast hole resist may cause trench scum, due to very T-top profile. This paper reports several concepts for resist profile tuning without losing performance for lithographic factor , including mask error enhancement factor (MEEF), depth of focus (DOF), and critical dimension uniformity (CDU). To quantitative analysis the resist profile improvement, we define a new factor, Scum fail ratio (F/R%) for new techniques evaluation. The new techniques, including floatable additive, floatable PAG, and new monomer, are discussed. From X-SEM and CD-SEM data, former three concepts could improve resist sidewall profile quantitatively evaluated by Scum fail F/R% and keep lithographic factors. In addition, another key factor, resist residue defect, is also discussed. The high contrast resist with higher receding contact angle (RCA) easily generates more residue defect after development. With the new monomer composition, RCA of Resist E is decreased from 54 to 48 degree after development. Therefore, the residue defect is improved one order.

  10. Portable wastewater flow meter

    DOEpatents

    Hunter, Robert M.

    1999-02-02

    A portable wastewater flow meter particularly adapted for temporary use at a single location in measuring the rate of liquid flow in a circular entrance conduit of a sewer manhole both under free flow and submerged, open channel conditions and under fill pipe, surcharged conditions, comprising an apparatus having a cylindrical external surface and an inner surface that constricts the flow through the apparatus in such a manner that a relationship exists between (1) the difference between the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the entrance of the apparatus and the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the constriction, and (2) the rate of liquid flow through the apparatus.

  11. Portable wastewater flow meter

    DOEpatents

    Hunter, Robert M.

    1990-01-01

    A portable wastewater flow meter particularly adapted for temporary use at a single location in measuring the rate of liquid flow in a circular entrance conduit of a sewer manhole both under free flow and submerged, open channel conditions and under full pipe, surcharged conditions, comprising an apparatus having a cylindrical external surface and an inner surface that constricts the flow through the apparatus in such a manner that a relationship exists between (1) the difference between the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the entrance of the apparatus and the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the constriction, and (2) the rate of liquid flow through the apparatus.

  12. Experimental Impedance of Single Liner Elements with Bias Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Follet, J. I.; Betts, J. F.; Kelly, Jeffrey J.; Thomas, Russell H.

    2000-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to generate a high quality database, from which the effects of a mean bias flow on the acoustic impedance of lumped-element single-degree-of-freedom liners was determined. Acoustic impedance measurements were made using the standard two-microphone method in the NASA Langley Normal Incidence Tube. Each liner consisted of a perforated sheet with a constant-area cavity. Liner resistance was shown to increase and to become less frequency and sound pressure level dependent as the bias flow was increased. The resistance was also consistently lower for a negative bias flow (suction) than for a positive bias flow (blowing) of equal magnitude. The slope of the liner reactance decreased with increased flow.

  13. Intelligent Flow Control Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Anthony R (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention is an intelligent flow control valve which may be inserted into the flow coming out of a pipe and activated to provide a method to stop, measure, and meter flow coming from the open or possibly broken pipe. The intelligent flow control valve may be used to stop the flow while repairs are made. Once repairs have been made, the valve may be removed or used as a control valve to meter the amount of flow from inside the pipe. With the addition of instrumentation, the valve may also be used as a variable area flow meter and flow controller programmed based upon flowing conditions. With robotic additions, the valve may be configured to crawl into a desired pipe location, anchor itself, and activate flow control or metering remotely.

  14. Flow Fields Over Unsteady Three Dimensional Dunes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, R. J.; Reesink, A.; Parsons, D. R.; Ashworth, P. J.; Best, J.

    2013-12-01

    The flow field over dunes has been extensively measured in laboratory conditions and there is general understanding on the nature of the flow over dunes formed under equilibrium flow conditions. However, fluvial systems typically experience unsteady flow and therefore the sediment-water interface is constantly responding and reorganizing to these unsteady flows, over a range of both spatial and temporal scales. This is primarily through adjustment of bed forms (including ripples, dunes and bar forms) which then subsequently alter the flow field. This paper investigates, through the application of a numerical model, the influence of these roughness elements on the overall flow and the increase in flow resistance. A series of experiments were undertaken in a flume, 16m long and 2m wide, where a fine sand (D50 of 239μm) mobile bed was water worked under a range of unsteady hydraulic conditions to generate a series of quasi-equilibrium three dimensional bed forms. During the experiments flow was measured with acoustic Doppler velocimeters, (aDv's). On four occasions the flume was drained and the bed topography measured with terrestrial LiDAR to create digital elevation models. This data provide the necessary boundary conditions and validation data for a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model, which provided a three dimensional time dependent prediction of flow over the four static beds. The numerical predicted flow is analyzed through a series of approaches, and included: i) standard Reynolds decomposition to the flow fields; ii) Eulerian coherent structure detection methods based on the invariants of the velocity gradient tensor; iii) Lagrangian coherent structure identification methods based upon direct Lyapunov exponents (DLE). The results show that superimposed bed forms can cause changes in the nature of the classical separated flow region in particularly the number of locations where vortices are shed and the point of flow reattachment, which may be important for

  15. Flow visualization around axial flow fan blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaguchi, K.; Matsui, K.

    1986-02-01

    The flow around the blades of an axial flow fan was visualized by using a drum camera. The distribution of the flow velocity about the blades was determined by combining the spark tracing method with the smoke wire method, making it possible to determine the blade element efficiency. The efficiencies and noise levels of radiator cooling fans can be determined using this technique. The method was applied to two types of fans with different performances, and the flow around the wing was correlated with the wing tip efficiency. The effect of tip vortex on the total fan noise was quantified.

  16. Laws of Flow in Rough Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikuradse, J

    1950-01-01

    An experimental investigation is made of the turbulent flow of water in pipes with various degrees of relative roughness. The pipes range in size from 25 to 100 millimeters in diameter and from 1800 to 7050 millimeters in length. Flow velocities permitted Reynolds numbers from about 10 (sup. 4) to 10 (sup. 6). The laws of resistance and velocity distributions were obtained as a function of relative roughness and Reynolds number. Mixing length, as described by Prandtl's mixing-length formula, is discussed in relation to the experimental results.

  17. 42 CFR 84.156 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... exceed 50 millimeters (2 inches) of water at an air flow of 115 liters (4 cubic feet) per minute. (b) The exhalation resistance to a flow of air at a rate of 85 liters (3 cubic feet) per minute shall not exceed 25... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C...

  18. Investigation on Online Multiphase Flow Meter in oilfield Based on Open Channel Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, L. Y.; Wang, W. C.; Li, Y. X.; Zhang, J.; Dong, S. P.

    2010-03-01

    Flow metering of multiphase pipeline is an urgently problem needed to be solved in oilfield producing in China. Based on the principle of multiphase oil and gas flow in the open channel, four liquid metering models(Falling Model I, Falling Model II, Open Channel Model and Element Resistance Model) and one gas model were obtained to calculate the gas and liquid flow rate, in which the water cut was measured by the differential pressure. And then a new type of multiphase meter system was developed based on these models and neural networks were developed to improve the estimating results of gas and liquid flow rate with the new metering system. At last a lot of experiments of multiphase metering were finished in lab and field. According to the experiments, the results of the metering system show that the liquid flow rate error was no more than 10%, and gas flow rate error was no more than 15%, which can meet the demand of the field flow rate measurement. Furthermore the relationship between liquid and gas flow rate and characteristic signals was found out through the experiments so as to deepening the study on multiphase flow metering technology.

  19. Targeted gene flow for conservation.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Ella; Phillips, Ben L

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic threats often impose strong selection on affected populations, causing rapid evolutionary responses. Unfortunately, these adaptive responses are rarely harnessed for conservation. We suggest that conservation managers pay close attention to adaptive processes and geographic variation, with an eye to using them for conservation goals. Translocating pre-adapted individuals into recipient populations is currently considered a potentially important management tool in the face of climate change. Targeted gene flow, which involves moving individuals with favorable traits to areas where these traits would have a conservation benefit, could have a much broader application in conservation. Across a species' range there may be long-standing geographic variation in traits or variation may have rapidly developed in response to a threatening process. Targeted gene flow could be used to promote natural resistance to threats to increase species resilience. We suggest that targeted gene flow is a currently underappreciated strategy in conservation that has applications ranging from the management of invasive species and their impacts to controlling the impact and virulence of pathogens.

  20. Open-channel integrating-type flow meter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koopman, K.C.

    1971-01-01

    A relatively inexpensive meter for measuring cumulative flow in open channels with a rated control,. called a "totalizer", was developed. It translates the nonlinear function of gage height to flow by use of a cam and a float. A variable resistance element in an electronic circuit is controlled by the float so that the electron flow in the circuit corresponds to the flow of water. The flow of electricity causes electroplating of an electrode with silver. The amount of silver deposited is proportionate to the flow of water. The total flow of water is determined by removing the silver from the electrode at a fixed rate with ·an electronic device and recording the time for removal with a counter. The circuit is designed so that the ,resultant reading on the counter is in acre-feet of water.

  1. On growth and flow: bacterial biofilms in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durham, William; Leombruni, Alberto; Tranzer, Olivier; Stocker, Roman

    2011-11-01

    Bacterial biofilms often occur in porous media, where they play pivotal roles in medicine, industry and the environment. Though flow is ubiquitous in porous media, its effects on biofilm growth have been largely ignored. Using patterned microfluidic devices that simulate unconsolidated soil, we find that the structure of Escherichia coli biofilms undergoes a self-organization mediated by the interaction of growth and flow. Intriguingly, we find that biofilm productivity peaks at intermediate flow rates, when the biofilm is irrigated by a minimum number of preferential flow channels. At larger and smaller flow rates, fluid flows more uniformly through the matrix, but productivity drops due to removal by shear and reduced nutrient transport, respectively. These dynamics are correctly predicted by a simple network model. The observed tradeoff between growth and flow may have important consequences on biofilm-mediated processes such as biochemical cycling, antibiotic resistance and water filtration.

  2. Mechanisms of Drug Resistance: Daptomycin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Truc T.; Munita, Jose M.; Arias, Cesar A.

    2016-01-01

    Daptomycin (DAP) is a cyclic lipopeptide with in vitro activity against a variety of Gram-positive pathogens, including multidrug-resistant organisms. Since its introduction in clinical practice in 2003, DAP has become an important key front-line antibiotic for severe or deep-seated infections caused by Gram-positive organisms. Unfortunately, DAP-resistance (R) has been extensively documented in clinically important organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus spp, and Streptococcus spp. Studies on the mechanisms of DAP-R in Bacillus subtilis and other Gram-positive bacteria indicate that the genetic pathways of DAP resistance are diverse and complex. However, a common phenomenon emerging from these mechanistic studies is that DAP-R is associated with important adaptive changes in cell wall and cell membrane homeostasis with critical changes in cell physiology. Findings related to these adaptive changes have offered novel insights into the genetics and molecular mechanisms of bacterial cell envelope stress response and the manner in which Gram-positive bacteria cope with the antimicrobial peptide attack and protect vital structures of the cell envelope such as the cell membrane. In this review, we will examine the most recent findings related to the molecular mechanisms of resistance to DAP in relevant Gram-positive pathogens and discuss the clinical implications for therapy against these important bacteria. PMID:26495887

  3. Mold-Resistant Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huckabee, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    Asserts that one of the surest ways to prevent indoor air quality and mold issues is to use preventive construction materials, discussing typical resistance to dealing with mold problems (usually budget-related) and describing mold-resistant construction, which uses concrete masonry, brick, and stone and is intended to withstand inevitable…

  4. Mechanisms of Antibiotic Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Munita, Jose M.; Arias, Cesar A.

    2015-01-01

    Emergence of resistance among the most important bacterial pathogens is recognized as a major public health threat affecting humans worldwide. Multidrug-resistant organisms have emerged not only in the hospital environment but are now often identified in community settings, suggesting that reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant bacteria are present outside the hospital. The bacterial response to the antibiotic “attack” is the prime example of bacterial adaptation and the pinnacle of evolution. “Survival of the fittest” is a consequence of an immense genetic plasticity of bacterial pathogens that trigger specific responses that result in mutational adaptations, acquisition of genetic material or alteration of gene expression producing resistance to virtually all antibiotics currently available in clinical practice. Therefore, understanding the biochemical and genetic basis of resistance is of paramount importance to design strategies to curtail the emergence and spread of resistance and devise innovative therapeutic approaches against multidrug-resistant organisms. In this chapter, we will describe in detail the major mechanisms of antibiotic resistance encountered in clinical practice providing specific examples in relevant bacterial pathogens. PMID:27227291

  5. Mechanisms of Antibiotic Resistance.

    PubMed

    Munita, Jose M; Arias, Cesar A

    2016-04-01

    Emergence of resistance among the most important bacterial pathogens is recognized as a major public health threat affecting humans worldwide. Multidrug-resistant organisms have not only emerged in the hospital environment but are now often identified in community settings, suggesting that reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant bacteria are present outside the hospital. The bacterial response to the antibiotic "attack" is the prime example of bacterial adaptation and the pinnacle of evolution. "Survival of the fittest" is a consequence of an immense genetic plasticity of bacterial pathogens that trigger specific responses that result in mutational adaptations, acquisition of genetic material, or alteration of gene expression producing resistance to virtually all antibiotics currently available in clinical practice. Therefore, understanding the biochemical and genetic basis of resistance is of paramount importance to design strategies to curtail the emergence and spread of resistance and to devise innovative therapeutic approaches against multidrug-resistant organisms. In this chapter, we will describe in detail the major mechanisms of antibiotic resistance encountered in clinical practice, providing specific examples in relevant bacterial pathogens. PMID:27227291

  6. Resistance, Reactance, and Consultation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Jan N.; Falk, Robert S.

    1981-01-01

    Presents a review of techniques for dealing with consultee resistance. Suggests the social psychological theory of reactance is a useful conceptual framework for considering resistance in consultation. Discusses examples of its application, variables that predict the likely effectiveness of a reactance utilization intervention, and ethical issues.…

  7. Targeting Antibiotic Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Chellat, Mathieu F.; Raguž, Luka

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Finding strategies against the development of antibiotic resistance is a major global challenge for the life sciences community and for public health. The past decades have seen a dramatic worldwide increase in human‐pathogenic bacteria that are resistant to one or multiple antibiotics. More and more infections caused by resistant microorganisms fail to respond to conventional treatment, and in some cases, even last‐resort antibiotics have lost their power. In addition, industry pipelines for the development of novel antibiotics have run dry over the past decades. A recent world health day by the World Health Organization titled “Combat drug resistance: no action today means no cure tomorrow” triggered an increase in research activity, and several promising strategies have been developed to restore treatment options against infections by resistant bacterial pathogens. PMID:27000559

  8. Traces: making sense of urodynamics testing--Part 11: quantitative analysis of micturition via the voiding pressure flow study: pressure-flow nomograms.

