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Sample records for flow soil filter

  1. Ensemble kalman filtering to perform data assimilation with soil water content probes and pedotransfer functions in modeling water flow in variably saturated soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data from modern soil water contents probes can be used for data assimilation in soil water flow modeling, i.e. continual correction of the flow model performance based on observations. The ensemble Kalman filter appears to be an appropriate method for that. The method requires estimates of the unce...

  2. Concentric Split Flow Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stapleton, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A concentric split flow filter may be configured to remove odor and/or bacteria from pumped air used to collect urine and fecal waste products. For instance, filter may be designed to effectively fill the volume that was previously considered wasted surrounding the transport tube of a waste management system. The concentric split flow filter may be configured to split the air flow, with substantially half of the air flow to be treated traveling through a first bed of filter media and substantially the other half of the air flow to be treated traveling through the second bed of filter media. This split flow design reduces the air velocity by 50%. In this way, the pressure drop of filter may be reduced by as much as a factor of 4 as compare to the conventional design.

  3. Vertical flow soil filter for the elimination of micro pollutants from storm and waste water.

    PubMed

    Janzen, Niklas; Banzhaf, Stefan; Scheytt, Traugott; Bester, Kai

    2009-11-01

    A technical scale activated soil filter has been used to study the elimination rates of diverse environmentally relevant micro pollutants from storm and waste water. The filter was made of layers of peat, sand and gravel. The upper (organic) layer was planted with reed (phragmites australis) to prevent clogging and was spiked with activated sludge to enhance microbial biomass and biodegradation potential. Compounds used as UV filters, antioxidants or plasticizers, namely 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC), benzophenone-3 (BP-3), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), N-butylbenzenesulfonamide (NBBS), 2,6-di-tert-butyl-1,4-benzoquinone (2,6-DTB-1,4-BQ), 1,1-biphenyl-3,3-dimethyl (1,1-BP-3,3-DM) and dibenzyl (DB) have been included in this study. The chemical characteristics of these compounds ranged from the hydrophilic (pK(OW) 2.6) to the lipophilic (pK(OW) 5) properties. For the elimination studies, synthetic waste water spiked to 3000 ng L(-1) with the selected compounds was used. Elimination rates with low hydraulic load (61 L m(-2)d(-1), water retention time: 2d) were higher than 96%. During a storm water simulation experiment (hydraulic load: 255 L m(-2), water retention time: <1h), the elimination rates of the most analytes decreased to 79-96%. The elimination performance of the hydrophilic compound NBBS declined to 21%. Balancing studies including the soil of the filter system revealed that degradation or transformation were both relevant elimination mechanism.

  4. Performance of system consisting of vertical flow trickling filter and horizontal flow multi-soil-layering reactor for treatment of rural wastewater.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Cheng, Yan; Yang, Chunping; Luo, Wei; Zeng, Guangming; Lu, Li

    2015-10-01

    In order to improve nitrogen removal for rural wastewater, a novel two-stage hybrid system, consisting of a vertical flow trickling filter (VFTF) and a horizontal flow multi-soil-layering (HFMSL) bioreactor was developed. The performance of the apparatus was observed under various carbon-nitrogen ratios and water spraying frequencies separately. The maximum removal efficiency of total nitrogen (TN) for the hybrid system was 92.8% while the removal rates of CODCr, ammonium (NH4(+)-N), and total phosphorus (TP) were 94.1%, 96.1%, 92.0% respectively, and the corresponding effluent concentrations were 3.61, 21.20, 1.91, and 0.33 mg L(-1). The horizontal flow mode for MSL led the system to denitrifying satisfactorily as it ensured relatively long hydraulic retention time (HRT), ideal anoxic condition and adequate organic substrates supply. Also, higher water spraying frequency benefited intermittent feeding system for pollutants removal. Shock loading test indicated that the hybrid system could operate well even at hydraulic shock loadings.

  5. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: COLLOID POLISHING FILTER METHOD - FILTER FLOW TECHNOLOGY, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Filter Flow Technology, Inc. (FFT) Colloid Polishing Filter Method (CPFM) was tested as a transportable, trailer mounted, system that uses sorption and chemical complexing phenomena to remove heavy metals and nontritium radionuclides from water. Contaminated waters can be pro...

  6. Gaussian particle flow implementation of PHD filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lingling; Wang, Junjie; Li, Yunpeng; Coates, Mark J.

    2016-05-01

    Particle filter and Gaussian mixture implementations of random finite set filters have been proposed to tackle the issue of jointly estimating the number of targets and their states. The Gaussian mixture PHD (GM-PHD) filter has a closed-form expression for the PHD for linear and Gaussian target models, and extensions using the extended Kalman filter or unscented Kalman Filter have been developed to allow the GM-PHD filter to accommodate mildly nonlinear dynamics. Errors resulting from linearization or model mismatch are unavoidable. A particle filter implementation of the PHD filter (PF-PHD) is more suitable for nonlinear and non-Gaussian target models. The particle filter implementations are much more computationally expensive and performance can suffer when the proposal distribution is not a good match to the posterior. In this paper, we propose a novel implementation of the PHD filter named the Gaussian particle flow PHD filter (GPF-PHD). It employs a bank of particle flow filters to approximate the PHD; these play the same role as the Gaussian components in the GM-PHD filter but are better suited to non-linear dynamics and measurement equations. Using the particle flow filter allows the GPF-PHD filter to migrate particles to the dense regions of the posterior, which leads to higher efficiency than the PF-PHD. We explore the performance of the new algorithm through numerical simulations.

  7. Angle only tracking with particle flow filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daum, Fred; Huang, Jim

    2011-09-01

    We show the results of numerical experiments for tracking ballistic missiles using only angle measurements. We compare the performance of an extended Kalman filter with a new nonlinear filter using particle flow to compute Bayes' rule. For certain difficult geometries, the particle flow filter is an order of magnitude more accurate than the EKF. Angle only tracking is of interest in several different sensors; for example, passive optics and radars in which range and Doppler data are spoiled by jamming.

  8. Velocity filtering applied to optical flow calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barniv, Yair

    1990-01-01

    Optical flow is a method by which a stream of two-dimensional images obtained from a forward-looking passive sensor is used to map the three-dimensional volume in front of a moving vehicle. Passive ranging via optical flow is applied here to the helicopter obstacle-avoidance problem. Velocity filtering is used as a field-based method to determine range to all pixels in the initial image. The theoretical understanding and performance analysis of velocity filtering as applied to optical flow is expanded and experimental results are presented.

  9. A Filtering Method For Gravitationally Stratified Flows

    SciTech Connect

    Gatti-Bono, Caroline; Colella, Phillip

    2005-04-25

    Gravity waves arise in gravitationally stratified compressible flows at low Mach and Froude numbers. These waves can have a negligible influence on the overall dynamics of the fluid but, for numerical methods where the acoustic waves are treated implicitly, they impose a significant restriction on the time step. A way to alleviate this restriction is to filter out the modes corresponding to the fastest gravity waves so that a larger time step can be used. This paper presents a filtering strategy of the fully compressible equations based on normal mode analysis that is used throughout the simulation to compute the fast dynamics and that is able to damp only fast gravity modes.

  10. Spin selective filtering of polariton condensate flow

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, T.; Antón, C.; Martín, M. D.; Liew, T. C. H.; Hatzopoulos, Z.; Viña, L.; Eldridge, P. S.; Savvidis, P. G.

    2015-07-06

    Spin-selective spatial filtering of propagating polariton condensates, using a controllable spin-dependent gating barrier, in a one-dimensional semiconductor microcavity ridge waveguide is reported. A nonresonant laser beam provides the source of propagating polaritons, while a second circularly polarized weak beam imprints a spin dependent potential barrier, which gates the polariton flow and generates polariton spin currents. A complete spin-based control over the blocked and transmitted polaritons is obtained by varying the gate polarization.

  11. Effects of filter housing and ductwork configuration on air flow uniformity inside air cleaning filter housings

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, J.D.

    1992-12-31

    Each new HEPA filter installation presents a different physical configuration based on the system requirements the available space and designer preference. Each different configuration can result in variations of air flow uniformity inside the filter housing across the filter banks. This paper will present the results of air flow uniformity testing for six different filter housing/ductwork configurations and discuss if any of the variations in air flow uniformity is attributable to the difference in the physical arrangements for the six cases.

  12. Effects of filter housing and ductwork configuration on air flow uniformity inside air cleaning filter housings

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    Each new HEPA filter installation presents a different physical configuration based on the system requirements the available space and designer preference. Each different configuration can result in variations of air flow uniformity inside the filter housing across the filter banks. This paper will present the results of air flow uniformity testing for six different filter housing/ductwork configurations and discuss if any of the variations in air flow uniformity is attributable to the difference in the physical arrangements for the six cases.

  13. Hot gas cross flow filtering module

    DOEpatents

    Lippert, Thomas E.; Ciliberti, David F.

    1988-01-01

    A filter module for use in filtering particulates from a high temperature gas has a central gas duct and at least one horizontally extending support mount affixed to the duct. The support mount supports a filter element thereon and has a chamber therein, which communicates with an inner space of the duct through an opening in the wall of the duct, and which communicates with the clean gas face of the filter element. The filter element is secured to the support mount over an opening in the top wall of the support mount, with releasable securement provided to enable replacement of the filter element when desired. Ceramic springs may be used in connection with the filter module either to secure a filter element to a support mount or to prevent delamination of the filter element during blowback.

  14. SSDA code to apply data assimilation in soil water flow modeling: Documentation and user manual

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil water flow models are based on simplified assumptions about the mechanisms, processes, and parameters of water retention and flow. That causes errors in soil water flow model predictions. Data assimilation (DA) with the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) corrects modeling results based on measured s...

  15. Method and apparatus for measuring flow velocity using matched filters

    DOEpatents

    Raptis, Apostolos C.

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus and method for measuring the flow velocities of individual phase flow components of a multiphase flow utilizes matched filters. Signals arising from flow noise disturbance are extracted from the flow, at upstream and downstream locations. The signals are processed through pairs of matched filters which are matched to the flow disturbance frequency characteristics of the phase flow component to be measured. The processed signals are then cross-correlated to determine the transit delay time of the phase flow component between sensing positions.

  16. Method and apparatus for measuring flow velocity using matched filters

    DOEpatents

    Raptis, A.C.

    1983-09-06

    An apparatus and method for measuring the flow velocities of individual phase flow components of a multiphase flow utilizes matched filters. Signals arising from flow noise disturbance are extracted from the flow, at upstream and downstream locations. The signals are processed through pairs of matched filters which are matched to the flow disturbance frequency characteristics of the phase flow component to be measured. The processed signals are then cross-correlated to determine the transit delay time of the phase flow component between sensing positions. 8 figs.

  17. Modeling Flow Past a Tilted Vena Cava Filter

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, M A; Wang, S L

    2009-06-29

    Inferior vena cava filters are medical devices used to prevent pulmonary embolism (PE) from deep vein thrombosis. In particular, retrievable filters are well-suited for patients who are unresponsive to anticoagulation therapy and whose risk of PE decreased with time. The goal of this work is to use computational fluid dynamics to evaluate the flow past an unoccluded and partially occluded Celect inferior vena cava filter. In particular, the hemodynamic response to thrombus volume and filter tilt is examined, and the results are compared with flow conditions that are known to be thrombogenic. A computer model of the filter inside a model vena cava is constructed using high resolution digital photographs and methods of computer aided design. The models are parameterized using the Overture software framework, and a collection of overlapping grids is constructed to discretize the flow domain. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved, and the characteristics of the flow (i.e., velocity contours and wall shear stresses) are computed. The volume of stagnant and recirculating flow increases with thrombus volume. In addition, as the filter increases tilt, the cava wall adjacent to the tilted filter is subjected to low velocity flow that gives rise to regions of low wall shear stress. The results demonstrate the ease of IVC filter modeling with the Overture software framework. Flow conditions caused by the tilted Celect filter may elevate the risk of intrafilter thrombosis and facilitate vascular remodeling. This latter condition also increases the risk of penetration and potential incorporation of the hook of the filter into the vena caval wall, thereby complicating filter retrieval. Consequently, severe tilt at the time of filter deployment may warrant early clinical intervention.

  18. Method of producing monolithic ceramic cross-flow filter

    DOEpatents

    Larsen, David A.; Bacchi, David P.; Connors, Timothy F.; Collins, III, Edwin L.

    1998-01-01

    Ceramic filter of various configuration have been used to filter particulates from hot gases exhausted from coal-fired systems. Prior ceramic cross-flow filters have been favored over other types, but those previously horn have been assemblies of parts somehow fastened together and consequently subject often to distortion or delamination on exposure hot gas in normal use. The present new monolithic, seamless, cross-flow ceramic filters, being of one-piece construction, are not prone to such failure. Further, these new products are made by novel casting process which involves the key steps of demolding the ceramic filter green body so that none of the fragile inner walls of the filter is cracked or broken.

  19. Granular flow in Dorfan Impingo filter for gas cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiau, S.S.; Smid, J.; Tsai, H.H.; Kuo, J.T.; Chou, C.S.

    1999-07-01

    Inside a two-dimensional model of the louvered Drofan Impingo panel with transparent front and rear walls, the velocity fields of filter granules without gas cross flow were observed. The PE beads with diameter of 6 mm were used as filter granules. The filter bed was filled with beads continuously and circulated until the granular flows inside the panel reached the steady state condition. In the moving granular bed, there is a central fast flowing core of filter granules surrounded by large quasi-stagnant zones located close to the louver walls. The existence of quasi-stagnant zones may result in the dust plugging problems. The velocity fields of filter granules are plotted for three different louver geometries.

  20. [Quantitative evaluation of soil hyperspectra denoising with different filters].

    PubMed

    Huang, Ming-Xiang; Wang, Ke; Shi, Zhou; Gong, Jian-Hua; Li, Hong-Yi; Chen, Jie-Liang

    2009-03-01

    The noise distribution of soil hyperspectra measured by ASD FieldSpec Pro FR was described, and then the quantitative evaluation of spectral denoising with six filters was compared. From the interpretation of soil hyperspectra, the continuum removed, first-order differential and high frequency curves, the UV/VNIR (350-1 050 nm) exhibit hardly noise except the coverage of 40 nm in the beginning 350 nm. However, the SWIR (1 000-2 500 nm) shows different noise distribution. Especially, the latter half of SWIR 2(1 800-2 500 nm) showed more noise, and the intersection spectrum of three spectrometers has more noise than the neighbor spectrum. Six filters were chosen for spectral denoising. The smoothing indexes (SI), horizontal feature reservation index (HFRI) and vertical feature reservation index (VFRI) were designed for evaluating the denoising performance of these filters. The comparison of their indexes shows that WD and MA filters are the optimal choice to filter the noise, in terms of balancing the contradiction between the smoothing and feature reservation ability. Furthermore the first-order differential data of 66 denoising soil spectra by 6 filters were respectively used as the input of the same PLSR model to predict the sand content. The different prediction accuracies caused by the different filters show that compared to the feature reservation ability, the filter's smoothing ability is the principal factor to influence the accuracy. The study can benefit the spectral preprocessing and analyzing, and also provide the scientific foundation for the related spectroscopy applications.

  1. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: FILTER FLOW TECHNOLOGY, INC. - COLLOID POLISHING FILTER METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Filter Flow Technology, Inc. (FFT) Coloid Polishing Filter Method (CPFM) was demonstrated at the U.S Department of Energy's (DOE) Rock Flats Plant (RFP) as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Superfund and Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program. ...

  2. Method and apparatus for measuring flow velocity using matched filters

    SciTech Connect

    Raptis, A.C.

    1981-07-17

    An apparatus and method for measuring the flow velocities of individual phase flow components of a multiphase flow is disclosed. Signals arising from flow noise disturbance are extracted from the flow, at upstream and downstream locations. The signals are processed through pairs of matched filters which are matched to the flow disturbance frequency characteristics of the phase flow component to be measured. The processed signals are then cross-correlated to determine the transit delay time of the phase flow component between sensing positions.

  3. Filtered Rayleigh Scattering Measurements in a Buoyant Flow Field

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    John William Strutt , the third Baron of Rayleigh , or more commonly known as Lord Rayleigh , was the first to offer a correct explanation of the...FILTERED RAYLEIGH SCATTERING MEASUREMENTS IN A BUOYANT FLOW FIELD         THESIS       Steven Michael Meents, Captain, USAF...AFIT/GAE/ENY/08-M22 FILTERED RAYLEIGH SCATTERING MEASUREMENTS IN A BUOYANT FLOW FIELD THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Aeronautics

  4. Mathematical modeling of flow field in ceramic candle filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Taewon; Kim, Heuy-Dong; Choi, Joo-Hong; Chung, Jae Hwa

    1998-06-01

    Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) is one of the candidates to achieve stringent environmental regulation among the clean coal technologies. Advancing the technology of the hot gas cleanup systems is the most critical component in the development of the IGCC. Thus the aim of this study is to understand the flow field in the ceramic filter and the influence of ceramic filter in removal of the particles contained in the hot gas flow. The numerical model based on the Reynolds stress turbulence model with the Darcy’s law in the porous region is adopted. It is found that the effect of the porosity in the flowfield is negligibly small while the effect of the filter length is significant. It is also found as the permeability decreases, the reattachment point due to the flow separation moves upstream. This is because the fluid is sucked into the filter region due to the pressure drop before the flow separation occurs. The particle follows well with the fluid stream and the particle is directly sucked into the filter due to the pressure drop even in the flow separation region.

  5. Assessment of existing roadside swales with engineered filter soil: II. Treatment efficiency and in situ mobilization in soil columns.

    PubMed

    Ingvertsen, Simon T; Cederkvist, Karin; Jensen, Marina B; Magid, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    Use of roadside infiltration systems using engineered filter soil for optimized treatment has been common practice in Germany for decades, but little documentation is available regarding their long-term treatment performance. Here we present the results of laboratory leaching experiments with intact soil columns (15 cm i.d., 25-30 cm length) collected from two German roadside infiltration swales constructed in 1997. The columns were irrigated with synthetic solutions of unpolluted or polluted (dissolved heavy metals and fine suspended solids) road runoff, as well as a soluble nonreactive tracer (bromide) and a dye (brilliant blue). The experiments were performed at two irrigation rates corresponding to catchment rainfall intensities of approximately 5.1 and 34 mm/h. The bromide curves indicated that preferential flow was more pronounced at high irrigation rates, which was supported by the flow patterns revealed in the dye tracing experiment. Nonetheless, the soils seemed to be capable of retaining most of the dissolved heavy metals from the polluted road runoff at both low and high irrigation rates, except for Cr, which appears to pass through the soil as chromate. Fluorescent microspheres (diameter = 5 μm) used as surrogates for fine suspended solids were efficiently retained by the soils (>99%). However, despite promising treatment abilities, internal mobilization of heavy metals and P from the soil was observed, resulting in potentially critical effluent concentrations of Cu, Zn, and Pb. This is mainly ascribed to high concentrations of in situ mobilized dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Suggestions are provided for possible improvements and further research to minimize DOC mobilization in engineered filter soils.

  6. Electrically heated particulate filter with zoned exhaust flow control

    SciTech Connect

    Gonze, Eugene V

    2012-06-26

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter that includes X zones. An electrical heater includes Y heater segments that are associated with respective ones of the X zones. The electrical heater is arranged upstream from and proximate with the PM filter. A valve assembly includes Z sections that are associated with respective ones of the X zones. A control module adjusts flow through each of the Z sections during regeneration of the PM filter via control of the valve assembly. X, Y and Z are integers.

  7. Direction of fluid flow and the properties of fibrous filters

    SciTech Connect

    Pich, J.; Spurny, K.

    1991-01-01

    The influence of the fluid flow direction (downflow and upflow) on the filtration properties of filters that have a fibrous structure is investigated. It is concluded that selectivity of these filters (dependence of the filter efficiency on the particle size) in the case of upflow is changed - in comparison with the case of downflow - in three ways: the position of the minimum of this dependence is shifted to larger particle sizes, and the whole selectivity is decreased and simultaneously deformed. Corresponding equations for this shift and changes are derived and analyzed. Theoretical predictions are compared with available experimental data. In all cases qualitative agreement and in some cases quantitative agreement is found.

  8. Numerical and experimental approaches to study soil transport and clogging in granular filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanarska, Y.; Smith, J. J.; Ezzedine, S. M.; Lomov, I.; Glascoe, L. G.

    2012-12-01

    Failure of a dam by erosion ranks among the most serious accidents in civil engineering. The best way to prevent internal erosion is using adequate granular filters in the transition areas where important hydraulic gradients can appear. In case of cracking and erosion, if the filter is capable of retaining the eroded particles, the crack will seal and the dam safety will be ensured. Numerical modeling has proved to be a cost-effective tool for improving our understanding of physical processes. Traditionally, the consideration of flow and particle transport in porous media has focused on treating the media as continuum. Practical models typically address flow and transport based on the Darcy's law as a function of a pressure gradient and a medium-dependent permeability parameter. Additional macroscopic constitutes describe porosity, and permeability changes during the migration of a suspension through porous media. However, most of them rely on empirical correlations, which often need to be recalibrated for each application. Grain-scale modeling can be used to gain insight into scale dependence of continuum macroscale parameters. A finite element numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations for fluid flow together with Lagrange multiplier technique for solid particles was applied to the simulation of soil filtration in the filter layers of gravity dam. The numerical approach was validated through comparison of numerical simulations with the experimental results of base soil particle clogging in the filter layers performed at ERDC. The numerical simulation correctly predicted flow and pressure decay due to particle clogging. The base soil particle distribution was almost identical to those measured in the laboratory experiment. It is believed that the agreement between simulations and experimental data demonstrates the applicability of the proposed approach for prediction of the soil transport and clogging in embankment dams. To get more precise understanding of

  9. Assessment of two-filter technique for correlating actinium-227 concentrations in soils

    SciTech Connect

    Fraizer, W.K.; Patch, K.D.; Reynolds, B.A.

    1980-02-01

    Concentrations of actinium-227 in soil samples from waste-disposal sites for uranium procession plants were successfully correlated with radon-219 measurements obtained by the two-filter technique, thus avoiding time-consuming and difficult radiochemical analyses. A flow-through sampling device and procedure were developed which determined actinium levels with a precision of 2 pCi/g +- 50%. Theoretical relations for the production of radon from actinium, the decay of radon, and the decay and diffusion of radon daughters in the two-filter apparatus were formulated. Measurements indicated that the emanation fraction for radon-219 was about 15%. Sampling filters collected radon daughters with a 93% efficiency while radon could be scrubbed from air samples by use of an activated-charcoal canister.

  10. Transverse high gradient magnetic filter cell with bounded flow field

    SciTech Connect

    Badescu, V.; Rotariu, O.; Murariu, V.; Rezlescu, N.

    1997-11-01

    The capture of fine paramagnetic particles from a fluid suspension in a magnetic filter element of a novel design is analyzed. Unlike the systems previously analyzed, in the model the flow is bounded by two by two parallel planar plates, and the ferromagnetic wires are installed outside these spaces, within planes parallel with the plates. The analysis is based on the study of particle trajectories, considering the laminar flow of carrier fluid. From these the authors establish the conditions for the maximum recovery of the particles in suspension. This study is useful in designing magnetic filter batteries with corrosion-protected ferromagnetic wires.

  11. Application of velocity filtering to optical-flow passive ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barniv, Yair

    1992-01-01

    The performance of the velocity filtering method as applied to optical-flow passive ranging under real-world conditions is evaluated. The theory of the 3-D Fourier transform as applied to constant-speed moving points is reviewed, and the space-domain shift-and-add algorithm is derived from the general 3-D matched filtering formulation. The constant-speed algorithm is then modified to fit the actual speed encountered in the optical flow application, and the passband of that filter is found in terms of depth (sensor/object distance) so as to cover any given range of depths. Two algorithmic solutions for the problems associated with pixel interpolation and object expansion are developed, and experimental results are presented.

  12. Oxygen profile and clogging in vertical flow sand filters for on-site wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Petitjean, A; Forquet, N; Boutin, C

    2016-04-01

    13 million people (about 20% of the population) use on-site wastewater treatment in France. Buried vertical sand filters are often built, especially when the soil permeability is not sufficient for septic tank effluent infiltration in undisturbed soil. Clogging is one of the main problems deteriorating the operation of vertical flow filters for wastewater treatment. The extent of clogging is not easily assessed, especially in buried vertical flow sand filters. We suggest examining two possible ways of detecting early clogging: (1) NH4-N/NO3-N outlet concentration ratio, and (2) oxygen measurement within the porous media. Two pilot-scale filters were equipped with probes for oxygen concentration measurements and samples were taken at different depths for pollutant characterization. Influent and effluent grab-samples were taken three times a week. The systems were operated using batch-feeding of septic tank effluent. Qualitative description of oxygen transfer processes under unclogged and clogged conditions is presented. NH4-N outlet concentration appears to be useless for early clogging detection. However, NO3-N outlet concentration and oxygen content allows us to diagnose the early clogging of the system.

  13. Absorption Filter Based Optical Diagnostics in High Speed Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samimy, Mo; Elliott, Gregory; Arnette, Stephen

    1996-01-01

    Two major regimes where laser light scattered by molecules or particles in a flow contains significant information about the flow are Mie scattering and Rayleigh scattering. Mie scattering is used to obtain only velocity information, while Rayleigh scattering can be used to measure both the velocity and the thermodynamic properties of the flow. Now, recently introduced (1990, 1991) absorption filter based diagnostic techniques have started a new era in flow visualization, simultaneous velocity and thermodynamic measurements, and planar velocity measurements. Using a filtered planar velocimetry (FPV) technique, we have modified the optically thick iodine filter profile of Miles, et al., and used it in the pressure-broaden regime which accommodates measurements in a wide range of velocity applications. Measuring velocity and thermodynamic properties simultaneously, using absorption filtered based Rayleigh scattering, involves not only the measurement of the Doppler shift, but also the spectral profile of the Rayleigh scattering signal. Using multiple observation angles, simultaneous measurement of one component velocity and thermodynamic properties in a supersonic jet were measured. Presently, the technique is being extended for simultaneous measurements of all three components of velocity and thermodynamic properties.

  14. Isothermal vapour flow in extremely dry soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todman, L. C.; Ireson, A. M.; Butler, A. P.; Templeton, M. R.

    2012-04-01

    In dry soils hydraulic connectivity within the liquid water phase decreases and vapour flow becomes a significant transport mechanism for water. The temperature or solute concentration of the liquid phase affects the vapour pressure of the surrounding air, thus temperature or solute gradients can drive vapour flows. However, in extremely dry soils where water is retained by adsorptive forces rather than capillarity, vapour flows can also occur. In such soils tiny changes in water content significantly affect the equilibrium vapour pressure in the soil, and hence small differences in water content can initiate vapour pressure gradients. In many field conditions this effect may be negligible compared to vapour flows driven by other factors. However, flows of this type are particularly significant in a new type of subsurface irrigation system which uses pervaporation, via a polymer tubing, as the mechanism for water supply. In this system, water enters the soil in vapour phase. Experiments were performed in laboratory conditions using marine sand that had previously been oven dried and cooled. This dry sand was used to represent the desert conditions in which this irrigation system is intended for use. Experimental results show that isothermal vapour flows can significantly affect the performance of such irrigation systems due to the rapid transport of water through the soil via the vapour phase. When the irrigation pipe was buried at a depth of 10cm a vapour flow from the soil surface was observed in less than 2 hours. These flows therefore affect the loss of mass into the atmosphere and thus must be considered when evaluating the availability of water for the irrigated crop. The experiments also provide a rare opportunity to observe isothermal vapour flows initiating from a subsurface source. Such experiments allow the significance of these flows to be quantified and potentially applied to other areas of arid zone hydrology.

  15. Information and Entropy Flow in the Kalman?Bucy Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitter, Sanjoy K.; Newton, Nigel J.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the information theoretic properties of Kalman-Bucy filters in continuous time, developing notions of information supply, storage and dissipation. Introducing a concept of energy, we develop a physical analogy in which the unobserved signal describes a statistical mechanical system interacting with a heat bath. The abstract `universe' comprising the signal and the heat bath obeys a non-increase law of entropy; however, with the introduction of partial observations, this law can be violated. The Kalman-Bucy filter behaves like a Maxwellian demon in this analogy, returning signal energy to the heat bath without causing entropy increase. This is made possible by the steady supply of new information. In a second analogy the signal and filter interact, setting up a stationary non-equilibrium state, in which energy flows between the heat bath, the signal and the filter without causing any overall entropy increase. We introduce a rate of interactive entropy flow that isolates the statistical mechanics of this flow from marginal effects. Both analogies provide quantitative examples of Landauer's Principle.

  16. On the structural limitations of recursive digital filters for base flow estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Chun-Hsu; Costelloe, Justin F.; Peterson, Tim J.; Western, Andrew W.

    2016-06-01

    Recursive digital filters (RDFs) are widely used for estimating base flow from streamflow hydrographs, and various forms of RDFs have been developed based on different physical models. Numerical experiments have been used to objectively evaluate their performance, but they have not been sufficiently comprehensive to assess a wide range of RDFs. This paper extends these studies to understand the limitations of a generalized RDF method as a pathway for future field calibration. Two formalisms are presented to generalize most existing RDFs, allowing systematic tuning of their complexity. The RDFs with variable complexity are evaluated collectively in a synthetic setting, using modeled daily base flow produced by Li et al. (2014) from a range of synthetic catchments simulated with HydroGeoSphere. Our evaluation reveals that there are optimal RDF complexities in reproducing base flow simulations but shows that there is an inherent physical inconsistency within the RDF construction. Even under the idealized setting where true base flow data are available to calibrate the RDFs, there is persistent disagreement between true and estimated base flow over catchments with small base flow components, low saturated hydraulic conductivity of the soil and larger surface runoff. The simplest explanation is that low base flow "signal" in the streamflow data is hard to distinguish, although more complex RDFs can improve upon the simpler Eckhardt filter at these catchments.

  17. Filter properties of seam material from paved urban soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehls, T.; Jozefaciuk, G.; Sokolowska, Z.; Hajnos, M.; Wessolek, G.

    2008-04-01

    Depositions of all kinds of urban dirt and dust including anthropogenic organic substances like soot change the filter properties of the seam filling material of pervious pavements and lead to the formation of a new soil substrate called seam material. In this study, the impact of the particular urban form of organic matter (OM) on the seam materials CECpot, the specific surface area (As), the surface charge density (SCD), the adsorption energies (Ea) and the adsorption of Cd and Pb were assessed. The Cd and Pb displacement through the pavement system has been simulated in order to assess the risk of soil and groundwater contamination from infiltration of rainwater in paved urban soils. As, Ea and SCD derived from water vapor adsorption isotherms, CECpot, Pb and Cd adsorption isotherms where analyzed from adsorption experiments. The seam material is characterized by a darker munsell-color and a higher Corg (12 to 48g kg-1) compared to the original seam filling. Although, the increased Corg leads to higher As (16m2g-1) and higher CECpot (0.7 to 4.8cmolckg-1), with 78cmolckg-1C its specific CECpot is low compared to OM of non-urban soils. This can be explained by a low SCD of 1.2×10-6molc m-2 and a low fraction of high adsorption energy sites which is likely caused by the non-polar character of the accumulated urban OM in the seam material. The seam material shows stronger sorption of Pb and Cd compared to the original construction sand. The retardation capacity of seam material for Pb is similar, for Cd it is much smaller compared to natural sandy soils with similar Corg concentrations. The simulated long term displacement scenarios for a street in Berlin do not indicate an acute contamination risk for Pb . For Cd the infiltration from puddles can lead to a breakthrough of Cd through the pavement system during only one decade. Although they contain contaminations itself, the accumulated forms of urban OM lead to improved filter properties of the seam material and

  18. Bioconversion of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil using apple filter cake

    PubMed Central

    Medaura, M. Cecilia; Ércoli, Eduardo C.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using apple filter cake, a fruit-processing waste to enhance the bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil. A rotating barrel system was used to study the bioconversion of the xenobiotic compound by natural occurring microbial population. The soil had been accidentally polluted with a total petroleum hydrocarbon concentration of 41,000 ppm. Although this global value was maintained during the process, microbial intervention was evidenced through transformation of the petroleum fractions. Thus, fractions that represent a risk for the environment (GRO, Gasoline Range Organics i.e., C6 to C10–12; DRO, Diesel Range Organics i.e., C8–12 to C24–26 and RRO, Residual Range Organics i.e., C25 to C35) were significantly reduced, from 2.95% to 1.39%. On the contrary, heavier weight fraction from C35 plus other organics increased in value from 1.15% to 3.00%. The noticeable diminution of low molecular weight hydrocarbons content and hence environmental risk by the process plus the improvement of the physical characteristics of the soil, are promising results with regard to future application at large scale. PMID:24031241

  19. Filter properties of seam material from paved urban soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehls, T.; Jozefaciuk, G.; Sokolowska, Z.; Hajnos, M.; Wessolek, G.

    2007-08-01

    We studied pavement seam material. This is the soil substrate in joints of pervious pavements in urban areas. It is mostly 1 cm thick and develops from the original seam filling by depositions of all kinds of urban residues, including anthropogenic organic substances. It was investigated, how this unique form of organic matter influences the filter properties of seam material and how the seam material influences heavy metal transport through the pavement. The seam material is characterised by a darker munsell colour, higher organic carbon content, higher surface areas, higher cation exchange capacities, but a lower fraction of high adsorption energy sites compared to the original seam filling. The deposited anthropogenic organic matter itself could be characterised as particulate and non-polar. Compared to natural soils, it has a small surface area and a low surface charge density resulting in a small cation exchange capacity of only 75 cmol(+) kg-1C. The seam material shows stronger sorption of Pb and Cd compared to the original construction sand. The retardation capacity of seam material towards Pb is similar, towards Cd it is much smaller compared to natural soils. The simulated long term displacement scenarios for a street in Berlin do not indicate an acute contamination risk for Pb. For Cd the infiltration from ponds can lead to a displacement of Cd during only one decade.

  20. Flow Partitioning in Fully Saturated Soil Aggregates

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xiaofan; Richmond, Marshall C.; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Perkins, William A.; Resat, Haluk

    2014-03-30

    Microbes play an important role in facilitating organic matter decomposition in soils, which is a major component of the global carbon cycle. Microbial dynamics are intimately coupled to environmental transport processes, which control access to labile organic matter and other nutrients that are needed for the growth and maintenance of microorganisms. Transport of soluble nutrients in the soil system is arguably most strongly impacted by preferential flow pathways in the soil. Since the physical structure of soils can be characterized as being formed from constituent micro aggregates which contain internal porosity, one pressing question is the partitioning of the flow among the “inter-aggregate” and “intra-aggregate” pores and how this may impact overall solute transport within heterogeneous soil structures. The answer to this question is particularly important in evaluating assumptions to be used in developing upscaled simulations based on highly-resolved mechanistic models. We constructed a number of diverse multi-aggregate structures with different packing ratios by stacking micro-aggregates containing internal pores and varying the size and shape of inter-aggregate pore spacing between them. We then performed pore-scale flow simulations using computational fluid dynamics methods to determine the flow patterns in these aggregate-of-aggregates structures and computed the partitioning of the flow through intra- and inter-aggregate pores as a function of the spacing between the aggregates. The results of these numerical experiments demonstrate that soluble nutrients are largely transported via flows through inter-aggregate pores. Although this result is consistent with intuition, we have also been able to quantify the relative flow capacity of the two domains under various conditions. For example, in our simulations, the flow capacity through the aggregates (intra-aggregate flow) was less than 2% of the total flow when the spacing between the aggregates

  1. Activated soil filters for removal of biocides from contaminated run-off and waste-waters.

    PubMed

    Bester, Kai; Banzhaf, Stefan; Burkhardt, Michael; Janzen, Niklas; Niederstrasser, Bernd; Scheytt, Traugott

    2011-11-01

    Building facades can be equipped with biocides to prevent formation of algal, fungal and bacterial films. Thus run-off waters may contain these highly active compounds. In this study, the removal of several groups of biocides from contaminated waters by means of an activated soil filter was studied. A technical scale activated vertical soil filter (biofilter) with different layers (peat, sand and gravel), was planted with reed (Phragmites australis) and used to study the removal rates and fate of hydrophilic to moderate hydrophobic (log K(ow) 1.8-4.4) biocides and biocide metabolites such as: Terbutryn, Cybutryn (Irgarol® 1051), Descyclopropyl-Cybutryn (Cybutryn and Terbutryn metabolite), Isoproturon, Diuron, and its metabolite Diuron-desmonomethyl, Benzo-isothiazolinone, n-Octyl-isothiazolinone, Dichloro-n-octylisothiazolinone and Iodocarbamate (Iodocarb). Three experiments were performed: the first one (36 d) under low flow conditions (61 L m(-2) d(-1)) reached removal rates between 82% and 100%. The second one was performed to study high flow conditions: During this experiment, water was added as a pulse to the filter system with a hydraulic load of 255 L m(-2) within 5 min (retention time <1 h). During this experiment the removal rates of the compounds decreased drastically. For five compounds (Cybutryn, Descyclopropyl-Cybutryn, Diuron, Isoproturon, and Iodocarb) the removal dropped temporarily below 60%, while it was always above 70% for the others (Terbutryn, Benzo-isothiazolinone, n-Octyl-isothiazolinone, Dichloro-n-octylisothiazolinone). However, this removal is a considerable improvement compared to direct discharge into surface waters or infiltration into soil without appropriate removal. In the last experiment the removal efficiencies of the different layers were studied. Though the peat layer was responsible for most of the removal, the sand and gravel layers also contributed significantly for some compounds. All compounds are rather removed by

  2. Ultrasonic Mastering of Filter Flow and Antifouling of Renewable Resources.

    PubMed

    Radziuk, Darya; Möhwald, Helmuth

    2016-04-04

    Inadequate access to pure water and sanitation requires new cost-effective, ergonomic methods with less consumption of energy and chemicals, leaving the environment cleaner and sustainable. Among such methods, ultrasound is a unique means to control the physics and chemistry of complex fluids (wastewater) with excellent performance regarding mass transfer, cleaning, and disinfection. In membrane filtration processes, it overcomes diffusion limits and can accelerate the fluid flow towards the filter preventing antifouling. Here, we outline the current state of knowledge and technological design, with a focus on physicochemical strategies of ultrasound for water cleaning. We highlight important parameters of ultrasound for the delivery of a fluid flow from a technical perspective employing principles of physics and chemistry. By introducing various ultrasonic methods, involving bubbles or cavitation in combination with external fields, we show advancements in flow acceleration and mass transportation to the filter. In most cases we emphasize the main role of streaming and the impact of cavitation with a perspective to prevent and remove fouling deposits during the flow. We also elaborate on the deficiencies of present technologies and on problems to be solved to achieve a wide-spread application.

  3. Adaptive probabilistic collocation based Kalman filter for unsaturated flow problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Man, J.; Li, W.; Zeng, L.; Wu, L.

    2015-12-01

    The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) has gained popularity in hydrological data assimilation problems. As a Monte Carlo based method, a relatively large ensemble size is usually required to guarantee the accuracy. As an alternative approach, the probabilistic collocation based Kalman filter (PCKF) employs the Polynomial Chaos to approximate the original system. In this way, the sampling error can be reduced. However, PCKF suffers from the so called "cure of dimensionality". When the system nonlinearity is strong and number of parameters is large, PCKF is even more computationally expensive than EnKF. Motivated by recent developments in uncertainty quantification, we propose a restart adaptive probabilistic collocation based Kalman filter (RAPCKF) for data assimilation in unsaturated flow problem. During the implementation of RAPCKF, the important parameters are identified and active PCE basis functions are adaptively selected. The "restart" technology is used to alleviate the inconsistency between model parameters and states. The performance of RAPCKF is tested by unsaturated flow numerical cases. It is shown that RAPCKF is more efficient than EnKF with the same computational cost. Compared with the traditional PCKF, the RAPCKF is more applicable in strongly nonlinear and high dimensional problems.

  4. Thermal/chemical stability of ceramic cross flow filter materials

    SciTech Connect

    Alvin, M.A.; Bahovchin, D.M.; Lippert, T.E.; Tressler, R.E.; McNerney, K.B.

    1992-01-01

    Westinghouse has undertaken a two phase program to determine possible long-term, high temperature influence that advanced coal-based power system environments may have on the stability of the ceramic cross flow filter elements. During the past year, we have principally focused our efforts on developing an understanding of the stability of the alumina/mullite filter material at high temperature (i.e., 870, 980, and 1100[degrees]C) under oxidizing conditions which contain gas phase alkali species. The alumina/mullite cross flow liter material that has consistently been used throughout the flow-through gas phase alkali testing segment of this program, consists of mullite rods or needles that are embedded within an amorphous phase which contains corundum (Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]) and anorthite (CaAl[sub 2]Si[sub 2]O[sub 8]). Due to the rapid cooling rate that was used to produce the alumina/mullite filter disc material from high fire, the matrix consists of 59.6 wt% mullite, 30.5 wt% amorphous, 5.1 wt% anorthite, and 4.8 wt% alumina. The relatively low, as-fabricated, hot strength of this material (841[plus minus]259 psi at 870[degrees]C) is a direct result of the high amorphous content which softens at temperatures of 870[degrees]C. Load versus deflection curves as a function of temperature indicate that this material is relatively brittle up to temperatures of 600[degrees]C. Both a loss of strength, as well as plastic deformation of the matrix occurs at [approximately]700[degrees]C. If cross flow filters are manufactured from an alumina/mullite matrix that contains an [approximately]30.5 wt% amorphous content, we suspect that the plastic nature of the glass phase could potentially serve as a substrate for fines collection during initial filter operation at 700[degrees]C. Similarly the plastic nature could potentially cause deformation of the liter under load.

  5. Thermal/chemical stability of ceramic cross flow filter materials

    SciTech Connect

    Alvin, M.A.; Bahovchin, D.M.; Lippert, T.E.; Tressler, R.E.; McNerney, K.B.

    1992-11-01

    Westinghouse has undertaken a two phase program to determine possible long-term, high temperature influence that advanced coal-based power system environments may have on the stability of the ceramic cross flow filter elements. During the past year, we have principally focused our efforts on developing an understanding of the stability of the alumina/mullite filter material at high temperature (i.e., 870, 980, and 1100{degrees}C) under oxidizing conditions which contain gas phase alkali species. The alumina/mullite cross flow liter material that has consistently been used throughout the flow-through gas phase alkali testing segment of this program, consists of mullite rods or needles that are embedded within an amorphous phase which contains corundum (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and anorthite (CaAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8}). Due to the rapid cooling rate that was used to produce the alumina/mullite filter disc material from high fire, the matrix consists of 59.6 wt% mullite, 30.5 wt% amorphous, 5.1 wt% anorthite, and 4.8 wt% alumina. The relatively low, as-fabricated, hot strength of this material (841{plus_minus}259 psi at 870{degrees}C) is a direct result of the high amorphous content which softens at temperatures of 870{degrees}C. Load versus deflection curves as a function of temperature indicate that this material is relatively brittle up to temperatures of 600{degrees}C. Both a loss of strength, as well as plastic deformation of the matrix occurs at {approximately}700{degrees}C. If cross flow filters are manufactured from an alumina/mullite matrix that contains an {approximately}30.5 wt% amorphous content, we suspect that the plastic nature of the glass phase could potentially serve as a substrate for fines collection during initial filter operation at 700{degrees}C. Similarly the plastic nature could potentially cause deformation of the liter under load.

  6. Comparing the ensemble and extended Kalman filters for in situ soil moisture assimilation with contrasting conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairbairn, D.; Barbu, A. L.; Mahfouf, J.-F.; Calvet, J.-C.; Gelati, E.

    2015-12-01

    Two data assimilation (DA) methods are compared for their ability to produce an accurate soil moisture analysis using the Météo-France land surface model: (i) SEKF, a simplified extended Kalman filter, which uses a climatological background-error covariance, and (ii) EnSRF, the ensemble square root filter, which uses an ensemble background-error covariance and approximates random rainfall errors stochastically. In situ soil moisture observations at 5 cm depth are assimilated into the surface layer and 30 cm deep observations are used to evaluate the root-zone analysis on 12 sites in south-western France (SMOSMANIA network). These sites differ in terms of climate and soil texture. The two methods perform similarly and improve on the open loop. Both methods suffer from incorrect linear assumptions which are particularly degrading to the analysis during water-stressed conditions: the EnSRF by a dry bias and the SEKF by an over-sensitivity of the model Jacobian between the surface and the root-zone layers. These problems are less severe for the sites with wetter climates. A simple bias correction technique is tested on the EnSRF. Although this reduces the bias, it modifies the soil moisture fluxes and suppresses the ensemble spread, which degrades the analysis performance. However, the EnSRF flow-dependent background-error covariance evidently captures seasonal variability in the soil moisture errors and should exploit planned improvements in the model physics. Synthetic twin experiments demonstrate that when there is only a random component in the precipitation forcing errors, the correct stochastic representation of these errors enables the EnSRF to perform better than the SEKF. It might therefore be possible for the EnSRF to perform better than the SEKF with real data, if the rainfall uncertainty was accurately captured. However, the simple rainfall error model is not advantageous in our real experiments. More realistic rainfall error models are suggested.

  7. Filter-matrix lattice Boltzmann model for microchannel gas flows.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Congshan; Zhong, Chengwen

    2013-11-01

    The lattice Boltzmann method has been shown to be successful for microscale gas flows, and it has attracted significant research interest. In this paper, the recently proposed filter-matrix lattice Boltzmann (FMLB) model is first applied to study the microchannel gas flows, in which a Bosanquet-type effective viscosity is used to capture the flow behaviors in the transition regime. A kinetic boundary condition, the combined bounce-back and specular-reflection scheme with the second-order slip scheme, is also designed for the FMLB model. By analyzing a unidirectional flow, the slip velocity and the discrete effects related to the boundary condition are derived within the FMLB model, and a revised scheme is presented to overcome such effects, which have also been validated through numerical simulations. To gain an accurate simulation in a wide range of Knudsen numbers, covering the slip and the entire transition flow regimes, a set of slip coefficients with an introduced fitting function is adopted in the revised second-order slip boundary condition. The periodic and pressure-driven microchannel flows have been investigated by the present model in this study. The numerical results, including the velocity profile and the mass flow rate, as well as the nonlinear pressure distribution along the channel, agree fairly well with the solutions of the linearized Boltzmann equation, the direct simulation Monte Carlo results, the experimental data, and the previous results of the multiple effective relaxation lattice Boltzmann model. Also, the present results of the velocity profile and the mass flow rate show that the present model with the fitting function can yield improved predictions for the microchannel gas flow with higher Knudsen numbers in the transition flow regime.

  8. Coupled continuum and molecular model of flow through fibrous filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shunliu; Povitsky, Alex

    2013-11-01

    A coupled approach combining the continuum boundary singularity method (BSM) and the molecular direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) is developed and validated using Taylor-Couette flow and the flow about a single fiber confined between two parallel walls. In the proposed approach, the DSMC is applied to an annular region enclosing the fiber and the BSM is employed in the entire flow domain. The parameters used in the DSMC and the coupling procedure, such as the number of simulated particles, the cell size, and the size of the coupling zone are determined by inspecting the accuracy of pressure drop obtained for the range of Knudsen numbers between zero and unity. The developed approach is used to study flowfield of fibrous filtration flows. It is observed that in the partial-slip flow regime, Kn ⩽ 0.25, the results obtained by the proposed coupled BSM-DSMC method match the solution by BSM combined with the heuristic partial-slip boundary conditions. For transition molecular-to-continuum Knudsen numbers, 0.25 < Kn ⩽ 1, the difference in pressure drop and velocity between these two approaches is significant. This difference increases with the Knudsen number that confirms the usefulness of coupled continuum and molecular methods in numerical modeling of transition low Reynolds number flows in fibrous filters.

  9. Flow Characteristics of Pulse Cleaning System in Ceramic Filter

    SciTech Connect

    Zhongli, J.; Peng, S.; Chen, H.; Shi, M.

    2002-09-19

    The rigid ceramic filters have been recognized to be a most promising kind of equipment for the gas-solid separation and the cleaning of hot gases due to their unique properties and higher separation efficiency for larger than 5 {micro}m particles, which will well meet downstream system component protection and environmental standards. They have potential for increased efficiency in advanced coal-fired power generation systems like pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) process, and petrochemical process such as fluid catalyst cracking (FCC) Process. In the commercial utilization of rigid ceramic filters, the performance of pulse cleaning systems has crucial effects on the long-term structural durability and reliability of the entire design. In order to get a clear insight into the nature of this cleaning process and provide a solid basis for the industrial applications, the transient flow characteristics of the rigid ceramic candle filter during the whole pulse cleaning process should be completely analyzed.

  10. Particle filter based on thermophoretic deposition from natural convection flow

    SciTech Connect

    Sasse, A.G.B.M.; Nazaroff, W.W. ); Gadgil, A.J. )

    1994-04-01

    We present an analysis of particle migration in a natural convection flow between parallel plates and within the annulus of concentric tubes. The flow channel is vertically oriented with one surface maintained at a higher temperature than the other. Particle migration is dominated by advection in the vertical direction and thermophoresis in the horizontal direction. From scale analysis it is demonstrated that particles are completely removed from air flowing through the channel if its length exceeds L[sub c] = (b[sup 4]g/24K[nu][sup 2]), where b is the width of the channel, g is the acceleration of gravity, K is a thermophoretic coefficient of order 0.5, and [nu] is the kinematic viscosity of air. Precise predictions of particle removal efficiency as a function of system parameters are obtained by numerical solution of the governing equations. Based on the model results, it appears feasible to develop a practical filter for removing smoke particles from a smoldering cigarette in an ashtray by using natural convection in combination with thermophoresis. 22 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Infiltration capacity of roadside filter strips with non-uniform overland flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Serrana, María; Gulliver, John S.; Nieber, John L.

    2017-02-01

    The side slope to a roadside swale (drainage ditch) constitutes a filter strip that has potential for infiltration of road runoff, thereby serving as a stormwater quantity and quality control mechanism. A total of thirty-two tests were performed during three seasons in four different highways located in the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area, MN to analyze the infiltration performance of roadside filter strips and the effect of fractional coverage of water on infiltration. Three different application rates were used in the experiments. All the tests showed that water flow on the lateral slope of a roadside swale is concentrated in fingers, instead of sheet flow, at the typical road runoff intensities for which infiltration practices are utilized to improve surface water quality. A linear relationship between flux of water from the road and fraction of wetted surface was observed, for the intensities tested. The average percentage infiltration of the medium road runoff rate (1.55 × 10-4 m2/s, without direct rainfall) experiments performed in fall was 85% and in spring 70%. For the high road runoff rate (3.1 × 10-4 m2/s, without direct rainfall) tests the average amount of water infiltrated was 47% and for the low road runoff rate (7.76 × 10-5 m2/s, without direct rainfall) tests it was 69%, both set of tests performed in spring and summer. The saturated hydraulic conductivity of swale soil was high, relative to the values typical of laboratory permeameter measurements for these types of soils. This is believed to be due to the macropores generated by vegetation roots, activity of macrofauna (e.g. earthworms), and construction/maintenance procedures. The trend was to have more infiltration when the saturated hydraulic conductivity was higher and for a greater side slope length, as expected. The vegetation, type of soil and length of the side slope are important to consider for constructing and maintaining roadside swales that will be efficient as stormwater

  12. Data assimilation with soil water content sensors and pedotransfer functions in soil water flow modeling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil water flow models are based on a set of simplified assumptions about the mechanisms, processes, and parameters of water retention and flow. That causes errors in soil water flow model predictions. Soil water content monitoring data can be used to reduce the errors in models. Data assimilation (...

  13. Investigations into the application of a combination of bioventing and biotrickling filter technologies for soil decontamination processes--a transition regime between bioventing and soil vapour extraction.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, S M C; Ferreira Jorge, R M; Castro, P M L

    2009-10-30

    Bioventing has emerged as one of the most cost-effective in situ technologies available to address petroleum light-hydrocarbon spills, one of the most common sources of soil pollution. However, the major drawback associated with this technology is the extended treatment time often required. The present study aimed to illustrate how an intended air-injection bioventing technology can be transformed into a soil vapour extraction effort when the air flow rates are pushed to a stripping mode, thus leading to the treatment of the off-gas resulting from volatilisation. As such, a combination of an air-injection bioventing system and a biotrickling filter was applied for the treatment of contaminated soil, the latter aiming at the treatment of the emissions resulting from the bioventing process. With a moisture content of 10%, soil contaminated with toluene at two different concentrations, namely 2 and 14 mg g soil(-1), were treated successfully using an air-injection bioventing system at a constant air flow rate of ca. 0.13 dm(3) min(-1), which led to the removal of ca. 99% toluene, after a period of ca. 5 days of treatment. A biotrickling filter was simultaneously used to treat the outlet gas emissions, which presented average removal efficiencies of ca. 86%. The proposed combination of biotechnologies proved to be an efficient solution for the decontamination process, when an excessive air flow rate was applied, reducing both the soil contamination and the outlet gas emissions, whilst being able to reduce the treatment time required by bioventing only.

  14. Influence of air flow rate and backwashing on the hydraulic behaviour of a submerged filter.

    PubMed

    Cobos-Becerra, Yazmin Lucero; González-Martínez, Simón

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate backwashing effects on the apparent porosity of the filter media and on the hydraulic behaviour of a pilot scale submerged filter, prior to biofilm colonization, under different hydraulic retention times, and different air flow rates. Tracer curves were analysed with two mathematical models for ideal and non-ideal flow (axial dispersion and Wolf and Resnick models). The filter media was lava stones sieved to 4.5 mm. Backwashing causes attrition of media particles, decreasing the void volume of the filter media and, consequently, the tracer flow is more uniform. The eroded media presented lower dead volumes (79% for the filter with aeration and 8% for the filter without aeration) compared with the new media (83% for the filter with aeration and 22% for the filter without aeration). The flow patterns of eroded and new media were different because the more regular shape of the particles decreases the void volume of the filter media. The dead volume is attributed, in the case of the filter with aeration, to the turbulence caused by the air bubbles that generate preferential channelling of the bulk liquid along the filter media, creating large zones of stagnant liquid and, for the filter without aeration, to the channels formed due to the irregular shaped media.

  15. Flow regions of granules in Dorfan Impingo filter for gas cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Kuo, J.T.; Smid, J.; Hsiau, S.S.; Tsai, S.S.; Chou, C.S.

    1999-07-01

    Inside a two-dimensional model of the louvered Dorfan Impingo panel with transparent front and rear walls the flow region of filter granules without gas cross flow were observed. The white PE beads were used as filter granules. Colored PE beads served as tracers. Filter granules were discharged and circulated to the bed. The flow rate of filter medium was controlled by the belt conveyor. The image processing system including a Frame Grabber and JVC videocamera was used to record the granular flow. Every image of motion was digitized and stored in a file. The flow patterns and the quasi-stagnant zones history in the moving granular bed were evaluated. The experiment showed fast central moving region (flowing core) of filter granules and quasi-stagnant zones close to louver walls.

  16. Assimilating Remotely Sensed Surface Soil Moisture into SWAT using Ensemble Kalman Filter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, a 1-D Ensemble Kalman Filter has been used to update the soil moisture states of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model. Experiments were conducted for the Cobb Creek Watershed in southeastern Oklahoma for 2006-2008. Assimilation of in situ data proved limited success in the ...

  17. Improvement of hemodynamic performance using novel helical flow vena cava filter design

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Zhang, Peng; Deng, Xiaoyan; Fan, Yubo; Xing, Yubin; Xing, Ning

    2017-01-01

    We propose a vena cava filter in which helical flow is created in the filter’s working zone to minimize filter blockage by trapped clots and facilitate the lysis of trapped clots. To validate this new design, we compared five helical flow inducers with different thread pitches in terms of blood flow patterns in the filter. The vena cava was reconstructed based on computed tomography images. Both the numerical simulation and in vitro experiment revealed that the helical flow inducer can effectively create a helical flow in the vessel, thereby subduing the filter structure’s adverse disruption to blood flow, and increasing flow-induced shear stress in the filter center. In addition, the smaller thread pitch helical flow inducer reduced the oscillating shear index and relative residence time on the vessel wall. Moreover, we observed that the helical flow inducer in the vena cava could induce flow rotation both in clockwise and counterclockwise directions. In conclusion, the new design of the filter with the smaller thread pitch inducer is advantageous over the traditional filter in terms of improving local hemodynamics, which may reduce thrombosis build-up after deployment. PMID:28112186

  18. A Graphical Filter/Flow Representation of Boolean Queries: A Prototype Implementation and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Degi; Shneiderman, Ben

    1993-01-01

    Literature showing the disadvantages of Boolean logic in online searching is reviewed, and research comparing the Filter/Flow visual interface (i.e., a graphical representation of Boolean operators) with a text-only interface is described. A significant difference in the total number of correct queries is reported that favored Filter/Flow. (16…

  19. The effect of flow on the filtration performance of paediatric breathing system filters.

    PubMed

    Wilkes, A R; Malan, C A; Hall, J E

    2008-01-01

    The effect of flow on the filtration performance of six different types of filter intended for use in paediatric anaesthesia was measured by challenging the filters with sodium chloride particles at five different flows: 6, 10, 15, 20 and 30 l x min(-1). Twenty-five unused samples of each filter type were evaluated. The pressure drop across each filter was measured at the same flows as those used to measure penetration. The pressure drop varied both between and within the types of filter. Mean pressure drop varied between 89 and 262 Pa at a flow of 15 l x min(-1) for the six different filters. Penetration of sodium chloride particles varied from 1.9 to 18% at 15 l x min(-1) for the six filters. Allowing for the variation in pressure drop, the penetration of particles increased fairly linearly as flow increased for all six filter types. The increase in penetration per unit increase in flow varied from 0.11 to 0.82% per litre per minute. Over the range of flows studied, the increase in penetration with flow is fairly predictable.

  20. Hollywood log-homotopy: movies of particle flow for nonlinear filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daum, Fred; Huang, Jim

    2011-06-01

    In this paper we show five movies of particle flow to provide insight and intuition about this new algorithm. The particles flow solves the well known and important problem of particle degeneracy. Bayes' rule is implemented by particle flow rather than as a pointwise multiplication. This theory is roughly seven orders of magnitude faster than standard particle filters, and it often beats the extended Kalman filter by two orders of magnitude in accuracy for difficult nonlinear problems.

  1. Non-resonant parametric amplification in biomimetic hair flow sensors: Selective gain and tunable filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Droogendijk, H.; Bruinink, C. M.; Sanders, R. G. P.; Krijnen, G. J. M.

    2011-11-01

    We demonstrate that the responsivity of flow sensors for harmonic flows can be improved significantly by non-resonant parametric amplification. Using electrostatic spring softening by AC-bias voltages, increased responsivity and sharp filtering are achieved in our biomimetic flow sensors. Tunable filtering is obtained for non-resonant electromechanical parametric amplification, applicable at a wide range of non-resonant frequencies while achieving highly selective gain of up to 20 dB.

  2. Computational Modeling of Blood Flow in the TrapEase Inferior Vena Cava Filter

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, M A; Henshaw, W D; Wang, S L

    2008-02-04

    To evaluate the flow hemodynamics of the TrapEase vena cava filter using three dimensional computational fluid dynamics, including simulated thrombi of multiple shapes, sizes, and trapping positions. The study was performed to identify potential areas of recirculation and stagnation and areas in which trapped thrombi may influence intrafilter thrombosis. Computer models of the TrapEase filter, thrombi (volumes ranging from 0.25mL to 2mL, 3 different shapes), and a 23mm diameter cava were constructed. The hemodynamics of steady-state flow at Reynolds number 600 was examined for the unoccluded and partially occluded filter. Axial velocity contours and wall shear stresses were computed. Flow in the unoccluded TrapEase filter experienced minimal disruption, except near the superior and inferior tips where low velocity flow was observed. For spherical thrombi in the superior trapping position, stagnant and recirculating flow was observed downstream of the thrombus; the volume of stagnant flow and the peak wall shear stress increased monotonically with thrombus volume. For inferiorly trapped spherical thrombi, marked disruption to the flow was observed along the cava wall ipsilateral to the thrombus and in the interior of the filter. Spherically shaped thrombus produced a lower peak wall shear stress than conically shaped thrombus and a larger peak stress than ellipsoidal thrombus. We have designed and constructed a computer model of the flow hemodynamics of the TrapEase IVC filter with varying shapes, sizes, and positions of thrombi. The computer model offers several advantages over in vitro techniques including: improved resolution, ease of evaluating different thrombus sizes and shapes, and easy adaptation for new filter designs and flow parameters. Results from the model also support a previously reported finding from photochromic experiments that suggest the inferior trapping position of the TrapEase IVC filter leads to an intra-filter region of recirculating

  3. Adaptive Low Dissipative High Order Filter Methods for Multiscale MHD Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, H. C.; Sjoegreen, Bjoern

    2004-01-01

    Adaptive low-dissipative high order filter finite difference methods for long time wave propagation of shock/turbulence/combustion compressible viscous MHD flows has been constructed. Several variants of the filter approach that cater to different flow types are proposed. These filters provide a natural and efficient way for the minimization of the divergence of the magnetic field [divergence of B] numerical error in the sense that no standard divergence cleaning is required. For certain 2-D MHD test problems, divergence free preservation of the magnetic fields of these filter schemes has been achieved.

  4. Pulsatile flow decreases gaseous micro-bubble filtering properties of oxygenators without integrated arterial filters during cardiopulmonary bypass

    PubMed Central

    Milano, Aldo D.; Dodonov, Mikhail; Onorati, Francesco; Menon, Tiziano; Gottin, Leonardo; Malerba, Giovanni; Mazzucco, Alessandro; Faggian, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) has a risk of embolic injury with an important role of gaseous micro-bubbles (GMBs), coming from CPB-circuit. Pulsatile perfusion (PP) can provide specific conditions for supplementary GMB-activity with respect to non-pulsatile (NP). We aimed to test GMB-filtering properties of three modern oxygenators under pulsatile and non-pulsatile conditions. METHODS Seventy-eight patients undergoing on-pump myocardial revascularization were randomized prospectively into three equal groups according to the oxygenator model used during CPB. Terumo Capiox-FX25, Sorin Synthesis or Maquet Quadrox-i-Adult membrane oxygenators were tested. Each group was divided equally to undergo PP or NP. GMBs were counted by means of a GAMPT-BCC200 bubble-counter with two probes placed at preoxygenator and arterial post-filter positions. Results were evaluated in terms of GMB-volume, GMB-number, amount of large over-ranged GMBs, a series of filtering indices and major neurological outcomes. RESULTS PP decreased GMB-filtering properties of the tested oxygenators. Those with integrated filters (CAPIOX-FX25 and SYNTHESIS) did not show significant differences between perfusion groups, while QUADROX-i oxygenator with external arterial filter showed significantly higher GMB-volume (P < 0.001), GMB-number (P < 0.001) and amount of over-ranged bubbles (P < 0.001) detected in arterial line during PP. Despite the differences in filtering capacity of all circuits with both types of perfusion, no important differences in clinical outcomes and major neurological events were observed. CONCLUSIONS Pulsatile flow decreases gaseous micro-bubble filtering properties of oxygenators without integrated arterial filters during CPB. PP requires specially designed circuit components to avoid the risk of additional GMB delivery. PMID:23842758

  5. Hydrocyclone/Filter for Concentrating Biomarkers from Soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponce, Adrian; Obenhuber, Donald

    2008-01-01

    The hydrocyclone-filtration extractor (HFE), now undergoing development, is a simple, robust apparatus for processing large amounts of soil to extract trace amounts of microorganisms, soluble organic compounds, and other biomarkers from soil and to concentrate the extracts in amounts sufficient to enable such traditional assays as cell culturing, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) analysis, and isotope analysis. Originally intended for incorporation into a suite of instruments for detecting signs of life on Mars, the HFE could also be used on Earth for similar purposes, including detecting trace amounts of biomarkers or chemical wastes in soils.

  6. Hydraulic parameter estimation by remotely-sensed top soil moisture observations with the particle filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montzka, Carsten; Moradkhani, Hamid; Weihermüller, Lutz; Franssen, Harrie-Jan Hendricks; Canty, Morton; Vereecken, Harry

    2011-03-01

    SummaryIn a synthetic study we explore the potential of using surface soil moisture measurements obtained from different satellite platforms to retrieve soil moisture profiles and soil hydraulic properties using a sequential data assimilation procedure and a 1D mechanistic soil water model. Four different homogeneous soil types were investigated including loamy sand, loam, silt, and clayey soils. The forcing data including precipitation and potential evapotranspiration were taken from the meteorological station of Aachen (Germany). With the aid of the forward model run, a synthetic data set was designed and observations were generated. The virtual top soil moisture observations were then assimilated to update the states and hydraulic parameters of the model by means of a particle filtering data assimilation method. Our analyses include the effect of assimilation strategy, measurement frequency, accuracy in surface soil moisture measurements, and soils differing in textural and hydraulic properties. With this approach we were able to assess the value of periodic spaceborne observations of top soil moisture for soil moisture profile estimation and identify the adequate conditions (e.g. temporal resolution and measurement accuracy) for remotely sensed soil moisture data assimilation. Updating of both hydraulic parameters and state variables allowed better predictions of top soil moisture contents as compared with updating of states only. An important conclusion is that the assimilation of remotely-sensed top soil moisture for soil hydraulic parameter estimation generates a bias depending on the soil type. Results indicate that the ability of a data assimilation system to correct the soil moisture state and estimate hydraulic parameters is driven by the non linearity between soil moisture and pressure head.

  7. Ensemble Kalman Filter Data Assimilation with the ParFlow Hydrologic Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, J. L., III

    2015-12-01

    Hydrometeorological research has shown that simulations of atmospheric processes benefit from sophisticated land surface formulations. Moisture and energy fluxes between the land surface and lower atmosphere are influenced strongly not only by atmospheric conditions, but by terrestrial hydrologic processes, soil moisture distribution in particular. By improving the representation of hydrologic processes, better predictive skill can be achieved in a fully-coupled weather forcasting model. Further improvements in the model can be realized by incorporating observed data values into the hydrologic model. This work applies the Ensemble Kalman Filter functionality included in the Data Assimilation Assimilation Research Testbed (DART), a collection of data assimilation tools maintained at the National Center for Atmospheric Research, to the ParFlow hydrologic model—the hydrologic component of the TerrSysMP fully coupled hydrologic - land surface - atmospheric model system. This generalized data assimilation tool allows observations of variables in the hydrologic component of the system to be incorporated into the overall error covariance matrix thus guiding the development of quantities that define the model state. Single dimension column tests, and a three-dimensional idealized catchment drainage and dry-out test were performed with the ParFlow-DART system to evaluate the effects of assimilating pressure head, soil moisture, and outflow observations on the development of the model through time. The data assimilation system was then applied to the hydrologic portion a fully-coupled (subsurface, land surface, and atmosphere) simulation over the North Rhine-Westphalia region in western Germany to demonstrate the utility of this system in a non-idealized and realistic forecasting situation. The success of these tests will allow the ParFlow-DART system to be developed into a complete data assimilation package for the TerrSysMP fully-coupled modeling system.

