High energy density Z-pinch plasmas using flow stabilization
Shumlak, U., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Golingo, R. P., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Nelson, B. A., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu
The ZaP Flow Z-Pinch research project[1] at the University of Washington investigates the effect of sheared flows on MHD instabilities. Axially flowing Z-pinch plasmas are produced that are 100 cm long with a 1 cm radius. The plasma remains quiescent for many radial Alfvén times and axial flow times. The quiescent periods are characterized by low magnetic mode activity measured at several locations along the plasma column and by stationary visible plasma emission. Plasma evolution is modeled with high-resolution simulation codes – Mach2, WARPX, NIMROD, and HiFi. Plasma flow profiles are experimentally measured with a multi-chord ion Doppler spectrometer. Amore » sheared flow profile is observed to be coincident with the quiescent period, and is consistent with classical plasma viscosity. Equilibrium is determined by diagnostic measurements: interferometry for density; spectroscopy for ion temperature, plasma flow, and density[2]; Thomson scattering for electron temperature; Zeeman splitting for internal magnetic field measurements[3]; and fast framing photography for global structure. Wall stabilization has been investigated computationally and experimentally by removing 70% of the surrounding conducting wall to demonstrate no change in stability behavior.[4] Experimental evidence suggests that the plasma lifetime is only limited by plasma supply and current waveform. The flow Z-pinch concept provides an approach to achieve high energy density plasmas,[5] which are large, easy to diagnose, and persist for extended durations. A new experiment, ZaP-HD, has been built to investigate this approach by separating the flow Z-pinch formation from the radial compression using a triaxial-electrode configuration. This innovation allows more detailed investigations of the sheared flow stabilizing effect, and it allows compression to much higher densities than previously achieved on ZaP by reducing the linear density and increasing the pinch current. Experimental results
ZaP-HD: High Energy Density Z-Pinch Plasmas using Sheared Flow Stabilization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Golingo, R. P.; Shumlak, U.; Nelson, B. A.; Claveau, E. L.; Doty, S. A.; Forbes, E. G.; Hughes, M. C.; Kim, B.; Ross, M. P.; Weed, J. R.
2015-11-01
The ZaP-HD flow Z-pinch project investigates scaling the flow Z-pinch to High Energy Density Plasma, HEDP, conditions by using sheared flow stabilization. ZaP used a single power supply to produce 100 cm long Z-pinches that were quiescent for many radial Alfven times and axial flow-through times. The flow Z-pinch concept provides an approach to achieve HED plasmas, which are dimensionally large and persist for extended durations. The ZaP-HD device replaces the single power supply from ZaP with two separate power supplies to independently control the plasma flow and current in the Z-pinch. Equilibrium is determined by diagnostic measurements of the density with interferometry and digital holography, the plasma flow and temperature with passive spectroscopy, the magnetic field with surface magnetic probes, and plasma emission with optical imaging. The diagnostics fully characterize the plasma from its initiation in the coaxial accelerator, through the pinch, and exhaust from the assembly region. The plasma evolution is modeled with high resolution codes: Mach2, WARPX, and NIMROD. Experimental results and scaling analyses are presented. This work is supported by grants from the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration.
2D Kinetic Particle in Cell Simulations of a Shear-Flow Stabilized Z-Pinch
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tummel, Kurt; Higginson, Drew; Schmidt, Andrea; Link, Anthony; McLean, Harry; Shumlak, Uri; Nelson, Brian; Golingo, Raymond; Claveau, Elliot; Lawrence Livermore National Lab Team; University of Washington Team
2016-10-01
The Z-pinch is a relatively simple and attractive potential fusion reactor design, but attempts to develop such a reactor have consistently struggled to overcome Z-pinch instabilities. The ``sausage'' and ``kink'' modes are among the most robust and prevalent Z-pinch instabilities, but theory and simulations suggest that axial flow-shear, dvz / dr ≠ 0 , can suppress these modes. Experiments have confirmed that Z-pinch plasmas with embedded axial flow-shear display a significantly enhanced resilience to the sausage and kink modes at a demonstration current of 50kAmps. A new experiment is under way to test the concept at higher current, and efforts to model these plasmas are being expanded. The performance and stability of these devices will depend on features like the plasma viscosity, anomalous resistivity, and finite Larmor radius effects, which are most accurately characterized in kinetic models. To predict these features, kinetic simulations using the particle in cell code LSP are now in development, and initial benchmarking and 2D stability analyses of the sausage mode are presented here. These results represent the first kinetic modeling of the flow-shear stabilized Z-pinch. This work is funded by the USDOE/ARPAe Alpha Program. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Increasing Plasma Parameters using Sheared Flow Stabilization of a Z-Pinch
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shumlak, Uri
2016-10-01
Recent experiments on the ZaP Flow Z-Pinch at the University of Washington have been successful in compressing the plasma column to smaller radii, producing the predicted increases in plasma density (1018 cm-3), temperature (200 eV), and magnetic fields (4 T), while maintaining plasma stability for many Alfven times (over 40 μs) using sheared plasma flows. These results indicate the suitability of the device as a discovery science platform for astrophysical and high energy density plasma research, and keeps open a possible path to achieving burning plasma conditions in a compact fusion device. Long-lived Z-pinch plasmas have been produced with dimensions of 1 cm radius and 100 cm long that are stabilized by sheared axial flows for over 1000 Alfven radial transit times. The observed plasma stability is coincident with the presence of a sheared flow as measured by time-resolved multi-chord ion Doppler spectroscopy applied to impurity ion radiation. These measurements yield insights into the evolution of the velocity profile and show that the stabilizing behavior of flow shear agrees with theoretical calculations and 2-D MHD computational simulations. The flow shear value, extent, and duration are shown to be consistent with theoretical models of the plasma viscosity, which places a design constraint on the maximum axial length of a sheared flow stabilized Z-pinch. Measurements of the magnetic field topology indicate simultaneous azimuthal symmetry and axial uniformity along the entire 100 cm length of the Z-pinch plasma. Separate control of plasma acceleration and compression have increased the accessible plasma parameters and have generated stable plasmas with radii below 0.5 cm, as measured with a high resolution digital holographic interferometer. This work was supported by Grants from U.S. DOE, NNSA, and ARPA-E.
A Reactor Development Scenario for the FuZE Sheared-Flow Stabilized Z-pinch
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McLean, Harry S.; Higginson, D. P.; Schmidt, A.; Tummel, K. K.; Shumlak, U.; Nelson, B. A.; Claveau, E. L.; Forbes, E. G.; Golingo, R. P.; Stepanov, A. D.; Weber, T. R.; Zhang, Y.
2017-10-01
We present a conceptual design, scaling calculations, and development path for a pulsed fusion reactor based on a flow-stabilized Z-pinch. Experiments performed on the ZaP and ZaP-HD devices have largely demonstrated the basic physics of sheared-flow stabilization at pinch currents up to 100 kA. Initial experiments on the FuZE device, a high-power upgrade of ZaP, have achieved 20 usec of stability at pinch current 100-200 kA and pinch diameter few mm for a pinch length of 50 cm. Scaling calculations based on a quasi-steady-state power balance show that extending stable duration to 100 usec at a pinch current of 1.5 MA and pinch length of 50 cm, results in a reactor plant Q 5. Future performance milestones are proposed for pinch currents of: 300 kA, where Te and Ti are calculated to exceed 1-2 keV; 700 kA, where DT fusion power would be expected to exceed pinch input power; and 1 MA, where fusion energy per pulse exceeds input energy per pulse. This work funded by USDOE ARPA-E and performed under the auspices of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-734770.
Scaling the Shear-flow Stabilized Z-pinch to Reactor Conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McLean, H. S.; Schmidt, A.; Shumlak, U.; Nelson, B. A.; Golingo, R. P.; Cleveau, E.
2015-11-01
We present a conceptual design along with scaling calculations for a pulsed fusion reactor based on the shear-flow-stabilized Z-pinch device. Experiments performed on the ZaP device, at the University of Washington, have demonstrated stable operation for durations of 20 usec at ~100kA discharge current for pinches that are ~1 cm in diameter and 100 cm long. The inverse of the pinch diameter and plasma energy density scale strongly with pinch current and calculations show that maintaining stabilization durations of ~7 usec for increased discharge current (~15x) in a shortened pinch (10 cm) results in a pinch diameter of ~200 um and plasma conditions that approach those needed to support significant fusion burn and energy gain (Ti ~ 30keV, density ~ 3e26/m3, ntau ~1.4e20 sec/m3). Compelling features of the concept include operation at modest discharge current (1.5 MA) and voltage (40kV) along with direct adoption of liquid metals for at least one electrode--technological capabilities that have been proven in existing, commercial, pulse power devices such as large ignitrons. LLNL-ABS-674920. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy ARPAe ALPHA Program by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
A Reactor Development Scenario for the FUZE Shear-flow Stabilized Z-pinch
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McLean, H. S.; Higginson, D. P.; Schmidt, A.; Tummel, K. K.; Shumlak, U.; Nelson, B. A.; Claveau, E. L.; Golingo, R. P.; Weber, T. R.
2016-10-01
We present a conceptual design, scaling calculations, and a development path for a pulsed fusion reactor based on the shear-flow-stabilized Z-pinch device. Experiments performed on the ZaP device have demonstrated stable operation for 40 us at 150 kA total discharge current (with 100 kA in the pinch) for pinches that are 1cm in diameter and 100 cm long. Scaling calculations show that achieving stabilization for a pulse of 100 usec, for discharge current 1.5 MA, in a shortened pinch 50 cm, results in a pinch diameter of 200 um and a reactor plant Q 5 for reasonable assumptions of the various system efficiencies. We propose several key intermediate performance levels in order to justify further development. These include achieving operation at pinch currents of 300 kA, where Te and Ti are calculated to exceed 1 keV, 700 kA where fusion power exceeds pinch input power, and 1 MA where fusion energy per pulse exceeds input energy per pulse. This work funded by USDOE ARPAe ALPHA Program and performed under the auspices of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-697801.
Ross, M P; Shumlak, U
2016-10-01
The ZaP-HD flow Z-pinch project provides a platform to explore how shear flow stabilized Z-pinches could scale to high-energy-density plasma (plasma with pressures exceeding 1 Mbar) and fusion reactor conditions. The Z-pinch is a linear plasma confinement geometry in which the plasma carries axial electric current and is confined by its self-induced magnetic field. ZaP-HD generates shear stabilized, axisymmetric Z-pinches with stable lifetimes approaching 60 μs. The goal of the project is to increase the plasma density and temperature compared to the previous ZaP project by compressing the plasma to smaller radii (≈1 mm). Radial and axial plasma electron density structure is measured using digital holographic interferometry (DHI), which provides the necessary fine spatial resolution. ZaP-HD's DHI system uses a 2 ns Nd:YAG laser pulse with a second harmonic generator (λ = 532 nm) to produce holograms recorded by a Nikon D3200 digital camera. The holograms are numerically reconstructed with the Fresnel transform reconstruction method to obtain the phase shift caused by the interaction of the laser beam with the plasma. This provides a two-dimensional map of line-integrated electron density, which can be Abel inverted to determine the local number density. The DHI resolves line-integrated densities down to 3 × 10 20 m -2 with spatial resolution near 10 μm. This paper presents the first application of Fresnel transform reconstruction as an analysis technique for a plasma diagnostic, and it analyzes the method's accuracy through study of synthetic data. It then presents an Abel inversion procedure that utilizes data on both sides of a Z-pinch local number density profile to maximize profile symmetry. Error estimation and Abel inversion are applied to the measured data.
Finite-Larmor-radius effects on z-pinch stability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scheffel, Jan; Faghihi, Mostafa
1989-06-01
The effect of finite Larmor radius (FLR) on the stability of m = 1 small-axial-wavelength kinks in a z-pinch with purely poloidal magnetic field is investigated. We use the incompressible FLR MHD model; a collisionless fluid model that consistently includes the relevant FLR terms due to ion gyroviscosity, Hall effect and electron diamagnetism. With FLR terms absent, the Kadomtsev criterion of ideal MHD, 2r dp/dr + m2B2/μ0 ≥ 0 predicts instability for internal modes unless the current density is singular at the centre of the pinch. The same result is obtained in the present model, with FLR terms absent. When the FLR terms are included, a normal-mode analysis of the linearized equations yields the following results. Marginally unstable (ideal) modes are stabilized by gyroviscosity. The Hall term has a damping (but not absolutely stabilizing) effect - in agreement with earlier work. On specifying a constant current and particle density equilibrium, the effect of electron diamagnetism vanishes. For a z-pinch with parameters relevant to the EXTRAP experiment, the m = 1 modes are then fully stabilized over the crosssection for wavelengths λ/a ≤ 1, where a denotes the pinch radius. As a general z-pinch result a critical line-density limit Nmax = 5 × 1018 m-1 is found, above which gyroviscous stabilization near the plasma boundary becomes insufficient. This limit corresponds to about five Larmor radii along the pinch radius. The result holds for wavelengths close to, or smaller than, the pinch radius and for realistic equilibrium profiles. This limit is far below the required limit for a reactor with contained alpha particles, which is in excess of 1020 m-1.
Producing High-Performance, Stable, Sheared-Flow Z-Pinches in the FuZE project
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Golingo, R. P.; Shumlak, U.,; Nelson, B. A.; Claveau, E. L.; Forbes, E. G.; Stepanov, A. D.; Weber, T. R.; Zhang, Y.; McLean, H. S.; Tummel, K. K.; Higginson, D. P.; Schmidt, A. E.; University of Washington (UW) Collaboration; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Collaboration
2017-10-01
The Fusion Z-Pinch Experiment (FuZE) has made significant strides towards generating high-performance, stable Z-pinch plasmas with goals of ne = 1018 cm-3 and T =1 keV. The Z-pinch plasmas are stabilized with a sheared axial flow that is driven by a coaxial accelerator. The new FuZE device has been constructed and reproduces the major scientific achievements the ZaP project at the University of Washington; ne = 1016 cm-3,T = 100 eV, r<1 cm, and tstable >20 μs. These parameters are measured with an array of magnetic field probes, spectroscopy, and fast framing cameras. The plasma parameters are achieved using a small fraction of the maximum energy storage and gas injection capability of the FuZE device. Higher density, ne = 5×1017 cm-3, and temperature, T = 500 eV, Z-pinch plasmas are formed by increasing the pinch current. At the higher voltages and currents, the ionization rates in the accelerator increase. By modifying the neutral gas profile in the accelerator, the plasma flow from the accelerator is maintained, driving the flow shear. Formation and sustainment of the sheared-flow Z-pinch plasma will be discussed. Experimental data demonstrating high performance plasmas in a stable Z-pinches will be shown. This work is supported by an award from US ARPA-E.
Magnetoelectric confinement and stabilization of Z pinch in a soft-x-ray Ar(+8) laser.
Szasz, J; Kiss, M; Santa, I; Szatmari, S; Kukhlevsky, S V
2013-05-03
Magnetoelectric confinement and stabilization of the plasma column in a soft-x-ray Ar(+8) laser, which is excited by a capillary Z pinch, via the combined magnetic and electric fields of the gliding surface discharge is experimentally demonstrated. Unlike soft-x-ray lasers excited by the conventional capillary Z pinches, the magnetoelectric confinement and stabilization of plasma do provide the laser operation without using any external preionization circuit.
Polytropic scaling of a flow Z-pinch
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hughes, M. C.; Shumlak, U.; Nelson, B. A.; Golingo, R. P.; Claveau, E. L.; Doty, S. A.; Forbes, E. G.; Kim, B.; Ross, M. P.; Weed, J. R.
2015-11-01
The ZaP Flow Z-Pinch project investigates the use of velocity shear to mitigate MHD instabilities. The ZaP-HD experiment produces 50 cm long pinches of varying radii. The power to the experiment is split between the plasma formation and acceleration process and the pinch assembly and compression process. Once the pinch is formed, low magnetic fluctuations indicate a quiescent, long-lived pinch. The split power supply allows more control of the pinch current than previous machine iterations, with a designed range from 50 to 150 kA. Radial force balance leads to the Bennett relation which indicates that as the pinch compresses due to increasing currents, the plasma pressure and/or linear density must change. Through ion spectroscopy and digital holographic interferometry coupled with magnetic measurements of the pinch current, the components of the Bennett relation can be fully measured. A scaling relation is then assumed to follow a polytrope as the pinch pressure, initially approximately 250 kPa, increases from an initially formed state to much higher values, approaching 100 MPa. A preliminary analysis of pinch scaling is shown corroborating with other diagnostics on the machine along with extrapolations to required currents for an HEDLP machine. This work is supported by grants from the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration.
Parameter scaling toward high-energy density in a quasi-steady flow Z-pinch
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hughes, M. C.; Shumlak, U.; Nelson, B. A.; Golingo, R. P.; Claveau, E. L.; Doty, S. A.; Forbes, E. G.; Kim, B.; Ross, M. P.
2016-10-01
Sheared axial flows are utilized by the ZaP Flow Z-Pinch Experiment to stabilize MHD instabilities. The pinches formed are 50 cm long with radii ranging from 0.3 to 1.0 cm. The plasma is generated in a coaxial acceleration region, similar to a Marshall gun, which provides a steady supply of plasma for approximately 100 us. The power to the plasma is partially decoupled between the acceleration and pinch assembly regions through the use of separate power supplies. Adiabatic scaling of the Bennett relation gives targets for future devices to reach high-energy density conditions or fusion reactors. The applicability of an adiabatic assumption is explored and work is done experimentally to clarify the plasma compression process, which may be more generally polytropic. The device is capable of a much larger parameter space than previous machine iterations, allowing flexibility in the initial conditions of the compression process to preserve stability. This work is supported by DoE FES and NNSA.
Investigating plasma viscosity with fast framing photography in the ZaP-HD Flow Z-Pinch experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weed, Jonathan Robert
The ZaP-HD Flow Z-Pinch experiment investigates the stabilizing effect of sheared axial flows while scaling toward a high-energy-density laboratory plasma (HEDLP > 100 GPa). Stabilizing flows may persist until viscous forces dissipate a sheared flow profile. Plasma viscosity is investigated by measuring scale lengths in turbulence intentionally introduced in the plasma flow. A boron nitride turbulence-tripping probe excites small scale length turbulence in the plasma, and fast framing optical cameras are used to study time-evolved turbulent structures and viscous dissipation. A Hadland Imacon 790 fast framing camera is modified for digital image capture, but features insufficient resolution to study turbulent structures. A Shimadzu HPV-X camera captures the evolution of turbulent structures with great spatial and temporal resolution, but is unable to resolve the anticipated Kolmogorov scale in ZaP-HD as predicted by a simplified pinch model.
Cinematic Characterization of Convected Coherent Structures Within an Continuous Flow Z-Pinch
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Underwood, Thomas; Rodriguez, Jesse; Loebner, Keith; Cappelli, Mark
2017-10-01
In this study, two separate diagnostics are applied to a plasma jet produced from a coaxial accelerator with characteristic velocities exceeding 105 m/s and timescales of 10 μs. In the first of these, an ultra-high frame rate CMOS camera coupled to a Z-type laser Schlieren apparatus is used to obtain flow-field refractometry data for the continuous flow Z-pinch formed within the plasma deflagration jet. The 10 MHz frame rate for 256 consecutive frames provides high temporal resolution, enabling turbulent fluctuations and plasma instabilities to be visualized over the course of a single pulse. The unique advantage of this diagnostic is its ability to simultaneously resolve both structural and temporal evolution of instabilities and density gradients within the flow. To allow for a more meaningful statistical analysis of the resulting wave motion, a multiple B-dot probe array was constructed and calibrated to operate over a broadband frequency range up to 100 MHz. The resulting probe measurements are incorporated into a wavelet analysis to uncover the dispersion relation of recorded wave motion and furthermore uncover instability growth rates. Finally these results are compared with theoretical growth rate estimates to identify underlying physics. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Stewardship Science Academic Program in addition to the National Defense Science Engineering Graduate Fellowship.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bochi, Matteo; Ummels, Sebastiaan; Chittenden, Jeremy; Lebedev, Sergey
2011-10-01
Recently, it was proposed that a small number of plasma jets produced by lasers could be used to generate a plasma configuration relevant to some features of astrophysical accretion disc physics. We propose complementary experimental configurations which employ converging flows generated in a cylindrical wire array Z-pinch modified to produce a rotating plasma. In this paper we present 3D MHD simulations using the code GORGON which show how this approach can be implemented at the MAGPIE facility at Imperial College, London. We will present the general scenario and the results of a parametric study relating the parameters of the array with the features of the resulting plasma. In particular, we will show how a rotating plasma cylinder or ring, with typical rotation velocity 30 Km/s and Mach number 8 is formed, and how, after about 1-2 revolutions, the material of the plasma ring is ejected in a pair of thermally driven, conical outflows propagating along the rotation axis. We will discuss to what aspects of the physics of accretion discs, the results of such experiments could be relevant. We will also consider the effects of different magnetic configurations, which further expand the possibility to relate the experiments with the astrophysical discs. Experimental implementation of some of these setups is currently in progress on MAGPIE.
Overview of the Fusion Z-Pinch Experiment FuZE
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weber, T. R.; Shumlak, U.; Nelson, B. A.; Golingo, R. P.; Claveau, E. L.; McLean, H. S.; Tummel, K. K.; Higginson, D. P.; Schmidt, A. E.; UW/LLNL Team
2016-10-01
Previously, the ZaP device, at the University of Washington, demonstrated sheared flow stabilized (SFS) Z-pinch plasmas. Instabilities that have historically plagued Z-pinch plasma confinement were mitigated using sheared flows generated from a coaxial plasma gun of the Marshall type. Based on these results, a new SFS Z-pinch experiment, the Fusion Z-pinch Experiment (FuZE), has been constructed. FuZE is designed to investigate the scaling of SFS Z-pinch plasmas towards fusion conditions. The experiment will be supported by high fidelity physics modeling using kinetic and fluid simulations. Initial plans are in place for a pulsed fusion reactor following the results of FuZE. Notably, the design relies on proven commercial technologies, including a modest discharge current (1.5 MA) and voltage (40 kV), and liquid metal electrodes. Supported by DoE FES, NNSA, and ARPA-E ALPHA.
Deconvolution of Stark broadened spectra for multi-point density measurements in a flow Z-pinch
Vogman, G. V.; Shumlak, U.
2011-10-13
Stark broadened emission spectra, once separated from other broadening effects, provide a convenient non-perturbing means of making plasma density measurements. A deconvolution technique has been developed to measure plasma densities in the ZaP flow Z-pinch experiment. The ZaP experiment uses sheared flow to mitigate MHD instabilities. The pinches exhibit Stark broadened emission spectra, which are captured at 20 locations using a multi-chord spectroscopic system. Spectra that are time- and chord-integrated are well approximated by a Voigt function. The proposed method simultaneously resolves plasma electron density and ion temperature by deconvolving the spectral Voigt profile into constituent functions: a Gaussian functionmore » associated with instrument effects and Doppler broadening by temperature; and a Lorentzian function associated with Stark broadening by electron density. The method uses analytic Fourier transforms of the constituent functions to fit the Voigt profile in the Fourier domain. The method is discussed and compared to a basic least-squares fit. The Fourier transform fitting routine requires fewer fitting parameters and shows promise in being less susceptible to instrumental noise and to contamination from neighboring spectral lines. The method is evaluated and tested using simulated lines and is applied to experimental data for the 229.69 nm C III line from multiple chords to determine plasma density and temperature across the diameter of the pinch. As a result, these measurements are used to gain a better understanding of Z-pinch equilibria.« less
Deconvolution of Stark broadened spectra for multi-point density measurements in a flow Z-pinch
Vogman, G. V.; Shumlak, U.
2011-10-15
Stark broadened emission spectra, once separated from other broadening effects, provide a convenient non-perturbing means of making plasma density measurements. A deconvolution technique has been developed to measure plasma densities in the ZaP flow Z-pinch experiment. The ZaP experiment uses sheared flow to mitigate MHD instabilities. The pinches exhibit Stark broadened emission spectra, which are captured at 20 locations using a multi-chord spectroscopic system. Spectra that are time- and chord-integrated are well approximated by a Voigt function. The proposed method simultaneously resolves plasma electron density and ion temperature by deconvolving the spectral Voigt profile into constituent functions: a Gaussian functionmore » associated with instrument effects and Doppler broadening by temperature; and a Lorentzian function associated with Stark broadening by electron density. The method uses analytic Fourier transforms of the constituent functions to fit the Voigt profile in the Fourier domain. The method is discussed and compared to a basic least-squares fit. The Fourier transform fitting routine requires fewer fitting parameters and shows promise in being less susceptible to instrumental noise and to contamination from neighboring spectral lines. The method is evaluated and tested using simulated lines and is applied to experimental data for the 229.69 nm C III line from multiple chords to determine plasma density and temperature across the diameter of the pinch. These measurements are used to gain a better understanding of Z-pinch equilibria.« less
Overview of the FuZE Fusion Z-Pinch Experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shumlak, U.; Nelson, B. A.; Claveau, E. L.; Forbes, E. G.; Golingo, R. P.; Stepanov, A. D.; Weber, T. R.; Zhang, Y.; McLean, H. S.; Higginson, D. P.; Schmidt, A.; Tummel, K. K.
2017-10-01
Successful results of the sheared flow stabilized (SFS) Z-pinch from ZaP and ZaP-HD have motivated the new FuZE project to scale the plasma performance to fusion conditions. The SFS Z-pinch is immune to the instabilities that plague the conventional Z-pinch yet maintains the same favorable radial scaling. The plasma density and temperature increase rapidly with decreasing plasma radius, which naturally leads to a compact configuration at fusion conditions. The SFS Z-pinch is being investigated as a novel approach to a compact fusion device in a collaborative ARPA-E ALPHA project with the University of Washington and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The project includes an experimental effort coupled with high-fidelity physics modeling using kinetic and fluid simulations. Along with scaling law analysis, computational and experimental results from the FuZE device are presented. This work is supported by an award from US ARPA-E.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miernik, Janie
2011-01-01
Fusion-based nuclear propulsion has the potential to enable fast interplanetary transportation. Shorter trips are better for humans in the harmful radiation environment of deep space. Nuclear propulsion and power plants can enable high Ispand payload mass fractions because they require less fuel mass. Fusion energy research has characterized the Z-Pinch dense plasma focus method. (1) Lightning is form of pinched plasma electrical discharge phenomena. (2) Wire array Z-Pinch experiments are commonly studied and nuclear power plant configurations have been proposed. (3) Used in the field of Nuclear Weapons Effects (NWE) testing in the defense industry, nuclear weapon x-rays are simulated through Z-Pinch phenomena.
Z-Pinch Fusion for Energy Applications
SPIELMAN,RICK B.
2000-01-01
Z pinches, the oldest fusion concept, have recently been revisited in light of significant advances in the fields of plasma physics and pulsed power engineering. The possibility exists for z-pinch fusion to play a role in commercial energy applications. We report on work to develop z-pinch fusion concepts, the result of an extensive literature search, and the output for a congressionally-mandated workshop on fusion energy held in Snowmass, Co July 11-23,1999.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wessel, F. J.; Rahman, H. U.; Ney, P.; Valenzuela, J.; Beg, F.; McKee, E.; Darling, T.
2016-03-01
This paper is dedicated to Norman Rostoker, our (FJW and HUR) mentor and long-term collaborator, who will always be remembered for the incredible inspiration that he has provided us. Norman's illustrious career dealt with a broad range of fundamental-physics problems and we were fortunate to have worked with him on many important topics: intense-charged-particle beams, field-reversed configurations, and Z-pinches. Rostoker 's group at the University of CA, Irvine was well known for having implemented many refinements to the Z-pinch, that make it more stable, scalable, and efficient, including the development of: the gas-puff Z-pinch [1], which provides for the use of an expanded range of pinch-load materials; the gas-mixture Z-pinch [2], which enhances the pinch stability and increases its radiation efficiency; e-beam pre-ionization [3], which enhances the uniformity of the initial-breakdown process in a gas pinch; magnetic-flux-compression [4, 5], which allows for the amplification of an axial-magnetic field Bz; the Z-θ pinch [6], which predicts fusion in a pinch-on-fiber configuration; the Staged Z-pinch (SZP) [7], which allows for the amplification of the pinch self-magnetic field, Bθ , in addition to a Bz, and leads to a stable implosion and high-gain fusion [8, 9, 10]. This paper describes the physical basis for a magneto-inertial compression in a liner-on-target SZP [11]. Initially a high-atomic-number liner implodes under the action of the J →×B → , Lorentz Force. As the implosion becomes super Alfvénic, magnetosonic waves form, transporting current and magnetic field through the liner toward the interface of the low-atomic-number target. The target implosion remains subsonic with its surface bounded by a stable-shock front. Shock waves that pass into the target provide a source of target plasma pre-heat. At peak compression the assembly is compressed by liner inertia, with flux compression producing an intense-magnetic field near the target
Neutron generation from Z-pinches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vikhrev, V. V.; Korolev, V. D.
2007-05-01
Recent advances in both experimental and theoretical studies on neutron generation in various Z-pinch facilities are reviewed. The main methods for enhancing neutron emission from the Z-pinch plasma are described, and the problems of igniting a thermonuclear burn wave in this plasma are discussed.
Aleksandrov, V. V.; Volkov, G. S.; Grabovski, E. V.
Results from experimental studies on the implosion of arrays made of kapron fibers coated with different metals (Al, In, Sn, and Bi) are presented. It is shown that the power, total energy, and spectrum of radiation emitted by the imploding array depend on the number of metallized fibers and the mass of the metal layer deposited on them but are independent of the metal characteristics (density, atomic number, etc.). Analysis of frame X-ray images shows that the Z-pinches formed in the implosion of metallized kapron fiber arrays are more stable than those formed in wire arrays and that MHD perturbationsmore » in them develop at a slower growth rate. Due to the lower rate of plasma production from kapron fibers, the plasma formed at the periphery of the array forms a layer that plays the role of a hohlraum wall partially trapping soft X-ray emission of the Z-pinch formed in the implosion of the material of the deposited metal layer. The closure of the anode aperture doubles the energy of radiation emitted in the radial direction.« less
Fusion Propulsion Z-Pinch Engine Concept
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miernik, J.; Statham, G.; Fabisinski, L.; Maples, C. D.; Adams, R.; Polsgrove, T.; Fincher, S.; Cassibry, J.; Cortez, R.; Turner, M.;
2011-01-01
Fusion-based nuclear propulsion has the potential to enable fast interplanetary transportation. Due to the great distances between the planets of our solar system and the harmful radiation environment of interplanetary space, high specific impulse (Isp) propulsion in vehicles with high payload mass fractions must be developed to provide practical and safe vehicles for human spaceflight missions. The Z-Pinch dense plasma focus method is a Magneto-Inertial Fusion (MIF) approach that may potentially lead to a small, low cost fusion reactor/engine assembly1. Recent advancements in experimental and theoretical understanding of this concept suggest favorable scaling of fusion power output yield 2. The magnetic field resulting from the large current compresses the plasma to fusion conditions, and this process can be pulsed over short timescales (10(exp -6 sec). This type of plasma formation is widely used in the field of Nuclear Weapons Effects testing in the defense industry, as well as in fusion energy research. A Decade Module 2 (DM2), approx.500 KJ pulsed-power is coming to the RSA Aerophysics Lab managed by UAHuntsville in January, 2012. A Z-Pinch propulsion concept was designed for a vehicle based on a previous fusion vehicle study called "Human Outer Planet Exploration" (HOPE), which used Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) 3 propulsion. The reference mission is the transport of crew and cargo to Mars and back, with a reusable vehicle.
Hotspot ignition using a Z-pinch precursor plasma in a magneto-inertial ICF scheme
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chittenden, J. P.; Vincent, P.; Jennings, C. A.; Ciardi, A.
2006-01-01
Precursor plasma flow is a common feature of wire array Z-pinches. The precursor flow represents a fraction of the mass of the array which arrives on the axis early in time and remains confined at high density by the inertia of further material bombarding the axis. Later on, the main implosion of the Z-pinch then compresses this precursor to substantially higher density. We show that if the same system can be generated with a Deuterium-Tritium plasma then the precursor provides an ideal target for a cylindrical magneto-inertial ICF scheme. The implosion of the DT Z-pinch produces a dense, low temperature shell which compressively heats the precursor target to high temperatures and tamps its expansion. The azimuthal magnetic field in the hotspot is sufficient to reduce the Larmor radius for the alpha particles to much less than the hotspot size, which dramatically reduces the pR required for ignition. A computational analysis of this approach is presented, including a study of the thermonuclear burn wave propagation. The robustness of the scheme with respect to instabilities, confinement time and drive parameters is examined. The results indicate that a high energy gain can be achieved using Z-pinches with 50-100 MA currents and a few hundred nanosecond rise-times. This work was partially supported by the U.S. Department of Energy through cooperative agreement DE-FC03-02NA00057.
On the Heating of Ions in Noncylindrical Z-Pinches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Svirsky, E. B.
2018-01-01
The method proposed here for analyzing processes in a hot plasma of noncylindrical Z-pinches is based on separation of the group of high-energy ions into a special fraction. Such ions constitute an insignificant fraction ( 10%) of the total volume of the Z-pinch plasma, but these ions contribute the most to the formation of conditions in which the pinch becomes a source of nuclear fusion products and X-ray radiation. The method allows a quite correct approach to obtaining quantitative estimates of the plasma parameters, the nuclear fusion energy yield, and the features of neutron fluxes in experiments with Z-pinches.
Effect of Pressure Anisotropy on the m = 1 Small Wavelength Modes in Z-Pinches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Faghihi, M.
1987-05-01
A generalization of Freidberg's perpendicular MHD model is used to investigate the effect of pressure anisotropy on the small wavelength internal kink (m = 1) mode instability in a Z-Pinch. A normal mode analysis of perturbed motion of an incompressible, collisionless and cylindrical plasma is performed. The stability criterion is (rΣB2)' <= 0, where Σ = 1 - (P|| - P⊥)/B2. It cannot be fulfilled without violation of the fire hose stability condition Σ >= 0.
About plasma points' generation in Z-pinch
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Afonin, V. I.; Potapov, A. V.; Lazarchuk, V. P.; Murugov, V. M.; Senik, A. V.
1997-05-01
The streak tube study results (at visible and x-ray ranges) of dynamics of fast Z-pinch formed at explosion of metal wire in diode of high current generator are presented. Amplitude of current in the load reached ˜180 kA at increase time ˜50 ns. The results' analysis points to capability of controlling hot plasma points generation process in Z-pinch.
Z-Pinch Pulsed Plasma Propulsion Technology Development
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Polsgrove, Tara; Adams, Robert B.; Fabisinski, Leo; Fincher, Sharon; Maples, C. Dauphne; Miernik, Janie; Percy, Tom; Statham, Geoff; Turner, Matt; Cassibry, Jason;
2010-01-01
Fusion-based propulsion can enable fast interplanetary transportation. Magneto-inertial fusion (MIF) is an approach which has been shown to potentially lead to a low cost, small reactor for fusion break even. The Z-Pinch/dense plasma focus method is an MIF concept in which a column of gas is compressed to thermonuclear conditions by an axial current (I approximates 100 MA). Recent advancements in experiments and the theoretical understanding of this concept suggest favorable scaling of fusion power output yield as I(sup 4). This document presents a conceptual design of a Z-Pinch fusion propulsion system and a vehicle for human exploration. The purpose of this study is to apply Z-Pinch fusion principles to the design of a propulsion system for an interplanetary spacecraft. This study took four steps in service of that objective; these steps are identified below. 1. Z-Pinch Modeling and Analysis: There is a wealth of literature characterizing Z-Pinch physics and existing Z-Pinch physics models. In order to be useful in engineering analysis, simplified Z-Pinch fusion thermodynamic models are required to give propulsion engineers the quantity of plasma, plasma temperature, rate of expansion, etc. The study team developed these models in this study. 2. Propulsion Modeling and Analysis: While the Z-Pinch models characterize the fusion process itself, propulsion models calculate the parameters that characterize the propulsion system (thrust, specific impulse, etc.) The study team developed a Z-Pinch propulsion model and used it to determine the best values for pulse rate, amount of propellant per pulse, and mixture ratio of the D-T and liner materials as well as the resulting thrust and specific impulse of the system. 3. Mission Analysis: Several potential missions were studied. Trajectory analysis using data from the propulsion model was used to determine the duration of the propulsion burns, the amount of propellant expended to complete each mission considered. 4
A conservative MHD scheme on unstructured Lagrangian grids for Z-pinch hydrodynamic simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Fuyuan; Ramis, Rafael; Li, Zhenghong
2018-03-01
A new algorithm to model resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) in Z-pinches has been developed. Two-dimensional axisymmetric geometry with azimuthal magnetic field Bθ is considered. Discretization is carried out using unstructured meshes made up of arbitrarily connected polygons. The algorithm is fully conservative for mass, momentum, and energy. Matter energy and magnetic energy are managed separately. The diffusion of magnetic field is solved using a derivative of the Symmetric-Semi-Implicit scheme, Livne et al. (1985) [23], where unconditional stability is obtained without needing to solve large sparse systems of equations. This MHD package has been integrated into the radiation-hydrodynamics code MULTI-2D, Ramis et al. (2009) [20], that includes hydrodynamics, laser energy deposition, heat conduction, and radiation transport. This setup allows to simulate Z-pinch configurations relevant for Inertial Confinement Fusion.
α Heating in a Stagnated Z-pinch
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Appelbe, Brian; Chittenden, Jeremy
2009-01-01
A computational investigation of a scheme for magneto-inertial confinement fusion in a Z-pinch is carried out. In the scheme implosion of a deuterium-tritium fuel mass is preceded by formation of a hotspot containing warm, dense plasma on axis. The presence of the hotspot increases energy yield. Compression of the hotspot by the main fuel mass initiates thermonuclear burn. There is significant heating of the plasma by thermonuclear α particles which are confined by the strong magnetic field of the Z-pinch.
Linear Transformer Drivers for Z-pinch Based Propulsion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adams, Robert; Seidler, William; Giddens, Patrick; Fabisinski, Leo; Cassibry, Jason
2017-01-01
The MSFC/UAH team has been developing of a novel power management and distribution system called a Linear Transformer Driver (LTD). LTD's hold the promise of dramatically reducing the required mass to drive a z-pinch by replacing the capacitor banks which constitute half the mass of the entire system. The MSFC?UAH tea, is developing this technology in hope of integrating it with the Pulsed Fission Fusion (PuFF) propulsion concept. High-Voltage pulsed power systems used for Z-Pinch experimentation have in the past largely been based on Marx Generators. Marx generators deliver the voltage and current required for the Z-Pinch, but suffer from two significant drawbacks when applied to a flight system: they are very massive, consisting of high-voltage capacitor banks insulated in oil-filled tanks and they do not lend themselves to rapid pulsing. The overall goal of Phase 2 is to demonstrate the construction of a higher voltage stack from a number of cavities each of the design proven in Phase 1 and to characterize and understand the techniques for designing the stack. The overall goal of Phase 3 is to demonstrate the feasibility of constructing a higher energy cavity from a number of smaller LTD stacks, to characterize and understand the way in which the constituent stacks combine, and to extend this demonstration LTD to serve as the basis for a 64 kJ pulse generator for Z-Pinch experiments.
Optimization of Capsule Symmetry in Z-Pinch Driven Hohlraums
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vesey, R. A.; Cuneo, M.; Hanson, D.; Porter, J.; Mehlhorn, T.; Ruggles, L.; Simpson, W.; Vargas, M.; Hammer, J.; Landen, O.
1999-11-01
The uniformity of the radiation flux incident on the capsule is a critical issue for indirect drive fusion using the z-pinch driven hohlraum high-yield concept(J.H. Hammer et al., Phys. Plas. 6), 2129 (1999).. Experiments on the Z accelerator at Sandia have demonstrated the ability to diagnose the uniformity of the flux striking a foam ball (surrogate capsule)(P.A. Amendt et al., Phys. Plas. 4), 1862 (1997); S.G. Glendinning et al. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 536 (1999).. These single-sided drive experiments have been modeled using radiosity and radiation-hydrodynamics codes, yielding agreement with the measured ablation rate vs. angle on the foam ball. Flux uniformity at the 1-2% level needed for high-convergence capsule implosions requires a 2-sided drive (top and bottom z-pinch) configuration. Constrained optimization methods have identified hohlraum geometries with improved symmetry.
Measurement of Radiation Symmetry in Z-Pinch Driven Hohlraums
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hanson, David L.
2001-10-01
The z-pinch driven hohlraum (ZPDH) is a promising approach to high yield inertial confinement fusion currently being characterized in experiments on the Sandia Z accelerator [1]. In this concept [2], x rays are produced by an axial z-pinch in a primary hohlraum at each end of a secondary hohlraum. A fusion capsule in the secondary is imploded by a symmetric x-ray flux distribution, effectively smoothed by wall reemission during transport to the capsule position. Capsule radiation symmetry, a critical issue in the design of such a system, is influenced by hohlraum geometry, wall motion and time-dependent albedo, as well as power balance and pinch timing between the two z-pinch x-ray sources. In initial symmetry studies on Z, we used solid low density burnthrough spheres to diagnose highly asymmetric, single-sided-drive hohlraum geometries. We then applied this technique to the more symmetric double z-pinch geometry [3]. As a result of design improvements, radiation flux symmetry in Z double-pinch wire array experiments now exceeds the measurement sensitivity of this self-backlit foam ball symmetry diagnostic (15% max-min flux asymmetry). To diagnose radiation symmetry at the 2 - 5% level attainable with our present ZPDH designs, we are using high-energy x rays produced by the recently-completed Z-Beamlet laser backlighter for point-projection imaging of thin-wall implosion and symmetry capsules. We will present the results of polar flux symmetry measuremets on Z for several ZPDH capsule geometries together with radiosity and radiation-hydrodynamics simulations for comparison. [1] M. E. Cuneo et al., Phys. Plasmas 8,2257(2001); [2] J. H. Hammer et al., Phys. Plasmas 6,2129(1999); [3] D. L. Hanson et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 45,360(2000).
Dynamics of conical wire array Z-pinch implosions
Ampleford, D. J.; Lebedev, S. V.; Bland, S. N.
2007-10-15
A modification of the wire array Z pinch, the conical wire array, has applications to the understanding of wire array implosions and potentially to pulse shaping relevant to inertial confinement fusion. Results are presented from imploding conical wire array experiments performed on university scale 1 MA generators--the MAGPIE generator (1 MA, 240 ns) at Imperial College London [I. H. Mitchell et al., Rev. Sci Instrum. 67, 1533 (1996)] and the Nevada Terawatt Facility's Zebra generator (1 MA, 100 ns) at the University of Nevada, Reno [B. Bauer et al., in Dense Z-Pinches, edited by N. Pereira, J. Davis, and P.more » Pulsifer (AIP, New York, 1997), Vol. 409, p. 153]. This paper will discuss the implosion dynamics of conical wire arrays. Data indicate that mass ablation from the wires in this complex system can be reproduced with a rocket model with fixed ablation velocity. Modulations in the ablated plasma are present, the wavelength of which is invariant to a threefold variation in magnetic field strength. The axial variation in the array leads to a zippered precursor column formation. An initial implosion of a magnetic bubble near the cathode is followed by the implosion zippering upwards. Spectroscopic data demonstrating a variation of plasma parameters (e.g., electron temperature) along the Z-pinch axis is discussed, and experimental data are compared to magnetohydrodynamic simulations.« less
Z-Pinch fusion-based nuclear propulsion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miernik, J.; Statham, G.; Fabisinski, L.; Maples, C. D.; Adams, R.; Polsgrove, T.; Fincher, S.; Cassibry, J.; Cortez, R.; Turner, M.; Percy, T.
2013-02-01
Fusion-based nuclear propulsion has the potential to enable fast interplanetary transportation. Due to the great distances between the planets of our solar system and the harmful radiation environment of interplanetary space, high specific impulse (Isp) propulsion in vehicles with high payload mass fractions must be developed to provide practical and safe vehicles for human space flight missions. The Z-Pinch dense plasma focus method is a Magneto-Inertial Fusion (MIF) approach that may potentially lead to a small, low cost fusion reactor/engine assembly [1]. Recent advancements in experimental and theoretical understanding of this concept suggest favorable scaling of fusion power output yield [2]. The magnetic field resulting from the large current compresses the plasma to fusion conditions, and this process can be pulsed over short timescales (10-6 s). This type of plasma formation is widely used in the field of Nuclear Weapons Effects testing in the defense industry, as well as in fusion energy research. A Z-Pinch propulsion concept was designed for a vehicle based on a previous fusion vehicle study called "Human Outer Planet Exploration" (HOPE), which used Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) [3] propulsion. The reference mission is the transport of crew and cargo to Mars and back, with a reusable vehicle. The analysis of the Z-Pinch MIF propulsion system concludes that a 40-fold increase of Isp over chemical propulsion is predicted. An Isp of 19,436 s and thrust of 3812 N s/pulse, along with nearly doubling the predicted payload mass fraction, warrants further development of enabling technologies.
History of HERMES III diode to z-pinch breakthrough and beyond :
Sanford, Thomas Williamlou.
HERMES III and Z are two flagship accelerators of Sandias pulsed-power program developed to generate intense -ray fields for the study of nuclear radiation effects, and to explore high energy-density physics (including the production of intense x-ray fields for Inertia Confinement Fusion [ICF]), respectively. A diode at the exit of HERMES III converts its 20-MeV electron beam into -rays. In contrast, at the center of Z, a z-pinch is used to convert its 20-MA current into an intense burst of x-rays. Here the history of how the HERMES III diode emerged from theoretical considerations to actual hardware is discussed. Next,more » the reverse process of how the experimental discovery of wire-array stabilization in a z-pinch, led to a better theory of wirearray implosions and its application to one of the ICF concepts on Z--the DH (Dynamic Hohlraum) is reviewed. Lastly, the report concludes with how the unexpected axial radiation asymmetry measured in the DH is understood. The first discussion illustrates the evolution of physics from theory-to-observationto- refinement. The second two illustrate the reverse process of observationto- theory-to refinement. The histories are discussed through the vehicle of my research at Sandia, illustrating the unique environment Sandia provides for personal growth and development into a scientific leader.« less
Performance of a Liner-on-Target Injector for Staged Z-Pinch Experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Conti, F.; Valenzuela, J. C.; Narkis, J.; Krasheninnikov, I.; Beg, F.; Wessel, F. J.; Ruskov, E.; Rahman, H. U.; McGee, E.
2016-10-01
We present the design and characterization of a compact liner-on-target injector, used in the Staged Z-pinch experiments conducted on the UNR-NTF Zebra Facility. Previous experiments and analysis indicate that high-Z gas liners produce a uniform and efficient implosion on a low-Z target plasma. The liner gas shell is produced by an annular solenoid valve and a converging-diverging nozzle designed to achieve a collimated, supersonic, Mach-5 flow. The on-axis target is produced by a coaxial plasma gun, where a high voltage pulse is applied to ionize neutral gas and accelerate the plasma by the J-> × B-> force. Measurements of the liner and target dynamics, resolved by interferometry in space and time, fast imaging, and collection of the emitted light, are presented. The results are compared to the predictions from Computational Fluid Dynamics and MHD simulations that model the injector. Optimization of the design parameters, for upcoming Staged Z-pinch experiments, will be discussed. Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy, DE-AR0000569.
Resolving microstructures in Z pinches with intensity interferometry
Apruzese, J. P.; Kroupp, E.; Maron, Y.
2014-03-15
Nearly 60 years ago, Hanbury Brown and Twiss [R. Hanbury Brown and R. Q. Twiss, Nature 178, 1046 (1956)] succeeded in measuring the 30 nrad angular diameter of Sirius using a new type of interferometry that exploited the interference of photons independently emitted from different regions of the stellar disk. Its basis was the measurement of intensity correlations as a function of detector spacing, with no beam splitting or preservation of phase information needed. Applied to Z pinches, X pinches, or laser-produced plasmas, this method could potentially provide spatial resolution under one micron. A quantitative analysis based on the workmore » of Purcell [E. M. Purcell, Nature 178, 1449 (1956)] reveals that obtaining adequate statistics from x-ray interferometry of a Z-pinch microstructure would require using the highest-current generators available. However, using visible light interferometry would reduce the needed photon count and could enable its use on sub-MA machines.« less
A kind of fast shutter for Z pinch diagnosis device.
Wang, Liangping; Zhang, Xinjun; Sun, Tieping; Mao, Wentin
2016-09-01
A kind of fast shutter for protecting the diagnosis devices in Z pinch experiments is introduced in this paper. The shutter is composed of a pulling rod, a magnetic core, and a solenoid. Different from the traditional coils which were used at the voltage of 220 V, the solenoid we used must endure the high voltage of 5-10 kV and the deformation which maybe caused by the 5-10 T intense magnetic field. A creative configuration for the solenoid is developed including the winding guide, insulating sleeve, and stainless-steel sleeve. The experimental results show that the configuration of the solenoid is effective. The velocity of the valve is nearly 19 m/s and the time jitter of the shutdown is within 75 μs.
A kind of fast shutter for Z pinch diagnosis device
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Liangping; Zhang, Xinjun; Sun, Tieping; Mao, Wentin
2016-09-01
A kind of fast shutter for protecting the diagnosis devices in Z pinch experiments is introduced in this paper. The shutter is composed of a pulling rod, a magnetic core, and a solenoid. Different from the traditional coils which were used at the voltage of 220 V, the solenoid we used must endure the high voltage of 5-10 kV and the deformation which maybe caused by the 5-10 T intense magnetic field. A creative configuration for the solenoid is developed including the winding guide, insulating sleeve, and stainless-steel sleeve. The experimental results show that the configuration of the solenoid is effective. The velocity of the valve is nearly 19 m/s and the time jitter of the shutdown is within 75 μs.
Conceptual Design of a Z-Pinch Fusion Propulsion System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adams, Robert; Polsgrove, Tara; Fincher, Sharon; Fabinski, Leo; Maples, Charlotte; Miernik, Janie; Stratham, Geoffrey; Cassibry, Jason; Cortez, Ross; Turner, Matthew;
2010-01-01
This slide presentation reviews a project that aims to develop a conceptual design for a Z-pinch thruster, that could be applied to develop advanced thruster designs which promise high thrust/high specific impulse propulsion. Overviews shows the concept of the design, which use annular nozzles with deuterium-tritium (D-T) fuel and a Lithium mixture as a cathode, Charts show the engine performance as a function of linear mass, nozzle performance (i.e., plasma segment trajectories), and mission analysis for possible Mars and Jupiter missions using this concept for propulsion. Slides show views of the concepts for the vehicle configuration, thrust coil configuration, the power management system, the structural analysis of the magnetic nozzle, the thermal management system, and the avionics suite,
Investigation of trailing mass in Z-pinch implosions and comparison to experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Edmund
2007-11-01
Wire-array Z pinches represent efficient, high-power x-ray sources with application to inertial confinement fusion, high energy density plasmas, and laboratory astrophysics. The first stage of a wire-array Z pinch is described by a mass ablation phase, during which stationary wires cook off material, which is then accelerated radially inwards by the JxB force. The mass injection rate varies axially and azimuthally, so that once the ablation phase concludes, the subsequent implosion is highly 3D in nature. In particular, a network of trailing mass and current is left behind the imploding plasma sheath, which can significantly affect pinch performance. In this work we focus on the implosion phase, electing to model the mass ablation via a mass injection scheme. Such a scheme has a number of injection parameters, but this freedom also allows us to gain understanding into the nature of the trailing mass network. For instance, a new result illustrates the role of azimuthal correlation. For an implosion which is 100% azimuthally correlated (corresponding to an azimuthally symmetric 2D r-z problem), current is forced to flow on the imploding plasma sheath, resulting in strong Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) growth. If, however, the implosion is not azimuthally symmetric, the additional azimuthal degree of freedom opens up new conducting paths of lower magnetic energy through the trailing mass network, effectively reducing RT growth. Consequently the 3D implosion experiences lower RT growth than the 2D r-z equivalent, and actually results in a more shell-like implosion. A second major goal of this work is to constrain the injection parameters by comparison to a well-diagnosed experimental data set, in which array mass was varied. In collaboration with R. Lemke, M. Desjarlais, M. Cuneo, C. Jennings, D. Sinars, E. Waisman
Analytic model for the dynamic Z-pinch
Piriz, A. R., E-mail: roberto.piriz@uclm.es; Sun, Y. B.; Tahir, N. A.
2015-06-15
A model is presented for describing the cylindrical implosion of a shock wave driven by an accelerated piston. It is based in the identification of the acceleration of the shocked mass with the acceleration of the piston. The model yields the separate paths of the piston and the shock. In addition, by considering that the shocked region evolves isentropically, the approximate profiles of all the magnitudes in the shocked region are obtained. The application to the dynamic Z-pinch is presented and the results are compared with the well known snowplow and slug models which are also derived as limiting casesmore » of the present model. The snowplow model is seen to yield a trajectory in between those of the shock and the piston. Instead, the neglect of the inertial effects in the slug model is seen to produce a too fast implosion, and the pressure uniformity is shown to lead to an unphysical instantaneous piston stopping when the shock arrives to the axis.« less
Staged Z-pinch Experiments on Cobra and Zebra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wessel, Frank J.; Anderson, A.; Banasek, J. T.; Byvank, T.; Conti, F.; Darling, T. W.; Dutra, E.; Glebov, V.; Greenly, J.; Hammer, D. A.; Potter, W. M.; Rocco, S. V.; Ross, M. P.; Ruskov, E.; Valenzuela, J.; Beg, F.; Covington, A.; Narkis, J.; Rahman, H. U.
2017-10-01
A Staged Z-pinch (SZP), configured as a pre-magnetized, high-Z (Ar, or Kr) annular liner imploding onto a low-Z (H, or D) target, was tested on the Cornell University, Cobra Facility and the University of Nevada, Reno, Zebra Facility; each characterized similarly by a nominal 1-MA current and 100-ns risetime while possessing different diagnostic packages. XUV-fast imaging reveals that the SZP implosion dynamics is similar on both machines and that it is more stable with an axial (Bz) magnetic field, a target, or both, than without. On Zebra, where neutron production is possible, reproducible thermonuclear (DD) yields were recorded at levels in excess of 109/shot. Flux compression in the SZP is also expected to produce magnetic field intensities of the order of kilo-Tesla. Thus, the DD reaction produced tritions should also yield secondary DT neutrons. Indeed, secondaries are measured above the noise threshold at levels approaching 106/shot. Funded by the Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy, under Grant Number DE-AR0000569.
Diagnostics for Z-pinch implosion experiments on PTS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, X. D.; Huang, X. B.; Zhou, S. T.; Zhang, S. Q.; Dan, J. K.; Li, J.; Cai, H. C.; Wang, K. L.; Ouyang, K.; Xu, Q.; Duan, S. C.; Chen, G. H.; Wang, M.; Feng, S. P.; Yang, L. B.; Xie, W. P.; Deng, J. J.
2014-12-01
The preliminary experiments of wire array implosion were performed on PTS, a 10 MA z-pinch driver with a 70 ns rise time. A set of diagnostics have been developed and fielded on PTS to study pinch physics and implosion dynamics of wire array. Radiated power measurement for soft x-rays was performed by multichannel filtered x-ray diode array, and flat spectral responses x-ray diode detector. Total x-ray yield was measured by a calibrated, unfiltered nickel bolometer which was also used to obtain pinch power. Multiple time-gated pinhole cameras were used to produce spatial-resolved images of x-ray self-emission from plasmas. Two time-integrated pinhole cameras were used respectively with 20-μm Be filter and with multilayer mirrors to record images produced by >1-keV and 277±5 eV self-emission. An optical streak camera was used to produce radial implosion trajectories, and an x-ray streak camera paired with a horizontal slit was used to record a continuous time-history of emission with one-dimensional spatial resolution. A frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser (532 nm) was used to produce four frame laser shadowgraph images with 6 ns time interval. We will briefly describe each of these diagnostics and present some typical results from them.
Dynamical analysis of surface-insulated planar wire array Z-pinches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yang; Sheng, Liang; Hei, Dongwei; Li, Xingwen; Zhang, Jinhai; Li, Mo; Qiu, Aici
2018-05-01
The ablation and implosion dynamics of planar wire array Z-pinches with and without surface insulation are compared and discussed in this paper. This paper first presents a phenomenological model named the ablation and cascade snowplow implosion (ACSI) model, which accounts for the ablation and implosion phases of a planar wire array Z-pinch in a single simulation. The comparison between experimental data and simulation results shows that the ACSI model could give a fairly good description about the dynamical characteristics of planar wire array Z-pinches. Surface insulation introduces notable differences in the ablation phase of planar wire array Z-pinches. The ablation phase is divided into two stages: insulation layer ablation and tungsten wire ablation. The two-stage ablation process of insulated wires is simulated in the ACSI model by updating the formulas describing the ablation process.
Current redistribution and generation of kinetic energy in the stagnated Z pinch.
Ivanov, V V; Anderson, A A; Papp, D; Astanovitskiy, A L; Talbot, B R; Chittenden, J P; Niasse, N
2013-07-01
The structure of magnetic fields was investigated in stagnated wire-array Z pinches using a Faraday rotation diagnostic at the wavelength of 266 nm. The distribution of current in the pinch and trailing material was reconstructed. A significant part of current can switch from the main pinch to the trailing plasma preheated by x-ray radiation of the pinch. Secondary implosions of trailing plasma generate kinetic energy and provide enhanced heating and radiation of plasma at stagnation. Hot spots in wire-array Z pinches also provide enhanced radiation of the Z pinch. A collapse of a single hot spot radiates 1%-3% of x-ray energy of the Z pinch with a total contribution of hot spots of 10%-30%.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Calamy, H.; Hamann, F.; Lassalle, F.; Bayol, F.; Mangeant, C.; Morell, A.; Huet, D.; Bedoch, J. P.; Chittenden, J. P.; Lebedev, S. V.; Jennings, C. A.; Bland, S. N.
2006-01-01
Centre d'Etudes de Gramat (France) has developed an efficient long implosion time (800 ns) Aluminum plasma radiation source (PRS). Based on the LTD technology, the SPHINX facility is developed as a 1-3MJ, 1μs rise time, 4-10 MA current driver. In this paper, it was used in 1MJ, 4MA configuration to drive Aluminum nested wire arrays Z-pinches with K-shell yield up to 20 kJ and a FWHM of the x-ray pulse of about 50 ns. We present latest SPHINX experiments and some of the main physic issues of the microsecond regime. Experimental setup and results are described with the aim of giving trends that have been obtained. The main features of microsecond implosion of wire arrays can be analyzed thanks to same methods and theories as used for faster Z-pinches. The effect of load polarity was examined. The stability of the implosion , one of the critical point of microsecond wire arrays due to the load dimensions imposed by the time scale, is tackled. A simple scaling from 100 ns Z-pinch results to 800 ns ones gives good results and the use of nested arrays improves dramatically the implosion quality and the Kshell yield of the load. However, additional effects such as the impact of the return current can geometry on the implosion have to be taken into account on our loads. Axial inhomogeneity of the implosion the origin of which is not yet well understood occurs in some shots and impacts the radiation output. The shape of the radiative pulse is discussed and compared with the homogeneity of the implosion. Numerical 2D R-Z and R-θ simulations are used to highlight some experimental results and understand the plasma conditions during these microsecond wire arrays implosions.
Calamy, H.; Hamann, F.; Lassalle, F.
Centre d'Etudes de Gramat (France) has developed an efficient long implosion time (800 ns) Aluminum plasma radiation source (PRS). Based on the LTD technology, the SPHINX facility is developed as a 1-3MJ, 1{mu}s rise time, 4-10 MA current driver. In this paper, it was used in 1MJ, 4MA configuration to drive Aluminum nested wire arrays Z-pinches with K-shell yield up to 20 kJ and a FWHM of the x-ray pulse of about 50 ns. We present latest SPHINX experiments and some of the main physic issues of the microsecond regime. Experimental setup and results are described with the aim ofmore » giving trends that have been obtained. The main features of microsecond implosion of wire arrays can be analyzed thanks to same methods and theories as used for faster Z-pinches. The effect of load polarity was examined. The stability of the implosion , one of the critical point of microsecond wire arrays due to the load dimensions imposed by the time scale, is tackled. A simple scaling from 100 ns Z-pinch results to 800 ns ones gives good results and the use of nested arrays improves dramatically the implosion quality and the Kshell yield of the load. However, additional effects such as the impact of the return current can geometry on the implosion have to be taken into account on our loads. Axial inhomogeneity of the implosion the origin of which is not yet well understood occurs in some shots and impacts the radiation output. The shape of the radiative pulse is discussed and compared with the homogeneity of the implosion. Numerical 2D R-Z and R-{theta} simulations are used to highlight some experimental results and understand the plasma conditions during these microsecond wire arrays implosions.« less
The Physics of the Dense Z-Pinch in Theory and in Experiment With Application to Fusion Reactor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haines, M. G.
1982-01-01
A new generation of Z-pinches employing high voltage, high current pulsed lines as power sources produce dense hot plasmas with enhanced stability properties. Three methods of Z-pinch formation are currently in use: (1) cylindrical collapse and compression of a pre-ionised gas; (2) laser initiation and Joule heating of a gas embedded pinch, and (3) hollow gas puff and subsequent collapse to the axis. The first method shows no dynamic bounce and no instability over about ten radial Alfvén transit times. The laser initiated Z-pinch shows benign helical structures, whilst the gas puff experiments are known for their high X-ray energy conversion associated with m = 0 instabilities. The first two experimental conditions are relevant for fusion. A calculation of energy balance for satisfying Lawson conditions with axial and radial energy losses and radiation loss shows that a current I of ~ 106 A and a line density N of 6 × 1018m-1 are required. This leads to two coincidences of physical quantities that are very favourable for controlled fusion. The first is that at this line density and under pressure balance the ratio of the ion Larmor radius to pinch radius is of order 1 so that a marked stabilisation of the configuration is expected. The second coincidence is that the current is only just below the Pease-Braginskii limit; this will permit the possibility of radiative collapse to attain the high density (~ 4 × 1027 m-3) and small radius (~ 20 μm) required for a compact (0.1 m long) discharge. The confining self-magnetic field is 104 T, the confinement time ~ 100 ns, and a matrix of pulsed discharges is envisaged in a moderator and breeding medium which does not have the wall-loading limitations of tokamaks.
Review of effects of dielectric coatings on electrical exploding wires and Z pinches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Jian; Li, Xingwen; Li, Mo; Li, Yang; Qiu, Aici
2017-10-01
As the most powerful x-ray source in the laboratories, the wire array Z pinches have been of great relevance to inertial confinement fusions, laboratory astrophysics, and other high-energy density applications. In order to produce x-ray with greater power and higher efficiency, the dynamics of wire array has been investigated extensively, and various methods have been proposed to improve the implosion quality of the wire array. This review focuses on the experimental and theoretical investigations regarding the effects of the dielectric coatings on electrical exploding wires and Z pinches. Since the early 2000, the electrical wire explosion related to the first stage of the wire array Z pinches has been studied extensively, and the results indicated that the dielectric coatings can significantly increase the joule energy deposition into a wire in the initial stage, and even the corona free explosion of tungsten wires can be achieved. Recently, there is an increasing interest in the dynamics of insulated wire array Z pinches. By applying dielectric coatings, the ablation process is suppressed, the x-ray start time is delayed, and the possibility of multi-peak radiation is decreased. This review is organized by the evolution dynamics of wire array Z pinches, and a broad introduction to relevant scientific concepts and various other applications are presented. According to the current research status, the challenges, opportunities and further developments of Z pinch loads using dielectric coatings are proposed to further promote the researches and their applications.
Theoretical z -pinch scaling relations for thermonuclear-fusion experiments.
Stygar, W A; Cuneo, M E; Vesey, R A; Ives, H C; Mazarakis, M G; Chandler, G A; Fehl, D L; Leeper, R J; Matzen, M K; McDaniel, D H; McGurn, J S; McKenney, J L; Muron, D J; Olson, C L; Porter, J L; Ramirez, J J; Seamen, J F; Speas, C S; Spielman, R B; Struve, K W; Torres, J A; Waisman, E M; Wagoner, T C; Gilliland, T L
2005-08-01
We have developed wire-array z -pinch scaling relations for plasma-physics and inertial-confinement-fusion (ICF) experiments. The relations can be applied to the design of z -pinch accelerators for high-fusion-yield (approximately 0.4 GJ/shot) and inertial-fusion-energy (approximately 3 GJ/shot) research. We find that (delta(a)/delta(RT)) proportional (m/l)1/4 (Rgamma)(-1/2), where delta(a) is the imploding-sheath thickness of a wire-ablation-dominated pinch, delta(RT) is the sheath thickness of a Rayleigh-Taylor-dominated pinch, m is the total wire-array mass, l is the axial length of the array, R is the initial array radius, and gamma is a dimensionless functional of the shape of the current pulse that drives the pinch implosion. When the product Rgamma is held constant the sheath thickness is, at sufficiently large values of m/l, determined primarily by wire ablation. For an ablation-dominated pinch, we estimate that the peak radiated x-ray power P(r) proportional (I/tau(i))(3/2)Rlphigamma, where I is the peak pinch current, tau(i) is the pinch implosion time, and phi is a dimensionless functional of the current-pulse shape. This scaling relation is consistent with experiment when 13 MA < or = I < or = 20 MA, 93 ns < or = tau(i) < or = 169 ns, 10 mm < or = R < or = 20 mm, 10 mm < or = l < or = 20 mm, and 2.0 mg/cm < or = m/l < or = 7.3 mg/cm. Assuming an ablation-dominated pinch and that Rlphigamma is held constant, we find that the x-ray-power efficiency eta(x) congruent to P(r)/P(a) of a coupled pinch-accelerator system is proportional to (tau(i)P(r)(7/9 ))(-1), where P(a) is the peak accelerator power. The pinch current and accelerator power required to achieve a given value of P(r) are proportional to tau(i), and the requisite accelerator energy E(a) is proportional to tau2(i). These results suggest that the performance of an ablation-dominated pinch, and the efficiency of a coupled pinch-accelerator system, can be improved substantially by decreasing the
Charger 1: A New Facility for Z-Pinch Research
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Taylor, Brian; Cassibry, Jason; Cortez, Ross; Doughty, Glen; Adams, Robert; DeCicco, Anthony
2017-01-01
Charger 1 is a multipurpose pulsed power laboratory located on Redstone Arsenal, with a focus on fusion propulsion relevant experiments involving testing z-pinch diodes, pulsed magnetic nozzle and other related physics experiments. UAH and its team of pulsed power researchers are investigating ways to increase and optimize fusion production from Charger 1. Currently the team has reached high-power testing. Due to the unique safety issues related to high power operations the UAH/MSFC team has slowed repair efforts to develop safety and operations protocols. The facility is expected to be operational by the time DZP 2017 convenes. Charger 1 began life as the Decade Module 2, an experimental prototype built to prove the Decade Quad pinch configuration. The system was donated to UAH by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DRTA) in 2012. For the past 5 years a UAH/MSFC/Boeing team has worked to refurbish, assemble and test the system. With completion of high power testing in summer 2017 Charger 1 will become operational for experimentation. Charger 1 utilizes a Marx Bank of 72 100-kV capacitors that are charged in parallel and discharged in series. The Marx output is compressed to a pulse width of approximately 200 ns via a pulse forming network of 32 coaxial stainless steel tubes using water as a dielectric. After pulse compression a set of SF6 switches are triggered, allowing the wave front to propagate through the output line to the load. Charger 1 is capable of storing 572-kJ of energy and time compressing discharge to less than 250 ns discharge time producing a discharge of about 1 TW of discharge with 1 MV and 1 MA peak voltage and current, respectively. This capability will be used to study energy yield scaling and physics from solid density target as applied to advanced propulsion research.
