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Sample records for flow stabilized z-pinch

  1. High energy density Z-pinch plasmas using flow stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Shumlak, U., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Golingo, R. P., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Nelson, B. A., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu

    The ZaP Flow Z-Pinch research project[1] at the University of Washington investigates the effect of sheared flows on MHD instabilities. Axially flowing Z-pinch plasmas are produced that are 100 cm long with a 1 cm radius. The plasma remains quiescent for many radial Alfvén times and axial flow times. The quiescent periods are characterized by low magnetic mode activity measured at several locations along the plasma column and by stationary visible plasma emission. Plasma evolution is modeled with high-resolution simulation codes – Mach2, WARPX, NIMROD, and HiFi. Plasma flow profiles are experimentally measured with a multi-chord ion Doppler spectrometer. Amore » sheared flow profile is observed to be coincident with the quiescent period, and is consistent with classical plasma viscosity. Equilibrium is determined by diagnostic measurements: interferometry for density; spectroscopy for ion temperature, plasma flow, and density[2]; Thomson scattering for electron temperature; Zeeman splitting for internal magnetic field measurements[3]; and fast framing photography for global structure. Wall stabilization has been investigated computationally and experimentally by removing 70% of the surrounding conducting wall to demonstrate no change in stability behavior.[4] Experimental evidence suggests that the plasma lifetime is only limited by plasma supply and current waveform. The flow Z-pinch concept provides an approach to achieve high energy density plasmas,[5] which are large, easy to diagnose, and persist for extended durations. A new experiment, ZaP-HD, has been built to investigate this approach by separating the flow Z-pinch formation from the radial compression using a triaxial-electrode configuration. This innovation allows more detailed investigations of the sheared flow stabilizing effect, and it allows compression to much higher densities than previously achieved on ZaP by reducing the linear density and increasing the pinch current. Experimental results

  2. Increasing Plasma Parameters using Sheared Flow Stabilization of a Z-Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumlak, Uri

    2016-10-01

    Recent experiments on the ZaP Flow Z-Pinch at the University of Washington have been successful in compressing the plasma column to smaller radii, producing the predicted increases in plasma density (1018 cm-3), temperature (200 eV), and magnetic fields (4 T), while maintaining plasma stability for many Alfven times (over 40 μs) using sheared plasma flows. These results indicate the suitability of the device as a discovery science platform for astrophysical and high energy density plasma research, and keeps open a possible path to achieving burning plasma conditions in a compact fusion device. Long-lived Z-pinch plasmas have been produced with dimensions of 1 cm radius and 100 cm long that are stabilized by sheared axial flows for over 1000 Alfven radial transit times. The observed plasma stability is coincident with the presence of a sheared flow as measured by time-resolved multi-chord ion Doppler spectroscopy applied to impurity ion radiation. These measurements yield insights into the evolution of the velocity profile and show that the stabilizing behavior of flow shear agrees with theoretical calculations and 2-D MHD computational simulations. The flow shear value, extent, and duration are shown to be consistent with theoretical models of the plasma viscosity, which places a design constraint on the maximum axial length of a sheared flow stabilized Z-pinch. Measurements of the magnetic field topology indicate simultaneous azimuthal symmetry and axial uniformity along the entire 100 cm length of the Z-pinch plasma. Separate control of plasma acceleration and compression have increased the accessible plasma parameters and have generated stable plasmas with radii below 0.5 cm, as measured with a high resolution digital holographic interferometer. This work was supported by Grants from U.S. DOE, NNSA, and ARPA-E.

  3. ZaP-HD: High Energy Density Z-Pinch Plasmas using Sheared Flow Stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golingo, R. P.; Shumlak, U.; Nelson, B. A.; Claveau, E. L.; Doty, S. A.; Forbes, E. G.; Hughes, M. C.; Kim, B.; Ross, M. P.; Weed, J. R.

    2015-11-01

    The ZaP-HD flow Z-pinch project investigates scaling the flow Z-pinch to High Energy Density Plasma, HEDP, conditions by using sheared flow stabilization. ZaP used a single power supply to produce 100 cm long Z-pinches that were quiescent for many radial Alfven times and axial flow-through times. The flow Z-pinch concept provides an approach to achieve HED plasmas, which are dimensionally large and persist for extended durations. The ZaP-HD device replaces the single power supply from ZaP with two separate power supplies to independently control the plasma flow and current in the Z-pinch. Equilibrium is determined by diagnostic measurements of the density with interferometry and digital holography, the plasma flow and temperature with passive spectroscopy, the magnetic field with surface magnetic probes, and plasma emission with optical imaging. The diagnostics fully characterize the plasma from its initiation in the coaxial accelerator, through the pinch, and exhaust from the assembly region. The plasma evolution is modeled with high resolution codes: Mach2, WARPX, and NIMROD. Experimental results and scaling analyses are presented. This work is supported by grants from the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration.

  4. 2D Kinetic Particle in Cell Simulations of a Shear-Flow Stabilized Z-Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tummel, Kurt; Higginson, Drew; Schmidt, Andrea; Link, Anthony; McLean, Harry; Shumlak, Uri; Nelson, Brian; Golingo, Raymond; Claveau, Elliot; Lawrence Livermore National Lab Team; University of Washington Team

    2016-10-01

    The Z-pinch is a relatively simple and attractive potential fusion reactor design, but attempts to develop such a reactor have consistently struggled to overcome Z-pinch instabilities. The ``sausage'' and ``kink'' modes are among the most robust and prevalent Z-pinch instabilities, but theory and simulations suggest that axial flow-shear, dvz / dr ≠ 0 , can suppress these modes. Experiments have confirmed that Z-pinch plasmas with embedded axial flow-shear display a significantly enhanced resilience to the sausage and kink modes at a demonstration current of 50kAmps. A new experiment is under way to test the concept at higher current, and efforts to model these plasmas are being expanded. The performance and stability of these devices will depend on features like the plasma viscosity, anomalous resistivity, and finite Larmor radius effects, which are most accurately characterized in kinetic models. To predict these features, kinetic simulations using the particle in cell code LSP are now in development, and initial benchmarking and 2D stability analyses of the sausage mode are presented here. These results represent the first kinetic modeling of the flow-shear stabilized Z-pinch. This work is funded by the USDOE/ARPAe Alpha Program. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  5. A Reactor Development Scenario for the FuZE Sheared-Flow Stabilized Z-pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLean, Harry S.; Higginson, D. P.; Schmidt, A.; Tummel, K. K.; Shumlak, U.; Nelson, B. A.; Claveau, E. L.; Forbes, E. G.; Golingo, R. P.; Stepanov, A. D.; Weber, T. R.; Zhang, Y.

    2017-10-01

    We present a conceptual design, scaling calculations, and development path for a pulsed fusion reactor based on a flow-stabilized Z-pinch. Experiments performed on the ZaP and ZaP-HD devices have largely demonstrated the basic physics of sheared-flow stabilization at pinch currents up to 100 kA. Initial experiments on the FuZE device, a high-power upgrade of ZaP, have achieved 20 usec of stability at pinch current 100-200 kA and pinch diameter few mm for a pinch length of 50 cm. Scaling calculations based on a quasi-steady-state power balance show that extending stable duration to 100 usec at a pinch current of 1.5 MA and pinch length of 50 cm, results in a reactor plant Q 5. Future performance milestones are proposed for pinch currents of: 300 kA, where Te and Ti are calculated to exceed 1-2 keV; 700 kA, where DT fusion power would be expected to exceed pinch input power; and 1 MA, where fusion energy per pulse exceeds input energy per pulse. This work funded by USDOE ARPA-E and performed under the auspices of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-734770.

  6. Scaling the Shear-flow Stabilized Z-pinch to Reactor Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLean, H. S.; Schmidt, A.; Shumlak, U.; Nelson, B. A.; Golingo, R. P.; Cleveau, E.

    2015-11-01

    We present a conceptual design along with scaling calculations for a pulsed fusion reactor based on the shear-flow-stabilized Z-pinch device. Experiments performed on the ZaP device, at the University of Washington, have demonstrated stable operation for durations of 20 usec at ~100kA discharge current for pinches that are ~1 cm in diameter and 100 cm long. The inverse of the pinch diameter and plasma energy density scale strongly with pinch current and calculations show that maintaining stabilization durations of ~7 usec for increased discharge current (~15x) in a shortened pinch (10 cm) results in a pinch diameter of ~200 um and plasma conditions that approach those needed to support significant fusion burn and energy gain (Ti ~ 30keV, density ~ 3e26/m3, ntau ~1.4e20 sec/m3). Compelling features of the concept include operation at modest discharge current (1.5 MA) and voltage (40kV) along with direct adoption of liquid metals for at least one electrode--technological capabilities that have been proven in existing, commercial, pulse power devices such as large ignitrons. LLNL-ABS-674920. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy ARPAe ALPHA Program by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  7. A Reactor Development Scenario for the FUZE Shear-flow Stabilized Z-pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLean, H. S.; Higginson, D. P.; Schmidt, A.; Tummel, K. K.; Shumlak, U.; Nelson, B. A.; Claveau, E. L.; Golingo, R. P.; Weber, T. R.

    2016-10-01

    We present a conceptual design, scaling calculations, and a development path for a pulsed fusion reactor based on the shear-flow-stabilized Z-pinch device. Experiments performed on the ZaP device have demonstrated stable operation for 40 us at 150 kA total discharge current (with 100 kA in the pinch) for pinches that are 1cm in diameter and 100 cm long. Scaling calculations show that achieving stabilization for a pulse of 100 usec, for discharge current 1.5 MA, in a shortened pinch 50 cm, results in a pinch diameter of 200 um and a reactor plant Q 5 for reasonable assumptions of the various system efficiencies. We propose several key intermediate performance levels in order to justify further development. These include achieving operation at pinch currents of 300 kA, where Te and Ti are calculated to exceed 1 keV, 700 kA where fusion power exceeds pinch input power, and 1 MA where fusion energy per pulse exceeds input energy per pulse. This work funded by USDOE ARPAe ALPHA Program and performed under the auspices of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-697801.

  8. Digital holographic interferometry employing Fresnel transform reconstruction for the study of flow shear stabilized Z-pinch plasmas.

    PubMed

    Ross, M P; Shumlak, U

    2016-10-01

    The ZaP-HD flow Z-pinch project provides a platform to explore how shear flow stabilized Z-pinches could scale to high-energy-density plasma (plasma with pressures exceeding 1 Mbar) and fusion reactor conditions. The Z-pinch is a linear plasma confinement geometry in which the plasma carries axial electric current and is confined by its self-induced magnetic field. ZaP-HD generates shear stabilized, axisymmetric Z-pinches with stable lifetimes approaching 60 μs. The goal of the project is to increase the plasma density and temperature compared to the previous ZaP project by compressing the plasma to smaller radii (≈1 mm). Radial and axial plasma electron density structure is measured using digital holographic interferometry (DHI), which provides the necessary fine spatial resolution. ZaP-HD's DHI system uses a 2 ns Nd:YAG laser pulse with a second harmonic generator (λ = 532 nm) to produce holograms recorded by a Nikon D3200 digital camera. The holograms are numerically reconstructed with the Fresnel transform reconstruction method to obtain the phase shift caused by the interaction of the laser beam with the plasma. This provides a two-dimensional map of line-integrated electron density, which can be Abel inverted to determine the local number density. The DHI resolves line-integrated densities down to 3 × 10 20 m -2 with spatial resolution near 10 μm. This paper presents the first application of Fresnel transform reconstruction as an analysis technique for a plasma diagnostic, and it analyzes the method's accuracy through study of synthetic data. It then presents an Abel inversion procedure that utilizes data on both sides of a Z-pinch local number density profile to maximize profile symmetry. Error estimation and Abel inversion are applied to the measured data.

  9. Producing High-Performance, Stable, Sheared-Flow Z-Pinches in the FuZE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golingo, R. P.; Shumlak, U.,; Nelson, B. A.; Claveau, E. L.; Forbes, E. G.; Stepanov, A. D.; Weber, T. R.; Zhang, Y.; McLean, H. S.; Tummel, K. K.; Higginson, D. P.; Schmidt, A. E.; University of Washington (UW) Collaboration; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    The Fusion Z-Pinch Experiment (FuZE) has made significant strides towards generating high-performance, stable Z-pinch plasmas with goals of ne = 1018 cm-3 and T =1 keV. The Z-pinch plasmas are stabilized with a sheared axial flow that is driven by a coaxial accelerator. The new FuZE device has been constructed and reproduces the major scientific achievements the ZaP project at the University of Washington; ne = 1016 cm-3,T = 100 eV, r<1 cm, and tstable >20 μs. These parameters are measured with an array of magnetic field probes, spectroscopy, and fast framing cameras. The plasma parameters are achieved using a small fraction of the maximum energy storage and gas injection capability of the FuZE device. Higher density, ne = 5×1017 cm-3, and temperature, T = 500 eV, Z-pinch plasmas are formed by increasing the pinch current. At the higher voltages and currents, the ionization rates in the accelerator increase. By modifying the neutral gas profile in the accelerator, the plasma flow from the accelerator is maintained, driving the flow shear. Formation and sustainment of the sheared-flow Z-pinch plasma will be discussed. Experimental data demonstrating high performance plasmas in a stable Z-pinches will be shown. This work is supported by an award from US ARPA-E.

  10. Finite-Larmor-radius effects on z-pinch stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheffel, Jan; Faghihi, Mostafa

    1989-06-01

    The effect of finite Larmor radius (FLR) on the stability of m = 1 small-axial-wavelength kinks in a z-pinch with purely poloidal magnetic field is investigated. We use the incompressible FLR MHD model; a collisionless fluid model that consistently includes the relevant FLR terms due to ion gyroviscosity, Hall effect and electron diamagnetism. With FLR terms absent, the Kadomtsev criterion of ideal MHD, 2r dp/dr + m2B2/μ0 ≥ 0 predicts instability for internal modes unless the current density is singular at the centre of the pinch. The same result is obtained in the present model, with FLR terms absent. When the FLR terms are included, a normal-mode analysis of the linearized equations yields the following results. Marginally unstable (ideal) modes are stabilized by gyroviscosity. The Hall term has a damping (but not absolutely stabilizing) effect - in agreement with earlier work. On specifying a constant current and particle density equilibrium, the effect of electron diamagnetism vanishes. For a z-pinch with parameters relevant to the EXTRAP experiment, the m = 1 modes are then fully stabilized over the crosssection for wavelengths λ/a ≤ 1, where a denotes the pinch radius. As a general z-pinch result a critical line-density limit Nmax = 5 × 1018 m-1 is found, above which gyroviscous stabilization near the plasma boundary becomes insufficient. This limit corresponds to about five Larmor radii along the pinch radius. The result holds for wavelengths close to, or smaller than, the pinch radius and for realistic equilibrium profiles. This limit is far below the required limit for a reactor with contained alpha particles, which is in excess of 1020 m-1.

  11. Overview of the Fusion Z-Pinch Experiment FuZE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, T. R.; Shumlak, U.; Nelson, B. A.; Golingo, R. P.; Claveau, E. L.; McLean, H. S.; Tummel, K. K.; Higginson, D. P.; Schmidt, A. E.; UW/LLNL Team

    2016-10-01

    Previously, the ZaP device, at the University of Washington, demonstrated sheared flow stabilized (SFS) Z-pinch plasmas. Instabilities that have historically plagued Z-pinch plasma confinement were mitigated using sheared flows generated from a coaxial plasma gun of the Marshall type. Based on these results, a new SFS Z-pinch experiment, the Fusion Z-pinch Experiment (FuZE), has been constructed. FuZE is designed to investigate the scaling of SFS Z-pinch plasmas towards fusion conditions. The experiment will be supported by high fidelity physics modeling using kinetic and fluid simulations. Initial plans are in place for a pulsed fusion reactor following the results of FuZE. Notably, the design relies on proven commercial technologies, including a modest discharge current (1.5 MA) and voltage (40 kV), and liquid metal electrodes. Supported by DoE FES, NNSA, and ARPA-E ALPHA.

  12. Parameter scaling toward high-energy density in a quasi-steady flow Z-pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, M. C.; Shumlak, U.; Nelson, B. A.; Golingo, R. P.; Claveau, E. L.; Doty, S. A.; Forbes, E. G.; Kim, B.; Ross, M. P.

    2016-10-01

    Sheared axial flows are utilized by the ZaP Flow Z-Pinch Experiment to stabilize MHD instabilities. The pinches formed are 50 cm long with radii ranging from 0.3 to 1.0 cm. The plasma is generated in a coaxial acceleration region, similar to a Marshall gun, which provides a steady supply of plasma for approximately 100 us. The power to the plasma is partially decoupled between the acceleration and pinch assembly regions through the use of separate power supplies. Adiabatic scaling of the Bennett relation gives targets for future devices to reach high-energy density conditions or fusion reactors. The applicability of an adiabatic assumption is explored and work is done experimentally to clarify the plasma compression process, which may be more generally polytropic. The device is capable of a much larger parameter space than previous machine iterations, allowing flexibility in the initial conditions of the compression process to preserve stability. This work is supported by DoE FES and NNSA.

  13. Polytropic scaling of a flow Z-pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, M. C.; Shumlak, U.; Nelson, B. A.; Golingo, R. P.; Claveau, E. L.; Doty, S. A.; Forbes, E. G.; Kim, B.; Ross, M. P.; Weed, J. R.

    2015-11-01

    The ZaP Flow Z-Pinch project investigates the use of velocity shear to mitigate MHD instabilities. The ZaP-HD experiment produces 50 cm long pinches of varying radii. The power to the experiment is split between the plasma formation and acceleration process and the pinch assembly and compression process. Once the pinch is formed, low magnetic fluctuations indicate a quiescent, long-lived pinch. The split power supply allows more control of the pinch current than previous machine iterations, with a designed range from 50 to 150 kA. Radial force balance leads to the Bennett relation which indicates that as the pinch compresses due to increasing currents, the plasma pressure and/or linear density must change. Through ion spectroscopy and digital holographic interferometry coupled with magnetic measurements of the pinch current, the components of the Bennett relation can be fully measured. A scaling relation is then assumed to follow a polytrope as the pinch pressure, initially approximately 250 kPa, increases from an initially formed state to much higher values, approaching 100 MPa. A preliminary analysis of pinch scaling is shown corroborating with other diagnostics on the machine along with extrapolations to required currents for an HEDLP machine. This work is supported by grants from the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration.

  14. Investigating plasma viscosity with fast framing photography in the ZaP-HD Flow Z-Pinch experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weed, Jonathan Robert

    The ZaP-HD Flow Z-Pinch experiment investigates the stabilizing effect of sheared axial flows while scaling toward a high-energy-density laboratory plasma (HEDLP > 100 GPa). Stabilizing flows may persist until viscous forces dissipate a sheared flow profile. Plasma viscosity is investigated by measuring scale lengths in turbulence intentionally introduced in the plasma flow. A boron nitride turbulence-tripping probe excites small scale length turbulence in the plasma, and fast framing optical cameras are used to study time-evolved turbulent structures and viscous dissipation. A Hadland Imacon 790 fast framing camera is modified for digital image capture, but features insufficient resolution to study turbulent structures. A Shimadzu HPV-X camera captures the evolution of turbulent structures with great spatial and temporal resolution, but is unable to resolve the anticipated Kolmogorov scale in ZaP-HD as predicted by a simplified pinch model.

  15. Magnetoelectric confinement and stabilization of Z pinch in a soft-x-ray Ar(+8) laser.

    PubMed

    Szasz, J; Kiss, M; Santa, I; Szatmari, S; Kukhlevsky, S V

    2013-05-03

    Magnetoelectric confinement and stabilization of the plasma column in a soft-x-ray Ar(+8) laser, which is excited by a capillary Z pinch, via the combined magnetic and electric fields of the gliding surface discharge is experimentally demonstrated. Unlike soft-x-ray lasers excited by the conventional capillary Z pinches, the magnetoelectric confinement and stabilization of plasma do provide the laser operation without using any external preionization circuit.

  16. Overview of the FuZE Fusion Z-Pinch Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumlak, U.; Nelson, B. A.; Claveau, E. L.; Forbes, E. G.; Golingo, R. P.; Stepanov, A. D.; Weber, T. R.; Zhang, Y.; McLean, H. S.; Higginson, D. P.; Schmidt, A.; Tummel, K. K.

    2017-10-01

    Successful results of the sheared flow stabilized (SFS) Z-pinch from ZaP and ZaP-HD have motivated the new FuZE project to scale the plasma performance to fusion conditions. The SFS Z-pinch is immune to the instabilities that plague the conventional Z-pinch yet maintains the same favorable radial scaling. The plasma density and temperature increase rapidly with decreasing plasma radius, which naturally leads to a compact configuration at fusion conditions. The SFS Z-pinch is being investigated as a novel approach to a compact fusion device in a collaborative ARPA-E ALPHA project with the University of Washington and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The project includes an experimental effort coupled with high-fidelity physics modeling using kinetic and fluid simulations. Along with scaling law analysis, computational and experimental results from the FuZE device are presented. This work is supported by an award from US ARPA-E.

  17. Z-Pinch Fusion Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miernik, Janie

    2011-01-01

    Fusion-based nuclear propulsion has the potential to enable fast interplanetary transportation. Shorter trips are better for humans in the harmful radiation environment of deep space. Nuclear propulsion and power plants can enable high Ispand payload mass fractions because they require less fuel mass. Fusion energy research has characterized the Z-Pinch dense plasma focus method. (1) Lightning is form of pinched plasma electrical discharge phenomena. (2) Wire array Z-Pinch experiments are commonly studied and nuclear power plant configurations have been proposed. (3) Used in the field of Nuclear Weapons Effects (NWE) testing in the defense industry, nuclear weapon x-rays are simulated through Z-Pinch phenomena.

  18. Fusion in a staged Z-pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessel, F. J.; Rahman, H. U.; Ney, P.; Valenzuela, J.; Beg, F.; McKee, E.; Darling, T.

    2016-03-01

    This paper is dedicated to Norman Rostoker, our (FJW and HUR) mentor and long-term collaborator, who will always be remembered for the incredible inspiration that he has provided us. Norman's illustrious career dealt with a broad range of fundamental-physics problems and we were fortunate to have worked with him on many important topics: intense-charged-particle beams, field-reversed configurations, and Z-pinches. Rostoker 's group at the University of CA, Irvine was well known for having implemented many refinements to the Z-pinch, that make it more stable, scalable, and efficient, including the development of: the gas-puff Z-pinch [1], which provides for the use of an expanded range of pinch-load materials; the gas-mixture Z-pinch [2], which enhances the pinch stability and increases its radiation efficiency; e-beam pre-ionization [3], which enhances the uniformity of the initial-breakdown process in a gas pinch; magnetic-flux-compression [4, 5], which allows for the amplification of an axial-magnetic field Bz; the Zpinch [6], which predicts fusion in a pinch-on-fiber configuration; the Staged Z-pinch (SZP) [7], which allows for the amplification of the pinch self-magnetic field, Bθ , in addition to a Bz, and leads to a stable implosion and high-gain fusion [8, 9, 10]. This paper describes the physical basis for a magneto-inertial compression in a liner-on-target SZP [11]. Initially a high-atomic-number liner implodes under the action of the J →×B → , Lorentz Force. As the implosion becomes super Alfvénic, magnetosonic waves form, transporting current and magnetic field through the liner toward the interface of the low-atomic-number target. The target implosion remains subsonic with its surface bounded by a stable-shock front. Shock waves that pass into the target provide a source of target plasma pre-heat. At peak compression the assembly is compressed by liner inertia, with flux compression producing an intense-magnetic field near the target

  19. Deconvolution of Stark broadened spectra for multi-point density measurements in a flow Z-pinch

    DOE PAGES

    Vogman, G. V.; Shumlak, U.

    2011-10-13

    Stark broadened emission spectra, once separated from other broadening effects, provide a convenient non-perturbing means of making plasma density measurements. A deconvolution technique has been developed to measure plasma densities in the ZaP flow Z-pinch experiment. The ZaP experiment uses sheared flow to mitigate MHD instabilities. The pinches exhibit Stark broadened emission spectra, which are captured at 20 locations using a multi-chord spectroscopic system. Spectra that are time- and chord-integrated are well approximated by a Voigt function. The proposed method simultaneously resolves plasma electron density and ion temperature by deconvolving the spectral Voigt profile into constituent functions: a Gaussian functionmore » associated with instrument effects and Doppler broadening by temperature; and a Lorentzian function associated with Stark broadening by electron density. The method uses analytic Fourier transforms of the constituent functions to fit the Voigt profile in the Fourier domain. The method is discussed and compared to a basic least-squares fit. The Fourier transform fitting routine requires fewer fitting parameters and shows promise in being less susceptible to instrumental noise and to contamination from neighboring spectral lines. The method is evaluated and tested using simulated lines and is applied to experimental data for the 229.69 nm C III line from multiple chords to determine plasma density and temperature across the diameter of the pinch. As a result, these measurements are used to gain a better understanding of Z-pinch equilibria.« less

  20. Deconvolution of Stark broadened spectra for multi-point density measurements in a flow Z-pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Vogman, G. V.; Shumlak, U.

    2011-10-15

    Stark broadened emission spectra, once separated from other broadening effects, provide a convenient non-perturbing means of making plasma density measurements. A deconvolution technique has been developed to measure plasma densities in the ZaP flow Z-pinch experiment. The ZaP experiment uses sheared flow to mitigate MHD instabilities. The pinches exhibit Stark broadened emission spectra, which are captured at 20 locations using a multi-chord spectroscopic system. Spectra that are time- and chord-integrated are well approximated by a Voigt function. The proposed method simultaneously resolves plasma electron density and ion temperature by deconvolving the spectral Voigt profile into constituent functions: a Gaussian functionmore » associated with instrument effects and Doppler broadening by temperature; and a Lorentzian function associated with Stark broadening by electron density. The method uses analytic Fourier transforms of the constituent functions to fit the Voigt profile in the Fourier domain. The method is discussed and compared to a basic least-squares fit. The Fourier transform fitting routine requires fewer fitting parameters and shows promise in being less susceptible to instrumental noise and to contamination from neighboring spectral lines. The method is evaluated and tested using simulated lines and is applied to experimental data for the 229.69 nm C III line from multiple chords to determine plasma density and temperature across the diameter of the pinch. These measurements are used to gain a better understanding of Z-pinch equilibria.« less

  1. Neutron generation from Z-pinches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vikhrev, V. V.; Korolev, V. D.

    2007-05-01

    Recent advances in both experimental and theoretical studies on neutron generation in various Z-pinch facilities are reviewed. The main methods for enhancing neutron emission from the Z-pinch plasma are described, and the problems of igniting a thermonuclear burn wave in this plasma are discussed.