  8. Ensemble Kalman Filter Data Assimilation for the ParFlow Hydrologic Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, John

    2014-05-01

    Research in hydrometeorology has demonstrated repeatedly that atmospheric models benefit from detailed formulations of the land surface, and that energy and moisture fluxes between the land surface and atmosphere are coupled strongly not only with atmospheric conditions, but also with subsurface hydrology—particularly soil moisture distribution. Improving the representation of hydrologic processes should lead to better predictive skill in a fully-coupled weather forecasting model, and the hydrologic model itself can be improved by incorporating observed data values. For this work, we apply the Ensemble Kalman Filter functionality included in the Data Assimilation Assimilation Research Testbed (DART), a collection of data assimilation tools maintained at the National Center for Atmospheric Research, to the ParFlow hydrologic model—the hydrologic component of the TerrSysMP fully coupled hydrologic - land surface - atmospheric model system. This generalized data assimilation tool allows observations of variables in the hydrologic component of the system to be incorporated into the overall error covariance matrix thus guiding the development of quantities that define the model state. Single dimension column tests, two-dimensional hillslope tests, and a three-dimensional drainage and dry-out test were performed with the ParFlow-DART system to evaluate the effects of assimilating pressure head, soil moisture, and outflow observations on the development of the model through time. The success of these tests will allow the ParFlow-DART system to be developed into a complete data assimilation package for the TerrSysMP fully-coupled modeling system.

  9. Activated soil filters (bio filters) for the elimination of xenobiotics (micro-pollutants) from storm- and waste waters.

    PubMed

    Bester, Kai; Schäfer, Daniel

    2009-06-01

    A technical scale (0.12 m3) activated soil filter (bio filter) has been used to eliminate diverse xenobiotics (organic micro-pollutants) such as organophosphate flame retardants, and -plasticisers, musk fragrances, DEHP, benzothiazoles and triclosan from water. Model experiments to treat combined sewer overflow, storm water and a post treatment of waste water were performed in controlled laboratory experiments. The indicator compounds were typical for waste water. Diverse chemical compound groups and a wide spectrum from the lipophilic (pKow=5.9) to the hydrophilic (pKow=2.6) were included. The system consisted of a layer with high organic content (with vegetation to prevent clogging), a sand filter and a gravel drainage layer. The organic layer was spiked with activated sludge to enhance biomass and biodegradation potential. Usually the elimination rates varied from 64% to 99%, with only one compound reaching as little as 17%. For a technical suitability assessment it was calculated how long these filters would be stable in eliminating organic compounds from water. The estimated operating times for such systems was found to be about 100 years for a stack height of 2 m a year in regard to most compounds in this study.

  10. Data Assimilation for Vadose Zone Flow Modeling Using the Ensemble Kalman Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Schaap, M. G.; Zha, Y.; Xue, L.

    2015-12-01

    The natural system is open and complex and the hydraulic parameters needed for describing flow and transport in the vadose zone are often poorly known, making it prone to multiple interpretations, mathematical descriptions and uncertainty. Quite often a reasonable "handle" on a sites flow characteristics can be gained only through direct observation of the flow processes itself, determination of the spatial- and probability distributions of material properties combined with computationally expensive inversions of the Richards equation. In groundwater systems, the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) has proven to be an effective alternative to model inversions by assimilating observations directly into an ensemble of groundwater models from which time and/or space-variable variable probabilistic quantities of the flow process can be derived. Application of EnKF to Richards equation-type unsaturated flow problems, however, is more challenging than in groundwater systems because the relation of state and model parameters is strongly nonlinear. In addition, the type of functional dependence of moisture content and hydraulic conductivity on matric potential leads to high-dimensional (in the parameter space) problems even under conditions where closed-form expressions of these models such as van Genuchten-Mualem formulations are used. In this study, we updated soil water retention parameters and hydraulic conductivity together and used Restart EnKF, which rerun the nonlinear model from the initial time to obtain the updated state variables, in synthetic cases to explore the factors that may influence estimation results, including the initial estimate, the ensemble size, the observation error, and the assimilation interval. We embedded the EnKF into the Bayesian model averaging framework to enhance the model reliability and reduce predictive uncertainties. This approach is evaluated from a 15 m deep semi-arid highly heterogeneous and anisotropic vadose zone site at the

  11. Fractal Analysis of Laplacian Pyramidal Filters Applied to Segmentation of Soil Images

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, J.; Méndez, A.; Tarquis, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    The laplacian pyramid is a well-known technique for image processing in which local operators of many scales, but identical shape, serve as the basis functions. The required properties to the pyramidal filter produce a family of filters, which is unipara metrical in the case of the classical problem, when the length of the filter is 5. We pay attention to gaussian and fractal behaviour of these basis functions (or filters), and we determine the gaussian and fractal ranges in the case of single parameter a. These fractal filters loose less energy in every step of the laplacian pyramid, and we apply this property to get threshold values for segmenting soil images, and then evaluate their porosity. Also, we evaluate our results by comparing them with the Otsu algorithm threshold values, and conclude that our algorithm produce reliable test results. PMID:25114957

  12. An evaluation of the filtration performance of paediatric breathing system filters at low flows.

    PubMed

    Malan, C A; Wilkes, A R; Hall, J E; Gildersleve, C

    2007-05-01

    The filtration performance of five different types of filter intended for use in paediatric anaesthesia was measured. A total of 120 unused filters (24 samples of each filter type) were evaluated. The pressure drop and filtration performance, using challenges of sodium chloride particles, were measured for each filter at 3 l min(-1) and 15 l min(-1). The pressure drop was less at the lower flow; there was a wide variation in the pressure drop across some filters. The filtration performance of all filter types showed an improvement at 3 l min(-1) compared to 15 l min(-1). Four filter types had filtration efficiencies greater than 95% at 15 l min(-1) and greater than 99% at 3 l min(-1). The remaining filter type had a filtration efficiency less than 90% at 15 l min(-1) and greater than 95% at 3 l min(-1). These levels of performance are comparable to that of breathing system filters intended for use in adult anaesthesia using flows representing mean inspiratory flow.

  13. [Simulation of cropland soil moisture based on an ensemble Kalman filter].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhao; Zhou, Yan-Lian; Ju, Wei-Min; Gao, Ping

    2011-11-01

    By using an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) to assimilate the observed soil moisture data, the modified boreal ecosystem productivity simulator (BEPS) model was adopted to simulate the dynamics of soil moisture in winter wheat root zones at Xuzhou Agro-meteorological Station, Jiangsu Province of China during the growth seasons in 2000-2004. After the assimilation of observed data, the determination coefficient, root mean square error, and average absolute error of simulated soil moisture were in the ranges of 0.626-0.943, 0.018-0.042, and 0.021-0.041, respectively, with the simulation precision improved significantly, as compared with that before assimilation, indicating the applicability of data assimilation in improving the simulation of soil moisture. The experimental results at single point showed that the errors in the forcing data and observations and the frequency and soil depth of the assimilation of observed data all had obvious effects on the simulated soil moisture.

  14. Assessment of existing roadside swales with engineered filter soil: I. Characterization and lifetime expectancy.

    PubMed

    Ingvertsen, Simon T; Cederkvist, Karin; Régent, Yoann; Sommer, Harald; Magid, Jakob; Jensen, Marina B

    2012-01-01

    Roadside infiltration swales with well-defined soil mixtures (filter soil) for the enhancement of both infiltration and treatment of stormwater runoff from roads and parking areas have been common practice in Germany for approximately two decades. Although the systems have proven hydraulically effective, their treatment efficiency and thus lifetime expectancies are not sufficiently documented. The lack of documentation restricts the implementation of new such systems in Germany as well as other countries. This study provides an assessment of eight roadside infiltration swales with filter soil from different locations in Germany that have been operational for 6 to16 yr. The swales were assessed with respect to visual appearance, infiltration rate, soil pH, and soil texture, as well as soil concentration of organic matter, heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn), and phosphorus. Visually, the swales appeared highly variable with respect to soil color and textural layering as well as composition of plants and soil-dwelling organisms. Three swales still comply with the German design criteria for infiltration rate (10 m/s), while the remaining swales have lower, yet acceptable, infiltration rates around 10 m/s. Six of the eight studied soils have heavy metal concentrations exceeding the limit value for unpolluted soil. Provided that the systems are able to continuously retain existing and incoming pollutants, our analysis indicates that the soils can remain operational for another 13 to 136 yr if the German limit values for unrestricted usage in open construction works are applied. However, no official guidelines exist for acceptable soil quality in existing infiltration facilities.

  15. Design and Initial Development of Monolithic Cross-Flow Ceramic Hot-Gas Filters

    SciTech Connect

    Barra, C.; Limaye, S.; Stinton, D.P.; Vaubert, V.M.

    1999-06-06

    Advanced, coal-fueled, power generation systems utilizing pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technologies are currently being developed for high-efficiency, low emissions, and low-cost power generation. In spite of the advantages of these promising technologies, the severe operating environment often leads to material degradation and loss of performance in the barrier filters used for particle entrapment. To address this problem, LoTEC Inc., and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are jointly designing and developing a monolithic cross-flow ceramic hot-gas filter. The filter concept involves a truly monolithic cross-flow design that is resistant to delamination, can be easily fabricated, and offers flexibility of geometry and material make-up. During Phase I of the program, a thermo-mechanical analysis was performed to determine how a cross-flow filter would respond both thermally and mechanically to a series of thermal and mechanical loads. The cross-flow filter mold was designed accordingly, and the materials selection was narrowed down to Ca{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 4}P{sub 6}O{sub 24} (CS-50) and 2Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-3SiO{sub 2} (mullite). A fabrication process was developed using gelcasting technology and monolithic cross-flow filters were fabricated. The program focuses on obtaining optimum filter permeability and testing the corrosion resistance of the candidate materials.

  16. Enhanced optical flow field of left ventricular motion using quasi-Gaussian DCT filter.

    PubMed

    Riyadi, Slamet; Mustafa, Mohd Marzuki; Hussain, Aini; Maskon, Oteh; Nor, Ika Faizura Mohd

    2011-01-01

    Left ventricular motion estimation is very important for diagnosing cardiac abnormality. One of the popular techniques, optical flow technique, promises useful results for motion quantification. However, optical flow technique often failed to provide smooth vector field due to the complexity of cardiac motion and the presence of speckle noise. This chapter proposed a new filtering technique, called quasi-Gaussian discrete cosine transform (QGDCT)-based filter, to enhance the optical flow field for myocardial motion estimation. Even though Gaussian filter and DCT concept have been implemented in other previous researches, this filter introduces a different approach of Gaussian filter model based on high frequency properties of cosine function. The QGDCT is a customized quasi discrete Gaussian filter in which its coefficients are derived from a selected two-dimensional DCT. This filter was implemented before and after the computation of optical flow to reduce the speckle noise and to improve the flow field smoothness, respectively. The algorithm was first validated on synthetic echocardiography image that simulates a contracting myocardium motion. Subsequently, this method was also implemented on clinical echocardiography images. To evaluate the performance of the technique, several quantitative measurements such as magnitude error, angular error, and standard error of measurement are computed and analyzed. The final motion estimation results were in good agreement with the physician manual interpretation.

  17. An adaptive ensemble Kalman filter for soil moisture data assimilation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a 19-year twin experiment for the Red-Arkansas river basin we assimilate synthetic surface soil moisture retrievals into the NASA Catchment land surface model. We demonstrate how poorly specified model and observation error parameters affect the quality of the assimilation products. In particul...

  18. Using Tracer Experiments To Study Phosphorus Transfer From Soil To Overland Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmer, T.; Stamm, C.; Schaerer, M.; Sinaj, S.; Frossard, E.; Fluehler, H.

    Diffuse phosphorus (P) losses from agricultural land contribute to the eutrophication of surface water bodies in Switzerland. Grassland soils in areas of high animal stock densities are often prone to high P losses due to over-fertilization and a strong accumu- lation of P in the topsoil. In order to understand the effects of management practices and remediation measures on P transfer into runoff water at a small scale it is impor- tant to localize the sources of this phosphorus within the soil profile and to describe the water flows within the topsoil­overland flow system. We are studying the effects of remediation measures on P availability in the soil and on P concentrations in overland flow in a field experiment. We are using tracer exper- iments to examine the mixing behavior of water applied with a sprinkling device onto the soil surface with pre-event soil water and to trace the contribution of those two water sources to overland flow. Two plots were pre-irrigated with a solution of KBr in order to label the soil solu- tion. After a few days of equilibration, two fluorescent dyes were applied to different areas of the plots at a constant rate of 40 mm h-1. Surface runoff was analyzed for tracer concentrations. Small soil monoliths (0.35 * 0.25 *0.20 m3) were excavated and the tracer distribution within the blocks was mapped using a digital camera, optical filters, and tracer specific excitation light source. This tracing technique allowed for independent mapping of the distribution of two simultaneously applied tracers. The experiments demonstrated heterogenous infiltration of the dyes, negligible lat- eral translocation of the dyes within the soil, minimal transfer of the pre-applied Br- into overland flow, early breakthrough of the dye tracers in overland flow which was independent of the tracers sorption properties and a recovery of the dyes that corre- sponded to the runoff ratio. In all, the experiments indicate a very restricted interac- tion between

  19. Analysis of nitrogen removal processes in a subsurface flow carbonate sand filter treating municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kløve, Bjørn; Søvik, Anne-Kristine; Holtan-Hartwig, Liv

    2005-01-01

    Controlled experiments were carried out in a mesoscale subsurface flow sand filter treating municipal wastewater from a single household. The system consisted of a 50 cm high vertical flow column (pre-filter) with unsaturated flow and a 3 m long horizontal subsurface flow unit (main filter) with saturated flow. Fluxes of nitrogen and carbon were analyzed in 4 different operating conditions (low and high loading, with and without the prefilter unit). Water samples were taken from the inlet, the outlet and within the sand filter at different depths and locations and analysed for water quality (Tot N, NO3-N, NH4-N, TOC, DOC, CODcr, BOD5, SS, pH, and EC) and dissolved gas content (N2O, CH4, and CO2). Emissions of N2O, CH4, and CO2 were measured with the closed-chamber technique adjacent to water quality sampling points. The results show that prefiltering in a vertical, unsaturated flow column changed the incoming ammonium to nitrate during low loading. During high loading part of the ammonium nitrified in the pre-filter was lost by denitrification. Within the horizontal main filter there were two pathways for the incoming nitrate: denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA).

  20. Assessment of intermittently loaded woodchip and sand filters to treat dairy soiled water.

    PubMed

    Murnane, J G; Brennan, R B; Healy, M G; Fenton, O

    2016-10-15

    Land application of dairy soiled water (DSW) is expensive relative to its nutrient replacement value. The use of aerobic filters is an effective alternative method of treatment and potentially allows the final effluent to be reused on the farm. Knowledge gaps exist concerning the optimal design and operation of filters for the treatment of DSW. To address this, 18 laboratory-scale filters, with depths of either 0.6 m or 1 m, were intermittently loaded with DSW over periods of up to 220 days to evaluate the impacts of depth (0.6 m versus 1 m), organic loading rates (OLRs) (50 versus 155 g COD m(-2) d(-1)), and media type (woodchip versus sand) on organic, nutrient and suspended solids (SS) removals. The study found that media depth was important in contaminant removal in woodchip filters. Reductions of 78% chemical oxygen demand (COD), 95% SS, 85% total nitrogen (TN), 82% ammonium-nitrogen (NH4N), 50% total phosphorus (TP), and 54% dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) were measured in 1 m deep woodchip filters, which was greater than the reductions in 0.6 m deep woodchip filters. Woodchip filters also performed optimally when loaded at a high OLR (155 g COD m(-2) d(-1)), although the removal mechanism was primarily physical (i.e. straining) as opposed to biological. When operated at the same OLR and when of the same depth, the sand filters had better COD removals (96%) than woodchip (74%), but there was no significant difference between them in the removal of SS and NH4N. However, the likelihood of clogging makes sand filters less desirable than woodchip filters. Using the optimal designs of both configurations, the filter area required per cow for a woodchip filter is more than four times less than for a sand filter. Therefore, this study found that woodchip filters are more economically and environmentally effective in the treatment of DSW than sand filters, and optimal performance may be achieved using woodchip filters with a depth of at least 1

  1. Application of Micropore Filter Technology: Exploring the Blood Flow Path in Arterial-Line Filters and Its Effect on Bubble Trapping Functions.

    PubMed

    Herbst, Daniel P

    2017-03-01

    Conventional arterial-line filters commonly use a large volume circular shaped housing, a wetted micropore screen, and a purge port to trap, separate, and remove gas bubbles from extracorporeal blood flow. Focusing on the bubble trapping function, this work attempts to explore how the filter housing shape and its resulting blood flow path affect the clinical application of arterial-line filters in terms of gross air handling. A video camera was used in a wet-lab setting to record observations made during gross air-bolus injections in three different radially designed filters using a 30-70% glycerol-saline mixture flowing at 4.5 L/min. Two of the filters both had inlet ports attached near the filter-housing top with bottom oriented outlet ports at the bottom, whereas the third filter had its inlet and outlet ports both located at the bottom of the filter housing. The two filters with top-in bottom-out fluid paths were shown to direct the incoming flow downward as it passed through the filter, placing the forces of buoyancy and viscous drag in opposition to each other. This contrasted with the third filter's bottom-in bottom-out fluid path, which was shown to direct the incoming flow upward so that the forces of buoyancy and viscous drag work together. The direction of the blood flow path through a filter may be important to the application of arterial-line filter technology as it helps determine how the forces of buoyancy and flow are aligned with one another.

  2. Performance Evaluation of Axial Flow AG-1 FC and Prototype FM (High Strength) HEPA Filters - 13123

    SciTech Connect

    Giffin, Paxton K.; Parsons, Michael S.; Wilson, John A.; Waggoner, Charles A.

    2013-07-01

    High efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters are routinely used in DOE nuclear containment activities. The Nuclear Air Cleaning Handbook (NACH) stipulates that air cleaning devices and equipment used in DOE nuclear applications must meet the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Code on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment (AG-1) standard. This testing activity evaluates two different axial flow HEPA filters, those from AG-1 Sections FC and FM. Section FM is under development and has not yet been added to AG-1 due to a lack of qualification data available for these filters. Section FC filters are axial flow units that utilize a fibrous glass filtering medium. The section FM filters utilize a similar fibrous glass medium, but also have scrim backing. The scrim-backed filters have demonstrated the ability to endure pressure impulses capable of completely destroying FC filters. The testing activities presented herein will examine the total lifetime loading for both FC and FM filters under ambient conditions and at elevated conditions of temperature and relative humidity. Results will include loading curves, penetration curves, and testing condition parameters. These testing activities have been developed through collaborations with representatives from the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM), New Mexico State University, and Mississippi State University. (authors)

  3. Combined assimilation of streamflow and satellite soil moisture with the particle filter and geostatistical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Hongxiang; Moradkhani, Hamid

    2016-08-01

    Assimilation of satellite soil moisture and streamflow data into a distributed hydrologic model has received increasing attention over the past few years. This study provides a detailed analysis of the joint and separate assimilation of streamflow and Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) surface soil moisture into a distributed Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting (SAC-SMA) model, with the use of recently developed particle filter-Markov chain Monte Carlo (PF-MCMC) method. Performance is assessed over the Salt River Watershed in Arizona, which is one of the watersheds without anthropogenic effects in Model Parameter Estimation Experiment (MOPEX). A total of five data assimilation (DA) scenarios are designed and the effects of the locations of streamflow gauges and the ASCAT soil moisture on the predictions of soil moisture and streamflow are assessed. In addition, a geostatistical model is introduced to overcome the significantly biased satellite soil moisture and also discontinuity issue. The results indicate that: (1) solely assimilating outlet streamflow can lead to biased soil moisture estimation; (2) when the study area can only be partially covered by the satellite data, the geostatistical approach can estimate the soil moisture for those uncovered grid cells; (3) joint assimilation of streamflow and soil moisture from geostatistical modeling can further improve the surface soil moisture prediction. This study recommends that the geostatistical model is a helpful tool to aid the remote sensing technique and the hydrologic DA study.

  4. Assimilation of microwave brightness temperatures for soil moisture estimation using particle filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, H. Y.; Ma, J. W.; Qin, S. X.; Zeng, J. Y.

    2014-03-01

    Soil moisture plays a significant role in global water cycles. Both model simulations and remote sensing observations have their limitations when estimating soil moisture on a large spatial scale. Data assimilation (DA) is a promising tool which can combine model dynamics and remote sensing observations to obtain more precise ground soil moisture distribution. Among various DA methods, the particle filter (PF) can be applied to non-linear and non-Gaussian systems, thus holding great potential for DA. In this study, a data assimilation scheme based on the residual resampling particle filter (RR-PF) was developed to assimilate microwave brightness temperatures into the macro-scale semi-distributed Variance Infiltration Capacity (VIC) Model to estimate surface soil moisture. A radiative transfer model (RTM) was used to link brightness temperatures with surface soil moisture. Finally, the data assimilation scheme was validated by experimental data obtained at Arizona during the Soil Moisture Experiment 2004 (SMEX04). The results show that the estimation accuracy of soil moisture can be improved significantly by RR-PF through assimilating microwave brightness temperatures into VIC model. Both the overall trends and specific values of the assimilation results are more consistent with ground observations compared with model simulation results.

  5. Impact of Soil Layering on Evaporation Driven Flow and Transport in Arid Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, W.; Nicholl, M. J.; Young, M. H.; Yu, Z.

    2008-12-01

    Coupling between soil development, hydrologic processes, and plant growth in arid regions is not well understood. Here, we integrate field, lab and numerical investigations to study the impact of soil layering on evaporation driven flow and transport in arid soils. Specifically, two hypotheses are proposed: 1) soil horizon development may significantly impact evaporation rate and spatio-temporal chemical species redistribution in arid soils; 2) differences in layering between soils beneath plant canopies and nearby interspace (bare soils) may significantly influence evaporation-driven upward water flow and solute transport. Field samples were collected from two 1-m deep soil pits in Eldorado Valley, approximately 50 km from Las Vegas, Nevada. One soil pit was located beneath a creosote bush, the other from the adjacent interspace. The overall concentrations of K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, SO42-, and soluble salts in soils under plant canopy are much higher than those from the interspace. Salts accumulated at depths from 60 to 90 cm under the canopy; in contrast, the salt concentrations in bare soils were more uniform and may accumulate in relatively deeper layers. Soil samples taken from the pits will be packed into layered and non- layered columns, respectively, to examine the effects of soil layering on evaporation flow and transport. Evaporation rate, soil-water matric/osmotic potential, and temperature gradients in each column will be continuously monitored. Upward flow and transport in different soil layering under various conditions will be simulated using the HYDRUS model. It is expected that less soil horizon development will lead to higher evaporation rates, resulting in lower volumetric water content and higher accumulation of salts in the uppermost soil horizons.

  6. The use of laboratory sand, soil and crushed-glass filter columns for polishing domestic-strength synthetic wastewater that has undergone secondary treatment.

    PubMed

    Healy, M G; Burke, P; Rodgers, M

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the performance of intermittently loaded, 150 mm-diameter stratified filter columns of 2 depths (0.65 and 0.375 m) comprising different media--sand, crushed glass and soil--in polishing the effluent from a laboratory horizontal flow biofilm reactor (HFBR) treating synthetic domestic-strength wastewater. The HFBR has been successfully used to remove organic carbon and ammonium-nitrogen (NH4-N) from domestic wastewater. In this treatment method, wastewater is allowed to flow over and back along a stack of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) sheets. Biofilms on the sheets reduce organic carbon, suspended matter, and nutrients in the wastewater, but to achieve the quality of a septic tank system, additional treatment is required. In all filters, at a hydraulic loading rate of 100 L m(-2) d(-1), 40-65% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and practically 100% of total suspended solids (TSS) were removed, nitrification was complete, and bacterial numbers were reduced by over 80%, with best removals achieved in the soil filters (93%). Soil polishing filters with the depth of 0.65 m performed best in terms of organic carbon, total nitrogen (Tot-N) and bacterial removal. Data from this preliminary study are useful in the design of treatment systems to polish secondary wastewaters with similar water quality characteristics.

  7. Comparison of NOM removal and microbial properties in up-flow/down-flow BAC filter.

    PubMed

    Han, Lineng; Liu, Wenjun; Chen, Mo; Zhang, Minglu; Liu, Shuming; Sun, Ruilin; Fei, Xiangqin

    2013-09-15

    The removal of natural organic matter (NOM) in term of CODMn by up-flow biologically activated carbon filter (UBACF) and down-flow biologically activated carbon filter (DBACF) was investigated in a pilot-scale test. The impacts of the molecular weight distribution of NOM on its degradation by the UBACF and DBACF were evaluated. The relationship between biodegradation and the microbial properties in the UBACF and DBACF were approached as well. The feed water of the UBACF and DBACF were pumped from the effluent of the rapid sand filtration (RSF) of Chengnan Drinking Water Treatment Plant (CDWTP), Huaian, Jiangsu Province, China. When the adsorption was the dominant mechanism of NOM removal at the initial stage of operation, the CODMn removal efficiency by the UBACF was lower than the DBACF. However, with the microbes gradually accumulated and biofilm formed, the removal of CODMn by the UBACF increased correspondingly to 25.3%, at the steady-state operation and was approximately 10% higher than that by the DBACF. Heterotrophy plate count (HPC) in the finished water of the UBACF was observed 30% higher than that of the DBACF. The UBACF effluent had higher concentration of detached bacteria whereas the DBACF harbored more attached biomass. The highest attached biomass concentration of the UBACF was found in the middle of the GAC bed. On the contrary, the highest attached biomass concentration of the DBACF was found on the top of the GAC bed. Furthermore, a total of 9479 reads by pyrosequencing was obtained from samples of the UBACF and DBACF effluents. The UBACF effluent had a more diverse microbial community and more even distribution of species than the DBACF effluent did. Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria were the dominant groups in the finished water of the UBACF and DBACF. The higher organic matter removal by the UBACF was attributed to the presence of its higher biologically activity.

  8. Molecular filter-based diagnostics in high speed flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, Gregory S.; Samimy, MO; Arnette, Stephen A.

    1993-01-01

    The use of iodine molecular filters in nonintrusive planar velocimetry methods is examined. Detailed absorption profiles are obtained to highlight the effects that determine the profile shape. It is shown that pressure broadening induced by the presence of a nonabsorbing vapor can be utilized to significantly change the slopes bounding the absorbing region while remaining in the optically-thick regime.

  9. Solute Transport in Soils Under Conditions of Variable Flow Velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Liwang; Selim, H. M.

    1996-11-01

    Temporal and spatial variabilities of flow distribution significantly influence solute transport in soils. This laboratory study was designed to investigate the effects of temporal variation in flow velocity on pesticide transport in soils. Two pesticides, metribuzin (weakly adsorbed) and atrazine (moderately adsorbed), were chosen along with the following two soils: Cecil (<2 mm) and Sharkey (2-4 mm). Several tritium pulses were introduced into packed soil columns (15 or 30 cm in length) under different flow velocities to obtain velocity-dependent dispersion coefficients (D). Subsequently, several atrazine and metribuzin pulses were introduced under conditions of constant and variable velocities. For each experiment, changes in flow velocity were stepwise using a piston flow pump and were carried out during pulse application and leaching. For constant and variable flow velocity experiments, approximately similar pulse volumes and average flow velocities were maintained. Values of D versus pore water velocity (ν) from tritium breakthrough curves (BTCs) were well described using a linear equation for both soils. Identical BTCs for metribuzin were observed under conditions of constant or variable flow velocities in the Cecil soil column. However, metribuzin transport in the Sharkey soil was significantly influenced by velocity variations. Atrazine transport in the Sharkey soil was also significantly affected by variations in flow velocity. We further examined the error when an average rather than actual velocity distribution was used in BTC representation. The resulting experimental BTCs (concentration versus velocity-averaged pore volume) exhibited early arrival and the appearance of multiple peaks. Moreover, predictions of such BTCs based on the convective-dispersive equation were not successful. We concluded that actual water velocity distributions should be used in BTC representation, and, whenever possible, the use of an average velocity should be avoided.

  10. Effects of Purge-Flow Rate on Microbubble Capture in Radial Arterial-Line Filters

    PubMed Central

    Herbst, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: The process of microbubble filtration from blood is complex and highly dependent on the forces of flow and buoyancy. To protect the patient from air emboli, arterial-line filters commonly use a micropore screen, a large volume housing with purpose-built shape, and a purge port to trap, separate, and remove circulating microbubbles. Although it has been proposed that an insufficient buoyancy force renders the purge port ineffective at removing microbubbles smaller than 500 μm, this research attempts to investigate the purge flow of an arterial-line filter to better understand the microbubble removal function in a typical radial filter design. As its primary objective, the study aims to determine the effect of purge-flow rate on bubble capture using air bolus injections from a syringe pump with 22-gauge needle and Doppler ultrasound bubble detection. The measureable bubble size generated in the test circuit ranged between 30 and 500 μm, while purge flow was varied between .1 and .5 L/min for testing. Statistical analysis of the test data was handled using a repeated measures design with significance set at p < .05 level. Outcomes demonstrated that higher purge flows yielded higher bubble counts, but the effect of purge-flow rate on bubble capture decreased as bubble size increased. Results also showed that purge flow from the test filter was capable of capturing all bubble sizes being generated over the entire flow range tested, and confirms utility of the purge port in removing microbubbles smaller than 500 μm. By analyzing bubble counts in the purge flow of a typical radial-filter design, this study demonstrates that currently available micropore filter technology is capable of removing the size range of bubbles that commonly pass through modern pump-oxygenator systems and should continue to be considered during extracorporeal circulation as a measure to improve patient safety. PMID:27729703

  11. Effects of Purge-Flow Rate on Microbubble Capture in Radial Arterial-Line Filters.

    PubMed

    Herbst, Daniel P

    2016-09-01

    The process of microbubble filtration from blood is complex and highly dependent on the forces of flow and buoyancy. To protect the patient from air emboli, arterial-line filters commonly use a micropore screen, a large volume housing with purpose-built shape, and a purge port to trap, separate, and remove circulating microbubbles. Although it has been proposed that an insufficient buoyancy force renders the purge port ineffective at removing microbubbles smaller than 500 μm, this research attempts to investigate the purge flow of an arterial-line filter to better understand the microbubble removal function in a typical radial filter design. As its primary objective, the study aims to determine the effect of purge-flow rate on bubble capture using air bolus injections from a syringe pump with 22-gauge needle and Doppler ultrasound bubble detection. The measureable bubble size generated in the test circuit ranged between 30 and 500 μm, while purge flow was varied between .1 and .5 L/min for testing. Statistical analysis of the test data was handled using a repeated measures design with significance set at p < .05 level. Outcomes demonstrated that higher purge flows yielded higher bubble counts, but the effect of purge-flow rate on bubble capture decreased as bubble size increased. Results also showed that purge flow from the test filter was capable of capturing all bubble sizes being generated over the entire flow range tested, and confirms utility of the purge port in removing microbubbles smaller than 500 μm. By analyzing bubble counts in the purge flow of a typical radial-filter design, this study demonstrates that currently available micropore filter technology is capable of removing the size range of bubbles that commonly pass through modern pump-oxygenator systems and should continue to be considered during extracorporeal circulation as a measure to improve patient safety.

  12. Thermal/chemical degradation of ceramic cross-flow filter materials

    SciTech Connect

    Alvin, M.A.; Lane, J.E.; Lippert, T.E.

    1989-11-01

    This report summarizes the 14-month, Phase 1 effort conducted by Westinghouse on the Thermal/Chemical Degradation of Ceramic Cross-Flow Filter Materials program. In Phase 1 expected filter process conditions were identified for a fixed-bed, fluid-bed, and entrained-bed gasification, direct coal fired turbine, and pressurized fluidized-bed combustion system. Ceramic cross-flow filter materials were also selected, procured, and subjected to chemical and physical characterization. The stability of each of the ceramic cross-flow materials was assessed in terms of potential reactions or phase change as a result of process temperature, and effluent gas compositions containing alkali and fines. In addition chemical and physical characterization was conducted on cross-flow filters that were exposed to the METC fluid-bed gasifier and the New York University pressurized fluidized-bed combustor. Long-term high temperature degradation mechanisms were proposed for each ceramic cross-flow material at process operating conditions. An experimental bench-scale test program is recommended to be conducted in Phase 2, generating data that support the proposed cross-flow filter material thermal/chemical degradation mechanisms. Papers on the individual subtasks have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  13. Regional Evapotranspiration Estimation by Using Wireless Sap Flow and Soil Moisture Measurement Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, C.; Yu, P.; Yang, T.; Davis, T. W.; Liang, X.; Tseng, C.; Cheng, C.

    2011-12-01

    consumption. WSN is the best way for collecting sap flow and soil moisture data in this study. Since the data were collected through the radio in the field, there may have some noise randomly. The weighted least-squares method was used to filter the raw data. Through collecting the observation data by WSN and transferring them into regional scale, we could get regional evapotranspiration.

  14. Flow and fouling in membrane filters: Effects of membrane morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanaei, Pejman; Cummings, Linda J.

    2015-11-01

    Membrane filters are widely-used in microfiltration applications. Many types of filter membranes are produced commercially, for different filtration applications, but broadly speaking the requirements are to achieve fine control of separation, with low power consumption. The answer to this problem might seem obvious: select the membrane with the largest pore size and void fraction consistent with the separation requirements. However, membrane fouling (an inevitable consequence of successful filtration) is a complicated process, which depends on many parameters other than membrane pore size and void fraction; and which itself greatly affects the filtration process and membrane functionality. In this work we formulate mathematical models that can (i) account for the membrane internal morphology (internal structure, pore size & shape, etc.); (ii) fouling of membranes with specific morphology; and (iii) make some predictions as to what type of membrane morphology might offer optimum filtration performance.

  15. Modeling Flow Past a TrapEase Inferior Vena Cava Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Michael; Henshaw, William; Wang, Stephen

    2008-11-01

    This study uses three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics to evaluate the efficacy of the TrapEase inferior vena cava (IVC) filter. Hemodynamics of the unoccluded and partially occluded filter are examined, and the clinical implications are assessed. The IVC, which is the primary vein that drains the legs, is modeled as a straight pipe, and a geometrically accurate model of the filter is constructed using computer aided design. Blood is modeled as a homogeneous, incompressible, Newtonian fluid, and the method of overset grids is used to solve the Navier-Stokes equations. Results are corroborated with in-vitro studies. Flow around the unoccluded filter demonstrates minimal disruption, but spherical clots in the downstream trapping position lead to regions of stagnant and recirculating flow that may promote further clotting. The volume of stagnant flow and the peak wall shear stress increase with clot volume. For clots trapped in the upstream trapping position, flow is disrupted along the cava wall downstream of the clot and within the filter. The shape and location of trapped clots also effect the peak wall shear stress and may impact the efficacy of the filter.

  16. Modelling susceptibility of grassland soil to macropore flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaoui, Abdallah

    2015-06-01

    Investigating preferential flow, including macropore flow, is crucial to predicting and preventing point sources of contamination in soil, for example in the vicinity of pumping wells. With a view to advancing groundwater protection, this study aimed (i) to quantify the strength of macropore flow in four representative natural grassland soils on the Swiss plateau, and (ii) to define the parameters that significantly control macropore flow in grassland soil. For each soil type we selected three measurement points on which three successive irrigation experiments were carried out, resulting in a total of 36 irrigations. The strength of macropore flow, parameterized as the cumulated water volume flowing from macropores at a depth of 1 m in response to an irrigation of 60 mm h-1 intensity and 1 h duration, was simulated using the dual-permeability MACRO model. The model calibration was based on the key soil parameters and fine measurements of water content at different depths. Modelling results indicate high performance of macropore flow in all investigated soil types except in gleysols. The volume of water that flowed from macropores and was hence expected to reach groundwater varied between 81% and 94% in brown soils, 59% and 67% in para-brown soils, 43% and 56% in acid brown soils, and 22% and 35% in gleysols. These results show that spreading pesticides and herbicides in pumping well protection zones poses a high risk of contamination and must be strictly prohibited. We also found that organic carbon content was not correlated with the strength of macropore flow, probably due to its very weak variation in our study, while saturated water content showed a negative correlation with macropore flow. The correlation between saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) and macropore flow was negative as well, but weak. Macropore flow appears to be controlled by the interaction between the bulk density of the uppermost topsoil layer (0-0.10 m) and the macroporosity of the soil

  17. Cross-flow, filter-sorbent catalyst for particulate, SO sub 2 and NO sub x control

    SciTech Connect

    Benedek, K. , Inc., Cambridge, MA ); Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M. )

    1991-08-01

    This report describes a new concept for integrated pollutant control: a cross-flow filter comprised of layered, gas permeable membranes that act a particulate filter, an SO{sub 2} sorbent, and a NO{sub x} reduction catalyst.

  18. Impact of legacy soil phosphorus on losses in drainage and overland flow from grazed grassland soils.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Rachel; Doody, Donnacha G; Watson, Catherine J

    2017-01-01

    Rates and quantities of legacy soil phosphorus (P) lost from agricultural soils, and the timescales for positive change to water quality, remain unclear. From 2000 to 2004 five 0.2ha grazed grassland plots located on a drumlin hillslope in Northern Ireland, received chemical fertiliser applications of 0, 10, 20, 40, 80kgPha(-1)yr(-1) resulting in soil Olsen P concentrations of 19, 24, 28, 38 and 67mgPL(-1), respectively, after which applications ceased. Soil Olsen P and losses to overland flow and drainage were monitored from 2005 to 2011 on an event and weekly flow proportional basis, respectively. Soluble reactive P and total P time series were synchronised with daily rainfall and modelled soil moisture deficits. From 2005 to 2011 soil Olsen P decline was proportional to soil P status with a 43% reduction in the plot at 67mgPL(-1) in 2004 and a corresponding 12% reduction in the plot with lowest soil P. However, there was no significant difference in the flow-weighted mean concentration for overland flow among plots, all of which exceeded 0.035mgL(-1) in >98% of events. Strong interannual and event variations in losses were observed with up to 65% of P being lost during a single rainfall event. P concentrations in drainage flow were independent of Olsen P and drain efficiency was potentially the primary control on concentrations, with the highest concentrations recorded in the plot at 38mgL(-1) Olsen P in 2004 (up to 2.72mgL(-1)). Hydrological drivers, particularly antecedent soil moisture, had a strong influence on P loss in both overland and drainage flow, with higher concentrations recorded above a soil moisture deficit threshold of 7mm. This study demonstrates that on some soil types, legacy P poses a significant long term threat to water quality, even at agronomically optimum soil P levels.

  19. Respirator Filter Efficiency Testing Against Particulate and Biological Aerosols Under Moderate to High Flow Rates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    stopped and the filter removed from the system for analysis. Polonium - 210 static eliminators were used to minimize particle loss during transport to...may provide a considerable overestimate of filter performance. Brosseau et al. (1990) compared the collection of silica and asbestos aerosols by DM...a half times as great as that measured under steady flow conditions, which is consistent with the results of Stafford et al. (1973). The asbestos

  20. Flow of Viscoelastic Polymer Solutions through Filter Screens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machač, Ivan; Surý, Alexander; Šiška, Bedřich

    2011-07-01

    In this contribution, the measurements are presented of the pressure drop in the creeping flow of viscoelastic solution of polyacrylamides through metal wire screens, differing in wire diameter, aperture dimension, and type of weaving. In this flow, a strong elastic pressure drop excess manifest itself. Analysing the extensive set of experimental data, it was verified that for engineering estimation of the pressure drop excess, a simple form of the corrective Deborah number function can be used.

  1. Construction of Low Dissipative High Order Well-Balanced Filter Schemes for Non-Equilibrium Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Wei; Yee, H. C.; Sjogreen, Bjorn; Magin, Thierry; Shu, Chi-Wang

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to generalize the well-balanced approach for non-equilibrium flow studied by Wang et al. [26] to a class of low dissipative high order shock-capturing filter schemes and to explore more advantages of well-balanced schemes in reacting flows. The class of filter schemes developed by Yee et al. [30], Sjoegreen & Yee [24] and Yee & Sjoegreen [35] consist of two steps, a full time step of spatially high order non-dissipative base scheme and an adaptive nonlinear filter containing shock-capturing dissipation. A good property of the filter scheme is that the base scheme and the filter are stand alone modules in designing. Therefore, the idea of designing a well-balanced filter scheme is straightforward, i.e., choosing a well-balanced base scheme with a well-balanced filter (both with high order). A typical class of these schemes shown in this paper is the high order central difference schemes/predictor-corrector (PC) schemes with a high order well-balanced WENO filter. The new filter scheme with the well-balanced property will gather the features of both filter methods and well-balanced properties: it can preserve certain steady state solutions exactly; it is able to capture small perturbations, e.g., turbulence fluctuations; it adaptively controls numerical dissipation. Thus it shows high accuracy, efficiency and stability in shock/turbulence interactions. Numerical examples containing 1D and 2D smooth problems, 1D stationary contact discontinuity problem and 1D turbulence/shock interactions are included to verify the improved accuracy, in addition to the well-balanced behavior.

  2. Ensemble Kalman Filter vs Particle Filter in a Physically Based Coupled Model of Surface-Subsurface Flow (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putti, M.; Camporese, M.; Pasetto, D.

    2010-12-01

    Data assimilation (DA) has recently received growing interest by the hydrological modeling community due to its capability to merge observations into model prediction. Among the many DA methods available, the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) and the Particle Filter (PF) are suitable alternatives for applications to detailed physically-based hydrological models. For each assimilation period, both methods use a Monte Carlo approach to approximate the state probability distribution (in terms of mean and covariance matrix) by a finite number of independent model trajectories, also called particles or realizations. The two approaches differ in the way the filtering distribution is evaluated. EnKF implements the classical Kalman filter, optimal only for linear dynamics and Gaussian error statistics. Particle filters, instead, use directly the recursive formula of the sequential Bayesian framework and approximate the posterior probability distributions by means of appropriate weights associated to each realization. We use the Sequential Importance Resampling (SIR) technique, which retains only the most probable particles, in practice the trajectories closest in a statistical sense to the observations, and duplicates them when needed. In contrast to EnKF, particle filters make no assumptions on the form of the prior distribution of the model state, and convergence to the true state is ensured for large enough ensemble size. In this study EnKF and PF have been implemented in a physically based catchment simulator that couples a three-dimensional finite element Richards equation solver with a finite difference diffusion wave approximation based on a digital elevation data for surface water dynamics. We report on the retrieval performance of the two schemes using a three-dimensional tilted v-catchment synthetic test case in which multi-source observations are assimilated (pressure head, soil moisture, and streamflow data). The comparison between the results of the two approaches

  3. Soil pipe flow tracer experiments: 1. Connectivity and transport characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Much debate has occurred in catchment hydrology regarding the connectivity of flow paths from upslope areas to catchment outlets. This study was conducted in two catchments, one with three upper branches, in a loess soil with a fragipan that fosters lateral flow and exhibits an extensive distributio...

  4. File-Based Data Flow in the CMS Filter Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Andre, J.M.; et al.

    2015-12-23

    During the LHC Long Shutdown 1, the CMS Data Acquisition system underwent a partial redesign to replace obsolete network equipment, use more homogeneous switching technologies, and prepare the ground for future upgrades of the detector front-ends. The software and hardware infrastructure to provide input, execute the High Level Trigger (HLT) algorithms and deal with output data transport and storage has also been redesigned to be completely file- based. This approach provides additional decoupling between the HLT algorithms and the input and output data flow. All the metadata needed for bookkeeping of the data flow and the HLT process lifetimes are also generated in the form of small “documents” using the JSON encoding, by either services in the flow of the HLT execution (for rates etc.) or watchdog processes. These “files” can remain memory-resident or be written to disk if they are to be used in another part of the system (e.g. for aggregation of output data). We discuss how this redesign improves the robustness and flexibility of the CMS DAQ and the performance of the system currently being commissioned for the LHC Run 2.

  5. Niche Filtering of Bacteria in Soil and Rock Habitats of the Colorado Plateau Desert, Utah, USA

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kevin C.; Archer, Stephen D. J.; Boyle, Rachel H.; Lacap-Bugler, Donnabella C.; Belnap, Jayne; Pointing, Stephen B.

    2016-01-01

    A common feature of microbial colonization in deserts is biological soil crusts (BSCs), and these comprise a complex community dominated by Cyanobacteria. Rock substrates, particularly sandstone, are also colonized by microbial communities. These are separated by bare sandy soil that also supports microbial colonization. Here we report a high-throughput sequencing study of BSC and cryptoendolith plus adjacent bare soil communities in the Colorado Plateau Desert, Utah, USA. Bare soils supported a community with low levels of recoverable DNA and high evenness, whilst BSC yielded relatively high recoverable DNA, and reduced evenness compared to bare soil due to specialized crust taxa. The cryptoendolithic community displayed the greatest evenness but the lowest diversity, reflecting the highly specialized nature of these communities. A strong substrate-dependent pattern of community assembly was observed, and in particular cyanobacterial taxa were distinct. Soils were virtually devoid of photoautotrophic signatures, BSC was dominated by a closely related group of Microcoleus/Phormidium taxa, whilst cryptoendolithic colonization in sandstone supported almost exclusively a single genus, Chroococcidiopsis. We interpret this as strong evidence for niche filtering of taxa in communities. Local inter-niche recruitment of photoautotrophs may therefore be limited and so communities likely depend significantly on cyanobacterial recruitment from distant sources of similar substrate. We discuss the implication of this finding in terms of conservation and management of desert microbiota. PMID:27725810

  6. Performance of Improved High-Order Filter Schemes for Turbulent Flows with Shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kotov, Dmitry Vladimirovich; Yee, Helen M C.

    2013-01-01

    The performance of the filter scheme with improved dissipation control ? has been demonstrated for different flow types. The scheme with local ? is shown to obtain more accurate results than its counterparts with global or constant ?. At the same time no additional tuning is needed to achieve high accuracy of the method when using the local ? technique. However, further improvement of the method might be needed for even more complex and/or extreme flows.

  7. Effects of Temperature, Humidity and Air Flow on Fungal Growth Rate on Loaded Ventilation Filters.

    PubMed

    Tang, W; Kuehn, T H; Simcik, Matt F

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the fungal growth ratio on loaded ventilation filters under various temperature, relative humidity (RH), and air flow conditions in a controlled laboratory setting. A new full-size commercial building ventilation filter was loaded with malt extract nutrients and conidia of Cladosporium sphaerospermum in an ASHRAE Standard 52.2 filter test facility. Small sections cut from this filter were incubated under the following conditions: constant room temperature and a high RH of 97%; sinusoidal temperature (with an amplitude of 10°C, an average of 23°C, and a period of 24 hr) and a mean RH of 97%; room temperature and step changes between 97% and 75% RH, 97% and 43% RH, and 97% and 11% RH every 12 hr. The biomass on the filter sections was measured using both an elution-culture method and by ergosterol assay immediately after loading and every 2 days up to 10 days after loading. Fungal growth was detected earlier using ergosterol content than with the elution-culture method. A student's t-test indicated that Cladosporium sphaerospermum grew better at the constant room temperature condition than at the sinusoidal temperature condition. By part-time exposure to dry environments, the fungal growth was reduced (75% and 43% RH) or even inhibited (11% RH). Additional loaded filters were installed in the wind tunnel at room temperature and an RH greater than 95% under one of two air flow test conditions: continuous air flow or air flow only 9 hr/day with a flow rate of 0.7 m(3)/s (filter media velocity 0.15 m/s). Swab tests and a tease mount method were used to detect fungal growth on the filters at day 0, 5, and 10. Fungal growth was detected for both test conditions, which indicates that when temperature and relative humidity are optimum, controlling the air flow alone cannot prevent fungal growth. In real applications where nutrients are less sufficient than in this laboratory study, fungal growth rate may be reduced under the same operating conditions.

  8. Radial Flow Fludized Filter Finds Niche as a Pretreatment System for Surface Water in Small Communities

    EPA Science Inventory

    An emerging technology called radial flow fluidized filter (R3f) has been developed as a low cost simplistic filtration technology for small communities of less than 10,000 people. Fouling is a major impediment to the sustainability of membrane technology particularly for small ...

  9. Root-soil air gap and resistance to water flow at the soil-root interface of Robinia pseudoacacia.

    PubMed

    Liu, X P; Zhang, W J; Wang, X Y; Cai, Y J; Chang, J G

    2015-12-01

    During periods of water deficit, growing roots may shrink, retaining only partial contact with the soil. In this study, known mathematical models were used to calculate the root-soil air gap and water flow resistance at the soil-root interface, respectively, of Robinia pseudoacacia L. under different water conditions. Using a digital camera, the root-soil air gap of R. pseudoacacia was investigated in a root growth chamber; this root-soil air gap and the model-inferred water flow resistance at the soil-root interface were compared with predictions based on a separate outdoor experiment. The results indicated progressively greater root shrinkage and loss of root-soil contact with decreasing soil water potential. The average widths of the root-soil air gap for R. pseudoacacia in open fields and in the root growth chamber were 0.24 and 0.39 mm, respectively. The resistance to water flow at the soil-root interface in both environments increased with decreasing soil water potential. Stepwise regression analysis demonstrated that soil water potential and soil temperature were the best predictors of variation in the root-soil air gap. A combination of soil water potential, soil temperature, root-air water potential difference and soil-root water potential difference best predicted the resistance to water flow at the soil-root interface.

  10. Demonstration and Analysis of Filtered Rayleigh Scattering Flow Field Diagnostic System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forkey, Joseph N.; Lempert, Walter R.; Miles, Richard B.

    1996-01-01

    Filtered Rayleigh Scattering (FRS) is a diagnostic technique which measures velocity, temperature, and pressure by determining Doppler shift, total intensity, and spectral line shape of laser induced Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering. In the work reported here, this is accomplished by using a narrow line width, injection seeded Nd-YAG laser sheet to induce Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering from a gas flow. This light is passed through an optical notch filter, and transmitted light is imaged onto an intensified charge coupled display (CCD) camera. By monitoring the grayscale value at a particular pixel while the laser frequency is tuned, the convolution between the Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering profile and the filter transmission profile is attained. Since the filter profile can be independently measured, it can be deconvolved from the measuring signal, yielding the Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering profile. From this profile, flow velocity, temperature, and pressure are determined. In this paper the construction and characterization of the optical notch filter and a newly developed frequency apparatus are discussed.

  11. Carbon black retention in saturated natural soils: Effects of flow conditions, soil surface roughness and soil organic matter.

    PubMed

    Lohwacharin, J; Takizawa, S; Punyapalakul, P

    2015-10-01

    We evaluated factors affecting the transport, retention, and re-entrainment of carbon black nanoparticles (nCBs) in two saturated natural soils under different flow conditions and input concentrations using the two-site transport model and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). Soil organic matter (SOM) was found to create unfavorable conditions for the retention. Despite an increased flow velocity, the relative stability of the estimated maximum retention capacity in soils may suggest that flow-induced shear stress forces were insufficient to detach nCB. The KPFM observation revealed that nCBs were retained at the grain boundary and on surface roughness, which brought about substantial discrepancy between theoretically-derived attachment efficiency factors and the ones obtained by the experiments using the two-site transport model. Thus, decreasing ionic strength and increasing solution pH caused re-entrainment of only a small fraction of retained nCB in the soil columns.

  12. A particle filter to reconstruct a free-surface flow from a depth camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combés, Benoit; Heitz, Dominique; Guibert, Anthony; Mémin, Etienne

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the combined use of a kinect depth sensor and of a stochastic data assimilation (DA) method to recover free-surface flows. More specifically, we use a weighted ensemble Kalman filter method to reconstruct the complete state of free-surface flows from a sequence of depth images only. This particle filter accounts for model and observations errors. This DA scheme is enhanced with the use of two observations instead of one classically. We evaluate the developed approach on two numerical test cases: a collapse of a water column as a toy-example and a flow in an suddenly expanding flume as a more realistic flow. The robustness of the method to depth data errors and also to initial and inflow conditions is considered. We illustrate the interest of using two observations instead of one observation into the correction step, especially for unknown inflow boundary conditions. Then, the performance of the Kinect sensor in capturing the temporal sequences of depth observations is investigated. Finally, the efficiency of the algorithm is qualified for a wave in a real rectangular flat bottomed tank. It is shown that for basic initial conditions, the particle filter rapidly and remarkably reconstructs the velocity and height of the free surface flow based on noisy measurements of the elevation alone.

  13. Revisiting Atmospheric Lead in NYC - Comparison of Archived Air Filters to Urban Park Sediments and Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chillrud, S. N.; Ross, J. M.; Yan, B.; Bopp, R.

    2015-12-01

    Urban lake sediments have the potential to be used for reconstructing history of aerosols, providing data before the start of urban air quality monitoring. In a previous study, the similarity between radionuclide and excess Pb inventories (57 g/m^2) in Central Park Lake (CPL) sediments and those same parameters in Central Park soils (CPS) was interpreted to indicate that urban lake sediment cores from CPL represent deposition of atmospheric aerosols over the history of the park, which was constructed in the 1860s. Furthermore, metal ratios and metal chronologies indicated that incineration was the major source of Pb to the NYC atmosphere over the 20th century. In this report, we compare the lake chronologies for metals to a set of archived air filters collected by the Department of Energy's Environmental Measurement Lab (EML). These weekly filters of total suspended particulates (TSP) were collected by a high volume sampler located in lower Manhattan for radionuclides as part of the program focused on documenting radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons testing. Metal concentrations measured in subsamples of the EML filters collected between the 1970s to 1990s showed Pb decreasing more slowly than the records of Pb added to gasoline. Metal ratios in the filters were similar to the ratios measured in CPL sediments; the Pb to Sn ratios were roughly 20:1 and the Pb to Zn ratios were in close to 1. The similarity of the ratios provides additional solid support that the CP Lake sediment cores reflect atmospheric inputs. The enrichment of Pb in the large aerosol particle fraction (TSP), relative to fine PM2.5 fraction, demonstrates that the resuspended NYC soils and their historical contaminant burden, are the primary, current source of Pb to NYC air.

  14. A GPU-Parallelized Eigen-Based Clutter Filter Framework for Ultrasound Color Flow Imaging.

    PubMed

    Chee, Adrian J Y; Yiu, Billy Y S; Yu, Alfred C H

    2017-01-01

    Eigen-filters with attenuation response adapted to clutter statistics in color flow imaging (CFI) have shown improved flow detection sensitivity in the presence of tissue motion. Nevertheless, its practical adoption in clinical use is not straightforward due to the high computational cost for solving eigendecompositions. Here, we provide a pedagogical description of how a real-time computing framework for eigen-based clutter filtering can be developed through a single-instruction, multiple data (SIMD) computing approach that can be implemented on a graphical processing unit (GPU). Emphasis is placed on the single-ensemble-based eigen-filtering approach (Hankel singular value decomposition), since it is algorithmically compatible with GPU-based SIMD computing. The key algebraic principles and the corresponding SIMD algorithm are explained, and annotations on how such algorithm can be rationally implemented on the GPU are presented. Real-time efficacy of our framework was experimentally investigated on a single GPU device (GTX Titan X), and the computing throughput for varying scan depths and slow-time ensemble lengths was studied. Using our eigen-processing framework, real-time video-range throughput (24 frames/s) can be attained for CFI frames with full view in azimuth direction (128 scanlines), up to a scan depth of 5 cm ( λ pixel axial spacing) for slow-time ensemble length of 16 samples. The corresponding CFI image frames, with respect to the ones derived from non-adaptive polynomial regression clutter filtering, yielded enhanced flow detection sensitivity in vivo, as demonstrated in a carotid imaging case example. These findings indicate that the GPU-enabled eigen-based clutter filtering can improve CFI flow detection performance in real time.

  15. A GPU-Parallelized Eigen-Based Clutter Filter Framework for Ultrasound Color Flow Imaging.

    PubMed

    Chee, Adrian; Yiu, Billy; Yu, Alfred

    2016-09-07

    Eigen-filters with attenuation response adapted to clutter statistics in color flow imaging (CFI) have shown improved flow detection sensitivity in the presence of tissue motion. Nevertheless, its practical adoption in clinical use is not straightforward due to the high computational cost for solving eigen-decompositions. Here, we provide a pedagogical description of how a real-time computing framework for eigen-based clutter filtering can be developed through a single-instruction, multiple data (SIMD) computing approach that can be implemented on a graphical processing unit (GPU). Emphasis is placed on the single-ensemble-based eigen-filtering approach (Hankel-SVD) since it is algorithmically compatible with GPU-based SIMD computing. The key algebraic principles and the corresponding SIMD algorithm are explained, and annotations on how such algorithm can be rationally implemented on the GPU are presented. Real-time efficacy of our framework was experimentally investigated on a single GPU device (GTX Titan X), and the computing throughput for varying scan depths and slow-time ensemble lengths were studied. Using our eigenprocessing framework, real-time video-range throughput (24 fps) can be attained for CFI frames with full-view in azimuth direction (128 scanlines), up to a scan depth of 5 cm (λ pixel axial spacing) for slow-time ensemble length of 16 samples. The corresponding CFI image frames, with respect to the ones derived from non-adaptive polynomial regression clutter filtering, yielded enhanced flow detection sensitivity in vivo, as demonstrated in a carotid imaging case example. These findings indicate that GPU-enabled eigen-based clutter filtering can improve CFI flow detection performance in real time.

  16. The role of pressure drop and flow redistribution on modeling mercury control using sorbent injection in baghouse filters.

    PubMed

    Flora, Joseph R V; Hargis, Richard A; O'Dowd, William J; Karash, Andrew; Pennline, Henry W; Vidic, Radisav D

    2006-03-01

    A mathematical model based on simple cake filtration theory was coupled to a previously developed two-stage mathematical model for mercury (Hg) removal using powdered activated carbon injection upstream of a baghouse filter. Values of the average permeability of the filter cake and the filter resistance extracted from the model were 4.4 x 10(-13) m2 and 2.5 x 10(-4) m(-1), respectively. The flow is redistributed during partial cleaning of the filter, with flows higher across the newly cleaned filter section. The calculated average Hg removal efficiency from the baghouse is lower because of the high mass flux of Hg exiting the filter in the newly cleaned section. The model shows that calculated average Hg removal is affected by permeability, filter resistance, fraction of the baghouse cleaned, and cleaning interval.

  17. The role of pressure drop and flow redistribution on modeling mercury control using sorbent injection in baghouse filters

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph R.V. Flora; Richard A. Hargis; William J. O'Dowd; Andrew Karash; Henry W. Pennline; Radisav D. Vidic

    2006-03-15

    A mathematical model based on simple cake filtration theory was coupled to a previously developed two-stage mathematical model for mercury (Hg) removal from coal combustion using powdered activated carbon injection upstream of a baghouse filter. Values of the average permeability of the filter cake and the filter resistance extracted from the model were 4.4 x 10{sup -13}m{sup 2} and 2.5 x 10{sup -4}m{sup -1}, respectively. The flow is redistributed during partial cleaning of the filter, with flows higher across the newly cleaned filter section. The calculated average Hg removal efficiency from the baghouse is lower because of the high mass flux of Hg exiting the filter in the newly cleaned section. The model shows that calculated average Hg removal is affected by permeability, filter resistance, fraction of the baghouse cleaned, and cleaning interval. 17 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Analysis of up-flow aerated biological activated carbon filter technology in drinking water treatment.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shaoming; Liu, Jincui; Li, Shaowen; Biney, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Problems have been found in the traditional post-positioned down-flow biological activated carbon filter (DBACF), such as microorganism leakage and low biodegradability. A pilot test was carried out to place a BACF between the sediment tank and the sand filter; a new technology of dual media up-flow aerated biological activated carbon filter (UBACF) was developed. Results showed that in terms of the new process, the up-flow mode was better than the down-flow. Compared with the DBACF, the problem of microorganism leakage could be well resolved with the UBACF process by adding disinfectant before the sand filtration, and a similar adsorption effect could be obtained. For the tested raw water, the COD(Mn) and NH3-N removal rate was 54.6% and 85.0%, respectively, similar to the waterworks with the DBACF process. The UBACF greatly enhanced oxygen supply capability and mass transfer rate via aeration, and the NH3-N removal ability was significantly improved from 1.5 mg/L to more than 3 mg/L. Influent to the UBACF with higher turbidity could be coped with through the primary filtration of the ceramisite layer combined with fluid-bed technology, which gave the carbon bed a low-turbidity environment of less than 1.0 NTU. The backwashing parameters and carbon abrasion rate of the two processes were almost the same.

  19. Performance evaluation of a dual-flow recharge filter for improving groundwater quality.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Manoj P; Senthilvel, S; Mathew, Abraham C

    2014-07-01

    A dual-flow multimedia stormwater filter integrated with a groundwater recharge system was developed and tested for hydraulic efficiency and pollutant removal efficiency. The influent stormwater first flows horizontally through the circular layers of planted grass and biofibers. Subsequently, the flow direction changes to a vertical direction so that water moves through layers of pebbles and sand and finally gets recharged to the deep aquifers. The media in the sequence of vegetative medium:biofiber to pebble:sand were filled in nine proportions and tested for the best performing combination. Three grass species, viz., Typha (Typha angustifolia), Vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides), and St. Augustine grass (Stenotaphrum secundatum), were tested as the best performing vegetative medium. The adsorption behavior of Coconut (Cocos nucifera) fiber, which was filled in the middle layer, was determined by a series of column and batch studies.The dual-flow filter showed an increasing trend in hydraulic efficiency with an increase in flowrate. The chemical removal efficiency of the recharge dual-flow filter was found to be very high in case of K+ (81.6%) and Na+ (77.55%). The pH normalizing efficiency and electrical conductivity reduction efficiency were also recorded as high. The average removal percentage of Ca2+ was moderate, while that of Mg2+ was very low. The filter proportions of 1:1 to 1:2 (plant:fiber to pebble:sand) showed a superior performance compared to all other proportions. Based on the estimated annual costs and returns, all the financial viability criteria (internal rate of return, net present value, and benefit-cost ratio) were found to be favorable and affordable to farmers in terms of investing in the developed filtration system.

  20. Model simulation and experiments of flow and mass transport through a nano-material gas filter

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xiaofan; Zheng, Zhongquan C.; Winecki, Slawomir; Eckels, Steve

    2013-11-01

    A computational model for evaluating the performance of nano-material packed-bed filters was developed. The porous effects of the momentum and mass transport within the filter bed were simulated. For the momentum transport, an extended Ergun-type model was employed and the energy loss (pressure drop) along the packed-bed was simulated and compared with measurement. For the mass transport, a bulk dsorption model was developed to study the adsorption process (breakthrough behavior). Various types of porous materials and gas flows were tested in the filter system where the mathematical models used in the porous substrate were implemented and validated by comparing with experimental data and analytical solutions under similar conditions. Good agreements were obtained between experiments and model predictions.

  1. Infrared species tomography of a transient flow field using Kalman filtering.

    PubMed

    Daun, Kyle J; Waslander, Steven L; Tulloch, Brandon B

    2011-02-20

    In infrared species tomography, the unknown concentration distribution of a species is inferred from the attenuation of multiple collimated light beams shone through the measurement field. The resulting set of linear equations is rank-deficient, so prior assumptions about the smoothness and nonnegativity of the distribution must be imposed to recover a solution. This paper describes how the Kalman filter can be used to incorporate additional information about the time evolution of the distribution into the reconstruction. Results show that, although performing a series of static reconstructions is more accurate at low levels of measurement noise, the Kalman filter becomes advantageous when the measurements are corrupted with high levels of noise. The Kalman filter also enables signal multiplexing, which can help achieve the high sampling rates needed to resolve turbulent flow phenomena.

  2. A Fast Network Flow Model is used in conjunction with Measurements of Filter Permeability to calculate the Performance of Hot Gas Filters

    SciTech Connect

    VanOsdol, J.G.; Chiang, T-K.

    2002-09-19

    Two different technologies that are being considered for generating electric power on a large scale by burning coal are Pressurized Fluid Bed Combustion (PFBC) systems and Integrated Gasification and Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. Particulate emission regulations that have been proposed for future systems may require that these systems be fitted with large scale Hot Gas Clean-Up (HGCU) filtration systems that would remove the fine particulate matter from the hot gas streams that are generated by PFBC and IGCC systems. These hot gas filtration systems are geometrically and aerodynamically complex. They typically are constructed with large arrays of ceramic candle filter elements (CFE). The successful design of these systems require an accurate assessment of the rate at which mechanical energy of the gas flow is dissipated as it passes through the filter containment vessel and the individual candle filter elements that make up the system. Because the filtration medium is typically made of a porous ceramic material having open pore sizes that are much smaller than the dimensions of the containment vessel, the filtration medium is usually considered to be a permeable medium that follows Darcy's law. The permeability constant that is measured in the lab is considered to be a function of the filtration medium only and is usually assumed to apply equally to all the filters in the vessel as if the flow were divided evenly among all the filter elements. In general, the flow of gas through each individual CFE will depend not only on the geometrical characteristics of the filtration medium, but also on the local mean flows in the filter containment vessel that a particular filter element sees. The flow inside the CFE core, through the system manifolds, and inside the containment vessel itself will be coupled to the flow in the filter medium by various Reynolds number effects. For any given filter containment vessel, since the mean flows are different in different locations

  3. Influence of soil pH in vegetative filter strips for reducing soluble nutrient transport.

    PubMed

    Rahmana, Atikur; Rahmana, Shafiqur; Cihacek, Larry

    2014-08-01

    Low efficacy of vegetative filter strips (VFS) in reducing soluble nutrients has been reported in research articles. Solubility of phosphorus and nitrogen compounds is largely affected by pH of soil. Changing soil pH may result in a decrease in soluble nutrient transportation through VFS. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of pH levels of VFS soil on soluble nutrient transport reduction from manure-borne runoff. Soil (loamy sand texture; bulk density 1.3 g cm-3) was treated with calcium carbonate to change pH at different pH treatment levels (5.5-6.5, 6.5-7.5, and 7.5-8.5), soil was packed into galvanized metal boxes, and tall fescue grasses were established in the boxes to simulate VFS. Boxes were placed in an open environment, tilted to a 3.0% slope, and 44.0 L manure-amended water was applied through the VFS by a pump at a rate of 1.45 L min-1. Water samples were collected at the inlet and outlet as well as from the leachate. Samples were analysed for ortho-phosphorus, ammonium nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, and potassium. Highest transport reductions in ortho-phosphorus (42.4%) and potassium (20.5%) were observed at pH range 7.5-8.5. Ammonium nitrogen transport reduction was the highest at pH level of 6.5-7.5 and was 26.1%. Surface transport reduction in nitrate nitrogen was 100%, but leachate had the highest concentration of nitrate nitrogen. Mass transport reduction also suggested that higher pH in the VFS soil are effective in reducing some soluble nutrients transport.