Staged Z-pinch Experiments at the 1MA Zebra pulsed-power generator: Neutron measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruskov, Emil; Darling, T.; Glebov, V.; Wessel, F. J.; Anderson, A.; Beg, F.; Conti, F.; Covington, A.; Dutra, E.; Narkis, J.; Rahman, H.; Ross, M.; Valenzuela, J.
2017-10-01
We report on neutron measurements from the latest Staged Z-pinch experiments at the 1MA Zebra pulsed-power generator. In these experiments a hollow shell of argon or krypton gas liner, injected between the 1 cm anode-cathode gap, compresses a deuterium plasma target of varying density. Axial magnetic field Bz <= 2 kGs, applied throughout the pinch region, stabilizes the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The standard silver activation diagnostics and 4 plastic scintillator neutron Time of Flight (nTOF) detectors are augmented with a large area ( 1400 cm2) liquid scintillator detector to which fast gatedPhotek photomultipliers are attached. Sample data from these neutron diagnostics systems is presented. Consistently high neutron yields YDD >109 are measured, with highest yield of 2.6 ×109 . A pair of horizontally and vertically placed plastic scintillator nTOFs suggest isotropic i.e. thermonuclear origin of the neutrons produced. nTOF data from the liquid scintillator detector was cross-calibrated with the silver activation detector, and can be used for accurate calculation of the neutron yield. Funded by the Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy, under Grant Number DE-AR0000569.
Staged Z-pinch experiments on the Mega-Ampere current driver COBRA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valenzuela, Julio; Banasek, Jacob; Byvank, Thomas; Conti, Fabio; Greenly, John; Hammer, David; Potter, William; Rocco, Sophia; Ross, Michael; Wessel, Frank; Narkis, Jeff; Rahman, Hafiz; Ruskov, Emil; Beg, Farhat
2017-10-01
Experiments were conducted on the Cornell's 1 MA, 100 ns current driver COBRA with the goal of better understanding the Staged Z-pinch physics and validating MHD codes. We used a gas injector composed of an annular (1.2 cm radius) high atomic number (e.g., Ar or Kr) gas-puff and an on-axis plasma gun that delivers the ionized hydrogen target. Liner implosion velocity and stability were studied using laser shadowgraphy and interferometry as well as XUV imaging. From the data, the signature of the MRT instability and zippering effect can be seen, but time integrated X-ray imaging show a stable target plasma. A key component of the experiment was the use of optical Thomson scattering (TS) diagnostics to characterize the liner and target plasmas. By fitting the experimental scattered spectra with synthetic data, electron and ion temperature as well as density can be obtained. Preliminary analysis shows significant scattered line broadening from the plasma on-axis ( 0.5 mm diameter) which can be explained by either a low temperature H plasma with Te =Ti =75eV, or by a hot plasma with Ti =3keV, Te =350eV if an Ar-H mixture is present with an Ar fraction higher than 10%. Funded by the Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy, DE-AR0000569.
Measurements of high energy photons in Z-pinch experiments on primary test stand
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Si, Fenni; Zhang, Chuanfei; Xu, Rongkun; Yuan, Xi; Huang, Zhanchang; Xu, Zeping; Ye, Fan; Yang, Jianlun; Ning, Jiamin; Hu, Qingyuan; Zhu, Xuebin
2015-08-01
High energy photons are measured for the first time in wire-array Z-pinch experiments on the Primary Test Stand (PTS) which delivers a current up to 8 MA with a rise time of 70 ns. A special designed detecting system composed of three types of detectors is used to measure the average energy, intensity, and pulse waveform of high energy photons. Results from Pb-TLD (thermoluminescence dosimeter) detector indicate that the average energy is 480 keV (±15%). Pulse shape of high energy photons is measured by the photodiode detector consisted of scintillator coupled with a photodiode, and it is correlated with soft x-ray power by the same timing signal. Intensity is measured by both TLD and the photodiode detector, showing good accordance with each other, and it is 1010 cm-2 (±20%) at 2 m in the horizontal direction. Measurement results show that high energy photons are mainly produced in pinch regions due to accelerated electrons. PTS itself also produces high energy photons due to power flow electrons, which is one order smaller in amplitude than those from pinch region.
Measurements of high energy photons in Z-pinch experiments on primary test stand.
Si, Fenni; Zhang, Chuanfei; Xu, Rongkun; Yuan, Xi; Huang, Zhanchang; Xu, Zeping; Ye, Fan; Yang, Jianlun; Ning, Jiamin; Hu, Qingyuan; Zhu, Xuebin
2015-08-01
High energy photons are measured for the first time in wire-array Z-pinch experiments on the Primary Test Stand (PTS) which delivers a current up to 8 MA with a rise time of 70 ns. A special designed detecting system composed of three types of detectors is used to measure the average energy, intensity, and pulse waveform of high energy photons. Results from Pb-TLD (thermoluminescence dosimeter) detector indicate that the average energy is 480 keV (±15%). Pulse shape of high energy photons is measured by the photodiode detector consisted of scintillator coupled with a photodiode, and it is correlated with soft x-ray power by the same timing signal. Intensity is measured by both TLD and the photodiode detector, showing good accordance with each other, and it is 10(10) cm(-2) (±20%) at 2 m in the horizontal direction. Measurement results show that high energy photons are mainly produced in pinch regions due to accelerated electrons. PTS itself also produces high energy photons due to power flow electrons, which is one order smaller in amplitude than those from pinch region.
Effect of driver impedance on dense plasma focus Z-pinch neutron yield
Sears, Jason, E-mail: sears8@llnl.gov, E-mail: schmidt36@llnl.gov; Link, Anthony, E-mail: sears8@llnl.gov, E-mail: schmidt36@llnl.gov; Schmidt, Andrea, E-mail: sears8@llnl.gov, E-mail: schmidt36@llnl.gov
2014-12-15
The Z-pinch phase of a dense plasma focus (DPF) heats the plasma by rapid compression and accelerates ions across its intense electric fields, producing neutrons through both thermonuclear and beam-target fusion. Driver characteristics have empirically been shown to affect performance, as measured by neutron yield per unit of stored energy. We are exploring the effect of driver characteristics on DPF performance using particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of a kJ scale DPF. In this work, our PIC simulations are fluid for the run-down phase and transition to fully kinetic for the pinch phase, capturing kinetic instabilities, anomalous resistivity, and beam formation duringmore » the pinch. The anode-cathode boundary is driven by a circuit model of the capacitive driver, including system inductance, the load of the railgap switches, the guard resistors, and the coaxial transmission line parameters. It is known that the driver impedance plays an important role in the neutron yield: first, it sets the peak current achieved at pinch time; and second, it affects how much current continues to flow through the pinch when the pinch inductance and resistance suddenly increase. Here we show from fully kinetic simulations how total neutron yield depends on the impedance of the driver and the distributed parameters of the transmission circuit. Direct comparisons between the experiment and simulations enhance our understanding of these plasmas and provide predictive design capability for neutron source applications.« less
Oblique shock structures formed during the ablation phase of aluminium wire array z-pinches
Swadling, G. F.; Lebedev, S. V.; Niasse, N.
A series of experiments has been conducted in order to investigate the azimuthal structures formed by the interactions of cylindrically converging plasma flows during the ablation phase of aluminium wire array Z pinch implosions. These experiments were carried out using the 1.4 MA, 240 ns MAGPIE generator at Imperial College London. The main diagnostic used in this study was a two-colour, end-on, Mach-Zehnder imaging interferometer, sensitive to the axially integrated electron density of the plasma. The data collected in these experiments reveal the strongly collisional dynamics of the aluminium ablation streams. The structure of the flows is dominated by amore » dense network of oblique shock fronts, formed by supersonic collisions between adjacent ablation streams. An estimate for the range of the flow Mach number (M = 6.2-9.2) has been made based on an analysis of the observed shock geometry. Combining this measurement with previously published Thomson Scattering measurements of the plasma flow velocity by Harvey-Thompson et al.[Physics of Plasmas 19, 056303 (2012)] allowed us to place limits on the range of the ZT{sub e} of the plasma. The detailed and quantitative nature of the dataset lends itself well as a source for model validation and code verification exercises, as the exact shock geometry is sensitive to many of the plasma parameters. Comparison of electron density data produced through numerical modelling with the Gorgon 3D MHD code demonstrates that the code is able to reproduce the collisional dynamics observed in aluminium arrays reasonably well.« less
Designs and Plans for MAIZE: a 1 MA LTD-Driven Z-Pinch
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gilgenbach, R. M.; Gomez, M. R.; Zier, J.; Tang, W.; French, D. M.; Hoff, B. W.; Jordan, N.; Cruz, E.; Lau, Y. Y.; Fowler-Guzzardo, T.; Meisel, J.; Mazarakis, M. G.; Cuneo, M. E.; Johnston, M. D.; Mehlhorn, T. A.; Kim, A. A.; Sinebryukhov, V. A.
2007-11-01
We present designs and experimental plans of the first 1 MA z-pinch in the USA to be driven by a Linear Transformer Driver (LTD). The Michigan Accelerator for Inductive Z-pinch Experiments, (MAIZE), is based on the LTD developed at the Institute for High Current Electronics, utilizing 80 capacitors and 40 spark gap switches to deliver a 1 MA, 100 kV pulse with <100 ns risetime. Designs will be presented of a low-inductance MITL terminated in a wire-array z-pinch. Initial, planned experiments will evaluate the LTD driving time-changing inductance of imploding 4-16 wire-array z-pinches. Wire ablation dynamics, axial-correlations and instability development will be explored. *This work was supported by U. S. DoE through Sandia National Laboratories award number 240985 to the University of Michigan. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
Energy balance in a Z pinch with suppressed Rayleigh-Taylor instability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baksht, R. B.; Oreshkin, V. I.; Rousskikh, A. G.; Zhigalin, A. S.
2018-03-01
At present Z-pinch has evolved into a powerful plasma source of soft x-ray. This paper considers the energy balance in a radiating metallic gas-puff Z pinch. In this type of Z pinch, a power-law density distribution is realized, promoting suppression of Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities that occur in the pinch plasma during compression. The energy coupled into the pinch plasma, is determined as the difference between the total energy delivered to the load from the generator and the magnetic energy of the load inductance. A calibrated voltage divider and a Rogowski coil were used to determine the coupled energy and the load inductance. Time-gated optical imaging of the pinch plasma showed its stable compression up to the stagnation phase. The pinch implosion was simulated using a 1D two-temperature radiative magnetohydrodynamic code. Comparison of the experimental and simulation results has shown that the simulation adequately describes the pinch dynamics for conditions in which RT instability is suppressed. It has been found that the proportion of the Ohmic heating in the energy balance of a Z pinch with suppressed RT instability is determined by Spitzer resistance and makes no more than ten percent.
Efficient Neutron Production from a Novel Configuration of Deuterium Gas-Puff Z-Pinch
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klir, D.; Kubes, P.; Rezac, K.; Cikhardt, J.; Kravarik, J.; Sila, O.; Shishlov, A. V.; Kovalchuk, B. M.; Ratakhin, N. A.; Kokshenev, V. A.; Labetsky, A. Yu.; Cherdizov, R. K.; Fursov, F. I.; Kurmaev, N. E.; Dudkin, G. N.; Nechaev, B. A.; Padalko, V. N.; Orcikova, H.; Turek, K.
2014-03-01
A novel configuration of a deuterium z pinch has been used to generate fusion neutrons. Injecting an outer hollow cylindrical plasma shell around an inner deuterium gas puff, neutron yields from DD reactions reached Yn=(2.9±0.3)×1012 at 700 ns implosion time and 2.7 MA current. Such a neutron yield means a tenfold increase in comparison with previous deuterium gas puff experiments at the same current generator. The increase of beam-target yields was obtained by a larger amount of current assembled on the z-pinch axis, and subsequently by higher induced voltage and higher energies of deuterons. A stack of CR-39 track detectors on the z-pinch axis showed hydrogen ions up to 38 MeV. Maximum neutron energies of 15 and 22 MeV were observed by radial and axial time-of-flight detectors, respectively. The number of DD neutrons per one joule of stored plasma energy approached 5×107. This implies that deuterium gas puff z pinches belong to the most efficient plasma-based sources of DD neutrons.
AN ACCELERATION MECHANISM FOR NEUTRON PRODUCTION IN Z-PINCH DISCHARGES,
A model has been developed for the acceleration of deuterons in the tightly compressed column of a z-pinch discharge, in particular that of a plasma ... focus discharge. It was assumed that an annular current distribution undergoes a rapidly contracting transition to an axially peaked distribution, and
A Multiple Z-Pinch Configuration for the Generation of High-Density, Magnetized Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tarditi, Alfonso G.
2015-11-01
The z-pinch is arguably the most straightforward and economical approach for the generation and confinement of hot plasmas, with a long history of theoretical investigations and experimental developments. While most of the past studies were focused on countering the natural tendency of z-pinches to develop instabilities, this study attempts to take advantage of those unstable regimes to form a quasi-stable plasma, with higher density and temperature, possibly of interest for a fusion reactor concept. For this purpose, a configuration with four z-pinch discharges, with axis parallel to each other and symmetrically positioned, is considered. Electrodes for the generation of the discharges and magnetic coils are arranged to favor the formation of concave discharge patterns. The mutual attraction from the co-streaming discharge currents enhances this pattern, leading to bent plasma streams, all nearing towards the axis. This configuration is intended to excite and sustain a ``kink'' unstable mode for each z-pinch, eventually producing either plasmoid structures, detached from each discharge, or sustained kink patterns: both these cases appear to lead to plasmas merging in the central region. The feasibility of this approach in creating a higher density, hotter, meta-stable plasma regime is investigated computationally, addressing both the kink excitation phase and the dynamics of the converging plasma columns.
Recent advances in theoretical and numerical studies of wire array Z-pinch in the IAPCM
Ding, Ning, E-mail: ding-ning@iapcm.ac.cn; Zhang, Yang, E-mail: ding-ning@iapcm.ac.cn; Xiao, Delong, E-mail: ding-ning@iapcm.ac.cn
2014-12-15
Fast Z-pinch has produced the most powerful X-ray radiation source in laboratory and also shows the possibility to drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF). Recent advances in wire-array Z-pinch researches at the Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics are presented in this paper. A typical wire array Z-pinch process has three phases: wire plasma formation and ablation, implosion and the MRT instability development, stagnation and radiation. A mass injection model with azimuthal modulation coefficient is used to describe the wire initiation, and the dynamics of ablated plasmas of wire-array Z-pinches in (r, θ) geometry is numerically studied. In the implosionmore » phase, a two-dimensional(r, z) three temperature radiation MHD code MARED has been developed to investigate the development of the Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor(MRT) instability. We also analyze the implosion modes of nested wire-array and find that the inner wire-array is hardly affected before the impaction of the outer wire-array. While the plasma accelerated to high speed in the implosion stage stagnates on the axis, abundant x-ray radiation is produced. The energy spectrum of the radiation and the production mechanism are investigated. The computational x-ray pulse shows a reasonable agreement with the experimental result. We also suggest that using alloyed wire-arrays can increase multi-keV K-shell yield by decreasing the opacity of K-shell lines. In addition, we use a detailed circuit model to study the energy coupling between the generator and the Z-pinch implosion. Recently, we are concentrating on the problems of Z-pinch driven ICF, such as dynamic hohlraum and capsule implosions. Our numerical investigations on the interaction of wire-array Z-pinches on foam convertors show qualitative agreements with experimental results on the “Qiangguang I” facility. An integrated two-dimensional simulation of dynamic hohlraum driven capsule implosion provides us the physical insights of
Numerical simulation of fiber and wire array Z-pinches with Trac-II
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reisman, David Barton
Trac-II is a two dimensional axisymmetric resistive MHD code. It simulates all three spatial components (r, z, φ) of the magnetic field and fluid velocity vectors, and the plasma is treated as a single fluid with two temperatures (Te,Ti). In addition, it can optionally include a self-consistent external circuit. Recent modifications to the code include the addition of the 3-T radiation model, a 4-phase (solid- liquid-vapor-plasma) equation of state model (QEOS), a 4- phase electrical/thermal conductivity model, and an implicit solution of poloidal (Bz,Br) magnetic field diffusion. These changes permit a detailed study of fiber and wire array Z-pinches. Specifically, Trac-II is used to study the wire array Z-pinch at the PBFA-Z pulse power generator at Sandia National Laboratory. First, in 1-D we examine the behavior of a single wire in the Z-pinch. Then, using these results as initial radial conditions in 2-D, we investigate the dynamics of wire array configurations in the r-z and r-θ plane. In the r- z plane we examine the growth of the m = 0 or ``sausage'' instability in single wires within the array. In the r-θ plane we examine the merging behavior between neighboring wires. Special emphasis is placed on trying to explain how instability growth affects the performance of the Z-pinch. Lastly, we introduce Trac-III, a 3-D MHD code, and illustrate the m = 1 or ``kink'' instability. We also discuss how Trac-III can be modified to simulate the wire array Z-pinch.
Study of the internal structure, instabilities, and magnetic fields in the dense Z-pinch
Ivanov, Vladimir V.
Z-pinches are sources of hot dense plasma which generates powerful x-ray bursts and can been applied to various areas of high-energy-density physics (HEDP). The 26-MA Z machine is at the forefront of many of these applications, but important aspects of HEDP have been studied on generators at the 1 MA current level. Recent development of laser diagnostics and upgrade of the Leopard laser at Nevada Terawatt Facility (NTF) give new opportunities for the dense Z-pinch study. The goal of this project is the investigation of the internal structure of the stagnated Z pinch including sub-mm and micron-scale instabilities, plasma dynamics,more » magnetic fields, and hot spots formation and initiation. New plasma diagnostics will be developed for this project. A 3D structure and instabilities of the pinch will be compared with 3D MHD and spectroscopic modeling and theoretical analysis. The structure and dynamics of stagnated Z pinches has been studied with x-ray self-radiation diagnostics which derive a temperature map of the pinch with a spatial resolution of 70-150 µm. The regular laser diagnostics at 532 nm does not penetrate in the dense pinch due to strong absorption and refraction in trailing plasma. Recent experiments at NTF showed that shadowgraphy at the UV wavelength of 266 nm unfolds a fine structure of the stagnated Z-pinch with unprecedented detail. We propose to develop laser UV diagnostics for Z pinches with a spatial resolution <5 μm to study the small-scale plasma structures, implement two-frame shadowgraphy/interferometry, and develop methods for investigation of strong magnetic fields. New diagnostics will help to understand better basic physical processes in Z pinches. A 3D internal structure of the pinch and characteristic instabilities will be studied in wire arrays with different configurations and compared with 3D MHD simulations and analytical models. Mechanisms of “enhanced heating” of Z-pinch plasma will be studied. Fast dynamics of
Characterisation of the current switch mechanism in two-stage wire array Z-pinches
Burdiak, G. C.; Lebedev, S. V.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.
2015-11-15
In this paper, we describe the operation of a two-stage wire array z-pinch driven by the 1.4 MA, 240 ns rise-time Magpie pulsed-power device at Imperial College London. In this setup, an inverse wire array acts as a fast current switch, delivering a current pre-pulse into a cylindrical load wire array, before rapidly switching the majority of the generator current into the load after a 100–150 ns dwell time. A detailed analysis of the evolution of the load array during the pre-pulse is presented. Measurements of the load resistivity and energy deposition suggest significant bulk heating of the array mass occurs. Themore » ∼5 kA pre-pulse delivers ∼0.8 J of energy to the load, leaving it in a mixed, predominantly liquid-vapour state. The main current switch occurs as the inverse array begins to explode and plasma expands into the load region. Electrical and imaging diagnostics indicate that the main current switch may evolve in part as a plasma flow switch, driven by the expansion of a magnetic cavity and plasma bubble along the length of the load array. Analysis of implosion trajectories suggests that approximately 1 MA switches into the load in 100 ns, corresponding to a doubling of the generator dI/dt. Potential scaling of the device to higher current machines is discussed.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dan, Jia Kun; Huang, Xian Bin; Ren, Xiao Dong; Chen, Guang Hua; Xu, Qiang; Wang, Kun Lun; Ouyang, Kai; Wei, Bing
2017-04-01
Particular attention was placed on observations of dynamic properties of the azimuthally correlated structures of axial instability of wire-array Z pinches, which were conducted at 10-MA (for short circuit load) pulsed power generator-the Primary Test Stand facility. Not well fabricated loads, which were expected to preset bubble or spike in plasma, were used to degrade the implosion symmetry in order to magnify the phenomenon of instability. The side-view sequence of evolution of correlation given by laser shadowgraphy clearly demonstrates the dynamic processes of azimuthal correlation of the bubble and spike. A possible mechanism presented here suggests that it is the substantial current redistribution especially in regions surrounding the bubble/spike resulting from change of inductance due to the presence of the bubble/spike that plays an essential part in establishment of azimuthal correlation of wire array and liner Z pinches.
Electron beam generation in the turbulent plasma of Z-pinch discharges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vikhrev, Victor V.; Baronova, Elena O.
1997-05-01
Numerical modeling of the process of electron beam generation in z-pinch discharges are presented. The proposed model represents the electron beam generation under turbulent plasma conditions. Strong current distribution inhomogeneity in the plasma column has been accounted for the adequate generation process investigation. Electron beam is generated near the maximum of compression due to run away mechanism and it is not related with the current break effect.
The application of high-speed photography in z-pinch high-temperature plasma diagnostics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Kui-lu; Qiu, Meng-tong; Hei, Dong-wei
2007-01-01
This invited paper is presented to discuss the application of high speed photography in z-pinch high temperature plasma diagnostics in recent years in Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology in concentrative mode. The developments and applications of soft x-ray framing camera, soft x-ray curved crystal spectrometer, optical framing camera, ultraviolet four-frame framing camera and ultraviolet-visible spectrometer are introduced.
Coronal plasma development in wire-array z-pinches made of twisted-pairs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoyt, C. L.; Greenly, J. B.; Gourdain, P. A.; Knapp, P. F.; Pikuz, S. A.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Hammer, D. A.; Kusse, B. R.
2009-11-01
We have investigated coronal and core plasma development in wire array z-pinches in which single fine wires are replaced by twisted-pairs (``cable'') on the 1 MA, 100 ns rise time COBRA pulsed power generator. X-ray radiography, employed to investigate dense wire core expansion, showed periodic axial nonuniformity and evidence for shock waves developing where the individual wire plasmas collide. Laser shadowgraphy images indicated that the axial instability properties of the coronal plasma are substantially modified from ordinary wire arrays. Cable mass per unit length, material and the twist wavelength were varied in order to study their effects upon the instability wavelength. Implosion uniformity and bright-spot formation, as well as magnetic topology evolution, have also been investigated using self-emission imaging, x-ray diagnostics and small B-dot probes, respectively. Results from the cable-array z-pinches will be compared with results from ordinary wire-array z-pinches. This research was supported by the SSAA program of the National Nuclear Security Administration under DOE Cooperative agreement DE-FC03-02NA00057.
Analysis of staged Z-pinch implosion trajectories from experiments on Zebra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ross, Mike P.; Conti, F.; Darling, T. W.; Ruskov, E.; Valenzuela, J.; Wessel, F. J.; Beg, F.; Narkis, J.; Rahman, H. U.
2017-10-01
The Staged Z-pinch plasma confinement concept relies on compressing an annular liner of high-Z plasma onto a target plasma column of deuterium fuel. The interface between the liner and target is stable against the Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor Instability, which leads to effective fuel compression and makes the concept interesting as a potential fusion reactor. The liner initiates as a neutral gas puff, while the target plasma is a partially ionized (Zeff < 10 percent column ejected from a coaxial plasma gun. The Zebra pulsed power generator (1 MA peak current, 100 ns rise time) provides the discharge that ionizes the liner and drives the Z-pinch implosion. Diverse diagnostics observe the 100-300 km/s implosions including silicon diodes, photo-conducting detectors (PCDs), laser shadowgraphy, an XUV framing camera, and a visible streak camera. The imaging diagnostics track instabilities smaller than 0.1 mm, and Z-pinch diameters below 2.5 mm are seen at peak compression. This poster correlates the data from these diagnostics to elucidate implosion behavior dependencies on liner gas, liner pressure, target pressure, and applied, axial-magnetic field. Funded by the Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy, DE-AR0000569.
Preliminary experimental results of tungsten wire-array Z-pinches on primary test stand
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Xian-Bin; Zhou, Shao-Tong; Dan, Jia-Kun; Ren, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Kun-Lun; Zhang, Si-Qun; Li, Jing; Xu, Qiang; Cai, Hong-Chun; Duan, Shu-Chao; Ouyang, Kai; Chen, Guang-Hua; Ji, Ce; Wei, Bing; Feng, Shu-Ping; Wang, Meng; Xie, Wei-Ping; Deng, Jian-Jun; Zhou, Xiu-Wen; Yang, Yi
2015-07-01
The Primary Test Stand (PTS) developed at the China Academy of Engineering Physics is a 20 TW pulsed power driver, which can deliver a ˜10 MA, 70 ns rise-time (10%-90%) current to a short-circuit load and has important applications in Z-pinch driven inertial confinement fusion and high energy density physics. Preliminary results of tungsten wire-array Z-pinch experiments on PTS are presented. The load geometries investigated include 15-mm-tall cylindrical single and nested arrays with diameter ranging from 13 mm to 30 mm, consisting of 132-300 tungsten wires with 5-10 μm in diameter. Multiple diagnostics were fielded to characterize the x-ray radiation from wire-array Z pinches. The x-ray peak power (˜50 TW) and total radiated energy (˜500 kJ) were obtained from a single 20-mm-diam array with 80-ns stagnation time. The highest x-ray peak power up to 80 TW with 2.4 ns FWHM was achieved by using a nested array with 20-mm outer diameter, and the total x-ray energy from the nested array is comparable to that of single array. Implosion velocity estimated from the time-resolved image measurement exceeds 30 cm/μs. The detailed experimental results and other findings are presented and discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Xian-Bin; Yang, Li-Bing; Li, Jing; Zhou, Shao-Tong; Ren, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Si-Qun; Dan, Jia-Kun; Cai, Hong-Chun; Duan, Shu-Chao; Chen, Guang-Hua; Zhang, Zheng-Wei; Ouyang, Kai; Li, Jun; Zhang, Zhao-Hui; Zhou, Rong-Guo; Wang, Gui-Lin
2012-05-01
We investigated the radiation characteristics and implosion dynamics of low-wire-number cylindrical tungsten wire array Z-pinches on the YANG accelerator with a peak current 0.8-1.1 MA and a rising time ~ 90 ns. The arrays are made up of (8-32) × 5 μm wires 6/10 mm in diameter and 15 mm in height. The highest X-ray power obtained in the experiments was about 0.37 TW with the total radiation energy ~ 13 kJ and the energy conversion efficiency ~ 9% (24 × 5 μm wires, 6 mm in diameter). Most of the X-ray emissions from tungsten Z-pinch plasmas were distributed in the spectral band of 100-600 eV, peaked at 250 and 375 eV. The dominant wavelengths of the wire ablation and the magneto-Rayleigh—Taylor instability were found and analyzed through measuring the time-gated self-emission and laser interferometric images. Through analyzing the implosion trajectories obtained by an optical streak camera, the run-in velocities of the Z-pinch plasmas at the end of the implosion phase were determined to be about (1.3-2.1) × 107 cm/s.
The microscopic Z-pinch process of current-carrying rarefied deuterium plasma shell
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ning, Cheng; Feng, Zhixing; Xue, Chuang; Li, Baiwen
2015-02-01
For insight into the microscopic mechanism of Z-pinch dynamic processes, a code of two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation has been developed in cylindrical coordinates. In principle, the Z-pinch of current-carrying rarefied deuterium plasma shell has been simulated by means of this code. Many results related to the microscopic processes of the Z-pinch are obtained. They include the spatio-temporal distributions of electromagnetic field, current density, forces experienced by the ions and electrons, positions and energy distributions of particles, and trailing mass and current. In radial direction, the electric and magnetic forces exerted on the electrons are comparable in magnitude, while the forces exerted on the ions are mainly the electric forces. So in the Z-pinch process, the electrons are first accelerated in Z direction and get higher velocities; then, they are driven inwards to the axis at the same time by the radial magnetic forces (i.e., Lorentz forces) of them. That causes the separations between the electrons and ions because the ion mass is much larger than the electron's, and in turn a strong electrostatic field is produced. The produced electrostatic field attracts the ions to move towards the electrons. When the electrons are driven along the radial direction to arrive at the axis, they shortly move inversely due to the static repellency among them and their tiny mass, while the ions continue to move inertially inwards, and later get into stagnation, and finally scatter outwards. Near the stagnation, the energies of the deuterium ions mostly range from 0.3 to 6 keV, while the electron energies are mostly from 5 to 35 keV. The radial components, which can contribute to the pinched plasma temperature, of the most probable energies of electron and ion at the stagnation are comparable to the Bennett equilibrium temperature (about 1 keV), and also to the highest temperatures of electron and ion obtained in one dimensional radiation
Effect of Initial Conditions on Gas-Puff Z-Pinch Dynamics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peterson, Gus Gordon
This dissertation concerns the effects initial conditions have on the dynamics of an imploded, annular gas-puff z-pinch. The influence of axial magnetic fields, nozzle size and composition, different gases, pre-ionization, and electrode design on pinch quality and x-ray yield is investigated. The experiment uses a 5-kJ capacitor bank to deliver 0.35 MA to the pinch load in 1.4 mu rm s. This research establishes parameters important to increasing the x-ray yield of dense z-pinches. The initial stage of the implosion is diagnosed with a framing camera that photographs visible light emitted from z-pinch gas breakdown. Data from subsequent stages of the pinch is recorded with a B-dot probe, filtered x-ray diodes, an x-ray filtered pinhole camera, and a nitrogen laser interferometer. Applied axial magnetic fields of ~100 gauss increase average x-ray yield by more than 20%. A substantial increase of K-shell x -ray yield of more than 200% was obtained by increasing the energy delivered to the plasma by enlarging the nozzle diameter from 4 to 5 cm. The use of a Teflon outer-mantle for the nozzle resulted in less uniform gas breakdown as compared to graphite and copper outer-mantles, but x-ray yield and final state uniformity were not reduced. Lower Z gases showed poorer breakdown uniformity. Pre-ionization improved the uniformity of helium and neon breakdown but did not appear to affect subsequent dynamics. X-ray yield was significantly higher using a knife-edge annular anode, as opposed to a flat stainless steel honeycomb anode. Annular anodes with diameters more than a few millimeters different than the nozzle diameter produced low quality pinches with substantially lower x-ray yield.
Williamson, K M; Kantsyrev, V L; Safronova, A S; Wilcox, P G; Cline, W; Batie, S; LeGalloudec, B; Nalajala, V; Astanovitsky, A
2011-09-01
This recently developed diagnostic was designed to allow for time-gated spectroscopic study of the EUV radiation (4 nm < λ < 15 nm) present during harsh wire array z-pinch implosions. The spectrometer utilizes a 25 μm slit, an array of 3 spherical blazed gratings at grazing incidence, and a microchannel plate (MCP) detector placed in an off-Rowland position. Each grating is positioned such that its diffracted radiation is cast over two of the six total independently timed frames of the MCP. The off-Rowland configuration allows for a much greater spectral density on the imaging plate but only focuses at one wavelength per grating. The focal wavelengths are chosen for their diagnostic significance. Testing was conducted at the Zebra pulsed-power generator (1 MA, 100 ns risetime) at the University of Nevada, Reno on a series of wire array z-pinch loads. Within this harsh z-pinch environment, radiation yields routinely exceed 20 kJ in the EUV and soft x-ray. There are also strong mechanical shocks, high velocity debris, sudden vacuum changes during operation, energic ion beams, and hard x-ray radiation in excess of 50 keV. The spectra obtained from the precursor plasma of an Al double planar wire array contained lines of Al IX and AlX ions indicating a temperature near 60 eV during precursor formation. Detailed results will be presented showing the fielding specifications and the techniques used to extract important plasma parameters using this spectrometer. © 2011 American Institute of Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Velikovich, A. L.; Giuliani, J. L.; Clark, R. W.; Mikitchuk, D.; Kroupp, E.; Maron, Y.; Fisher, A.; Schmit, P. F.
2014-10-01
Recent progress in developing the MagLIF approach to pulsed-power driven inertial confinement fusion has stimulated the interest in observation and mitigation of the magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability (MRTI) of liners and Z-pinches imploded in an axial magnetic field. Theoretical analysis of these issues is particularly important because direct numerical simulation of the MRTI development is challenging due to intrinsically 3D helical structure of the fastest-growing modes. We review the analytical small-amplitude theory of the MRTI perturbation development and the weakly nonlinear theory of MRTI mode interaction, emphasizing basic physics, opportunity for 3D code verification against exact analytical solutions, and stabilization criteria. The theory is compared to the experimental results obtained at Weizmann Institute with gas-puff Z pinches and on the Z facility at Sandia with solid liners imploded in an axial magnetic field. Work supported by the US DOE/NNSA, and by the US-Israel Binational Science Foundation. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
The inverse skin effect in the Z-pinch and plasma focus
Usenko, P. L., E-mail: otd4@expd.vniief.ru; Gaganov, V. V.
The inverse skin effect and its influence on the dynamics of high-current Z-pinch and plasma focus discharges in deuterium are analyzed. It is shown that the second compression responsible for the major fraction of the neutron yield can be interpreted as a result of the inverse skin effect resulting in the axial concentration of the longitudinal current density and the appearance of a reversed current in the outer layers of plasma pinches. Possible conditions leading to the enhancement of the inverse skin effect and accessible for experimental verification by modern diagnostics are formulated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nash, Tom
2009-11-01
Simulations of a z-pinch compressing an applied 100 kG Bz field onto an on-axis DT fiber tamped with beryllium show the field reaching over 100 MG in the tamp, sufficient to confine DT alpha particles and to form a thermal barrier. The barrier allows the DT plasma to burn at a rho*r value as low as 0.045 g/cm^2, and at temperatures over 50 keV for a 63 MA drive current. Driving currents between 21 and 63 MA are considered with cryogenic DT fiber diameters between 600 μm and 1.6 mm. Pinch implosion times are 120 ns with a peak implosion velocity of 35 cm/μs. 1D simulations are of a foil pinch, but for improved stability we propose a nested wire-array. Simulated fusion yields with this system scale as the sixth power of the current, with burn fractions scaling as the fourth power of the current. At 63 MA the simulated yield is 521 MJ from 4.2 mg/cm of DT with a 37% burn fraction at a rho*r of only 0.18 g/cm^2.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yager-Elorriaga, D. A.; Lau, Y. Y.; Zhang, P.; Campbell, P. C.; Steiner, A. M.; Jordan, N. M.; McBride, R. D.; Gilgenbach, R. M.
2018-05-01
In this paper, we present experimental results on axially magnetized (Bz = 0.5 - 2.0 T), thin-foil (400 nm-thick) cylindrical liner-plasmas driven with ˜600 kA by the Michigan Accelerator for Inductive Z-Pinch Experiments, which is a linear transformer driver at the University of Michigan. We show that: (1) the applied axial magnetic field, irrespective of its direction (e.g., parallel or anti-parallel to the flow of current), reduces the instability amplitude for pure magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes [defined as modes devoid of the acceleration-driven magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instability]; (2) axially magnetized, imploding liners (where MHD modes couple to MRT) generate m = 1 or m = 2 helical modes that persist from the implosion to the subsequent explosion stage; (3) the merging of instability structures is a mechanism that enables the appearance of an exponential instability growth rate for a longer than expected time-period; and (4) an inverse cascade in both the axial and azimuthal wavenumbers, k and m, may be responsible for the final m = 2 helical structure observed in our experiments. These experiments are particularly relevant to the magnetized liner inertial fusion program pursued at Sandia National Laboratories, where helical instabilities have been observed.
Spatially resolved single crystal x-ray spectropolarimetry of wire array z-pinch plasmas.
Wallace, M S; Haque, S; Neill, P; Pereira, N R; Presura, R
2018-01-01
A recently developed single-crystal x-ray spectropolarimeter has been used to record paired sets of polarization-dependent and axially resolved x-ray spectra emitted by wire array z-pinches. In this measurement, two internal planes inside a suitable crystal diffract the x-rays into two perpendicular directions that are normal to each other, thereby separating incident x-rays into their linearly polarized components. This paper gives considerations for fielding the instrument on extended sources. Results from extended sources are difficult to interpret because generally the incident x-rays are not separated properly by the crystal. This difficulty is mitigated by using a series of collimating slits to select incident x-rays that propagate in a plane of symmetry between the polarization-splitting planes. The resulting instrument and some of the spatially resolved polarized x-ray spectra recorded for a 1-MA aluminum wire array z-pinch at the Nevada Terawatt Facility at the University of Nevada, Reno will be presented.
Pulse Power Compression by Cutting a Dense Z-Pinch with a Laser Beam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Winterberg, F.
1999-07-01
A thin cut made through a z-pinch by an intense laser beam can become a magnetically insulated diode crossed by an intense ion beam. For larger cuts, the gap is crossed by an intense relativistic electron beam, stopped by magnetic bremsstrahlung resulting in a pointlike intense x-ray source. In either case, the impedance of the pinch discharge is increased, with the power delivered rising in the same pro-portion. A magnetically insulated cut is advantageous for three reasons: First, with the ion current com-parable to the Alfvèn ion current, the pinch instabilities are reduced. Second, with the energy deposit-ed into fast ions, a non-Maxwellian velocity distribution is established increasing<σ ν> value for nuclear fusion reactions taking place in the pinch discharge. Third, in a high density z-pinch plasma, the intense ion beam can launch a thermonuclear detonation wave propagating along the pinch discharge channel. For larger cuts the soft x-rays produced by magnetic bremsstrahlung can be used to drive a thermonuclear hohlraum target. Finally, the proposed pulse power compression scheme permits to use a cheap low power d.c. source charging a magnetic storage coil delivering the magnetically stored energy to the pinch discharge load by an exploding wire opening switch.
A short-pulse mode for the SPHINX LTD Z-pinch driver
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
D'Almeida, Thierry; Lassalle, Francis; Zucchini, Frederic; Loyen, Arnaud; Morell, Alain; Chuvatin, Alexander
2015-11-01
The SPHINX machine is a 6MA, 1 μs, LTD Z-pinch driver at CEA Gramat (France) and primarily used for studying radiation effects. Different power amplification concepts were examined in order to reduce the current rise time without modifying the generator discharge scheme, including the Dynamic Load Current Multiplier (DLCM) proposed by Chuvatin. A DLCM device, capable of shaping the current pulse without reducing the rise time, was developed at CEA. This device proved valuable for isentropic compression experiments in cylindrical geometry. Recently, we achieved a short pulse operation mode by inserting a vacuum closing switch between the DLCM and the load. The current rise time was reduced to ~300 ns. We explored the use of a reduced-height wire array for the Dynamic Flux Extruder in order to improve the wire array compression rate and increase the efficiency of the current transfer to the load. These developments are presented. Potential benefits of these developments for future Z pinch experiments are discussed.
Spatially resolved single crystal x-ray spectropolarimetry of wire array z-pinch plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wallace, M. S.; Haque, S.; Neill, P.; Pereira, N. R.; Presura, R.
2018-01-01
A recently developed single-crystal x-ray spectropolarimeter has been used to record paired sets of polarization-dependent and axially resolved x-ray spectra emitted by wire array z-pinches. In this measurement, two internal planes inside a suitable crystal diffract the x-rays into two perpendicular directions that are normal to each other, thereby separating incident x-rays into their linearly polarized components. This paper gives considerations for fielding the instrument on extended sources. Results from extended sources are difficult to interpret because generally the incident x-rays are not separated properly by the crystal. This difficulty is mitigated by using a series of collimating slits to select incident x-rays that propagate in a plane of symmetry between the polarization-splitting planes. The resulting instrument and some of the spatially resolved polarized x-ray spectra recorded for a 1-MA aluminum wire array z-pinch at the Nevada Terawatt Facility at the University of Nevada, Reno will be presented.
Recombination-pumped XUV lasing in capillary discharges and dynamic z-pinches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pöckl, M.; Hebenstreit, M.; Fertner, R.; Neger, T.; Aumayr, F.
1996-08-01
A fully time-dependent collisional - radiative model is employed to calculate relevant population densities in a recombining carbon/hydrogen z-pinch plasma. In particular, the dependence of the small signal gain G on the maximum electron temperature and cooling rate, as well as the influence of Lyman-0022-3727/29/8/005/img8 reabsorption, are studied. Although in conditions typical for dynamic z-pinches the maximum electron temperature and cooling rates would, in principle, be sufficiently high, gain on the Balmer-0022-3727/29/8/005/img8 transition is strongly reduced by Lyman-0022-3727/29/8/005/img8 reabsorption. In order to investigate vacuum spark capillary discharges, the system of rate equations is coupled with balance equations of the plasma energy and the total number of heavy particles. The resulting set of equations is solved self-consistently. Results are presented that show the systematic dependence of the small signal gain on electrical input power, wall material, and capillary geometry. High gain coefficients 0022-3727/29/8/005/img11 could be achieved by modelling high-voltage discharges with short ringing periods through capillaries containing boron or carbon. While the maximum achievable gain coefficient for lithium is rather poor 0022-3727/29/8/005/img12 the duration of population inversion would be long enough (a few tens of nanoseconds) to make multi-pass operation possible.
Using a Z-pinch precursor plasma to produce a cylindrical, hotspot ignition, ICF
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chittenden, Jeremy
2005-10-01
We show that if the same precursor plasma that exists in metal wire arrays can be generated with a Deuterium-Tritium plasma then this precursor provides an ideal target for a cylindrical magneto-inertial ICF scheme. The precursor is generated from a fraction of the mass of the array which arrives on the axis early in time and remains confined at high density by the inertia of further material bombarding the axis. Later on, the main implosion of the DT Z-pinch produces a dense, low temperature shell which compressively heats the precursor target to high temperatures and tamps its expansion. The azimuthal magnetic field in the hotspot is sufficient to reduce the Larmor radius for the alpha particles to much less than the hotspot size, which dramatically reduces the ρR required for ignition. A computational analysis of this approach is presented, including a study of the thermonuclear burn wave propagation. The robustness of the scheme with respect to instabilities, confinement time and drive parameters is examined. The results indicate that a high energy gain can be achieved using Z-pinches with 50-100 MA currents and a few hundred nanosecond rise-times. This work was partially supported by the U.S. Department of Energy through cooperative agreement DE-FC03-02NA00057.
Analytic model to estimate thermonuclear neutron yield in z-pinches using the magnetic Noh problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allen, Robert C.
The objective was to build a model which could be used to estimate neutron yield in pulsed z-pinch experiments, benchmark future z-pinch simulation tools and to assist scaling for breakeven systems. To accomplish this, a recent solution to the magnetic Noh problem was utilized which incorporates a self-similar solution with cylindrical symmetry and azimuthal magnetic field (Velikovich, 2012). The self-similar solution provides the conditions needed to calculate the time dependent implosion dynamics from which batch burn is assumed and used to calculate neutron yield. The solution to the model is presented. The ion densities and time scales fix the initial mass and implosion velocity, providing estimates of the experimental results given specific initial conditions. Agreement is shown with experimental data (Coverdale, 2007). A parameter sweep was done to find the neutron yield, implosion velocity and gain for a range of densities and time scales for DD reactions and a curve fit was done to predict the scaling as a function of preshock conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Xian Bin; Ren, Xiao Dong; Dan, Jia Kun; Wang, Kun Lun; Xu, Qiang; Zhou, Shao Tong; Zhang, Si Qun; Cai, Hong Chun; Li, Jing; Wei, Bing; Ji, Ce; Feng, Shu Ping; Wang, Meng; Xie, Wei Ping; Deng, Jian Jun
2017-09-01
The preliminary experimental results of Z-pinch dynamic hohlraums conducted on the Primary Test Stand (PTS) facility are presented herein. Six different types of dynamic hohlraums were used in order to study the influence of load parameters on radiation characteristics and implosion dynamics, including dynamic hohlraums driven by single and nested arrays with different array parameters and different foams. The PTS facility can deliver a current of 6-8 MA in the peak current and 60-70 ns in the 10%-90% rising time to dynamic hohlraum loads. A set of diagnostics monitor the implosion dynamics of plasmas, the evolution of shock waves in the foam and the axial/radial X-ray radiation, giving the key parameters characterizing the features of dynamic hohlraums, such as the trajectory and related velocity of shock waves, radiation temperature, and so on. The experimental results presented here put our future study on Z-pinch dynamic hohlraums on the PTS facility on a firm basis.
Primary experimental results of wire-array Z-pinches on PTS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, X. B.; Zhou, S. T.; Ren, X. D.; Dan, J. K.; Wang, K. L.; Zhang, S. Q.; Li, J.; Xu, Q.; Cai, H. C.; Duan, S. C.; Ouyang, K.; Chen, G. H.; Ji, C.; Wang, M.; Feng, S. P.; Yang, L. B.; Xie, W. P.; Deng, J. J.
2014-12-01
The Primary Test Stand (PTS) developed at the China Academy of Engineering Physics is a multiterawatt pulsed power driver, which can deliver a ˜10 MA, 70 ns rise-time (10%-90%) current to a short circuit load and has important applications in Z-pinch driven inertial confinement fusion and high energy density physics. In this paper, primary results of tungsten wire-array Z-pinch experiments on PTS are presented. The load geometries investigated include 15-mm-tall cylindrical single and nested arrays with diameter ranging from 14.4-26.4 mm, and consisting of 132˜276 tungsten wires with 5˜10 μm in diameter. Multiple diagnostics were fielded to determine the characteristics of x-ray radiations and to obtain self-emitting images of imploding plasmas. X-ray power up to 80 TW with ˜3 ns FWMH is achieved by using nested wire arrays. The total x-ray energy exceeds 500 kJ and the peak radiation temperature is about 150 eV. Typical velocity of imploding plasmas goes around 3˜5×107 cm/s and the radial convergence ratio is between 10 and 20.
Z-Pinch Magneto-Inertial Fusion Propulsion Engine Design Concept
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miernik, Janie H.; Statham, Geoffrey; Adams, Robert B.; Polsgrove, Tara; Fincher, Sharon; Fabisinski, Leo; Maples, C. Dauphne; Percy, Thomas K.; Cortez, Ross J.; Cassibry, Jason
2011-01-01
Fusion-based nuclear propulsion has the potential to enable fast interplanetary transportation. Due to the great distances between the planets of our solar system and the harmful radiation environment of interplanetary space, high specific impulse (Isp) propulsion in vehicles with high payload mass fractions must be developed to provide practical and safe vehicles for human spaceflight missions. Magneto-Inertial Fusion (MIF) is an approach which has been shown to potentially lead to a low cost, small fusion reactor/engine assembly (1). The Z-Pinch dense plasma focus method is an MIF concept in which a column of gas is compressed to thermonuclear conditions by an estimated axial current of approximately 100 MA. Recent advancements in experiments and the theoretical understanding of this concept suggest favorable scaling of fusion power output yield as I(sup 4) (2). The magnetic field resulting from the large current compresses the plasma to fusion conditions, and this is repeated over short timescales (10(exp -6) sec). This plasma formation is widely used in the field of Nuclear Weapons Effects (NWE) testing in the defense industry, as well as in fusion energy research. There is a wealth of literature characterizing Z-Pinch physics and existing models (3-5). In order to be useful in engineering analysis, a simplified Z-Pinch fusion thermodynamic model was developed to determine the quantity of plasma, plasma temperature, rate of expansion, energy production, etc. to calculate the parameters that characterize a propulsion system. The amount of nuclear fuel per pulse, mixture ratio of the D-T and nozzle liner propellant, and assumptions about the efficiency of the engine, enabled the sizing of the propulsion system and resulted in an estimate of the thrust and Isp of a Z-Pinch fusion propulsion system for the concept vehicle. MIF requires a magnetic nozzle to contain and direct the nuclear pulses, as well as a robust structure and radiation shielding. The structure
Wire-number effects on high-power annular z-pinches and some characteristics at high wire number
SANFORD,THOMAS W. L.
2000-05-23
Characteristics of annular wire-array z-pinches as a function of wire number and at high wire number are reviewed. The data, taken primarily using aluminum wires on Saturn are comprehensive. The experiments have provided important insights into the features of wire-array dynamics critical for high x-ray power generation, and have initiated a renaissance in z-pinches when high numbers of wires are used. In this regime, for example, radiation environments characteristic of those encountered during the early pulses required for indirect-drive ICF ignition on the NIF have been produced in hohlraums driven by x-rays from a z-pinch, and are commented on here.
Enhanced energy coupling and x-ray emission in Z-pinch plasma implosions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Whitney, K. G.; Thornhill, J. W.; Apruzese, J. P.; Davis, J.; Deeney, C.; Coverdale, C. A.
2004-08-01
Recent experiments conducted on the Saturn pulsed-power generator at Sandia National Laboratories [R. B. Spielman et al., in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Dense Z Pinches, Laguna Beach, CA, 1989, edited by N. R. Pereira, J. Davis, and N. Rostoker (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1989), p. 3] have produced large amounts of x-ray output, which cannot be accounted for in conventional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) calculations. In these experiments, the Saturn current had a rise time of ~180 ns in contrast to a rise time of ~60 ns in Saturn's earlier mode of operation. In both aluminum and tungsten wire-array Z-pinch implosions, 2-4 times more x-ray output was generated than could be supplied according to one-dimensional (1D) magnetohydrodynamic calculations by the combined action of the j×B acceleration forces and ohmic heating (as described by a classical Braginskii resistivity). In this paper, we reexamine the problem of coupling transmission line circuits to plasma fluid equations and derive expressions for the Z-pinch load circuit resistance and inductance that relate these quantities in a 1D analysis to the surface resistivity of the fluid, and to the magnetic field energy that is stored in the vacuum diode, respectively. Enhanced energy coupling in this analysis, therefore, comes from enhancements to the surface resistivity, and we show that plasma resistivities approximately three orders of magnitude larger than classical are needed in order to achieve energy inputs that are comparable to the Saturn experiment x-ray outputs. Large enhancements of the plasma resistivity increase the rate of magnetic field and current diffusion, significantly modify the qualitative features of the MHD, and raise important questions as to how the plasma fluid dynamics converts enhanced energy inputs into enhanced x-ray outputs. One-dimensional MHD calculations in which resistivity values are adjusted phenomenologically are used to illustrate how
3D MHD Simulations of Radial Wire Array Z-pinches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Niasse, N.; Chittenden, J. P.; Bland, S. N.; Suzuki-Vidal, F. A.; Hall, G. N.; Lebedev, S. V.; Calamy, H.; Zucchini, F.; Lassalle, F.; Bedoch, J. P.
2009-01-01
Recent experiments carried out on the MAGPIE (1 MA, 250 ns), OEDIPE (730 kA, 1.5 μs) and SPHINX (4 MA, 700 ns)[1] facilities have shown the relatively high level of scalability of the Radial Wire Array Z-pinches. These configurations where the wires stretch radially outwards from a central cathode offer numerous advantages over standard cylindrical arrays. In particular, imploding in a very stable and compact way, they seem suitable for coupling to small scale hohlraums. Making use of the 3D resistive magneto-hydrodynamic code GORGON[2] developed at Imperial College, the dynamic of the radial wire arrays is investigated. Influence of the cathode hotspots and wires angle on the x-ray emissions is also discussed. Comparison with experiments is offered to validate the numerical studies.
Use of vacuum arc plasma guns for a metal puff Z-pinch system
Rousskikh, A. G.; Zhigalin, A. S.; Oreshkin, V. I.
The performance of a metal puff Z-pinch system has been studied experimentally. In this type of system, the initial cylindrical shell 4 cm in diameter was produced by ten plasma guns. Each gun initiates a vacuum arc operating between magnesium electrodes. The net current of the guns was 80 kA. The arc-produced plasma shell was compressed by using a 450-kA, 450-ns driver, and as a result, a plasma column 0.3 cm in diameter was formed. The electron temperature of the plasma reached 400 eV at an average ion concentration of 1.85 {center_dot} 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3}. The power of themore » Mg K-line radiation emitted by the plasma for 15-30 ns was 300 MW/cm.« less
Preconditioned wire array Z-pinches driven by a double pulse current generator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Jian; Lu, Yihan; Sun, Fengju; Li, Xingwen; Jiang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Zhiguo; Zhang, Daoyuan; Qiu, Aici; Lebedev, Sergey
2018-07-01
Suppression of the core-corona structure and wire ablation in wire array Z-pinches is investigated using a novel double pulse current generator ‘Qin-1’ facility. The ‘Qin-1’ facility allows coupling a ∼10 kA 20 ns prepulse generator with a ∼0.8 MA 160 ns main current generator. The tailored prepulse current preheats wires to a gaseous state and the time interval between the prepulse and the main current pulse allows formation of a more uniform mass distribution for the implosion. The implosion of a gasified two aluminum-wire array showed no ablation phase and allowed all array mass to participate in the implosion. The initial perturbations formed from the inhomogeneous ablation were suppressed, however, the magneto Rayleigh–Taylor (MRT) instability during the implosion was still significant and further researches on the generation and development of the MRT instabilities of this gasified wire array are needed.
Experimental study of z-pinch driven radiative shocks in low density gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skidmore, Jonathan; Lebedev, S. V.; Suzuki-Vidal, F.; Swadling, G.; Bland, S. N.; Burdiak, G.; Chittenden, J. P.; de Grouchy, P.; Hall, G. N.; Pickworth, L.; Suttle, L.; Bennett, M.; Ciardi, A.
2012-10-01
Results of experiments performed on MAGPIE pulsed power facility (1.4MA, 250ns) will be presented. Shocks with velocities of 50-70km/s are driven in Ar, Xe and He gases at density ˜10-5g/cc using radial foil z-pinch configuration [1]. Measurements of the structure of the shocks obtained with laser probing will be presented and observations of the development of instabilities will be discussed. It was found that the structure of the shocks and the development of instabilities strongly depend on the rate of radiative cooling, increasing for gases with higher atomic numbers.[4pt] [1] F. Suzuki-Vidal et al., PoP 19, 022708 (2012)
250 kA compact linear transformer driver for wire array z-pinch loads
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bott, S. C.; Haas, D. M.; Madden, R. E.; Ueda, U.; Eshaq, Y.; Collins, G., IV; Gunasekera, K.; Mariscal, D.; Peebles, J.; Beg, F. N.; Mazarakis, M.; Struve, K.; Sharpe, R.
2011-05-01
We present the application of a short rise (˜150ns) 250 kA linear transformer driver (LTD) to wire array z-pinch loads for the first time. The generator is a modification of a previous driver in which a new conical power feed provides a low inductance coupling to wire loads. Performance of the new design using both short circuit and plasma loads is presented and discussed. The final design delivers ˜200kA to a wire array load which is in good agreement with SCREAMER calculations using a simplified representative circuit. Example results demonstrate successful experiments using cylindrical, conical, and inverse wire arrays as well as previously published work on x-pinch loads.
MAIZE: a 1 MA LTD-Driven Z-Pinch at The University of Michigan
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gilgenbach, R. M.; Gomez, M. R.; Zier, J. C.; Tang, W. W.; French, D. M.; Lau, Y. Y.; Mazarakis, M. G.; Cuneo, M. E.; Johnston, M. D.; Oliver, B. V.; Mehlhorn, T. A.; Kim, A. A.; Sinebryukhov, V. A.
2009-01-01
Researchers at The University of Michigan have constructed and tested a 1-MA Linear Transformer Driver (LTD), the first of its type to reach the USA. The Michigan Accelerator for Inductive Z-pinch Experiments, (MAIZE), is based on the LTD developed at the Institute of High Current Electronics in collaboration with Sandia National Labs and UM. This LTD utilizes 80 capacitors and 40 spark gap switches, arranged in 40 "bricks," to deliver a 1 MA, 100 kV pulse with 100 ns risetime into a matched resistive load. Preliminary resistive-load test results are presented for the LTD facility. Planned experimental research programs at UM include: a) Studies of Magneto-Raleigh-Taylor instability of planar foils, and b) Vacuum convolute studies including cathode and anode plasma.
Particle drift model for Z-pinch-driven magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dan, Jia Kun; Xu, Qiang; Wang, Kun Lun; Ren, Xiao Dong; Huang, Xian Bin
2016-09-01
A theoretical model of Z-pinch driven magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability is proposed based on the particle drift point of view, which can explain the helical instability structure observed in premagnetized imploding liner experiments. It is demonstrated that all possible drift motions, including polarization drift, gradient drift, and curvature drift, which can lead to charge separations, each will attribute to an effective gravity acceleration. Theoretical predictions given by this model are dramatically different from those given by previous theories which have been readily recovered in the theory presented here as a limiting case. The theory shows qualitative agreement with available experimental data of the pitch angle and provides certain predictions to be verified.
The effects of insulating coatings and current prepulse on tungsten planar wire array Z-pinches
Li, M., E-mail: limo@nint.ac.cn; Li, Y.; State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulsed Radiation Simulation and Effect, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi'an 710024
2015-12-15
This paper presents experimental results on the effects of insulating coatings and current prepulse on tungsten planar wire array Z-pinches on ∼100 ns main current facility. Optical framing images indicated that without a current prepulse the wire ablation process was asymmetrical and the implosion was zippered. The x-ray peak power was ∼320 GW. By using insulating coatings on the wire surface the asymmetry remained, and the processes of ablation and implosion were delayed by ∼30 ns. The x-ray burst was narrow and decreased to ∼200 GW. When current prepulses were used on both standard and insulated wire arrays, implosion symmetry was improved and themore » x-ray burst was improved (to ∼520 GW peak power). In addition, there was a strong emitting precursor column for insulated loads with the current prepulse.« less
Design of Z-Pinch and Dense Plasma Focus Powered Vehicles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Polsgrove, Tara; Fincher, Sharon; Adams, Robert B.; Cassibry, Jason; Cortez, Ross; Turner, Matthew; Maples, C. Daphne; Miermik, Janie N.; Statham, Geoffrey N.; Fabisinski, Leo;
2011-01-01
Z-pinch and Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) are two promising techniques for bringing fusion power to the field of in-space propulsion. A design team comprising of engineers and scientists from UAHuntsville, NASA's George C. Marshall Space Flight Center and the University of Wisconsin developed concept vehicles for a crewed round trip mission to Mars and an interstellar precursor mission. Outlined in this paper are vehicle concepts, complete with conceptual analysis of the mission profile, operations, structural and thermal analysis and power/avionics design. Additionally engineering design of the thruster itself is included. The design efforts adds greatly to the fidelity of estimates for power density (alpha) and overall performance for these thruster concepts
Z pinches as intense x-ray sources for high-energy density physics applications
Matzen, M.K.
1997-05-01
Fast Z-pinch implosions can efficiently convert the stored electrical energy in a pulsed-power accelerator into x rays. These x rays are produced when an imploding cylindrical plasma, driven by the magnetic field pressure associated with very large axial currents, stagnates upon the cylindrical axis of symmetry. On the Saturn pulsed-power accelerator [R. B. Spielman {ital et al.}, in {ital Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Dense Z Pinches}, Laguna Beach, CA, 1989, edited by N. R. Pereira, J. Davis, and N. Rostoker (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1989), p. 3] at Sandia National Laboratories, for example, currents ofmore » 6{endash}8 MA with a rise time of less than 50 ns are driven through cylindrically symmetric loads, producing implosion velocities as high as 10{sup 8}cm/s and x-ray energies exceeding 400 kJ. Hydromagnetic Rayleigh{endash}Taylor instabilities and cylindrical load symmetry are critical, limiting factors in determining the assembled plasma densities and temperatures, and thus in the x-ray energies and pulse widths that can be produced on these accelerators. In recent experiments on the Saturn accelerator, these implosion nonuniformities have been minimized by using wire arrays with as many as 192 wires. Increasing the wire number produced significant improvements in the pinched plasma quality, reproducibility, and x-ray output power. X-ray pulse widths of less than 5 ns and peak powers of 75{plus_minus}10TW have been achieved with arrays of 120 tungsten wires. Similar loads have recently been fielded on the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator (PBFA II), producing x-ray energies in excess of 1.8 MJ at powers in excess of 160 TW. These intense x-ray sources offer the potential for performing many new basic physics and fusion-relevant experiments. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}« less
Implosion dynamics of condensed Z-pinch at the Angara-5-1 facility
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aleksandrov, V. V.; Grabovski, E. V.; Gritsuk, A. N.; Volobuev, I. V.; Kazakov, E. D.; Kalinin, Yu. G.; Korolev, V. D.; Laukhin, Ya. I.; Medovshchikov, S. F.; Mitrofanov, K. N.; Oleinik, G. M.; Pimenov, V. G.; Smirnova, E. A.; Ustroev, G. I.; Frolov, I. N.
2017-08-01
The implosion dynamics of a condensed Z-pinch at load currents of up to 3.5 MA and a current rise time of 100 ns was studied experimentally at the Angara-5-1 facility. To increase the energy density, 1- to 3-mm-diameter cylinders made of a deuterated polyethylene-agar-agar mixture or microporous deuterated polyethylene with a mass density of 0.03-0.5 g/cm3 were installed in the central region of the loads. The plasma spatiotemporal characteristics were studied using the diagnostic complex of the Angara-5-1 facility, including electron-optical streak and frame imaging, time-integrated X-ray imaging, soft X-ray (SXR) measurements, and vacuum UV spectroscopy. Most information on the plasma dynamics was obtained using a ten-frame X-ray camera ( E > 100 eV) with an exposure of 4 ns. SXR pulses were recorded using photoemissive vacuum X-ray detectors. The energy characteristics of neutron emission were measured using the time-offlight method with the help of scintillation detectors arranged along and across the pinch axis. The neutron yield was measured by activation detectors. The experimental results indicate that the plasma dynamics depends weakly on the load density. As a rule, two stages of plasma implosion were observed. The formation of hot plasma spots in the initial stage of plasma expansion from the pinch axis was accompanied by short pulses of SXR and neutron emission. The neutron yield reached (0.4-3) × 1010 neutrons/shot and was almost independent of the load density due to specific features of Z-pinch dynamics.
A Compact Soft X-Ray Microscope using an Electrode-less Z-Pinch Source.
Horne, S F; Silterra, J; Holber, W
2009-01-01
Soft X-rays (< 1Kev) are of medical interest both for imaging and microdosimetry applications. X-ray sources at this low energy present a technological challenge. Synchrotrons, while very powerful and flexible, are enormously expensive national research facilities. Conventional X-ray sources based on electron bombardment can be compact and inexpensive, but low x-ray production efficiencies at low electron energies restrict this approach to very low power applications. Laser-based sources tend to be expensive and unreliable. Energetiq Technology, Inc. (Woburn, MA, USA) markets a 92 eV, 10W(2pi sr) electrode-less Z-pinch source developed for advanced semiconductor lithography. A modified version of this commercial product has produced 400 mW at 430 eV (2pi sr), appropriate for water window soft X-ray microscopy. The US NIH has funded Energetiq to design and construct a demonstration microscope using this source, coupled to a condenser optic, as the illumination system. The design of the condenser optic matches the unique characteristics of the source to the illumination requirements of the microscope, which is otherwise a conventional design. A separate program is underway to develop a microbeam system, in conjunction with the RARAF facility at Columbia University, NY, USA. The objective is to develop a focused, sub-micron beam capable of delivering > 1 Gy/second to the nucleus of a living cell. While most facilities of this type are coupled to a large and expensive particle accelerator, the Z-pinch X-ray source enables a compact, stand-alone design suitable to a small laboratory. The major technical issues in this system involve development of suitable focusing X-ray optics. Current status of these programs will be reported.
A Compact Soft X-Ray Microscope using an Electrode-less Z-Pinch Source
Silterra, J; Holber, W
2009-01-01
Soft X-rays (< 1Kev) are of medical interest both for imaging and microdosimetry applications. X-ray sources at this low energy present a technological challenge. Synchrotrons, while very powerful and flexible, are enormously expensive national research facilities. Conventional X-ray sources based on electron bombardment can be compact and inexpensive, but low x-ray production efficiencies at low electron energies restrict this approach to very low power applications. Laser-based sources tend to be expensive and unreliable. Energetiq Technology, Inc. (Woburn, MA, USA) markets a 92 eV, 10W(2pi sr) electrode-less Z-pinch source developed for advanced semiconductor lithography. A modified version of this commercial product has produced 400 mW at 430 eV (2pi sr), appropriate for water window soft X-ray microscopy. The US NIH has funded Energetiq to design and construct a demonstration microscope using this source, coupled to a condenser optic, as the illumination system. The design of the condenser optic matches the unique characteristics of the source to the illumination requirements of the microscope, which is otherwise a conventional design. A separate program is underway to develop a microbeam system, in conjunction with the RARAF facility at Columbia University, NY, USA. The objective is to develop a focused, sub-micron beam capable of delivering > 1 Gy/second to the nucleus of a living cell. While most facilities of this type are coupled to a large and expensive particle accelerator, the Z-pinch X-ray source enables a compact, stand-alone design suitable to a small laboratory. The major technical issues in this system involve development of suitable focusing X-ray optics. Current status of these programs will be reported. PMID:20198115
Temperature Evolution of a 1 MA Triple-Nozzle Gas-Puff Z-Pinch
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Grouchy, Philip; Banasek, Jacob; Engelbrecht, Joey; Qi, Niansheng; Atoyan, Levon; Byvank, Tom; Cahill, Adam; Moore, Hannah; Potter, William; Ransohoff, Lauren; Hammer, David; Kusse, Bruce; Laboratory of Plasma Studies Team
2015-11-01
Mitigation of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) plays a critical role in optimizing x-ray output at high-energy ~ 13 keV using the triple-nozzle Krypton gas-puff at Sandia National Laboratory. RTI mitigation by gas-puff density profiling using a triple-nozzle gas-puff valve has recently been recently demonstrated on the COBRA 1MA z-pinch at Cornell University. In support of this work we investigate the role of shell cooling in the growth of RTI during gas-puff implosions. Temperature measurements within the imploding plasma shell are recorded using a 527 nm, 10 GW Thomson scattering diagnostic for Neon, Argon and Krypton puffs. The mass-density profile is held constant at 22 microgram per centimeter for all three puffs and the temperature evolution of the imploding material is recorded. In the case of Argon puffs we find that the shell ion and electron effective temperatures remain in equilibrium at around 1keV for the majority of the implosion phase. In contrast scattered spectra from Krypton are dominated by of order 10 keV effective ion temperatures. Supported by the NNSA Stewardship Sciences Academic Programs.
Radial and Azimuthal Velocity Profiles in Gas-Puff Z-Pinches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rocco, Sophia; Engelbrecht, Joseph; Banasek, Jacob; de Grouchy, Philip; Qi, Niansheng; Hammer, David
2016-10-01
The dynamics of neon, argon, and krypton (either singly or in combination) gas puff z-pinch plasmas are studied on Cornell's 1MA, 100-200ns rise-time COBRA pulsed power generator. The triple-nozzle gas puff valve, consisting of two annular gas puffs and a central jet, allows radial tailoring of the gas puff mass-density profile and the use of 1, 2 or 3 different gases at different pressures. Interferometry supplies information on sheath thickness and electron density, variously filtered PCDs and silicon diodes measure hard and soft x-ray production, and multi frame visible and extreme UV imaging systems allow tracking of the morphology of the plasma. A 527nm, 10J Thomson scattering diagnostic system is used to determine radial and azimuthal velocities. Implosion velocities of 170km/s (Kr) and 300km/s (Ne/Ar) are observed. We are investigating the correlations between instability growth, plasma density profile, velocity partitioning as a function of radius, and radiation production. Research supported by the NNSA Stewardship Sciences Academic Programs under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NA0001836.
Dynamics of current sheath in a hollow electrode Z-pinch discharge using slug model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abd Al-Halim, Mohamed A.; Afify, M. S.