    PubMed

    Gray, Mikel

    2012-01-01

    The voiding pressure flow study is the gold standard for evaluating micturition. Part 10 of the Traces series described techniques for evaluating micturition via the voiding pressure flow study; it focused on interpretation of results qualitatively via inspection and classification of flow pattern, detrusor contraction amplitude and duration, pelvic floor muscle response to voiding, and urethral resistance. This article discusses quantitative analysis of the voiding pressure flow study using nomograms that measure the magnitude of urethral resistance (bladder outflow obstruction) and/or detrusor contraction strength.

  9. Echinocandin Resistance in Candida.

    PubMed

    Perlin, David S

    2015-12-01

    Invasive fungal infections are an important infection concern for patients with underlying immunosuppression. Antifungal therapy is a critical component of patient care, but therapeutic choices are limited due to few drug classes. Antifungal resistance, especially among Candida species, aggravates the problem. The echinocandin drugs (micafungin, anidulafungin, and caspofungin) are the preferred choice to treat a range of candidiasis. They target the fungal-specific enzyme glucan synthase, which is responsible for the biosynthesis of a major cell wall polymer. Therapeutic failure involves acquisition of resistance, although it is a rare event among most Candida species. However, in some settings, higher-level resistance has been reported among Candida glabrata, which is also frequently resistant to azole drugs, resulting in difficult-to-treat multidrug-resistant strains. The mechanism of echinocandin resistance involves amino acid changes in "hot spot" regions of FKS-encoded subunits of glucan synthase, which decreases the sensitivity of enzyme to drug, resulting in higher minimum inhibitory concentration values. The cellular processes promoting the formation of resistant FKS strains involve complex stress response pathways that yield a variety of adaptive compensatory genetic responses. Standardized broth microdilution techniques can be used to distinguish FKS mutant strains from wild type, but testing C. glabrata with caspofungin should be approached cautiously. Finally, clinical factors that promote echinocandin resistance include prophylaxis, host reservoirs including biofilms in the gastrointestinal tract, and intra-abdominal infections. An understanding of clinical and molecular factors that promote echinocandin resistance is critical to develop better diagnostic tools and therapeutic strategies to overcome resistance.

  10. Comparative analysis of bed resistance partitioning in high-gradient streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Gabrielle C. L.; Wohl, Ellen; Yochum, Steven E.; Bledsoe, Brian P.

    2011-07-01

    Total flow resistance can be partitioned into its components of grain (ffgrain), form (ffstep), wood (ffwood), and spill (ffspill) resistance. Methods for partitioning flow resistance developed for low-gradient streams are commonly applied to high-gradient systems. We examined the most widely used methods for calculating each component of resistance, along with the limitations of these methods, using data gathered from 15 high-gradient (0.02 < S0 < 0.195) step-pool, cascade, and plane-bed reaches in Fraser Experimental Forest. We calculated grain resistance using three equations that relate relative submergence (R/Dm) to ffgrain as well as using an additive drag approach. The drag approach was also used for calculating ffwood and ffstep. The ffgrain contributed the smallest amount toward all reaches at all flows, although the value varied with the method used. The Parker and Peterson (1980) equation using D90 best represented ffgrain at high flows, whereas the Keulegan (1938) equation using D50 best characterized ffgrain at base flows, giving a lower bound for grain resistance. This suggests that ffgrain may be better represented if two grain sizes are used to calculate this component of resistance. The drag approach, which is used to calculate wood resistance, overestimated the significance of individual logs in the channel. The contribution of ffspill was reduced at higher flows when form drag around the step is accounted for at higher flows. We propose a method for evaluating the contribution of ffstep that accounts for form drag around the steps once they are submerged at higher flows. We evaluated the potential sources of error for the estimation of each component of resistance. Determination of the drag coefficient was one of the major sources of error when calculating drag around wood, steps, or boulders.

  11. Probe Without Moving Parts Measures Flow Angle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corda, Stephen; Vachon, M. Jake

    2003-01-01

    The measurement of local flow angle is critical in many fluid-dynamic applications, including the aerodynamic flight testing of new aircraft and flight systems. Flight researchers at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center have recently developed, flight-tested, and patented the force-based flow-angle probe (FLAP), a novel, force-based instrument for the measurement of local flow direction. Containing no moving parts, the FLAP may provide greater simplicity, improved accuracy, and increased measurement access, relative to conventional moving vane-type flow-angle probes. Forces in the FLAP can be measured by various techniques, including those that involve conventional strain gauges (based on electrical resistance) and those that involve more advanced strain gauges (based on optical fibers). A correlation is used to convert force-measurement data to the local flow angle. The use of fiber optics will enable the construction of a miniature FLAP, leading to the possibility of flow measurement in very small or confined regions. This may also enable the tufting of a surface with miniature FLAPs, capable of quantitative flow-angle measurements, similar to attaching yarn tufts for qualitative measurements. The prototype FLAP was a small, aerodynamically shaped, low-aspect-ratio fin about 2 in. (approximately equal to 5 cm) long, 1 in. (approximately equal to 2.5 cm) wide, and 0.125 in. (approximately equal to 0.3 cm) thick (see Figure 1). The prototype FLAP included simple electrical-resistance strain gauges for measuring forces. Four strain gauges were mounted on the FLAP; two on the upper surface and two on the lower surface. The gauges were connected to form a full Wheatstone bridge, configured as a bending bridge. In preparation for a flight test, the prototype FLAP was mounted on the airdata boom of a flight-test fixture (FTF) on the NASA Dryden F-15B flight research airplane.

  12. Weak measure expansive flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Keonhee; Oh, Jumi

    2016-01-01

    A notion of measure expansivity for flows was introduced by Carrasco-Olivera and Morales in [3] as a generalization of expansivity, and they proved that there were no measure expansive flows on closed surfaces. In this paper we introduce a concept of weak measure expansivity for flows which is really weaker than that of measure expansivity, and show that there is a weak measure expansive flow on a closed surface. Moreover we show that any C1 stably weak measure expansive flow on a C∞ closed manifold M is Ω-stable, and any C1 stably measure expansive flow on M satisfies both Axiom A and the quasi-transversality condition.

  13. Linezolid Resistance in Staphylococci

    PubMed Central

    Stefani, Stefania; Bongiorno, Dafne; Mongelli, Gino; Campanile, Floriana

    2010-01-01

    Linezolid, the first oxazolidinone to be used clinically, is effective in the treatment of infections caused by various Gram-positive pathogens, including multidrug resistant enterococci and methicillin-resistant Staphylococus aureus. It has been used successfully for the treatment of patients with endocarditis and bacteraemia, osteomyelitis, joint infections and tuberculosis and it is often used for treatment of complicated infections when other therapies have failed. Linezolid resistance in Gram-positive cocci has been encountered clinically as well as in vitro, but it is still a rare phenomenon. The resistance to this antibiotic has been, until now, entirely associated with distinct nucleotide substitutions in domain V of the 23S rRNA genes. The number of mutated rRNA genes depends on the dose and duration of linezolid exposure and has been shown to influence the level of linezolid resistance. Mutations in associated ribosomal proteins also affect linezolid activity. A new phenicol and clindamycin resistance phenotype has recently been found to be caused by an RNA methyltransferase designated Cfr. This gene confers resistance to lincosamides, oxazolidinones, streptogramin A, phenicols and pleuromutilins, decrease the susceptibility of S. aureus to tylosin, to josamycin and spiramycin and thus differs from erm rRNA methylase genes. Research into new oxazolidinones with improved characteristics is ongoing. Data reported in patent applications demonstrated that some oxazolidinone derivatives, also with improved characteristics with respect to linezolid, are presently under study: at least three of them are in an advanced phase of development.

  14. AC resistance measuring instrument

    DOEpatents

    Hof, P.J.

    1983-10-04

    An auto-ranging AC resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an AC excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance. After the auto-ranging and auto-compensation functions are complete, the microprocessor calculates the resistance of the load from the selected range resistance, the excitation signal, and the load voltage signal, and displays of the measured resistance on a digital display of the instrument. 8 figs.

  15. AC Resistance measuring instrument

    DOEpatents

    Hof, Peter J.

    1983-01-01

    An auto-ranging AC resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an AC excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance. After the auto-ranging and auto-compensation functions are complete, the microprocessor calculates the resistance of the load from the selected range resistance, the excitation signal, and the load voltage signal, and displays of the measured resistance on a digital display of the instrument.

  16. Insulin and Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    As obesity and diabetes reach epidemic proportions in the developed world, the role of insulin resistance and its consequences are gaining prominence. Understanding the role of insulin in wide-ranging physiological processes and the influences on its synthesis and secretion, alongside its actions from the molecular to the whole body level, has significant implications for much chronic disease seen in Westernised populations today. This review provides an overview of insulin, its history, structure, synthesis, secretion, actions and interactions followed by a discussion of insulin resistance and its associated clinical manifestations. Specific areas of focus include the actions of insulin and manifestations of insulin resistance in specific organs and tissues, physiological, environmental and pharmacological influences on insulin action and insulin resistance as well as clinical syndromes associated with insulin resistance. Clinical and functional measures of insulin resistance are also covered. Despite our incomplete understanding of the complex biological mechanisms of insulin action and insulin resistance, we need to consider the dramatic social changes of the past century with respect to physical activity, diet, work, socialisation and sleep patterns. Rapid globalisation, urbanisation and industrialisation have spawned epidemics of obesity, diabetes and their attendant co-morbidities, as physical inactivity and dietary imbalance unmask latent predisposing genetic traits. PMID:16278749

  17. Antibiotic Resistance Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... on the Farm Get Smart About Antibiotics Week Antibiotic Resistance Questions and Answers Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... Many ear infections Top of Page Questions about Antibiotic Resistance Examples of How Antibiotic Resistance Spreads Click for ...

  18. Resistive Exercise Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Damon C. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An exercise device 10 is particularly well suited for use in low gravity environments, and includes a frame 12 with plurality of resistance elements 30,82 supported in parallel on the frame. A load transfer member 20 is moveable relative to the frame for transferring the applied force to the free end of each captured resistance element. Load selection template 14 is removably secured both to the load transfer member, and a plurality of capture mechanisms engage the free end of corresponding resistance elements. The force applying mechanism 53 may be a handle, harness or other user interface for applying a force to move the load transfer member.

  19. Expanding the eco-evolutionary context of herbicide resistance research.

    PubMed

    Neve, Paul; Busi, Roberto; Renton, Michael; Vila-Aiub, Martin M

    2014-09-01

    The potential for human-driven evolution in economically and environmentally important organisms in medicine, agriculture and conservation management is now widely recognised. The evolution of herbicide resistance in weeds is a classic example of rapid adaptation in the face of human-mediated selection. Management strategies that aim to slow or prevent the evolution of herbicide resistance must be informed by an understanding of the ecological and evolutionary factors that drive selection in weed populations. Here, we argue for a greater focus on the ultimate causes of selection for resistance in herbicide resistance studies. The emerging fields of eco-evolutionary dynamics and applied evolutionary biology offer a means to achieve this goal and to consider herbicide resistance in a broader and sometimes novel context. Four relevant research questions are presented, which examine (i) the impact of herbicide dose on selection for resistance, (ii) plant fitness in herbicide resistance studies, (iii) the efficacy of herbicide rotations and mixtures and (iv) the impacts of gene flow on resistance evolution and spread. In all cases, fundamental ecology and evolution have the potential to offer new insights into herbicide resistance evolution and management.

  20. Air flow visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Smoke Flow Visualization shows the flow of air around a model airfoil at 100 feet per second. Photograph and caption published in Winds of Change, 75th Anniversary NASA publication (page xi), by James Schultz.

  1. Electroanalytical flow measurements.

    PubMed

    Trojanowicz, Marek

    2005-06-01

    A review based on 94 cited original papers describes recent achievements in application of different electrochemical detection in flow analysis, injection techniques of flow analysis, liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis.

  2. Ultrasonic flow metering system

    DOEpatents

    Gomm, Tyler J.; Kraft, Nancy C.; Mauseth, Jason A.; Phelps, Larry D.; Taylor, Steven C.

    2002-01-01

    A system for determining the density, flow velocity, and mass flow of a fluid comprising at least one sing-around circuit that determines the velocity of a signal in the fluid and that is correlatable to a database for the fluid. A system for determining flow velocity uses two of the inventive circuits with directional transmitters and receivers, one of which is set at an angle to the direction of flow that is different from the others.

  3. Noninvasive measurement of cerebrospinal fluid flow using an ultrasonic transit time flow sensor: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Pennell, Thomas; Yi, Juneyoung L; Kaufman, Bruce A; Krishnamurthy, Satish

    2016-03-01

    /hr, diagnoses the blockage or lack of flow, and records real-time continuous flow data in patients with EVDs. Calculations of a wide variety of diagnostic parameters can be made from the waveform recordings, including resistance and compliance of the ventricular catheters and the compliance of the brain. The sensor's clinical applications may be of particular importance to the noninvasive diagnosis of shunt malfunctions with the development of an implantable device. PMID:26565943

  4. Noninvasive measurement of cerebrospinal fluid flow using an ultrasonic transit time flow sensor: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Pennell, Thomas; Yi, Juneyoung L; Kaufman, Bruce A; Krishnamurthy, Satish

    2016-03-01

    /hr, diagnoses the blockage or lack of flow, and records real-time continuous flow data in patients with EVDs. Calculations of a wide variety of diagnostic parameters can be made from the waveform recordings, including resistance and compliance of the ventricular catheters and the compliance of the brain. The sensor's clinical applications may be of particular importance to the noninvasive diagnosis of shunt malfunctions with the development of an implantable device.