  4. Enhancement of microfluidic particle separation using cross-flow filters with hydrodynamic focusing

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Yun-Yen; Huang, Chen-Kang

    2016-01-01

    A microfluidic chip is proposed to separate microparticles using cross-flow filtration enhanced with hydrodynamic focusing. By exploiting a buffer flow from the side, the microparticles in the sample flow are pushed on one side of the microchannels, lining up to pass through the filters. Meanwhile a larger pressure gradient in the filters is obtained to enhance separation efficiency. Compared with the traditional cross-flow filtration, our proposed mechanism has the buffer flow to create a moving virtual boundary for the sample flow to actively push all the particles to reach the filters for separation. It further allows higher flow rates. The device only requires soft lithograph fabrication to create microchannels and a novel pressurized bonding technique to make high-aspect-ratio filtration structures. A mixture of polystyrene microparticles with 2.7 μm and 10.6 μm diameters are successfully separated. 96.2 ± 2.8% of the large particle are recovered with a purity of 97.9 ± 0.5%, while 97.5 ± 0.4% of the small particle are depleted with a purity of 99.2 ± 0.4% at a sample throughput of 10 μl/min. The experiment is also conducted to show the feasibility of this mechanism to separate biological cells with the sample solutions of spiked PC3 cells in whole blood. By virtue of its high separation efficiency, our device offers a label-free separation technique and potential integration with other components, thereby serving as a promising tool for continuous cell filtration and analysis applications. PMID:26858812

  5. Enhancement of microfluidic particle separation using cross-flow filters with hydrodynamic focusing.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Yun-Yen; Huang, Chen-Kang; Lu, Yen-Wen

    2016-01-01

    A microfluidic chip is proposed to separate microparticles using cross-flow filtration enhanced with hydrodynamic focusing. By exploiting a buffer flow from the side, the microparticles in the sample flow are pushed on one side of the microchannels, lining up to pass through the filters. Meanwhile a larger pressure gradient in the filters is obtained to enhance separation efficiency. Compared with the traditional cross-flow filtration, our proposed mechanism has the buffer flow to create a moving virtual boundary for the sample flow to actively push all the particles to reach the filters for separation. It further allows higher flow rates. The device only requires soft lithograph fabrication to create microchannels and a novel pressurized bonding technique to make high-aspect-ratio filtration structures. A mixture of polystyrene microparticles with 2.7 μm and 10.6 μm diameters are successfully separated. 96.2 ± 2.8% of the large particle are recovered with a purity of 97.9 ± 0.5%, while 97.5 ± 0.4% of the small particle are depleted with a purity of 99.2 ± 0.4% at a sample throughput of 10 μl/min. The experiment is also conducted to show the feasibility of this mechanism to separate biological cells with the sample solutions of spiked PC3 cells in whole blood. By virtue of its high separation efficiency, our device offers a label-free separation technique and potential integration with other components, thereby serving as a promising tool for continuous cell filtration and analysis applications.

  6. A study of K variability and its effect on solute transport in subsurface-flow sand filters by measurement and modelling.

    PubMed

    Kløve, Bjørn; Xu, Shulan; Lindahl, Anna; Wörman, Anders; Søvik, Anne-Kristine

    2005-01-01

    Hydraulics of subsurface flow filters (SSF) was studied by measurement of soil hydraulic conductivity (K) variation and performing tracer tests in two SSF filters consisting of 1-4 mm Ca rich sand (shell sand). Soil samples were carefully taken at several locations in Filter I. A tracer experiment was conducted in the undisturbed Filter II using KI. The measured K variability in Filer I was used to analyze the variations in tracer breakthrough. The spatially distribution of K was obtained by fitting a variogram to observed data and interpolation using Kriging. The tracer residence probability density function (PDF) was determined by modelling the tracer movement with a 3-D groundwater model. The observed and simulated tracer arrival was compared for cases with constant K, constant K and dispersion (D), and for spatially variable K and dispersion. The results show that groundwater models were well suited to simulate solute movement in the SSF system studied. An almost perfect fit to observed tracer PDF was obtained when variable K and dispersion was included in the model. This indicates that information on K variability and dispersion is important for studying solute movement in SSF constructed wetlands.

  7. Particle capture in axial magnetic filters with power law flow model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasov, T.; Herdem, S.; Köksal, M.

    1999-05-01

    A theory of capture of magnetic particle carried by laminar flow of viscous non-Newtonian (power law) fluid in axially ordered filters is presented. The velocity profile of the fluid flow is determined by the Kuwabara-Happel cell model. For the trajectory of the particle, the capture area and the filter performance simple analytical expressions are obtained. These expressions are valid for particle capture processes from both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. For this reason the obtained theoretical results make it possible to widen the application of high-gradient magnetic filtration (HGMF) to other industrial areas. For Newtonian fluids the theoretical results are shown to be in good agreement with the experimental ones reported in the literature.

  8. Enhanced Kalman Filtering for a 2D CFD NS Wind Farm Flow Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doekemeijer, B. M.; van Wingerden, J. W.; Boersma, S.; Pao, L. Y.

    2016-09-01

    Wind turbines are often grouped together for financial reasons, but due to wake development this usually results in decreased turbine lifetimes and power capture, and thereby an increased levelized cost of energy (LCOE). Wind farm control aims to minimize this cost by operating turbines at their optimal control settings. Most state-of-the-art control algorithms are open-loop and rely on low fidelity, static flow models. Closed-loop control relying on a dynamic model and state observer has real potential to further decrease wind's LCOE, but is often too computationally expensive for practical use. In this paper two time-efficient Kalman filter (KF) variants are outlined incorporating the medium fidelity, dynamic flow model “WindFarmSimulator” (WFSim). This model relies on a discretized set of Navier-Stokes equations in two dimensions to predict the flow in wind farms at low computational cost. The filters implemented are an Ensemble KF and an Approximate KF. Simulations in which a high fidelity simulation model represents the true wind farm show that these filters are 101 —102 times faster than a regular KF with comparable or better performance, correcting for wake dynamics that are not modeled in WFSim (noticeably, wake meandering and turbine hub effects). This is a first big step towards real-time closed-loop control for wind farms.

  9. Nonuniform air flow in inlets: the effect on filter deposits in the fiber sampling cassette.

    PubMed

    Baron, P A; Chen, C C; Hemenway, D R; O'Shaughnessy, P

    1994-08-01

    Smoke stream studies were combined with a new technique for visualizing a filter deposit from samples used to monitor asbestos or other fibers. Results clearly show the effect of secondary flow vortices within the sampler under anisoaxial sampling conditions. The vortices observed at low wind velocities occur when the inlet axis is situated at angles between 45 degrees and 180 degrees to the motion of the surrounding air. It is demonstrated that the vortices can create a complex nonuniform pattern in the filter deposit, especially when combined with particle settling or electrostatic interactions between the particles and the sampler. Inertial effects also may play a role in the deposit nonuniformity, as well as causing deposition on the cowl surfaces. Changes in the sampler, such as its placement, may reduce these biases. The effects noted are not likely to occur in all sampling situations, but may explain some reports of high variability on asbestos fiber filter samples. The flow patterns observed in this study are applicable to straight, thin-walled inlets. Although only compact particles were used, the air flow patterns and forces involved will have similar effects on fibers of the same aerodynamic diameter.

  10. A novel retinal vessel extraction algorithm based on matched filtering and gradient vector flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Lei; Xia, Mingliang; Xuan, Li

    2013-10-01

    The microvasculature network of retina plays an important role in the study and diagnosis of retinal diseases (age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy for example). Although it is possible to noninvasively acquire high-resolution retinal images with modern retinal imaging technologies, non-uniform illumination, the low contrast of thin vessels and the background noises all make it difficult for diagnosis. In this paper, we introduce a novel retinal vessel extraction algorithm based on gradient vector flow and matched filtering to segment retinal vessels with different likelihood. Firstly, we use isotropic Gaussian kernel and adaptive histogram equalization to smooth and enhance the retinal images respectively. Secondly, a multi-scale matched filtering method is adopted to extract the retinal vessels. Then, the gradient vector flow algorithm is introduced to locate the edge of the retinal vessels. Finally, we combine the results of matched filtering method and gradient vector flow algorithm to extract the vessels at different likelihood levels. The experiments demonstrate that our algorithm is efficient and the intensities of vessel images exactly represent the likelihood of the vessels.

  11. Real-Time Flood Forecasting System Using Channel Flow Routing Model with Updating by Particle Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudo, R.; Chikamori, H.; Nagai, A.

    2008-12-01

    A real-time flood forecasting system using channel flow routing model was developed for runoff forecasting at water gauged and ungaged points along river channels. The system is based on a flood runoff model composed of upstream part models, tributary part models and downstream part models. The upstream part models and tributary part models are lumped rainfall-runoff models, and the downstream part models consist of a lumped rainfall-runoff model for hillslopes adjacent to a river channel and a kinematic flow routing model for a river channel. The flow forecast of this model is updated by Particle filtering of the downstream part model as well as by the extended Kalman filtering of the upstream part model and the tributary part models. The Particle filtering is a simple and powerful updating algorithm for non-linear and non-gaussian system, so that it can be easily applied to the downstream part model without complicated linearization. The presented flood runoff model has an advantage in simlecity of updating procedure to the grid-based distributed models, which is because of less number of state variables. This system was applied to the Gono-kawa River Basin in Japan, and flood forecasting accuracy of the system with both Particle filtering and extended Kalman filtering and that of the system with only extended Kalman filtering were compared. In this study, water gauging stations in the objective basin were divided into two types of stations, that is, reference stations and verification stations. Reference stations ware regarded as ordinary water gauging stations and observed data at these stations are used for calibration and updating of the model. Verification stations ware considered as ungaged or arbitrary points and observed data at these stations are used not for calibration nor updating but for only evaluation of forecasting accuracy. The result confirms that Particle filtering of the downstream part model improves forecasting accuracy of runoff at

  12. Soil bacterial communities are shaped by temporal and environmental filtering: evidence from a long-term chronosequence.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Zachary; Zak, Donald R

    2015-09-01

    Soil microbial communities are abundant, hyper-diverse and mediate global biogeochemical cycles, but we do not yet understand the processes mediating their assembly. Current hypothetical frameworks suggest temporal (e.g. dispersal limitation) and environmental (e.g. soil pH) filters shape microbial community composition; however, there is limited empirical evidence supporting this framework in the hyper-diverse soil environment, particularly at large spatial (i.e. regional to continental) and temporal (i.e. 100 to 1000 years) scales. Here, we present evidence from a long-term chronosequence (4000 years) that temporal and environmental filters do indeed shape soil bacterial community composition. Furthermore, nearly 20 years of environmental monitoring allowed us to control for potentially confounding environmental variation. Soil bacterial communities were phylogenetically distinct across the chronosequence. We determined that temporal and environmental factors accounted for significant portions of bacterial phylogenetic structure using distance-based linear models. Environmental factors together accounted for the majority of phylogenetic structure, namely, soil temperature (19%), pH (17%) and litter carbon:nitrogen (C:N; 17%). However, of all individual factors, time since deglaciation accounted for the greatest proportion of bacterial phylogenetic structure (20%). Taken together, our results provide empirical evidence that temporal and environmental filters act together to structure soil bacterial communities across large spatial and long-term temporal scales.

  13. Robust optical flow using adaptive Lorentzian filter for image reconstruction under noisy condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesrarat, Darun; Patanavijit, Vorapoj

    2017-02-01

    In optical flow for motion allocation, the efficient result in Motion Vector (MV) is an important issue. Several noisy conditions may cause the unreliable result in optical flow algorithms. We discover that many classical optical flows algorithms perform better result under noisy condition when combined with modern optimized model. This paper introduces effective robust models of optical flow by using Robust high reliability spatial based optical flow algorithms using the adaptive Lorentzian norm influence function in computation on simple spatial temporal optical flows algorithm. Experiment on our proposed models confirm better noise tolerance in optical flow's MV under noisy condition when they are applied over simple spatial temporal optical flow algorithms as a filtering model in simple frame-to-frame correlation technique. We illustrate the performance of our models by performing an experiment on several typical sequences with differences in movement speed of foreground and background where the experiment sequences are contaminated by the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) at different noise decibels (dB). This paper shows very high effectiveness of noise tolerance models that they are indicated by peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR).

  14. Spatial filtering of electrical resistivity and slope intensity: Enhancement of spatial estimates of a soil property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourennane, Hocine; Hinschberger, Florent; Chartin, Caroline; Salvador-Blanes, Sébastien

    2017-03-01

    To best utilize the electrical resistivity data and slope intensity derived from a Digital Elevation Model, the kriging spatial components technique was applied to separate the nuggets and small- and large-scale structures for both resistivity and slope intensity data. The spatial structures in the resistivity and slope intensity data, which are poorly correlated with soil thickness (ST), are then filtered out prior to integrating the resistivity data and slope intensity into soil thickness estimation over a 12 ha area located in the south-western Parisian Basin (France). ST was measured at 650 locations over the study area by manual augering. Twenty percent of the observations (131 points) were randomly selected to constitute the validation dataset. The remaining 80% of the dataset (519 points) was used as the prediction dataset. The resistivity data represent a set of 7394 measurement points for each of the three investigated depths over the study area. The methodology involves successively (1) a principal component analysis (PCA) on the electrical measurements and (2) a geostatistical filtering of the small-scale component and noise in the first component (PC1) of the PCA. The results show that the correlation between ST and PC1 is greatly improved when the small-scale component and noise are filtered out, and similarly, the correlation between ST and slope intensity is greatly improved once the geostatistical filtering is carried out on the slope data. Thus, the large scales of both slope intensity and the electrical resistivity's PC1 were used as external drifts to predict ST over the entire study area. This prediction was compared with ordinary kriging and kriging either with a large scale of slope intensity or with a large scale of the electrical resistivity's PC1 taken as an external drift. The first prediction of ST by ordinary kriging, which was considered as our reference, was also compared to those achieved by kriging using the raw secondary variables

  15. Cross-flow, filter-sorbent catalyst for particulate, SO sub 2 and NO sub x control

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    This synopsis describes a new concept for integrated pollutant control: a cross-flow filter comprised of layered, gas permeable membranes that act as a particulate filter, an SO{sub 2} sorbent, and a NO{sub x} reduction catalyst.

  16. Data assimilation for unsaturated flow models with restart adaptive probabilistic collocation based Kalman filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Man, Jun; Li, Weixuan; Zeng, Lingzao; Wu, Laosheng

    2016-06-01

    The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) has gained popularity in hydrological data assimilation problems. As a Monte Carlo based method, a sufficiently large ensemble size is usually required to guarantee the accuracy. As an alternative approach, the probabilistic collocation based Kalman filter (PCKF) employs the polynomial chaos expansion (PCE) to represent and propagate the uncertainties in parameters and states. However, PCKF suffers from the so-called "curse of dimensionality". Its computational cost increases drastically with the increasing number of parameters and system nonlinearity. Furthermore, PCKF may fail to provide accurate estimations due to the joint updating scheme for strongly nonlinear models. Motivated by recent developments in uncertainty quantification and EnKF, we propose a restart adaptive probabilistic collocation based Kalman filter (RAPCKF) for data assimilation in unsaturated flow problems. During the implementation of RAPCKF, the important parameters are identified and active PCE basis functions are adaptively selected at each assimilation step; the "restart" scheme is utilized to eliminate the inconsistency between updated model parameters and states variables. The performance of RAPCKF is systematically tested with numerical cases of unsaturated flow models. It is shown that the adaptive approach and restart scheme can significantly improve the performance of PCKF. Moreover, RAPCKF has been demonstrated to be more efficient than EnKF with the same computational cost.

  17. Data assimilation for unsaturated flow models with restart adaptive probabilistic collocation based Kalman filter

    SciTech Connect

    Man, Jun; Li, Weixuan; Zeng, Lingzao; Wu, Laosheng

    2016-06-01

    The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) has gained popularity in hydrological data assimilation problems. As a Monte Carlo based method, a relatively large ensemble size is usually required to guarantee the accuracy. As an alternative approach, the probabilistic collocation based Kalman filter (PCKF) employs the polynomial chaos to approximate the original system. In this way, the sampling error can be reduced. However, PCKF suffers from the so-called "curse of dimensionality". When the system nonlinearity is strong and number of parameters is large, PCKF could be even more computationally expensive than EnKF. Motivated by most recent developments in uncertainty quantification, we propose a restart adaptive probabilistic collocation based Kalman filter (RAPCKF) for data assimilation in unsaturated flow problems. During the implementation of RAPCKF, the important parameters are identified and active PCE basis functions are adaptively selected. The "restart" technology is used to eliminate the inconsistency between model parameters and states. The performance of RAPCKF is tested with numerical cases of unsaturated flow models. It is shown that RAPCKF is more efficient than EnKF with the same computational cost. Compared with the traditional PCKF, the RAPCKF is more applicable in strongly nonlinear and high dimensional problems.

  18. Simultaneous assimilation of in situ soil moisture and streamflow in the SWAT model using the Extended Kalman Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Leqiang; Seidou, Ousmane; Nistor, Ioan; Goïta, Kalifa; Magagi, Ramata

    2016-12-01

    The Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is used to assimilate in situ surface soil moisture and streamflow observation at the outlet of an experimental watershed outlet into a semi-distributed SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model. Watershed scale, instead of HRU scale soil moisture was used in state vector to reduce computational burden. Numerical experiments were designed to select the best state vector which consists of streamflow and soil moisture in all vertical soil layers. Compared to open-loop model and direct-insert method, the estimate of both soil moisture and streamflow has been improved by EKF assimilation. The combined assimilation of surface soil moisture and streamflow outperforms the assimilation with only surface soil moisture or streamflow especially in the estimate of full profile soil moisture. The NSC has been improved to 0.63 from -4.45 and the RMSE has been reduced to 12.34 mm from 47.44 mm in open-loop. Such improvement is also reflected in the short term forecast of soil moisture. The improvement of streamflow prediction is relatively moderate in both simulation and forecast mode compared to quality of the soil moisture prediction. The quantification of the model error, especially the error covariance between different state variables, was found to be critical to the estimate of the state variable corresponding to the error covariance.

  19. Adaptive clutter filter in 2-D color flow imaging based on in vivo I/Q signal.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoming; Zhang, Congyao; Liu, Dong C

    2014-01-01

    Color flow imaging has been well applied in clinical diagnosis. For the high quality color flow images, clutter filter is important to separate the Doppler signals from blood and tissue. Traditional clutter filters, such as finite impulse response, infinite impulse response and regression filters, were applied, which are based on the hypothesis that the clutter signal is stationary or tissue moves slowly. However, in realistic clinic color flow imaging, the signals are non-stationary signals because of accelerated moving tissue. For most related papers, simulated RF signals are widely used without in vivo I/Q signal. Hence, in this paper, adaptive polynomial regression filter, which is down mixing with instantaneous clutter frequency, was proposed based on in vivo carotid I/Q signal in realistic color flow imaging. To get the best performance, the optimal polynomial order of polynomial regression filter and the optimal polynomial order for estimation of instantaneous clutter frequency respectively were confirmed. Finally, compared with the mean blood velocity and quality of 2-D color flow image, the experiment results show that adaptive polynomial regression filter, which is down mixing with instantaneous clutter frequency, can significantly enhance the mean blood velocity and get high quality 2-D color flow image.

  20. Effect of Post-Reconstruction Gaussian Filtering on Image Quality and Myocardial Blood Flow Measurement with N-13 Ammonia PET

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyeon Sik; Cho, Sang-Geon; Kim, Ju Han; Kwon, Seong Young; Lee, Byeong-il; Bom, Hee-Seung

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): In order to evaluate the effect of post-reconstruction Gaussian filtering on image quality and myocardial blood flow (MBF) measurement by dynamic N-13 ammonia positron emission tomography (PET), we compared various reconstruction and filtering methods with image characteristics. Methods: Dynamic PET images of three patients with coronary artery disease (male-female ratio of 2:1; age: 57, 53, and 76 years) were reconstructed, using filtered back projection (FBP) and ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) methods. OSEM reconstruction consisted of OSEM_2I, OSEM_4I, and OSEM_6I with 2, 4, and 6 iterations, respectively. The images, reconstructed and filtered by Gaussian filters of 5, 10, and 15 mm, were obtained, as well as non-filtered images. Visual analysis of image quality (IQ) was performed using a 3-grade scoring system by 2 independent readers, blinded to the reconstruction and filtering methods of stress images. Then, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was calculated by noise and contrast recovery (CR). Stress and rest MBF and coronary flow reserve (CFR) were obtained for each method. IQ scores, stress and rest MBF, and CFR were compared between the methods, using Chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results: In the visual analysis, IQ was significantly higher by 10 mm Gaussian filtering, compared to other sizes of filter (P<0.001 for both readers). However, no significant difference of IQ was found between FBP and various numbers of iteration in OSEM (P=0.923 and 0.855 for readers 1 and 2, respectively). SNR was significantly higher in 10 mm Gaussian filter. There was a significant difference in stress and rest MBF between several vascular territories. However CFR was not significantly different according to various filtering methods. Conclusion: Post-reconstruction Gaussian filtering with a filter size of 10 mm significantly enhances the IQ of N-13 ammonia PET-CT, without changing the results of CFR calculation. PMID:27408866

  1. Effects of near soil surface characteristics on soil detachment by overland flow in a natural succession grassland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetation restoration probably has great effects on the process of soil detachment. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of near soil surface characteristics on soil detachment by overland flow in a 7-year naturally restored grassland. Four treatments were designed to characterize th...

  2. Define and Quantify the Physics of Air Flow, Pressure Drop and Aerosol Collection in Nuclear Grade HEPA Filters

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Murray E.

    2015-02-23

    Objective: Develop a set of peer-review and verified analytical methods to adjust HEPA filter performance to different flow rates, temperatures and altitudes. Experimental testing will measure HEPA filter flow rate, pressure drop and efficiency to verify the analytical approach. Nuclear facilities utilize HEPA (High Efficiency Particulate Air) filters to purify air flow for workspace ventilation. However, the ASME AG-1 technical standard (Code on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment) does not adequately describe air flow measurement units for HEPA filter systems. Specifically, the AG-1 standard does not differentiate between volumetric air flow in ACFM (actual cubic feet per minute)compared to mass flow measured in SCFM (standard cubic feet per minute). More importantly, the AG-1 standard has an overall deficiency for using HEPA filter devices at different air flow rates, temperatures, and altitudes. Technical Approach: The collection efficiency and pressure drops of 18 different HEPA filters will be measured over a range of flow rates, temperatures and altitudes. The experimental results will be compared to analytical scoping calculations. Three manufacturers have allocated six HEPA filters each for this effort. The 18 filters will be tested at two different flow rates, two different temperatures and two different altitudes. The 36 total tests will be conducted at two different facilities: the ATI Test facilities (Baltimore MD) and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos NM). The Radiation Protection RP-SVS group at Los Alamos has an aerosol wind tunnel that was originally designed to evaluate small air samplers. In 2010, modifications were started to convert the wind tunnel for HEPA filter testing. (Extensive changes were necessary for the required aerosol generators, HEPA test fixtures, temperature control devices and measurement capabilities.) To this date, none of these modification activities have been funded through a specific DOE or NNSA program. This is

  3. Fluidic low pass filter for hydrodynamic flow stabilization in microfluidic environments.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yang Jun; Yang, Sung

    2012-04-24

    Fluctuations in flow rate invariably occur in microfluidic devices. This fluidic instability results in a deteriorating performance and the suspension of their unique functions occasionally. In this study, a fluidic-LPF (low pass filter), which is composed of an ACU (air compliance unit) and a FCSP (fluidic channel with high fluidic resistance for sufficient preload), has been proposed for providing the stabilization of hydrodynamic flow in microfluidic devices. To investigate the characteristics of various fluidic networks including our fluidic-LPF, we used a parametric identification method to estimate the time constants via a transient response that was based on a discrete parameter model. In addition, we propose the use of a pulsation index (PI) to quantify the fluctuations in flow rate. We verified the formula for PI derived herein by varying individually both the periods and the air compliance volumes in the ACU, both theoretically and experimentally. We found that the PI depended strongly on either the time constants or the periods of the flow rates at the inlet. Additionally, the normalized differences between the experimental results and the theoretical estimations were less than 6%, which shows that the proposed formula for PI can provide an accurate quantification of the fluctuations in flow, and estimate the parametric effects. Finally, we have successfully demonstrated that our fluidic-LPF can regulate fluctuations in the flow at extremely low flow rates (~ 10 μL h(-1)) and can also control severe fluidic fluctuations (PI = 0.67) with excessively long periods (100 s) via a microfluidic viscometer. We therefore believe that the stabilization of hydrodynamic flow using a fluidic-LPF could be used easily and extensively with a range of microfluidic platforms that require constant flow rates.

  4. Finite-Element Analysis of Multiphase Immiscible Flow Through Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuppusamy, T.; Sheng, J.; Parker, J. C.; Lenhard, R. J.

    1987-04-01

    A finite-element model is developed for multiphase flow through soil involving three immiscible fluids: namely, air, water, and a nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL). A variational method is employed for the finite-element formulation corresponding to the coupled differential equations governing flow in a three-fluid phase porous medium system with constant air phase pressure. Constitutive relationships for fluid conductivities and saturations as functions of fluid pressures, which are derived in a companion paper by J. C. Parker et al. (this issue) and which may be calibrated from two-phase laboratory measurements, are employed in the finite-element program. The solution procedure uses backward time integration with iteration by a modified Picard method to handle the nonlinear properties. Laboratory experiments involving water displacement from soil columns by p cymene (a benzene-derivative hydrocarbon) under constant pressure were simulated by the finite-element program to validate the numerical model and formulation for constitutive properties. Transient water outflow predicted using independently measured saturation-capillary head data agreed with observed outflow data within the limits of precision of the predictions as estimated by a first-order Taylor series approximation considering parameter uncertainty due to experimental reproducability and constitutive model accuracy. Two-dimensional simulations are presented for a hypothetical field case involving introduction of NAPL near the soil surface due to leakage from an underground storage tank. Subsequent transport of NAPL in the variably saturated vadose and groundwater zones is analyzed.

  5. Stem-root flow effect on soil-atmosphere interactions and uncertainty assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Tzu-Hsien; Chen, Jen-Ping; Xue, Yongkang

    2016-04-01

    Rainfall that reaches the soil surface can rapidly move into deeper layers in the form of bulk flow through the stem-root flow mechanism. This study developed the stem-root flow parameterization scheme and coupled this scheme with the Simplified Simple Biosphere model (SSiB) to analyze its effects on land-atmospheric interactions. The SSiB model was tested in a single-column mode using the Lien Hua Chih (LHC) measurements conducted in Taiwan and HAPEX-Mobilhy (HAPEX) measurements in France. The results show that stem-root flow generally caused a decrease in soil moisture in the top soil layer and moistened the deeper soil layers. Such soil moisture redistribution results in substantial changes in heat flux exchange between land and atmosphere. In the humid environment at LHC, the stem-root flow effect on transpiration was minimal, and the main influence on energy flux was through reduced soil evaporation that led to higher soil temperature and greater sensible heat flux. In the Mediterranean environment of HAPEX, the stem-root flow substantially affected plant transpiration and soil evaporation, as well as associated changes in canopy and soil temperatures. However, the effect on transpiration could be either positive or negative depending on the relative changes in the soil moisture of the top soil vs. deeper soil layers due to stem-root flow and soil moisture diffusion processes.

  6. Lagrangian filtered density function for LES-based stochastic modelling of turbulent particle-laden flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Innocenti, Alessio; Marchioli, Cristian; Chibbaro, Sergio

    2016-11-01

    The Eulerian-Lagrangian approach based on Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) is one of the most promising and viable numerical tools to study particle-laden turbulent flows, when the computational cost of Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) becomes too expensive. The applicability of this approach is however limited if the effects of the Sub-Grid Scales (SGSs) of the flow on particle dynamics are neglected. In this paper, we propose to take these effects into account by means of a Lagrangian stochastic SGS model for the equations of particle motion. The model extends to particle-laden flows the velocity-filtered density function method originally developed for reactive flows. The underlying filtered density function is simulated through a Lagrangian Monte Carlo procedure that solves a set of Stochastic Differential Equations (SDEs) along individual particle trajectories. The resulting model is tested for the reference case of turbulent channel flow, using a hybrid algorithm in which the fluid velocity field is provided by LES and then used to advance the SDEs in time. The model consistency is assessed in the limit of particles with zero inertia, when "duplicate fields" are available from both the Eulerian LES and the Lagrangian tracking. Tests with inertial particles were performed to examine the capability of the model to capture the particle preferential concentration and near-wall segregation. Upon comparison with DNS-based statistics, our results show improved accuracy and considerably reduced errors with respect to the case in which no SGS model is used in the equations of particle motion.

  7. Modeling flow pathways through pores and cracks in aerated soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mohi

    2011-08-01

    Knowledge of how chemical contaminants spread through soil is of vital importance to those who manage groundwater and agricultural resources, superfund sites, landfills, and mines. Of particular interest to contaminant transport studies is crop management—though crops can be victims of pollution from elsewhere, fertilizers and other agricultural chemicals can leach through the soil and infiltrate groundwater. The spread of such contaminants from farmland not only is influenced by the amount of chemicals used for farming but also depends on how agriculture affects soil—activities such as mechanized farming, irrigation scheduling, swelling and shrinking properties, crop-rooting characteristics, and earthworm or other biological activity can influence the amount and size of air pockets in the soil. These “macropores”—so named because they are typically about 1 millimeter or larger in diameter—can allow agricultural contaminants to move through the soil more rapidly, along preferential flow paths. (Water Resources Research, doi:10.1029/2010WR009451, 2011)

  8. Determining the frequency, depth and velocity of preferential flow by high frequency soil moisture monitoring.

    PubMed

    Hardie, Marcus; Lisson, Shaun; Doyle, Richard; Cotching, William

    2013-01-01

    Preferential flow in agricultural soils has been demonstrated to result in agrochemical mobilisation to shallow ground water. Land managers and environmental regulators need simple cost effective techniques for identifying soil - land use combinations in which preferential flow occurs. Existing techniques for identifying preferential flow have a range of limitations including; often being destructive, non in situ, small sampling volumes, or are subject to artificial boundary conditions. This study demonstrated that high frequency soil moisture monitoring using a multi-sensory capacitance probe mounted within a vertically rammed access tube, was able to determine the occurrence, depth, and wetting front velocity of preferential flow events following rainfall. Occurrence of preferential flow was not related to either rainfall intensity or rainfall amount, rather preferential flow occurred when antecedent soil moisture content was below 226 mm soil moisture storage (0-70 cm). Results indicate that high temporal frequency soil moisture monitoring may be used to identify soil type - land use combinations in which the presence of preferential flow increases the risk of shallow groundwater contamination by rapid transport of agrochemicals through the soil profile. However use of high frequency based soil moisture monitoring to determine agrochemical mobilisation risk may be limited by, inability to determine the volume of preferential flow, difficulty observing macropore flow at high antecedent soil moisture content, and creation of artificial voids during installation of access tubes in stony soils.

  9. Determining the frequency, depth and velocity of preferential flow by high frequency soil moisture monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardie, Marcus; Lisson, Shaun; Doyle, Richard; Cotching, William

    2013-01-01

    Preferential flow in agricultural soils has been demonstrated to result in agrochemical mobilisation to shallow ground water. Land managers and environmental regulators need simple cost effective techniques for identifying soil - land use combinations in which preferential flow occurs. Existing techniques for identifying preferential flow have a range of limitations including; often being destructive, non in situ, small sampling volumes, or are subject to artificial boundary conditions. This study demonstrated that high frequency soil moisture monitoring using a multi-sensory capacitance probe mounted within a vertically rammed access tube, was able to determine the occurrence, depth, and wetting front velocity of preferential flow events following rainfall. Occurrence of preferential flow was not related to either rainfall intensity or rainfall amount, rather preferential flow occurred when antecedent soil moisture content was below 226 mm soil moisture storage (0-70 cm). Results indicate that high temporal frequency soil moisture monitoring may be used to identify soil type - land use combinations in which the presence of preferential flow increases the risk of shallow groundwater contamination by rapid transport of agrochemicals through the soil profile. However use of high frequency based soil moisture monitoring to determine agrochemical mobilisation risk may be limited by, inability to determine the volume of preferential flow, difficulty observing macropore flow at high antecedent soil moisture content, and creation of artificial voids during installation of access tubes in stony soils.

  10. Similar Processes but Different Environmental Filters for Soil Bacterial and Fungal Community Composition Turnover on a Broad Spatial Scale

    PubMed Central

    Chemidlin Prévost-Bouré, Nicolas; Dequiedt, Samuel; Thioulouse, Jean; Lelièvre, Mélanie; Saby, Nicolas P. A.; Jolivet, Claudy; Arrouays, Dominique; Plassart, Pierre; Lemanceau, Philippe; Ranjard, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    Spatial scaling of microorganisms has been demonstrated over the last decade. However, the processes and environmental filters shaping soil microbial community structure on a broad spatial scale still need to be refined and ranked. Here, we compared bacterial and fungal community composition turnovers through a biogeographical approach on the same soil sampling design at a broad spatial scale (area range: 13300 to 31000 km2): i) to examine their spatial structuring; ii) to investigate the relative importance of environmental selection and spatial autocorrelation in determining their community composition turnover; and iii) to identify and rank the relevant environmental filters and scales involved in their spatial variations. Molecular fingerprinting of soil bacterial and fungal communities was performed on 413 soils from four French regions of contrasting environmental heterogeneity (LandesSoil Quality Monitoring Network to evaluate the communities’ composition turnovers. The relative importance of processes and filters was assessed by distance-based redundancy analysis. This study demonstrates significant community composition turnover rates for soil bacteria and fungi, which were dependent on the region. Bacterial and fungal community composition turnovers were mainly driven by environmental selection explaining from 10% to 20% of community composition variations, but spatial variables also explained 3% to 9% of total variance. These variables highlighted significant spatial autocorrelation of both communities unexplained by the environmental variables measured and could partly be explained by dispersal limitations. Although the identified filters and their hierarchy were dependent on the region and organism, selection was systematically based on a common group of environmental variables: pH, trophic resources, texture and land use. Spatial autocorrelation was also important at coarse (80 to

  11. Similar processes but different environmental filters for soil bacterial and fungal community composition turnover on a broad spatial scale.

    PubMed

    Chemidlin Prévost-Bouré, Nicolas; Dequiedt, Samuel; Thioulouse, Jean; Lelièvre, Mélanie; Saby, Nicolas P A; Jolivet, Claudy; Arrouays, Dominique; Plassart, Pierre; Lemanceau, Philippe; Ranjard, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    Spatial scaling of microorganisms has been demonstrated over the last decade. However, the processes and environmental filters shaping soil microbial community structure on a broad spatial scale still need to be refined and ranked. Here, we compared bacterial and fungal community composition turnovers through a biogeographical approach on the same soil sampling design at a broad spatial scale (area range: 13300 to 31000 km2): i) to examine their spatial structuring; ii) to investigate the relative importance of environmental selection and spatial autocorrelation in determining their community composition turnover; and iii) to identify and rank the relevant environmental filters and scales involved in their spatial variations. Molecular fingerprinting of soil bacterial and fungal communities was performed on 413 soils from four French regions of contrasting environmental heterogeneity (LandesSoil Quality Monitoring Network to evaluate the communities' composition turnovers. The relative importance of processes and filters was assessed by distance-based redundancy analysis. This study demonstrates significant community composition turnover rates for soil bacteria and fungi, which were dependent on the region. Bacterial and fungal community composition turnovers were mainly driven by environmental selection explaining from 10% to 20% of community composition variations, but spatial variables also explained 3% to 9% of total variance. These variables highlighted significant spatial autocorrelation of both communities unexplained by the environmental variables measured and could partly be explained by dispersal limitations. Although the identified filters and their hierarchy were dependent on the region and organism, selection was systematically based on a common group of environmental variables: pH, trophic resources, texture and land use. Spatial autocorrelation was also important at coarse (80 to

  12. Runoff generation and flow paths on an inclined cultivated soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zumr, David; Strouhal, Luděk; Kavka, Petr

    2015-04-01

    The hydrology of cultivated catchments has its specific features due to the temporary variable topsoil properties and a sharp divide between topsoil and compacted subsoil. Under various conditions (actual topsoil physical properties, initial soil saturation, rainfall characteristics, surface roughness or vegetation stage) the prevailing runoff mechanisms may vary from surface runoff to subsurface runoff or deep percolation. To investigate the runoff generation and flow pathways and to quantify the runoff components on an inclined cultivated field under various rainfall and field conditions we conducted plot scale rainfall simulations. The experiments were done on the experimental plots Bykovice in Central Bohemia (Czech Republic), where the soil is classified as Cambisol with a clear divide between the topsoil and compacted subsoil at a depth of approximately 14 cm. We used a mobile rainfall simulator (designed at the CTU in Prague) equipped with four solenoid-controlled nozzles positioned 2.65 m above the soil. An inclined experimental plot (8 x 2 m, 9% slope) was successively exposed to uniform simulated rainfall with intensity ranging from 23 to 64 mm h-1 and duration ranging from 1 h to 2.5 h. These simulated rainfall parameters were selected to represent intensive rainfall events observed in the study locality, to generate surface runoff and to initiate soil erosion. The dynamics of surface and shallow subsurface runoff and the soil water regime at three soil depths were monitored. Various initial soil moisture conditions, and vegetation stages; from cultivated fallow to stubble, delimited the simulations. Variable proportions of both monitored runoff components were observed in relation to rainfall intensity and duration, ranging from zero surface runoff to a distinct dominance of surface runoff. Both components reacted very dynamically to the precipitation: shallow subsurface runoff was formed first under all tested conditions on the given soil profile. Even

  13. Single-ensemble-based eigen-processing methods for color flow imaging--Part I. The Hankel-SVD filter.

    PubMed

    Yu, Alfred C H; Cobbold, Richard S C

    2008-03-01

    Because of their adaptability to the slow-time signal contents, eigen-based filters have shown potential in improving the flow detection performance of color flow images. This paper proposes a new eigen-based filter called the Hankel-SVD filter that is intended to process each slowtime ensemble individually. The new filter is derived using the notion of principal Hankel component analysis, and it achieves clutter suppression by retaining only the principal components whose order is greater than the clutter eigen-space dimension estimated from a frequency based analysis algorithm. To assess its efficacy, the Hankel-SVD filter was first applied to synthetic slow-time data (ensemble size: 10) simulated from two different sets of flow parameters that model: 1) arterial imaging (blood velocity: 0 to 38.5 cm/s, tissue motion: up to 2 mm/s, transmit frequency: 5 MHz, pulse repetition period: 0.4 ms) and 2) deep vessel imaging (blood velocity: 0 to 19.2 cm/s, tissue motion: up to 2 cm/s, transmit frequency: 2 MHz, pulse repetition period: 2.0 ms). In the simulation analysis, the post-filter clutter-to- blood signal ratio (CBR) was computed as a function of blood velocity. Results show that for the same effective stopband size (50 Hz), the Hankel-SVD filter has a narrower transition region in the post-filter CBR curve than that of another type of adaptive filter called the clutter-downmixing filter. The practical efficacy of the proposed filter was tested by application to in vivo color flow data obtained from the human carotid arteries (transmit frequency: 4 MHz, pulse repetition period: 0.333 ms, ensemble size: 10). The resulting power images show that the Hankel-SVD filter can better distinguish between blood and moving-tissue regions (about 9 dB separation in power) than the clutter-downmixing filter and a fixed-rank multi ensemble-based eigen-filter (which showed a 2 to 3 dB separation).

  14. Fast reconstruction and prediction of frozen flow turbulence based on structured Kalman filtering.

    PubMed

    Fraanje, Rufus; Rice, Justin; Verhaegen, Michel; Doelman, Niek

    2010-11-01

    Efficient and optimal prediction of frozen flow turbulence using the complete observation history of the wavefront sensor is an important issue in adaptive optics for large ground-based telescopes. At least for the sake of error budgeting and algorithm performance, the evaluation of an accurate estimate of the optimal performance of a particular adaptive optics configuration is important. However, due to the large number of grid points, high sampling rates, and the non-rationality of the turbulence power spectral density, the computational complexity of the optimal predictor is huge. This paper shows how a structure in the frozen flow propagation can be exploited to obtain a state-space innovation model with a particular sparsity structure. This sparsity structure enables one to efficiently compute a structured Kalman filter. By simulation it is shown that the performance can be improved and the computational complexity can be reduced in comparison with auto-regressive predictors of low order.

  15. Methods to improve pressure, temperature and velocity accuracies of filtered Rayleigh scattering measurements in gaseous flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doll, Ulrich; Burow, Eike; Stockhausen, Guido; Willert, Christian

    2016-12-01

    Frequency scanning filtered Rayleigh scattering is able to simultaneously provide time-averaged measurements of pressure, temperature and velocity in gaseous flows. By extending the underlying mathematical model, a robust alternative to existing approaches is introduced. Present and proposed model functions are then characterized during a detailed uncertainty analysis. Deviations between the analytical solution of a jet flow experiment and measured results could be related to laser-induced background radiation as well as the Rayleigh scattering’s spectral distribution. In applying a background correction method and by replacing the standard lineshape model by an empirical formulation, detrimental effects on pressure, temperature and velocity accuracies could be reduced below 15 hPa, 2.5 K and 2.7 m s-1.

  16. Improving soil moisture profile prediction from ground-penetrating radar data: a maximum likelihood ensemble filter approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, A. P.; Vanclooster, M.; Lambot, S.

    2013-02-01

    The vertical profile of root zone soil moisture plays a key role in many hydro-meteorological and agricultural applications. We propose a closed-loop data assimilation procedure based on the maximum likelihood ensemble filter algorithm to update the vertical soil moisture profile from time-lapse ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data. A hydrodynamic model is used to propagate the system state in time and a radar electromagnetic model to link the state variable with the observation data, which enables us to directly assimilate the GPR data. Instead of using the surface soil moisture only, the approach allows to use the information of the whole soil moisture profile for the assimilation. We validated our approach by a synthetic study. We constructed a synthetic soil column with a depth of 80 cm and analyzed the effects of the soil type on the data assimilation by considering 3 soil types, namely, loamy sand, silt and clay. The assimilation of GPR data was performed to solve the problem of unknown initial conditions. The numerical soil moisture profiles generated by the Hydrus-1D model were used by the GPR model to produce the "observed" GPR data. The results show that the soil moisture profile obtained by assimilating the GPR data is much better than that of an open-loop forecast. Compared to the loamy sand and silt, the updated soil moisture profile of the clay soil converges to the true state much more slowly. Increasing update interval from 5 to 50 h only slightly improves the effectiveness of the GPR data assimilation for the loamy sand but significantly for the clay soil. The proposed approach appears to be promising to improve real-time prediction of the soil moisture profiles as well as to provide effective estimates of the unsaturated hydraulic properties at the field scale from time-lapse GPR measurements.

  17. Improving soil moisture profile reconstruction from ground-penetrating radar data: a maximum likelihood ensemble filter approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, A. P.; Vanclooster, M.; Lambot, S.

    2013-07-01

    The vertical profile of shallow unsaturated zone soil moisture plays a key role in many hydro-meteorological and agricultural applications. We propose a closed-loop data assimilation procedure based on the maximum likelihood ensemble filter algorithm to update the vertical soil moisture profile from time-lapse ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data. A hydrodynamic model is used to propagate the system state in time and a radar electromagnetic model and petrophysical relationships to link the state variable with the observation data, which enables us to directly assimilate the GPR data. Instead of using the surface soil moisture only, the approach allows to use the information of the whole soil moisture profile for the assimilation. We validated our approach through a synthetic study. We constructed a synthetic soil column with a depth of 80 cm and analyzed the effects of the soil type on the data assimilation by considering 3 soil types, namely, loamy sand, silt and clay. The assimilation of GPR data was performed to solve the problem of unknown initial conditions. The numerical soil moisture profiles generated by the Hydrus-1D model were used by the GPR model to produce the "observed" GPR data. The results show that the soil moisture profile obtained by assimilating the GPR data is much better than that of an open-loop forecast. Compared to the loamy sand and silt, the updated soil moisture profile of the clay soil converges to the true state much more slowly. Decreasing the update interval from 60 down to 10 h only slightly improves the effectiveness of the GPR data assimilation for the loamy sand but significantly for the clay soil. The proposed approach appears to be promising to improve real-time prediction of the soil moisture profiles as well as to provide effective estimates of the unsaturated hydraulic properties at the field scale from time-lapse GPR measurements.

  18. Construction of low dissipative high-order well-balanced filter schemes for non-equilibrium flows

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Wei; Yee, H.C.; Sjoegreen, Bjoern; Magin, Thierry; Shu, Chi-Wang

    2011-05-20

    The goal of this paper is to generalize the well-balanced approach for non-equilibrium flow studied by Wang et al. (2009) to a class of low dissipative high-order shock-capturing filter schemes and to explore more advantages of well-balanced schemes in reacting flows. More general 1D and 2D reacting flow models and new examples of shock turbulence interactions are provided to demonstrate the advantage of well-balanced schemes. The class of filter schemes developed by Yee et al. (1999) , Sjoegreen and Yee (2004) and Yee and Sjoegreen (2007) consist of two steps, a full time step of spatially high-order non-dissipative base scheme and an adaptive non-linear filter containing shock-capturing dissipation. A good property of the filter scheme is that the base scheme and the filter are stand-alone modules in designing. Therefore, the idea of designing a well-balanced filter scheme is straightforward, i.e. choosing a well-balanced base scheme with a well-balanced filter (both with high-order accuracy). A typical class of these schemes shown in this paper is the high-order central difference schemes/predictor-corrector (PC) schemes with a high-order well-balanced WENO filter. The new filter scheme with the well-balanced property will gather the features of both filter methods and well-balanced properties: it can preserve certain steady-state solutions exactly; it is able to capture small perturbations, e.g. turbulence fluctuations; and it adaptively controls numerical dissipation. Thus it shows high accuracy, efficiency and stability in shock/turbulence interactions. Numerical examples containing 1D and 2D smooth problems, 1D stationary contact discontinuity problem and 1D turbulence/shock interactions are included to verify the improved accuracy, in addition to the well-balanced behavior.

  19. Disk filter

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, Werner

    1986-01-01

    An electric disk filter provides a high efficiency at high temperature. A hollow outer filter of fibrous stainless steel forms the ground electrode. A refractory filter material is placed between the outer electrode and the inner electrically isolated high voltage electrode. Air flows through the outer filter surfaces through the electrified refractory filter media and between the high voltage electrodes and is removed from a space in the high voltage electrode.

  20. Disk filter

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, W.

    1985-01-09

    An electric disk filter provides a high efficiency at high temperature. A hollow outer filter of fibrous stainless steel forms the ground electrode. A refractory filter material is placed between the outer electrode and the inner electrically isolated high voltage electrode. Air flows through the outer filter surfaces through the electrified refractory filter media and between the high voltage electrodes and is removed from a space in the high voltage electrode.

  1. Detection of cortisol in saliva with a flow-filtered, portable surface plasmon resonance biosensor system.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Richard C; Soelberg, Scott D; Near, Steve; Furlong, Clement E

    2008-09-01

    Saliva provides a useful and noninvasive alternative to blood for many biomedical diagnostic assays. The level of the hormone cortisol in blood and saliva is related to the level of stress. We present here the development of a portable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor system for detection of cortisol in saliva. Cortisol-specific monoclonal antibodies were used to develop a competition assay with a six-channel portable SPR biosensor designed in our laboratory. The detection limit of cortisol in laboratory buffers was 0.36 ng/mL (1.0 nM). An in-line filter based on diffusion through a hollow fiber hydrophilic membrane served to separate small molecules from the complex macromolecular matrix of saliva prior to introduction to the sensor surface. The filtering flow cell provided in-line separation of small molecules from salivary mucins and other large molecules with only a 29% reduction of signal compared with direct flow of the same concentration of analyte over the sensor surface. A standard curve for detection of cortisol in saliva was generated with a detection limit of 1.0 ng/mL (3.6 nM), sufficiently sensitive for clinical use. The system will also be useful for a wide range of applications where small molecular weight analytes are found in complex matrixes.

  2. Coupling of stochastic moment equations and Ensemble Kalman Filter for groundwater flow data assimilation (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guadagnini, A.; Panzeri, M.; Riva, M.; Neuman, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    We embed stochastic groundwater flow moment equations (MEs) in the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) in a way that obviates the need for Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. The MEs yield approximate conditional ensemble means and covariances of hydraulic heads and fluxes in randomly heterogeneous media. Embedding these in EnKF allows updating of conductivity and head predictors as new data become available without the need for MC. The approach is well suited for cases in which real-time measurements allow sequential (as opposed to simultaneous) updating of flow parameters. We discuss and compare the accuracies and computational efficiencies of our newly proposed ME-based EnKF approach and the traditional MC-based EnKF approach for the case of a pumping well in a two-dimensional randomly heterogeneous aquifer. We analyze a number of settings and investigate the impact on parameters estimates of (a) the number of head measurements assimilated, (b) the error variance associated with head and log conductivity measurements and (c) the initial hydraulic head field. We demonstrate the computational feasibility and accuracy of our methodology and show that hydraulic conductivity estimates are more sensitive to early than to later head values, improving with increased assimilation frequency at early time. Our approach mitigates issues of filter inbreeding and spurious covariances often plaguing standard EnKF.

  3. Soil pipe flow tracer experiments: 2. Application of a transient storage zone model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil pipes, defined here as discrete preferential flow paths generally parallel to the slope, are important subsurface flow pathways that play a role in many soil erosion phenomena. However, limited research has been performed on quantifying and characterizing their flow and transport characteristic...

  4. Cross-flow, filter-sorbent catalyst for particulate, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control. Sixth quarterly technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Benedek, K.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.

    1991-08-01

    This report describes a new concept for integrated pollutant control: a cross-flow filter comprised of layered, gas permeable membranes that act a particulate filter, an SO{sub 2} sorbent, and a NO{sub x} reduction catalyst.

  5. Constraining a compositional flow model with flow-chemical data using an ensemble-based Kalman filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharamti, M. E.; Kadoura, A.; Valstar, J.; Sun, S.; Hoteit, I.

    2014-03-01

    Isothermal compositional flow models require coupling transient compressible flows and advective transport systems of various chemical species in subsurface porous media. Building such numerical models is quite challenging and may be subject to many sources of uncertainties because of possible incomplete representation of some geological parameters that characterize the system's processes. Advanced data assimilation methods, such as the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF), can be used to calibrate these models by incorporating available data. In this work, we consider the problem of estimating reservoir permeability using information about phase pressure as well as the chemical properties of fluid components. We carry out state-parameter estimation experiments using joint and dual updating schemes in the context of the EnKF with a two-dimensional single-phase compositional flow model (CFM). Quantitative and statistical analyses are performed to evaluate and compare the performance of the assimilation schemes. Our results indicate that including chemical composition data significantly enhances the accuracy of the permeability estimates. In addition, composition data provide more information to estimate system states and parameters than do standard pressure data. The dual state-parameter estimation scheme provides about 10% more accurate permeability estimates on average than the joint scheme when implemented with the same ensemble members, at the cost of twice more forward model integrations. At similar computational cost, the dual approach becomes only beneficial after using large enough ensembles.

  6. Investigations on phosphorus recovery and reuse as soil amendment from electric arc furnace slag filters.

    PubMed

    Bird, Simon C; Drizo, Aleksandra

    2009-11-01

    Electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slag has been identified as an effective filter material for the removal of phosphorus (P) from both point and non-point sources. To determine the feasibility of land-applying P saturated EAF steel slag this study was undertaken to investigate (i) saturated EAF steel slag material's potential as a P fertilizer or soil amendment and (ii) P desorption and metals leachate from saturated EAF steel slag material to surface runoff. Medicago sativa (alfalfa) was planted in a nutrient depleted washed sand media. Phosphorus was added either as saturated EAF steel slag or as a standard commercial phosphate fertilizer in order to assess the plant availability of the P from saturated EAF steel slag. Four different P application levels were tested: a low (20 lbs acre furrow slice(-1) (5.5 g P m(-3))) two medium (40 and 60 lbs. acre f.s.(-1) (11 and 16.5 g P m(-3))) and a high (120 lbs. acre f.s.(-1) (33 g P m(-3))). The above-ground biomass of half of the plants was harvested after 5 weeks and the second half at 10 weeks. All treatments regardless of the P source used showed high rates of germination. At the first harvest period (5 weeks) significantly higher above-ground biomass (p < 0.01) was seen at the 3 highest P amendment rates in treatments with triple super phosphate fertilizer (TSP) than with EAF steel slag. However, by the second harvest (10 weeks) only the highest amendment rate of TSP showed a significantly higher amount of biomass (p < 0.01), suggesting that EAF steel slag might be an effective slow release P source. In a second experiment, a rain simulator was used to assess desorption of DRP, TP and metals from a saturated and semi-saturated EAF steel slag. The results revealed that the total amounts of DRP and TP released to surface runoff from EAF steel slag were negligible when compared to the total quantities of P retained by this material. Overall the results from this study demonstrated that once the EAF steel slag filter

  7. Vegetative filter strips efficiency controlling soil loss and trapping herbicides in two olive orchards at the short-term

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Luna, Elena; Guzmán, Gema; Gómez, José A.

    2014-05-01

    The optimization of water use in a semi-arid climate is based on an optimal use of rainwater adopting management practices that prevent and/or control runoff. This is a key point for increasing the economic and environmental sustainability of agriculture due to the minimization of diffuse pollution associated to runoff and to sediment and chemical transport. One strategy is the establishment of vegetative filters strips that prevent pesticides (Stehle et al. 2011), herbicides (Vianello et al. 2005), fertilizers (Withers et al. 2009) and runoff-sediment (Campo-Bescós et al. 2013) from entering streams or surface water reservoirs. To evaluate the short-term risks associated with the use of herbicides a trial was designed in two olive groves located in Benacazón (Sevilla) and Cabra (Córdoba) both with an average steepness of 11%. Two different management systems were evaluated, bare soil and bare soil with vegetative filter strips. Pre-emergence herbicides were applied and analysed at the beginning of the trial by chromatography GC-MS and after each rainfall event both in soil and sediment. Runoff and soil losses were measured, as well. The results obtained from this study show that soil management practices such as, the use of vegetative filter strips results in a reduction of soil losses and runoff. This it is translated in the improvement of soil quality and a reduction of water pollution caused by the use of herbicides. This information will improve the understanding of insufficiently known aspects and it will help to increase the knowledge for a better implementation of sustainable management practices at a farm scale and at larger temporal scale. References: Campo-Bescós, M. A., Muñoz-Carpena, R., & Kiker, G. (2013) Influencia del suelo en la eficiencia de la implantación de filtros verdes en un distrito de riego por superficie en medio árido. En Estudios de la Zona no Saturada del Suelo, Vol. XI: 183-187. Stehle, S., Elsaesser, D., Gregoire, C., Imfeld

  8. Improving Simulated Soil Moisture Fields Through Assimilation of AMSR-E Soil Moisture Retrievals with an Ensemble Kalman Filter and a Mass Conservation Constraint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Bailing; Toll, David; Zhan, Xiwu; Cosgrove, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Model simulated soil moisture fields are often biased due to errors in input parameters and deficiencies in model physics. Satellite derived soil moisture estimates, if retrieved appropriately, represent the spatial mean of soil moisture in a footprint area, and can be used to reduce model bias (at locations near the surface) through data assimilation techniques. While assimilating the retrievals can reduce model bias, it can also destroy the mass balance enforced by the model governing equation because water is removed from or added to the soil by the assimilation algorithm. In addition, studies have shown that assimilation of surface observations can adversely impact soil moisture estimates in the lower soil layers due to imperfect model physics, even though the bias near the surface is decreased. In this study, an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) with a mass conservation updating scheme was developed to assimilate the actual value of Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) soil moisture retrievals to improve the mean of simulated soil moisture fields by the Noah land surface model. Assimilation results using the conventional and the mass conservation updating scheme in the Little Washita watershed of Oklahoma showed that, while both updating schemes reduced the bias in the shallow root zone, the mass conservation scheme provided better estimates in the deeper profile. The mass conservation scheme also yielded physically consistent estimates of fluxes and maintained the water budget. Impacts of model physics on the assimilation results are discussed.

  9. Field-flow fractionation: An efficient approach for matrix removal of soil extract for inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangsawong, Supharart; Waiyawat, Weerawan; Shiowatana, Juwadee; Siripinyanond, Atitaya

    2011-06-01

    An on-line coupling between a continuous-flow sequential extraction (CFSE) unit and flow field-flow fractionation with cross flow matrix removal (FlFFF/CFM) with ICP-OES detection was developed for determination of metal leachability from soil. The use of high concentration of Mg(NO 3) 2 in exchangeable phase can cause undesirable matrix effects by shifting ionization equilibrium in the plasma, etc., resulting in a clear need for matrix removal. Therefore, the capability of FlFFF/CFM to remove Mg matrix ion from soil extract was evaluated. Poly(ethylene imine) (PEI) having molecular weight of 25,000 Da was added to form complexes with analyte elements (Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn) but not the matrix element (Mg). The free Mg matrix ions were then removed by filtering off through the ultrafiltration membrane, having a 1000-Da molecular weight cut-off, inside the FlFFF channel. With the use of FlFFF/CFM, matrix removal efficiency was approximately 83.5%, which was equivalent to approximately 6-fold dilution of the matrix ion. The proposed hyphenated system of CFSE and FlFFF/CFM with ICP-OES detection was examined for its reliability by checking with SRM 2710 (a highly contaminated soil from Montana). The metal contents determined by the proposed method were not significantly different (at 95% confidence) from the certified values.

  10. Assimilation of Satellite Soil Moisture observation with the Particle Filter-Markov Chain Monte Carlo and Geostatistical Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradkhani, Hamid; Yan, Hongxiang

    2016-04-01

    Soil moisture simulation and prediction are increasingly used to characterize agricultural droughts but the process suffers from data scarcity and quality. The satellite soil moisture observations could be used to improve model predictions with data assimilation. Remote sensing products, however, are typically discontinuous in spatial-temporal coverages; while simulated soil moisture products are potentially biased due to the errors in forcing data, parameters, and deficiencies of model physics. This study attempts to provide a detailed analysis of the joint and separate assimilation of streamflow and Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) surface soil moisture into a fully distributed hydrologic model, with the use of recently developed particle filter-Markov chain Monte Carlo (PF-MCMC) method. A geostatistical model is introduced to overcome the satellite soil moisture discontinuity issue where satellite data does not cover the whole study region or is significantly biased, and the dominant land cover is dense vegetation. The results indicate that joint assimilation of soil moisture and streamflow has minimal effect in improving the streamflow prediction, however, the surface soil moisture field is significantly improved. The combination of DA and geostatistical approach can further improve the surface soil moisture prediction.

  11. Comparison Experiments of Different Model Error Schemes in Ensemble Kalman Filter Soil Moisture Assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Suping; Zhu, Jiang; Luo, Yong

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the performances of different model error scheme in soil moisture data assimilation. Based on the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) and the atmosphere-vegetation interaction model (AVIM), point-scale analysis results for three schemes, 1) covariance inflation (CI), 2) direct random disturbance (DRD), and 3) error source random disturbance (ESRD), are combined under conditions of different observational error estimations, different observation layers, and different observation intervals using a series of idealized experiments. The results shows that all these schemes obtain good assimilation results when the assumed observational error is an accurate statistical representation of the actual error used to perturb the original truth value, and the ESRD scheme has the least root mean square error (RMSE). Overestimation or underestimation of the observational errors can affect the assimilation results of CI and DRD schemes sensitively. The performances of these two schemes deteriorate obviously while the ESRD scheme keeps its capability well. When the observation layers or observation interval increase, the performances of both CI and DRD schemes decline evidently. But for the ESRD scheme, as it can assimilate multi-layer observations coordinately, the increased observations improve the assimilation results further. Moreover, as the ESRD scheme contains a certain amount of model error estimation functions in its assimilation process, it also has a good performance in assimilating sparse-time observations.

  12. Retention of pharmaceutical residues and microorganisms at the Altendorf retention soil filter.

    PubMed

    Christoffels, E; Mertens, F M; Kistemann, T; Schreiber, C

    2014-01-01

    A study has been conducted on a retention soil filter (RSF) to test its effectiveness in removing pharmaceutical residues and microorganisms from combined sewer overflows (CSOs). Efficient removal of solids, nutrients and heavy metals has already been proven. The possibility that organic micropollutants and microorganisms are also retained by the use of RSFs has been identified, but data are lacking. Results obtained in this study, in which testing for removal by a RSF of numerous micro-pollutant substances was performed, are most promising. The pharmaceuticals diclofenac and ibuprofen are presented in detail as examples of such micropollutants. Both showed a reduction in positive samples of more than 55% as well as a significant reduction in median and maximum concentrations. For microorganisms such as Escherichia coli, coliphages and Giardia lamblia (cysts), an average reduction in concentrations by three logarithmic steps (99.9%) was achieved. These results add to the evidence that using a RSF in the advanced treatment of wastewater from CSOs reduces the exposure of water-courses to pharmaceutical residues and microbial contamination.

  13. Colloid Mobilization in a Fractured Soil: Effect of Pore-Water Exchange between Preferential Flow Paths and Soil Matrix.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Sanjay K; Saiers, James E; Ryan, Joseph N

    2016-03-01

    Exchange of water and solutes between contaminated soil matrix and bulk solution in preferential flow paths has been shown to contribute to the long-term release of dissolved contaminants in the subsurface, but whether and how this exchange can affect the release of colloids in a soil are unclear. To examine this, we applied rainfall solutions of different ionic strength on an intact soil core and compared the resulting changes in effluent colloid concentration through multiple sampling ports. The exchange of water between soil matrix and the preferential flow paths leading to each port was characterized on the basis of the bromide (conservative tracer) breakthrough time at the port. At individual ports, two rainfalls of a certain ionic strength mobilized different amounts of colloids when the soil was pre-exposed to a solution of lower or higher ionic strength. This result indicates that colloid mobilization depended on rainfall solution history, which is referred as colloid mobilization hysteresis. The extent of hysteresis was increased with increases in exchange of pore water and solutes between preferential flow paths and matrix. The results indicate that the soil matrix exchanged the old water from the previous infiltration with new infiltrating water during successive infiltration and changed the pore water chemistry in the preferential flow paths, which in turn affected the release of soil colloids. Therefore, rainfall solution history and soil heterogeneity must be considered to assess colloid mobilization in the subsurface. These findings have implications for the release of colloids, colloid-associated contaminants, and pathogens from soils.

  14. "Stolen" blood flow: effect of an open arterial filter purge line in a simulated neonatal CPB model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shigang; Miller, Akemi; Myers, John L; Undar, Akif

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different flow rates and pressures on the degree of shunting of blood flow by the arterial filter purge line in a simulated neonatal cardiopulmonary bypass circuit. The circuit was primed with heparinized bovine blood (hematocrit 24%) and postfilter pressure was varied from 60-180 mm Hg (20 mm Hg increments) using a Hoffman clamp. Trials were conducted at flow rates ranging from 200-600 ml/min (100 ml/min increments). During trials conducted at a postfilter pressure of 60 mm Hg, 42.6% of blood flow was shunted through the purge line at a flow rate of 200 ml/min, whereas only 12.8% of flow was diverted at a flow rate 600 ml/min. During trials conducted at a postfilter pressure of 180 mm Hg, 82.8% of blood flow at 200 ml/min and 25.9% of blood flow at 600 ml/min was diverted through the open arterial purge line. The results of this study confirm that a significant amount of flow is diverted away from the patient when the arterial purge line is open. Shunting of blood flow through the arterial purge line could result in less effective tissue perfusion, particularly at low flow rates and high postfilter pressures. To minimize hypoperfusion injury, a flow probe (distal to the arterial filter) may be used to monitor real-time arterial flow in the setting of an open arterial filter purge line.

  15. Phosphorus Speciation and Sorption Processes in Preferential flow paths and Soil Matrix in Forested Podzolic Till Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saastamoinen, S.; Laine-Kaulio, H.; Klöve, B.

    2009-04-01

    The importance of preferential flow paths in nutrient leaching and subsurface transport has been identified in several studies mainly on agricultural soils. In forest soils research, decayed root channels, stone surfaces and other secondary soil structures have shown to affect unsaturated flow in glacial till soil. Until recently, the focus has been on nitrogen and carbon dynamics in the preferential flow paths. Preferential flow may also have a fundamental role in phosphorus (P) sorption processes and transport from forested till soils to surface waters. The main objectives of this study were to determine how preferential flow paths affect to P speciation, sorption and leaching in forested podzolic till soil. Field experiments were conducted in mixed coniferous forest, with soil type of glacial sandy till classified as Haplic Podzol. The first experiment was conducted in Ranua, Northern Finland. The preferential flow paths were identified by introducing Acid Blue 9 dye tracer to a 1 m2 study plot. The soil profile was vertically sliced and samples were collected from the stained preferential flow paths and unstained soil matrix. Ammonium-oxalate extracted trace elements and P, total and inorganic P, inorganic P fractions and organic P forms (31P-NMR spectroscopy) were analyzed from the samples. In the second experiment in Sotkamo, Eastern Finland, three 1 m2 study plots were selected from a forested hillslope: top, middle and bottom slope. The detection of preferential flow paths and the sampling procedure was identical to the first plot experiment. Samples were analyzed for ammonium-oxalate extracted trace elements and P. Also, the effect of reaction time, P concentration and temperature on the sorption process in preferential flow paths and soil matrix was studied by kinetic batch-type sorption experiments. Stone surfaces were the most dominant preferential flow paths and contained lower oxalate-extracted and total P concentrations than the soil matrix in all

  16. Baleen wear reveals intraoral water flow patterns of mysticete filter feeding.

    PubMed

    Werth, Alexander J; Straley, Janice M; Shadwick, Robert E

    2016-04-01

    A survey of macroscopic and microscopic wear patterns in the baleen of eight whale species (Cetacea: Mysticeti) discloses structural, functional, and life history properties of this neomorphic keratinous tissue, including evidence of intraoral water flow patterns involved in filter feeding. All baleen demonstrates wear, particularly on its medial and ventral edges, as flat outer layers of cortical keratin erode to reveal horn tubes, also of keratin, which emerge as hair-like fringes. This study quantified five additional categories of specific wear: pitting of plates, scratching of plates, scuffing of fringes, shortening of fringes, and reorientation of fringes (including fringes directed between plates to the exterior of the mouth). Blue whale baleen showed the most pitting and sei whale baleen the most scratching; gray whale baleen had the most fringe wear. The location of worn baleen within the mouth suggests that direct contact with the tongue is not responsible for most wear, and that flowing water as well as abrasive prey or sediment carried by the flowing water likely causes pitting and scratching of plates as well as fringe fraying, scuffing, shortening, and reorientation. Baleen also has elevated vertical and horizontal ridges that are unrelated to wear; these are probably related to growth and may allow for age determination.

  17. Filter-feeding, near-field flows, and the morphologies of colonial choanoflagellates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkegaard, Julius B.; Goldstein, Raymond E.

    2016-11-01

    Efficient uptake of prey and nutrients from the environment is an important component in the fitness of all microorganisms, and its dependence on size may reveal clues to the origins of evolutionary transitions to multicellularity. Because potential benefits in uptake rates must be viewed in the context of other costs and benefits of size, such as varying predation rates and the increased metabolic costs associated with larger and more complex body plans, the uptake rate itself is not necessarily that which is optimized by evolution. Uptake rates can be strongly dependent on local organism geometry and its swimming speed, providing selective pressure for particular arrangements. Here we examine these issues for choanoflagellates, filter-feeding microorganisms that are the closest relatives of the animals. We explore the different morphological variations of the choanoflagellate Salpingoeca rosetta, which can exist as a swimming cell, as a sessile thecate cell, and as colonies of cells in various shapes. In the absence of other requirements and in a homogeneously nutritious environment, we find that the optimal strategy to maximize filter-feeding by the collar of microvilli is to swim fast, which favors swimming unicells. In large external flows, the sessile thecate cell becomes advantageous. Effects of prey diffusion are discussed and also found to be to the advantage of the swimming unicell.