2017-03-01
The hollow electrode Z-pinch (HEZP) experiment is a new construction for the electromagnetic propulsion application in which the plasma is formed by the discharge between a plate and ring electrodes through which the plasma is propelled. The experimental results for 8 kV charging voltage shows that the peak discharge current is about 109 kA, which is in good agreement with the value obtained from the simulation in the slug model that simulates the sheath dynamics in the HEZP. The fitting of the discharge current from the slug model indicates that the total system inductance is 238 nH which is relatively a high static inductance accompanied with a deeper pinch depth indicating that the fitted anomalous resistance would be about 95 mΩ. The current and mass factors vary with the changing the gas pressure and the charging voltage. The current factor is between 0.4 and 0.5 on average which is relatively low value. The mass factor decreases by increasing the gas pressure indicating that the sheath is heavy to be driven by the magnetic pressure, which is also indicated from the decreases of the drive factor, hence the radial sheath velocity decreases. The plasma inductance and temperature increase with the increase of the drive factor while the minimum pinch radius decreases.
New compact hohlraum configuration research at the 1.7 MA Z-pinch generator
Kantsyrev, V. L., E-mail: victor@unr.edu; Shrestha, I. K.; Esaulov, A. A.
A new compact Z-pinch x-ray hohlraum design with parallel-driven x-ray sources was experimentally demonstrated in a full configuration with a central target and tailored shine shields (to provide a symmetric temperature distribution on the target) at the 1.7 MA Zebra generator. This presentation reports on the joint success of two independent lines of research. One of these was the development of new sources – planar wire arrays (PWAs). PWAs turned out to be a prolific radiator. Another success was the drastic improvement in energy efficiency of pulsed-power systems, such as the Load Current Multiplier (LCM). The Zebra/LCM generator almost doubledmore » the plasma load current to 1.7 MA. The two above-mentioned innovative approaches were used in combination to produce a new compact hohlraum design for ICF, as jointly proposed by SNL and UNR. Good agreement between simulated and measured radiation temperature of the central target is shown. Experimental comparison of PWAs with planar foil liners (PFL) - another viable alternative to wire array loads at multi-MA generators show promising data. Results of research at the University of Nevada Reno allowed for the study of hohlraum coupling physics at University-scale generators. The advantages of new hohlraum design applications for multi-MA facilities with W or Au double PWAs or PFL x-ray sources are discussed.« less
Use of microsecond current prepulse for dramatic improvements of wire array Z-pinch implosion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Calamy, H.; Lassalle, F.; Loyen, A.; Zucchini, F.; Chittenden, J. P.; Hamann, F.; Maury, P.; Georges, A.; Bedoch, J. P.; Morell, A.
2008-01-01
The Sphinx machine [F. Lassalle et al., "Status on the SPHINX machine based on the 1microsecond LTD technology"] based on microsecond linear transformer driver (LTD) technology is used to implode an aluminium wire array with an outer diameter up to 140mm and maximum current from 3.5to5MA. 700to800ns implosion Z-pinch experiments are performed on this driver essentially with aluminium. Best results obtained before the improvement described in this paper were 1-3TW radial total power, 100-300kJ total yield, and 20-30kJ energy above 1keV. An auxiliary generator was added to the Sphinx machine in order to allow a multi microsecond current to be injected through the wire array load before the start of the main current. Amplitude and duration of this current prepulse are adjustable, with maxima ˜10kA and 50μs. This prepulse dramatically changes the ablation phase leading to an improvement of the axial homogeneity of both the implosion and the final radiating column. Total power was multiplied by a factor of 6, total yield by a factor of 2.5 with a reproducible behavior. This paper presents experimental results, magnetohydrodynamic simulations, and analysis of the effect of such a long current prepulse.
Development And Characterization Of A Liner-On-Target Injector For Staged Z-Pinch Experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valenzuela, J. C.; Conti, F.; Krasheninnikov, I.; Narkis, J.; Beg, F.; Wessel, F. J.; Rahman, H. U.
2016-10-01
We present the design and optimization of a liner-on-target injector for Staged Z-pinch experiments. The injector is composed of an annular high atomic number (e.g. Ar, Kr) gas-puff and an on-axis plasma gun that delivers the ionized deuterium target. The liner nozzle injector has been carefully studied using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations to produce a highly collimated 1 cm radius gas profile that satisfies the theoretical requirement for best performance on the 1 MA Zebra current driver. The CFD simulations produce density profiles as a function of the nozzle shape and gas. These profiles are initialized in the MHD MACH2 code to find the optimal liner density for a stable, uniform implosion. We use a simple Snowplow model to study the plasma sheath acceleration in a coaxial plasma gun to help us properly design the target injector. We have performed line-integrated density measurements using a CW He-Ne laser to characterize the liner gas and the plasma gun density as a function of time. The measurements are compared with models and calculations and benchmarked accordingly. Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy, DE-AR0000569.
High brightness electrodeless Z-Pinch EUV source for mask inspection tools
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horne, Stephen F.; Partlow, Matthew J.; Gustafson, Deborah S.; Besen, Matthew M.; Smith, Donald K.; Blackborow, Paul A.
2012-03-01
Energetiq Technology has been shipping the EQ-10 Electrodeless Z-pinchTM light source since 1995. The source is currently being used for metrology, mask inspection, and resist development. Energetiq's higher brightness source has been selected as the source for pre-production actinic mask inspection tools. This improved source enables the mask inspection tool suppliers to build prototype tools with capabilities of defect detection and review down to 16nm design rules. In this presentation we will present new source technology being developed at Energetiq to address the critical source brightness issue. The new technology will be shown to be capable of delivering brightness levels sufficient to meet the HVM requirements of AIMS and ABI and potentially API tools. The basis of the source technology is to use the stable pinch of the electrodeless light source and have a brightness of up to 100W/mm(carat)2-sr. We will explain the source design concepts, discuss the expected performance and present the modeling results for the new design.
Investigation of magnetic flux transport and shock formation in a staged Z-pinch
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Narkis, J.; Rahman, H. U.; Wessel, F. J.; Beg, F. N.
2017-10-01
Target preheating is an integral component of magnetized inertial fusion in reducing convergence ratio. In the staged Z-pinch concept, it is achieved via one or more shocks. Previous work [Narkis et al., Phys. Plasmas 23, 122706 (2016)] found that shock formation in the target occurred earlier in higher-Z liners due to faster flux transport to the target/liner interface. However, a corresponding increase in magnitude of magnetic pressure was not observed, and target implosion velocity (and therefore shock strength) remained unchanged. To investigate other means of increasing the magnitude of transported flux, a Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers equation from the 1-D single-fluid, resistive magnetohydrodynamic equations is obtained. Solutions to the nondispersive (i.e., Burgers) equation depend on nondimensional coefficients, whose dependence on liner density, temperature, etc., suggests an increase in target implosion velocity, and therefore shock strength, can be obtained by tailoring the mass of a single-liner gas puff to a double-liner configuration. In the selected test cases of 1-D simulated implosions of krypton on deuterium, the peak Mach number increased from ˜ 5 to ˜ 8 . While a notable increase was seen, Mach numbers exceeding 10 (implosion velocities exceeding ˜25 cm/μs) are necessary for adequate shock preheating.
Construction and Initial Tests of MAIZE: 1 MA LTD-Driven Z-Pinch *
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gilgenbach, R. M.; Gomez, M. R.; Zier, J. C.; Tang, W.; French, D. M.; Lau, Y. Y.; Mazarakis, M. G.; Cuneo, M. E.; Johnston, M. D.; Oliver, B. V.; Mehlhorn, T. A.; Kim, A. A.; Sinebryukhov, V. A.
2008-11-01
We report construction and initial testing of a 1-MA Linear Transformer Driver (LTD), The Michigan Accelerator for Inductive Z-pinch Experiments, (MAIZE). This machine, the first of its type to reach the USA, is based on the joint HCEI, Sandia Laboratories, and UM development effort. The compact LTD uses 80 capacitors and 40 spark gap switches, in 40 ``bricks'', to deliver 1 MA, 100 kV pulses with 70 ns risetime into a matched resistive load. Test results will be presented for a single brick and the full LTD. Design and construction will be presented of a low-inductance MITL. Experimental research programs under design and construction at UM include: a) Studies of Magneto-Raleigh-Taylor Instability of planar foils, and b) Vacuum convolute studies including cathode and anode plasma. Theory and simulation results will be presented for these planned experiments. Initial experimental designs and moderate-current feasibility experiments will be discussed. *Research supported by U. S. DoE through Sandia National Laboratories award document numbers 240985, 768225, 790791 and 805234 to the UM. MRG supported by NNSA Fellowship and JCZ supported by NPSC Fellowship / Sandia National Labs.
Diagnostics of deuterium gas-puff z-pinch experiments on the GIT-12 generator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cikhardt, J.; Klir, D.; Rezac, K.; Kubes, P.; Kravarik, J.; Batobolotova, B.; Sila, O.; Turek, K.; Shishlov, A.; Labetsky, A.; Kokshenev, V.; Chedizov, R.; Ratakhin, N.; Varlachev, V.; Garapatsky, A.; Dudkin, G.; Padalko, V.; GIT-12 Team
2014-10-01
Z-pinch experiments with a deuterium gas-puff and an outer plasma shell generated by plasma guns were carried out on the GIT-12 generator at the IHCE in Tomsk. Using this novel configuration of the load, the neutron yields from the DD reaction were significantly increased from 2×1011 up to 3×1012 neutrons per shot at the current level of about 3 MA. In addition to recent experiments, the threshold activation detectors were used in order to get the information about the energy spectrum of the generated neutrons. The copper, indium, and lead samples were irradiated by the pulse of the neutrons generated during the experimental shot. The decay radiation of the products from the reactions 63Cu(n,2n)62Cu, 115In(n, γ) 116 mIn and 206Pb (n,3n)204mPb was observed using gamma spectrometer. According to the used neutron ToF scintillation detectors, the energy of neutrons reaches up to 20 MeV. The work was supported by the MSMT of the Czech Republic research Programs No. ME090871, No. LG13029, by the GACR Grant No. P205/12/0454, Grant CRA IAEA No. 17088 and RFBR research Project No. 13-08-00479-a.
Neutron spectra from beam-target reactions in dense Z-pinches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Appelbe, B.; Chittenden, J.
2015-10-01
The energy spectrum of neutrons emitted by a range of deuterium and deuterium-tritium Z-pinch devices is investigated computationally using a hybrid kinetic-MHD model. 3D MHD simulations are used to model the implosion, stagnation, and break-up of dense plasma focus devices at currents of 70 kA, 500 kA, and 2 MA and also a 15 MA gas puff. Instabilities in the MHD simulations generate large electric and magnetic fields, which accelerate ions during the stagnation and break-up phases. A kinetic model is used to calculate the trajectories of these ions and the neutron spectra produced due to the interaction of these ions with the background plasma. It is found that these beam-target neutron spectra are sensitive to the electric and magnetic fields at stagnation resulting in significant differences in the spectra emitted by each device. Most notably, magnetization of the accelerated ions causes the beam-target spectra to be isotropic for the gas puff simulations. It is also shown that beam-target spectra can have a peak intensity located at a lower energy than the peak intensity of a thermonuclear spectrum. A number of other differences in the shapes of beam-target and thermonuclear spectra are also observed for each device. Finally, significant differences between the shapes of beam-target DD and DT neutron spectra, due to differences in the reaction cross-sections, are illustrated.
Fully kinetic simulations of dense plasma focus Z-pinch devices.
Schmidt, A; Tang, V; Welch, D
2012-11-16
Dense plasma focus Z-pinch devices are sources of copious high energy electrons and ions, x rays, and neutrons. The mechanisms through which these physically simple devices generate such high-energy beams in a relatively short distance are not fully understood. We now have, for the first time, demonstrated a capability to model these plasmas fully kinetically, allowing us to simulate the pinch process at the particle scale. We present here the results of the initial kinetic simulations, which reproduce experimental neutron yields (~10(7)) and high-energy (MeV) beams for the first time. We compare our fluid, hybrid (kinetic ions and fluid electrons), and fully kinetic simulations. Fluid simulations predict no neutrons and do not allow for nonthermal ions, while hybrid simulations underpredict neutron yield by ~100x and exhibit an ion tail that does not exceed 200 keV. Only fully kinetic simulations predict MeV-energy ions and experimental neutron yields. A frequency analysis in a fully kinetic simulation shows plasma fluctuations near the lower hybrid frequency, possibly implicating lower hybrid drift instability as a contributor to anomalous resistivity in the plasma.
EQ-10 electrodeless Z-pinch EUV source for metrology applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gustafson, Deborah; Horne, Stephen F.; Partlow, Matthew J.; Besen, Matthew M.; Smith, Donald K.; Blackborow, Paul A.
2011-11-01
With EUV Lithography systems shipping, the requirements for highly reliable EUV sources for mask inspection and resist outgassing are becoming better defined, and more urgent. The sources needed for metrology applications are very different than that needed for lithography; brightness (not power) is the key requirement. Suppliers for HVM EUV sources have all resources working on high power and have not entered the smaller market for metrology. Energetiq Technology has been shipping the EQ-10 Electrodeless Z-pinchTM light source since 19951. The source is currently being used for metrology, mask inspection, and resist development2-4. These applications require especially stable performance in both output power and plasma size and position. Over the last 6 years Energetiq has made many source modifications which have included better thermal management to increase the brightness and power of the source. We now have introduced a new source that will meet requirements of some of the mask metrology first generation tools; this source will be reviewed.
X-ray Power Increase from Symmetrized Wire-Array z-Pinch Implosions on Saturn.*
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sanford, T. W. L.; Allshouse, G. O.; Marder, B. M.; Nash, T. J.; Mock, R. C.; Douglas, M. R.; Spielman, R. B.; Seaman, J. F.; McGurn, J. S.; Jobe, D.; Gilliland, T. L.; Vargas, M.; Struve, K. W.; Stygar, W. A.; Hammer, J. H.; Degroot, J. S.; Eddleman, J. L.; Peterson, D. L.; Whitney, K. G.; Thornhill, J. W.; Pulsifer, P. E.; Apruzese, J. P.; Mosher, D.; Maron, Y.
1996-11-01
A systematic experimental study of annular aluminum wire z-pinches on the Saturn accelerator at Sandia National Laboratories shows that, for the first time, many of the measured spatial characteristics and x-ray powers can be correlated to 1D and 2D, radiation-magneto-hydrodynamic code (RMHC) simulations when large numbers of wires are used. Calculations show that the implosion begins to transition from that of individual wire plasmas to that of a continuous plasma shell when the circumferential gap between wires in the array is reduced below 1.4 +1.3/-0.7 mm. This calculated gap coincides with the measured transition of 1.4±0.4 mm between the observed regimes of slow and rapid improvement in power output with decreasing gap. In the plasma-shell regime, x-ray power has been more than tripled over that generated in the wire-plasma regime. In the full paper, measured characteristics in the plasma-shell regime are compared with 2D, 1- and 20-mm axial length simulations of the implosion using a multi-photon-group Lagrangian RMHC^1 and a three-temperature Eulerian RMHC,^2 respectively. ^1J.H. Hammer, et al., Phys. Plasmas 3, 2063 (1996). ^2D.L. Peterson, et al., Phys. Plasmas 3, 368 (1996). Work supported by U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Mo; Wu, Jian; Wang, Liang-Ping; Wu, Gang; Han, Juan-Juan; Guo, Ning; Qiu, Meng-Tong
2012-12-01
Two curved crystal spectrometers are set up on the “QiangGuang-1" generator to measure the z-pinch plasma spectra emitted from planar aluminum wire array loads. Kodak Biomax-MS film and an IRD AXUVHS5# array are employed to record time-integrated and time-resolved free-bound radiation, respectively. The photon energy recorded by each detector is ascertained by using the L-shell lines of molybdenum plasma. Based on the exponential relation between the continuum power and photon energies, the aluminum plasma electron temperatures are measured. For the time-integrated diagnosis, several “bright spots" indicate electron temperatures between (450 eV ~ 520 eV) ± 35%. And for the time-resolved ones, the result shows that the electron temperature reaches about 800 eV ± 30% at peak power. The system satisfies the demand of z-pinch plasma electron temperature diagnosis on a ~ 1 MA facility.
The quest for a z-pinch based fusion energy source—a historical perspective
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sethian, John
1997-05-01
Ever since 1958, when Oscar Anderson observed copious neutrons emanating from a "magnetically self-constricted column of deuterium plasma," scientists have attempted to develop the simple linear pinch into a fusion power source. After all, simple calculations show that if one can pass a current of slightly less than 2 million amperes through a stable D-T plasma, then one could achieve not just thermonuclear break-even, but thermonuclear gain. Moreover, several reactor studies have shown that a simple linear pinch could be the basis for a very attractive fusion system. The problem is, of course, that the seemingly simple act of passing 2 MA through a stable pinch has proven to be quite difficult to accomplish. The pinch tends to disrupt due to instabilities, either by the m=0 (sausage) or m=1 (kink) modes. Curtailing the growth of these instabilities has been the primary thrust of z-pinch fusion research, and over the years a wide variety of formation techniques have been tried. The early pinches were driven by relatively slow capacitive discharges and were formed by imploding a plasma column. The advent of fast pulsed power technology brought on a whole new repertoire of formation techniques, including: fast implosions, laser or field-enhanced breakdown in a uniform volume of gas, a discharge inside a small capillary, a frozen deuterium fiber isolated by vacuum, and staged concepts in which one pinch implodes upon another. And although none of these have yet to be successful, some have come tantalizingly close. This paper will review the history of this four-decade long quest for fusion power.
[Contrast of Z-Pinch X-Ray Yield Measure Technique].
Li, Mo; Wang, Liang-ping; Sheng, Liang; Lu, Yi
2015-03-01
Resistive bolometer and scintillant detection system are two mainly Z-pinch X-ray yield measure techniques which are based on different diagnostic principles. Contrasting the results from two methods can help with increasing precision of X-ray yield measurement. Experiments with different load material and shape were carried out on the "QiangGuang-I" facility. For Al wire arrays, X-ray yields measured by the two techniques were largely consistent. However, for insulating coating W wire arrays, X-ray yields taken from bolometer changed with load parameters while data from scintillant detection system hardly changed. Simulation and analysis draw conclusions as follows: (1) Scintillant detection system is much more sensitive to X-ray photons with low energy and its spectral response is wider than the resistive bolometer. Thus, results from the former method are always larger than the latter. (2) The responses of the two systems are both flat to Al plasma radiation. Thus, their results are consistent for Al wire array loads. (3) Radiation form planar W wire arrays is mainly composed of sub-keV soft X-ray. X-ray yields measured by the bolometer is supposed to be accurate because of the nickel foil can absorb almost all the soft X-ray. (4) By contrast, using planar W wire arrays, data from scintillant detection system hardly change with load parameters. A possible explanation is that while the distance between wires increases, plasma temperature at stagnation reduces and spectra moves toward the soft X-ray region. Scintillator is much more sensitive to the soft X-ray below 200 eV. Thus, although the total X-ray yield reduces with large diameter load, signal from the scintillant detection system is almost the same. (5) Both Techniques affected by electron beams produced by the loads.
X-ray Spectropolarimetry of Z-pinch Plasmas with a Single-Crystal Technique
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wallace, Matt; Haque, Showera; Neill, Paul; Pereira, Nino; Presura, Radu
2017-10-01
When directed beams of energetic electrons exist in a plasma the resulting x-rays emitted by the plasma can be partially polarized. This makes plasma x-ray polarization spectroscopy, spectropolarimetry, useful for revealing information about the anisotropy of the electron velocity distribution. X-ray spectropolarimetry has indeed been used for this in both space and laboratory plasmas. X-ray polarization measurements are typically performed employing two crystals, both at a 45° Bragg angle. A single-crystal spectropolarimeter can replace two crystal schemes by utilizing two matching sets of internal planes for polarization-splitting. The polarization-splitting planes diffract the incident x-rays into two directions that are perpendicular to each other and the incident beam as well, so the two sets of diffracted x-rays are linearly polarized perpendicularly to each other. An X-cut quartz crystal with surface along the [11-20] planes and a paired set of [10-10] planes in polarization-splitting orientation is now being used on aluminum z-pinches at the University of Nevada, Reno. Past x-ray polarization measurements have been reserved for point-like sources. Recently a slotted collimating aperture has been used to maintain the required geometry for polarization-splitting enabling the spectropolarimetry of extended sources. The design of a single-crystal x-ray spectropolarimeter and experimental results will be presented. Work was supported by U.S. DOE, NNSA Grant DE-NA0001834 and cooperative agreement DE-FC52-06NA27616.
Optimization of K-shell emission in aluminum z-pinch implosions: Theory versus experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Whitney, K. G.; Thornhill, J. W.; Giuliani, J. L.; Davis, J.; Miles, L. A.; Nolting, E. E.; Kenyon, V. L.; Speicer, W. A.; Draper, J. A.; Parsons, C. R.; Dang, P.; Spielman, R. B.; Nash, T. J.; McGurn, J. S.; Ruggles, L. E.; Deeney, C.; Prasad, R. R.; Warren, L.
1994-09-01
Two sets of z-pinch experiments were recently completed at the Saturn and Phoenix facilities of Sandia National Laboratories and the Naval Surface Warfare Center, respectively, using aluminum wire arrays of different wire and array diameters. Measurements of the total x-ray yield from the K shell of aluminum were made. In this paper, a comparison of these measurements is made to both theoretical predictions and to a similar set of earlier measurements that were made at the Double Eagle facility of Physics International Company. These three sets of yield measurements have points of agreement with predicted yields and with each other, but they also show points of mutual disagreement, whose significance is discussed. The data are analyzed using a slightly revised version of a previously published K-shell yield scaling law, and they support the existence of a reasonably well defined region in (load mass)-(implosion velocity) space in which plasma kinetic energy is efficiently converted into K-shell x rays. Furthermore, a correlation is observed between the inferred conversion efficiencies and the times in which the implosions occur relative to the times when each generator's short-circuit current reaches its peak value. Finally, unlike the Double Eagle experiments, the largest measured yields in the new experiments were observed to occur at the upper velocity boundary of the efficient emission region. Moreover, the observed yields are in fairly good quantitative agreement with an earlier scaling law prediction of the maximum K-shell x-ray yield from aluminum as a function of load mass assuming kinetic energy conversion alone.
Wire array Z-pinch insights for enhanced x-ray production
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sanford, T. W. L.; Mock, R. C.; Spielman, R. B.; Haines, M. G.; Chittenden, J. P.; Whitney, K. G.; Apruzese, J. P.; Peterson, D. L.; Greenly, J. B.; Sinars, D. B.; Reisman, D. B.; Mosher, D.
1999-05-01
Comparisons of measured total radiated x-ray power from annular wire-array z-pinches with a variety of models as a function of wire number, array mass, and load radius are reviewed. The data, which are comprehensive, have provided important insights into the features of wire-array dynamics that are critical for high x-ray power generation. Collectively, the comparisons of the data with the model calculations suggest that a number of underlying dynamical mechanisms involving cylindrical asymmetries and plasma instabilities contribute to the measured characteristics. For example, under the general assumption that the measured risetime of the total-radiated-power pulse is related to the thickness of the plasma shell formed on axis, the Heuristic Model [IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 26, 1275 (1998)] agrees with the measured risetime under a number of specific assumptions about the way the breakdown of the wires, the wire-plasma expansion, and the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the r-z plane, develop. Likewise, in the high wire-number regime (where the wires are calculated to form a plasma shell prior to significant radial motion of the shell) the comparisons show that the variation in the power of the radiation generated as a function of load mass and array radius can be simulated by the two-dimensional Eulerian-radiation- magnetohydrodynamics code (E-RMHC) [Phys. Plasmas 3, 368 (1996)], using a single random-density perturbation that seeds the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the r-z plane. For a given pulse-power generator, the comparisons suggest that (1) the smallest interwire gaps compatible with practical load construction and (2) the minimum implosion time consistent with the optimum required energy coupling of the generator to the load should produce the highest total-radiated-power levels.
Symmetric aluminum-wire arrays generate high-quality Z pinches at large array radii
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sanford, T. W. L.; Mock, R. C.; Spielman, R. B.; Peterson, D. L.; Mosher, D.; Roderick, N. F.
1998-10-01
A Saturn-accelerator study of annular, aluminum-wire array, Z-pinch implosions, in the calculated high-wire-number plasma-shell regime [Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5063 (1996)], shows that the radiated x-ray pulse width increases from about 4 nsec to about 7 nsec, when the radius of the array is increased from 8.75 to 20 mm at a fixed array mass of 0.6 mg. Eulerian radiation- magnetohydrodynamic code (E-RMHC) simulations in the r-z plane suggest that this pulse-width increase with radius is due to the faster growth of the shell thickness (that arises from a two-stage development in the magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability) relative to the increase in the shell implosion velocity. Over the array radii explored, the measured peak total x-ray power of ˜40 TW and energy of ˜325 kJ show little change outside of a ±15% shot-to-shot fluctuation and are consistent with the E-RMHC simulations. Similarly, the measured peak K-shell (lines plus continuum) power of ˜8 TW and energy of ˜70 kJ show little change with radius. The minimal change in K-shell yield is in agreement with simple K-shell radiation scaling models that assume a fixed radial compression for all initial array radii. These results suggest that the improved uniformity provided by the large number of wires in the initial array reduces the disruptive effects of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability observed in small-wire-number imploding loads.
Investigating radial wire array Z pinches as a compact x-ray source on the Saturn generator
Ampleford, David J.; Bland, S. N.; Jennings, Christopher A.
2015-08-27
Radial wire array z pinches, where wires are positioned radially outward from a central cathode to a concentric anode, can act as a compact bright x-ray source that could potentially be used to drive a hohlraum. Experiments were performed on the 7-MA Saturn generator using radial wire arrays. These experiments studied a number of potential risks in scaling radial wire arrays up from the 1-MA level, where they have been shown to be a promising compact X-ray source. Data indicates that at 7 MA, radial wire arrays can radiate ~9 TW with 10-ns full-width at half-maximum from a compact pinch.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bocchi, M.; Ummels, B.; Chittenden, J. P.; Lebedev, S. V.
2012-02-01
In the context of high energy density laboratory astrophysics, we aim to produce and study a rotating plasma relevant to accretion discs physics. We devised an experimental setup based on a modified cylindrical wire array and we studied it numerically with the three-dimensional, resistive magneto-hydrodynamic code GORGON. The simulations show that a rotating plasma cylinder is formed, with typical rotation velocity ~35 km/s and Mach number ~5. In addition, the plasma ring is differentially rotating and strongly radiatively cooled. The introduction of external magnetic fields is discussed.
Measurement and analysis of x-ray absorption in Al and MgF2 plasmas heated by Z-pinch radiation.
MacFarlane, Joseph John; Rochau, Gregory Alan; Bailey, James E.
2005-06-01
High-power Z pinches on Sandia National Laboratories Z facility can be used in a variety of experiments to radiatively heat samples placed some distance away from the Z-pinch plasma. In such experiments, the heating radiation spectrum is influenced by both the Z-pinch emission and the re-emission of radiation from the high-Z surfaces that make up the Z-pinch diode. To test the understanding of the amplitude and spectral distribution of the heating radiation, thin foils containing both Al and MgF{sub 2} were heated by a 100-130 TW Z pinch. The heating of these samples was studied through the ionization distribution inmore » each material as measured by x-ray absorption spectra. The resulting plasma conditions are inferred from a least-squares comparison between the measured spectra and calculations of the Al and Mg 1s {yields} 2p absorption over a large range of temperatures and densities. These plasma conditions are then compared to radiation-hydrodynamics simulations of the sample dynamics and are found to agree within 1{sigma} to the best-fit conditions. This agreement indicates that both the driving radiation spectrum and the heating of the Al and MgF{sub 2} samples is understood within the accuracy of the spectroscopic method.« less
Measurement and analysis of x-ray absorption in Al and MgF2 plasmas heated by Z-pinch radiation.
Rochau, Gregory A; Bailey, J E; Macfarlane, J J
2005-12-01
High-power Z pinches on Sandia National Laboratories' Z facility can be used in a variety of experiments to radiatively heat samples placed some distance away from the Z-pinch plasma. In such experiments, the heating radiation spectrum is influenced by both the Z-pinch emission and the re-emission of radiation from the high-Z surfaces that make up the Z-pinch diode. To test the understanding of the amplitude and spectral distribution of the heating radiation, thin foils containing both Al and MgF2 were heated by a 100-130 TW Z pinch. The heating of these samples was studied through the ionization distribution in each material as measured by x-ray absorption spectra. The resulting plasma conditions are inferred from a least-squares comparison between the measured spectra and calculations of the Al and Mg 1s-->2p absorption over a large range of temperatures and densities. These plasma conditions are then compared to radiation-hydrodynamics simulations of the sample dynamics and are found to agree within 1sigma to the best-fit conditions. This agreement indicates that both the driving radiation spectrum and the heating of the Al and MgF2 samples is understood within the accuracy of the spectroscopic method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hanson, D. L.; Vesey, R. A.; Cuneo Porter, M. E., Jr.; Chandler, G. A.; Ruggles, L. E.; Simpson, W. W.; Seamen, H.; Primm, P.; Torres, J.; McGurn, J.; Gilliland, T. L.; Reynolds, P.; Hebron, D. E.; Dropinski, S. C.; Schroen-Carey, D. G.; Hammer, J. H.; Landen, O.; Koch, J.
2000-10-01
We are currently exploring symmetry requirements of the z-pinch-driven hohlraum concept [1] for high-yield inertial confinement fusion. In experiments on the Z accelerator, the burnthrough of a low-density self-backlit foam ball has been used to diagnose the large time-dependent flux asymmetry of several single-sided-drive hohlraum geometries [2]. We are currently applying this technique to study polar radiation flux symmetry in a symmetric double z-pinch geometry. Wire arrays on opposite ends of the hohlraum, connected in series to a single current drive of 18 MA, implode and stagnate on axis, efficiently radiating about 100 TW of x rays which heat the secondary to 75 eV. Comparisons with 3-D radiosity and 2-D rad-hydro models of hohlraum symmetry performance will be presented. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. 1 J. H. Hammer et al., Phys. Plasmas 6, 2129 (1999). 2 D. L. Hanson et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 44, 40 (1999).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vesey, Roger; Cuneo, M. E.; Hanson Porter, D. L., Jr.; Mehlhorn, T. A.; Ruggles, L. E.; Simpson, W. W.; Hammer, J. H.; Landen, O.
2000-10-01
Capsule radiation symmetry is a crucial issue in the design of the z-pinch driven hohlraum approach to high-yield inertial confinement fusion [1]. Capsule symmetry may be influenced by power imbalance of the two z-pinch x-ray sources, and by hohlraum effects (geometry, time-dependent albedo, wall motion). We have conducted two-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamics calculations to estimate the symmetry sensitivity of the 220 eV beryllium ablator capsule that nominally yields 400 MJ in this concept. These estimates then determine the symmetry requirements to be met by the hohlraum design (for even Legendre modes) and by the top-bottom pinch imbalance and mistiming (for odd Legendre modes). We have used a combination of 2- and 3-D radiosity ("viewfactor"), and 2-D radiation-hydrodynamics calculations to identify hohlraum geometries that meet these symmetry requirements for high-yield, and are testing these models against ongoing Z foam ball symmetry experiments. 1. J. H. Hammer et al., Phys. Plas. 6, 2129 (1999).
Conversion of electromagnetic energy in Z-pinch process of single planar wire arrays at 1.5 MA
Liangping, Wang; Mo, Li; Juanjuan, Han
The electromagnetic energy conversion in the Z-pinch process of single planar wire arrays was studied on Qiangguang generator (1.5 MA, 100 ns). Electrical diagnostics were established to monitor the voltage of the cathode-anode gap and the load current for calculating the electromagnetic energy. Lumped-element circuit model of wire arrays was employed to analyze the electromagnetic energy conversion. Inductance as well as resistance of a wire array during the Z-pinch process was also investigated. Experimental data indicate that the electromagnetic energy is mainly converted to magnetic energy and kinetic energy and ohmic heating energy can be neglected before the final stagnation. Themore » kinetic energy can be responsible for the x-ray radiation before the peak power. After the stagnation, the electromagnetic energy coupled by the load continues increasing and the resistance of the load achieves its maximum of 0.6–1.0 Ω in about 10–20 ns.« less
A non-LTE kinetic model for quick analysis of K-shell spectra from Z-pinch plasmas
Li, J., E-mail: s.duan@163.com; Huang, X. B., E-mail: s.duan@163.com; Cai, H. C., E-mail: s.duan@163.com
Analyzing and modeling K-shell spectra emitted by low-to moderate-atomic number plasma is a useful and effective way to retrieve temperature density of z-pinch plasmas. In this paper, a non-LTE population kinetic model for quick analysis of K-shell spectra was proposed. The model contains ionization stages from bare nucleus to neutral atoms and includes all the important atomic processes. In the present form of the model, the plasma is assumed to be both optically thin and homogeneous with constant temperature and density, and only steady-state situation is considered. According to the detailed calculations for aluminum plasmas, contours of ratios of certainmore » K-shell lines in electron temperature and density plane as well as typical synthesized spectra were presented and discussed. The usefulness of the model is demonstrated by analyzing the spectrum from a neon gas-puff Z-pinch experiment performed on a 1 MA pulsed-power accelerator.« less
Long implosion time (240 ns) Z-pinch experiments with a large diameter (12 cm) double-shell nozzle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Levine, J. S.; Banister, J. W.; Failor, B. H.; Qi, N.; Song, Y.; Sze, H. M.; Fisher, A.
2004-05-01
Recently, an 8 cm diameter double-shell nozzle has produced argon Z pinches with high K-shell yields with implosion time of 210 ns. To produce even longer implosion time Z pinches for facilities such as Decade Quad [D. Price, et al., "Electrical and Mechanical Design of the Decade Quad in PRS Mode," in Proceedings of the 12th IEEE Pulsed Power Conference, Monterey, CA, edited by C. Stallings and H. Kirbie (IEEE, New York, 1999), p. 489] (9 MA short circuit current at 300 ns), a larger nozzle (12 cm outer diameter) was designed and fabricated. During initial testing on Double-EAGLE [P. Sincerny et al., Proceedings of the 5th IEEE Pulsed Power Conference, Arlington, VA, edited by M. F. Rose and P. J. Turchi (IEEE, New York, 1985), p. 151], 9 kJ of argon K-shell radiation in a 6 ns full width at half maximum pulse was produced with a 240 ns implosion. The initial gas distributions produced by various nozzle configurations have been measured and their impact on the final radiative characteristics of the pinch are presented. The addition of a central jet to increase the initial gas density near the axis is observed to enhance the pinch quality, increasing K-shell yield by 17% and power by 40% in the best configuration tested.
Osborne, G C; Kantsyrev, V L; Safronova, A S; Esaulov, A A; Weller, M E; Shrestha, I; Shlyaptseva, V V; Ouart, N D
2012-10-01
Absorption features from K-shell aluminum z-pinch plasmas have recently been studied on Zebra, the 1.7 MA pulse power generator at the Nevada Terawatt Facility. In particular, tungsten plasma has been used as a semi-backlighter source in the generation of aluminum K-shell absorption spectra by placing a single Al wire at or near the end of a single planar W array. All spectroscopic experimental results were recorded using a time-integrated, spatially resolved convex potassium hydrogen phthalate (KAP) crystal spectrometer. Other diagnostics used to study these plasmas included x-ray detectors, optical imaging, laser shadowgraphy, and time-gated and time-integrated x-ray pinhole imagers. Through comparisons with previous publications, Al K-shell absorption lines are shown to be from much lower electron temperature (∼10-40 eV) plasmas than emission spectra (∼350-500 eV).
Fusion neutron detector for time-of-flight measurements in z-pinch and plasma focus experiments.
Klir, D; Kravarik, J; Kubes, P; Rezac, K; Litseva, E; Tomaszewski, K; Karpinski, L; Paduch, M; Scholz, M
2011-03-01
We have developed and tested sensitive neutron detectors for neutron time-of-flight measurements in z-pinch and plasma focus experiments with neutron emission times in tens of nanoseconds and with neutron yields between 10(6) and 10(12) per one shot. The neutron detectors are composed of a BC-408 fast plastic scintillator and Hamamatsu H1949-51 photomultiplier tube (PMT). During the calibration procedure, a PMT delay was determined for various operating voltages. The temporal resolution of the neutron detector was measured for the most commonly used PMT voltage of 1.4 kV. At the PF-1000 plasma focus, a novel method of the acquisition of a pulse height distribution has been used. This pulse height analysis enabled to determine the single neutron sensitivity for various neutron energies and to calibrate the neutron detector for absolute neutron yields at about 2.45 MeV.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klir, D.; Shishlov, A. V.; Kokshenev, V. A.; Kubes, P.; Labetsky, A. Yu; Rezac, K.; Cherdizov, R. K.; Cikhardt, J.; Cikhardtova, B.; Dudkin, G. N.; Fursov, F. I.; Garapatsky, A. A.; Kovalchuk, B. M.; Kravarik, J.; Kurmaev, N. E.; Orcikova, H.; Padalko, V. N.; Ratakhin, N. A.; Sila, O.; Turek, K.; Varlachev, V. A.
2015-04-01
Z-pinch experiments with deuterium gas puffs have been carried out on the GIT-12 generator at 3 MA currents. Recently, a novel configuration of a deuterium gas-puff z-pinch was used to accelerate deuterons and to generate fast neutrons. In order to form a homogeneous, uniformly conducting layer at a large initial radius, an inner deuterium gas puff was surrounded by an outer hollow cylindrical plasma shell. The plasma shell consisting of hydrogen and carbon ions was formed at the diameter of 350 mm by 48 plasma guns. A linear mass of the plasma shell was about 5 µg cm-1 whereas a total linear mass of deuterium gas in single or double shell gas puffs was about 100 µg cm-1. The implosion lasted 700 ns and seemed to be stable up to a 5 mm radius. During stagnation, m = 0 instabilities became more pronounced. When a disruption of necks occurred, the plasma impedance reached 0.4 Ω and high energy (>2 MeV) bremsstrahlung radiation together with high energy deuterons were produced. Maximum neutron energies of 33 MeV were observed by axial time-of-flight detectors. The observed neutron spectra could be explained by a suprathermal distribution of deuterons with a high energy tail f≤ft({{E}\\text{d}}\\right)\\propto E\\text{d}-(1.8+/- 0.2) . Neutron yields reached 3.6 × 1012 at a 2.7 MA current. A high neutron production efficiency of 6 × 107 neutrons per one joule of plasma energy resulted from the generation of high energy deuterons and from their magnetization inside plasmas.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chong, Y. K.; Velikovich, A. L.; Thornhil, J. W.; Giuliani, J. L.; Knapp, P.; Jennings, C.
2013-10-01
Over the last few years, numerous 1D and 2D MHD simulation studies of deuterium (D) based double-shell gas-puff Z-pinch implosions driven by the Sandia ZR accelerator have been carried out to assess the Z-pinch as a pulsed thermal fusion neutron source. In these studies, an ad-hoc time-dependent shunt impedance model was used within the external driving circuit model in order to account for the unresolved current loss in the MITL and the load. In this study, we incorporate an improved ZR circuit model recently formulated based on the recent Sandia argon gas-puff experiment circuit data into the multi-material version of the Mach +DDTCRE RMHD code. We reinvestigate the effects of multidimensional structure and nonuniform gradients as well as the outer- and inner-shell material interaction on the implosion physics and dynamics of both D-on-D and argon-on-D Z-pinch loads using the model. Then, we characterize the neutron production performance of the Z-pinch loads as a function of total mass, mass ratio and/or radius toward their optimization as a pulsed thernonuclear neutron source. Work supported by DOE/NNSA. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. DOE's NNSA under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klir, D.; Cikhardt, J.; Kravarik, J.; Kubes, P.; Rezac, K.; Sila, O.; Shishlov, A.; Cherdizov, R.; Fursov, F.; Kokshenev, V.; Kovalchuk, B.; Kurmaev, N.; Labetsky, A.; Ratakhin, N.; Orcikova, H.; Turek, K.
2013-10-01
Fusion neutrons were produced with a deuterium gas-puff z-pinch on the GIT-12 generator at the Institute of High Current Electronics in Tomsk. The peak neutron yield from DD reactions reached Yn = (2 . 9 +/- 0 . 3) ×1012 at 100 μg/cm linear mass density of deuterium, 700 ns implosion time and 2.7 MA current. Such a neutron yield means that the scaling law of deuterium z-pinches Yn ~I4 was extended to 3 MA currents. The further increase of neutron yields up to (3 . 7 +/- 0 . 4) ×1012 was achieved by placing a deuterated polyethylene catcher onto the axis. Maximum neutron energies of 15 and 22 MeV were observed by radial and axial nToF detectors, respectively. A stack of CR-39 track detectors showed up to 40 MeV deuterons (or 30 MeV protons) on the z-pinch axis. Since the energy input into plasmas was 70 kJ, the number of DD neutrons per one joule of stored plasma energy exceeded the value of 5 ×107 . This value implies that deuterium gas-puff z-pinches belong to the most efficient plasma-based sources of DD neutrons. This work was partially supported by the GACR grant No. P205/12/0454 and by the RFBR research project No. 13-08-00479-a.
One- and two-dimensional modeling of argon K-shell emission from gas-puff Z-pinch plasmas
Thornhill, J. W.; Chong, Y. K.; Apruzese, J. P.
2007-06-15
In this paper, a theoretical model is described and demonstrated that serves as a useful tool for understanding K-shell radiating Z-pinch plasma behavior. Such understanding requires a self-consistent solution to the complete nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium kinetics and radiation transport in order to realistically model opacity effects and the high-temperature state of the plasma. For this purpose, we have incorporated into the MACH2 two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code [R. E. Peterkin et al., J. Comput. Phys. 140, 148 (1998)] an equation of state, called the tabular collisional radiative equilibrium (TCRE) model [J. W. Thornhill et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, 3480 (2001)], thatmore » provides reasonable approximations to the plasma's opacity state. MACH2 with TCRE is applied toward analyzing the multidimensional implosion behavior that occurred in Decade Quad (DQ) [D. Price et al., Proceedings of the 12th IEEE Pulsed Power Conference, Monterey, CA, edited by C. Stallings and H. Kirbie (IEEE, New York, 1999), p. 489] argon gas puff experiments that employed a 12 cm diameter nozzle with and without a central gas jet on axis. Typical peak drive currents and implosion times in these experiments were {approx}6 MA and {approx}230 ns. By using Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence measured initial density profiles as input to the calculations, the effect these profiles have on the ability of the pinch to efficiently produce K-shell emission can be analyzed with this combined radiation-MHD model. The calculated results are in agreement with the experimental result that the DQ central-jet configuration is superior to the no-central-jet experiment in terms of producing more K-shell emission. These theoretical results support the contention that the improved operation of the central-jet nozzle is due to the better suppression of instabilities and the higher-density K-shell radiating conditions that the central-jet configuration promotes. When we applied the model
Using 1D theory to understand 3D stagnation of a wire-array Z pinch in the absence of radiation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Edmund
2015-11-01
Many high-energy-density systems implode towards the axis of symmetry, where it collides on itself, forming a hot plasma. However, experiments show these imploding plasmas develop three-dimensional (3D) structures. As a result, the plasma cannot completely dissipate its kinetic energy at stagnation, instead retaining significant 3D flow. A useful tool for understanding the effects of this residual flow is 3D simulation, but the amount and complexity of information can be daunting. To address this problem, we explore the connection between 3D simulation and one-dimensional (1D) theory. Such a connection, if it exists, is mutually beneficial: 1D theory can provide a clear picture of the underlying dynamics of 3D stagnation. On the other hand, deviations between theory and simulation suggest how 1D theory must be modified to account for 3D effects. In this work, we focus on a 3D, magnetohydrodynamic simulation of a compact wire-array Z pinch. To provide a simpler background against which to test our ideas, we artificially turn off radiation during the stagnation phase. Examination of the initial accumulation of mass on axis reveals oblique collision between jets, shock accretion, and vortex formation. Despite evidence for shock-dominated stagnation, a 1D shockless stagnation solution is more appropriate for describing the global dynamics, in that it reproduces the increase of on-axis density with time. However, the 1D solution must be modified to account for 3D effects: the flows suggest enhanced thermal transport as well as centrifugal force. Upon reaching peak compression, the stagnation transitions to a second phase, in which the high-pressure core on axis expands outward into the remaining imploding plasma. During this phase, a 1D shock solution describes the growth of the shock accretion region, as well as the decrease of on-axis density with time. However, the effect of 3D flows is still present: the on-axis temperature does not cool during expansion, which
Hard X-ray and Particle Beams Research on 1.7 MA Z-pinch and Laser Plasma Experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shrestha, Ishor; Kantsyrev, Victor; Safronova, Alla; Esaulov, Andrey; Nishio, Mineyuki; Shlyaptseva, Veronica; Keim, Steven; Weller, Michael; Stafford, Austin; Petkov, Emil; Schultz, Kimberly; Cooper, Matthew; PPDL Team
2013-10-01
Studies of hard x-ray (HXR) emission, electron and ion beam generation in z-pinch and laser plasmas are important for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) and development of HXR sources from K-shell and L-shell radiation. The characteristics of HXR and particle beams produced by implosions of planar wire arrays, nested and single cylindrical wire arrays, and X-pinches were analyzed on 100 ns UNR Zebra generator with current up to 1.7 MA. In addition, the comparison of characteristics of HXR and electron beams on Zebra and 350 fs UNR Leopard laser experiments with foils has been performed. The diagnostics include Faraday cups, HXR diodes, different x-ray spectrometers and imaging systems, and ion mass spectrometer using the technique of Thomson parabola. Future work on HXRs and particle beams in HED plasmas is discussed. This work was supported by the DOE/NNSA Cooperative agreement DE-NA0001984 and in part by DE-FC52-06NA27616. This work was also supported by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Basic Research Award # HDTRA1-13-1-0033, to University of Nevada, Reno.
Neutron Activation Diagnostics in Deuterium Gas-Puff Experiments on the 3 MA GIT-12 Z-Pinch
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cikhardt, J.; Klir, D.; Rezac, K.; Cikhardtova, B.; Kravarik, J.; Kubes, P.; Sila, O.; Shishlov, A. V.; Cherdizov, R. K.; Fursov, F. I.; Kokshenev, V. A.; Kurmaev, N. E.; Labetsky, A. Yu; Ratakhin, N. A.; Dudkin, G. N.; Garapatsky, A. A.; Padalko, V. N.; Varlachev, V. A.; Turek, K.
2016-10-01
The experiments with a deuterium z-pinch on the GIT-12 generator at IHCE in Tomsk were performed in the frame of the Czech-Russian agreement. A set of neutron diagnostics included scintillation time-of-flight detectors, bubble detectors, and several kinds of threshold nuclear activation detectors in the order to obtain information about the yield, anisotropy, and spectrum of the neutrons produced by a deuterium gas-puff. The average neutron yield in these experiments was of the order of 1012 neutrons per a single shot. The energy spectrum of the produced neutrons was evaluated using neutron time-of-flight detectors and a set of neutron activation detectors. Because the deuterons in the pinch achieve multi-MeV energies, non-DD neutrons are produced by nuclear reactions of deuterons with a stainless steel vacuum chamber and aluminum components of diagnostics inside the chamber. An estimated number of the non-DD was of the order of 1011. GACR (Grant No. 16-07036S), CME (Grant Nos. LD14089, LG13029, and LH13283), MESRF (Grant No. RFMEFI59114X0001), IAEA (Grant No. RC17088), CTU (Grant No. SGS 16/223/OHK3/3T/13).
Neutron production in deuterium gas-puff z-pinch with outer plasma shell at current of 3 MA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cikhardt, J.; Klir, D.; Rezac, K.; Cikhardtova, B.; Kravarik, J.; Kubes, P.; Sila, O.; Shishlov, A. V.; Cherdizov, R. K.; Frusov, F. I.; Kokshenev, V. A.; Kurmaev, N. E.; Labetsky, A. Yu.; Ratakhin, N. A.; Dudkin, G. N.; Garapatsky, A. A.; Padalko, V. N.; Varlachev, V. A.; Turek, K.; Krasa, J.
2015-11-01
Z-pinch experiments at the current of about 3 MA were carried out on the GIT-12 generator. The outer plasma shell of deuterium gas-puff was generated by the system of 48 plasma guns. This configuration exhibits a high efficiency of the production of DD fusion neutrons with the yield of above 1012 neutrons produced in a single shot with the duration of about 20 ns. The maximum energy of the neutrons produced in this pulse exceeded 30 MeV. The neutron radiation was measured using scintillation TOF detectors, CR-39 nuclear track detectors, bubble detectors BD-PND and BDS-10000 and by several types of nuclear activation detectors. These diagnostic tools were used to measure the anisotropy of neutron fluence and neutron energy spectra. It allows us to estimate the total number of DD neutrons, the contribution of other nuclear reactions, the amount of scattered neutrons, and other parameters of neutron production. This work was supported by the MSMT grants LH13283, LD14089.
Tangri, V.; Harvey-Thompson, Adam James; Giuliani, J. L.; ...
2016-10-19
Radiation-magnetohydrodynamic simulations using the non-LTE Mach2-TCRE code in (r,z) geometry are performed for two pairs of recent Ar gas-puff Z-pinch experiments on the refurbished Z generator with an 8 cm diameter nozzle. One pair of shots had an outer-to-inner shell mass ratio of 1:1.6 and a second pair had a ratio of 1:1.
Sheng, Liang; Peng, Bodong; Yuan, Yuan
The experimental results of the insulated-standard hybrid wire array Z pinches carried out on “QiangGuang-I” facility at Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology were presented and discussed. The surface insulating can impose a significant influence on the dynamics and radiation characteristics of the hybrid wire array Z pinches, especially on the early stage (t/t{sub imp} < 0.6). The expansion of insulated wires at the ablation stage is suppressed, while the streams stripped from the insulated wires move faster than that from the standard wires. The foot radiation of X-ray is enhanced by increment of the number of insulated wires, 19.6 GW, 33.6 GW, and 68.6 GWmore » for shots 14037S, 14028H, and 14039I, respectively. The surface insulation also introduces nonhomogeneity along the single wire—the streams move much faster near the electrodes. The colliding boundary of the hybrid wire array Z pinches is bias to the insulated side approximately 0.6 mm.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheng, Liang; Peng, Bodong; Li, Yang; Yuan, Yuan; Li, Mo; Zhang, Mei; Zhao, Chen; Zhao, Jizhen; Wang, Liangping
2016-01-01
The experimental results of the insulated-standard hybrid wire array Z pinches carried out on "QiangGuang-I" facility at Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology were presented and discussed. The surface insulating can impose a significant influence on the dynamics and radiation characteristics of the hybrid wire array Z pinches, especially on the early stage (t/timp < 0.6). The expansion of insulated wires at the ablation stage is suppressed, while the streams stripped from the insulated wires move faster than that from the standard wires. The foot radiation of X-ray is enhanced by increment of the number of insulated wires, 19.6 GW, 33.6 GW, and 68.6 GW for shots 14037S, 14028H, and 14039I, respectively. The surface insulation also introduces nonhomogeneity along the single wire—the streams move much faster near the electrodes. The colliding boundary of the hybrid wire array Z pinches is bias to the insulated side approximately 0.6 mm.
Jones, B; Coverdale, C A; Nielsen, D S; Jones, M C; Deeney, C; Serrano, J D; Nielsen-Weber, L B; Meyer, C J; Apruzese, J P; Clark, R W; Coleman, P L
2008-10-01
A multicolor, time-gated, soft x-ray pinhole imaging instrument is fielded as part of the core diagnostic set on the 25 MA Z machine [M. E. Savage et al., in Proceedings of the Pulsed Power Plasma Sciences Conference (IEEE, New York, 2007), p. 979] for studying intense wire array and gas puff Z-pinch soft x-ray sources. Pinhole images are reflected from a planar multilayer mirror, passing 277 eV photons with <10 eV bandwidth. An adjacent pinhole camera uses filtration alone to view 1-10 keV photons simultaneously. Overlaying these data provides composite images that contain both spectral as well as spatial information, allowing for the study of radiation production in dense Z-pinch plasmas. Cu wire arrays at 20 MA on Z show the implosion of a colder cloud of material onto a hot dense core where K-shell photons are excited. A 528 eV imaging configuration has been developed on the 8 MA Saturn generator [R. B. Spielman et al., and A. I. P. Conf, Proc. 195, 3 (1989)] for imaging a bright Li-like Ar L-shell line. Ar gas puff Z pinches show an intense K-shell emission from a zippering stagnation front with L-shell emission dominating as the plasma cools.
Spectroscopic Study of Neon Z-Pinch Plasma for Sodium-Neon Photopumping Experiments
1992-01-06
enhancement of the 11-A radiation from the n=4 level of neon when the sodium pump was present. For the 25-GV pump power, theoretical calculations predict...when the neon plasma is photopumped. Extensive theoretical analysis has been devoted to establishing the appropriate conditions for these plasmas. 5 ,44...producing thermonuclear neutrons. 63-65 Extensive theoretical modeling of the stability of these plasmas has guided this work.66 An imploding-liner Z
Larger sized wire arrays on 1.5 MA Z-pinch generator
Safronova, A. S., E-mail: alla@unr.edu; Kantsyrev, V. L., E-mail: alla@unr.edu; Weller, M. E., E-mail: alla@unr.edu
Experiments on the UNR Zebra generator with Load Current Multiplier (LCM) allow for implosions of larger sized wire array loads than at standard current of 1 MA. Advantages of larger sized planar wire array implosions include enhanced energy coupling to plasmas, better diagnostic access to observable plasma regions, and more complex geometries of the wire loads. The experiments with larger sized wire arrays were performed on 1.5 MA Zebra with LCM (the anode-cathode gap was 1 cm, which is half the gap used in the standard mode). In particular, larger sized multi-planar wire arrays had two outer wire planes frommore » mid-atomic-number wires to create a global magnetic field (gmf) and plasma flow between them. A modified central plane with a few Al wires at the edges was put in the middle between outer planes to influence gmf and to create Al plasma flow in the perpendicular direction (to the outer arrays plasma flow). Such modified plane has different number of empty slots: it was increased from 6 up to 10, hence increasing the gap inside the middle plane from 4.9 to 7.7 mm, respectively. Such load configuration allows for more independent study of the flows of L-shell mid-atomic-number plasma (between the outer planes) and K-shell Al plasma (which first fills the gap between the edge wires along the middle plane) and their radiation in space and time. We demonstrate that such configuration produces higher linear radiation yield and electron temperatures as well as advantages of better diagnostics access to observable plasma regions and how the load geometry (size of the gap in the middle plane) influences K-shell Al radiation. In particular, K-shell Al radiation was delayed compared to L-shell mid-atomic-number radiation when the gap in the middle plane was large enough (when the number of empty slots was increased up to ten)« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klir, D.; Shishlov, A. V.; Kokshenev, V. A.; Kubes, P.; Labetsky, A. Yu; Rezac, K.; Cikhardt, J.; Fursov, F. I.; Kovalchuk, B. M.; Kravarik, J.; Kurmaev, N. E.; Ratakhin, N. A.; Sila, O.; Stodulka, J.
2013-08-01
Experiments with deuterium (D2) triple shell gas puffs were carried out on the GIT-12 generator at a 3 MA current level and microsecond implosion times. The outer, middle and inner nozzle diameters were 160 mm, 80 mm and 30 mm, respectively. The influence of the mass of deuterium shells on neutron emission times, neutron yields and neutron energy spectra was studied. The injected linear mass of deuterium varied between 50 and 255 µg cm-1. Gas puffs imploded onto the axis before the peak of generator current at 700-1100 ns. Most of the neutrons were emitted during the second neutron pulse after the development of instabilities. Despite higher currents, heavier gas puffs produced lower neutron yields. Optimal mass and a short time delay between the valve opening and the generator triggering were more important than the better coincidence of stagnation with peak current. The peak neutron yield from D(d, n)3He reactions reached 3 × 1011 at 2.8 MA current, 90 µg cm-1 injected linear mass and 37 mm anode-cathode gap. In the case of lower mass shots, a large number of 10 MeV neutrons were produced either by secondary DT reactions or by DD reactions of deuterons with energies above 7 MeV. The average neutron yield ratio Y>10 MeV/Y2.5 MeV reached (6 ± 3) × 10-4. Such a result can be explained by a power law distribution for deuterons as \\rmd N_d/\\rmd E_d\\propto E_d^{-3} . The optimization of a D2 gas puff Z-pinch and similarities to a plasma focus and its drive parameter are described.
Theory of formation of helical structures in a perfectly conducting, premagnetized Z-pinch liner
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Edmund; Velikovich, Alexander; Peterson, Kyle
2014-10-01
The magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF) concept uses an azimuthal magnetic field to collapse a thick metallic liner containing preheated fusion fuel. A critical component of the concept is an axial magnetic field, permeating both the fuel and surrounding liner, which reduces the compression necessary to achieve fusion conditions. Recent experiments demonstrate that a liner premagnetized with a 10 T axial field develops helical structures with a pitch significantly larger than an estimate of Bz /Bθ would suggest. The cause of the helical perturbations is still not understood. In this work, we present an analytic, linear theory in which we model the liner as a perfectly conducting metal, and study how bumps and divots on its surface redirect current flow, resulting in perturbations to B as well as j × B . We show that in the presence of axial and azimuthal magnetic field, the theory predicts divots will grow and deform at an angle determined by the magnetic field. We compare theoretical results with three dimensional, resistive MHD simulations. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the National Nuclear Security Administration under DE-AC04-94AL85000.
Wang, Kun-lun; Ren, Xiao-dong; Huang, Xian-bin, E-mail: caephxb2003@aliyun.com
2015-11-15
Fast z-pinch is a very efficient way of converting electromagnetic energy to radiation. With an 8-10 MA current on primary test stand facility, about 1 MJ electromagnetic energy is delivered to vacuum chamber, which heats z-pinch plasma to radiate soft x-ray. To develop a pulsed high power x-ray source, we studied the applicability of diagnosing x-ray power from tungsten wire array z-pinch with a flat spectral response x-ray diode (FSR-XRD). The detector was originally developed to diagnose radiation of a hohlraum in SG-III prototype laser facility. It utilized a gold cathode XRD and a specially configured compound gold filter tomore » yield a nearly flat spectral response in photon energy range of 0.1-4 keV. In practice, it was critical to avoid surface contamination of gold cathode. It is illustrated that an exposure of an XRD to multiple shots caused a significant change of response. Thus, in diagnosing x-ray power and energy, we used each XRD in only one shot after calibration. In a shot serial, output of FSR-XRD was compared with output of a nickel bolometer. In these shots, the outputs agreed with each other within their uncertainties which were about 12% for FSR-XRD and about 15% for bolometer. Moreover, the ratios between the FSR-XRD and the bolometer among different shots were explored. In 8 shots, the standard deviation of the ratio was 6%. It is comparable to XRD response change of 7%.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nawaz, M. F.; Jancarek, Alexandr; Nevrkla, Michal; Duda, Martin Jakub; Pina, Ladislav
2017-05-01
The development and demonstration of a soft X-ray (SXR) microscope, based on a Z-pinching capillary discharge source has been realized. The Z-pinching plasma acts as a source of SXR radiation. A ceramic capacitor bank is pulsed charged up to 80 kV, and discharged through a pre- ionized nitrogen filled ceramic capillary. The discharge current has an amplitude of 25 kA. Working within the water-window spectral region (λ = 2.88 nm), corresponding to the 1s2-1s2p quantum transition of helium-like nitrogen (N5+), the microscope has a potential in exploiting the natural contrast existing between the K-absorption edges of carbon and oxygen as the main constituents of biological materials, and hence imaging them with high spatial resolution. The SXR microscope uses the grazing incidence ellipsoidal condenser mirror for the illumination, and the Fresnel zone plate optics for the imaging of samples onto a BI-CCD camera. The half- pitch spatial resolution of 100 nm [1] was achieved, as demonstrated by the knife-edge test. In order to enhance the photon-flux at the sample plane, a new scheme for focusing the radiation, from multiple capillary sources has been investigated. Details about the source, and the construction of the microscope are presented and discussed.
Sakai, Y.; Kumai, H.; Nakanishi, Y.
2013-02-15
The emission spectra of hydrogen-like nitrogen Balmer at the wavelength of 13.4 nm in capillary Z-pinch discharge plasma are experimentally examined. Ionization to fully strip nitrogen at the pinch maximum, and subsequent rapid expansion cooling are required to establish the population inversion between the principal quantum number of n = 2 and n = 3. The ionization and recombination processes with estimated plasma parameters are evaluated by utilizing a time integrated spectrum pinhole image containing radial spatial information. A cylindrical capillary plasma is pinched by a triangular pulsed current with peak amplitude of 50 kA and pulse width of 50more » ns.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cherdizov, R. K.; Fursov, F. I.; Kokshenev, V. A.; Kurmaev, N. E.; Labetsky, A. Yu; Ratakhin, N. A.; Shishlov, A. V.; Cikhardt, J.; Cikhardtova, B.; Klir, D.; Kravarik, J.; Kubes, P.; Rezac, K.; Dudkin, G. N.; Garapatsky, A. A.; Padalko, V. N.; Varlachev, V. A.
2017-05-01
The Z-pinch experiments with deuterium gas-puff surrounded by an outer plasma shell were carried out on the GIT-12 generator (Tomsk, Russia) at currents of 2 MA. The plasma shell consisting of hydrogen and carbon ions was formed by 48 plasma guns. The deuterium gas-puff was created by a fast electromagnetic valve. This configuration provides an efficient mode of the neutron production in DD reaction, and the neutron yield reaches a value above 1012 neutrons per shot. Neutron diagnostics included scintillation TOF detectors for determination of the neutron energy spectrum, bubble detectors BD-PND, a silver activation detector, and several activation samples for determination of the neutron yield analysed by a Sodium Iodide (NaI) and a high-purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors. Using this neutron diagnostic complex, we measured the total neutron yield and amount of high-energy neutrons.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shrestha, Ishor Kumar
The studies of hard x-ray (HXR) emission and electron beam generation in Z-pinch plasmas are very important for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) research and HXR emission application for sources of K-shell and L-shell radiation. Energetic electron beams from Z-pinch plasmas are potentially a problem in the development of ICF. The electron beams and the accompanying HXR emission can preheat the fuel of a thermonuclear target, thereby preventing the fuel compression from reaching densities required for the ignition of a fusion reaction. The photons above 3-4 keV radiated from a Z pinch can provide detailed information about the high energy density plasmas produced at stagnation. Hence, the investigation of characteristics of hard x-rays and electron beams produced during implosions of wire array loads on university scale-generators may provide important data for future ICF, sources of K-shell and L-shell radiations and basic plasma research. This dissertation presents the results of experimental studies of HXR and electron beam generation in wire-array and X-pinch on the 1.7 MA, 100-ns current rise time Zebra generator at University of Nevada, Reno and 1-MA 100-ns current rise-time Cornell Beam Research Accelerator (COBRA) at Cornell University. The experimental study of characteristics of HXR produced by multi-planar wire arrays, compact cylindrical wire array (CCWA) and nested cylindrical wire array (NCWA) made from Al, Cu, Mo, Ag, W and Au were analyzed. The dependence of the HXR yield and power on geometry of the load, the wire material, and load mass was observed. The presence of aluminum wires in the load with the main material such as stainless steel, Cu, Mo, Ag, W or Au in combined wire array decreases HXR yield. The comparison of emission characteristics of HXR and generation of electron beams in CCWA and NCWA on both the high impedance Zebra generator and low impedance COBRA generator were investigated. Some of the "cold" K- shell spectral lines (0.7-2.3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sanford, T. W. L.; Mock, R. C.; Marder, B. M.; Nash, T. J.; Spielman, R. B.; Peterson, D. L.; Roderick, N. F.; Hammer, J. H.; De Groot, J. S.; Mosher, D.; Whitney, K. G.; Apruzese, J. P.
1997-05-01
A systematic study of annular aluminum-wire z-pinches on the Saturn accelerator shows that the quality of the implosion, (as measured by the radial convergence, the radiated energy, pulse width, and power), increases with wire number. Radiation magnetohydrodynamic (RMHC) xy simulations suggest that the implosion transitions from that of individual wire plasmas to that of a continuous plasma shell when the interwire spacing is reduced below ˜1.4 mm. In this "plasma-shell regime," many of the global radiation and plasma characteristics are in agreement with those simulated by 2D-RMHC rz simulations. In this regime, measured changes in the radiation pulse width with variations in load mass and array radius are consistent with the simulations and are explained by the development of 2D fluid motion in the rz plane. Associated variations in the K-shell yield are qualitatively explained by simple radiation-scaling models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Auluck, S. K. H.
2011-03-01
Relatively long-lived spheroidal structures coincident with the neutron emission phase have been observed in frozen deuterium fiber Z-pinch and some plasma focus devices. Existence of energetic ion-trapping mechanism in plasma focus has also been inferred from experimental data. It has been conjectured that these are related phenomena. This paper applies Turner's theory [L. Turner, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 14, 849 (1986)] of relaxation of a Hall magnetofluid to construct a model of these structures and ion-trapping mechanism. Turner's solution modified for a finite-length plasma is used to obtain expressions for the magnetic field, velocity, and equilibrium pressure fields and is shown to represent an entity which is simultaneously a fluid vortex, a force-free magnetic field, a confined finite-pressure plasma, a charged object, and a trapped energetic ion beam. Characteristic features expected from diagnostic experiments are evaluated and shown to resemble experimental observations.
Advanced stability analysis for laminar flow control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Orszag, S. A.
1981-01-01
Five classes of problems are addressed: (1) the extension of the SALLY stability analysis code to the full eighth order compressible stability equations for three dimensional boundary layer; (2) a comparison of methods for prediction of transition using SALLY for incompressible flows; (3) a study of instability and transition in rotating disk flows in which the effects of Coriolis forces and streamline curvature are included; (4) a new linear three dimensional instability mechanism that predicts Reynolds numbers for transition to turbulence in planar shear flows in good agreement with experiment; and (5) a study of the stability of finite amplitude disturbances in axisymmetric pipe flow showing the stability of this flow to all nonlinear axisymmetric disturbances.
Awe, T. J.; Yu, E. P.; Yates, K. C.; ...
2017-02-21
Ultrafast optical microscopy of metal z-pinch rods pulsed with megaampere current is contributing new data and critical insight into what provides the fundamental seed for the magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instability. A two-frame near infrared/visible intensified-charge-coupled device gated imager with 2-ns temporal resolution and 3-μm spatial resolution captured emissions from the nonuniformly Joule heated surfaces of ultrasmooth aluminum (Al) rods. Nonuniform surface emissions are consistently first observed from discrete, 10-μm scale, subelectronvolt spots. Aluminum 6061 alloy, with micrometer-scale nonmetallic resistive inclusions, forms several times more spots than 99.999% pure Al 5N; 5-10 ns later, azimuthally stretched elliptical spots and distinct strata (40-100more » μm wide by 10 μm tall) are observed on Al 6061, but not on Al 5N. In such overheat strata, aligned parallel to the magnetic field, we find that they are highly effective seeds for MRT instability growth. Our data give credence to the hypothesis that early nonuniform Joule heating, such as the electrothermal instability, may provide the dominant seed for MRT.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sanford, T. W. L.; Olson, R. E.; Mock, R. C.; Chandler, G. A.; Leeper, R. J.; Nash, T. J.; Ruggles, L. E.; Simpson, W. W.; Struve, K. W.; Peterson, D. L.; Bowers, R. L.; Matuska, W.