  2. Z-Pinch Fusion for Energy Applications

    SciTech Connect

    SPIELMAN,RICK B.

    2000-01-01

    Z pinches, the oldest fusion concept, have recently been revisited in light of significant advances in the fields of plasma physics and pulsed power engineering. The possibility exists for z-pinch fusion to play a role in commercial energy applications. We report on work to develop z-pinch fusion concepts, the result of an extensive literature search, and the output for a congressionally-mandated workshop on fusion energy held in Snowmass, Co July 11-23,1999.

  3. Z-Pinch Pulsed Plasma Propulsion Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polsgrove, Tara; Adams, Robert B.; Fabisinski, Leo; Fincher, Sharon; Maples, C. Dauphne; Miernik, Janie; Percy, Tom; Statham, Geoff; Turner, Matt; Cassibry, Jason; hide

    2010-01-01

    Fusion-based propulsion can enable fast interplanetary transportation. Magneto-inertial fusion (MIF) is an approach which has been shown to potentially lead to a low cost, small reactor for fusion break even. The Z-Pinch/dense plasma focus method is an MIF concept in which a column of gas is compressed to thermonuclear conditions by an axial current (I approximates 100 MA). Recent advancements in experiments and the theoretical understanding of this concept suggest favorable scaling of fusion power output yield as I(sup 4). This document presents a conceptual design of a Z-Pinch fusion propulsion system and a vehicle for human exploration. The purpose of this study is to apply Z-Pinch fusion principles to the design of a propulsion system for an interplanetary spacecraft. This study took four steps in service of that objective; these steps are identified below. 1. Z-Pinch Modeling and Analysis: There is a wealth of literature characterizing Z-Pinch physics and existing Z-Pinch physics models. In order to be useful in engineering analysis, simplified Z-Pinch fusion thermodynamic models are required to give propulsion engineers the quantity of plasma, plasma temperature, rate of expansion, etc. The study team developed these models in this study. 2. Propulsion Modeling and Analysis: While the Z-Pinch models characterize the fusion process itself, propulsion models calculate the parameters that characterize the propulsion system (thrust, specific impulse, etc.) The study team developed a Z-Pinch propulsion model and used it to determine the best values for pulse rate, amount of propellant per pulse, and mixture ratio of the D-T and liner materials as well as the resulting thrust and specific impulse of the system. 3. Mission Analysis: Several potential missions were studied. Trajectory analysis using data from the propulsion model was used to determine the duration of the propulsion burns, the amount of propellant expended to complete each mission considered. 4

  4. On the Heating of Ions in Noncylindrical Z-Pinches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svirsky, E. B.

    2018-01-01

    The method proposed here for analyzing processes in a hot plasma of noncylindrical Z-pinches is based on separation of the group of high-energy ions into a special fraction. Such ions constitute an insignificant fraction ( 10%) of the total volume of the Z-pinch plasma, but these ions contribute the most to the formation of conditions in which the pinch becomes a source of nuclear fusion products and X-ray radiation. The method allows a quite correct approach to obtaining quantitative estimates of the plasma parameters, the nuclear fusion energy yield, and the features of neutron fluxes in experiments with Z-pinches.

  5. About plasma points' generation in Z-pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afonin, V. I.; Potapov, A. V.; Lazarchuk, V. P.; Murugov, V. M.; Senik, A. V.

    1997-05-01

    The streak tube study results (at visible and x-ray ranges) of dynamics of fast Z-pinch formed at explosion of metal wire in diode of high current generator are presented. Amplitude of current in the load reached ˜180 kA at increase time ˜50 ns. The results' analysis points to capability of controlling hot plasma points generation process in Z-pinch.

  6. STABILIZED PINCH MACHINE

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, O.A.

    1962-04-24

    A device for heating and confining a high temperature gas or plasma utilizing the linear pinch effect is described. The pinch discharge produced is the form of an elongated cylinder. The electrical discharge current is returned in parallel along an axial and a concentric conductor whereby the magnetic field of the conductors compresses and stabilizes the pinch discharge against lateral instability. (AEC)

  7. Cinematic Characterization of Convected Coherent Structures Within an Continuous Flow Z-Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Underwood, Thomas; Rodriguez, Jesse; Loebner, Keith; Cappelli, Mark

    2017-10-01

    In this study, two separate diagnostics are applied to a plasma jet produced from a coaxial accelerator with characteristic velocities exceeding 105 m/s and timescales of 10 μs. In the first of these, an ultra-high frame rate CMOS camera coupled to a Z-type laser Schlieren apparatus is used to obtain flow-field refractometry data for the continuous flow Z-pinch formed within the plasma deflagration jet. The 10 MHz frame rate for 256 consecutive frames provides high temporal resolution, enabling turbulent fluctuations and plasma instabilities to be visualized over the course of a single pulse. The unique advantage of this diagnostic is its ability to simultaneously resolve both structural and temporal evolution of instabilities and density gradients within the flow. To allow for a more meaningful statistical analysis of the resulting wave motion, a multiple B-dot probe array was constructed and calibrated to operate over a broadband frequency range up to 100 MHz. The resulting probe measurements are incorporated into a wavelet analysis to uncover the dispersion relation of recorded wave motion and furthermore uncover instability growth rates. Finally these results are compared with theoretical growth rate estimates to identify underlying physics. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Stewardship Science Academic Program in addition to the National Defense Science Engineering Graduate Fellowship.

  8. Measurement of Radiation Symmetry in Z-Pinch Driven Hohlraums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, David L.

    2001-10-01

    The z-pinch driven hohlraum (ZPDH) is a promising approach to high yield inertial confinement fusion currently being characterized in experiments on the Sandia Z accelerator [1]. In this concept [2], x rays are produced by an axial z-pinch in a primary hohlraum at each end of a secondary hohlraum. A fusion capsule in the secondary is imploded by a symmetric x-ray flux distribution, effectively smoothed by wall reemission during transport to the capsule position. Capsule radiation symmetry, a critical issue in the design of such a system, is influenced by hohlraum geometry, wall motion and time-dependent albedo, as well as power balance and pinch timing between the two z-pinch x-ray sources. In initial symmetry studies on Z, we used solid low density burnthrough spheres to diagnose highly asymmetric, single-sided-drive hohlraum geometries. We then applied this technique to the more symmetric double z-pinch geometry [3]. As a result of design improvements, radiation flux symmetry in Z double-pinch wire array experiments now exceeds the measurement sensitivity of this self-backlit foam ball symmetry diagnostic (15% max-min flux asymmetry). To diagnose radiation symmetry at the 2 - 5% level attainable with our present ZPDH designs, we are using high-energy x rays produced by the recently-completed Z-Beamlet laser backlighter for point-projection imaging of thin-wall implosion and symmetry capsules. We will present the results of polar flux symmetry measuremets on Z for several ZPDH capsule geometries together with radiosity and radiation-hydrodynamics simulations for comparison. [1] M. E. Cuneo et al., Phys. Plasmas 8,2257(2001); [2] J. H. Hammer et al., Phys. Plasmas 6,2129(1999); [3] D. L. Hanson et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 45,360(2000).

  9. Current redistribution and generation of kinetic energy in the stagnated Z pinch.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, V V; Anderson, A A; Papp, D; Astanovitskiy, A L; Talbot, B R; Chittenden, J P; Niasse, N

    2013-07-01

    The structure of magnetic fields was investigated in stagnated wire-array Z pinches using a Faraday rotation diagnostic at the wavelength of 266 nm. The distribution of current in the pinch and trailing material was reconstructed. A significant part of current can switch from the main pinch to the trailing plasma preheated by x-ray radiation of the pinch. Secondary implosions of trailing plasma generate kinetic energy and provide enhanced heating and radiation of plasma at stagnation. Hot spots in wire-array Z pinches also provide enhanced radiation of the Z pinch. A collapse of a single hot spot radiates 1%-3% of x-ray energy of the Z pinch with a total contribution of hot spots of 10%-30%.

  10. Energy balance in a Z pinch with suppressed Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baksht, R. B.; Oreshkin, V. I.; Rousskikh, A. G.; Zhigalin, A. S.

    2018-03-01

    At present Z-pinch has evolved into a powerful plasma source of soft x-ray. This paper considers the energy balance in a radiating metallic gas-puff Z pinch. In this type of Z pinch, a power-law density distribution is realized, promoting suppression of Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities that occur in the pinch plasma during compression. The energy coupled into the pinch plasma, is determined as the difference between the total energy delivered to the load from the generator and the magnetic energy of the load inductance. A calibrated voltage divider and a Rogowski coil were used to determine the coupled energy and the load inductance. Time-gated optical imaging of the pinch plasma showed its stable compression up to the stagnation phase. The pinch implosion was simulated using a 1D two-temperature radiative magnetohydrodynamic code. Comparison of the experimental and simulation results has shown that the simulation adequately describes the pinch dynamics for conditions in which RT instability is suppressed. It has been found that the proportion of the Ohmic heating in the energy balance of a Z pinch with suppressed RT instability is determined by Spitzer resistance and makes no more than ten percent.

  11. Hotspot ignition using a Z-pinch precursor plasma in a magneto-inertial ICF scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chittenden, J. P.; Vincent, P.; Jennings, C. A.; Ciardi, A.

    2006-01-01

    Precursor plasma flow is a common feature of wire array Z-pinches. The precursor flow represents a fraction of the mass of the array which arrives on the axis early in time and remains confined at high density by the inertia of further material bombarding the axis. Later on, the main implosion of the Z-pinch then compresses this precursor to substantially higher density. We show that if the same system can be generated with a Deuterium-Tritium plasma then the precursor provides an ideal target for a cylindrical magneto-inertial ICF scheme. The implosion of the DT Z-pinch produces a dense, low temperature shell which compressively heats the precursor target to high temperatures and tamps its expansion. The azimuthal magnetic field in the hotspot is sufficient to reduce the Larmor radius for the alpha particles to much less than the hotspot size, which dramatically reduces the pR required for ignition. A computational analysis of this approach is presented, including a study of the thermonuclear burn wave propagation. The robustness of the scheme with respect to instabilities, confinement time and drive parameters is examined. The results indicate that a high energy gain can be achieved using Z-pinches with 50-100 MA currents and a few hundred nanosecond rise-times. This work was partially supported by the U.S. Department of Energy through cooperative agreement DE-FC03-02NA00057.

  12. α Heating in a Stagnated Z-pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appelbe, Brian; Chittenden, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    A computational investigation of a scheme for magneto-inertial confinement fusion in a Z-pinch is carried out. In the scheme implosion of a deuterium-tritium fuel mass is preceded by formation of a hotspot containing warm, dense plasma on axis. The presence of the hotspot increases energy yield. Compression of the hotspot by the main fuel mass initiates thermonuclear burn. There is significant heating of the plasma by thermonuclear α particles which are confined by the strong magnetic field of the Z-pinch.

  13. Dynamical analysis of surface-insulated planar wire array Z-pinches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yang; Sheng, Liang; Hei, Dongwei; Li, Xingwen; Zhang, Jinhai; Li, Mo; Qiu, Aici

    2018-05-01

    The ablation and implosion dynamics of planar wire array Z-pinches with and without surface insulation are compared and discussed in this paper. This paper first presents a phenomenological model named the ablation and cascade snowplow implosion (ACSI) model, which accounts for the ablation and implosion phases of a planar wire array Z-pinch in a single simulation. The comparison between experimental data and simulation results shows that the ACSI model could give a fairly good description about the dynamical characteristics of planar wire array Z-pinches. Surface insulation introduces notable differences in the ablation phase of planar wire array Z-pinches. The ablation phase is divided into two stages: insulation layer ablation and tungsten wire ablation. The two-stage ablation process of insulated wires is simulated in the ACSI model by updating the formulas describing the ablation process.

  14. Z-Pinch Plasma Neutron Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-24

    deuterium into 9 to 14 keV (around 10 keV), which is well in the fusion energy range we are interested in. To make plasma radiation sources work, we...showing the 1-D dynamics of the pinch plasma implosion, temperature, fusion energy production and deposition for the conditions of shot Z1422. The minimum...histories of ion and electron temperatures, fusion energy production and energy deposition in ID RMHD run modeling deuterium shot Z1422. In our simulations

  15. Linear Transformer Drivers for Z-pinch Based Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Robert; Seidler, William; Giddens, Patrick; Fabisinski, Leo; Cassibry, Jason

    2017-01-01

    The MSFC/UAH team has been developing of a novel power management and distribution system called a Linear Transformer Driver (LTD). LTD's hold the promise of dramatically reducing the required mass to drive a z-pinch by replacing the capacitor banks which constitute half the mass of the entire system. The MSFC?UAH tea, is developing this technology in hope of integrating it with the Pulsed Fission Fusion (PuFF) propulsion concept. High-Voltage pulsed power systems used for Z-Pinch experimentation have in the past largely been based on Marx Generators. Marx generators deliver the voltage and current required for the Z-Pinch, but suffer from two significant drawbacks when applied to a flight system: they are very massive, consisting of high-voltage capacitor banks insulated in oil-filled tanks and they do not lend themselves to rapid pulsing. The overall goal of Phase 2 is to demonstrate the construction of a higher voltage stack from a number of cavities each of the design proven in Phase 1 and to characterize and understand the techniques for designing the stack. The overall goal of Phase 3 is to demonstrate the feasibility of constructing a higher energy cavity from a number of smaller LTD stacks, to characterize and understand the way in which the constituent stacks combine, and to extend this demonstration LTD to serve as the basis for a 64 kJ pulse generator for Z-Pinch experiments.

  16. Performance of a Liner-on-Target Injector for Staged Z-Pinch Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conti, F.; Valenzuela, J. C.; Narkis, J.; Krasheninnikov, I.; Beg, F.; Wessel, F. J.; Ruskov, E.; Rahman, H. U.; McGee, E.

    2016-10-01

    We present the design and characterization of a compact liner-on-target injector, used in the Staged Z-pinch experiments conducted on the UNR-NTF Zebra Facility. Previous experiments and analysis indicate that high-Z gas liners produce a uniform and efficient implosion on a low-Z target plasma. The liner gas shell is produced by an annular solenoid valve and a converging-diverging nozzle designed to achieve a collimated, supersonic, Mach-5 flow. The on-axis target is produced by a coaxial plasma gun, where a high voltage pulse is applied to ionize neutral gas and accelerate the plasma by the J-> × B-> force. Measurements of the liner and target dynamics, resolved by interferometry in space and time, fast imaging, and collection of the emitted light, are presented. The results are compared to the predictions from Computational Fluid Dynamics and MHD simulations that model the injector. Optimization of the design parameters, for upcoming Staged Z-pinch experiments, will be discussed. Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy, DE-AR0000569.

  17. A conservative MHD scheme on unstructured Lagrangian grids for Z-pinch hydrodynamic simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Fuyuan; Ramis, Rafael; Li, Zhenghong

    2018-03-01

    A new algorithm to model resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) in Z-pinches has been developed. Two-dimensional axisymmetric geometry with azimuthal magnetic field Bθ is considered. Discretization is carried out using unstructured meshes made up of arbitrarily connected polygons. The algorithm is fully conservative for mass, momentum, and energy. Matter energy and magnetic energy are managed separately. The diffusion of magnetic field is solved using a derivative of the Symmetric-Semi-Implicit scheme, Livne et al. (1985) [23], where unconditional stability is obtained without needing to solve large sparse systems of equations. This MHD package has been integrated into the radiation-hydrodynamics code MULTI-2D, Ramis et al. (2009) [20], that includes hydrodynamics, laser energy deposition, heat conduction, and radiation transport. This setup allows to simulate Z-pinch configurations relevant for Inertial Confinement Fusion.

  18. History of HERMES III diode to z-pinch breakthrough and beyond :

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, Thomas Williamlou.

    HERMES III and Z are two flagship accelerators of Sandias pulsed-power program developed to generate intense -ray fields for the study of nuclear radiation effects, and to explore high energy-density physics (including the production of intense x-ray fields for Inertia Confinement Fusion [ICF]), respectively. A diode at the exit of HERMES III converts its 20-MeV electron beam into -rays. In contrast, at the center of Z, a z-pinch is used to convert its 20-MA current into an intense burst of x-rays. Here the history of how the HERMES III diode emerged from theoretical considerations to actual hardware is discussed. Next,more » the reverse process of how the experimental discovery of wire-array stabilization in a z-pinch, led to a better theory of wirearray implosions and its application to one of the ICF concepts on Z--the DH (Dynamic Hohlraum) is reviewed. Lastly, the report concludes with how the unexpected axial radiation asymmetry measured in the DH is understood. The first discussion illustrates the evolution of physics from theory-to-observationto- refinement. The second two illustrate the reverse process of observationto- theory-to refinement. The histories are discussed through the vehicle of my research at Sandia, illustrating the unique environment Sandia provides for personal growth and development into a scientific leader.« less

  19. Effect of Initial Conditions on Gas-Puff Z-Pinch Dynamics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Gus Gordon

    This dissertation concerns the effects initial conditions have on the dynamics of an imploded, annular gas-puff z-pinch. The influence of axial magnetic fields, nozzle size and composition, different gases, pre-ionization, and electrode design on pinch quality and x-ray yield is investigated. The experiment uses a 5-kJ capacitor bank to deliver 0.35 MA to the pinch load in 1.4 mu rm s. This research establishes parameters important to increasing the x-ray yield of dense z-pinches. The initial stage of the implosion is diagnosed with a framing camera that photographs visible light emitted from z-pinch gas breakdown. Data from subsequent stages of the pinch is recorded with a B-dot probe, filtered x-ray diodes, an x-ray filtered pinhole camera, and a nitrogen laser interferometer. Applied axial magnetic fields of ~100 gauss increase average x-ray yield by more than 20%. A substantial increase of K-shell x -ray yield of more than 200% was obtained by increasing the energy delivered to the plasma by enlarging the nozzle diameter from 4 to 5 cm. The use of a Teflon outer-mantle for the nozzle resulted in less uniform gas breakdown as compared to graphite and copper outer-mantles, but x-ray yield and final state uniformity were not reduced. Lower Z gases showed poorer breakdown uniformity. Pre-ionization improved the uniformity of helium and neon breakdown but did not appear to affect subsequent dynamics. X-ray yield was significantly higher using a knife-edge annular anode, as opposed to a flat stainless steel honeycomb anode. Annular anodes with diameters more than a few millimeters different than the nozzle diameter produced low quality pinches with substantially lower x-ray yield.

  20. Z-Pinch fusion-based nuclear propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miernik, J.; Statham, G.; Fabisinski, L.; Maples, C. D.; Adams, R.; Polsgrove, T.; Fincher, S.; Cassibry, J.; Cortez, R.; Turner, M.; Percy, T.

    2013-02-01

    Fusion-based nuclear propulsion has the potential to enable fast interplanetary transportation. Due to the great distances between the planets of our solar system and the harmful radiation environment of interplanetary space, high specific impulse (Isp) propulsion in vehicles with high payload mass fractions must be developed to provide practical and safe vehicles for human space flight missions. The Z-Pinch dense plasma focus method is a Magneto-Inertial Fusion (MIF) approach that may potentially lead to a small, low cost fusion reactor/engine assembly [1]. Recent advancements in experimental and theoretical understanding of this concept suggest favorable scaling of fusion power output yield [2]. The magnetic field resulting from the large current compresses the plasma to fusion conditions, and this process can be pulsed over short timescales (10-6 s). This type of plasma formation is widely used in the field of Nuclear Weapons Effects testing in the defense industry, as well as in fusion energy research. A Z-Pinch propulsion concept was designed for a vehicle based on a previous fusion vehicle study called "Human Outer Planet Exploration" (HOPE), which used Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) [3] propulsion. The reference mission is the transport of crew and cargo to Mars and back, with a reusable vehicle. The analysis of the Z-Pinch MIF propulsion system concludes that a 40-fold increase of Isp over chemical propulsion is predicted. An Isp of 19,436 s and thrust of 3812 N s/pulse, along with nearly doubling the predicted payload mass fraction, warrants further development of enabling technologies.

  1. Numerical simulation of fiber and wire array Z-pinches with Trac-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisman, David Barton

    Trac-II is a two dimensional axisymmetric resistive MHD code. It simulates all three spatial components (r, z, φ) of the magnetic field and fluid velocity vectors, and the plasma is treated as a single fluid with two temperatures (Te,Ti). In addition, it can optionally include a self-consistent external circuit. Recent modifications to the code include the addition of the 3-T radiation model, a 4-phase (solid- liquid-vapor-plasma) equation of state model (QEOS), a 4- phase electrical/thermal conductivity model, and an implicit solution of poloidal (Bz,Br) magnetic field diffusion. These changes permit a detailed study of fiber and wire array Z-pinches. Specifically, Trac-II is used to study the wire array Z-pinch at the PBFA-Z pulse power generator at Sandia National Laboratory. First, in 1-D we examine the behavior of a single wire in the Z-pinch. Then, using these results as initial radial conditions in 2-D, we investigate the dynamics of wire array configurations in the r-z and r-θ plane. In the r- z plane we examine the growth of the m = 0 or ``sausage'' instability in single wires within the array. In the r-θ plane we examine the merging behavior between neighboring wires. Special emphasis is placed on trying to explain how instability growth affects the performance of the Z-pinch. Lastly, we introduce Trac-III, a 3-D MHD code, and illustrate the m = 1 or ``kink'' instability. We also discuss how Trac-III can be modified to simulate the wire array Z-pinch.

  2. Study of the internal structure, instabilities, and magnetic fields in the dense Z-pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, Vladimir V.

    Z-pinches are sources of hot dense plasma which generates powerful x-ray bursts and can been applied to various areas of high-energy-density physics (HEDP). The 26-MA Z machine is at the forefront of many of these applications, but important aspects of HEDP have been studied on generators at the 1 MA current level. Recent development of laser diagnostics and upgrade of the Leopard laser at Nevada Terawatt Facility (NTF) give new opportunities for the dense Z-pinch study. The goal of this project is the investigation of the internal structure of the stagnated Z pinch including sub-mm and micron-scale instabilities, plasma dynamics,more » magnetic fields, and hot spots formation and initiation. New plasma diagnostics will be developed for this project. A 3D structure and instabilities of the pinch will be compared with 3D MHD and spectroscopic modeling and theoretical analysis. The structure and dynamics of stagnated Z pinches has been studied with x-ray self-radiation diagnostics which derive a temperature map of the pinch with a spatial resolution of 70-150 µm. The regular laser diagnostics at 532 nm does not penetrate in the dense pinch due to strong absorption and refraction in trailing plasma. Recent experiments at NTF showed that shadowgraphy at the UV wavelength of 266 nm unfolds a fine structure of the stagnated Z-pinch with unprecedented detail. We propose to develop laser UV diagnostics for Z pinches with a spatial resolution <5 μm to study the small-scale plasma structures, implement two-frame shadowgraphy/interferometry, and develop methods for investigation of strong magnetic fields. New diagnostics will help to understand better basic physical processes in Z pinches. A 3D internal structure of the pinch and characteristic instabilities will be studied in wire arrays with different configurations and compared with 3D MHD simulations and analytical models. Mechanisms of “enhanced heating” of Z-pinch plasma will be studied. Fast dynamics of

  3. Resolving microstructures in Z pinches with intensity interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Apruzese, J. P.; Kroupp, E.; Maron, Y.

    2014-03-15

    Nearly 60 years ago, Hanbury Brown and Twiss [R. Hanbury Brown and R. Q. Twiss, Nature 178, 1046 (1956)] succeeded in measuring the 30 nrad angular diameter of Sirius using a new type of interferometry that exploited the interference of photons independently emitted from different regions of the stellar disk. Its basis was the measurement of intensity correlations as a function of detector spacing, with no beam splitting or preservation of phase information needed. Applied to Z pinches, X pinches, or laser-produced plasmas, this method could potentially provide spatial resolution under one micron. A quantitative analysis based on the workmore » of Purcell [E. M. Purcell, Nature 178, 1449 (1956)] reveals that obtaining adequate statistics from x-ray interferometry of a Z-pinch microstructure would require using the highest-current generators available. However, using visible light interferometry would reduce the needed photon count and could enable its use on sub-MA machines.« less

  4. Designs and Plans for MAIZE: a 1 MA LTD-Driven Z-Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilgenbach, R. M.; Gomez, M. R.; Zier, J.; Tang, W.; French, D. M.; Hoff, B. W.; Jordan, N.; Cruz, E.; Lau, Y. Y.; Fowler-Guzzardo, T.; Meisel, J.; Mazarakis, M. G.; Cuneo, M. E.; Johnston, M. D.; Mehlhorn, T. A.; Kim, A. A.; Sinebryukhov, V. A.