  18. Filter feeders and plankton increase particle encounter rates through flow regime control

    PubMed Central

    Humphries, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    Collisions between particles or between particles and other objects are fundamental to many processes that we take for granted. They drive the functioning of aquatic ecosystems, the onset of rain and snow precipitation, and the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, powders and crystals. Here, I show that the traditional assumption that viscosity dominates these situations leads to consistent and large-scale underestimation of encounter rates between particles and of deposition rates on surfaces. Numerical simulations reveal that the encounter rate is Reynolds number dependent and that encounter efficiencies are consistent with the sparse experimental data. This extension of aerosol theory has great implications for understanding of selection pressure on the physiology and ecology of organisms, for example filter feeders able to gather food at rates up to 5 times higher than expected. I provide evidence that filter feeders have been strongly selected to take advantage of this flow regime and show that both the predicted peak concentration and the steady-state concentrations of plankton during blooms are ≈33% of that predicted by the current models of particle encounter. Many ecological and industrial processes may be operating at substantially greater rates than currently assumed. PMID:19416879

  19. Chemical cleaning of porous stainless steel cross-flow filter elements for nuclear waste applications

    SciTech Connect

    Billing, Justin M.; Daniel, Richard C.; Hallen, Richard T.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2011-05-10

    The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) currently under construction for treatment of High-Level Waste (HLW) at the Hanford Site will rely on cross-flow ultrafiltration to provide solids-liquid separation as a core part of the treatment process. To optimize process throughput, periodic chemical cleaning of the porous stainless steel filter elements has been incorporated into the design of the plant. It is currently specified that chemical cleaning with nitric acid will occur after significant irreversible membrane fouling is observed. Irreversible fouling is defined as fouling that cannot be removed by backpulsing the filter. PNNL has investigated chemical cleaning processes as part of integrated tests with HLW simulants and with actual Hanford tank wastes. To quantify the effectiveness of chemical cleaning, the residual membrane resistance after cleaning was compared against the initial membrane resistance for each test in a series of long-term fouling tests. The impact of the small amount of residual resistance in these tests could not be separated from other parameters and the historical benchmark of >1 GPM/ft2 for clean water flux was determined to be an adequate metric for chemical cleaning. Using the results from these tests, a process optimization strategy is presented suggesting that for the simulant material under test, the value of chemical cleaning may be suspect. The period of enhanced filtration may not be enough to offset the down time required for chemical cleaning, without respect to the other associated costs.

  20. Fuzzy State Transition and Kalman Filter Applied in Short-Term Traffic Flow Forecasting.

    PubMed

    Deng, Ming-jun; Qu, Shi-ru

    2015-01-01

    Traffic flow is widely recognized as an important parameter for road traffic state forecasting. Fuzzy state transform and Kalman filter (KF) have been applied in this field separately. But the studies show that the former method has good performance on the trend forecasting of traffic state variation but always involves several numerical errors. The latter model is good at numerical forecasting but is deficient in the expression of time hysteretically. This paper proposed an approach that combining fuzzy state transform and KF forecasting model. In considering the advantage of the two models, a weight combination model is proposed. The minimum of the sum forecasting error squared is regarded as a goal in optimizing the combined weight dynamically. Real detection data are used to test the efficiency. Results indicate that the method has a good performance in terms of short-term traffic forecasting.

  1. Real-time groundwater flow modeling with the Ensemble Kalman Filter: Joint estimation of states and parameters and the filter inbreeding problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendricks Franssen, H. J.; Kinzelbach, W.

    2008-09-01

    Real-time groundwater flow modeling with filter methods is interesting for dynamical groundwater flow systems, for which measurement data in real-time are available. The Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) approach is used here to update states together with parameters by adopting an augmented state vector approach. The performance of EnKF is investigated in a synthetic study with a two-dimensional transient groundwater flow model where (1) only the recharge rate is spatiotemporally variable, (2) only transmissivity is spatially variable with σlnT2 = 1.0 or (3) with σlnT2 = 2.7, and (4) both recharge rate and transmissivity are uncertain (a combination of (1) and (3)). The performance of EnKF for simultaneous state and parameter estimation in saturated groundwater flow problems is investigated in dependence of the number of stochastic realizations, the updating frequency and updating intensity of log-transmissivity, the amount of measurements in space and time, and the method (iterative versus noniterative EnKF), among others. Satisfactory results were also obtained if both transmissivity and recharge rate were uncertain. However, it was found that filter inbreeding is much more severe if hydraulic heads and transmissivities are jointly updated than if only hydraulic heads are updated. The filter inbreeding problem was investigated in more detail and could be strongly reduced with help of a damping parameter, which limits the intensity of the perturbation of the log-transmissivity field. An additional reduction of filter inbreeding could be achieved by combining two measures: (1) inflating the elements of the predicted state covariance matrix on the basis of a comparison between the model uncertainty and the observed errors at the measurement points and (2) starting the flow simulations with a very large number of realizations and then sampling the desired number of realizations after one simulation time step by minimizing the differences between the local cpdfs (and

  2. Comparison of Flow Impairment during Carotid Artery Stenting Using Two Types of Eccentric Filter Embolic Protection Devices

    PubMed Central

    NII, Kouhei; TSUTSUMI, Masanori; MAEDA, Hitoshi; AIKAWA, Hiroshi; INOUE, Ritsuro; ETO, Ayumu; SAKAMOTO, Kimiya; MITSUTAKE, Takafumi; HANADA, Hayatsura; KAZEKAWA, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the angiographic findings and the clinical outcomes after carotid artery stenting (CAS) using two different, eccentric filter embolic protection devices (EPDs). Between July 2010 and August 2015, 175 CAS procedures were performed using a self-expandable closed-cell stent and a simple eccentric filter EPD (FilterWire EZ in 86 and Spider FX in 89 procedures). The angiographic findings (i.e., flow impairment and vasospasm) at the level of EPDs, neurologic events, and post-operative imaging results were compared between the FilterWire EZ and the Spider FX groups. The CAS was angiographically successful in all 175 procedures. However, the angiographs were obtained immediately after CAS-detected flow impairment in the distal internal carotid artery (ICA) in 11 (6.3%) and ICA spasms at the level of the EPD in 40 cases (22.9%). The incidence of these complications was higher with FilterWire EZ than Spider FX (ICA flow impairment of 10.5% vs. 2.2%, P = 0.03; vasospasm 30.2% vs. 15.7%, P = 0.03). There were nine neurologic events (5.1%); five patients were presented with transient ischemic attacks, three had minor strokes, and one had a major stroke. New MRI lesions were seen in 25 (29.1%) FilterWire-group and in 36 (40.4%) Spider-group patients. The neurologic events and new MRI lesions were not associated with the type of EPD used. Although the ICA flow impairment may result in neurologic events, there was no significant association between the FilterWire EZ and the Spider FX CAS with respect to the incidence of neurologic events by the prompt treatment such as catheter aspiration. PMID:27319302

  3. Water Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A compact, lightweight electrolytic water filter generates silver ions in concentrations of 50 to 100 parts per billion in the water flow system. Silver ions serve as effective bactericide/deodorizers. Ray Ward requested and received from NASA a technical information package on the Shuttle filter, and used it as basis for his own initial development, a home use filter.

  4. Soil detachment by overland flow under different vegetation restoration models in the loess plateau of China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land use change has significant effects on soil properties and vegetation cover and thus probably affects soil detachment by overland flow. Few studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of restoration models on the soil detachment process in the Loess Plateau in the past decade during which a Gr...

  5. Simplified groundwater flow modeling: an application of Kalman filter based identification

    SciTech Connect

    Pimentel, K.D.; Candy, J.V.; Azevedo, S.G.; Doerr, T.A.

    1980-05-01

    The need exists for methods to simplify groundwater contaminant transport models. Reduced-order models are needed in risk assessments for licensing and regulating long-term nuclear waste repositories. Such models will be used in Monte Carlo simulations to generate probabilities of nuclear waste migration in aquifers at candidate repository sites in the United States. In this feasibility study we focused on groundwater flow rather than contaminant transport because the flow problem is more simple. A pump-drawdown test is modeled with a reduced-order set of ordinary differential equations obtained by differencing the partial differential equation. We determined the accuracy of the reduced model by comparing it with the analytic solution for the drawdown test. We established an accuracy requirement of 2% error at the single observation well and found that a model with only 21 states satisfied that criterion. That model was used in an extended Kalman filter with synthesized measurement data from one observation well to identify transmissivity within 1% error and storage coefficient within 10% error. We used several statistical tests to assess the performance of the estimator/identifier and found it to be satisfactory for this application.

  6. Evaluation of probabilistic flow in two unsaturated soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boateng, Samuel

    2001-11-01

    A variably saturated flow model is coupled to a first-order reliability algorithm to simulate unsaturated flow in two soils. The unsaturated soil properties are considered as uncertain variables with means, standard deviations, and marginal probability distributions. Thus, each simulation constitutes an unsaturated probability flow event. Sensitivities of the uncertain variables are estimated for each event. The unsaturated hydraulic properties of a fine-textured soil and a coarse-textured soil are used. The properties are based on the van Genuchten model. The flow domain has a recharge surface, a seepage boundary along the bottom, and a no-flow boundary along the sides. The uncertain variables are saturated water content, residual water content, van Genuchten model parameters alpha (α) and n, and saturated hydraulic conductivity. The objective is to evaluate the significance of each uncertain variable to the probabilistic flow. Under wet conditions, saturated water content and residual water content are the most significant uncertain variables in the sand. For dry conditions in the sand, however, the van Genuchten model parameters α and n are the most significant. Model parameter n and saturated hydraulic conductivity are the most significant for the wet clay loam. Saturated water content is most significant for the dry clay loam. Résumé. Un modèle d'écoulement variable en milieu saturé est couplé à un algorithme d'exactitude de premier ordre pour simuler les écoulements en milieu non saturé dans deux sols. Les propriétés des sols non saturés sont considérés comme des variables incertaines avec des moyennes, des écarts-types et des distributions de probabilité marginale. Ainsi chaque simulation constitue un événement d'écoulement non saturé probable. La sensibilité des variables incertaines est estimée pour chaque événement. Les propriétés hydrauliques non saturées d'un sol à texture fine et d'un sol à texture grossière sont utilis

  7. Effect of vegetated filter strips on transport and deposition rates of Escherichia coli in overland flow in the eastern escarpments of the Mau Forest, Njoro River Watershed, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Onyando, J. O.; Moturi, W. N.; Muia, A. W.; Ombui, P.; Shivoga, W. A.; Roegner, A. F.

    2016-01-01

    The fate and transport of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in lotic waters through vegetated filter strips (VFSs) was evaluated in a field model pasture, utilizing VFSMOD Windows along with direct pathogen testing. This study assessed effects of VFS on transport and deposition rates of E. coli in lotic overland flow waters. The VFS measured 44 m long by 40 m wide, covering an area of 1584 m2 and land slope of 15 %. Cowpat was applied onto the model pasture and washed by overland flow into the VFS. The 4-methylumbelliferyl β-D-glucuronide substrate confirmed the identity of E. coli prior to cowpat application and after isolating them from soil using centrifugation and membrane filtration techniques. Napier grass root system recorded the highest recovery rates of E. coli at 99.9 % along the length of VFS III. This efficiency reduced significantly (p < 0.05; df = 29) to 95 % in Kikuyu grass and 75 % in Couch grass–Buffer grass. The data demonstrated similarity in transport of manure-borne E. coli and organic carbon (OC) through all the simulated VFS. These results indicated that OC could be used as a true natural tracer of manure-borne E. coli, a pollution indicator organism of lentic and lotic surface waters provided the OC release kinetics from cowpat were similar to that of E. coli kinetics. Thus, efficient filtering to reduce E. coli concentrations and load in overland flows requires managing combined grass species, agro-pastoral systems models and dispersed or preferential flows to enhance surface water quality standards.

  8. Evaluation of the metabolic diversity of microbial communities in four different filter layers of a constructed wetland with vertical flow by Biolog analysis.

    PubMed

    Salomo, S; Münch, C; Röske, I

    2009-10-01

    The community-level substrate utilization test based on direct incubation of environmental samples in Biolog EcoPlates is a suitable and sensitive tool to characterize microbial communities. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of plant roots and soil structure on the metabolic diversity of microorganisms in a constructed wetland with vertical flow. Sediment samples were taken from different filter depths representing specific filter layers. The color development representing the substrate utilization was measured with the samples over a period of 10 days. The average well color development (AWCD) for all carbon sources was calculated as an indicator of total activity and in order to compensate the influence of the inoculum's density on the color development in the plates. After transformation by dividing by the AWCD, the optical density data were analysed by principal component analysis (PCA). An analysis of the kinetic profile of the AWCD was carried out to increase the analytical power of the method. The corrected data have been successfully fit to the logistic growth equation. Three kinetic model parameters, the asymptote (K), the exponential rate of color change (p) and the time to the midpoint of the exponential portion of the curve (s), were used for statistical analysis of the physiological profile of the microbial community in the different filter layers of the constructed wetland. We found out that in the upper two horizons, which were rooted most densely, mainly easily degradable materials like specific carbohydrates were utilized, while in the lower layers, where only single roots occur, more biochemically inert compounds, e.g. 2-hydroxy benzoic acid, were utilized. Furthermore it could be shown that microorganisms in the surface layer benefited from the plant litter because they can utilize decay products of these. In the lower filter layers specialists took advantage because they had to cope with the biochemically inert materials and

  9. Catchment travel time distributions and water flow in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinaldo, A.; Beven, K. J.; Bertuzzo, E.; Nicotina, L.; Davies, J.; Fiori, A.; Russo, D.; Botter, G.

    2011-07-01

    Many details about the flow of water in soils in a hillslope are unknowable given current technologies. One way of learning about the bulk effects of water velocity distributions on hillslopes is through the use of tracers. However, this paper will demonstrate that the interpretation of tracer information needs to become more sophisticated. The paper reviews, and complements with mathematical arguments and specific examples, theory and practice of the distribution(s) of the times water particles injected through rainfall spend traveling through a catchment up to a control section (i.e., "catchment" travel times). The relevance of the work is perceived to lie in the importance of the characterization of travel time distributions as fundamental descriptors of catchment water storage, flow pathway heterogeneity, sources of water in a catchment, and the chemistry of water flows through the control section. The paper aims to correct some common misconceptions used in analyses of travel time distributions. In particular, it stresses the conceptual and practical differences between the travel time distribution conditional on a given injection time (needed for rainfall-runoff transformations) and that conditional on a given sampling time at the outlet (as provided by isotopic dating techniques or tracer measurements), jointly with the differences of both with the residence time distributions of water particles in storage within the catchment at any time. These differences are defined precisely here, either through the results of different models or theoretically by using an extension of a classic theorem of dynamic controls. Specifically, we address different model results to highlight the features of travel times seen from different assumptions, in this case, exact solutions to a lumped model and numerical solutions of the 3-D flow and transport equations in variably saturated, physically heterogeneous catchment domains. Our results stress the individual characters of the

  10. Air flow resistance of three heat and moisture exchanging filter designs under wet conditions: implications for patient safety.

    PubMed

    Morgan-Hughes, N J; Mills, G H; Northwood, D

    2001-08-01

    Heat and moisture exchanging filters (HMEFs) can be blocked by secretions. We have studied HMEF performance under wet conditions to see which particular design features predispose to this complication. Dar Hygrobac-S (composite felt filter and cellulose exchanger), Dar Hygroster (composite pleated ceramic membrane and cellulose exchanger) and Pall BB22-15 (pleated ceramic membrane) HMEFs were tested. Saline retention, saline concealment, and changes in air flow resistance when wet were assessed. The cellulose exchanger in the composite Hygrobac-S and Hygroster retained saline, producing a 'tampon' effect, associated with bi-directional air flow resistances in excess of the international standard of a 5 cm H(2)O pressure drop at 60 litre min(-1) air flow. Furthermore, high air flow resistances occurred before free saline was apparent within the transparent filter housing. The pleat only BB22-15 showed a significant increase in expiratory air flow resistance, but only after the presence of saline was apparent. These data imply that composite HMEFs with cellulose exchangers are more likely to block or cause excessive work of breathing as a result of occult accumulation of patient secretions than pleat only HMEFs.

  11. Blood Cell Separation Device Using Serially Connected Membrane Filters for Adapting to Blood Flow Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Taizo; Kato, Daiki; Koga, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Kenichi; Fukuda, Makoto; Kinoshita, Yoshiharu; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Konishi, Satoshi

    This paper proposes a cooperative operation of serially connected membrane filters toward adaptive blood cell separation system in order to overcome a restriction of a single membrane filter. Serially connected membrane filters allow that downstream filters extract blood plasma from residual blood at upstream filters. Consequently, it becomes possible to adapt filtering characteristics to changing properties of blood. We focus on trans-membrane pressure difference in order to prevent hemolysis. Our strategy can be realized as a miniaturized PDMS fluidic chip. Our laboratory experiment using a prototype shows that plasma extraction efficiency is improved from 34% to 75%. Toward an integrated system, this paper also demonstrates multiple filters are successfully integrated into a PDMS fluidic chip.

  12. Numerical Modeling of Coupled Water Flow and Heat Transport in Soil and Snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelleners, T.

    2015-12-01

    A numerical model is developed to calculate coupled water flow and heat transport in seasonally frozen soil and snow. Both liquid water flow and water vapor flow are included. The effect of dissolved ions on soil water freezing point depression is included by combining an expression for osmotic head with the Clapeyron equation and the van Genuchten soil water retention function. The coupled water flow and heat transport equations are solved using the Thomas algorithm and Picard iteration. Ice pressure is always assumed zero and frost heave is neglected. The new model is tested using data from a high-elevation rangeland soil that is subject to significant soil freezing and a mountainous forest soil that is snow-covered for about 8 months of the year. Soil hydraulic parameters are mostly based on measurements and only vegetation parameters are fine-tuned to match measured and calculated soil water content, soil & snow temperature, and snow height. Modeling statistics for both systems show good performance for temperature, intermediate performance for snow height, and relatively low performance for soil water content, in accordance with earlier results with an older version of the model.

  13. [Effect of grass barrier-combined filter strips on the reduction of nitrogen and phosphorus concentration under concentrated flow of varying densities].

    PubMed

    Du, Qin; Wang, Jin-ye; Li, Hai-fang

    2015-09-01

    Vegetative barrier-combined filter strips are defined as grass barriers set up before filter strips. They could make concentrated water flow disperse, which exerts the function of grass barriers (i.e., existence of grass barriers improves the performance of filter strips in the purification of pollutants). In this regards, grass barriers are generally considered to be effective in the purification of pollutants when the density of concentrated flow is low, whereas little was known about this effect with an increasing density of concentrated flow. In this study, we constructed Miscanthus floridulus barrier before Vitex negundo filter strip with three densities of concentrated flow (low: one concentrated flow channel; middle: three channels; high: five channels). The aim of work was to identify the effect of M. floridulus combined V. negundo filter strips in reducing nitrogen and phosphorus concentration under three concentrated water flow levels. Our results showed that the combined filter strips had a higher performance in the reduction in the total N, NH(4+)-N, NO(3-)-N and total P compared to those in the V. negundo (P < 0.05), regardless of the water flow level. There was no significant difference in the reduction of total N, NH(4+)-N, NO(3-)-N and total P among three water flow levels (P > 0.05). We concluded that M. floridulus combined V. negundo filter strips could improve the reduction of nutrients, which couldn' t be influenced by varying density of concentrated flow level.

  14. Effect of the spatial filtering and alignment error of hot-wire probes in a wall-bounded turbulent flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segalini, A.; Cimarelli, A.; Rüedi, J.-D.; De Angelis, E.; Talamelli, A.

    2011-10-01

    The effort to describe velocity fluctuation distributions in wall-bounded turbulent flows has raised different questions concerning the accuracy of hot-wire measurement techniques close to the wall and more specifically the effect of spatial averaging resulting from the finite size of the wire. Here, an analytical model which describes the effect of the spatial filtering and misalignment of hot-wire probes on the main statistical moments in turbulent wall-bounded flows is presented. The model, which is based on the two-point velocity correlation function, shows that the filtering is directly related to the transverse Taylor micro-scale. By means of turbulent channel flow DNS data, the capacity of the model to accurately describe the probe response is established. At the same time, the filtering effect is appraised for different wire lengths and for a range of misalignment angles which can be expected from good experimental practice. Effects of the second-order terms in the model equations are also taken into account and discussed. In order to use the model in a practical situation, the Taylor micro-scale distribution at least should be provided. A simple scaling law based on classic turbulence theory is therefore introduced and finally employed to estimate the filtering effect for different wire lengths.

  15. Optical flow based Kalman filter for body joint prediction and tracking using HOG-LBP matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Binu M.; Kendricks, Kimberley D.; Asari, Vijayan K.; Tuttle, Ronald F.

    2014-03-01

    We propose a real-time novel framework for tracking specific joints in the human body on low resolution imagery using optical flow based Kalman tracker without the need of a depth sensor. Body joint tracking is necessary for a variety of surveillance based applications such as recognizing gait signatures of individuals, identifying the motion patterns associated with a particular action and the corresponding interactions with objects in the scene to classify a certain activity. The proposed framework consists of two stages; the initialization stage and the tracking stage. In the initialization stage, the joints to be tracked are either manually marked or automatically obtained from other joint detection algorithms in the first few frames within a window of interest and appropriate image descriptions of each joint are computed. We employ the use of a well-known image coding scheme known as the Local Binary Patterns (LBP) to represent the joint local region where this image coding removes the variance to non-uniform lighting conditions as well as enhances the underlying edges and corner. The image descriptions of the joint region would then include a histogram computed from the LBP-coded ROI and a HOG (Histogram of Oriented Gradients) descriptor to represent the edge information. Next the tracking stage can be divided into two phases: Optical flow based detection of joints in corresponding frames of the sequence and prediction /correction phases of Kalman tracker with respect to the joint coordinates. Lucas Kanade optical flow is used to locate the individual joints in consecutive frames of the video based on their location in the previous frame. But more often, mismatches can occur due to the rotation of the joint region and the rotation variance of the optical flow matching technique. The mismatch is then determined by comparing the joint region descriptors using Chi-squared metric between a pair of frames and depending on this statistic, either the prediction

  16. Nonequilibrium water dynamics in the rhizosphere: How mucilage affects water flow in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroener, Eva; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Kaestner, Anders; Carminati, Andrea

    2014-08-01

    The flow of water from soil to plant roots is controlled by the properties of the narrow region of soil close to the roots, the rhizosphere. In particular, the hydraulic properties of the rhizosphere are altered by mucilage, a polymeric gel exuded by the roots. In this paper we present experimental results and a conceptual model of water flow in unsaturated soils mixed with mucilage. A central hypothesis of the model is that the different drying/wetting rate of mucilage compared to the bulk soil results in nonequilibrium relations between water content and water potential in the rhizosphere. We coupled this nonequilibrium relation with the Richards equation and obtained a constitutive equation for water flow in soil and mucilage. To test the model assumptions, we measured the water retention curve and the saturated hydraulic conductivity of sandy soil mixed with mucilage from chia seeds. Additionally, we used neutron radiography to image water content in a layer of soil mixed with mucilage during drying and wetting cycles. The radiographs demonstrated the occurrence of nonequilibrium water dynamics in the soil-mucilage mixture. The experiments were simulated by numerically solving the nonequilibrium model. Our study provides conceptual and experimental evidences that mucilage has a strong impact on soil water dynamics. During drying, mucilage maintains a greater soil water content for an extended time, while during irrigation it delays the soil rewetting. We postulate that mucilage exudation by roots attenuates plant water stress by modulating water content dynamics in the rhizosphere.

  17. Cross-flow, filter-sorbent catalyst for particulate, SO sub 2 and NO sub x control

    SciTech Connect

    Benedek, K. , Inc., Cambridge, MA ); Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M. )

    1992-01-01

    This report describes work performed on a new concept for integrated pollutant control: a cross-flow filter comprised of layered, gas permeable membranes that act as a particle filter, an SO {sub 2} sorbent, and a NO {sub x} reduction catalyst. One critical element of the R D program is the development of mixed metal oxide materials that serve as combined SO {sub 2} sorbents and NO {sub x} reduction catalysts. In this seventh quarterly progress report, we summarize the performance characteristics of three promising sorbent/catalyst materials tested in powder form.

  18. Grid-Independent Large-Eddy Simulation in Turbulent Channel Flow using Three-Dimensional Explicit Filtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gullbrand, Jessica

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, turbulence-closure models are evaluated using the 'true' LES approach in turbulent channel flow. The study is an extension of the work presented by Gullbrand (2001), where fourth-order commutative filter functions are applied in three dimensions in a fourth-order finite-difference code. The true LES solution is the grid-independent solution to the filtered governing equations. The solution is obtained by keeping the filter width constant while the computational grid is refined. As the grid is refined, the solution converges towards the true LES solution. The true LES solution will depend on the filter width used, but will be independent of the grid resolution. In traditional LES, because the filter is implicit and directly connected to the grid spacing, the solution converges towards a direct numerical simulation (DNS) as the grid is refined, and not towards the solution of the filtered Navier-Stokes equations. The effect of turbulence-closure models is therefore difficult to determine in traditional LES because, as the grid is refined, more turbulence length scales are resolved and less influence from the models is expected. In contrast, in the true LES formulation, the explicit filter eliminates all scales that are smaller than the filter cutoff, regardless of the grid resolution. This ensures that the resolved length-scales do not vary as the grid resolution is changed. In true LES, the cell size must be smaller than or equal to the cutoff length scale of the filter function. The turbulence-closure models investigated are the dynamic Smagorinsky model (DSM), the dynamic mixed model (DMM), and the dynamic reconstruction model (DRM). These turbulence models were previously studied using two-dimensional explicit filtering in turbulent channel flow by Gullbrand & Chow (2002). The DSM by Germano et al. (1991) is used as the USFS model in all the simulations. This enables evaluation of different reconstruction models for the RSFS stresses. The DMM

  19. Matched filter optimization of kSZ measurements with a reconstructed cosmological flow field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming; Angulo, R. E.; White, S. D. M.; Jasche, J.

    2014-09-01

    We develop and test a new statistical method to measure the kinematic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (kSZ) effect. A sample of independently detected clusters is combined with the cosmic flow field predicted from a galaxy redshift survey in order to derive a matched filter that optimally weights the kSZ signal for the sample as a whole given the noise involved in the problem. We apply this formalism to realistic mock microwave skies based on cosmological N-body simulations, and demonstrate its robustness and performance. In particular, we carefully assess the various sources of uncertainty, cosmic microwave background primary fluctuations, instrumental noise, uncertainties in the determination of the velocity field, and effects introduced by miscentring of clusters and by uncertainties of the mass-observable relation (normalization and scatter). We show that available data (Planck maps and the MaxBCG catalogue) should deliver a 7.7σ detection of the kSZ. A similar cluster catalogue with broader sky coverage should increase the detection significance to ˜13σ. We point out that such measurements could be binned in order to study the properties of the cosmic gas and velocity fields, or combined into a single measurement to constrain cosmological parameters or deviations of the law of gravity from General Relativity.

  20. Hot gas cleanup using ceramic cross flow membrane filters. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ciliberti, D.F.; Smeltzer, E.E.; Alvin, M.A.; Keairns, D.L.; Bachovchin, D.M.

    1983-12-01

    The single unresolved technical issue in the commercialization of pressurized fluid-bed combustion (PPBC) for electric power production is the hot gas cleaning problem. In this technology, high-temperature and -pressure (HTHP), dust-laden flue gases from the combustor must be cleaned enough to reduce expansion turbine blade erosion to an economically acceptable level. Additionally, the level of particulate emission must be compatible with the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for environmental acceptability. The Department of Energy (DOE) has sponsored a wide range of research and development programs directed at the solution of this problem. These programs were divided into two classifications, one dealing with more advanced concepts where testing was to be done at relatively large scale and a second group of less advanced, novel concepts where the testing was to be carried out at a bench scale. The cross-flow ceramic membrane filter program described in this report is a member of the small-scale, novel concept group.

  1. Scaling and pedotransfer in numerical simulations of flow and transport in soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flow and transport parameters of soils in numerical simulations need to be defined at the support scale of computational grid cells. Such support scale can substantially differ from the support scale in laboratory or field measurements of flow and transport parameters. The scale-dependence of flow a...

  2. Improved design and optimization of subsurface flow constructed wetlands and sand filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brovelli, A.; Carranza-Díaz, O.; Rossi, L.; Barry, D. A.

    2010-05-01

    Subsurface flow constructed wetlands and sand filters are engineered systems capable of eliminating a wide range of pollutants from wastewater. These devices are easy to operate, flexible and have low maintenance costs. For these reasons, they are particularly suitable for small settlements and isolated farms and their use has substantially increased in the last 15 years. Furthermore, they are also becoming used as a tertiary - polishing - step in traditional treatment plants. Recent work observed that research is however still necessary to understand better the biogeochemical processes occurring in the porous substrate, their mutual interactions and feedbacks, and ultimately to identify the optimal conditions to degrade or remove from the wastewater both traditional and anthropogenic recalcitrant pollutants, such as hydrocarbons, pharmaceuticals, personal care products. Optimal pollutant elimination is achieved if the contact time between microbial biomass and the contaminated water is sufficiently long. The contact time depends on the hydraulic residence time distribution (HRTD) and is controlled by the hydrodynamic properties of the system. Previous reports noted that poor hydrodynamic behaviour is frequent, with water flowing mainly through preferential paths resulting in a broad HRTD. In such systems the flow rate must be decreased to allow a sufficient proportion of the wastewater to experience the minimum residence time. The pollutant removal efficiency can therefore be significantly reduced, potentially leading to the failure of the system. The aim of this work was to analyse the effect of the heterogeneous distribution of the hydraulic properties of the porous substrate on the HRTD and treatment efficiency, and to develop an improved design methodology to reduce the risk of system failure and to optimize existing systems showing poor hydrodynamics. Numerical modelling was used to evaluate the effect of substrate heterogeneity on the breakthrough curves of

  3. Modeling the Air Flow in the 3410 Building Filtered Exhaust Stack System

    SciTech Connect

    Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Suffield, Sarah R.

    2013-01-23

    Additional ventilation capacity has been designed for the 3410 Building filtered exhaust stack system. The updated system will increase the number of fans from two to three and will include ductwork to incorporate the new fan into the existing stack. Stack operations will involve running various two-fan combinations at any given time. The air monitoring system of the existing two-fan stack was previously found to be in compliance with the ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999 standard, however it is not known if the modified (three-fan) system will comply. Subsequently, a full-scale three-dimensional (3-D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the modified stack system has been created to examine the sampling location for compliance with the standard. The CFD modeling results show good agreement with testing data collected from the existing 3410 Building stack and suggest that velocity uniformity and flow angles will remain well within acceptance criteria when the third fan and associated ductwork is installed. This includes two-fan flow rates up to 31,840 cfm for any of the two-fan combinations. For simulation cases in which tracer gas and particles are introduced in the main duct, the model predicts that both particle and tracer gas coefficients of variance (COVs) may be larger than the acceptable 20 percent criterion of the ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999 standard for each of the two-fan, 31,840 cfm combinations. Simulations in which the tracers are introduced near the fans result in improved, though marginally acceptable, COV values for the tracers. Due to the remaining uncertainty that the stack will qualify with the addition of the third fan and high flow rates, a stationary air blender from Blender Products, Inc. is considered for inclusion in the stack system. A model of the air blender has been developed and incorporated into the CFD model. Simulation results from the CFD model that includes the air blender show striking improvements in tracer gas mixing and tracer particle

  4. Field method for separating the contribution of surface-connected preferential flow pathways from flow through the soil matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Emily C.; Abou Najm, Majdi R.; Mohtar, Rabi H.; Kladivko, Eileen; Schulze, Darrell

    2012-04-01

    Liquid latex was used as a method to seal visible surface-connected preferential flow pathways (PFPs) in the field in an effort to block large surface-connected preferential flow and force water to move through the soil matrix. The proposed approach allows for the quantification of the contribution of large surface-connected cracks and biological pores to infiltration at various soil moisture states. Experiments were conducted in a silty clay loam soil in a field under a no-till corn-soybean rotation planted to corn. Surface intake rates under ponding were measured using a simplified falling head technique under two scenarios: (1) natural soil conditions with unaltered PFPs and (2) similar soil conditions with latex-sealed large macropores at the surface. Results indicated that the contribution of flow from large surface-connected macropores to overall surface intake rates varied from approximately 34% to 99% depending on the initial moisture content and macroporosity present. However, evidence of preferential flow continued to appear in latex-sealed plots, suggesting significant contributions to preferential flow from smaller structural macropores, particularly in two out of four tests where no significant differences were observed between control and latex-sealed plots.

  5. A theoretical model for the initiation of debris flow in unconsolidated soil under hydrodynamic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, C.-X.; Zhou, J.-W.; Cui, P.; Hao, M.-H.; Xu, F.-G.

    2014-06-01

    Debris flow is one of the catastrophic disasters in an earthquake-stricken area, and remains to be studied in depth. It is imperative to obtain an initiation mechanism and model of the debris flow, especially from unconsolidated soil. With flume experiments and field investigation on the Wenjiagou Gully debris flow induced from unconsolidated soil, it can be found that surface runoff can support the shear force along the slope and lead to soil strength decreasing, with fine particles migrating and forming a local relatively impermeable face. The surface runoff effect is the primary factor for accelerating the unconsolidated slope failure and initiating debris flow. Thus, a new theoretical model for the initiation of debris flow in unconsolidated soil was established by incorporating hydrodynamic theory and soil mechanics. This model was validated by a laboratory test and proved to be better suited for unconsolidated soil failure analysis. In addition, the mechanism analysis and the established model can provide a new direction and deeper understanding of debris flow initiation with unconsolidated soil.

  6. Modeling preferential water flow and solute transport in unsaturated soil using the active region model

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, F.; Wang, K.; Zhang, R.; Liu, H.H.

    2009-03-15

    Preferential flow and solute transport are common processes in the unsaturated soil, in which distributions of soil water content and solute concentrations are often characterized as fractal patterns. An active region model (ARM) was recently proposed to describe the preferential flow and transport patterns. In this study, ARM governing equations were derived to model the preferential soil water flow and solute transport processes. To evaluate the ARM equations, dye infiltration experiments were conducted, in which distributions of soil water content and Cl{sup -} concentration were measured. Predicted results using the ARM and the mobile-immobile region model (MIM) were compared with the measured distributions of soil water content and Cl{sup -} concentration. Although both the ARM and the MIM are two-region models, they are fundamental different in terms of treatments of the flow region. The models were evaluated based on the modeling efficiency (ME). The MIM provided relatively poor prediction results of the preferential flow and transport with negative ME values or positive ME values less than 0.4. On the contrary, predicted distributions of soil water content and Cl- concentration using the ARM agreed reasonably well with the experimental data with ME values higher than 0.8. The results indicated that the ARM successfully captured the macroscopic behavior of preferential flow and solute transport in the unsaturated soil.

  7. Coupled Water Flow and Heat Transport in Seasonally Frozen Soils with Snow Accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    kelleners, T.

    2013-12-01

    A numerical model is developed to calculate coupled water flow and heat transport in seasonally frozen soil and snow. Separate equations are used to describe both unsaturated and saturated soil water flow. The effect of dissolved ions on soil water freezing point depression is included by combining an expression for osmotic head with the Clapeyron equation and the van Genuchten soil water retention function. The coupled water flow and heat transport equations are solved using the Thomas algorithm and Picard iteration. Ice pressure is always assumed zero and frost heave is neglected. The new model is tested using data from an existing laboratory soil column freezing experiment and an ongoing field experiment in a high-elevation rangeland soil. A dimensionless impedance factor describing the effect of ice pore blocking on soil hydraulic conductivity is treated as a calibration parameter for both cases. Calculated values of total water content for the laboratory soil column freezing experiment compare well with measured values, especially during the early stages of the experiment, as is also found by others. Modeling statistics for the rangeland field experiment show varied performance for soil water content and excellent performance for soil temperature, in accordance with earlier results with an older version of the model.

  8. Coupled Water Flow and Heat Transport in Seasonally Frozen Soils with Snow Accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, J. M.; Kasurak, A.; Kelly, R. E.; Duguay, C. R.; Derksen, C.

    2011-12-01

    A numerical model is developed to calculate coupled water flow and heat transport in seasonally frozen soil and snow. Separate equations are used to describe both unsaturated and saturated soil water flow. The effect of dissolved ions on soil water freezing point depression is included by combining an expression for osmotic head with the Clapeyron equation and the van Genuchten soil water retention function. The coupled water flow and heat transport equations are solved using the Thomas algorithm and Picard iteration. Ice pressure is always assumed zero and frost heave is neglected. The new model is tested using data from an existing laboratory soil column freezing experiment and an ongoing field experiment in a high-elevation rangeland soil. A dimensionless impedance factor describing the effect of ice pore blocking on soil hydraulic conductivity is treated as a calibration parameter for both cases. Calculated values of total water content for the laboratory soil column freezing experiment compare well with measured values, especially during the early stages of the experiment, as is also found by others. Modeling statistics for the rangeland field experiment show varied performance for soil water content and excellent performance for soil temperature, in accordance with earlier results with an older version of the model.

  9. Filtered sub-grid constitutive models for fluidized gas-particle flows constructed from 3-D simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkar, Avik; Milioli, Fernando E.; Ozarkar, Shailesh; Li, Tingwen; Sun, Xin; Sundaresan, Sankaran

    2016-10-01

    The accuracy of fluidized-bed CFD predictions using the two-fluid model can be improved significantly, even when using coarse grids, by replacing the microscopic kinetic-theory-based closures with coarse-grained constitutive models. These coarse-grained constitutive relationships, called filtered models, account for the unresolved gas-particle structures (clusters and bubbles) via sub-grid corrections. Following the previous 2-D approaches of Igci et al. [AIChE J., 54(6), 1431-1448, 2008] and Milioli et al. [AIChE J., 59(9), 3265-3275, 2013], new filtered models are constructed from highly-resolved 3-D simulations of gas-particle flows. Although qualitatively similar to the older 2-D models, the new 3-D relationships exhibit noticeable quantitative and functional differences. In particular, the filtered stresses are strongly dependent on the gas-particle slip velocity. Closures for the filtered inter-phase drag, gas- and solids-phase pressures and viscosities are reported. A new model for solids stress anisotropy is also presented. These new filtered 3-D constitutive relationships are better suited to practical coarse-grid 3-D simulations of large, commercial-scale devices.

  10. Accelerated Singular Value-Based Ultrasound Blood Flow Clutter Filtering With Randomized Singular Value Decomposition and Randomized Spatial Downsampling.

    PubMed

    Song, Pengfei; Trzasko, Joshua D; Manduca, Armando; Qiang, Bo; Kadirvel, Ramanathan; Kallmes, David F; Chen, Shigao

    2017-04-01

    Singular value decomposition (SVD)-based ultrasound blood flow clutter filters have recently demonstrated substantial improvement in clutter rejection for ultrafast plane wave microvessel imaging, and have become the commonly used clutter filtering method for many novel ultrafast imaging applications such as functional ultrasound and super-resolution imaging. At present, however, the computational burden of SVD remains as a major hurdle for practical implementation and clinical translation of this method. To address this challenge, in the study we present two blood flow clutter filtering methods based on randomized SVD (rSVD) and randomized spatial downsampling to accelerate SVD clutter filtering with minimal compromise to the clutter filter performance. rSVD accelerates SVD computation by approximating the k largest singular values, while random downsampling accelerates both full SVD and rSVD by decomposing the original large data matrix into small matrices that can be processed in parallel. An in vitro blood flow phantom study with the presence of heavy tissue clutter showed significantly improved computational performance using the proposed methods with minimal deterioration to the clutter filter performance (less than 3-dB reduction in blood to clutter ratio, less than 0.2-cm(2)/s(2) increase in flow mean squared error, less than 0.1-cm/s increase in the standard deviation of the vessel blood flow signal, and less than 0.3-cm/s increase in tissue clutter velocity for both full SVD and rSVD when the downsampling factor was less than 20× ). The maximum acceleration was about threefold from randomized spatial downsampling, and approximately another threefold from rSVD. An in vivo rabbit kidney perfusion study showed that rSVD provided comparable performance to full SVD in clutter rejection in vivo (maximum difference of blood to clutter ratio was less than 0.6 dB), and random downsampling provided artifact-free perfusion imaging results when combined with both

  11. [Characters of infiltration and preferential flow of black soil in Northeast China under different tillage patterns].

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Feng; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Liang, Ai-Zhen; Shen, Yan; Shi, Xiu-Huan; Luo, Jin-Ming; Yang, Xue-Ming

    2008-07-01

    By using dye tracer and double-ring infiltrometer techniques, the characters of infiltration and preferential flow of black soil under no-tillage (NT) and fall moldboard plow (MP) were compared after six years continuous management. The results showed that the infiltration rate was higher under NT than under MP. When the infiltration reached steady, the infiltration rate and accumulative infiltration capacity under NT were 1.35 and 1.44 times as high as those under MP, respectively. The penetration depth of methylene blue reached a depth of 43 cm in NT soil, being 16 cm deeper than that in MP soil. Comparing with MP soil, NT soil had better development of pore structure and more biological pores, and presented better preferential flow character, which were of importance for water infiltration and soil and water conservation.

  12. Statistical analysis of site factors controlling preferential flow and transport in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koestel, John; Moeys, Julien; Jarvis, Nick

    2010-05-01

    Knowledge of the solute transport characteristics of soils at field and catchment scales is important for sustainable management of environmental and agricultural resources. It is known that preferential flow and solute transport through macropores often contribute substantially to the transport of diffuse pollutants to groundwater or surface water via drains. As direct measurement of preferential flow parameters is expensive and time consuming, more easily obtainable soil properties must instead be used as surrogates to predict preferential flow, using so-called pedotransfer functions (PTFs). However, there is evidence that the soil properties used in classical PTFs (soil texture, bulk density, fraction of organic matter) are not sufficient to infer the flow and transport characteristics of near-saturated and saturated soils (e.g. Weynants, M. et al., 2009. Revisiting Vereecken Pedotransfer Functions: Introducing a Closed-Form Hydraulic Model. Vadose Zone Journal 8: 86-95). Rather, the incorporation of additional data such as land use, soil-biota, and soil-type information appears to be necessary (e.g. Jarvis, N. J. et al., 2009. A conceptual model of soil susceptibility to macropore flow. Vadose Zone Journal 8: 902-910). In this study, we make use of a database comprising results of breakthrough curve experiments and corresponding site (parent material, climate, land use, etc.) and soil properties (texture, bulk density, etc.) published in the peer-reviewed literature to identify through statistical analyses (e.g. factorial and cluster analysis) the key soil properties and site attributes that control susceptibility to preferential flow.

  13. The preferential flow of soil: A widespread phenomenon in pedological perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yinghu; Zhang, Mingxiang; Niu, Jianzhi; Zheng, Haijin

    2016-06-01

    The article provides an overview of studies about the preferential flow phenomenon. This phenomenon is one of the types of the transportation of water solution through the soil profile by preferential channels (pathways) with a relatively high speed and with a slight change in the chemical composition of the solution. Interest in this phenomenon has risen sharply in the last two decades due to the observed fast transportation of contaminants from soil surface into groundwater level. On the basis of the literature data, the authors give the definition of this phenomenon, consider its types, degree, features, mechanisms, methods and models and research perspectives, in particular the interaction between preferential flow and soil matrix flow. The article considers the aspects of the movement of soil water carrying heavy metals and pesticides; hence, it concerns the protection of environment and people's health. It provides the thorough review of the studies on the preferential flow, and describes the research directions and their development.

  14. Contrasting effects of soil development on hydrological properties and flow paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohse, Kathleen A.; Dietrich, William E.

    2005-12-01

    Runoff pathways strongly influence hydrologic and biogeochemical losses and landscape evolution. On an evolving landscape, soil development may alter hydrologic properties and thereby change through time the relative importance of various pathways. Here we report in situ soil water retention, unsaturated and saturated hydraulic conductivity, and flow path characteristics of a 300 year old Andisol and a 4.1 million year old Oxisol, located at the extreme ends of a soil substrate age gradient across the Hawaiian Islands. The two soils contrasted in depth and texture; the young soil was shallow and coarse textured, while the old soil was deep and highly weathered with a near-surface plinthite horizon overlying numerous clay-rich subsurface horizons. The young soil drained freely under modest suction, whereas subsurface clay horizons at the old site required significantly more suction to start to drain than the upper horizons. Similarly, saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) was high throughout the soil profile at the young site, whereas Ks was two to three orders of magnitude lower through the subsurface clay horizons than the upper ones at the old site. Irrigation experiments with deuterium tracer demonstrated that water was downward advecting at the young site, while water at the old site moved both laterally along the subsurface clay horizon contact and slowly downward through it. Rainfall frequency distributions indicated a high probability of rainfall events exceeding subsurface Ks values in old soil. In Hawaii the addition of dust influences the time evolution of soil, but the tendency for subsoil clay accumulation in older soils leading to alteration in hydrologic flow paths has been proposed in other environments. Our findings together suggest that as soils develop with time, subsurface horizon Ks values decline, impeding rates of vertical water flow but also increasing the importance of shallow subsurface lateral flow.

  15. Investigation of flow and transport processes at the MADE site using ensemble Kalman filter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, Gaisheng; Chen, Y.; Zhang, Dongxiao

    2008-01-01

    In this work the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is applied to investigate the flow and transport processes at the macro-dispersion experiment (MADE) site in Columbus, MS. The EnKF is a sequential data assimilation approach that adjusts the unknown model parameter values based on the observed data with time. The classic advection-dispersion (AD) and the dual-domain mass transfer (DDMT) models are employed to analyze the tritium plume during the second MADE tracer experiment. The hydraulic conductivity (K), longitudinal dispersivity in the AD model, and mass transfer rate coefficient and mobile porosity ratio in the DDMT model, are estimated in this investigation. Because of its sequential feature, the EnKF allows for the temporal scaling of transport parameters during the tritium concentration analysis. Inverse simulation results indicate that for the AD model to reproduce the extensive spatial spreading of the tritium observed in the field, the K in the downgradient area needs to be increased significantly. The estimated K in the AD model becomes an order of magnitude higher than the in situ flowmeter measurements over a large portion of media. On the other hand, the DDMT model gives an estimation of K that is much more comparable with the flowmeter values. In addition, the simulated concentrations by the DDMT model show a better agreement with the observed values. The root mean square (RMS) between the observed and simulated tritium plumes is 0.77 for the AD model and 0.45 for the DDMT model at 328 days. Unlike the AD model, which gives inconsistent K estimates at different times, the DDMT model is able to invert the K values that consistently reproduce the observed tritium concentrations through all times. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of Soil Stratification on the Development and Migration of Headcuts in Upland Concentrated Flows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were conducted to examine the effect of vertical stratification in soil erodibility on the development and migration of steady-state headcut scour holes in upland concentrated flows typical of agricultural fields. Packed soil beds with a pre-formed step were subjected to identical simul...

  17. Soil Heat Flow. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Transport Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, James R.

    These materials were designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. Soil heat flow and the resulting soil temperature distributions have ecological consequences…

  18. A boundary-layer solution for flow at the soil-root interface.

    PubMed

    Severino, Gerardo; Tartakovsky, Daniel M

    2015-06-01

    Transpiration, a process by which plants extract water from soil and transmit it to the atmosphere, is a vital (yet least quantified) component of the hydrological cycle. We propose a root-scale model of water uptake, which is based on first principles, i.e. employs the generally accepted Richards equation to describe water flow in partially saturated porous media (both in a root and the ambient soil) and makes no assumptions about the kinematic structure of flow in a root-soil continuum. Using the Gardner (exponential) constitutive relation to represent the relative hydraulic conductivities in the Richards equations and treating the root as a cylinder, we use a matched asymptotic expansion technique to derive approximate solutions for transpiration rate and the size of a plant capture zone. These solutions are valid for roots whose size is larger than the macroscopic capillary length of a host soil. For given hydraulic properties, the perturbation parameter used in our analysis relates a root's size to the macroscopic capillary length of the ambient soil. This parameter determines the width of a boundary layer surrounding the soil-root interface, within which flow is strictly horizontal (perpendicular to the root). Our analysis provides a theoretical justification for the standard root-scale cylindrical flow model of plant transpiration that imposes a number of kinematic constraints on water flow in a root-soil continuum.

  19. Application of a 2D air flow model to soil vapor extraction and bioventing case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Mohr, D.H.; Merz, P.H.

    1995-05-01

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is frequently the technology of choice to clean up hydrocarbon contamination in unsaturated soil. A two-dimensional air flow model provides a practical tool to evaluate pilot test data and estimate remediation rates for soil vapor extraction systems. The model predictions of soil vacuum versus distance are statistically compared to pilot test data for 65 SVE wells at 44 sites. For 17 of 21 sites where there was asphalt paving, the best agreement was obtained for boundary conditions with no barrier to air flow at the surface. The model predictions of air flow rates and stream lines around the well allow an estimate of the gasoline removal rates by both evaporation and bioremediation. The model can be used to quickly estimate the effective radius of influence, defined here as the maximum distance from the well where there is enough air flow to remove the contaminant present within the allowable time. The effective radius of influence is smaller than a radius of influence defined by soil vacuum only. For a case study, in situ bioremediation rates were estimated using the air flow model and compared to independent estimates based on changes in soil temperature. These estimate bioremediation rates for heavy fuel oil ranged from 2.5 to 11 mg oil degraded per kg soil per day, in agreement with values in the literature.

  20. Overland flow generation mechanisms affected by topsoil treatment: Application to soil conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueso-González, P.; Ruiz-Sinoga, J. D.; Martínez-Murillo, J. F.; Lavee, H.

    2015-01-01

    Hortonian overland-flow is responsible for significant amounts of soil loss in Mediterranean geomorphological systems. Restoring the native vegetation is the most effective way to control runoff and sediment yield. During the seeding and plant establishment, vegetation cover may be better sustained if soil is amended with an external source. Four amendments were applied in an experimental set of plots: straw mulching (SM); mulch with chipped branches of Aleppo Pine (Pinus halepensis L.) (PM); TerraCottem hydroabsorbent polymer (HP); and sewage sludge (RU). Plots were afforested following the same spatial pattern, and amendments were mixed with the soil at the rate 10 Mg ha- 1. This research demonstrates the role played by the treatments in overland flow generation mechanism. On one hand, the high macroporosity of SM and PM, together with the fact that soil moisture increased with depth, explains weak overland flow and thus low sediment yield due to saturation conditions. Therefore, regarding overland flow and sediment yield, RU behaves similarly to SM and PM. On the other hand, when HP was applied, overland flow developed quickly with relatively high amounts. This, together with the decrease downward in soil moisture along the soil profile, proved that mechanisms of overland flow are of the Hortonian type.

  1. Soil erosion on upland areas by rainfall and overland flow

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil erosion in agricultural watersheds is a systemic problem that has plagued mankind ever since the practice of agriculture began some 9,000 years ago. It is a worldwide problem, the severity of which varies from location to location depending on weather, soil type, topography, cropping practices,...

  2. Probabilistic characterization of base flows in river basins: Roles of soil, vegetation, and geomorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botter, G.; Porporato, A.; Daly, E.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.; Rinaldo, A.

    2007-06-01

    In this paper we extend previous mathematical results on the probabilistic modeling of base flows driven by spatial and temporal fluctuations of soil moisture and affected by intermittent rainfall forcings and by heterogeneous transport, soil, and vegetation properties. Rainfall is modeled as a zero-dimensional marked Poisson process with exponentially distributed intensity, and various descriptors of spatial heterogeneity are used. The master equation for the probability distribution (pdf) of the base flow (here epitomized by the mean daily flow rate in suitably sized catchments) and its moment-generating function are derived by coupling soil moisture balances with a traveltime formulation of transport. Exact solutions for the flow moments are derived in the following cases: (1) two tributary areas in parallel, (2) the rigorous extension to N subbasins, and (3) a simplified geomorphic arrangement of subbasins. Base flow statistics obtained by naive spatial averages of heterogeneous properties exhibit the same mean of the exact solution but may significantly overestimate higher-order moments. Relatively wet climate conditions seem to enhance the effects of the heterogeneity of soil, vegetation, transport, and geomorphic properties, particularly for low-stage flow regimes. The probabilistic structure of the base flow is explicitly linked to relevant climatic and geomorphologic features in addition to the spatial distribution of soil and vegetation properties, with possible ecohydrological implications on long-term water and nutrient mass balances in river basins.

  3. Water flow in soil and plants: the importance of good contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carminati, A.

    2009-04-01

    Water flow in unsaturated porous media is controlled by the continuity of the liquid phase through the pore system. In many cases, the pore system is composed of regions with different material properties separated by interfaces containing macro-pores or gaps that are easily drained. When these gaps are drained the continuity of the liquid flow path may break, with a consequent decrease in the conductivity of the medium. We present two examples demonstrating the controlling role of interfaces on water flow. The first example describes an aggregated soil. Due to the aggregate roughness, the inter-aggregate contacts contain macro-pores which are rapidly drained. The hydraulic behavior of contacts varies from highly conductive when water fills the contact to a bottle-neck to flow as water pressure drops and contact asperities rapidly drained. The conductivity of the system is determined by the water-filled contact area between aggregates, rather then by the average volumetric water content. The second example refers to the contacts between soil and roots. By means of X-ray tomography we showed that during periods of drought, roots shrink and may lose contact with the soil, with a consequent reduction in water uptake. When the soil is irrigated again, roots swell partially refilling the gaps. Opening and closing of gaps may help plant to optimize water use, to prevent water loss when soil dries, and to restore the soil-root continuity after irrigation. Additionally, soil-root continuity is improved by root exudates and root hairs, which make the soil-root interface a complex and dynamic biomaterial with specific and unique properties. These two examples show that interfaces between heterogeneous media can have a big impact on water flow in porous media and demonstrate that volumetric averaging for predicting transport properties can lead to wrong results. An approach based on flow cross sections and interfacial properties may be the way to a deeper understanding and

  4. Governing equations of transient soil water flow and soil water flux in multi-dimensional fractional anisotropic media and fractional time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavvas, M. Levent; Ercan, Ali; Polsinelli, James

    2017-03-01

    In this study dimensionally consistent governing equations of continuity and motion for transient soil water flow and soil water flux in fractional time and in fractional multiple space dimensions in anisotropic media are developed. Due to the anisotropy in the hydraulic conductivities of natural soils, the soil medium within which the soil water flow occurs is essentially anisotropic. Accordingly, in this study the fractional dimensions in two horizontal and one vertical directions are considered to be different, resulting in multi-fractional multi-dimensional soil space within which the flow takes place. Toward the development of the fractional governing equations, first a dimensionally consistent continuity equation for soil water flow in multi-dimensional fractional soil space and fractional time is developed. It is shown that the fractional soil water flow continuity equation approaches the conventional integer form of the continuity equation as the fractional derivative powers approach integer values. For the motion equation of soil water flow, or the equation of water flux within the soil matrix in multi-dimensional fractional soil space and fractional time, a dimensionally consistent equation is also developed. Again, it is shown that this fractional water flux equation approaches the conventional Darcy equation as the fractional derivative powers approach integer values. From the combination of the fractional continuity and motion equations, the governing equation of transient soil water flow in multi-dimensional fractional soil space and fractional time is obtained. It is shown that this equation approaches the conventional Richards equation as the fractional derivative powers approach integer values. Then by the introduction of the Brooks-Corey constitutive relationships for soil water into the fractional transient soil water flow equation, an explicit form of the equation is obtained in multi-dimensional fractional soil space and fractional time. The

  5. Andic soil features and debris flows in Italy. New perspective towards prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scognamiglio, Solange; Calcaterra, Domenico; Iamarino, Michela; Langella, Giuliano; Orefice, Nadia; Vingiani, Simona; Terribile, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    Debris flows are dangerous hazards causing fatalities and damage. Previous works have demonstrated that the materials involved by debris flows in Campania (southern Italy) are soils classified as Andosols. These soils have peculiar chemical and physical properties which make them fertile but also vulnerable to landslide. In Italy, andic soil properties are found both in volcanic and non-volcanic mountain ecosystems (VME and NVME). Here, we focused on the assessment of the main chemical and physical properties of the soils in the detachment areas of eight debris flows occurred in NVME of Italy in the last 70 years. Such landslides were selected by consulting the official Italian geodatabase (IFFI Project). Andic properties (by means of ammonium oxalate extractable Fe, Si and Al forms for the calculation of Alo+1/2Feo) were also evaluated and a comparison with soils of VME was performed to assess possible common features. Landslide source areas were characterised by slope gradient ranging from 25° to 50° and lithological heterogeneity of the bedrock. The soils showed similar, i.e. all were very deep, had a moderately thick topsoil with a high organic carbon (OC) content decreasing regularly with depth. The cation exchange capacity trend was generally consistent with the OC and the pH varied from extremely to slightly acid, but increased with depth. Furthermore, the soils had high water retention values both at saturation (0.63 to 0.78 cm3 cm-3) and in the dryer part of the water retention curve, and displayed a prevalent loamy texture. Such properties denote the chemical and physical fertility of the investigated ecosystems. The values of Alo+1/2Feoindicated that the soils had vitric or andic features and can be classified as Andosols. The comparison between NVME soils and those of VME showed similar depth, thickness of soil horizons, and family texture, whereas soil pH, degree of development of andic properties and allophane content were higher for VME soils. Such

  6. Analysis of KrF excimer laser beam modification resulting from ablation under closed thick film flowing filtered water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowding, Colin; Lawrence, Jonathan

    2011-09-01

    The application of a closed thick film flowing filtered water to immerse the ablation etching mechanism of an excimer laser poses interesting possibilities concerning debris control, modification of machined feature topography and modification of the ablation rate. Furthermore, these parameters have been shown to be dependent on flow velocity; hence, offering further user control of machining characteristics. However, the impact of this technique requires investigation. This contribution offers comparison of the calculated ablation pressure and the effect on feature surface characteristics given for laser ablation of bisphenol A polycarbonate using KrF excimer laser radiation in ambient air against laser ablation of the same substrate under closed thick film flowing filtered water immersion. Also, an impact of such immersion equipment on the optical performance of the micromachining centre used is quantified and reviewed. The pressure is calculated to have risen by a magnitude of 48, when using the liquid immersed ablation technique. This increase in pressure is proposed to have an increased surface roughness, promoting the number of asperities with a surface area lower than 16 μm 2; resulting in a diffuse reflection of light and an apparent darkening of features. The focal length of the optical system was accurately predicted to increase by 2.958 mm, when using the closed flowing liquid immersion equipment. This equipment is predicted to have increased the optical depth of focus via reduction in the angle of convergence of the two defining image rays; yet the perceived focus, measured discretely by mean feature wall angle, was found to be 25% smaller when using the closed thick film flowing filtered water immersion technique instead of similar laser ablation in ambient air. A compressed plume interaction is proposed as a contributing factor in this change.

  7. Evaluating uncertainties in multi-layer soil moisture estimation with support vector machines and ensemble Kalman filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Di; Mishra, Ashok K.; Yu, Zhongbo

    2016-07-01

    This paper examines the combination of support vector machines (SVM) and the dual ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) technique to estimate root zone soil moisture at different soil layers up to 100 cm depth. Multiple experiments are conducted in a data rich environment to construct and validate the SVM model and to explore the effectiveness and robustness of the EnKF technique. It was observed that the performance of SVM relies more on the initial length of training set than other factors (e.g., cost function, regularization parameter, and kernel parameters). The dual EnKF technique proved to be efficient to improve SVM with observed data either at each time step or at a flexible time steps. The EnKF technique can reach its maximum efficiency when the updating ensemble size approaches a certain threshold. It was observed that the SVM model performance for the multi-layer soil moisture estimation can be influenced by the rainfall magnitude (e.g., dry and wet spells).

  8. Comparative toxicity in earthworms Eisenia fetida and Lumbricus terrestris exposed to cadmium nitrate using artificial soil and filter paper protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, L.C.; Goven, A.J.; Muratti-Ortiz, J.F.

    1996-07-01

    Earthworms are ideal soil organisms for use in terrestrial ecotoxicology. As such, several earthworm protocols have been developed for testing toxic potential of chemicals and contaminated soils. Of these, the 48-h filter paper contact (FP) and the 14-d artificial soil exposure (AS) protocols, using mortality (LC50) as the toxic endpoint and Eisenia fetida as the test species, have received the most attention, with the latter being adopted by both OECD and EEC in Europe and the Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in the United States. Although the FP technique, adopted by EEC, provides for inexpensive reproducible toxicity screening for chemicals (i.e. establishing relative toxicities), it has been criticized for lacking the ecotoxicological relevance of the AS protocol. Choice of earthworm species for laboratory testing also has been controversial. The manure worm, E. fetida, is criticized for not being sufficiently sensitive to chemicals or representative of {open_quotes}typical{close_quotes} earthworms. Lumbricus terrestris and Apporectodea caliginosa have been suggested as more sensitive and ecologically relevant earthworms by Dean-Ross and Martin, respectively. This paper compares the AS and FP protocols in assessing toxicity of cadminum to L. terrestris and E. fetida using LC50s and LC50s. 19 refs., 2 tabs.

  9. Using soil moisture and spatial yield patterns to identify subsurface flow pathways.

    PubMed

    Gish, T J; Walthall, C L; Daughtry, C S T; Kung, K-J S

    2005-01-01

    Subsurface soil water dynamics can influence crop growth and the fate of surface-applied fertilizers and pesticides. Recently, a method was proposed using only ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and digital elevation maps (DEMs) to identify locations where subsurface water converged into discrete pathways. For this study, the GPR protocol for identifying horizontal subsurface flow pathways was extended to a 3.2-ha field, uncertainty is discussed, and soil moisture and yield patterns are presented as confirming evidence of the extent of the subsurface flow pathways. Observed soil water contents supported the existence of discrete preferential funnel flow processes occurring near the GPR-identified preferential flow pathways. Soil moisture also played a critical role in the formation of corn (Zea mays L.) grain yield patterns with yield spatial patterns being similar for mild and severe drought conditions. A buffer zone protocol was introduced that allowed the impact of subsurface flow pathways on corn grain yield to be quantified. Results indicate that when a GPR-identified subsurface clay layer was within 2 m of the soil surface, there was a beneficial impact on yield during a drought year. Furthermore, the buffer zone analysis demonstrated that corn grain yields decreased as the horizontal distance from the GPR-identified subsurface flow pathways increased during a drought year. Averaged real-time soil moisture contents at 0.1 m also decreased with increasing distance from the GPR-identified flow pathways. This research suggests that subsurface flow pathways exist and influence soil moisture and corn grain yield patterns.

  10. Cross-flow, filter-sorbent catalyst for particulate, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control. First quarterly technical progress report, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    This synopsis describes a new concept for integrated pollutant control: a cross-flow filter comprised of layered, gas permeable membranes that act as a particulate filter, an SO{sub 2} sorbent, and a NO{sub x} reduction catalyst.

  11. Intensity transform and Wiener filter in measurement of blood flow in arteriography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, Polyana F.; Franco, Marcelo L. N.; Filho, João. B. D.; Patrocínio, Ana C.

    2015-03-01

    Using the arteriography examination, it is possible to check anomalies in blood vessels and diseases such as stroke, stenosis, bleeding and especially in the diagnosis of Encephalic Death in comatose individuals. Encephalic death can be diagnosed only when there is complete interruption of all brain functions, and hence the blood stream. During the examination, there may be some interference on the sensors, such as environmental factors, poor maintenance of equipment, patient movement, among other interference, which can directly affect the noise produced in angiography images. Then, we need to use digital image processing techniques to minimize this noise and improve the pixel count. Therefore, this paper proposes to use median filter and enhancement techniques for transformation of intensity using the sigmoid function together with the Wiener filter so you can get less noisy images. It's been realized two filtering techniques to remove the noise of images, one with the median filter and the other with the Wiener filter along the sigmoid function. For 14 tests quantified, including 7 Encephalic Death and 7 other cases, the technique that achieved a most satisfactory number of pixels quantified, also presenting a lesser amount of noise, is the Wiener filter sigmoid function, and in this case used with 0.03 cuttof.

  12. The role of fragipan soils properties for hillslope subsurface flow dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlke, Helen; Easton, Zachary; Brown, Larry; Steenhuis, Tammo

    2010-05-01

    In watersheds characterized by fragipan, soils runoff generation is traditionally assumed to be dominated by shallow subsurface flow perched by a nearly impenetrable, low-conductive, subsurface soil horizon. However, several irrigation studies have indicated that fragipan soils can conduct subsurface flow vertically in considerable amounts resulting from differences in fragipan properties (e.g., prism diameter, interprism cracks, etc). These fragipan properties remain difficult to measure at the hillslope and watershed scales and consequently are inadequately accounted for in hydrological models. In the present study, a geophysical survey using ground penetrating radar of a 0.5 ha hillslope in central New York, USA has shown that spatial variability of the continuity and depth of fragipan soils is more influential on subsurface flow pathways than the physical characteristics of the fragipan itself. The geophysical survey revealed that the depth to fragipan varied between 0.3 and 0.8 m, resulting in water table and subsurface flow dynamics similar to the ‘fill and spill hypothesis'. The survey also indicated that the fragipan is interrupted by a higher conductive glacial sand lens that facilitates percolation of subsurface flow beneath the fragipan. The effect of the spatial variability of fragipan soils on subsurface flow pathways and flux was examined in further detail by installation of a 1.5 m wide, 1.5 m deep and 12.5 m long trench at the base of the 125 m long hillslope. The trench was installed in a variable source area (VSA) that forms at the base of the hillslope. The trench was instrumented with a surface flow collector measuring runoff from the upper 5 cm of the soil, and two collector drains installed at the soil-fragipan interface in 0.4 m depth and at the base of the trench (1.5 m depth). In addition, water levels were recorded at 5-min intervals in a 10 m x 10 m grid at the upslope contributing area of the trench. Soils in the study site are

  13. Effects of rainfall and surface flow on chemical diffusion from soil to runoff water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although basic processes of diffusion and convection have been used to quantify chemical transport from soil to surface runoff, there are little research results actually showing how these processes were affected by rainfall and surface flow. We developed a laboratory flow cell and a sequence of exp...

  14. Transport and survival of bacterial and viral tracers through submerged-flow constructed wetland and sand-filter system.

    PubMed

    Vega, Everardo; Lesikar, Bruce; Pillai, Suresh D

    2003-08-01

    Untreated or improperly treated wastewater has often been cited as the primary contamination source of groundwater. The use of decentralized wastewater treatment systems has applicability around the world since it obviates the need for extensive infrastructure development and expenditures. The use of a submerged flow constructed wetland (CW) and a sand filter to remove bacterial and viral pathogens from wastewater streams was evaluated in this study Salmonella sp. and a bacteriophages tracer were used in conjunction with the conservative bromide tracer to understand the fate and transport of these organisms in these treatment systems. Viral breakthrough numbers in the sand filter and CW were similar with a Spearman Rank correlation of 0.8 (P<0.05). In the CW, the virus exhibited almost a 3-log reduction, while in the sand filter, the viruses exhibited a 2-log reduction. The bacterial tracers, however, did not exhibit similar reductions. Low numbers of bacteria and viruses were still detectable in the effluent streams suggesting that disinfection of the effluent is critical. The survival of the tracer bacteria and viruses was as expected dependent on the biotic and abiotic conditions existing within the wastewater. The results suggest that the microbial removal characteristics of decentralized wastewater treatment systems can vary and depend on factors such as adsorption, desorption and inactivation which in turn depend on the design specifics such as filter media characteristics and local climatic conditions.