2000-11-01
A Z-pinch radiation source has been developed that generates 60±20 kJ of x rays with a peak power of 13±4 TW through a 4-mm-diam axial aperture on the Z facility. The source has heated National Ignition Facility-scale (6-mm-diam by 7-mm-high) hohlraums to 122±6 eV and reduced-scale (4-mm-diam by 4-mm-high) hohlraums to 155±8 eV—providing environments suitable for indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion studies. Eulerian-RMHC (radiation-magnetohydrodynamics code) simulations that take into account the development of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the r-z plane provide integrated calculations of the implosion, x-ray generation, and hohlraum heating, as well as estimates of wall motion and plasma fill within the hohlraums. Lagrangian-RMHC simulations suggest that the addition of a 6 mg/cm3 CH2 fill in the reduced-scale hohlraum decreases hohlraum inner-wall velocity by ˜40% with only a 3%-5% decrease in peak temperature, in agreement with measurements.
Stability of compressible Taylor-Couette flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kao, Kai-Hsiung; Chow, Chuen-Yen
1991-01-01
Compressible stability equations are solved using the spectral collocation method in an attempt to study the effects of temperature difference and compressibility on the stability of Taylor-Couette flow. It is found that the Chebyshev collocation spectral method yields highly accurate results using fewer grid points for solving stability problems. Comparisons are made between the result obtained by assuming small Mach number with a uniform temperature distribution and that based on fully incompressible analysis.
Stability of short-axial-wavelength internal kink modes of an anisotropic plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Faghihi, M.; Scheffel, J.
1987-12-01
The double adiabatic equations are used to study the stability of a cylindrical Z-pinch with respect to small axial wavelength, internal kink (m ≥ 1) modes. It is found that marginally (ideally) unstable, isotropic equilibria are stabilized. Also, constant-current-density equilibria can be stabilized for P > P and large β
Stabilization of flow past a rounded cylinder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Samtaney, Ravi; Zhang, Wei
2016-11-01
We perform global linear stability analysis on low-Re flow past a rounded cylinder. The cylinder corners are rounded with a radius R, normalized as R+ = R / D where D is the cylinder diameter, and its effect on the flow stability characteristics is investigated. We compute the critical Reynolds number (Recr) for the onset of first instability, and quantify the perturbation growth rate for the super-critical flows. It is found that the flow can be stabilized by partially rounding the cylinder. Compared with the square and circular cylinders, the partially rounded cylinder has a higher Recr , attaining a maximum at around R+ = 0 . 30 , and the perturbation growth rate of the super-critical flows is reduced for Re <= 100 . We perform sensitivity analysis to explore the source of the stabilization. The growth rate sensitivity to base flow modification has two different spatial structures: the growth rate is sensitive to the wake backflow in a large region for square-like cylinders (R+ -> 0 . 00), while only the near-wake backflow is crucial for circular-like cylinders (R+ -> 0 . 50). The stability analysis results are also verified with those of the direct simulations and very good agreement is achieved. Supported by the KAUST Office of Competitive Research Funds under Award No. URF/1/1394-01. The supercomputer Shaheen at KAUST was utilized for the simulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maury, P.; Calamy, H.; Grunenwald, J.; Lassalle, F.; Zucchini, F.; Loyen, A.; Georges, A.; Morell, A.; Bedoch, J. P.
2009-01-01
The Sphinx machine[1] is a 6 MA, 1 μS driver based on the LTD technology, used for Z-pinch experiments. Important improvements of Sphinx radiation output were recently obtained using a multi-microsecond current prepulse[2]. Total power per unit of length is multiplied by a factor of 6 and FWHM divided by a factor of 2.5. Early breakdown of the wires during the prepulse phase dramatically changes the ablation phase leading to an improvement of axial homogeneity of both the implosion and the final radiating column. As a consequence, the cathode bubble observed on classical shots is definitively removed. The implosion is then centered and zippering effect is reduced, leading to simultaneous x-ray emission of the whole length. A great reproducibility is obtained. Nested arrays were used before to mitigate the Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities during the implosion phase. Further experiments with pre-pulse technique are described here were inner array was removed. The goal of these experiments was to see if long prepulse could give stable enough implosion with single array and at the same time increase the η parameter by reducing the mass of the load. Experimental results of single wire array loads of typical dimension 5 cm in height with implosion time between 700 and 900 ns and diameter varying between 80 and 140 mm are given. Parameters of the loads were varying in term of radius and number of wires. Comparisons with nested wire array loads are done and trends are proposed. Characteristics of both the implosion and the final radiating column are shown. 2D MHD numerical simulations of single wire array become easier as there is no interaction between outer and inner array anymore. A systematic study was done using injection mass model to benchmark simulation with experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tangri, V.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Giuliani, J. L.; Thornhill, J. W.; Velikovich, A. L.; Apruzese, J. P.; Ouart, N. D.; Dasgupta, A.; Jones, B.; Jennings, C. A.
2016-10-01
Radiation-magnetohydrodynamic simulations using the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium Mach2-Tabular Collisional-Radiative Equilibrium code in (r, z) geometry are performed for two pairs of recent Ar gas-puff Z-pinch experiments on the refurbished Z generator with an 8 cm diameter nozzle. One pair of shots had an outer-to-inner shell mass ratio of 1:1.6 and a second pair had a ratio of 1:1. In each pair, one of the shots had a central jet. The experimental trends in the Ar K-shell yield and power are reproduced in the calculations. However, the K-shell yield and power are significantly lower than the other three shots for the case of a double-shell puff of 1:1 mass ratio and no central jet configuration. Further simulations of a hypothetical experiment with the same relative density profile of this configuration, but higher total mass, show that the coupled energy from the generator and the K-shell yield can be increased to levels achieved in the other three configurations, but not the K-shell power. Based on various measures of effective plasma radius, the compression in the 1:1 mass ratio and no central jet case is found to be less because the plasma inside the magnetic piston is hotter and of lower density. Because of the reduced density, and the reduced radiation cooling (which is proportional to the square of the density), the core plasma is hotter. Consequently, for the 1:1 outer-to-inner shell mass ratio, the load mass controls the yield and the center jet controls the power.
Flame stabilizer for stagnation flow reactor
Hahn, David W.; Edwards, Christopher F.
1999-01-01
A method of stabilizing a strained flame in a stagnation flow reactor. By causing a highly strained flame to be divided into a large number of equal size segments it is possible to stablize a highly strained flame that is on the verge of extinction, thereby providing for higher film growth rates. The flame stabilizer is an annular ring mounted coaxially and coplanar with the substrate upon which the film is growing and having a number of vertical pillars mounted on the top surface, thereby increasing the number of azimuthal nodes into which the flame is divided and preserving an axisymmetric structure necessary for stability.
Stability analysis of shallow wake flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolyshkin, A. A.; Ghidaoui, M. S.
2003-11-01
Experimentally observed periodic structures in shallow (i.e. bounded) wake flows are believed to appear as a result of hydrodynamic instability. Previously published studies used linear stability analysis under the rigid-lid assumption to investigate the onset of instability of wakes in shallow water flows. The objectives of this paper are: (i) to provide a preliminary assessment of the accuracy of the rigid-lid assumption; (ii) to investigate the influence of the shape of the base flow profile on the stability characteristics; (iii) to formulate the weakly nonlinear stability problem for shallow wake flows and show that the evolution of the instability is governed by the Ginzburg Landau equation; and (iv) to establish the connection between weakly nonlinear analysis and the observed flow patterns in shallow wake flows which are reported in the literature. It is found that the relative error in determining the critical value of the shallow wake stability parameter induced by the rigid-lid assumption is below 10% for the practical range of Froude number. In addition, it is shown that the shape of the velocity profile has a large influence on the stability characteristics of shallow wakes. Starting from the rigid-lid shallow-water equations and using the method of multiple scales, an amplitude evolution equation for the most unstable mode is derived. The resulting equation has complex coefficients and is of Ginzburg Landau type. An example calculation of the complex coefficients of the Ginzburg Landau equation confirms the existence of a finite equilibrium amplitude, where the unstable mode evolves with time into a limit-cycle oscillation. This is consistent with flow patterns observed by Ingram & Chu (1987), Chen & Jirka (1995), Balachandar et al. (1999), and Balachandar & Tachie (2001). Reasonable agreement is found between the saturation amplitude obtained from the Ginzburg Landau equation under some simplifying assumptions and the numerical data of Grubi
Stability of the line preserving flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Figura, Przemysław
2017-11-01
We examine the equations that are used to describe flows which preserve field lines. We study what happens if we introduce perturbations to the governing equations. The stability of the line preserving flows in the case of the magneto-fluids permeated by magnetic fields is strictly connected to the non-null magnetic reconnection processes. In most of our study we use the Euler potential representation of the external magnetic field. We provide general expressions for the perturbations of the Euler potentials that describe the magnetic field. Similarly, we provide expressions for the case of steady flow as well as we obtain certain conditions required for the stability of the flow. In addition, for steady flows we formulate conditions under which the perturbations of the external field are negligible and the field may be described by its initial unperturbed form. Then we consider the flow equation that transforms quantities from the laboratory coordinate system to the related external field coordinate system. We introduce perturbations to the equation and obtain its simplified versions for the case of a steady flow. For a given system, use of this method allows us to simplify the considerations provided that some part of the system may be described as a perturbation. Next, to study regions favourable for the magnetic reconnection to occur we introduce a deviation vector to the basic line preserving flows condition equation. We provide expressions of the vector for some simplifying cases. This method allows us to examine if given perturbations either stabilise the system or induce magnetic reconnection. To illustrate some of our results we study two examples, namely a simple laboratory plasma flow and a simple planetary magnetosphere model.
Stability of Thin Liquid Sheet Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McConley, Marc W.; Chubb, Donald L.; McMaster, Matthew S.; Afjeh, Abdollah A.
1997-01-01
A two-dimensional, linear stability analysis of a thin nonplanar liquid sheet flow in vacuum is carried out. A sheet flow created by a narrow slit of W and tau attains a nonplanar cross section as a consequence of cylinders forming on the sheet edge under the influence of surface tension forces. The region where these edge cylinders join the sheet is one of high curvature, and this is found to be the location where instability is most likely to occur. The sheet flow is found to be unstable, but with low growth rates for symmetric wave disturbances and high growth rates for antisymmetric disturbances. By combining the symmetric and antisymmetric disturbance modes, a wide range of stability characteristics is obtained. The product of unstable growth rate and flow time is proportional to the width-to-thickness ratio of the sift generating the sheet Three-dimensional effects can alter these results, particularly when the sheet length-to-width ratio is not much greater than unity.
On stability and turbulence of fluid flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heisenberg, Werner
1951-01-01
This investigation is divided into two parts, the treatment of the stability problem of fluid flows on the one hand, and that of the turbulent motion on the other. The first part summarizes all previous investigations under a unified point of view, that is, sets up as generally as possible the conditions under which a profile possesses unstable or stable characteristics, and indicates the methods for solution of the stability equation for any arbitrary velocity profile and for calculation of the critical Reynolds number for unstable profiles. In the second part, under certain greatly idealizing assumptions, differential equations for the turbulent motions are derived and from them qualitative information about several properties of the turbulent velocity distribution is obtained.
Conceptualization of preferential flow for hillslope stability assessment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kukemilks, Karlis; Wagner, Jean-Frank; Saks, Tomas; Brunner, Philip
2018-03-01
This study uses two approaches to conceptualize preferential flow with the goal to investigate their influence on hillslope stability. Synthetic three-dimensional hydrogeological models using dual-permeability and discrete-fracture conceptualization were subsequently integrated into slope stability simulations. The slope stability simulations reveal significant differences in slope stability depending on the preferential flow conceptualization applied, despite similar small-scale hydrogeological responses of the system. This can be explained by a local-scale increase of pore-water pressures observed in the scenario with discrete fractures. The study illustrates the critical importance of correctly conceptualizing preferential flow for slope stability simulations. It further demonstrates that the combination of the latest generation of physically based hydrogeological models with slope stability simulations allows for improvement to current modeling approaches through more complex consideration of preferential flow paths.
Stability and sensitivity of ABR flow control protocols
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsai, Wie K.; Kim, Yuseok; Chiussi, Fabio; Toh, Chai-Keong
1998-10-01
This tutorial paper surveys the important issues in stability and sensitivity analysis of ABR flow control of ATM networks. THe stability and sensitivity issues are formulated in a systematic framework. Four main cause of instability in ABR flow control are identified: unstable control laws, temporal variations of available bandwidth with delayed feedback control, misbehaving components, and interactions between higher layer protocols and ABR flow control. Popular rate-based ABR flow control protocols are evaluated. Stability and sensitivity is shown to be the fundamental issues when the network has dynamically-varying bandwidth. Simulation result confirming the theoretical studies are provided. Open research problems are discussed.
Linear stability of compressible Taylor-Couette flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kao, Kai-Hsiung; Chow, Chuen-Yen
1992-01-01
A temporal stability analysis of compressible Taylor-Couette flow is presented. The viscous flow studied in this paper is contained between two concentric cylinders of infinite length, which are rotating with different angular velocities and are kept at different surface temperatures. The effects of differential rotation and temperature difference on the stability of Taylor-Couette flow are contrasted for a range of Mach numbers ranging from incompressible to Mach 3.0. The relative motion of the cylinders dramatically affects the characteristics of the Couette flow at the onset of instability. The flow is stabilized or destabilized depending upon the temperature ratio and speeds of the two cylinders. Independent of Mach number and temperature ratio, increasing Reynolds number generally promotes a destabilizing effect, indicating the inviscid nature of the Taylor-Couette flow.
Stability investigations of relaxing molecular gas flows. Results and perspectives
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grigor'ev, Yurii N.; Ershov, Igor V.
2017-10-01
This article presents results of systematic investigations of a dissipative effect which manifests itself as the growth of hydrodynamic stability and suppression of turbulence in relaxing molecular gas flows. The effect can be a new way for control stability and laminar turbulent transition in aerodynamic flows. The consideration of suppression of inviscid acoustic waves in 2D shear flows is presented. Nonlinear evolution of large-scale vortices and Kelvin — Helmholtz waves in relaxing shear flows are studied. Critical Reynolds numbers in supersonic Couette flows are calculated analytically and numerically within the framework of both classical linear and nonlinear energy hydrodynamic stability theories. The calculations clearly show that the relaxation process can appreciably delay the laminar-turbulent transition. The aim of this article is to show the new dissipative effect, which can be used for flow control and laminarization.
Stability of compressible Taylor-Couette flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kao, K.; Chow, C.
1992-01-01
The objectives of this paper are to: (1) develop both analytical and numerical tools that can be used to predict the onset of instability and subsequently to simulate the transition process by which the originally laminar flow evolves into a turbulent flow; and (2) conduct the preliminary investigations with the purpose of understanding the mechanisms of the vortical structures of the compressible flow between tow concentric cylinders.
Magnetohydrodynamic stability of stochastically driven accretion flows.
Nath, Sujit Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata; Chattopadhyay, Amit K
2013-07-01
We investigate the evolution of magnetohydrodynamic (or hydromagnetic as coined by Chandrasekhar) perturbations in the presence of stochastic noise in rotating shear flows. The particular emphasis is the flows whose angular velocity decreases but specific angular momentum increases with increasing radial coordinate. Such flows, however, are Rayleigh stable but must be turbulent in order to explain astrophysical observed data and, hence, reveal a mismatch between the linear theory and observations and experiments. The mismatch seems to have been resolved, at least in certain regimes, in the presence of a weak magnetic field, revealing magnetorotational instability. The present work explores the effects of stochastic noise on such magnetohydrodynamic flows, in order to resolve the above mismatch generically for the hot flows. We essentially concentrate on a small section of such a flow which is nothing but a plane shear flow supplemented by the Coriolis effect, mimicking a small section of an astrophysical accretion disk around a compact object. It is found that such stochastically driven flows exhibit large temporal and spatial autocorrelations and cross-correlations of perturbation and, hence, large energy dissipations of perturbation, which generate instability. Interestingly, autocorrelations and cross-correlations appear independent of background angular velocity profiles, which are Rayleigh stable, indicating their universality. This work initiates our attempt to understand the evolution of three-dimensional hydromagnetic perturbations in rotating shear flows in the presence of stochastic noise.
Flow stabilization with active hydrodynamic cloaks.
Urzhumov, Yaroslav A; Smith, David R
2012-11-01
We demonstrate that fluid flow cloaking solutions, based on active hydrodynamic metamaterials, exist for two-dimensional flows past a cylinder in a wide range of Reynolds numbers (Re's), up to approximately 200. Within the framework of the classical Brinkman equation for homogenized porous flow, we demonstrate using two different methods that such cloaked flows can be dynamically stable for Re's in the range of 5-119. The first highly efficient method is based on a linearization of the Brinkman-Navier-Stokes equation and finding the eigenfrequencies of the least stable eigenperturbations; the second method is a direct numerical integration in the time domain. We show that, by suppressing the von Kármán vortex street in the weakly turbulent wake, porous flow cloaks can raise the critical Reynolds number up to about 120 or five times greater than for a bare uncloaked cylinder.
Stability limits of unsteady open capillary channel flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grah, Aleksander; Haake, Dennis; Rosendahl, Uwe; Klatte, J.?Rg; Dreyer, Michael E.
This paper is concerned with steady and unsteady flow rate limitations in open capillary channels under low-gravity conditions. Capillary channels are widely used in Space technology for liquid transportation and positioning, e.g. in fuel tanks and life support systems. The channel observed in this work consists of two parallel plates bounded by free liquid surfaces along the open sides. The capillary forces of the free surfaces prevent leaking of the liquid and gas ingestion into the flow.In the case of steady stable flow the capillary pressure balances the differential pressure between the liquid and the surrounding constant-pressure gas phase. Increasing the flow rate in small steps causes a decrease of the liquid pressure. A maximum steady flow rate is achieved when the flow rate exceeds a certain limit leading to a collapse of the free surfaces due to the choking effect. In the case of unsteady flow additional dynamic effects take place due to flow rate transition and liquid acceleration. The maximum flow rate is smaller than in the case of steady flow. On the other hand, the choking effect does not necessarily cause surface collapse and stable temporarily choked flow is possible under certain circumstances.To determine the limiting volumetric flow rate and stable flow dynamic properties, a new stability theory for both steady and unsteady flow is introduced. Subcritical and supercritical (choked) flow regimes are defined. Stability criteria are formulated for each flow type. The steady (subcritical) criterion corresponds to the speed index defined by the limiting longitudinal small-amplitude wave speed, similar to the Mach number. The unsteady (supercritical) criterion for choked flow is defined by a new characteristic number, the dynamic index. It is based on pressure balances and reaches unity at the stability limit.The unsteady model based on the Bernoulli equation and the mass balance equation is solved numerically for perfectly wetting incompressible
Viscoelastic stability in a single-screw channel flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agbessi, Y.; Bu, L. X.; Béreaux, Y.; Charmeau, J.-Y.
2018-05-01
In this work, we perform a linear stability analysis on pressure and drag flows of an Upper Convected Maxwell viscoelastic fluid. We use the well-recognised method of expanding the disturbances in Chebyschev polynomials and solve the resulting generalized eigenvalues problem with a collocation spectra method. Both the level of elasticity and the back-pressure vary. In a second stage, recent analytic solutions of viscoelastic fluid flows in slowly varying sections [1] are used to extend this stability analysis to flows in a compression or in a diverging section of a single screw channel, for example a wave mixing screw.
On the linear stability of compressible plane Couette flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Duck, Peter W.; Erlebacher, Gordon; Hussaini, M. Yousuff
1991-01-01
The linear stability of compressible plane Couette flow is investigated. The correct and proper basic velocity and temperature distributions are perturbed by a small amplitude normal mode disturbance. The full small amplitude disturbance equations are solved numerically at finite Reynolds numbers, and the inviscid limit of these equations is then investigated in some detail. It is found that instability can occur, although the stability characteristics of the flow are quite different from unbounded flows. The effects of viscosity are also calculated, asymptotically, and shown to have a stabilizing role in all the cases investigated. Exceptional regimes to the problem occur when the wavespeed of the disturbances approaches the velocity of either of the walls, and these regimes are also analyzed in some detail. Finally, the effect of imposing radiation-type boundary conditions on the upper (moving) wall (in place of impermeability) is investigated, and shown to yield results common to both bounded and unbounded flows.
Nonlinear dynamics near the stability margin in rotating pipe flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yang, Z.; Leibovich, S.
1991-01-01
The nonlinear evolution of marginally unstable wave packets in rotating pipe flow is studied. These flows depend on two control parameters, which may be taken to be the axial Reynolds number R and a Rossby number, q. Marginal stability is realized on a curve in the (R, q)-plane, and the entire marginal stability boundary is explored. As the flow passes through any point on the marginal stability curve, it undergoes a supercritical Hopf bifurcation and the steady base flow is replaced by a traveling wave. The envelope of the wave system is governed by a complex Ginzburg-Landau equation. The Ginzburg-Landau equation admits Stokes waves, which correspond to standing modulations of the linear traveling wavetrain, as well as traveling wave modulations of the linear wavetrain. Bands of wavenumbers are identified in which the nonlinear modulated waves are subject to a sideband instability.
Studies on dispersive stabilization of porous media flows
Daripa, Prabir, E-mail: prabir.daripa@math.tamu.edu; Gin, Craig
Motivated by a need to improve the performance of chemical enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes, we investigate dispersive effects on the linear stability of three-layer porous media flow models of EOR for two different types of interfaces: permeable and impermeable interfaces. Results presented are relevant for the design of smarter interfaces in the available parameter space of capillary number, Peclet number, longitudinal and transverse dispersion, and the viscous profile of the middle layer. The stabilization capacity of each of these two interfaces is explored numerically and conditions for complete dispersive stabilization are identified for each of these two types ofmore » interfaces. Key results obtained are (i) three-layer porous media flows with permeable interfaces can be almost completely stabilized by diffusion if the optimal viscous profile is chosen, (ii) flows with impermeable interfaces can also be almost completely stabilized for short time, but become more unstable at later times because diffusion flattens out the basic viscous profile, (iii) diffusion stabilizes short waves more than long waves which leads to a “turning point” Peclet number at which short and long waves have the same growth rate, and (iv) mechanical dispersion further stabilizes flows with permeable interfaces but in some cases has a destabilizing effect for flows with impermeable interfaces, which is a surprising result. These results are then used to give a comparison of the two types of interfaces. It is found that for most values of the flow parameters, permeable interfaces suppress flow instability more than impermeable interfaces.« less
Stability of stagnation via an expanding accretion shock wave
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Velikovich, A. L.; Murakami, M.; Taylor, B. D.; Giuliani, J. L.; Zalesak, S. T.; Iwamoto, Y.
2016-05-01
Stagnation of a cold plasma streaming to the center or axis of symmetry via an expanding accretion shock wave is ubiquitous in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and high-energy-density plasma physics, the examples ranging from plasma flows in x-ray-generating Z pinches [Maron et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 035001 (2013)] to the experiments in support of the recently suggested concept of impact ignition in ICF [Azechi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 235002 (2009); Murakami et al., Nucl. Fusion 54, 054007 (2014)]. Some experimental evidence indicates that stagnation via an expanding shock wave is stable, but its stability has never been studied theoretically. We present such analysis for the stagnation that does not involve a rarefaction wave behind the expanding shock front and is described by the classic ideal-gas Noh solution in spherical and cylindrical geometry. In either case, the stagnated flow has been demonstrated to be stable, initial perturbations exhibiting a power-law, oscillatory or monotonic, decay with time for all the eigenmodes. This conclusion has been supported by our simulations done both on a Cartesian grid and on a curvilinear grid in spherical coordinates. Dispersion equation determining the eigenvalues of the problem and explicit formulas for the eigenfunction profiles corresponding to these eigenvalues are presented, making it possible to use the theory for hydrocode verification in two and three dimensions.
Stability of stagnation via an expanding accretion shock wave
Velikovich, A. L.; Giuliani, J. L.; Murakami, M.
Stagnation of a cold plasma streaming to the center or axis of symmetry via an expanding accretion shock wave is ubiquitous in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and high-energy-density plasma physics, the examples ranging from plasma flows in x-ray-generating Z pinches [Maron et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 035001 (2013)] to the experiments in support of the recently suggested concept of impact ignition in ICF [Azechi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 235002 (2009); Murakami et al., Nucl. Fusion 54, 054007 (2014)]. Some experimental evidence indicates that stagnation via an expanding shock wave is stable, but its stability has never beenmore » studied theoretically. We present such analysis for the stagnation that does not involve a rarefaction wave behind the expanding shock front and is described by the classic ideal-gas Noh solution in spherical and cylindrical geometry. In either case, the stagnated flow has been demonstrated to be stable, initial perturbations exhibiting a power-law, oscillatory or monotonic, decay with time for all the eigenmodes. This conclusion has been supported by our simulations done both on a Cartesian grid and on a curvilinear grid in spherical coordinates. Dispersion equation determining the eigenvalues of the problem and explicit formulas for the eigenfunction profiles corresponding to these eigenvalues are presented, making it possible to use the theory for hydrocode verification in two and three dimensions.« less
Stability of miscible core?annular flows with viscosity stratification
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Selvam, B.; Merk, S.; Govindarajan, Rama; Meiburg, E.
The linear stability of variable viscosity, miscible core-annular flows is investigated. Consistent with pipe flow of a single fluid, the flow is stable at any Reynolds number when the magnitude of the viscosity ratio is less than a critical value. This is in contrast to the immiscible case without interfacial tension, which is unstable at any viscosity ratio. Beyond the critical value of the viscosity ratio, the flow can be unstable even when the more viscous fluid is in the core. This is in contrast to plane channel flows with finite interface thickness, which are always stabilized relative to single fluid flow when the less viscous fluid is in contact with the wall. If the more viscous fluid occupies the core, the axisymmetric mode usually dominates over the corkscrew mode. It is demonstrated that, for a less viscous core, the corkscrew mode is inviscidly unstable, whereas the axisymmetric mode is unstable for small Reynolds numbers at high Schmidt numbers. For the parameters under consideration, the switchover occurs at an intermediate Schmidt number of about 500. The occurrence of inviscid instability for the corkscrew mode is shown to be consistent with the Rayleigh criterion for pipe flows. In some parameter ranges, the miscible flow is seen to be more unstable than its immiscible counterpart, and the physical reasons for this behaviour are discussed.A detailed parametric study shows that increasing the interface thickness has a uniformly stabilizing effect. The flow is least stable when the interface between the two fluids is located at approximately 0.6 times the tube radius. Unlike for channel flow, there is no sudden change in the stability with radial location of the interface. The instability originates mainly in the less viscous fluid, close to the interface.
Global stability of plane Couette flow beyond the energy stability limit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fuentes, Federico; Goluskin, David
2017-11-01
This talk will present computations verifying that the laminar state of plane Couette flow is nonlinearly stable to all perturbations. The Reynolds numbers up to which this globally stability is verified are larger than those at which stability can be proven by the energy method, which is the typical method for demonstrating nonlinear stability of a fluid flow. This improvement is achieved by constructing Lyapunov functions that are more general than the energy. These functions are not restricted to being quadratic, and they are allowed to depend explicitly on the spectrum of the velocity field in the eigenbasis of the energy stability operator. The optimal choice of such a Lyapunov function is a convex optimization problem, and it can be constructed with computer assistance by solving a semidefinite program. This general method will be described in a companion talk by David Goluskin; the present talk focuses on its application to plane Couette flow.
flowVS: channel-specific variance stabilization in flow cytometry.
Azad, Ariful; Rajwa, Bartek; Pothen, Alex
2016-07-28
Comparing phenotypes of heterogeneous cell populations from multiple biological conditions is at the heart of scientific discovery based on flow cytometry (FC). When the biological signal is measured by the average expression of a biomarker, standard statistical methods require that variance be approximately stabilized in populations to be compared. Since the mean and variance of a cell population are often correlated in fluorescence-based FC measurements, a preprocessing step is needed to stabilize the within-population variances. We present a variance-stabilization algorithm, called flowVS, that removes the mean-variance correlations from cell populations identified in each fluorescence channel. flowVS transforms each channel from all samples of a data set by the inverse hyperbolic sine (asinh) transformation. For each channel, the parameters of the transformation are optimally selected by Bartlett's likelihood-ratio test so that the populations attain homogeneous variances. The optimum parameters are then used to transform the corresponding channels in every sample. flowVS is therefore an explicit variance-stabilization method that stabilizes within-population variances in each channel by evaluating the homoskedasticity of clusters with a likelihood-ratio test. With two publicly available datasets, we show that flowVS removes the mean-variance dependence from raw FC data and makes the within-population variance relatively homogeneous. We demonstrate that alternative transformation techniques such as flowTrans, flowScape, logicle, and FCSTrans might not stabilize variance. Besides flow cytometry, flowVS can also be applied to stabilize variance in microarray data. With a publicly available data set we demonstrate that flowVS performs as well as the VSN software, a state-of-the-art approach developed for microarrays. The homogeneity of variance in cell populations across FC samples is desirable when extracting features uniformly and comparing cell populations with
The inviscid stability of supersonic flow past axisymmetric bodies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Duck, Peter W.
1990-01-01
The supersonic flow past a sharp cone is studied. The associated boundary layer flow (i.e., the velocity and temperature field) is computed. The inviscid linear temporal stability of axisymmetric boundary layers in general is considered, and in particular, a so-called 'triply generalized' inflection condition for 'subsonic' nonaxisymmetric neutral modes is presented. Preliminary numerical results for the stability of the cone boundary layer are presented for a freestream Mach number of 3.8. In particular, a new inviscid mode of instability is seen to occur in certain regimes, and this is shown to be related to a viscous mode found by Duck and Hall (1988).
On the stability analysis of sharply stratified shear flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Churilov, Semyon
2018-05-01
When the stability of a sharply stratified shear flow is studied, the density profile is usually taken stepwise and a weak stratification between pycnoclines is neglected. As a consequence, in the instability domain of the flow two-sided neutral curves appear such that the waves corresponding to them are neutrally stable, whereas the neighboring waves on either side of the curve are unstable, in contrast with the classical result of Miles (J Fluid Mech 16:209-227, 1963) who proved that in stratified flows unstable oscillations can be only on one side of the neutral curve. In the paper, the contradiction is resolved and changes in the flow stability pattern under transition from a model stepwise to a continuous density profile are analyzed. On this basis, a simple self-consistent algorithm is proposed for studying the stability of sharply stratified shear flows with a continuous density variation and an arbitrary monotonic velocity profile without inflection points. Because our calculations and the algorithm are both based on the method of stability analysis (Churilov J Fluid Mech 539:25-55, 2005; ibid, 617, 301-326, 2008), which differs essentially from usually used, the paper starts with a brief review of the method and results obtained with it.
On The Stability Of Model Flows For Chemical Vapour Deposition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miller, Robert
2016-11-01
The flow in a chemical vapour deposition (CVD) reactor is assessed. The reactor is modelled as a flow over an infinite-radius rotating disk, where the mean flow and convective instability of the disk boundary layer are measured. Temperature-dependent viscosity and enforced axial flow are used to model the steep temperature gradients present in CVD reactors and the pumping of the gas towards the disk, respectively. Increasing the temperature-dependence parameter of the fluid viscosity (ɛ) results in an overall narrowing of the fluid boundary layer. Increasing the axial flow strength parameter (Ts) accelerates the fluid both radially and axially, while also narrowing the thermal boundary layer. It is seen that when both effects are imposed, the effects of axial flow generally dominate those of the viscosity temperature dependence. A local stability analysis is performed and the linearized stability equations are solved using a Galerkin projection in terms of Chebyshev polynomials. The neutral stability curves are then plotted for a range of ɛ and Ts values. Preliminary results suggest that increasing Ts has a stabilising effect on both type I and type II stationary instabilities, while small increases in ɛ results in a significant reduction to the critical Reynolds number.
Stability of Fluvial and Gravity-flow Antidunes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fedele, J. J.; Hoyal, D. C. J. D.; Demko, T. M.
2017-12-01
Antidunes develop as a consequence of interface (free surface) deformation and sediment transport feedback in supercritical flows. Fluvial (open-channel flow) antidunes have been studied extensively in the laboratory and the field, and recognized in ancient sedimentary deposits. Experiments on gravity flow (turbidity and density currents) antidunes indicate that they are more stable and long-lived than their fluvial counterpart but the mechanism controlling this stability is poorly understood. Sea floor bathymetric and subsurface data suggest that large-scale, antidune-like sediment waves are extremely common in deep-water, found in a wide range of settings and sediment characteristics. While most of these large features have been interpreted as cyclic steps, the term has been most likely overused due to the lack of recognition criteria and basic understanding on the differences between antidunes and cyclic steps formed under gravity flows. In principle, cyclic steps should be more common in confined or channel-lobe transition settings where flows tend to be more energetic or focused, while antidunes should prevail in regions of less confinement, under sheet-like or expanding flows. Using published, fluvial stable-antidune data, we show that the simplified 1D, mechanical-energy based analysis of flow over a localized fixed obstacle (Long, 1954; Baines, 1995; Kubo and Yokokawa, 2001) is inaccurate for representing flow over antidunes and their stability. Instead, a more detailed analysis of a flow along a long-wavelength (in relation to flow thickness) wavy bed that also considers the interactions between flow and sediment transport is used to infer conditions of antidune stability and the breaking of surface waves. In particular, the position of the surface wave crest in relation to the bedform crest, along with the role of average flow velocity, surface velocity, and surface wave celerity appear relevant in determining antidune instability. The analysis is
Stability investigations of airfoil flow by global analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morzynski, Marek; Thiele, Frank
1992-01-01
As the result of global, non-parallel flow stability analysis the single value of the disturbance growth-rate and respective frequency is obtained. This complex value characterizes the stability of the whole flow configuration and is not referred to any particular flow pattern. The global analysis assures that all the flow elements (wake, boundary and shear layer) are taken into account. The physical phenomena connected with the wake instability are properly reproduced by the global analysis. This enhances the investigations of instability of any 2-D flows, including ones in which the boundary layer instability effects are known to be of dominating importance. Assuming fully 2-D disturbance form, the global linear stability problem is formulated. The system of partial differential equations is solved for the eigenvalues and eigenvectors. The equations, written in the pure stream function formulation, are discretized via FDM using a curvilinear coordinate system. The complex eigenvalues and corresponding eigenvectors are evaluated by an iterative method. The investigations performed for various Reynolds numbers emphasize that the wake instability develops into the Karman vortex street. This phenomenon is shown to be connected with the first mode obtained from the non-parallel flow stability analysis. The higher modes are reflecting different physical phenomena as for example Tollmien-Schlichting waves, originating in the boundary layer and having the tendency to emerge as instabilities for the growing Reynolds number. The investigations are carried out for a circular cylinder, oblong ellipsis and airfoil. It is shown that the onset of the wake instability, the waves in the boundary layer, the shear layer instability are different solutions of the same eigenvalue problem, formulated using the non-parallel theory. The analysis offers large potential possibilities as the generalization of methods used till now for the stability analysis.
Numerical studies of transverse curvature effects on transonic flow stability
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Macaraeg, M. G.; Daudpota, Q. I.
1992-01-01
A numerical study of transverse curvature effects on compressible flow temporal stability for transonic to low supersonic Mach numbers is presented for axisymmetric modes. The mean flows studied include a similar boundary-layer profile and a nonsimilar axisymmetric boundary-layer solution. The effect of neglecting curvature in the mean flow produces only small quantitative changes in the disturbance growth rate. For transonic Mach numbers (1-1.4) and aerodynamically relevant Reynolds numbers (5000-10,000 based on displacement thickness), the maximum growth rate is found to increase with curvature - the maximum occurring at a nondimensional radius (based on displacement thickness) between 30 and 100.
Stabilization of hydrodynamic flows by small viscosity variations.
Govindarajan, Rama; L'vov, Victor S; Procaccia, Itamar; Sameen, A
2003-02-01
Motivated by the large effect of turbulent drag reduction by minute concentrations of polymers, we study the effects of a weakly space-dependent viscosity on the stability of hydrodynamic flows. In a recent paper [Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 174501, (2001)], we exposed the crucial role played by a localized region where the energy of fluctuations is produced by interactions with the mean flow (the "critical layer"). We showed that a layer of a weakly space-dependent viscosity placed near the critical layer can have a very large stabilizing effect on hydrodynamic fluctuations, retarding significantly the onset of turbulence. In this paper we extend these observations in two directions: first we show that the strong stabilization of the primary instability is also obtained when the viscosity profile is realistic (inferred from simulations of turbulent flows with a small concentration of polymers). Second, we analyze the secondary instability (around the time-dependent primary instability) and find similar strong stabilization. Since the secondary instability develops around a time-dependent solution and is three dimensional, this brings us closer to the turbulent case. We reiterate that the large effect is not due to a modified dissipation (as is assumed in some theories of drag reduction), but due to reduced energy intake from the mean flow to the fluctuations. We propose that similar physics act in turbulent drag reduction.
Hydrodynamic Stability Analysis on Sheared Stratified Flow in a Convective Flow Environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, Yuan; Lin, Wenxian; Armfiled, Steven; Kirkpatrick, Michael; He, Yinghe; Fluid Dynamics Research Group, James Cook University Team; Fluid Dynamics Research Group, University of Sydney Team
2014-11-01
A hydrodynamic stability analysis on the convective sheared boundary layer (SCBL) flow, where a sheared stratified flow and a thermally convective flow coexist, is carried out in this study. The linear unstable stratifications representing the convective flow are included in the TaylorGoldstein equations as an unstable factor Jb. A new unstable region corresponding to the convective instability, which is not present in pure sheared stratified flows, is found with the analysis. It is also found that the boundaries of the convective instability regions expand with increasing Jb and interact with the sheared stratified instability region. More results will be presented at the conference
The stabilizing effect of compressibility in turbulent shear flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sarkar, S.
1994-01-01
Direct numerical simulation of turbulent homogeneous shear flow is performed in order to clarify compressibility effects on the turbulence growth in the flow. The two Mach numbers relevant to homogeneous shear flow are the turbulent Mach number M(t) and the gradient Mach number M(g). Two series of simulations are performed where the initial values of M(g) and M(t) are increased separately. The growth rate of turbulent kinetic energy is observed to decrease in both series of simulations. This 'stabilizing' effect of compressibility on the turbulent energy growth rate is observed to be substantially larger in the DNS series where the initial value of M(g) is changed. A systematic companion of the different DNS cues shows that the compressibility effect of reduced turbulent energy growth rate is primarily due to the reduced level of turbulence production and not due to explicit dilatational effects. The reduced turbulence production is not a mean density effect since the mean density remains constant in compressible homogeneous shear flow. The stabilizing effect of compressibility on the turbulence growth is observed to increase with the gradient Mach number M(g) in the homogeneous shear flow DNS. Estimates of M(g) for the mixing and the boundary layer are obtained. These estimates show that the parameter M(g) becomes much larger in the high-speed mixing layer relative to the high-speed boundary layer even though the mean flow Mach numbers are the same in the two flows. Therefore, the inhibition of turbulent energy production and consequent 'stabilizing' effect of compressibility on the turbulence (over and above that due to the mean density variation) is expected to be larger in the mixing layer relative to the boundary layer in agreement with experimental observations.
Z-Pinch Plasma Neutron Sources
2006-03-24
deuterium into 9 to 14 keV (around 10 keV), which is well in the fusion energy range we are interested in. To make plasma radiation sources work, we...showing the 1-D dynamics of the pinch plasma implosion, temperature, fusion energy production and deposition for the conditions of shot Z1422. The minimum...histories of ion and electron temperatures, fusion energy production and energy deposition in ID RMHD run modeling deuterium shot Z1422. In our simulations
Precessing rotating flows with additional shear: stability analysis.
Salhi, A; Cambon, C
2009-03-01
We consider unbounded precessing rotating flows in which vertical or horizontal shear is induced by the interaction between the solid-body rotation (with angular velocity Omega(0)) and the additional "precessing" Coriolis force (with angular velocity -epsilonOmega(0)), normal to it. A "weak" shear flow, with rate 2epsilon of the same order of the Poincaré "small" ratio epsilon , is needed for balancing the gyroscopic torque, so that the whole flow satisfies Euler's equations in the precessing frame (the so-called admissibility conditions). The base flow case with vertical shear (its cross-gradient direction is aligned with the main angular velocity) corresponds to Mahalov's [Phys. Fluids A 5, 891 (1993)] precessing infinite cylinder base flow (ignoring boundary conditions), while the base flow case with horizontal shear (its cross-gradient direction is normal to both main and precessing angular velocities) corresponds to the unbounded precessing rotating shear flow considered by Kerswell [Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn. 72, 107 (1993)]. We show that both these base flows satisfy the admissibility conditions and can support disturbances in terms of advected Fourier modes. Because the admissibility conditions cannot select one case with respect to the other, a more physical derivation is sought: Both flows are deduced from Poincaré's [Bull. Astron. 27, 321 (1910)] basic state of a precessing spheroidal container, in the limit of small epsilon . A Rapid distortion theory (RDT) type of stability analysis is then performed for the previously mentioned disturbances, for both base flows. The stability analysis of the Kerswell base flow, using Floquet's theory, is recovered, and its counterpart for the Mahalov base flow is presented. Typical growth rates are found to be the same for both flows at very small epsilon , but significant differences are obtained regarding growth rates and widths of instability bands, if larger epsilon values, up to 0.2, are considered. Finally
Stability Analysis of Flow Induced by the Traveling Magnetic Field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mazuruk, Konstantin
2003-01-01
Re-circulating flow in molten metal columns can be conveniently induced by the axisymmetric traveling magnetic field. A number of applications can benefit from this technique, such as mixing under microgravity environment, or.crysta1 growth from metallic melts. For small magnetic field excitations, the flow is laminar and stationary. As the imposed field increases, a more complex flow will set up in the cylindrical column. Conditions for stable laminar flow are of importance for practical applications. In this work, a linear stability analysis is performed in order to determine the onset of the bifurcation in the system. Here the analysis is restricted to the axisymmetric modes and the low-frequency regime.
Stability Analysis of Flow Induced by the Traveling Magnetic Field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mazuruk, Konstantin
2003-01-01
Re-circulating flow in molten metal columns can be conveniently induced by the axisymmetric traveling magnetic field. A number of applications can benefit from this technique, such as mixing under microgravity environment, or crysta1 growth from metallic melts. For small magnetic field excitations, the flow is laminar and stationary. As the imposed field increases, a more complex flow will set up in the cylindrical column. Conditions for stable laminar flow are of importance for practical applications. In this work, a linear stability analysis is performed in order to determine the onset of the bifurcation in the system. Here the analysis is restricted to the axisymmetric modes and the low-frequency regime.
Stability analysis of wall driven nanofluid flow through a tube
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hossain, M. Mainul; Khan, M. A. H.
2017-06-01
Wall driven incompressible viscous fluid flow with nanoparticles through a tube is considered where two different nanofluids (Cu-water, SiO2-water) are used separately. Flow becomes gradually unstable due to movement of wall and existence of nanoparticles. However, Reynolds number, volume fraction and density ratio are responsible for flow instability. The mathematical model of the problem is constructed and solved by means of series solution method. Special type Hermite-Padé approximation method is used to improve the series solution. The critical point for Reynolds number, volume fraction and density ratio are determined and described using approximation technique and bifurcation diagram for both nanofluids. Moreover, Interaction between these three numbers and their effect on velocity profile are discussed. To indicate the nanofluid which is more effective for flow stability is our major concerned.
Stability of Brillouin flow in planar, conventional, and inverted magnetrons
Simon, D. H.; Lau, Y. Y.; Greening, G.
2015-08-15
The Brillouin flow is the prevalent flow in crossed-field devices. We systematically study its stability in the conventional, planar, and inverted magnetron geometry. To investigate the intrinsic negative mass effect in Brillouin flow, we consider electrostatic modes in a nonrelativistic, smooth bore magnetron. We found that the Brillouin flow in the inverted magnetron is more unstable than that in a planar magnetron, which in turn is more unstable than that in the conventional magnetron. Thus, oscillations in the inverted magnetron may startup faster than the conventional magnetron. This result is consistent with simulations, and with the negative mass property inmore » the inverted magnetron configuration. Inclusion of relativistic effects and electromagnetic effects does not qualitatively change these conclusions.« less
The stability of a flexible cantilever in viscous channel flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cisonni, Julien; Lucey, Anthony D.; Elliott, Novak S. J.; Heil, Matthias
2017-05-01
Most studies of the flow-induced flutter instability of a flexible cantilever have assumed inviscid flow because of the high flow speeds and the large scale of the structures encountered in the wide range of applications of this fluid-structure interaction (FSI) system. However, for instance, in the fields of energy harvesting and biomechanics, low flow speeds and small- and micro-scale systems can give relatively low Reynolds numbers so that fluid viscosity needs to be explicitly accounted for to provide reliable predictions of channel-immersed-cantilever stability. In this study, we employ a numerical model coupling the Navier-Stokes equations and a one-dimensional elastic beam model. We conduct a parametric investigation to determine the conditions leading to flutter instability of a slender flexible cantilever immersed in two-dimensional viscous channel flow for Reynolds numbers lower than 1000. The large set of numerical simulations carried out allows predictions of the influence of decreasing Reynolds numbers and of the cantilever confinement on the single-mode neutral stability of the FSI system and on the pre- and post-critical cantilever motion. This model's predictions are also compared to those of a FSI model containing a two-dimensional solid model in order to assess, primarily, the effect of the cantilever slenderness in the simulations. Results show that an increasing contribution of viscosity to the hydrodynamic forces significantly alters the instability boundaries. In general, a decrease in Reynolds number is predicted to produce a stabilisation of the FSI system, which is more pronounced for high fluid-to-solid mass ratios. For particular fluid-to-solid mass ratios, viscous effects can lower the critical velocity and lead to a change in the first unstable structural mode. However, at constant Reynolds number, the effects of viscosity on the system stability are diminished by the confinement of the cantilever, which strengthens the importance of
Mode switching and linear stability analysis of resonant acoustic flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Panickar, Praveen
Resonant acoustic flows occur in a wide variety of practical, aerospace-related applications and are a rich source of complex flow-physics. The primary concern associated with these types of flows is the high-amplitude fluctuating pressures associated with the resonant tones that could lead to sonic fatigue failure of sensitive components in the vicinity of such flows. However, before attempting to devise methods to suppress the resonant tones, it is imperative to understand the physics governing these flows in the hope that such an understanding will lead to more robust and effective suppression techniques. To this end, an in-depth study of various resonant acoustic flows was undertaken in this thesis, the main aim being to bring about a better understanding of such flows by revealing physically relevant information. Starting with the resonant acoustic mechanism in underexpanded jets from two-dimensional nozzles, it was shown that, for a variety of flow situations (geometries, shock-cell structures and orientations) in such jets, the nonlinear interaction density acted as a faithful precursor to a, hitherto unpredictable, spanwise instability mode switch. Following this, a study of the occurrence of, previously undocumented and theoretically unexpected, helical instabilities in subsonic impinging jets was undertaken. Using metrics from linear stability analysis, it was shown that the presence of the helical modes was justified. The results from this study on impinging jets are directly applicable to modern Stationary Take-Off and Vertical Landing (STOVL) aircraft that have twin, closely spaced exhausts. Finally, a novel technique that yielded dramatic suppression of resonant acoustic tones using high frequency excitation, in subsonic flows over open cavities, was investigated. Linear stability calculations of the experimentally measured baseline and excited velocity profiles showed that the instability of the high frequency excitation corresponded to a spatially
Improved optical flow motion estimation for digital image stabilization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lai, Lijun; Xu, Zhiyong; Zhang, Xuyao
2015-11-01
Optical flow is the instantaneous motion vector at each pixel in the image frame at a time instant. The gradient-based approach for optical flow computation can't work well when the video motion is too large. To alleviate such problem, we incorporate this algorithm into a pyramid multi-resolution coarse-to-fine search strategy. Using pyramid strategy to obtain multi-resolution images; Using iterative relationship from the highest level to the lowest level to obtain inter-frames' affine parameters; Subsequence frames compensate back to the first frame to obtain stabilized sequence. The experiment results demonstrate that the promoted method has good performance in global motion estimation.
On Stability of Plane and Cylindrical Poiseuille Flows of Nanofluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rudyak, V. Ya.; Bord, E. G.
2017-11-01
Stability of plane and cylindrical Poiseuille flows of nanofluids to comparatively small perturbations is studied. Ethylene glycol-based nanofluids with silicon dioxide particles are considered. The volume fraction of nanoparticles is varied from 0 to 10%, and the particle size is varied from 10 to 210 nm. Neutral stability curves are constructed, and the most unstable modes of disturbances are found. It is demonstrated that nanofluids are less stable than base fluids; the presence of particles leads to additional destabilization of the flow. The greater the volume fraction of nanoparticles and the smaller the particle size, the greater the degree of this additional destabilization. In this case, the critical Reynolds number significantly decreases, and the spectrum of unstable disturbances becomes different; in particular, even for the volume fraction of particles equal to 5%, the wave length of the most unstable disturbances of the nanofluid with particles approximately 20 nm in size decreases almost by a factor of 4.
Effects of flows on viscous and resistive MHD stability
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Einaudi, Giorgio
1986-01-01
In many solar applications the viscosity appears to be more important than resistivity. In order to discuss the instabilities in solar conditions, an idealized configuration is considered in which the plasma is flowing in the z-direction along the magnetic field B sub 0 with a velocity V sub 0. As far as the velocity is concerned two different velocity profiles, with different hydrodynmaic stability properties are discussed. The results are summarized.
flowVS: channel-specific variance stabilization in flow cytometry
Azad, Ariful; Rajwa, Bartek; Pothen, Alex
Comparing phenotypes of heterogeneous cell populations from multiple biological conditions is at the heart of scientific discovery based on flow cytometry (FC). When the biological signal is measured by the average expression of a biomarker, standard statistical methods require that variance be approximately stabilized in populations to be compared. Since the mean and variance of a cell population are often correlated in fluorescence-based FC measurements, a preprocessing step is needed to stabilize the within-population variances.
flowVS: channel-specific variance stabilization in flow cytometry
Azad, Ariful; Rajwa, Bartek; Pothen, Alex
2016-07-28
Comparing phenotypes of heterogeneous cell populations from multiple biological conditions is at the heart of scientific discovery based on flow cytometry (FC). When the biological signal is measured by the average expression of a biomarker, standard statistical methods require that variance be approximately stabilized in populations to be compared. Since the mean and variance of a cell population are often correlated in fluorescence-based FC measurements, a preprocessing step is needed to stabilize the within-population variances.
Stability of hypersonic boundary-layer flows with chemistry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reed, Helen L.; Stuckert, Gregory K.; Haynes, Timothy S.
1993-01-01
The effects of nonequilibrium chemistry and three dimensionality on the stability characteristics of hypersonic flows are discussed. In two-dimensional (2-D) and axisymmetric flows, the inclusion of chemistry causes a shift of the second mode of Mack to lower frequencies. This is found to be due to the increase in size of the region of relative supersonic flow because of the lower speeds of sound in the relatively cooler boundary layers. Although this shift in frequency is present in both the equilibrium and nonequilibrium air results, the equilibrium approximation predicts modes which are not observed in the nonequilibrium calculations (for the flight conditions considered). These modes are superpositions of incoming and outgoing unstable disturbances which travel supersonically relative to the boundary-layer edge velocity. Such solutions are possible because of the finite shock stand-off distance. Their corresponding wall-normal profiles exhibit an oscillatory behavior in the inviscid region between the boundary-layer edge and the bow shock. For the examination of three-dimensional (3-D) effects, a rotating cone is used as a model of a swept wing. An increase of stagnation temperature is found to be only slightly stabilizing. The correlation of transition location (N = 9) with parameters describing the crossflow profile is discussed. Transition location does not correlate with the traditional crossflow Reynolds number. A new parameter that appears to correlate for boundary-layer flow was found. A verification with experiments on a yawed cone is provided.
The inviscid stability of supersonic flow past a sharp cone
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Duck, Peter W.; Shaw, Stephen J.
1990-01-01
The laminar boundary layer which forms on a sharp cone in a supersonic freestream, where lateral curvature plays a key role in the physics of the problem is considered. This flow is then analyzed from the point of view of linear, temporal, inviscid stability. The basic, non-axisymmetric disturbance equations are derived for general flows of this class, and a so called triply generalized inflexion condition is found for the existence of subsonic neutral modes of instability. This condition is analogous to the well-known generalized inflexion condition found in planar flows, although in the present case the condition depends on both axial and aximuthal wavenumbers. Extensive numerical results are presented for the stability problem at a freestream Mach number of 3.8, for a range of streamwise locations. These results reveal that a new mode of instability may occur, peculiar to flows of this type involving curvature. Additionally, asymptotic analyses valid close to the tip of the cone, far downstream of the cone are presented, and these give a partial (asymptotic) description of this additional mode of instability.
Hydrogen peroxide stabilization in one-dimensional flow columns.
Schmidt, Jeremy T; Ahmad, Mushtaque; Teel, Amy L; Watts, Richard J
2011-09-25
Rapid hydrogen peroxide decomposition is the primary limitation of catalyzed H(2)O(2) propagations in situ chemical oxidation (CHP ISCO) remediation of the subsurface. Two stabilizers of hydrogen peroxide, citrate and phytate, were investigated for their effectiveness in one-dimensional columns of iron oxide-coated and manganese oxide-coated sand. Hydrogen peroxide (5%) with and without 25 mM citrate or phytate was applied to the columns and samples were collected at 8 ports spaced 13 cm apart. Citrate was not an effective stabilizer for hydrogen peroxide in iron-coated sand; however, phytate was highly effective, increasing hydrogen peroxide residuals two orders of magnitude over unstabilized hydrogen peroxide. Both citrate and phytate were effective stabilizers for manganese-coated sand, increasing hydrogen peroxide residuals by four-fold over unstabilized hydrogen peroxide. Phytate and citrate did not degrade and were not retarded in the sand columns; furthermore, the addition of the stabilizers increased column flow rates relative to unstabilized columns. These results demonstrate that citrate and phytate are effective stabilizers of hydrogen peroxide under the dynamic conditions of one-dimensional columns, and suggest that citrate and phytate can be added to hydrogen peroxide before injection to the subsurface as an effective means for increasing the radius of influence of CHP ISCO. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Hydrogen peroxide stabilization in one-dimensional flow columns
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmidt, Jeremy T.; Ahmad, Mushtaque; Teel, Amy L.; Watts, Richard J.
2011-09-01
Rapid hydrogen peroxide decomposition is the primary limitation of catalyzed H 2O 2 propagations in situ chemical oxidation (CHP ISCO) remediation of the subsurface. Two stabilizers of hydrogen peroxide, citrate and phytate, were investigated for their effectiveness in one-dimensional columns of iron oxide-coated and manganese oxide-coated sand. Hydrogen peroxide (5%) with and without 25 mM citrate or phytate was applied to the columns and samples were collected at 8 ports spaced 13 cm apart. Citrate was not an effective stabilizer for hydrogen peroxide in iron-coated sand; however, phytate was highly effective, increasing hydrogen peroxide residuals two orders of magnitude over unstabilized hydrogen peroxide. Both citrate and phytate were effective stabilizers for manganese-coated sand, increasing hydrogen peroxide residuals by four-fold over unstabilized hydrogen peroxide. Phytate and citrate did not degrade and were not retarded in the sand columns; furthermore, the addition of the stabilizers increased column flow rates relative to unstabilized columns. These results demonstrate that citrate and phytate are effective stabilizers of hydrogen peroxide under the dynamic conditions of one-dimensional columns, and suggest that citrate and phytate can be added to hydrogen peroxide before injection to the subsurface as an effective means for increasing the radius of influence of CHP ISCO.
A general method to determine the stability of compressible flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Guenther, R. A.; Chang, I. D.
1982-01-01
Several problems were studied using two completely different approaches. The initial method was to use the standard linearized perturbation theory by finding the value of the individual small disturbance quantities based on the equations of motion. These were serially eliminated from the equations of motion to derive a single equation that governs the stability of fluid dynamic system. These equations could not be reduced unless the steady state variable depends only on one coordinate. The stability equation based on one dependent variable was found and was examined to determine the stability of a compressible swirling jet. The second method applied a Lagrangian approach to the problem. Since the equations developed were based on different assumptions, the condition of stability was compared only for the Rayleigh problem of a swirling flow, both examples reduce to the Rayleigh criterion. This technique allows including the viscous shear terms which is not possible in the first method. The same problem was then examined to see what effect shear has on stability.
Study of the Stability of Compressible Couette Flow.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Girard, Jeffrey John
This study is concerned with a two-dimensional disturbance of plane Couette flow. All reviewed analyses of the basic problem have led to the conclusion that the flow is unconditionally stable. All of the literature assumed the fluid was incompressible. The assumption that a fluid is incompressible neglects solutions to the problem. The motivation of the analysis presented herein is a hypothesis that some of the acoustic disturbances in the fluid, usually neglected, may interact with the mean vorticity to produce more sound. This hypothesis was discussed by Vaidya (1988). The fluid considered herein has been a viscous, heat-conducting, ideal gas. For the cases investigated in this study, most solutions exhibited stability. There were found, however, solutions at somewhat unrealistically high Mach numbers which exhibited unstable nature. Further, it was found that for even low Mach number flows, the sound solution was the least stable solution. It is thought that the interaction between the sound perturbation and the mean flow has fed energy to the disturbance from the mean flow. Enough energy was transferred to balance some of the viscous dissipation. At low Mach numbers, for the investigated cases, not enough energy was transferred to tip the flow to instability. The established theory has been challenged. All previous analysis of the basic infinitesimal perturbation problem has suggested unconditional stability. This work has shown some unstable regimes. This keeps the hope alive that analysis may one day explain the experimental evidence (which is at much lower Mach numbers). The future work should concentrate on the sound solution for this problem. It has been shown to be the least stable, though it is usually neglected. An attempt should be made to investigate the possibility of reducing the lowest Mach number for instability. Suggestions for this have been provided in Chapter 4.
Linear stability analysis of laminar flow near a stagnation point in the slip flow regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Essaghir, E.; Oubarra, A.; Lahjomri, J.
2017-12-01
The aim of the present contribution is to analyze the effect of slip parameter on the stability of a laminar incompressible flow near a stagnation point in the slip flow regime. The analysis is based on the traditional normal mode approach and assumes parallel flow approximation. The Orr-Sommerfeld equation that governs the infinitesimal disturbance of stream function imposed to the steady main flow, which is an exact solution of the Navier-Stokes equation satisfying slip boundary conditions, is obtained by using the powerful spectral Chebyshev collocation method. The results of the effect of slip parameter K on the hydrodynamic characteristics of the base flow, namely the velocity profile, the shear stress profile, the boundary layer, displacement and momentum thicknesses are illustrated and discussed. The numerical data for these characteristics, as well as those of the eigenvalues and the corresponding wave numbers recover the results of the special case of no-slip boundary conditions. They are found to be in good agreement with previous numerical calculations. The effects of slip parameter on the neutral curves of stability, for two-dimensional disturbances in the Reynolds-wave number plane, are then obtained for the first time in the slip flow regime for stagnation point flow. Furthermore, the evolution of the critical Reynolds number against the slip parameter is established. The results show that the critical Reynolds number for instability is significantly increased with the slip parameter and the flow turn out to be more stable when the effect of rarefaction becomes important.
MHD Stability of Axisymmetric Plasmas In Closed Line Magnetic Fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simakov, Andrei N.; Catto, Peter J.; Ramos, Jesus J.; Hastie, R. J.
2003-04-01
The stability of axisymmetric plasmas confined by closed poloidal magnetic field lines is considered. The results are relevant to plasmas in the dipolar fields of stars and planets, as well as the Levitated Dipole Experiment, multipoles, Z pinches and field reversed configurations. The ideal MHD energy principle is employed to study stability of pressure driven Alfvén modes. A point dipole is considered in detail to demonstrate that equilibria exist, which are MHD stable for arbitrary beta. Effects of sound waves and plasma resistivity are investigated next for point dipole equilibria by means of resistive MHD theory.
Oxygen Mass Flow Rate Generated for Monitoring Hydrogen Peroxide Stability
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ross, H. Richard
2002-01-01
Recent interest in propellants with non-toxic reaction products has led to a resurgence of interest in hydrogen peroxide for various propellant applications. Because peroxide is sensitive to contaminants, material interactions, stability and storage issues, monitoring decomposition rates is important. Stennis Space Center (SSC) uses thermocouples to monitor bulk fluid temperature (heat evolution) to determine reaction rates. Unfortunately, large temperature rises are required to offset the heat lost into the surrounding fluid. Also, tank penetration to accomodate a thermocouple can entail modification of a tank or line and act as a source of contamination. The paper evaluates a method for monitoring oxygen evolution as a means to determine peroxide stability. Oxygen generation is not only directly related to peroxide decomposition, but occurs immediately. Measuring peroxide temperature to monitor peroxide stability has significant limitations. The bulk decomposition of 1% / week in a large volume tank can produce in excess of 30 cc / min. This oxygen flow rate corresponds to an equivalent temperature rise of approximately 14 millidegrees C, which is difficult to measure reliably. Thus, if heat transfer were included, there would be no temperature rise. Temperature changes from the surrounding environment and heat lost to the peroxide will also mask potential problems. The use of oxygen flow measurements provides an ultra sensitive technique for monitoring reaction events and will provide an earlier indication of an abnormal decomposition when compared to measuring temperature rise.
Stability theory applications to laminar-flow control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Malik, Mujeeb R.
1987-01-01
In order to design Laminar Flow Control (LFC) configurations, reliable methods are needed for boundary-layer transition predictions. Among the available methods, there are correlations based upon R sub e, shape factors, Goertler number and crossflow Reynolds number. The most advanced transition prediction method is based upon linear stability theory in the form of the e sup N method which has proven to be successful in predicting transition in two- and three-dimensional boundary layers. When transition occurs in a low disturbance environment, the e sup N method provides a viable design tool for transition prediction and LFC in both 2-D and 3-D subsonic/supersonic flows. This is true for transition dominated by either TS, crossflow, or Goertler instability. If Goertler/TS or crossflow/TS interaction is present, the e sup N will fail to predict transition. However, there is no evidence of such interaction at low amplitudes of Goertler and crossflow vortices.
Predicting the stability of a compressible periodic parallel jet flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miles, Jeffrey H.
1996-01-01
It is known that mixing enhancement in compressible free shear layer flows with high convective Mach numbers is difficult. One design strategy to get around this is to use multiple nozzles. Extrapolating this design concept in a one dimensional manner, one arrives at an array of parallel rectangular nozzles where the smaller dimension is omega and the longer dimension, b, is taken to be infinite. In this paper, the feasibility of predicting the stability of this type of compressible periodic parallel jet flow is discussed. The problem is treated using Floquet-Bloch theory. Numerical solutions to this eigenvalue problem are presented. For the case presented, the interjet spacing, s, was selected so that s/omega =2.23. Typical plots of the eigenvalue and stability curves are presented. Results obtained for a range of convective Mach numbers from 3 to 5 show growth rates omega(sub i)=kc(sub i)/2 range from 0.25 to 0.29. These results indicate that coherent two-dimensional structures can occur without difficulty in multiple parallel periodic jet nozzles and that shear layer mixing should occur with this type of nozzle design.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Biringen, Sedat; Hatay, Ferhat F.
1993-01-01
The nonlinear temporal evolution of disturbances in compressible flow between infinitely long, concentric cylinders is investigated through direct numerical simulations of the full, three-dimensional Navier-Stokes and energy equations. Counter-rotating cylinders separated by wide gaps are considered with supersonic velocities of the inner cylinder. Initially, the primary disturbance grows exponentially in accordance with linear stability theory. As the disturbances evolve, higher harmonics and subharmonics are generated in a cascading order eventually reaching a saturation state. Subsequent highly nonlinear stages of the evolution are governed by the interaction of the disturbance modes, particularly the axial subharmonics. Nonlinear evolution of the disturbance field is characterized by the formation of high-shear layers extending from the inner cylinder towards the center of the gap in the form of jets similar to the ejection events in transitional and turbulent wall-bounded shear flows.
The inviscid stability of supersonic flow past a sharp cone
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Duck, Peter W.; Shaw, Stephen J.
1990-01-01
The effects of lateral curvature on the development of supersonic laminar inviscid boundary-layer flow on a sharp cone with adiabatic wall conditions are investigated analytically, with a focus on the linear temporal inviscid stability properties. The derivation of the governing equations and of a 'triply generalized' inflexion condition is outlined, and numerical results for freestream Mach number 3.8 are presented in extensive graphs and characterized in detail. A third instability mode related to the viscous mode observed by Duck and Hall (1990) using triple-deck theory is detected and shown to be more unstable and to have larger growth rates than the second mode in some cases. It is found that the 'sonic' neutral mode is affected by the lateral curvature and becomes a supersonic neutral mode.
Natural laminar flow and airplane stability and control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vandam, Cornelis P.
1986-01-01
Location and mode of transition from laminar to turbulent boundary layer flow have a dominant effect on the aerodynamic characteristics of an airfoil section. The influences of these parameters on the sectional lift and drag characteristics of three airfoils are examined. Both analytical and experimental results demonstrate that when the boundary layer transitions near the leading edge as a result of surface roughness, extensive trailing-edge separation of the turbulent boundary layer may occur. If the airfoil has a relatively sharp leading-edge, leading-edge stall due to laminar separation can occur after the leading-edge suction peak is formed. These two-dimensional results are used to examine the effects of boundary layer transition behavior on airplane longitudinal and lateral-directional stability and control.
Active Flow Control and Global Stability Analysis of Separated Flow Over a NACA 0012 Airfoil
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Munday, Phillip M.
definition of the coefficient of momentum, which successfully characterizes suppression of separation and lift enhancement. The effect of angular momentum is incorporated into the modified coefficient of momentum by introducing a characteristic swirling jet velocity based on the non-dimensional swirl number. With the modified coefficient of momentum, this single value is able to categorize controlled flows into separated, transitional, and attached flows. With inadequate control input (separated flow regime), lift decreased compared to the baseline flow. Increasing the modified coefficient of momentum, flow transitions from separated to attached and accordingly results in improved aerodynamic forces. Modifying the spanwise spacing, it is shown that the minimum modified coefficient of momentum input required to begin transitioning the flow is dependent on actuator spacing. The growth (or decay) of perturbations can facilitate or inhibit the influence of flow control inputs. Biglobal stability analysis is considered to further analyze the behavior of control inputs on separated flow over a symmetric airfoil. Assuming a spanwise periodic waveform for the perturbations, the eigenvalues and eigenvectors about a base flow are solved to understand the influence of spanwise variation on the development of the flow. Two algorithms are developed and validated to solve for the eigenvalues of the flow: an algebraic eigenvalue solver (matrix based) and a time-stepping algorithm. The matrix based approach is formulated without ever storing the matrices, creating a computationally memory efficient algorithm. Increasing the Reynolds number to Re = 23,000 over a NACA 0012 airfoil, the time-stepper method is implemented due to rising computational cost of the matrix-based method. Stability analysis about the time-averaged flow is performed for spanwise wavenumbers of beta = 1/c, 10pi/ c and 20pi/c, which the latter two wavenumbers are representative of the spanwise spacing between the
1997-08-01
NUMBERS Experimental Investigation of Combustion Stabilization in Supersonic Flow Using Free F6170896W0291 Recirculation Zones 6. AUTHOR(S) Dr...stabilization in supersonic flow using free recirculation zones Special contract (SPC-96-4043) with Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFMC), USA, EOARD...of three quarterly reports and presents experimental results on self-ignition and combustion stabilization in supersonic flow using free
Thermocapillary flow stability in floating zone under low gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bouizi, O.; Dang Vu-Delcarte, C.; Kasperski, G.
absent. The capillary convective flow is governed by the Navier-Stokes and energy equations associated to boundary conditions which include the source of the flow. The mathematical system is solved with a spectral collocation code using a projection-diffusion method te{Batoul_94a} in order to uncouple the pressure and velocity fields. The steady flows are calculated with a Newton method, the first unstable eigenmodes using an Arnoldi method te{chenier-Stability}. These tools, in addition to direct numerical simulation, are necessary to observe transitions related to the mid-plane symmetry breaking of the 2D flow te{chenier-mult}, due to the low values of the growth rates of the instabilities. The sensitivity of the solutions to the treatment of a vorticity singularity at the junction free surface/solid boundaries was studied in te{kasper4}. An first analysis of the most sensitive regions of the flow to local thermal perturbations with the adjoint technique has been initiated te{Bouizi}. In the present contribution, we study the perturbation of the 2-D axisymmetric steady state through azimuthal modes as a function of the Prandtl and Marangoni number values. We will show that the critical Marangoni values are lower for 3D than for 2D perturbations for all Prandtl numbers but the azimutal Fourier modes, the bifurcation types and the threshold Ma_c values highly depend on the Prandtl number.