    2007-11-01

    We present designs and experimental plans of the first 1 MA z-pinch in the USA to be driven by a Linear Transformer Driver (LTD). The Michigan Accelerator for Inductive Z-pinch Experiments, (MAIZE), is based on the LTD developed at the Institute for High Current Electronics, utilizing 80 capacitors and 40 spark gap switches to deliver a 1 MA, 100 kV pulse with <100 ns risetime. Designs will be presented of a low-inductance MITL terminated in a wire-array z-pinch. Initial, planned experiments will evaluate the LTD driving time-changing inductance of imploding 4-16 wire-array z-pinches. Wire ablation dynamics, axial-correlations and instability development will be explored. *This work was supported by U. S. DoE through Sandia National Laboratories award number 240985 to the University of Michigan. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  5. Review of effects of dielectric coatings on electrical exploding wires and Z pinches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jian; Li, Xingwen; Li, Mo; Li, Yang; Qiu, Aici

    2017-10-01

    As the most powerful x-ray source in the laboratories, the wire array Z pinches have been of great relevance to inertial confinement fusions, laboratory astrophysics, and other high-energy density applications. In order to produce x-ray with greater power and higher efficiency, the dynamics of wire array has been investigated extensively, and various methods have been proposed to improve the implosion quality of the wire array. This review focuses on the experimental and theoretical investigations regarding the effects of the dielectric coatings on electrical exploding wires and Z pinches. Since the early 2000, the electrical wire explosion related to the first stage of the wire array Z pinches has been studied extensively, and the results indicated that the dielectric coatings can significantly increase the joule energy deposition into a wire in the initial stage, and even the corona free explosion of tungsten wires can be achieved. Recently, there is an increasing interest in the dynamics of insulated wire array Z pinches. By applying dielectric coatings, the ablation process is suppressed, the x-ray start time is delayed, and the possibility of multi-peak radiation is decreased. This review is organized by the evolution dynamics of wire array Z pinches, and a broad introduction to relevant scientific concepts and various other applications are presented. According to the current research status, the challenges, opportunities and further developments of Z pinch loads using dielectric coatings are proposed to further promote the researches and their applications.

  6. Effect of Pressure Anisotropy on the m = 1 Small Wavelength Modes in Z-Pinches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faghihi, M.

    1987-05-01

    A generalization of Freidberg's perpendicular MHD model is used to investigate the effect of pressure anisotropy on the small wavelength internal kink (m = 1) mode instability in a Z-Pinch. A normal mode analysis of perturbed motion of an incompressible, collisionless and cylindrical plasma is performed. The stability criterion is (rΣB2)' <= 0, where Σ = 1 - (P|| - P⊥)/B2. It cannot be fulfilled without violation of the fire hose stability condition Σ >= 0.

  7. Dynamics of conical wire array Z-pinch implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Ampleford, D. J.; Lebedev, S. V.; Bland, S. N.

    2007-10-15

    A modification of the wire array Z pinch, the conical wire array, has applications to the understanding of wire array implosions and potentially to pulse shaping relevant to inertial confinement fusion. Results are presented from imploding conical wire array experiments performed on university scale 1 MA generators--the MAGPIE generator (1 MA, 240 ns) at Imperial College London [I. H. Mitchell et al., Rev. Sci Instrum. 67, 1533 (1996)] and the Nevada Terawatt Facility's Zebra generator (1 MA, 100 ns) at the University of Nevada, Reno [B. Bauer et al., in Dense Z-Pinches, edited by N. Pereira, J. Davis, and P.more » Pulsifer (AIP, New York, 1997), Vol. 409, p. 153]. This paper will discuss the implosion dynamics of conical wire arrays. Data indicate that mass ablation from the wires in this complex system can be reproduced with a rocket model with fixed ablation velocity. Modulations in the ablated plasma are present, the wavelength of which is invariant to a threefold variation in magnetic field strength. The axial variation in the array leads to a zippered precursor column formation. An initial implosion of a magnetic bubble near the cathode is followed by the implosion zippering upwards. Spectroscopic data demonstrating a variation of plasma parameters (e.g., electron temperature) along the Z-pinch axis is discussed, and experimental data are compared to magnetohydrodynamic simulations.« less

  8. Effect of driver impedance on dense plasma focus Z-pinch neutron yield

    SciTech Connect

    Sears, Jason, E-mail: sears8@llnl.gov, E-mail: schmidt36@llnl.gov; Link, Anthony, E-mail: sears8@llnl.gov, E-mail: schmidt36@llnl.gov; Schmidt, Andrea, E-mail: sears8@llnl.gov, E-mail: schmidt36@llnl.gov

    2014-12-15

    The Z-pinch phase of a dense plasma focus (DPF) heats the plasma by rapid compression and accelerates ions across its intense electric fields, producing neutrons through both thermonuclear and beam-target fusion. Driver characteristics have empirically been shown to affect performance, as measured by neutron yield per unit of stored energy. We are exploring the effect of driver characteristics on DPF performance using particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of a kJ scale DPF. In this work, our PIC simulations are fluid for the run-down phase and transition to fully kinetic for the pinch phase, capturing kinetic instabilities, anomalous resistivity, and beam formation duringmore » the pinch. The anode-cathode boundary is driven by a circuit model of the capacitive driver, including system inductance, the load of the railgap switches, the guard resistors, and the coaxial transmission line parameters. It is known that the driver impedance plays an important role in the neutron yield: first, it sets the peak current achieved at pinch time; and second, it affects how much current continues to flow through the pinch when the pinch inductance and resistance suddenly increase. Here we show from fully kinetic simulations how total neutron yield depends on the impedance of the driver and the distributed parameters of the transmission circuit. Direct comparisons between the experiment and simulations enhance our understanding of these plasmas and provide predictive design capability for neutron source applications.« less

  9. Optimization of Capsule Symmetry in Z-Pinch Driven Hohlraums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vesey, R. A.; Cuneo, M.; Hanson, D.; Porter, J.; Mehlhorn, T.; Ruggles, L.; Simpson, W.; Vargas, M.; Hammer, J.; Landen, O.

    1999-11-01

    The uniformity of the radiation flux incident on the capsule is a critical issue for indirect drive fusion using the z-pinch driven hohlraum high-yield concept(J.H. Hammer et al., Phys. Plas. 6), 2129 (1999).. Experiments on the Z accelerator at Sandia have demonstrated the ability to diagnose the uniformity of the flux striking a foam ball (surrogate capsule)(P.A. Amendt et al., Phys. Plas. 4), 1862 (1997); S.G. Glendinning et al. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 536 (1999).. These single-sided drive experiments have been modeled using radiosity and radiation-hydrodynamics codes, yielding agreement with the measured ablation rate vs. angle on the foam ball. Flux uniformity at the 1-2% level needed for high-convergence capsule implosions requires a 2-sided drive (top and bottom z-pinch) configuration. Constrained optimization methods have identified hohlraum geometries with improved symmetry.

  10. Investigation of trailing mass in Z-pinch implosions and comparison to experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Edmund

    2007-11-01

    Wire-array Z pinches represent efficient, high-power x-ray sources with application to inertial confinement fusion, high energy density plasmas, and laboratory astrophysics. The first stage of a wire-array Z pinch is described by a mass ablation phase, during which stationary wires cook off material, which is then accelerated radially inwards by the JxB force. The mass injection rate varies axially and azimuthally, so that once the ablation phase concludes, the subsequent implosion is highly 3D in nature. In particular, a network of trailing mass and current is left behind the imploding plasma sheath, which can significantly affect pinch performance. In this work we focus on the implosion phase, electing to model the mass ablation via a mass injection scheme. Such a scheme has a number of injection parameters, but this freedom also allows us to gain understanding into the nature of the trailing mass network. For instance, a new result illustrates the role of azimuthal correlation. For an implosion which is 100% azimuthally correlated (corresponding to an azimuthally symmetric 2D r-z problem), current is forced to flow on the imploding plasma sheath, resulting in strong Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) growth. If, however, the implosion is not azimuthally symmetric, the additional azimuthal degree of freedom opens up new conducting paths of lower magnetic energy through the trailing mass network, effectively reducing RT growth. Consequently the 3D implosion experiences lower RT growth than the 2D r-z equivalent, and actually results in a more shell-like implosion. A second major goal of this work is to constrain the injection parameters by comparison to a well-diagnosed experimental data set, in which array mass was varied. In collaboration with R. Lemke, M. Desjarlais, M. Cuneo, C. Jennings, D. Sinars, E. Waisman

  11. Efficient Neutron Production from a Novel Configuration of Deuterium Gas-Puff Z-Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klir, D.; Kubes, P.; Rezac, K.; Cikhardt, J.; Kravarik, J.; Sila, O.; Shishlov, A. V.; Kovalchuk, B. M.; Ratakhin, N. A.; Kokshenev, V. A.; Labetsky, A. Yu.; Cherdizov, R. K.; Fursov, F. I.; Kurmaev, N. E.; Dudkin, G. N.; Nechaev, B. A.; Padalko, V. N.; Orcikova, H.; Turek, K.

    2014-03-01

    A novel configuration of a deuterium z pinch has been used to generate fusion neutrons. Injecting an outer hollow cylindrical plasma shell around an inner deuterium gas puff, neutron yields from DD reactions reached Yn=(2.9±0.3)×1012 at 700 ns implosion time and 2.7 MA current. Such a neutron yield means a tenfold increase in comparison with previous deuterium gas puff experiments at the same current generator. The increase of beam-target yields was obtained by a larger amount of current assembled on the z-pinch axis, and subsequently by higher induced voltage and higher energies of deuterons. A stack of CR-39 track detectors on the z-pinch axis showed hydrogen ions up to 38 MeV. Maximum neutron energies of 15 and 22 MeV were observed by radial and axial time-of-flight detectors, respectively. The number of DD neutrons per one joule of stored plasma energy approached 5×107. This implies that deuterium gas puff z pinches belong to the most efficient plasma-based sources of DD neutrons.

  12. Theoretical z -pinch scaling relations for thermonuclear-fusion experiments.

    PubMed

    Stygar, W A; Cuneo, M E; Vesey, R A; Ives, H C; Mazarakis, M G; Chandler, G A; Fehl, D L; Leeper, R J; Matzen, M K; McDaniel, D H; McGurn, J S; McKenney, J L; Muron, D J; Olson, C L; Porter, J L; Ramirez, J J; Seamen, J F; Speas, C S; Spielman, R B; Struve, K W; Torres, J A; Waisman, E M; Wagoner, T C; Gilliland, T L

    2005-08-01

    We have developed wire-array z -pinch scaling relations for plasma-physics and inertial-confinement-fusion (ICF) experiments. The relations can be applied to the design of z -pinch accelerators for high-fusion-yield (approximately 0.4 GJ/shot) and inertial-fusion-energy (approximately 3 GJ/shot) research. We find that (delta(a)/delta(RT)) proportional (m/l)1/4 (Rgamma)(-1/2), where delta(a) is the imploding-sheath thickness of a wire-ablation-dominated pinch, delta(RT) is the sheath thickness of a Rayleigh-Taylor-dominated pinch, m is the total wire-array mass, l is the axial length of the array, R is the initial array radius, and gamma is a dimensionless functional of the shape of the current pulse that drives the pinch implosion. When the product Rgamma is held constant the sheath thickness is, at sufficiently large values of m/l, determined primarily by wire ablation. For an ablation-dominated pinch, we estimate that the peak radiated x-ray power P(r) proportional (I/tau(i))(3/2)Rlphigamma, where I is the peak pinch current, tau(i) is the pinch implosion time, and phi is a dimensionless functional of the current-pulse shape. This scaling relation is consistent with experiment when 13 MA < or = I < or = 20 MA, 93 ns < or = tau(i) < or = 169 ns, 10 mm < or = R < or = 20 mm, 10 mm < or = l < or = 20 mm, and 2.0 mg/cm < or = m/l < or = 7.3 mg/cm. Assuming an ablation-dominated pinch and that Rlphigamma is held constant, we find that the x-ray-power efficiency eta(x) congruent to P(r)/P(a) of a coupled pinch-accelerator system is proportional to (tau(i)P(r)(7/9 ))(-1), where P(a) is the peak accelerator power. The pinch current and accelerator power required to achieve a given value of P(r) are proportional to tau(i), and the requisite accelerator energy E(a) is proportional to tau2(i). These results suggest that the performance of an ablation-dominated pinch, and the efficiency of a coupled pinch-accelerator system, can be improved substantially by decreasing the

  13. Analysis of staged Z-pinch implosion trajectories from experiments on Zebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Mike P.; Conti, F.; Darling, T. W.; Ruskov, E.; Valenzuela, J.; Wessel, F. J.; Beg, F.; Narkis, J.; Rahman, H. U.

    2017-10-01

    The Staged Z-pinch plasma confinement concept relies on compressing an annular liner of high-Z plasma onto a target plasma column of deuterium fuel. The interface between the liner and target is stable against the Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor Instability, which leads to effective fuel compression and makes the concept interesting as a potential fusion reactor. The liner initiates as a neutral gas puff, while the target plasma is a partially ionized (Zeff < 10 percent column ejected from a coaxial plasma gun. The Zebra pulsed power generator (1 MA peak current, 100 ns rise time) provides the discharge that ionizes the liner and drives the Z-pinch implosion. Diverse diagnostics observe the 100-300 km/s implosions including silicon diodes, photo-conducting detectors (PCDs), laser shadowgraphy, an XUV framing camera, and a visible streak camera. The imaging diagnostics track instabilities smaller than 0.1 mm, and Z-pinch diameters below 2.5 mm are seen at peak compression. This poster correlates the data from these diagnostics to elucidate implosion behavior dependencies on liner gas, liner pressure, target pressure, and applied, axial-magnetic field. Funded by the Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy, DE-AR0000569.

  14. Recent advances in theoretical and numerical studies of wire array Z-pinch in the IAPCM

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Ning, E-mail: ding-ning@iapcm.ac.cn; Zhang, Yang, E-mail: ding-ning@iapcm.ac.cn; Xiao, Delong, E-mail: ding-ning@iapcm.ac.cn

    2014-12-15

    Fast Z-pinch has produced the most powerful X-ray radiation source in laboratory and also shows the possibility to drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF). Recent advances in wire-array Z-pinch researches at the Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics are presented in this paper. A typical wire array Z-pinch process has three phases: wire plasma formation and ablation, implosion and the MRT instability development, stagnation and radiation. A mass injection model with azimuthal modulation coefficient is used to describe the wire initiation, and the dynamics of ablated plasmas of wire-array Z-pinches in (r, θ) geometry is numerically studied. In the implosionmore » phase, a two-dimensional(r, z) three temperature radiation MHD code MARED has been developed to investigate the development of the Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor(MRT) instability. We also analyze the implosion modes of nested wire-array and find that the inner wire-array is hardly affected before the impaction of the outer wire-array. While the plasma accelerated to high speed in the implosion stage stagnates on the axis, abundant x-ray radiation is produced. The energy spectrum of the radiation and the production mechanism are investigated. The computational x-ray pulse shows a reasonable agreement with the experimental result. We also suggest that using alloyed wire-arrays can increase multi-keV K-shell yield by decreasing the opacity of K-shell lines. In addition, we use a detailed circuit model to study the energy coupling between the generator and the Z-pinch implosion. Recently, we are concentrating on the problems of Z-pinch driven ICF, such as dynamic hohlraum and capsule implosions. Our numerical investigations on the interaction of wire-array Z-pinches on foam convertors show qualitative agreements with experimental results on the “Qiangguang I” facility. An integrated two-dimensional simulation of dynamic hohlraum driven capsule implosion provides us the physical insights of

  15. Pulse Power Compression by Cutting a Dense Z-Pinch with a Laser Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterberg, F.

    1999-07-01

    A thin cut made through a z-pinch by an intense laser beam can become a magnetically insulated diode crossed by an intense ion beam. For larger cuts, the gap is crossed by an intense relativistic electron beam, stopped by magnetic bremsstrahlung resulting in a pointlike intense x-ray source. In either case, the impedance of the pinch discharge is increased, with the power delivered rising in the same pro-portion. A magnetically insulated cut is advantageous for three reasons: First, with the ion current com-parable to the Alfvèn ion current, the pinch instabilities are reduced. Second, with the energy deposit-ed into fast ions, a non-Maxwellian velocity distribution is established increasing<σ ν> value for nuclear fusion reactions taking place in the pinch discharge. Third, in a high density z-pinch plasma, the intense ion beam can launch a thermonuclear detonation wave propagating along the pinch discharge channel. For larger cuts the soft x-rays produced by magnetic bremsstrahlung can be used to drive a thermonuclear hohlraum target. Finally, the proposed pulse power compression scheme permits to use a cheap low power d.c. source charging a magnetic storage coil delivering the magnetically stored energy to the pinch discharge load by an exploding wire opening switch.

  16. A Multiple Z-Pinch Configuration for the Generation of High-Density, Magnetized Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarditi, Alfonso G.

    2015-11-01

    The z-pinch is arguably the most straightforward and economical approach for the generation and confinement of hot plasmas, with a long history of theoretical investigations and experimental developments. While most of the past studies were focused on countering the natural tendency of z-pinches to develop instabilities, this study attempts to take advantage of those unstable regimes to form a quasi-stable plasma, with higher density and temperature, possibly of interest for a fusion reactor concept. For this purpose, a configuration with four z-pinch discharges, with axis parallel to each other and symmetrically positioned, is considered. Electrodes for the generation of the discharges and magnetic coils are arranged to favor the formation of concave discharge patterns. The mutual attraction from the co-streaming discharge currents enhances this pattern, leading to bent plasma streams, all nearing towards the axis. This configuration is intended to excite and sustain a ``kink'' unstable mode for each z-pinch, eventually producing either plasmoid structures, detached from each discharge, or sustained kink patterns: both these cases appear to lead to plasmas merging in the central region. The feasibility of this approach in creating a higher density, hotter, meta-stable plasma regime is investigated computationally, addressing both the kink excitation phase and the dynamics of the converging plasma columns.

  17. The Physics of the Dense Z-Pinch in Theory and in Experiment With Application to Fusion Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haines, M. G.

    1982-01-01

    A new generation of Z-pinches employing high voltage, high current pulsed lines as power sources produce dense hot plasmas with enhanced stability properties. Three methods of Z-pinch formation are currently in use: (1) cylindrical collapse and compression of a pre-ionised gas; (2) laser initiation and Joule heating of a gas embedded pinch, and (3) hollow gas puff and subsequent collapse to the axis. The first method shows no dynamic bounce and no instability over about ten radial Alfvén transit times. The laser initiated Z-pinch shows benign helical structures, whilst the gas puff experiments are known for their high X-ray energy conversion associated with m = 0 instabilities. The first two experimental conditions are relevant for fusion. A calculation of energy balance for satisfying Lawson conditions with axial and radial energy losses and radiation loss shows that a current I of ~ 106 A and a line density N of 6 × 1018m-1 are required. This leads to two coincidences of physical quantities that are very favourable for controlled fusion. The first is that at this line density and under pressure balance the ratio of the ion Larmor radius to pinch radius is of order 1 so that a marked stabilisation of the configuration is expected. The second coincidence is that the current is only just below the Pease-Braginskii limit; this will permit the possibility of radiative collapse to attain the high density (~ 4 × 1027 m-3) and small radius (~ 20 μm) required for a compact (0.1 m long) discharge. The confining self-magnetic field is 104 T, the confinement time ~ 100 ns, and a matrix of pulsed discharges is envisaged in a moderator and breeding medium which does not have the wall-loading limitations of tokamaks.

  18. The microscopic Z-pinch process of current-carrying rarefied deuterium plasma shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Cheng; Feng, Zhixing; Xue, Chuang; Li, Baiwen

    2015-02-01

    For insight into the microscopic mechanism of Z-pinch dynamic processes, a code of two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation has been developed in cylindrical coordinates. In principle, the Z-pinch of current-carrying rarefied deuterium plasma shell has been simulated by means of this code. Many results related to the microscopic processes of the Z-pinch are obtained. They include the spatio-temporal distributions of electromagnetic field, current density, forces experienced by the ions and electrons, positions and energy distributions of particles, and trailing mass and current. In radial direction, the electric and magnetic forces exerted on the electrons are comparable in magnitude, while the forces exerted on the ions are mainly the electric forces. So in the Z-pinch process, the electrons are first accelerated in Z direction and get higher velocities; then, they are driven inwards to the axis at the same time by the radial magnetic forces (i.e., Lorentz forces) of them. That causes the separations between the electrons and ions because the ion mass is much larger than the electron's, and in turn a strong electrostatic field is produced. The produced electrostatic field attracts the ions to move towards the electrons. When the electrons are driven along the radial direction to arrive at the axis, they shortly move inversely due to the static repellency among them and their tiny mass, while the ions continue to move inertially inwards, and later get into stagnation, and finally scatter outwards. Near the stagnation, the energies of the deuterium ions mostly range from 0.3 to 6 keV, while the electron energies are mostly from 5 to 35 keV. The radial components, which can contribute to the pinched plasma temperature, of the most probable energies of electron and ion at the stagnation are comparable to the Bennett equilibrium temperature (about 1 keV), and also to the highest temperatures of electron and ion obtained in one dimensional radiation

  19. Fusion Propulsion Z-Pinch Engine Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miernik, J.; Statham, G.; Fabisinski, L.; Maples, C. D.; Adams, R.; Polsgrove, T.; Fincher, S.; Cassibry, J.; Cortez, R.; Turner, M.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Fusion-based nuclear propulsion has the potential to enable fast interplanetary transportation. Due to the great distances between the planets of our solar system and the harmful radiation environment of interplanetary space, high specific impulse (Isp) propulsion in vehicles with high payload mass fractions must be developed to provide practical and safe vehicles for human spaceflight missions. The Z-Pinch dense plasma focus method is a Magneto-Inertial Fusion (MIF) approach that may potentially lead to a small, low cost fusion reactor/engine assembly1. Recent advancements in experimental and theoretical understanding of this concept suggest favorable scaling of fusion power output yield 2. The magnetic field resulting from the large current compresses the plasma to fusion conditions, and this process can be pulsed over short timescales (10(exp -6 sec). This type of plasma formation is widely used in the field of Nuclear Weapons Effects testing in the defense industry, as well as in fusion energy research. A Decade Module 2 (DM2), approx.500 KJ pulsed-power is coming to the RSA Aerophysics Lab managed by UAHuntsville in January, 2012. A Z-Pinch propulsion concept was designed for a vehicle based on a previous fusion vehicle study called "Human Outer Planet Exploration" (HOPE), which used Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) 3 propulsion. The reference mission is the transport of crew and cargo to Mars and back, with a reusable vehicle.

  20. Polar Radiation-Flux Symmetry Measurements in Z-Pinch-Driven Hohlraums with Symmetric Double-Pinch Drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, D. L.; Vesey, R. A.; Cuneo Porter, M. E., Jr.; Chandler, G. A.; Ruggles, L. E.; Simpson, W. W.; Seamen, H.; Primm, P.; Torres, J.; McGurn, J.; Gilliland, T. L.; Reynolds, P.; Hebron, D. E.; Dropinski, S. C.; Schroen-Carey, D. G.; Hammer, J. H.; Landen, O.; Koch, J.

    2000-10-01

    We are currently exploring symmetry requirements of the z-pinch-driven hohlraum concept [1] for high-yield inertial confinement fusion. In experiments on the Z accelerator, the burnthrough of a low-density self-backlit foam ball has been used to diagnose the large time-dependent flux asymmetry of several single-sided-drive hohlraum geometries [2]. We are currently applying this technique to study polar radiation flux symmetry in a symmetric double z-pinch geometry. Wire arrays on opposite ends of the hohlraum, connected in series to a single current drive of 18 MA, implode and stagnate on axis, efficiently radiating about 100 TW of x rays which heat the secondary to 75 eV. Comparisons with 3-D radiosity and 2-D rad-hydro models of hohlraum symmetry performance will be presented. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. 1 J. H. Hammer et al., Phys. Plasmas 6, 2129 (1999). 2 D. L. Hanson et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 44, 40 (1999).

  1. Coronal plasma development in wire-array z-pinches made of twisted-pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyt, C. L.; Greenly, J. B.; Gourdain, P. A.; Knapp, P. F.; Pikuz, S. A.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Hammer, D. A.; Kusse, B. R.

    2009-11-01

    We have investigated coronal and core plasma development in wire array z-pinches in which single fine wires are replaced by twisted-pairs (``cable'') on the 1 MA, 100 ns rise time COBRA pulsed power generator. X-ray radiography, employed to investigate dense wire core expansion, showed periodic axial nonuniformity and evidence for shock waves developing where the individual wire plasmas collide. Laser shadowgraphy images indicated that the axial instability properties of the coronal plasma are substantially modified from ordinary wire arrays. Cable mass per unit length, material and the twist wavelength were varied in order to study their effects upon the instability wavelength. Implosion uniformity and bright-spot formation, as well as magnetic topology evolution, have also been investigated using self-emission imaging, x-ray diagnostics and small B-dot probes, respectively. Results from the cable-array z-pinches will be compared with results from ordinary wire-array z-pinches. This research was supported by the SSAA program of the National Nuclear Security Administration under DOE Cooperative agreement DE-FC03-02NA00057.

  2. Pulsed Flow Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartman, Charles

    2005-10-01

    Formation of a Pulsed Flow Pinch is discussed, based on 2-D, MHD numerical calculations. The PFP utilizes the observed stable, Btheta magnetic ``bubble'' which propagates from breach to muzzle during the run-down phase of the coaxial Marshall gun. We consider two ways of launching a PFP onto a fiber or cylindrical gas cloud: 1) by propagating the bubble to small radius along an exponentially-decreasing-radius center conductor and, 2) by a radial launch to form reflex PFP's propagating in opposite directions along a fiber. We show that the bubble velocity increases to high values as the radius is decreased making the rise time of Btheta at an axial point very short. A bubble, launched into uniform gas is found to undergo unstable pinching of the front. Results will be presented of calculations of a PFP driven, neutron-producing, snow-plow pinch. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  3. Measurements of high energy photons in Z-pinch experiments on primary test stand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, Fenni; Zhang, Chuanfei; Xu, Rongkun; Yuan, Xi; Huang, Zhanchang; Xu, Zeping; Ye, Fan; Yang, Jianlun; Ning, Jiamin; Hu, Qingyuan; Zhu, Xuebin

    2015-08-01

    High energy photons are measured for the first time in wire-array Z-pinch experiments on the Primary Test Stand (PTS) which delivers a current up to 8 MA with a rise time of 70 ns. A special designed detecting system composed of three types of detectors is used to measure the average energy, intensity, and pulse waveform of high energy photons. Results from Pb-TLD (thermoluminescence dosimeter) detector indicate that the average energy is 480 keV (±15%). Pulse shape of high energy photons is measured by the photodiode detector consisted of scintillator coupled with a photodiode, and it is correlated with soft x-ray power by the same timing signal. Intensity is measured by both TLD and the photodiode detector, showing good accordance with each other, and it is 1010 cm-2 (±20%) at 2 m in the horizontal direction. Measurement results show that high energy photons are mainly produced in pinch regions due to accelerated electrons. PTS itself also produces high energy photons due to power flow electrons, which is one order smaller in amplitude than those from pinch region.