  5. Probing minority population of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tianxun; Zheng, Yan; Yan, Ya; Yang, Lingling; Yao, Yihui; Zheng, Jiaxin; Wu, Lina; Wang, Xu; Chen, Yuqing; Xing, Jinchun; Yan, Xiaomei

    2016-06-15

    The evolution and spread of antibiotic-resistant pathogens has become a major threat to public health. Advanced tools are urgently needed to quickly diagnose antibiotic-resistant infections to initiate appropriate treatment. Here we report the development of a highly sensitive flow cytometric method to probe minority population of antibiotic-resistant bacteria via single cell detection. Monoclonal antibody against TEM-1 β-lactamase and Alexa Fluor 488-conjugated secondary antibody were used to selectively label resistant bacteria green, and nucleic acid dye SYTO 62 was used to stain all the bacteria red. A laboratory-built high sensitivity flow cytometer (HSFCM) was applied to simultaneously detect the side scatter and dual-color fluorescence signals of single bacteria. By using E. coli JM109/pUC19 and E. coli JM109 as the model systems for antibiotic-resistant and antibiotic-susceptible bacteria, respectively, as low as 0.1% of antibiotic-resistant bacteria were accurately quantified. By monitoring the dynamic population change of a bacterial culture with the administration of antibiotics, we confirmed that under the antimicrobial pressure, the original low population of antibiotic-resistant bacteria outcompeted susceptible strains and became the dominant population after 5hours of growth. Detection of antibiotic-resistant infection in clinical urine samples was achieved without cultivation, and the bacterial load of susceptible and resistant strains can be faithfully quantified. Overall, the HSFCM-based quantitative method provides a powerful tool for the fundamental studies of antibiotic resistance and holds the potential to provide rapid and precise guidance in clinical therapies. PMID:26852201

  6. Global Qualitative Flow-Path Modeling for Local State Determination in Simulation and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T. (Inventor); Fleming, Land D. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    For qualitative modeling and analysis, a general qualitative abstraction of power transmission variables (flow and effort) for elements of flow paths includes information on resistance, net flow, permissible directions of flow, and qualitative potential is discussed. Each type of component model has flow-related variables and an associated internal flow map, connected into an overall flow network of the system. For storage devices, the implicit power transfer to the environment is represented by "virtual" circuits that include an environmental junction. A heterogeneous aggregation method simplifies the path structure. A method determines global flow-path changes during dynamic simulation and analysis, and identifies corresponding local flow state changes that are effects of global configuration changes. Flow-path determination is triggered by any change in a flow-related device variable in a simulation or analysis. Components (path elements) that may be affected are identified, and flow-related attributes favoring flow in the two possible directions are collected for each of them. Next, flow-related attributes are determined for each affected path element, based on possibly conflicting indications of flow direction. Spurious qualitative ambiguities are minimized by using relative magnitudes and permissible directions of flow, and by favoring flow sources over effort sources when comparing flow tendencies. The results are output to local flow states of affected components.

  7. Integer Equal Flows

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, C A; Schulz, A S

    2009-01-07

    The integer equal flow problem is an NP-hard network flow problem, in which all arcs in given sets R{sub 1}, ..., R{sub {ell}} must carry equal flow. We show this problem is effectively inapproximable, even if the cardinality of each set R{sub k} is two. When {ell} is fixed, it is solvable in polynomial time.

  8. Elbow mass flow meter

    DOEpatents

    McFarland, Andrew R.; Rodgers, John C.; Ortiz, Carlos A.; Nelson, David C.

    1994-01-01

    Elbow mass flow meter. The present invention includes a combination of an elbow pressure drop generator and a shunt-type mass flow sensor for providing an output which gives the mass flow rate of a gas that is nearly independent of the density of the gas. For air, the output is also approximately independent of humidity.

  9. Blood Flow in Arteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, David N.

    Blood flow in arteries is dominated by unsteady flow phenomena. The cardiovascular system is an internal flow loop with multiple branches in which a complex liquid circulates. A nondimensional frequency parameter, the Womersley number, governs the relationship between the unsteady and viscous forces. Normal arterial flow is laminar with secondary flows generated at curves and branches. The arteries are living organs that can adapt to and change with the varying hemodynamic conditions. In certain circumstances, unusual hemodynamic conditions create an abnormal biological response. Velocity profile skewing can create pockets in which the direction of the wall shear stress oscillates. Atherosclerotic disease tends to be localized in these sites and results in a narrowing of the artery lumena stenosis. The stenosis can cause turbulence and reduce flow by means of viscous head losses and flow choking. Very high shear stresses near the throat of the stenosis can activate platelets and thereby induce thrombosis, which can totally block blood flow to the heart or brain. Detection and quantification of stenosis serve as the basis for surgical intervention. In the future, the study of arterial blood flow will lead to the prediction of individual hemodynamic flows in any patient, the development of diagnostic tools to quantify disease, and the design of devices that mimic or alter blood flow. This field is rich with challenging problems in fluid mechanics involving three-dimensional, pulsatile flows at the edge of turbulence.

  10. An analysis of pressure driven cross-flow through a long slot connecting two parallel channels

    SciTech Connect

    Shadday, M.A. Jr.

    1992-12-31

    Cross-flow between two parallel channels that were connected by a long narrow slot has been measured. The data was presented primarily in terms of transverse resistance coefficients. This data has been analyzed with momentum balances applied to both the axial and transverse components of the slot flow. The importance of wall friction to the slot flow and the necessity of calculating the axial component of the slot flow is demonstrated.

  11. Template Matching Using a Fluid Flow Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, William Curtis

    Template matching is successfully used in machine recognition of isolated spoken words. In these systems a word is broken into frames (20 millisecond time slices) and the spectral characteristics of each frame are found. Thus, each word is represented as a 2-dimensional (2-D) function of spectral characteristic and frame number. An unknown word is recognized by matching its 2-D representation to previously stored example words, or templates, also in this 2-D form. A new model for this matching step will be introduced. The 2-D representations of the template and unknown are used to determine the shape of a volume of viscous fluid. This volume is broken up into many small elements. The unknown is changed into the template by allowing flows between the element boundaries. Finally the match between the template and unknown is determined by calculating a weighted squared sum of the flow values. The model also allows the relative flow resistance between the element boundaries to be changed. This is useful for characterizing the important features of a given template. The flow resistances are changed according to the gradient of a simple performance function. This performance function is evaluated using a set of training samples provided by the user. The model is applied to isolated word and single character recognition tasks. Results indicate the applications where this model works best.

  12. Skid Resistance Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Skidding causes many traffic accidents. Streets and highways with skid-resisting surfaces reduce the incidence of such accidents. In fact, resurfacing roads to improve skid resistance is now required by federal law. Skid resistance is measured by road testing with specially equipped skid trailers. A project underway at NASA-Langley may considerably reduce the cost of skid trailers, thus making them more widely available to highway departments. For testing the skid resistance of aircraft runways, Langley engineers developed a relatively inexpensive test vehicle and a "pulsed braking" technique that is now being applied experimentally to road testing. The vehicle is a standard automobile modified to incorporate instrumentation, special test tires and valves, and a trailing fifth wheel for monitoring distance and velocity. The instrumentation includes a low-cost meter, a set of accelerometers that sense motion changes, and a chart recorder.

  13. Resistance to Therapy.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Gabriel; Wakelee, Heather A

    2016-01-01

    Identification of driver mutations in adenocarcinoma of the lung has revolutionized the treatment of this disease. It is now standard of care to look for activating mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and translocations in anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) or ROS1 in all newly diagnosed adenocarcinoma of the lung, and in many patients with squamous cell carcinoma as well. Recognition of multiple other lung cancer driver mutations has also expanded treatment options. Targeted treatments of these mutations lead to rapid and prolonged responses, but resistance inevitably develops. Until recently, traditional chemotherapy was the only alternative at that time, but better understanding of resistance mechanisms has lead to additional therapeutic options. These mechanisms of resistance and treatments are the focus of this chapter. Understanding of mechanisms of chemotherapy resistance is touched upon, along with a brief discussion of immune checkpoint inhibitors. PMID:27535395

  14. Steroid resistant asthma.

    PubMed

    Luhadia, S K

    2014-03-01

    Inspite of very safe and effective treatment, Bronchial asthmatics do not respond well in 5-10% of cases which are labelled as Refractory Asthma. Besides compliance, presence of psychogenic and trigger factors and comorbid illness, steroid insensitiveness or resistance may play a significant role in the poorly controlled/responding asthmatics. Type I Steroid resistance is due to lack of binding affinity of steroids to glucocorticoid receptors and may respond to higher doses of steroids while type II steroid resistance is because of reduced number of cells with glucocorticoid receptors, which is very rare and do not respond to even higher doses of systemic steroids and these cases require alternative/novel therapies. Future treatment of steroid resistant and severe refractory asthma is likely to be targeted towards cytokines and Bronchial Thermoplasty.

  15. Earthquake resistant design

    SciTech Connect

    Dowrick, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    The author discusses recent advances in earthquake-resistant design. This book covers the entire design process, from aspects of loading to details of construction. Early chapters offer a broad theoretical background; later chapters provide rigorous coverage of practical aspects.

  16. All about Insulin Resistance

    MedlinePlus

    ... news is that cutting calories, being active, and losing weight can reverse insulin resistance and lower your ... you’ll lose weight. Studies have shown that losing even 7% of your weight, may help. For ...

  17. Pathways to Tamoxifen Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Riggins, Rebecca B.; Schrecengost, Randy S.; Guerrero, Michael S.; Bouton, Amy H.

    2007-01-01

    Therapies that target the synthesis of estrogen or the function of estrogen receptor(s) have been developed to treat breast cancer. While these approaches have proven to be beneficial to a large number of patients, both de novo and acquired resistance to these drugs is a significant problem. Recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that contribute to resistance have provided a means to begin to predict patient responses to these drugs and develop rational approaches for combining therapeutic agents to circumvent or desensitize the resistant phenotype. Here, we review common mechanisms of antiestrogen resistance and discuss the implications for prediction of response and design of effective combinatorial treatments. PMID:17475399

  18. Systemic Acquired Resistance

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Upon infection with necrotizing pathogens many plants develop an enhanced resistance to further pathogen attack also in the uninoculated organs. This type of enhanced resistance is referred to as systemic acquired resistance (SAR). In the SAR state, plants are primed (sensitized) to more quickly and more effectively activate defense responses the second time they encounter pathogen attack. Since SAR depends on the ability to access past experience, acquired disease resistance is a paradigm for the existence of a form of “plant memory”. Although the phenomenon has been known since the beginning of the 20th century, major progress in the understanding of SAR was made over the past sixteen years. This review covers the current knowledge of molecular, biochemical and physiological mechanisms that are associated with SAR. PMID:19521483

  19. Behavior of Settling Marine Larvae in Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, J.; Koehl, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    Many bottom-dwelling marine animals produce microscopic larvae that are dispersed by ambient water currents. These larvae can only recruit to habitats on which they have landed if they can resist being washed away by ambient water flow. We found that larvae on marine surfaces do not experience steady water flow, but rather are exposed to brief pulses of water movement as turbulent eddies sweep across them. We made video recordings of larvae of the tube worm, Hydroides elegans, (important members of the community of organisms growing on docks and ships) on surfaces subjected to measured realistic flow pulses to study factors that might affect their dislodgement from surfaces in nature. We found that the response of a larva of H. elegans to a realistic pulse of water flow depended on its behavior at the time of the pulse and on its recent history of exposure to flow pulses, and that stationary larvae were less likely than locomoting larvae to be blown away when hit by the first pulse of water flow.; ;

  20. Lateral flow strip assay

    DOEpatents

    Miles, Robin R.; Benett, William J.; Coleman, Matthew A.; Pearson, Francesca S.; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L.

    2011-03-08

    A lateral flow strip assay apparatus comprising a housing; a lateral flow strip in the housing, the lateral flow strip having a receiving portion; a sample collection unit; and a reagent reservoir. Saliva and/or buccal cells are collected from an individual using the sample collection unit. The sample collection unit is immersed in the reagent reservoir. The tip of the lateral flow strip is immersed in the reservoir and the reagent/sample mixture wicks up into the lateral flow strip to perform the assay.

  1. Fundamentals of flow measurement

    SciTech Connect

    De Carlo, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    This book provides an understanding of flow measurement methods. Twelve separate units are designed to introduce the two basic approaches to flow measurement. ''Energy Extractive'' and ''Energy Additive,'' the general classes and types of flowmeters, the terminology associated with flow measurement, special techniques, mass flow measurement and the methodology for flowmeter selection. It explains the basic approaches to flow measurement and the different classes of flowmeters; flowmeter terminology; the basic theory of operation of different flowmeters; choosing the correct approach, class type, and particular device to satisfy the specified requirement; and sizing a flowmeter to satisfy the requirements of an installation.

  2. Estimating hyperconcentrated flow discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-02-01

    Determining flow discharge in torrential mountain floods can help in managing flood risk. However, standard methods of estimating discharge have significant uncertainties. To reduce these uncertainties, Bodoque et al. developed an iterative methodological approach to flow estimation based on a method known as the critical depth method along with paleoflood evidence. They applied the method to study a flash flood that occurred on 17 December 1997 in the Arroyo Cabrera catchment in central Spain. This large flow event, triggered by torrential rains, was complex and included hyperconcentrated flows, which are flows of water mixed with significant amounts of sediment.

  3. Low flow fume hood

    DOEpatents

    Bell, Geoffrey C.; Feustel, Helmut E.; Dickerhoff, Darryl J.

    2002-01-01

    A fume hood is provided having an adequate level of safety while reducing the amount of air exhausted from the hood. A displacement flow fume hood works on the principal of a displacement flow which displaces the volume currently present in the hood using a push-pull system. The displacement flow includes a plurality of air supplies which provide fresh air, preferably having laminar flow, to the fume hood. The displacement flow fume hood also includes an air exhaust which pulls air from the work chamber in a minimally turbulent manner. As the displacement flow produces a substantially consistent and minimally turbulent flow in the hood, inconsistent flow patterns associated with contaminant escape from the hood are minimized. The displacement flow fume hood largely reduces the need to exhaust large amounts of air from the hood. It has been shown that exhaust air flow reductions of up to 70% are possible without a decrease in the hood's containment performance. The fume hood also includes a number of structural adaptations which facilitate consistent and minimally turbulent flow within a fume hood.

  4. Flow separation detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mateer, G. C.; Brosh, A. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An arrangement for sensing the fluid separation along a surface which employs a thermally insulating element having a continuous surface blending into and forming a part of the fluid flow surface is described. A sudden decrease in the temperature of the downstream sensor conductor and concomitant increase in the temperature of the upstream sensor conductor is an indication of the separation. When the temperatures are returned to the state achieved during normal flow, the indicator thereby indicates the normal, attached fluid flow. The conductors may be, for example, wires or thin films, and should be within the viscous sub-layer of the expected fluid flow. A single heater and several pairs of sensors and corresponding sensor conductors may be used to detect not only the fluid flow and the separation, but the direction of the fluid flow, over the fluid flow surface.