Stability Analysis for Rotating Stall Dynamics in Axial Flow Compressors
1999-01-01
modes determines collectively local stability of the compressor model. Explicit conditions are obtained for local stability of rotating stall which...critical modes determines the stability for rotating stall collectively . We point out that although in a special case our stability condition for...strict crossing assumption implies that the zero solution changes its stability as ~, crosses ~’c. For instance, odk (yc ) > 0 implies that the zero
Stability and nonlinear adjustment of vortices in Keplerian flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bodo, G.; Tevzadze, A.; Chagelishvili, G.; Mignone, A.; Rossi, P.; Ferrari, A.
2007-11-01
Aims:We investigate the stability, nonlinear development and equilibrium structure of vortices in a background shearing Keplerian flow Methods: We make use of high-resolution global two-dimensional compressible hydrodynamic simulations. We introduce the concept of nonlinear adjustment to describe the transition of unbalanced vortical fields to a long-lived configuration. Results: We discuss the conditions under which vortical perturbations evolve into long-lived persistent structures and we describe the properties of these equilibrium vortices. The properties of equilibrium vortices appear to be independent from the initial conditions and depend only on the local disk parameters. In particular we find that the ratio of the vortex size to the local disk scale height increases with the decrease of the sound speed, reaching values well above the unity. The process of spiral density wave generation by the vortex, discussed in our previous work, appear to maintain its efficiency also at nonlinear amplitudes and we observe the formation of spiral shocks attached to the vortex. The shocks may have important consequences on the long term vortex evolution and possibly on the global disk dynamics. Conclusions: Our study strengthens the arguments in favor of anticyclonic vortices as the candidates for the promotion of planetary formation. Hydrodynamic shocks that are an intrinsic property of persistent vortices in compressible Keplerian flows are an important contributor to the overall balance. These shocks support vortices against viscous dissipation by generating local potential vorticity and should be responsible for the eventual fate of the persistent anticyclonic vortices. Numerical codes have be able to resolve shock waves to describe the vortex dynamics correctly.
Stability and instability of hydromagnetic Taylor-Couette flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rüdiger, Günther; Gellert, Marcus; Hollerbach, Rainer; Schultz, Manfred; Stefani, Frank
2018-04-01
Decades ago S. Lundquist, S. Chandrasekhar, P. H. Roberts and R. J. Tayler first posed questions about the stability of Taylor-Couette flows of conducting material under the influence of large-scale magnetic fields. These and many new questions can now be answered numerically where the nonlinear simulations even provide the instability-induced values of several transport coefficients. The cylindrical containers are axially unbounded and penetrated by magnetic background fields with axial and/or azimuthal components. The influence of the magnetic Prandtl number Pm on the onset of the instabilities is shown to be substantial. The potential flow subject to axial fields becomes unstable against axisymmetric perturbations for a certain supercritical value of the averaged Reynolds number Rm bar =√{ Re ṡ Rm } (with Re the Reynolds number of rotation, Rm its magnetic Reynolds number). Rotation profiles as flat as the quasi-Keplerian rotation law scale similarly but only for Pm ≫ 1 while for Pm ≪ 1 the instability instead sets in for supercritical Rm at an optimal value of the magnetic field. Among the considered instabilities of azimuthal fields, those of the Chandrasekhar-type, where the background field and the background flow have identical radial profiles, are particularly interesting. They are unstable against nonaxisymmetric perturbations if at least one of the diffusivities is non-zero. For Pm ≪ 1 the onset of the instability scales with Re while it scales with Rm bar for Pm ≫ 1. Even superrotation can be destabilized by azimuthal and current-free magnetic fields; this recently discovered nonaxisymmetric instability is of a double-diffusive character, thus excluding Pm = 1. It scales with Re for Pm → 0 and with Rm for Pm → ∞. The presented results allow the construction of several new experiments with liquid metals as the conducting fluid. Some of them are described here and their results will be discussed together with relevant diversifications of
On the impact of atmospheric thermal stability on the characteristics of nocturnal downslope flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, Z. J.; Garratt, J. R.; Segal, M.; Pielke, R. A.
1990-04-01
The impacts of background (or ambient) and local atmospheric thermal stabilities, and slope steepness, on nighttime thermally induced downslope flow in meso-β domains (i.e., 20 200 km horizontal extent) have been investigated using analytical and numerical model approaches. Good agreement between the analytical and numerical evaluations was found. It was concluded that: (i) as anticipated, the intensity of the downslope flow increases with increased slope steepness, although the depth of the downslope flow was found to be insensitive to slope steepness in the studied situations; (ii) the intensity of the downslope flow is generally independent of background atmospheric thermal stability; (iii) for given integrated nighttime cooling across the nocturnal boundary layer (NBL), Q s the local atmospheric thermal stability exerts a strong influence on downslope flow behavior: the downslope flow intensity increases when local atmospheric thermal stability increases; and (iv) the downslope flow intensity is proportional to Q s 1/2.
Study of Plasma Flow Modes in Imploding Nested Arrays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mitrofanov, K. N.; Aleksandrov, V. V.; Gritsuk, A. N.; Branitsky, A. V.; Frolov, I. N.; Grabovski, E. V.; Sasorov, P. V.; Ol'khovskaya, O. G.; Zaitsev, V. I.
2018-02-01
Results from experimental studies of implosion of nested wire and fiber arrays at currents of up to 4 MA at the Angara-5-1 facility are presented. Depending on the ratio between the radii of the inner and outer arrays, different modes of the plasma flow in the space between the inner and outer arrays were implemented: the sub-Alfvénic ( V r < V A ) and super-Alfvénic ( V r > V A ) modes and a mode with the formation of the transition shock wave (SW) region between the cascades. By varying the material of the outer array (tungsten wires or kapron fibers), it is shown that the plasma flow mode between the inner and outer arrays depends on the ratio between the plasma production rates ṁ in / ṁ out in the inner and outer arrays. The obtained experimental results are compared with the results of one-dimensional MHD simulation of the plasma flow between the arrays. Stable implosion of the inner array plasma was observed in experiments with combined nested arrays consisting of a fiber outer array and a tungsten inner array. The growth rates of magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instability in the inner array plasma at different numbers of fibers in the outer array and different ratios between the radii of the inner and outer arrays are compared. Suppression of MRT instability during the implosion of the inner array plasma results in the formation of a stable compact Z-pinch and generation of a soft X-ray pulse. A possible scenario of interaction between the plasmas of the inner and outer arrays is offered. The stability of the inner array plasma in the stage of final compression depends on the character of interaction of plasma jets from the outer array with the magnetic field of the inner array.
A survey of the role of thermodynamic stability in viscous flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Horne, W. C.; Smith, C. A.; Karamcheti, K.
1991-01-01
The stability of near-equilibrium states has been studied as a branch of the general field of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. By treating steady viscous flow as an open thermodynamic system, nonequilibrium principles such as the condition of minimum entropy-production rate for steady, near-equilibrium processes can be used to generate flow distributions from variational analyses. Examples considered in this paper are steady heat conduction, channel flow, and unconstrained three-dimensional flow. The entropy-production-rate condition has also been used for hydrodynamic stability criteria, and calculations of the stability of a laminar wall jet support this interpretation.
Hydrostatic calculations of axisymmetric flow and its stability for the AGCE model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, T. L.; Gall, R. L.
1981-01-01
Baroclinic waves in the atmospherics general circulation experiment (AGCE) apparatus by the use of numerical hydrostatic primitive equation models were determined. The calculation is accomplished by using an axisymmetric primitive equation model to compute, for a given set of experimental parameters, a steady state axisymmetric flow and then testing this axisymmetric flow for stability using a linear primitive equation model. Some axisymmetric flows are presented together with preliminary stability calculations.
Impact of asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation on protein aggregates stability.
Bria, Carmen R M; Williams, S Kim Ratanathanawongs
2016-09-23
The impact of asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) on protein aggregate species is investigated with the aid of multiangle light scattering (MALS) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The experimental parameters probed in this study include aggregate stability in different carrier liquids, shear stress (related to sample injection), sample concentration (during AF4 focusing), and sample dilution (during separation). Two anti-streptavidin (anti-SA) IgG1 samples composed of low and high molar mass (M) aggregates are subjected to different AF4 conditions. Aggregates suspended and separated in phosphate buffer are observed to dissociate almost entirely to monomer. However, aggregates in citric acid buffer are partially stable with dissociation to 25% and 5% monomer for the low and high M samples, respectively. These results demonstrate that different carrier liquids change the aggregate stability and low M aggregates can behave differently than their larger counterparts. Increasing the duration of the AF4 focusing step showed no significant changes in the percent monomer, percent aggregates, or the average Ms in either sample. Syringe-induced shear related to sample injection resulted in an increase in hydrodynamic diameter (dh) as measured by batch mode DLS. Finally, calculations showed that dilution during AF4 separation is significantly lower than in size exclusion chromatography with dilution occurring mainly at the AF4 channel outlet and not during the separation. This has important ramifications when analyzing aggregates that rapidly dissociate (<∼2s) upon dilution as the size calculated by AF4 theory may be more accurate than that measured by online DLS. Experimentally, the dhs determined by online DLS generally agreed with AF4 theory except for the more well retained larger aggregates for which DLS showed smaller sizes. These results highlight the importance of using AF4 retention theory to understand the impacts of dilution on analytes. Copyright
Stability in Young Infants' Discrimination of Optic Flow
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gilmore, Rick O.; Baker, Thomas J.; Grobman, K. H.
2004-01-01
Although considerable progress has been made in understanding how adults perceive their direction of self-motion, or heading, from optic flow, little is known about how these perceptual processes develop in infants. In 3 experiments, the authors explored how well 3- to 6-month-old infants could discriminate between optic flow patterns that…
Non Lyapunov stability of a constant spatially developing 2-D gas flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balint, Agneta M.; Balint, Stefan; Tanasie, Loredana
2017-01-01
Different types of stabilities (global, local) and instabilities (global absolute, local convective) of the constant spatially developing 2-D gas flow are analyzed in a particular phase space of continuously differentiable functions, endowed with the usual algebraic operations and the topology generated by the uniform convergence on the plane. For this purpose the Euler equations linearized at the constant flow are used. The Lyapunov stability analysis was presented in [1] and this paper is a continuation of [1].
The Effect of Symmetry on the Hydrodynamic Stability of and Bifurcation from Planar Shear Flows
1990-12-01
Effect of Symmetry on the Hydrodynamic Stability of ant Bifurcation from Planar Shear Flows AFOSR-88-0196 6. AUTHOR(S) 61102F 2304/A4 Thomas J. Bridges 7...December 1990 The Effect of Symmetry on the Hydrodynamic Stability of and Bifurcation from Planar Shear Flows TIIhOMAS J. BIUDGES MATl EM ATIc(AL...spatial stabili’.y into the nonlinear regime and a theory for spa- tial Hopf bifurcation , spatial Floquet theory, wavelength doubling and spatially quasi
Boundary-Layer Stability Analysis of the Mean Flows Obtained Using Unstructured Grids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liao, Wei; Malik, Mujeeb R.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Li, Fei; Nielsen, Eric J.; Buning, Pieter G.; Chang, Chau-Lyan; Choudhari, Meelan M.
2012-01-01
Boundary-layer stability analyses of mean flows extracted from unstructured-grid Navier- Stokes solutions have been performed. A procedure has been developed to extract mean flow profiles from the FUN3D unstructured-grid solutions. Extensive code-to-code validations have been performed by comparing the extracted mean ows as well as the corresponding stability characteristics to the predictions based on structured-grid solutions. Comparisons are made on a range of problems from a simple at plate to a full aircraft configuration-a modified Gulfstream-III with a natural laminar flow glove. The future aim of the project is to extend the adjoint-based design capability in FUN3D to include natural laminar flow and laminar flow control by integrating it with boundary-layer stability analysis codes, such as LASTRAC.
Stability of boundary layer flow based on energy gradient theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dou, Hua-Shu; Xu, Wenqian; Khoo, Boo Cheong
2018-05-01
The flow of the laminar boundary layer on a flat plate is studied with the simulation of Navier-Stokes equations. The mechanisms of flow instability at external edge of the boundary layer and near the wall are analyzed using the energy gradient theory. The simulation results show that there is an overshoot on the velocity profile at the external edge of the boundary layer. At this overshoot, the energy gradient function is very large which results in instability according to the energy gradient theory. It is found that the transverse gradient of the total mechanical energy is responsible for the instability at the external edge of the boundary layer, which induces the entrainment of external flow into the boundary layer. Within the boundary layer, there is a maximum of the energy gradient function near the wall, which leads to intensive flow instability near the wall and contributes to the generation of turbulence.
The Stability of Particulate Ladden Laminar Boundary-Layer Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Acrivos, Andreas
1996-01-01
During the course of this investigation, the following two topics were studied theoretically: (1) forced convection and sedimentation past a flat plate, and (2) the effect of rain on airfoil performance. The prototype of the first topic is that of air flowing past the wing section of an aircraft under heavy rain and high windshear. The long-range objective of this project was to identify the various factors determining the dynamics of the flow and then to develop a theoretical framework for modeling such systems. The second topic focused on the idea that the presence of the gas-liquid interface (being the air flow around the airfoil and the thin liquid film created by the rain) accelerates flow separation and thus induces performance losses.
Acoustic Streaming in Microgravity: Flow Stability and Heat Transfer Enhancement
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Trinh, E. H.
1999-01-01
Experimental results are presented for drops and bubbles levitated in a liquid host, with particular attention given to the effect of shape oscillations and capillary waves on the local flow fields. Some preliminary results are also presented on the use of streaming flows for the control of evaporation rate and rotation of electrostatically levitated droplets in 1 g. The results demonstrate the potential for the technological application of acoustic methods to active control of forced convection in microgravity.
Influence analysis of fluctuation parameters on flow stability based on uncertainty method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meng, Tao; Fan, Shangchun; Wang, Chi; Shi, Huichao
2018-05-01
The relationship between flow fluctuation and pressure in a flow facility is studied theoretically and experimentally in this paper, and a method for measuring the flow fluctuation is proposed. According to the synchronicity of pressure and flow fluctuation, the amplitude of the flow fluctuation is calculated using the pressure measured in the flow facility and measurement of the flow fluctuation in a wide range of frequency is realized. Based on the method proposed, uncertainty analysis is used to evaluate the influences of different parameters on the flow fluctuation by the help of a sample-based stochastic model established and the parameters that have great influence are found, which can be a reference for the optimization design and the stability improvement of the flow facility.
The Influence of Plant Root Systems on Subsurface Flow: Implications for Slope Stability
Although research has explained how plant roots mechanically stabilize soils, in this article we explore how root systems create networks of preferential flow and thus influence water pressures in soils to trigger landslides. Root systems may alter subsurface flow: Hydrological m...
Long arc stabilities with various arc gas flow rates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maruyama, K.; Takeda, K.; Sugimoto, M.; Noguchi, Y.
2014-11-01
A new arc torch for use in magnetically driven arc device was developed with a commercially available TIG welding arc torch. The torch has a water-cooling system to the torch nozzle and has a nozzle nut to supply a swirling-free plasma gas flow. Its endurance against arc thermal load is examined. Features of its generated arc are investigated.
Boundary layers and global stability of laboratory quasi-Keplerian flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Edlund, E. M.; Ji, H.
2013-11-01
Studies in the HTX device at PPPL, a modified Taylor-Couette experiment, have demonstrated a robust stability of astrophysically relevant, quasi-Keplerian flows. Independent rings on the axial boundary can be used to fine tune the rotation profile, allowing ideal Couette rotation to be achieved over nearly the entire radial gap. Fluctuation levels in these flows are observed to be at nearly the noise floor of the laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) diagnostic, in agreement with prior studies under similar conditions. Deviations from optimal operating parameters illustrate the importance of centrifugally unstable boundary layers in Taylor-Couette devices of the classical configuration where the axial boundaries rotate with the outer cylinder. The global stability of nearly ideal-Couette flows, with implications for astrophysical systems, will be discussed in light of the global stability of these flows with respect to externally applied perturbations of large magnitude.
Brown, Lynette; Green, Cherie L; Jones, Nicholas; Stewart, Jennifer J; Fraser, Stephanie; Howell, Kathy; Xu, Yuanxin; Hill, Carla G; Wiwi, Christopher A; White, Wendy I; O'Brien, Peter J; Litwin, Virginia
2015-03-01
The objective of this manuscript is to present an approach for evaluating specimen stability for flow cytometric methods used during drug development. While this approach specifically addresses stability assessment for assays to be used in clinical trials with centralized testing facilities, the concepts can be applied to any stability assessment for flow cytometric methods. The proposed approach is implemented during assay development and optimization, and includes suggestions for designing a stability assessment plan, data evaluation and acceptance criteria. Given that no single solution will be applicable in all scenarios, this manuscript offers the reader a roadmap for stability assessment and is intended to guide the investigator during both the method development phase and in the experimental design of the validation plan. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Stability results for multi-layer radial Hele-Shaw and porous media flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gin, Craig; Daripa, Prabir
2015-01-01
Motivated by stability problems arising in the context of chemical enhanced oil recovery, we perform linear stability analysis of Hele-Shaw and porous media flows in radial geometry involving an arbitrary number of immiscible fluids. Key stability results obtained and their relevance to the stabilization of fingering instability are discussed. Some of the key results, among many others, are (i) absolute upper bounds on the growth rate in terms of the problem data; (ii) validation of these upper bound results against exact computation for the case of three-layer flows; (iii) stability enhancing injection policies; (iv) asymptotic limits that reduce these radial flow results to similar results for rectilinear flows; and (v) the stabilizing effect of curvature of the interfaces. Multi-layer radial flows have been found to have the following additional distinguishing features in comparison to rectilinear flows: (i) very long waves, some of which can be physically meaningful, are stable; and (ii) eigenvalues can be complex for some waves depending on the problem data, implying that the dispersion curves for one or more waves can contact each other. Similar to the rectilinear case, these results can be useful in providing insight into the interfacial instability transfer mechanism as the problem data are varied. Moreover, these can be useful in devising smart injection policies as well as controlling the complexity of the long-term dynamics when drops of various immiscible fluids intersperse among each other. As an application of the upper bound results, we provide stabilization criteria and design an almost stable multi-layer system by adding many layers of fluid with small positive jumps in viscosity in the direction of the basic flow.
Analysis of a Stabilized CNLF Method with Fast Slow Wave Splittings for Flow Problems
Jiang, Nan; Tran, Hoang A.
2015-04-01
In this work, we study Crank-Nicolson leap-frog (CNLF) methods with fast-slow wave splittings for Navier-Stokes equations (NSE) with a rotation/Coriolis force term, which is a simplification of geophysical flows. We propose a new stabilized CNLF method where the added stabilization completely removes the method's CFL time step condition. A comprehensive stability and error analysis is given. We also prove that for Oseen equations with the rotation term, the unstable mode (for which u(n+1) + u(n-1) equivalent to 0) of CNLF is asymptotically stable. Numerical results are provided to verify the stability and the convergence of the methods.
Albatsh, Fadi M; Ahmad, Shameem; Mekhilef, Saad; Mokhlis, Hazlie; Hassan, M A
2015-01-01
This study examines a new approach to selecting the locations of unified power flow controllers (UPFCs) in power system networks based on a dynamic analysis of voltage stability. Power system voltage stability indices (VSIs) including the line stability index (LQP), the voltage collapse proximity indicator (VCPI), and the line stability index (Lmn) are employed to identify the most suitable locations in the system for UPFCs. In this study, the locations of the UPFCs are identified by dynamically varying the loads across all of the load buses to represent actual power system conditions. Simulations were conducted in a power system computer-aided design (PSCAD) software using the IEEE 14-bus and 39- bus benchmark power system models. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. When the UPFCs are placed in the locations obtained with the new approach, the voltage stability improves. A comparison of the steady-state VSIs resulting from the UPFCs placed in the locations obtained with the new approach and with particle swarm optimization (PSO) and differential evolution (DE), which are static methods, is presented. In all cases, the UPFC locations given by the proposed approach result in better voltage stability than those obtained with the other approaches.
Albatsh, Fadi M.; Ahmad, Shameem; Mekhilef, Saad; Mokhlis, Hazlie; Hassan, M. A.
2015-01-01
This study examines a new approach to selecting the locations of unified power flow controllers (UPFCs) in power system networks based on a dynamic analysis of voltage stability. Power system voltage stability indices (VSIs) including the line stability index (LQP), the voltage collapse proximity indicator (VCPI), and the line stability index (Lmn) are employed to identify the most suitable locations in the system for UPFCs. In this study, the locations of the UPFCs are identified by dynamically varying the loads across all of the load buses to represent actual power system conditions. Simulations were conducted in a power system computer-aided design (PSCAD) software using the IEEE 14-bus and 39- bus benchmark power system models. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. When the UPFCs are placed in the locations obtained with the new approach, the voltage stability improves. A comparison of the steady-state VSIs resulting from the UPFCs placed in the locations obtained with the new approach and with particle swarm optimization (PSO) and differential evolution (DE), which are static methods, is presented. In all cases, the UPFC locations given by the proposed approach result in better voltage stability than those obtained with the other approaches. PMID:25874560
Stability of a non-orthogonal stagnation flow to three dimensional disturbances
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lasseigne, D. G.; Jackson, T. L.
1991-01-01
A similarity solution for a low Mach number nonorthogonal flow impinging on a hot or cold plate is presented. For the constant density case, it is known that the stagnation point shifts in the direction of the incoming flow and that this shift increases as the angle of attack decreases. When the effects of density variations are included, a critical plate temperature exists; above this temperature the stagnation point shifts away from the incoming stream as the angle is decreased. This flow field is believed to have application to the reattachment zone of certain separated flows or to a lifting body at a high angle of attack. Finally, the stability of this nonorthogonal flow to self similar, 3-D disturbances is examined. Stability properties of the flow are given as a function of the parameters of this study; ratio of the plate temperature to that of the outer potential flow and angle of attack. In particular, it is shown that the angle of attack can be scaled out by a suitable definition of an equivalent wavenumber and temporal growth rate, and the stability problem for the nonorthogonal case is identical to the stability problem for the orthogonal case.
Electrostatic stability of electron-positron plasmas in dipole geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mishchenko, Alexey; Plunk, Gabriel G.; Helander, Per
2018-04-01
The electrostatic stability of electron-positron plasmas is investigated in the point-dipole and Z-pinch limits of dipole geometry. The kinetic dispersion relation for sub-bounce-frequency instabilities is derived and solved. For the zero-Debye-length case, the stability diagram is found to exhibit singular behaviour. However, when the Debye length is non-zero, a fluid mode appears, which resolves the observed singularity, and also demonstrates that both the temperature and density gradients can drive instability. It is concluded that a finite Debye length is necessary to determine the stability boundaries in parameter space. Landau damping is investigated at scales sufficiently smaller than the Debye length, where instability is absent.
Special Course on Stability and Transition of Laminar Flow
1984-06-01
10"^ ; the high values of T, such as those used by HALL and HISLOP , are achieved by installing grids just upstream of the test section. Figure 16...1979, Springer Verlag ( 1980 ) "On the secondary motion induced by oscillations in a shear flow Phys. Fluids, 3, (1960) 656-657 "A non linear theory...SCHLICHTING wave by a sound wave" lUTAM Symposium on Laminar-Turbulent Transition, SUTTGART 1979, Springer Verlag ( 1980 ) "The influence of sound upon
Nonlinear Slewing Spacecraft Control Based on Exergy, Power Flow, and Static and Dynamic Stability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Robinett, Rush D.; Wilson, David G.
2009-10-01
This paper presents a new nonlinear control methodology for slewing spacecraft, which provides both necessary and sufficient conditions for stability by identifying the stability boundaries, rigid body modes, and limit cycles. Conservative Hamiltonian system concepts, which are equivalent to static stability of airplanes, are used to find and deal with the static stability boundaries: rigid body modes. The application of exergy and entropy thermodynamic concepts to the work-rate principle provides a natural partitioning through the second law of thermodynamics of power flows into exergy generator, dissipator, and storage for Hamiltonian systems that is employed to find the dynamic stability boundaries: limit cycles. This partitioning process enables the control system designer to directly evaluate and enhance the stability and performance of the system by balancing the power flowing into versus the power dissipated within the system subject to the Hamiltonian surface (power storage). Relationships are developed between exergy, power flow, static and dynamic stability, and Lyapunov analysis. The methodology is demonstrated with two illustrative examples: (1) a nonlinear oscillator with sinusoidal damping and (2) a multi-input-multi-output three-axis slewing spacecraft that employs proportional-integral-derivative tracking control with numerical simulation results.
Stability of Contact Lines in Fluids: 2D Stokes Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Yan; Tice, Ian
2018-02-01
In an effort to study the stability of contact lines in fluids, we consider the dynamics of an incompressible viscous Stokes fluid evolving in a two-dimensional open-top vessel under the influence of gravity. This is a free boundary problem: the interface between the fluid in the vessel and the air above (modeled by a trivial fluid) is free to move and experiences capillary forces. The three-phase interface where the fluid, air, and solid vessel wall meet is known as a contact point, and the angle formed between the free interface and the vessel is called the contact angle. We consider a model of this problem that allows for fully dynamic contact points and angles. We develop a scheme of a priori estimates for the model, which then allow us to show that for initial data sufficiently close to equilibrium, the model admits global solutions that decay to equilibrium exponentially quickly.
Crossflow Stability and Transition Experiments in Swept-Wing Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dagenhart, J. Ray; Saric, William S.
1999-01-01
An experimental examination of crossflow instability and transition on a 45deg swept wing was conducted in the Arizona State University Unsteady Wind Tunnel. The stationary-vortex pattern and transition location are visualized by using both sublimating chemical and liquid-crystal coatings. Extensive hot-wire measurements were obtained at several measurement stations across a single vortex track. The mean and travelling wave disturbances were measured simultaneously. Stationary crossflow disturbance profiles were determined by subtracting either a reference or a span-averaged velocity profile from the mean velocity data. Mean, stationary crossflow, and traveling wave velocity data were presented as local boundary layer profiles and contour plots across a single stationary crossflow vortex track. Disturbance mode profiles and growth rates were determined. The experimental data are compared with predictions from linear stability theory.
Stability of a jet in confined pressure-driven biphasic flows at low reynolds numbers.
Guillot, Pierre; Colin, Annie; Utada, Andrew S; Ajdari, Armand
2007-09-07
Motivated by its importance for microfluidic applications, we study the stability of jets formed by pressure-driven concentric biphasic flows in cylindrical capillaries. The specificity of this variant of the classical Rayleigh-Plateau instability is the role of the geometry which imposes confinement and Poiseuille flow profiles. We experimentally evidence a transition between situations where the flow takes the form of a jet and regimes where drops are produced. We describe this as the transition from convective to absolute instability, within a simple linear analysis using lubrication theory for flows at low Reynolds number, and reach remarkable agreement with the data.
On the effect of boundary layer growth on the stability of compressible flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
El-Hady, N. M.
1981-01-01
The method of multiple scales is used to describe a formally correct method based on the nonparallel linear stability theory, that examines the two and three dimensional stability of compressible boundary layer flows. The method is applied to the supersonic flat plate layer at Mach number 4.5. The theoretical growth rates are in good agreement with experimental results. The method is also applied to the infinite-span swept wing transonic boundary layer with suction to evaluate the effect of the nonparallel flow on the development of crossflow disturbances.
Stability of magnetohydrodynamic Dean Flow as applied to centrifugally confined plasmas
Hassam, A.B.
1999-10-01
Dean Flow is the azimuthal flow of fluid between static concentric cylinders. In a magnetized plasma, there may also be radial stratification of the pressure. The ideal magnetohydrodynamic stability of such a flow in the presence of a strong axial magnetic field and an added radial gravitational force is examined. It is shown that both the Kelvin{endash}Helmholtz instability and pressure-gradient-driven interchanges can be stabilized if the flow is driven by a unidirectional external force and if the plasma annulus is sufficiently thin (large aspect ratio). These results find application in schemes using centrifugal confinement of plasma for fusion. {copyright} {italmore » 1999 American Institute of Physics.}« less
Discharge stabilization studies of CO laser gas mixtures in quasi-steady supersonic flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Srinivasan, G.; Smith, J. A.
1976-01-01
Experiments were conducted to study the applicability of a double discharge stabilization scheme in conditions appropriate for high energy CO lasers in supersonic flows. A Ludwieg tube impulse flow facility and a ballasted capacitor bank provided essentially steady flow and discharge conditions (d.c.) for times longer than ten electrode length-flow transit times. Steady, arc-free, volume discharges were produced in a Mach 3 test cavity using an auxiliary discharge to stabilize the main discharge in N2 and He/CO mixture. A signigicant result is the lack of observed plasma E/N changes in response to auxiliary discharge current changes. Also, where glow discharges were obtained, the energy loading achieved was very much less than the threshold level required for laser operation.
Thermonuclear dynamo inside ultracentrifuge with supersonic plasma flow stabilization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Winterberg, F.
2016-01-01
Einstein's general theory of relativity implies the existence of virtual negative masses in the rotational reference frame of an ultracentrifuge with the negative mass density of the same order of magnitude as the positive mass density of a neutron star. In an ultracentrifuge, the repulsive gravitational field of this negative mass can simulate the attractive positive mass of a mini-neutron star, and for this reason can radially confine a dense thermonuclear plasma placed inside the centrifuge, very much as the positive mass of a star confines its plasma by its own attractive gravitational field. If the centrifuge is placed in an externally magnetic field to act as the seed field of a magnetohydrodynamic generator, the configuration resembles a magnetar driven by the release of energy through nuclear fusion, accelerating the plasma to supersonic velocities, with the magnetic field produced by the thermomagnetic Nernst effect insulating the hot plasma from the cold wall of the centrifuge. Because of the supersonic flow and the high plasma density the configuration is stable.
Thermonuclear dynamo inside ultracentrifuge with supersonic plasma flow stabilization
Winterberg, F.
Einstein's general theory of relativity implies the existence of virtual negative masses in the rotational reference frame of an ultracentrifuge with the negative mass density of the same order of magnitude as the positive mass density of a neutron star. In an ultracentrifuge, the repulsive gravitational field of this negative mass can simulate the attractive positive mass of a mini-neutron star, and for this reason can radially confine a dense thermonuclear plasma placed inside the centrifuge, very much as the positive mass of a star confines its plasma by its own attractive gravitational field. If the centrifuge is placed inmore » an externally magnetic field to act as the seed field of a magnetohydrodynamic generator, the configuration resembles a magnetar driven by the release of energy through nuclear fusion, accelerating the plasma to supersonic velocities, with the magnetic field produced by the thermomagnetic Nernst effect insulating the hot plasma from the cold wall of the centrifuge. Because of the supersonic flow and the high plasma density the configuration is stable.« less
Study on interfacial stability and internal flow of a droplet levitated by ultrasonic wave.
Abe, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Yuji; Hyuga, Daisuke; Awazu, Shigeru; Aoki, Kazuyoshi
2009-04-01
For a microgravity environment, new and high-quality material is expected to be manufactured. However, the effect of surface instability and the internal flow become significant when the droplet becomes large. Elucidation of internal flow and surface instability on a levitated droplet is required for the quality improvement of new material manufacturing in a microgravity environment. The objectives of this study are to clarify the interfacial stability and internal flow of a levitated droplet. Surface instability and internal flow are investigated with a large droplet levitated by the ultrasonic acoustic standing wave. The experiment with a large droplet is conducted both under normal gravity and microgravity environments. In the experiment, at first, the characteristics of the levitated droplet are investigated; that is, the relationships among the levitated droplet diameter, the droplet aspect ratio, the displacement of the antinode of the standing wave, and the sound pressure are experimentally measured. As a result, it is clarified that the levitated droplet tends to be located at an optimal position with an optimal shape and diameter. Second, the border condition between the stable and the unstable levitation of the droplet is evaluated by using the existing stability theory. The experimental results qualitatively agree with the theory. It is suggested that the stability of the droplet can be evaluated with the stability theory. Finally, multidimensional visual measurement is conducted to investigate the internal flow structure in a levitated droplet. It is suggested that complex flow with the vortex is generated in the levitated droplet. Moreover, the effect of physical properties of the test fluid on the internal flow structure of the levitated droplet is investigated. As a result, the internal flow structure of the levitated droplet is affected by the surface tension and viscosity.
Stability of surface plastic flow in large strain deformation of metals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Viswanathan, Koushik; Udapa, Anirduh; Sagapuram, Dinakar; Mann, James; Chandrasekar, Srinivasan
We examine large-strain unconstrained simple shear deformation in metals using a model two-dimensional cutting system and high-speed in situ imaging. The nature of the deformation mode is shown to be a function of the initial microstructure state of the metal and the deformation geometry. For annealed metals, which exhibit large ductility and strain hardening capacity, the commonly assumed laminar flow mode is inherently unstable. Instead, the imposed shear is accommodated by a highly rotational flow-sinuous flow-with vortex-like components and large-amplitude folding on the mesoscale. Sinuous flow is triggered by a plastic instability on the material surface ahead of the primary region of shear. On the other hand, when the material is extensively strain-hardened prior to shear, laminar flow again becomes unstable giving way to shear banding. The existence of these flow modes is established by stability analysis of laminar flow. The role of the initial microstructure state in determining the change in stability from laminar to sinuous / shear-banded flows in metals is elucidated. The implications for cutting, forming and wear processes for metals, and to surface plasticity phenomena such as mechanochemical Rehbinder effects are discussed.
Plasma Density Effects on Toroidal Flow Stabilization of Edge Localized Modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Shikui; Zhu, Ping; Banerjee, Debabrata
2016-10-01
Recent EAST experiments have demonstrated mitigation and suppression of edge localized modes (ELMs) with toroidal rotation flow in higher collisionality regime, suggesting potential roles of plasma density. In this work, the effects of plasma density on the toroidal flow stabilization of the high- n edge localized modes have been extensively studied in linear calculations for a circular-shaped limiter H-mode tokamak, using the initial-value extended MHD code NIMROD. In the single MHD model, toroidal flow has a weak stabilizing effects on the high- n modes. Such a stabilization, however, can be significantly enhanced with the increase in plasma density. Furthermore, our calculations show that the enhanced stabilization of high- n modes from toroidal flow with higher edge plasma density persists in the 2-fluid MHD model. These findings may explain the ELM mitigation and suppression by toroidal rotation in higher collisionality regime due to the enhancement of plasma density obtained in EAST experiment. Supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Program of China under Grant Nos. 2014GB124002 and 2015GB101004, the 100 Talent Program and the President International Fellowship Initiative of Chinese Academy of Sciences.
Equilibrium and stability of flow-dominated Plasmas in the Big Red Ball
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Siller, Robert; Flanagan, Kenneth; Peterson, Ethan; Milhone, Jason; Mirnov, Vladimir; Forest, Cary
2017-10-01
The equilibrium and linear stability of flow-dominated plasmas are studied numerically using a spectral techniques to model MRI and dynamo experiments in the Big Red Ball device. The equilibrium code solves for steady-state magnetic fields and plasma flows subject to boundary conditions in a spherical domain. It has been benchmarked with NIMROD (non-ideal MHD with rotation - open discussion), Two different flow scenarios are studied. The first scenario creates a differentially rotating toroidal flow that is peaked at the center. This is done to explore the onset of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in a spherical geometry. The second scenario creates a counter-rotating von Karman-like flow in the presence of a weak magnetic field. This is done to explore the plasma dynamo instability in the limit of a weak applied field. Both scenarios are numerically modeled as axisymmetric flow to create a steady-state equilibrium solution, the stability and normal modes are studied in the lowest toroidal mode number. The details of the observed flow, and the structure of the fastest growing modes will be shown. DoE, NSF.
The inviscid stability of supersonic flow past heated or cooled axisymmetric bodies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shaw, Stephen J.; Duck, Peter W.
1992-01-01
The inviscid, linear, nonaxisymmetric, temporal stability of the boundary layer associated with the supersonic flow past axisymmetric bodies (with particular emphasis on long thin, straight circular cylinders), subject to heated or cooled wall conditions is investigated. The eigenvalue problem is computed in some detail for a particular Mach number or 3.8, revealing that the effect of curvature and the choice of wall conditions both have a significant effect on the stability of the flow. Both the asymptotic, large azimuthal wavenumber solution and the asymptotic, far downstream solution are obtained for the stability analysis and compared with numerical results. Additionally, asymptotic analyses valid for large radii of curvature with cooled/heated wall conditions are presented. In general, important differences were found to exist between the wall temperature conditions imposed and the adiabatic wall conditions considered previously.
Stability and dynamical properties of material flow systems on random networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anand, K.; Galla, T.
2009-04-01
The theory of complex networks and of disordered systems is used to study the stability and dynamical properties of a simple model of material flow networks defined on random graphs. In particular we address instabilities that are characteristic of flow networks in economic, ecological and biological systems. Based on results from random matrix theory, we work out the phase diagram of such systems defined on extensively connected random graphs, and study in detail how the choice of control policies and the network structure affects stability. We also present results for more complex topologies of the underlying graph, focussing on finitely connected Erdös-Réyni graphs, Small-World Networks and Barabási-Albert scale-free networks. Results indicate that variability of input-output matrix elements, and random structures of the underlying graph tend to make the system less stable, while fast price dynamics or strong responsiveness to stock accumulation promote stability.
An Novel Continuation Power Flow Method Based on Line Voltage Stability Index
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Jianfang; He, Yuqing; He, Hongbin; Jiang, Zhuohan
2018-01-01
An novel continuation power flow method based on line voltage stability index is proposed in this paper. Line voltage stability index is used to determine the selection of parameterized lines, and constantly updated with the change of load parameterized lines. The calculation stages of the continuation power flow decided by the angle changes of the prediction of development trend equation direction vector are proposed in this paper. And, an adaptive step length control strategy is used to calculate the next prediction direction and value according to different calculation stages. The proposed method is applied clear physical concept, and the high computing speed, also considering the local characteristics of voltage instability which can reflect the weak nodes and weak area in a power system. Due to more fully to calculate the PV curves, the proposed method has certain advantages on analysing the voltage stability margin to large-scale power grid.
The inviscid stability of supersonic flow past heated or cooled axisymmetric bodies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shaw, Stephen J.; Duck, Peter W.
1990-01-01
The inviscid, linear, nonaxisymmetric, temporal stability of the boundary layer associated with the supersonic flow past axisymmetric bodies (with particular emphasis on long thin, straight circular cylinders), subject to heated or cooled wall conditions is investigated. The eigenvalue problem is computed in some detail for a particular Mach number or 3.8, revealing that the effect of curvature and the choice of wall conditions both have a significant effect on the stability of the flow. Both the asymptotic, large azimuthal wavenumber solution and the asymptotic, far downstream solution are obtained for the stability analysis and compared with numerical results. Additionally, asymptotic analyses valid for large radii of curvature with cooled/heated wall conditions, are presented. In general, important differences were found to exist between the wall temperature conditions imposed and the adiabatic wall conditions considered previously.
The effects of viscosity on the stability of a trailing-line vortex in compressible flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stott, Jillian A. K.; Duck, Peter W.
1994-01-01
We consider the effects of viscosity on the inviscid stability of the Batchelor vortex in a compressible flow. The problem is tackled asymptotically, in the limit of large (streamwise and azimuthal) wavenumbers, together with large Mach numbers. Previous studies, with viscous effects neglected, found that the nature of the solution passes through different regimes as the Mach number increases, relative to the wavenumber. This structure persists when viscous effects are included in the analysis. In the present study the mode present in the incompressible case ceases to be unstable at high Mach numbers and a center mode forms, whose stability characteristics are determined primarily by conditions close to the vortex axis. We find generally that viscosity has a stabilizing influence on the flow, while in the case of center modes, viscous effects become important at much larger Reynolds numbers than for the first class of disturbance.
Laboratory Study of MHD Effects on Stability of Free-surface Liquid Metal Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burin, M. J.; Ji, H.; McMurtry, K.; Peterson, L.; Giannakis, D.; Rosner, R.; Fischer, P.
2006-10-01
The dynamics of free-surface MHD shear flows is potentially important to both astrophysics (e.g. in the mixing of dense plasma accreted upon neutron star surfaces) and fusion reactors (e.g. in liquid metal ‘first walls’). To date however few relevant experiments exist. In order to study the fundamental physics of such flows, a small-scale laboratory experiment is being built using a liquid gallium alloy flowing in an open- channel geometry. The flow dimensions are nominally 10cm wide, 1cm deep, and 70cm long under an imposed magnetic field up to 7kG, leading to maximum Hartman number of 2000 and maximum Reynolds number of 4x10^5. Two basic physics issues will ultimately be addressed: (1) How do MHD effects modify the stability of the free surface? For example, is the flow more stable (through the suppression of cross-field motions), or less stable (through the introduction of new boundary layers)? We also investigate whether internal shear layers and imposed electric currents can control the surface stability. (2) How do MHD effects modify free-surface convection driven by a vertical and/or horizontal temperature gradient? We discuss aspects of both of these issues, along with detailed descriptions of the experimental device. Pertinent theoretical stability analyses and initial hydrodynamic results are presented in companion posters. This work is supported by DoE under contract #DE-AC02-76-CH03073.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luzzatto-Fegiz, Paolo
2011-11-01
Steady fluid solutions play a special role in the dynamics of a flow: stable states may be realized in practice, while unstable ones may act as attractors. Unfortunately, determining stability is often a process far more laborious than finding steady states; indeed, even for simple vortex or wave flows, stability properties have often been the subject of debate. We consider here a stability idea originating with Lord Kelvin (1876), which involves using the second variation of the energy, δ2 E , to establish bounds on a perturbation. However, for numerically obtained flows, computing δ2 E explicitly is often not feasible. To circumvent this issue, Saffman & Szeto (1980) proposed an argument linking changes in δ2 E to turning points in a bifurcation diagram, for families of steady flows. Later work has shown that this argument is unreliable; the two key issues are associated with the absence of a formal turning-point theory, and with the inability to detect bifurcations (Dritschel 1995, and references therein). In this work, we build on ideas from bifurcation theory, and link turning points in a velocity-impulse diagram to changes in δ2 E ; in addition, this diagram delivers the direction of the change of δ2 E , thereby providing information as to whether stability is gained or lost. To detect hidden solution branches, we introduce to these fluid problems concepts from imperfection theory. The resulting approach, involving ``imperfect velocity-impulse'' diagrams, leads us to new and surprising results for a wide range of fundamental vortex and wave flows; we mention here the calculation of the first steady vortices without any symmetry, and the uncovering of the complete solution structure for vortex pairs. In addition, we find precise agreement with available results from linear stability analysis. Doctoral work advised by C.H.K. Williamson at Cornell University.
The inviscid axisymmetric stability of the supersonic flow along a circular cylinder
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Duck, Peter W.
1990-01-01
The supersonic flow past a thin straight circular cylinder is investigated. The associated boundary-layer flow (i.e. the velocity and temperature field) is computed; the asymptotic, far downstream solution is obtained, and compared with the full numerical results. The inviscid, linear, axisymmetric (temporal) stability of this boundary layer is also studied. A so-called 'doubly generalized' inflexion condition is derived, which is a condition for the existence of so-called 'subsonic' neutral modes. The eigenvalue problem (for the complex wavespeed) is computed for two free-stream Mach numbers (2.8 and 3.8), and this reveals that curvature has a profound effect on the stability of the flow. The first unstable inviscid mode is seen to disappear rapidly as curvature is introduced, while the second (and generally the most important) mode suffers a substantially reduced amplification rate.
The inviscid axisymmetric stability of the supersonic flow along a circular cylinder
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Duck, Peter W.
1989-01-01
The supersonic flow past a thin straight circular cylinder is investigated. The associated boundary layer flow (i.e., the velocity and temperature field) is computed; the asymptotic, far downstream solution is obtained, and compared with the full numerical results. The inviscid, linear, axisymmetric (temporal) stability of this boundary layer is also studied. A so called doubly generalized inflexion condition is derived, which is a condition for the existence of so called subsonic neutral modes. The eigenvalue problem (for the complex wavespeed) is computed for two freestream Mach numbers (2.8 and 3.8), and this reveals that curvature has a profound effect on the stability of the flow. The first unstable inviscid mode is seen to rapidly disappear as curvature is introduced, while the second (and generally the most important) mode suffers a substantially reduced amplification rate.
Baumberger, Bernard; Isableu, Brice; Flückiger, Michelangelo
2004-11-01
The aim of this research was to analyse the development of postural reactions to approaching (AOF) and receding (ROF) ground rectilinear optical flows. Optical flows were shaped by a pattern of circular spots of light projected on the ground surface by a texture flow generator. The geometrical structure of the projected scenes corresponded to the spatial organisation of visual flows encountered in open outdoor settings. Postural readjustments of 56 children, ranging from 7 to 11 years old, and 12 adults were recorded by the changes of the centre of foot pressure (CoP) on a force platform during 44-s exposures to the moving texture. Before and after the optical flows exposure, a 24-s motionless texture served as a reference condition. Effect of ground rectilinear optical flows on postural control development was assessed by analysing sway latencies (SL), stability performances and postural orientation. The main results that emerge from this experiment show that postural responses are directionally specific to optical flow pattern and that they vary as a function of the motion onset and offset. Results showed that greater developmental changes in postural control occurred in an AOF (both at the onset and offset of the optical flow) than in an ROF. Onset of an approaching flow induced postural instability, canonical shifts in postural orientation and long latencies in children which were stronger than in the receding flow. This pattern of responses evolved with age towards an improvement in stability performances and shorter SL. The backward decreasing shift of the CoP in children evolved in adults towards forward postural tilt, i.show $132#e. in the opposite direction of the texture's motion. Offset of an AOF motion induced very short SL in children (which became longer in adult subjects), strong postural instability, but weaker shift of orientation compared to the receding one. Postural stability improved and orientation shift evolved to forward inclinations with
Stability analysis for capillary channel flow: 1d and 3d computations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grah, Aleksander; Klatte, Jörg; Dreyer, Michael E.
The subject of the presentation are numerical studies on capillary channel flow, based on results of the sounding rocket TEXUS experiments. The flow through a capillary channel is established by a gear pump at the outlet. The channel, consists of two parallel glass plates with a width of 25 mm, a gap of 10 mm and a length of 12 mm. The meniscus of a compensation tube maintains a constant system pressure. Steady and dynamic pressure effects in the system force the surfaces to bend inwards. A maximum flow rate is achieved when the free surface collapses and gas ingestion occurs at the outlet. This critical flow rate depends on the channel geometry, the flow regime and the liquid properties. The aim of the experiments is the determination of the free surface shape and to find the maximum flow rate. In order to study the unsteady liquid loop behavior, a dimensionless one-dimensional model and a corresponding three-dimensional model were developed. The one-dimensional model is based on the unsteady Bernoulli equation, the unsteady continuity equation and geometrical conditions for the surface curvature and the flow cross-section. The experimental and evaluated contour data show good agreement for a sequence of transient flow rate perturbations. In the case of steady flow at maximum flow rate, when the "choking" effect occurs, the surfaces collapse and cause gas ingestion into the channel. This effect is related to the Speed Index. At the critical flow rate the Speed Index reaches the value 1, in analogy to the Mach Number. Unsteady choking does not necessarily cause surface collapse. We show, that temporarily Speed Index values exceeding One may be achieved for a perfectly stable supercritical dynamic flow. As a supercritical criterion for the dynamic free surface stability we define a Dynamic Index considering the local capillary pressure and the convective pressure, which is a function of the local velocity. The Dynamic Index is below One for stable flow while D = 1
Generalized Stability Analysis of Capillary Flow in Slender V-Grooves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
White, Nicholas; Troian, Sandra
2017-11-01
Spontaneous capillary flow, an especially rapid process in slender open microchannels resembling V-grooves, is of significant importance to many applications requiring passive robust flow control. Many types of biomedical devices for point-of-care use in developing countries are being designed around this principle. Important fundamental work by Romero and Yost (1996) and Weislogel (1996) elucidated the behavior of Newtonian films in slender V-grooves driven to flow by the streamwise change in capillary pressure due to the change in radius of curvature of the circular arc describing the interface of wetting or non-wetting fluids. Self-similar solutions describing Washburn type dynamics were found but other solutions are possible. Here we extend the Romero and Yost model to include a variety of inlet and outlet boundary conditions and examine the transient growth and generalized stability of perturbations to steady state and self-similar flows. Although most cases examined for wetting fluids exhibit robust stability against small perturbations, some exceptions reveal unstable flow. In total, these results support decades of experimental work which has found this method of flow control to be especially reliable, robust and self-healing. The authors gratefully acknowledge financial support from the 2016 NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory President's and Director's Fund as well as a 2017 NASA Space Technology Research Fellowship.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iyer, V.; Raj, A.; Annabattula, R. K.; Sen, A. K.
2015-07-01
This paper reports experimental and numerical studies of a passive microfluidic device that stabilizes a pulsating incoming flow and delivers a steady flow at the outlet. The device employs a series of chambers along the flow direction with a thin polymeric membrane (of thickness 75-250 µm) serving as the compliant boundary. The deformation of the membrane allows accumulation of fluid during an overflow and discharge of fluid during an underflow for flow stabilization. Coupled fluid-structure simulations are performed using Mooney-Rivlin formulations to account for a thin hyperelastic membrane material undergoing large deformations to accurately predict the device performance. The device was fabricated with PDMS as the substrate material and thin PDMS membrane as the compliant boundary. The performance of the device is defined in terms of a parameter called ‘Attenuation Factor (AF)’. The effect of various design parameters including membrane thickness, elastic modulus, chamber size and number of chambers in series as well as operating conditions including the outlet pressure, mean input flow rate, fluctuation amplitude and frequency on the device performance were studied using experiments and simulations. The simulation results successfully confront the experimental data (within 10%) which validates the numerical simulations. The device was used at the exit of a PZT actuated valveless micropump to take pulsating flow at the upstream and deliver steady flow downstream. The amplitude of the pulsating flow delivered by the micropump was significantly reduced (AF = 0.05 for a device with three 4 mm chambers) but at the expense of a reduction in the pressure capability (<20%). The proposed device could potentially be used for reducing flow pulsations in practical microfluidic circuits.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Geistlinger, H. W.; Samani, S.; Pohlert, M.; Jia, R.; Lazik, D.
2009-12-01
sequestration mechanisms. In order to investigate the stability of buoyancy-driven gas flow and the transition between coherent flow, incoherent flow, and their correlation to capillary trapping, we conducted high-resolution optical bench scale experiments. We observed a grain-size (dk) - and flow-rate (Q) dependent transition from incoherent to coherent flow. Based on core-annular flow (= cooperative pore-body filling), we propose a dynamic stability criterion that could describe our experimental results. Our experimental results for vertical gas flow support the experimental results by Lenormand et al. [1983] obtained for horizontal flow, if one takes into account that gravity leads to more unstable flow conditions. Our main results, which are in strong contradiction to the accepted conceptual model of the sloped aquifer, are: (1) Capillary Trapping can already occur during injection and at the front of the plume [Lazik et al., 2008] (2) Gas clusters or bubbles can be mobile (incoherent gas flow) and immobile (capillary trapping), and (3) Incoherent gas flow can not be described by a generalized Darcy law [Geistlinger et al., 2006, 2009].
On the linear stability of blood flow through model capillary networks.
Davis, Jeffrey M
2014-12-01
Under the approximation that blood behaves as a continuum, a numerical implementation is presented to analyze the linear stability of capillary blood flow through model tree and honeycomb networks that are based on the microvascular structures of biological tissues. The tree network is comprised of a cascade of diverging bifurcations, in which a parent vessel bifurcates into two descendent vessels, while the honeycomb network also contains converging bifurcations, in which two parent vessels merge into one descendent vessel. At diverging bifurcations, a cell partitioning law is required to account for the nonuniform distribution of red blood cells as a function of the flow rate of blood into each descendent vessel. A linearization of the governing equations produces a system of delay differential equations involving the discharge hematocrit entering each network vessel and leads to a nonlinear eigenvalue problem. All eigenvalues in a specified region of the complex plane are captured using a transformation based on contour integrals to construct a linear eigenvalue problem with identical eigenvalues, which are then determined using a standard QR algorithm. The predicted value of the dimensionless exponent in the cell partitioning law at the instability threshold corresponds to a supercritical Hopf bifurcation in numerical simulations of the equations governing unsteady blood flow. Excellent agreement is found between the predictions of the linear stability analysis and nonlinear simulations. The relaxation of the assumption of plug flow made in previous stability analyses typically has a small, quantitative effect on the stability results that depends on the specific network structure. This implementation of the stability analysis can be applied to large networks with arbitrary structure provided only that the connectivity among the network segments is known.
Flow-induced conformational changes in gelatin structure and colloidal stabilization.
Akbulut, Mustafa; Reddy, Naveen K; Bechtloff, Bernd; Koltzenburg, Sebastian; Vermant, Jan; Prud'homme, Robert K
2008-09-02
Flow can change the rate at which solutes adsorb on surfaces by changing mass transfer to the surface, but moreover, flow can induce changes in the conformation of macromolecules in solution by providing sufficient stresses to perturb the segmental distribution function. However, there are few studies where the effect of flow on macromolecules has been shown to alter the structure of macromolecules adsorbed on surfaces. We have studied how the local energy dissipation alters the adsorption of gelatin onto polystyrene nanoparticles ( r = 85 nm). The change in the nature of the adsorbed layer is manifest in the change in the ability of the nanoparticles to resist aggregation. Circular dichroism spectroscopy was used to assess conformational changes in gelatin, and dynamic light scattering was used to assess the colloid stability. Experiments were conducted in a vortex jet mixer where energy density and mixing times have been quantified; mixing of the gelatin and unstable nanoparticles occurs on the order of milliseconds. The adsorption of the gelatin provides steric stabilization to the nanoparticles. We found that the stability of the gelatin-adsorbed nanoparticles increased with increasing mixing velocities: when the mixing velocities were changed from 0.9 to 550 m/s, the radius of the nanoclusters (aggregates) formed 12 h after the mixing decreased from 2620 to 600 nm. Increasing temperature also gave rise to similar trends in the stability behavior with increasing temperature, leading to increasing colloid stability. Linear flow birefringence studies also suggested that the velocity fields in the mixer are sufficiently strong to produce conformational changes in the gelatin. These results suggest that the energy dissipation produced by mixing can activate conformational changes in gelatin to alter its adsorption on the surfaces of nanoparticles. Understanding how such conformational changes in gelatin can be driven by local fluid mechanics and how these changes
Stability of viscosity stratified flows down an incline: Role of miscibility and wall slip
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghosh, Sukhendu; Usha, R.
2016-10-01
The effects of wall velocity slip on the linear stability of a gravity-driven miscible two-fluid flow down an incline are examined. The fluids have the matched density but different viscosity. A smooth viscosity stratification is achieved due to the presence of a thin mixed layer between the fluids. The results show that the presence of slip exhibits a promise for stabilizing the miscible flow system by raising the critical Reynolds number at the onset and decreasing the bandwidth of unstable wave numbers beyond the threshold of the dominant instability. This is different from its role in the case of a single fluid down a slippery substrate where slip destabilizes the flow system at the onset. Though the stability properties are analogous to the same flow system down a rigid substrate, slip is shown to delay the surface mode instability for any viscosity contrast. It has a damping/promoting effect on the overlap modes (which exist due to the overlap of critical layer of dominant disturbance with the mixed layer) when the mixed layer is away/close from/to the slippery inclined wall. The trend of slip effect is influenced by the location of the mixed layer, the location of more viscous fluid, and the mass diffusivity of the two fluids. The stabilizing characteristics of slip can be favourably used to suppress the non-linear breakdown which may happen due to the coexistence of the unstable modes in a flow over a substrate with no slip. The results of the present study suggest that it is desirable to design a slippery surface with appropriate slip sensitivity in order to meet a particular need for a specific application.
Theoretical and Computational Studies of Stability, Transition and Flow Control in High-Speed Flows
2011-02-22
A. H. Nayfeh. Nonparallel stability of boundary layers with pressure gradients and suction. Technical Report AGARD - CP -224, 1977. [Squ33] H. B. Squire...only. µ = µr ( T Tr )3/2 Tr + Ts T + Ts , (2.13) 8 K = µcp Pr , (2.14) where µr = 1.7894 × 10−5 Ns/m2, Tr = 288.0 K, Ts = 110.33 K, and cp is the...fraction of species s Cpf = frozen specific heat, cal/g-mole-K Cp ,s = specific heat at constant pressure of species s, cal/g-mole Dij = binary diffusion
Steady-states for shear flows of a liquid-crystal model: Multiplicity, stability, and hysteresis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dorn, Tim; Liu, Weishi
In this work, we study shear flows of a fluid layer between two solid blocks via a liquid-crystal type model proposed in [C.H.A. Cheng, L.H. Kellogg, S. Shkoller, D.L. Turcotte, A liquid-crystal model for friction, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 21 (2007) 1-5] for an understanding of frictions. A characterization on the existence and multiplicity of steady-states is provided. Stability issue of the steady-states is examined mainly focusing on bifurcations of zero eigenvalues. The stability result suggests that this simple model exhibits hysteresis, and it is supported by a numerical simulation.
Stability analysis and wave dynamics of an extended hybrid traffic flow model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yu-Qing; Zhou, Chao-Fan; Li, Wei-Kang; Yan, Bo-Wen; Jia, Bin; Wang, Ji-Xin
2018-02-01
The stability analysis and wave dynamic properties of an extended hybrid traffic flow model, WZY model, are intensively studied in this paper. The linear stable condition obtained by the linear stability analysis is presented. Besides, by means of analyzing Korteweg-de Vries equation, we present soliton waves in the metastable region. Moreover, the multiscale perturbation technique is applied to derive the traveling wave solution of the model. Furthermore, by means of performing Darboux transformation, the first-order and second-order doubly-periodic solutions and rational solutions are presented. It can be found that analytical solutions match well with numerical simulations.
Stability of Gas Hydrates on Continental Margins: Implications of Subsurface Fluid Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nunn, J. A.
2008-12-01
Gas hydrates are found at or just below the sediment-ocean interface in continental margins settings throughout the world. They are also found on land in high latitude regions such as the north slope of Alaska. While gas hydrate occurrence is common, gas hydrates are stable under a fairly restricted range of temperatures and pressures. In a purely conductive thermal regime, near surface temperatures depend on basal heat flow, thermal conductivity of sediments, and temperature at the sediment-water or sediment-air interface. Thermal conductivity depends on porosity and sediment composition. Gas hydrates are most stable in areas of low heat flow and high thermal conductivity which produce low temperature gradients. Older margins with thin continental crust and coarse grained sediments would tend to be colder. Another potentially important control on subsurface temperatures is advective heat transport by recharge/discharge of groundwater. Upward fluid flow depresses temperature gradients over a purely conductive regime with the same heat flow which would make gas hydrates more stable. Downward fluid flow would have the opposite effect. However, regional scale fluid flow may substantially increase heat flow in discharge areas which would destabilize gas hydrates. For example, discharge of topographically driven groundwater along the coast in the Central North Slope of Alaska has increased surface heat flow in some areas by more than 50% over a purely conductive thermal regime. Fluid flow also alters the pressure regime which can affect gas hydrate stability. Modeling results suggest a positive feedback between gas hydrate formation/disassociation and fluid flow. Disassociation of gas hydrates or permafrost due to global warming could increase permeability. This could enhance fluid flow and associated heat transport causing a more rapid and/or more spatially extensive gas hydrate disassociation than predicted solely from conductive propagation of temporal changes in
Improved radical stability of viologen anolytes in aqueous organic redox flow batteries.
Hu, Bo; Tang, Yijie; Luo, Jian; Grove, Grant; Guo, Yisong; Liu, T Leo
2018-05-09
A high voltage (1.38 V) total organic aqueous redox flow battery is reported using 1,1'-bis[3-(trimethylammonio)propyl]-4,4'-bipyridinium tetrachloride ((NPr)2V) as an anolyte and 4-trimethylammonium-TEMPO chloride (NMe-TEMPO) as a catholyte. The exceptional radical stability of [(NPr)2V]+˙ enabled the flow battery in achieving 97.48% capacity retention for 500 cycles and a power density of 128.2 mW cm-2.
FLUT - A program for aeroelastic stability analysis. [of aircraft structures in subsonic flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, E. H.
1977-01-01
A computer program (FLUT) that can be used to evaluate the aeroelastic stability of aircraft structures in subsonic flow is described. The algorithm synthesizes data from a structural vibration analysis with an unsteady aerodynamics analysis and then performs a complex eigenvalue analysis to assess the system stability. The theoretical basis of the program is discussed with special emphasis placed on some innovative techniques which improve the efficiency of the analysis. User information needed to efficiently and successfully utilize the program is provided. In addition to identifying the required input, the flow of the program execution and some possible sources of difficulty are included. The use of the program is demonstrated with a listing of the input and output for a simple example.
Linear and nonlinear stability criteria for compressible MHD flows in a gravitational field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moawad, S. M.; Moawad
2013-10-01
The equilibrium and stability properties of ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) of compressible flow in a gravitational field with a translational symmetry are investigated. Variational principles for the steady-state equations are formulated. The MHD equilibrium equations are obtained as critical points of a conserved Lyapunov functional. This functional consists of the sum of the total energy, the mass, the circulation along field lines (cross helicity), the momentum, and the magnetic helicity. In the unperturbed case, the equilibrium states satisfy a nonlinear second-order partial differential equation (PDE) associated with hydrodynamic Bernoulli law. The PDE can be an elliptic or a parabolic equation depending on increasing the poloidal flow speed. Linear and nonlinear Lyapunov stability conditions under translational symmetric perturbations are established for the equilibrium states.
Stabilization of Taylor-Couette flow due to time-periodic outer cylinder oscillation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murray, B. T.; Mcfadden, G. B.; Coriell, S. R.
1990-01-01
The linear stability of circular Couette flow between concentric infinite cylinders is considered for the case when the inner cylinder is rotated at a constant angular velocity and the outer cylinder is driven sinusoidally in time with zero mean rotation. This configuration was studied experimentally by Walsh and Donnelly. The critical Reynolds numbers calculated from linear stability theory agree well with the experimental values, except at large modulation amplitudes and small frequencies. The theoretical values are obtained using Floquet theory implemented in two distinct approaches: a truncated Fourier series representation in time, and a fundamental solution matrix based on a Chebyshev pseudospectral representation in space. For large amplitude, low frequency modulation, the linear eigenfunctions are temporally complex, consisting of a quiescent region followed by rapid change in the perturbed flow velocities.
The stability of a trailing-line vortex in compressible flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stott, Jillian A. K.; Duck, Peter W.
1992-01-01
We consider the inviscid stability of the Batchelor (1964) vortex in a compressible flow. The problem is tackled numerically and also asymptotically, in the limit of large (aximuthal and streamwise) wavenumbers, together with large Mach numbers. The nature of the solution passes through different regimes as the Mach number increases, relative to the wavenumbers. At very high wavenumbers and Mach numbers, the mode which is present in the incompressible case ceases to be unstable, while new 'center mode' forms, whose stability characteristics, are determined primarily by conditions close to the vortex axis. We find that generally the flow becomes less unstable as the Mach number increases, and that the regime of instability appears generally confined to disturbances in a direction counter to the direction of the rotation of the swirl of the vortex. Throughout the paper, comparison is made between our numerical results and results obtained from the various asymptotic theories.
Stability of flow of a thermoviscoelastic fluid between rotating coaxial circular cylinders
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ghandour, N. N.; Narasimhan, M. N. L.
1976-01-01
The stability problem of thermoviscoelastic fluid flow between rotating coaxial cylinders is investigated using nonlinear thermoviscoelastic constitutive equations due to Eringen and Koh. The velocity field is found to be identical with that of the classical viscous case and the case of the viscoelastic fluid, but the temperature and pressure fields are found to be different. By imposing some physically reasonable mechanical and geometrical restrictions on the flow, and by a suitable mathematical analysis, the problem is reduced to a characteristic value problem. The resulting problem is solved and stability criteria are obtained in terms of critical Taylor numbers. In general, it is found that thermoviscoelastic fluids are more stable than classical viscous fluids and viscoinelastic fluids under similar conditions.
Robust flow stability: Theory, computations and experiments in near wall turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bobba, Kumar Manoj
Helmholtz established the field of hydrodynamic stability with his pioneering work in 1868. From then on, hydrodynamic stability became an important tool in understanding various fundamental fluid flow phenomena in engineering (mechanical, aeronautics, chemical, materials, civil, etc.) and science (astrophysics, geophysics, biophysics, etc.), and turbulence in particular. However, there are many discrepancies between classical hydrodynamic stability theory and experiments. In this thesis, the limitations of traditional hydrodynamic stability theory are shown and a framework for robust flow stability theory is formulated. A host of new techniques like gramians, singular values, operator norms, etc. are introduced to understand the role of various kinds of uncertainty. An interesting feature of this framework is the close interplay between theory and computations. It is shown that a subset of Navier-Stokes equations are globally, non-nonlinearly stable for all Reynolds number. Yet, invoking this new theory, it is shown that these equations produce structures (vortices and streaks) as seen in the experiments. The experiments are done in zero pressure gradient transiting boundary layer on a flat plate in free surface tunnel. Digital particle image velocimetry, and MEMS based laser Doppler velocimeter and shear stress sensors have been used to make quantitative measurements of the flow. Various theoretical and computational predictions are in excellent agreement with the experimental data. A closely related topic of modeling, simulation and complexity reduction of large mechanics problems with multiple spatial and temporal scales is also studied. A nice method that rigorously quantifies the important scales and automatically gives models of the problem to various levels of accuracy is introduced. Computations done using spectral methods are presented.
Point-vortex stability under the influence of an external periodic flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ortega, Rafael; Ortega, Víctor; Torres, Pedro J.
2018-05-01
We provide sufficient conditions for the stability of the particle advection around a fixed vortex in a two-dimensional ideal fluid under the action of a periodic background flow. The proof relies on the identification of closed invariant curves around the origin by means of Moser’s invariant curve theorem. Partially supported by Spanish MINECO and ERDF project MTM2014-52232-P.
Stability Analysis of High-Speed Boundary-Layer Flow with Gas Injection
2014-06-01
Vitaly G. Soudakov; Ivett A Leyva 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER Q0AF 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING...cases of low injection rates in which the N -factors in the near field region are below the critical level, shaping can produce a significant...distribution unlimited Stability analysis of high-speed boundary-layer flow with gas injection Alexander V. Fedorov* and Vitaly G. Soudakov
Stability Analysis of High-Speed Boundary-Layer Flow with Gas Injection (Briefing Charts)
2014-06-01
Vitaly G. Soudakov; Ivett A Leyva 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER Q0AF 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING...cases of low injection rates in which the N -factors in the near field region are below the critical level, shaping can produce a significant...Release; Distribution Unlimited Stability analysis of high-speed boundary-layer flow with gas injection Alexander Fedorov and Vitaly Soudakov Moscow
Design considerations of a thermally stabilized continuous flow electrophoresis chamber 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jandebeur, T. S.