  4. Measurements of high energy photons in Z-pinch experiments on primary test stand.

    PubMed

    Si, Fenni; Zhang, Chuanfei; Xu, Rongkun; Yuan, Xi; Huang, Zhanchang; Xu, Zeping; Ye, Fan; Yang, Jianlun; Ning, Jiamin; Hu, Qingyuan; Zhu, Xuebin

    2015-08-01

    High energy photons are measured for the first time in wire-array Z-pinch experiments on the Primary Test Stand (PTS) which delivers a current up to 8 MA with a rise time of 70 ns. A special designed detecting system composed of three types of detectors is used to measure the average energy, intensity, and pulse waveform of high energy photons. Results from Pb-TLD (thermoluminescence dosimeter) detector indicate that the average energy is 480 keV (±15%). Pulse shape of high energy photons is measured by the photodiode detector consisted of scintillator coupled with a photodiode, and it is correlated with soft x-ray power by the same timing signal. Intensity is measured by both TLD and the photodiode detector, showing good accordance with each other, and it is 10(10) cm(-2) (±20%) at 2 m in the horizontal direction. Measurement results show that high energy photons are mainly produced in pinch regions due to accelerated electrons. PTS itself also produces high energy photons due to power flow electrons, which is one order smaller in amplitude than those from pinch region.

  5. Wire-number effects on high-power annular z-pinches and some characteristics at high wire number

    SciTech Connect

    SANFORD,THOMAS W. L.

    2000-05-23

    Characteristics of annular wire-array z-pinches as a function of wire number and at high wire number are reviewed. The data, taken primarily using aluminum wires on Saturn are comprehensive. The experiments have provided important insights into the features of wire-array dynamics critical for high x-ray power generation, and have initiated a renaissance in z-pinches when high numbers of wires are used. In this regime, for example, radiation environments characteristic of those encountered during the early pulses required for indirect-drive ICF ignition on the NIF have been produced in hohlraums driven by x-rays from a z-pinch, and are commented on here.

  6. Numerical simulations of Z-Pinch experiments to create supersonic differentially-rotating plasma flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochi, Matteo; Ummels, Sebastiaan; Chittenden, Jeremy; Lebedev, Sergey

    2011-10-01

    Recently, it was proposed that a small number of plasma jets produced by lasers could be used to generate a plasma configuration relevant to some features of astrophysical accretion disc physics. We propose complementary experimental configurations which employ converging flows generated in a cylindrical wire array Z-pinch modified to produce a rotating plasma. In this paper we present 3D MHD simulations using the code GORGON which show how this approach can be implemented at the MAGPIE facility at Imperial College, London. We will present the general scenario and the results of a parametric study relating the parameters of the array with the features of the resulting plasma. In particular, we will show how a rotating plasma cylinder or ring, with typical rotation velocity 30 Km/s and Mach number 8 is formed, and how, after about 1-2 revolutions, the material of the plasma ring is ejected in a pair of thermally driven, conical outflows propagating along the rotation axis. We will discuss to what aspects of the physics of accretion discs, the results of such experiments could be relevant. We will also consider the effects of different magnetic configurations, which further expand the possibility to relate the experiments with the astrophysical discs. Experimental implementation of some of these setups is currently in progress on MAGPIE.

  7. Wire Array Z-pinches on Sphinx Machine: Experimental Results and Relevant Points of Microsecond Implosion Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Calamy, H.; Hamann, F.; Lassalle, F.

    Centre d'Etudes de Gramat (France) has developed an efficient long implosion time (800 ns) Aluminum plasma radiation source (PRS). Based on the LTD technology, the SPHINX facility is developed as a 1-3MJ, 1{mu}s rise time, 4-10 MA current driver. In this paper, it was used in 1MJ, 4MA configuration to drive Aluminum nested wire arrays Z-pinches with K-shell yield up to 20 kJ and a FWHM of the x-ray pulse of about 50 ns. We present latest SPHINX experiments and some of the main physic issues of the microsecond regime. Experimental setup and results are described with the aim ofmore » giving trends that have been obtained. The main features of microsecond implosion of wire arrays can be analyzed thanks to same methods and theories as used for faster Z-pinches. The effect of load polarity was examined. The stability of the implosion , one of the critical point of microsecond wire arrays due to the load dimensions imposed by the time scale, is tackled. A simple scaling from 100 ns Z-pinch results to 800 ns ones gives good results and the use of nested arrays improves dramatically the implosion quality and the Kshell yield of the load. However, additional effects such as the impact of the return current can geometry on the implosion have to be taken into account on our loads. Axial inhomogeneity of the implosion the origin of which is not yet well understood occurs in some shots and impacts the radiation output. The shape of the radiative pulse is discussed and compared with the homogeneity of the implosion. Numerical 2D R-Z and R-{theta} simulations are used to highlight some experimental results and understand the plasma conditions during these microsecond wire arrays implosions.« less

  8. Wire Array Z-pinches on Sphinx Machine: Experimental Results and Relevant Points of Microsecond Implosion Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calamy, H.; Hamann, F.; Lassalle, F.; Bayol, F.; Mangeant, C.; Morell, A.; Huet, D.; Bedoch, J. P.; Chittenden, J. P.; Lebedev, S. V.; Jennings, C. A.; Bland, S. N.

    2006-01-01

    Centre d'Etudes de Gramat (France) has developed an efficient long implosion time (800 ns) Aluminum plasma radiation source (PRS). Based on the LTD technology, the SPHINX facility is developed as a 1-3MJ, 1μs rise time, 4-10 MA current driver. In this paper, it was used in 1MJ, 4MA configuration to drive Aluminum nested wire arrays Z-pinches with K-shell yield up to 20 kJ and a FWHM of the x-ray pulse of about 50 ns. We present latest SPHINX experiments and some of the main physic issues of the microsecond regime. Experimental setup and results are described with the aim of giving trends that have been obtained. The main features of microsecond implosion of wire arrays can be analyzed thanks to same methods and theories as used for faster Z-pinches. The effect of load polarity was examined. The stability of the implosion , one of the critical point of microsecond wire arrays due to the load dimensions imposed by the time scale, is tackled. A simple scaling from 100 ns Z-pinch results to 800 ns ones gives good results and the use of nested arrays improves dramatically the implosion quality and the Kshell yield of the load. However, additional effects such as the impact of the return current can geometry on the implosion have to be taken into account on our loads. Axial inhomogeneity of the implosion the origin of which is not yet well understood occurs in some shots and impacts the radiation output. The shape of the radiative pulse is discussed and compared with the homogeneity of the implosion. Numerical 2D R-Z and R-θ simulations are used to highlight some experimental results and understand the plasma conditions during these microsecond wire arrays implosions.

  9. Measurement and analysis of x-ray absorption in Al and MgF2 plasmas heated by Z-pinch radiation.

    PubMed

    Rochau, Gregory A; Bailey, J E; Macfarlane, J J

    2005-12-01

    High-power Z pinches on Sandia National Laboratories' Z facility can be used in a variety of experiments to radiatively heat samples placed some distance away from the Z-pinch plasma. In such experiments, the heating radiation spectrum is influenced by both the Z-pinch emission and the re-emission of radiation from the high-Z surfaces that make up the Z-pinch diode. To test the understanding of the amplitude and spectral distribution of the heating radiation, thin foils containing both Al and MgF2 were heated by a 100-130 TW Z pinch. The heating of these samples was studied through the ionization distribution in each material as measured by x-ray absorption spectra. The resulting plasma conditions are inferred from a least-squares comparison between the measured spectra and calculations of the Al and Mg 1s-->2p absorption over a large range of temperatures and densities. These plasma conditions are then compared to radiation-hydrodynamics simulations of the sample dynamics and are found to agree within 1sigma to the best-fit conditions. This agreement indicates that both the driving radiation spectrum and the heating of the Al and MgF2 samples is understood within the accuracy of the spectroscopic method.

  10. AN ACCELERATION MECHANISM FOR NEUTRON PRODUCTION IN Z-PINCH DISCHARGES,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A model has been developed for the acceleration of deuterons in the tightly compressed column of a z-pinch discharge, in particular that of a plasma ... focus discharge. It was assumed that an annular current distribution undergoes a rapidly contracting transition to an axially peaked distribution, and

  11. Measurement and analysis of x-ray absorption in Al and MgF2 plasmas heated by Z-pinch radiation.

    SciTech Connect

    MacFarlane, Joseph John; Rochau, Gregory Alan; Bailey, James E.

    2005-06-01

    High-power Z pinches on Sandia National Laboratories Z facility can be used in a variety of experiments to radiatively heat samples placed some distance away from the Z-pinch plasma. In such experiments, the heating radiation spectrum is influenced by both the Z-pinch emission and the re-emission of radiation from the high-Z surfaces that make up the Z-pinch diode. To test the understanding of the amplitude and spectral distribution of the heating radiation, thin foils containing both Al and MgF{sub 2} were heated by a 100-130 TW Z pinch. The heating of these samples was studied through the ionization distribution inmore » each material as measured by x-ray absorption spectra. The resulting plasma conditions are inferred from a least-squares comparison between the measured spectra and calculations of the Al and Mg 1s {yields} 2p absorption over a large range of temperatures and densities. These plasma conditions are then compared to radiation-hydrodynamics simulations of the sample dynamics and are found to agree within 1{sigma} to the best-fit conditions. This agreement indicates that both the driving radiation spectrum and the heating of the Al and MgF{sub 2} samples is understood within the accuracy of the spectroscopic method.« less

  12. The inverse skin effect in the Z-pinch and plasma focus

    SciTech Connect

    Usenko, P. L., E-mail: otd4@expd.vniief.ru; Gaganov, V. V.

    The inverse skin effect and its influence on the dynamics of high-current Z-pinch and plasma focus discharges in deuterium are analyzed. It is shown that the second compression responsible for the major fraction of the neutron yield can be interpreted as a result of the inverse skin effect resulting in the axial concentration of the longitudinal current density and the appearance of a reversed current in the outer layers of plasma pinches. Possible conditions leading to the enhancement of the inverse skin effect and accessible for experimental verification by modern diagnostics are formulated.

  13. Z-Pinch Magneto-Inertial Fusion Propulsion Engine Design Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miernik, Janie H.; Statham, Geoffrey; Adams, Robert B.; Polsgrove, Tara; Fincher, Sharon; Fabisinski, Leo; Maples, C. Dauphne; Percy, Thomas K.; Cortez, Ross J.; Cassibry, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Fusion-based nuclear propulsion has the potential to enable fast interplanetary transportation. Due to the great distances between the planets of our solar system and the harmful radiation environment of interplanetary space, high specific impulse (Isp) propulsion in vehicles with high payload mass fractions must be developed to provide practical and safe vehicles for human spaceflight missions. Magneto-Inertial Fusion (MIF) is an approach which has been shown to potentially lead to a low cost, small fusion reactor/engine assembly (1). The Z-Pinch dense plasma focus method is an MIF concept in which a column of gas is compressed to thermonuclear conditions by an estimated axial current of approximately 100 MA. Recent advancements in experiments and the theoretical understanding of this concept suggest favorable scaling of fusion power output yield as I(sup 4) (2). The magnetic field resulting from the large current compresses the plasma to fusion conditions, and this is repeated over short timescales (10(exp -6) sec). This plasma formation is widely used in the field of Nuclear Weapons Effects (NWE) testing in the defense industry, as well as in fusion energy research. There is a wealth of literature characterizing Z-Pinch physics and existing models (3-5). In order to be useful in engineering analysis, a simplified Z-Pinch fusion thermodynamic model was developed to determine the quantity of plasma, plasma temperature, rate of expansion, energy production, etc. to calculate the parameters that characterize a propulsion system. The amount of nuclear fuel per pulse, mixture ratio of the D-T and nozzle liner propellant, and assumptions about the efficiency of the engine, enabled the sizing of the propulsion system and resulted in an estimate of the thrust and Isp of a Z-Pinch fusion propulsion system for the concept vehicle. MIF requires a magnetic nozzle to contain and direct the nuclear pulses, as well as a robust structure and radiation shielding. The structure

  14. Diagnostics for Z-pinch implosion experiments on PTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, X. D.; Huang, X. B.; Zhou, S. T.; Zhang, S. Q.; Dan, J. K.; Li, J.; Cai, H. C.; Wang, K. L.; Ouyang, K.; Xu, Q.; Duan, S. C.; Chen, G. H.; Wang, M.; Feng, S. P.; Yang, L. B.; Xie, W. P.; Deng, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    The preliminary experiments of wire array implosion were performed on PTS, a 10 MA z-pinch driver with a 70 ns rise time. A set of diagnostics have been developed and fielded on PTS to study pinch physics and implosion dynamics of wire array. Radiated power measurement for soft x-rays was performed by multichannel filtered x-ray diode array, and flat spectral responses x-ray diode detector. Total x-ray yield was measured by a calibrated, unfiltered nickel bolometer which was also used to obtain pinch power. Multiple time-gated pinhole cameras were used to produce spatial-resolved images of x-ray self-emission from plasmas. Two time-integrated pinhole cameras were used respectively with 20-μm Be filter and with multilayer mirrors to record images produced by >1-keV and 277±5 eV self-emission. An optical streak camera was used to produce radial implosion trajectories, and an x-ray streak camera paired with a horizontal slit was used to record a continuous time-history of emission with one-dimensional spatial resolution. A frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser (532 nm) was used to produce four frame laser shadowgraph images with 6 ns time interval. We will briefly describe each of these diagnostics and present some typical results from them.

  15. Pinched-flow hydrodynamic stretching of single-cells.

    PubMed

    Dudani, Jaideep S; Gossett, Daniel R; Tse, Henry T K; Di Carlo, Dino

    2013-09-21

    Reorganization of cytoskeletal networks, condensation and decondensation of chromatin, and other whole cell structural changes often accompany changes in cell state and can reflect underlying disease processes. As such, the observable mechanical properties, or mechanophenotype, which is closely linked to intracellular architecture, can be a useful label-free biomarker of disease. In order to make use of this biomarker, a tool to measure cell mechanical properties should accurately characterize clinical specimens that consist of heterogeneous cell populations or contain small diseased subpopulations. Because of the heterogeneity and potential for rare populations in clinical samples, single-cell, high-throughput assays are ideally suited. Hydrodynamic stretching has recently emerged as a powerful method for carrying out mechanical phenotyping. Importantly, this method operates independently of molecular probes, reducing cost and sample preparation time, and yields information-rich signatures of cell populations through significant image analysis automation, promoting more widespread adoption. In this work, we present an alternative mode of hydrodynamic stretching where inertially-focused cells are squeezed in flow by perpendicular high-speed pinch flows that are extracted from the single inputted cell suspension. The pinched-flow stretching method reveals expected differences in cell deformability in two model systems. Furthermore, hydraulic circuit design is used to tune stretching forces and carry out multiple stretching modes (pinched-flow and extensional) in the same microfluidic channel with a single fluid input. The ability to create a self-sheathing flow from a single input solution should have general utility for other cytometry systems and the pinched-flow design enables an order of magnitude higher throughput (65,000 cells s(-1)) compared to our previously reported deformability cytometry method, which will be especially useful for identification of rare

  16. Simulations of Ar gas-puff Z-pinch radiation sources with double shells and central jets on the Z generator

    DOE PAGES

    Tangri, V.; Harvey-Thompson, Adam James; Giuliani, J. L.; ...

    2016-10-19

    Radiation-magnetohydrodynamic simulations using the non-LTE Mach2-TCRE code in (r,z) geometry are performed for two pairs of recent Ar gas-puff Z-pinch experiments on the refurbished Z generator with an 8 cm diameter nozzle. One pair of shots had an outer-to-inner shell mass ratio of 1:1.6 and a second pair had a ratio of 1:1.

  17. Small-amplitude magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth in cylindrical liners and Z-pinches imploded in an axial magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velikovich, A. L.; Giuliani, J. L.; Clark, R. W.; Mikitchuk, D.; Kroupp, E.; Maron, Y.; Fisher, A.; Schmit, P. F.

    2014-10-01

    Recent progress in developing the MagLIF approach to pulsed-power driven inertial confinement fusion has stimulated the interest in observation and mitigation of the magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability (MRTI) of liners and Z-pinches imploded in an axial magnetic field. Theoretical analysis of these issues is particularly important because direct numerical simulation of the MRTI development is challenging due to intrinsically 3D helical structure of the fastest-growing modes. We review the analytical small-amplitude theory of the MRTI perturbation development and the weakly nonlinear theory of MRTI mode interaction, emphasizing basic physics, opportunity for 3D code verification against exact analytical solutions, and stabilization criteria. The theory is compared to the experimental results obtained at Weizmann Institute with gas-puff Z pinches and on the Z facility at Sandia with solid liners imploded in an axial magnetic field. Work supported by the US DOE/NNSA, and by the US-Israel Binational Science Foundation. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  18. A short-pulse mode for the SPHINX LTD Z-pinch driver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Almeida, Thierry; Lassalle, Francis; Zucchini, Frederic; Loyen, Arnaud; Morell, Alain; Chuvatin, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    The SPHINX machine is a 6MA, 1 μs, LTD Z-pinch driver at CEA Gramat (France) and primarily used for studying radiation effects. Different power amplification concepts were examined in order to reduce the current rise time without modifying the generator discharge scheme, including the Dynamic Load Current Multiplier (DLCM) proposed by Chuvatin. A DLCM device, capable of shaping the current pulse without reducing the rise time, was developed at CEA. This device proved valuable for isentropic compression experiments in cylindrical geometry. Recently, we achieved a short pulse operation mode by inserting a vacuum closing switch between the DLCM and the load. The current rise time was reduced to ~300 ns. We explored the use of a reduced-height wire array for the Dynamic Flux Extruder in order to improve the wire array compression rate and increase the efficiency of the current transfer to the load. These developments are presented. Potential benefits of these developments for future Z pinch experiments are discussed.

  19. Capsule symmetry sensitivity and hohlraum symmetry calculations for the z-pinch driven hohlraum high-yield concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vesey, Roger; Cuneo, M. E.; Hanson Porter, D. L., Jr.; Mehlhorn, T. A.; Ruggles, L. E.; Simpson, W. W.; Hammer, J. H.; Landen, O.

    2000-10-01

    Capsule radiation symmetry is a crucial issue in the design of the z-pinch driven hohlraum approach to high-yield inertial confinement fusion [1]. Capsule symmetry may be influenced by power imbalance of the two z-pinch x-ray sources, and by hohlraum effects (geometry, time-dependent albedo, wall motion). We have conducted two-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamics calculations to estimate the symmetry sensitivity of the 220 eV beryllium ablator capsule that nominally yields 400 MJ in this concept. These estimates then determine the symmetry requirements to be met by the hohlraum design (for even Legendre modes) and by the top-bottom pinch imbalance and mistiming (for odd Legendre modes). We have used a combination of 2- and 3-D radiosity ("viewfactor"), and 2-D radiation-hydrodynamics calculations to identify hohlraum geometries that meet these symmetry requirements for high-yield, and are testing these models against ongoing Z foam ball symmetry experiments. 1. J. H. Hammer et al., Phys. Plas. 6, 2129 (1999).

  20. Preliminary experimental results of tungsten wire-array Z-pinches on primary test stand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xian-Bin; Zhou, Shao-Tong; Dan, Jia-Kun; Ren, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Kun-Lun; Zhang, Si-Qun; Li, Jing; Xu, Qiang; Cai, Hong-Chun; Duan, Shu-Chao; Ouyang, Kai; Chen, Guang-Hua; Ji, Ce; Wei, Bing; Feng, Shu-Ping; Wang, Meng; Xie, Wei-Ping; Deng, Jian-Jun; Zhou, Xiu-Wen; Yang, Yi

    2015-07-01

    The Primary Test Stand (PTS) developed at the China Academy of Engineering Physics is a 20 TW pulsed power driver, which can deliver a ˜10 MA, 70 ns rise-time (10%-90%) current to a short-circuit load and has important applications in Z-pinch driven inertial confinement fusion and high energy density physics. Preliminary results of tungsten wire-array Z-pinch experiments on PTS are presented. The load geometries investigated include 15-mm-tall cylindrical single and nested arrays with diameter ranging from 13 mm to 30 mm, consisting of 132-300 tungsten wires with 5-10 μm in diameter. Multiple diagnostics were fielded to characterize the x-ray radiation from wire-array Z pinches. The x-ray peak power (˜50 TW) and total radiated energy (˜500 kJ) were obtained from a single 20-mm-diam array with 80-ns stagnation time. The highest x-ray peak power up to 80 TW with 2.4 ns FWHM was achieved by using a nested array with 20-mm outer diameter, and the total x-ray energy from the nested array is comparable to that of single array. Implosion velocity estimated from the time-resolved image measurement exceeds 30 cm/μs. The detailed experimental results and other findings are presented and discussed.

  1. Implosion dynamics of condensed Z-pinch at the Angara-5-1 facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrov, V. V.; Grabovski, E. V.; Gritsuk, A. N.; Volobuev, I. V.; Kazakov, E. D.; Kalinin, Yu. G.; Korolev, V. D.; Laukhin, Ya. I.; Medovshchikov, S. F.; Mitrofanov, K. N.; Oleinik, G. M.; Pimenov, V. G.; Smirnova, E. A.; Ustroev, G. I.; Frolov, I. N.

    2017-08-01

    The implosion dynamics of a condensed Z-pinch at load currents of up to 3.5 MA and a current rise time of 100 ns was studied experimentally at the Angara-5-1 facility. To increase the energy density, 1- to 3-mm-diameter cylinders made of a deuterated polyethylene-agar-agar mixture or microporous deuterated polyethylene with a mass density of 0.03-0.5 g/cm3 were installed in the central region of the loads. The plasma spatiotemporal characteristics were studied using the diagnostic complex of the Angara-5-1 facility, including electron-optical streak and frame imaging, time-integrated X-ray imaging, soft X-ray (SXR) measurements, and vacuum UV spectroscopy. Most information on the plasma dynamics was obtained using a ten-frame X-ray camera ( E > 100 eV) with an exposure of 4 ns. SXR pulses were recorded using photoemissive vacuum X-ray detectors. The energy characteristics of neutron emission were measured using the time-offlight method with the help of scintillation detectors arranged along and across the pinch axis. The neutron yield was measured by activation detectors. The experimental results indicate that the plasma dynamics depends weakly on the load density. As a rule, two stages of plasma implosion were observed. The formation of hot plasma spots in the initial stage of plasma expansion from the pinch axis was accompanied by short pulses of SXR and neutron emission. The neutron yield reached (0.4-3) × 1010 neutrons/shot and was almost independent of the load density due to specific features of Z-pinch dynamics.

  2. Primary experimental results of wire-array Z-pinches on PTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, X. B.; Zhou, S. T.; Ren, X. D.; Dan, J. K.; Wang, K. L.; Zhang, S. Q.; Li, J.; Xu, Q.; Cai, H. C.; Duan, S. C.; Ouyang, K.; Chen, G. H.; Ji, C.; Wang, M.; Feng, S. P.; Yang, L. B.; Xie, W. P.; Deng, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Primary Test Stand (PTS) developed at the China Academy of Engineering Physics is a multiterawatt pulsed power driver, which can deliver a ˜10 MA, 70 ns rise-time (10%-90%) current to a short circuit load and has important applications in Z-pinch driven inertial confinement fusion and high energy density physics. In this paper, primary results of tungsten wire-array Z-pinch experiments on PTS are presented. The load geometries investigated include 15-mm-tall cylindrical single and nested arrays with diameter ranging from 14.4-26.4 mm, and consisting of 132˜276 tungsten wires with 5˜10 μm in diameter. Multiple diagnostics were fielded to determine the characteristics of x-ray radiations and to obtain self-emitting images of imploding plasmas. X-ray power up to 80 TW with ˜3 ns FWMH is achieved by using nested wire arrays. The total x-ray energy exceeds 500 kJ and the peak radiation temperature is about 150 eV. Typical velocity of imploding plasmas goes around 3˜5×107 cm/s and the radial convergence ratio is between 10 and 20.

  3. Multicolor, time-gated, soft x-ray pinhole imaging of wire array and gas puff Z pinches on the Z and Saturn pulsed power generators.

    PubMed

    Jones, B; Coverdale, C A; Nielsen, D S; Jones, M C; Deeney, C; Serrano, J D; Nielsen-Weber, L B; Meyer, C J; Apruzese, J P; Clark, R W; Coleman, P L

    2008-10-01

    A multicolor, time-gated, soft x-ray pinhole imaging instrument is fielded as part of the core diagnostic set on the 25 MA Z machine [M. E. Savage et al., in Proceedings of the Pulsed Power Plasma Sciences Conference (IEEE, New York, 2007), p. 979] for studying intense wire array and gas puff Z-pinch soft x-ray sources. Pinhole images are reflected from a planar multilayer mirror, passing 277 eV photons with <10 eV bandwidth. An adjacent pinhole camera uses filtration alone to view 1-10 keV photons simultaneously. Overlaying these data provides composite images that contain both spectral as well as spatial information, allowing for the study of radiation production in dense Z-pinch plasmas. Cu wire arrays at 20 MA on Z show the implosion of a colder cloud of material onto a hot dense core where K-shell photons are excited. A 528 eV imaging configuration has been developed on the 8 MA Saturn generator [R. B. Spielman et al., and A. I. P. Conf, Proc. 195, 3 (1989)] for imaging a bright Li-like Ar L-shell line. Ar gas puff Z pinches show an intense K-shell emission from a zippering stagnation front with L-shell emission dominating as the plasma cools.