  5. Cerebral blood flow velocity in two patients with neonatal cerebral infarction.

    PubMed

    Nishimaki, S; Seki, K; Yokota, S

    2001-04-01

    Cerebral blood flow velocity was measured in the middle cerebral artery of two patients who exhibited unilateral neonatal cerebral infarction during the neonatal period. Doppler studies demonstrated increases in cerebral blood flow velocity but decreases in the resistance index on the affected side of the middle cerebral artery in the neonate who developed hemiplegia with cystic encephalomalacia, although the neonate with normal neurologic outcome exhibited symmetric cerebral blood flow velocity and resistance index. The asymmetry in cerebral blood flow velocity measurements of both middle cerebral arteries may be useful to evaluate the severity of brain damage and predict the neurodevelopmental prognosis of unilateral neonatal cerebral infarction. PMID:11377112

  6. [Quantification and monitoring of vascular resistance in the lower limbs by the Doppler method (animal model)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbeille, P.; Berson, M.; Blondeau, B.; Durand, A.; Bodard, S.; Locatelli, A.; Fox, G. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    The object of this study was to define and validate a non-invasive method of evaluation and monitoring of vascular resistances in the leg. Blood flow velocity was measured by Doppler ultrasound in an animal model (ewe) with similar blood flow characteristics in the lower limb as man and allowing access to the required invasive measurements for validation of the method (pressure and flow). Vascular resistances distal to the measuring point (femoral, for example) were assessed using the resistance index R = D/S, S being the peak systolic deflection and D that of diastolic reflux of the Doppler spectral analysis of flow in the femoral artery. The values and variations of this resistance index were compared with the vascular resistances calculated from measurements of pressure and flow at the point of Doppler sampling and expressed in mmHg/ml/min. Femoral flow was measured by Doppler ultrasound (Doppler-echo), and mean pressure by an arterial catheter introduced into the abdominal aorta. Compression of the lower limb veins induced a venous return resulting in a reduction of cardiac output and femoral flow. During compression, femoral flow decreased by an average of 29% (p < 0.001) although mean pressure and heart rate did not change significantly. The femoral resistance index (Rf) increased by an average of 37.5% (p < 0.01) and vascular resistances increased by 45.9% (p < 0.01). Injection of 1 mg adrenaline induced peripheral vasoconstriction with an increase in blood pressure and a decrease in heart rate and femoral flow.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  7. Thermal-Interaction Matrix For Resistive Test Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, Martin G.; Dhiman, Jaipal K.; Zamani, Nasser

    1990-01-01

    Linear mathematical model predicts increase in temperature in each segment of 15-segment resistive structure used to test electromigration. Assumption of linearity based on fact: equations that govern flow of heat are linear and coefficients in equations (heat conductivities and capacities) depend only weakly on temperature and considered constant over limited range of temperature.

  8. 42 CFR 84.91 - Breathing resistance test; exhalation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 25 mm. (1 inch) water-column height. (c) The exhalation resistance of pressure-demand apparatus shall not exceed the static pressure in the facepiece by more than 51 mm. (2 inches) water-column height. (d) The static pressure (at zero flow) in the facepiece shall not exceed 38 mm. (1.5 inches)...

  9. Module Three: Resistance; Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    In this module the student will learn of the opposition offered to electron flow, what this opposition does, why it is needed, and how it is used. The module is divided into four lessons: characteristics of resistance, resistors, resistor values, and ohmmeters. Each lesson consists of an overview, a list of study resources, lesson narratives,…

  10. Characterization of fracture aperture field heterogeneity by electrical resistance measurement.

    PubMed

    Boschan, A; Ippolito, I; Chertcoff, R; Hulin, J P; Auradou, H

    2011-04-01

    We use electrical resistance measurements to characterize the aperture field in a rough fracture. This is done by performing displacement experiments using two miscible fluids of different electrical resistivity and monitoring the time variation of the overall fracture resistance. Two fractures have been used: their complementary rough walls are identical but have different relative shear displacements which create "channel" or "barrier" structures in the aperture field, respectively parallel or perpendicular to the mean flow velocity U(→). In the "channel" geometry, the resistance displays an initial linear variation followed by a tail part which reflects the velocity contrast between slow and fast flow channels. In the "barrier" geometry, a change in the slope between two linear zones suggests the existence of domains of different characteristic aperture along the fracture. These variations are well reproduced analytically and numerically using simple flow models. For each geometry, we present then a data inversion procedure that allows one to extract the key features of the heterogeneity from the resistance measurement.

  11. CD30 downregulation, MMAE resistance, and MDR1 upregulation are all associated with resistance to brentuximab vedotin

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Robert; Hou, Jessie; Newman, Edward; Kim, Young; Donohue, Cecile; Liu, Xueli; Thomas, Sandra H.; Forman, Stephen J.; Kane, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    Brentuximab vedotin (BV) is an antibody-drug conjugate that specifically delivers the potent cytotoxic drug MMAE to CD30-positive cells. BV is FDA-approved for treatment of relapsed/refractory Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL); however, many patients do not achieve complete remission and develop BV resistant disease. We selected for BV-resistant HL (L428) and ALCL (Karpas-299) cell lines using either constant (ALCL) or pulsatile (HL) exposure to BV. We confirmed drug resistance by MTS assay, and analyzed CD30 expression in resistant cells by flow cytometry, qRT-PCR, and Western blotting. We also measured drug exporter expression, MMAE resistance, and intracellular MMAE concentrations in BV-resistant cells. Additionally, tissue biopsy samples from 10 HL and 5 ALCL patients who had relapsed or progressed after BV treatment were analyzed by immunohistocytochemistry for CD30 expression. The resistant ALCL cell line, but not the HL cell line, demonstrated downregulated CD30 expression compared to the parental cell line. In contrast, the HL cell line, but not the ALCL cell line, exhibited MMAE resistance and increased expression of the MDR1 drug exporter compared to the parental line. For both HL and ALCL, samples from patients relapsed/resistant on BV persistently expressed CD30 by immunohistocytochemistry. One HL patient sample expressed MDR1 by immunohistocytochemistry. Although loss of CD30 expression is a possible mode of BV resistance in ALCL in vitro models, this has not been confirmed in patients. MMAE resistance and MDR1 expression are possible modes of BV resistance for HL both in vitro and in patients. PMID:25840583

  12. Using a genetic network to parameterize a landscape resistance surface for fishers, Martes pennanti.

    PubMed

    Garroway, Colin J; Bowman, Jeff; Wilson, Paul J

    2011-10-01

    Knowledge of dispersal-related gene flow is important for addressing many basic and applied questions in ecology and evolution. We used landscape genetics to understand the recovery of a recently expanded population of fishers (Martes pennanti) in Ontario, Canada. An important focus of landscape genetics is modelling the effects of landscape features on gene flow. Most often resistance surfaces in landscape genetic studies are built a priori based upon nongenetic field data or expert opinion. The resistance surface that best fits genetic data is then selected and interpreted. Given inherent biases in using expert opinion or movement data to model gene flow, we sought an alternative approach. We used estimates of conditional genetic distance derived from a network of genetic connectivity to parameterize landscape resistance and build a final resistance surface based upon information-theoretic model selection and multi-model averaging. We sampled 657 fishers from 31 landscapes, genotyped them at 16 microsatellite loci, and modelled the effects of snow depth, road density, river density, and coniferous forest on gene flow. Our final model suggested that road density, river density, and snow depth impeded gene flow during the fisher population expansion demonstrating that both human impacts and seasonal habitat variation affect gene flow for fishers. Our approach to building landscape genetic resistance surfaces mitigates many of the problems and caveats associated with using either nongenetic field data or expert opinion to derive resistance surfaces. PMID:21883589

  13. Flow distribution in the manifold of PEM fuel cell stack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chung-Hsien; Jung, Shiauh-Ping; Yen, Shi-Chern

    In this study, the pressure variation and the flow distribution in the manifold of a fuel-cell stack are simulated by a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. Two dimensional stack model composed of 72 cells filled with porous media is constructed to evaluate pressure drop caused by channel flow resistance. In order to simplify this model, electrochemical reactions, heat and mass transport phenomena are ignored and air is treated as working fluid to investigate flow distribution in stacks. Design parameters such as the permeability of the porous media, the manifold width and the air feeding rate were changed to estimate uniformity of the flow distribution in the manifold. A momentum-balance theory and a pressure-drop model are presented to explain the physical mechanism of flow distribution. Modeling results indicate that both the channel resistance and the manifold width can enhance the uniformity of the flow distribution. In addition, a lower air feeding rate can also enhance the uniformity of flow distribution. However, excessive pressure drop is not beneficial for realistic applications of a fuel-cell stack and hence enhanced manifold width is a better solution for flow distribution.

  14. Intracellular resistance and conduction in bullfrog atrium.

    PubMed

    Scubon-Mulieri, B; Sichel, F J

    1975-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to study the mechanism of transmission across the junctions between cells of cardiac muscle. Two cases, one with high resistance junction and the second with low resistance junctions, were modeled mathematically and each model was analyzed to predict the ratio of the transverse to longitudinal threshold field strengths. This ratio was measured experimentally for atrial trabeculae from Rana catesbiana and agreed well with the value predicted by the model in which the resistance of the membranes at the junctions is low. It can be inferred, therefore, that the resistance at the junctions between cells of bullfrog atrial muscle is low enough to permit the flow of sufficient current from the pre- to postjunctional cell to cause excitation of the latter. One parameter required in the analysis was the space constant, lambda. This was measured with the trabecula in a volume conductor using a large planar external electrode to produce a change in the transmembrane potential and a microelectrode to measure the spatial decrement of the electrotonic potential. The measurements of electrotonic decrement in 16 trabeculae are pooled to provide an estimate of the value of the space constant in frog atrial trabeculae: lambda= 0.863 +/- 0.041 mm, s.d., n=96. PMID:1083538

  15. Resistant starches and health.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Cyril W C; Emam, Azadeh; Augustin, Livia S A; Jenkins, David J A

    2004-01-01

    It was initially hypothesized that resistant starches, i.e., starch that enters the colon, would have protective effects on chronic colonic diseases, including reduction of colon cancer risk and in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. Recent studies have confirmed the ability of resistant starch to increase fecal bulk, increase the molar ratio of butyrate in relation to other short-chain fatty acids, and dilute fecal bile acids. However the ability of resistant starch to reduce luminal concentrations of compounds that are damaging to the colonic mucosa, including fecal ammonia, phenols, and N-nitroso compounds, still requires clear demonstration. As such, the effectiveness of resistant starch in preventing or treating colonic diseases remains to be assessed. Nevertheless, there is a fraction of what has been termed resistant (RS1) starch, which enters the colon and acts as slowly digested or lente carbohydrate in the small intestine. Foods in this class are low glycemic index and have been shown to reduce the risk of chronic disease. They have been associated with systemic physiological effects such as reduced postprandial insulin levels and higher HDL cholesterol levels. Consumption of low glycemic index foods has been shown to be related to reductions in risk of coronary heart disease and Type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes has in turn been related to a higher risk of colon cancer. If carbohydrates have a protective role in colon cancer prevention this may lie partly in the systemic effects of low glycemic index foods. The colonic advantages of different carbohydrates, varying in their glycemic index and resistant starch content, therefore, remain to be determined. However, as recent positive research findings continue to mount, there is reason for optimism over the possible health advantages of those resistant starches, which are slowly digested in the small intestine. PMID:15287678

  16. Effect of laryngeal hemiplegia and laryngoplasty on airway flow mechanics in exercising horses.

    PubMed

    Derksen, F J; Stick, J A; Scott, E A; Robinson, N E; Slocombe, R F

    1986-01-01

    The effect of left laryngeal hemiplegia on airway flow mechanics in 5 exercising horses was examined, and the efficacy of surgical repair by prosthetic laryngoplasty was evaluated. Measurements of the upper airway flow mechanics were made with horses on a treadmill (incline 6.38 degrees) while standing (period A); walking at 1.3 m/s (period B); trotting at 2.6 m/s (period C); trotting at 4.3 m/s (period D); and standing after exercise (period E). Experiments were done on healthy horses before any surgical manipulation (control), at 10 days after left recurrent laryngeal neurectomy, and at least 14 days after prosthetic larynogoplasty. Increasing treadmill speed from period A to period D progressively increased heart rate, respiratory frequency, peak inspiratory flow, and peak expiratory flow, but inspiratory resistance and expiratory resistance remained unchanged. Neither left recurrent laryngeal neutrectomy nor prosthetic laryngoplasty affected heart rate, respiratory frequency, peak expiratory flow, or expiratory resistance when compared with those values at the control measurement periods. Left recurrent laryngeal neurectomy resulted in inspiratory flow limitation at peak inspiratory flow of approximately 25 L/s, and increased inspiratory resistance at periods D and E. Subsequent prosthetic laryngoplasty alleviated the flow limitation and reduced inspiratory resistance at measurement periods D and E.

  17. Resistivity and phase in localized BIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiffman, C. A.; Aaron, R.; Amoss, V.; Therrien, J.; Coomler, K.

    1999-10-01

    We describe a system for highly reproducible non-invasive rf impedance measurements as a function of position along body segments such as the thigh. Results are reported for mainly healthy male and female subjects ranging in age from 19 to 65 and in body-mass index from 15 to 40. A principal conclusion is that the phase of the impedance falls monotonically with increasing distance from the knee, with average values substantially above what is found using standard, whole-body bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). To compensate for thigh shape, the data are further analysed using an anatomical model based on reasonable approximations for the distributions of muscle, fat and bone, yielding values of the effective resistivity for current flow parallel to the muscle fibres. The phase and resistivity results are discussed with reference to the whole-body BIA study of maintenance haemodialysis patients by Chertow et al, and in regard to possible physiological correlations observed in this work.

  18. The Effects of Hyper- and Hypocapnia on Phonatory Laryngeal Airway Resistance in Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Amanda I.; Slivka, William; Atwood, Charles W., Jr.; Abbott, Katherine Verdolini

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The larynx has a dual role in the regulation of gas flow into and out of the lungs while also establishing resistance required for vocal fold vibration. This study assessed reciprocal relations between phonatory functions--specifically, phonatory laryngeal airway resistance (R[subscript law])--and respiratory homeostasis during states of…

  19. In-situ technique for checking the calibration of platinum resistance thermometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daryabeigi, Kamran; Dillon-Townes, Lawrence A.

    1987-01-01

    The applicability of the self-heating technique for checking the calibration of platinum resistance thermometers located inside wind tunnels was investigated. This technique is based on a steady state measurement of resistance increase versus joule heating. This method was found to be undesirable, mainly because of the fluctuations of flow variables during any wind tunnel testing.

  20. Study on local resistance of non-Newtonian power law fluid in elbow pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao; Xu, Tiantian; Zhang, Xinxin; Wang, Yuxiang; Wang, Yuancheng; Liu, Xueting

    2016-06-01

    This paper focuses on the flow characteristic and local resistance of non-Newtonian power law fluid in a curved 90° bend pipe with circular cross-sections, which are widely used in industrial applications. By employing numerical simulation and theoretical analysis the properties of the flow and local resistance of power law fluid under different working conditions are obtained. To explore the change rule the experiment is carried out by changing the Reynolds number, the wall roughness and different diameter ratio of elbow pipe. The variation of the local resistance coefficient with the Reynolds number, the diameter ratio and the wall roughness is presented comprehensively in the paper. The results show that the local resistance force coefficient hardly changes with Reynolds number of the power law fluid; the wall roughness has a significant impact on the local resistance coefficient. As the pipe wall roughness increasing, the coefficient of local resistance force will increase. The main reason of the influence of the roughness on the local resistance coefficient is the increase of the eddy current region in the power law fluid flow, which increases the kinetic energy dissipation of the main flow. This paper provides theoretical and numerical methods to understand the local resistance property of non-Newtonian power law fluid in elbow pipes.