1982-01-01
The basic adjustable parameters of a Beckman Continouous Particle Electrophoresis (CPE) Apparatus are investigated to determine the optimum conditions for ground based operation for comparison with space experiments. The possible application of electrically insulated copper/aluminum chamber walls is evaluated as a means to thermally stabilize or equilibrate lateral temperature gradients which exist on the walls of conventional plastic chambers and which distort the rectilinear base flow of buffer through the chamber, significantly affecting sample resolution.
Film stability in a vertical rotating tube with a core-gas flow.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sarma, G. S. R.; Lu, P. C.; Ostrach, S.
1971-01-01
The linear hydrodynamic stability of a thin-liquid layer flowing along the inside wall of a vertical tube rotating about its axis in the presence of a core-gas flow is examined. The stability problem is formulated under the conditions that the liquid film is thin, the density and viscosity ratios of gas to liquid are small and the relative (axial) pressure gradient in the gas is of the same order as gravity. The resulting eigenvalue problem is first solved by a perturbation method appropriate to axisymmetric long-wave disturbances. The damped nature (to within the thin-film and other approximations made) of the nonaxisymmetric and short-wave disturbances is noted. In view of the limitations on a truncated perturbation solution when the disturbance wavenumber is not small, an initial value method using digital computer is presented. Stability characteristics of neutral, growing, and damped modes are presented showing the influences of rotation, surface tension, and the core-gas flow. Energy balance in a neutral mode is also illustrated.
Flow behavior characteristics of ice cream mix made with buffalo milk and various stabilizers.
Minhas, Kuldip S; Sidhu, Jiwan S; Mudahar, Gurmail S; Singh, A K
2002-01-01
Ice cream made with buffalo milk, using optimum levels of various stabilizers of plant origin, was evaluated for its flow behavior characteristics, with the objective of producing an acceptable quality product. The minimum variation in the viscosity of mix was observed at three rates of shear (348.88, 523.33 and 1046.66 S(-1)) for all ice cream mixes. The flow behavior index (n) of all the mixes having optimum levels of various stabilizers was observed to be less than 1; indicating their pseudoplastic nature. Consistency coefficient (m) of sodium alginate was found to be 1.19; highest among all the stabilizers, followed by gelatin (1.17), karaya (1.08), guar gum (0.75), acacia gum (0.70), ghatti gum (0.36), and the control (0.29). The consistency coefficient (m) signifies the apparent viscosity of the pseudoplastic fluid. The viscosity of the mixes having various stabilizers (optimum levels) was found to be in descending order: Sodium alginate, gelatin, karaya, guar gum, acacia, ghatti and control.
Ground effects on the stability of separated flow around an airfoil at low Reynolds numbers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Wei; Yu, Peng; Li, Larry K. B.
2017-11-01
We perform a BiGlobal stability analysis on the separated flow around a NACA 4415 airfoil at low Reynolds numbers (Re = 300 - 1000) and a high angle of attack α =20° with a focus on the effect of the airfoil's proximity to a moving ground. The results show that the most dominant perturbation is the Kelvin-Helmholtz mode and that this traveling mode becomes less unstable as the airfoil approaches the ground, although this stabilizing effect diminishes with increasing Reynolds number. By performing a Floquet analysis, we find that this ground effect can also stabilize secondary instabilities. This numerical-theoretical study shows that the ground can have a significant influence on the stability of separated flow around an airfoil at low Reynolds numbers, which could have implications for the design of micro aerial vehicles and for the understanding of natural flyers such as insects and birds. This work was supported by the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong (Project No. 16235716 and 26202815) and the Special Program for Applied Research on Super Computation of the NSFC-Guangdong Joint Fund (the second phase) under Grant No.U1501501.
Asymptotic theory of neutral stability of the Couette flow of a vibrationally excited gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grigor'ev, Yu. N.; Ershov, I. V.
2017-01-01
An asymptotic theory of the neutral stability curve for a supersonic plane Couette flow of a vibrationally excited gas is developed. The initial mathematical model consists of equations of two-temperature viscous gas dynamics, which are used to derive a spectral problem for a linear system of eighth-order ordinary differential equations within the framework of the classical linear stability theory. Unified transformations of the system for all shear flows are performed in accordance with the classical Lin scheme. The problem is reduced to an algebraic secular equation with separation into the "inviscid" and "viscous" parts, which is solved numerically. It is shown that the thus-calculated neutral stability curves agree well with the previously obtained results of the direct numerical solution of the original spectral problem. In particular, the critical Reynolds number increases with excitation enhancement, and the neutral stability curve is shifted toward the domain of higher wave numbers. This is also confirmed by means of solving an asymptotic equation for the critical Reynolds number at the Mach number M ≤ 4.
Odier, Philippe; Ecke, Robert E.
Stratified shear flows occur in many geophysical contexts, from oceanic overflows and river estuaries to wind-driven thermocline layers. In this study, we explore a turbulent wall-bounded shear flow of lighter miscible fluid into a quiescent fluid of higher density with a range of Richardson numbersmore » $$0.05\\lesssim Ri\\lesssim 1$$. In order to find a stability parameter that allows close comparison with linear theory and with idealized experiments and numerics, we investigate different definitions of$Ri$$. We find that a gradient Richardson number defined on fluid interface sections where there is no overturning at or adjacent to the maximum density gradient position provides an excellent stability parameter, which captures the Miles–Howard linear stability criterion. For small $$Ri$$ the flow exhibits robust Kelvin–Helmholtz instability, whereas for larger $$Ri$$ interfacial overturning is more intermittent with less frequent Kelvin–Helmholtz events and emerging Holmboe wave instability consistent with a thicker velocity layer compared with the density layer. We compute the perturbed fraction of interface as a quantitative measure of the flow intermittency, which is approximately 1 for the smallest $$Ri$$ but decreases rapidly as $$Ri$ increases, consistent with linear theory. For the perturbed regions, we use the Thorpe scale to characterize the overturning properties of these flows. The probability distribution of the non-zero Thorpe length yields a universal exponential form, suggesting that much of the overturning results from increasingly intermittent Kelvin–Helmholtz instability events. Finally, the distribution of turbulent kinetic energy, conditioned on the intermittency fraction, has a similar form, suggesting an explanation for the universal scaling collapse of the Thorpe length distribution.« less
Odier, Philippe; Ecke, Robert E.
2017-02-21
Stratified shear flows occur in many geophysical contexts, from oceanic overflows and river estuaries to wind-driven thermocline layers. In this study, we explore a turbulent wall-bounded shear flow of lighter miscible fluid into a quiescent fluid of higher density with a range of Richardson numbersmore » $$0.05\\lesssim Ri\\lesssim 1$$. In order to find a stability parameter that allows close comparison with linear theory and with idealized experiments and numerics, we investigate different definitions of$Ri$$. We find that a gradient Richardson number defined on fluid interface sections where there is no overturning at or adjacent to the maximum density gradient position provides an excellent stability parameter, which captures the Miles–Howard linear stability criterion. For small $$Ri$$ the flow exhibits robust Kelvin–Helmholtz instability, whereas for larger $$Ri$$ interfacial overturning is more intermittent with less frequent Kelvin–Helmholtz events and emerging Holmboe wave instability consistent with a thicker velocity layer compared with the density layer. We compute the perturbed fraction of interface as a quantitative measure of the flow intermittency, which is approximately 1 for the smallest $$Ri$$ but decreases rapidly as $$Ri$ increases, consistent with linear theory. For the perturbed regions, we use the Thorpe scale to characterize the overturning properties of these flows. The probability distribution of the non-zero Thorpe length yields a universal exponential form, suggesting that much of the overturning results from increasingly intermittent Kelvin–Helmholtz instability events. Finally, the distribution of turbulent kinetic energy, conditioned on the intermittency fraction, has a similar form, suggesting an explanation for the universal scaling collapse of the Thorpe length distribution.« less
Stability of plasma cylinder with current in a helical plasma flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leonovich, Anatoly S.; Kozlov, Daniil A.; Zong, Qiugang
2018-04-01
Stability of a plasma cylinder with a current wrapped by a helical plasma flow is studied. Unstable surface modes of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) oscillations develop at the boundary of the cylinder enwrapped by the plasma flow. Unstable eigenmodes can also develop for which the plasma cylinder is a waveguide. The growth rate of the surface modes is much higher than that for the eigenmodes. It is shown that the asymmetric MHD modes in the plasma cylinder are stable if the velocity of the plasma flow is below a certain threshold. Such a plasma flow velocity threshold is absent for the symmetric modes. They are unstable in any arbitrarily slow plasma flows. For all surface modes there is an upper threshold for the flow velocity above which they are stable. The helicity index of the flow around the plasma cylinder significantly affects both the Mach number dependence of the surface wave growth rate and the velocity threshold values. The higher the index, the lower the upper threshold of the velocity jump above which the surface waves become stable. Calculations have been carried out for the growth rates of unstable oscillations in an equilibrium plasma cylinder with current serving as a model of the low-latitude boundary layer (LLBL) of the Earth's magnetic tail. A tangential discontinuity model is used to simulate the geomagnetic tail boundary. It is shown that the magnetopause in the geotail LLBL is unstable to a surface wave (having the highest growth rate) in low- and medium-speed solar wind flows, but becomes stable to this wave in high-speed flows. However, it can remain weakly unstable to the radiative modes of MHD oscillations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rastegari, Amirreza; Akhavan, Rayhaneh
2017-11-01
The stability of the liquid/gas interfaces on SuperHydrophobic (SH) Longitudinal MicroGrooves (LMGs) in high Reynolds number turbulent flows of practical interest is investigated by analytical extrapolation of DNS results in turbulent channel flow at Reτ0 222 and 442 with SH LMGs at protrusion angle of θ = -30o . Given that the magnitude of pressure fluctuations in turbulent channel flow scales as prms+ √{ ln(Reτ) } , it is found that the stability limits of SH LMGs diminishes by factors of 4 when the Reynolds number of the base flow increases from Reτ0 200 of DNS to Reτ0 105 -106 of practical applications. For SH LMGs operating at Weber numbers of We+0 ≡ μuτ0 / σ 3 ×10-3 - 1.5 ×10-2 , corresponding to friction velocities of uτ0 0.2 - 1 m/s, this limits the size of stable LMGs to g+0 5 - 30 at Reτ0 105 and g+0 4 - 20 at Reτ0 106 , and the maximum drag reductions to DRmax 20 - 30 % at Reτ0 105 and DRmax 10 - 20 % at Reτ0 106 .
Stability and sensitivity analysis of hypersonic flow past a blunt cone
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nichols, Joseph W.; Cook, David; Brock, Joseph M.; Candler, Graham V.
2017-11-01
We investigate the effects of nosetip bluntness and low-level distributed roughness on instabilities leading to transition on a 7 degree half-angle blunt cone at Mach 10. To study the sensitivity of boundary layer instabilities to bluntness and roughness, we numerically extract Jacobian matrices directly from the unstructured hypersonic flow solver US3D. These matrices govern the dynamics of small perturbations about otherwise laminar base flows. We consider the frequency response of the resulting linearized dynamical system between different input and output locations along the cone, including close to the nosetip. Using adjoints, our method faithfully captures effects of complex geometry such as strong curvature and roughness that lead to flow acceleration and localized heating in this region. These effects violate the assumption of a slowly-varying base flow that underpins traditional linear stability analyses. We compare our results, which do not rely upon this assumption, to experimental measurements of a Mach 10 blunt cone taken at the AEDC Hypervelocity Ballistic Range G facility. In particular, we assess whether effects of complex geometry can explain discrepancies previously noted between traditional stability analysis and observations. This work is supported by the Office of Naval Research through Grant Number N00014-17-1-2496.
Stability Results for Idealized Shear Flows on a Rectangular Periodic Domain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dullin, Holger R.; Worthington, Joachim
2018-06-01
We present a new linearly stable solution of the Euler fluid flow on a torus. On a two-dimensional rectangular periodic domain [0,2π )× [0,2π / κ ) for κ \\in R^+, the Euler equations admit a family of stationary solutions given by the vorticity profiles Ω ^*(x)= Γ cos (p_1x_1+ κ p_2x_2). We show linear stability for such flows when p_2=0 and κ ≥ |p_1| (equivalently p_1=0 and κ {|p_2|}≤ {1}). The classical result due to Arnold is that for p_1 = 1, p_2 = 0 and κ ≥ 1 the stationary flow is nonlinearly stable via the energy-Casimir method. We show that for κ ≥ |p_1| ≥ 2, p_2 = 0 the flow is linearly stable, but one cannot expect a similar nonlinear stability result. Finally we prove nonlinear instability for all steady states satisfying p_1^2+κ ^2{p_2^2}>{3(κ ^2+1)}/4(7-4√{3)}. The modification and application of a structure-preserving Hamiltonian truncation is discussed for the anisotropic case κ ≠ 1. This leads to an explicit Lie-Poisson integrator for the approximate system, which is used to illustrate our analytical results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Markeviciute, Vilda; White, Nicholas; Troian, Sandra
2017-11-01
Although spontaneous capillary flow can be an especially rapid process in slender open microchannels resembling V-grooves, enhanced flow control is possible through implementation of electric field distributions which generate opposing electrohydrodynamic pressures along the air/liquid interface to modulate the capillary pressures. Important fundamental work by Romero and Yost (1996) and Weislogel(1996) has elucidated the behavior of Newtonian films in slender V-grooves driven to flow solely by the streamwise change in capillary pressure due to the change in radius of curvature of the circular arc describing the interface of wetting or non-wetting fluids. Here we augment the Romero and Yost model with inclusion of Maxwell stresses for perfectly conducting wetting films and examine which electric field distributions allow formation of steady state film shapes for various inlet and outlet boundary conditions. We investigate the stability of these steady solutions to small perturbations in film thickness using a generalized stability analysis. These results reveal how the ratio of Maxwell to capillary stresses influences the degree of linearized transient growth or decay for thin films confined to flow within an open V-groove. Funding from the 2017 Caltech Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship Program (Markeviciute) as well as a 2017 NASA Space Technology Research Fellowship (White) is gratefully acknowledged.
Stability of Brillouin flow in the presence of slow-wave structure
Simon, D. H.; Lau, Y. Y.; Greening, G.
2016-09-15
Including a slow-wave structure (SWS) on the anode in the conventional, planar, and inverted magnetron, we systematically study the linear stability of Brillouin flow, which is the prevalent flow in crossed-field devices. The analytic treatment is fully relativistic and fully electromagnetic, and it incorporates the equilibrium density profile, flow profile, and electric field and magnetic field profiles in the linear stability analysis. Using parameters similar to the University of Michigan's recirculating planar magnetron, the numerical data show that the resonant interaction of the vacuum circuit mode and the corresponding smooth-bore diocotron-like mode is the dominant cause for instability. This resonantmore » interaction is far more important than the intrinsic negative (positive) mass property of electrons in the inverted (conventional) magnetron geometry. It is absent in either the smooth-bore magnetron or under the electrostatic assumption, one or both of which was almost always adopted in prior analytical formulation. This resonant interaction severely restricts the wavenumber for instability to the narrow range in which the cold tube frequency of the SWS is within a few percent of the corresponding smooth bore diocotron-like mode in the Brillouin flow.« less
Canonical fluid thermodynamics. [variational principles of stability for compressible adiabatic flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schmid, L. A.
1974-01-01
The space-time integral of the thermodynamic pressure plays in a certain sense the role of the thermodynamic potential for compressible adiabatic flow. The stability criterion can be converted into a variational minimum principle by requiring the molar free-enthalpy and temperature to be generalized velocities. In the fluid context, the definition of proper-time differentiation involves the fluid velocity expressed in terms of three particle identity parameters. The pressure function is then converted into a functional which is the Lagrangian density of the variational principle. Being also a minimum principle, the variational principle provides a means for comparing the relative stability of different flows. For boundary conditions with a high degree of symmetry, as in the case of a uniformly expanding spherical gas box, the most stable flow is a rectilinear flow for which the world-trajectory of each particle is a straight line. Since the behavior of the interior of a freely expanding cosmic cloud may be expected to be similar to that of the fluid in the spherical box of gas, this suggests that the cosmic principle is a consequence of the laws of thermodynamics, rather than just an ad hoc postulate.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wernet, Mark P.; Skoch, Gary J.; Wernet, Judith H.
1995-01-01
Laser anemometry enables the measurement of complex flow fields via the light scattered from small particles entrained in the flow. In the study of turbomachinery, refractory seed materials are required for seeding the flow due to the high temperatures encountered. In this work we present a pH stabilization technique commonly employed in ceramic processing to obtain stable dispersions for generating aerosols of refractory seed material. By adding submicron alumina particles to a preadjusted pH solution of ethanol, a stable dispersion is obtained which when atomized, produces a high quality aerosol. Commercial grade alumina powder is used with a moderate size distribution. Other metal oxide powders in various polar solvents could also be used once the point of zero charge (pH(pzc)) of the powder in the solvent has been determined. Laser anemometry measurements obtained using the new seeding technique are compared to measurements obtained using Polystyrene Latex (PSL) spheres as the seed material.
Effect of pulse pressure on borehole stability during shear swirling flow vibration cementing.
Cui, Zhihua; Ai, Chi; Lv, Lei; Yin, Fangxian
2017-01-01
The shear swirling flow vibration cementing (SSFVC) technique rotates the downhole eccentric cascade by circulating cementing fluid. It makes the casing eccentrically revolve at high speed around the borehole axis. It produces strong agitation action to the annulus fluid, makes it in the state of shear turbulent flow, and results in the formation of pulse pressure which affects the surrounding rock stress. This study was focused on 1) the calculation of the pulse pressure in an annular turbulent flow field based on the finite volume method, and 2) the analysis of the effect of pulse pressure on borehole stability. On the upside, the pulse pressure is conducive to enhancing the liquidity of the annulus fluid, reducing the fluid gel strength, and preventing the formation of fluid from channeling. But greater pulse pressure may cause lost circulation and even formation fracturing. Therefore, in order to ensure smooth cementing during SSFVC, the effect of pulse pressure should be considered when cementing design.
Stability of spanwise-modulated flows behind backward-facing steps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boiko, A. V.; Dovgal, A. V.; Sorokin, A. M.
2017-10-01
An overview and synthesis of researches on development of local vortical disturbances in laminar separated flows downstream of backward-facing steps, in which the velocity field depends essentially on two variables are given. Peculiarities of transition to turbulence in such spatially inhomogeneous separated zones are discussed. The experimental data are supplemented by the linear stability characteristics of model velocity profiles of the separated flow computed using both the classical local formulation and the nonlocal approach based on the Floquet theory for partial differential equations with periodic coefficients. The results clarify the response of the local separated flows to their modulation with stationary geometrical and temperature inhomogeneities. The results can be useful for the development of new methods of laminar separation control.
Construction and geometric stability of physiological flow rate wall-less stenosis phantoms.
Ramnarine, K V; Anderson, T; Hoskins, P R
2001-02-01
Wall-less flow phantoms are preferred for ultrasound (US) because tissue-mimicking material (TMM) with good acoustical properties can be made and cast to form anatomical models. The construction and geometrical stability of wall-less TMM flow phantoms is described using a novel method of sealing to prevent leakage of the blood-mimicking fluid (BMF). Wall-less stenosis flow models were constructed using a robust agar-based TMM and sealed using reticulated foam at the inlet and outlet tubes. There was no BMF leakage at the highest flow rate of 2.8 L/min in 0%, 35% and 57% diameter reduction stenoses models. Failure of the 75% stenosis model, due to TMM fracture, occurred at maximum flow rate of 2 L/min (mean velocity 10 m/s within the stenosis). No change of stenosis geometry was measured over 4 days. The construction is simple and effective and extends the possibility for high flow rate studies using robust TMM wall-less phantoms.
The stability of stratified spatially periodic shear flows at low Péclet number
Garaud, Pascale, E-mail: pgaraud@ucsc.edu; Gallet, Basile; Bischoff, Tobias
2015-08-15
This work addresses the question of the stability of stratified, spatially periodic shear flows at low Péclet number but high Reynolds number. This little-studied limit is motivated by astrophysical systems, where the Prandtl number is often very small. Furthermore, it can be studied using a reduced set of “low-Péclet-number equations” proposed by Lignières [“The small-Péclet-number approximation in stellar radiative zones,” Astron. Astrophys. 348, 933–939 (1999)]. Through a linear stability analysis, we first determine the conditions for instability to infinitesimal perturbations. We formally extend Squire’s theorem to the low-Péclet-number equations, which shows that the first unstable mode is always two-dimensional. Wemore » then perform an energy stability analysis of the low-Péclet-number equations and prove that for a given value of the Reynolds number, above a critical strength of the stratification, any smooth periodic shear flow is stable to perturbations of arbitrary amplitude. In that parameter regime, the flow can only be laminar and turbulent mixing does not take place. Finding that the conditions for linear and energy stability are different, we thus identify a region in parameter space where finite-amplitude instabilities could exist. Using direct numerical simulations, we indeed find that the system is subject to such finite-amplitude instabilities. We determine numerically how far into the linearly stable region of parameter space turbulence can be sustained.« less
Enhanced stability of steep channel beds to mass failure and debris flow initiation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prancevic, J.; Lamb, M. P.; Ayoub, F.; Venditti, J. G.
2015-12-01
Debris flows dominate bedrock erosion and sediment transport in very steep mountain channels, and are often initiated from failure of channel-bed alluvium during storms. While several theoretical models exist to predict mass failures, few have been tested because observations of in-channel bed failures are extremely limited. To fill this gap in our understanding, we performed laboratory flume experiments to identify the conditions necessary to initiate bed failures in non-cohesive sediment of different sizes (D = 0.7 mm to 15 mm) on steep channel-bed slopes (S = 0.45 to 0.93) and in the presence of water flow. In beds composed of sand, failures occurred under sub-saturated conditions on steep bed slopes (S > 0.5) and under super-saturated conditions at lower slopes. In beds of gravel, however, failures occurred only under super-saturated conditions at all tested slopes, even those approaching the dry angle of repose. Consistent with theoretical models, mass failures under super-saturated conditions initiated along a failure plane approximately one grain-diameter below the bed surface, whereas the failure plane was located near the base of the bed under sub-saturated conditions. However, all experimental beds were more stable than predicted by 1-D infinite-slope stability models. In partially saturated sand, enhanced stability appears to result from suction stress. Enhanced stability in gravel may result from turbulent energy losses in pores or increased granular friction for failures that are shallow with respect to grain size. These grain-size dependent effects are not currently included in stability models for non-cohesive sediment, and they may help to explain better the timing and location of debris flow occurrence.
Influence of Thermocapillary Flow on Capillary Stability: Long Float-Zones in Low Gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, Yi-Ju; Steen, Paul H.
1996-01-01
A model problem is posed to study the influence of flow on the interfacial stability of a nearly cylindrical liquid bridge for lengths near its circumference (the Plateau-Rayleigh limit). The flow is generated by a shear stress imposed on the deformable interface. The symmetry of the imposed shear stress mimics the thermocapillary stress induced on a float-zone by a ring heater (i.e. a full zone). Principal assumptions are (1) zero gravity, (2) creeping flow, and (3) that the imposed coupling at the free surface between flow and temperature fields is the only such coupling. A numerical solution, complemented by a bifurcation analysis, shows that bridges substantially longer than the Plateau-Rayleigh limit are possible. An interaction of the first two capillary instabilities through the stress-induced flow is responsible. Time-periodic standing waves are also predicted in certain parameter ranges. Motivation comes from extra-long float-zones observed in MEPHISTO space lab experiments (June 1994).
Stability of exact solutions describing two-layer flows with evaporation at the interface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bekezhanova, V. B.; Goncharova, O. N.
2016-12-01
A new exact solution of the equations of free convection has been constructed in the framework of the Oberbeck-Boussinesq approximation of the Navier-Stokes equations. The solution describes the joint flow of an evaporating viscous heat-conducting liquid and gas-vapor mixture in a horizontal channel. In the gas phase the Dufour and Soret effects are taken into account. The consideration of the exact solution allows one to describe different classes of flows depending on the values of the problem parameters and boundary conditions for the vapor concentration. A classification of solutions and results of the solution analysis are presented. The effects of the external disturbing influences (of the liquid flow rates and longitudinal gradients of temperature on the channel walls) on the stability characteristics have been numerically studied for the system HFE7100-nitrogen in the common case, when the longitudinal temperature gradients on the boundaries of the channel are not equal. In the system both monotonic and oscillatory modes can be formed, which damp or grow depending on the values of the initial perturbations, flow rates and temperature gradients. Hydrodynamic perturbations are most dangerous under large gas flow rates. The increasing oscillatory perturbations are developed due to the thermocapillary effect under large longitudinal gradients of temperature. The typical forms of the disturbances are shown.
Jet stability and wall impingement flow field in a thermal striping experiment
Lomperski, S.; Obabko, A.; Merzari, E.; ...
2017-08-10
We present velocity and temperature field measurements for a 0.9 x 0.9 x 1.7 m glass tank in which two air jets at Re=10000 mix and impinge upon the lid at ambient temperature and pressure. Flow patterns are characterized across a 350 x 200 mm plane located 3 mm below the lid for two inlet geometries: 1) “extended”, in which inlet channels protrude above the tank base, and 2) “flush”, a flat base without protrusions. This minor geometry variation produced distinct changes in the lid flow field, appearing as three stagnant regions for the extended case and only one formore » flush. The dichotomy is attributed to system stability characteristics: jets are stable in the extended case and unstable for flush. In a separate set of nonisothermal tests, the impingement temperature field was measured for inlet temperature mismatches of 4 oC and jets near Re=10000. A 50 m-long fiber optic distributed temperature sensor positioned 2 mm below the lid measured at 1350 locations. Like the velocity fields, the temperature fields differ for the two inlet geometries: good thermal mixing for the flush case and subdued mixing for the extended case. Simulations with the spectral element code Nek5000 replicated the observed stability dichotomy, duplicating the number of stagnant regions observed in the experiment and matching their locations within ±10 mm. Simulation data suggests that flush case instability is due to interactions between jets and wall flows at the bottom of the tank. The clear flow dichotomy exhibited by this two-jet setup presents an unambiguous case to test the ability of CFD tools to predict subtle flow field changes driven by minor modifications in geometry in the context of thermal striping.« less
Jet stability and wall impingement flow field in a thermal striping experiment
Lomperski, S.; Obabko, A.; Merzari, E.
We present velocity and temperature field measurements for a 0.9 x 0.9 x 1.7 m glass tank in which two air jets at Re=10000 mix and impinge upon the lid at ambient temperature and pressure. Flow patterns are characterized across a 350 x 200 mm plane located 3 mm below the lid for two inlet geometries: 1) “extended”, in which inlet channels protrude above the tank base, and 2) “flush”, a flat base without protrusions. This minor geometry variation produced distinct changes in the lid flow field, appearing as three stagnant regions for the extended case and only one formore » flush. The dichotomy is attributed to system stability characteristics: jets are stable in the extended case and unstable for flush. In a separate set of nonisothermal tests, the impingement temperature field was measured for inlet temperature mismatches of 4 oC and jets near Re=10000. A 50 m-long fiber optic distributed temperature sensor positioned 2 mm below the lid measured at 1350 locations. Like the velocity fields, the temperature fields differ for the two inlet geometries: good thermal mixing for the flush case and subdued mixing for the extended case. Simulations with the spectral element code Nek5000 replicated the observed stability dichotomy, duplicating the number of stagnant regions observed in the experiment and matching their locations within ±10 mm. Simulation data suggests that flush case instability is due to interactions between jets and wall flows at the bottom of the tank. The clear flow dichotomy exhibited by this two-jet setup presents an unambiguous case to test the ability of CFD tools to predict subtle flow field changes driven by minor modifications in geometry in the context of thermal striping.« less
Multiple Steady States of Buoyancy Induced Flow in Cold Water and Their Stability.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
El-Henawy, Ibrahim Mahmoud
In Chapters 1 and 2 the physical background and the literature related to buoyancy-induced flows are reviewed. An accurate representation, based upon experimental data, of the motion-causing buoyancy force, in the vicinity of maximum density in pure water at low temperatures, is used. This representation is an accurate and quite simple formulation due to Gebhart and Mollendorf (1977). Using the representation, we study, numerically, Chapter 3, a model for the laminar, boundary-layer flow arising from natural convection adjacent to a vertical isothermal flat surface submerged in quiescent cold water. The results demonstrate for the first time the existence of multiple steady-state solutions in a natural convection flow. The existence of these new multiple steady-state solutions led to an investigation of their stability. This is carried out in Chapter 4 by a mathematical method, different from that of the usual hydrodynamic stability approach, Lin (1955) and Razinand and Reid (1982). Three real eigenvalue and eigenvector pairs corresponding to the new steady-state -solutions were found. Each of these eigenvalues changes its algebraic sign at a particular limit point (point of vertical tangency, nose, knee) in the bifurcation diagrams found in Chapter 3. The results indicate that the new steady-state solutions are unstable and that the previously found steady-state solutions, Carey, Gebhart, and Mollendorf (1980), may be stable.
F-111 natural laminar flow glove flight test data analysis and boundary layer stability analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Runyan, L. J.; Navran, B. H.; Rozendaal, R. A.
1984-01-01
An analysis of 34 selected flight test data cases from a NASA flight program incorporating a natural laminar flow airfoil into partial wing gloves on the F-111 TACT airplane is given. This analysis determined the measured location of transition from laminar to turbulent flow. The report also contains the results of a boundary layer stability analysis of 25 of the selected cases in which the crossflow (C-F) and Tollmien-Schlichting (T-S) disturbance amplification factors are correlated with the measured transition location. The chord Reynolds numbers for these cases ranges from about 23 million to 29 million, the Mach numbers ranged from 0.80 to 0.85, and the glove leading-edge sweep angles ranged from 9 deg to 25 deg. Results indicate that the maximum extent of laminar flow varies from 56% chord to 9-deg sweep on the upper surface, and from 51% chord at 16-deg sweep to 6% chord at 25-deg sweep on the lower. The results of the boundary layer stability analysis indicate that when both C-F and T-S disturbances are amplified, an interaction takes place which reduces the maximum amplification factor of either type of disturbance that can be tolerated without causing transition.
Stability of parallel electroosmotic flow subject to an axial modulated electric field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suresh, Vinod; Homsy, George
2001-11-01
The stability of parallel electroosmotic flow in a micro-channel subjected to an AC electric field is studied. A spatially uniform time harmonic electric field is applied along the length of a two-dimensional micro-channel containing a dilute electrolytic solution, resulting in a time periodic parallel flow. The top and bottom walls of the channel are maintained at constant potential. The base state ion concentrations and double layer potential are determined using the Poisson-Boltzmann equation in the Debye-Hückel approximation. Experiments by other workers (Santiago et. al., unpublished) have shown that such a system can exhibit instabilities that take the form of mixing motion occurring in the bulk flow outside the double layer. It is shown that such instabilities can potentially result from the coupling of disturbances in the ion concentrations or electric potential to the base state velocity or ion concentrations, respectively. The stability boundary of the system is determined using Floquet theory and its dependence on the modulation frequency and amplitude of the axial electric field is studied.
Power System Transient Stability Improvement by the Interline Power Flow Controller (IPFC)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Jun; Yokoyama, Akihiko
This paper presents a study on the power system transient stability improvement by means of interline power flow controller (IPFC). The power injection model of IPFC in transient analysis is proposed and can be easily incorporated into existing power systems. Based on the energy function analysis, the operation of IPFC should guarantee that the time derivative of the global energy of the system is not greater than zero in order to damp the electromechanical oscillations. Accordingly, control laws of IPFC are proposed for its application to the single-machine infinite-bus (SMIB) system and the multimachine systems, respectively. Numerical simulations on the corresponding model power systems are presented to demonstrate their effectiveness in improving power system transient stability.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rostami, Ali Bakhshandeh; Fernandes, Antonio Carlos
2018-03-01
This paper is dedicated to develop a mathematical model that can simulate nonlinear phenomena of a hinged plate which places into the fluid flow (1 DOF). These phenomena are fluttering (oscillation motion), autorotation (continuous rotation) and chaotic motion (combination of fluttering and autorotation). Two mathematical models are developed for 1 DOF problem using two eminent mathematical models which had been proposed for falling plates (3 DOF). The procedures of developing these models are elaborated and then these results are compared to experimental data. The best model in the simulation of the phenomena is chosen for stability and bifurcation analysis. Based on these analyses, this model shows a transcritical bifurcation and as a result, the stability diagram and threshold are presented. Moreover, an analytical expression is given for finding the boundary of bifurcation from the fluttering to the autorotation.
Stability diagram for dense suspensions of model colloidal Al2O3 particles in shear flow.
Hecht, Martin; Harting, Jens; Herrmann, Hans J
2007-05-01
In Al2O3 suspensions, depending on the experimental conditions, very different microstructures can be found, comprising fluidlike suspensions, a repulsive structure, and a clustered microstructure. For technical processing in ceramics, the knowledge of the microstructure is of importance, since it essentially determines the stability of a workpiece to be produced. To enlighten this topic, we investigate these suspensions under shear by means of simulations. We observe cluster formation on two different length scales: the distance of nearest neighbors and on the length scale of the system size. We find that the clustering behavior does not depend on the length scale of observation. If interparticle interactions are not attractive the particles form layers in the shear flow. The results are summarized in a stability diagram.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marumo, Yoshitaka; Katayama, Tsuyoshi
This study uses the energy flow method to analyze how structural flexibility affects the motorcycle wobble and weave modes. Lateral bending of the front fork and torsion of the main frame affect the wobble mode stability. These are based on the gyroscopic effect of the front wheel in the steering motion by considering structural flexibility. At high speeds, lateral bending of the front fork and torsion of the rear swing arm more significantly affect the weave mode stability. These are primarily due to the phase changes of the external force generated by the yaw rate in the lateral motion. The phase change of the yaw rate force in the lateral motion originates from the phase change of the tire side forces.
Tutty, O.
2015-01-01
With the goal of providing the first example of application of a recently proposed method, thus demonstrating its ability to give results in principle, global stability of a version of the rotating Couette flow is examined. The flow depends on the Reynolds number and a parameter characterizing the magnitude of the Coriolis force. By converting the original Navier–Stokes equations to a finite-dimensional uncertain dynamical system using a partial Galerkin expansion, high-degree polynomial Lyapunov functionals were found by sum-of-squares of polynomials optimization. It is demonstrated that the proposed method allows obtaining the exact global stability limit for this flow in a range of values of the parameter characterizing the Coriolis force. Outside this range a lower bound for the global stability limit was obtained, which is still better than the energy stability limit. In the course of the study, several results meaningful in the context of the method used were also obtained. Overall, the results obtained demonstrate the applicability of the recently proposed approach to global stability of the fluid flows. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first case in which global stability of a fluid flow has been proved by a generic method for the value of a Reynolds number greater than that which could be achieved with the energy stability approach. PMID:26730219
Solution techniques for transient stability-constrained optimal power flow – Part II
Geng, Guangchao; Abhyankar, Shrirang; Wang, Xiaoyu
Transient stability-constrained optimal power flow is an important emerging problem with power systems pushed to the limits for economic benefits, dense and larger interconnected systems, and reduced inertia due to expected proliferation of renewable energy resources. In this study, two more approaches: single machine equivalent and computational intelligence are presented. Also discussed are various application areas, and future directions in this research area. In conclusion, a comprehensive resource for the available literature, publicly available test systems, and relevant numerical libraries is also provided.
Solution techniques for transient stability-constrained optimal power flow – Part II
Geng, Guangchao; Abhyankar, Shrirang; Wang, Xiaoyu; ...
2017-06-28
Transient stability-constrained optimal power flow is an important emerging problem with power systems pushed to the limits for economic benefits, dense and larger interconnected systems, and reduced inertia due to expected proliferation of renewable energy resources. In this study, two more approaches: single machine equivalent and computational intelligence are presented. Also discussed are various application areas, and future directions in this research area. In conclusion, a comprehensive resource for the available literature, publicly available test systems, and relevant numerical libraries is also provided.
On the Nonlinear Stability of Plane Parallel Shear Flow in a Coplanar Magnetic Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Lanxi; Lan, Wanli
2017-12-01
Lyapunov direct method has been used to study the nonlinear stability of laminar flow between two parallel planes in the presence of a coplanar magnetic field for streamwise perturbations with stress-free boundary planes. Two Lyapunov functions are defined. By means of the first, it is proved that the transverse components of the perturbations decay unconditionally and asymptotically to zero for all Reynolds numbers and magnetic Reynolds numbers. By means of the second, it is showed that the other components of the perturbations decay conditionally and exponentially to zero for all Reynolds numbers and the magnetic Reynolds numbers below π ^2/2M, where M is the maximum of the absolute value of the velocity field of the laminar flow.
The stability of two-phase flow over a swept-wing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Coward, Adrian; Hall, Philip
1994-01-01
We use numerical and asymptotic techniques to study the stability of a two-phase air/water flow above a flat porous plate. This flow is a model of the boundary layer which forms on a yawed cylinder and can be used as a useful approximation to the air flow over swept wings during heavy rainfall. We show that the interface between the water and air layers can significantly destabilize the flow, leading to traveling wave disturbances which move along the attachment line. This instability occurs for lower Reynolds numbers than in the case of the absence of a water layer. We also investigate the instability of inviscid stationary modes. We calculate the effective wavenumber and orientation of the stationary disturbance when the fluids have identical physical properties. Using perturbation methods we obtain corrections due to a small stratification in viscosity, thus quantifying the interfacial effects. Our analytical results are in agreement with the numerical solution which we obtain for arbitrary fluid properties.
Montgomery, D.R.; Schmidt, K.M.; Dietrich, W.E.; McKean, J.
2009-01-01
The middle of a hillslope hollow in the Oregon Coast Range failed and mobilized as a debris flow during heavy rainfall in November 1996. Automated pressure transducers recorded high spatial variability of pore water pressure within the area that mobilized as a debris flow, which initiated where local upward flow from bedrock developed into overlying colluvium. Postfailure observations of the bedrock surface exposed in the debris flow scar reveal a strong spatial correspondence between elevated piezometric response and water discharging from bedrock fractures. Measurements of apparent root cohesion on the basal (Cb) and lateral (Cl) scarp demonstrate substantial local variability, with areally weighted values of Cb = 0.1 and Cl = 4.6 kPa. Using measured soil properties and basal root strength, the widely used infinite slope model, employed assuming slope parallel groundwater flow, provides a poor prediction of hydrologie conditions at failure. In contrast, a model including lateral root strength (but neglecting lateral frictional strength) gave a predicted critical value of relative soil saturation that fell within the range defined by the arithmetic and geometric mean values at the time of failure. The 3-D slope stability model CLARA-W, used with locally observed pore water pressure, predicted small areas with lower factors of safety within the overall slide mass at sites consistent with field observations of where the failure initiated. This highly variable and localized nature of small areas of high pore pressure that can trigger slope failure means, however, that substantial uncertainty appears inevitable for estimating hydrologie conditions within incipient debris flows under natural conditions. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.
Influence of foam on the stability characteristics of immiscible flow in porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van der Meer, J. M.; Farajzadeh, R.; Rossen, W. R.; Jansen, J. D.
2018-01-01
Accurate field-scale simulations of foam enhanced oil recovery are challenging, due to the sharp transition between gas and foam. Hence, unpredictable numerical and physical behavior is often observed, casting doubt on the validity of the simulation results. In this paper, a thorough stability analysis of the foam model is presented to validate the simulation results. We study the effect of a strongly non-monotonous total mobility function arising from foam models on the stability characteristics of the flow. To this end, we apply the linear stability analysis to nearly discontinuous relative permeability functions and compare the results with those of highly accurate numerical simulations. In addition, we present a qualitative analysis of the effect of different reservoir and fluid properties on the foam fingering behavior. In particular, we consider the effect of heterogeneity of the reservoir, injection rates, and foam quality. Relative permeability functions play an important role in the onset of fingering behavior of the injected fluid. Hence, we can deduce that stability properties are highly dependent on the non-linearity of the foam transition. The foam-water interface is governed by a very small total mobility ratio, implying a stable front. The transition between gas and foam, however, exhibits a huge total mobility ratio, leading to instabilities in the form of viscous fingering. This implies that there is an unstable pattern behind the front. We deduce that instabilities are able to grow behind the front but are later absorbed by the expanding wave. Moreover, the stability analysis, validated by numerical simulations, provides valuable insights about the important scales and wavelengths of the foam model. In this way, we remove the ambiguity regarding the effect of grid resolution on the convergence of the solutions. This insight forms an essential step toward the design of a suitable computational solver that captures all the appropriate scales, while
Derivation of debris flow critical rainfall thresholds from land stability modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Papa, M. N.; Medina, V.; Bateman, A.; Ciervo, F.
2012-04-01
The aim of the work is to develop a system capable of providing debris flow warnings in areas where historical events data are not available as well as in the case of changing environments and climate. For these reasons, critical rainfall threshold curves are derived from mathematical and numerical simulations rather than the classical derivation from empirical rainfall data. The operational use of distributed model, based on the stability analysis for each grid cell of the basin, is not feasible in the case of warnings due to the long running time required for this kind of model as well as the lack of detailed information on the spatial distribution of the properties of the material in many practical cases. Moreover, with the aim of giving debris flow warnings, it is not necessary to know the distribution of instable elements along the basin but only if a debris flow may affect the vulnerable areas in the valley. The capability of a debris flow of reaching the downstream areas depends on many factors linked with the topography, the solid concentration, the rheological properties of the debris mixture and the flow discharge as well as the occurrence of liquefaction of the sliding mass. In relation to a specific basin, many of these factors may be considered as not time dependent. The most rainfall dependent factors are flow discharge and correlated total debris volume. In the present study, the total volume that is instable, and therefore available for the flow, is considered as the governing factor from which it is possible to assess whether a debris flow will affect the downstream areas or not. The possible triggering debris flow is simulated, in a generic element of the basin, by an infinite slope stability analysis. The groundwater pressure is calculated by the superposition of the effect of an "antecedent" rainfall and an "event" rainfall. The groundwater pressure response to antecedent rainfall is used as the initial condition for the time
Using web-based observations to identify thresholds of a person's stability in a flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Milanesi, L.; Pilotti, M.; Bacchi, B.
2016-10-01
Flood risk assessment and mitigation are important tasks that should take advantage of rational vulnerability models to increase their effectiveness. These models are usually identified through a relevant set of laboratory experiments. However, there is growing evidence that these tests are not fully representative of the variety of conditions that characterize real flood hazard situations. This paper suggests a citizen science-based and innovative approach to obtain information from web resources for the calibration of people's vulnerability models. A comprehensive study employing commonly used web engines allowed the collection of a wide set of documents showing real risk situations for people impacted by floods, classified according to the stability of the involved subjects. A procedure to extrapolate the flow depth and velocity from the video frames is developed and its reliability is verified by comparing the results with observation. The procedure is based on the statistical distribution of the population height employing a direct uncertainty propagation method. The results complement the experimental literature data and conceptual models. The growing availability of online information will progressively increase the sample size on which the procedure is based and will eventually lead to the identification of a probability surface describing the transition between stability and instability conditions of individuals in a flow.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rozendaal, R. A.
1986-01-01
The linear boundary layer stability analyses and their correlation with data of 18 cases from a natural laminar flow (NLF) flight test program using a Cessna Citation 3 business jet are described. The transition point varied from 5% to 35% chord for these conditions, and both upper and lower wing surfaces were included. Altitude varied from 10,000 to 43,000 ft and Mach number from 0.3 to 0.8. Four cases were at nonzero sideslip. Although there was much scatter in the results, the analyses of boundary layer stability at the 18 conditions led to the conclusion that crossflow instability was the primary cause of transition. However, the sideslip cases did show some interaction of crossflow and Tollmien-Schlichting disturbances. The lower surface showed much lower Tollmien-Schlichting amplification at transition than the upper surface, but similar crossflow amplifications. No relationship between Mach number and disturbance amplification at transition could be found. The quality of these results is open to question from questionable wing surface quality, inadequate density of transition sensors on the wing upper surface, and an unresolved pressure shift in the wing pressure data. The results of this study show the need for careful preparation for transition experiments. Preparation should include flow analyses of the test surface, boundary layer disturbance amplification analyses, and assurance of adequate surface quality in the test area. The placement of necessary instruments and usefulness of the resulting data could largely be determined during the pretest phase.
Hamiltonian stability for weighted measure and generalized Lagrangian mean curvature flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kajigaya, Toru; Kunikawa, Keita
2018-06-01
In this paper, we generalize several results for the Hamiltonian stability and the mean curvature flow of Lagrangian submanifolds in a Kähler-Einstein manifold to more general Kähler manifolds including a Fano manifold equipped with a Kähler form ω ∈ 2 πc1(M) by using the method proposed by Behrndt (2011). Namely, we first consider a weighted measure on a Lagrangian submanifold L in a Kähler manifold M and investigate the variational problem of L for the weighted volume functional. We call a stationary point of the weighted volume functional f-minimal, and define the notion of Hamiltonian f-stability as a local minimizer under Hamiltonian deformations. We show such examples naturally appear in a toric Fano manifold. Moreover, we consider the generalized Lagrangian mean curvature flow in a Fano manifold which is introduced by Behrndt and Smoczyk-Wang. We generalize the result of H. Li, and show that if the initial Lagrangian submanifold is a small Hamiltonian deformation of an f-minimal and Hamiltonian f-stable Lagrangian submanifold, then the generalized MCF converges exponentially fast to an f-minimal Lagrangian submanifold.
Stability of Shapes Held by Surface Tension and Subjected to Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, Yi-Ju; Robinson, Nathaniel D.; Steen, Paul H.
1999-01-01
Results of three problems are summarized in this contribution. Each involves the fundamental capillary instability of an interfacial bridge and is an extension of previous work. The first two problems concern equilibrium shapes of liquid bridges near the stability boundary corresponding to maximum length (Plateau-Rayleigh limit). For the first problem, a previously formulated nonlinear theory to account for imposed gravity and interfacial shear disturbances in an isothermal environment is quantitatively tested in experiment. For the second problem, the liquid bridge is subjected to a shear that models the effect of a thermocapillary flow generated by a ring heater in a liquid encapsulated float-zone configuration. In the absence of gravity, this symmetric perturbation can stabilize the bridge to lengths on the order of 30 percent beyond the Plateau-Rayleigh limit, which is on the order of heretofore unexplained Shuttle observations. The third problem considers the dynamics of collapse and pinchoff of a film bridge (no gravity), which happens in the absence of stabilization. Here, we summarize experimental efforts to measure the self-similar cone-and-crater structure predicted by a previous theory.
Organic Redox Species in Aqueous Flow Batteries: Redox Potentials, Chemical Stability and Solubility
Wedege, Kristina; Dražević, Emil; Konya, Denes; Bentien, Anders
2016-01-01
Organic molecules are currently investigated as redox species for aqueous low-cost redox flow batteries (RFBs). The envisioned features of using organic redox species are low cost and increased flexibility with respect to tailoring redox potential and solubility from molecular engineering of side groups on the organic redox-active species. In this paper 33, mainly quinone-based, compounds are studied experimentially in terms of pH dependent redox potential, solubility and stability, combined with single cell battery RFB tests on selected redox pairs. Data shows that both the solubility and redox potential are determined by the position of the side groups and only to a small extent by the number of side groups. Additionally, the chemical stability and possible degradation mechanisms leading to capacity loss over time are discussed. The main challenge for the development of all-organic RFBs is to identify a redox pair for the positive side with sufficiently high stability and redox potential that enables battery cell potentials above 1 V. PMID:27966605
Organic Redox Species in Aqueous Flow Batteries: Redox Potentials, Chemical Stability and Solubility
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wedege, Kristina; Dražević, Emil; Konya, Denes; Bentien, Anders
2016-12-01
Organic molecules are currently investigated as redox species for aqueous low-cost redox flow batteries (RFBs). The envisioned features of using organic redox species are low cost and increased flexibility with respect to tailoring redox potential and solubility from molecular engineering of side groups on the organic redox-active species. In this paper 33, mainly quinone-based, compounds are studied experimentially in terms of pH dependent redox potential, solubility and stability, combined with single cell battery RFB tests on selected redox pairs. Data shows that both the solubility and redox potential are determined by the position of the side groups and only to a small extent by the number of side groups. Additionally, the chemical stability and possible degradation mechanisms leading to capacity loss over time are discussed. The main challenge for the development of all-organic RFBs is to identify a redox pair for the positive side with sufficiently high stability and redox potential that enables battery cell potentials above 1 V.
Wedege, Kristina; Dražević, Emil; Konya, Denes; Bentien, Anders
2016-12-14
Organic molecules are currently investigated as redox species for aqueous low-cost redox flow batteries (RFBs). The envisioned features of using organic redox species are low cost and increased flexibility with respect to tailoring redox potential and solubility from molecular engineering of side groups on the organic redox-active species. In this paper 33, mainly quinone-based, compounds are studied experimentially in terms of pH dependent redox potential, solubility and stability, combined with single cell battery RFB tests on selected redox pairs. Data shows that both the solubility and redox potential are determined by the position of the side groups and only to a small extent by the number of side groups. Additionally, the chemical stability and possible degradation mechanisms leading to capacity loss over time are discussed. The main challenge for the development of all-organic RFBs is to identify a redox pair for the positive side with sufficiently high stability and redox potential that enables battery cell potentials above 1 V.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Citro, V.; Luchini, P.; Giannetti, F.; Auteri, F.
2017-09-01
The study of the stability of a dynamical system described by a set of partial differential equations (PDEs) requires the computation of unstable states as the control parameter exceeds its critical threshold. Unfortunately, the discretization of the governing equations, especially for fluid dynamic applications, often leads to very large discrete systems. As a consequence, matrix based methods, like for example the Newton-Raphson algorithm coupled with a direct inversion of the Jacobian matrix, lead to computational costs too large in terms of both memory and execution time. We present a novel iterative algorithm, inspired by Krylov-subspace methods, which is able to compute unstable steady states and/or accelerate the convergence to stable configurations. Our new algorithm is based on the minimization of the residual norm at each iteration step with a projection basis updated at each iteration rather than at periodic restarts like in the classical GMRES method. The algorithm is able to stabilize any dynamical system without increasing the computational time of the original numerical procedure used to solve the governing equations. Moreover, it can be easily inserted into a pre-existing relaxation (integration) procedure with a call to a single black-box subroutine. The procedure is discussed for problems of different sizes, ranging from a small two-dimensional system to a large three-dimensional problem involving the Navier-Stokes equations. We show that the proposed algorithm is able to improve the convergence of existing iterative schemes. In particular, the procedure is applied to the subcritical flow inside a lid-driven cavity. We also discuss the application of Boostconv to compute the unstable steady flow past a fixed circular cylinder (2D) and boundary-layer flow over a hemispherical roughness element (3D) for supercritical values of the Reynolds number. We show that Boostconv can be used effectively with any spatial discretization, be it a finite
Flow-combustion interactions in ducted flameholder-stabilized premixed flames
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soteriou, Marios; Arienti, Marco; Erickson, Robert
2006-11-01
Turbulent premixed combustion is present in many power generation and propulsion systems due to its large energy conversion rate (as compared to non-premixed combustion) and its potential for reduced emissions (at the lean limit). As a result, the study of turbulent premixed flames has received substantial attention in the past through experiment, analysis and simulation. In the recent past, unsteady Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) based models have been increasingly leveraged towards the in depth study of the physics of turbulent premixed flames. The bulk of this effort focuses on the response of the flame to turbulence. In contrast, we focus on the opposite problem, i.e. the modification of the turbulent flowfield by the flame. This topic has also received some attention but with a strong emphasis on planar (in the mean), flames propagating normal to the flow. Instead, we focus on flameholder-stabilized ducted flames, i.e. ones in which the flame is confined and substantially inclined to the incoming flow. The fundamental mechanisms by which the flame impacts the flow, i.e. dilatation, baroclinic vorticity generation and molecular diffusion enhancement are discussed in detail and their relative impact quantified. Limitations of modeling these mechanisms in current state of the art CFD models are also addressed.
Manuel, C M; Nunes, O C; Melo, L F
2010-01-01
The effects of water stagnation and flushing on the biological stability of drinking water were studied by promoting the formation of biofilms under continuous flow (turbulent or laminar) and subsequently subjecting them to unsteady hydraulic situations. Independently of the flow regime under which the biofilm was formed, stagnation promoted bacterial accumulation, either in attached or suspended form, which were carried away in higher numbers when flow was re-started, thereby compromising its biological quality. In all cases, Betaproteobacteria was the dominant phylogenetic group, although Gamma and Alpha subclasses were also present. These results suggest that special attention should be given to the biological quality of drinking water where consumption is subjected to strongly variable demands such as in seasonal hotels, week-end houses or dental clinics after week-ends as abnormal changes may have occurred in the microbiological parameters. Moreover, this study showed that the cultivable bacterial numbers are not related to those of total bacteria and, thus, should not be the basis for the routine tests of bacteriological control in these systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Flemings, P. B.
2010-12-01
Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expepedition 308 used direct measurements of pore pressure, analysis of hydromechanical properties, and geological analysis to illuminate how sedimentation, flow focusing, overpressure, and slope stability couple beneath the seafloor on the deepwater continental slope in the Gulf of Mexico. We used pore pressure penetrometers to measure severe overpressures (60% of the difference between lithostatic stress and hydrostatic pressure) that extend from the seafloor for 100’s of meters. We ran uniaxial consolidation experiments on whole core and found that although permeability is relatively high near the seafloor, the sediments are highly compressible. As a result, the coefficient of consolidation (the hydraulic diffusivity) is remarkably constant over a large range of effective stresses. This behavior accounts for the high overpressure that begins near the seafloor and extends to depth. Forward modeling suggests that flow is driven laterally along a permeable unit called the Blue Unit. Calculations suggest that soon after deposition, lateral flow lowered the effective stress and triggered the submarine landslides that we observe. Later in the evolution of this system, overpressure may have pre-conditioned the slope to failure by earthquakes. Results from IODP Expedition 308 illustrate how pore pressure and sedimentation control the large-scale form of continental margins, how submarine landslides form, and provide strategies for designing stable drilling programs.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chambers, J. R.; Grafton, S. B.; Lutze, F. H.
1981-01-01
Dynamic stability derivatives are evaluated on the basis of rolling-flow, curved-flow and snaking tests. Attention is given to the hardware associated with curved-flow, rolling-flow and oscillatory pure-yawing wind-tunnel tests. It is found that the snaking technique, when combined with linear- and forced-oscillation methods, yields an important method for evaluating beta derivatives for current configurations at high angles of attack. Since the rolling flow model is fixed during testing, forced oscillations may be imparted to the model, permitting the measurement of damping and cross-derivatives. These results, when coupled with basic rolling-flow or rotary-balance data, yield a highly accurate mathematical model for studies of incipient spin and spin entry.
Hetonic quartets in a two-layer quasi-geostrophic flow: V-states and stability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reinaud, J. N.; Sokolovskiy, M. A.; Carton, X.
2018-05-01
We investigate families of finite core vortex quartets in mutual equilibrium in a two-layer quasi-geostrophic flow. The finite core solutions stem from known solutions for discrete (singular) vortex quartets. Two vortices lie in the top layer and two vortices lie in the bottom layer. Two vortices have a positive potential vorticity anomaly, while the two others have negative potential vorticity anomaly. The vortex configurations are therefore related to the baroclinic dipoles known in the literature as hetons. Two main branches of solutions exist depending on the arrangement of the vortices: the translating zigzag-shaped hetonic quartets and the rotating zigzag-shaped hetonic quartets. By addressing their linear stability, we show that while the rotating quartets can be unstable over a large range of the parameter space, most translating quartets are stable. This has implications on the longevity of such vortex equilibria in the oceans.
Stability of low aspect ratio inverted flags and rods in a uniform flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huertas-Cerdeira, Cecilia; Sader, John E.; Gharib, Morteza
2016-11-01
Cantilevered elastic plates and rods in an inverted configuration, where the leading edge is free to move and the trailing edge is clamped, undergo complex dynamics when subjected to a uniform flow. The stability of low aspect ratio inverted plates and rods is theoretically examined, showing that it is markedly different from that of their large aspect ratio counterpart. In the limit of zero aspect ratio, the undeflected equilibrium position is found to be stable for all wind speeds. A saddle-node bifurcation emerges at finite wind speed, giving rise to a strongly deflected stable and a weakly deflected unstable equilibria. This theory is compared to experimental measurements, where good agreement is found. This research was supported by a Grant of the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Australian Research Council Grants scheme and a "la Caixa" Fellowship Grant for Post-Graduate Studies of "la Caixa" Banking Foundation.
Stabilized Alumina/Ethanol Colloidal Dispersion for Seeding High Temperature Air Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wernet, Judith H.; Wernet, Mark P.
1994-01-01
Seeding air flows with particles to enable measurements of gas velocities via laser anemometry and/or particle image velocimetry techniques can be quite exasperating. The seeding requirements are compounded when high temperature environments are encountered and special care must be used in selecting a refractory seed material. The pH stabilization techniques commonly employed in ceramic processing are used to obtain stable dispersions for generating aerosols of refractory seed material. By adding submicron alumina particles to a preadjusted pH solution of ethanol, a stable dispersion is obtained which when atomized produces a high quality aerosol. Commercial grade alumina powder is used with a moderate size distribution. The technique is not limited to alumina/ethanol and is also demonstrated with an alumina/H2O system. Other ceramic powders in various polar solvents could also be used once the point of zero charge (pH(sub pzc)) of the powder in the solvent has been determined.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Levin, V. A.; Zhuravskaya, T. A.
2017-03-01
Stabilization of a detonation wave in a stoichiometric hydrogen-air mixture flowing at a supersonic velocity into a plane symmetric channel with constriction has been studied in the framework of a detailed kinetic mechanism of the chemical interaction. Conditions ensuring the formation of a thrust-producing f low with a stabilized detonation wave in the channel are determined. The inf luence of the inf low Mach number, dustiness of the combustible gas mixture supplied to the channel, and output cross-section size on the position of a stabilized detonation wave in the f low has been analyzed with a view to increasing the efficiency of detonation combustion of the gas mixture. It is established that thrust-producing flow with a stabilized detonation wave can be formed in the channel without any energy consumption.
Zhang, Jingjing; Shkrob, Ilya A.; Assary, Rajeev S.; ...
2017-10-06
We report catholyte materials are used to store positive charge in energized fluids circulating through redox flow batteries (RFBs) for electric grid and vehicle applications. Energy-rich radical cations (RCs) are being considered for use as catholyte materials, but to be practically relevant, these RCs (that are typically unstable, reactive species) need to have long lifetimes in liquid electrolytes under the ambient conditions. Only few families of such energetic RCs possess stabilities that are suitable for their use in RFBs; currently, the derivatives of 1,4- dialkoxybenzene look the most promising. In this study, we examine factors that define the chemical andmore » electrochemical stabilities for RCs in this family. To this end, we engineered rigid bis-annulated molecules that by design avoid the two main degradation pathways for such RCs, viz. their deprotonation and radical addition. The decay of the resulting RCs are due to the single remaining reaction: O-dealkylation. We establish the mechanism for this reaction and examine factors controlling its rate. In particular, we demonstrate that this reaction is initiated by the nucleophile attack of the counter anion on the RC partner. The reaction proceeds through the formation of the aroxyl radicals whose secondary reactions yield the corresponding quinones. The O-dealkylation accelerates considerably when the corresponding quinone has poor solubility in the electrolyte, and the rate depends strongly on the solvent polarity. Finally, our mechanistic insights suggest new ways of improving the RC catholytes through molecular engineering and electrolyte optimization.« less
Zhang, Jingjing; Shkrob, Ilya A.; Assary, Rajeev S.
We report catholyte materials are used to store positive charge in energized fluids circulating through redox flow batteries (RFBs) for electric grid and vehicle applications. Energy-rich radical cations (RCs) are being considered for use as catholyte materials, but to be practically relevant, these RCs (that are typically unstable, reactive species) need to have long lifetimes in liquid electrolytes under the ambient conditions. Only few families of such energetic RCs possess stabilities that are suitable for their use in RFBs; currently, the derivatives of 1,4- dialkoxybenzene look the most promising. In this study, we examine factors that define the chemical andmore » electrochemical stabilities for RCs in this family. To this end, we engineered rigid bis-annulated molecules that by design avoid the two main degradation pathways for such RCs, viz. their deprotonation and radical addition. The decay of the resulting RCs are due to the single remaining reaction: O-dealkylation. We establish the mechanism for this reaction and examine factors controlling its rate. In particular, we demonstrate that this reaction is initiated by the nucleophile attack of the counter anion on the RC partner. The reaction proceeds through the formation of the aroxyl radicals whose secondary reactions yield the corresponding quinones. The O-dealkylation accelerates considerably when the corresponding quinone has poor solubility in the electrolyte, and the rate depends strongly on the solvent polarity. Finally, our mechanistic insights suggest new ways of improving the RC catholytes through molecular engineering and electrolyte optimization.« less
Kolb, Gregory J [Albuquerque, NM
2012-02-07
A suction-recirculation device for stabilizing the flow of a curtain of blackened heat absorption particles falling inside of a solar receiver with an open aperture. The curtain of particles absorbs the concentrated heat from a solar mirror array reflected up to the receiver on a solar power tower. External winds entering the receiver at an oblique angle can destabilize the particle curtain and eject particles. A fan and ductwork is located behind the back wall of the receiver and sucks air out through an array of small holes in the back wall. Any entrained particles are separated out by a conventional cyclone device. Then, the air is recirculated back to the top of the receiver by injecting the recycled air through an array of small holes in the receiver's ceiling and upper aperture front wall. Since internal air is recirculated, heat losses are minimized and high receiver efficiency is maintained. Suction-recirculation velocities in the range of 1-5 m/s are sufficient to stabilize the particle curtain against external wind speeds in excess of 10 m/s.
Chazeau, Anaël; Garcia, Mikael; Czöndör, Katalin; Perrais, David; Tessier, Béatrice; Giannone, Grégory; Thoumine, Olivier
2015-01-01
The morphology of neuronal dendritic spines is a critical indicator of synaptic function. It is regulated by several factors, including the intracellular actin/myosin cytoskeleton and transcellular N-cadherin adhesions. To examine the mechanical relationship between these molecular components, we performed quantitative live-imaging experiments in primary hippocampal neurons. We found that actin turnover and structural motility were lower in dendritic spines than in immature filopodia and increased upon expression of a nonadhesive N-cadherin mutant, resulting in an inverse relationship between spine motility and actin enrichment. Furthermore, the pharmacological stimulation of myosin II induced the rearward motion of actin structures in spines, showing that myosin II exerts tension on the actin network. Strikingly, the formation of stable, spine-like structures enriched in actin was induced at contacts between dendritic filopodia and N-cadherin–coated beads or micropatterns. Finally, computer simulations of actin dynamics mimicked various experimental conditions, pointing to the actin flow rate as an important parameter controlling actin enrichment in dendritic spines. Together these data demonstrate that a clutch-like mechanism between N-cadherin adhesions and the actin flow underlies the stabilization of dendritic filopodia into mature spines, a mechanism that may have important implications in synapse initiation, maturation, and plasticity in the developing brain. PMID:25568337
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duine, Gert-Jan; Durand, Pierre; Hedde, Thierry; Roubin, Pierre; Augustin, Patrick; Fourmentin, Marc; Lohou, Fabienne; Lothon, Marie
2014-05-01
This work is in the frame of the PhD-thesis entitled "Dispersion of pollutants in stable boundary layer conditions in the middle valley of the Durance", financed by the Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA) and jointly supervised by CEA and Laboratoire d'Aérologie (LA), Toulouse. It takes place in a wider context of R & D work performed at CEA to characterize the site specific atmospheric conditions, with a view to improve the knowledge of the impact of the potential release of pollutants. During the winter of 2013 the intensive field measurement campaign KASCADE (KAtabatic winds and Stability over CAdarache for Dispersion of Effluents) has been carried out at Cadarache, a research centre of CEA, located in South-Eastern France. The stability of the lower atmospheric boundary layer caused by radiative cooling at night, combined with the local orography, strongly affects the conditions for the dispersion of potential pollutants. Understanding the complex patterns of drainage flow and cold pool build up in the smaller valleys confluent to the Durance river is thus a major issue for refining the models used to assess the sanitary and environmental impact of Cadarache. Stability is easily formed in the region and in combination with the orographic complexity, there is a need to study the Stable Boundary Layer (SBL), which potentially can have a large impact on the dispersion of gaseous emissions released by the various facilities of Cadarache. KASCADE was designed to characterize the local SBL in order to feed future planned numerical simulations with WRF and impact studies involving numerical models coping with dispersion. With a focus on night time, a combination of continuous observations (SODAR and a flux-measurement tower of 30 meter [M30]) and 23 Intensive Observational Periods (IOPs) (Tethered Balloon [TB] profiling and radio-soundings) allows to study the relevant phenomena for SBL-formation. M30 was equipped with sonic anemometers at 3 levels for
Gorbacheva, E V; Ganchenko, G S; Demekhin, E A
2018-03-27
The stability of the electroosmotic flow of electrolyte-dielectric viscous liquids under the influence of the DC and AC electric fields along with the external pressure gradient is studied theoretically. Liquids are bounded by two infinite parallel plates. The lower wall bordering the electrolyte is assumed to be a charged surface, and the upper wall is electrically isolated. The charge at the lower boundary is assumed to be immobile, while the surface charge at the free surface is assumed to be mobile. In this paper, we study the micro- and nanosized liquid layers. The mathematical model is described by a nonlinear system of the Nernst-Planck-Poisson-Stokes partial differential equations with the appropriate boundary conditions on the solid surface, the electrolyte/dielectric interface, and on the upper wall. The pressure gradient is highly important for the stability of the flow. For the DC case, the external pressure could either stabilize and destabilize the flow depending on the relative directions of the electroosmotic flow and the pressure-driven flow. For the AC case, the dependence on the value of the external pressure is not monotonous for different wave numbers of perturbations, but, as a rule, the external pressure destabilizes the flow. As the frequency of the electric field increases, the one-dimensional solution of the problem becomes stable.
Nonlinear interfacial stability of core-annular film flows in the presence of surfactants
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kas-Danouche, Said A.
This work is an analytical and computational study of the nonlinear interfacial instabilities found in core-annular flows in the presence of surfactants. Core-annular flows arise when two immiscible fluids (for example water and oil) are caused to flow in a pipe under the action of an axial pressure gradient. In one typical type of flow regime, the fluids arrange themselves so that the less viscous (e.g. water) lies in the region of high shear near the pipe wall, with the more viscous fluid occupying the core region. Technologically, this arrangement provides an advantage since the highly viscous fluid is lubricated by the less viscous annulus and for a given pressure gradient the core-fluid flux can be greatly increased. The stability of these flows is of fundamental scientific and practical importance. The sharp interface between the two phases can become unstable by several physical mechanisms and one such mechanism of practical importance is surface tension. In this work we incorporate into our model the effects of insoluble surfactants on the instability. The full problem is derived with particular emphasis paid to the surfactant transport equation which is novel. We then carry out an asymptotic solution of the problem when the annular layer is thin compared to the core-fluid radius and for waves which are of the order of the pipe radius (that is long compared to the annular layer thickness); these scales are in accord with both linear theory as well as experimental observations. The result of the matched asymptotic analysis is a system of coupled nonlinear partial differential equations for the interfacial amplitude and the surfactant concentration on the interface. In the absence of surfactants, the system reduces to the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation which has been extensively studied as a paradigm for one-dimensional turbulence in dissipative systems. The surfactant modifies the flow by inducing Marangoni forces along the interface which in turn modify both
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takizawa, Kenji; Tezduyar, Tayfun E.; Otoguro, Yuto
2018-04-01
Stabilized methods, which have been very common in flow computations for many years, typically involve stabilization parameters, and discontinuity-capturing (DC) parameters if the method is supplemented with a DC term. Various well-performing stabilization and DC parameters have been introduced for stabilized space-time (ST) computational methods in the context of the advection-diffusion equation and the Navier-Stokes equations of incompressible and compressible flows. These parameters were all originally intended for finite element discretization but quite often used also for isogeometric discretization. The stabilization and DC parameters we present here for ST computations are in the context of the advection-diffusion equation and the Navier-Stokes equations of incompressible flows, target isogeometric discretization, and are also applicable to finite element discretization. The parameters are based on a direction-dependent element length expression. The expression is outcome of an easy to understand derivation. The key components of the derivation are mapping the direction vector from the physical ST element to the parent ST element, accounting for the discretization spacing along each of the parametric coordinates, and mapping what we have in the parent element back to the physical element. The test computations we present for pure-advection cases show that the parameters proposed result in good solution profiles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hassanzadeh, H.; Jafari Raad, S. M.