  4. Radiation characteristics and implosion dynamics of tungsten wire array Z-pinches on the YANG accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xian-Bin; Yang, Li-Bing; Li, Jing; Zhou, Shao-Tong; Ren, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Si-Qun; Dan, Jia-Kun; Cai, Hong-Chun; Duan, Shu-Chao; Chen, Guang-Hua; Zhang, Zheng-Wei; Ouyang, Kai; Li, Jun; Zhang, Zhao-Hui; Zhou, Rong-Guo; Wang, Gui-Lin

    2012-05-01

    We investigated the radiation characteristics and implosion dynamics of low-wire-number cylindrical tungsten wire array Z-pinches on the YANG accelerator with a peak current 0.8-1.1 MA and a rising time ~ 90 ns. The arrays are made up of (8-32) × 5 μm wires 6/10 mm in diameter and 15 mm in height. The highest X-ray power obtained in the experiments was about 0.37 TW with the total radiation energy ~ 13 kJ and the energy conversion efficiency ~ 9% (24 × 5 μm wires, 6 mm in diameter). Most of the X-ray emissions from tungsten Z-pinch plasmas were distributed in the spectral band of 100-600 eV, peaked at 250 and 375 eV. The dominant wavelengths of the wire ablation and the magneto-Rayleigh—Taylor instability were found and analyzed through measuring the time-gated self-emission and laser interferometric images. Through analyzing the implosion trajectories obtained by an optical streak camera, the run-in velocities of the Z-pinch plasmas at the end of the implosion phase were determined to be about (1.3-2.1) × 107 cm/s.

  5. Staged Z-pinch Experiments at the 1MA Zebra pulsed-power generator: Neutron measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruskov, Emil; Darling, T.; Glebov, V.; Wessel, F. J.; Anderson, A.; Beg, F.; Conti, F.; Covington, A.; Dutra, E.; Narkis, J.; Rahman, H.; Ross, M.; Valenzuela, J.

    2017-10-01

    We report on neutron measurements from the latest Staged Z-pinch experiments at the 1MA Zebra pulsed-power generator. In these experiments a hollow shell of argon or krypton gas liner, injected between the 1 cm anode-cathode gap, compresses a deuterium plasma target of varying density. Axial magnetic field Bz <= 2 kGs, applied throughout the pinch region, stabilizes the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The standard silver activation diagnostics and 4 plastic scintillator neutron Time of Flight (nTOF) detectors are augmented with a large area ( 1400 cm2) liquid scintillator detector to which fast gatedPhotek photomultipliers are attached. Sample data from these neutron diagnostics systems is presented. Consistently high neutron yields YDD >109 are measured, with highest yield of 2.6 ×109 . A pair of horizontally and vertically placed plastic scintillator nTOFs suggest isotropic i.e. thermonuclear origin of the neutrons produced. nTOF data from the liquid scintillator detector was cross-calibrated with the silver activation detector, and can be used for accurate calculation of the neutron yield. Funded by the Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy, under Grant Number DE-AR0000569.

  6. Staged Z-pinch Experiments on Cobra and Zebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessel, Frank J.; Anderson, A.; Banasek, J. T.; Byvank, T.; Conti, F.; Darling, T. W.; Dutra, E.; Glebov, V.; Greenly, J.; Hammer, D. A.; Potter, W. M.; Rocco, S. V.; Ross, M. P.; Ruskov, E.; Valenzuela, J.; Beg, F.; Covington, A.; Narkis, J.; Rahman, H. U.

    2017-10-01

    A Staged Z-pinch (SZP), configured as a pre-magnetized, high-Z (Ar, or Kr) annular liner imploding onto a low-Z (H, or D) target, was tested on the Cornell University, Cobra Facility and the University of Nevada, Reno, Zebra Facility; each characterized similarly by a nominal 1-MA current and 100-ns risetime while possessing different diagnostic packages. XUV-fast imaging reveals that the SZP implosion dynamics is similar on both machines and that it is more stable with an axial (Bz) magnetic field, a target, or both, than without. On Zebra, where neutron production is possible, reproducible thermonuclear (DD) yields were recorded at levels in excess of 109/shot. Flux compression in the SZP is also expected to produce magnetic field intensities of the order of kilo-Tesla. Thus, the DD reaction produced tritions should also yield secondary DT neutrons. Indeed, secondaries are measured above the noise threshold at levels approaching 106/shot. Funded by the Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy, under Grant Number DE-AR0000569.

  7. Experimental study of surface insulated-standard hybrid tungsten planar wire array Z-pinches at "QiangGuang-I" facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Liang; Peng, Bodong; Li, Yang; Yuan, Yuan; Li, Mo; Zhang, Mei; Zhao, Chen; Zhao, Jizhen; Wang, Liangping

    2016-01-01

    The experimental results of the insulated-standard hybrid wire array Z pinches carried out on "QiangGuang-I" facility at Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology were presented and discussed. The surface insulating can impose a significant influence on the dynamics and radiation characteristics of the hybrid wire array Z pinches, especially on the early stage (t/timp < 0.6). The expansion of insulated wires at the ablation stage is suppressed, while the streams stripped from the insulated wires move faster than that from the standard wires. The foot radiation of X-ray is enhanced by increment of the number of insulated wires, 19.6 GW, 33.6 GW, and 68.6 GW for shots 14037S, 14028H, and 14039I, respectively. The surface insulation also introduces nonhomogeneity along the single wire—the streams move much faster near the electrodes. The colliding boundary of the hybrid wire array Z pinches is bias to the insulated side approximately 0.6 mm.

  8. Compression of an Applied Bz field by a z-pinch onto a Tamped DT Fiber for Inertial Confinement Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nash, Tom

    2009-11-01

    Simulations of a z-pinch compressing an applied 100 kG Bz field onto an on-axis DT fiber tamped with beryllium show the field reaching over 100 MG in the tamp, sufficient to confine DT alpha particles and to form a thermal barrier. The barrier allows the DT plasma to burn at a rho*r value as low as 0.045 g/cm^2, and at temperatures over 50 keV for a 63 MA drive current. Driving currents between 21 and 63 MA are considered with cryogenic DT fiber diameters between 600 μm and 1.6 mm. Pinch implosion times are 120 ns with a peak implosion velocity of 35 cm/μs. 1D simulations are of a foil pinch, but for improved stability we propose a nested wire-array. Simulated fusion yields with this system scale as the sixth power of the current, with burn fractions scaling as the fourth power of the current. At 63 MA the simulated yield is 521 MJ from 4.2 mg/cm of DT with a 37% burn fraction at a rho*r of only 0.18 g/cm^2.

  9. Spatially resolved single crystal x-ray spectropolarimetry of wire array z-pinch plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, M. S.; Haque, S.; Neill, P.; Pereira, N. R.; Presura, R.

    2018-01-01

    A recently developed single-crystal x-ray spectropolarimeter has been used to record paired sets of polarization-dependent and axially resolved x-ray spectra emitted by wire array z-pinches. In this measurement, two internal planes inside a suitable crystal diffract the x-rays into two perpendicular directions that are normal to each other, thereby separating incident x-rays into their linearly polarized components. This paper gives considerations for fielding the instrument on extended sources. Results from extended sources are difficult to interpret because generally the incident x-rays are not separated properly by the crystal. This difficulty is mitigated by using a series of collimating slits to select incident x-rays that propagate in a plane of symmetry between the polarization-splitting planes. The resulting instrument and some of the spatially resolved polarized x-ray spectra recorded for a 1-MA aluminum wire array z-pinch at the Nevada Terawatt Facility at the University of Nevada, Reno will be presented.

  10. Spatially resolved single crystal x-ray spectropolarimetry of wire array z-pinch plasmas.

    PubMed

    Wallace, M S; Haque, S; Neill, P; Pereira, N R; Presura, R

    2018-01-01

    A recently developed single-crystal x-ray spectropolarimeter has been used to record paired sets of polarization-dependent and axially resolved x-ray spectra emitted by wire array z-pinches. In this measurement, two internal planes inside a suitable crystal diffract the x-rays into two perpendicular directions that are normal to each other, thereby separating incident x-rays into their linearly polarized components. This paper gives considerations for fielding the instrument on extended sources. Results from extended sources are difficult to interpret because generally the incident x-rays are not separated properly by the crystal. This difficulty is mitigated by using a series of collimating slits to select incident x-rays that propagate in a plane of symmetry between the polarization-splitting planes. The resulting instrument and some of the spatially resolved polarized x-ray spectra recorded for a 1-MA aluminum wire array z-pinch at the Nevada Terawatt Facility at the University of Nevada, Reno will be presented.

  11. The quest for a z-pinch based fusion energy source—a historical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sethian, John

    1997-05-01

    Ever since 1958, when Oscar Anderson observed copious neutrons emanating from a "magnetically self-constricted column of deuterium plasma," scientists have attempted to develop the simple linear pinch into a fusion power source. After all, simple calculations show that if one can pass a current of slightly less than 2 million amperes through a stable D-T plasma, then one could achieve not just thermonuclear break-even, but thermonuclear gain. Moreover, several reactor studies have shown that a simple linear pinch could be the basis for a very attractive fusion system. The problem is, of course, that the seemingly simple act of passing 2 MA through a stable pinch has proven to be quite difficult to accomplish. The pinch tends to disrupt due to instabilities, either by the m=0 (sausage) or m=1 (kink) modes. Curtailing the growth of these instabilities has been the primary thrust of z-pinch fusion research, and over the years a wide variety of formation techniques have been tried. The early pinches were driven by relatively slow capacitive discharges and were formed by imploding a plasma column. The advent of fast pulsed power technology brought on a whole new repertoire of formation techniques, including: fast implosions, laser or field-enhanced breakdown in a uniform volume of gas, a discharge inside a small capillary, a frozen deuterium fiber isolated by vacuum, and staged concepts in which one pinch implodes upon another. And although none of these have yet to be successful, some have come tantalizingly close. This paper will review the history of this four-decade long quest for fusion power.

  12. Electron beam generation in the turbulent plasma of Z-pinch discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vikhrev, Victor V.; Baronova, Elena O.

    1997-05-01

    Numerical modeling of the process of electron beam generation in z-pinch discharges are presented. The proposed model represents the electron beam generation under turbulent plasma conditions. Strong current distribution inhomogeneity in the plasma column has been accounted for the adequate generation process investigation. Electron beam is generated near the maximum of compression due to run away mechanism and it is not related with the current break effect.

  13. Dynamic characteristics of azimuthally correlated structures of axial instability of wire-array Z pinches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dan, Jia Kun; Huang, Xian Bin; Ren, Xiao Dong; Chen, Guang Hua; Xu, Qiang; Wang, Kun Lun; Ouyang, Kai; Wei, Bing

    2017-04-01

    Particular attention was placed on observations of dynamic properties of the azimuthally correlated structures of axial instability of wire-array Z pinches, which were conducted at 10-MA (for short circuit load) pulsed power generator-the Primary Test Stand facility. Not well fabricated loads, which were expected to preset bubble or spike in plasma, were used to degrade the implosion symmetry in order to magnify the phenomenon of instability. The side-view sequence of evolution of correlation given by laser shadowgraphy clearly demonstrates the dynamic processes of azimuthal correlation of the bubble and spike. A possible mechanism presented here suggests that it is the substantial current redistribution especially in regions surrounding the bubble/spike resulting from change of inductance due to the presence of the bubble/spike that plays an essential part in establishment of azimuthal correlation of wire array and liner Z pinches.

  14. A reassessment study of multi-material-shell gas puff z-pinches as a pulsed neutron source on the sandia ZR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, Y. K.; Velikovich, A. L.; Thornhil, J. W.; Giuliani, J. L.; Knapp, P.; Jennings, C.

    2013-10-01

    Over the last few years, numerous 1D and 2D MHD simulation studies of deuterium (D) based double-shell gas-puff Z-pinch implosions driven by the Sandia ZR accelerator have been carried out to assess the Z-pinch as a pulsed thermal fusion neutron source. In these studies, an ad-hoc time-dependent shunt impedance model was used within the external driving circuit model in order to account for the unresolved current loss in the MITL and the load. In this study, we incorporate an improved ZR circuit model recently formulated based on the recent Sandia argon gas-puff experiment circuit data into the multi-material version of the Mach +DDTCRE RMHD code. We reinvestigate the effects of multidimensional structure and nonuniform gradients as well as the outer- and inner-shell material interaction on the implosion physics and dynamics of both D-on-D and argon-on-D Z-pinch loads using the model. Then, we characterize the neutron production performance of the Z-pinch loads as a function of total mass, mass ratio and/or radius toward their optimization as a pulsed thernonuclear neutron source. Work supported by DOE/NNSA. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. DOE's NNSA under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  15. 250 kA compact linear transformer driver for wire array z-pinch loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bott, S. C.; Haas, D. M.; Madden, R. E.; Ueda, U.; Eshaq, Y.; Collins, G., IV; Gunasekera, K.; Mariscal, D.; Peebles, J.; Beg, F. N.; Mazarakis, M.; Struve, K.; Sharpe, R.

    2011-05-01

    We present the application of a short rise (˜150ns) 250 kA linear transformer driver (LTD) to wire array z-pinch loads for the first time. The generator is a modification of a previous driver in which a new conical power feed provides a low inductance coupling to wire loads. Performance of the new design using both short circuit and plasma loads is presented and discussed. The final design delivers ˜200kA to a wire array load which is in good agreement with SCREAMER calculations using a simplified representative circuit. Example results demonstrate successful experiments using cylindrical, conical, and inverse wire arrays as well as previously published work on x-pinch loads.

  16. Radiation characteristics and implosion dynamics of Z-pinch dynamic hohlraums performed on PTS facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xian Bin; Ren, Xiao Dong; Dan, Jia Kun; Wang, Kun Lun; Xu, Qiang; Zhou, Shao Tong; Zhang, Si Qun; Cai, Hong Chun; Li, Jing; Wei, Bing; Ji, Ce; Feng, Shu Ping; Wang, Meng; Xie, Wei Ping; Deng, Jian Jun

    2017-09-01

    The preliminary experimental results of Z-pinch dynamic hohlraums conducted on the Primary Test Stand (PTS) facility are presented herein. Six different types of dynamic hohlraums were used in order to study the influence of load parameters on radiation characteristics and implosion dynamics, including dynamic hohlraums driven by single and nested arrays with different array parameters and different foams. The PTS facility can deliver a current of 6-8 MA in the peak current and 60-70 ns in the 10%-90% rising time to dynamic hohlraum loads. A set of diagnostics monitor the implosion dynamics of plasmas, the evolution of shock waves in the foam and the axial/radial X-ray radiation, giving the key parameters characterizing the features of dynamic hohlraums, such as the trajectory and related velocity of shock waves, radiation temperature, and so on. The experimental results presented here put our future study on Z-pinch dynamic hohlraums on the PTS facility on a firm basis.

  17. Experimental study of surface insulated-standard hybrid tungsten planar wire array Z-pinches at “QiangGuang-I” facility

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, Liang; Peng, Bodong; Yuan, Yuan

    The experimental results of the insulated-standard hybrid wire array Z pinches carried out on “QiangGuang-I” facility at Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology were presented and discussed. The surface insulating can impose a significant influence on the dynamics and radiation characteristics of the hybrid wire array Z pinches, especially on the early stage (t/t{sub imp} < 0.6). The expansion of insulated wires at the ablation stage is suppressed, while the streams stripped from the insulated wires move faster than that from the standard wires. The foot radiation of X-ray is enhanced by increment of the number of insulated wires, 19.6 GW, 33.6 GW, and 68.6 GWmore » for shots 14037S, 14028H, and 14039I, respectively. The surface insulation also introduces nonhomogeneity along the single wire—the streams move much faster near the electrodes. The colliding boundary of the hybrid wire array Z pinches is bias to the insulated side approximately 0.6 mm.« less

  18. Recombination-pumped XUV lasing in capillary discharges and dynamic z-pinches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pöckl, M.; Hebenstreit, M.; Fertner, R.; Neger, T.; Aumayr, F.

    1996-08-01

    A fully time-dependent collisional - radiative model is employed to calculate relevant population densities in a recombining carbon/hydrogen z-pinch plasma. In particular, the dependence of the small signal gain G on the maximum electron temperature and cooling rate, as well as the influence of Lyman-0022-3727/29/8/005/img8 reabsorption, are studied. Although in conditions typical for dynamic z-pinches the maximum electron temperature and cooling rates would, in principle, be sufficiently high, gain on the Balmer-0022-3727/29/8/005/img8 transition is strongly reduced by Lyman-0022-3727/29/8/005/img8 reabsorption. In order to investigate vacuum spark capillary discharges, the system of rate equations is coupled with balance equations of the plasma energy and the total number of heavy particles. The resulting set of equations is solved self-consistently. Results are presented that show the systematic dependence of the small signal gain on electrical input power, wall material, and capillary geometry. High gain coefficients 0022-3727/29/8/005/img11 could be achieved by modelling high-voltage discharges with short ringing periods through capillaries containing boron or carbon. While the maximum achievable gain coefficient for lithium is rather poor 0022-3727/29/8/005/img12 the duration of population inversion would be long enough (a few tens of nanoseconds) to make multi-pass operation possible.

  19. THE STABILITY OF THE PINCH WITH ANISOTROPIC PRESSURE

    SciTech Connect

    Jaggi, R.K.

    1961-12-01

    A dispersion equation was obtained for the stability of the pinch from the hydromagnetic equations supplemented by an equation for the pressure tensor of the ions. The dispersion equation was obtained for the marginal instability case only. It was observed that this dispersion equation coincides with the dispersion equation obtained from the Chew, Goldberger, and Low equations for the marginal instability case. It was concluded that the region of stability predicted from the equations that were used is slightly more than given by the kinetic equation used by Chandrasekhar, Kaufmann, and Watson. (auth)

  20. Grazing incidence extreme ultraviolet spectrometer fielded with time resolution in a hostile z-pinch environment.

    PubMed

    Williamson, K M; Kantsyrev, V L; Safronova, A S; Wilcox, P G; Cline, W; Batie, S; LeGalloudec, B; Nalajala, V; Astanovitsky, A

    2011-09-01

    This recently developed diagnostic was designed to allow for time-gated spectroscopic study of the EUV radiation (4 nm < λ < 15 nm) present during harsh wire array z-pinch implosions. The spectrometer utilizes a 25 μm slit, an array of 3 spherical blazed gratings at grazing incidence, and a microchannel plate (MCP) detector placed in an off-Rowland position. Each grating is positioned such that its diffracted radiation is cast over two of the six total independently timed frames of the MCP. The off-Rowland configuration allows for a much greater spectral density on the imaging plate but only focuses at one wavelength per grating. The focal wavelengths are chosen for their diagnostic significance. Testing was conducted at the Zebra pulsed-power generator (1 MA, 100 ns risetime) at the University of Nevada, Reno on a series of wire array z-pinch loads. Within this harsh z-pinch environment, radiation yields routinely exceed 20 kJ in the EUV and soft x-ray. There are also strong mechanical shocks, high velocity debris, sudden vacuum changes during operation, energic ion beams, and hard x-ray radiation in excess of 50 keV. The spectra obtained from the precursor plasma of an Al double planar wire array contained lines of Al IX and AlX ions indicating a temperature near 60 eV during precursor formation. Detailed results will be presented showing the fielding specifications and the techniques used to extract important plasma parameters using this spectrometer. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  1. The application of high-speed photography in z-pinch high-temperature plasma diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kui-lu; Qiu, Meng-tong; Hei, Dong-wei

    2007-01-01

    This invited paper is presented to discuss the application of high speed photography in z-pinch high temperature plasma diagnostics in recent years in Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology in concentrative mode. The developments and applications of soft x-ray framing camera, soft x-ray curved crystal spectrometer, optical framing camera, ultraviolet four-frame framing camera and ultraviolet-visible spectrometer are introduced.

  2. Hydrodynamic mode associated with the pinch flow in RFP simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delzanno, Gian Luca; Chacon, Luis; Finn, John

    2007-11-01

    We present a systematic study of single helicity (SH) states and quasi-single helicity (QSH) states in RFPs. We begin with cylindrical paramagnetic pinch equilibria with uniform resistivity, characterized by a single dimensionless parameter proportional to the toroidal electric field, or the RFP toroidal current parameter θ. For sufficiently high θ, there are several unstable m=1 ideal MHD instabilities, typically one of which is nonresonant, with 1/n just above q(r=0). We evolve these modes nonlinearly to saturation for low Hartmann number H. We show the existence of a new class of unstable modes [1], besides the electromagnetic kink modes typically responsible for the reversal of the axial magnetic field at the edge in RFPs. This new instability is hydrodynamic in nature and is due to the inward equilibrium pinch flow and suitable boundary conditions. In these circumstances, the total angular momentum of the system must grow in response to the flux of particles coming from the boundary. The hydrodynamic mode dominates the nonlinear phase of the velocity field but has little effect on the dynamics of the magnetic field. [1] G.L. Delzanno, L. Chac'on, J.M. Finn, Hydrodynamic mode associated with the pinch flow in Reversed Field Pinch simulations, submitted (2007).

  3. Long implosion time (240 ns) Z-pinch experiments with a large diameter (12 cm) double-shell nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, J. S.; Banister, J. W.; Failor, B. H.; Qi, N.; Song, Y.; Sze, H. M.; Fisher, A.

    2004-05-01

    Recently, an 8 cm diameter double-shell nozzle has produced argon Z pinches with high K-shell yields with implosion time of 210 ns. To produce even longer implosion time Z pinches for facilities such as Decade Quad [D. Price, et al., "Electrical and Mechanical Design of the Decade Quad in PRS Mode," in Proceedings of the 12th IEEE Pulsed Power Conference, Monterey, CA, edited by C. Stallings and H. Kirbie (IEEE, New York, 1999), p. 489] (9 MA short circuit current at 300 ns), a larger nozzle (12 cm outer diameter) was designed and fabricated. During initial testing on Double-EAGLE [P. Sincerny et al., Proceedings of the 5th IEEE Pulsed Power Conference, Arlington, VA, edited by M. F. Rose and P. J. Turchi (IEEE, New York, 1985), p. 151], 9 kJ of argon K-shell radiation in a 6 ns full width at half maximum pulse was produced with a 240 ns implosion. The initial gas distributions produced by various nozzle configurations have been measured and their impact on the final radiative characteristics of the pinch are presented. The addition of a central jet to increase the initial gas density near the axis is observed to enhance the pinch quality, increasing K-shell yield by 17% and power by 40% in the best configuration tested.

  4. Analytic model to estimate thermonuclear neutron yield in z-pinches using the magnetic Noh problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Robert C.

    The objective was to build a model which could be used to estimate neutron yield in pulsed z-pinch experiments, benchmark future z-pinch simulation tools and to assist scaling for breakeven systems. To accomplish this, a recent solution to the magnetic Noh problem was utilized which incorporates a self-similar solution with cylindrical symmetry and azimuthal magnetic field (Velikovich, 2012). The self-similar solution provides the conditions needed to calculate the time dependent implosion dynamics from which batch burn is assumed and used to calculate neutron yield. The solution to the model is presented. The ion densities and time scales fix the initial mass and implosion velocity, providing estimates of the experimental results given specific initial conditions. Agreement is shown with experimental data (Coverdale, 2007). A parameter sweep was done to find the neutron yield, implosion velocity and gain for a range of densities and time scales for DD reactions and a curve fit was done to predict the scaling as a function of preshock conditions.

  5. Impedance Dynamics in the Self-Magnetic Pinch (SMP) Diode on the RITS-6 Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renk, Timothy; Johnston, Mark; Leckbee, Joshua; Webb, Timothy; Mazarakis, Michael; Kiefer, Mark; Bennett, Nichelle

    2014-10-01

    The RITS-6 inductive voltage adder (IVA) accelerator (3.5-8.5 MeV) at Sandia National Laboratories produces high-power (TW) focused electron beams (<3 mm diameter) for flash x-ray radiography applications. The Self-Magnetic Pinch (SMP) diode utilizes a hollowed metal cathode to produce a pinched focus onto a high Z metal converter. The electron flow from the IVA driver into the load region complicates understanding of diode evolution. There is growing evidence that reducing cathode size below some ``optimum'' value in order to achieve desired spot size reduction results in pinch instabilities leading to either reduced dose-rate, early radiation power termination, or both. We are studying evolving pinch dynamics with current and x-ray monitors, optical diagnostics, and spectroscopy, as well as with LSP [1] code simulations. We are also planning changes to anode-cathode materials as well as changes to the diode aspect ratio in an attempt to mitigate the above trends and improve pinch stability while achieving simultaneous spot size reduction. Experiments are ongoing, and latest results will be reported [1]. LSP is a software product of ATK Mission Research, Albuquerque, NM. Sandia National Laboratories is a multiprogram laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Adminis-tration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  6. Study of the formation, stability, and X-ray emission of the Z-pinch formed during implosion of fiber arrays at the Angara-5-1 facility

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksandrov, V. V.; Volkov, G. S.; Grabovski, E. V.

    Results from experimental studies on the implosion of arrays made of kapron fibers coated with different metals (Al, In, Sn, and Bi) are presented. It is shown that the power, total energy, and spectrum of radiation emitted by the imploding array depend on the number of metallized fibers and the mass of the metal layer deposited on them but are independent of the metal characteristics (density, atomic number, etc.). Analysis of frame X-ray images shows that the Z-pinches formed in the implosion of metallized kapron fiber arrays are more stable than those formed in wire arrays and that MHD perturbationsmore » in them develop at a slower growth rate. Due to the lower rate of plasma production from kapron fibers, the plasma formed at the periphery of the array forms a layer that plays the role of a hohlraum wall partially trapping soft X-ray emission of the Z-pinch formed in the implosion of the material of the deposited metal layer. The closure of the anode aperture doubles the energy of radiation emitted in the radial direction.« less

  7. Fully kinetic simulations of dense plasma focus Z-pinch devices.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, A; Tang, V; Welch, D

    2012-11-16

    Dense plasma focus Z-pinch devices are sources of copious high energy electrons and ions, x rays, and neutrons. The mechanisms through which these physically simple devices generate such high-energy beams in a relatively short distance are not fully understood. We now have, for the first time, demonstrated a capability to model these plasmas fully kinetically, allowing us to simulate the pinch process at the particle scale. We present here the results of the initial kinetic simulations, which reproduce experimental neutron yields (~10(7)) and high-energy (MeV) beams for the first time. We compare our fluid, hybrid (kinetic ions and fluid electrons), and fully kinetic simulations. Fluid simulations predict no neutrons and do not allow for nonthermal ions, while hybrid simulations underpredict neutron yield by ~100x and exhibit an ion tail that does not exceed 200 keV. Only fully kinetic simulations predict MeV-energy ions and experimental neutron yields. A frequency analysis in a fully kinetic simulation shows plasma fluctuations near the lower hybrid frequency, possibly implicating lower hybrid drift instability as a contributor to anomalous resistivity in the plasma.