  1. Magnetohydrodynamic flows sustaining stationary magnetic nulls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, Vyacheslav S.; Hornig, Gunnar

    2000-09-01

    Exact solutions of the resistive magnetohydrodynamic equations are derived which describe a stationary incompressible flow near a generic null point of a three-dimensional magnetic field. The properties of the solutions depend on the topological skeleton of the corresponding magnetic field. This skeleton is formed by one-dimensional and two-dimensional invariant manifolds (so-called spine line and fan plane) of the magnetic field. It is shown that configurations of generic null points may always be sustained by stationary field-aligned flows of the stagnation type, where the null points of the magnetic and velocity fields have the same location. However, if the absolute value |j∥| of the current density component parallel to the spine line exceeds a critical value jc, the solution is not unique—there is a second nontrivial solution describing spiral flows with the stagnation point at the magnetic null. The characteristic feature of these new flows is that they cross magnetic field lines but they do not cross the corresponding spine and fan of the magnetic null. Therefore these are nonideal but nonreconnecting flows. The critical value |j∥|=jc coincides exactly with a threshold separating the topological distinct improper radial and spiral nulls. It is shown that this is not an accidental coincidence: the spiral field-crossing flows of the considered type are possible only due to the topological equivalence of the field lines forming the fan plane of the spiral magnetic null. The explicit expression for the pressure distribution of the solution is given and its iso-surfaces are found to be always ellipsoidal for the field-aligned flows, while for the field-crossing flows there are also cases with a hyperboloidal structure.

  2. Dimensional analysis on resistance characteristics of labyrinth seals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Dongxu; Jia, Li; Yang, Lixin

    2014-12-01

    Experimental investigation of stepped and straight-through labyrinth seals was designed to study the sealing performance of two different typical labyrinth seals. In order to facilitate dimensional analysis on the flow resistance characteristics of labyrinth seals, the variable cross-section of the flow channels are considered as constant cross-section flow. The mechanical energy loss of flow caused by throttle turbulence intensity is considered as caused by friction along the way. The friction coefficient of stepped labyrinth seals is bigger than that of straight-through labyrinth seals by more than 40% for the same Reynolds number and the ratio of equivalent diameter and the seal length. The expression of friction coefficient f and fRe are obtained from experimental data. The verifications indicate that the expressions are highly accurate. The contribution to the total pressure drop of each tooth cavity gradually becomes less along the flow direction.

  3. Effect of chlorine purification on oxidation resistance of some mechanical carbons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wisander, D. W.; Allen, G. P.

    1974-01-01

    Oxidation experiments were conducted with some experimental and commercial mechanical carbons at 650 C in dry air flowing at 28 cc/sec (STP). In general, purification of these carbon-graphites with chlorine at 2800 C improved oxidation resistance. Additional improvements in oxidation resistance were obtained from purification followed by an antioxidant (zinc phosphate) treatment. For the commercial materials, purification alone gave greater oxidation resistance than the antioxidant treatment alone. The reverse, however, was the case for the experimental materials.

  4. Effects of hypercapnia and hypoxia on nasal vasculature and airflow resistance in the anaesthetized dog.

    PubMed

    Lung, M A; Wang, J C

    1986-04-01

    The experiments were performed on anaesthetized dogs which breathed spontaneously or were artificially ventilated and paralysed. The spontaneous nasal arterial blood flow was measured on one side of the nose while nasal vascular resistance was determined on the other side simultaneously. Nasal arterial blood flow was measured by means of an electromagnetic flow sensor placed around the terminal branch of the internal maxillary artery, the main arterial supply to the nasal mucosa. Nasal vascular resistance was measured by constant-flow perfusion of the terminal branch of the internal maxillary artery. Nasal airway resistance was assessed by monitoring the transnasal pressure at constant airflow through each side of the nose simultaneously. Hypercapnic gas challenge (8% CO2, 30% O2 in N2) to the lungs increased nasal vascular resistance and decreased nasal airway resistance. Similar gas challenge to the nose did not affect nasal vascular resistance but decreased nasal airway resistance. Hypoxic gas challenge (6% O2 in N2) to the lungs did not affect the nasal vascular resistance but decreased nasal airway resistance only when the nasal vascular bed was under controlled perfusion. Similar gas challenge to the nose did not affect either nasal vascular or airway resistance. Arterial chemoreceptor stimulation by intracarotid injection of sodium cyanide increased nasal vascular resistance and decreased nasal airway resistance. The nasal vascular response to hypercapnia and arterial chemoreceptor stimulation was reflex in nature, being abolished by nasal sympathectomy. The nasal airway response to hypercapnia, hypoxia and arterial chemoreceptor stimulation was reflex in nature, being partially or completely abolished by nasal sympathectomy. Hypercapnia probably induced a local vasodilatatory effect on the capacitance vessels whereas hypoxia had no direct action on the vasculature.

  5. 46 CFR 154.546 - Excess flow valve: Closing flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Excess flow valve: Closing flow. 154.546 Section 154.546... and Process Piping Systems § 154.546 Excess flow valve: Closing flow. (a) The rated closing flow of vapor or liquid cargo for an excess flow valve must be specially approved by the Commandant (CG-522)....

  6. 46 CFR 154.546 - Excess flow valve: Closing flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Excess flow valve: Closing flow. 154.546 Section 154.546... and Process Piping Systems § 154.546 Excess flow valve: Closing flow. (a) The rated closing flow of vapor or liquid cargo for an excess flow valve must be specially approved by the Commandant (CG-522)....

  7. 46 CFR 154.546 - Excess flow valve: Closing flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Excess flow valve: Closing flow. 154.546 Section 154.546... and Process Piping Systems § 154.546 Excess flow valve: Closing flow. (a) The rated closing flow of vapor or liquid cargo for an excess flow valve must be specially approved by the Commandant (CG-ENG)....

  8. 46 CFR 154.546 - Excess flow valve: Closing flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Excess flow valve: Closing flow. 154.546 Section 154.546... and Process Piping Systems § 154.546 Excess flow valve: Closing flow. (a) The rated closing flow of vapor or liquid cargo for an excess flow valve must be specially approved by the Commandant (CG-ENG)....

  9. Universality in legged locomotion on low-resistance ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Feifei; Korff, Wyatt; Umbanhowar, Paul; Full, Robert; Goldman, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Natural substrates like sand, snow, leaf litter and soil vary widely in penetration resistance, but little is known about how legged locomotors respond to this variation. To address this deficit, we built an air-fluidized trackway filled with granular material to control ground resistance. Resistance can be reduced to zero by increasing the upward flow of air through the bed. Using a hexapedal robot as our model locomotor, we systematically study how locomotion performance varies with penetration resistance, limb kinematics and foot morphology. A universal model, which combines robot kinematics and ground parameters, determines robot speed for all penetration resistances and captures the dependence of performance sensitivity on foot pressure and ground resistance. Expanding the scope of locomotors to include five organisms, we find that their performance on low-resistance ground is also well captured by the universal model. The model suggests that both increasing foot size and decreasing gait frequency reduce the performance loss as ground resistance decreases. Organisms may minimize the inertial effects of the granular media by maintaining maximum foot impact shear stresses through passive structures, e.g. long flexible toes, and active mechanisms, e.g. gait frequency control.

  10. Antibiotic resistance in wild birds

    PubMed Central

    Bonnedahl, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Wild birds have been postulated as sentinels, reservoirs, and potential spreaders of antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria have been isolated from a multitude of wild bird species. Several studies strongly indicate transmission of resistant bacteria from human rest products to wild birds. There is evidence suggesting that wild birds can spread resistant bacteria through migration and that resistant bacteria can be transmitted from birds to humans and vice versa. Through further studies of the spatial and temporal distribution of resistant bacteria in wild birds, we can better assess their role and thereby help to mitigate the increasing global problem of antibiotic resistance. PMID:24697355

  11. Antibiotic resistance in wild birds.

    PubMed

    Bonnedahl, Jonas; Järhult, Josef D

    2014-05-01

    Wild birds have been postulated as sentinels, reservoirs, and potential spreaders of antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria have been isolated from a multitude of wild bird species. Several studies strongly indicate transmission of resistant bacteria from human rest products to wild birds. There is evidence suggesting that wild birds can spread resistant bacteria through migration and that resistant bacteria can be transmitted from birds to humans and vice versa. Through further studies of the spatial and temporal distribution of resistant bacteria in wild birds, we can better assess their role and thereby help to mitigate the increasing global problem of antibiotic resistance. PMID:24697355

  12. Gut blood flow in the estuarine crocodile, Crocodylus porosus.

    PubMed

    Axelsson, M; Fritsche, R; Holmgren, S; Grove, D J; Nilsson, S

    1991-08-01

    Simultaneous recordings of blood flow in the right and left aorta and carotid and coeliac artery were made in the crocodile, Crocodylus porosus at rest and during various stimuli. In resting animals the right aorta and carotid artery flow profiles resembled the recordings obtained in the caiman (Axelsson et al. 1989a), with an anterograde blood flow throughout the cardiac cycle. As in the caiman, the left aorta flow profile was complex with both anterograde and retrograde blood flow during the cardiac cycle, and a net left aorta blood flow near zero at rest. The coeliac artery blood flow profile did not show the complex pattern seen in the upper aorta, immediately suggesting that most of the coeliac artery blood originates elsewhere. We believe that coeliac artery blood flow in the resting animal derives from the right aorta via the abdominal anastomosis between the two aortas. Feeding induced an increase in the coeliac artery and left aorta blood flow, probably due to a decrease in visceral vascular resistance, and hence coeliac arterial and the left aorta blood pressure, which facilitates blood flow (from right to left aorta) through the foramen of Panizza. During short 'fright dives', heart rate fell and there was a decrease in the recorded blood flows: carotid artery blood flow did not decrease to the same extent as the RAo and coeliac artery flow, indicating some capacity for redistribution of blood to the cephalic circuits during diving. Similarly, a near-unimpaired carotid artery blood flow was maintained after adrenaline injection. Substance P increased the coeliac artery blood flow and produced a right-to-left cardiac shunt, probably by construction of the pulmonary vasculature.

  13. Spore Resistance Properties.

    PubMed

    Setlow, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Spores of various Bacillus and Clostridium species are among the most resistant life forms known. Since the spores of some species are causative agents of much food spoilage, food poisoning, and human disease, and the spores of Bacillus anthracis are a major bioweapon, there is much interest in the mechanisms of spore resistance and how these spores can be killed. This article will discuss the factors involved in spore resistance to agents such as wet and dry heat, desiccation, UV and γ-radiation, enzymes that hydrolyze bacterial cell walls, and a variety of toxic chemicals, including genotoxic agents, oxidizing agents, aldehydes, acid, and alkali. These resistance factors include the outer layers of the spore, such as the thick proteinaceous coat that detoxifies reactive chemicals; the relatively impermeable inner spore membrane that restricts access of toxic chemicals to the spore core containing the spore's DNA and most enzymes; the low water content and high level of dipicolinic acid in the spore core that protect core macromolecules from the effects of heat and desiccation; the saturation of spore DNA with a novel group of proteins that protect the DNA against heat, genotoxic chemicals, and radiation; and the repair of radiation damage to DNA when spores germinate and return to life. Despite their extreme resistance, spores can be killed, including by damage to DNA, crucial spore proteins, the spore's inner membrane, and one or more components of the spore germination apparatus.

  14. MSMA resistance studies.

    PubMed

    Camper, N D; Keese, R J; Coker, P S

    2004-05-01

    Monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA)-resistant and -susceptible common cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium L.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) were treated with MSMA. Plant parameters analyzed were: glutathione synthetase activity, selected amino acid (arginine, glutamic acid, alanine, citrulline, glutamine, and glutathione) content and arsenic content (MSMA, total arsenic, and arsonate). No reduction of arsenic from the parent pentavalent form present in MSMA to the trivalent form was detected. Arginine, glutamic acid, and glutamine content increased in tissue three days after MSMA treatment. Glutathione content decreased during the first three days after treatment; however, five days after treatment the resistant biotype of cocklebur and cotton had elevated glutathione levels (8-20 times greater, respectively). Glutathione Synthetase activity was higher in cotton than in either of the cocklebur biotypes; MSMA did not affect its activity in cotton or either cocklebur biotype. Resistant biotypes have a slightly higher activity than the susceptible biotype. Tolerance of cotton to MSMA may be related to glutathione synthetase activity and possibly to the presence of phytochelatins. Also, increased glutathione levels in the resistant biotype may implicate phytochelatin involvement in the resistance mechanism.

  15. Steerable Catheter Microcoils for Interventional MRI: Reducing Resistive Heating

    PubMed Central

    Bernhardt, Anthony; Wilson, Mark W.; Settecase, Fabio; Evans, Leland; Malba, Vincent; Martin, Alastair J.; Saeed, Maythem; Roberts, Timothy P. L.; Arenson, Ronald L.; Hetts, Steven W.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE To assess resistive heating of microwires used for remote catheter steering in interventional magnetic resonance imaging. To investigate the use of alumina to facilitate heat transfer to saline flowing in the catheter lumen. MATERIALS AND METHODS A microcoil was fabricated using a laser lathe onto polyimide-tipped or alumina-tipped endovascular catheters. In vitro testing was performed in a 1.5 T MR system using a vessel phantom, body RF coil, and steady state pulse sequence. Resistive heating was measured with water flowing over a polyimide tip catheter, or saline flowing through the lumen of an alumina-tip catheter. Preliminary in vivo testing in porcine common carotid arteries was conducted with normal blood flow or after arterial ligation when current was applied to an alumnia-tip catheter for up to 5 minutes. RESULTS After application of up to 1 W of DC power, clinically significant temperature increases were noted with the polyimide-tip catheter: 23°C/W at zero flow, 13°C/W at 0.28 cc/s, and 7.9°C/W at 1 cc/s. Using the alumina-tip catheter, the effluent temperature rise using the lowest flow rate (0.12 cc/s) was 2.3°C/W. In vivo testing demonstrated no thermal injury to vessel walls at normal and zero arterial flow. CONCLUSION Resistive heating in current carrying wire pairs can be dissipated by saline coolant flowing within the lumen of a catheter tip composed of material that facilitates heat transfer. PMID:21075017

  16. Make peak flow a habit!

    MedlinePlus

    Asthma - make peak flow a habit; Reactive airway disease - peak flow; Bronchial asthma - peak flow ... your airways are narrowed and blocked due to asthma, your peak flow values drop. You can check ...