  15. Coupled simulation of surface runoff and soil water flow using multi-objective parameter estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhne, John Maximilian; Wöhling, Thomas; Pot, Valérie; Benoit, Pierre; Leguédois, Sophie; Le Bissonnais, Yves; Šimůnek, Jirka

    2011-06-01

    SummaryA comprehensive description of water flow in environmental and agricultural systems requires an account of both surface and subsurface pathways. We present a new model which combines a 1D overland flow model and the 2D subsurface flow HYDRUS-2D model, and uses the multi-objective global search method AMALGAM for inverse parameter estimation. Furthermore, we present data from bench-scale flow experiments which were conducted with two 5-m long replicate soil channels. While rainfall was applied, surface runoff was recorded at the downstream end of the soil channel, subsurface drainage waters were sampled at three positions equally spaced along the channels, and pressure heads were recorded at five depths. The experimental observations were used to evaluate the performance of our modeling system. The complexity of the modeling approach was increased in three steps. First, only runoff and total drainage were simulated, then drainage flows from individual compartments were additionally evaluated, and finally a surface crust and immobile soil water were also considered. The results showed that a good match between measured and observed surface runoff and total drainage does not guarantee accurate representation of the flow process. An inspection of the Pareto results of different multiobjective calibration runs revealed a significant trade-off between individual objectives, showing that no single solution existed to match spatial variability in the flow. In spite of the observed crust formation, its consideration in the more complex model structure did not significantly improve the fit between the model and measurements. Accounting for immobile water regions only slightly improved the fit for one of the two replicate soil channels. Discrepancies between relatively complex model simulations and seemingly simple soil channel experiments suggest the presence of additional unknowns, such as heterogeneity of the soil hydraulic properties. Nevertheless, with its

  16. Influence of flow concentration on parameter importance and prediction uncertainty of pesticide trapping by vegetative filter strips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Garey A.; Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael; Sabbagh, George J.

    2010-04-01

    SummaryFlow concentration is a key hydrologic factor limiting the effectiveness of vegetated filter strips (VFS) in removing pesticides from surface runoff. Numerical models, such as VFSMOD-W, offer a mechanistic approach for evaluating VFS effectiveness under various hydrological conditions including concentrated flow. This research hypothesizes that the presence of concentrated flow drastically alters the importance of various hydrological, sedimentological, and pesticide input factors and the prediction uncertainty of pesticide reduction. Using data from a VFS experimental field study investigating chlorpyrifos and atrazine transport, a two-step global sensitivity and uncertainty analysis framework was used with VFSMOD-W based on (1) a screening method (Morris) and (2) a variance-based method (extended Fourier Analysis Sensitivity Test, FAST). The vertical, saturated hydraulic conductivity was consistently the most important input factor for predicting infiltration, explaining 49% of total output variance for uniform sheet flow, but only 8% for concentrated flow. Sedimentation was governed by both hydrologic (vertical, saturated hydraulic conductivity and initial and saturated water content) and sediment characteristics (average particle diameter). The vertical, saturated hydraulic conductivity was the most important input factor for atrazine or chlorpyrifos trapping under uniform sheet flow (explained more than 46% of the total output variance) and concentrated flow (although only explained 8% of the total variance in this case). The 95% confidence intervals for atrazine and chlorpyrifos reduction ranged between 43% and 78% for uniform sheet flow and decreased to between 1% and 16% under concentrated flow. Concentrated flow increased interactions among the system components, enhancing the relative importance of processes that were latent under shallow flow conditions. This complex behavior warrants the need for process-based modeling to be able to predict the

  17. Thermography-based blood flow imaging in human skin of the hands and feet: a spectral filtering approach.

    PubMed

    Sagaidachnyi, A A; Fomin, A V; Usanov, D A; Skripal, A V

    2017-02-01

    The determination of the relationship between skin blood flow and skin temperature dynamics is the main problem in thermography-based blood flow imaging. Oscillations in skin blood flow are the source of thermal waves propagating from micro-vessels toward the skin's surface, as assumed in this study. This hypothesis allows us to use equations for the attenuation and dispersion of thermal waves for converting the temperature signal into the blood flow signal, and vice versa. We developed a spectral filtering approach (SFA), which is a new technique for thermography-based blood flow imaging. In contrast to other processing techniques, the SFA implies calculations in the spectral domain rather than in the time domain. Therefore, it eliminates the need to solve differential equations. The developed technique was verified within 0.005-0.1 Hz, including the endothelial, neurogenic and myogenic frequency bands of blood flow oscillations. The algorithm for an inverse conversion of the blood flow signal into the skin temperature signal is addressed. The examples of blood flow imaging of hands during cuff occlusion and feet during heating of the back are illustrated. The processing of infrared (IR) thermograms using the SFA allowed us to restore the blood flow signals and achieve correlations of about 0.8 with a waveform of a photoplethysmographic signal. The prospective applications of the thermography-based blood flow imaging technique include non-contact monitoring of the blood supply during engraftment of skin flaps and burns healing, as well the use of contact temperature sensors to monitor low-frequency oscillations of peripheral blood flow.

  18. Analysing flow patterns in degraded peat soils using TiO2 dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haojie; Lennartz, Bernd

    2014-05-01

    Dye tracing is a valuable method for studying the flow patterns in soils. However, limited information is available on water flow and solute transport pathways in dark colored peat soils because the frequently used Brilliant Blue FCF dye does not visibly stain the soil. In this study, we were aiming at testing the suitability of Titanium dioxide (TiO2) as a dye tracer for dark peat soils. The objectives were to quantify the physical properties of different degraded peat soils and visualize the flow patterns. Soil samples were collected from two low-lying fen sites, where the top soil was highly degraded, while lower horizons were less decomposed. Dye tracer experiments were conducted at both sites by applying a TiO2 suspension (10 g/l) with a pulse of 40 mm. Soil profiles were prepared for photo documentation the following day. It was found that the physical and hydraulic properties of peat were significantly influenced by the degree of peat decomposition and degradation. Higher decomposed and degraded peat soils had a higher bulk density, lower organic matter content and lower porosity. Moreover, higher decomposition and degradation resulted in a lower saturated hydraulic conductivity as long as investigated samples originated from the same site. In addition, degraded peat soils showed less anisotropy than un-degraded peat. It turned out that TiO2 is a suitable dye tracer to visualize the flow paths in peat soils. Although dye patterns differed within the same plot and between different plots, most of the flow patterns indicated a preferential flow situation. The distribution of TiO2 in the soil profile, as analyzed from 5 by 5 cm grid cells, compared to the distribution of bromide, which was applied along with the dye confirming the suitability of the dye tracer. Un-decomposed plant structures, such as wood branches and leaves, were identified as the major preferential flow path in un-degraded peat. For degraded peat, bio-pores, such as root and earthworm

  19. One-dimensional soil temperature simulation with Common Land Model by assimilating in situ observations and MODIS LST with the ensemble particle filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhongbo; Fu, Xiaolei; Luo, Lifeng; Lü, Haishen; Ju, Qin; Liu, Di; Kalin, Dresden A.; Huang, Dui; Yang, Chuanguo; Zhao, Lili

    2014-08-01

    Soil temperature plays an important role in hydrology, agriculture, and meteorology. In order to improve the accuracy of soil temperature simulation, a soil temperature data assimilation system was developed based on the Ensemble Particle Filter (EnPF) and the Common Land Model (CLM), and then applied in the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed (WGEW) in Arizona, United States. Surface soil temperature in situ observations and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Land Surface Temperature (MODIS LST) data were assimilated into the system. In this study, four different assimilation experiments were conducted: (1) assimilating in situ observations of instantaneous surface soil temperature each hour, (2) assimilating in situ observations of instantaneous surface soil temperature once per day, (3) assimilating verified MODIS LST once per day, and (4) assimilating original MODIS LST once per day. These four experiments reflect a transition from high-quality and more frequent in situ observations to lower quality and less frequent remote sensing data in the data assimilation system. The results from these four experiments show that the assimilated results are better than the simulated results without assimilation at all layers except the bottom layer, while the superiority gradually diminishes as the quality and frequency of the observations decrease. This demonstrates that remote sensing data can be assimilated using the ensemble particle filter in poorly gauged catchments to obtain highly accurate soil variables (e.g., soil moisture, soil temperature). Meanwhile, the results also demonstrate that the ensemble particle filter is effective in assimilating soil temperature observations to improve simulations, but the performance of the data assimilation method is affected by the frequency of assimilation and the quality of the input data.

  20. Groundwater flow inverse modeling in non-MultiGaussian media: performance assessment of the normal-score Ensemble Kalman Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Zhou, H.; Hendricks Franssen, H. J.; Gómez-Hernández, J. J.

    2012-02-01

    The normal-score ensemble Kalman filter (NS-EnKF) is tested on a synthetic aquifer characterized by the presence of channels with a bimodal distribution of its hydraulic conductivities. This is a clear example of an aquifer that cannot be characterized by a multiGaussian distribution. Fourteen scenarios are analyzed which differ among them in one or various of the following aspects: the prior random function model, the boundary conditions of the flow problem, the number of piezometers used in the assimilation process, or the use of covariance localization in the implementation of the Kalman filter. The performance of the NS-EnKF is evaluated through the ensemble mean and variance maps, the connectivity patterns of the individual conductivity realizations and the degree of reproduction of the piezometric heads. The results show that (i) the localized NS-EnKF can characterize the non-multiGaussian underlying hydraulic distribution even when an erroneous prior random function model is used, (ii) localization plays an important role to prevent filter inbreeding and results in a better logconductivity characterization, and (iii) the NS-EnKF works equally well under very different flow configurations.

  1. Groundwater flow inverse modeling in non-MultiGaussian media: performance assessment of the normal-score Ensemble Kalman Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Zhou, H.; Hendricks Franssen, H. J.; Gómez-Hernández, J. J.

    2011-07-01

    The normal-score ensemble Kalman filter (NS-EnKF) is tested on a synthetic aquifer characterized by the presence of channels with a bimodal distribution of its hydraulic conductivities. Fourteen scenarios are analyzed which differ among them in one or various of the following aspects: the prior random function model, the boundary conditions of the flow problem, the number of piezometers used in the assimilation process, or the use of covariance localization in the implementation of the Kalman filter. The performance of the NS-EnKF is evaluated through the ensemble mean and variance maps, the connectivity patterns of the individual conductivity realizations and the degree of reproduction of the piezometric heads. The results show that (i) the localized NS-EnKF can identify correctly the channels when a large number of conditioning piezometers are used even when an erroneous prior random function model is used, (ii) localization plays an important role to prevent filter inbreeding and results in a better logconductivity characterization, and (iii) the NS-EnKF works equally well under very different flow configurations.

  2. Long-term flow rates and biomat zone hydrology in soil columns receiving septic tank effluent.

    PubMed

    Beal, C D; Gardner, E A; Kirchhof, G; Menzies, N W

    2006-07-01

    Soil absorption systems (SAS) are used commonly to treat and disperse septic tank effluent (STE). SAS can hydraulically fail as a result of the low permeable biomat zone that develops on the infiltrative surface. The objectives of this experiment were to compare the hydraulic properties of biomats grown in soils of different textures, to investigate the long-term acceptance rates (LTAR) from prolonged application of STE, and to assess if soils were of major importance in determining LTAR. The STE was applied to repacked sand, Oxisol and Vertisol soil columns over a period of 16 months, at equivalent hydraulic loading rates of 50, 35 and 8L/m(2)/d, respectively. Infiltration rates, soil matric potentials, and biomat hydraulic properties were measured either directly from the soil columns or calculated using established soil physics theory. Biomats 1 to 2 cm thick developed in all soils columns with hydraulic resistances of 27 to 39 d. These biomats reduced a 4 order of magnitude variation in saturated hydraulic conductivity (K(s)) between the soils to a one order of magnitude variation in LTAR. A relationship between biomat resistance and organic loading rate was observed in all soils. Saturated hydraulic conductivity influenced the rate and extent of biomat development. However, once the biomat was established, the LTAR was governed by the resistance of the biomat and the sub-biomat soil unsaturated flow regime induced by the biomat. Results show that whilst initial soil K(s) is likely to be important in the establishment of the biomat zone in a trench, LTAR is determined by the biomat resistance and the unsaturated soil hydraulic conductivity, not the K(s) of a soil. The results call into question the commonly used approach of basing the LTAR, and ultimately trench length in SAS, on the initial K(s) of soils.

  3. Using Distributed-Hydrology-Soil-Vegetation Model to Study Road Effects on Stream flow and Soil Moisture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuo, L.; Giambelluca, T. W.; Ziegler, A. D.; Nullet, M. A.

    2003-12-01

    The distributed-hydrology-soil-vegetation model (DHSVM) was applied in Pang Khum Experimental Watershed (PKEW), located near 19.05\\deg N, 98.65\\deg E in the mountainous region of northern Thailand, headwaters of the Chao Phraya River system. PKEW has a highly seasonal rainfall regime, with 90% of the annual 1200-1400 mm rainfall occurring during the southwest summer monsoon. The elevation of PKEW ranges from approximately 1100 to 1500 m. Total road area including road banks is about 1.2% of the basin area. About 57% of the road area occurs on slopes steeper than 10%. All roads are unpaved. Land cover in PKEW is affected by swidden agriculture. Six land cover and nine soil classes are identified in the basin. We have been working in the area since 1997 as part of the Thailand Roads Project (TRP). Within the basin, we are monitoring microclimate at two sites, soil moisture at four sites, and rainfall at five sites. Streamflow is measured at the outlet. Based on digital elevation data, DHSVM explicitly accounts for the spatial distribution of the stream and road networks, soil depth, soil and vegetation types. The model run period, including warm up, calibration and validation, is from August 1997 to January 2001. Field measurements provide forcing data, calibration data, and guidance in parameter selection. Model calibration and validation were done by aggregating simulated hourly soil moisture and stream flow into daily values and comparing them with aggregated daily measurements. For the calibration period, RMSEs of soil moisture and streamflow were lower than the observed variability as represented by the standard deviation, median absolute deviation, and (for stream flow) interquartile range. Model performance drops in validation period, but RMSEs remain near or lower than observed variability. We ran DHSVM with and without roads to examine their effects. Significant effects of roads were found despite the very low proportion of the watershed covered by roads

  4. Interception of Vapor Flow near Soil Surface for Water Conservation and Drought Alleviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Wang, Y.; Gao, Z.; Hishida, K.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Liquid and vapor flow of water in soil and the eventual vaporization of all waters near the soil surface are mechanisms controlling the near-surface evaporation. Interception and prevention of the vapor form of flow is critical for soil water conservation and drought alleviation in the arid and semiarid regions. Researches are conducted to quantify the amount of near-surface vapor flow in the semi-arid Loess Plateau of China and the central California of USA. Quantitative leaf water absorption and desorption functions were derived and tested based on laboratory experiments. Results show that plant leaves absorb and release water at different speeds depending on species and varieties. The "ideal" native plants in the dry climates can quickly absorb water and slowly release it. This water-holding capacity of a plant is characterized by the plant's water retention curves. Field studies are conducted to measure the dynamic water movements from the soil surface to ten meters below the surface in an attempt to quantify the maximum depths of water extraction due to different vegetation types and mulching measures at the surface. Results show that condensation is usually formed on soil surface membranes during the daily hours when the temperature gradients are inverted toward the soil surface. The soil temperature becomes stable at 13 Degree Celsius below the 4-meter depth in the Loess Plateau of China thus vapor flow is not likely deriving from deeper layers. However, the liquid flow may move in and out depending on water potential gradients and hydraulic conductivity of the layers. The near-surface vapor flow can be effectively intercepted by various mulching measures including gravel-and-sand cover, plant residue and plastic membranes. New studies are attempted to quantify the role of vapor flow for the survival of giant sequoias in the southern Sierra Nevada Mountains of California.

  5. An Active Region Model for Capturing Fractal Flow Patterns inUnsaturated Soils: Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Hui-Hai; Zhang, R.; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.

    2005-06-11

    Preferential flow commonly observed in unsaturated soils allows rapid movement of solute from the soil surface or vadose zone to the groundwater, bypassing a significant volume of unsaturated soil and increasing the risk of groundwater contamination. A variety of evidence indicates that complex preferential patterns observed from fields are fractals. In this study, we developed a relatively simple active region model to incorporate the fractal flow pattern into the continuum approach. In the model, the flow domain is divided into active and inactive regions. Flow occurs preferentially in the active region (characterized by fractals), and inactive region is simply bypassed. A new constitutive relationship (the portion of the active region as a function of saturation) was derived. The validity of the proposed model is demonstrated by the consistency between field observations and the new constitutive relationship.

  6. Soil volume estimation in debris flow areas using lidar data in the 2014 Hiroshima, Japan rainstorm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, H.

    2015-10-01

    Debris flows triggered by the rainstorm in Hiroshima, Japan on August 20th, 2014 produced extensive damage to the built-up areas in the northern part of Hiroshima city. In order to consider various emergency response activities and early-stage recovery planning, it is important to evaluate the distribution of the soil volumes in the debris flow areas immediately after the disaster. In this study, automated nonlinear mapping technique is applied to light detection and ranging (LiDAR)-derived digital elevation models (DEMs) observed before and after the disaster to quickly and accurately correct geometric locational errors of the data. The soil volumes generated from the debris flows are estimated by subtracting the pre- and post-event DEMs. The geomorphologic characteristics in the debris flow areas are discussed from the distribution of the estimated soil volumes.

  7. ASCAT soil moisture data assimilation through the Ensemble Kalman Filter for improving streamflow simulation in Mediterranean catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loizu, Javier; Massari, Christian; Álvarez-Mozos, Jesús; Casalí, Javier; Goñi, Mikel

    2016-04-01

    Assimilation of Surface Soil Moisture (SSM) observations obtained from remote sensing techniques have been shown to improve streamflow prediction at different time scales of hydrological modeling. Different sensors and methods have been tested for their application in SSM estimation, especially in the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The available observation devices include passive microwave sensors such as the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observation System (AMSR-E) onboard the Aqua satellite and the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission. On the other hand, active microwave systems include Scatterometers (SCAT) onboard the European Remote Sensing satellites (ERS-1/2) and the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) onboard MetOp-A satellite. Data assimilation (DA) include different techniques that have been applied in hydrology and other fields for decades. These techniques include, among others, Kalman Filtering (KF), Variational Assimilation or Particle Filtering. From the initial KF method, different techniques were developed to suit its application to different systems. The Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF), extensively applied in hydrological modeling improvement, shows its capability to deal with nonlinear model dynamics without linearizing model equations, as its main advantage. The objective of this study was to investigate whether data assimilation of SSM ASCAT observations, through the EnKF method, could improve streamflow simulation of mediterranean catchments with TOPLATS hydrological complex model. The DA technique was programmed in FORTRAN, and applied to hourly simulations of TOPLATS catchment model. TOPLATS (TOPMODEL-based Land-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme) was applied on its lumped version for two mediterranean catchments of similar size, located in northern Spain (Arga, 741 km2) and central Italy (Nestore, 720 km2). The model performs a separated computation of energy and water balances. In those balances, the soil

  8. The impact of mass flow and masking on the pressure drop of air filter in heavy-duty diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoseeinzadeh, Sepideh; Gorji-Bandpy, Mofid

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculation approach to predict and evaluate the impact of the mass-flow inlet on the pressure drop of turbocharger`s air filtfer in heavy-duty diesel engine. The numerical computations were carried out using a commercial CFD program whereas the inlet area of the air filter consisted of several holes connected to a channel. After entering through the channel, the air passes among the holes and enters the air filter. The effect of masking holes and hydraulic diameter is studied and investigated on pressure drop. The results indicate that pressure drop increase with decreasing of hydraulic diameter and masking of the holes has considerable affect on the pressure drop.

  9. Integrating Vegetation, Soil and Topography to Assess the Impact of Lateral Flow on Plant Solute Uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebel, K. T.; Riha, S. J.; Stedinger, J. R.

    2005-05-01

    Simulation of solute uptake by vegetation in complex terrain typically fails to account for subsurface lateral movement of solutes. This study uses a spatially explicit plant-soil-water simulation model to investigate whether subsurface lateral flow at the sand-clay interface impacts tritium uptake by mixed forest vegetation. Ten hectares of a mixed pine - laurel oak forest on Coastal Plain soils periodically received irrigation with tritium-enriched water (activity ranged from 5,000 to 20,000 pCi/ml) over a three year time period. To simulate water and tritium fluxes we developed a spatially explicit water balance model. Tritium was completely mixed daily with water in each soil layer. Vertical flow of water was simulated using a capacitance model with lateral flow dependent on head development and the local slope of the impeding clay layer. The model was evaluated by comparing biweekly measurements of tritium activity (measured to 3 meter depth) and soil water content (measured to 2 meter depth) in 18 measurement clusters distributed over the catchment. We evaluated the importance of including subsurface flow in model simulations. Lateral flow was locally important (mean distance tritium traveled laterally was 1.35 m). However, after three years of simulation, the maximum predicted lateral movement of tritium did not exceed 70 meters. On the catchment scale, the average simulated amount of tritium taken up by vegetation was not impacted by lateral flow, but smaller scale spatial variability in tritium uptake increased with the inclusion of lateral flow. Simulated tritium uptake was most sensitive to changes in vegetation cover, and was less sensitive to differences in soil properties (e.g. field capacity, hydraulic conductivity and root distribution). When integrated over the study area, the simulation of solute uptake by a mixed forest in Coastal Pain soils was not sensitive to inclusion of subsurface lateral flow of water.

  10. Cross-flow, filter-sorbent catalyst for particulate, SO sub 2 and NO sub x control

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    The objective of this program is to successfully carry out the experiment and design tasks described herein that will lead to the development a single-unit, cross flow filter-sorbent-catalyst. In the first stage of work we will investigate the SO{sub 2} removal and NO{sub x} reduction characteristics of different sorbent-catalyst compositions (in granular form), and we will conduct exploratory tests of cross-flow filters under conditions similar to those found in the combustion gases of small-scale combustors. In the second stage of the program, we will investigate the pollutant control characteristics of prototype filter-catalyst devices. The SO{sub 2} removal and NO{sub x} reduction efficiency of a unit-element' prototype will be investigated. This unit element' will be a slot reactor comprised of two flat porous walls, or slabs' of filter-sorbent-catalyst material separated by a 0.5 centimeter gap. The particulate collection efficiency and back-flushing requirements of a multi-element version of this device will be tested. A sorbent regeneration scheme will also be investigated. The sorbents under evaluation are: CuO, CeO{sub 2}, CuO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CeO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CuO-CeO{sub 2}, and CuO-CeO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Progress is described. 25 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. The potential of 2D Kalman filtering for soil moisture data assimilation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examine the potential for parameterizing a two-dimensional (2D) land data assimilation system using spatial error auto-correlation statistics gleaned from a triple collocation analysis and the triplet of: (1) active microwave-, (2) passive microwave- and (3) land surface model-based surface soil ...

  12. Divergent habitat filtering of root and soil fungal communities in temperate beech forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldmann, Kezia; Schröter, Kristina; Pena, Rodica; Schöning, Ingo; Schrumpf, Marion; Buscot, François; Polle, Andrea; Wubet, Tesfaye

    2016-08-01

    Distance decay, the general reduction in similarity of community composition with increasing geographical distance, is known as predictor of spatial variation and distribution patterns of organisms. However, changes in fungal communities along environmental gradients are little known. Here we show that distance decays of soil-inhabiting and root-associated fungal assemblages differ, and identify explanatory environmental variables. High-throughput sequencing analysis of fungal communities of beech-dominated forests at three study sites across Germany shows that root-associated fungi are recruited from the soil fungal community. However, distance decay is substantially weaker in the root-associated than in the soil community. Variance partitioning of factors contributing to the observed distance decay patterns support the hypothesis that host trees stabilize the composition of root-associated fungi communities, relative to soil communities. Thus, they not only have selective impacts on associated communities, but also buffer effects of changes in microclimatic and environmental variables that directly influence fungal community composition.

  13. Divergent habitat filtering of root and soil fungal communities in temperate beech forests

    PubMed Central

    Goldmann, Kezia; Schröter, Kristina; Pena, Rodica; Schöning, Ingo; Schrumpf, Marion; Buscot, François; Polle, Andrea; Wubet, Tesfaye

    2016-01-01

    Distance decay, the general reduction in similarity of community composition with increasing geographical distance, is known as predictor of spatial variation and distribution patterns of organisms. However, changes in fungal communities along environmental gradients are little known. Here we show that distance decays of soil-inhabiting and root-associated fungal assemblages differ, and identify explanatory environmental variables. High-throughput sequencing analysis of fungal communities of beech-dominated forests at three study sites across Germany shows that root-associated fungi are recruited from the soil fungal community. However, distance decay is substantially weaker in the root-associated than in the soil community. Variance partitioning of factors contributing to the observed distance decay patterns support the hypothesis that host trees stabilize the composition of root-associated fungi communities, relative to soil communities. Thus, they not only have selective impacts on associated communities, but also buffer effects of changes in microclimatic and environmental variables that directly influence fungal community composition. PMID:27511465

  14. Flow pathways of bromide and Brilliant Blue FCF tracers in caliche soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobles, M. M.; Wilding, L. P.; Lin, H. S.

    2010-10-01

    Land use of caliche soils in limestone regions of Texas is increasingly shifting from traditional ranchland to residential and industrial development. However, little information is available on water flow and solute transport through soils of these landscapes, or their potential suitability for wastewater disposal and bioremediation. This study determined the impacts of landscape position on soil hydrologic functions by using Brilliant Blue FCF and Br - tracers to characterize flow pathways through soils of stepped terrains. Aqueous tracer solution was applied to surface (and in some cases subsurface) horizons of selected riser, tread, floodplain, and upland summit sites. Brilliant Blue FCF and Br - pathways were analyzed based on vertical sections excavated through each application site. While Brilliant Blue FCF demonstrated preferential flow along macropores, Br - moved through soil matrix primarily in piston flow pattern. In most cases, Br - was less retarded and moved to greater vertical and horizontal distances than Brilliant Blue FCF. Cemented Bk, Bkm, C, Cr, Crk, and R horizons acted as aquitards, resulting in considerable horizontal transport of both tracers beyond the direct infiltration zone. Significant volumes of limestone rock clasts, together with soil, were involved in solute transport and thus contributed to the soil's ability to serve as bioremediation and moisture storage media. High limestone gravel content and rapid solute transport through subsurface horizons to aquitards in deep riser soils indicate that they may serve as hydrological recharge sites with potential for ephemeral water tables, increased water storage and greater bioremediation potential. Shallow tread sites may be capable of producing seasonal saturation above restrictive horizons and increased surface runoff, becoming local hydrological discharge sites. This could conceivably lead to surface water contamination; however, these locales are hydrologically buffered by recharge

  15. Improving Efficiency of a Counter-Current Flow Moving Bed Granular Filter

    SciTech Connect

    Colver, G.M.; Brown, R.C.; Shi, H.; Soo, D.S-C.

    2002-09-18

    The goal of this research is to improve the performance of moving bed granular filters for gas cleaning at high temperatures and pressures. A second goal of the research is to optimize the performances of both solids and gas filtering processes through appropriate use of granular bed materials, particle sizes, feed rates etc. in a factorial study. These goals are directed toward applications of advanced coal-fired power cycles under development by the U.S. Department of Energy including pressurized fluidized bed combustion and integrated gasification/combined cycles based on gas turbines and fuel cells. Only results for particulate gas cleaning are reported here.

  16. Assessment of reduced-order unscented Kalman filter for parameter identification in 1-dimensional blood flow models using experimental data.

    PubMed

    Caiazzo, A; Caforio, Federica; Montecinos, Gino; Muller, Lucas O; Blanco, Pablo J; Toro, Eluterio F

    2016-10-25

    This work presents a detailed investigation of a parameter estimation approach on the basis of the reduced-order unscented Kalman filter (ROUKF) in the context of 1-dimensional blood flow models. In particular, the main aims of this study are (1) to investigate the effects of using real measurements versus synthetic data for the estimation procedure (i.e., numerical results of the same in silico model, perturbed with noise) and (2) to identify potential difficulties and limitations of the approach in clinically realistic applications to assess the applicability of the filter to such setups. For these purposes, the present numerical study is based on a recently published in vitro model of the arterial network, for which experimental flow and pressure measurements are available at few selected locations. To mimic clinically relevant situations, we focus on the estimation of terminal resistances and arterial wall parameters related to vessel mechanics (Young's modulus and wall thickness) using few experimental observations (at most a single pressure or flow measurement per vessel). In all cases, we first perform a theoretical identifiability analysis on the basis of the generalized sensitivity function, comparing then the results owith the ROUKF, using either synthetic or experimental data, to results obtained using reference parameters and to available measurements.

  17. Treatment of petrochemical secondary effluent by an up-flow biological aerated filter (BAF).

    PubMed

    Fu, L Y; Wu, C Y; Zhou, Y X; Zuo, J E; Ding, Y

    2016-01-01

    In this study, petrochemical secondary effluent was treated by a 55 cm diameter pilot-scale biological aerated filter (BAF) with a media depth of 220 cm. Volcanic rock grains were filled as the BAF media. Median removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) was 29.35 and 57.98%, respectively. Moreover, the removal profile of the COD, NH3-N, total nitrogen and total organic carbon demonstrated that the filter height of 140 cm made up to 90% of the total removal efficiency of the final effluent. By gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, removal efficiencies of 2-chloromethyl-1,3-dioxolane, and benzonitrile, indene and naphthalene were obtained, ranging from 30.12 to 63.01%. The biomass and microbial activity of the microorganisms on the filter media were in general reduced with increasing filter height, which is consistent with the removal profile of the contaminants. The detected genera Defluviicoccus, Betaproteobacteria_unclassified and the Blastocatella constituted 1.86-6.75% of the identified gene, enhancing the COD and nitrogen removal in BAF for treating petrochemical secondary effluent.

  18. [Performance of cross flow trickling filter for H2S gas treatment].

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun-Jing; Li, Jian; Liu, Jia; Peng, Shu-Jing; Li, Chao; Chen, Ying; He, Hong

    2012-09-01

    A grading cross bio-trickling filter was designed for H2S removal. Mixed microorganisms domesticated from the former experiment were immobilized to start up the trickling filter. Removal performances during starting up period and different loadings were investigated. Results showed that the immobilization of the trickling filter was completed within 3 d. The removal efficiency was higher than 99% when the inlet concentration was in the range of 110 mg x m(-3) to 230 mg x m(-3) (EBRT 30 s). At low inlet loadings, the front part of the trickling filter played a major role in H2S degradation, accounting for about 85%. Microbial diversity and population of the front part were superior to the tail one. At higher loadings, microbial diversity and population of the tail part increased significantly, from 4.5 x 10(7) cells x g (-1) to 5.17 x 10(8) cells x g(-1), and the elimination capacity was also improved,from 0.04 g x h(-1) to 0.67 g x h(-1). Rod-shaped bacteria were the dominant microorganisms on the surface of ceramics in the steady state as observed by SEM. The surfaces of ceramics were covered by a lot of microbial metabolites at high loadings. Analysis of the metabolites indicated that the majority of H2S was oxidized to sulfur and only a small portion was converted to sulfate.

  19. Soil moisture assimilation using a modified ensemble transform Kalman filter with water balance constraint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Guocan; Zheng, Xiaogu; Dan, Bo

    2016-04-01

    The shallow soil moisture observations are assimilated into Common Land Model (CoLM) to estimate the soil moisture in different layers. The forecast error is inflated to improve the analysis state accuracy and the water balance constraint is adopted to reduce the water budget residual in the assimilation procedure. The experiment results illustrate that the adaptive forecast error inflation can reduce the analysis error, while the proper inflation layer can be selected based on the -2log-likelihood function of the innovation statistic. The water balance constraint can result in reducing water budget residual substantially, at a low cost of assimilation accuracy loss. The assimilation scheme can be potentially applied to assimilate the remote sensing data.

  20. Estimating soil hydraulic parameters from transient flow experiments in a centrifuge using parameter optimization technique

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simunek, J.; Nimmo, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    A modified version of the Hydrus software package that can directly or inversely simulate water flow in a transient centrifugal field is presented. The inverse solver for parameter estimation of the soil hydraulic parameters is then applied to multirotation transient flow experiments in a centrifuge. Using time-variable water contents measured at a sequence of several rotation speeds, soil hydraulic properties were successfully estimated by numerical inversion of transient experiments. The inverse method was then evaluated by comparing estimated soil hydraulic properties with those determined independently using an equilibrium analysis. The optimized soil hydraulic properties compared well with those determined using equilibrium analysis and steady state experiment. Multirotation experiments in a centrifuge not only offer significant time savings by accelerating time but also provide significantly more information for the parameter estimation procedure compared to multistep outflow experiments in a gravitational field. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  1. Preconditioning an ensemble Kalman filter for groundwater flow using environmental-tracer observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdal, Daniel; Cirpka, Olaf A.

    2017-02-01

    Groundwater resources management requires operational, regional-scale groundwater models accounting for dominant spatial variability of aquifer properties and spatiotemporal variability of groundwater recharge. We test the Ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) to estimate transient hydraulic heads and groundwater recharge, as well as the hydraulic conductivity and specific-yield distributions of a virtual phreatic aquifer. To speed up computation time, we use a coarsened spatial grid in the filter simulations, and reconstruct head measurements at observation points by a local model in the vicinity of the piezometer as part of the observation operator. We show that the EnKF can adequately estimate both the mean and spatial patterns of hydraulic conductivity when assimilating daily values of hydraulic heads from a highly variable initial sample. The filter can also estimate temporally variable recharge to a satisfactory level, as long as the ensemble size is large enough. Constraining the parameters on concentrations of groundwater-age tracers (here: tritium) and transient hydraulic-head observations cannot reasonably be done by the EnKF because the concentrations depend on the recharge history over longer times while the head observations have much shorter temporal support. We thus use a different method, the Kalman Ensemble Generator (KEG), to precondition the initial ensemble of the EnKF on the groundwater-age tracer data and time-averaged hydraulic-head values. The preconditioned initial ensemble exhibits a smaller spread as well as improved means and spatial patterns. The preconditioning improves the EnKF particularly for smaller ensemble sizes, allowing operational data assimilation with reduced computational effort. In a validation scenario of delineating groundwater protection zones, the preconditioned filter performs clearly better than the filter using the original initial ensemble.

  2. Variations in soil detachment rates after wildfire as a function of soil depth, flow properties, and root properties

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moody, John A.; Nyman, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Wildfire affects hillslope erosion through increased surface runoff and increased sediment availability, both of which contribute to large post-fire erosion events. Relations between soil detachment rate, soil depth, flow and root properties, and fire impacts are poorly understood and not represented explicitly in commonly used post-fire erosion models. Detachment rates were measured on intact soil cores using a modified tilting flume. The cores were mounted flush with the flume-bed and a measurement was made on the surface of the core. The core was extruded upward, cut off, and another measurement was repeated at a different depth below the original surface of the core. Intact cores were collected from one site burned by the 2010 Fourmile Canyon (FMC) fire in Colorado and from one site burned by the 2010 Pozo fire in California. Each site contained contrasting vegetation and soil types. Additional soil samples were collected alongside the intact cores and were analyzed in the laboratory for soil properties (organic matter, bulk density, particle-size distribution) and for root properties (root density and root-length density). Particle-size distribution and root properties were different between sites, but sites were similar in terms of bulk density and organic matter. Soil detachment rates had similar relations with non-uniform shear stress and non-uniform unit stream power. Detachment rates within single sampling units displayed a relatively weak and inconsistent relation to flow variables. When averaged across all clusters, the detachment rate displayed a linear relation to shear stress, but variability in soil properties meant that the shear stress accounted for only a small proportion of the overall variability in detachment rates (R2 = 0.23; R2 is the coefficient of determination). Detachment rate was related to root-length density in some clusters (R2 values up to 0.91) and unrelated in others (R2 values 2 value improved and the range of exponents became

  3. Changes in Flow and Transport Patterns in Fen Peat as a Result of Soil Degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haojie; Janssen, Manon; Lennartz, Bernd

    2016-04-01

    The preferential movement of water and transport of substances play an important role in soils and are not yet fully understood especially in degraded peat soils. In this study, we aimed at deducing changes in flow and transport patterns in the course of soil degradation as resulting from peat drainage, using titanium dioxide (TiO2) as a dye tracer. The dye tracer experiments were conducted on columns of eight types of differently degraded peat soils from three sites taken both in vertical and horizontal directions. The titanium dioxide suspension (average particle size of 0.3 μm; 10 g l-1) was applied in a pulse of 40 mm to each soil core. Twenty-four hours after the application of the tracer, cross sections of the soil cores were prepared for photo documentation. In addition, the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) was determined. Preferential flow occurred in all investigated peat types. From the stained soil structural elements, we concluded that undecomposed plant remains are the major preferential flow pathways in less degraded peat. For more strongly degraded peat, bio-pores, such as root and earthworm channels, operated as the major transport domain. Results show that Ks and the effective pore network in less degraded peat soils are anisotropic. With increasing peat degradation, the Ks and cross section of effective pore network decreased. The results also indicate a strong positive relationship between Ks and number of macropores as well as pore continuity. Hence, we conclude that changes in flow and transport pathways as well as Ks with an increasing peat degradation are due to the disintegration of the peat forming plant material and decrement of number and continuity of macropores after drainage.

  4. Simulating Water Flow and Heat Transfer in Arid Soil Using Weighing Lysimeter Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijkema, Jelle; Koonce, Jeremy; Ghezzehei, Teamrat; Berli, Markus; van der Ploeg, Martine; (Rien) van Genuchten, Martinus

    2015-04-01

    Deserts cover about one third of the Earth's land surface. Rather little though is known about the physics of desert soils and their implications for the ecology and hydrology of arid environments. The recently constructed weighing lysimeters located in Boulder City, Nevada, were designed to improve our understanding of the physical processes and properties of arid soils at the meter scale. In this study, we developed a HYDRUS-1D model to simulate water infiltration, hydraulic redistribution, and heat transfer for one of the lysimeters. HYDRUS-1D solves the coupled equations for water flow and heat transfer in variably saturated soil. Soil hydraulic and thermal properties were initialized based on prior knowledge and characterizations of the lysimeter soil. Soil hydraulic and thermal parameters were further refined by inverse simulation using a subset of the soil water content, water potential and temperature measurements at various depths. The model was validated using a separate portion of the soil moisture and temperature data set that was not used for calibration. The calibrated model provides a tool to virtually test future experiments in the lysimeters such as changes in the irrigation regime or the incorporation of plants. The model will also help to assess the impact of the placement of physical structures (such as solar panels) on the water and heat balance of desert soils.

  5. Preferential flow effects on transport and fate of chemicals and microorganisms in soils irrigated with wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puddu, Rita; Corrias, Roberto; Dessena, Maria Antonietta; Ferralis, Marcella; Marras, Gabriele; Pin, Paola; Spanu, Paola

    2010-05-01

    This work is part of a multidisciplinary research properly planned by the ENAS (Cagliari-Sardinia-Italy) to verify the consequences of urban wastewater reuse in irrigation practices on chemical, biological and hydrological behavior of agricultural soils of the Had as Soualem area (Morocco). The area consists of Fluventic Haploxerept soils, according to USDA Soil Taxonomy. Undisturbed large soil columns, 70 cm height and 20 cm diameter, were collected from plots, the locations of which were preliminarily individuated through a prior pedological study. The soils are characterized by an apparent structure, suggesting that preferential flow processes may occur in the study area, which may impact usable groundwater at depth. Wastewater reuse for irrigation simultaneously solves water shortage and wastewater disposal problems. Unfortunately, wastewaters generally contain high concentrations of suspended and dissolved solids, both organic and inorganic, and microbial contaminants (virus and bacteria) added to wastewater during domestic and industrial usage. Most of these contaminants are only partially removed during conventional sewage treatment so they remain in the irrigation water. Although adsorbing ions and microbes are relatively immobile within porous media, preferential flow and adsorption to mobile colloids can enhance their transport. There is limited knowledge regarding the role of preferential flow and colloidal transport on adsorbing contaminants. The main aim of this research is to determine the influence of preferential flow and colloids on wastewater contaminant transport. Leaching rates and arrival time of wastewater contaminants will be determined using field and laboratory measurements at the study sites in combination with preferential flow numerical modeling. To achieve these objectives the soil columns were analyzed for physical, chemical, and microbial characterization. At the laboratory, an experimental facility was set up and sensors for

  6. Observations of flow path interactions with surface structures during initial soil development stage using irrigation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartl, Steffen; Biemelt, Detlef; Badorreck, Annika; Gerke, Horst H.

    2010-05-01

    Structures and processes are dynamically linked especially during initial stages of soil and ecosystem development. Here we assume that soil pore structures and micro topography determine the flow paths and water fluxes as well as further structure changes. Reports about flow path developments at the soil surface are still limited because of an insufficient knowledge of the changing micro topography at the surface. The objective of this presentation is to evaluate methods for parameterisation of surface micro topography for analysing interactions between infiltration and surface runoff. Complex irrigation experiments were carried out at an experimental site in the neighbourhood of the artificially created water catchment "Chicken Creek". The irrigation rates between 160 mm/h and 250 mm/h were held constant over a time period of 20 minutes. The incoming intensities were measured as well as the raindrop-velocity and -size distributions. The surface runoff was continuously registered, soil samples were taken, and soil water potential heads were monitored using tensiometers. Surface and subsurface flow paths were identified using different tracers. The soil surface structures were recorded using a high resolution digital camera before, during, and after irrigation. Micro topography was surveyed using close-range photogrammetry. With this experimental design both, flow paths on the surface and in the soil as well as structure and texture changes could be observed simultaneously. In 2D vertical cross-sections, the effect of initial sediment deposition structure on infiltration and runoff was observed. Image analysis of surface pictures allowed identifying structural and soil textural changes during the runoff process. Similar structural changes related to surface flow paths were found with the photogrammetric surface analysis. We found evidence for the importance of the initial structures on the flow paths as well as a significant influence of the system development

  7. Overland flow generation mechanisms affected by topsoil treatment: Application to soil conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Paloma, Hueso; Juan Francisco, Martinez-Murillo; Damian, Ruiz-Sinoga Jose; Hanoch, Lavee

    2015-04-01

    Hortonian overland-flow is responsible for significant amounts of soil loss in Mediterranean geomorphological systems. Restoring the native vegetation is the most effective way to control runoff and sediment yield. During the seeding and plant establishment, vegetation cover may be better sustained if soil is amended with an external source. Four amendments were applied in an experimental set of plots: straw mulching (SM); mulch with chipped branches of Aleppo Pine (Pinus halepensis L.) (PM); TerraCotten hydroabsobent polymers (HP); sewage sludge (RU); and control (C). Plots were afforested following the same spatial pattern, and amendments were mixed with the soil at the rate 10 Mg ha-1. This research demonstrates the role played by the treatments in overland flow generation mechanism (runoff, overland flow and soil moisture along the soil profile). The general overland flow characteristics showed that in the C plots the average overland flow was 8.0 ± 22.0 l per event, and the HP plots produced a similar mean value (8.1 ± 20.1 l). The average overland flow per event was significantly less for soil amended with SM, PM or RU (2.7 ± 8.3 l; 1.3 ± 3.5 l and 2.2 ± 5.9 l, respectively). There was a similar trend with respect to the maximum overland flow. The mean sediment yield per event was relatively high in the C and HP plots (8.6 ± 27.8 kg and 14.8 ± 43.4 kg, respectively), while significantly lower values were registered in the SM, PM and RU plots (0.4 ± 1.0 kg; 0.2 ± 0.3 kg and 0.2 ± 0.3 kg, respectively). Very similar trends were found for the maximum sediment yield. Regarding to the soil moisture values, there was a difference in the trends between the C and HP plots and the SM, PM and RU plots. In the C and HP plots the general trend was for a decrease in soil moisture downward through the soil profile, while in the SM, PM and RU plots the soil moisture remained relatively constant or increased, except for the RU treatment in which the soil moisture

  8. Electro-osmotic flow through a two-dimensional screen-pump filter.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying-Hong; Kuo, Chih-Yu; Chang, Chien C; Wang, Chang-Yi

    2011-09-01

    The electro-osmotic flow driven by a screen pump, composed of a line array of evenly spaced identical rectangular solid blocks, is investigated under the Debye-Hückel approximation. The geometry of the screen pump is determined by the spacing and aspect ratio of the solid blocks. A constant surface zeta potential is assumed on the block surface. The method of eigenfunction series expansion is applied to solve analytically for the applied electric field, electric charge potential in the fluid, and flow field. Because of the low Reynolds number, Stokes equations are applied for the flow. The analytic result is first confirmed by comparing with the exact solution of the electro-osmotic flow in an infinite channel. Then different geometries of the screen pump and the effect of the electrokinetic width are computed for their influence on the flow rate. Recirculating eddies and reversing flow are found even though the applied electric driving field is unidirectional.

  9. Effects of soil aggregates on debris-flow mobilization: Results from ring-shear experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iverson, Neal R.; Mann, Janet E.; Iverson, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    Rates and styles of landslide motion are sensitive to pore-water pressure changes caused by changes in soil porosity accompanying shear deformation. Soil may either contract or dilate upon shearing, depending upon whether its initial porosity is greater or less, respectively, than a critical-state porosity attained after sufficiently high strain. We observed complications in this behavior, however, during rate-controlled (0.02 m s−1) ring-shear experiments conducted on naturally aggregated dense loamy sand at low confining stresses (10.6 and 40 kPa). The aggregated soil first dilated and then contracted to porosities less than initial values, whereas the same soil with its aggregates destroyed monotonically dilated. We infer that aggregates persisted initially during shear and caused dilation before their eventual breakdown enabled net contraction. An implication of this contraction, demonstrated in experiments in which initial soil porosity was varied, is that the value of porosity distinguishing initially contractive from dilative behavior can be significantly larger than the critical-state porosity, which develops only after disaggregation ceases at high strains. In addition, post-dilative contraction may produce excess pore pressures, thereby reducing frictional strength and facilitating debris-flow mobilization. We infer that results of triaxial tests, which generally produce strains at least a factor of ∼ 4 smaller than those we observed at the inception of post-dilative contraction, do not allow soil contraction to be ruled out as a mechanism for debris-flow mobilization in dense soils containing aggregates.

  10. Assessing geotechnical centrifuge modelling in addressing variably saturated flow in soil and fractured rock.

    PubMed

    Jones, Brendon R; Brouwers, Luke B; Van Tonder, Warren D; Dippenaar, Matthys A

    2017-01-05

    The vadose zone typically comprises soil underlain by fractured rock. Often, surface water and groundwater parameters are readily available, but variably saturated flow through soil and rock are oversimplified or estimated as input for hydrological models. In this paper, a series of geotechnical centrifuge experiments are conducted to contribute to the knowledge gaps in: (i) variably saturated flow and dispersion in soil and (ii) variably saturated flow in discrete vertical and horizontal fractures. Findings from the research show that the hydraulic gradient, and not the hydraulic conductivity, is scaled for seepage flow in the geotechnical centrifuge. Furthermore, geotechnical centrifuge modelling has been proven as a viable experimental tool for the modelling of hydrodynamic dispersion as well as the replication of similar flow mechanisms for unsaturated fracture flow, as previously observed in literature. Despite the imminent challenges of modelling variable saturation in the vadose zone, the geotechnical centrifuge offers a powerful experimental tool to physically model and observe variably saturated flow. This can be used to give valuable insight into mechanisms associated with solid-fluid interaction problems under these conditions. Findings from future research can be used to validate current numerical modelling techniques and address the subsequent influence on aquifer recharge and vulnerability, contaminant transport, waste disposal, dam construction, slope stability and seepage into subsurface excavations.

  11. Modeling of Water Flow Processes in the Soil-Plant-Atmosphere System: The Soil-Tree-Atmosphere Continuum Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massoud, E. C.; Vrugt, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Trees and forests play a key role in controlling the water and energy balance at the land-air surface. This study reports on the calibration of an integrated soil-tree-atmosphere continuum (STAC) model using Bayesian inference with the DREAM algorithm and temporal observations of soil moisture content, matric head, sap flux, and leaf water potential from the King's River Experimental Watershed (KREW) in the southern Sierra Nevada mountain range in California. Water flow through the coupled system is described using the Richards' equation with both the soil and tree modeled as a porous medium with nonlinear soil and tree water relationships. Most of the model parameters appear to be reasonably well defined by calibration against the observed data. The posterior mean simulation reproduces the observed soil and tree data quite accurately, but a systematic mismatch is observed between early afternoon measured and simulated sap fluxes. We will show how this points to a structural error in the STAC-model and suggest and test an alternative hypothesis for root water uptake that alleviates this problem.

  12. Characterizing soil preferential flow using iodine--starch staining experiments and the active region model

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, Feng; Wang, Kang; Zhang, Renduo; Liu, Hui-Hai

    2009-03-01

    Thirteen iodine-starch staining experiments with different boundary conditions and measurement scales were conducted at two sites to study preferential flow processes in natural unsaturated soils. Digital imaging analyses were implemented to obtain the corresponding preferential flow patterns. The test results are used to evaluate a recently proposed active region model in terms of its usefulness and robustness for characterizing unsaturated flow processes at field scale. Test results provide useful insights into flow patterns in unsaturated soils. They show that flow pattern depends on the top boundary condition. As the total infiltrating-water depth increased form 20 mm to 80 mm for the 100 x 100 cm{sup 2} plots, the corresponding flow pattern changed from few preferential flow paths associated with a relatively small degree of stained coverage and a small infiltration depth, to a pattern characterized by a higher stained coverage and a larger infiltration depth, and to (finally) a relatively homogeneous flow pattern with few unstained area and a much larger infiltration depth. Test results also show that the preferential flow pattern became generally more heterogeneous and complex for a larger measurement scale (or size of infiltration plot). These observations support the general idea behind the active region model that preferential flow pattern in unsaturated soils are dynamic and depend on water flow conditions. Further analyses of the test results indicate that the active-region model is able to capture the major features of the observed flow pattern at the scale of interest, and the determined parameter values do not significantly depend on the test conditions (initial water content and total amount of infiltrating water) for a given test site. This supports the validity of the active region model that considers that parameter to be a property of the corresponding unsaturated soil. Results also show that some intrinsic relation seems to exist between active

  13. TOMOGRAPHY OF PLASMA FLOWS IN THE UPPER SOLAR CONVECTION ZONE USING TIME-DISTANCE INVERSION COMBINING RIDGE AND PHASE-SPEED FILTERING

    SciTech Connect

    Svanda, Michal

    2013-09-20

    The consistency of time-distance inversions for horizontal components of the plasma flow on supergranular scales in the upper solar convection zone is checked by comparing the results derived using two k-{omega} filtering procedures-ridge filtering and phase-speed filtering-commonly used in time-distance helioseismology. I show that both approaches result in similar flow estimates when finite-frequency sensitivity kernels are used. I further demonstrate that the performance of the inversion improves (in terms of a simultaneously better averaging kernel and a lower noise level) when the two approaches are combined together in one inversion. Using the combined inversion, I invert for horizontal flows in the upper 10 Mm of the solar convection zone. The flows connected with supergranulation seem to be coherent only for the top {approx}5 Mm; deeper down there is a hint of change of the convection scales toward structures larger than supergranules.

  14. Cross-flow, filter-sorbent catalyst for particulate, SO sub 2 and NO sub x control

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    The device described in this report will simultaneously remove particulates, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from the combustion gases of coal combustors. The device is configured as a cross-flow filter. The gas flows from the inlet passages to orthogonally oriented discharge channels via thin, multilayered porous walls. Flue gas enters from both the front and back of the device. With the left wall of the filter sealed, gas discharges from the right side of the device. The key to combined physical (fly ash) and chemical (SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x}) cleaning is to utilize chemical active sorbent-catalysts (e.g., metal oxides) in the layered walls of the filter. This quarter, the NO{sub x} reduction activity of three sorbent-catalyst materials was tested over a temperature range from 200 to 500{degree}C. We were primarily interested in the sorbent-catalyst NO{sub x} reduction performance at 400{degree}C because this appears to be a minimum temperature for acceptable sulfur capture with these sorbents. the tradeoff between sulfur capture and NO{sub x} reduction performance for these sorbent-catalysts is clear: sulfation improves with higher temperatures (e.g., 400--600{degree}C) while NO{sub x} reduction improves at lower temperatures (e.g., 200--300{degree}C). Sorbent-catalyst materials included: Cu-7Al-O; Cu-Ce-O; and CeO{sub 2}. 7 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Direct estimation of mass flow and diffusion of nitrogen compounds in solution and soil.

    PubMed

    Oyewole, Olusegun Ayodeji; Inselsbacher, Erich; Näsholm, Torgny

    2014-02-01

    Plant nutrient uptake from soil is mainly governed by diffusion and transpirationally induced mass flow, but the current methods for assessing the relative importance of these processes are indirect. We developed a microdialysis method using solutions of different osmotic potentials as perfusates to simulate diffusion and mass flow processes, and assessed how induced mass flow affected fluxes of nitrogen (N) compounds in solution and in boreal forest soil. Varying the osmotic potential of perfusates induced vertical fluxes in the direction of the dialysis membranes at rates of between 1 × 10(-8) and 3 × 10(-7)  m s(-1) , thus covering the estimated range of water velocities perpendicular to root surfaces and induced by transpiration. Mass flow increased N fluxes in solution but even more so in soil. This effect was explained by an indirect effect of mass flow on rates of diffusive fluxes, possibly caused by the formation of steeper gradients in concentrations of N compounds from membrane surfaces out in the soil. Our results suggest that transpiration may be an essential driver of plant N acquisition.

  16. Progress Toward Affordable High Fidelity Combustion Simulations Using Filtered Density Functions for Hypersonic Flows in Complex Geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drozda, Tomasz G.; Quinlan, Jesse R.; Pisciuneri, Patrick H.; Yilmaz, S. Levent

    2012-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in the development of subgrid scale (SGS) closures based on a filtered density function (FDF) for large eddy simulations (LES) of turbulent reacting flows. The FDF is the counterpart of the probability density function (PDF) method, which has proven effective in Reynolds averaged simulations (RAS). However, while systematic progress is being made advancing the FDF models for relatively simple flows and lab-scale flames, the application of these methods in complex geometries and high speed, wall-bounded flows with shocks remains a challenge. The key difficulties are the significant computational cost associated with solving the FDF transport equation and numerically stiff finite rate chemistry. For LES/FDF methods to make a more significant impact in practical applications a pragmatic approach must be taken that significantly reduces the computational cost while maintaining high modeling fidelity. An example of one such ongoing effort is at the NASA Langley Research Center, where the first generation FDF models, namely the scalar filtered mass density function (SFMDF) are being implemented into VULCAN, a production-quality RAS and LES solver widely used for design of high speed propulsion flowpaths. This effort leverages internal and external collaborations to reduce the overall computational cost of high fidelity simulations in VULCAN by: implementing high order methods that allow reduction in the total number of computational cells without loss in accuracy; implementing first generation of high fidelity scalar PDF/FDF models applicable to high-speed compressible flows; coupling RAS/PDF and LES/FDF into a hybrid framework to efficiently and accurately model the effects of combustion in the vicinity of the walls; developing efficient Lagrangian particle tracking algorithms to support robust solutions of the FDF equations for high speed flows; and utilizing finite rate chemistry parametrization, such as flamelet models, to reduce

  17. Soil morphology of a debris flow chronosequence in a coniferous forest, southern California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turk, J.K.; Goforth, B.R.; Graham, R.C.; Kendrick, K.J.

    2008-01-01

    Soils on a series of debris flow deposits, ranging from < 1 to 244??years old, were described and sampled in order to investigate the early stages of soil development. The parent material at the site is debris flow regolith, composed mainly of gneiss, the soil moisture regime is xeric, and the vegetation is mixed coniferous forest. Ages of the deposits were assessed using dendrochronology. Morphologic trends in the organic horizons included a thickening of the humus form over time, along with the development of Fm and Hr horizons. The humus forms underwent a progression from Mormodors (20??years old), to Hemimors (26-101??years old), and finally Lignomors (163??years old) and Resimors (184-244??years old). Changes in physical properties of the uppermost mineral horizons as a function of increasing age included a decrease in the volume of coarse fragments, a linear decrease in bulk density, and a darkening and reddening of the soil color. No significant soil development took place in the subsoil during the time span of this chronosequence. The soils described were classified as Typic Xerofluvents and Typic Xerorthents (Regosols and Leptosols). Buried A horizons were observed in many of the soils. Where the A horizons could be linked to dendrochronology to assess the age of the buried surface, we found that the properties of the buried A horizons do not serve as a good indicator of the age of the surface. This study suggests rapid development of the humus form profile (organic horizons and A horizon) following debris flow deposition and rapid degradation of these horizons when the debris flow surface is buried. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  18. Physics of the cigarette filter: fluid flow through structures with randomly-placed obstacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, H. Eugene; Andrade, José S.

    2001-06-01

    This talk briefly reviews the subject of fluid flow through disordered media. In particular, we focus on the sorts of considerations that may be necessary to move statistical physics from the description of idealized flows in the limit of zero Reynolds number to more realistic flows of real fluids moving at a nonzero velocity, where inertia effects mean that dangling ends are explored and the backbone is not entirely explored by the fluid. We discuss several intriguing features, such as the surprisingly sharp change in behavior from a localized to delocalized flow structure (distribution of flow velocities) that seems to occur at a critical value of Re which is orders of magnitude smaller than the critical value of Re where turbulence sets in.

  19. Recirculating electric air filter

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, Werner

    1986-01-01

    An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage eleode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

  20. Recirculating electric air filter

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, W.

    1985-01-09

    An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage electrode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

  1. The influence of filter mud compost and Tithonia diversifolia leaves on the dissipation of diuron in soils within the Nzoia River Drainage Basin, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Jemutai-Kimosop, Selly; Orata, Francis; Getenga, Zachary

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the environmental impact of filter mud compost and Tithonia diversifoila amendments on the dissipation of diuron in sugarcane cultivated soils. Filter mud compost is the by-product of sugarcane processing, while T. diversifoila is a common local plant that grows within the study region. The dissipation of diuron was significantly enhanced with DT(50) of 15 and 16 days (p < 0.05) in soils amended with filter mud compost and T. diversifoila, respectively compared to 26 days in non-amended soils. Residues of 0.93 %, 1.83 % and 5.40 % of the initial applied diuron were recorded at the end of the experiment in the three treatments, respectively. The residues of 3,4-dichlorophenylmethylurea metabolite were 22.93 %, 25.92 % and 30.93 %, while 10.19 %, 12.19 % and 15.46 % of 3,4-dichloroaniline metabolite remained in soil after 112 days in the three treatments, respectively.

  2. Tracking the flow of bacterially derived 13C and 15N through soil faunal feeding channels.

    PubMed

    Crotty, F V; Blackshaw, R P; Murray, P J

    2011-06-15

    The soil food web has been referred to as a 'black box', a 'poor man's tropical rainforest' and an 'enigma', due to its opacity, diversity and the limited insight into feeding specificity. Here we investigate the flow of C and N through the soil food web as a way to gain understanding of the feeding interactions occurring. A bacterium, Pseudomonas lurida, was introduced to soil cores from two different habitats, a grassland and a woodland with the same soil type, enriched to 99 atom% in (13)C and (15)N, to trace the flow of bacterial C and N through the soil food web. Throughout the experiment the soil remained enriched in (13)C and (15)N. Almost all the invertebrates tested gained C and N enrichment indicative of the labelled bacteria, implying that bacterial feeding is a common mechanism within the soil. Only three groups were significantly enriched in both (13)C and (15)N in both habitats. These were Collembola (Entomobryomorpha), Acari (Oribatida), and Nematoda, indicating that these organisms are consuming the most bacteria within both systems. When the invertebrates were grouped into hypothesised trophic levels, those considered secondary decomposers were gaining the most enrichment across all invertebrates tested. This enrichment was also high in the micro-predators within the soil, implying that their main food source was the secondary decomposers, particularly the Collembola. Using an enriched bacterium to track the trophic transfer between organisms within the soil food web is a novel way of empirically showing that interactions are occurring, which normally cannot be seen.

  3. Manifestation of Preferential Flow and Nitrate Transport in Central European Soils on Acid Crystalline Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolezal, F.; Cislerova, M.; Vogel, T.; Zavadil, J.; Vacek, J.; Kvitek, T.; Prazak, P.; Nechvatal, M.; Bayer, T.

    2006-12-01

    Large areas of Central Europe are occupied by highlands and peneplains of medium altitudes, built by acid crystalline rocks. The soils overlying them are typically of medium textures. They are neither markedly water- repellent nor greatly swelling and shrinking. These landscapes are characterized by high vulnerability of water bodies, both surface and subsurface. The existing methodologies of vulnerability assessment regard the heavier among these soils as little vulnerable to diffuse pollution, while in reality they may be virtually equally vulnerable, because of the short-circuiting effect of preferential flow and transport. Our experiment site was Valeèov (49° 38' 40" N, 14° 30' 25" E, 461 m a.s.l.) in the Bohemo-Moravian highland, with average annual precipitation 660 mm and average annual air temperature 7.2 ° C. The field trials, starting from 2001, were focused on growing potato under different conditions. Soil moisture content was measured by Theta- probe capacitance sensors, soil water suction by Watermark sensors and tensiometers. Nitrate leaching was monitored by soil solution sampling with ceramic suction cups and zero-tension lysimeters. The hydraulic conductivity of the soil was measured on small cores and by suction and pressure infiltrometers. The following preferential flow manifestations are analyzed and quantified: a) the spatial variability of soil moisture content and suction after rainstorms, b) the spatial and temporal variability of soil's hydraulic conductivity and its dependence on soil moisture content, c) the spatial variability of percolation volumes in parallel lysimeters, d) the variability of nitrate concentrations in the lysimeter leachate, e) the apparent absence of correlation between leachate volumes and leachate concentrations in lysimeters, f) the lower mean and higher variance of leachate concentrations in lysimeters, in comparison with those in suction cups.

  4. Water movement and isoproturon behaviour in a drained heavy clay soil: 1. Preferential flow processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haria, A. H.; Johnson, A. C.; Bell, J. P.; Batchelor, C. H.

    1994-12-01

    The processes and mechanisms that control pesticide transport from drained heavy clay catchments are being studied at Wytham Farm (Oxford University) in southern England. In the first field season field-drain water contained high concentrations of pesticide. Soil studies demonstrated that the main mechanism for pesticide translocation was by preferential flow processes, both over the soil surface and through the soil profile via a macropore system that effectively by-passed the soil matrix. This macropore system included worm holes, shrinkage cracks and cracks resulting from ploughing. Rainfall events in early winter rapidly created a layer of saturation in the A horizon perched above a B horizon of very low hydraulic conductivity. Drain flow was initiated when the saturated layer in the A horizon extended into the upper 0.06m of the soil profile; thereafter water moved down slope via horizontal macropores possibly through a band of incorporated straw residues. These horizontal pathways for water movement connected with the fracture system of the mole drains, thus feeding the drains. Overland flow occurred infrequently during the season.

  5. A soil flowing characteristics monitoring method in planetary drilling and coring verification experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Junyue; Quan, Qiquan; Jiang, Shengyuan; Chen, Chongbin; Yuan, Fengpei; Deng, Zongquan

    2017-03-01

    Some type of piercing into the subsurface formation is required in future planetary explorations to enhance the understanding of early stars' geological evolution and the origin of life. Compared with other technical methods, drilling & coring, only utilizing the compound locomotion of rotation and penetration, can sample the subsurface soil relatively efficient and convenient. However, given the uncertain mechanical properties of planetary soil, drilling state signals should be monitored online to improve the robustness of drilling system and avoid potential drilling faults. Since the flowing characteristics of interacted soil, such as removal volume, coring height, removal velocity and accumulation angle, directly reveal the drilling conditions, they are enhancing resources to comprehend the sampling phenomenon and can be used to help control the drill tool. This paper proposed a novel soil flowing characteristics (SFC) monitoring method by applying an industrial camera to record the flowing characteristics of removed cuttings and by utilizing an ultrasonic sensor into the hollow auger to monitor the sampled core. Experiments in one typical lunar regolith simulant indicate that the monitored SFC accurately reflects the interaction between the drill tool and soil.

  6. Scaling preferential flow processes in agricultural soils affected by tillage and trafficking at the field scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipović, Vilim; Coquet, Yves

    2016-04-01

    There is an accumulation of experimental evidences that agricultural soils, at least the top horizons affected by tillage practices, are not homogeneous and present a structure that is strongly dependent on farming practices like tillage and trafficking. Soil tillage and trafficking can create compacted zones in the soil with hydraulic properties and porosity which are different from those of the non-compacted zones. This spatial variability can strongly influence transport processes and initiate preferential flow. Two or three dimensional models can be used to account for spatial variability created by agricultural practices, but such models need a detailed assessment of spatial heterogeneity which can be rather impractical to provide. This logically raises the question whether and how one dimensional model may be designed and used to account for the within-field spatial variability in soil structure created by agricultural practices. Preferential flow (dual-permeability) modelling performed with HYDRUS-1D will be confronted to classical modelling based on the Richards and convection-dispersion equations using HYDRUS-2D taking into account the various soil heterogeneities created by agricultural practices. Our goal is to derive one set of equivalent 1D soil hydraulic parameters from 2D simulations which accounts for soil heterogeneities created by agricultural operations. A field experiment was carried out in two phases: infiltration and redistribution on a plot by uniform sprinkle irrigation with water or bromide solution. Prior to the field experiment the soil structure of the tilled layer was determined along the face of a large trench perpendicular to the tillage direction (0.7 m depth and 3.1 m wide). Thirty TDR probes and tensiometers were installed in different soil structural zones (Δ compacted soil and Γ macroporous soil) which ensured soil water monitoring throughout the experiment. A map of bromide was constructed from small core samples (4 cm diam

  7. Modeling Transport of Escherichia coli from Soil into Overland Flow Under Raindrop Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Walter, M. T.; Parlange, J. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Raindrop impacted transport of Escherichia coli (E. coli) from soil into overland flow is an important but poorly understood process. Research has focused on the attachment of E. coli to solids, E. coli transport in percolating water through soil, in overland flow over bare ground or through vegetation, and of E. coli release from cowpats during rainfall. However, E. coli transport from soil under splash erosion has not been well studied. A small scale rainfall experiment was conducted in which E. coli was mixed with simple soils composed either entirely of sand (250-300 μm) or a 9:1 sand-clay mixture. A variation on the conceptual Hairsine-Rose erosion model was applied to the experiment to help understand the transport processes. Although previous research has documented E. coli attachment to dislodged soil during rainfall, the presence of clay in our experiments did not noticeably affect the total amount or timing of E. coli ejected from the soil; we were not able to determine bacterial attachment to the clay. Our findings suggest that best management practices used to reduce the energy of raindrop impact, such as vegetated buffers, are likely effective for reducing E. coli as well.