2017-12-01
Linear stability analysis is conducted to study the onset of buoyancy-driven convection involved in solubility trapping of CO2 into deep fractured aquifers. In this study, the effect of fracture network physical properties on the stability criteria in a brine-rich fractured porous layer is investigated using dual porosity concept for both single and variable matrix block size distributions. Linear stability analysis results show that both fracture interporosity flow and fracture storativity factors play an important role in the stability behavior of the system. It is shown that a diffusive boundary layer under the gravity field in a fractured rock with lower fracture storativity and/or higher fracture interporosity flow coefficient is more stable. We present scaling relations that relate the onset of convective instability in fractured aquifers. These findings improve our understanding of buoyancy driven flow in fractured aquifers and are particularly important in estimation of potential storage capacity, risk assessment, and storage sites characterization and screening.Keywords: CO2 sequestration; fractured rock; buoyancy-driven convection; stability analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dagan, Yuval; Ghoniem, Ahmed
2017-11-01
Recent experimental observations show that the dynamic response of a reactive flow is strongly impacted by the fuel chemistry. In order to gain insight into some of the underlying mechanisms we formulate a new linear stability model that incorporates the impact of finite rate chemistry on the hydrodynamic stability of shear flows. Contrary to previous studies which typically assume that the velocity field is independent of the kinetic rates, the velocity field in our study is coupled with the temperature field. Using this formulation, we reproduce previous results, e.g., most unstable global modes, obtained for non-reacting shear flow. Moreover, we show that these modes are significantly altered in frequency and gain by the presence of a reaction region within the shear layer. This qualitatively agrees with results of our recent experimental and numerical studies, which show that the flame surface location relative to the shear layer influences the stability characteristics in combustion tunnels. This study suggests a physical explanation for the observed impact of finite rate chemistry on shear flow stability.
Radhakrishnan, Kirthi; Haworth, Kevin J.; Huang, Shao-Ling; Klegerman, Melvin E.; McPherson, David D.; Holland, Christy K.
2016-01-01
Echogenic liposomes (ELIP) are multifunctional ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) with a lipid shell encapsulating both air and an aqueous core. ELIP are being developed for molecular imaging and image-guided therapeutic delivery. Stability of the echogenicity of ELIP in physiologic conditions is crucial to their successful translation to clinical use. In this study we determined the effects of the surrounding media’s dissolved air concentration, temperature transition and hydrodynamic pressure on the echogenicity of a chemically modified formulation of ELIP to promote stability and echogenicity. ELIP samples were diluted in porcine plasma or whole blood and pumped through a pulsatile flow system with adjustable hydrodynamic pressures and temperature. B-mode images were acquired using a clinical diagnostic scanner every 5 s for a total duration of 75 s. Echogenicity in porcine plasma was assessed as a function of total dissolved gas saturation. ELIP were added to plasma at room temperature (22 °C) or body temperature (37 °C) and pumped through a system maintained at 22 °C or 37 °C to study the effect of temperature transitions on ELIP echogenicity. Echogenicity at normotensive (120/80 mmHg) and hypertensive pressures (145/90 mmHg) was measured. ELIP were echogenic in plasma and whole blood at body temperature under normotensive to hypertensive pressures. Warming of samples from room temperature to body temperature did not alter echogenicity. However, in plasma cooled rapidly from body temperature to room temperature or in degassed plasma, ELIP lost echogenicity within 20 s at 120/80 mmHg. The stability of echogenicity of a modified ELIP formulation was determined in vitro at body temperature, physiologic gas concentration and throughout the physiologic pressure range. However, proper care should be taken to ensure that ELIP are not cooled rapidly from body temperature to room temperature as they will lose their acoustic properties. Further in vivo
Radhakrishnan, Kirthi; Haworth, Kevin J; Huang, Shao-Ling; Klegerman, Melvin E; McPherson, David D; Holland, Christy K
2012-11-01
Echogenic liposomes (ELIP) are multifunctional ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) with a lipid shell encapsulating both air and an aqueous core. ELIP are being developed for molecular imaging and image-guided therapeutic delivery. Stability of the echogenicity of ELIP in physiologic conditions is crucial to their successful translation to clinical use. In this study, we determined the effects of the surrounding media's dissolved air concentration, temperature transition and hydrodynamic pressure on the echogenicity of a chemically modified formulation of ELIP to promote stability and echogenicity. ELIP samples were diluted in porcine plasma or whole blood and pumped through a pulsatile flow system with adjustable hydrodynamic pressures and temperature. B-mode images were acquired using a clinical diagnostic scanner every 5 s for a total duration of 75 s. Echogenicity in porcine plasma was assessed as a function of total dissolved gas saturation. ELIP were added to plasma at room temperature (22 °C) or body temperature (37 °C) and pumped through a system maintained at 22 °C or 37 °C to study the effect of temperature transitions on ELIP echogenicity. Echogenicity at normotensive (120/80 mmHg) and hypertensive pressures (145/90 mmHg) was measured. ELIP were echogenic in plasma and whole blood at body temperature under normotensive to hypertensive pressures. Warming of samples from room temperature to body temperature did not alter echogenicity. However, in plasma cooled rapidly from body temperature to room temperature or in degassed plasma, ELIP lost echogenicity within 20 s at 120/80 mmHg. The stability of echogenicity of a modified ELIP formulation was determined in vitro at body temperature, physiologic gas concentration and throughout the physiologic pressure range. However, proper care should be taken to ensure that ELIP are not cooled rapidly from body temperature to room temperature as they will lose their echogenic properties. Further in
Flame stabilization and mixing characteristics in a Stagnation Point Reverse Flow combustor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bobba, Mohan K.
A novel combustor design, referred to as the Stagnation Point Reverse-Flow (SPRF) combustor, was recently developed that is able to operate stably at very lean fuel-air mixtures and with low NOx emissions even when the fuel and air are not premixed before entering the combustor. The primary objective of this work is to elucidate the underlying physics behind the excellent stability and emissions performance of the SPRF combustor. The approach is to experimentally characterize velocities, species mixing, heat release and flame structure in an atmospheric pressure SPRF combustor with the help of various optical diagnostic techniques: OH PLIF, chemiluminescence imaging, PIV and Spontaneous Raman Scattering. Results indicate that the combustor is primarily stabilized in a region downstream of the injector that is characterized by low average velocities and high turbulence levels; this is also the region where most of the heat release occurs. High turbulence levels in the shear layer lead to increased product entrainment levels, elevating the reaction rates and thereby enhancing the combustor stability. The effect of product entrainment on chemical timescales and the flame structure is illustrated with simple reactor models. Although reactants are found to burn in a highly preheated (1300 K) and turbulent environment due to mixing with hot product gases, the residence times are sufficiently long compared to the ignition timescales such that the reactants do not autoignite. Turbulent flame structure analysis indicates that the flame is primarily in the thin reaction zones regime throughout the combustor, and it tends to become more flamelet like with increasing distance from the injector. Fuel-air mixing measurements in case of non-premixed operation indicate that the fuel is shielded from hot products until it is fully mixed with air, providing nearly premixed performance without the safety issues associated with premixing. The reduction in NOx emissions in the SPRF
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deng, Q.; Ginting, V.; McCaskill, B.; Torsu, P.
2017-10-01
We study the application of a stabilized continuous Galerkin finite element method (CGFEM) in the simulation of multiphase flow in poroelastic subsurfaces. The system involves a nonlinear coupling between the fluid pressure, subsurface's deformation, and the fluid phase saturation, and as such, we represent this coupling through an iterative procedure. Spatial discretization of the poroelastic system employs the standard linear finite element in combination with a numerical diffusion term to maintain stability of the algebraic system. Furthermore, direct calculation of the normal velocities from pressure and deformation does not entail a locally conservative field. To alleviate this drawback, we propose an element based post-processing technique through which local conservation can be established. The performance of the method is validated through several examples illustrating the convergence of the method, the effectivity of the stabilization term, and the ability to achieve locally conservative normal velocities. Finally, the efficacy of the method is demonstrated through simulations of realistic multiphase flow in poroelastic subsurfaces.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saikia, Bijaylakshmi; Ramachandran, Ashwin; Sinha, Krishnendu; Govindarajan, Rama
2017-02-01
Accurate prediction of laminar to turbulent transition in compressible flows is a challenging task, as it can be affected by a combination of factors. Compressibility causes large variations in thermodynamic as well as transport properties of a gas, which in turn are known to affect flow stability. We study the stratification of individual transport properties and their combined behavior. We also examine the effect of a change in the magnitude of viscosity and conductivity on flow stability. The Couette flow of a perfect gas is our model problem and both modal and non-modal analyses are carried out. We notice a large destabilizing role of the increase in the conductivity value and a dramatic stabilizing effect of mean viscosity stratification, over a range of free-stream Mach number, Reynolds number, Prandtl number, and disturbance wavenumber. In the combined case, viscosity stratification plays a dominant role. We find this to be the case for finite-time transient growth in the parameter regime below linear instability as well as asymptotically at large time. A budget of the transient growth energy amplification is also shown to identify the effects of transport properties on the constituents of perturbation energy. The extensive results presented in this paper, we believe should motivate those studying more realistic flows to examine how these contrasting effects of stratification come together.
Effect of settling particles on the stability of a particle-laden flow in a vertical plane channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boronin, S. A.; Osiptsov, A. N.
2018-03-01
The stability of a viscous particle-laden flow in a vertical plane channel in the presence of the gravity force is studied. The flow is described using a two-fluid "dusty-gas" model with negligibly small volume fraction of fines and two-way coupling of the phases. Two different profiles of the particle number density in the main flow are considered: homogeneous and non-homogeneous in the form of two layers symmetric about the channel axis. The novel element of the linear-stability problem formulation is a particle velocity slip in the main flow caused by the gravity-induced settling of the dispersed phase. The eigenvalue problem for a linearized system of governing equations is solved using the orthonormalization and QZ algorithms. For a uniform particle number density distribution, it is found that there exists a domain in the plane of Froude and Stokes numbers, in which the two-phase flow in a vertical channel is stable for an arbitrary Reynolds number. This stability domain corresponds to relatively small-inertia particles and large velocity-slip in the main flow. In contrast to the flow with a uniform particle number density distribution, the stratified dusty-gas flow in a vertical channel is unstable over a wide range of governing parameters. The instability at small Reynolds numbers is determined by the gravitational mode characterized by small wavenumbers (long-wave instability), while at larger Reynolds numbers the instability is dominated by the shear mode with the time-amplification factor larger than that of the gravitational mode. The results of the study can be used for optimization of a large number of technological processes, including those in riser reactors, pneumatic conveying in pipeline systems, hydraulic fracturing, and well cementing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Musa, Omer; Xiong, Chen; Changsheng, Zhou
2017-08-01
The present article investigates experimentally and numerically the ignition and flame stability of high-density polyethylene solid fuel with incoming swirling air through a solid fuel ramjet (SFRJ). A new design of swirler is proposed and used in this work. Experiments on connected pipes test facility were performed for SFRJ with and without swirl. An in-house code has been developed to simulate unsteady, turbulent, reacting, swirling flow in the SFRJ. Four different swirl intensities are utilized to study experimentally and numerically the effect of swirl number on the transient regression, ignition of the solid fuel in a hot-oxidizing flow and combustion phenomenon in the SFRJ. The results showed that using swirl flow decreases the ignition time delay, recirculation zone length, and the distance between the flame and the wall, meanwhile, increases the residence time, heat transfer, regression rate and mixing degree, thus, improving the combustion efficiency and stability.
A spectral approach for the stability analysis of turbulent open-channel flows over granular beds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Camporeale, C.; Canuto, C.; Ridolfi, L.
2012-01-01
A novel Orr-Sommerfeld-like equation for gravity-driven turbulent open-channel flows over a granular erodible bed is here derived, and the linear stability analysis is developed. The whole spectrum of eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the complete generalized eigenvalue problem is computed and analyzed. The fourth-order eigenvalue problem presents singular non-polynomial coefficients with non-homogenous Robin-type boundary conditions that involve first and second derivatives. Furthermore, the Exner condition is imposed at an internal point. We propose a numerical discretization of spectral type based on a single-domain Galerkin scheme. In order to manage the presence of singular coefficients, some properties of Jacobi polynomials have been carefully blended with numerical integration of Gauss-Legendre type. The results show a positive agreement with the classical experimental data and allow one to relate the different types of instability to such parameters as the Froude number, wavenumber, and the roughness scale. The eigenfunctions allow two types of boundary layers to be distinguished, scaling, respectively, with the roughness height and the saltation layer for the bedload sediment transport.
Martoïa, F; Dumont, P J J; Orgéas, L; Belgacem, M N; Putaux, J-L
2016-02-14
In this study, we characterized and modeled the rheology of TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibril (NFC) aqueous suspensions with electrostatically stabilized and unflocculated nanofibrous structures. These colloidal suspensions of slender and wavy nanofibers exhibited a yield stress and a shear thinning behavior at low and high shear rates, respectively. Both the shear yield stress and the consistency of these suspensions were power-law functions of the NFC volume fraction. We developed an original multiscale model for the prediction of the rheology of these suspensions. At the nanoscale, the suspensions were described as concentrated systems where NFCs interacted with the Newtonian suspending fluid through Brownian motion and long range fluid-NFC hydrodynamic interactions, as well as with each other through short range hydrodynamic and repulsive colloidal interaction forces. These forces were estimated using both the experimental results and 3D networks of NFCs that were numerically generated to mimic the nanostructures of NFC suspensions under shear flow. They were in good agreement with theoretical and measured forces for model colloidal systems. The model showed the primary role played by short range hydrodynamic and colloidal interactions on the rheology of NFC suspensions. At low shear rates, the origin of the yield stress of NFC suspensions was attributed to the combined contribution of repulsive colloidal interactions and the topology of the entangled NFC networks in the suspensions. At high shear rates, both concurrent colloidal and short (in some cases long) range hydrodynamic interactions could be at the origin of the shear thinning behavior of NFC suspensions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fowle, A. A.; Soto, L.; Strong, P. F.; Wang, C. A.
1980-01-01
A low Bond number simulation technique was used to establish the stability limits of cylindrical and conical floating liquid columns under conditions of isorotation, equal counter rotation, rotation of one end only, and parallel axis offset. The conditions for resonance in cylindrical liquid columns perturbed by axial, sinusoidal vibration of one end face are also reported. All tests were carried out under isothermal conditions with water and silicone fluids of various viscosities. A technique for the quantitative measurement of stream velocity within a floating, isothermal, liquid column confined between rotatable disks was developed. In the measurement, small, light scattering particles were used as streamline markers in common arrangement, but the capability of the measurement was extended by use of stereopair photography system to provide quantitative data. Results of velocity measurements made under a few selected conditions, which established the precision and accuracy of the technique, are given. The general qualitative features of the isothermal flow patterns under various conditions of end face rotation resulting from both still photography and motion pictures are presented.
Harrigan, T P
1996-01-01
A simple compartmental model for myogenic regulation of interstitial pressure in bone is developed, and the interaction between changes in interstitial pressure and changes in arterial and venous resistance is studied. The arterial resistance is modeled by a myogenic model that depends on transmural pressure, and the venous resistance is modeled by using a vascular waterfall. Two series capacitances model blood storage in the vascular system and interstitial fluid storage in the extravascular space. The static results mimic the observed effect that vasodilators work less well in bone than do vasoconstrictors. The static results also show that the model gives constant flow rates over a limited range of arterial pressure. The dynamic model shows unstable behavior at small values of bony capacitance and at high enough myogenic gain. At low myogenic gain, only a single equilibrium state is present, but a high enough myogenic gain, two new equilibrium states appear. At additional increases in gain, one of the two new states merges with and then separates from the original state, and the original state becomes a saddle point. The appearance of the new states and the transition of the original state to a saddle point do not depend on the bony capacitance, and these results are relevant to general fluid compartments. Numerical integration of the rate equations confirms the stability calculations and shows limit cycling behavior in several situations. The relevance of this model to circulation in bone and to other compartments is discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chambers, J. R.; Grafton, S. B.; Lutze, F. H.
1981-01-01
The test capabilities of the Stability Wind Tunnel of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University are described, and calibrations for curved and rolling flow techniques are given. Oscillatory snaking tests to determine pure yawing derivatives are considered. Representative aerodynamic data obtained for a current fighter configuration using the curved and rolling flow techniques are presented. The application of dynamic derivatives obtained in such tests to the analysis of airplane motions in general, and to high angle of attack flight conditions in particular, is discussed.
Saeid Khalafvand, Seyed; Han, Hai-Chao
2015-06-01
It has been shown that arteries may buckle into tortuous shapes under lumen pressure, which in turn could alter blood flow. However, the mechanisms of artery instability under pulsatile flow have not been fully understood. The objective of this study was to simulate the buckling and post-buckling behaviors of the carotid artery under pulsatile flow using a fully coupled fluid-structure interaction (FSI) method. The artery wall was modeled as a nonlinear material with a two-fiber strain-energy function. FSI simulations were performed under steady-state flow and pulsatile flow conditions with a prescribed flow velocity profile at the inlet and different pressures at the outlet to determine the critical buckling pressure. Simulations were performed for normal (160 ml/min) and high (350 ml/min) flow rates and normal (1.5) and reduced (1.3) axial stretch ratios to determine the effects of flow rate and axial tension on stability. The results showed that an artery buckled when the lumen pressure exceeded a critical value. The critical mean buckling pressure at pulsatile flow was 17-23% smaller than at steady-state flow. For both steady-state and pulsatile flow, the high flow rate had very little effect (<5%) on the critical buckling pressure. The fluid and wall stresses were drastically altered at the location with maximum deflection. The maximum lumen shear stress occurred at the inner side of the bend and maximum tensile wall stresses occurred at the outer side. These findings improve our understanding of artery instability in vivo.
Saeid Khalafvand, Seyed; Han, Hai-Chao
2015-01-01
It has been shown that arteries may buckle into tortuous shapes under lumen pressure, which in turn could alter blood flow. However, the mechanisms of artery instability under pulsatile flow have not been fully understood. The objective of this study was to simulate the buckling and post-buckling behaviors of the carotid artery under pulsatile flow using a fully coupled fluid–structure interaction (FSI) method. The artery wall was modeled as a nonlinear material with a two-fiber strain-energy function. FSI simulations were performed under steady-state flow and pulsatile flow conditions with a prescribed flow velocity profile at the inlet and different pressures at the outlet to determine the critical buckling pressure. Simulations were performed for normal (160 ml/min) and high (350 ml/min) flow rates and normal (1.5) and reduced (1.3) axial stretch ratios to determine the effects of flow rate and axial tension on stability. The results showed that an artery buckled when the lumen pressure exceeded a critical value. The critical mean buckling pressure at pulsatile flow was 17–23% smaller than at steady-state flow. For both steady-state and pulsatile flow, the high flow rate had very little effect (<5%) on the critical buckling pressure. The fluid and wall stresses were drastically altered at the location with maximum deflection. The maximum lumen shear stress occurred at the inner side of the bend and maximum tensile wall stresses occurred at the outer side. These findings improve our understanding of artery instability in vivo. PMID:25761257
Combining slope stability and groundwater flow models to assess stratovolcano collapse hazard
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ball, J. L.; Taron, J.; Reid, M. E.; Hurwitz, S.; Finn, C.; Bedrosian, P.
2016-12-01
Flank collapses are a well-documented hazard at volcanoes. Elevated pore-fluid pressures and hydrothermal alteration are invoked as potential causes for the instability in many of these collapses. Because pore pressure is linked to water saturation and permeability of volcanic deposits, hydrothermal alteration is often suggested as a means of creating low-permeability zones in volcanoes. Here, we seek to address the question: What alteration geometries will produce elevated pore pressures in a stratovolcano, and what are the effects of these elevated pressures on slope stability? We initially use a finite element groundwater flow model (a modified version of OpenGeoSys) to simulate `generic' stratovolcano geometries that produce elevated pore pressures. We then input these results into the USGS slope-stability code Scoops3D to investigate the effects of alteration and magmatic intrusion on potential flank failure. This approach integrates geophysical data about subsurface alteration, water saturation and rock mechanical properties with data about precipitation and heat influx at Cascade stratovolcanoes. Our simulations show that it is possible to maintain high-elevation water tables in stratovolcanoes given specific ranges of edifice permeability (ideally between 10-15 and 10-16 m2). Low-permeability layers (10-17 m2, representing altered pyroclastic deposits or altered breccias) in the volcanoes can localize saturated regions close to the surface, but they may actually reduce saturation, pore pressures, and water table levels in the core of the volcano. These conditions produce universally lower factor-of-safety (F) values than at an equivalent dry edifice with the same material properties (lower values of F indicate a higher likelihood of collapse). When magmatic intrusions into the base of the cone are added, near-surface pore pressures increase and F decreases exponentially with time ( 7-8% in the first year). However, while near-surface impermeable layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kuhn, Reinhard; Wagner, Horst; Mosher, Richard A.; Thormann, Wolfgang
1987-01-01
Isoelectric focusing in the continuous flow mode can be more quickly and economically performed by admitting a stepwise pH gradient composed of simple buffers instead of uniform mixtures of synthetic carrier ampholytes. The time-consuming formation of the pH gradient by the electric field is thereby omitted. The stability of a three-step system with arginine - morpholinoethanesulfonic acid/glycylglycine - aspartic acid is analyzed theoretically by one-dimensional computer simulation as well as experimentally at various flow rates in a continuous flow apparatus. Excellent agreement between experimental and theoretical data was obtained. This metastable configuration was found to be suitable for focusing of proteins under continuous flow conditions. The influence of various combinations of electrolytes and membranes between electrophoresis chamber and electrode compartments is also discussed.
Yang, Mingyang; Zheng, Xinqian; Zhang, Yangjun; Bamba, Takahiro; Tamaki, Hideaki; Huenteler, Joern; Li, Zhigang
2013-03-01
This is Part I of a two-part paper documenting the development of a novel asymmetric flow control method to improve the stability of a high-pressure-ratio turbocharger centrifugal compressor. Part I focuses on the nonaxisymmetrical flow in a centrifugal compressor induced by the nonaxisymmetrical geometry of the volute while Part II describes the development of an asymmetric flow control method to avoid the stall on the basis of the characteristic of nonaxisymmetrical flow. To understand the asymmetries, experimental measurements and corresponding numerical simulation were carried out. The static pressure was measured by probes at different circumferential and stream-wise positions to gain insights about the asymmetries. The experimental results show that there is an evident nonaxisymmetrical flow pattern throughout the compressor due to the asymmetric geometry of the overhung volute. The static pressure field in the diffuser is distorted at approximately 90 deg in the rotational direction of the volute tongue throughout the diffuser. The magnitude of this distortion slightly varies with the rotational speed. The magnitude of the static pressure distortion in the impeller is a function of the rotational speed. There is a significant phase shift between the static pressure distributions at the leading edge of the splitter blades and the impeller outlet. The numerical steady state simulation neglects the aforementioned unsteady effects found in the experiments and cannot predict the phase shift, however, a detailed asymmetric flow field structure is obviously obtained.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mettot, Clément; Sipp, Denis; Bézard, Hervé
2014-04-01
This article presents a quasi-laminar stability approach to identify in high-Reynolds number flows the dominant low-frequencies and to design passive control means to shift these frequencies. The approach is based on a global linear stability analysis of mean-flows, which correspond to the time-average of the unsteady flows. Contrary to the previous work by Meliga et al. ["Sensitivity of 2-D turbulent flow past a D-shaped cylinder using global stability," Phys. Fluids 24, 061701 (2012)], we use the linearized Navier-Stokes equations based solely on the molecular viscosity (leaving aside any turbulence model and any eddy viscosity) to extract the least stable direct and adjoint global modes of the flow. Then, we compute the frequency sensitivity maps of these modes, so as to predict before hand where a small control cylinder optimally shifts the frequency of the flow. In the case of the D-shaped cylinder studied by Parezanović and Cadot [J. Fluid Mech. 693, 115 (2012)], we show that the present approach well captures the frequency of the flow and recovers accurately the frequency control maps obtained experimentally. The results are close to those already obtained by Meliga et al., who used a more complex approach in which turbulence models played a central role. The present approach is simpler and may be applied to a broader range of flows since it is tractable as soon as mean-flows — which can be obtained either numerically from simulations (Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS), Large Eddy Simulation (LES), unsteady Reynolds-Averaged-Navier-Stokes (RANS), steady RANS) or from experimental measurements (Particle Image Velocimetry - PIV) — are available. We also discuss how the influence of the control cylinder on the mean-flow may be more accurately predicted by determining an eddy-viscosity from numerical simulations or experimental measurements. From a technical point of view, we finally show how an existing compressible numerical simulation code may be used in
Zhang, Jingjing; Yang, Zheng; Shkrob, Ilya A.; ...
2017-07-21
1,4-Dimethoxybenzene derivatives are materials of choice for use as catholytes in nonaqueous redox flow batteries, as they exhibit high open-circuit potentials and excellent electrochemical reversibility. However, chemical stability of these materials in their oxidized form needs to be improved. Disubstitution in the arene ring is used to suppress parasitic reactions of their radical cations, but this does not fully prevent ring-addition reactions. By incorporating bicyclic substitutions and ether chains into the dialkoxybenzenes, a novel catholyte molecule, 9,10-bis(2-methoxyethoxy)-1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8-octahydro-1,4:5,8-dimethanenoanthracene (BODMA), is obtained and exhibits greater solubility and superior chemical stability in the charged state. As a result, a hybrid flow cell containingmore » BODMA is operated for 150 charge–discharge cycles with minimal loss of capacity.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, D.; Morley, N. B.
2002-12-01
A 2D model for MHD free surface flow in a spanwise field is developed. The model, designed to simulate film flows of liquid metals in future thermonuclear fusion reactors, considers an applied spanwise magnetic field with spatial and temporal variation and an applied streamwise external current. A special case - a thin falling film flow in spanwise magnetic field with constant gradient and constant applied external streamwise current, is here investigated in depth to gain insight into the behavior of the MHD film flow. The fully developed flow solution is derived and initial linear stability analysis is performed for this special case. It is seen that the velocity profile is significantly changed due to the presence of the MHD effect, resulting in the free surface analog of the classic M-shape velocity profile seen in developing pipe flows in a field gradient. The field gradient is also seen to destabilize the film flow under most conditions. The effect of external current depends on the relative direction of the field gradient to the current direction. By controlling the magnitude of an external current, it is possible to obtain a linearly stable falling film under these magnetic field conditions. Tables 1, Figs 12, Refs 20.
Nonlinear power flow feedback control for improved stability and performance of airfoil sections
Wilson, David G.; Robinett, III, Rush D.
2013-09-03
A computer-implemented method of determining the pitch stability of an airfoil system, comprising using a computer to numerically integrate a differential equation of motion that includes terms describing PID controller action. In one model, the differential equation characterizes the time-dependent response of the airfoil's pitch angle, .alpha.. The computer model calculates limit-cycles of the model, which represent the stability boundaries of the airfoil system. Once the stability boundary is known, feedback control can be implemented, by using, for example, a PID controller to control a feedback actuator. The method allows the PID controller gain constants, K.sub.I, K.sub.p, and K.sub.d, to be optimized. This permits operation closer to the stability boundaries, while preventing the physical apparatus from unintentionally crossing the stability boundaries. Operating closer to the stability boundaries permits greater power efficiencies to be extracted from the airfoil system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baek, H.; Kim, D.; Kim, G.; Kim, D.; Cheong, S.
2017-12-01
The safety and environmental issues should be addressed for sustainable mining operations. One of the key factors is the groundwater flow into underground mine workings, which will affect the overall workability and efficiency of the mining operation. Prediction of the groundwater inflow requires a detailed knowledge of the geologic conditions, including the presence of major faults and other geologic structures at the mine site. The hydrologic boundaries and depth of the phreatic surface of the mine area, as well as other relevant properties of the rockmass, are also provided. The stability of underground structures, in terms of the maximum stresses and deformations within the rockmass, can be analyzed using either the total stress or the effective stress approaches. Both the dried and saturated conditions should be considered with appropriate safety factors, as the distribution of the water pressure within the rockmass resulted from the groundwater flow directly affects the stability. In some cases, the rockmass rating systems such as the RMR and Q-systems are also applied. Various numerical codes have been used to construct the hydrogeologic models of mine sites, and the MINEDW by Itasca is one of those groundwater flow model codes developed to simulate groundwater flow related to mining. In this study, with a 3D hydrogeologic model constructed using the MINEDW for an underground limestone mine, the rate of mine water inflow and the porewater pressure were estimated. The stability of mine pillars and adits was analyzed adopting the porewater pressure and effective stress developed in the rockmass. The results were also compared with those from other 2D stability analysis procedures.
David R. Montgomery; Kevin M. Schmidt; William E. Dietrich; Jim McKean
2009-01-01
The middle of a hillslope hollow in the Oregon Coast Range failed and mobilized as a debris flow during heavy rainfall in November 1996. Automated pressure transducers recorded high spatial variability of pore water pressure within the area that mobilized as a debris flow, which initiated where local upward flow from bedrock developed into overlying colluvium....
Holzschuh, Stephan; Kaeß, Kathrin; Fahr, Alfred; Decker, Christiane
2016-04-01
In the present study we introduce an efficient approach for a size-based separation of liposomes from plasma proteins employing AF4. We investigated vesicle stability and release behavior of the strongly lipophilic drug temoporfin from liposomes in human plasma for various incubation times at 37°C. We used the radioactive tracer cholesteryl oleyl ether (COE) or dipalmitoyl-phosphocholine (DPPC) as lipid markers and (14)C-labeled temoporfin. First, both lipid labels were examined for their suitability as liposome markers. Furthermore, the influence of plasma origin on liposome stability and drug transfer was investigated. The effect of membrane fluidity and PEGylation on vesicle stability and drug release characteristics was also analyzed. Surprisingly, we observed an enzymatic transfer of (3)H-COE to lipoproteins due to the cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP) in human plasma in dependence on membrane rigidity and were able to inhibit this transfer by plasma preincubation with the CETP inhibitor torcetrapib. This effect was not seen when liposomes were incubated in rat plasma. DPPC labels suffered from hydrolysis effects during preparation and/or storage. Fluid liposomes were less stable in human plasma than their PEGylated analogues or a rigid formulation. In contrast, the transfer of the incorporated drug to lipoproteins was higher for the rigid formulations. The observed effects render COE-labels questionable for in vivo studies using CEPT-rich species. Here, choline labelled (14)C-DPPC was found to be the most promising alternative. Bilayer composition has a high influence on stability and drug release of a liposomal formulation in human plasma.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Venier, C.; Figueiredo da Silva, J.; McLelland, S. J.; Duck, R. W.; Lanzoni, S.
2012-10-01
This study aims to quantify the impact of macroalgal mats of Ulva intestinalis on flow dynamics and sediment stability. Such mats are becoming increasingly common in many coastal and estuarine intertidal habitats, thus it is important to determine whether they increase flow resistance, promote bed stability and therefore reduce the risk of erosion leading to tidal flooding or to degradation of coastal lagoons. The study has been carried out through a systematic series of experiments conducted in the large open-channel flume of the Total Environment Simulator (TES) facility, University of Hull, UK. The experimental facility was set up with a bed of fine sand, partially covered by strands of U. intestinalis; living individuals attached to large clasts were collected from Budle Bay, in the Lindisfarne National Nature Reserve, UK, and transplanted to the flume. The TES was equipped with acoustic doppler velocimetry (ADV) and acoustic backscatter (ABS) sensors, which measured current velocity, water level, bed level, and suspended sediment concentration. The experiments consisted of several unidirectional flow runs, firstly with a mobile sediment bed covered with U. intestinalis, then with a bare sediment surface, conducted at three different water depths. Under the investigated experimental range of velocities, typical of tidal environments, the macroalgal filaments were bent parallel to the sediment bed. The resulting velocity profile departed from the classical logarithmic trend, implying an increase of the overall roughness. This result reflects the different vertical Reynolds shear stress profiles and energy spectra features of the turbulent flow with respect to a bare sandy bed configuration. Macroalgae are also found to affect the morphological configuration of bedforms. The overall result is significant bio-stabilization, with increased flow resistance and reduced sediment transport.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weinstein, H.; Lavan, Z.
1975-01-01
Analytical investigations of fluid dynamics problems of relevance to the gaseous core nuclear reactor program are presented. The vortex type flow which appears in the nuclear light bulb concept is analyzed along with the fluid flow in the fuel inlet region for the coaxial flow gaseous core nuclear reactor concept. The development of numerical methods for the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations for appropriate geometries is extended to the case of rotating flows and almost completes the gas core program requirements in this area. The investigations demonstrate that the conceptual design of the coaxial flow reactor needs further development.
Nonlinear effects in time-dependent transonic flows: An analysis of analog black hole stability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Michel, Florent; Parentani, Renaud
2015-05-01
We study solutions of the one-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation to better understand dynamical instabilities occurring in flowing atomic condensates. Whereas transonic stationary flows can be fully described in simple terms, time-dependent flows exhibit a wide variety of behaviors. When the sound speed is crossed once, we observe that flows analogous to black holes obey something similar to the so-called no hair theorem since their late time profile is stationary and uniquely fixed by parameters entering the Hamiltonian and conserved quantities. For flows analogous to white holes, at late time one finds a macroscopic undulation in the supersonic side which has either a fixed amplitude or a widely varying one, signaling a quasiperiodic emission of solitons on the subsonic side. When considering flows which cross the sound speed twice, we observe various scenarios which can be understood from the above behaviors and from the hierarchy of the growth rates of the dynamical instabilities characterizing such flows.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lipovsky, B.; Dunham, E. M.
2013-12-01
-2. This contrasts with the well-known self-similar earthquake scaling M0∝f0-3. Attenuation of long-period crack waves is due to both drag within the fluid and radiative energy losses from excitation of seismic waves. Fluid drag may be characterized by either a turbulent or laminar viscous law. We present a thorough characterization of viscous damping that is valid at both low frequencies, where the flow is always fully developed, and at high frequencies, where fluid inertia becomes important. We have derived simple formulas for the quality factor due to viscous attenuation. Waves may become unstable for sufficiently fast background fluid velocity u0. This instability, first proposed by Julian (1994), was further investigated by Dunham and Ogden (2012), who determined the instability condition, u0>cw/2. We establish a more general result: that the stability condition is not only independent of viscosity, but also uninfluenced by fluid inertia, although both do alter growth rates. We also show that radiation damping (excitation of plane P waves normal to the crack walls) has only a stabilizing effect. This work suggests that under geologically relevant conditions, crack wave propagation is most likely stable, and the occurrence of long-period oscillations thus requires some additional excitation process.
Temperature stabilization in dispersed flows of frameless heat removal systems in space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Safronov, A. A.; Filatov, N. I.; Koroteev, A. A.; Bondareva, N. V.
2017-11-01
The temperature profile stabilization is studied at radiation cooling of a dispersed veil of droplet coolers-radiators. The stabilization is shown to be nonmonotonic. The influence of the studied process regularities on the characteristics of the radiating systems is analyzed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumawat, Tara Chand; Tiwari, Naveen
2017-12-01
Two-dimensional base state solutions for rimming flows and their stability analysis to small axial perturbations are analyzed numerically. A thin liquid film which is uniformly covered with an insoluble surfactant flows inside a counterclockwise rotating horizontal cylinder. In the present work, a mathematical model is obtained which consists of coupled thin film thickness and surfactant concentration evolution equations. The governing equations are obtained by simplifying the momentum and species transport equations using the thin-film approximation. The model equations include the effect of gravity, viscosity, capillarity, inertia, and Marangoni stress. The concentration gradients generated due to flow result in the surface tension gradient that generates the Marangoni stress near the interface region. The oscillations in the flow due to inertia are damped out by the Marangoni stress. It is observed that the Marangoni stress has stabilizing effect, whereas inertia and surface tension enhance the instability growth rate. In the presence of low diffusion of the surfactant or large value of the Péclet number, the Marangoni stress becomes more effective. The analytically obtained eigenvalues match well with the numerically computed eigenvalues in the absence of gravity.
Luo, Xiaosheng; Xu, Liufang; Han, Bo; Wang, Jin
2017-09-01
Using fission yeast cell cycle as an example, we uncovered that the non-equilibrium network dynamics and global properties are determined by two essential features: the potential landscape and the flux landscape. These two landscapes can be quantified through the decomposition of the dynamics into the detailed balance preserving part and detailed balance breaking non-equilibrium part. While the funneled potential landscape is often crucial for the stability of the single attractor networks, we have uncovered that the funneled flux landscape is crucial for the emergence and maintenance of the stable limit cycle oscillation flow. This provides a new interpretation of the origin for the limit cycle oscillations: There are many cycles and loops existed flowing through the state space and forming the flux landscapes, each cycle with a probability flux going through the loop. The limit cycle emerges when a loop stands out and carries significantly more probability flux than other loops. We explore how robustness ratio (RR) as the gap or steepness versus averaged variations or roughness of the landscape, quantifying the degrees of the funneling of the underlying potential and flux landscapes. We state that these two landscapes complement each other with one crucial for stabilities of states on the cycle and the other crucial for the stability of the flow along the cycle. The flux is directly related to the speed of the cell cycle. This allows us to identify the key factors and structure elements of the networks in determining the stability, speed and robustness of the fission yeast cell cycle oscillations. We see that the non-equilibriumness characterized by the degree of detailed balance breaking from the energy pump quantified by the flux is the cause of the energy dissipation for initiating and sustaining the replications essential for the origin and evolution of life. Regulating the cell cycle speed is crucial for designing the prevention and curing strategy of cancer.
2017-01-01
Using fission yeast cell cycle as an example, we uncovered that the non-equilibrium network dynamics and global properties are determined by two essential features: the potential landscape and the flux landscape. These two landscapes can be quantified through the decomposition of the dynamics into the detailed balance preserving part and detailed balance breaking non-equilibrium part. While the funneled potential landscape is often crucial for the stability of the single attractor networks, we have uncovered that the funneled flux landscape is crucial for the emergence and maintenance of the stable limit cycle oscillation flow. This provides a new interpretation of the origin for the limit cycle oscillations: There are many cycles and loops existed flowing through the state space and forming the flux landscapes, each cycle with a probability flux going through the loop. The limit cycle emerges when a loop stands out and carries significantly more probability flux than other loops. We explore how robustness ratio (RR) as the gap or steepness versus averaged variations or roughness of the landscape, quantifying the degrees of the funneling of the underlying potential and flux landscapes. We state that these two landscapes complement each other with one crucial for stabilities of states on the cycle and the other crucial for the stability of the flow along the cycle. The flux is directly related to the speed of the cell cycle. This allows us to identify the key factors and structure elements of the networks in determining the stability, speed and robustness of the fission yeast cell cycle oscillations. We see that the non-equilibriumness characterized by the degree of detailed balance breaking from the energy pump quantified by the flux is the cause of the energy dissipation for initiating and sustaining the replications essential for the origin and evolution of life. Regulating the cell cycle speed is crucial for designing the prevention and curing strategy of cancer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mack, L. M.
1967-01-01
The fundamentals of stability theory, its chief results, and the physical mechanisms at work are presented. The stability theory of the laminar boundary determines whether a small disturbance introduced into the boundary layer will amplify or damp. If the disturbance damps, the boundary layer remains laminar. If the disturbance amplifies, and by a sufficient amount, then transition to turbulence eventually takes place. The stability theory establishes those states of the boundary layer which are most likely to lead to transition, identifys those frequencies which are the most dangerous, and indicates how the external parameters can best be changed to avoid transition.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Calderon-Ramos, Ismael; Morales, R. D.
2016-06-01
The design of the ports of a casting nozzle has profound effects on the fluid flow patterns in slab molds. The influence of these outlets have also considerable effects on the turbulent flow and turbulence variables inside the nozzle itself. To understand the effects of nozzle design, three approaches were employed: a theoretical analysis based on the turbulent viscosity hypothesis, dimensional analysis (both analyses aided by computer fluid dynamics), and experiments using particle image velocimetry. The first approach yields a linear relation between calculated magnitudes of scalar fields of ɛ (dissipation rate of kinetic energy) and k 2 (square of the turbulent kinetic energy), which is derived from the wall and the logarithmic-wall laws in the boundary layers. The smaller the slope of this linear relation is, the better the performance of a given nozzle is for maintaining the stability of the melt-flux interface. The second approach yields also a linear relation between flow rate of liquid metal and the cubic root of the dissipation rate of kinetic energy. In this case, the larger the slope of the linear relation is, the better the performance of a given nozzle is for maintaining the stability of the melt-flux interface. Finally, PIV measurements in a mold water model, together with equations for estimation of critical melt velocities for slag entrainment, were used to quantify the effects of nozzle design on the dynamics of the metal-slag interface. The three approaches agree in the characterization of turbulent flows in continuous casting molds using different nozzles.
In situ flushing groundwater remediation technologies, such as cosolvent flushing, rely on the stability of the interface between the resident and displacing fluids for efficient removal of contaminants. Contrasts in density and viscosity between the resident and displacing flui...
Nonlinear stability analysis of Darcy’s flow with viscous heating
Alves, Leonardo S. de B.; Barletta, Antonio
2016-01-01
The nonlinear stability of a rectangular porous channel saturated by a fluid is here investigated. The aspect ratio of the channel is assumed to be variable. The channel walls are considered impermeable and adiabatic except for the horizontal top which is assumed to be isothermal. The viscous dissipation is acting inside the channel as internal heat generator. A basic throughflow is imposed, and the nonlinear convective stability is investigated by means of the generalized integral transform technique. The neutral stability curve is compared with the one obtained by the linear stability analysis already present in the literature. The growth rate analysis of different unstable modes is performed. The Nusselt number is investigated for several supercritical configurations in order to better understand how the system behaves when conditions far away from neutral stability are considered. The patterns of the neutrally stable convective cells are also reported. Nonlinear simulations support the results obtained by means of the linear stability analysis, confirming that viscous dissipation alone is indeed capable of inducing mixed convection. Low Gebhart or high Péclet numbers lead to a transient overheating of the originally motionless fluid before it settles in its convective steady state. PMID:27279772
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Srokowski, A. J.
1978-01-01
The problem of obtaining accurate estimates of suction requirements on swept laminar flow control wings was discussed. A fast accurate computer code developed to predict suction requirements by integrating disturbance amplification rates was described. Assumptions and approximations used in the present computer code are examined in light of flow conditions on the swept wing which may limit their validity.
Nonlinear stability of non-stationary cross-flow vortices in compressible boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gajjar, J. S. B.
1995-01-01
The nonlinear evolution of long wavelength non-stationary cross-flow vortices in a compressible boundary layer is investigated and the work extends that of Gajjar (1994) to flows involving multiple critical layers. The basic flow profile considered in this paper is that appropriate for a fully three-dimensional boundary layer with O(1) Mach number and with wall heating or cooling. The governing equations for the evolution of the cross-flow vortex are obtained and some special cases are discussed. One special case includes linear theory where exact analytic expressions for the growth rate of the vortices are obtained. Another special case is a generalization of the Bassom & Gajjar (1988) results for neutral waves to compressible flows. The viscous correction to the growth rate is derived and it is shown how the unsteady nonlinear critical layer structure merges with that for a Haberman type of viscous critical layer.
Meneghello, Giulia; Storm, Michael P; Chaudhuri, Julian B; De Bank, Paul A; Ellis, Marianne J
2015-03-01
The scale-up of tissue engineering cell culture must ensure that conditions are maintained while also being cost effective. Here we analyse the stability of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) to investigate whether concentrations change under dynamic conditions, and compare commercial recombinant human HGF as an additive in 'standard medium', to HGF secreted by the osteosarcoma cell line MG63 as a 'preconditioned medium'. After 3 h under flow conditions, HGF in the standard medium degraded to 40% of its original concentration but HGF in the preconditioned medium remained at 100%. The concentration of secreted HGF was 10 times greater than the working concentration of commercially-available HGF. Thus HGF within this medium has increased stability; MG63-derived HGF should therefore be investigated as a cost-effective alternative to current lyophilised powders for use in in vitro models. Furthermore, we recommend that those intending to use HGF (or other growth factors) should consider similar stability testing before embarking on experiments with media flow.
On the nonlinear stability of the unsteady, viscous flow of an incompressible fluid in a curved pipe
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shortis, Trudi A.; Hall, Philip
1995-01-01
The stability of the flow of an incompressible, viscous fluid through a pipe of circular cross-section curved about a central axis is investigated in a weakly nonlinear regime. A sinusoidal pressure gradient with zero mean is imposed, acting along the pipe. A WKBJ perturbation solution is constructed, taking into account the need for an inner solution in the vicinity of the outer bend, which is obtained by identifying the saddle point of the Taylor number in the complex plane of the cross-sectional angle co-ordinate. The equation governing the nonlinear evolution of the leading order vortex amplitude is thus determined. The stability analysis of this flow to periodic disturbances leads to a partial differential system dependent on three variables, and since the differential operators in this system are periodic in time, Floquet theory may be applied to reduce this system to a coupled infinite system of ordinary differential equations, together with homogeneous uncoupled boundary conditions. The eigenvalues of this system are calculated numerically to predict a critical Taylor number consistent with the analysis of Papageorgiou. A discussion of how nonlinear effects alter the linear stability analysis is also given, and the nature of the instability determined.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lan, C. Edward
1985-01-01
A computer program based on the Quasi-Vortex-Lattice Method of Lan is presented for calculating longitudinal and lateral-directional aerodynamic characteristics of nonplanar wing-body combination. The method is based on the assumption of inviscid subsonic flow. Both attached and vortex-separated flows are treated. For the vortex-separated flow, the calculation is based on the method of suction analogy. The effect of vortex breakdown is accounted for by an empirical method. A summary of the theoretical method, program capabilities, input format, output variables and program job control set-up are described. Three test cases are presented as guides for potential users of the code.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balint, Stefan; Balint, Agneta M.
2017-01-01
Different types of stabilities (global, local) and instabilities (global absolute, local convective) of the constant spatially developing 1-D gas flow are analyzed in the phase space of continuously differentiable functions, endowed with the usual algebraic operations and the topology generated by the uniform convergence on the real axis. For this purpose the Euler equations linearized at the constant flow are used. The Lyapunov stability analysis was presented in [1] and this paper is a continuation of [1].
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Liang; Zhong, Shiquan; Jin, Peter J.; Ma, Shoufeng
2012-12-01
Due to the poor road markings and irregular driving behaviors, not every vehicle is positioned in the center of the lane. The deviation from the center can cause discomfort to drivers in the neighboring lane, which is referred to as lateral discomfort (or lateral friction). Such lateral discomfort can be incorporated into the driver stimulus-response framework by considering the visual angle and its changing rate from the psychological viewpoint. In this study, a two-lane visual angle based car-following model is proposed and its stability condition is obtained through linear stability theory. Further derivations indicate that the neutral stability line of the model is asymmetry and four factors including the vehicle width and length, the lateral separation and the sensitivity regarding the changing rate of visual angle have large impacts on the stability of traffic flow. Numerical simulations further verify these theoretical results, and demonstrate that the behaviors of diverging, merging and lane changing can break the original steady state and cause traffic fluctuations. However, these fluctuations may be alleviated to some extent by reducing the lateral discomfort.
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1999-05-01
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has a continuing program to collect data and develop predictive methods for aircraft flight loads. Some of the most severe and potentially catastrophic flight loads are produced by separated flows. Structural...
Shock formation induced by poloidal flow and its effects on the edge stability in tokamaks
Seol, J.; Aydemir, A. Y.; Shaing, K. C.
2016-04-15
In the high confinement mode of tokamaks, magnitude of the radial electric field increases at the edge. Thus, the poloidal flow inside the transport barrier can be sonic when the edge pressure gradient is not steep enough to make the poloidal flow subsonic. When the poloidal Mach number is close to unity, a shock appears in the low field side and causes a large density perturbation. In this study, we describe a shock induced by the sonic poloidal plasma flow. Then, an entropy production across the shock is calculated. Finally, we introduce a simple model for Type III edge localizedmore » modes using the poloidal density variation driven by the sonic poloidal flow.« less
Stability of a Premixed Flame in Stagnation-Point Flow Against General Disturbance
1992-06-01
Tien and Matalon 1990; Dixon-Lewis 1991) aimed at understanding the structure and burning characteristics of laminar flames. Results of these studies...upstream, the flow field is the classical stagnation-point flow characterized by the strain rate e. The flame, which separates the burned products from the...fresh unburned mixture, is considered thin and is therefore represented by the surface O(x,y,z,t) - 0, where * > 0 is the burned gas region. The flame
A summary of lateral-stability derivatives calculated for wing plan forms in supersonic flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jones, Arthur L; Alksne, Alberta
1951-01-01
A compilation of theoretical values of the lateral-stability derivatives for wings at supersonic speeds is presented in the form of design charts. The wing plan forms for which this compilation has been prepared include a rectangular, two trapezoidal, two triangular, a fully-tapered swept-back, a sweptback hexagonal, an unswept hexagonal, and a notched triangular plan form. A full set of results, that is, values for all nine of the lateral-stability derivatives for wings, was available for the first six of these plan forms only. The reasons for the incompleteness of the results available for other plan forms are discussed.
Topology and stability of a water-soybean-oil swirling flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carrión, Luis; Herrada, Miguel A.; Shtern, Vladimir N.
2017-02-01
This paper reveals and explains the flow topology and instability hidden in an experimental study by Tsai et al. [Tsai et al., Phys. Rev. E 92, 031002(R) (2015)], 10.1103/PhysRevE.92.031002. Water and soybean oil fill a sealed vertical cylindrical container. The rotating top disk induces the meridional circulation and swirl of both fluids. The experiment shows a flattop interface shape and vortex breakdown in the oil flow developing as the rotation strength R eo increases. Our numerical study shows that vortex breakdown occurs in the water flow at R eo=300 and in the oil flow at R eo=941 . As R eo increases, the vortex breakdown cell occupies most of the water domain and approaches the interface at R eo around 600. The rest of the (countercirculating) water separates from the axis as the vortex breakdown cells in the oil and water meet at the interface-axis intersection. This topological transformation of water flow significantly contributes to the development of the flattop shape. It is also shown that the steady axisymmetric flow suffers from shear-layer instability, which emerges in the water domain at R eo=810 .
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ismail, Nurul Syuhada; Arifin, Norihan Md.; Bachok, Norfifah; Mahiddin, Norhasimah
2017-01-01
A numerical study is performed to evaluate the problem of stagnation - point flow towards a shrinking sheet with homogeneous - heterogeneous reaction effects. By using non-similar transformation, the governing equations be able to reduced to an ordinary differential equation. Then, results of the equations can be obtained numerically by shooting method with maple implementation. Based on the numerical results obtained, the velocity ratio parameter λ< 0, the dual solutions do exist. Then, the stability analysis is carried out to determine which solution is more stable between both of the solutions by bvp4c solver in Matlab.
Liu, Jianxi; Ma, Shuanhong; Wei, Qiangbing; Jia, Lei; Yu, Bo; Wang, Daoai; Zhou, Feng
2013-12-07
Smart systems on the nanometer scale for continuous flow-through reaction present fascinating advantages in heterogeneous catalysis, in which a parallel array of straight nanochannels offers a platform with high surface area for assembling and stabilizing metallic nanoparticles working as catalysts. Herein we demonstrate a method for finely modifying the nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO), and further integration of nanoreactors. By using atomic transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), polymer brushes were successfully grafted on the inner wall of the nanochannels of the AAO membrane, followed by exchanging counter ions with a precursor for nanoparticles (NPs), and used as the template for deposition of well-defined Au NPs. The membrane was used as a functional nanochannel for novel flow-through catalysis. High catalytic performance and instantaneous separation of products from the reaction system was achieved in reduction of 4-nitrophenol.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Jianxi; Ma, Shuanhong; Wei, Qiangbing; Jia, Lei; Yu, Bo; Wang, Daoai; Zhou, Feng
2013-11-01
Smart systems on the nanometer scale for continuous flow-through reaction present fascinating advantages in heterogeneous catalysis, in which a parallel array of straight nanochannels offers a platform with high surface area for assembling and stabilizing metallic nanoparticles working as catalysts. Herein we demonstrate a method for finely modifying the nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO), and further integration of nanoreactors. By using atomic transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), polymer brushes were successfully grafted on the inner wall of the nanochannels of the AAO membrane, followed by exchanging counter ions with a precursor for nanoparticles (NPs), and used as the template for deposition of well-defined Au NPs. The membrane was used as a functional nanochannel for novel flow-through catalysis. High catalytic performance and instantaneous separation of products from the reaction system was achieved in reduction of 4-nitrophenol.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Al-Maaitah, Ayman A.; Nayfeh, Ali, H.; Ragab, Saad A.
1989-01-01
The effect of wall cooling on the two-dimensional linear stability of subsonic flows over two-dimensional surface imperfections is investigated. Results are presented for flows over smooth humps and backward-facing steps with Mach numbers up to 0.8. The results show that, whereas cooling decreases the viscous instability, it increases the shear-layer instability and hence it increases the growth rates in the separation region. The coexistence of more than one instability mechanism makes a certain degree of wall cooling most effective. For the Mach numbers 0.5 and 0.8, the optimum wall temperatures are about 80 pct and 60 pct of the adiabatic wall temperature, respectively. Increasing the Mach number decreases the effectiveness of cooling slightly and reduces the optimum wall temperature.
Sharzehee, Mohammadali; Khalafvand, Seyed Saeid; Han, Hai-Chao
2018-02-01
Tortuous aneurysmal arteries are often associated with a higher risk of rupture but the mechanism remains unclear. The goal of this study was to analyze the buckling and post-buckling behaviors of aneurysmal arteries under pulsatile flow. To accomplish this goal, we analyzed the buckling behavior of model carotid and abdominal aorta with aneurysms by utilizing fluid-structure interaction (FSI) method with realistic waveforms boundary conditions. FSI simulations were done under steady-state and pulsatile flow for normal (1.5) and reduced (1.3) axial stretch ratios to investigate the influence of aneurysm, pulsatile lumen pressure and axial tension on stability. Our results indicated that aneurysmal artery buckled at the critical buckling pressure and its deflection nonlinearly increased with increasing lumen pressure. Buckling elevates the peak stress (up to 118%). The maximum aneurysm wall stress at pulsatile FSI flow was (29%) higher than under static pressure at the peak lumen pressure of 130 mmHg. Buckling results show an increase in lumen shear stress at the inner side of the maximum deflection. Vortex flow was dramatically enlarged with increasing lumen pressure and artery diameter. Aneurysmal arteries are more susceptible than normal arteries to mechanical instability which causes high stresses in the aneurysm wall that could lead to aneurysm rupture.
Flow shear stabilization of rotating plasmas due to the Coriolis effect.
Haverkort, J W; de Blank, H J
2012-07-01
A radially decreasing toroidal rotation frequency can have a stabilizing effect on nonaxisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities. We show that this is a consequence of the Coriolis effect that induces a restoring pressure gradient force when plasma is perturbed radially. In a rotating cylindrical plasma, this Coriolis-pressure effect is canceled by the centrifugal effect responsible for the magnetorotational instability. In a magnetically confined toroidal plasma, a large aspect ratio expansion shows that only half of the effect is canceled. This analytical result is confirmed by numerical computations. When the plasma rotates faster toroidally in the core than near the edge, the effect can contribute to the formation of transport barriers by stabilizing MHD instabilities.
Control of Supercavitation Flow and Stability of Supercavitating Motion of Bodies
2001-02-01
sign opposite to a sign of angle Vf - accidental deflection of the model Sgn M = -Sgn i. 4.3. EQUATIONS OF THE SCM DYNAMICS The most effective method of...the motion stability in interactive regime "researcher - computer" [ 16]. The complete mathematical model of the SCM motion includes a set of equations ...of solid body dynamics, equations to calculate the unsteady cavity shape and relations to calculate the acting forces. A set of dynamic equations of
Numerical proof of stability of roll waves in the small-amplitude limit for inclined thin film flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barker, Blake
2014-10-01
We present a rigorous numerical proof based on interval arithmetic computations categorizing the linearized and nonlinear stability of periodic viscous roll waves of the KdV-KS equation modeling weakly unstable flow of a thin fluid film on an incline in the small-amplitude KdV limit. The argument proceeds by verification of a stability condition derived by Bar-Nepomnyashchy and Johnson-Noble-Rodrigues-Zumbrun involving inner products of various elliptic functions arising through the KdV equation. One key point in the analysis is a bootstrap argument balancing the extremely poor sup norm bounds for these functions against the extremely good convergence properties for analytic interpolation in order to obtain a feasible computation time. Another is the way of handling analytic interpolation in several variables by a two-step process carving up the parameter space into manageable pieces for rigorous evaluation. These and other general aspects of the analysis should serve as blueprints for more general analyses of spectral stability.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Linehan, Thomas; Mohseni, Kamran
2017-11-01
The relationship between lateral static stability derivative, Clβ,lift coefficient, CL, and angle of attack was investigated for rectangular wings of aspect ratio A R =0.75 ,1 ,1.5 , and 3 using Stereo-Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (S-DPIV) and direct force and moment measurements. When the product Cl βA R is plotted with respect to CL, the lateral stability curves of each wing collapse to a single line for CL<0.7 . For CL>0.7 , the linearity and scaling of Clβwith respect to CL is lost. S-DPIV is used to elucidate the flow physics in this nonlinear regime. At α =10∘ , the leading-edge separation region emerges on the leeward portion of the sideslipped wing by means of vortex shedding. For the A R ≤1.5 wings at α >15∘ , the tip vortex downwash is sufficient to restrict the shedding of leading-edge vorticity thereby sustaining the lift of the leading-edge separation region at high angles of attack. Concurrently, the windward tip vortex grows in size and strength with increasing angle of attack, displacing the leading-edge separation region further toward the leeward wing. This reorganization of lift-generating vorticity results in the initial nonlinearities between Cl β and CL at angles of attack for which CL is still increasing. At angles of attack near that of maximum lift for the A R ≤1 wings, the windward tip vortex lifts off the wing, decreasing the lateral static stability of the wing prior to lift stall. For the A R =3 wing at α >10∘ , nonlinear trends in Cl β versus CL occur due to the spanwise evolution of stalled flow.
Definition of hydraulic stability of KVGM-100 hot-water boiler and minimum water flow rate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belov, A. A.; Ozerov, A. N.; Usikov, N. V.; Shkondin, I. A.
2016-08-01
In domestic power engineering, the methods of quantitative and qualitative-quantitative adjusting the load of the heat supply systems are widely distributed; furthermore, during the greater part of the heating period, the actual discharge of network water is less than estimated values when changing to quantitative adjustment. Hence, the hydraulic circuits of hot-water boilers should ensure the water velocities, minimizing the scale formation and excluding the formation of stagnant zones. The results of the calculations of hot-water KVGM-100 boiler and minimum water flow rate for the basic and peak modes at the fulfillment of condition of the lack of surface boil are presented in the article. The minimal flow rates of water at its underheating to the saturation state and the thermal flows in the furnace chamber were defined. The boiler hydraulic calculation was performed using the "Hydraulic" program, and the analysis of permissible and actual velocities of the water movement in the pipes of the heating surfaces was carried out. Based on the thermal calculations of furnace chamber and thermal- hydraulic calculations of heating surfaces, the following conclusions were drawn: the minimum velocity of water movement (by condition of boiling surface) at lifting movement of environment increases from 0.64 to 0.79 m/s; it increases from 1.14 to 1.38 m/s at down movement of environmental; the minimum water flow rate by the boiler in the basic mode (by condition of the surface boiling) increased from 887 t/h at the load of 20% up to 1074 t/h at the load of 100%. The minimum flow rate is 1074 t/h at nominal load and is achieved at the pressure at the boiler outlet equal to 1.1 MPa; the minimum water flow rate by the boiler in the peak mode by condition of surface boiling increases from 1669 t/h at the load of 20% up to 2021 t/h at the load of 100%.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feonychev, A. I.
It is well known that numerous experiments on crystal growth by the Bridgman method in space had met with only limited success. Because of this, only floating zone method is promising at present. However, realization of this method demands solution of some problems, in particular reduction of dopant micro- and macrosegregation. Rotating magnetic field is efficient method for control of flow in electrically conducting fluid and transfer processes. Investigation of rotating magnetic field had initiated in RIAME MAI in 1994 /3/. Results of the last investigations had been presented in /4/. Mathematical model of flow generated by rotating magnetic field and computer program were verified by comparison with experiment in area of developed oscillatory flow. Nonlinear analysis of flow stability under combination of thermocapillary convection and secondary flow generated by rotating magnetic field shows that boundary of transition from laminar to oscillatory flow is nonmonotone function in the plane of Marangoni number (Ma) - combined parameter Reω Ha2 (Ha is Hartman number, Reω is dimensionless velocity of magnetic field rotation). These data give additional knowledge of mechanism of onset of oscillations. In this case, there is reason to believe that the cause is Eckman's viscous stresses in rotating fluid on solid end-walls. It was shown that there is a possibility to increase stability of thermocapillary convection and in doing so to remove the main cause of dopant microsegregation. In doing so, if parameters of rotating magnetic field had been incorrectly chosen the dangerous pulsating oscillations are to develop. Radial macrosegregation of dopant can result from correct choosing of parameters of rotating magnetic field. As example, optimization of rotating magnetic field had been carried out for Ge(Ga) under three values of Marangoni number in weightlessness conditions. In the case when rotating magnetic field is used in terrestrial conditions, under combination of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mullet, B.; Segall, P.
2017-12-01
Explosive volcanic eruptions can exhibit abrupt changes in physical behavior. In the most extreme cases, high rates of mass discharge are interspaced by dramatic drops in activity and periods of quiescence. Simple models predict exponential decay in magma chamber pressure, leading to a gradual tapering of eruptive flux. Abrupt changes in eruptive flux therefore indicate that relief of chamber pressure cannot be the only control of the evolution of such eruptions. We present a simplified physics-based model of conduit flow during an explosive volcanic eruption that attempts to predict stress-induced conduit collapse linked to co-eruptive pressure loss. The model couples a simple two phase (gas-melt) 1-D conduit solution of the continuity and momentum equations with a Mohr-Coulomb failure condition for the conduit wall rock. First order models of volatile exsolution (i.e. phase mass transfer) and fragmentation are incorporated. The interphase interaction force changes dramatically between flow regimes, so smoothing of this force is critical for realistic results. Reductions in the interphase force lead to significant relative phase velocities, highlighting the deficiency of homogenous flow models. Lateral gas loss through conduit walls is incorporated using a membrane-diffusion model with depth dependent wall rock permeability. Rapid eruptive flux results in a decrease of chamber and conduit pressure, which leads to a critical deviatoric stress condition at the conduit wall. Analogous stress distributions have been analyzed for wellbores, where much work has been directed at determining conditions that lead to wellbore failure using Mohr-Coulomb failure theory. We extend this framework to cylindrical volcanic conduits, where large deviatoric stresses can develop co-eruptively leading to multiple distinct failure regimes depending on principal stress orientations. These failure regimes are categorized and possible implications for conduit flow are discussed, including
2013-11-01
freestream conditions ( 0 =300 K). .........22 Table 7. Results from nozzle parameter study, variation with jet gas total temperature (AR=1, M=2.5...end. Two additional supersonic nozzles of AR=2 and AR=8 (figures 3e and 3f) were also investigated, also with a throat diameter of 2.54 mm. The...walls, due to the different flow properties from the gas expansion there. Therefore, the plenum and nozzle exit walls were modeled with an advanced
Klem, S A; Farrington, J M; Leff, R D
1993-08-01
To determine whether variations in the flow rate of epinephrine solutions administered via commonly available infusion pumps lead to significant variations in blood pressure (BP) in vivo. Prospective, randomized, crossover study with factorial design, using infusion pumps with four different operating mechanisms (pulsatile diaphragm, linear piston/syringe, cyclic piston-valve, and linear peristaltic) and three drug delivery rates (1, 5, and 10 mL/hr). Two healthy, mixed-breed dogs (12 to 16 kg). Dogs were made hypotensive with methohexital bolus and continuous infusion. BP was restored to normal with constant-dose epinephrine infusion via two pumps at each rate. Femoral mean arterial pressure (MAP) was recorded every 10 secs. Pump-flow continuity was quantitated in vitro using a digital gravimetric technique. Variations in MAP and flow continuity were expressed by the coefficient of variation; analysis of variance was used for comparisons. The mean coefficients of variations for MAP varied from 3.8 +/- 3.1% (linear piston/syringe) to 6.1 +/- 6.6% (linear peristaltic), and from 3.4 +/- 2.2% (10 mL/hr) to 7.9 +/- 6.6% (1 mL/hr). The coefficients of variation for in vitro flow continuity ranged from 9 +/- 8% (linear piston-syringe) to 250 +/- 162% (pulsatile diaphragm), and from 35 +/- 44% (10 mL/hr) to 138 +/- 196% (1 mL/hr). Both the type of pump and infusion rate significantly (p < .001) influenced variation in drug delivery rate. The 1 mL/hr infusion rate significantly (p < .01) influenced MAP variation. Cyclic fluctuations in MAP of < or = 30 mm Hg were observed using the pulsatile diaphragm pump at 1 mL/hr. Factors inherent in the operating mechanisms of infusion pumps may result in clinically important hemodynamic fluctuations when administering a concentrated short-acting vasoactive medication at slow infusion rates.
1989-04-01
MILO Magnetica fy insulated transmission line Slow-wave structure Relativistic Brillouin flow Space-charge waves Slow electromagnetic waves (over) 19... resonant layer always see a decelerating axial electric field. Consequently, field energy increases at the expense of particle energy. 17 AFWL-TR-88-103...Ve). If ve is greater than the structure coupling velocity, a resonant layer of electrons will always be present, and oscillations will occur at any
Koyama, Sachi; Kitamura, Tadashi; Itatani, Keiichi; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Miyazaki, Shohei; Oka, Norihiko; Nakashima, Kouki; Horai, Tetsuya; Ono, Minoru; Miyaji, Kagami
2016-05-01
For coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), free grafts such as a saphenous vein or radial artery are often used for grafts to the lateral and posterior walls. However, the relationship between top-end anastomosis design and long-term patency remains unknown. Because coronary artery blood flow is dominant during diastole, top-end anastomosis may work better if the graft is directed towards the apex, whereas the shortest graft pathway appears to be most efficient. Using computational fluid dynamic models, we evaluated the hemodynamic variables that were affected by the angle of the top-end anastomosis. We created three-dimensional geometries of the aortic root with coronary arteries that involved 75 % stenosis in the obtuse marginal and postero-lateral branches. Two bypass models under vasodilator administration were created: in a"Model A", the top-end anastomosis is parallel to the long axis of the ascending aorta and the graft passed over the conus directed towards the apex; in a "Model B", the top-end anastomosis is directed toward the shortest pathway, and form near the right angles to the long axis of the ascending aorta. Wall shear stress (WSS) and its fluctuation, an oscillatory shear index (OSI) were evaluated to predict fibrosis progression at the anastomosis site and graft flow. Graft flow was 197.3 ml/min and 207.3 ml/min in the "Model A" and "Model B", respectively. The minimal WSS value inside the graft with the "Model A" and "Model B" was 0.53 Pa and 4.09 Pa, respectively, and the OSI value was 0.46 and 0.04, respectively. The top-end anastomosis of a free graft should be directed vertically towards the aorta to achieve the shortest graft pathway to maintain a high graft flow rate and to avoid the risks of endothelial fibrosis and plaque progression over the long-term after CABG.