  17. Study of Contact Resistances in Integrated Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, M. G.; Lambe, J.; Suszko, S. F.

    1985-01-01

    Techniques explored in search for rapid, reliable test. Resistances of aluminum/silicon contacts and methods to measure subjects of NASA report. Study with three tasks undertaken to evaluate nature and reliability of large numbers of semiconductor contacts of type now being fabricated in integrated circuits: Develop yield analysis for series strings of contacts using wafer-level electrical measurements, and identify different types of faults by visual inspection; develop wafer-level tests to evaluate reliability of contact strings; and develop mathematical model for current flow in contacts and examine contact region for evidence of micro-alloying.

  18. Response time correlations for platinum resistance thermometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pandey, D. K.; Ash, R. L.; Dillon-Townes, L. A.

    1985-01-01

    The 'plunge method' recommended by ASTM has been used to determine the time constant of 100-ohm platinum resistance thermometers (PRT) considered for use in the National Transonic Facility. It is shown that the response time of ventilated PRT can be correlated with the reciprocal of the heat transfer coefficient in a given field. Universal correlations are established for the 100- and 1000-ohm PRT with uncertainties of 20 and 30 percent, respectively. The correlations are found to be consistent with the uncertainty involved in heat transfer correlations available in the literature and are recommended for use in flowing liquids and gases.

  19. Effect of the eccentricity of normal resistivity borehole tools on the current field and resistivity measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galsa, Attila; Herein, Mátyás; Drahos, Dezső; Herein, András

    2016-11-01

    Three-dimensional finite element numerical model calculations have been carried out to investigate the quantitative effect of the eccentric position of a normal resistivity borehole probe used in practice. Detailed calculations were done between the point-wise analytical solution and numerical solution to verify the results obtained from the finite element method for a normal probe with finite-length cylindrical electrodes. In the borehole the pattern of the current flowing out from current electrode A is efficiently influenced by the eccentricity. For high-resistivity rock the current density is decreased, while for low-resistivity rock it is increased toward the wall side. On the other hand, the eccentricity does not affect considerably the apparent resistivity calculated from electrode potentials. In most geological situations the deviation is less than 2%. However, in infrequent cases when the true resistivity of the rock is extremely low and/or the distance between the potential and current electrodes is very small the effect of the eccentricity can exceed even 10%.

  20. Aerosound from corner flow and flap flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meecham, W. C.

    1982-01-01

    Noise generation at the edge of a wing flap is analyzed. The phenomenon as a single vortex moving around a corner in an incompressible, potential flow is modelled. Vortex image retarding effects are proposed as an explanation for small Strouhal numbers. The model surface pressures, sound pressures (using Curle's theory), and Mach number dependencies agree with wind tunnel experiments. A double pressure peak is found in the model (credited to image action) which is qualitatively similar to measured sound correlations. Incompressible flow aerosound calculations are discussed. The effects of a series of vortices moving in the same idealized potential flow are also studied. The vortices are assumed to be statistically independent so their intensities can be added. The frequency of appearance of the vortices are determined from measurements. Diffraction effects caused by the presence of the wing near the dipole sound radiators on the flap surfaces are included.

  1. New plane shear flows

    SciTech Connect

    Conley, A.

    1994-12-31

    A classical problem in fluid dynamics is the study of the stability of plane Couette flow. This flow experimentally sustains turbulence for Reynolds numbers greater than 1440 {+-} 40. (The Reynolds number is based on channel width and wall velocity difference). Since plane Couette flow is linearly stable for all Reynolds numbers, obtaining non-trivial mathematical solutions to the plane Couette flow equations is difficult. However, M. Nagata finds a non-trivial number solution of the plane Couette flow equations at low Reynolds number. We confirm these solutions. We compute the minimum Reynolds number at which they exist. We study their stability. We also study the effect of a Coriolis force on plane Poiseuille flow.

  2. Concentric Split Flow Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stapleton, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A concentric split flow filter may be configured to remove odor and/or bacteria from pumped air used to collect urine and fecal waste products. For instance, filter may be designed to effectively fill the volume that was previously considered wasted surrounding the transport tube of a waste management system. The concentric split flow filter may be configured to split the air flow, with substantially half of the air flow to be treated traveling through a first bed of filter media and substantially the other half of the air flow to be treated traveling through the second bed of filter media. This split flow design reduces the air velocity by 50%. In this way, the pressure drop of filter may be reduced by as much as a factor of 4 as compare to the conventional design.

  3. Hydraulic resistance of a plant root to water-uptake: A slender-body theory.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kang Ping

    2016-05-01

    A slender-body theory for calculating the hydraulic resistance of a single plant root is developed. The work provides an in-depth discussion on the procedure and the assumptions involved in calculating a root׳s internal hydraulic resistance as well as the physical and the mathematical aspects of the external three-dimensional flow around the tip of a root in a saturated soil and how this flow pattern enhances uptake and reduces hydraulic resistance. Analytical solutions for the flux density distribution on the stele-cortex interface, local water-uptake profile inside the stele core, the overall water-uptake at the base of the stele, and the total hydraulic resistance of a root are obtained in the slender-body limit. It is shown that a key parameter controlling a root's hydraulic resistance is the dimensionless axial conductivity in the stele, which depends on the permeabilities of the stele and the cortex as well as the root's radial and axial dimensions. Three-dimensional tip effect reduces a root's hydraulic resistance by as much as 36% when compared to the radial flow theory of Landsberg and Fowkes. In addition, the total hydraulic resistance cannot be generally decomposed into the direct sum of a radial resistance and an axial resistance.

  4. Hydraulic resistance of a plant root to water-uptake: A slender-body theory.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kang Ping

    2016-05-01

    A slender-body theory for calculating the hydraulic resistance of a single plant root is developed. The work provides an in-depth discussion on the procedure and the assumptions involved in calculating a root׳s internal hydraulic resistance as well as the physical and the mathematical aspects of the external three-dimensional flow around the tip of a root in a saturated soil and how this flow pattern enhances uptake and reduces hydraulic resistance. Analytical solutions for the flux density distribution on the stele-cortex interface, local water-uptake profile inside the stele core, the overall water-uptake at the base of the stele, and the total hydraulic resistance of a root are obtained in the slender-body limit. It is shown that a key parameter controlling a root's hydraulic resistance is the dimensionless axial conductivity in the stele, which depends on the permeabilities of the stele and the cortex as well as the root's radial and axial dimensions. Three-dimensional tip effect reduces a root's hydraulic resistance by as much as 36% when compared to the radial flow theory of Landsberg and Fowkes. In addition, the total hydraulic resistance cannot be generally decomposed into the direct sum of a radial resistance and an axial resistance. PMID:26920247

  5. Insecticide Resistance in Fleas

    PubMed Central

    Rust, Michael K.

    2016-01-01

    Fleas are the major ectoparasite of cats, dogs, and rodents worldwide and potential vectors of animal diseases. In the past two decades the majority of new control treatments have been either topically applied or orally administered to the host. Most reports concerning the development of insecticide resistance deal with the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis felis. Historically, insecticide resistance has developed to many of the insecticides used to control fleas in the environment including carbamates, organophosphates, and pyrethroids. Product failures have been reported with some of the new topical treatments, but actual resistance has not yet been demonstrated. Failures have often been attributed to operational factors such as failure to adequately treat the pet and follow label directions. With the addition of so many new chemistries additional monitoring of flea populations is needed. PMID:26999217

  6. Insecticide Resistance in Fleas.

    PubMed

    Rust, Michael K

    2016-03-17

    Fleas are the major ectoparasite of cats, dogs, and rodents worldwide and potential vectors of animal diseases. In the past two decades the majority of new control treatments have been either topically applied or orally administered to the host. Most reports concerning the development of insecticide resistance deal with the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis felis. Historically, insecticide resistance has developed to many of the insecticides used to control fleas in the environment including carbamates, organophosphates, and pyrethroids. Product failures have been reported with some of the new topical treatments, but actual resistance has not yet been demonstrated. Failures have often been attributed to operational factors such as failure to adequately treat the pet and follow label directions. With the addition of so many new chemistries additional monitoring of flea populations is needed.

  7. Insecticide Resistance in Fleas.

    PubMed

    Rust, Michael K

    2016-01-01

    Fleas are the major ectoparasite of cats, dogs, and rodents worldwide and potential vectors of animal diseases. In the past two decades the majority of new control treatments have been either topically applied or orally administered to the host. Most reports concerning the development of insecticide resistance deal with the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis felis. Historically, insecticide resistance has developed to many of the insecticides used to control fleas in the environment including carbamates, organophosphates, and pyrethroids. Product failures have been reported with some of the new topical treatments, but actual resistance has not yet been demonstrated. Failures have often been attributed to operational factors such as failure to adequately treat the pet and follow label directions. With the addition of so many new chemistries additional monitoring of flea populations is needed. PMID:26999217

  8. Fast resistive bolometry

    SciTech Connect

    Spielman, R.B.; Deeney, C.; Fehl, D.L.; Hanson, D.L.; Keltner, N.R.; McGurn, J.S.; McKenney, J.L.

    1998-06-01

    Resistive bolometry is an accurate, robust, spectrally broadband technique for measuring absolute x-ray fluence and flux. Bolometry is an independent technique for x-ray measurements that is based on a different set of physical properties than other diagnostics such as x-ray diodes, photoconducting detectors, and P-I-N diodes. Bolometers use the temperature-driven change in element resistivity to determine the total deposited energy. The calibration of such a device is based on fundamental material properties and its physical dimensions. The authors describe the use of nickel and gold bolometers to measure x rays generated by high power Z pinches on Sandia`s Saturn and Z accelerators. The Sandia bolometer design described herein has a pulse response of {approximately}1 ns. They describe in detail the fabrication, fielding, and data analysis issues leading to highly accurate x-ray measurements. The fundamental accuracy of resistive bolometry will be discussed.

  9. Two phase potential flow

    SciTech Connect

    Wallis, G.B.

    1991-06-01

    New results for the flow of a dispersion of particles in an inviscid irrotational flow are reported. Equations of motion for an isotropic assembly have been derived and applied to several example problems. Theorems have been derived relating the macroscopic (averaged) properties of flows composed of unit cells. The effective conductivity of a suspension has been obtained in new ways, using the method of images, and related to forces exerted by a fluid on particles when there is relative motion. 11 refs.

  10. Solids mass flow determination

    DOEpatents

    Macko, Joseph E.

    1981-01-01

    Method and apparatus for determining the mass flow rate of solids mixed with a transport fluid to form a flowing mixture. A temperature differential is established between the solids and fluid. The temperature of the transport fluid prior to mixing, the temperature of the solids prior to mixing, and the equilibrium temperature of the mixture are monitored and correlated in a heat balance with the heat capacities of the solids and fluid to determine the solids mass flow rate.

  11. Microparticle Flow Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R.

    2005-01-01

    The microparticle flow sensor (MFS) is a system for identifying and counting microscopic particles entrained in a flowing liquid. The MFS includes a transparent, optoelectronically instrumented laminar-flow chamber (see figure) and a computer for processing instrument-readout data. The MFS could be used to count microparticles (including micro-organisms) in diverse applications -- for example, production of microcapsules, treatment of wastewater, pumping of industrial chemicals, and identification of ownership of liquid products.

  12. Polyoxometalate flow battery

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Travis M.; Pratt, Harry D.

    2016-03-15

    Flow batteries including an electrolyte of a polyoxometalate material are disclosed herein. In a general embodiment, the flow battery includes an electrochemical cell including an anode portion, a cathode portion and a separator disposed between the anode portion and the cathode portion. Each of the anode portion and the cathode portion comprises a polyoxometalate material. The flow battery further includes an anode electrode disposed in the anode portion and a cathode electrode disposed in the cathode portion.

  13. Vapor resistant arteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaubach, Robert M. (Inventor); Dussinger, Peter M. (Inventor); Buchko, Matthew T. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A vapor block resistant liquid artery structure for heat pipes. A solid tube artery with openings is encased in the sintered material of a heat pipe wick. The openings are limited to that side of the artery which is most remote from the heat source. The liquid in the artery can thus exit the artery through the openings and wet the sintered sheath, but vapor generated at the heat source is unlikely to move around the solid wall of the artery and reverse its direction in order to penetrate the artery through the openings. An alternate embodiment uses finer pore size wick material to resist vapor entry.

  14. Tackling antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Bush, Karen; Courvalin, Patrice; Dantas, Gautam; Davies, Julian; Eisenstein, Barry; Huovinen, Pentti; Jacoby, George A; Kishony, Roy; Kreiswirth, Barry N; Kutter, Elizabeth; Lerner, Stephen A; Levy, Stuart; Lewis, Kim; Lomovskaya, Olga; Miller, Jeffrey H; Mobashery, Shahriar; Piddock, Laura J V; Projan, Steven; Thomas, Christopher M; Tomasz, Alexander; Tulkens, Paul M; Walsh, Timothy R; Watson, James D; Witkowski, Jan; Witte, Wolfgang; Wright, Gerry; Yeh, Pamela; Zgurskaya, Helen I

    2011-11-02

    The development and spread of antibiotic resistance in bacteria is a universal threat to both humans and animals that is generally not preventable but can nevertheless be controlled, and it must be tackled in the most effective ways possible. To explore how the problem of antibiotic resistance might best be addressed, a group of 30 scientists from academia and industry gathered at the Banbury Conference Centre in Cold Spring Harbor, New York, USA, from 16 to 18 May 2011. From these discussions there emerged a priority list of steps that need to be taken to resolve this global crisis.

  15. Tackling antibiotic resistance

    PubMed Central

    Bush, Karen; Courvalin, Patrice; Dantas, Gautam; Davies, Julian; Eisenstein, Barry; Huovinen, Pentti; Jacoby, George A.; Kishony, Roy; Kreiswirth, Barry N.; Kutter, Elizabeth; Lerner, Stephen A.; Levy, Stuart; Lewis, Kim; Lomovskaya, Olga; Miller, Jeffrey H.; Mobashery, Shahriar; Piddock, Laura J. V.; Projan, Steven; Thomas, Christopher M.; Tomasz, Alexander; Tulkens, Paul M.; Walsh, Timothy R.; Watson, James D.; Witkowski, Jan; Witte, Wolfgang; Wright, Gerry; Yeh, Pamela; Zgurskaya, Helen I.