  8. Perennial filter strips reduce nitrate levels in soil and shallow groundwater after grassland-to-cropland conversion.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaobo; Helmers, Matthew J; Asbjornsen, Heidi; Kolka, Randy; Tomer, Mark D

    2010-01-01

    Many croplands planted to perennial grasses under the Conservation Reserve Program are being returned to crop production, and with potential consequences for water quality. The objective of this study was to quantify the impact of grassland-to-cropland conversion on nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) concentrations in soil and shallow groundwater and to assess the potential for perennial filter strips (PFS) to mitigate increases in NO3-N levels. The study, conducted at the Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge (NSNWR) in central Iowa, consisted of a balanced incomplete block design with 12 watersheds and four watershed-scale treatments having different proportions and topographic positions of PFS planted in native prairie grasses: 100% rowcrop, 10% PFS (toeslope position), 10% PFS (distributed on toe and as contour strips), and 20 PFS (distributed on toe and as contour strips). All treatments were established in fall 2006 on watersheds that were under bromegrass (Bromus L.) cover for at least 10 yr. Nonperennial areas were maintained under a no-till 2-yr corn (Zea mays L.)--soybean [Glycine max. (L.) Merr.] rotation since spring 2007. Suction lysimeter and shallow groundwater wells located at upslope and toeslope positions were sampled monthly during the growing season to determine NO3-N concentration from 2005 to 2008. The results indicated significant increases in NO3-N concentration in soil and groundwater following grassland-to-cropland conversion. Nitrate-nitrogen levels in the vadose zone and groundwater under PFS were lower compared with 100% cropland, with the most significant differences occurring at the toeslope position. During the years following conversion, PFS mitigated increases in subsurface nitrate, but long-term monitoring is needed to observe and understand the full response to land-use conversion.

  9. Relationships between basic soils-engineering equations and basic ground-water flow equations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorgensen, Donald G.

    1980-01-01

    The many varied though related terms developed by ground-water hydrologists and by soils engineers are useful to each discipline, but their differences in terminology hinder the use of related information in interdisciplinary studies. Equations for the Terzaghi theory of consolidation and equations for ground-water flow are identical under specific conditions. A combination of the two sets of equations relates porosity to void ratio and relates the modulus of elasticity to the coefficient of compressibility, coefficient of volume compressibility, compression index, coefficient of consolidation, specific storage, and ultimate compaction. Also, transient ground-water flow is related to coefficient of consolidation, rate of soil compaction, and hydraulic conductivity. Examples show that soils-engineering data and concepts are useful to solution of problems in ground-water hydrology.

  10. Analysis on Experimental Investigation and Mathematical Modeling of Incompressible Flow Through Ceramic Foam Filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbarnejad, Shahin; Jonsson, Lage Tord Ingemar; Kennedy, Mark William; Aune, Ragnhild Elizabeth; Jönsson, Pӓr Göran

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents experimental results of pressure drop measurements on 30, 50, and 80 pores per inch (PPI) commercial alumina ceramic foam filters (CFF) and compares the obtained pressure drop profiles to numerically modeled values. In addition, it is aimed at investigating the adequacy of the mathematical correlations used in the analytical and the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. It is shown that the widely used correlations for predicting pressure drop in porous media continuously under-predict the experimentally obtained pressure drop profiles. For analytical predictions, the negative deviations from the experimentally obtained pressure drop using the unmodified Ergun and Dietrich equations could be as high as 95 and 74 pct, respectively. For the CFD predictions, the deviation to experimental results is in the range of 84.3 to 88.5 pct depending on filter PPI. Better results can be achieved by applying the Forchheimer second-order drag term instead of the Brinkman-Forchheimer drag term. Thus, the final deviation of the CFD model estimates lie in the range of 0.3 to 5.5 pct compared to the measured values.

  11. The flow of red cells through spleen-like filtering slits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freund, Jonathan

    2012-11-01

    It is widely understood that the spleen is the principal site in the body for removal of old red blood cells. As they age during their approximately 120 day lifetimes, red blood cells have increasingly slow relaxation times. This mechanical change is potentially the identifying characteristic for filtering in the spleen, which is thought to occur in particularly narrows slit-like passages (< 1 μ m × ~ 7 μ m). The mechanism of the filtering, however, is unclear. Most simply, increasing cell viscosity with age would slow, rather than stop, cell passage. Similarly, `testing' the cells via significant strains during each passage through the spleen might be expected to accelerate aging through fatigue-like mechanisms. Our detailed simulations of red cells passing trough a model slit geometry suggest that increasing cell viscosity can fundamentally change its passage. The results are suggestive of a bifurcation, such as in the onset of instability, with increasing cell interior viscosity. Higher viscosities (or elastic capillary numbers) are seen in cases to lead to a fingering-like instability, which might be expected to severely damage aged cells, leading to their removal, while leaving younger low viscosity cells relatively unstressed.

  12. Weathering rates as a function of flow through an alpine soil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clow, D.W.; Drever, J.I.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of flow on release rates of solutes from soil in a 39-m2 alpine catchment in the Colorado Rockies was measured during the summers of 1990-1994. Flow rates through the soil were varied by augmenting natural rainfall with deionized irrigation water. Daily water inputs averaged between 96 and 216 1 day-1 during the five field seasons, and mean discharge (inputs minus evapotranspiration) varied from 35 to 175 1 day-1. Volume-weighted mean concentrations of base cations and silica decreased only moderately in response to the increased water inputs. Input fluxes of solutes in precipitation were similar in each of the study seasons, but output fluxes of base cations and silica in surface outflow increased substantially in conjunction with the average water input rate for the season. Weathering rates calculated from the chemical fluxes increased substantially in response to increases in water input rates. The increases appear to be largely attributable to enhanced transport of solutes from the soil matrix under high flow conditions. At high flow, physical flushing of micropores presumably occurs to a greater extent than during low-flow periods because of greater soil wetness and higher hydrologic head. Increased flushing would also cause an increased rate of diffusion of solutes from microcracks in mineral surfaces and constricted pore spaces in response to an increased concentration gradient between those regions and adjacent areas in the soil matrix. Another consequence of the increased flushing that occurs during periods of high flow is that concentrations throughout the soil matrix tend to be lower, which might increase chemical weathering rates of some silicate minerals such as microcline, which are relatively close to saturation. Decreased Si concentrations under high-flow conditions appear to promote dissolution of amorphous aluminosilicates or desorption of Si from mineral surfaces, buffering Si concentrations in the soil solutions. Thus, both physical

  13. Uptake of gaseous formaldehyde onto soil surfaces: a coated-wall flow tube study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guo; Su, Hang; Li, Xin; Meusel, Hannah; Kuhn, Uwe; Pöschl, Ulrich; Shao, Min; Cheng, Yafang

    2015-04-01

    Gaseous formaldehyde (HCHO) is an important intermediate molecule and source of HO2 radicals. However, discrepancies exist between model simulated and observed HCHO concentrations, suggesting missing sources or sinks in the HCHO budget. Multiphase processes on the surface of soil and airborne soil-derived particles have been suggested as an important mechanism for the production/removal of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. In this work, the uptake of gaseous HCHO on soil surfaces were investigated through coated-wall flow tube experiments with HCHO concentration ranging from 10 to 40 ppbv. The results show that the adsorption of HCHO occurred on soil surfaces, and the uptake coefficient dropped gradually (i.e., by a factor of 5 after 1 hour) as the reactive surface sites were consumed. The HCHO uptake coefficient was found to be affected by the relative humidity (RH), decreasing from (2.4 ± 0.5) × 10-4 at 0% RH to (3.0 ± 0.08) × 10-5 at 70% RH, due to competition of water molecule absorption on the soil surface. A release of HCHO from reacted soil was also detected by applying zero air, suggesting the nature of reversible physical absorption and the existence of an equilibrium at the soil-gas interface. It implies that soil could be either a source or a sink for HCHO, depending on the ambient HCHO concentration. We also develop a Matlab program to calculate the uptake coefficient under laminar flow conditions based on the Cooney-Kim-Davis method.

  14. Data Assimilation in a Solar Dynamo Model Using Ensemble Kalman Filters: Sensitivity and Robustness in Reconstruction of Meridional Flow Speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikpati, Mausumi; Anderson, Jeffrey L.; Mitra, Dhrubaditya

    2016-09-01

    We implement an Ensemble Kalman Filter procedure using the Data Assimilation Research Testbed for assimilating “synthetic” meridional flow-speed data in a Babcock-Leighton-type flux-transport solar dynamo model. By performing several “observing system simulation experiments,” we reconstruct time variation in meridional flow speed and analyze sensitivity and robustness of reconstruction. Using 192 ensemble members including 10 observations, each with 4% error, we find that flow speed is reconstructed best if observations of near-surface poloidal fields from low latitudes and tachocline toroidal fields from midlatitudes are assimilated. If observations include a mixture of poloidal and toroidal fields from different latitude locations, reconstruction is reasonably good for ≤slant 40 % error in low-latitude data, even if observational error in polar region data becomes 200%, but deteriorates when observational error increases in low- and midlatitude data. Solar polar region observations are known to contain larger errors than those in low latitudes; our forward operator (a flux-transport dynamo model here) can sustain larger errors in polar region data, but is more sensitive to errors in low-latitude data. An optimal reconstruction is obtained if an assimilation interval of 15 days is used; 10- and 20-day assimilation intervals also give reasonably good results. Assimilation intervals \\lt 5 days do not produce faithful reconstructions of flow speed, because the system requires a minimum time to develop dynamics to respond to flow variations. Reconstruction also deteriorates if an assimilation interval \\gt 45 days is used, because the system’s inherent memory interferes with its short-term dynamics during a substantially long run without updating.

  15. Transport of bromide measured by soil coring, suction plates, and lysimeters under transient flow conditions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasteel, R.; Pütz, Th.; Vereecken, H.

    2003-04-01

    Lysimeter studies are one step within the registration procedure of pesticides. Flow and transport in these free-draining lysimeters do not reflect the field situation mainly because of the occurence of a zone of local saturation at the lower boundary (seepage face). The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of flow and transport behaviour of bromide detected with different measuring devices (lysimeters, suction plates, and soil coring) by comparing experimental results with numerical simulations in heterogeneous flow domains. We applied bromide as a small pulse to the bare soil surface (Orthic Luvisol) of the three devices and the displacement of bromide was regurlarly sampled for three years under natural wheather conditions. Based on the mean breakthrough curves we observe experimentally that lysimeters have a lower effective pore-water velocity and exhibit more solute spreading resulting in a larger dispersivity than the suction plates. This can be ascribed to the artefact of the lower boundary. We performed numerical transport simulations in 2-D heterogeneous flow fields (scaling approach) choosing appropriate boundary conditions for the various devices. The simulations allow to follow the temporal evolution of flow and transport processes in the various devices and to gain additional process understanding. We conclude that the model is essentially capable to reproduce the main experimental findings only if we account for the spatial correlation structure of the hydraulic properties, i.e. soil heterogeneity.

  16. Modelling aerobic biodegradation in vertical flow sand filters: impact of operational considerations on oxygen transfer and bacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Petitjean, A; Forquet, N; Wanko, A; Laurent, J; Molle, P; Mosé, R; Sadowski, A

    2012-05-01

    Oxygen renewal, as a prominent phenomenon for aerobic bacterial activity, deeply impacts Vertical Flow Constructed Wetland (VFCW) treatment efficiency. We introduce a multiphase model able to simulate multi-component transfer in VFCWs. It is based on a two-phase flow module, and a transport module. The flow module can quantify both water and air velocities throughout the filter during operation. The reactive transport module follows dissolved and gaseous oxygen concentrations, and the transport of solutes such as ammonium and readily biodegradable COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand). The consumption of components is governed by Monod-type kinetics. Heterotrophic and autotrophic bacteria, which are responsible for COD and ammonium degradation respectively, are part of the model components. The kinetics are based on the Constructed Wetlands Model 1. The results from the simulation tool were compared with existing experimental data, and two kinds of operation with VFCWs were investigated. The authors show strong interplay between oxygen renewal and bacterial consumption in case of sequential batch feeding with transient flooding of surface. Oxygen renewal is essentially convection mediated in such operation, while convection is not significant in non-flooding operation. Simulated bacterial patterns are impacted by the operation, both quantitatively and spatially. From a modelling point of view, the authors highlight some limitations of the biological model: the description of bacterial lysis processes needs to be enhanced, as well as ammonium adsorption to organic matter.

  17. Effects of unstable flow on solute transport in the marsh soil and exchange with coastal water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Chengji; Zhang, Chenming; Jin, Guangqiu; Kong, Jun; Li, Ling

    2016-12-01

    Recent studies of marsh hydraulics have focused on tide-induced pore water circulation as the main drive for solute transport in the marsh soil and exchange with coastal water. Our study revealed another important mechanism provided by unstable fingering flow, which largely modified solute transport paths. In the marsh interior, downward penetration of salt fingers forced ambient pore water and solute plumes to move upward and exit the marsh soil through marsh platform at relatively high concentrations, up to 2 orders of magnitude higher than exit solute concentrations at the tidal creek bed. The mixing of solute with ambient pore water in the marsh interior was intensified greatly by fingering flow. A critical distance to the creek was determined based on a field-scale model simulation to distinguish tidal circulation-dominated and fingering flow-dominated solute transport zones. The new transport mechanism has implications for understanding the fate of solutes in particularly salt marshes of low creek densities.

  18. Subsurface flow velocities through selected forest soils, South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosley, M. P.

    1982-02-01

    Subsurface flow through soils in Tawhai, Big Bush and Craigieburn State Forests has been studied by applying water at a line source 1 m upslope from a pit, in the base of which an intercepting trough is located. By measuring lag times between the centres of mass of input and outflow and between the start of input and start of outflow, minimum estimates of mean and maximum flow velocity, V¯ and Vmax, at 51 locations were obtained. Mean values for the Tawhai sites were for V¯ 0.3 cm/s and for Vmax 0.42 cm/s, but a considerable degree of variability was present, with coefficients of variation up to 90%. A number of different pathways through the soil are followed by flowing water; macropore networks (root channels, etc.) are effective transmitters of water and at some sites conveyed up to 40% of the input rapidly to the interception trough. Variability in flow velocity and the proportion of the input appearing as rapid outflow is a function of antecedent moisture conditions and of the relative importance of the various pathways at a given site, which is in turn a function of the characteristics of the soil, the macropore network and the parent material at the base of the soil. At sites where the soil had an open structure and the parent material was shattered or permeable, the macropore network was a less important control upon soil hydrological behavior than where the subsoil had a less open structure and was underlain by impermeable bedrock. Measurements of flow velocities on undisturbed, logged, and logged/burned/planted sites were made at Tawhai SF, but the spatial and temporal variability was such that no statistically significant differences could be discerned. The time lapse since logging may be insufficient for changes in the root systems to be having a hydrological impact, but the high variability would require a sample size of over 1000 to show a significant difference in velocity of even 10%. For rapid flow through macropores to have a significant

  19. A field study of the effects of soil structure and irrigation method on preferential flow of pesticides in unsaturated soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghodrati, Masoud; Jury, William A.

    1992-10-01

    A large number of field plot experiments were performed to characterize the downward flow of three pesticides (atrazine, napropamide and prometryn) and a water tracer (chloride) under various soil water regimes and soil surface conditions. Each experiment consisted of the uniform application of a 0.4-cm pulse of a solution containing a mixture of the four chemicals to the surface of a 1.5 × 1.5-m plot. The plot was then irrigated with 12 cm of water and soil samples were collected and analyzed to a depth of 150 cm. In all, 64 different plots were employed to study individual as well as interactive effects of such variables as irrigation method (continuous or intermittent sprinkling or ponding), pesticide formulation method (technical grade dissolved in water, wettable powder, or emulsifiable concentrate), and tillage (undisturbed or tilled and repacked surface layer) on pesticide transport. While all three pesticides were expected to be retained in the top 10-20 cm, there was considerable movement below this zone. When averaged over all the treatments, 18.8% of the recovered mass of atrazine, 9.4% of the prometryn and 16.4% of the napropamide were found between 30- and 150cm depth. Moreover, all pesticides were highly mobile in the surface 30 cm regardless of their adsorption coefficient. There were occureences of extreme mobility or "preferential flow" of pesticide under every experimental condition except where the pesticides were applied in wettable powder form to plots which had their surface tilled and repacked. This finding implies that there may be fine preferential flow pathways through which solution may move but particulates may not.

  20. Simulation of underresolved turbulent flows by adaptive filtering using the high order discontinuous Galerkin spectral element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flad, David; Beck, Andrea; Munz, Claus-Dieter

    2016-05-01

    Scale-resolving simulations of turbulent flows in complex domains demand accurate and efficient numerical schemes, as well as geometrical flexibility. For underresolved situations, the avoidance of aliasing errors is a strong demand for stability. For continuous and discontinuous Galerkin schemes, an effective way to prevent aliasing errors is to increase the quadrature precision of the projection operator to account for the non-linearity of the operands (polynomial dealiasing, overintegration). But this increases the computational costs extensively. In this work, we present a novel spatially and temporally adaptive dealiasing strategy by projection filtering. We show this to be more efficient for underresolved turbulence than the classical overintegration strategy. For this novel approach, we discuss the implementation strategy and the indicator details, show its accuracy and efficiency for a decaying homogeneous isotropic turbulence and the transitional Taylor-Green vortex and compare it to the original overintegration approach and a state of the art variational multi-scale eddy viscosity formulation.

  1. Insect-Inspired Self-Motion Estimation with Dense Flow Fields--An Adaptive Matched Filter Approach.

    PubMed

    Strübbe, Simon; Stürzl, Wolfgang; Egelhaaf, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The control of self-motion is a basic, but complex task for both technical and biological systems. Various algorithms have been proposed that allow the estimation of self-motion from the optic flow on the eyes. We show that two apparently very different approaches to solve this task, one technically and one biologically inspired, can be transformed into each other under certain conditions. One estimator of self-motion is based on a matched filter approach; it has been developed to describe the function of motion sensitive cells in the fly brain. The other estimator, the Koenderink and van Doorn (KvD) algorithm, was derived analytically with a technical background. If the distances to the objects in the environment can be assumed to be known, the two estimators are linear and equivalent, but are expressed in different mathematical forms. However, for most situations it is unrealistic to assume that the distances are known. Therefore, the depth structure of the environment needs to be determined in parallel to the self-motion parameters and leads to a non-linear problem. It is shown that the standard least mean square approach that is used by the KvD algorithm leads to a biased estimator. We derive a modification of this algorithm in order to remove the bias and demonstrate its improved performance by means of numerical simulations. For self-motion estimation it is beneficial to have a spherical visual field, similar to many flying insects. We show that in this case the representation of the depth structure of the environment derived from the optic flow can be simplified. Based on this result, we develop an adaptive matched filter approach for systems with a nearly spherical visual field. Then only eight parameters about the environment have to be memorized and updated during self-motion.

  2. Insect-Inspired Self-Motion Estimation with Dense Flow Fields—An Adaptive Matched Filter Approach

    PubMed Central

    Strübbe, Simon; Stürzl, Wolfgang; Egelhaaf, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The control of self-motion is a basic, but complex task for both technical and biological systems. Various algorithms have been proposed that allow the estimation of self-motion from the optic flow on the eyes. We show that two apparently very different approaches to solve this task, one technically and one biologically inspired, can be transformed into each other under certain conditions. One estimator of self-motion is based on a matched filter approach; it has been developed to describe the function of motion sensitive cells in the fly brain. The other estimator, the Koenderink and van Doorn (KvD) algorithm, was derived analytically with a technical background. If the distances to the objects in the environment can be assumed to be known, the two estimators are linear and equivalent, but are expressed in different mathematical forms. However, for most situations it is unrealistic to assume that the distances are known. Therefore, the depth structure of the environment needs to be determined in parallel to the self-motion parameters and leads to a non-linear problem. It is shown that the standard least mean square approach that is used by the KvD algorithm leads to a biased estimator. We derive a modification of this algorithm in order to remove the bias and demonstrate its improved performance by means of numerical simulations. For self-motion estimation it is beneficial to have a spherical visual field, similar to many flying insects. We show that in this case the representation of the depth structure of the environment derived from the optic flow can be simplified. Based on this result, we develop an adaptive matched filter approach for systems with a nearly spherical visual field. Then only eight parameters about the environment have to be memorized and updated during self-motion. PMID:26308839

  3. Importance of soil heating, liquid water loss, and vapor flow enhancement for evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Michael D.

    2016-10-01

    Field measurements conducted by Cahill and Parlange (1998) are reanalyzed to verify if their conclusion that daytime peak values of 60-70 W m-2 of latent heat flux divergence occurred in the 7-10 cm soil layer of a drying Yolo silt loam when maximum values of surface latent heat flux are estimated to have been about 100 W m-2. The new analyses, as similar to theirs as possible, are validated using a numerical simulation of coupled soil moisture and heat flow based on Philip and de Vries (1957) as a test bed. The numerical simulation is extended to include the flow of air induced by diurnal soil heating and evaporative water loss to verify the flux divergence calculations reported in Parlange et al. (1998) that explained the findings of Cahill and Parlange (1998). It is shown that the conclusions of both of these papers are in error, so that the original version of the Philip and de Vries (1957) theory is consistent with their field measurements after all and the effects of airflow associated with soil heating and liquid water loss (and low-frequency barometric pressure variations also considered) are negligible in practice. In an additional investigation, enhancement of diffusive vapor flow (first postulated by Philip and de Vries (1957)) and discussed extensively in the literature since is shown to have negligible effects on cumulative evaporation under field conditions.

  4. Rigid porous filter

    DOEpatents

    Chiang, Ta-Kuan; Straub, Douglas L.; Dennis, Richard A.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention involves a porous rigid filter including a plurality of concentric filtration elements having internal flow passages and forming external flow passages there between. The present invention also involves a pressure vessel containing the filter for the removal of particulates from high pressure particulate containing gases, and further involves a method for using the filter to remove such particulates. The present filter has the advantage of requiring fewer filter elements due to the high surface area-to-volume ratio provided by the filter, requires a reduced pressure vessel size, and exhibits enhanced mechanical design properties, improved cleaning properties, configuration options, modularity and ease of fabrication.

  5. Evaluating the Performance of a Surface Barrier on Reducing Soil-Water Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z. F.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Field, Jim G.; Parker, Danny L.; Clayton, Ray E.

    2012-08-31

    One of the most common effective techniques for contaminant remediation in the vadose zone is to use a surface barrier to reduce or eliminate soil-water flow to reduce the contaminant flux to the underlying groundwater. Confirming the reduction of the soil-water flux rate is challenging because of the difficulty of determining the very low soil-water flux beneath the barrier. We propose a hydraulic-conductivity factor, fK, as a conservative indicator for quantifying the reduction of soil-water flow. The factor can be calculated using the measured soil-water content or pressure but does not require the knowledge of the saturated hydraulic conductivity or the hydraulic gradient. The formulas were tested by comparing with changes in hydraulic conductivity, K, from a drainage experiment. The pressure-based formula was further applied to evaluate the performance of the interim surface barrier at T Tank Farm on Hanford Site. Three years after barrier emplacement, the hydraulic conductivity decreased by a factor between 3.8 and 13.0 at the 1-, 2- and 5-m depths. The difference between the conductivity-reduction factor and the flux-rate-reduction factor, fq, was quantified with a numerical simulation. With the calculated fK, the numerically determined fK/fq ratio, and the assumed pre-barrier soil-water flux rate of 100 mm yr-1, the estimated soil-water flux rate 3 years after barrier emplacement was no more than 8.5 mm yr-1 at or above the 5-m depth.

  6. Determination of thallium in soils by flow-injection-differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Lukaszewski, Z; Zembrzuski, W

    1992-03-01

    A relatively simple and quick method for the determination of thallium in soils is described. The method does not require any separation prior to determination. Total decomposition of the sample was performed in a teflon bomb. The interferences of iron, aluminum and manganese were removed by media exchange performed in a flow-injection measuring system, and the other interferences were removed by the use of the base electrolyte consisting of 0.15M EDTA and 0.1M ascorbic acid. The contents of thallium in the examined samples of soil were between 100 and 350 ppb.

  7. Overland Flow Generation and Soil Hydraulic Properties in Two Catchments in Central Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godsey, S.; Elsenbeer, H.; Stallard, R.

    2003-12-01

    Land management decisions in the Panama Canal watershed directly impact the hydrological functioning of the canal itself. Knowledge of the hydrological conditions in the forested portions of the watershed provides a baseline comparison for future land use changes. We chose to work on two streams on Barro Colorado Island that are representative of large regions of the watershed. These two streams respond differently to the same storm events: Conrad Trail Stream exhibits a fairly subdued and delayed response and Lutz Creek stream is flashier. In order to understand these differences, we investigated the soil saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) of the two catchments and studied the frequency of overland flow generation. The Ks measurements in dominant geologies in Lutz Creek as well as in Conrad Trail Stream are great enough at shallow depths (median Ks = 29.7, 65.6 and 38.3 mm/hr) that Hortonian overland flow is rare, but a marked decrease in Ks in Lutz Creek catchment at 30 cm (to 1.4 and 5.8 mm/hr) indicates that a perched water table leading to saturated overland flow is the likely runoff mechanism in Lutz Creek. In Conrad, Ks does not decrease as markedly with soil depth, and a perched water table would form at about 60 cm below the surface (median Ks = 0.7 mm/hr). Therefore, more water is able to infiltrate into the soil in Conrad Trail Stream and saturated overland flow is less common. Overland flow was generated much more frequently in Lutz Creek than in Conrad Trail Stream, with lower thresholds of storm magnitude, duration, antecedent wetness and intensity required to generate overland flow. We also quantified the importance of microtopographic features such as concentrated flow lines and the results have implications for experimental design at other field sites. The Lutz Creek and Conrad Trail stream information will provide a useful baseline for land management decisions.

  8. Ammonium removal using a novel unsaturated flow biological filter with passive aeration.

    PubMed

    Lahav, O; Artzi, E; Tarre, S; Green, M

    2001-02-01

    A novel vertical bed process for the removal of ammonium from secondary effluents, using a "passive air pump", has been developed. The process is based on convective aeration caused by a fill and draw operational sequence, and combines the advantages of the vertical wetlands concept with the high loading rates typically associated with trickling filters. Experiments were carried out in a 500-l reactor using simulative effluents and actual municipal secondary effluents. A maximal ammonium removal rate of 1100 g N/m2 reactor/d was achieved using simulative effluents and an effective gravel size of 0.96 mm. At all hydraulic loads applied, the nitrification rate was found to be limited by the oxygen transfer rate. The small-size medium used with simulative effluents clogged when using actual municipal secondary effluents. Two other media (2.46 mm and 4.31 mm) did not clog during the entire experimental period and a maximum removal load of 300 g N/m2 reactor/d was achieved. This value is still much higher than typical rates reported for conventional vertical beds.

  9. Modeling fecal bacteria transport and retention in agricultural and urban soils under saturated and unsaturated flow conditions.

    PubMed

    Balkhair, Khaled S

    2017-03-01

    Pathogenic bacteria, that enter surface water bodies and groundwater systems through unmanaged wastewater land application, pose a great risk to human health. In this study, six soil column experiments were conducted to simulate the vulnerability of agricultural and urban field soils for fecal bacteria transport and retention under saturated and unsaturated flow conditions. HYDRUS-1D kinetic attachment and kinetic attachment-detachment models were used to simulate the breakthrough curves of the experimental data by fitting model parameters. Results indicated significant differences in the retention and drainage of bacteria between saturated and unsaturated flow condition in the two studied soils. Flow under unsaturated condition retained more bacteria than the saturated flow case. The high bacteria retention in the urban soil compared to agricultural soil is ascribed not only to the dynamic attachment and sorption mechanisms but also to the greater surface area of fine particles and low flow rate. All models simulated experimental data satisfactorily under saturated flow conditions; however, under variably saturated flow, the peak concentrations were overestimated by the attachment-detachment model and underestimated by the attachment model with blocking. The good match between observed data and simulated concentrations by the attachment model which was supported by the Akaike information criterion (AIC) for model selection indicates that the first-order attachment coefficient was sufficient to represent the quantitative and temporal distribution of bacteria in the soil column. On the other hand, the total mass balance of the drained and retained bacteria in all transport experiments was in the range of values commonly found in the literature. Regardless of flow conditions and soil texture, most of the bacteria were retained in the top 12 cm of the soil column. The approaches and the models used in this study have proven to be a good tool for simulating fecal

  10. Earthworm populations in septic system filter fields and potential effects on wastewater renovation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wastewater renovation in septic-system filter fields can be affected by preferential flow through soil macropores. Earthworm burrows may contribute to this concern by penetrating the infiltrative surface of soil-treatment trenches. Additionally, the moist, nutrient-rich environment surrounding tre...

  11. Inference of nonlinear state-space models for sandwich-type lateral flow immunoassay using extended Kalman filtering.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Nianyin; Wang, Zidong; Li, Yurong; Du, Min; Liu, Xiaohui

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, a mathematical model for sandwich-type lateral flow immunoassay is developed via short available time series. A nonlinear dynamic stochastic model is considered that consists of the biochemical reaction system equations and the observation equation. After specifying the model structure, we apply the extended Kalman filter (EKF) algorithm for identifying both the states and parameters of the nonlinear state-space model. It is shown that the EKF algorithm can accurately identify the parameters and also predict the system states in the nonlinear dynamic stochastic model through an iterative procedure by using a small number of observations. The identified mathematical model provides a powerful tool for testing the system hypotheses and also for inspecting the effects from various design parameters in both rapid and inexpensive way. Furthermore, by means of the established model, the dynamic changes in the concentration of antigens and antibodies can be predicted, thereby making it possible for us to analyze, optimize, and design the properties of lateral flow immunoassay devices.

  12. Preferential flow and transport of nitrate and bromide in claypan soil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelly, B.P.; Pomes, M.L.

    1998-01-01

    The in situ measurement of water flow and chemical transport through claypan soils is crucial to understanding potential water contamination from agricultural sources. It is important due to the large areal extent of these soils in agricultural regions of the midwestern United States and because of preferential flowpaths caused by desiccation cracks, worm burrowing, and root development. A study plot at the Missouri Management Systems Evaluation Area near Centralia, Missouri, was instrumented to determine the rate of preferential flow of water and transport of NO3-1 fertilizer in the unsaturated zone through a claypan soil using 15N-NO3-1 and Br-1 tracers. The areal distribution of preferential flowpaths was between 2 and 20% in the topsoil. Gravity lysimeter flow caused by preferential flow through the claypan was as much as 150 times greater than the estimated average rate of vertical recharge. As much as 2.4% of the volume of the sod below the claypan may be occupied by preferential flowpaths. The 15N-NO3-1 concentrations in ground water indicate that substantial quantifies of fertilizer-derived NO3-1 were transported to ground water through the claypan during the first recharge event following fertilizer application even though that event occurred six months after application. Hydraulic conductivity, measured at three scales, ranged from 6.2 x 10-8 to 7.5 x 10-3 cm/s. The observed increase of calculated hydraulic conductivity with each increase in scale was attributed to the inclusion of more and larger preferential flowpaths within the volume over which the measurement was made, indicating hydraulic conductivity measured at one scale may not describe flow and transport at another scale.The in situ measurement of water flow and chemical transport through claypan soils is crucial to understanding potential water contamination from agricultural sources. It is important due to the large areal extent of these soils in agricultural regions of the midwestern United

  13. Burning management in the tallgrass prairie affects root decomposition, soil food web structure and carbon flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, E. A.; Denef, K.; Milano de Tomasel, C.; Cotrufo, M. F.; Wall, D. H.

    2015-09-01

    Root litter decomposition is a major component of carbon (C) cycling in grasslands, where it provides energy and nutrients for soil microbes and fauna. This is especially important in grasslands where fire is a common management practice and removes aboveground litter accumulation. In this study, we investigated whether fire affects root decomposition and C flow through the belowground food web. In a greenhouse experiment, we applied 13C-enriched big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii) root litter to intact tallgrass prairie soil cores collected from annually burned (AB) and infrequently burned (IB) treatments at the Konza Prairie Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) site. Incorporation of 13C into microbial phospholipid fatty acids and nematode trophic groups was measured on six occasions during a 180-day decomposition study to determine how C was translocated through the soil food web. Results showed significantly different soil communities between treatments and higher microbial abundance for IB. Root decomposition occurred rapidly and was significantly greater for AB. Microbes and their nematode consumers immediately assimilated root litter C in both treatments. Root litter C was preferentially incorporated in a few groups of microbes and nematodes, but depended on burn treatment: fungi, Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, and fungivore nematodes for AB and only omnivore nematodes for IB. The overall microbial pool of root litter-derived C significantly increased over time but was not significantly different between burn treatments. The nematode pool of root litter-derived C also significantly increased over time, and was significantly higher for the AB treatment at 35 and 90 days after litter addition. In conclusion, the C flow from root litter to microbes to nematodes is not only measurable, but significant, indicating that higher nematode trophic levels are critical components of C flow during root decomposition which, in turn, is significantly

  14. Simulation of unsaturated flow and nonreactive solute transport in a heterogeneous soil at the field scale

    SciTech Connect

    Rockhold, M L

    1993-02-01

    A field-scale, unsaturated flow and solute transport experiment at the Las Cruces trench site in New Mexico was simulated as part of a blind'' modeling exercise to demonstrate the ability or inability of uncalibrated models to predict unsaturated flow and solute transport in spatially variable porous media. Simulations were conducted using a recently developed multiphase flow and transport simulator. Uniform and heterogeneous soil models were tested, and data from a previous experiment at the site were used with an inverse procedure to estimate water retention parameters. A spatial moment analysis was used to provide a quantitative basis for comparing the mean observed and simulated flow and transport behavior. The results of this study suggest that defensible predictions of waste migration and fate at low-level waste sites will ultimately require site-specific data for model calibration.

  15. Flow patterns of precipitation and soil water beneath forest canopies: An experimental approach to assessing water flow heterogeneity with high resolution measurements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Johanna Clara; Dalla Valle, Nicolas; Wutzler, Thomas; Filipzik, Janett; Grauer, Christoph; Schelhorn, Danny; Weckmüller, Josef; Hildebrandt, Anke

    2015-04-01

    Due to the mechanisms of interception, stemflow and canopy throughfall, precipitation reaches a forest soil surface in an altered temporal and spatial distribution. It is characterized by a strong heterogeneity. The retention of water by canopies is contrasted by the formation of dynamic hotspots, which channel rain water down to the soil: canopy dripping points and stemflow. This poster introduces a new experimental site established within the collaborative research center of AquaDiva, where we aim to investigate the flow paths of water from the top of the canopy through the soil below the main rooting zone in an intensive field study. The study site, sized one hectare, is located in Thuringia in an unmanaged Central European beech forest on limestone, and complemented by measurements in an adjacent grassland site. A soil moisture sensor network (SoilNet) has been established for monitoring soil water content at high temporal (3 min interval) and spatial (420 sensors per ha) resolution. During field campaigns in spring and early summer, the spatial distribution of net precipitation is measured. Vegetation properties and soil physical and scientific characteristics have been surveyed. Using this setup, we plan to determine, whether and during which conditions spatial patterns of net precipitation persist in soil moisture and fluxes. Using the high-resolution soil water content data we aim to discover flow dynamics and thus identify preferential flow paths in the soil. Geostatistical analysis will yield information about spatial distribution and the relationship of above- and subsurface flow patterns and impact factors. In this poster we will present first results of net precipitation composition and statistical characteristics of throughfall and soil moisture data.

  16. The role of macropores and multi-resolution soil survey datasets for distributed surface-subsurface flow modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xuan; Duffy, Christopher; Baldwin, Doug C.; Lin, Henry

    2014-08-01

    Distributed watershed-scale modeling is often used as a framework for exploring the heterogeneity of runoff response and hydrologic performance of the catchment. The objective of this study is to apply this framework to characterizing the impacts of soil hydraulic properties at multiple scales on moisture storage and distributed runoff generation in a forested catchment. The physics-based and fully-coupled Penn State Integrated Hydrologic Model (PIHM) is employed to test a priori and field-measured properties in the modeling of watershed hydrology. PIHM includes an approximate representation of macropore flow that preserves the water holding capacity of the soil matrix while still allowing rapid flow through the macroporous soil under wet conditions. Both phenomena are critical to the overall hydrologic performance of the catchment. Soils data at different scales were identified: Case I STATSGO soils data (uniform or single soil type), Case II STATSGO soils data with macropore effect, and Case III field-based hydropedologic experiment revised distributed soil hydraulic properties and macropore property estimation. Our results showed that the Case I had difficulties in simulating the timing and peakflow of the runoff responses. Case II performed satisfactorily for peakflow at the outlet and internal weir locations. The distributed soils data in Case III demonstrated the model ability of predicting groundwater levels. The analysis suggests the important role of macropore flow to setting the threshold for recharge and runoff response, while still preserving the water holding capability of the soil and plant water availability. The spatial variability in soil hydraulic properties represented by Case III introduces an additional improvement in distributed catchment flow modeling, especially as it relates to subsurface lateral flow. Comparison of the three cases suggests the value of high-resolution soil survey mapping combined with a macropore parameterization can

  17. Optimality and Conductivity for Water Flow: From Landscapes, to Unsaturated Soils, to Plant Leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H.H.

    2012-02-23

    Optimality principles have been widely used in many areas. Based on an optimality principle that any flow field will tend toward a minimum in the energy dissipation rate, this work shows that there exists a unified form of conductivity relationship for three different flow systems: landscapes, unsaturated soils and plant leaves. The conductivity, the ratio of water flux to energy gradient, is a power function of water flux although the power value is system dependent. This relationship indicates that to minimize energy dissipation rate for a whole system, water flow has a small resistance (or a large conductivity) at a location of large water flux. Empirical evidence supports validity of the relationship for landscape and unsaturated soils (under gravity dominated conditions). Numerical simulation results also show that the relationship can capture the key features of hydraulic structure for a plant leaf, although more studies are needed to further confirm its validity. Especially, it is of interest that according to this relationship, hydraulic conductivity for gravity-dominated unsaturated flow, unlike that defined in the classic theories, depends on not only capillary pressure (or saturation), but also the water flux. Use of the optimality principle allows for determining useful results that are applicable to a broad range of areas involving highly non-linear processes and may not be possible to obtain from classic theories describing water flow processes.

  18. A dual-permeability approach to preferential water flow and solute transport in shrinking soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppola, Antonio; dragonetti, giovanna; Comegna, Alessandro; Gerke, Horst H.; Basile, Angelo

    2016-04-01

    The pore systems in most natural soils is dynamically changing due to alternating swelling and shrinkage processes, which induces changes in pore volume and pore size distribution including deformations in pore geometry. This is a serious difficulty for modeling flow and transport in dual permeability approaches, as it will also require that the geometrical deformation of both the soil matrix and the fracture porous systems be taken into account, as well as the dynamics of soil hydraulic properties in response to the domain deformations. This study follows up a previous work by the same authors extending the classical rigid (RGD) approach formerly proposed by Gerke and van Genuchten, to account for shrinking effects (SHR) in modeling water flow and solute transport in dual-permeability porous media. In this study we considered three SHR scenarios, assuming that aggregate shrinkage may change either: (i) the hydraulic properties of the two pore domains, (ii) their relative fractions, and (iii) both, hydraulic properties and fractions of the two domains. The objective was to compare simulation results obtained under the RGD and the SHR assumptions to illustrate the impact of matrix volume changes on water storage, water fluxes and solute concentrations during: 1) An infiltration process bringing an initially dry soil to saturation, 2) A drainage process starting from an initially saturated soil. For an infiltration process, the simulated wetting front and the solute concentration propagation velocity, as well as the water fluxes, water and solute exchange rates, for the three SHR scenarios significantly deviated from the RGD. By contrast, relatively similar water content profiles evolved under all scenarios during drying. Overall, compared to the RGD approach, the effect of changing the hydraulic properties and the weight of the two domains according to the shrinkage behavior of the soil aggregates induced a much more rapid response in terms of water fluxes and

  19. Soil organic phosphorus flows to water via critical and non-critical hydrological source areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Surridge, Ben; Haygarth, Phil

    2015-04-01

    Soil organic phosphorus flows to water via critical and non-critical hydrological source areas Ying Wang, Ben W.J. Surridge, Philip M. Haygarth Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, LA1 4YQ, UK Critical source areas (CSAs) are zones in the landscape where easily connected hydrology coincides with a phosphorus (P) sources in the soil. The P export risks in CSAs are hypothesised to be higher compared with non-critical source areas (Non-CSAs) and specifically that the magnitudes of P forms in CSA areas were higher than Non-CSAs. Past research on CSAs has often neglected forms of organic P, such as DNA and phospholipids which are among the most potentially biodegradable organic P compounds. The objectives of this study were i) to quantify the magnitude of organic P compounds in agricultural soils and specifically determine whether these magnitudes differed significantly between CSAs and Non-CSAs; ii) determine the variation of P magnitude between and within individual fields; iii) identify the P delivery concentrations in soil solution after raining events in CSAs. The study focussed on soils collected from the Morland sub-catchment of the River Eden catchment in Cumbria, northern England. CSA and Non-CSA pairs were identified using the SCIMAP modelling and field assessment providing five CSA - Non-CSA pairs in total. The results showed that there are significant differences in the total P (TP) concentrations, the proportions of DNA-P, WETP (water extractable total P), WERP (water extractable reactive P) and WEUP (water extractable unreactive P) between CSA and Non-CSA. We also found that the concentrations of all the P forms showed distribution variation between fields or even within the same field. Liable organic P such as DNA-P and PLD-P was presented considerable proportions of total P in soil, especially DNA-P which had a good correlation with TP. DNA-P in the ten areas accounted for a considerable proportion of soil TP (4.9 to 16.6%). Given the

  20. Hydrologic filtering of fish life history strategies across the United States: implications for stream flow alteration

    SciTech Connect

    McManamay, Ryan A.; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.

    2015-01-01

    Lotic fish have developed life history strategies adapted to the natural variation in stream flow regimes. The natural timing, duration, and magnitude of flow events has contributed to the diversity, production, and composition of fish assemblages over time. Studies evaluating the role of hydrology in structuring fish assemblages have been more common at the local or regional scale with very few studies conducted at the continental scale. Furthermore, quantitative linkages between natural hydrologic patterns and fish assemblages are rarely used to make predictions of ecological consequences of hydrologic alterations. We ask two questions: (1) what is the relative role of hydrology in structuring fish assemblages at large scales? and (2) can relationships between fish assemblages and natural hydrology be utilized to predict fish assemblage responses to hydrologic disturbance? We developed models to relate fish life histories and reproductive strategies to landscape and hydrologic variables separately and then combined. Models were then used to predict the ecological consequences of altered hydrology due to dam regulation. Although hydrology plays a considerable role in structuring fish assemblages, the performance of models using only hydrologic variables was lower than that of models constructed using landscape variables. Isolating the relative importance of hydrology in structuring fish assemblages at the continental scale is difficult since hydrology is interrelated to many landscape factors. By applying models to dam-regulated hydrologic data, we observed some consistent predicted responses in fish life history strategies and modes of reproduction. In agreement with existing literature, equilibrium strategists are predicted to increase following dam regulation, whereas opportunistic and periodic species are predicted to decrease. In addition, dam regulation favors the selection of reproductive strategies with extended spawning seasons and preference for stable

  1. Hydrologic filtering of fish life history strategies across the United States: implications for stream flow alteration.

    PubMed

    McManamay, Ryan A; Frimpong, Emmanuel A

    2015-01-01

    Lotic fish have developed life history strategies adapted to the natural variation in stream flow regimes. The natural timing, duration, and magnitude of flow events has contributed to the diversity, production, and composition of fish assemblages over time. Studies evaluating the role of hydrology in structuring fish assemblages have been more common at the local or regional scale with very few studies conducted at the continental scale. Furthermore, quantitative linkages between natural hydrologic patterns and fish assemblages are rarely used to make predictions of ecological consequences of hydrologic alterations. We ask two questions: (1) what is the relative role of hydrology in structuring fish assemblages at large scales? and (2) can relationships between fish assemblages and natural hydrology be utilized to predict fish assemblage responses to hydrologic disturbance? We developed models to relate fish life histories and reproductive strategies to landscape and hydrologic variables separately and then combined. Models were then used to predict the ecological consequences of altered hydrology due to dam regulation. Although hydrology plays a considerable role in structuring fish assemblages; the performance of models using only hydrologic variables was lower than that of models constructed using landscape variables. Isolating the relative importance of hydrology in structuring fish assemblages at the continental scale is difficult since hydrology is interrelated to many landscape factors. By applying models to dam-regulated hydrologic data, we observed some consistent predicted responses in fish life history strategies and modes of reproduction. In agreement with existing literature, equilibrium strategists are predicted to increase following dam regulation, whereas opportunistic and periodic species are predicted to decrease. In addition, dam regulation favors the selection of reproductive strategies with extended spawning seasons and preference for stable

  2. Hydrologic filtering of fish life history strategies across the United States: implications for stream flow alteration

    DOE PAGES

    McManamay, Ryan A.; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.

    2015-01-01

    Lotic fish have developed life history strategies adapted to the natural variation in stream flow regimes. The natural timing, duration, and magnitude of flow events has contributed to the diversity, production, and composition of fish assemblages over time. Studies evaluating the role of hydrology in structuring fish assemblages have been more common at the local or regional scale with very few studies conducted at the continental scale. Furthermore, quantitative linkages between natural hydrologic patterns and fish assemblages are rarely used to make predictions of ecological consequences of hydrologic alterations. We ask two questions: (1) what is the relative role ofmore » hydrology in structuring fish assemblages at large scales? and (2) can relationships between fish assemblages and natural hydrology be utilized to predict fish assemblage responses to hydrologic disturbance? We developed models to relate fish life histories and reproductive strategies to landscape and hydrologic variables separately and then combined. Models were then used to predict the ecological consequences of altered hydrology due to dam regulation. Although hydrology plays a considerable role in structuring fish assemblages, the performance of models using only hydrologic variables was lower than that of models constructed using landscape variables. Isolating the relative importance of hydrology in structuring fish assemblages at the continental scale is difficult since hydrology is interrelated to many landscape factors. By applying models to dam-regulated hydrologic data, we observed some consistent predicted responses in fish life history strategies and modes of reproduction. In agreement with existing literature, equilibrium strategists are predicted to increase following dam regulation, whereas opportunistic and periodic species are predicted to decrease. In addition, dam regulation favors the selection of reproductive strategies with extended spawning seasons and preference for

  3. Numerical homogenization of the Richards equation for unsaturated water flow through heterogeneous soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Na; Yue, Xingye; Ren, Li

    2016-11-01

    Homogenized equations and the corresponding effective constitutive relations are generally necessary for numerically modeling large-scale unsaturated flow processes in soils. Recently, based on the Kirchhoff transformation and the two-scale convergence theory, a homogenization method for the Richards equation with the Mualem-van Genuchten model has been proposed, with a constant model parameter α relating to the inverse of the air-entry pressure and the soil pore size distribution. The homogenized model is computationally efficient and convenient to use because of its explicit expression. In this study, we generalize this method, allowing α to be a spatially distributed random field and proposing a homogenized Richards equation in the mixed form (θ/h) under the condition that the effective hydraulic conductivity tensor is diagonal. This generalization eliminates the limitation of a constant α in practical applications; the proposed homogenized model is meaningful in most situations because the flow problems are influenced mainly by the diagonal terms of conductivity and the off-diagonal terms are often neglected. Two-dimensional numerical tests are conducted in soil profiles with different degrees of spatial heterogeneity structure to illustrate that the homogenized model can capture the fine-scale flow behaviors on coarse grids effectively. Homogenization for the Richards equation with other two commonly used constitutive relations—the Brooks-Corey model and the Gardner-Russo model—is also illustrated in this study.

  4. Experimental and Numerical Investigations of Silver Nanoparticle Transport under Variable Flow and Ionic Strength in Soil.

    PubMed

    Makselon, Joanna; Zhou, Dan; Engelhardt, Irina; Jacques, Diederik; Klumpp, Erwin

    2017-02-21

    Unsaturated column experiments were conducted with an undisturbed loamy sand soil to investigate the influence of flow interruption (FI) and ionic strength (IS) on the transport and retention of surfactant-stabilized silver nanoparticles (AgNP) and the results were compared to those obtained under continuous flow conditions. AgNP concentrations for breakthrough curves (BTCs) and retention profiles (RPs) were analyzed by ICP-MS. Experimental results were simulated by the numerical code HP1 (Hydrus-PhreeqC) with the DLVO theory, extended colloid filtration theory and colloid release model. BTCs of AgNP showed a dramatic drop after FI compared to continuous flow conditions. Evaporation increased due to FI, resulting in increased electrical conductivity of the soil solution, which led to a totally reduced mobility of AgNP. A reduction of IS after FI enhanced AgNP mobility slightly. Here the strongly increased Al and Fe concentration in the effluent suggested that soil colloids facilitated the release of AgNP (cotransport). The numerical model reproduced the measured AgNP BTCs and indicated that attachment to the air-water interface (AWI) occurring during FI was the key process for AgNP retention.

  5. Fire affects root decomposition, soil food web structure, and carbon flow in tallgrass prairie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, E. Ashley; Denef, Karolien; Milano de Tomasel, Cecilia; Cotrufo, M. Francesca; Wall, Diana H.

    2016-05-01

    Root litter decomposition is a major component of carbon (C) cycling in grasslands, where it provides energy and nutrients for soil microbes and fauna. This is especially important in grasslands where fire is common and removes aboveground litter accumulation. In this study, we investigated whether fire affects root decomposition and C flow through the belowground food web. In a greenhouse experiment, we applied 13C-enriched big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii) root litter to intact tallgrass prairie soil cores collected from annually burned (AB) and infrequently burned (IB) treatments at the Konza Prairie Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) site. Incorporation of 13C into microbial phospholipid fatty acids and nematode trophic groups was measured on six occasions during a 180-day decomposition study to determine how C was translocated through the soil food web. Results showed significantly different soil communities between treatments and higher microbial abundance for IB. Root decomposition occurred rapidly and was significantly greater for AB. Microbes and their nematode consumers immediately assimilated root litter C in both treatments. Root litter C was preferentially incorporated in a few groups of microbes and nematodes, but depended on burn treatment: fungi, Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, and fungivore nematodes for AB and only omnivore nematodes for IB. The overall microbial pool of root-litter-derived C significantly increased over time but was not significantly different between burn treatments. The nematode pool of root-litter-derived C also significantly increased over time, and was significantly higher for the AB treatment at 35 and 90 days after litter addition. In conclusion, the C flow from root litter to microbes to nematodes is not only measurable but also significant, indicating that higher nematode trophic levels are critical components of C flow during root decomposition, which, in turn, is significantly affected by fire. Not

  6. Effects of linking a soil-water-balance model with a groundwater-flow model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanton, Jennifer S.; Ryter, Derek W.; Peterson, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    A previously published regional groundwater-flow model in north-central Nebraska was sequentially linked with the recently developed soil-water-balance (SWB) model to analyze effects to groundwater-flow model parameters and calibration results. The linked models provided a more detailed spatial and temporal distribution of simulated recharge based on hydrologic processes, improvement of simulated groundwater-level changes and base flows at specific sites in agricultural areas, and a physically based assessment of the relative magnitude of recharge for grassland, nonirrigated cropland, and irrigated cropland areas. Root-mean-squared (RMS) differences between the simulated and estimated or measured target values for the previously published model and linked models were relatively similar and did not improve for all types of calibration targets. However, without any adjustment to the SWB-generated recharge, the RMS difference between simulated and estimated base-flow target values for the groundwater-flow model was slightly smaller than for the previously published model, possibly indicating that the volume of recharge simulated by the SWB code was closer to actual hydrogeologic conditions than the previously published model provided. Groundwater-level and base-flow hydrographs showed that temporal patterns of simulated groundwater levels and base flows were more accurate for the linked models than for the previously published model at several sites, particularly in agricultural areas.

  7. Air filtration in the free molecular flow regime: a review of high-efficiency particulate air filters based on carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Wang, Chunya; Zhang, Yingying; Wei, Fei

    2014-11-01

    Air filtration in the free molecular flow (FMF) regime is important and challenging because a higher filtration efficiency and lower pressure drop are obtained when the fiber diameter is smaller than the gas mean free path in the FMF regime. In previous studies, FMF conditions have been obtained by increasing the gas mean free path through reducing the pressure and increasing the temperature. In the case of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with nanoscale diameters, it is possible to filtrate in the FMF regime under normal conditions. This paper reviews recent progress in theoretical and experimental studies of air filtration in the FMF regime. Typical structure models of high-efficiency particulate (HEPA) air filters based on CNTs are introduced. The pressure drop in air filters operated in the FMF regime is less than that predicted by the conventional air filtration theory. The thinnest HEPA filters fabricated from single-walled CNT films have an extremely low pressure drop. CNT air filters with a gradient nanostructure are shown to give a much better filtration performance in dynamic filtration. CNT air filters with a hierarchical structure and an agglomerated CNT fluidized bed air filter are also introduced. Finally, the challenges and opportunities for the application of CNTs in air filtration are discussed.

  8. Soil-borne mobile colloids as influenced by water flow and organic carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D.I.; Bertsch, P.M.; Adriano, D.C.; Miller, W.P. |

    1993-06-01

    Paucity of understanding mechanisms relevant to the generation of subsurface mobile colloids is a major limitation to our current knowledge of colloid-facilitated contaminant transport. To evaluate the roles of natural organic materials and pore water velocity on mobile colloid generation, colloids generated from 14-m{sup 3} lysimeters containing reconstructed soil profiles were collected and characterized. Colloids generated during low flow rates were 1030% less abundant, contained at least 65% more iron oxides and gibbsite, were 80% smaller, and had 40% greater electrophoretic mobility than colloids generated during higher flow rates. Quartz, kaolinite, and hydroxy-interlayered vermiculite were enriched by at least 32% in colloids generated during faster flow rates. Mobile colloid surface charge was greatly enhanced by organic carbon (OC) coatings. Concentrations of OC associated with mobile colloids were higher than or equal to the OC concentrations existing in the bulk soils from which the mobile colloids were derived. The profound effects of pore water flow rate and OC on mobile colloid generation introduces complexity to this potentially critical, yet poorly understood, component of subsurface contaminant transport. 41 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Comparative study on nutrient removal of agricultural non-point source pollution for three filter media filling schemes in eco-soil reactors.

    PubMed

    Du, Fuyi; Xie, Qingjie; Fang, Longxiang; Su, Hang

    2016-08-01

    Nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) from agricultural non-point source (NPS) pollution have been increasingly recognized as a major contributor to the deterioration of water quality in recent years. The purpose of this article is to investigate the discrepancies in interception of nutrients in agricultural NPS pollution for eco-soil reactors using different filling schemes. Parallel eco-soil reactors of laboratory scale were created and filled with filter media, such as grit, zeolite, limestone, and gravel. Three filling schemes were adopted: increasing-sized filling (I-filling), decreasing-sized filling (D-filling), and blend-sized filling (B-filling). The systems were intermittent operations via simulated rainstorm runoff. The nutrient removal efficiency, biomass accumulation and vertical dissolved oxygen (DO) distribution were defined to assess the performance of eco-soil. The results showed that B-filling reactor presented an ideal DO for partial nitrification-denitrification across the eco-soil, and B-filling was the most stable in the change of bio-film accumulation trends with depth in the three fillings. Simultaneous and highest removals of NH4(+)-N (57.74-70.52%), total nitrogen (43.69-54.50%), and total phosphorus (42.50-55.00%) were obtained in the B-filling, demonstrating the efficiency of the blend filling schemes of eco-soil for oxygen transfer and biomass accumulation to cope with agricultural NPS pollution.

  10. Cross-flow, filter-sorbent catalyst for particulate, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control. Seventh quarterly technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Benedek, K.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes work performed on a new concept for integrated pollutant control: a cross-flow filter comprised of layered, gas permeable membranes that act as a particle filter, an SO {sub 2} sorbent, and a NO {sub x} reduction catalyst. One critical element of the R&D program is the development of mixed metal oxide materials that serve as combined SO {sub 2} sorbents and NO {sub x} reduction catalysts. In this seventh quarterly progress report, we summarize the performance characteristics of three promising sorbent/catalyst materials tested in powder form.

  11. Inverse estimation of parameters for multidomain flow models in soil columns with different macropore densities

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Bhavna; Mohanty, Binayak P.; McGuire, Jennifer T.

    2013-01-01

    Soil and crop management practices have been found to modify soil structure and alter macropore densities. An ability to accurately determine soil hydraulic parameters and their variation with changes in macropore density is crucial for assessing potential contamination from agricultural chemicals. This study investigates the consequences of using consistent matrix and macropore parameters in simulating preferential flow and bromide transport in soil columns with different macropore densities (no macropore, single macropore, and multiple macropores). As used herein, the term“macropore density” is intended to refer to the number of macropores per unit area. A comparison between continuum-scale models including single-porosity model (SPM), mobile-immobile model (MIM), and dual-permeability model (DPM) that employed these parameters is also conducted. Domain-specific parameters are obtained from inverse modeling of homogeneous (no macropore) and central macropore columns in a deterministic framework and are validated using forward modeling of both low-density (3 macropores) and high-density (19 macropores) multiple-macropore columns. Results indicate that these inversely modeled parameters are successful in describing preferential flow but not tracer transport in both multiple-macropore columns. We believe that lateral exchange between matrix and macropore domains needs better accounting to efficiently simulate preferential transport in the case of dense, closely spaced macropores. Increasing model complexity from SPM to MIM to DPM also improved predictions of preferential flow in the multiple-macropore columns but not in the single-macropore column. This suggests that the use of a more complex model with resolved domain-specific parameters is recommended with an increase in macropore density to generate forecasts with higher accuracy. PMID:24511165

  12. Use of a novel new irrigation system to observe and model water vapor flow through dry soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todman, L. C.; Ireson, A. M.; Butler, A. P.; Templeton, M.

    2013-12-01

    In dry soils hydraulic connectivity within the liquid water phase decreases and vapor flow becomes a significant transport mechanism for water. The temperature or solute concentration of the liquid phase affects the vapor pressure of the surrounding air, thus temperature or solute gradients can drive vapor flows. However, in extremely dry soils where water is retained by adsorption rather than capillarity, vapor flows can also occur. In such soils tiny changes in water content significantly affect the equilibrium vapor pressure in the soil, and hence small differences in water content can initiate vapor pressure gradients. In many field conditions this effect may be negligible compared to vapor flows driven by other factors. However, flows of this type are particularly significant in a new type of subsurface irrigation system which uses pervaporation, via a polymer tubing, as the mechanism for water supply. In this system, water enters the soil in vapor phase. Experiments using this system therefore provide a rare opportunity to observe vapor flows initiating from a subsurface source without significant injection of heat. A model was developed to simulate water flow through the soil in liquid and vapor phase. In this model it was assumed that the two phases were in equilibrium. The equilibrium relationship was defined by a new mathematical expression that was developed to fit experimental data collected to characterize the sorption isotherm of three soils (sand, saline sand and top soil). The osmotic potential of the saline sand was defined as a function of water content using a continuous mathematical expression. The model was then calibrated to fit the data from laboratory experiments, in which the vapor flow into and out of the soil were quantified. The model successfully reproduced experimental observations of the total water flux, relative humidity and water content distribution in three soil types. This suggests that the model, including the proposed

  13. Investigation of the flow-field in the upper respiratory system when wearing N95 filtering facepiece respirator.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaotie; Li, Hui; Shen, Shengnan; Cai, Mang

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a reverse modeling of the headform when wearing a filtering facepiece respirator (FFR) and a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation based on the modeling. The whole model containing the upper respiratory airway, headform, and FFR was directly recorded by computed tomography (CT) scanning, and a medical contrast medium was used to make the FFR "visible." The FFR was normally worn by the subject during CT scanning so that the actual deformation of both the FFR and the face muscles during contact can be objectively conserved. The reverse modeling approach was introduced to rebuild the geometric model and convert it into a CFD solvable model. In this model, we conducted a transient numerical simulation of air flow containing carbon dioxide, thermal dynamics, and pressure and wall shear stress distribution in the respiratory system taking into consideration an individual wearing a FFR. The breathing cycle was described as a time-dependent profile of the air velocity through the respiratory airway. The result shows that wearing the N95 FFR results in CO2 accumulation, an increase in temperature and pressure elevation inside the FFR cavity. The volume fraction of CO2 reaches 1.2% after 7 breathing cycles and then is maintained at 3.04% on average. The wearers re-inhale excessive CO2 in every breathing cycle from the FFR cavity. The air temperature in the FFR cavity increases rapidly at first and then stays close to the exhaled temperature. Compared to not wearing an FFR, wearers have to increase approximately 90 Pa more pressure to keep the same breathing flow rate of 30.54 L/min after wearing an FFR. The nasal vestibule bears more wall shear stress than any other area in the airway.

  14. Field-scale application of Ensemble Kalman filter assimilation of transient groundwater flow data via stochastic moment equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panzeri, Marco; Riva, Monica; Guadagnini, Alberto; Neuman, Shlomo P.

    2014-05-01

    The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) enables one to assimilate newly available data in transient groundwater and other temporal earth system models through real-time Bayesian updating of system states (e.g., hydraulic heads) and parameters (e.g., hydraulic conductivities). It has become common to treat spatially varying hydraulic conductivities as autocorrelated random fields conditioned on measured conductivities and/or heads. Doing so renders the corresponding groundwater flow equations stochastic. Assimilating data in such equations via traditional EnKF entails computationally intensive Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. We have previously illustrated a methodology to circumvent the need for MC. Our methodology is grounded on (1) an approximate direct solution of nonlocal (integrodifferential) equations that govern the space-time evolution of conditional ensemble means (statistical expectations) and covariances of hydraulic heads and fluxes and (2) the embedding of these moments in EnKF. This provides sequential updates of conductivity and head estimates throughout the space-time domain of interest, does not suffer from inbreeding issues and, as an additional benefit, obviates the need for computationally intensive batch inverse solution of the moment equations as we have been doing previously. We compare the performance of our new EnKF approach based on stochastic moment equation and of the traditional Monte Carlo approach. We do so for a field scale scenario involving a sequence of pumping tests performed in a heterogeneous alluvial test site located near the city of Tuebingen, Germany.

  15. Bacterial community involved in the nitrogen cycle in a down-flow sponge-based trickling filter treating UASB effluent.

    PubMed

    Mac Conell, E F A; Almeida, P G S; Martins, K E L; Araújo, J C; Chernicharo, C A L

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial community composition of a down-flow sponge-based trickling filter treating upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) effluent was investigated by pyrosequencing. Bacterial community composition considerably changed along the reactor and over the operational period. The dominant phyla detected were Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and Planctomycetes. The abundance of denitrifiers decreased from the top to the bottom and it was consistent with the organic matter concentration gradients. At lower loadings (organic and nitrogen loading rates), the abundance of anammox bacteria was higher than that of the ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in the upper portion of the reactor, suggesting that aerobic and anaerobic ammonium oxidation occurred. Nitrification occurred in all the compartments, while anammox bacteria prominently appeared even in the presence of high organic carbon to ammonia ratios (around 1.0-2.0 gCOD gN(-1)). The results suggest that denitrifiers, nitrifiers, and anammox bacteria coexisted in the reactor; thus, different metabolic pathways were involved in ammonium removal in the post-UASB reactor sponge-based.

  16. Utility of a Lateral Flow Immunoassay (LFI) to Detect Burkholderia pseudomallei in Soil Samples

    PubMed Central

    Rongkard, Patpong; Hantrakun, Viriya; Dittrich, Sabine; Srilohasin, Prapaporn; Amornchai, Premjit; Langla, Sayan; Lim, Cherry; Day, Nicholas P. J.; AuCoin, David; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn

    2016-01-01

    Background Culture is the gold standard for the detection of environmental B. pseudomallei. In general, soil specimens are cultured in enrichment broth for 2 days, and then the culture broth is streaked on an agar plate and incubated further for 7 days. However, identifying B. pseudomallei on the agar plates among other soil microbes requires expertise and experience. Here, we evaluate a lateral flow immunoassay (LFI) developed to detect B. pseudomallei capsular polysaccharide (CPS) in clinical samples as a tool to detect B. pseudomallei in environmental samples. Methodology/Principal Findings First, we determined the limit of detection (LOD) of LFI for enrichment broth of the soil specimens. Soil specimens (10 grams/specimen) culture negative for B. pseudomallei were spiked with B. pseudomallei ranging from 10 to 105 CFU, and incubated in 10 ml of enrichment broth in air at 40°C. Then, on day 2, 4 and 7 of incubation, 50 μL of the upper layer of the broth were tested on the LFI, and colony counts to determine quantity of B. pseudomallei in the broth were performed. We found that all five soil specimens inoculated at 10 CFU were negative by LFI on day 2, but four of those five specimens were LFI positive on day 7. The LOD of the LFI was estimated to be roughly 3.8x106 CFU/ml, and culture broth on day 7 was selected as the optimal sample for LFI testing. Second, we evaluated the utility of the LFI by testing 105 soil samples from Northeast Thailand. All samples were also tested by standard culture and quantitative PCR (qPCR) targeting orf2. Of 105 soil samples, 35 (33%) were LFI positive, 25 (24%) were culture positive for B. pseudomallei, and 79 (75%) were qPCR positive. Of 11 LFI positive but standard culture negative specimens, six were confirmed by having the enrichment broth on day 7 culture positive for B. pseudomallei, and an additional three by qPCR. The LFI had 97% (30/31) sensitivity to detect soil specimens culture positive for B. pseudomallei

  17. Inversely estimating the vertical profile of the soil CO2 production rate in a deciduous broadleaf forest using a particle filtering method.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Gen; Yonemura, Seiichiro; Kishimoto-Mo, Ayaka W; Murayama, Shohei; Ohtsuka, Toshiyuki; Yokozawa, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) efflux from the soil surface, which is a major source of CO2 from terrestrial ecosystems, represents the total CO2 production at all soil depths. Although many studies have estimated the vertical profile of the CO2 production rate, one of the difficulties in estimating the vertical profile is measuring diffusion coefficients of CO2 at all soil depths in a nondestructive manner. In this study, we estimated the temporal variation in the vertical profile of the CO2 production rate using a data assimilation method, the particle filtering method, in which the diffusion coefficients of CO2 were simultaneously estimated. The CO2 concentrations at several soil depths and CO2 efflux from the soil surface (only during the snow-free period) were measured at two points in a broadleaf forest in Japan, and the data were assimilated into a simple model including a diffusion equation. We found that there were large variations in the pattern of the vertical profile of the CO2 production rate between experiment sites: the peak CO2 production rate was at soil depths around 10 cm during the snow-free period at one site, but the peak was at the soil surface at the other site. Using this method to estimate the CO2 production rate during snow-cover periods allowed us to estimate CO2 efflux during that period as well. We estimated that the CO2 efflux during the snow-cover period (about half the year) accounted for around 13% of the annual CO2 efflux at this site. Although the method proposed in this study does not ensure the validity of the estimated diffusion coefficients and CO2 production rates, the method enables us to more closely approach the "actual" values by decreasing the variance of the posterior distribution of the values.