On the Asymptotic Stability of Steady Flows with Nonzero Flux in Two-Dimensional Exterior Domains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guillod, Julien
2017-05-01
The Navier-Stokes equations in a two-dimensional exterior domain are considered. The asymptotic stability of stationary solutions satisfying a general hypothesis is proven under any L 2-perturbation. In particular, the general hypothesis is valid if the steady solution is the sum of the critically decaying flux carrier with flux {| Φ | < 2 π} and a small subcritically decaying term. Under the central symmetry assumption, the general hypothesis is also proven for any critically decaying steady solutions under a suitable smallness condition.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sahai, A.; Mansour, N. N.; Lopez, B.; Panesi, M.
2017-05-01
This work addresses the modeling of high pressure electric discharge in an arc-heated wind tunnel. The combined numerical solution of Poisson’s equation, radiative transfer equations, and the set of Favre-averaged thermochemical nonequilibrium Navier-Stokes equations allows for the determination of the electric, radiation, and flow fields, accounting for their mutual interaction. Semi-classical statistical thermodynamics is used to determine the plasma thermodynamic properties, while transport properties are obtained from kinetic principles with the Chapman-Enskog method. A multi-temperature formulation is used to account for thermal non-equilibrium. Finally, the turbulence closure of the flow equations is obtained by means of the Spalart-Allmaras model, which requires the solution of an additional scalar transport equation. A Streamline upwind Petrov-Galerkin stabilized finite element formulation is employed to solve the Navier-Stokes equation. The electric field equation is solved using the standard Galerkin formulation. A stable formulation for the radiative transfer equations is obtained using the least-squares finite element method. The developed simulation framework has been applied to investigate turbulent plasma flows in the 20 MW Aerodynamic Heating Facility at NASA Ames Research Center. The current model is able to predict the process of energy addition and re-distribution due to Joule heating and thermal radiation, resulting in a hot central core surrounded by colder flow. The use of an unsteady three-dimensional treatment also allows the asymmetry due to a dynamic electric arc attachment point in the cathode chamber to be captured accurately. The current work paves the way for detailed estimation of operating characteristics for arc-heated wind tunnels which are critical in testing thermal protection systems.
Crossflow Stability and Transition Experiments in a Swept-Wing Flow. Ph.D. Thesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dagenhart, John Ray
1992-01-01
An experimental examination of crossflow instability and transition on a 45 degree swept wing is conducted in the Arizona State University Unsteady Wind Tunnel. The stationary-vortex pattern and transition location are visualized using both sublimating-chemical and liquid-crystal coatings. Extensive hot-wire measurements are conducted at several measurement stations across a single vortex track. The mean and travelling-wave disturbances are measured simultaneously. Stationary-crossflow disturbance profiles are determined by subtracting either a reference or a span-averaged velocity profile from the mean-velocity data. Mean, stationary-crossflow, and travelling-wave velocity data are presented as local boundary-layer profiles and as contour plots across a single stationary-crossflow vortex track. Disturbance-mode profiles and growth rates are determined. The experimental data are compared to predictions from linear stability theory.
Calculation of Linear Stability of a Stratified Gas-Liquid Flow in an Inclined Plane Channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trifonov, Yu. Ya.
2018-01-01
Linear stability of liquid and gas counterflows in an inclined channel is considered. The full Navier-Stokes equations for both phases are linearized, and the dynamics of periodic disturbances is determined by means of solving a spectral problem in wide ranges of Reynolds numbers for the liquid and vapor velocity. Two unstable modes are found in the examined ranges: surface mode (corresponding to the Kapitsa waves at small velocities of the gas) and shear mode in the gas phase. The wave length and the phase velocity of neutral disturbances of both modes are calculated as functions of the Reynolds number for the liquid. It is shown that these dependences for the surface mode are significantly affected by the gas velocity.
Roar Skartlien; Espen Sollum; Andreas Akselsen
2012-07-01
A 3D lattice Boltzmann model for two-phase flow with amphiphilic surfactant was used to investigate the evolution of emulsion morphology and shear stress in starting shear flow. The interfacial contributions were analyzed for low and high volume fractions and varying surfactant activity. A transient viscoelastic contribution to the emulsion rheology under constant strain rate conditions was attributed to the interfacial stress. For droplet volume fractions below 0.3 and an average capillary number of about 0.25, highly elliptical droplets formed. Consistent with affine deformation models, gradual elongation of the droplets increased the shear stress at early times and reduced it atmore » later times. Lower interfacial tension with increased surfactant activity counterbalanced the effect of increased interfacial area, and the net shear stress did not change significantly. For higher volume fractions, co-continuous phases with a complex topology were formed. The surfactant decreased the interfacial shear stress due mainly to advection of surfactant to higher curvature areas. Our results are in qualitative agreement with experimental data for polymer blends in terms of transient interfacial stresses and limited enhancement of the emulsion viscosity at larger volume fractions where the phases are co-continuous.« less
The plasma protein fibrinogen stabilizes clusters of red blood cells in microcapillary flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brust, M.; Aouane, O.; Thiébaud, M.; Flormann, D.; Verdier, C.; Kaestner, L.; Laschke, M. W.; Selmi, H.; Benyoussef, A.; Podgorski, T.; Coupier, G.; Misbah, C.; Wagner, C.
2014-03-01
The supply of oxygen and nutrients and the disposal of metabolic waste in the organs depend strongly on how blood, especially red blood cells, flow through the microvascular network. Macromolecular plasma proteins such as fibrinogen cause red blood cells to form large aggregates, called rouleaux, which are usually assumed to be disaggregated in the circulation due to the shear forces present in bulk flow. This leads to the assumption that rouleaux formation is only relevant in the venule network and in arterioles at low shear rates or stasis. Thanks to an excellent agreement between combined experimental and numerical approaches, we show that despite the large shear rates present in microcapillaries, the presence of either fibrinogen or the synthetic polymer dextran leads to an enhanced formation of robust clusters of red blood cells, even at haematocrits as low as 1%. Robust aggregates are shown to exist in microcapillaries even for fibrinogen concentrations within the healthy physiological range. These persistent aggregates should strongly affect cell distribution and blood perfusion in the microvasculature, with putative implications for blood disorders even within apparently asymptomatic subjects.
An investigation of driver distraction near the tipping point of traffic flow stability.
Cooper, Joel M; Vladisavljevic, Ivana; Medeiros-Ward, Nathan; Martin, Peter T; Strayer, David L
2009-04-01
The purpose of this study was to explore the interrelationship between driver distraction and characteristics of driver behavior associated with reduced highway traffic efficiency. Research on the three-phase traffic theory and on behavioral driving suggests that a number of characteristics associated with efficient traffic flow may be affected by driver distraction. Previous studies have been limited, however, by the fact that researchers typically do not allow participants to change lanes, nor do they account for the impact of varying traffic states on driving performance. Participants drove in three simulated environments with differing traffic congestion while both using and not using a cell phone. Instructed only to obey the speed limit, participants were allowed to vary driving behaviors, such as those involving forward following distance, speed, and lane-changing frequency. Both driver distraction and traffic congestion were found to significantly affect lane change frequency, mean speed, and the likelihood of remaining behind a slower-moving lead vehicle. This research suggests that the behavioral profile of "cell phone drivers," which is often described as compensatory, may have far-reaching and unexpected consequences for traffic efficiency. By considering the dynamic interplay between characteristics of traffic flow and driver behavior, this research may inform both public policy regarding in-vehicle cell phone use and future investigations of driving behavior.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jang, J. Y.; Hwang, Y. J.; Ahn, M. C.; Choi, Y. S.
2018-07-01
This paper represents a numerical calculation method that enables highly-accurate simulations on temperature analysis of superconducting magnets considering the heat flow between the magnet and liquid helium during a quench. A three-dimensional (3D) superconducting magnet space was divided into many cells and the finite-difference method (FDM) was adopted to calculate the superconducting magnet temperatures governed by the heat transfer and joule heating of the each cell during a quench. To enhance the accuracy of the temperature calculations during a quench, the heat flow between the superconducting magnet surface and liquid helium, which lowers the magnet temperatures, was considered in this work. The electrical equation coupled with the governing thermal equation was also applied to calculate the change of the decay of the magnet current related to the joule heating. The proposed FDM method for temperatures calculation of a superconducting magnet during a quench process achieved results that were in good agreement with those obtained from an experiment.
Patinvoh, Regina J; Kalantar Mehrjerdi, Adib; Sárvári Horváth, Ilona; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
2017-01-01
In this work, a plug flow reactor was developed for continuous dry digestion processes and its efficiency was investigated using untreated manure bedded with straw at 22% total solids content. This newly developed reactor worked successfully for 230days at increasing organic loading rates of 2.8, 4.2 and 6gVS/L/d and retention times of 60, 40 and 28days, respectively. Organic loading rates up to 4.2gVS/L/d gave a better process stability, with methane yields up to 0.163LCH 4 /gVS added /d which is 56% of the theoretical yield. Further increase of organic loading rate to 6gVS/L/d caused process instability with lower volatile solid removal efficiency and cellulose degradation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Minamoto, Yuki; Kolla, Hemanth; Grout, Ray W.; ...
2015-07-24
Here, three-dimensional direct numerical simulation results of a transverse syngas fuel jet in turbulent cross-flow of air are analyzed to study the influence of varying volume fractions of CO relative to H 2 in the fuel composition on the near field flame stabilization. The mean flame stabilizes at a similar location for CO-lean and CO-rich cases despite the trend suggested by their laminar flame speed, which is higher for the CO-lean condition. To identify local mixtures having favorable mixture conditions for flame stabilization, explosive zones are defined using a chemical explosive mode timescale. The explosive zones related to flame stabilizationmore » are located in relatively low velocity regions. The explosive zones are characterized by excess hydrogen transported solely by differential diffusion, in the absence of intense turbulent mixing or scalar dissipation rate. The conditional averages show that differential diffusion is negatively correlated with turbulent mixing. Moreover, the local turbulent Reynolds number is insufficient to estimate the magnitude of the differential diffusion effect. Alternatively, the Karlovitz number provides a better indicator of the importance of differential diffusion. A comparison of the variations of differential diffusion, turbulent mixing, heat release rate and probability of encountering explosive zones demonstrates that differential diffusion predominantly plays an important role for mixture preparation and initiation of chemical reactions, closely followed by intense chemical reactions sustained by sufficient downstream turbulent mixing. The mechanism by which differential diffusion contributes to mixture preparation is investigated using the Takeno Flame Index. The mean Flame Index, based on the combined fuel species, shows that the overall extent of premixing is not intense in the upstream regions. However, the Flame Index computed based on individual contribution of H 2 or CO species reveals that hydrogen
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yousefzadeh, M.; Battiato, I.
2017-12-01
Flow and reactive transport problems in porous media often involve complex geometries with stationary or evolving boundaries due to absorption and dissolution processes. Grid based methods (e.g. finite volume, finite element, etc.) are a vital tool for studying these problems. Yet, implementing these methods requires one to answer a very first question of what type of grid is to be used. Among different possible answers, Cartesian grids are one of the most attractive options as they possess simple discretization stencil and are usually straightforward to generate at roughly no computational cost. The Immersed Boundary Method, a Cartesian based methodology, maintains most of the useful features of the structured grids while exhibiting a high-level resilience in dealing with complex geometries. These features make it increasingly more attractive to model transport in evolving porous media as the cost of grid generation reduces greatly. Yet, stability issues and severe time-step restriction due to explicit-time implementation combined with limited studies on the implementation of Neumann (constant flux) and linear and non-linear Robin (e.g. reaction) boundary conditions (BCs) have significantly limited the applicability of IBMs to transport in porous media. We have developed an implicit IBM capable of handling all types of BCs and addressed some numerical issues, including unconditional stability criteria, compactness and reduction of spurious oscillations near the immersed boundary. We tested the method for several transport and flow scenarios, including dissolution processes in porous media, and demonstrate its capabilities. Successful validation against both experimental and numerical data has been carried out.
Heise, M; Hoffmann, Ch; Abshagen, J; Pinter, A; Pfister, G; Lücke, M
2008-02-15
We present a new mechanism that allows the stable existence of domain walls between oppositely traveling waves in pattern-forming systems far from onset. It involves a nonlinear mode coupling that results directly from the nonlinearities in the underlying momentum balance. Our work provides the first observation and explanation of such strongly nonlinearly driven domain walls that separate structured states by a phase generating or annihilating defect. Furthermore, the influence of a symmetry breaking externally imposed flow on the wave domains and the domain walls is studied. The results are obtained for vortex waves in the Taylor-Couette system by combining numerical simulations of the full Navier-Stokes equations and experimental measurements.
Analysis of inlet flow distortion and turbulence effects on compressor stability
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Melick, H. C., Jr.
1973-01-01
The effect of steady state circumferential total pressure distortion on the loss in compressor stall pressure ratio has been established by analytical techniques. Full scale engine and compressor/fan component test data were used to provide direct evaluation of the analysis. Specifically, since a circumferential total pressure distortion in an inlet system will result in unsteady flow in the coordinate system of the rotor blades, analysis of this type distortion must be performed from an unsteady aerodynamic point of view. By application of the fundamental aerothermodynamic laws to the inlet/compressor system, parameters important in the design of such a system for compatible operation have been identified. A time constant, directly related to the compressor rotor chord, was found to be significant, indicating compressor sensitivity to circumferential distortion is directly dependent on the rotor chord.
Stabilization of active matter by flow-vortex lattices and defect ordering
Doostmohammadi, Amin; Adamer, Michael F.; Thampi, Sumesh P.; Yeomans, Julia M.
2016-01-01
Active systems, from bacterial suspensions to cellular monolayers, are continuously driven out of equilibrium by local injection of energy from their constituent elements and exhibit turbulent-like and chaotic patterns. Here we demonstrate both theoretically and through numerical simulations, that the crossover between wet active systems, whose behaviour is dominated by hydrodynamics, and dry active matter where any flow is screened, can be achieved by using friction as a control parameter. Moreover, we discover unexpected vortex ordering at this wet–dry crossover. We show that the self organization of vortices into lattices is accompanied by the spatial ordering of topological defects leading to active crystal-like structures. The emergence of vortex lattices, which leads to the positional ordering of topological defects, suggests potential applications in the design and control of active materials. PMID:26837846
A numerical study of the stability of radiative shocks. [in accretion flows onto white dwarf stars
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Imamura, J. N.; Wolff, M. T.; Durisen, R. H.
1984-01-01
Attention is given to the oscillatory instability of optically thin radiative shocks in time-dependent numerical calculations of accretion flows onto degenerate dwarfs. The present nonlinear calculations yield good quantitative agreement with the linear results obtained for oscillation frequencies, damping rates, and critical alpha-values. The fundamental mode and the first overtone in the shock radius and luminosity variations can be clearly identified, and evidence is sometimes seen for the second overtone. Time-dependent calculations are also performed which include additional physics relevant to degenerate dwarf accretion, such as electron thermal conduction, unequal electron and ion temperatures, Compton cooling, and relativistic corrections to the bremsstrahlung cooling law. All oscillatory modes are found to be damped, and hence stable, in the case of a 1-solar mass white dwarf accreting in spherical symmetry.
Jung, Stephanie; Effelsberg, Uwe; Tallarek, Ulrich
2011-12-01
Dynamic changes in mobile phase composition during high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) gradient elution coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) sensitively affect electrospray modes. We investigate the impact of the eluent composition on spray stability and MS response by infusion and injection experiments with a small tetrapeptide in water-acetonitrile mixtures. The employed HPLC/electrospray (ESI)-MS configuration uses a microchip equipped with an enrichment column, a separation column, and a makeup flow (MUF) channel. One nano pump is connected to the separation column, while a second one delivers solvent of exactly inverted composition to the MUF channel. Both solvent streams are united behind the separation column, before the ESI tip, such that the resulting electrosprayed solution always has identical composition during a gradient elution. Analyte peak parameters without and with MUF compensation are determined and discussed with respect to the electrospray mode and eluent composition. The postcolumn MUF significantly improves spray and signal stability over the entire solvent gradient, without compromising the performance of the HPLC separation column. It can also be conveniently implemented on microchip platforms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, L.; Zhao, T. S.; Zeng, L.; Zeng, Y. K.; Jiang, H. R.
2017-02-01
In this work, we prepare a highly catalytic and stabilized titanium nitride (TiN) nanowire array-decorated graphite felt electrode for all vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs). Free-standing TiN nanowires are synthesized by a two-step process, in which TiO2 nanowires are first grown onto the surface of graphite felt via a seed-assisted hydrothermal method and then converted to TiN through nitridation reaction. When applied to VRFBs, the prepared electrode enables the electrolyte utilization and energy efficiency to be 73.9% and 77.4% at a high current density of 300 mA cm-2, which are correspondingly 43.3% and 15.4% higher than that of battery assembled with a pristine electrode. More impressively, the present battery exhibits good stability and high capacity retention during the cycle test. The superior performance is ascribed to the significant improvement in the electrochemical kinetics and enlarged active sites toward V3+/V2+ redox reaction.
Experimental studies of the rotor flow downwash on the Stability of multi-rotor crafts in descent
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Veismann, Marcel; Dougherty, Christopher; Gharib, Morteza
2017-11-01
All rotorcrafts, including helicopters and multicopters, have the inherent problem of entering rotor downwash during vertical descent. As a result, the craft is subject to highly unsteady flow, called vortex ring state (VRS), which leads to a loss of lift and reduced stability. To date, experimental efforts to investigate this phenomenon have been largely limited to analysis of a single, fixed rotor mounted in a horizontal wind tunnel. Our current work aims to understand the interaction of multiple rotors in vertical descent by mounting a multi-rotor craft in a low speed, vertical wind tunnel. Experiments were performed with a fixed and rotationally free mounting; the latter allowing us to better capture the dynamics of a free flying drone. The effect of rotor separation on stability, generated thrust, and rotor wake interaction was characterized using force gauge data and PIV analysis for various descent velocities. The results obtained help us better understand fluid-craft interactions of drones in vertical descent and identify possible sources of instability. The presented material is based upon work supported by the Center for Autonomous Systems and Technologies (CAST) at the Graduate Aerospace Laboratories of the California Institute of Technology (GALCIT).
Collins, K.L.; Thornton, C.I.; Mefford, B.; Holmquist-Johnson, C. L.
2009-01-01
Rock weir and ramp structures uniquely serve a necessary role in river management: to meet water deliveries in an ecologically sound manner. Uses include functioning as low head diversion dams, permitting fish passage, creating habitat diversity, and stabilizing stream banks and profiles. Existing information on design and performance of in-stream rock structures does not provide the guidance necessary to implement repeatable and sustainable construction and retrofit techniques. As widespread use of rock structures increases, the need for reliable design methods with a broad range of applicability at individual sites grows as well. Rigorous laboratory testing programs were implemented at the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) and at Colorado State University (CSU) as part of a multifaceted research project focused on expanding the current knowledge base and developing design methods to improve the success rate of river spanning rock structures in meeting project goals. Physical modeling at Reclamation is being used to measure, predict, and reduce interstitial flow through rock ramps. CSU is using physical testing to quantify and predict scour development downstream of rock weirs and its impact on the stability of rock structures. ?? 2009 ASCE.
Erbrink, H.J.; Scholten, D.A.
1995-10-01
Atmospheric turbulence intensities and timescales have been measured for one year and modeled in a shoreline environment. Measurements were carried out at two sites, on both sides of the shoreline, about 10 km from the beach. The frequency distribution of Pasquill stability classes [determined using the COPS (calculation of Pasquill stability) method by analyzing wind fluctuations] was compared with similar observations at the land site. A shift to the more stable classes is observed. Moreover, a large shift to the stable classes was shown at the overwater site for the COPS method in comparison to the Hanna et al. andmore » Hsu method, which is based upon z/L values, originating from sea-air temperature differences. The observed values of the lateral wind fluctuations {sigma}{sub {nu}} and stability classes for the dataset could not be adequately described in terms of local parameters such as Obukhov length L and friction velocity u. Therefore, a simple model, which explicitly considered advection and dissipation in the turbulent kinetic energy equation, was formulated for the calculation of turbulence intensity at sea for offshore wind flows; dissipation is assumed to scale well with {sigma}{sub {nu}}{sup 3}/uT{sub {ell}}. Using this model, observed {sigma}{sub {nu}} values were explained remarkably well. It is concluded that atmospheric turbulence intensity above sea in the vicinity of the shoreline is strongly influenced by horizontal gradients and cannot be described successfully only in terms of local parameterization. The calculated values of the Eulerian timescale correlate quite well with measured values of {sigma}{sub {nu}}/u at both sites. However, values of the timescale at sea were larger; this may be caused by differences in roughness lengths between land and sea. 43 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.« less
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Balakumar, P.; Jeyasingham, Samarasingham
1999-01-01
A program is developed to investigate the linear stability of three-dimensional compressible boundary layer flows over bodies of revolutions. The problem is formulated as a two dimensional (2D) eigenvalue problem incorporating the meanflow variations in the normal and azimuthal directions. Normal mode solutions are sought in the whole plane rather than in a line normal to the wall as is done in the classical one dimensional (1D) stability theory. The stability characteristics of a supersonic boundary layer over a sharp cone with 50 half-angle at 2 degrees angle of attack is investigated. The 1D eigenvalue computations showed that the most amplified disturbances occur around x(sub 2) = 90 degrees and the azimuthal mode number for the most amplified disturbances range between m = -30 to -40. The frequencies of the most amplified waves are smaller in the middle region where the crossflow dominates the instability than the most amplified frequencies near the windward and leeward planes. The 2D eigenvalue computations showed that due to the variations in the azimuthal direction, the eigenmodes are clustered into isolated confined regions. For some eigenvalues, the eigenfunctions are clustered in two regions. Due to the nonparallel effect in the azimuthal direction, the eigenmodes are clustered into isolated confined regions. For some eigenvalues, the eigenfunctions are clustered in two regions. Due to the nonparallel effect in the azimuthal direction, the most amplified disturbances are shifted to 120 degrees compared to 90 degrees for the parallel theory. It is also observed that the nonparallel amplification rates are smaller than that is obtained from the parallel theory.
Performance of high-area-ratio annular dump diffuser using suction-stabilized-vortex flow control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Juhasz, A. J.; Smith, J. M.
1977-01-01
A short annular dump diffuser having a geometry conductive to formation of suction stabilized toroidal vortices in the region of abrupt area change was tested. The overall diffuser area ratio was 4.0 and the length to inlet height ratio was 2.0. Performance data were obtained at near ambient temperature and pressure for inlet Mach numbers of 0.18 and 0.30 with suction rates ranging from 0 to 18 percent of total inlet mass flowrate. Results show that the exit velocity profile could be readily biased toward either wall by adjustment of inner and outer wall suction rates. Symmetric exit velocity profiles were inherently unstable with a tendency to revert to a hub or tip bias. Diffuser effectiveness was increased from about 38 percent without suction to over 85 percent at a total suction rate of 10 to 12 percent. At the same time diffuser total pressure loss was reduced from 3.1 percent to 1.1 percent at an inlet Mach number of 0.3.
Asymptotic stability of spectral-based PDF modeling for homogeneous turbulent flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campos, Alejandro; Duraisamy, Karthik; Iaccarino, Gianluca
2015-11-01
Engineering models of turbulence, based on one-point statistics, neglect spectral information inherent in a turbulence field. It is well known, however, that the evolution of turbulence is dictated by a complex interplay between the spectral modes of velocity. For example, for homogeneous turbulence, the pressure-rate-of-strain depends on the integrated energy spectrum weighted by components of the wave vectors. The Interacting Particle Representation Model (IPRM) (Kassinos & Reynolds, 1996) and the Velocity/Wave-Vector PDF model (Van Slooten & Pope, 1997) emulate spectral information in an attempt to improve the modeling of turbulence. We investigate the evolution and asymptotic stability of the IPRM using three different approaches. The first approach considers the Lagrangian evolution of individual realizations (idealized as particles) of the stochastic process defined by the IPRM. The second solves Lagrangian evolution equations for clusters of realizations conditional on a given wave vector. The third evolves the solution of the Eulerian conditional PDF corresponding to the aforementioned clusters. This last method avoids issues related to discrete particle noise and slow convergence associated with Lagrangian particle-based simulations.
Vijayakumar, M.; Wang, Wei; Nie, Zimin
2013-11-01
The Vanadium (V) cation structures in mixed acid based electrolyte solution were analysed by density functional theory (DFT) based computational modelling and 51V and 35Cl Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The Vanadium (V) cation exists as di-nuclear [V2O3Cl2.6H2O]2+ compound at higher vanadium concentrations (≥1.75M). In particular, at high temperatures (>295K) this di-nuclear compound undergoes ligand exchange process with nearby solvent chlorine molecule and forms chlorine bonded [V2O3Cl2.6H2O]2+ compound. This chlorine bonded [V2O3Cl2.6H2O]2+ compound might be resistant to the de-protonation reaction which is the initial step in the precipitation reaction in Vanadium based electrolyte solutions. The combined theoretical and experimental approachmore » reveals that formation of chlorine bonded [V2O3Cl2.6H2O]2+ compound might be central to the observed higher thermal stability of mixed acid based Vanadium (V) electrolyte solutions.« less
On ice rifts and the stability of non-Newtonian extensional flows on a sphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sayag, Roiy
2017-11-01
Rifts that form at the fronts of floating ice shelves that spread into the ocean can trigger major calving events in the ice. The deformation of ice can be modeled as a thin viscous film driven by buoyancy. The front of such a viscous film that propagates over a flat surface with no-slip basal conditions is known to have stable axisymmetric solutions. In contrast, when the fluid propagates under free-slip conditions at the substrate, the front can become unstable to small perturbations if the fluid is sufficiently strain-rate softening. Consequently, the front will develop tongues with a characteristic wavelength that coarsens over time, a pattern that is reminiscent of ice rifts. Here we investigate the stability of a spherical sheet of power-law fluids under free-slip basal conditions. The fluid is discharged at constant flux and axisymmetrically with respect to the pole, and propagates towards the equator. The propagating front in such a situation may become unstable due to its failure to sustain large extensional forces, resulting in the formation of rifts. This study has implications to understanding the cause of patterns that are observed on shells of floating ice in a range of planetary objects, and whether open rifts that sustain life were feasible in snowball earth. Israel Science Foundation 1368/16.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Strash, D. J.; Summa, J. M.
1996-01-01
In the work reported herein, a simplified, uncoupled, zonal procedure is utilized to assess the capability of numerically simulating icing effects on a Boeing 727-200 aircraft. The computational approach combines potential flow plus boundary layer simulations by VSAERO for the un-iced aircraft forces and moments with Navier-Stokes simulations by NPARC for the incremental forces and moments due to iced components. These are compared with wind tunnel force and moment data, supplied by the Boeing Company, examining longitudinal flight characteristics. Grid refinement improved the local flow features over previously reported work with no appreciable difference in the incremental ice effect. The computed lift curve slope with and without empennage ice matches the experimental value to within 1%, and the zero lift angle agrees to within 0.2 of a degree. The computed slope of the un-iced and iced aircraft longitudinal stability curve is within about 2% of the test data. This work demonstrates the feasibility of a zonal method for the icing analysis of complete aircraft or isolated components within the linear angle of attack range. In fact, this zonal technique has allowed for the viscous analysis of a complete aircraft with ice which is currently not otherwise considered tractable.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tice, Ian
2018-04-01
This paper concerns the dynamics of a layer of incompressible viscous fluid lying above a rigid plane and with an upper boundary given by a free surface. The fluid is subject to a constant external force with a horizontal component, which arises in modeling the motion of such a fluid down an inclined plane, after a coordinate change. We consider the problem both with and without surface tension for horizontally periodic flows. This problem gives rise to shear-flow equilibrium solutions, and the main thrust of this paper is to study the asymptotic stability of the equilibria in certain parameter regimes. We prove that there exists a parameter regime in which sufficiently small perturbations of the equilibrium at time t=0 give rise to global-in-time solutions that return to equilibrium exponentially in the case with surface tension and almost exponentially in the case without surface tension. We also establish a vanishing surface tension limit, which connects the solutions with and without surface tension.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bakar, Nor Ashikin Abu; Bachok, Norfifah; Arifin, Norihan Md.; Pop, Ioan
2018-06-01
The steady boundary layer flow over a stretching/shrinking cylinder with suction effect is numerically studied. Using a similarity transformations, the governing partial differential equations are transformed into a set of nonlinear differential equations and have been solved numerically using a bvp4c code in Matlab software. The nanofluid model used is taking into account the effects of Brownian motion and thermophoresis. The influences of the governing parameters namely the curvature parameter γ, mass suction parameter S, Brownian motion parameter Nb and thermophoresis parameter Nt on the flow, heat and mass transfers characteristics are presented graphically. The numerical results obtained for the skin friction coefficient, local Nusselt number and local Sherwood number are thoroughly determined and presented graphically for several values of the governing parameters. From our investigation, it is found that the non-unique (dual) solutions exist for a certain range of mass suction parameter. It is observed that as curvature parameter increases, the skin friction coefficient and heat transfer rate decrease, meanwhile the mass transfer rates increase. Moreover, the stability analysis showed that the first solution is linearly stable, while the second solution is linearly unstable.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Coward, Adrian V.; Papageorgiou, Demetrios T.; Smyrlis, Yiorgos S.
1994-01-01
In this paper the nonlinear stability of two-phase core-annular flow in a pipe is examined when the acting pressure gradient is modulated by time harmonic oscillations and viscosity stratification and interfacial tension is present. An exact solution of the Navier-Stokes equations is used as the background state to develop an asymptotic theory valid for thin annular layers, which leads to a novel nonlinear evolution describing the spatio-temporal evolution of the interface. The evolution equation is an extension of the equation found for constant pressure gradients and generalizes the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation with dispersive effects found by Papageorgiou, Maldarelli & Rumschitzki, Phys. Fluids A 2(3), 1990, pp. 340-352, to a similar system with time periodic coefficients. The distinct regimes of slow and moderate flow are considered and the corresponding evolution is derived. Certain solutions are described analytically in the neighborhood of the first bifurcation point by use of multiple scales asymptotics. Extensive numerical experiments, using dynamical systems ideas, are carried out in order to evaluate the effect of the oscillatory pressure gradient on the solutions in the presence of a constant pressure gradient.
Growth from Solutions: Kink dynamics, Stoichiometry, Face Kinetics and stability in turbulent flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chernov, A. A.; DeYoreo, J. J.; Rashkovich, L. N.; Vekilov, P. G.
2005-01-01
bunching if solution flows parallel to the step flow. The bunch height increases with the distance the bunch travels, i.e. with the face size. However, when the flow rate, u, increases, at u greater than approx. 1 m / s , the average step bunch height decreases as 1/u. The pheonomenon is attributed to the turbulent rather than laminar viscous boundary layer where diffusivity Dt = 0.5u(sub tau),y, i.e. increases linearly with the distance y from the solid face. Friction velocity, u(sub tau) approx. u(sup 7/8). Dramatically larger rate of the mass/heat transport within the turbulent, as compared to the laminar, viscous layer will be discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McQuillen, John; Rame, Enrique; Kassemi, Mohammad; Singh, Bhim; Motil, Brian
2003-01-01
The Two-phase Flow, Fluid Stability and Dynamics Workshop was held on May 15, 2003 in Cleveland, Ohio to define a coherent scientific research plan and roadmap that addresses the multiphase fluid problems associated with NASA s technology development program. The workshop participants, from academia, industry and government, prioritized various multiphase issues and generated a research plan and roadmap to resolve them. This report presents a prioritization of the various multiphase flow and fluid stability phenomena related primarily to power, propulsion, fluid and thermal management and advanced life support; and a plan to address these issues in a logical and timely fashion using analysis, ground-based and space-flight experiments.
Brien, Dianne L.; Reid, Mark E.
2007-01-01
Landslides are a common problem on coastal bluffs throughout the world. Along the coastal bluffs of the Puget Sound in Seattle, Washington, landslides range from small, shallow failures to large, deep-seated landslides. Landslides of all types can pose hazards to human lives and property, but deep-seated landslides are of significant concern because their large areal extent can cause extensive property damage. Although many geomorphic processes shape the coastal bluffs of Seattle, we focus on large (greater than 3,000 m3), deepseated, rotational landslides that occur on the steep bluffs along Puget Sound. Many of these larger failures occur in advance outwash deposits of the Vashon Drift (Qva); some failures extend into the underlying Lawton Clay Member of the Vashon Drift (Qvlc). The slope stability of coastal bluffs is controlled by the interplay of three-dimensional (3-D) variations in gravitational stress, strength, and pore-water pressure. We assess 3-D slope-stability using SCOOPS (Reid and others, 2000), a computer program that allows us to search a high-resolution digital-elevation model (DEM) to quantify the relative stability of all parts of the landscape by computing the stability and volume of thousands of potential spherical failures. SCOOPS incorporates topography, 3-D strength variations, and 3-D pore pressures. Initially, we use our 3-D analysis methods to examine the effects of topography and geology by using heterogeneous material properties, as defined by stratigraphy, without pore pressures. In this scenario, the least-stable areas are located on the steepest slopes, commonly in Qva or Qvlc. However, these locations do not agree well with observations of deep-seated landslides. Historically, both shallow colluvial landslides and deep-seated landslides have been observed near the contact between Qva and Qvlc, and commonly occur in Qva. The low hydraulic conductivity of Qvlc impedes ground-water flow, resulting in elevated pore pressures at the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Jun; Hadid, Hamda Ben; Henry, Daniel; Mojtabi, Abdelkader
Temporal and spatio-temporal instabilities of binary liquid films flowing down an inclined uniformly heated plate with Soret effect are investigated by using the Chebyshev collocation method to solve the full system of linear stability equations. Seven dimensionless parameters, i.e. the Kapitza, Galileo, Prandtl, Lewis, Soret, Marangoni, and Biot numbers (Ka, G, Pr, L, ) are used to control the flow system. In the case of pure spanwise perturbations, thermocapillary S- and P-modes are obtained. It is found that the most dangerous modes are stationary for positive Soret numbers (0), and oscillatory for =0 remains so for >0 and even merges with the long-wave S-mode. In the case of streamwise perturbations, a long-wave surface mode (H-mode) is also obtained. From the neutral curves, it is found that larger Soret numbers make the film flow more unstable as do larger Marangoni numbers. The increase of these parameters leads to the merging of the long-wave H- and S-modes, making the situation long-wave unstable for any Galileo number. It also strongly influences the short-wave P-mode which becomes the most critical for large enough Galileo numbers. Furthermore, from the boundary curves between absolute and convective instabilities (AI/CI) calculated for both the long-wave instability (S- and H-modes) and the short-wave instability (P-mode), it is shown that for small Galileo numbers the AI/CI boundary curves are determined by the long-wave instability, while for large Galileo numbers they are determined by the short-wave instability.
The formation of reverse shocks in magnetized high energy density supersonic plasma flows
Lebedev, S. V., E-mail: s.lebedev@imperial.ac.uk, E-mail: l.suttle10@imperial.ac.uk; Suttle, L.; Swadling, G. F.
A new experimental platform was developed, based on the use of supersonic plasma flow from the ablation stage of an inverse wire array z-pinch, for studies of shocks in magnetized high energy density physics plasmas in a well-defined and diagnosable 1-D interaction geometry. The mechanism of flow generation ensures that the plasma flow (Re{sub M} ∼ 50, M{sub S} ∼ 5, M{sub A} ∼ 8, V{sub flow} ≈ 100 km/s) has a frozen-in magnetic field at a level sufficient to affect shocks formed by its interaction with obstacles. It is found that in addition to the expected accumulation of stagnated plasma in a thin layer at the surface ofmore » a planar obstacle, the presence of the magnetic field leads to the formation of an additional detached density jump in the upstream plasma, at a distance of ∼c/ω{sub pi} from the obstacle. Analysis of the data obtained with Thomson scattering, interferometry, and local magnetic probes suggests that the sub-shock develops due to the pile-up of the magnetic flux advected by the plasma flow.« less
Morales, Jorge A.; Leroy, Matthieu; Bos, Wouter J.T.
A volume penalization approach to simulate magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows in confined domains is presented. Here the incompressible visco-resistive MHD equations are solved using parallel pseudo-spectral solvers in Cartesian geometries. The volume penalization technique is an immersed boundary method which is characterized by a high flexibility for the geometry of the considered flow. In the present case, it allows to use other than periodic boundary conditions in a Fourier pseudo-spectral approach. The numerical method is validated and its convergence is assessed for two- and three-dimensional hydrodynamic (HD) and MHD flows, by comparing the numerical results with results from literature and analyticalmore » solutions. The test cases considered are two-dimensional Taylor–Couette flow, the z-pinch configuration, three dimensional Orszag–Tang flow, Ohmic-decay in a periodic cylinder, three-dimensional Taylor–Couette flow with and without axial magnetic field and three-dimensional Hartmann-instabilities in a cylinder with an imposed helical magnetic field. Finally, we present a magnetohydrodynamic flow simulation in toroidal geometry with non-symmetric cross section and imposing a helical magnetic field to illustrate the potential of the method.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cyranka, Jacek; Mucha, Piotr B.; Titi, Edriss S.; Zgliczyński, Piotr
2018-04-01
The paper studies the issue of stability of solutions to the forced Navier-Stokes and damped Euler systems in periodic boxes. It is shown that for large, but fixed, Grashoff (Reynolds) number the turbulent behavior of all Leray-Hopf weak solutions of the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations, in periodic box, is suppressed, when viewed in the right frame of reference, by large enough average flow of the initial data; a phenomenon that is similar in spirit to the Landau damping. Specifically, we consider an initial data which have large enough spatial average, then by means of the Galilean transformation, and thanks to the periodic boundary conditions, the large time independent forcing term changes into a highly oscillatory force; which then allows us to employ some averaging principles to establish our result. Moreover, we also show that under the action of fast oscillatory-in-time external forces all two-dimensional regular solutions of the Navier-Stokes and the damped Euler equations converge to a unique time-periodic solution.
Chen, Xu; Jiang, Hong; Hou, Bang; Gong, Wei; Liu, Yan; Cui, Yong
2017-09-27
A key challenge in heterogeneous catalysis is the design and synthesis of heterogeneous catalysts featuring high catalytic activity, selectivity, and recyclability. Here we demonstrate that high-performance heterogeneous asymmetric catalysts can be engineered from a metal-organic framework (MOF) platform by using a ligand design strategy. Three porous chiral MOFs with the framework formula [Mn 2 L(H 2 O) 2 ] are prepared from enantiopure phosphono-carboxylate ligands of 1,1'-biphenol that are functionalized with 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)-, bismethyl-, and bisfluoro-phenyl substituents at the 3,3'-position. For the first time, we show that not only chemical stability but also catalytic activity and stereoselectivity of the MOFs can be tuned by modifying the ligand structures. Particularly, the MOF incorporated with -CF 3 groups on the pore walls exhibits enhanced tolerance to water, weak acid, and base compared with the MOFs with -F and -Me groups. Under both batch and flow reaction systems, the CF 3 -containing MOF demonstrated excellent reactivity, selectivity, and recyclability, affording high yields and enantioselectivities for alkylations of indoles and pyrrole with a range of ketoesters or nitroalkenes. In contrast, the corresponding homogeneous catalysts gave low enantioselectivity in catalyzing the tested reactions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banasek, Jacob; Byvank, Tom; Kusse, Bruce; Hammer, David
2016-10-01
We discuss the use of collective Thomson scattering to determine the implosion velocity and other properties of laboratory plasma jets. The plasma jet is created using a 1 MA pulsed power machine with a 15 μm Al radial foil load. The Thomson scattering laser has a maximum energy of 10 J at 526.5 nm with a pulse duration of 3 ns. Using a time gated ICCD camera and spectrometer system we are able to record the scattered spectrum from 9 or 18 regions along the laser path with sub-mm spatial resolution. Collecting scattered radiation from the same area at two different angles simultaneously enables determination of both the radial and azimuthal velocities. The scattered spectrum for non-magnetized jets indicates a radial implosion velocity of 27 km/s into the jets. A determination of ion and electron temperatures from the scattered spectrum is in progress. Comparing results using a laser energy of 10 J and 1 J shows noticeable effects on plasma jet properties when using 10 J. Therefore the lower laser energy must be used to determine the plasma properties. This research is supported by the NNSA Stewardship Sciences Academic Programs under DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-NA0001836.
Measurements of high-current electron beams from X pinches and wire array Z pinches.
Shelkovenko, T A; Pikuz, S A; Blesener, I C; McBride, R D; Bell, K S; Hammer, D A; Agafonov, A V; Romanova, V M; Mingaleev, A R
2008-10-01
Some issues concerning high-current electron beam transport from the X pinch cross point to the diagnostic system and measurements of the beam current by Faraday cups are discussed. Results of computer simulation of electron beam propagation from the pinch to the Faraday cup give limits for the measured current for beams having different energy spreads. The beam is partially neutralized as it propagates from the X pinch to a diagnostic system, but within a Faraday cup diagnostic, space charge effects can be very important. Experimental results show evidence of such effects.
A z-pinch photo-pumped pulsed atomic iodine laser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stone, D. H.; Saunders, D. P.; Clark, M. C.
1984-03-01
A pulsed atomic iodine laser (CF3I) was designed and constructed using a coaxial xenon flash lamp as a pump source. The flash lamp was operated at low pressure to obtain pulse compression via xenon self-pinch. Electrical and optical diagnostics were performed for various xenon and CF3I pressures. Calorimeter data and burn patterns were obtained for the laser. Time-resolved spectroscopic data were taken throughout the CF3I pump band.
Improvements in the EQ-10 electrodeless Z-pinch EUV source for metrology applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horne, Stephen F.; Gustafson, Deborah; Partlow, Matthew J.; Besen, Matthew M.; Smith, Donald K.; Blackborow, Paul A.
2011-04-01
Now that EUV lithography systems are beginning to ship into the fabs for next generation chips it is more critical that the EUV infrastructure developments are keeping pace. Energetiq Technology has been shipping the EQ-10 Electrodeless Z-pinch™ light source since 2005. The source is currently being used for metrology, mask inspection, and resist development. These applications require especially stable performance in both power and source size. Over the last 5 years Energetiq has made many source modifications which have included better thermal management as well as high pulse rate operation6. Recently we have further increased the system power handling and electrical pulse reproducibility. The impact of these modifications on source performance will be reported.
Seyler, C. E.; Martin, M. R.
2011-01-14
In this study, it is shown that the two-fluid model under a generalized Ohm’s law formulation and the resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) can both be described as relaxation systems. In the relaxation model, the under-resolved stiff source terms constrain the dynamics of a set of hyperbolic equations to give the correct asymptotic solution. When applied to the collisional two-fluid model, the relaxation of fast time scales associated with displacement current and finite electron mass allows for a natural transition from a system where Ohm’s law determines the current density to a system where Ohm’s law determines the electric field. This resultmore » is used to derive novel algorithms, which allow for multiscale simulation of low and high frequency extended-MHD physics. This relaxation formulation offers an efficient way to implicitly advance the Hall term and naturally simulate a plasma-vacuum interface without invoking phenomenological models. The relaxation model is implemented as an extended-MHD code, which is used to analyze pulsed power loads such as wire arrays and ablating foils. Two-dimensional simulations of pulsed power loads are compared for extended-MHD and MHD. For these simulations, it is also shown that the relaxation model properly recovers the resistive-MHD limit.« less
Linear and nonlinear evolution of azimuthal clumping instabilities in a Z-pinch wire array
Tang, Wilkin; Strickler, T. S.; Lau, Y. Y.; ...
2007-01-31
This study presents an analytic theory on the linear and nonlinear evolution of the most unstable azimuthal clumping mode, known as the pi-mode, in a discrete wire array. In the pi-mode, neighboring wires of the array pair-up as a result of the mutual attraction of the wires which carry current in the same direction. The analytic solution displays two regimes, where the collective interactions of all wires dominate, versus where the interaction of the neighboring, single wire dominates. This solution was corroborated by two vastly different numerical codes which were used to simulate arrays with both high wire numbers (upmore » to 600) and low wire number (8). All solutions show that azimuthal clumping of discrete wires occurs before appreciable radial motion of the wires. Thus, absence of azimuthal clumping of wires in comparison with the wires’ radial motion may imply substantial lack of wire currents. Finally, while the present theory and simulations have ignored the plasma corona and axial variations, it is argued that their effects, and the complete account of the three-dimensional feature of the pi-mode, together with a scaling study of the wire number, may be expediently simulated by using only one single wire in an annular wedge with a reflection condition imposed on the wedge’s boundary.« less
A Solvable Self-Similar Model of the Sausage Instability in a Resistive Z-Pinch
1989-09-20
Ithaca, NY 14853 Dr. V. Nardi Dr. John C. Riordan Stevens Institute of Technology Physics International Co. Hoboken, NJ 07803 2700 Merced Street Dr...92122 Dr. Rick B. Spielman Dr. Frank C. Young Sandia National Laboratories Naval Research Laboratory P.O. Box 5800 Code 4770.1 Albuquerque, NM 87115
Staged Z-pinch for the production of high-flux neutrons and net energy
Wessel, Frank J.; Rahman, Hafiz Ur; Rostoker, Norman
A fusible target is embedded in a high Z liner, ohmically heated and then shock wave heated by implosion of an enveloping high Z liner. The target is adiabatically heated by compression, fusibly ignited and charged-particle heated as it is being ignited. A shock front forms as the liner implodes which shock front detaches from the more slowly moving liner, collides with the outer surface of the target, accelerates inward, rapidly heating the target, adiabatically compressing the target and liner and amplifying the current to converge the liner mass toward a central axis thereby compressing the target to a fusionmore » condition when it begins to ignite and produce charged particles. The charged particles are trapped in a large magnetic field surrounding the target. The energy of the charged particles is deposited into the target to further heat the target to produce an energy gain.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grah, Aleksander; Dreyer, Michael E.
2010-01-01
Spacecraft technology provides a series of applications for capillary channel flow. It can serve as a reliable means for positioning and transport of liquids under low gravity conditions. Basically, capillary channels provide liquid paths with one or more free surfaces. A problem may be flow instabilities leading to a collapse of the liquid surfaces. A result is undesired gas ingestion and a two phase flow which can in consequence cause several technical problems. The presented capillary channel consists of parallel plates with two free liquid surfaces. The flow rate is established by a pump at the channel outlet, creating a lower pressure within the channel. Owing to the pressure difference between the liquid phase and the ambient gas phase the free surfaces bend inwards and remain stable as long as they are able to resist the steady and unsteady pressure effects. For the numerical prediction of the flow stability two very different models are used. The one-dimensional unsteady model is mainly based on the Bernoulli equation, the continuity equation, and the Gauss-Laplace equation. For three-dimensional evaluations an open source computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool is applied. For verifications the numerical results are compared with quasisteady and unsteady data of a sounding rocket experiment. Contrary to previous experiments this one results in a significantly longer observation sequence. Furthermore, the critical point of the steady flow instability could be approached by a quasisteady technique. As in previous experiments the comparison to the numerical model evaluation shows a very good agreement for the movement of the liquid surfaces and for the predicted flow instability. The theoretical prediction of the flow instability is related to the speed index, based on characteristic velocities of the capillary channel flow. Stable flow regimes are defined by stability criteria for steady and unsteady flow. The one-dimensional computation of the speed index
Pirozzi, D; Halling, P J
2001-01-20
A very small-scale continuous flow reactor has been designed for use with enzymes in organic media, particularly for operational stability studies. It is constructed from fairly inexpensive components, and typically uses 5 mg of catalyst and flow rates of 1 to 5 mL/h, so only small quantities of feedstock need to be handled. The design allows control of the thermodynamic water activity of the feed, and works with temperatures up to at least 80 degrees C. The reactor has been operated with both nonpolar (octane) and polar (4-methyl-pentan-2-one) solvents, and with the more viscous solvent-free reactant mixture. It has been applied to studies of the operational stability of lipases from Chromobacterium viscosum (lyophilized powder or polypropylene-adsorbed) and Rhizomucor miehei (Lipozyme) in different experimental conditions. Transesterification of geraniol and ethylcaproate has been adopted as a model transformation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Drazin, P. G.; Reid, W. H.
The book is written from the point of view intrinsic to fluid mechanics and applied mathematics. The analytical aspects of the theory are emphasized. However, it has also been tried, wherever possible, to relate the theory to experimental and numerical results. Mechanisms of instability are considered along with fundamental concepts of hydrodynamic stability, the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, and the break-up of a liquid jet in air. Aspects of thermal instability are investigated, taking into account the equations of motion, the stability problem, general stability characteristics, particular stability characteristics, the cells, and experimental results. The inviscid theory and the viscous theory are examined in connection with a study of parallel shear flows. Centrifugal instability is discussed along with uniform asymptotic approximations, and problems of nonlinear stability. Attention is also given to baroclinic instability, the instability of the pinch, the development of linear instability in time and space, and the instability of unsteady flows.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Serbetci, Ilter; Nagamatsu, H. T.
1990-02-01
Steady-state low-current air arcs in a dual-flow nozzle system are studied experimentally. The cold flow field with no arc is investigated using a 12.7-mm diameter dual-flow nozzle in a steady-flow facility. Mach number and mass flux distributions are determined for various nozzle-pressure ratios and nozzle-gap spacing. It is found that the shock waves in the converging-diverging nozzles result in a decrease in overal resistance by about 15 percent. Also, Schlieren and differential interferometry techniques are used to visualize the density gradients within the arc plasma and thermal mantle. Both optical techniques reveal a laminar arc structure for a reservoir pressure of 1 atm at various current levels. Experimentally determined axial static pressure and cold-flow mass flux rate distributions and a channel-flow model with constant arc temperatre are used to solve the energy integral for the arc radius as a function of axial distance. The arc electric field strength, voltage, resistance, and power are determined with Ohm's law and the total heat transfer is related to arc power.
Allouche, M H; Millet, S; Botton, V; Henry, D; Ben Hadid, H; Rousset, F
2015-12-01
Squire's theorem, which states that the two-dimensional instabilities are more dangerous than the three-dimensional instabilities, is revisited here for a flow down an incline, making use of numerical stability analysis and Squire relationships when available. For flows down inclined planes, one of these Squire relationships involves the slopes of the inclines. This means that the Reynolds number associated with a two-dimensional wave can be shown to be smaller than that for an oblique wave, but this oblique wave being obtained for a larger slope. Physically speaking, this prevents the possibility to directly compare the thresholds at a given slope. The goal of the paper is then to reach a conclusion about the predominance or not of two-dimensional instabilities at a given slope, which is of practical interest for industrial or environmental applications. For a Newtonian fluid, it is shown that, for a given slope, oblique wave instabilities are never the dominant instabilities. Both the Squire relationships and the particular variations of the two-dimensional wave critical curve with regard to the inclination angle are involved in the proof of this result. For a generalized Newtonian fluid, a similar result can only be obtained for a reduced stability problem where some term connected to the perturbation of viscosity is neglected. For the general stability problem, however, no Squire relationships can be derived and the numerical stability results show that the thresholds for oblique waves can be smaller than the thresholds for two-dimensional waves at a given slope, particularly for large obliquity angles and strong shear-thinning behaviors. The conclusion is then completely different in that case: the dominant instability for a generalized Newtonian fluid flowing down an inclined plane with a given slope can be three dimensional.
The Stability and Interfacial Motion of Multi-layer Radial Porous Media and Hele-Shaw Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gin, Craig; Daripa, Prabir
2017-11-01
In this talk, we will discuss viscous fingering instabilities of multi-layer immiscible porous media flows within the Hele-Shaw model in a radial flow geometry. We study the motion of the interfaces for flows with both constant and variable viscosity fluids. We consider the effects of using a variable injection rate on multi-layer flows. We also present a numerical approach to simulating the interface motion within linear theory using the method of eigenfunction expansion. We compare these results with fully non-linear simulations.
Stability of Wavy Films in Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flows at Normal and Microgravity Conditions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Balakotaiah, V.; Jayawardena, S. S.
1996-01-01
For flow rates of technological interest, most gas-liquid flows in pipes are in the annular flow regime, in which, the liquid moves along the pipe wall in a thin, wavy film and the gas flows in the core region. The waves appearing on the liquid film have a profound influence on the transfer rates, and hence on the design of these systems. We have recently proposed and analyzed two boundary layer models that describe the characteristics of laminar wavy films at high Reynolds numbers (300-1200). Comparison of model predictions to 1-g experimental data showed good agreement. The goal of our present work is to understand through a combined program of experimental and modeling studies the characteristics of wavy films in annular two-phase gas-liquid flows under normal as well as microgravity conditions in the developed and entry regions.
Garcia-Perez, Manuel; Adams, Thomas T; Goodrum, John W; Das, K C; Geller, Daniel P
2010-08-01
This paper describes the use of Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) to evaluate the impact of varying mix ratios of bio-oil (pyrolysis oil) and bio-diesel on the oxidation stability and on some cold flow properties of resulting blends. The bio-oils employed were produced from the semi-continuous Auger pyrolysis of pine pellets and the batch pyrolysis of pine chips. The bio-diesel studied was obtained from poultry fat. The conditions used to prepare the bio-oil/bio-diesel blends as well as some of the fuel properties of these blends are reported. The experimental results suggest that the addition of bio-oil improves the oxidation stability of the resulting blends and modifies the crystallization behavior of unsaturated compounds. Upon the addition of bio-oil an increase in the oxidation onset temperature, as determined by DSC, was observed. The increase in bio-diesel oxidation stability is likely to be due to the presence of hindered phenols abundant in bio-oils. A relatively small reduction in DSC characteristic temperatures which are associated with cold flow properties was also observed but can likely be explained by a dilution effect. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Swadling, G. F.; Lebedev, S. V.; Burdiak, G.
An optical Thomson scattering diagnostic has been used to investigate collisions between supersonic, magnetized plasma flows, in particular the transition from collisionless to collisional interaction dynamics. These flows were produced using tungsten wire array z-pinches, driven by the 1.4 MA 240 ns Magpie generator at Imperial College London. Measurements of the collective-mode Thomson scattering ion-feature clearly indicate that the ablation flows are interpenetrating at 100 ns (after current start), and this interpenetration continues until at least 140 ns. The Thomson spectrum at 150 ns shows a clear change in the dynamics of the stream interactions, transitioning towards a collisional, shock-like interaction of the streamsmore » near the axis. The Thomson scattering data also provide indirect evidence of the presence of a significant toroidal magnetic field embedded in the “precursor” plasma near the axis of the array over the period 100–140 ns; these observations are in agreement with previous measurements [Swadling et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 035003 (2014)]. The Thomson scattering measurements at 150 ns suggest that this magnetic field must collapse at around the time the dense precursor column begins to form.« less
Zheng, Xinqian; Zhang, Yangjun; Yang, Mingyang; Bamba, Takahiro; Tamaki, Hideaki
2013-03-01
This is part II of a two-part paper involving the development of an asymmetrical flow control method to widen the operating range of a turbocharger centrifugal compressor with high-pressure ratio. A nonaxisymmetrical self-recirculation casing treatment (SRCT) as an instance of asymmetrical flow control method is presented. Experimental and numerical methods were used to investigate the impact of nonaxisymmetrical SRCT on the surge point of the centrifugal compressor. First, the influence of the geometry of a symmetric SRCT on the compressor performance was studied by means of numerical simulation. The key parameter of the SRCT was found to be the distance from the main blade leading edge to the rear groove (S r ). Next, several arrangements of a nonaxisymmetrical SRCT were designed, based on flow analysis presented in part I. Then, a series of experiments were carried out to analyze the influence of nonaxisymmetrical SRCT on the compressor performance. Results show that the nonaxisymmetrical SRCT has a certain influence on the performance and has a larger potential for stability improvement than the traditional symmetric SRCT. For the investigated SRCT, the surge flow rate of the compressor with the nonaxisymmetrical SRCTs is about 10% lower than that of the compressor with symmetric SRCT. The largest surge margin (smallest surge flow rate) can be obtained when the phase of the largest S r is coincident with the phase of the minimum static pressure in the vicinity of the leading edge of the splitter blades.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Queijo, M J; Lichtenstein, Jacob H
1948-01-01
Contains results of tunnel tests to determine effects of various combinations of split flaps, slats, and nose slats on the stability characteristics of a tapered 37.5 degree sweptback wing of aspect ratio 3 in straight and rolling flow.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maquiling, Joel Tiu; Visaga, Shane Marie
This study investigates the dependence of the critical angle θc of stability on different mass ratios γ of layered bi-phasic granular matter mixtures and on the critical angle of its mono-disperse individual components. It also aims to investigate and explain regime transitions of granular matter flowing down a tilted rough inclined plane. Critical angles and flow regimes for a bi-phasic mixture of sago spheres and bi-phasic pepper mixture of fine powder and rough spheres were observed and measured using video analysis. The critical angles θc MD of mono-disperse granular matter and θc BP of biphasic granular matter mixtures were observed and compared. All types of flow regimes and a supramaximal critical angle of stability exist at mass ratio γ = 0.5 for all biphasic granular matter mixtures. The θc BP of sago spheres was higher than the θc MD of sago spheres. Moreover, the θc BP of the pepper mixture was in between the θc MD of fine pepper and θc MD of rough pepper spheres. Comparison of different granular material shows that θc MD is not simply a function of particle diameter but of particle roughness as well. Results point to a superposition mechanism of the critical angles of biphasic sphere mixtures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roznyatovskaya, Nataliya V.; Roznyatovsky, Vitaly A.; Höhne, Carl-Christoph; Fühl, Matthias; Gerber, Tobias; Küttinger, Michael; Noack, Jens; Fischer, Peter; Pinkwart, Karsten; Tübke, Jens
2017-09-01
Catholyte in all-vanadium redox-flow battery (VRFB) which consists of vanadium salts dissolved in sulphuric acid is known to be stabilized by phosphoric acid to slow down the thermal aging at temperatures higher than 40 °C. To reveal the role of phosphoric acid, the thermally-induced aggregation is investigated using variable-temperature 51V, 31P, 17O, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The results indicate that the thermal stabilization of vanadium(V) electrolyte is attained by the involvement of monomeric and dimeric vanadium(V) species in the reaction with phosphoric acid which is concurrent to the formation of neutral hydroxo-aqua vanadium(V) precipitation precursor. The dimers are stabilized by counter ions due to association reaction or if such stabilization is not possible, precipitation of vanadium pentoxide is favored. The evolution of particles size distributions at 50 °C in electrolyte samples containing 1.6 M vanadium and 4.0 M total sulphate and the pathways of precipitate formation are discussed. The optimal total phosphate concentration is found to be of 0.15 M. However, the induction time is assumed to be dependent not only on the total phosphate concentrations, but also on the ratio of total vanadium(V) to sulphate concentrations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steiner, Adam M.; Campbell, Paul C.; Yager-Elorriaga, David A.; Cochrane, Kyle R.; Mattsson, Thomas R.; Jordan, Nicholas M.; McBride, Ryan D.; Lau, Y. Y.; Gilgenbach, Ronald M.
2018-03-01
Presented are the results from the liner ablation experiments conducted at 550 kA on the Michigan Accelerator for Inductive Z-Pinch Experiments. These experiments were performed to evaluate a hypothesis that the electrothermal instability (ETI) is responsible for the seeding of magnetohydrodynamic instabilities and that the cumulative growth of ETI is primarily dependent on the material-specific ratio of critical temperature to melting temperature. This ratio is lower in refractory metals (e.g., tantalum) than in non-refractory metals (e.g., aluminum or titanium). The experimental observations presented herein reveal that the plasma-vacuum interface is remarkably stable in tantalum liner ablations. This stability is particularly evident when contrasted with the observations from aluminum and titanium experiments. These results are important to various programs in pulsed-power-driven plasma physics that depend on liner implosion stability. Examples include the magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF) program and the cylindrical dynamic material properties program at Sandia National Laboratories, where liner experiments are conducted on the 27-MA Z facility.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wohlrab, R.
1983-01-01
Instabilities in turbine operation can be caused by forces which are produced in connection with motions involving the oil film in the bearings. An experimental investigation regarding the characteristics of such forces in the case of three typical steam turbine stages is conducted, taking into account the effect of various parameters. Supplementary kinetic tests are carried out to obtain an estimate of the flow forces which are proportional to the velocity. The measurements are based on the theoretical study of the damping characteristics of a vibrational model. A computational analysis of the effect of the measured fluid forces on the stability characteristics of simple rotor model is also conducted.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goldstein, M. E.; Leib, S. J.; Cowley, S. J.
1990-01-01
Researchers show how an initially linear spanwise disturbance in the free stream velocity field is amplified by leading edge bluntness effects and ultimately leads to a small amplitude but linear spanwise motion far downstream from the edge. This spanwise motion is imposed on the boundary layer flow and ultimately causes an order-one change in its profile shape. The modified profiles are highly unstable and can support Tollmein-Schlichting wave growth well upstream of the theoretical lower branch of the neutral stability curve for a Blasius boundary layer.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bakar, Shahirah Abu; Arifin, Norihan Md; Ali, Fadzilah Md; Bachok, Norfifah; Nazar, Roslinda
2017-08-01
The stagnation-point flow over a shrinking sheet in Darcy-Forchheimer porous medium is numerically studied. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into ordinary differential equations using a similarity transformation, and then solved numerically by using shooting technique method with Maple implementation. Dual solutions are observed in a certain range of the shrinking parameter. Regarding on numerical solutions, we prepared stability analysis to identify which solution is stable between non-unique solutions by bvp4c solver in Matlab. Further we obtain numerical results or each solution, which enable us to discuss the features of the respective solutions.
Zeng, Wei; Sjöberg, Magnus; Reuss, David L.
Implementing spray-guided stratified-charge direct-injection spark-ignited (DISI) engines is inhibited by the occurrence of misfire and partial burns. Engine-performance tests demonstrate that increasing engine speed induces combustion instability, but this deterioration can be prevented by generating swirling flow during the intake stroke. In-cylinder pressure-based heat-release analysis reveals that the appearance of poor-burn cycles is not solely dependent on the variability of early flame-kernel growth. Moreover, cycles can experience burning-rate regression during later combustion stages and may or may not recover before the end of the cycle. Thermodynamic analysis and optical diagnostics are used here to clarify why swirl improves the combustionmore » repeatability from cycle to cycle. The fluid dynamics of swirl/spray interaction was previously demonstrated using high-speed PIV measurements of in-cylinder motored flow. It was found that the sprays of the multi-hole injector redistribute the intake-generated swirl flow momentum, thereby creating a better-centered higher angular-momentum vortex with reduced variability. The engine operation with high swirl was found to have significant improvement in cycle-to-cycle variations of both flow pattern and flow momentum. This paper is an extension of the previous work. Here, PIV measurements and flame imaging are applied to fired operation for studying how the swirl flow affects variability of ignition and subsequent combustion phases. PIV results for fired operation are consistent with the measurements made of motored flow. They demonstrate that the spark-plasma motion is highly correlated with the direction of the gas flow in the vicinity of the spark-plug gap. Without swirl, the plasma is randomly stretched towards either side of the spark plug, causing variability in the ignition of the two spray plumes that are straddling the spark plug. Conversely, swirl flow always convects the spark plasma towards one
Zeng, Wei; Sjöberg, Magnus; Reuss, David L.; ...
2016-06-01
Implementing spray-guided stratified-charge direct-injection spark-ignited (DISI) engines is inhibited by the occurrence of misfire and partial burns. Engine-performance tests demonstrate that increasing engine speed induces combustion instability, but this deterioration can be prevented by generating swirling flow during the intake stroke. In-cylinder pressure-based heat-release analysis reveals that the appearance of poor-burn cycles is not solely dependent on the variability of early flame-kernel growth. Moreover, cycles can experience burning-rate regression during later combustion stages and may or may not recover before the end of the cycle. Thermodynamic analysis and optical diagnostics are used here to clarify why swirl improves the combustionmore » repeatability from cycle to cycle. The fluid dynamics of swirl/spray interaction was previously demonstrated using high-speed PIV measurements of in-cylinder motored flow. It was found that the sprays of the multi-hole injector redistribute the intake-generated swirl flow momentum, thereby creating a better-centered higher angular-momentum vortex with reduced variability. The engine operation with high swirl was found to have significant improvement in cycle-to-cycle variations of both flow pattern and flow momentum. This paper is an extension of the previous work. Here, PIV measurements and flame imaging are applied to fired operation for studying how the swirl flow affects variability of ignition and subsequent combustion phases. PIV results for fired operation are consistent with the measurements made of motored flow. They demonstrate that the spark-plasma motion is highly correlated with the direction of the gas flow in the vicinity of the spark-plug gap. Without swirl, the plasma is randomly stretched towards either side of the spark plug, causing variability in the ignition of the two spray plumes that are straddling the spark plug. Conversely, swirl flow always convects the spark plasma towards one
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chernov, Alex A.; Booth, N. A.; Vekilov, P. G.; Murray, B. T.; McFadden, G. B.
2000-01-01
We have assembled an experimental setup based on Michelson interferometry with the growing crystal surface as one of the reflective surfaces. The crystallization part of the device allows optical monitoring of a face of a crystal growing at temperature stable within 0.05 C in a flow of solution of controlled direction and speed. The reference arm of the interferometer contains a liquid crystal element that allows controlled shifts of the phase of the interferograms. We employ an image-processing algorithm, which combines five images with a pi/2 phase difference between each pair of images. The images are transferred to a computer by a camera capable of capturing 60 frames per second. The device allows data collection on surface morphology and kinetics during the face layers growth over a relatively large area (approximately 4 sq. mm) in situ and in real time during growth. The estimated depth resolution of the phase shifting interferometry is approximately 50 Angstroms. The data will be analyzed in order to reveal and monitor step bunching during the growth process. The crystal chosen as a model for study in this work is KH2PO4 (KDP). This optically non-linear material is widely used in frequency doubling applications. There have been a number of studies of the kinetics of KDP crystallization that can serve as a benchmark for our investigations. However, so far, systematic quantitative characteristics of step interaction and bunching are missing. We intend to present our first quantitative results on the onset, initial stages and development of instabilities in moving step trains on vicinal crystal surfaces at varying supersaturation, flow rate, and flow direction. Behavior of a vicinal face growing from solution flowing normal to the steps and periodically changing its direction in time was considered theoretically. It was found that this oscillating flow reduces both stabilization and destabilization effects resulted from the unidirectional solution flow directed
Chen, Yi; Zhang, Yan; Zhou, Yuefang; Luo, Jian; Su, Zhiguo
2016-06-08
The stabilities of two commercially available virus like particles, CHO-HBsAg expressed by Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and Hans-HBsAg expressed by Hansenula polymorpha (Hans), were compared using AF4-MALLS under different treatment processes. The initial molecular weight and hydrodynamic diameter of CHO-HBsAg measured with AF4-MALLS were 4727kDa and 29.4nm, while those of Hans-HBsAg were 3039kDa and 22.8nm respectively. In salt solution of 2M ammonium sulfate, the molecular weight and size of CHO-HBsAg had little change, and its antigenicity remained 95%, while those of Hans-HBsAg chang