    2014-01-01

    The development and spread of antibiotic resistance in bacteria is a universal threat to both humans and animals that is generally not preventable, but can nevertheless be controlled and must be tackled in the most effective ways possible. To explore how the problem of antibiotic resistance might best be addressed, a group of thirty scientists from academia and industry gathered at the Banbury Conference Centre in Cold Spring Harbor, New York, May 16-18, 2011. From these discussions emerged a priority list of steps that need to be taken to resolve this global crisis. PMID:22048738

  16. Flame Resistant Foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Solimide manufactured by Imi-Tech Corporation, is a lightweight fire resistant material produced under a manufacturing process that allows it to be uniformly foamed. Can be produced in a variety of densities and structural configurations and remains resilient under exposure to temperatures ranging from minus 300 to plus 500 degrees Fahrenheit. Is resistant to open flame and generates virtually no smoke or toxic by-products. Used in aircraft for its superior damping characteristics, lighter weight and fire barrier properties, it's also applicable to ships and surface transportation systems such as transit cars, trains, buses and automobiles.

  17. Resisting religious coercive control.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Shane

    2014-12-01

    Religious coercive control refers to the use of religious beliefs and doctrine as means to coercively control intimate partners. Scholars have shown that some abusive partners use the Christian doctrine of submission as a means of religious coercive control. I explore how victims who experience the doctrine of submission qua religious coercive control actively resist it. I argue that victims' successful resistance of the doctrine is contingent on their religious capital-that is, the knowledge and mastery that people have of a particular religious culture-and interpretive confidence-that is, people's subjective confidence in their interpretations of religious culture-related to the doctrine.

  18. Multiple sort flow cytometer

    DOEpatents

    Engh, G. van den; Esposito, R.J.

    1996-01-09

    A flow cytometer utilizes multiple lasers for excitation and respective fluorescence of identified dyes bonded to specific cells or events to identify and verify multiple events to be sorted from a sheath flow and droplet stream. Once identified, verified and timed in the sheath flow, each event is independently tagged upon separation from the flow by an electrical charge of +60, +120, or +180 volts and passed through oppositely charged deflection plates with ground planes to yield a focused six way deflection of at least six events in a narrow plane. 8 figs.

  19. Microtronic Flow Transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundberg, Gale R.; Henderson, H. T.; Hsieh, M. Walter

    1989-01-01

    Novel microelectronic airflow and gas-flow transducer developed. Has no moving parts and constructed by use of variation on ordinary technology for processing of planar silicon microelectronics, where hundreds or thousands of identical devices concurrently produced on single chip as easily as can one. Gas-flow transducer based upon integrated Wheatstone bridge in silicon chip. Legs doped with gold and isolated thermally by etching away surrounding material (except corners). Because of small size, sensitivity, and good directional capability of new transducer, numerous potential applications in measurement of vortexes, flows in inlets to pipes, and other complicated flows.

  20. Excess flow shutoff valve

    DOEpatents

    Kiffer, Micah S.; Tentarelli, Stephen Clyde

    2016-02-09

    Excess flow shutoff valve comprising a valve body, a valve plug, a partition, and an activation component where the valve plug, the partition, and activation component are disposed within the valve body. A suitable flow restriction is provided to create a pressure difference between the upstream end of the valve plug and the downstream end of the valve plug when fluid flows through the valve body. The pressure difference exceeds a target pressure difference needed to activate the activation component when fluid flow through the valve body is higher than a desired rate, and thereby closes the valve.

  1. Multiple sort flow cytometer

    DOEpatents

    Van den Engh, Ger; Esposito, Richard J.

    1996-01-01

    A flow cytometer utilizes multiple lasers for excitation and respective fluorescence of identified dyes bonded to specific cells or events to identify and verify multiple events to be sorted from a sheath flow and droplet stream. Once identified, verified and timed in the sheath flow, each event is independently tagged upon separation from the flow by an electrical charge of +60, +120, or +180 volts and passed through oppositely charged deflection plates with ground planes to yield a focused six way deflection of at least six events in a narrow plane.

  2. Direct numerical simulation of wall turbulent flows with microbubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanai, Akihiro; Miyata, Hideaki

    2001-03-01

    The marker-density-function (MDF) method has been developed to conduct direct numerical simulation (DNS) for bubbly flows. The method is applied to turbulent bubbly channel flows to elucidate the interaction between bubbles and wall turbulence. The simulation is designed to clarify the structure of the turbulent boundary layer containing microbubbles and the mechanism of frictional drag reduction. It is deduced from the numerical tests that the interaction between bubbles and wall turbulence depends on the Weber and Froude numbers. The reduction of the frictional resistance on the wall is attained and its mechanism is explained from the modulation of the three-dimensional structure of the turbulent flow. Copyright

  3. Results of Electrical Resistivity Data Collected near the Town of Guernsey, Platte County, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDougal, Robert R.; Abraham, Jared D.; Bisdorf, Robert J.

    2004-01-01

    As part of a study to investigate subsurface geologic conditions as they relate to ground-water flow in an abandoned landfill near the town of Guernsey, Wyoming, geophysical direct current (DC) resistivity data were collected. Eight vertical resistivity soundings and eight horizontal resistivity profiles were made using single channel and multi-channel DC instruments. Data collected in the field were converted from apparent resistivity to inverted resistivity with depth using a numerical inversion of the data. Results of the inverted resistivity data are presented as horizontal profiles and as profiles derived from the combined horizontal profile and vertical sounding data. The data sets collected using the single-channel and multi-channel DC systems provided for the resistivity investigation to extend to greater depth. Similarity of the electrical properties of the bedrock formations made interpretation of the resistivity profiles more difficult. High resistivity anomalies seen in the profiles are interpreted as quartzite lenses and as limestone or metadolomite structures in the eastern part of the study area. Terrace gravels were mapped as resistive where dry and less resistive in the saturated zone. The DC resistivity methods used in this study illustrate that multi-electrode DC resistivity surveying and more traditional methodologies can be merged and used to efficiently map anomalies of hydrologic interest in geologically complex terrain.

  4. Fluid flow through packings of rotating obstacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Rafael S.; Andrade, José S.; Andrade, Roberto F. S.

    2015-03-01

    We investigate through numerical simulation the nonstationary flow of a Newtonian fluid through a two-dimensional channel filled with an array of circular obstacles of distinct sizes. The disks may rotate around their respective centers, modeling a nonstationary, inhomogeneous porous medium. Obstacle sizes and positions are defined by the geometry of an Apollonian packing (AP). To allow for fluid flow, the radii of the disks are uniformly reduced by a factor 0.6 ≤s ≤0.8 for assemblies corresponding to the four first AP generations. The investigation is targeted to elucidate the main features of the rotating regime as compared to the fixed disk condition. It comprises the evaluation of the region of validity of Darcy's law as well as the study of the nonlinear hydraulic resistance as a function of the channel Reynolds number, the reduction factor s , and the AP generation. Depending on a combination of these factors, the resistance of rotating disks may be larger or smaller than that of the corresponding static case. We also analyze the flow redistribution in the interdisk channels as a result of the rotation pattern and characterize the angular velocity of the disks. Here, the striking feature is the emergence of a stable oscillatory behavior of the angular velocity for almost all disks that are inserted into the assemblies after the second generation.

  5. Flow rate measuring devices for gas flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonfig, K. W.

    1985-07-01

    Flowrate measuring devices are described: volume meter with fixed or mobile walls; turbine meter; throttling procedure; ultrasonic and Doppler methods; vortex method; rotary flowmeter; and swinging body flow measuring procedure. Flowrate can also be measured from the force exerted on bodies immersed in a fluid or based on thermodynamical principles. The characteristics and operating envelope of each device/method are given.

  6. Resistance of plates and pipes at high Reynolds numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiller, L; Hermann, R

    1931-01-01

    It was learned that the law of resistance for high R values does not follow the simple powers, and that the powers, which can be obtained approximately for the velocity distribution, gradually change. Since, moreover, very important investigations have recently been made on the resistance of plates at very high R values, it seemed of interest to apply the above line of reasoning to the new general law of resistance. For this purpose, the resistance and velocity distribution along the plate must always be equal to the values of the pipe flow at the corresponding Reynolds number. We made two kinds of calculations, of which the one given here is the simpler and more practical and also agrees better with the experimental results.

  7. Tumor resistance to vascular disrupting agents: mechanisms, imaging, and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Wenjie; Ni, Yicheng; Chen, Feng

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of vascular disrupting agents (VDAs) is a significant advance in the treatment of solid tumors. VDAs induce rapid and selective shutdown of tumor blood flow resulting in massive necrosis. However, a viable marginal tumor rim always remains after VDA treatment and is a major cause of recurrence. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms involved in the resistance of solid tumors to VDAs. Hypoxia, tumor-associated macrophages, and bone marrow-derived circulating endothelial progenitor cells all may contribute to resistance. Resistance can be monitored using magnetic resonance imaging markers. The various solutions proposed to manage tumor resistance to VDAs emphasize combining these agents with other approaches including antiangiogenic agents, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, radioimmunotherapy, and sequential dual-targeting internal radiotherapy. PMID:26812886

  8. Collapse in High-Grade Stenosis during Pulsatile Flow Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Shunichi; Tang, Dalin; Ku, David N.

    It has been hypothesized that blood flow through high grade stenotic arteries may produce conditions in which elastic flow choking may occur. The development of atherosclerotic plaque fracture may be exacerbated by the compressive stresses during collapse. This study explored the effects of pulsatile flow on stenotic flow collapse. Pulsatile flow was produced using a gear pump controlled by a digitized physiologic waveform. Upstream and downstream mean pressures and pulsatile flow rates were measured and digitized. An improved model of arterial stenosis was created using an elastomer with an incremental modulus of elasticity matched to a bovine carotid artery in the relevant range of collapse. Additionally, the model retained a very thick wall in the stenotic region similar to arterial disease. Flow choking was observed for pulsatile pressure drops close to those previously reported for steady flow. The phase difference between flow rate and pressure between upstream and downstream of the stenosis occurred by the compliance of tube and stenosis resistance. For 80% nominal stenosis by diameter and 100+/-30mmHg upstream pressure, collapse occurred for average pulsatile pressure drops of 93mmHg. Pulsatile flow experiments in this model revealed the range of conditions for the flow choking and the paradoxical collapse of the stenosis during systole with expansion during diastole. The stenosis severity was dynamic through the pulse cycle and was significantly greater under flow than the nominal severity. The results indicate that flow choking and stenotic compression may be significant in thick-walled arterial stenoses subjected to pulsatile flow.

  9. LONG DISTANCE POLLEN-MEDIATED GENE FLOW FROM CREEPING BENTGRASS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Researchers from USEPA WED have measured gene flow from experimental fields of Roundup? herbicide resistant genetically modified (GM) creeping bentgrass a grass used primarily on golf courses, to compatible non-crop relatives. Using a sampling design based on the estimated time ...

  10. Integration and Modulation of Intercellular Signaling Underlying Blood Flow Control

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Steven S.

    2015-01-01

    Vascular resistance networks control tissue blood flow in concert with regulating arterial perfusion pressure. In response to increased metabolic demand, vasodilation arising in arteriolar networks ascends to encompass proximal feed arteries. By reducing resistance upstream, ascending vasodilation (AVD) increases blood flow into the microcirculation. Once initiated [e.g., through local activation of K+ channels in endothelial cells (ECs)], hyperpolarization is conducted through gap junctions along the endothelium. Via EC projections through the internal elastic lamina, hyperpolarization spreads into the surrounding smooth muscle cells (SMCs) through myoendothelial gap junctions (MEGJs) to promote their relaxation. Intercellular signaling through electrical signal transmission (i.e., cell-to-cell conduction) can thereby coordinate vasodilation along and among the branches of microvascular resistance networks. Perivascular sympathetic nerve fibers course through the adventitia and release norepinephrine to stimulate SMCs via α-adrenoreceptors to produce contraction. In turn, SMCs can signal ECs through MEGJs to activate K+ channels and attenuate sympathetic vasoconstriction. Activation of K+ channels along the endothelium will dissipate electrical signal transmission and inhibit AVD, thereby restricting blood flow into the microcirculation while maintaining peripheral resistance and perfusion pressure. This review explores the origins and nature of intercellular signaling governing blood flow control in skeletal muscle with respect to the interplay between AVD and sympathetic innervation. Whereas these interactions are integral to physical daily activity and athletic performance, resolving the interplay between respective signaling events provides insight into how selective interventions can improve tissue perfusion and oxygen delivery during vascular disease. PMID:26368324

  11. Semitoroidal-diaphragm cavitating valve designed for bipropellant flow control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, A. L.

    1969-01-01

    Valve controls the flow of bipropellant liquids in rocket engines. Throttling and cavitation of the liquids are controlled by axial deflections of a semitoroidal metal diaphram. The valve is highly resistant to corrosion and leakage, and should be useful in food processing and chemical industries.

  12. New computer program solves wide variety of heat flow problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Almond, J. C.

    1966-01-01

    Boeing Engineering Thermal Analyzer /BETA/ computer program uses numerical methods to provide accurate heat transfer solutions to a wide variety of heat flow problems. The program solves steady-state and transient problems in almost any situation that can be represented by a resistance-capacitance network.

  13. Application of porous materials for laminar flow control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearce, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    Fairly smooth porous materials were elected for study Doweave; Fibermetal; Dynapore; and perforated titanium sheet. Factors examined include: surface smoothness; suction characteristics; porosity; surface impact resistance; and strain compatibility. A laminar flow control suction glove arrangement was identified with material combinations compatible with thermal expansion and structural strain.

  14. [Resistance risk, cross-resistance and biochemical resistance mechanism of Laodelphax striatellus to buprofezin].

    PubMed

    Mao, Xu-lian; Liu, Jin; Li, Xu-ke; Chi, Jia-jia; Liu, Yong-jie

    2016-01-01

    In order to investigate the resistance development law and biochemical resistance mechanism of Laodelphax striatellus to buprofezin, spraying rice seedlings was used to continuously screen resistant strains of L. striatellus and dipping rice seedlings was applied to determine the toxicity and cross-resistance of L. striatellus to insecticides. After 32-generation screening with buprofezin, L. striatellus developed 168.49 folds resistance and its reality heritability (h2) was 0.11. If the killing rate was 80%-90%, L. striatellus was expected to develop 10-fold resistance to buprofezin only after 5 to 6 generations breeding. Because the actual reality heritability of field populations was usually lower than that of the resistant strains, the production of field populations increasing with 10-fold resistance would need much longer time. The results of cross-resistance showed that resistant strain had high level cross-resistance with thiamethoxam and imidacloprid, low level cross-resistance with acetamiprid, and no cross-resistance with pymetrozine and chlorpyrifos. The activity of detoxification enzymes of different strains and the syergism of synergist were measured. The results showed that cytochrome P450 monooxygenase played a major role in the resistance of L. striatellus to buprofezin, the esterase played a minor role and the GSH-S-transferase had no effect. Therefore, L. striatellus would have high risk to develop resistance to buprofezin when used in the field and might be delayed by using pymetrozine and chlorpyrifos. PMID:27228617

  15. Resistance Management Research Status

    EPA Science Inventory

    Long-term sustainability of genetically modified corn expressing Bt relies on the validity of assumptions underlying IRM models used by the EPA and the ability of EPA to monitor, detect and react to insect resistance when it develops. The EPA is developing a multi-tiered approac...