  18. Inversely Estimating the Vertical Profile of the Soil CO2 Production Rate in a Deciduous Broadleaf Forest Using a Particle Filtering Method

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai, Gen; Yonemura, Seiichiro; Kishimoto-Mo, Ayaka W.; Murayama, Shohei; Ohtsuka, Toshiyuki; Yokozawa, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) efflux from the soil surface, which is a major source of CO2 from terrestrial ecosystems, represents the total CO2 production at all soil depths. Although many studies have estimated the vertical profile of the CO2 production rate, one of the difficulties in estimating the vertical profile is measuring diffusion coefficients of CO2 at all soil depths in a nondestructive manner. In this study, we estimated the temporal variation in the vertical profile of the CO2 production rate using a data assimilation method, the particle filtering method, in which the diffusion coefficients of CO2 were simultaneously estimated. The CO2 concentrations at several soil depths and CO2 efflux from the soil surface (only during the snow-free period) were measured at two points in a broadleaf forest in Japan, and the data were assimilated into a simple model including a diffusion equation. We found that there were large variations in the pattern of the vertical profile of the CO2 production rate between experiment sites: the peak CO2 production rate was at soil depths around 10 cm during the snow-free period at one site, but the peak was at the soil surface at the other site. Using this method to estimate the CO2 production rate during snow-cover periods allowed us to estimate CO2 efflux during that period as well. We estimated that the CO2 efflux during the snow-cover period (about half the year) accounted for around 13% of the annual CO2 efflux at this site. Although the method proposed in this study does not ensure the validity of the estimated diffusion coefficients and CO2 production rates, the method enables us to more closely approach the “actual” values by decreasing the variance of the posterior distribution of the values. PMID:25793387

  19. UNSAT-H Version 2. 0: Unsaturated soil water and heat flow model

    SciTech Connect

    Fayer, M.J.; Jones, T.L.

    1990-04-01

    This report documents UNSAT-H Version 2.0, a model for calculating water and heat flow in unsaturated media. The documentation includes the bases for the conceptual model and its numerical implementation, benchmark test cases, example simulations involving layered soils and plant transpiration, and the code listing. Waste management practices at the Hanford Site have included disposal of low-level wastes by near-surface burial. Predicting the future long-term performance of any such burial site in terms of migration of contaminants requires a model capable of simulating water flow in the unsaturated soils above the buried waste. The model currently used to meet this need is UNSAT-H. This model was developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to assess water dynamics of near-surface, waste-disposal sites at the Hanford Site. The code is primarily used to predict deep drainage as a function of such environmental conditions as climate, soil type, and vegetation. UNSAT-H is also used to simulate the effects of various practices to enhance isolation of wastes. 66 refs., 29 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. Chemical speciation studies on DU contaminated soils using flow field flow fractionation linked to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (FlFFF-ICP-MS).

    PubMed

    Brittain, S R; Cox, A G; Tomos, A D; Paterson, E; Siripinyanond, A; McLeod, C W

    2012-03-01

    Flow field flow fractionation (FlFFF) in combination with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to study the chemical speciation of U and trace metals in depleted uranium (DU) contaminated soils. A chemical extraction procedure using sodium pyrophosphate, followed by isolation of humic and fulvic substances was applied to two dissimilar DU contaminated sample types (a sandy soil and a clay-rich soil), in addition to a control soil. The sodium pyrophosphate fractions of the firing range soils (Eskmeals and Kirkcudbright) were found to contain over 50% of the total U (measured after aqua regia digestion), compared to approximately 10% for the control soil. This implies that the soils from the contaminated sites contained a large proportion of the U within more easily mobile soil fractions. Humic and fulvic acid fractions each gave characteristic peak maxima for analytes of interest (Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb and U), with the fulvic acid fraction eluting at a smaller diameter (approximately 2.1 nm on average) than the humic fraction (approximately 2.4 nm on average). DU in the fulvic acid fraction gave a bimodal peak, not apparent for other trace elements investigated, including natural U. This implies that DU interacts with the fulvic acid fraction in a different way to all other elements studied.

  1. A novel flow-based procedure for automation of respirometric assays in soils.

    PubMed

    Silva, Claudineia R; Oliveira, Eliezer; Zagatto, Elias A G; Henriquez, Camelia

    2016-09-01

    A flow-based strategy involving a gas-diffusion sampling probe was proposed for evaluating the respiration rate in soils. The amount of CO2 collected after a pre-defined time interval was proportional to the free CO2 released by the soil ecosystem. The 500-mL incubation flasks typically used for soil respirometric assays were adapted and a special cover was designed for connecting a tubular gas diffusion membrane, a fan, and a septum for adding the CO2(g) standards required for calibration. The method relied on the pH-dependent absorbance variations resulting from the CO2 collection. A 1.3mmolL(-1) bromothymol blue solution (pH 7.0) acted as both acceptor and carrier streams. In order to widen the dynamical working range to 0.003-0.2mmol CO2, two analytical curves were obtained, each related to a different time interval for the CO2 collection. Kinetic curves related to CO2 release by the soil samples were straightforwardly attained. Repeatability and detection limit were estimated as 2.0% and 0.001mmol CO2 (n=10), and accuracy was assessed in relation to a recommended titrimetric procedure.

  2. ARRANGEMENT FOR REPLACING FILTERS

    DOEpatents

    Blomgren, R.A.; Bohlin, N.J.C.

    1957-08-27

    An improved filtered air exhaust system which may be continually operated during the replacement of the filters without the escape of unfiltered air is described. This is accomplished by hermetically sealing the box like filter containers in a rectangular tunnel with neoprene covered sponge rubber sealing rings coated with a silicone impregnated pneumatic grease. The tunnel through which the filters are pushed is normal to the exhaust air duct. A number of unused filters are in line behind the filters in use, and are moved by a hydraulic ram so that a fresh filter is positioned in the air duct. The used filter is pushed into a waiting receptacle and is suitably disposed. This device permits a rapid and safe replacement of a radiation contaminated filter without interruption to the normal flow of exhaust air.

  3. The principle of ‘maximum energy dissipation’: a novel thermodynamic perspective on rapid water flow in connected soil structures

    PubMed Central

    Zehe, Erwin; Blume, Theresa; Blöschl, Günter

    2010-01-01

    Preferential flow in biological soil structures is of key importance for infiltration and soil water flow at a range of scales. In the present study, we treat soil water flow as a dissipative process in an open non-equilibrium thermodynamic system, to better understand this key process. We define the chemical potential and Helmholtz free energy based on soil physical quantities, parametrize a physically based hydrological model based on field data and simulate the evolution of Helmholtz free energy in a cohesive soil with different populations of worm burrows for a range of rainfall scenarios. The simulations suggest that flow in connected worm burrows allows a more efficient redistribution of water within the soil, which implies a more efficient dissipation of free energy/higher production of entropy. There is additional evidence that the spatial pattern of worm burrow density at the hillslope scale is a major control of energy dissipation. The pattern typically found in the study is more efficient in dissipating energy/producing entropy than other patterns. This is because upslope run-off accumulates and infiltrates via the worm burrows into the dry soil in the lower part of the hillslope, which results in an overall more efficient dissipation of free energy. PMID:20368256

  4. SIMPLE MODEL OF ICE SEGREGATION USING AN ANALYTIC FUNCTION TO MODEL HEAT AND SOIL-WATER FLOW.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hromadka, T.V.; Guymon, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of a simple two-dimensional model of coupled heat and soil-water flow in freezing or thawing soil. The model also estimates ice-segregation (frost-heave) evolution. Ice segregation in soil results from water drawn into a freezing zone by hydraulic gradients created by the freezing of soil-water. Thus, with a favorable balance between the rate of heat extraction and the rate of water transport to a freezing zone, segregated ice lenses may form.

  5. Quantitative passive soil vapor sampling for VOCs--Part 4: Flow-through cell.

    PubMed

    McAlary, Todd; Groenevelt, Hester; Seethapathy, Suresh; Sacco, Paolo; Crump, Derrick; Tuday, Michael; Schumacher, Brian; Hayes, Heidi; Johnson, Paul; Parker, Louise; Górecki, Tadeusz

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a controlled experiment comparing several quantitative passive samplers for monitoring concentrations of volatile organic compound (VOC) vapors in soil gas using a flow-through cell. This application is simpler than conventional active sampling using adsorptive tubes because the flow rate does not need to be precisely measured and controlled, which is advantageous because the permeability of subsurface materials affects the flow rate and the permeability of geologic materials is highly variable. Using passive samplers in a flow-through cell, the flow rate may not need to be known exactly, as long as it is sufficient to purge the cell in a reasonable time and minimize any negative bias attributable to the starvation effect. An experiment was performed in a 500 mL flow-through cell using a two-factor, one-half fraction fractional factorial test design with flow rates of 80, 670 and 930 mL min(-1) and sample durations of 10, 15 and 20 minutes for each of five different passive samplers (passive Automatic Thermal Desorption Tube, Radiello®, SKC Ultra, Waterloo Membrane Sampler™ and 3M™ OVM 3500). A Summa canister was collected coincident with each passive sampler and analyzed by EPA Method TO-15 to provide a baseline for comparison of the passive sampler concentrations. The passive sampler concentrations were within a factor of 2 of the Summa canister concentrations in 32 of 35 cases. Passive samples collected at the low flow rate and short duration showed low concentrations, which is likely attributable to insufficient purging of the cell after sampler placement.

  6. Influence of soil spatial variability on surface and subsurface flow at a vegetative buffer strip scale.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatel, Laura; Lauvernet, Claire; Carluer, Nadia; Paniconi, Claudio; Leblois, Etienne

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of soil hydrodynamic characteristics variability on surface and subsurface flow at a vegetative buffer strip scale, using mecanistic modeling. Cathy (CATchment HYdrology, Camporese et al. 2010) is a research physically based model able to simulate coupled surface/subsurface flow. The evaluation of soil hydrodynamic characteristics variability is based essentially on saturated hydraulic conductivity because of its large spatial variability in the 3 dimensions and its important influence on flow pathways, as well as its high influence on the model output variables. After testing the model sensitivity to some input variables, to the boundary conditions and to the mesh definition, the work focuses on hydraulic conductivity parametrization. The study was first conducted with uniform (by horizons) conductivity domains based on field measurements. In a second step, heterogeneous fields were generated by a statistical tool which allows the user to choose the statistical law (in this case, lognormal or Gauss), the hydraulic conductivity auto-correlation length and the possibility to condition the fields with measured points. With all these different ways to represent spatial variability of hydraulic conductivity, model simulated surface and subsurface fluxes consistent with datasets from artificial run-off experiments on an French wineyard hillslope (Morcille catchment, Beaujolais, France). Model simulations are evaluated and compared to observations on several criteria : consistency, stability, interaction with water table, etc...

  7. Comparison of conductivity averaging methods for one-dimensional unsaturated flow in layered soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymkiewicz, A.; Helmig, R.

    2011-08-01

    One of the important factors influencing the accuracy of the numerical solution of 1D unsaturated flow equation (Richards' equation) is the averaging method applied to compute hydraulic conductivity between two adjacent nodes of the computational grid. A number of averaging schemes have been proposed in the literature for homogeneous soil, including arithmetic, geometric, upstream and integrated means, as well as more sophisticated approaches, based on the local solution of steady state flow between the neighboring nodes (Darcian means). Another group of methods have been developed for the case when a material interface is present between the nodes. They range from simple arithmetic averaging to more complex schemes using the pressure- and flux-continuity conditions at the interface. In this paper we compare several averaging schemes for a number of steady and unsteady flow problems in layered soils. The first group of methods is applied in the framework of the vertex-centered approach to spatial discretization, where the nodes are placed at the material interfaces, while the second group is used with the cell-centered approach, where the material interfaces are located between computational nodes. The resulting numerical schemes are evaluated in terms of accuracy and computational time. It is shown that the averaging schemes based on Darcian mean principle [19] used in the framework of either vertex-centered or cell-centered approach compare favorably to other methods for a range of test cases.

  8. Investigation of Interactive Effects on Water Flow and Solute Transport in Sandy Loam Soil Using Time Domain Reflectometry

    PubMed Central

    Merdun, Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Surface-applied chemicals move through the unsaturated zone with complex flow and transport processes due to soil heterogeneity and reach the saturated zone, resulting in groundwater contamination. Such complex processes need to be studied by advanced measurement and modeling techniques to protect soil and water resources from contamination. In this study, the interactive effects of factors like soil structure, initial soil water content (SWC), and application rate on preferential flow and transport were studied in a sandy loam field soil using measurement (by time domain reflectometry (TDR)) and modeling (by MACRO and VS2DTI) techniques. In addition, statistical analyses were performed to compare the means of the measured and modeled SWC and EC, and solute transport parameters (pore water velocity and dispersion coefficient) in 12 treatments. Research results showed that even though the effects of soil structural conditions on water and solute transport were not so clear, the applied solution moved lower depths in the profiles of wet versus dry initial SWC and high application rate versus low application rates. The effects of soil structure and initial SWC on water and solute movement could be differentiated under the interactive conditions, but the effects of the application rates were difficult to differentiate under different soil structural and initial SWC conditions. Modeling results showed that MACRO had somewhat better performance than VS2DTI in the estimation of SWC and EC with space and time, but overall both models had relatively low performances. The means of SWC, EC, and solute transport parameters of the 12 treatments were divided into some groups based on the statistical analyses, indicating different flow and transport characteristics or a certain degree nonuniform or preferential flow and transport in the soil. Conducting field experiments with more interactive factors and applying the models with different approaches may allow better understanding

  9. Shallow soil CO2 flow along the San Andreas and Calaveras Faults, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewicki, J.L.; Evans, William C.; Hilley, G.E.; Sorey, M.L.; Rogie, J.D.; Brantley, S.L.

    2003-01-01

    We evaluate a comprehensive soil CO2 survey along the San Andreas fault (SAF) in Parkfield, and the Calaveras fault (CF) in Hollister, California, in the context of spatial and temporal variability, origin, and transport of CO2 in fractured terrain. CO2 efflux was measured within grids with portable instrumentation and continously with meteorological parameters at a fixed station, in both faulted and unfaulted areas. Spatial and temporal variability of surface CO2 effluxes was observed to be higher at faulted SAF and CF sites, relative to comparable background areas. However, ??13C (-23.3 to - 16.4???) and ??14C (75.5 to 94.4???) values of soil CO2 in both faulted and unfaulted areas are indicative of biogenic CO2, even though CO2 effluxes in faulted areas reached values as high as 428 g m-2 d-1. Profiles of soil CO2 concentration as a function of depth were measured at multiple sites within SAF and CF grids and repeatedly at two locations at the SAF grid. Many of these profiles suggest a surprisingly high component of advective CO2 flow. Spectral and correlation analysis of SAF CO2 efflux and meteorological parameter time series indicates that effects of wind speed variations on atmospheric air flow though fractures modulate surface efflux of biogenic CO2. The resulting areal patterns in CO2 effluxes could be erroneously attributed to a deep gas source in the absence of isotopic data, a problem that must be addressed in fault zone soil gas studies.

  10. Interactions between Seagrass Complexity, Hydrodynamic Flow and Biomixing Alter Food Availability for Associated Filter-Feeding Organisms

    PubMed Central

    González-Ortiz, Vanessa; Egea, Luis G.; Jiménez-Ramos, Rocio; Moreno-Marín, Francisco; Pérez-Lloréns, José L.; Bouma, Tjeed J.; Brun, Fernando G.

    2014-01-01

    Seagrass shoots interact with hydrodynamic forces and thereby a positively or negatively influence the survival of associated species. The modification of these forces indirectly alters the physical transport and flux of edible particles within seagrass meadows, which will influence the growth and survivorship of associated filter-feeding organisms. The present work contributes to gaining insight into the mechanisms controlling the availability of resources for filter feeders inhabiting seagrass canopies, both from physical (influenced by seagrass density and patchiness) and biological (regulated by filter feeder density) perspectives. A factorial experiment was conducted in a large racetrack flume, which combined changes in hydrodynamic conditions, chlorophyll a concentration in the water and food intake rate (FIR) in a model active filter-feeding organism (the cockle). Results showed that seagrass density and patchiness modified both hydrodynamic forces and availability of resources for filter feeders. Chlorophyll a water content decreased to 50% of the initial value when densities of both seagrass shoots and cockles were high. Also, filter feeder density controlled resource availability within seagrass patches, depending on its spatial position within the racetrack flume. Under high density of filter-feeding organisms, chlorophyll a levels were lower between patches. This suggests that the pumping activity of cockles (i.e. biomixing) is an emergent key factor affecting both resource availability and FIR for filter feeders in dense canopies. Applying our results to natural conditions, we suggest the existence of a direct correlation between habitat complexity (i.e. shoot density and degree of patchiness) and filter feeders density. Fragmented and low-density patches seem to offer both greater protection from hydrodynamic forces and higher resource availability. In denser patches, however, resources are allocated mostly within the canopy, which would benefit

  11. Interactions between seagrass complexity, hydrodynamic flow and biomixing alter food availability for associated filter-feeding organisms.

    PubMed

    González-Ortiz, Vanessa; Egea, Luis G; Jiménez-Ramos, Rocio; Moreno-Marín, Francisco; Pérez-Lloréns, José L; Bouma, Tjeed J; Brun, Fernando G

    2014-01-01

    Seagrass shoots interact with hydrodynamic forces and thereby a positively or negatively influence the survival of associated species. The modification of these forces indirectly alters the physical transport and flux of edible particles within seagrass meadows, which will influence the growth and survivorship of associated filter-feeding organisms. The present work contributes to gaining insight into the mechanisms controlling the availability of resources for filter feeders inhabiting seagrass canopies, both from physical (influenced by seagrass density and patchiness) and biological (regulated by filter feeder density) perspectives. A factorial experiment was conducted in a large racetrack flume, which combined changes in hydrodynamic conditions, chlorophyll a concentration in the water and food intake rate (FIR) in a model active filter-feeding organism (the cockle). Results showed that seagrass density and patchiness modified both hydrodynamic forces and availability of resources for filter feeders. Chlorophyll a water content decreased to 50% of the initial value when densities of both seagrass shoots and cockles were high. Also, filter feeder density controlled resource availability within seagrass patches, depending on its spatial position within the racetrack flume. Under high density of filter-feeding organisms, chlorophyll a levels were lower between patches. This suggests that the pumping activity of cockles (i.e. biomixing) is an emergent key factor affecting both resource availability and FIR for filter feeders in dense canopies. Applying our results to natural conditions, we suggest the existence of a direct correlation between habitat complexity (i.e. shoot density and degree of patchiness) and filter feeders density. Fragmented and low-density patches seem to offer both greater protection from hydrodynamic forces and higher resource availability. In denser patches, however, resources are allocated mostly within the canopy, which would benefit

  12. Impact of design and operation variables on the performance of vertical-flow constructed wetlands and intermittent sand filters treating pond effluent.

    PubMed

    Torrens, Antonina; Molle, Pascal; Boutin, Catherine; Salgot, Miquel

    2009-04-01

    With the aim of improving the quality of the effluent from a waste stabilization pond (WSP) different types of vertical-flow constructed wetlands (VFCWs) and intermittent sand filters (ISFs) were tested at a pilot plant in Aurignac (France). The effectiveness of each design at upgrading the pond effluent was studied over a period of 2 years. Physicochemical parameters were monitored by taking composite samples over 24h and grab samples every week. The hydraulic behaviour of the filters was studied using (NaCl) tracer tests and monitoring the infiltration rate. This paper describes the influence on the performance of the beds of: (a) the characteristics of the medium (type of sand, depth, and presence of Phragmites); (b) feed modes; and (c) the presence of an algae clogging layer. The study demonstrates the viability of VFCWs and ISFs as means of upgrading effluent from WSPs. For hydraulic loads (HL) of up to 80cm/day, both technologies effectively retain algae, complete organic matter degradation, and nitrify the pond effluent. The presence of plants did not significantly affect the performance of the filters although it was important in terms of maintenance. The deeper filters presented better removals for all the parameter tested, due to higher hydraulic detention times (HDTs). The dosing regime and resting period duration all affected the hydraulic performance and purification efficiency of the filters.

  13. Prehistoric Agriculture and Soil Fertility on Lava Flows in Northern Arizona, USA: Results from the San Francisco Volcanic Field REU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broadman, E.; Anderson, K. C.

    2013-12-01

    The San Francisco Volcanic Field in northern Arizona is home to ~600 cinder cones, the youngest of which is Sunset Crater (erupted ~AD 1100). This study documents trends in available phosphate and nitrate content with time, testing whether lowered soil pH from the addition of Sunset cinders increased soil fertility and became a factor in Anasazi agricultural success. Soil fertility is examined both before and after Sunset's eruption in soils of different ages that have developed from eolian deposition on top of lava flows. An increase in phosphate and nitrate levels following acidification would suggest that the presence of Sunset cinders brought the soils to the optimal pH for mobilization of these nutrients. The combined effects of the cinder layer retaining nutrients and water, wetter climates, and increases in phosphate and nitrate (both limiting nutrients for plant growth), would have contributed to Anasazi agricultural success after Sunset's eruption. Samples for this study were taken from eolian-derived soils of different ages atop lava flows in the San Francisco Volcanic Field. OSL data from these soils on Strawberry and SP Craters' lava flows yielded age estimates of ~12.3 ka (Strawberry) and ~32.7 ka (SP), on which a soil chronosequence was based. Results from the chronosequence supported these OSL ages, indicating that soils on the SP flow are older than those on the Strawberry flow. Field descriptions, Harden Development Indices, particle size analysis, and nutrient content analysis were used for this aspect of the project. An experimental acid wash method will be used to simulate the addition of Sunset's acidic cinders, and will yield data for phosphate and nitrate content after Sunset erupted. Preliminary results indicate that phosphate and nitrate accumulate in upper, eolian-derived horizons (Av, Bw) and in more deeply buried carbonate horizons (Bk). Higher concentrations of phosphate and nitrate were found in older (SP) soils than younger

  14. Field-tracing approach to determine flow velocity and hydraulic conductivity in saturated peat soils

    SciTech Connect

    Gafni, A.

    1986-01-01

    A tracing methodology based on the point dilution concept was developed to quantify groundwater velocities in saturated peat soils. Groundwater velocity was measured in four different peatlands. The steepest hydraulic gradient and the dominant direction of groundwater flow were determined for each peatland. The hydraulic conductivity (K) of selected peat layers was estimated from measured groundwater velocity and hydraulic gradient using Darcy's equation. The effective porosity of three peat layers was determined using the pressure plate technique. The estimated hydraulic parameters of one of the bags were further evaluated by analyzing a rainfall-runoff event that exhibited groundwater discharge.

  15. Effect of filter media size, mass flow rate and filtration stage number in a moving-bed granular filter on the yield and properties of bio-oil from fast pyrolysis of biomass.

    PubMed

    Paenpong, Chaturong; Inthidech, Sudsakorn; Pattiya, Adisak

    2013-07-01

    Fast pyrolysis of cassava rhizome was performed in a bench-scale fluidised-bed reactor unit incorporated with a cross-flow moving-bed granular filter. The objective of this research was to examine several process parameters including the granular size (425-1160 μm) and mass flow rate (0-12 g/min) as well as the number of the filtration stages (1-2 stages) on yields and properties of bio-oil. The results showed that the bio-oil yield decreased from 57.7 wt.% to 42.0-49.2 wt.% when increasing the filter media size, the mass flow rate and the filtration stage number. The effect of the process parameters on various properties of bio-oil is thoroughly discussed. In general, the bio-oil quality in terms of the solids content, ash content, initial viscosity, viscosity change and ageing rate could be enhanced by the hot vapour granular filtration. Therefore, bio-oil of high stability could be produced by the pyrolysis reactor configuration designed in this work.

  16. Can a numerically stable subgrid-scale model for turbulent flow computation be ideally accurate?: a preliminary theoretical study for the Gaussian filtered Navier-Stokes equations.

    PubMed

    Ida, Masato; Taniguchi, Nobuyuki

    2003-09-01

    This paper introduces a candidate for the origin of the numerical instabilities in large eddy simulation repeatedly observed in academic and practical industrial flow computations. Without resorting to any subgrid-scale modeling, but based on a simple assumption regarding the streamwise component of flow velocity, it is shown theoretically that in a channel-flow computation, the application of the Gaussian filtering to the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations yields a numerically unstable term, a cross-derivative term, which is similar to one appearing in the Gaussian filtered Vlasov equation derived by Klimas [J. Comput. Phys. 68, 202 (1987)] and also to one derived recently by Kobayashi and Shimomura [Phys. Fluids 15, L29 (2003)] from the tensor-diffusivity subgrid-scale term in a dynamic mixed model. The present result predicts that not only the numerical methods and the subgrid-scale models employed but also only the applied filtering process can be a seed of this numerical instability. An investigation concerning the relationship between the turbulent energy scattering and the unstable term shows that the instability of the term does not necessarily represent the backscatter of kinetic energy which has been considered a possible origin of numerical instabilities in large eddy simulation. The present findings raise the question whether a numerically stable subgrid-scale model can be ideally accurate.

  17. Filter desulfation system and method

    DOEpatents

    Lowe, Michael D.; Robel, Wade J.; Verkiel, Maarten; Driscoll, James J.

    2010-08-10

    A method of removing sulfur from a filter system of an engine includes continuously passing an exhaust flow through a desulfation leg of the filter system during desulfation. The method also includes sensing at least one characteristic of the exhaust flow and modifying a flow rate of the exhaust flow during desulfation in response to the sensing.

  18. Effect of gas-liquid flow pattern and microbial diversity analysis of a pilot-scale biotrickling filter for anoxic biogas desulfurization.

    PubMed

    Almenglo, Fernando; Bezerra, Tercia; Lafuente, Javier; Gabriel, David; Ramírez, Martín; Cantero, Domingo

    2016-08-01

    Hydrogen sulfide removal from biogas was studied under anoxic conditions in a pilot-scale biotrickling filter operated under counter- and co-current gas-liquid flow patterns. The best performance was found under counter-current conditions (maximum elimination capacity of 140 gS m(-3) h(-1)). Nevertheless, switching conditions between co- and counter-current flow lead to a favorable redistribution of biomass and elemental sulfur along the bed height. Moreover, elemental sulfur was oxidized to sulfate when the feeding biogas was disconnected and the supply of nitrate (electron acceptor) was maintained. Removal of elemental sulfur was important to prevent clogging in the packed bed and, thereby, to increase the lifespan of the packed bed between maintenance episodes. The larger elemental sulfur removal rate during shutdowns was 59.1 gS m(-3) h(-1). Tag-encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing was used to study the diversity of bacteria under co-current flow pattern with liquid recirculation and counter-current mode with a single-pass flow of the liquid phase. The main desulfurizing bacteria were Sedimenticola while significant role of heterotrophic, opportunistic species was envisaged. Remarkable differences between communities were found when a single-pass flow of industrial water was fed to the biotrickling filter.

  19. Field Evaluation of Preferential Flow in Agricultural Soil of the Mississippi Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, K. S.; Nimmo, J. R.; Rose, C. E.; Coupe, R.

    2009-12-01

    In the Bogue Phalia basin in the Delta region of northwestern Mississippi, as in many farmed areas, intensive use of agricultural chemicals raises water quality concerns. The soils are fine textured and often exhibit surface ponding and runoff after irrigation and rainfall. There is extensive surface cracking during extended dry periods. Fields are typically land-formed to promote surface flow into irrigation ditches and streams that feed into larger river ecosystems. Deep percolation below the root zone has been considered to be minimal in this area; however, unsaturated zone processes, including the effects of a declining water table, are not well understood, and there are few measured unsaturated zone data relevant to deep percolation. In this study we assessed solute transport mechanisms within and below the root zone of a fallow soybean field by performing a 2-m ring infiltration experiment. Ponding continued for 67 hours using bromide and rhodamine tracers and subsurface instruments for measuring soil-water content, matric pressure, and solution sampling. Water percolated rapidly below the pond reaching 1 m depth in as little as 30 minutes, indicating preferential flow through the root zone, possibly related to shrink/swell features. Extensive lateral flow of water at shallow depths was apparent as the surface wetted outward to several meters from the pond in all directions with some evidence of preferentiality along slope toward the drainage ditch. Deeper lateral flow was detected at solution samplers 3 m from the pond edge at 5 m depth within a few weeks. Tracer was not detected in the unsaturated zone below 5 m however; the tracer was detected at the water table 12 m below land surface within 10 weeks of the experiment with concentrations increasing over a period of 10 months. A tracer mass balance also suggests the possibility for deep preferential transport of agricultural chemicals within the Bogue Phalia basin.

  20. International journal of computational fluid dynamics real-time prediction of unsteady flow based on POD reduced-order model and particle filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Ryota; Misaka, Takashi; Obayashi, Shigeru

    2016-04-01

    An integrated method consisting of a proper orthogonal decomposition (POD)-based reduced-order model (ROM) and a particle filter (PF) is proposed for real-time prediction of an unsteady flow field. The proposed method is validated using identical twin experiments of an unsteady flow field around a circular cylinder for Reynolds numbers of 100 and 1000. In this study, a PF is employed (ROM-PF) to modify the temporal coefficient of the ROM based on observation data because the prediction capability of the ROM alone is limited due to the stability issue. The proposed method reproduces the unsteady flow field several orders faster than a reference numerical simulation based on Navier-Stokes equations. Furthermore, the effects of parameters, related to observation and simulation, on the prediction accuracy are studied. Most of the energy modes of the unsteady flow field are captured, and it is possible to stably predict the long-term evolution with ROM-PF.

  1. Predictability of soil moisture and river flows over France for the spring season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singla, S.; Céron, J.-P.; Martin, E.; Regimbeau, F.; Déqué, M.; Habets, F.; Vidal, J.-P.

    2012-01-01

    Sources of spring predictability of the hydrological system over France were studied on a seasonal time scale over the 1960-2005 period. Two random sampling experiments were set up in order to test the relative importance of the land surface initial state and the atmospheric forcing. The experiments were based on the SAFRAN-ISBA-MODCOU hydrometeorological suite which computed soil moisture and river flow forecasts over a 8-km grid and more than 880 river-gauging stations. Results showed that the predictability of hydrological variables primarily depended on the seasonal atmospheric forcing (mostly temperature and total precipitation) over most plains, whereas it mainly depended on snow cover over high mountains. However, the Seine catchment area was an exception as the skill mainly came from the initial state of its large and complex aquifers. Seasonal meteorological hindcasts with the Météo-France ARPEGE climate model were then used to force the ISBA-MODCOU hydrological model and obtain seasonal hydrological forecasts from 1960 to 2005 for the entire March-April-May period. Scores from this seasonal hydrological forecasting suite could thus be compared with the random atmospheric experiment. Soil moisture and river flow skill scores clearly showed the added value in seasonal meteorological forecasts in the north of France, contrary to the Mediterranean area where values worsened.

  2. Physical modelling of rainfall-induced flow failures in loose granular soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Take, W. A.; Beddoe, R. A.

    2015-09-01

    The tragic consequences of the March 2014 Oso landslide in Washington, USA were particularly high due to the mobility of the landslide debris. Confusingly, a landslide occurred at that exact same location a number of years earlier, but simply slumped into the river at the toe of the slope. Why did these two events differ so drastically in their mobility? Considerable questions remain regarding the conditions required to generate flow failures in loose soils. Geotechnical centrifuge testing, in combination with high-speed cameras and advanced image analysis has now provided the landslides research community with a powerful new tool to experimentally investigate the complex mechanics leading to high mobility landslides. This paper highlights recent advances in our understanding of the process of static liquefaction in loose granular soil slopes achieved through observations of highly-instrumented physical models. In particular, the paper summarises experimental results aimed to identify the point of initiation of the chain-reaction required to trigger liquefaction flow failures, to assess the effect of slope inclination on the likelihood of a flowslide being triggered, and to quantify the effect of antecedent groundwater levels on the distal reach of landslide debris with the objective of beginning to explain why neighbouring slopes can exhibit such a wide variation in landslide travel distance upon rainfall-triggering.

  3. A computer program for the simulation of heat and moisture flow in soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camillo, P.; Schmugge, T. J.

    1981-01-01

    A computer program that simulates the flow of heat and moisture in soils is described. The space-time dependence of temperature and moisture content is described by a set of diffusion-type partial differential equations. The simulator uses a predictor/corrector to numerically integrate them, giving wetness and temperature profiles as a function of time. The simulator was used to generate solutions to diffusion-type partial differential equations for which analytical solutions are known. These equations include both constant and variable diffusivities, and both flux and constant concentration boundary conditions. In all cases, the simulated and analytic solutions agreed to within the error bounds which were imposed on the integrator. Simulations of heat and moisture flow under actual field conditions were also performed. Ground truth data were used for the boundary conditions and soil transport properties. The qualitative agreement between simulated and measured profiles is an indication that the model equations are reasonably accurate representations of the physical processes involved.

  4. Soil water flow dynamics in a managed cutover peat field, Quebec: Field and laboratory investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlotzhauer, Susanne M.; Price, Jonathan S.

    1999-12-01

    In this paper concerned with soil water dynamics in a managed cutover peat field, the microscale hydrological processes and parameters governing water flow and storage through variably saturated peat are investigated. An open water ditch-reservoir enhanced wetting of adjacent cutover peat, maintaining the water table depth above 43 cm during the summer, surface soil moisture above 45%, and water tension in the surface layer above -45 mbar. Desaturation of pores was noted in the -2 and -10 cm depths, but at -30 and -50 cm a decrease in moisture content of several percent was associated with compression of the peat as the water table dropped. Air entry occurred only at pressures below -15 mbar. Seasonal subsidence resulted in cumulative vertical displacement in excess of 10 cm during the study period. Typical settlements in the peat ranged between 11 and 23% of the lowering of the water table. Considerable hysteresis was observed, and vertical displacement was 5 times greater in response to water loss, compared to rewetting. The specific storage (Ss) in the 180 cm thick deposit averaged 9.4 × 10-4 cm-1 during drying periods but averaged only 2.6 × 10-4 cm-1 on rewetting.Ss was more important than specific yield (Sy) in the overall aquifer storativity. Transient hydraulic properties resulted from the shifting soil structure. The increase in peat bulk density caused by drying increased the water retention capacity and decreased hydraulic conductivity. Mean saturated hydraulic conductivity was 15 cm d-1 and decreased 2 orders of magnitude as the degree of saturation dropped from 1 to 0.4. The horizontal/vertical anisotropy ratio was 4. The changing surface elevation in response to seasonal subsidence had a profound influence on the nature of the storage changes and hydraulic parameters of the peat soil.

  5. Post-failure characteristics of weathered soils in Korea: determination of rheological thresholds and debris flow mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Sueng-Won; Fukuoka, Hiroshi; Im, Sang-June

    2013-04-01

    Landslides in Korea are mainly triggered by localized summer heavy rainfall. The water infiltration, wetting and fluidization process are the key roles in slope instability. Mechanically, a loss in soil strength of the soil at weakend layer takes place as a result of water infiltration. The transition from slides to flows can be defined by the variation in strength parameters. In the flowing stage with large volume of sediments, debris flow impact may be governed by the rheology of the failed mass. We performed the rheological tests using the ball-measuring and vane-inserted rheometer and examined a possible threshold of landslides on mudstone, weathered granitic and gneissic soils in the mountainous region of Korea. The materials examined exhibited the shear-thinning behavior, which is the viscosity decreases with increasing shear rates. There are positive relationships between liquidity index and rheological values (i.e., yield stress and viscosities). However, the difference in rheological properties is of significance for given shear rates. The effect of wall-slip in different geometries is emphasized. This work is also concerned with post-failure characteristics of rainfall-induced landslides that occur in Chuncheon, Miryang and Seoul debris flow occurrence in 2011. They are mainly composed of gneissic, sedimentary and gneissic weathered soils. The rheological properties is helpful to predict the mobilization of fine-laden debris flows. In the relationship between shear stress and shear rate, one of simplest rheological models, i.e., the ideal Bingham fluid model, is selected to examine the flow pattern and depositional features of debris flows. A comparison will be made for the debris flow occurence on weahtered soils in Korea.

  6. Calibration of a one-dimensional water flow model for the evaluation of the reclamation success of saline soil substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaygan, Mandana; Baumgartl, Thomas; Arnold, Sven; Reading, Lucy; Fletcher, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    Highly saline-sodic soils restrict plant establishment. Salt affected soils may be reclaimed by leaching salts from a potential root zone. Soil amendments can be used as a reclamation technique to improve the soil pore system and hydraulic functions, which allows the downward transport of water under certain precipitation conditions. The objective of this study was to investigate salt movement within saline-sodic soil at a small scale in soil columns and assess the success of amendment strategies for reclamation of the soil. For the purpose of predicting the effect of typical rainfall scenarios on the reclamation of saline-sodic soils, a one-dimensional numerical water flow model (HYDRUS-1D) was tested and calibrated. The model was calibrated using data from laboratory column experiments. A saline-sodic soil was packed into 30 cm long columns (diameter 7cm) from a depth of 10 to 30 cm and then covered with the same soil, however amended with 40% (wt/wt) fine sand and 20% (wt/wt) wood chips, respectively. A column filled with the saline-sodic soil only to a depth of 30 cm was used as a control. The experiments were carried out by establishing an initial pressure head of -60 cm at the soil surface. Based on climate data from a location in south-west Queensland, rainfall scenarios with 50% and 1% probability of annual exceedance for this location were calculated and applied to the soil columns. The hydrological response in the columns was monitored by measuring the water potential using tensiometers installed in three depths (3, 11 and 25 cm) and knowledge of inflow and outflow of the columns. The simulation captured the observed trends in the results for the investigated columns and measured depths under heavy rainfall events as well as surface substrates exposed to small rainfall events, where the simulated and measured results were in very good agreement, with R2 values generally ranging between 0.92 and 0.98. The simulated results also provided a good description

  7. Characterization of colloidal phosphorus species in drainage waters from a clay soil using asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation.

    PubMed

    Regelink, Inge C; Koopmans, Gerwin F; van der Salm, Caroline; Weng, Liping; van Riemsdijk, Willem H

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorus transport from agricultural land contributes to eutrophication of surface waters. Pipe drain and trench waters from a grassland field on a heavy clay soil in the Netherlands were sampled before and after manure application. Phosphorus speciation was analyzed by physicochemical P fractionation, and the colloidal P fraction in the dissolved fraction (<0.45 μm) was analyzed by asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled to high-resolution inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and ultraviolet diode array detector. When no manure was applied for almost 7 mo, total P (TP) concentrations were low (<21 μmol L), and TP was almost evenly distributed among dissolved reactive P (DRP), dissolved unreactive P (DUP), and particulate P (PP). Total P concentrations increased by a factor of 60 and 4 when rainfall followed shortly after application of cattle slurry or its solid fraction, respectively. Under these conditions, DRP contributed 50% or more to TP. The P speciation within the DUP and PP fractions varied among the different sampling times. Phosphorus associated with dissolved organic matter, probably via cation bridging, comprised a small fraction of DUP at all sampling times. Colloidal P coeluted with clay particles when P application was withheld for almost 7 mo and after application of the solid cattle slurry fraction. At these sampling times, PP correlated well with particulate Fe, Al, and Si, indicating that P is associated with colloidal clay particles. After cattle slurry application, part of DUP was probably present as phospholipids. Physicochemical fractionation combined with AF4 analysis is a promising tool to unravel the speciation of colloidal P in environmental water samples.

  8. Multimodel Prediction of Water Flow in a Field Soil Using Pedotransfer Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guber, A. K.; Pachepsky, Y. A.; Jacques, D.; van Genuchten, M. T.; Nemesh, A.; Simunek, J.; Nicholson, T. J.; Cady, R. E.

    2007-05-01

    Combining predictions using various independent models, often called multimodel prediction, has become a very popular technique in climate prediction and is now increasingly being used also in subsurface hydrology. The objectives of this work were (a) to compare different methods of multimodel prediction of the field soil water regime using pedotransfer functions, and (b) to see whether the calibration of a flow model with field data can be replaced by multimodel predictions. The multimodel prediction in this work consisted of running the Richards model with outputs of individual PTFs and then combining the obtained outputs into a single prediction. We compared weighing predictions from individual models by (1) using only the best model, (2) assigning equal weights, (3) using the unconstrained superensemble (i. e. regressing measured values to outputs of individual models), (4) using singular value decomposition in the regression, (5) using Bayesian model averaging, and (6) applying weights derived from the Kullback-Leibler information for each model. We evaluated the weighing methods in terms of their accuracy (i. e. errors in reproducing the training, or hindcast, datasets), and reliability (i.e., errors in reproducing the test datasets). The two best weighing methods (Bayesian model averaging and regression with singular value decomposition) had average accuracy and reliability RMSE values of about 0.01 cm3cm-3 at 35 cm depth, and of about 0.005 cm3cm-3 at larger depths for one month monitoring and 13 months of testing. Calibrating the Richards model resulted in RMSE values of 0.009 cm3cm-3 at 35 cm depth and from 0.004 to 0.006 cm3cm-3 at larger depths. This indicates that monitoring of the soil water regime in combination with multimodel prediction instead of calibrating the flow model can be a viable approach to simulating field water flow in the vadose zone.

  9. Water Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A compact, lightweight electrolytic water sterilizer available through Ambassador Marketing, generates silver ions in concentrations of 50 to 100 parts per billion in water flow system. The silver ions serve as an effective bactericide/deodorizer. Tap water passes through filtering element of silver that has been chemically plated onto activated carbon. The silver inhibits bacterial growth and the activated carbon removes objectionable tastes and odors caused by addition of chlorine and other chemicals in municipal water supply. The three models available are a kitchen unit, a "Tourister" unit for portable use while traveling and a refrigerator unit that attaches to the ice cube water line. A filter will treat 5,000 to 10,000 gallons of water.

  10. Monte Carlo analysis of field water flow comparing uni- and bimodal effective hydraulic parameters for structured soil.

    PubMed

    Coppola, A; Basile, A; Comegna, A; Lamaddalena, N

    2009-02-16

    Soil structure critically affects the hydrological behaviour of soils. In this paper, we examined the impact of areal heterogeneity of hydraulic properties of a structured soil on soil ensemble behaviour for various soil water flow processes with different top boundary conditions (redistribution and drainage plus evaporation and infiltration). Using a numerical solution of the Richards' equation in a stochastic framework, the ensemble characteristics and flow dynamics were studied for drying and wetting processes observed during a time interval of ten days when a series of relatively intense rainfall events occurred. The effects of using unimodal and bimodal interpretative models of hydraulic properties on the ensemble hydrological behaviour of the soil were illustrated by comparing predictions to mean water contents measured over time in several sites at field scale. Although the differences between unimodal and bimodal fitting are not significant in terms of goodness of fit, the differences in process predictions are considerable with the bimodal soil simulating water content measurements much better than unimodal soil. We also investigated the relative contribution of the soil variability of each parameter on the variance of the water contents obtained as the main output of the stochastic simulations. The variability of the structural parameter, weighting the two pore space fractions in the bimodal interpretative model, has the largest contribution to water content variance. The contribution of each parameter depends only partly on the coefficient of variation, much more on the sensitivity of the model to the parameters and on the flow process being observed. We observed that the contribution of the retention parameters to uncertainty increases during drainage processes; the opposite occurs with the hydraulic conductivity parameters.

  11. Colloid Mobilization in a Fractured Soil during Dry-Wet Cycles: Role of Drying Duration and Flow Path Permeability.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Sanjay K; Saiers, James E; Ryan, Joseph N

    2015-08-04

    In subsurface soils, colloids are mobilized by infiltrating rainwater, but the source of colloids and the process by which colloids are generated between rainfalls are not clear. We examined the effect of drying duration and the spatial variation of soil permeability on the mobilization of in situ colloids in intact soil cores (fractured and heavily weathered saprolite) during dry-wet cycles. Measuring water flux at multiple sampling ports at the core base, we found that water drained through flow paths of different permeability. The duration of antecedent drying cycles affected the amount of mobilized colloids, particularly in high-flux ports that received water from soil regions with a large number of macro- and mesopores. In these ports, the amount of mobilized colloids increased with increased drying duration up to 2.5 days. For drying durations greater than 2.5 days, the amount of mobilized colloids decreased. In contrast, increasing drying duration had a limited effect on colloid mobilization in low-flux ports, which presumably received water from soil regions with fewer macro- and mesopores. On the basis of these results, we attribute this dependence of colloid mobilization upon drying duration to colloid generation from dry pore walls and distribution of colloids in flow paths, which appear to be sensitive to the moisture content of soil after drying and flow path permeability. The results are useful for improving the understanding of colloid mobilization during fluctuating weather conditions.

  12. Sap flow characteristics of neotropical mangroves in flooded and drained soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krauss, Ken W.; Young, P. Joy; Chambers, Jim L.; Doyle, Thomas W.; Twilley, Robert R.

    2007-01-01

    Effects of flooding on water transport in mangroves have previously been investigated in a few studies, most of which were conducted on seedlings in controlled settings. In this study, we used heat-dissipation sap probes to determine if sap flow (Js) attenuates with radial depth into the xylem of mature trees of three south Florida mangrove species growing in Rookery Bay. This was accomplished by inserting sap probes at multiple depths and monitoring diurnal flow. For most species and diameter size class combinations tested, Js decreased dramatically beyond a radial depth of 2 or 4 cm, with little sap flow beyond a depth of 6 cm. Mean Js was reduced on average by 20% in Avicennia germinans (L.) Stearn, Laguncularia racemosa (L.) Gaertn. f. and Rhizophora mangle L. trees when soils were flooded. Species differences were highly significant, with L. racemosahaving the greatest midday Js of about 26g H2O H2O m−2s−1 at a radial depth of 2 cm compared with a mean for the other two species of about 15 g H2O m−2s−1. Sap flow at a depth of 2 cm in mangroves was commensurate with rates reported for other forested wetland tree species. We conclude that: (1) early spring flooding of basin mangrove forests causes reductions in sap flow in mature mangrove trees; (2) the sharp attenuations in Js along the radial profile have implications for understanding whole-tree water use strategies by mangrove forests; and (3) regardless of flood state, individual mangrove tree water use follows leaf-level mechanisms in being conservative.

  13. Sap flow characteristics of neotropical mangroves in flooded and drained soils.

    PubMed

    Krauss, Ken W; Young, P Joy; Chambers, Jim L; Doyle, Thomas W; Twilley, Robert R

    2007-05-01

    Effects of flooding on water transport in mangroves have previously been investigated in a few studies, most of which were conducted on seedlings in controlled settings. In this study, we used heat-dissipation sap probes to determine if sap flow (J(s)) attenuates with radial depth into the xylem of mature trees of three south Florida mangrove species growing in Rookery Bay. This was accomplished by inserting sap probes at multiple depths and monitoring diurnal flow. For most species and diameter size class combinations tested, J(s) decreased dramatically beyond a radial depth of 2 or 4 cm, with little sap flow beyond a depth of 6 cm. Mean J(s) was reduced on average by 20% in Avicennia germinans (L.) Stearn, Laguncularia racemosa (L.) Gaertn. f. and Rhizophora mangle L. trees when soils were flooded. Species differences were highly significant, with L. racemosa having the greatest midday J(s) of about 26 g H(2)O m(-2) s(-1) at a radial depth of 2 cm compared with a mean for the other two species of about 15 g H(2)O m(-2) s(-1). Sap flow at a depth of 2 cm in mangroves was commensurate with rates reported for other forested wetland tree species. We conclude that: (1) early spring flooding of basin mangrove forests causes reductions in sap flow in mature mangrove trees; (2) the sharp attenuations in J(s) along the radial profile have implications for understanding whole-tree water use strategies by mangrove forests; and (3) regardless of flood state, individual mangrove tree water use follows leaf-level mechanisms in being conservative.

  14. Experimental observations and modeling of ponding and overland flow in flat, permeable soil fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appels, Willemijn; Bogaart, Patrick; van der Zee, Sjoerd

    2015-04-01

    In flat well-drained agricultural terrain, overland flow is a relatively rare phenomenon, yet still a potentially important driver of sediment and nutrient transport. Under these conditions, periods of intense rainfall, shallow groundwater dynamics and local combinations of meso- and microtopography control whether water in ponds will become connected to streams and ditches. Combining overland flow measurements at agricultural fields with a new modeling approach, we explored: (i) what rainfall conditions relate to overland flow and (ii) how does flow route connectivity develop for various types of runoff generation and meso/microtopography? For this purpose, we assessed overland flow at two field sites in flat, lowland catchments in the sandy part of the Netherlands and developed a dynamic model (FAST-runoff) to simulate redistribution of water over a heterogeneous surface with infiltration and soil water storage. Experimentally, it appeared that most overland flow occurred as saturation excess runoff during long wet periods, though infiltration excess runoff generation may have played a role during snowmelt periods that generated small amounts of runoff. For both fields, the contributing area during the saturation excess events was large and flow paths long, irrespective of the profoundly different microtopographies. We explored this behaviour with our FAST-Runoff model and found that under saturation excess conditions, mesotopographic features, such as natural depressions or those caused by tillage, gain importance at the expense of the spatial organization of microtopography. The surface topographies of our experimental fields were equal in terms of standard topographic analytical measures such as Curvature, Convergence Index, and Topographic Wetness Index. However, the fields could be distinguished when analysed with a quantitative indicator of flow for hydrological connectivity. Also, the fields had different dynamics related to the runoff generating mechanism

  15. Hydrogeochemistry of the Overland Flow in Soil at Agroecosystems in Eastern Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, C. F. G. D.; Figueiredo, R. O.; Oliveira, F. D. A.

    2014-12-01

    In the watershed of the Timboteua and Buiuna streams, northeast of Pará state, Amazon, it was characterized the overland flow dissolved material by some hydrogeochemical variables: electrical conductivity (EC), pH, chloride (Cl-), nitrate (NO3-), phosphate (PO43-), and sulfate (SO42-). In two small holder properties three overland flow experimental plots (1m2) were placed in each of the six evaluated ecosystems under similar biophysical conditions, totaling 18 plots. There was also installed three rainwater collectors and two rain gauges in a nearby area. In the rainy season were collected 234 samples of rainwater and overland flow. The evaluation of the measured variables promote the hydrogeochemical characterization of the overland flow at soil under chop-and-mulch and slash-and-burn practices in the different ecosystems found in the familiar agriculture of this watershed, in which it was identified some distinct hydrogeochemical characteristics of the overland flow. The lowest losses of NO3- (variation range = 0.07 to 2.57 μM) was found in agroecosystem - chop-and-mulch, this nutrient obtained higher values in agroecosystem - slash-and-burn (RQ). In agroecosystem (RQ) initially, there was a high value of PO43- (8.87 μM); EC (121 μS cm-1) and a subsequent sharp decline. Secondary successional forest (CP) of 20 years presented in overland flow pH 4.8 and EC 25 μS cm-1 (average 6 months), low loss of NO3- (0.2 μM) and PO43- (0.05 μM), and large range of variation of SO42- (0.7 to 21.5 μM). While Cl- and SO42- overland flow concentrations were affect by the rainfall variation, the increase of NO3- and PO43-concentrations were more related to the ecosystem management, with the first element responding to the presence of nitrogen-fixing species and the second responding to the burning practices. In summary: This study was efficient to characterize the hydrogeochemical of the overland flow and its relation to the altered ecosystems by Amazonian family farming.

  16. Where do roots take up water? Neutron radiography of water flow into the roots of transpiring plants growing in soil.

    PubMed

    Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Kim, Yangmin X; Carminati, Andrea

    2013-09-01

    Where and how fast does water flow from soil into roots? The answer to this question requires direct and in situ measurement of local flow of water into roots of transpiring plants growing in soil. We used neutron radiography to trace the transport of deuterated water (D₂O) in lupin (Lupinus albus) roots. Lupins were grown in aluminum containers (30 × 25 × 1 cm) filled with sandy soil. D₂O was injected in different soil regions and its transport in soil and roots was monitored by neutron radiography. The transport of water into roots was then quantified using a convection-diffusion model of D₂O transport into roots. The results showed that water uptake was not uniform along roots. Water uptake was higher in the upper soil layers than in the lower ones. Along an individual root, the radial flux was higher in the proximal segments than in the distal segments. In lupins, most of the water uptake occurred in lateral roots. The function of the taproot was to collect water from laterals and transport it to the shoot. This function is ensured by a low radial conductivity and a high axial conductivity. Lupin root architecture seems well designed to take up water from deep soil layers.

  17. Quantitative fuel vapor/air mixing imaging in droplet/gas regions of an evaporating spray flow using filtered Rayleigh scattering.

    PubMed

    Allison, Patton M; McManus, Thomas A; Sutton, Jeffrey A

    2016-03-15

    This Letter demonstrates the application of filtered Rayleigh scattering (FRS) for quantitative two-dimensional fuel vapor/air mixing measurements in an evaporating hydrocarbon fuel spray flow. Using the FRS approach, gas-phase measurements are made in the presence of liquid-phase droplets without interference. Effective suppression of the liquid-phase droplet scattering using FRS is enabled by the high spectral purity of the current Nd:YAG laser system. Simultaneous Mie-scattering imaging is used to visualize the droplet field and illustrate the droplet loading under which the FRS imaging is applied in the current spray flows. The initial quantification of the FRS imaging is based on calibration measurements from a flow cell of known fuel vapor/air mixtures, while future work targets the utilization of a Rayleigh-Brillouin spectral model for quantification of the FRS signals.

  18. The effect of trees on preferential flow and soil infiltrability in an agroforestry parkland in semiarid Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Bargués Tobella, A; Reese, H; Almaw, A; Bayala, J; Malmer, A; Laudon, H; Ilstedt, U

    2014-01-01

    Water scarcity constrains the livelihoods of millions of people in tropical drylands. Tree planting in these environments is generally discouraged due to the large water consumption by trees, but this view may neglect their potential positive impacts on water availability. The effect of trees on soil hydraulic properties linked to groundwater recharge is poorly understood. In this study, we performed 18 rainfall simulations and tracer experiments in an agroforestry parkland in Burkina Faso to investigate the effect of trees and associated termite mounds on soil infiltrability and preferential flow. The sampling points were distributed in transects each consisting of three positions: (i) under a single tree, (ii) in the middle of an open area, and (iii) under a tree associated with a termite mound. The degree of preferential flow was quantified through parameters based on the dye infiltration patterns, which were analyzed using image analysis of photographs. Our results show that the degree of preferential flow was highest under trees associated with termite mounds, intermediate under single trees, and minimal in the open areas. Tree density also had an influence on the degree of preferential flow, with small open areas having more preferential flow than large ones. Soil infiltrability was higher under single trees than in the open areas or under trees associated with a termite mound. The findings from this study demonstrate that trees have a positive impact on soil hydraulic properties influencing groundwater recharge, and thus such effects must be considered when evaluating the impact of trees on water resources in drylands. Key Points Trees in dryland landscapes increase soil infiltrability and preferential flow Termite mounds in association with trees further enhance preferential flow PMID:25641996

  19. Application and advantages of novel clay ceramic particles (CCPs) in an up-flow anaerobic bio-filter (UAF) for wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Han, Wei; Yue, Qinyan; Wu, Suqing; Zhao, Yaqin; Gao, Baoyu; Li, Qian; Wang, Yan

    2013-06-01

    Utilization of clay ceramic particles (CCPs) as the novel filter media employed in an up-flow anaerobic bio-filter (UAF) was investigated. After a series of tests and operations, CCPs have presented higher total porosity and roughness, meanwhile lower bulk and grain density. When CCPs were utilized as fillers, the reactor had a shorter start up period of 45 days comparing with conventional reactors, and removal rate of chemical oxygen demand (COD) still reached about 76% at a relatively lower temperature during the stable state. In addition, degradation of COD and ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N) at different media height along the reactor was evaluated, and the dates showed that the main reduction process happened within the first 30 cm media height from the bottom flange. Five phases were observed according to different organic loadings during the experiment period, and the results indicated that COD removal increased linearly when the organic loading was increased.

  20. The effect of trees on preferential flow and soil infiltrability in an agroforestry parkland in semiarid Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Bargués Tobella, A; Reese, H; Almaw, A; Bayala, J; Malmer, A; Laudon, H; Ilstedt, U

    2014-04-01

    Water scarcity constrains the livelihoods of millions of people in tropical drylands. Tree planting in these environments is generally discouraged due to the large water consumption by trees, but this view may neglect their potential positive impacts on water availability. The effect of trees on soil hydraulic properties linked to groundwater recharge is poorly understood. In this study, we performed 18 rainfall simulations and tracer experiments in an agroforestry parkland in Burkina Faso to investigate the effect of trees and associated termite mounds on soil infiltrability and preferential flow. The sampling points were distributed in transects each consisting of three positions: (i) under a single tree, (ii) in the middle of an open area, and (iii) under a tree associated with a termite mound. The degree of preferential flow was quantified through parameters based on the dye infiltration patterns, which were analyzed using image analysis of photographs. Our results show that the degree of preferential flow was highest under trees associated with termite mounds, intermediate under single trees, and minimal in the open areas. Tree density also had an influence on the degree of preferential flow, with small open areas having more preferential flow than large ones. Soil infiltrability was higher under single trees than in the open areas or under trees associated with a termite mound. The findings from this study demonstrate that trees have a positive impact on soil hydraulic properties influencing groundwater recharge, and thus such effects must be considered when evaluating the impact of trees on water resources in drylands.

  1. The effect of trees on preferential flow and soil infiltrability in an agroforestry parkland in semiarid Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargués Tobella, A.; Reese, H.; Almaw, A.; Bayala, J.; Malmer, A.; Laudon, H.; Ilstedt, U.

    2014-04-01

    Water scarcity constrains the livelihoods of millions of people in tropical drylands. Tree planting in these environments is generally discouraged due to the large water consumption by trees, but this view may neglect their potential positive impacts on water availability. The effect of trees on soil hydraulic properties linked to groundwater recharge is poorly understood. In this study, we performed 18 rainfall simulations and tracer experiments in an agroforestry parkland in Burkina Faso to investigate the effect of trees and associated termite mounds on soil infiltrability and preferential flow. The sampling points were distributed in transects each consisting of three positions: (i) under a single tree, (ii) in the middle of an open area, and (iii) under a tree associated with a termite mound. The degree of preferential flow was quantified through parameters based on the dye infiltration patterns, which were analyzed using image analysis of photographs. Our results show that the degree of preferential flow was highest under trees associated with termite mounds, intermediate under single trees, and minimal in the open areas. Tree density also had an influence on the degree of preferential flow, with small open areas having more preferential flow than large ones. Soil infiltrability was higher under single trees than in the open areas or under trees associated with a termite mound. The findings from this study demonstrate that trees have a positive impact on soil hydraulic properties influencing groundwater recharge, and thus such effects must be considered when evaluating the impact of trees on water resources in drylands.

  2. Analysis of the Impact of Soil Heterogeneity on the Spatial Variation of Unsaturated Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, Matthew; Gimenez, Daniel; Kerry, Ruth; Goovaerts, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Modelling infiltration into soils with deterministic models requires knowledge of the hydraulic properties of that soil. Informing a model with these properties is complex because of the spatial heterogeneity of hydraulic properties that naturally occurs in all soils . The objective of this work was to analyze the effects that contrasting synthetic heterogeneities have on spatial outflows using a three-dimensional numerical model. An undisturbed soil column of 32 cm diameter and 50 cm height was used in an outflow experiment in the laboratory, where outflow was collected from the bottom of the column in 145 spatially-varied outflow cells and the column was subjected to multiple inflow rates. After the completion of the experiment, 30 sub-cores of 8 cm diameter and 5 cm height were extracted from the column and used to measure hydraulic properties and texture through a combination of pressure plate extractor, automated evaporation method, and a dewpoint potentiometer. The spatial heterogeneity of the soil in the column was represented by a Local Indicator of Spatial Autocorrelation (LISA - Local Moran's I) clustering algorithm, which used both texture and Electrical Resistivity Tomography data to identify significant clusters of points with high (HH) and low (LL) values and values that were not part of a significant cluster (NS). Each cluster was also assigned a numerical index based on LISA. Effective hydraulic properties were assigned to the HH and LL clusters and NS points based on the location of the 30 sub-cores and their average hydraulic properties. Resistivity data were used with omni-directional variograms with ranges of 5 and 15 cm and a nugget of 0.25 to conditionally simulate 50 realizations of 3-D data based on each variogram. The LISA algorithm was then used to detect significant clusters in these data and classify them as HH, LL or NS. Importing the resulting 100 sets of synthetic clusters and their corresponding effective hydraulic properties into

  3. Effect of terraces, sinks and scarps in modelling cumulative overland flow and soil erosion at catchment scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Vicente, M.; Navas, A.; Machín, J.; Gaspar, L.

    2009-04-01

    Distributed erosion models are potential tools for identifying soil sediment sources. However, the uncertainty of model predictions has yet to be resolved. This work presents a new approach to estimate how terraces and geomorphic structures (sinks and scarps) modify overland flow connectivity and thus affects the assessment of soil erosion rates. This target is achieved by using geographic information systems (GIS), detailed maps of topography, geomorphic elements and land-uses in a small mountain catchment (La Coloma, Spanish Pre-Pyrenees). Overland flow per raster cell and soil erosion was estimated with the revised Morgan, Morgan and Finney (RMMF) model. Cumulative runoff was calculated with a combined algorithm of flow accumulation and the trap-efficiencies of human and geomorphic structures were calculated from the basis of the recently published work of Schäuble et al. (2008) [Computers & Geosciences 34: 635-646]. All maps were derived and the models were run at a spatial resolution of 5 x 5 meters. A total of 16 soil samples were collected in order to obtain a database of different soil properties. Results underline the complexity of runoff connectivity in the study area due to the presence of sinks, stone bunds and terraces. These natural and anthropogenic structures are characterized by high values of trap-efficiency and create areas of temporal accumulation of overland flow and eroded particles. Moreover, karstic processes of limestone dissolution explain the presence of clogging soils where no erosion is expected. The highest rates of soil erosion were obtained in cultivated areas at the bottom of the catchment and in areas under low canopy cover. Areas with high values of flow length also present high values of runoff and soil erosion. This work has proved the usefulness of adding information of terraces and geomorphic structures to improve the assessment of overland flow at catchment scale. Moreover, values of spatially distributed soil erosion showed

  4. Remotely serviced filter and housing

    DOEpatents

    Ross, Maurice J.; Zaladonis, Larry A.

    1988-09-27

    A filter system for a hot cell comprises a housing adapted for input of air or other gas to be filtered, flow of the air through a filter element, and exit of filtered air. The housing is tapered at the top to make it easy to insert a filter cartridge using an overhead crane. The filter cartridge holds the filter element while the air or other gas is passed through the filter element. Captive bolts in trunnion nuts are readily operated by electromechanical manipulators operating power wrenches to secure and release the filter cartridge. The filter cartridge is adapted to make it easy to change a filter element by using a master-slave manipulator at a shielded window station.

  5. Downscaling Satellite Data for Predicting Catchment-scale Root Zone Soil Moisture with Ground-based Sensors and an Ensemble Kalman Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, H.; Baldwin, D. C.; Smithwick, E. A. H.

    2015-12-01

    Predicting root zone (0-100 cm) soil moisture (RZSM) content at a catchment-scale is essential for drought and flood predictions, irrigation planning, weather forecasting, and many other applications. Satellites, such as the NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP), can estimate near-surface (0-5 cm) soil moisture content globally at coarse spatial resolutions. We develop a hierarchical Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) data assimilation modeling system to downscale satellite-based near-surface soil moisture and to estimate RZSM content across the Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory at a 1-m resolution in combination with ground-based soil moisture sensor data. In this example, a simple infiltration model within the EnKF-model has been parameterized for 6 soil-terrain units to forecast daily RZSM content in the catchment from 2009 - 2012 based on AMSRE. LiDAR-derived terrain variables define intra-unit RZSM variability using a novel covariance localization technique. This method also allows the mapping of uncertainty with our RZSM estimates for each time-step. A catchment-wide satellite-to-surface downscaling parameter, which nudges the satellite measurement closer to in situ near-surface data, is also calculated for each time-step. We find significant differences in predicted root zone moisture storage for different terrain units across the experimental time-period. Root mean square error from a cross-validation analysis of RZSM predictions using an independent dataset of catchment-wide in situ Time-Domain Reflectometry (TDR) measurements ranges from 0.060-0.096 cm3 cm-3, and the RZSM predictions are significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with TDR measurements [r = 0.47-0.68]. The predictive skill of this data assimilation system is similar to the Penn State Integrated Hydrologic Modeling (PIHM) system. Uncertainty estimates are significantly (p < 0.05) correlated to cross validation error during wet and dry conditions, but more so in dry summer seasons. Developing an

  6. Fractionation and characterization of natural organic matter from certain rivers and soils by free-flow electrophoresis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leenheer, J.A.; Malcolm, R.L.

    1973-01-01

    Soluble river organic matter and soil fulvic acids from a variety of environments were compared by examining the free-flow electrophoretic fractionation curves of organic carbon, color, and polysaccharides. Significant amounts of virtually colorless organic material were found in both the soil and the river preparations. Polysaccharides comprised 20-75 percent of the colorless material in the soil fulvic acids but only 3.2-7.0 percent of the colorless material in the river preparations. A significant amount of polysaccharides was complexed with organic materials having negative charges. Amounts of polysaccharides were greater in the Fairbanks soil from Alaska than in the soils from North Carolina or Iowa, and they were greater in the Tahquamenon River in Michigan than in the two rivers in Florida; this suggests that polysaccharide degradation is slower in cooler environments. For all of the organic preparations which were fractionated, the intensity of the yellow color increased as the charge on the organic anion increased. Highly colored, negatively charged organic material was found to be present in greater amounts in the subsurface spodic soil horizon of the Lakewood and Fairbanks soils than in the surface mollic horizon of the Macksburg soil. Infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis of four pooled fractions of the Fairbanks fulvic acid indicated increasing aromatic character with increasing negative charge. An increase in the carboxyl content with negative charge suggests the carboxyl group as the primary source of the negative charge.

  7. A high loading overland flow system: Impacts on soil characteristics, grass constituents, yields and nutrient removal.

    PubMed

    Wen, C G; Chen, T H; Hsu, F H; Lu, C H; Lin, J B; Chang, C H; Chang, S P; Lee, C S

    2007-04-01

    The objectives of this paper are to determine effects of different grass species and their harvests on pollutant removal, elucidate impacts on soil characteristics and grass constituents, observe grass yield and quantify nutrient uptake by vegetation in an overland flow system (OLFS). Polluted creek water was applied to eight channels in the OLFS, which were planted with Paragrass, Nilegrass, Cattail, and Vetiver, with each two channels being randomly planted with a given grass species. The grass in one channel was harvested while that in the other channel was not. At a high rate of 27.8 m d(-1) hydraulic loading, the removal efficiencies of conventional pollutants such as BOD, COD, suspended solids (SS), and total coliforms in wastewater are not affected by the type of the grasses species, but those of nitrogen and phosphorus are affected by different species. Overall average removal efficiencies of BOD, COD, SS, ammonia, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and total coliforms through the OLFS are 42%, 48%, 78%, 47%, 40%, 33% and 89%, respectively. The concentration of nitrate, however, increases due to nitrification. Soil characteristics in OLFS have been changed significantly; specific conductivity, organic matter, exchangeable magnesium, extractable copper and zinc in soils all increase with time while pHs decrease. During the winter season, there is a significant accumulation of nitrate in grass with the subsequent reduction during the active growing season (Spring). The contents of nitrate and phosphorus in grass tissue are higher than those of grass in general pastureland, probably due to nutrient luxury uptake by grass. The overall grass yield, growth rate and nutrient uptake are quantified and implication of such high rate OLFS discussed.