  8. High brightness electrodeless Z-Pinch EUV source for mask inspection tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horne, Stephen F.; Partlow, Matthew J.; Gustafson, Deborah S.; Besen, Matthew M.; Smith, Donald K.; Blackborow, Paul A.

    2012-03-01

    Energetiq Technology has been shipping the EQ-10 Electrodeless Z-pinchTM light source since 1995. The source is currently being used for metrology, mask inspection, and resist development. Energetiq's higher brightness source has been selected as the source for pre-production actinic mask inspection tools. This improved source enables the mask inspection tool suppliers to build prototype tools with capabilities of defect detection and review down to 16nm design rules. In this presentation we will present new source technology being developed at Energetiq to address the critical source brightness issue. The new technology will be shown to be capable of delivering brightness levels sufficient to meet the HVM requirements of AIMS and ABI and potentially API tools. The basis of the source technology is to use the stable pinch of the electrodeless light source and have a brightness of up to 100W/mm(carat)2-sr. We will explain the source design concepts, discuss the expected performance and present the modeling results for the new design.

  9. IB-LBM study on cell sorting by pinched flow fractionation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jingtao; Xu, Yuanqing; Tian, Fangbao; Tang, Xiaoying

    2014-01-01

    Separation of two categories of cells in pinched flow fractionation(PFF) device is simulated by employing IB-LBM. The separation performances at low Reynolds number (about 1) under different pinched segment widths, flow ratios, cell features, and distances between neighboring cells are studied and the results are compared with those predicted by the empirical formula. The simulation indicates that the diluent flow rate should approximate to or more than the flow rate of particle solution in order to get a relatively ideal separation performance. The discrepancy of outflow position between numerical simulation and the empirical prediction enlarges, when the cells become more flexible. Too short distance between two neighboring cells could lead to cell banding which would result in incomplete separation, and the relative position of two neighboring cells influences the banding of cells. The present study will probably provide some new applications of PFF, and make some suggestions on the design of PFF devices.

  10. Measurements of high-current electron beams from X pinches and wire array Z pinches.

    PubMed

    Shelkovenko, T A; Pikuz, S A; Blesener, I C; McBride, R D; Bell, K S; Hammer, D A; Agafonov, A V; Romanova, V M; Mingaleev, A R

    2008-10-01

    Some issues concerning high-current electron beam transport from the X pinch cross point to the diagnostic system and measurements of the beam current by Faraday cups are discussed. Results of computer simulation of electron beam propagation from the pinch to the Faraday cup give limits for the measured current for beams having different energy spreads. The beam is partially neutralized as it propagates from the X pinch to a diagnostic system, but within a Faraday cup diagnostic, space charge effects can be very important. Experimental results show evidence of such effects.

  11. Conceptual Design of a Z-Pinch Fusion Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Robert; Polsgrove, Tara; Fincher, Sharon; Fabinski, Leo; Maples, Charlotte; Miernik, Janie; Stratham, Geoffrey; Cassibry, Jason; Cortez, Ross; Turner, Matthew; hide

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews a project that aims to develop a conceptual design for a Z-pinch thruster, that could be applied to develop advanced thruster designs which promise high thrust/high specific impulse propulsion. Overviews shows the concept of the design, which use annular nozzles with deuterium-tritium (D-T) fuel and a Lithium mixture as a cathode, Charts show the engine performance as a function of linear mass, nozzle performance (i.e., plasma segment trajectories), and mission analysis for possible Mars and Jupiter missions using this concept for propulsion. Slides show views of the concepts for the vehicle configuration, thrust coil configuration, the power management system, the structural analysis of the magnetic nozzle, the thermal management system, and the avionics suite,

  12. Stability of a diffuse linear pinch with axial boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Einaudi, G.; Van Hoven, G.

    1981-01-01

    A formulation of the stability behavior of a finite-length pinch is presented. A general initial perturbation is expressed as a uniformly convergent sum over a complete discrete k set. A variational calculation is then performed, based on the energy principle, in which the end-boundary conditions appear as constraints. The requisite Lagrange multipliers mutually couple the elemental periodic excitations. The resulting extended form of delta-W still admits a proper second-variation treatment so that the minimization and stability considerations of Newcomb remain applicable. Comparison theorems are discussed as is the relevance of this end-effect model to the stability of solar coronal loops.

  13. Using a Z-pinch precursor plasma to produce a cylindrical, hotspot ignition, ICF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chittenden, Jeremy

    2005-10-01

    We show that if the same precursor plasma that exists in metal wire arrays can be generated with a Deuterium-Tritium plasma then this precursor provides an ideal target for a cylindrical magneto-inertial ICF scheme. The precursor is generated from a fraction of the mass of the array which arrives on the axis early in time and remains confined at high density by the inertia of further material bombarding the axis. Later on, the main implosion of the DT Z-pinch produces a dense, low temperature shell which compressively heats the precursor target to high temperatures and tamps its expansion. The azimuthal magnetic field in the hotspot is sufficient to reduce the Larmor radius for the alpha particles to much less than the hotspot size, which dramatically reduces the ρR required for ignition. A computational analysis of this approach is presented, including a study of the thermonuclear burn wave propagation. The robustness of the scheme with respect to instabilities, confinement time and drive parameters is examined. The results indicate that a high energy gain can be achieved using Z-pinches with 50-100 MA currents and a few hundred nanosecond rise-times. This work was partially supported by the U.S. Department of Energy through cooperative agreement DE-FC03-02NA00057.

  14. The study of hard x-ray emission and electron beam generation in wire array Z-pinch and X-pinch plasmas at university-scale generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Ishor Kumar

    The studies of hard x-ray (HXR) emission and electron beam generation in Z-pinch plasmas are very important for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) research and HXR emission application for sources of K-shell and L-shell radiation. Energetic electron beams from Z-pinch plasmas are potentially a problem in the development of ICF. The electron beams and the accompanying HXR emission can preheat the fuel of a thermonuclear target, thereby preventing the fuel compression from reaching densities required for the ignition of a fusion reaction. The photons above 3-4 keV radiated from a Z pinch can provide detailed information about the high energy density plasmas produced at stagnation. Hence, the investigation of characteristics of hard x-rays and electron beams produced during implosions of wire array loads on university scale-generators may provide important data for future ICF, sources of K-shell and L-shell radiations and basic plasma research. This dissertation presents the results of experimental studies of HXR and electron beam generation in wire-array and X-pinch on the 1.7 MA, 100-ns current rise time Zebra generator at University of Nevada, Reno and 1-MA 100-ns current rise-time Cornell Beam Research Accelerator (COBRA) at Cornell University. The experimental study of characteristics of HXR produced by multi-planar wire arrays, compact cylindrical wire array (CCWA) and nested cylindrical wire array (NCWA) made from Al, Cu, Mo, Ag, W and Au were analyzed. The dependence of the HXR yield and power on geometry of the load, the wire material, and load mass was observed. The presence of aluminum wires in the load with the main material such as stainless steel, Cu, Mo, Ag, W or Au in combined wire array decreases HXR yield. The comparison of emission characteristics of HXR and generation of electron beams in CCWA and NCWA on both the high impedance Zebra generator and low impedance COBRA generator were investigated. Some of the "cold" K- shell spectral lines (0.7-2.3

  15. Acceleration of Hydrogen Ions up to 30 MeV and Generation of 3 × 1012 Neutrons in Megaampere Deuterium Gas-Puff Z-Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klir, D.; Cikhardt, J.; Kravarik, J.; Kubes, P.; Rezac, K.; Sila, O.; Shishlov, A.; Cherdizov, R.; Fursov, F.; Kokshenev, V.; Kovalchuk, B.; Kurmaev, N.; Labetsky, A.; Ratakhin, N.; Orcikova, H.; Turek, K.

    2013-10-01

    Fusion neutrons were produced with a deuterium gas-puff z-pinch on the GIT-12 generator at the Institute of High Current Electronics in Tomsk. The peak neutron yield from DD reactions reached Yn = (2 . 9 +/- 0 . 3) ×1012 at 100 μg/cm linear mass density of deuterium, 700 ns implosion time and 2.7 MA current. Such a neutron yield means that the scaling law of deuterium z-pinches Yn ~I4 was extended to 3 MA currents. The further increase of neutron yields up to (3 . 7 +/- 0 . 4) ×1012 was achieved by placing a deuterated polyethylene catcher onto the axis. Maximum neutron energies of 15 and 22 MeV were observed by radial and axial nToF detectors, respectively. A stack of CR-39 track detectors showed up to 40 MeV deuterons (or 30 MeV protons) on the z-pinch axis. Since the energy input into plasmas was 70 kJ, the number of DD neutrons per one joule of stored plasma energy exceeded the value of 5 ×107 . This value implies that deuterium gas-puff z-pinches belong to the most efficient plasma-based sources of DD neutrons. This work was partially supported by the GACR grant No. P205/12/0454 and by the RFBR research project No. 13-08-00479-a.

  16. A non-LTE kinetic model for quick analysis of K-shell spectra from Z-pinch plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J., E-mail: s.duan@163.com; Huang, X. B., E-mail: s.duan@163.com; Cai, H. C., E-mail: s.duan@163.com

    Analyzing and modeling K-shell spectra emitted by low-to moderate-atomic number plasma is a useful and effective way to retrieve temperature density of z-pinch plasmas. In this paper, a non-LTE population kinetic model for quick analysis of K-shell spectra was proposed. The model contains ionization stages from bare nucleus to neutral atoms and includes all the important atomic processes. In the present form of the model, the plasma is assumed to be both optically thin and homogeneous with constant temperature and density, and only steady-state situation is considered. According to the detailed calculations for aluminum plasmas, contours of ratios of certainmore » K-shell lines in electron temperature and density plane as well as typical synthesized spectra were presented and discussed. The usefulness of the model is demonstrated by analyzing the spectrum from a neon gas-puff Z-pinch experiment performed on a 1 MA pulsed-power accelerator.« less

  17. Z pinches as intense x-ray sources for high-energy density physics applications

    SciTech Connect

    Matzen, M.K.

    1997-05-01

    Fast Z-pinch implosions can efficiently convert the stored electrical energy in a pulsed-power accelerator into x rays. These x rays are produced when an imploding cylindrical plasma, driven by the magnetic field pressure associated with very large axial currents, stagnates upon the cylindrical axis of symmetry. On the Saturn pulsed-power accelerator [R. B. Spielman {ital et al.}, in {ital Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Dense Z Pinches}, Laguna Beach, CA, 1989, edited by N. R. Pereira, J. Davis, and N. Rostoker (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1989), p. 3] at Sandia National Laboratories, for example, currents ofmore » 6{endash}8 MA with a rise time of less than 50 ns are driven through cylindrically symmetric loads, producing implosion velocities as high as 10{sup 8}cm/s and x-ray energies exceeding 400 kJ. Hydromagnetic Rayleigh{endash}Taylor instabilities and cylindrical load symmetry are critical, limiting factors in determining the assembled plasma densities and temperatures, and thus in the x-ray energies and pulse widths that can be produced on these accelerators. In recent experiments on the Saturn accelerator, these implosion nonuniformities have been minimized by using wire arrays with as many as 192 wires. Increasing the wire number produced significant improvements in the pinched plasma quality, reproducibility, and x-ray output power. X-ray pulse widths of less than 5 ns and peak powers of 75{plus_minus}10TW have been achieved with arrays of 120 tungsten wires. Similar loads have recently been fielded on the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator (PBFA II), producing x-ray energies in excess of 1.8 MJ at powers in excess of 160 TW. These intense x-ray sources offer the potential for performing many new basic physics and fusion-relevant experiments. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}« less

  18. Investigating radial wire array Z pinches as a compact x-ray source on the Saturn generator

    SciTech Connect

    Ampleford, David J.; Bland, S. N.; Jennings, Christopher A.

    2015-08-27

    Radial wire array z pinches, where wires are positioned radially outward from a central cathode to a concentric anode, can act as a compact bright x-ray source that could potentially be used to drive a hohlraum. Experiments were performed on the 7-MA Saturn generator using radial wire arrays. These experiments studied a number of potential risks in scaling radial wire arrays up from the 1-MA level, where they have been shown to be a promising compact X-ray source. Data indicates that at 7 MA, radial wire arrays can radiate ~9 TW with 10-ns full-width at half-maximum from a compact pinch.

  19. Analytic model for the dynamic Z-pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Piriz, A. R., E-mail: roberto.piriz@uclm.es; Sun, Y. B.; Tahir, N. A.

    2015-06-15

    A model is presented for describing the cylindrical implosion of a shock wave driven by an accelerated piston. It is based in the identification of the acceleration of the shocked mass with the acceleration of the piston. The model yields the separate paths of the piston and the shock. In addition, by considering that the shocked region evolves isentropically, the approximate profiles of all the magnitudes in the shocked region are obtained. The application to the dynamic Z-pinch is presented and the results are compared with the well known snowplow and slug models which are also derived as limiting casesmore » of the present model. The snowplow model is seen to yield a trajectory in between those of the shock and the piston. Instead, the neglect of the inertial effects in the slug model is seen to produce a too fast implosion, and the pressure uniformity is shown to lead to an unphysical instantaneous piston stopping when the shock arrives to the axis.« less

  20. Enhanced energy coupling and x-ray emission in Z-pinch plasma implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, K. G.; Thornhill, J. W.; Apruzese, J. P.; Davis, J.; Deeney, C.; Coverdale, C. A.

    2004-08-01

    Recent experiments conducted on the Saturn pulsed-power generator at Sandia National Laboratories [R. B. Spielman et al., in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Dense Z Pinches, Laguna Beach, CA, 1989, edited by N. R. Pereira, J. Davis, and N. Rostoker (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1989), p. 3] have produced large amounts of x-ray output, which cannot be accounted for in conventional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) calculations. In these experiments, the Saturn current had a rise time of ~180 ns in contrast to a rise time of ~60 ns in Saturn's earlier mode of operation. In both aluminum and tungsten wire-array Z-pinch implosions, 2-4 times more x-ray output was generated than could be supplied according to one-dimensional (1D) magnetohydrodynamic calculations by the combined action of the j×B acceleration forces and ohmic heating (as described by a classical Braginskii resistivity). In this paper, we reexamine the problem of coupling transmission line circuits to plasma fluid equations and derive expressions for the Z-pinch load circuit resistance and inductance that relate these quantities in a 1D analysis to the surface resistivity of the fluid, and to the magnetic field energy that is stored in the vacuum diode, respectively. Enhanced energy coupling in this analysis, therefore, comes from enhancements to the surface resistivity, and we show that plasma resistivities approximately three orders of magnitude larger than classical are needed in order to achieve energy inputs that are comparable to the Saturn experiment x-ray outputs. Large enhancements of the plasma resistivity increase the rate of magnetic field and current diffusion, significantly modify the qualitative features of the MHD, and raise important questions as to how the plasma fluid dynamics converts enhanced energy inputs into enhanced x-ray outputs. One-dimensional MHD calculations in which resistivity values are adjusted phenomenologically are used to illustrate how

  1. Design of Z-Pinch and Dense Plasma Focus Powered Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polsgrove, Tara; Fincher, Sharon; Adams, Robert B.; Cassibry, Jason; Cortez, Ross; Turner, Matthew; Maples, C. Daphne; Miermik, Janie N.; Statham, Geoffrey N.; Fabisinski, Leo; hide

    2011-01-01

    Z-pinch and Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) are two promising techniques for bringing fusion power to the field of in-space propulsion. A design team comprising of engineers and scientists from UAHuntsville, NASA's George C. Marshall Space Flight Center and the University of Wisconsin developed concept vehicles for a crewed round trip mission to Mars and an interstellar precursor mission. Outlined in this paper are vehicle concepts, complete with conceptual analysis of the mission profile, operations, structural and thermal analysis and power/avionics design. Additionally engineering design of the thruster itself is included. The design efforts adds greatly to the fidelity of estimates for power density (alpha) and overall performance for these thruster concepts

  2. Observation of emission process in hydrogen-like nitrogen Z-pinch discharge with time integrated soft X-ray spectrum pinhole image

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Y.; Kumai, H.; Nakanishi, Y.

    2013-02-15

    The emission spectra of hydrogen-like nitrogen Balmer at the wavelength of 13.4 nm in capillary Z-pinch discharge plasma are experimentally examined. Ionization to fully strip nitrogen at the pinch maximum, and subsequent rapid expansion cooling are required to establish the population inversion between the principal quantum number of n = 2 and n = 3. The ionization and recombination processes with estimated plasma parameters are evaluated by utilizing a time integrated spectrum pinhole image containing radial spatial information. A cylindrical capillary plasma is pinched by a triangular pulsed current with peak amplitude of 50 kA and pulse width of 50more » ns.« less

  3. Conversion of electromagnetic energy in Z-pinch process of single planar wire arrays at 1.5 MA

    SciTech Connect

    Liangping, Wang; Mo, Li; Juanjuan, Han

    The electromagnetic energy conversion in the Z-pinch process of single planar wire arrays was studied on Qiangguang generator (1.5 MA, 100 ns). Electrical diagnostics were established to monitor the voltage of the cathode-anode gap and the load current for calculating the electromagnetic energy. Lumped-element circuit model of wire arrays was employed to analyze the electromagnetic energy conversion. Inductance as well as resistance of a wire array during the Z-pinch process was also investigated. Experimental data indicate that the electromagnetic energy is mainly converted to magnetic energy and kinetic energy and ohmic heating energy can be neglected before the final stagnation. Themore » kinetic energy can be responsible for the x-ray radiation before the peak power. After the stagnation, the electromagnetic energy coupled by the load continues increasing and the resistance of the load achieves its maximum of 0.6–1.0 Ω in about 10–20 ns.« less

  4. A kind of fast shutter for Z pinch diagnosis device.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liangping; Zhang, Xinjun; Sun, Tieping; Mao, Wentin

    2016-09-01

    A kind of fast shutter for protecting the diagnosis devices in Z pinch experiments is introduced in this paper. The shutter is composed of a pulling rod, a magnetic core, and a solenoid. Different from the traditional coils which were used at the voltage of 220 V, the solenoid we used must endure the high voltage of 5-10 kV and the deformation which maybe caused by the 5-10 T intense magnetic field. A creative configuration for the solenoid is developed including the winding guide, insulating sleeve, and stainless-steel sleeve. The experimental results show that the configuration of the solenoid is effective. The velocity of the valve is nearly 19 m/s and the time jitter of the shutdown is within 75 μs.

  5. A kind of fast shutter for Z pinch diagnosis device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liangping; Zhang, Xinjun; Sun, Tieping; Mao, Wentin

    2016-09-01

    A kind of fast shutter for protecting the diagnosis devices in Z pinch experiments is introduced in this paper. The shutter is composed of a pulling rod, a magnetic core, and a solenoid. Different from the traditional coils which were used at the voltage of 220 V, the solenoid we used must endure the high voltage of 5-10 kV and the deformation which maybe caused by the 5-10 T intense magnetic field. A creative configuration for the solenoid is developed including the winding guide, insulating sleeve, and stainless-steel sleeve. The experimental results show that the configuration of the solenoid is effective. The velocity of the valve is nearly 19 m/s and the time jitter of the shutdown is within 75 μs.

  6. Staged Z-pinch experiments on the Mega-Ampere current driver COBRA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenzuela, Julio; Banasek, Jacob; Byvank, Thomas; Conti, Fabio; Greenly, John; Hammer, David; Potter, William; Rocco, Sophia; Ross, Michael; Wessel, Frank; Narkis, Jeff; Rahman, Hafiz; Ruskov, Emil; Beg, Farhat

    2017-10-01

    Experiments were conducted on the Cornell's 1 MA, 100 ns current driver COBRA with the goal of better understanding the Staged Z-pinch physics and validating MHD codes. We used a gas injector composed of an annular (1.2 cm radius) high atomic number (e.g., Ar or Kr) gas-puff and an on-axis plasma gun that delivers the ionized hydrogen target. Liner implosion velocity and stability were studied using laser shadowgraphy and interferometry as well as XUV imaging. From the data, the signature of the MRT instability and zippering effect can be seen, but time integrated X-ray imaging show a stable target plasma. A key component of the experiment was the use of optical Thomson scattering (TS) diagnostics to characterize the liner and target plasmas. By fitting the experimental scattered spectra with synthetic data, electron and ion temperature as well as density can be obtained. Preliminary analysis shows significant scattered line broadening from the plasma on-axis ( 0.5 mm diameter) which can be explained by either a low temperature H plasma with Te =Ti =75eV, or by a hot plasma with Ti =3keV, Te =350eV if an Ar-H mixture is present with an Ar fraction higher than 10%. Funded by the Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy, DE-AR0000569.

  7. Electron temperature diagnostics of aluminium plasma in a z-pinch experiment at the “QiangGuang-1" facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mo; Wu, Jian; Wang, Liang-Ping; Wu, Gang; Han, Juan-Juan; Guo, Ning; Qiu, Meng-Tong

    2012-12-01

    Two curved crystal spectrometers are set up on the “QiangGuang-1" generator to measure the z-pinch plasma spectra emitted from planar aluminum wire array loads. Kodak Biomax-MS film and an IRD AXUVHS5# array are employed to record time-integrated and time-resolved free-bound radiation, respectively. The photon energy recorded by each detector is ascertained by using the L-shell lines of molybdenum plasma. Based on the exponential relation between the continuum power and photon energies, the aluminum plasma electron temperatures are measured. For the time-integrated diagnosis, several “bright spots" indicate electron temperatures between (450 eV ~ 520 eV) ± 35%. And for the time-resolved ones, the result shows that the electron temperature reaches about 800 eV ± 30% at peak power. The system satisfies the demand of z-pinch plasma electron temperature diagnosis on a ~ 1 MA facility.

  8. Particle drift model for Z-pinch-driven magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dan, Jia Kun; Xu, Qiang; Wang, Kun Lun; Ren, Xiao Dong; Huang, Xian Bin

    2016-09-01

    A theoretical model of Z-pinch driven magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability is proposed based on the particle drift point of view, which can explain the helical instability structure observed in premagnetized imploding liner experiments. It is demonstrated that all possible drift motions, including polarization drift, gradient drift, and curvature drift, which can lead to charge separations, each will attribute to an effective gravity acceleration. Theoretical predictions given by this model are dramatically different from those given by previous theories which have been readily recovered in the theory presented here as a limiting case. The theory shows qualitative agreement with available experimental data of the pitch angle and provides certain predictions to be verified.

  9. Oblique shock structures formed during the ablation phase of aluminium wire array z-pinches

    SciTech Connect

    Swadling, G. F.; Lebedev, S. V.; Niasse, N.

    A series of experiments has been conducted in order to investigate the azimuthal structures formed by the interactions of cylindrically converging plasma flows during the ablation phase of aluminium wire array Z pinch implosions. These experiments were carried out using the 1.4 MA, 240 ns MAGPIE generator at Imperial College London. The main diagnostic used in this study was a two-colour, end-on, Mach-Zehnder imaging interferometer, sensitive to the axially integrated electron density of the plasma. The data collected in these experiments reveal the strongly collisional dynamics of the aluminium ablation streams. The structure of the flows is dominated by amore » dense network of oblique shock fronts, formed by supersonic collisions between adjacent ablation streams. An estimate for the range of the flow Mach number (M = 6.2-9.2) has been made based on an analysis of the observed shock geometry. Combining this measurement with previously published Thomson Scattering measurements of the plasma flow velocity by Harvey-Thompson et al.[Physics of Plasmas 19, 056303 (2012)] allowed us to place limits on the range of the ZT{sub e} of the plasma. The detailed and quantitative nature of the dataset lends itself well as a source for model validation and code verification exercises, as the exact shock geometry is sensitive to many of the plasma parameters. Comparison of electron density data produced through numerical modelling with the Gorgon 3D MHD code demonstrates that the code is able to reproduce the collisional dynamics observed in aluminium arrays reasonably well.« less

  10. 3D MHD Simulations of Radial Wire Array Z-pinches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niasse, N.; Chittenden, J. P.; Bland, S. N.; Suzuki-Vidal, F. A.; Hall, G. N.; Lebedev, S. V.; Calamy, H.; Zucchini, F.; Lassalle, F.; Bedoch, J. P.

    2009-01-01

    Recent experiments carried out on the MAGPIE (1 MA, 250 ns), OEDIPE (730 kA, 1.5 μs) and SPHINX (4 MA, 700 ns)[1] facilities have shown the relatively high level of scalability of the Radial Wire Array Z-pinches. These configurations where the wires stretch radially outwards from a central cathode offer numerous advantages over standard cylindrical arrays. In particular, imploding in a very stable and compact way, they seem suitable for coupling to small scale hohlraums. Making use of the 3D resistive magneto-hydrodynamic code GORGON[2] developed at Imperial College, the dynamic of the radial wire arrays is investigated. Influence of the cathode hotspots and wires angle on the x-ray emissions is also discussed. Comparison with experiments is offered to validate the numerical studies.

  11. Turbulence, flow and transport: hints from reversed field pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vianello, N.; Antoni, V.; Spada, E.; Spolaore, M.; Serianni, G.; Cavazzana, R.; Bergsåker, H.; Cecconello, M.; Drake, J. R.

    2006-04-01

    The interplay between sheared E × B flows and turbulence has been experimentally investigated in the edge region of the Extrap-T2R reversed field pinch experiment. Electrostatic fluctuations are found to rule the momentum balance equation representing the main driving term for sheared flows which counterbalances anomalous viscous damping. The driving role of electrostatic fluctuations is proved by the spatial structure of the Reynolds stress and by the time behaviour of the mean energy production term which supports the existence of an energy exchange from the small scales of turbulence to the larger scales of the mean flow.

  12. Dynamics of current sheath in a hollow electrode Z-pinch discharge using slug model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd Al-Halim, Mohamed A.; Afify, M. S.