  16. Electrical Resistivity Imaging

    EPA Science Inventory

    Electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) is a geophysical method originally developed within the mining industry where it has been used for decades to explore for and characterize subsurface mineral deposits. It is one of the oldest geophysical methods with the first documented usag...

  17. Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Action Plan for Combating Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria (PDF) ​​​​​​ Javascript Error Your browser JavaScript is turned off causing certain features of the ... incorrectly. Please visit your browser settings and turn JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Skip ...

  18. Overcoming Resistance to Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Ted H.; Balka, Don S.; Miles, Ruth Harbin

    2010-01-01

    Resistance to change is a major obstacle in developing and implementing effective instructional programs, yet it is rarely considered, discussed, or addressed. The school leaders who are responsible for improvement frequently feel that their efforts are being blocked or thwarted. For the most part, they are correct, but they may not realize that…

  19. Reform and Resistance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hefferlin, JB Lon

    This article is the 7th in a series of AAHE research reports. It summarizes research that has been done on academic reform and the resistance to it and speculates what this research implies for future practice. Academic or curricular change is first of all organizational change and colleges and universities are organized and run in such a way as…

  20. Penetration resistant barrier

    DOEpatents

    Hoover, William R.; Mead, Keith E.; Street, Henry K.

    1977-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a barrier for resisting penetration by such as hand tools and oxy-acetylene cutting torches. The barrier comprises a layer of firebrick, which is preferably epoxy impregnated sandwiched between inner and outer layers of steel. Between the firebrick and steel are layers of resilient rubber-like filler.

  1. Wrinkle resistant cellulosic textiles

    SciTech Connect

    Kitchens, J.D.; Patton, R.T.; Nadar, R.S.

    1991-08-27

    This patent describes a process for treating a cellulosic textile material so as to impart wrinkle resistance and smooth drying properties. It comprises treating the cellulosic textile material with an aqueous solution comprising trans-1,2,3,4-cyclobutane tetracarboxylic acid, and a curing catalyst, and heating the treated material so as to produce esterification and crosslinking of the material with the acid.

  2. Intestinal colonization resistance

    PubMed Central

    Lawley, Trevor D; Walker, Alan W

    2013-01-01

    Dense, complex microbial communities, collectively termed the microbiota, occupy a diverse array of niches along the length of the mammalian intestinal tract. During health and in the absence of antibiotic exposure the microbiota can effectively inhibit colonization and overgrowth by invading microbes such as pathogens. This phenomenon is called ‘colonization resistance’ and is associated with a stable and diverse microbiota in tandem with a controlled lack of inflammation, and involves specific interactions between the mucosal immune system and the microbiota. Here we overview the microbial ecology of the healthy mammalian intestinal tract and highlight the microbe–microbe and microbe–host interactions that promote colonization resistance. Emerging themes highlight immunological (T helper type 17/regulatory T-cell balance), microbiota (diverse and abundant) and metabolic (short-chain fatty acid) signatures of intestinal health and colonization resistance. Intestinal pathogens use specific virulence factors or exploit antibiotic use to subvert colonization resistance for their own benefit by triggering inflammation to disrupt the harmony of the intestinal ecosystem. A holistic view that incorporates immunological and microbiological facets of the intestinal ecosystem should facilitate the development of immunomodulatory and microbe-modulatory therapies that promote intestinal homeostasis and colonization resistance. PMID:23240815

  3. Hearing the Resistance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malinconico, S. Michael

    1983-01-01

    Proposes the "congruence model" as a theoretical framework for assessing the effects on organizational behavior of changes based on modern electronic technology. The nature and causes of resistance, encroachment on professional judgement, and unwillingness to deviate from standard practice when using online systems are discussed. Sixteen…

  4. Antimicrobial resistance in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Conly, John

    2002-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance has increased rapidly during the last decade, creating a serious threat to the treatment of infectious diseases. Canada is no exception to this worldwide phenomenon. Data from the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program have revealed that the incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, as a proportion of S. aureus isolates, increased from 1% in 1995 to 8% by the end of 2000, and vancomycin-resistant enterococcus has been documented in all 10 provinces since the first reported outbreak in 1995. The prevalence of nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae in Canada in 2000 was found to be 12%. Human antimicrobial prescriptions, adjusted for differences in the population, declined 11% based on the total number of prescriptions dispensed between 1995 and 2000. There was also a 21% decrease in β-lactam prescriptions during this same period. These data suggest that systematic efforts to reduce unnecessary prescribing of antimicrobials to outpatients in Canada, beginning after a national consensus conference in 1997, may be having an impact. There is, however, still a need for continued concerted efforts on a national, provincial and regional level to quell the rising tide of antibiotic resistance. PMID:12406948

  5. Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longenecker, Nevin E.; Oppenheimer, Dan

    1982-01-01

    A study conducted by high school advanced bacteriology students appears to confirm the hypothesis that the incremental administration of antibiotics on several species of bacteria (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermis, Bacillus sublitus, Bacillus megaterium) will allow for the development of antibiotic-resistant strains. (PEB)

  6. Teaching, Learning, and Resistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van de Kleut, Geraldine; White, Connie

    2010-01-01

    This article is a discussion of the importance of using student resistance to inform and change teacher practice. The authors relate two narratives of practice, one of which takes place in a constructivist second-grade classroom in Ontario, and a second that takes place in a preservice classroom in California. In the first, a student uses the…

  7. Resistive Effects in EXTRAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tendler, M.

    1987-02-01

    Theoretical studies of the resistive equilibrium and stability of an EXTRAP Z-pinch are reported. Extending the previous analysis we reassess properties of the resistive equilibrium in EXTRAP with the emphasis on the time dependence of the latter. We also qualitatively consider the role of resistive instabilities in EXTRAP, showing that the typical timescale of the filamentation of the discharge (i.e., the non-linear development of the tearing instability) is comparable, at present, to the discharge duration. On the other hand, we emphasize that this phenomenon may still be consistent with the experimental observation of the Bennet's equilibrium. The processes of the current start-up and ramp-up are also analysed for EXTRAP and it is shown that the peculiarities of these processes may lead to the compression oscillations around an evolving rather stable equilibrium. Finally, some consequences of the average minimum-B concept for EXTRAP are discussed and it is shown that this issue virtually reduces to the appearance of the negative curvature of the magnetic field at the periphery. The maximum attainable value of β at the periphery of the pinch is obtained, as required by the ballooning stability criterion. The influence of the finite resistivity on the ballooning mode is also estimated.

  8. Effect of microgravity on renal and femoral flows during LBNP & intravenous saline load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbeille, P.; Gaffney, F. A.; Beck, L.; Coulon, J.; Porcher, M.; Blomqvist, C. G.

    1996-01-01

    Renal and femoral hemodynamics were studied in crew members at rest and during lower body negative pressure before and after the D-2 Spacelab mission and with intravenous saline loading. Specific measurements included renal vascular resistance, femoral arterial flow, and vascular resistance, along with other cardiovascular parameters. Cardiovascular adaptation to microgravity is discussed with a focus on changes observed in femoral and renal vascular resistance.

  9. Turbulence in Compressible Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Lecture notes for the AGARD Fluid Dynamics Panel (FDP) Special Course on 'Turbulence in Compressible Flows' have been assembled in this report. The following topics were covered: Compressible Turbulent Boundary Layers, Compressible Turbulent Free Shear Layers, Turbulent Combustion, DNS/LES and RANS Simulations of Compressible Turbulent Flows, and Case Studies of Applications of Turbulence Models in Aerospace.

  10. Flow compensating pressure regulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baehr, E. F. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An apparatus for regulating pressure of treatment fluid during ophthalmic procedures is described. Flow sensing and pressure regulating diaphragms are used to modulate a flow control valve. The pressure regulating diaphragm is connected to the flow control valve to urge the valve to an open position due to pressure being applied to the diaphragm by bias means such as a spring. The flow sensing diaphragm is mechanically connected to the flow control valve and urges it to an opened position because of the differential pressure on the diaphragm generated by a flow of incoming treatment fluid through an orifice in the diaphragm. A bypass connection with a variable restriction is connected in parallel relationship to the orifice to provide for adjusting the sensitivity of the flow sensing diaphragm. A multiple lever linkage system is utilized between the center of the second diaphragm and the flow control valve to multiply the force applied to the valve by the other diaphragm and reverse the direction of the force.

  11. Field-Flow Fractionation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Karin D.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a technique for separating samples that range over 15 orders of magnitude in molecular weight. Discusses theory, apparatus, and sample preparation techniques. Lists several types of field-flow fractionation (FFF) and their uses: sedimentation FFF, thermal FFF, flow FFF, electrical FFF, and steric FFF. (ML)

  12. Growing with the Flows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durkin, Dorothy

    2010-01-01

    People live and work in an era of transformation and uncertainty; they know that things are changing, but they are not sure where they are headed. One of the key forces of change is the enormous flow of information that individuals and institutions consume and produce. Awareness of knowledge flow is essential, but so is the sense that neither…

  13. Microelectromechanical flow control apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Okandan, Murat

    2009-06-02

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) flow control apparatus is disclosed which includes a fluid channel formed on a substrate from a first layer of a nonconducting material (e.g. silicon nitride). A first electrode is provided on the first layer of the nonconducting material outside the flow channel; and a second electrode is located on a second layer of the nonconducting material above the first layer. A voltage applied between the first and second electrodes deforms the fluid channel to increase its cross-sectional size and thereby increase a flow of a fluid through the channel. In certain embodiments of the present invention, the fluid flow can be decreased or stopped by applying a voltage between the first electrode and the substrate. A peristaltic pumping of the fluid through the channel is also possible when the voltage is applied in turn between a plurality of first electrodes and the substrate. A MEM flow control assembly can also be formed by providing one or more MEM flow control devices on a common substrate together with a submicron filter. The MEM flow control assembly can optionally include a plurality of pressure sensors for monitoring fluid pressure and determining flow rates through the assembly.

  14. Traffic Flow Estimates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Vincent G.

    1981-01-01

    Two examples are given of ways traffic engineers estimate traffic flow. The first, Floating Car Method, involves some basic ideas and the notion of relative velocity. The second, Maximum Traffic Flow, is viewed to involve simple applications of calculus. The material provides insight into specialized applications of mathematics. (MP)

  15. Flow cytometry of sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Gledhill, B.L.

    1987-09-21

    This brief paper summarizes automated flow cytometric determination of sperm morphology and flow cytometry/sorting of sperm with application to sex preselection. In the latter context, mention is made of results of karyotypic determination of sex chromosome ratios in albumin-processed human sperm. 23 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  16. AUTO-EXPANSIVE FLOW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Physics suggests that the interplay of momentum, continuity, and geometry in outward radial flow must produce density and concomitant pressure reductions. In other words, this flow is intrinsically auto-expansive. It has been proposed that this process is the key to understanding...

  17. Lava Flow Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. Jeffrey

    1996-01-01

    This grant originally had four major tasks, all of which were addressed to varying extents during the course of the research: (1) Measure the fractal dimensions of lava flows as a function of topography, substrate, and rheology; (2) The nature of lava tube systems and their relation to flow fields; (3) A quantitative assessment of lava flow dynamics in light of the fractal nature of lava flow margins; and (4) Development and application of a new remote sensing tool based on fractal properties. During the course of the research, the project expanded to include the following projects: (1) A comparison of what we can-learn from remote sensing studies of lava flow morphology and from studies of samples of lava flows; (2) Study of a terrestrial analog of the nakhlites, one of the groups of meteorites from Mars; and (3) Study of the textures of Hawaiian basalts as an aid in understanding the dynamics (flow rates, inflation rates, thermal history) of flow interiors. In addition, during the first year an educational task (development and writing of a teacher's guide and activity set to accompany the lunar sample disk when it is sent to schools) was included.

  18. Elbow mass flow meter

    DOEpatents

    McFarland, A.R.; Rodgers, J.C.; Ortiz, C.A.; Nelson, D.C.

    1994-08-16

    The present invention includes a combination of an elbow pressure drop generator and a shunt-type mass flow sensor for providing an output which gives the mass flow rate of a gas that is nearly independent of the density of the gas. For air, the output is also approximately independent of humidity. 3 figs.

  19. Hanford basalt flow mineralogy

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, L.L.

    1980-09-01

    Mineralogy of the core samples from five core wells was examined in some detail. The primary mineralogy study included an optical examination of polished mounts, photomicrographs, chemical analyses of feldspars, pyroxenes, metallic oxides and microcrystalline groundmasses and determination from the chemical analyses of the varieties of feldspars, pyroxenes and metallic oxides. From the primary mineralogy data, a firm understanding of the average Hanford basalt flow primary mineralogy emerged. The average primary feldspar was a laboradorite, the average pyroxene was an augite and the average metallic oxide was a solid solution of ilmenite and magnetite. Secondary mineralization consisted of vug filling and joint coating, chiefly with a nontronite-beidellite clay, several zeolites, quartz, calcite, and opal. Specific flow units also were examined to determine the possibility of using the mineralogy to trace flows between core wells. These included units of the Pomona, the Umatilla and a high chromium flow just below the Huntzinger. In the Umatilla, or high barium flow, the compositional variation of the feldspars was unique in range. The pyroxenes in the Pomona were relatively highly zoned and accumulated chromium. The high chromium flow contained chromium spinels that graded in chromium content into simple magnetites very low in chromium content. A study of the statistical relationships of flow unit chemical constituents showed that flow unit constituents could be roughly correlated between wells. The probable cause of the correlation was on-going physical-chemical changes in the source magma.

  20. Enhancing the linear flow of fine granules through the addition of elongated particles

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhiguo; Chen, Xueli; Xu, Yang; Liu, Haifeng

    2015-01-01

    Sandglasses have been used to record time for thousands of years because of their constant flow rates; however, they now are drawing attention for their substantial scientific importance and extensive industrial applications. The presence of elongated particles in a binary granular system is believed to result in undesired flow because their shape implies a larger resistance to flow. However, our experiments demonstrate that the addition of elongated particles can substantially reduce the flow fluctuation of fine granules and produce a stable linear flow similar to that in an hourglass. On the basis of experimental data and previous reports of flow dynamics, we observed that the linear flow is driven by the “needle particle effect,” including flow orientation, reduced agglomeration, and local perturbation. This phenomenon is observed in several binary granular systems, including fine granules and secondary elongated particles, which demonstrates that our simple method can be widely applied to the accurate measurement of granular flows in industry. PMID:26551736