  8. Effects of pH, CO2, and flow pattern on the autotrophic degradation of hydrogen sulfide in a biotrickling filter.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yaomin; Veiga, María C; Kennes, Christian

    2005-11-20

    In this study, the effects of pH, CO(2), and flow pattern on the performance of a biotrickling filter (BTF) packed with plastic Pall rings and treating a H(2)S-polluted waste gas were investigated to establish the optimum operating conditions and design criteria. The CO(2) concentration had no effect on the biodegradation at H(2)S concentrations below 50 ppm. In the range of 50-127 ppm H(2)S, CO(2) concentrations between 865 and 1,087 ppm enhanced H(2)S removal, while higher concentrations of 1,309-4,009 ppm CO(2) slightly inhibited H(2)S removal. The co-current flow BTF presented the advantage of a more uniform H(2)S removal and biomass growth in each section than the counter-current flow BTF. Examination of the pH-effect in the range of pH 2.00-7.00 revealed optimal activity for autotrophs at pH 6.00. Under optimal conditions, the elimination capacity reached 31.12 g H(2)S/m(3)/h with a removal efficiency exceeding 97%. In the present research, autotrophic biomass was developed in the BTF, performing both a partial oxidization of H(2)S to elemental sulfur and a complete oxidization to sulfate, which is favorable from an environmental point of view. Results showed that around 60% of the sulfide concentration fed to the reactor was transformed into sulfate. Such autotrophic trickling filters may present other advantages, including the fact that they do not release any CO(2) to the atmosphere. Besides, the limited growth of autotrophs avoids potential clogging problems. Experimental performance data were compared with data from a mathematical model. Comparisons showed that the theoretical model was successful in predicting the performance of the biotrickling filter.

  9. Seepage and seepage gradients in an homogeneous, isotropic aquifer with drains as a function of soil properties and flow region geometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seepage and seepage gradients are important parameters in soil erosion processes and water quality problems on agricultural land. Traditionally, surface overland flow is viewed as one of the major soil erosive agents on those areas. In recent years, the role of the subsurface flow regime is increasi...

  10. System reliability analysis of granular filter for protection against piping in dams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, A.; Sivakumar Babu, G. L.

    2015-09-01

    Granular filters are provided for the safety of water retaining structure for protection against piping failure. The phenomenon of piping triggers when the base soil to be protected starts migrating in the direction of seepage flow under the influence of seepage force. To protect base soil from migration, the voids in the filter media should be small enough but it should not also be too small to block smooth passage of seeping water. Fulfilling these two contradictory design requirements at the same time is a major concern for the successful performance of granular filter media. Since Terzaghi era, conventionally, particle size distribution (PSD) of granular filters is designed based on particle size distribution characteristics of the base soil to be protected. The design approach provides a range of D15f value in which the PSD of granular filter media should fall and there exist infinite possibilities. Further, safety against the two critical design requirements cannot be ensured. Although used successfully for many decades, the existing filter design guidelines are purely empirical in nature accompanied with experience and good engineering judgment. In the present study, analytical solutions for obtaining the factor of safety with respect to base soil particle migration and soil permeability consideration as proposed by the authors are first discussed. The solution takes into consideration the basic geotechnical properties of base soil and filter media as well as existing hydraulic conditions and provides a comprehensive solution to the granular filter design with ability to assess the stability in terms of factor of safety. Considering the fact that geotechnical properties are variable in nature, probabilistic analysis is further suggested to evaluate the system reliability of the filter media that may help in risk assessment and risk management for decision making.

  11. Simulating Diffusive and Preferential Water Flow in Soils with a Coupled Source-Responsive/Richards-Equation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Healy, R. W.

    2015-12-01

    Water movement through soils is often dominated by preferential flow processes such as fingering and macropore flow. Traditional models of flow in the unsaturated zone are based on the diffusion or Richards equation and assume that diffusive (surface-tension viscous) flow is the only flow process. These models are incapable of accurately simulating preferential flow. Several alternative approaches, including kinematic wave, transfer function, and water-content wave models, have been suggested for simulating water movement through preferential flow paths. The source-responsive model proposed by Nimmo (2010) and Nimmo and Mitchell (2013) is unique among such models in that water transfer from land surface to depth is controlled by the water-application rate at land surface. The source-responsive model has been coupled with a one-dimensional version of the Richards-equation based model of variably saturated flow, VS2DT. The new model, can simulate flow within the preferential (S) domain alone, within the diffuse (D) domain alone, or within both the S and D domains simultaneously. Water exchange between the two domains is treated as a first-order diffusive process, with the exchange coefficient being a function of soil-water content. The new model was used to simulate field and laboratory infiltration experiments described in the literature. Simulations were calibrated against measured soil water contents with the PEST parameter estimation package; values for hydraulic conductivity and 3 van Genuchten and 3 source-responsive parameters were optimized. Although exact matches between measured and simulated water contents were not obtained, the simulation results captured the salient characteristics of the published data sets, including features typical of preferential as well as diffusive flow. Results obtained from simulating flow simultaneously in both the S and D domain provided better matches to measured data than results obtained from simulating flow independently

  12. Evaluation of flow injection analysis method with spectrophotometric detection for the determination of atrazine in soil extracts.

    PubMed

    Martins, Elisandra C; Melo, Vander De F; Abate, Gilberto

    2016-09-01

    A method for determining atrazine in soil extracts was evaluated by flow injection analysis with spectrophotometric detection. The method is based on the reaction of atrazine with pyridine in an acid medium followed by the reaction with NaOH and sulfanilic acid. Several analytical conditions were previously studied and optimized. Under the best conditions of analysis, the limits of detection and quantification were 0.15 and 0.45 mg L(-1), respectively, for a linear response between 0.50 and 2.50 mg L(-1), and a sampling throughput of 21 determinations per hour. Using the standard addition method, the maximum relative standard deviation of 17% and recovery values between 80 and 100% were observed for three extracts from soil samples with different composition. The proposed method is simple, low-cost and easy to use, and can be employed for studies involving atrazine in soil samples or for screening of atrazine in soils.

  13. Flow detachment of soils under different land uses in the Loess Plateau of China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land use has a significant effect on soil properties, and therefore on soil erodibility. In many cases, land use controls soil erosion to a greater extent than does climate change or other system properties, yet only a few studies have quantified the effect of land use on soil detachment rates. This...

  14. An inexpensive and simple method to demonstrate soil water and nutrient flow

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil quality, soil health, and soil sustainability are concepts which are being widely used but are difficult to define and illustrate especially to a non-technical audience in the field or classroom. The USDA-NRCS/ARS Soil Quality Test Kit, as well as other commercially-available kits, contains ma...

  15. The impact of soil crusts on overland flow and soil degradation processes in Souss valley, South Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giudici, Christiane; Peter, Klaus Daniel; Schneider, Raimund; Ries, Johannes B.; Aït Hssaïne, Ali

    2013-04-01

    The Moroccan Souss valley between High Atlas and Anti Atlas is one of the fastest growing agricultural regions in Morocco and affected by gully-erosion for 400 years. The transition from traditional farming system into agro-industrial used areas, mostly achieved by land levelling measures, has been raised gully-erosion since the 1960s. The substrate of the re-filled gullies erodes again during the rainfall period, so that old gully systems are resumed with even higher erosion dynamic. Consequently, plantations of citrus fruits, bananas or vegetables get dissected, thus causing high restoration costs and environmental harm. In arid and semi-arid zones, sealing and crusting are important degradation factors which can promote gully-erosion. Due to the sparse vegetation cover and the low soil organic matter content, soil surface is more vulnerable to raindrop impact during the rainfall period. Processes such as sealing and crusting as well as their consequences for environment are well documented in literature. Soil surface sealing reduces infiltration rates and consequently increases the runoff. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of existing soil crusts on runoff and soil degradation in the Souss valley in a two-month field experiment. It was hypothesized that soil crusts with different microstructure exist and may influence runoff and soil degradation in various way. In-situ rainfall simulations with a small portable rainfall simulator were conducted at different sites to determine runoff and soil loss rates on micro-plots with a size of 0.28 m². Levelled and un-levelled gully areas were investigated comparably. The rainfall intensity for each of the 30 minute simulations was 40 mm/h. Additionally, soil crusts were sampled before and after the rainfall simulation. Thin sections were used to analyse the micromorphological structure of each crust. The microscopic evaluation indicated a characteristic micromorphological structure for each soil crust

  16. Seasonal Dynamics of Trace Elements in Tidal Salt Marsh Soils as Affected by the Flow-Sediment Regulation Regime

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Junhong; Xiao, Rong; Zhao, Qingqing; Lu, Qiongqiong; Wang, Junjing; Reddy, K. Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    Soil profiles were collected in three salt marshes with different plant species (i.e. Phragmites australis, Tamarix chinensis and Suaeda salsa) in the Yellow River Delta (YRD) of China during three seasons (summer and fall of 2007 and the following spring of 2008) after the flow-sediment regulation regime. Total elemental contents of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were determined using inductively coupled plasma atomic absorption spectrometry to investigate temporal variations in trace elements in soil profiles of the three salt marshes, assess the enrichment levels and ecological risks of these trace elements in three sampling seasons and identify their influencing factors. Trace elements did not change significantly along soil profiles at each site in each sampling season. The highest value for each sampling site was observed in summer and the lowest one in fall. Soils in both P. australis and S. salsa wetlands tended to have higher trace element levels than those in T. chinensis wetland. Compared to other elements, both Cd and As had higher enrichment factors exceeding moderate enrichment levels. However, the toxic unit (TU) values of these trace elements did not exceed probable effect levels. Correlation analysis showed that these trace elements were closely linked to soil properties such as moisture, sulfur, salinity, soil organic matter, soil texture and pH values. Principal component analysis showed that the sampling season affected by the flow-sediment regulation regime was the dominant factor influencing the distribution patterns of these trace elements in soils, and plant community type was another important factor. The findings of this study could contribute to wetland conservation and management in coastal regions affected by the hydrological engineering. PMID:25216278

  17. Changes in Soil Chemistry and Agricultural Return Flow in an Integrated Seawater Agriculture System (ISAS) Demonstration in Abu Dhabi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Q.; Matiin, W. A.; Ahmad, F.

    2012-12-01

    Growing halophytes using Integrated Seawater Agriculture Systems (ISAS) offers a sustainable solution for the generation of biomass feedstock for carbon neutral biofuels - halophytes do not enter the foodchain and they do not compete with food-crops for natural resources. A field demonstration of ISAS in the coastal regions of Abu Dhabi, UAE, scheduled to start in 2013, will likely face a number of region-specific challenges not encountered in past demonstrations of ISAS at coastal locations in Mexico and Eritrea. The arid climate, unique soil chemistry (evaporite deposits, especially gypsum), and hypersaline coastal hydrogeology of Abu Dhabi will affect long-term halophyte agricultural productivity when Arabian Gulf seawater is applied to coastal soils as part of ISAS. Therefore, the changes in irrigation return flow quality and soil chemistry must be monitored closely over time to establish transient salt and water balances in order to assess the sustainability of ISAS in the region. As an initial phase of the ISAS demonstration project, numerical modeling of different seawater loadings onto coastal soils was conducted to estimate the chemical characteristics of soil and the irrigation return flow over time. These modeling results will be validated with field monitoring data upon completion of one year of ISAS operation. The results from this study could be used to (i) determine the optimal saline water loading that the soils at the ISAS site can tolerate, (ii) potential for sodicity of the soil with saline water application, (iii) impacts of land application of saline water on underlying coastal groundwater, and (iv) develop strategies to control soil water activities in favor of halophyte agricultural productivity.

  18. Seasonal dynamics of trace elements in tidal salt marsh soils as affected by the flow-sediment regulation regime.

    PubMed

    Bai, Junhong; Xiao, Rong; Zhao, Qingqing; Lu, Qiongqiong; Wang, Junjing; Reddy, K Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    Soil profiles were collected in three salt marshes with different plant species (i.e. Phragmites australis, Tamarix chinensis and Suaeda salsa) in the Yellow River Delta (YRD) of China during three seasons (summer and fall of 2007 and the following spring of 2008) after the flow-sediment regulation regime. Total elemental contents of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were determined using inductively coupled plasma atomic absorption spectrometry to investigate temporal variations in trace elements in soil profiles of the three salt marshes, assess the enrichment levels and ecological risks of these trace elements in three sampling seasons and identify their influencing factors. Trace elements did not change significantly along soil profiles at each site in each sampling season. The highest value for each sampling site was observed in summer and the lowest one in fall. Soils in both P. australis and S. salsa wetlands tended to have higher trace element levels than those in T. chinensis wetland. Compared to other elements, both Cd and As had higher enrichment factors exceeding moderate enrichment levels. However, the toxic unit (TU) values of these trace elements did not exceed probable effect levels. Correlation analysis showed that these trace elements were closely linked to soil properties such as moisture, sulfur, salinity, soil organic matter, soil texture and pH values. Principal component analysis showed that the sampling season affected by the flow-sediment regulation regime was the dominant factor influencing the distribution patterns of these trace elements in soils, and plant community type was another important factor. The findings of this study could contribute to wetland conservation and management in coastal regions affected by the hydrological engineering.

  19. Linkage Of A Finite Element Flow Model With A Soil Moisture Model: Challanges Under Semiarid Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roediger, T.; Siebert, C.; Krause, P.

    2008-12-01

    The arid to semiarid Middle East is a region of extreme growth of population. Hence, the rare and over- expoitated water resources in that region have to be more protected against antropogenic and geogenic pollution. One way to help solving that complex issue is to develop an intelligent and integrated strategy to manage all available water resources, which is the aim of the multilateral SMART-project in the Lower Jordan Valley. To generate such an IWRM, all water resources (groundwater, surface runoff, waste water) of the valley and its shoulders have to be quanti- and qualitatively evaluated. The strategy of SMART is to upscale knowledge, extracted from local catchment areas to the project scale, which covers the area between Sea of Galilee, Jerusalem, Dead Sea and Amman. The study areas of the here presented sub-project are the Wadis Qilt (Palestine) and Al Arab (Jordan). The aim of the sub-project is to evaluate natural resources on catchment scale by combining hydrochemical and hydraulical methods to develop a high precision model. Concerning the quantification of the system, two seperated models will be linked: a numerical finite element flow-model for the groundwater passage and a new devolped hydrological model JAMS, which is excellently prepared for humid conditions. The power of JAMS is the highly accurate assessment of soil moisture balance and consequently of surface runoff and groundwater recharge. However, the empirical equations and input parameters have to be adjusted onto the conditions of the semiarid Wadi Al Arab and the arid Wadi Qilt. After the adaption of JAMS, the spatially and temporarily differentiated calculation of runoff and groundwater recharge is possible. Beside climatic gradients, the key issue is, to correctly evaluate the evapotranspiration in respect to the different classes of landuse. In the study area Wadi Al Arab, the groundwater recharge was calculated as area-indicated output parameter of JAMS. This output was used to be the

  20. Remotely serviced filter and housing

    DOEpatents

    Ross, M.J.; Zaladonis, L.A.

    1987-07-22

    A filter system for a hot cell comprises a housing adapted for input of air or other gas to be filtered, flow of the air through a filter element, and exit of filtered air. The housing is tapered at the top to make it easy to insert a filter cartridge holds the filter element while the air or other gas is passed through the filter element. Captive bolts in trunnion nuts are readily operated by electromechanical manipulators operating power wrenches to secure and release the filter cartridge. The filter cartridge is adapted to make it easy to change a filter element by using a master-slave manipulator at a shielded window station. 6 figs.

  1. Pilot-scale study of vertical flow constructed wetland combined with trickling filter and ferric chloride coagulation: influence of irregular operational conditions.

    PubMed

    Kim, B; Gautier, M; Olvera Palma, G; Molle, P; Michel, P; Gourdon, R

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the efficiency of an intensified process of vertical flow constructed wetland having the following particularities: (i) biological pretreatment by trickling filter, (ii) FeCl3 injection for dissolved phosphorus removal and (iii) succession of different levels of redox conditions along the process line. A pilot-scale set-up designed to simulate a real-scale plant was constructed and operated using real wastewater. The influences of FeCl3 injection and water saturation level within the vertical flow constructed wetland stage on treatment performances were studied. Three different water saturation levels were compared by monitoring: suspended solids (SS), total phosphorus (TP), dissolved chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonium, nitrate, phosphate, iron, and manganese. The results confirmed the good overall efficiency of the process and the contribution of the trickling filter pretreatment to COD removal and nitrification. The effects of water saturation level and FeCl3 injection on phosphorus removal were evaluated by analysis of the correlations between the variables. Under unsaturated conditions, good nitrification and no denitrification were observed. Under partly saturated conditions, both nitrification and denitrification were obtained, along with a good retention of SSs. Finally, under saturated conditions, the performance was decreased for almost all parameters.

  2. Analysis and Experimental Verification of New Power Flow Control for Grid-Connected Inverter with LCL Filter in Microgrid

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Herong; Guan, Yajuan; Wang, Huaibao; Wei, Baoze; Guo, Xiaoqiang

    2014-01-01

    Microgrid is an effective way to integrate the distributed energy resources into the utility networks. One of the most important issues is the power flow control of grid-connected voltage-source inverter in microgrid. In this paper, the small-signal model of the power flow control for the grid-connected inverter is established, from which it can be observed that the conventional power flow control may suffer from the poor damping and slow transient response. While the new power flow control can mitigate these problems without affecting the steady-state power flow regulation. Results of continuous-domain simulations in MATLAB and digital control experiments based on a 32-bit fixed-point TMS320F2812 DSP are in good agreement, which verify the small signal model analysis and effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:24672304

  3. Analysis and experimental verification of new power flow control for grid-connected inverter with LCL filter in microgrid.

    PubMed

    Gu, Herong; Guan, Yajuan; Wang, Huaibao; Wei, Baoze; Guo, Xiaoqiang

    2014-01-01

    Microgrid is an effective way to integrate the distributed energy resources into the utility networks. One of the most important issues is the power flow control of grid-connected voltage-source inverter in microgrid. In this paper, the small-signal model of the power flow control for the grid-connected inverter is established, from which it can be observed that the conventional power flow control may suffer from the poor damping and slow transient response. While the new power flow control can mitigate these problems without affecting the steady-state power flow regulation. Results of continuous-domain simulations in MATLAB and digital control experiments based on a 32-bit fixed-point TMS320F2812 DSP are in good agreement, which verify the small signal model analysis and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  4. Modelling Water Flow, Heat Transport, Soil Freezing and Thawing, and Snow Processes in a Clayey, Subsurface Drained Agricultural Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warsta, L.; Turunen, M.; Koivusalo, H. J.; Paasonen-Kivekäs, M.; Karvonen, T.; Taskinen, A.

    2012-12-01

    Simulation of hydrological processes for the purposes of agricultural water management and protection in boreal environment requires description of winter time processes, including heat transport, soil freezing and thawing, and snow accumulation and melt. Finland is located north of the latitude of 60 degrees and has one third to one fourth of the total agricultural land area (2.3 milj. ha) on clay soils (> 30% of clay). Most of the clayey fields are subsurface drained to provide efficient drainage and to enable heavy machines to operate on the fields as soon as possible after the spring snowmelt. Generation of drainflow and surface runoff in cultivated fields leads to nutrient and sediment load, which forms the major share of the total load reaching surface waters at the national level. Water, suspended sediment, and soluble nutrients on clayey field surface are conveyed through the soil profile to the subsurface drains via macropore pathways as the clayey soil matrix is almost impermeable. The objective of the study was to develop the missing winter related processes into the FLUSH model, including soil heat transport, snow pack simulation and the effects of soil freezing and thawing on the soil hydraulic conductivity. FLUSH is an open source (MIT license), distributed, process-based model designed to simulate surface runoff and drainflow in clayey, subsurface drained agricultural fields. 2-D overland flow is described with the diffuse wave approximation of the Saint Venant equations and 3-D subsurface flow with a dual-permeability model. Both macropores and soil matrix are simulated with the Richards equation. Soil heat transport is described with a modified 3-D convection-diffusion equation. Runoff and groundwater data was available from different periods from January 1994 to April 1999 measured in a clayey, subsurface drained field section (3.6 ha) in southern Finland. Soil temperature data was collected in two locations (to a depth of 0.8 m) next to the

  5. Ecohydrologic Investigations of Shallow Lateral Subsurface Flow in Tropical Soils using Time-Lapse Surface Electrical Resistivity Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogden, F. L.; Mojica, A.; Abebe, N. A.; Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama Canal Watershed Experiment, Agua Salud Project

    2010-12-01

    The hydrologic effects of deforestation and aforestation in the tropics remain an area of active research. Hydrologic predictions of land-use change effects remain elusive. One of the unique features of catchment hydrology in the tropics is the effect of intense, continuous biological activity by insects, shrubs, trees, and small mammals. Sapprolitic soils derived from weathered bedrock cover widespread areas. These soils have low matrix permeabilities on the order of 1 mm/h, are 10 to 20 m in thickness and have relatively low activity because they have been depleted of light cations by annual rainfall over 2000 mm. As part of the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama Canal Watershed Experiment, Agua Salud Project, we have observed shallow subsurface flow in tropical soils in central Panama using an introduced salinity contrast and surface electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). In 2009 and 2010, experiments were conducted in a 30 year-old secondary succession forest, and in two former pasture sites that were planted with native timber species and teak, respectively, in 2008. At each site, saline water (NaCl tagged with LiBr) was introduced to the soil using two different methods: soil pits and ponded surface applications. Results showed the strongest response in the case of ponded surface applications with observed changes in resistivity between -50% and 50%. In soil pit applications, the change in electrical resistivity varied from -10% to 10%. Results suggest that in the case of surface application, a transient perched water table is created near the bottom of the bioturbation layer that activates the downslope macropore network and results in bulk flow velocities that are significantly higher than observed soil matrix permeabilities. When heavy rainfall occurred during tests, increased mobility of the salinity contrast more clearly showed the active layer where most flow occurred. Time-series ERT observations enabled measurements of downslope bulk

  6. LUGH an experimental facility for preferential flow-colloidal transport in heterogeneous unsaturated soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angulo-Jaramillo, R.; Bien, L.; Hehn, V.; Winiarski, T.

    2011-12-01

    Colloidal particles transport through vadose zone can contribute to fast transport of contaminants into groundwater. The objective is to study the preferential flow and transport of colloids in heterogeneous unsaturated soil subjected to high organic matter entry. A physically based model is developed based on a large laboratory lysimeter than usual laboratory column experiments. LUGH-Lysimeter for Unsaturated Groundwater Hydrodynamics- is used to embed a soil monolith (1.6 m3) made of different cross-bedded lithological types with contrasting hydraulic properties. The filling material is a carbonated graded sand and gravel from the fluvioglacial vadose zone of the east of Lyon (France). Materials are 3D arranged on contrasting textured lithofacies analogous to the sedimentary lithology of a fluvioglacial cross-bedded deposit. Tracer (Br 1E-2M) and colloid solutions were injected in a pulse mode using a rainfall simulator. Colloid solution is Chlamydomonas reinhardtii at 3.2E+6 units/mL concentration. These unicellular algae can be considered as spherical particles from 6 to 10 μm in diam. Their resistance and doubling time of cell growth are greater than the transfer time in the lysimeter. Algae moving into the porous medium do not immediately reproduce, and then the population size remains constant. During this period, called the lag phase (1 to 2 days), the cells are metabolically active and increase only in cell size. Tensiometers, TDR and electric resistivity enable measurements of the parameters related to flow, solute and colloid transfer. Eluted solutions are sampled by 15 separated fraction collectors, leading to independent breakthrough curves. Eluted colloid concentration is measured by spectrofluorometry. The model approach combines Richards equation, coupled to a convective-dispersive equation with a source/sink term for particle transport and mobilization. Macroscopic particle attachment/detachment from pores is assumed to follow first-order kinetics

  7. Preferential flow in fissured sediments in desert soils related to radioactive waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Scanlon, B.R.; Raney, J.A. . Bureau of Economic Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Unsaturated flow in fissured sediments in the Chihuahuan Desert of Texas was examined to determine if these features act as preferred pathways for water and solute transport. Fissures are surface features, or gulleys, that are underlain by fractures filled with sediment derived from surrounding areas. Hydraulic and chemical approaches were used to investigate unsaturated flow processes beneath and adjacent to fissures, and the results were compared with data from surrounding geomorphic systems such as arroyos, ephemeral streams, and interstreams. Typically, high water potentials in surficial sediments result from infiltration of recent precipitation. Below this surficial zone of high water potentials lies a zone of low water potentials that is much thinner beneath the fissure than in adjacent sediments or in sediments beneath ephemeral streams and interstreams. Maximum chloride concentrations in profiles in the near-surface fissured sediments were much lower than those measured in all other geomorphic systems. The corresponding moisture velocities in the fissured sediments ranged from 10 to 70 mm/yr. A tracer experiment demonstrated higher downward water and solute transport in the fracture fill beneath the fissure relative to adjacent sediments. Numerical simulations of the tracer experiment with the computer code TRACR3D reproduced the overall shape of the tracer plume. Sensitivity analyses demonstrated that the tracer plume is most sensitive to spatial variability in soil texture and the corresponding hydraulic parameters. The results from this study suggest that sediments in the fissured area act as preferred pathways in the shallow subsurface because surface runoff is concentrated in the fissures and because underlying fractures and cavities provide avenues for moisture and solute transport.

  8. Efficiency of a Multi-Soil-Layering System on Wastewater Treatment Using Environment-Friendly Filter Materials

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Chia-Chun; Wang, Pei-Hao

    2015-01-01

    The multi-soil-layering (MSL) system primarily comprises two parts, specifically, the soil mixture layer (SML) and the permeable layer (PL). In Japan, zeolite is typically used as the permeable layer material. In the present study, zeolite was substituted with comparatively cheaper and more environmentally friendly materials, such as expanded clay aggregates, oyster shells, and already-used granular activated carbon collected from water purification plants. A series of indoor tests indicated that the suspended solid (SS) removal efficiency of granular activated carbon was between 76.2% and 94.6%; zeolite and expanded clay aggregates achieved similar efficiencies that were between 53.7% and 87.4%, and oyster shells presented the lowest efficiency that was between 29.8% and 61.8%. Further results show that the oyster shell system required an increase of wastewater retention time by 2 to 4 times that of the zeolite system to maintain similar chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency. Among the four MSL samples, the zeolite system and granular activated carbon system demonstrated a stable NH3-N removal performance at 92.3%–99.8%. The expanded clay aggregate system present lower removal performance because of its low adsorption capacity and excessively large pores, causing NO3−-N to be leached away under high hydraulic loading rate conditions. The total phosphorous (TP) removal efficiency of the MSL systems demonstrated no direct correlation with the permeable layer material. Therefore, all MSL samples achieved a TP efficiency of between 92.1% and 99.2%. PMID:25809517

  9. Efficiency of a multi-soil-layering system on wastewater treatment using environment-friendly filter materials.

    PubMed

    Ho, Chia-Chun; Wang, Pei-Hao

    2015-03-23

    The multi-soil-layering (MSL) system primarily comprises two parts, specifically, the soil mixture layer (SML) and the permeable layer (PL). In Japan, zeolite is typically used as the permeable layer material. In the present study, zeolite was substituted with comparatively cheaper and more environmentally friendly materials, such as expanded clay aggregates, oyster shells, and already-used granular activated carbon collected from water purification plants. A series of indoor tests indicated that the suspended solid (SS) removal efficiency of granular activated carbon was between 76.2% and 94.6%; zeolite and expanded clay aggregates achieved similar efficiencies that were between 53.7% and 87.4%, and oyster shells presented the lowest efficiency that was between 29.8% and 61.8%. Further results show that the oyster shell system required an increase of wastewater retention time by 2 to 4 times that of the zeolite system to maintain similar chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency. Among the four MSL samples, the zeolite system and granular activated carbon system demonstrated a stable NH3-N removal performance at 92.3%-99.8%. The expanded clay aggregate system present lower removal performance because of its low adsorption capacity and excessively large pores, causing NO3--N to be leached away under high hydraulic loading rate conditions. The total phosphorous (TP) removal efficiency of the MSL systems demonstrated no direct correlation with the permeable layer material. Therefore, all MSL samples achieved a TP efficiency of between 92.1% and 99.2%.

  10. Accounting for sap flow from different parts of the root system improves the prediction of xylem ABA concentration in plants grown with heterogeneous soil moisture

    PubMed Central

    Dodd, Ian C.; Egea, Gregorio; Davies, William J.

    2008-01-01

    When soil moisture is heterogeneous, sap flow from, and ABA status of, different parts of the root system impact on leaf xylem ABA concentration ([X-ABA]leaf). The robustness of a model for predicting [X-ABA]leaf was assessed. ‘Two root-one shoot’ grafted sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants received either deficit irrigation (DI, each root system received the same irrigation volumes) or partial rootzone drying (PRD, only one root system was watered and the other dried the soil). Irrespective of whether relative sap flow was assessed using sap flow sensors in vivo or by pressurization of de-topped roots, each root system contributed similarly to total sap flow during DI, while sap flow from roots in drying soil declined linearly with soil water potential (Ψsoil) during PRD. Although Ψsoil of the irrigated pot determined the threshold Ψsoil at which sap flow from roots in drying soil decreased, the slope of this decrease was independent of the wet pot Ψsoil. Irrespective of whether sap was collected from the wet or dry root system of PRD plants, or a DI plant, root xylem ABA concentration increased as Ψsoil declined. The model, which weighted ABA contributions of each root system according to the sap flow from each, almost perfectly explained [X-ABA] immediately above the graft union. That the model overestimated measured [X-ABA]leaf may result from changes in [X-ABA] along the transport pathway or an artefact of collecting xylem sap from detached leaves. The implications of declining sap flow through partially dry roots during PRD for the control of stomatal behaviour and irrigation scheduling are discussed. PMID:18940933

  11. Effects of soil depth and subsurface flow along the subsurface topography on shallow landslide predictions at the site of a small granitic hillslope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Min Seok; Onda, Yuichi; Uchida, Taro; Kim, Jin Kwan

    2016-10-01

    Shallow landslides are affected by various conditions, including soil depth and subsurface flow via an increase in the pore water pressure. In this study, we evaluate the effect of soil depth and subsurface flow on shallow landslide prediction using the shallow landslide stability (SHALSTAB) model. Three detailed soil depth data-the average soil depth, weathered soil depth, and bedrock soil depth-were collected using a knocking pole test at a small hillslope site composed of granite in the Republic of Korea. The SHALSTAB model was applied to a ground surface topographic digital elevation model (DEM) using the three soil depths and upslope contributing area (SCA) assuming subsurface flow calculated from four DEMs: a ground surface topography (GSTO) DEM, weathered soil topography (WSTO) DEM, bedrock topography (BSTO) DEM, and low-level bedrock topography (EBSTO) DEM. The model performance was measured using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. While evaluating the effect of the soil depth with SCA using GSTO DEM, it was found that the bedrock soil depth had higher prediction accuracy compared to that of the average soil depth or weathered soil depth. To evaluate the saturated subsurface flow between the soil and bedrock, SCAs calculated using WSTO and BSTO DEMs were applied. From these simulations, we found that SCA from BSTO DEM and the bedrock soil depth affect the shallow landslide prediction; however, these prediction effects are not significantly increased by large differences in the elevation (between the lowest and highest elevation values). Therefore, we considered the influence of the bedrock depression and SCA from EBSTO DEM. In applying SCA from EBSTO, the prediction accuracy was significantly increased compared to the other predictions. Our results demonstrate that the influence of the bedrock topography on the prediction of shallow landslides may be particularly significant at the scale of a hillslope.

  12. A THREE-DIMENSIONAL AIR FLOW MODEL FOR SOIL VENTING: SUPERPOSITION OF ANLAYTICAL FUNCTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A three-dimensional computer model was developed for the simulation of the soil-air pressure distribution at steady state and specific discharge vectors during soil venting with multiple wells in unsaturated soil. The Kirchhoff transformation of dependent variables and coordinate...

  13. An Inexpensive and Simple Method to Demonstrate Soil Water and Nutrient Flow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, K. A.; Samson-Liebig, S.

    2011-01-01

    Soil quality, soil health, and soil sustainability are concepts that are being widely used but are difficult to define and illustrate, especially to a non-technical audience. The objectives of this manuscript were to develop simple and inexpensive methodologies to both qualitatively and quantitatively estimate water infiltration rates (IR),…

  14. Predictability of soil moisture and river flows over France for the spring season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singla, S.; Céron, J.-P.; Martin, E.; Regimbeau, F.; Déqué, M.; Habets, F.; Vidal, J.-P.

    2011-08-01

    Sources of spring predictability of the hydrological system over France were studied on a seasonal time scale over the 1960-2005 period. Two random sampling experiments were set up in order to test the relative importance of the land surface initial state and the atmospheric forcing. The experiments were based on the SAFRAN-ISBA-MODCOU hydrometeorological suite which computed soil moisture and river flow forecasts over a 8-km grid and more than 800 river-gauging stations. Results showed that the predictability of hydrological variables primarily depended on the seasonal atmospheric forcing (mostly temperature and total precipitation) over most plains, whereas it mainly depended on snow cover over high mountains. However, the Seine catchment area was an exception as the skill mainly came from the initial state of its large and complex aquifer. Seasonal meteorological hindcasts with the Météo-France ARPEGE climate model were then used to force the ISBA-MODCOU hydrological model and obtain seasonal hydrological forecasts from 1960 to 2005 for the entire March-April-May period. Scores from this seasonal hydrological forecasting suite could thus be compared with the random atmospheric experiment. Skill scores clearly showed the added value in seasonal meteorological forecasts in the north of France, contrary to the Mediterranean area where values worsened.

  15. Evaluating the Effects of Horizontal Spatial Discretization on Interflow in the Soil Zone Using the Richards and Groundwater Flow Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henson, W.; Niswonger, R. G.

    2011-12-01

    In many mountainous regions, a large proportion of streamflow originates as shallow subsurface storm flow (interflow) within the shallow soils of hillslopes. Infiltration can accumulate to form perched groundwater within the upper few meters of the soil horizon that drains to streams through both macropores and soil-matrix. Richards Equation has become a commonly used governing equation for simulating interflow in regional-scale models. Recent research has shown that optimal vertical discretization for Richards Equation near land surface and the water table is much smaller than the discretization typically used in basin-scale hydrologic models, yet little is known about optimal horizontal discretization or potential effects of horizontal discretization on interflow solutions. Most of the work related to the effects of discretization on the solution of Richards Equation has focused on the vertical infiltration problem. This study evaluates horizontal spatial discretization effects on interflow predictions using 1) a modified version of GSFLOW and 2) VS2DT. The modified GSFLOW couples Smith-Parlange 1-D infiltration equations with 3-D unconfined groundwater flow equation, whereas VS2DT uses Richards Equation to represent infiltration and variably saturated flow. Interflow solutions and breakthrough at the stream were compared using a model domain similar to Vauclin and others (1979) with horizontal grid resolutions ranging from 0.05-5m and vertical resolutions ranging between 0.05-1m, with horizontal flow path lengths of 25m to the stream. Variable horizontal spatial resolutions affected VS2DT interflow solutions (RMSE up to 0.12) and interflow breakthrough at the stream, whereas GSFLOW solutions were well correlated (RMSE <0.052). Interflow breakthrough was delayed by up to 10 days with increasing resolution in VS2DT, whereas GSFLOW breakthrough was consistently the same day. Results indicate that the solution of Richards Equation for soil-zone interflow is much

  16. An ensemble Kalman filter dual assimilation of thermal infrared and microwave satellite observations of soil moisture into the Noah land surface model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hain, Christopher R.; Crow, Wade T.; Anderson, Martha C.; Mecikalski, John R.

    2012-11-01

    Studies that have assimilated remotely sensed soil moisture (SM) into land surface models (LSMs) have generally focused on retrievals from microwave (MW) sensors. However, retrievals from thermal infrared (TIR) sensors have also been shown to add unique information, especially where MW sensors are not able to provide accurate retrievals (due to, e.g., dense vegetation). In this study, we examine the assimilation of a TIR product based on surface evaporative flux estimates from the Atmosphere Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI) model and the MW-based VU Amsterdam NASA surface SM product generated with the Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM). A set of data assimilation experiments using an ensemble Kalman filter are performed over the contiguous United States to assess the impact of assimilating ALEXI and LPRM SM retrievals in isolation and together in a dual-assimilation case. The relative skill of each assimilation case is assessed through a data denial approach where a LSM is forced with an inferior precipitation data set. The ability of each assimilation case to correct for precipitation errors is quantified by comparing with a simulation forced with a higher-quality precipitation data set. All three assimilation cases (ALEXI, LPRM, and Dual assimilation) show relative improvements versus the open loop (i.e., reduced RMSD) for surface and root zone SM. In the surface zone, the dual assimilation case provides the largest improvements, followed by the LPRM case. However, the ALEXI case performs best in the root zone. Results from the data denial experiment are supported by comparisons between assimilation results and ground-based SM observations from the Soil Climate Analysis Network.

  17. Soil nitrogen status as a regulator of carbon substrate flows through microbial communities with elevated CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, Susan E.; Billings, Sharon A.

    2011-03-01

    To assess how microbial processing of organic C inputs to forest soils may be influenced by elevated CO2 and altered N dynamics, we followed the fate of 13C-labeled substrates in soils from the Duke Free Air Carbon Enrichment site where differences in soil N status have been imposed by 7 years of N amendments. Heterotrophic respiration and δ13C of respired CO2-C and phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) were measured to track activities of microbial groups and estimate a relative measure of substrate use efficiency (PLFA-based SUE). Results indicate an increased proportion of fungal and actinomycete activity in elevated CO2 soils, which varied with substrate. The negative effect of N on vanillin phenolic-C incorporation into actinomycete PLFA suggests legacies of fertilization can mitigate increased C flow into actinomycetes with elevated CO2. Further, the fourfold increase in PLFA-based SUE for vanillin phenolic-C in elevated CO2 soils that received N suggests future enhanced N limitation in elevated CO2 soils may promote enhanced respiratory loss relative to incorporation of some C-substrates into microbial biomass. These short-term incubations did not reveal greater loss of soil organic carbon via respiration or shifts in SUE with elevated CO2. However, observed relative increases in activity of actinomycetes and fungi with elevated CO2 and mitigation of this effect on actinomycetes with N amendments suggests that elevated CO2 and predicted N limitation may alter the fate of slow-turnover soil organic matter (SOM) in two competing ways. Investigations need to focus on how these microorganisms may increase slow-turnover substrate use while possibly enhancing the prevalence of microbial cell wall structures that can serve as precursors of stabilized SOM.

  18. Synergistic Processing of Biphenyl and Benzoate: Carbon Flow Through the Bacterial Community in Polychlorinated-Biphenyl-Contaminated Soil.

    PubMed

    Leewis, Mary-Cathrine; Uhlik, Ondrej; Leigh, Mary Beth

    2016-02-26

    Aerobic mineralization of PCBs, which are toxic and persistent organic pollutants, involves the upper (biphenyl, BP) and lower (benzoate, BZ) degradation pathways. The activity of different members of the soil microbial community in performing one or both pathways, and their synergistic interactions during PCB biodegradation, are not well understood. This study investigates BP and BZ biodegradation and subsequent carbon flow through the microbial community in PCB-contaminated soil. DNA stable isotope probing (SIP) was used to identify the bacterial guilds involved in utilizing (13)C-biphenyl (unchlorinated analogue of PCBs) and/or (13)C-benzoate (product/intermediate of BP degradation and analogue of chlorobenzoates). By performing SIP with two substrates in parallel, we reveal microbes performing the upper (BP) and/or lower (BZ) degradation pathways, and heterotrophic bacteria involved indirectly in processing carbon derived from these substrates (i.e. through crossfeeding). Substrate mineralization rates and shifts in relative abundance of labeled taxa suggest that BP and BZ biotransformations were performed by microorganisms with different growth strategies: BZ-associated bacteria were fast growing, potentially copiotrophic organisms, while microbes that transform BP were oligotrophic, slower growing, organisms. Our findings provide novel insight into the functional interactions of soil bacteria active in processing biphenyl and related aromatic compounds in soil, revealing how carbon flows through a bacterial community.

  19. Synergistic Processing of Biphenyl and Benzoate: Carbon Flow Through the Bacterial Community in Polychlorinated-Biphenyl-Contaminated Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leewis, Mary-Cathrine; Uhlik, Ondrej; Leigh, Mary Beth

    2016-02-01

    Aerobic mineralization of PCBs, which are toxic and persistent organic pollutants, involves the upper (biphenyl, BP) and lower (benzoate, BZ) degradation pathways. The activity of different members of the soil microbial community in performing one or both pathways, and their synergistic interactions during PCB biodegradation, are not well understood. This study investigates BP and BZ biodegradation and subsequent carbon flow through the microbial community in PCB-contaminated soil. DNA stable isotope probing (SIP) was used to identify the bacterial guilds involved in utilizing 13C-biphenyl (unchlorinated analogue of PCBs) and/or 13C-benzoate (product/intermediate of BP degradation and analogue of chlorobenzoates). By performing SIP with two substrates in parallel, we reveal microbes performing the upper (BP) and/or lower (BZ) degradation pathways, and heterotrophic bacteria involved indirectly in processing carbon derived from these substrates (i.e. through crossfeeding). Substrate mineralization rates and shifts in relative abundance of labeled taxa suggest that BP and BZ biotransformations were performed by microorganisms with different growth strategies: BZ-associated bacteria were fast growing, potentially copiotrophic organisms, while microbes that transform BP were oligotrophic, slower growing, organisms. Our findings provide novel insight into the functional interactions of soil bacteria active in processing biphenyl and related aromatic compounds in soil, revealing how carbon flows through a bacterial community.

  20. Synergistic Processing of Biphenyl and Benzoate: Carbon Flow Through the Bacterial Community in Polychlorinated-Biphenyl-Contaminated Soil

    PubMed Central

    Leewis, Mary-Cathrine; Uhlik, Ondrej; Leigh, Mary Beth

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic mineralization of PCBs, which are toxic and persistent organic pollutants, involves the upper (biphenyl, BP) and lower (benzoate, BZ) degradation pathways. The activity of different members of the soil microbial community in performing one or both pathways, and their synergistic interactions during PCB biodegradation, are not well understood. This study investigates BP and BZ biodegradation and subsequent carbon flow through the microbial community in PCB-contaminated soil. DNA stable isotope probing (SIP) was used to identify the bacterial guilds involved in utilizing 13C-biphenyl (unchlorinated analogue of PCBs) and/or 13C-benzoate (product/intermediate of BP degradation and analogue of chlorobenzoates). By performing SIP with two substrates in parallel, we reveal microbes performing the upper (BP) and/or lower (BZ) degradation pathways, and heterotrophic bacteria involved indirectly in processing carbon derived from these substrates (i.e. through crossfeeding). Substrate mineralization rates and shifts in relative abundance of labeled taxa suggest that BP and BZ biotransformations were performed by microorganisms with different growth strategies: BZ-associated bacteria were fast growing, potentially copiotrophic organisms, while microbes that transform BP were oligotrophic, slower growing, organisms. Our findings provide novel insight into the functional interactions of soil bacteria active in processing biphenyl and related aromatic compounds in soil, revealing how carbon flows through a bacterial community. PMID:26915282

  1. UNSAT-H Version 3.0:Unsaturated Soil Water and Heat Flow Model: Theory, User Manual, and Examples

    SciTech Connect

    Fayer, Michael J.

    2000-06-15

    The UNSAT-H model was developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to assess the water dynamics of arid sites and, in particular, estimate recharge fluxes for scenarios pertinent to waste disposal facilities. To achieve the above goals for assessing water dynamics and estimating recharge rates, the UNSAT-H addresses soil water infiltration, redistribution, evaporation, plant transpiration, deep drainage, and soil heat flow. The UNSAT-H model simulates liquid water flow using the Richards equation, water vapor diffusion using Fick's law, and sensible heat flow using the Fourier equation. This report documents UNSAT-H Version 3.0. The report includes the bases for the conceptual model and its numerical implementation, benchmark test cases, example simulations involving layered soils and plants, and the code manual. Version 3.0 is an enhanced-capability update of UNSAT-H Version 2.0 (Fayer Jones 1990). New features include hysteresis, an iterative solution of head and temperature, an energy balance check, the modified Picard solution technique, additional hydraulic functions, multiple year simulation capability, and general enhancements. This report includes eight example problems. The first four are verification tests of UNSAT-H capabilities. The second four example problems are demonstrations of real-world situations.

  2. Evaluation of Radial Flow Fluidized Filter (R3F) Followed by Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration Systems in Calimesa, California

    EPA Science Inventory

    U.S. EPA coordinated a field study with South Mesa Water Utility to look for treatment alternatives for California State Project Water in the small community of Calimesa, California. EPA evaluated the performance of a system comprised of Radial Flow Fluidized Filtration (R3f) fo...

  3. Overland flow generation on deep soils in Ethiopia (Lake Tana basin): role of soil texture and plough pan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyssen, Jan; Dessie, Mekete; Monsieurs, Elise; Poesen, Jean; Admasu, Teshager; Verhoest, Niko; Adgo, Enyew; Deckers, Jozef

    2014-05-01

    Different applications of rainfall/runoff models in Lake Tana basin (Ethiopia) tend to show that on hill slopes there are vast areas that yield a high runoff response and that behave as if the soil would be nearly impervious (up to 20 % of the hilly catchments). This is well beyond the area occupied by rock outcrops. Duricrusts or hardpans of pedogenetic origin are absent in this environment on basaltic rock with mild tropical climate: no silcretes, calcretes or even ferricretes are known to occur in the basin. Field observations show that runoff response from tilled farmlands can however be unexpectedly high, even when deep theoretically well drained Nitisols occur. In the rainy season, rills and ephemeral gullies are created and these often expose a rock-hard plough pan at some 15 cm depth. Due to repeated tillage at constant depth, the downward pressure of the tip of the ox-drawn ard plough compacts the soil aggregates that are located just below the tilled horizon. In this poster we will discuss the need to not only evaluate the effect of soil texture when interpreting rainfall-runoff relations, but also to investigate the structural and hydrological characteristics of such plough pans.

  4. Aqueous Iron-Sulfide Clusters in Variably Saturated Soil Systems: Implications for Iron Cycling and Fluid Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, J. T.; Hansen, D. J.; Mohanty, B. P.

    2008-12-01

    Iron and sulfur cycling is an important control on contaminant fate and transport, the availability of micronutrients and the physics of water flow. This study explores the effects of soil structure (i.e. layers, lenses, macropores, or fractures) on linked biogeochemical and hydrological processes involving Fe and S cycling in the vadose zone using packed soil columns. Three laboratory soil columns were constructed: a homogenized medium-grained sand, homogenized organic-rich loam, and a sand-over-loam layered column. Both upward and downward infiltration of water was evaluated during experiments to simulate rising water table and rainfall events respectively. Water samples extracted by lysimeter were analyzed for reduced species (including total sulfide, Fe(II), and FeSaq) voltammetrically using a mercury drop electrode. In addition to other reduced species, aqueous FeS clusters (FeSaq) were observed in two of the columns, with the greatest concentrations of FeSaq occurring in close proximity to the soil interface in the layered column. To our knowledge, this is the first documentation of aqueous FeS clusters in partially saturated sediments. The aqueous nature of FeSaq allows it to be transported instead of precipitating and suggests that current conceptual models of iron-sulfur cycling may need to be adapted to account for an aqueous phase. The presence of iron-rich soil aggregates near the soil interface may indicate that FeS clusters played a critical role in the formation of soil aggregates that subsequently caused up to an order of magnitude decrease in hydraulic conductivity.

  5. Integration of soil microbial processes in a reactive transport model for simulating effects of root-controlled water flow on carbon and nutrient cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espeleta, J. F.; Cardon, Z. G.; Mayer, K. U.; Rastetter, E. B.; Neumann, R. B.

    2013-12-01

    The rhizosphere is a hotbed of microbial activity in terrestrial ecosystems, and numerous models of rhizosphere dynamics have been focused in two main arenas: (1) water flow and nutrient transport around roots, and (2) carbon and nutrient exchanges between roots and microbes. However, coupling of microbial processes with physical flow (water and nutrients) in soils around plant roots is key to understanding how water, carbon and nutrient cycles interact at different scales. In order to explore how spatial distribution and timing of water flow directed by plant roots shapes rhizosphere biogeochemical function, we have developed a mechanistic model that combines a microbial food web with dynamic water flow and associated solute transport (advection, diffusion and cation exchange). We used the flexibility of a previously developed code, MIN3P (a multicomponent reactive transport model developed for variably saturated porous media) and incorporated microbial processes of carbon and nitrogen uptake, assimilation and secretion; microbial growth and death; exo-enzyme production; protozoal grazing, and soil organic matter decomposition within a soil matrix. We focused our attention at the mm-spatial scale, exploring the interaction of temporal oscillations in the magnitude and direction of water flow with soil C and N gradients. In this first modeling step, we prescribed dynamic soil water content representative of the transpiration stream (soil water loss) and hydraulic redistribution (soil water gain), as well as the flux of carbon into the soil. Although we are still in the process of building explicit root and plant behavior into the model, our preliminary results suggest that the diel pulsing of water out/into the soil can potentially change patterns of microbial C/N limitation and soil N availability. We are currently expanding our model to include the effect of plant root processes (uptake and exudation) and investigating the mechanisms explaining the interplay

  6. Sintered composite filter

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, W.

    1986-05-02

    A particulate filter medium formed of a sintered composite of 0.5 micron diameter quartz fibers and 2 micron diameter stainless steel fibers is described. Preferred composition is about 40 vol.% quartz and about 60 vol.% stainless steel fibers. The media is sintered at about 1100/sup 0/C to bond the stainless steel fibers into a cage network which holds the quartz fibers. High filter efficiency and low flow resistance are provided by the smaller quartz fibers. High strength is provided by the stainless steel fibers. The resulting media has a high efficiency and low pressure drop similar to the standard HEPA media, with tensile strength at least four times greater, and a maximum operating temperature of about 550/sup 0/C. The invention also includes methods to form the composite media and a HEPA filter utilizing the composite media. The filter media can be used to filter particles in both liquids and gases.

  7. Quantification and modelling of water flow in rain-fed paddy fields in NE Thailand: Evidence of soil salinization under submerged conditions by artesian groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammecker, Claude; Maeght, Jean-Luc; Grünberger, Olivier; Siltacho, Siwaporn; Srisruk, Kriengsak; Noble, Andrew

    2012-08-01

    SummaryWater flow and solute transport in soils forms an essential part in many groundwater hydrology studies. This is especially true for Northeast Thailand, where the agricultural land is affected by the soil salinity, which is a widespread and an increasing phenomenon affecting 25% of the agricultural land. Salinization appears as scattered discrete patches of 10-100 m2 in the lowlands, illustrated by white efflorescences during the dry season and bare soil during the cropping season. A field study was undertaken in farm plots to measure the water flow and solute transport within the soil surface and the vadose zone, both inside and outside a saline patch. The water flow was measured on the soil surface with lysimeters and infiltration rings, and was derived in the soil from the hydraulic gradients measured with tensiometers placed at different depths. The salt transport was evaluated with water traps also placed at different depths, where the soil water's electrical conductivity was measured throughout the rainy season. Field study results demonstrated that the accumulation of saline solutions in rain fed paddy fields, occurred mainly during the rainy season while the soil surface remained flooded. During this period the saline water table rose towards the soil surface independently of infiltration into the soil. It happened in specific places where the compacted soil layer, generally ubiquitous in the area at a depth of 40-50 cm, is interrupted. Therefore salinity appeareds in discret points as patches. Artesian upward flow already described in this area (Haworth et al., 1966; Williamson et al., 1989; Imaizumi et al., 2002) is most probably responsible for this water table rise, thereby affecting crop productivity. Numerical modelling of water flow using HYDRUS-3D further supported these results and showed that managing the depth of flooding within the plot can significantly reduce the outbreak of these saline plumes.

  8. Water Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Aquaspace H2OME Guardian Water Filter, available through Western Water International, Inc., reduces lead in water supplies. The filter is mounted on the faucet and the filter cartridge is placed in the "dead space" between sink and wall. This filter is one of several new filtration devices using the Aquaspace compound filter media, which combines company developed and NASA technology. Aquaspace filters are used in industrial, commercial, residential, and recreational environments as well as by developing nations where water is highly contaminated.

  9. Enzyme entrapped nanoporous scaffolds formed through flow induced gelation in microfluidic filter device for sensitive biosensing of organophosphorus compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Donglai; Shao, Guocheng; Du, Dan; Wang, Jun; Wang, Limin; Wang, Wanjun; Lin, Yuehe

    2011-02-01

    A novel and versatile processing method was developed for the formation of gel scaffolds with in-situ AChE-AuNPs immobilization for biosensing of organophosphorus compounds. The biosensor designed by our new approach shows high sensitivity, selectivity and reactivation efficiency. This flow induced immobilziation technique opens up new pathways for designing simple, fast, biocompatible, and cost-effective process for enhanced sensor performance and on-site testing of a variety of toxic organophosphorus compounds.

  10. Land-use change impacts on hydrologic soil properties and implications for overland-flow in a periurban Mediterranean catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Carla S. S.; Steenhuis, Tammo S.; Walsh, Rory P. D.; Soares, Daniel; Ferreira, António J. D.; Coelho, Celeste O. A.

    2013-04-01

    Global urbanization affects land-use, soil properties and runoff generation and has implications on flow connectivity in the landscape. Understanding how various forms of the urban mosaic affects the landscape functioning is still a challenge. The aim of our research is to: 1) understand spatio-temporal variability of soil hydrological properties of land-uses in a periurban Mediterranean environment and the impacts on runoff processes; 2) assess the impacts of urbanizing mosaic features of periurban areas on flow connectivity and streamflow response. The study is carried out in a Portuguese typical urbanizing environment, the Ribeira dos Covões (6 km2 catchment). In the last 50 years, the catchment has changed from being rural into urban. By 2009, although still dominated by forest (66%), the catchment urban areas (30%) exhibited a distinctive pattern involving sets of gardens and walls, with derelict land in between properties. The study combines field surveys and hydrological monitoring to assess spatio-temporal dynamics of land-use contributions to surface hydrology. Over a one year period, nine monitoring campaigns were carried out to assess the variability of water-repellency, soil moisture and water infiltration in different land-use categories. In 2010 fall, nine 8mx2m runoff plots were installed in the forest areas, as well as a continuous-recording network that includes three rain-gauges and nine water-level recorders. This network provides continuous data on hydrological response to rainfall at the catchment outlet and in eight sub-catchments. The results revealed high spatio-temporal variability in soil hydrological properties with significant differences between land-uses. In summer, soil hydrophobicity is widespread and most severe in forest areas, resulting in very low soil-matrix infiltration and thereby promoting Hortonian overland-flow. In wet periods, water-repellency almost vanished, with infiltration rates at forest sites increasing to12mm

  11. Fractionation of Sb and As in soil and sludge samples using different continuous-flow extraction techniques.

    PubMed

    Savonina, E Yu; Fedotov, P S; Wennrich, R

    2012-05-01

    The fractionation of Sb and As in soil and sludge samples had been comparably studied using two continuous-flow systems: a microcolumn (MC) and a rotating coiled column (RCC). The leachants were applied in correspondence with a five-step sequential extraction scheme addressing water-soluble, non-specifically sorbed, specifically sorbed, and bound to amorphous and crystalline Fe/Al oxide fractions of Sb and As. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy was applied to determine antimony, arsenic, and major elements in the effluent and in the residual fractions after their digestion. Resemblances and discrepancies of the two methods were evaluated by the fractionation of Sb and As in forest soil, river sludge, and dumped waste (soil) samples. For the forest soil sample, which is very poor in organic matter, RCC and MC extractions yielded similar quantitative values of As and Sb contents in individual leachable fractions. However, for the river sludge sample with a moderate concentration of C (org) (3.3 %), the results obtained by both continuous-flow methods are in satisfactory agreement. RCC extraction enabled water-soluble and non-specifically sorbed As fractions to be recovered, whereas after MC leaching, these environmentally relevant forms of As were not detected. For the soil rich in organic matter (C(org) = 11.5 %), the discrepancy between the data of RCC and MC fractionations is significant. RCC extraction provides about six times higher recoveries of As and Sb bound to amorphous Fe/Al oxides. More efficient leaching of As and Sb in RCC may be attributed to the migration of organic-rich particles with low density inside the column that might enhance the mixing of the solid and liquid phases.

  12. Water flow and solute transport in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum: Upscaling from rhizosphere to root zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarovitch, Naftali; Perelman, Adi; Guerra, Helena; Vanderborght, Jan; Pohlmeier, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Root water and nutrient uptake are among the most important processes considered in numerical models simulating water content and fluxes in the subsurface, as they control plant growth and production as well as water flow and nutrient transport out of the root zone. Root water uptake may lead to salt accumulation at the root-soil interface, resulting in rhizophere salt concentrations much higher than in the bulk soil. This salt accumulation is caused by soluble salt transport towards the roots by mass flow through the soil, followed by preferential adsorption of specific nutrients by active uptake, thereby excluding most other salts at the root-soil interface or in the root apoplast. The salinity buildup can lead to large osmotic pressure gradients across the roots thereby effectively reducing root water uptake. The initial results from rhizoslides (capillary paper growth system) show that sodium concentration is decreasing with distance from the root, compared with the bulk that remained more stable. When transpiration rate was decreased under high salinity levels, sodium concentration was more homogenous compared with low salinity levels. Additionally, sodium and gadolinium distributions were measured nondestructively around tomato roots using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This technique could also observe the root structure and water content around single roots. Results from the MRI confirm the solutes concentration pattern around roots and its relation to their initial concentration. We conclude that local water potentials at the soil-root interface differ from bulk potentials. These relative differences increase with decreasing root density, decreasing initial salt concentration and increasing transpiration rate. Furthermore, since climate may significantly influence plant response to salinity a dynamic climate-coupled salinity reduction functions are critical in while using macroscopic numerical models.

  13. Biological Filters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klemetson, S. L.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. The review is concerned with biological filters, and it covers: (1) trickling filters; (2) rotating biological contractors; and (3) miscellaneous reactors. A list of 14 references is also presented. (HM)

  14. Development and application of fuzzy indicator for assessment of soil water flows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite abundant rainfall, southeastern sandy Coastal Plains of the USA can be droughty because of low water holding capacity soils. A Sentek frequency domain reflectometry sensor was used to measure volumetric soil water content at 30-minute time steps and 10-centimeter depth intervals to 1 meter. ...

  15. Metallic Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Filtration technology originated in a mid 1960's NASA study. The results were distributed to the filter industry, an HR Textron responded, using the study as a departure for the development of 421 Filter Media. The HR system is composed of ultrafine steel fibers metallurgically bonded and compressed so that the pore structure is locked in place. The filters are used to filter polyesters, plastics, to remove hydrocarbon streams, etc. Several major companies use the product in chemical applications, pollution control, etc.

  16. Filter validation.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Russell E

    2006-01-01

    Validation of a sterilizing filtration process is critical since it is impossible with currently available technology to measure the sterility of each filled container; therefore, sterility assurance of the filtered product must be achieved through validation of the filtration process. Validating a pharmaceutical sterile filtration process involves three things: determining the effect of the liquid on the filter, determining the effect of the filter on the liquid, and demonstrating that the filter removes all microorganisms from the liquid under actual processing conditions.

  17. Treatment of a sulfate-rich groundwater contaminated with perchloroethene in a hydroponic plant root mat filter and a horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland at pilot-scale.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhongbing; Kuschk, Peter; Paschke, Heidrun; Kästner, Matthias; Müller, Jochen A; Köser, Heinz

    2014-12-01

    A hydroponic plant root mat filter (HPRMF) was compared over 7months with a horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland (HSSF CW) regarding the removal of perchloroethene (PCE) (about 2 mg L(-1)) from a sulfate- (850 mg L(-1)) and ammonia-rich (50 mg L(-1)) groundwater with a low TOC content. At a mean area specific inflow PCE load of 56 mg m(-2)d(-1), after 4m from inlet, the mean PCE removal during summer time reached 97% in the HPRMF and almost 100% in the HSSF CW. Within the first 2m in the HSSF CW metabolites like dichloroethenes, vinyl chloride and ethene accumulated, their concentrations decreased further along the flow path. Moreover, the tidal operation (a 7-d cycle) in the HSSFCW decreased the accumulation of PCE metabolites within the first 1m of the bed. The carcinogenic degradation metabolite vinyl chloride was not detected in the HPRMF. The smaller accumulation of the degradation metabolites in the HPRMF correlated with its higher redox potential. It can be concluded from this study that HPRMF appears an interesting alternative for special water treatment tasks and that tidal operation will show some positive effects on the removal of the accumulated PCE metabolites in HSSF CW.

  18. Method and apparatus for a self-cleaning filter

    DOEpatents

    Diebold, James P.; Lilley, Arthur; Browne, III, Kingsbury; Walt, Robb Ray; Duncan, Dustin; Walker, Michael; Steele, John; Fields, Michael

    2010-11-16

    A method and apparatus for removing fine particulate matter from a fluid stream without interrupting the overall process or flow. The flowing fluid inflates and expands the flexible filter, and particulate is deposited on the filter media while clean fluid is permitted to pass through the filter. This filter is cleaned when the fluid flow is stopped, the filter collapses, and a force is applied to distort the flexible filter media to dislodge the built-up filter cake. The dislodged filter cake falls to a location that allows undisrupted flow of the fluid after flow is restored. The shed particulate is removed to a bin for periodic collection. A plurality of filter cells can operate independently or in concert, in parallel, or in series to permit cleaning the filters without shutting off the overall fluid flow. The self-cleaning filter is low cost, has low power consumption, and exhibits low differential pressures.

  19. Method and apparatus for a self-cleaning filter

    DOEpatents

    Diebold, James P.; Lilley, Arthur; Browne, III, Kingsbury; Walt, Robb Ray; Duncan, Dustin; Walker, Michael; Steele, John; Fields, Michael

    2013-09-10

    A method and apparatus for removing fine particulate matter from a fluid stream without interrupting the overall process or flow. The flowing fluid inflates and expands the flexible filter, and particulate is deposited on the filter media while clean fluid is permitted to pass through the filter. This filter is cleaned when the fluid flow is stopped, the filter collapses, and a force is applied to distort the flexible filter media to dislodge the built-up filter cake. The dislodged filter cake falls to a location that allows undisrupted flow of the fluid after flow is restored. The shed particulate is removed to a bin for periodic collection. A plurality of filter cells can operate independently or in concert, in parallel, or in series to permit cleaning the filters without shutting off the overall fluid flow. The self-cleaning filter is low cost, has low power consumption, and exhibits low differential pressures.

  20. Five-year changes in soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in coastal wetlands affected by flow-sediment regulation in a Chinese delta

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junjing; Bai, Junhong; Zhao, Qingqing; Lu, Qiongqiong; Xia, Zhijian

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the sources and sinks of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) in wetland soils as indicators of soil quality and climate change have received attention worldwide. Soil samples were collected in 2007 and 2012 in the coastal wetlands of the Yellow River Delta and the SOC and TN were determined to investigate a five-year change in their content and stock in these wetlands as affected by flow-sediment regulation. Our results revealed that the soils in 2007 exhibited greater electrical conductivities, SOC content and density, and ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N) levels in the top 10 cm soils (p < 0.05) compared with the soils in 2012. In general, the SOC and TN contents decreased with increasing soil depth. However, the highest ratios of soil organic carbon and total nitrogen (molar C/N ratios) were observed in the 30–40 cm soil layer. A significant SOC loss occurred (p < 0.05) in top 10 cm soils, but only a small change in SOC in the top 50 cm soils. Comparatively, TN levels did not show significant differences in the study period. PMID:26879008

  1. Processes, mechanisms, parameters, and modeling approaches for partially saturated flow in soil and rock media; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.S.Y.; Narasimhan, T.N.

    1993-06-01

    This report discusses conceptual models and mathematical equations, analyzes distributions and correlations among hydrological parameters of soils and tuff, introduces new path integration approaches, and outlines scaling procedures to model potential-driven fluid flow in heterogeneous media. To properly model the transition from fracture-dominated flow under saturated conditions to matrix-dominated flow under partially saturated conditions, characteristic curves and permeability functions for fractures and matrix need to be improved and validated. Couplings from two-phase flow, heat transfer, solute transport, and rock deformation to liquid flow are also important. For stochastic modeling of alternating units of welded and nonwelded tuff or formations bounded by fault zones, correlations and constraints on average values of saturated permeability and air entry scaling factor between different units need to be imposed to avoid unlikely combinations of parameters and predictions. Large-scale simulations require efficient and verifiable numerical algorithms. New path integration approaches based on postulates of minimum work and mass conservation to solve flow geometry and potential distribution simultaneously are introduced. This verifiable integral approach, together with fractal scaling procedures to generate statistical realizations with parameter distribution, correlation, and scaling taken into account, can be used to quantify uncertainties and generate the cumulative distribution function for groundwater travel times.

  2. FILTER TREATMENT

    DOEpatents

    Sutton, J.B.; Torrey, J.V.P.

    1958-08-26

    A process is described for reconditioning fused alumina filters which have become clogged by the accretion of bismuth phosphate in the filter pores, The method consists in contacting such filters with faming sulfuric acid, and maintaining such contact for a substantial period of time.

  3. Impacts of rainfall features and antecedent soil moisture on occurrence of preferential flow: A study at hillslopes using high-frequency monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Zhenyang; Tian, Fuqiang; Hu, Hongchang

    2016-04-01

    In order to evaluate influences of rainfall features and antecedent soil moisture on occurrence of preferential flow, a more than 2 years observation was conducted at 12 sites within a 7-km2 catchment, by applying the high-frequency monitoring approach. Totally 65 rainfall events were selected to compare among sites, and preferential flow was inferred when (i) responses of soil moisture did not follow a linear sequence with depth, and (ii) penetration velocity of wetting front in at least one horizon exceeded the threshold, which was set to be 5-10 times of the saturated hydraulic conductivity of soil matrix at different depths. Results showed that frequency of preferential flow was 40.7% in average, but varied from 17.9% to 74.3% among the sites. Correlations between the frequency and rainfall features, i.e. rainfall amount, duration, maximum and average intensity, were well fitted by logarithmic curves. Rainfall amount, which was most prominently correlated with frequency (R2=0.93), was regarded as the dominant driving factor of preferential flow, while average intensity was in second (R2=0.90). Antecedent soil moisture was also significantly correlated with the frequency. However, this should largely be attributed to the differences of soil moisture among sites, since varying range of soil moisture at a specific site was not wide enough to influence the frequency significantly. Further examination suggested that topography and surface cover (dead leaves and humus) were the controlling factors of both infiltration amount and occurrence of preferential flow, as water was more readily to infiltrate into soils and preferential flow was more readily to occur when slope gradient was small and surface cover was thick, while soil moisture was more likely to be a consequence of water storage capacity, rather than an inducer of preferential flow. This knowledge could be helpful in understanding the partitioning of surface runoff and infiltration, as well as runoff