    2017-03-01

    The hollow electrode Z-pinch (HEZP) experiment is a new construction for the electromagnetic propulsion application in which the plasma is formed by the discharge between a plate and ring electrodes through which the plasma is propelled. The experimental results for 8 kV charging voltage shows that the peak discharge current is about 109 kA, which is in good agreement with the value obtained from the simulation in the slug model that simulates the sheath dynamics in the HEZP. The fitting of the discharge current from the slug model indicates that the total system inductance is 238 nH which is relatively a high static inductance accompanied with a deeper pinch depth indicating that the fitted anomalous resistance would be about 95 mΩ. The current and mass factors vary with the changing the gas pressure and the charging voltage. The current factor is between 0.4 and 0.5 on average which is relatively low value. The mass factor decreases by increasing the gas pressure indicating that the sheath is heavy to be driven by the magnetic pressure, which is also indicated from the decreases of the drive factor, hence the radial sheath velocity decreases. The plasma inductance and temperature increase with the increase of the drive factor while the minimum pinch radius decreases.

  13. Non-Laminar Flow Model for the Impedance of a Rod-Pinch Diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ottinger, Paul F.; Schumer, Joseph W.; Strasburg, Sean D.; Swanekamp, Stephen B.; Oliver, Bryan V.

    2002-12-01

    A previous laminar flow model for the rod-pinch diode is extended to include a transverse pressure term to study the effects of non-laminar flow. The non-laminar nature of the flow has a significant impact on the diode impedance. Results show that the introduction of the transverse pressure decreases the diode impedance predicted by the model bringing it into better agreement with experimental data.

  14. Charger 1: A New Facility for Z-Pinch Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Brian; Cassibry, Jason; Cortez, Ross; Doughty, Glen; Adams, Robert; DeCicco, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Charger 1 is a multipurpose pulsed power laboratory located on Redstone Arsenal, with a focus on fusion propulsion relevant experiments involving testing z-pinch diodes, pulsed magnetic nozzle and other related physics experiments. UAH and its team of pulsed power researchers are investigating ways to increase and optimize fusion production from Charger 1. Currently the team has reached high-power testing. Due to the unique safety issues related to high power operations the UAH/MSFC team has slowed repair efforts to develop safety and operations protocols. The facility is expected to be operational by the time DZP 2017 convenes. Charger 1 began life as the Decade Module 2, an experimental prototype built to prove the Decade Quad pinch configuration. The system was donated to UAH by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DRTA) in 2012. For the past 5 years a UAH/MSFC/Boeing team has worked to refurbish, assemble and test the system. With completion of high power testing in summer 2017 Charger 1 will become operational for experimentation. Charger 1 utilizes a Marx Bank of 72 100-kV capacitors that are charged in parallel and discharged in series. The Marx output is compressed to a pulse width of approximately 200 ns via a pulse forming network of 32 coaxial stainless steel tubes using water as a dielectric. After pulse compression a set of SF6 switches are triggered, allowing the wave front to propagate through the output line to the load. Charger 1 is capable of storing 572-kJ of energy and time compressing discharge to less than 250 ns discharge time producing a discharge of about 1 TW of discharge with 1 MV and 1 MA peak voltage and current, respectively. This capability will be used to study energy yield scaling and physics from solid density target as applied to advanced propulsion research.

  15. Diagnosing x-ray power and energy of tungsten wire array z-pinch with a flat spectral response x-ray diode

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Kun-lun; Ren, Xiao-dong; Huang, Xian-bin, E-mail: caephxb2003@aliyun.com

    2015-11-15

    Fast z-pinch is a very efficient way of converting electromagnetic energy to radiation. With an 8-10 MA current on primary test stand facility, about 1 MJ electromagnetic energy is delivered to vacuum chamber, which heats z-pinch plasma to radiate soft x-ray. To develop a pulsed high power x-ray source, we studied the applicability of diagnosing x-ray power from tungsten wire array z-pinch with a flat spectral response x-ray diode (FSR-XRD). The detector was originally developed to diagnose radiation of a hohlraum in SG-III prototype laser facility. It utilized a gold cathode XRD and a specially configured compound gold filter tomore » yield a nearly flat spectral response in photon energy range of 0.1-4 keV. In practice, it was critical to avoid surface contamination of gold cathode. It is illustrated that an exposure of an XRD to multiple shots caused a significant change of response. Thus, in diagnosing x-ray power and energy, we used each XRD in only one shot after calibration. In a shot serial, output of FSR-XRD was compared with output of a nickel bolometer. In these shots, the outputs agreed with each other within their uncertainties which were about 12% for FSR-XRD and about 15% for bolometer. Moreover, the ratios between the FSR-XRD and the bolometer among different shots were explored. In 8 shots, the standard deviation of the ratio was 6%. It is comparable to XRD response change of 7%.« less

  16. Experimental study of z-pinch driven radiative shocks in low density gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skidmore, Jonathan; Lebedev, S. V.; Suzuki-Vidal, F.; Swadling, G.; Bland, S. N.; Burdiak, G.; Chittenden, J. P.; de Grouchy, P.; Hall, G. N.; Pickworth, L.; Suttle, L.; Bennett, M.; Ciardi, A.

    2012-10-01

    Results of experiments performed on MAGPIE pulsed power facility (1.4MA, 250ns) will be presented. Shocks with velocities of 50-70km/s are driven in Ar, Xe and He gases at density ˜10-5g/cc using radial foil z-pinch configuration [1]. Measurements of the structure of the shocks obtained with laser probing will be presented and observations of the development of instabilities will be discussed. It was found that the structure of the shocks and the development of instabilities strongly depend on the rate of radiative cooling, increasing for gases with higher atomic numbers.[4pt] [1] F. Suzuki-Vidal et al., PoP 19, 022708 (2012)

  17. EQ-10 electrodeless Z-pinch EUV source for metrology applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafson, Deborah; Horne, Stephen F.; Partlow, Matthew J.; Besen, Matthew M.; Smith, Donald K.; Blackborow, Paul A.

    2011-11-01

    With EUV Lithography systems shipping, the requirements for highly reliable EUV sources for mask inspection and resist outgassing are becoming better defined, and more urgent. The sources needed for metrology applications are very different than that needed for lithography; brightness (not power) is the key requirement. Suppliers for HVM EUV sources have all resources working on high power and have not entered the smaller market for metrology. Energetiq Technology has been shipping the EQ-10 Electrodeless Z-pinchTM light source since 19951. The source is currently being used for metrology, mask inspection, and resist development2-4. These applications require especially stable performance in both output power and plasma size and position. Over the last 6 years Energetiq has made many source modifications which have included better thermal management to increase the brightness and power of the source. We now have introduced a new source that will meet requirements of some of the mask metrology first generation tools; this source will be reviewed.

  18. A Compact Soft X-Ray Microscope using an Electrode-less Z-Pinch Source.

    PubMed

    Horne, S F; Silterra, J; Holber, W

    2009-01-01

    Soft X-rays (< 1Kev) are of medical interest both for imaging and microdosimetry applications. X-ray sources at this low energy present a technological challenge. Synchrotrons, while very powerful and flexible, are enormously expensive national research facilities. Conventional X-ray sources based on electron bombardment can be compact and inexpensive, but low x-ray production efficiencies at low electron energies restrict this approach to very low power applications. Laser-based sources tend to be expensive and unreliable. Energetiq Technology, Inc. (Woburn, MA, USA) markets a 92 eV, 10W(2pi sr) electrode-less Z-pinch source developed for advanced semiconductor lithography. A modified version of this commercial product has produced 400 mW at 430 eV (2pi sr), appropriate for water window soft X-ray microscopy. The US NIH has funded Energetiq to design and construct a demonstration microscope using this source, coupled to a condenser optic, as the illumination system. The design of the condenser optic matches the unique characteristics of the source to the illumination requirements of the microscope, which is otherwise a conventional design. A separate program is underway to develop a microbeam system, in conjunction with the RARAF facility at Columbia University, NY, USA. The objective is to develop a focused, sub-micron beam capable of delivering > 1 Gy/second to the nucleus of a living cell. While most facilities of this type are coupled to a large and expensive particle accelerator, the Z-pinch X-ray source enables a compact, stand-alone design suitable to a small laboratory. The major technical issues in this system involve development of suitable focusing X-ray optics. Current status of these programs will be reported.

  19. A Compact Soft X-Ray Microscope using an Electrode-less Z-Pinch Source

    PubMed Central

    Silterra, J; Holber, W

    2009-01-01

    Soft X-rays (< 1Kev) are of medical interest both for imaging and microdosimetry applications. X-ray sources at this low energy present a technological challenge. Synchrotrons, while very powerful and flexible, are enormously expensive national research facilities. Conventional X-ray sources based on electron bombardment can be compact and inexpensive, but low x-ray production efficiencies at low electron energies restrict this approach to very low power applications. Laser-based sources tend to be expensive and unreliable. Energetiq Technology, Inc. (Woburn, MA, USA) markets a 92 eV, 10W(2pi sr) electrode-less Z-pinch source developed for advanced semiconductor lithography. A modified version of this commercial product has produced 400 mW at 430 eV (2pi sr), appropriate for water window soft X-ray microscopy. The US NIH has funded Energetiq to design and construct a demonstration microscope using this source, coupled to a condenser optic, as the illumination system. The design of the condenser optic matches the unique characteristics of the source to the illumination requirements of the microscope, which is otherwise a conventional design. A separate program is underway to develop a microbeam system, in conjunction with the RARAF facility at Columbia University, NY, USA. The objective is to develop a focused, sub-micron beam capable of delivering > 1 Gy/second to the nucleus of a living cell. While most facilities of this type are coupled to a large and expensive particle accelerator, the Z-pinch X-ray source enables a compact, stand-alone design suitable to a small laboratory. The major technical issues in this system involve development of suitable focusing X-ray optics. Current status of these programs will be reported. PMID:20198115

  20. Effect of the axial magnetic field on a metallic gas-puff pinch implosion

    SciTech Connect

    Rousskikh, A. G.; Zhigalin, A. S.; Frolova, V.

    2016-06-15

    The effect of an axial magnetic field B{sub z} on an imploding metallic gas-puff Z-pinch was studied using 2D time-gated visible self-emission imaging. Experiments were performed on the IMRI-5 generator (450 kA, 450 ns). The ambient field B{sub z} was varied from 0.15 to 1.35 T. It was found that the initial density profile of a metallic gas-puff Z-pinch can be approximated by a power law. Time-gated images showed that the magneto-Rayleigh–Taylor instabilities were suppressed during the run-in phase both without axial magnetic field and with axial magnetic field. Helical instability structures were detected during the stagnation phase for B{sub z} < 1.1 T. For B{submore » z} = 1.35 T, the pinch plasma boundary was observed to be stable in both run-in and stagnation phases. When a magnetic field of 0.3 T was applied to the pinch, the soft x-ray energy was about twice that generated without axial magnetic field, mostly due to longer dwell time at stagnation.« less

  1. Wire array Z-pinch insights for enhanced x-ray production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanford, T. W. L.; Mock, R. C.; Spielman, R. B.; Haines, M. G.; Chittenden, J. P.; Whitney, K. G.; Apruzese, J. P.; Peterson, D. L.; Greenly, J. B.; Sinars, D. B.; Reisman, D. B.; Mosher, D.

    1999-05-01

    Comparisons of measured total radiated x-ray power from annular wire-array z-pinches with a variety of models as a function of wire number, array mass, and load radius are reviewed. The data, which are comprehensive, have provided important insights into the features of wire-array dynamics that are critical for high x-ray power generation. Collectively, the comparisons of the data with the model calculations suggest that a number of underlying dynamical mechanisms involving cylindrical asymmetries and plasma instabilities contribute to the measured characteristics. For example, under the general assumption that the measured risetime of the total-radiated-power pulse is related to the thickness of the plasma shell formed on axis, the Heuristic Model [IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 26, 1275 (1998)] agrees with the measured risetime under a number of specific assumptions about the way the breakdown of the wires, the wire-plasma expansion, and the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the r-z plane, develop. Likewise, in the high wire-number regime (where the wires are calculated to form a plasma shell prior to significant radial motion of the shell) the comparisons show that the variation in the power of the radiation generated as a function of load mass and array radius can be simulated by the two-dimensional Eulerian-radiation- magnetohydrodynamics code (E-RMHC) [Phys. Plasmas 3, 368 (1996)], using a single random-density perturbation that seeds the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the r-z plane. For a given pulse-power generator, the comparisons suggest that (1) the smallest interwire gaps compatible with practical load construction and (2) the minimum implosion time consistent with the optimum required energy coupling of the generator to the load should produce the highest total-radiated-power levels.

  2. PINCHED PLASMA REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, J.A.; Suydam, R.; Tuck, J.L.

    1961-07-01

    BS>A plasma confining and heating reactor is described which has the form of a torus with a B/sub 2/ producing winding on the outside of the torus and a helical winding of insulated overlapping tunns on the inside of the torus. The inner helical winding performs the double function of shielding the plasma from the vitreous container and generating a second B/sub z/ field in the opposite direction to the first B/sub z/ field after the pinch is established.

  3. Development and demonstration of a water-window soft x-ray microscope using a Z-pinching capillary discharge source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawaz, M. F.; Jancarek, Alexandr; Nevrkla, Michal; Duda, Martin Jakub; Pina, Ladislav

    2017-05-01

    The development and demonstration of a soft X-ray (SXR) microscope, based on a Z-pinching capillary discharge source has been realized. The Z-pinching plasma acts as a source of SXR radiation. A ceramic capacitor bank is pulsed charged up to 80 kV, and discharged through a pre- ionized nitrogen filled ceramic capillary. The discharge current has an amplitude of 25 kA. Working within the water-window spectral region (λ = 2.88 nm), corresponding to the 1s2-1s2p quantum transition of helium-like nitrogen (N5+), the microscope has a potential in exploiting the natural contrast existing between the K-absorption edges of carbon and oxygen as the main constituents of biological materials, and hence imaging them with high spatial resolution. The SXR microscope uses the grazing incidence ellipsoidal condenser mirror for the illumination, and the Fresnel zone plate optics for the imaging of samples onto a BI-CCD camera. The half- pitch spatial resolution of 100 nm [1] was achieved, as demonstrated by the knife-edge test. In order to enhance the photon-flux at the sample plane, a new scheme for focusing the radiation, from multiple capillary sources has been investigated. Details about the source, and the construction of the microscope are presented and discussed.

  4. MAIZE: a 1 MA LTD-Driven Z-Pinch at The University of Michigan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilgenbach, R. M.; Gomez, M. R.; Zier, J. C.; Tang, W. W.; French, D. M.; Lau, Y. Y.; Mazarakis, M. G.; Cuneo, M. E.; Johnston, M. D.; Oliver, B. V.; Mehlhorn, T. A.; Kim, A. A.; Sinebryukhov, V. A.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers at The University of Michigan have constructed and tested a 1-MA Linear Transformer Driver (LTD), the first of its type to reach the USA. The Michigan Accelerator for Inductive Z-pinch Experiments, (MAIZE), is based on the LTD developed at the Institute of High Current Electronics in collaboration with Sandia National Labs and UM. This LTD utilizes 80 capacitors and 40 spark gap switches, arranged in 40 "bricks," to deliver a 1 MA, 100 kV pulse with 100 ns risetime into a matched resistive load. Preliminary resistive-load test results are presented for the LTD facility. Planned experimental research programs at UM include: a) Studies of Magneto-Raleigh-Taylor instability of planar foils, and b) Vacuum convolute studies including cathode and anode plasma.

  5. Radial and Azimuthal Velocity Profiles in Gas-Puff Z-Pinches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocco, Sophia; Engelbrecht, Joseph; Banasek, Jacob; de Grouchy, Philip; Qi, Niansheng; Hammer, David

    2016-10-01

    The dynamics of neon, argon, and krypton (either singly or in combination) gas puff z-pinch plasmas are studied on Cornell's 1MA, 100-200ns rise-time COBRA pulsed power generator. The triple-nozzle gas puff valve, consisting of two annular gas puffs and a central jet, allows radial tailoring of the gas puff mass-density profile and the use of 1, 2 or 3 different gases at different pressures. Interferometry supplies information on sheath thickness and electron density, variously filtered PCDs and silicon diodes measure hard and soft x-ray production, and multi frame visible and extreme UV imaging systems allow tracking of the morphology of the plasma. A 527nm, 10J Thomson scattering diagnostic system is used to determine radial and azimuthal velocities. Implosion velocities of 170km/s (Kr) and 300km/s (Ne/Ar) are observed. We are investigating the correlations between instability growth, plasma density profile, velocity partitioning as a function of radius, and radiation production. Research supported by the NNSA Stewardship Sciences Academic Programs under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NA0001836.

  6. Reynolds stress flow shear and turbulent energy transfer in reversed field pinch configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vianello, Nicola; Spolaore, Monica; Serianni, Gianluigi; Regnoli, Giorgio; Spada, Emanuele; Antoni, Vanni; Bergsåker, Henric; Drake, James R.

    2003-10-01

    The role of Reynolds Stress tensor on flow generation in turbulent fluids and plasmas is still an open question and the comprehension of its behavior may assist the understanding of improved confinement scenario. It is generally believed that shear flow generation may occur by an interaction of the turbulent Reynolds stress with the shear flow. It is also generally believed that this mechanism may influence the generation of zonal flow shears. The evaluation of the complete Reynolds Stress tensor requires contemporary measurements of its electrostatic and magnetic part: this requirement is more restrictive for Reversed Field Pinch configuration where magnetic fluctuations are larger than in tokamak . A new diagnostic system which combines electrostatic and magnetic probes has been installed in the edge region of Extrap-T2R reversed field pinch. With this new probe the Reynolds stress tensor has been deduced and its radial profile has been reconstructed on a shot to shot basis exploring differen plasma conditions. These profiles have been compared with the naturally occurring velocity flow profile, in particular during Pulsed Poloidal Current Drive experiment, where a strong variation of ExB flow radial profile has been registered. The study of the temporal evolution of Reynolds stress reveals the appearance of strong localized bursts: these are considered in relation with global MHD relaxation phenomena, which naturally occur in the core of an RFP plasma sustaining its configuration.

  7. Characterisation of the current switch mechanism in two-stage wire array Z-pinches

    SciTech Connect

    Burdiak, G. C.; Lebedev, S. V.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.

    2015-11-15

    In this paper, we describe the operation of a two-stage wire array z-pinch driven by the 1.4 MA, 240 ns rise-time Magpie pulsed-power device at Imperial College London. In this setup, an inverse wire array acts as a fast current switch, delivering a current pre-pulse into a cylindrical load wire array, before rapidly switching the majority of the generator current into the load after a 100–150 ns dwell time. A detailed analysis of the evolution of the load array during the pre-pulse is presented. Measurements of the load resistivity and energy deposition suggest significant bulk heating of the array mass occurs. Themore » ∼5 kA pre-pulse delivers ∼0.8 J of energy to the load, leaving it in a mixed, predominantly liquid-vapour state. The main current switch occurs as the inverse array begins to explode and plasma expands into the load region. Electrical and imaging diagnostics indicate that the main current switch may evolve in part as a plasma flow switch, driven by the expansion of a magnetic cavity and plasma bubble along the length of the load array. Analysis of implosion trajectories suggests that approximately 1 MA switches into the load in 100 ns, corresponding to a doubling of the generator dI/dt. Potential scaling of the device to higher current machines is discussed.« less

  8. Use of vacuum arc plasma guns for a metal puff Z-pinch system

    SciTech Connect

    Rousskikh, A. G.; Zhigalin, A. S.; Oreshkin, V. I.

    The performance of a metal puff Z-pinch system has been studied experimentally. In this type of system, the initial cylindrical shell 4 cm in diameter was produced by ten plasma guns. Each gun initiates a vacuum arc operating between magnesium electrodes. The net current of the guns was 80 kA. The arc-produced plasma shell was compressed by using a 450-kA, 450-ns driver, and as a result, a plasma column 0.3 cm in diameter was formed. The electron temperature of the plasma reached 400 eV at an average ion concentration of 1.85 {center_dot} 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3}. The power of themore » Mg K-line radiation emitted by the plasma for 15-30 ns was 300 MW/cm.« less

  9. Stability of short-axial-wavelength internal kink modes of an anisotropic plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faghihi, M.; Scheffel, J.

    1987-12-01

    The double adiabatic equations are used to study the stability of a cylindrical Z-pinch with respect to small axial wavelength, internal kink (m ≥ 1) modes. It is found that marginally (ideally) unstable, isotropic equilibria are stabilized. Also, constant-current-density equilibria can be stabilized for P > P and large β

  10. Hard X-ray and Particle Beams Research on 1.7 MA Z-pinch and Laser Plasma Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Ishor; Kantsyrev, Victor; Safronova, Alla; Esaulov, Andrey; Nishio, Mineyuki; Shlyaptseva, Veronica; Keim, Steven; Weller, Michael; Stafford, Austin; Petkov, Emil; Schultz, Kimberly; Cooper, Matthew; PPDL Team

    2013-10-01

    Studies of hard x-ray (HXR) emission, electron and ion beam generation in z-pinch and laser plasmas are important for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) and development of HXR sources from K-shell and L-shell radiation. The characteristics of HXR and particle beams produced by implosions of planar wire arrays, nested and single cylindrical wire arrays, and X-pinches were analyzed on 100 ns UNR Zebra generator with current up to 1.7 MA. In addition, the comparison of characteristics of HXR and electron beams on Zebra and 350 fs UNR Leopard laser experiments with foils has been performed. The diagnostics include Faraday cups, HXR diodes, different x-ray spectrometers and imaging systems, and ion mass spectrometer using the technique of Thomson parabola. Future work on HXRs and particle beams in HED plasmas is discussed. This work was supported by the DOE/NNSA Cooperative agreement DE-NA0001984 and in part by DE-FC52-06NA27616. This work was also supported by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Basic Research Award # HDTRA1-13-1-0033, to University of Nevada, Reno.

  11. Neutron Activation Diagnostics in Deuterium Gas-Puff Experiments on the 3 MA GIT-12 Z-Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cikhardt, J.; Klir, D.; Rezac, K.; Cikhardtova, B.; Kravarik, J.; Kubes, P.; Sila, O.; Shishlov, A. V.; Cherdizov, R. K.; Fursov, F. I.; Kokshenev, V. A.; Kurmaev, N. E.; Labetsky, A. Yu; Ratakhin, N. A.; Dudkin, G. N.; Garapatsky, A. A.; Padalko, V. N.; Varlachev, V. A.; Turek, K.

    2016-10-01

    The experiments with a deuterium z-pinch on the GIT-12 generator at IHCE in Tomsk were performed in the frame of the Czech-Russian agreement. A set of neutron diagnostics included scintillation time-of-flight detectors, bubble detectors, and several kinds of threshold nuclear activation detectors in the order to obtain information about the yield, anisotropy, and spectrum of the neutrons produced by a deuterium gas-puff. The average neutron yield in these experiments was of the order of 1012 neutrons per a single shot. The energy spectrum of the produced neutrons was evaluated using neutron time-of-flight detectors and a set of neutron activation detectors. Because the deuterons in the pinch achieve multi-MeV energies, non-DD neutrons are produced by nuclear reactions of deuterons with a stainless steel vacuum chamber and aluminum components of diagnostics inside the chamber. An estimated number of the non-DD was of the order of 1011. GACR (Grant No. 16-07036S), CME (Grant Nos. LD14089, LG13029, and LH13283), MESRF (Grant No. RFMEFI59114X0001), IAEA (Grant No. RC17088), CTU (Grant No. SGS 16/223/OHK3/3T/13).

  12. Preconditioned wire array Z-pinches driven by a double pulse current generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jian; Lu, Yihan; Sun, Fengju; Li, Xingwen; Jiang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Zhiguo; Zhang, Daoyuan; Qiu, Aici; Lebedev, Sergey

    2018-07-01

    Suppression of the core-corona structure and wire ablation in wire array Z-pinches is investigated using a novel double pulse current generator ‘Qin-1’ facility. The ‘Qin-1’ facility allows coupling a ∼10 kA 20 ns prepulse generator with a ∼0.8 MA 160 ns main current generator. The tailored prepulse current preheats wires to a gaseous state and the time interval between the prepulse and the main current pulse allows formation of a more uniform mass distribution for the implosion. The implosion of a gasified two aluminum-wire array showed no ablation phase and allowed all array mass to participate in the implosion. The initial perturbations formed from the inhomogeneous ablation were suppressed, however, the magneto Rayleigh–Taylor (MRT) instability during the implosion was still significant and further researches on the generation and development of the MRT instabilities of this gasified wire array are needed.

  13. Turbulent energy transfer in electromagnetic turbulence: hints from a Reversed Field Pinch plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vianello, N.; Bergsaker, H.

    2005-10-01

    The relationship between electromagnetic turbulence and sheared plasma flow in a Reversed Field Pinch is addressed. ExB sheared flows and turbulence at the edge tends to organize themeselves near marginal stability, suggesting an underlying energy exchange process between turbulence and mean flow. In MHD this process is well described through the quantity P which represents the energy transfer (per mass and time unit) from turbulence to mean fields. In the edge region of RFP configuration, where magnetic field is mainly poloidal and the mean ExB is consequently toroidal, the quantity P results: P =[ -ρμ0 + ]Vφr where Vφ is the mean ExB toroidal flow, ρ the mean mass density and b and v the fluctuations of velocity and magnetic field respectively. Both the radial profiles and the temporal evolution of P have been measured in the edge region of Extrap-T2R Reversed Field Pinch experiment. The results support the existence of oscillating energy exchange process between fluctuations and mean flow.

  14. Efficient generation of fast neutrons by magnetized deuterons in an optimized deuterium gas-puff z-pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klir, D.; Shishlov, A. V.; Kokshenev, V. A.; Kubes, P.; Labetsky, A. Yu; Rezac, K.; Cherdizov, R. K.; Cikhardt, J.; Cikhardtova, B.; Dudkin, G. N.; Fursov, F. I.; Garapatsky, A. A.; Kovalchuk, B. M.; Kravarik, J.; Kurmaev, N. E.; Orcikova, H.; Padalko, V. N.; Ratakhin, N. A.; Sila, O.; Turek, K.; Varlachev, V. A.

    2015-04-01

    Z-pinch experiments with deuterium gas puffs have been carried out on the GIT-12 generator at 3 MA currents. Recently, a novel configuration of a deuterium gas-puff z-pinch was used to accelerate deuterons and to generate fast neutrons. In order to form a homogeneous, uniformly conducting layer at a large initial radius, an inner deuterium gas puff was surrounded by an outer hollow cylindrical plasma shell. The plasma shell consisting of hydrogen and carbon ions was formed at the diameter of 350 mm by 48 plasma guns. A linear mass of the plasma shell was about 5 µg cm-1 whereas a total linear mass of deuterium gas in single or double shell gas puffs was about 100 µg cm-1. The implosion lasted 700 ns and seemed to be stable up to a 5 mm radius. During stagnation, m = 0 instabilities became more pronounced. When a disruption of necks occurred, the plasma impedance reached 0.4 Ω and high energy (>2 MeV) bremsstrahlung radiation together with high energy deuterons were produced. Maximum neutron energies of 33 MeV were observed by axial time-of-flight detectors. The observed neutron spectra could be explained by a suprathermal distribution of deuterons with a high energy tail f≤ft({{E}\\text{d}}\\right)\\propto E\\text{d}-(1.8+/- 0.2) . Neutron yields reached 3.6 × 1012 at a 2.7 MA current. A high neutron production efficiency of 6 × 107 neutrons per one joule of plasma energy resulted from the generation of high energy deuterons and from their magnetization inside plasmas.

  15. Compression mechanisms in the plasma focus pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Saw, S. H.; Ali, Jalil

    2017-03-01

    The compression of the plasma focus pinch is a dynamic process, governed by the electrodynamics of pinch elongation and opposed by the negative rate of change of current dI/dt associated with the current dip. The compressibility of the plasma is influenced by the thermodynamics primarily the specific heat ratio; with greater compressibility as the specific heat ratio γ reduces with increasing degree of freedom f of the plasma ensemble due to ionization energy for the higher Z (atomic number) gases. The most drastic compression occurs when the emitted radiation of a high-Z plasma dominates the dynamics leading in extreme cases to radiative collapse which is terminated only when the compressed density is sufficiently high for the inevitable self-absorption of radiation to occur. We discuss the central pinch equation which contains the basic electrodynamic terms with built-in thermodynamic factors and a dQ/dt term; with Q made up of a Joule heat component and absorption-corrected radiative terms. Deuterium is considered as a thermodynamic reference (fully ionized perfect gas with f = 3) as well as a zero-radiation reference (bremsstrahlung only; with radiation power negligible compared with electrodynamic power). Higher Z gases are then considered and regimes of thermodynamic enhancement of compression are systematically identified as are regimes of radiation-enhancement. The code which incorporates all these effects is used to compute pinch radius ratios in various gases as a measure of compression. Systematic numerical experiments reveal increasing severity in radiation-enhancement of compressions as atomic number increases. The work progresses towards a scaling law for radiative collapse and a generalized specific heat ratio incorporating radiation.

  16. Investigation of magnetic flux transport and shock formation in a staged Z-pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narkis, J.; Rahman, H. U.; Wessel, F. J.; Beg, F. N.

    2017-10-01

    Target preheating is an integral component of magnetized inertial fusion in reducing convergence ratio. In the staged Z-pinch concept, it is achieved via one or more shocks. Previous work [Narkis et al., Phys. Plasmas 23, 122706 (2016)] found that shock formation in the target occurred earlier in higher-Z liners due to faster flux transport to the target/liner interface. However, a corresponding increase in magnitude of magnetic pressure was not observed, and target implosion velocity (and therefore shock strength) remained unchanged. To investigate other means of increasing the magnitude of transported flux, a Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers equation from the 1-D single-fluid, resistive magnetohydrodynamic equations is obtained. Solutions to the nondispersive (i.e., Burgers) equation depend on nondimensional coefficients, whose dependence on liner density, temperature, etc., suggests an increase in target implosion velocity, and therefore shock strength, can be obtained by tailoring the mass of a single-liner gas puff to a double-liner configuration. In the selected test cases of 1-D simulated implosions of krypton on deuterium, the peak Mach number increased from ˜ 5 to ˜ 8 . While a notable increase was seen, Mach numbers exceeding 10 (implosion velocities exceeding ˜25 cm/μs) are necessary for adequate shock preheating.

  17. Rotation in a reversed field pinch with active feedback stabilization of resistive wall modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecconello, M.; Menmuir, S.; Brunsell, P. R.; Kuldkepp, M.

    2006-09-01

    Active feedback stabilization of multiple resistive wall modes (RWMs) has been successfully proven in the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch. One of the features of plasma discharges operated with active feedback stabilization, in addition to the prolongation of the plasma discharge, is the sustainment of the plasma rotation. Sustained rotation is observed both for the internally resonant tearing modes (TMs) and the intrinsic impurity oxygen ions. Good quantitative agreement between the toroidal rotation velocities of both is found: the toroidal rotation is characterized by an acceleration phase followed, after one wall time, by a deceleration phase that is slower than in standard discharges. The TMs and the impurity ions rotate in the same poloidal direction with also similar velocities. Poloidal and toroidal velocities have comparable amplitudes and a simple model of their radial profile reproduces the main features of the helical angular phase velocity. RWMs feedback does not qualitatively change the TMs behaviour and typical phenomena such as the dynamo and the 'slinky' are still observed. The improved sustainment of the plasma and TMs rotation occurs also when feedback only acts on internally non-resonant RWMs. This may be due to an indirect positive effect, through non-linear coupling between TMs and RWMs, of feedback on the TMs or to a reduced plasma-wall interaction affecting the plasma flow rotation. Electromagnetic torque calculations show that with active feedback stabilization the TMs amplitude remains well below the locking threshold condition for a thick shell. Finally, it is suggested that active feedback stabilization of RWMs and current profile control techniques can be employed simultaneously thus improving both the plasma duration and its confinement properties.

  18. One- and two-dimensional modeling of argon K-shell emission from gas-puff Z-pinch plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Thornhill, J. W.; Chong, Y. K.; Apruzese, J. P.

    2007-06-15

    In this paper, a theoretical model is described and demonstrated that serves as a useful tool for understanding K-shell radiating Z-pinch plasma behavior. Such understanding requires a self-consistent solution to the complete nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium kinetics and radiation transport in order to realistically model opacity effects and the high-temperature state of the plasma. For this purpose, we have incorporated into the MACH2 two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code [R. E. Peterkin et al., J. Comput. Phys. 140, 148 (1998)] an equation of state, called the tabular collisional radiative equilibrium (TCRE) model [J. W. Thornhill et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, 3480 (2001)], thatmore » provides reasonable approximations to the plasma's opacity state. MACH2 with TCRE is applied toward analyzing the multidimensional implosion behavior that occurred in Decade Quad (DQ) [D. Price et al., Proceedings of the 12th IEEE Pulsed Power Conference, Monterey, CA, edited by C. Stallings and H. Kirbie (IEEE, New York, 1999), p. 489] argon gas puff experiments that employed a 12 cm diameter nozzle with and without a central gas jet on axis. Typical peak drive currents and implosion times in these experiments were {approx}6 MA and {approx}230 ns. By using Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence measured initial density profiles as input to the calculations, the effect these profiles have on the ability of the pinch to efficiently produce K-shell emission can be analyzed with this combined radiation-MHD model. The calculated results are in agreement with the experimental result that the DQ central-jet configuration is superior to the no-central-jet experiment in terms of producing more K-shell emission. These theoretical results support the contention that the improved operation of the central-jet nozzle is due to the better suppression of instabilities and the higher-density K-shell radiating conditions that the central-jet configuration promotes. When we applied the model

  19. Evolution of sausage and helical modes in magnetized thin-foil cylindrical liners driven by a Z-pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yager-Elorriaga, D. A.; Lau, Y. Y.; Zhang, P.; Campbell, P. C.; Steiner, A. M.; Jordan, N. M.; McBride, R. D.; Gilgenbach, R. M.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we present experimental results on axially magnetized (Bz = 0.5 - 2.0 T), thin-foil (400 nm-thick) cylindrical liner-plasmas driven with ˜600 kA by the Michigan Accelerator for Inductive Z-Pinch Experiments, which is a linear transformer driver at the University of Michigan. We show that: (1) the applied axial magnetic field, irrespective of its direction (e.g., parallel or anti-parallel to the flow of current), reduces the instability amplitude for pure magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes [defined as modes devoid of the acceleration-driven magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instability]; (2) axially magnetized, imploding liners (where MHD modes couple to MRT) generate m = 1 or m = 2 helical modes that persist from the implosion to the subsequent explosion stage; (3) the merging of instability structures is a mechanism that enables the appearance of an exponential instability growth rate for a longer than expected time-period; and (4) an inverse cascade in both the axial and azimuthal wavenumbers, k and m, may be responsible for the final m = 2 helical structure observed in our experiments. These experiments are particularly relevant to the magnetized liner inertial fusion program pursued at Sandia National Laboratories, where helical instabilities have been observed.

  20. Studies of the Plasma Triggering Mechanism of Inverse Pinch Switch

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-10

    plasma - focus driven plasma-puff was also discussed in comparison with the hypocycloidal pinch plasma-puff triggering. The main discharge of inverse pinch switch with plasma - focus driven plasma-puff trigger is found to be more azimuthally uniform than that with hypocycloidal pinch plasma-puff trigger in a gas pressure region between 80 mTorr and 1 Torr. A comparative study of the INPIStron and a spark gap also reveals that the INPIStron with a low impedance Z = 9 ohms can transfer a high voltage pulse with a superior pulse-shape fidelity over that with

  1. Simulations of Ar gas-puff Z-pinch radiation sources with double shells and central jets on the Z generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tangri, V.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Giuliani, J. L.; Thornhill, J. W.; Velikovich, A. L.; Apruzese, J. P.; Ouart, N. D.; Dasgupta, A.; Jones, B.; Jennings, C. A.

    2016-10-01

    Radiation-magnetohydrodynamic simulations using the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium Mach2-Tabular Collisional-Radiative Equilibrium code in (r, z) geometry are performed for two pairs of recent Ar gas-puff Z-pinch experiments on the refurbished Z generator with an 8 cm diameter nozzle. One pair of shots had an outer-to-inner shell mass ratio of 1:1.6 and a second pair had a ratio of 1:1. In each pair, one of the shots had a central jet. The experimental trends in the Ar K-shell yield and power are reproduced in the calculations. However, the K-shell yield and power are significantly lower than the other three shots for the case of a double-shell puff of 1:1 mass ratio and no central jet configuration. Further simulations of a hypothetical experiment with the same relative density profile of this configuration, but higher total mass, show that the coupled energy from the generator and the K-shell yield can be increased to levels achieved in the other three configurations, but not the K-shell power. Based on various measures of effective plasma radius, the compression in the 1:1 mass ratio and no central jet case is found to be less because the plasma inside the magnetic piston is hotter and of lower density. Because of the reduced density, and the reduced radiation cooling (which is proportional to the square of the density), the core plasma is hotter. Consequently, for the 1:1 outer-to-inner shell mass ratio, the load mass controls the yield and the center jet controls the power.

  2. Influence of pinches on magnetic reconnection in turbulent space plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olshevsky, Vyacheslav; Lapenta, Giovanni; Markidis, Stefano; Divin, Andrey

    A generally accepted scenario of magnetic reconnection in space plasmas is the breakage of magnetic field lines in X-points. In laboratory, reconnection is widely studied in pinches, current channels embedded into twisted magnetic fields. No model of magnetic reconnection in space plasmas considers both null-points and pinches as peers. We have performed a particle-in-cell simulation of magnetic reconnection in a three-dimensional configuration where null-points are present nitially, and Z-pinches are formed during the simulation. The X-points are relatively stable, and no substantial energy dissipation is associated with them. On contrary, turbulent magnetic reconnection in the pinches causes the magnetic energy to decay at a rate of approximately 1.5 percent per ion gyro period. Current channels and twisted magnetic fields are ubiquitous in turbulent space plasmas, so pinches can be responsible for the observed high magnetic reconnection rates.

  3. Scaling of X pinches from 1 MA to 6 MA.

    SciTech Connect

    Bland, Simon Nicholas; McBride, Ryan D.; Wenger, David Franklin

    This final report for Project 117863 summarizes progress made toward understanding how X-pinch load designs scale to high currents. The X-pinch load geometry was conceived in 1982 as a method to study the formation and properties of bright x-ray spots in z-pinch plasmas. X-pinch plasmas driven by 0.2 MA currents were found to have source sizes of 1 micron, temperatures >1 keV, lifetimes of 10-100 ps, and densities >0.1 times solid density. These conditions are believed to result from the direct magnetic compression of matter. Physical models that capture the behavior of 0.2 MA X pinches predict more extreme parametersmore » at currents >1 MA. This project developed load designs for up to 6 MA on the SATURN facility and attempted to measure the resulting plasma parameters. Source sizes of 5-8 microns were observed in some cases along with evidence for high temperatures (several keV) and short time durations (<500 ps).« less

  4. Temperature Evolution of a 1 MA Triple-Nozzle Gas-Puff Z-Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Grouchy, Philip; Banasek, Jacob; Engelbrecht, Joey; Qi, Niansheng; Atoyan, Levon; Byvank, Tom; Cahill, Adam; Moore, Hannah; Potter, William; Ransohoff, Lauren; Hammer, David; Kusse, Bruce; Laboratory of Plasma Studies Team

    2015-11-01

    Mitigation of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) plays a critical role in optimizing x-ray output at high-energy ~ 13 keV using the triple-nozzle Krypton gas-puff at Sandia National Laboratory. RTI mitigation by gas-puff density profiling using a triple-nozzle gas-puff valve has recently been recently demonstrated on the COBRA 1MA z-pinch at Cornell University. In support of this work we investigate the role of shell cooling in the growth of RTI during gas-puff implosions. Temperature measurements within the imploding plasma shell are recorded using a 527 nm, 10 GW Thomson scattering diagnostic for Neon, Argon and Krypton puffs. The mass-density profile is held constant at 22 microgram per centimeter for all three puffs and the temperature evolution of the imploding material is recorded. In the case of Argon puffs we find that the shell ion and electron effective temperatures remain in equilibrium at around 1keV for the majority of the implosion phase. In contrast scattered spectra from Krypton are dominated by of order 10 keV effective ion temperatures. Supported by the NNSA Stewardship Sciences Academic Programs.

  5. Construction and Initial Tests of MAIZE: 1 MA LTD-Driven Z-Pinch *

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilgenbach, R. M.; Gomez, M. R.; Zier, J. C.; Tang, W.; French, D. M.; Lau, Y. Y.; Mazarakis, M. G.; Cuneo, M. E.; Johnston, M. D.; Oliver, B. V.; Mehlhorn, T. A.; Kim, A. A.; Sinebryukhov, V. A.

    2008-11-01

    We report construction and initial testing of a 1-MA Linear Transformer Driver (LTD), The Michigan Accelerator for Inductive Z-pinch Experiments, (MAIZE). This machine, the first of its type to reach the USA, is based on the joint HCEI, Sandia Laboratories, and UM development effort. The compact LTD uses 80 capacitors and 40 spark gap switches, in 40 ``bricks'', to deliver 1 MA, 100 kV pulses with 70 ns risetime into a matched resistive load. Test results will be presented for a single brick and the full LTD. Design and construction will be presented of a low-inductance MITL. Experimental research programs under design and construction at UM include: a) Studies of Magneto-Raleigh-Taylor Instability of planar foils, and b) Vacuum convolute studies including cathode and anode plasma. Theory and simulation results will be presented for these planned experiments. Initial experimental designs and moderate-current feasibility experiments will be discussed. *Research supported by U. S. DoE through Sandia National Laboratories award document numbers 240985, 768225, 790791 and 805234 to the UM. MRG supported by NNSA Fellowship and JCZ supported by NPSC Fellowship / Sandia National Labs.

  6. Neutron spectra from beam-target reactions in dense Z-pinches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appelbe, B.; Chittenden, J.

    2015-10-01

    The energy spectrum of neutrons emitted by a range of deuterium and deuterium-tritium Z-pinch devices is investigated computationally using a hybrid kinetic-MHD model. 3D MHD simulations are used to model the implosion, stagnation, and break-up of dense plasma focus devices at currents of 70 kA, 500 kA, and 2 MA and also a 15 MA gas puff. Instabilities in the MHD simulations generate large electric and magnetic fields, which accelerate ions during the stagnation and break-up phases. A kinetic model is used to calculate the trajectories of these ions and the neutron spectra produced due to the interaction of these ions with the background plasma. It is found that these beam-target neutron spectra are sensitive to the electric and magnetic fields at stagnation resulting in significant differences in the spectra emitted by each device. Most notably, magnetization of the accelerated ions causes the beam-target spectra to be isotropic for the gas puff simulations. It is also shown that beam-target spectra can have a peak intensity located at a lower energy than the peak intensity of a thermonuclear spectrum. A number of other differences in the shapes of beam-target and thermonuclear spectra are also observed for each device. Finally, significant differences between the shapes of beam-target DD and DT neutron spectra, due to differences in the reaction cross-sections, are illustrated.

  7. Fusion neutron detector for time-of-flight measurements in z-pinch and plasma focus experiments.

    PubMed

    Klir, D; Kravarik, J; Kubes, P; Rezac, K; Litseva, E; Tomaszewski, K; Karpinski, L; Paduch, M; Scholz, M

    2011-03-01

    We have developed and tested sensitive neutron detectors for neutron time-of-flight measurements in z-pinch and plasma focus experiments with neutron emission times in tens of nanoseconds and with neutron yields between 10(6) and 10(12) per one shot. The neutron detectors are composed of a BC-408 fast plastic scintillator and Hamamatsu H1949-51 photomultiplier tube (PMT). During the calibration procedure, a PMT delay was determined for various operating voltages. The temporal resolution of the neutron detector was measured for the most commonly used PMT voltage of 1.4 kV. At the PF-1000 plasma focus, a novel method of the acquisition of a pulse height distribution has been used. This pulse height analysis enabled to determine the single neutron sensitivity for various neutron energies and to calibrate the neutron detector for absolute neutron yields at about 2.45 MeV.

  8. The effects of insulating coatings and current prepulse on tungsten planar wire array Z-pinches

    SciTech Connect

    Li, M., E-mail: limo@nint.ac.cn; Li, Y.; State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulsed Radiation Simulation and Effect, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi'an 710024

    2015-12-15

    This paper presents experimental results on the effects of insulating coatings and current prepulse on tungsten planar wire array Z-pinches on ∼100 ns main current facility. Optical framing images indicated that without a current prepulse the wire ablation process was asymmetrical and the implosion was zippered. The x-ray peak power was ∼320 GW. By using insulating coatings on the wire surface the asymmetry remained, and the processes of ablation and implosion were delayed by ∼30 ns. The x-ray burst was narrow and decreased to ∼200 GW. When current prepulses were used on both standard and insulated wire arrays, implosion symmetry was improved and themore » x-ray burst was improved (to ∼520 GW peak power). In addition, there was a strong emitting precursor column for insulated loads with the current prepulse.« less

  9. Self-pinched lithium beam transport experiments on SABRE

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, D.L.; Olson, C.L.; Poukey, J.W.

    Self-pinched transport of ion beams has many advantages for ion-driven ICF applications involving high yield and energy production. The authors are currently preparing for a self-pinched lithium beam transport experiment on the SABRE accelerator. There are three transport elements that must eventually be demonstrated: (1) efficient lithium beam generation and ballistic transport to a focus at the self-pinched transport channel entrance; (2) self-pinched transport in the channel, requiring optimized injection conditions and gas breakdown; and (3) self-pinched transport of the equilibrated beam from the channel into free space, with associated aiming and stability considerations. In the present experiment, a hollowmore » annular lithium beam from an applied-B extraction ion diode will be focused to small radius (r {le} 2 cm) in a 60 cm long ballistic focus section containing argon gas at a pressure of a few Torr. The self-pinched transport channel will contain a low pressure background gas of 10--40 mTorr argon to allow sufficient net current to confine the beam for long distance transport. IPROP simulations are in progress to optimize the design of the ballistic and self-pinched transport sections. Progress on preparation of this lithium self-pinched transport experiment, including a discussion of transport system design, important gas breakdown issues, and diagnostics, will be presented.« less

  10. A z-pinch photo-pumped pulsed atomic iodine laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, D. H.; Saunders, D. P.; Clark, M. C.

    1984-03-01

    A pulsed atomic iodine laser (CF3I) was designed and constructed using a coaxial xenon flash lamp as a pump source. The flash lamp was operated at low pressure to obtain pulse compression via xenon self-pinch. Electrical and optical diagnostics were performed for various xenon and CF3I pressures. Calorimeter data and burn patterns were obtained for the laser. Time-resolved spectroscopic data were taken throughout the CF3I pump band.

  11. Dynamics of a Z-pinch x-ray source for heating inertial-confinement-fusion relevant hohlraums to 120-160 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanford, T. W. L.; Olson, R. E.; Mock, R. C.; Chandler, G. A.; Leeper, R. J.; Nash, T. J.; Ruggles, L. E.; Simpson, W. W.; Struve, K. W.; Peterson, D. L.; Bowers, R. L.; Matuska, W.

    2000-11-01

    A Z-pinch radiation source has been developed that generates 60±20 kJ of x rays with a peak power of 13±4 TW through a 4-mm-diam axial aperture on the Z facility. The source has heated National Ignition Facility-scale (6-mm-diam by 7-mm-high) hohlraums to 122±6 eV and reduced-scale (4-mm-diam by 4-mm-high) hohlraums to 155±8 eV—providing environments suitable for indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion studies. Eulerian-RMHC (radiation-magnetohydrodynamics code) simulations that take into account the development of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the r-z plane provide integrated calculations of the implosion, x-ray generation, and hohlraum heating, as well as estimates of wall motion and plasma fill within the hohlraums. Lagrangian-RMHC simulations suggest that the addition of a 6 mg/cm3 CH2 fill in the reduced-scale hohlraum decreases hohlraum inner-wall velocity by ˜40% with only a 3%-5% decrease in peak temperature, in agreement with measurements.

  12. Symmetric aluminum-wire arrays generate high-quality Z pinches at large array radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanford, T. W. L.; Mock, R. C.; Spielman, R. B.; Peterson, D. L.; Mosher, D.; Roderick, N. F.

    1998-10-01

    A Saturn-accelerator study of annular, aluminum-wire array, Z-pinch implosions, in the calculated high-wire-number plasma-shell regime [Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5063 (1996)], shows that the radiated x-ray pulse width increases from about 4 nsec to about 7 nsec, when the radius of the array is increased from 8.75 to 20 mm at a fixed array mass of 0.6 mg. Eulerian radiation- magnetohydrodynamic code (E-RMHC) simulations in the r-z plane suggest that this pulse-width increase with radius is due to the faster growth of the shell thickness (that arises from a two-stage development in the magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability) relative to the increase in the shell implosion velocity. Over the array radii explored, the measured peak total x-ray power of ˜40 TW and energy of ˜325 kJ show little change outside of a ±15% shot-to-shot fluctuation and are consistent with the E-RMHC simulations. Similarly, the measured peak K-shell (lines plus continuum) power of ˜8 TW and energy of ˜70 kJ show little change with radius. The minimal change in K-shell yield is in agreement with simple K-shell radiation scaling models that assume a fixed radial compression for all initial array radii. These results suggest that the improved uniformity provided by the large number of wires in the initial array reduces the disruptive effects of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability observed in small-wire-number imploding loads.

  13. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of aluminum z-pinch plasma with tungsten backlighter planar wire array source.

    PubMed

    Osborne, G C; Kantsyrev, V L; Safronova, A S; Esaulov, A A; Weller, M E; Shrestha, I; Shlyaptseva, V V; Ouart, N D

    2012-10-01

    Absorption features from K-shell aluminum z-pinch plasmas have recently been studied on Zebra, the 1.7 MA pulse power generator at the Nevada Terawatt Facility. In particular, tungsten plasma has been used as a semi-backlighter source in the generation of aluminum K-shell absorption spectra by placing a single Al wire at or near the end of a single planar W array. All spectroscopic experimental results were recorded using a time-integrated, spatially resolved convex potassium hydrogen phthalate (KAP) crystal spectrometer. Other diagnostics used to study these plasmas included x-ray detectors, optical imaging, laser shadowgraphy, and time-gated and time-integrated x-ray pinhole imagers. Through comparisons with previous publications, Al K-shell absorption lines are shown to be from much lower electron temperature (∼10-40 eV) plasmas than emission spectra (∼350-500 eV).

  14. Feedback stabilization of resistive wall modes in a reversed-field pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunsell, P. R.; Yadikin, D.; Gregoratto, D.; Paccagnella, R.; Liu, Y. Q.; Cecconello, M.; Drake, J. R.; Manduchi, G.; Marchiori, G.

    2005-09-01

    An array of saddle coils having Nc=16 equally spaced positions along the toroidal direction has been installed for feedback control of resistive wall modes (RWMs) on the EXTRAP T2R reversed-field pinch [P. R. Brunsell, H. Bergsaker, M. Cecconello et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 43, 1457 (2001)]. Using feedback, multiple nonresonant RWMs are simultaneously suppressed for three to four wall times. Feedback stabilization of RWMs results in a significant prolongation of the discharge duration. This is linked to a better sustainment of the plasma and tearing mode toroidal rotation with feedback. Due to the limited number of coils in the toroidal direction, pairs of modes with toroidal mode numbers n ,n' that fulfill the condition ∣n-n'∣=Nc are coupled by the feedback action from the discrete coil array. With only one unstable mode in a pair of coupled modes, the suppression of the unstable mode is successful. If two modes are unstable in a coupled pair, two possibilities exist: partial suppression of both modes or, alternatively, complete stabilization of one target mode while the other is left unstable.

  15. [Contrast of Z-Pinch X-Ray Yield Measure Technique].

    PubMed

    Li, Mo; Wang, Liang-ping; Sheng, Liang; Lu, Yi

    2015-03-01

    Resistive bolometer and scintillant detection system are two mainly Z-pinch X-ray yield measure techniques which are based on different diagnostic principles. Contrasting the results from two methods can help with increasing precision of X-ray yield measurement. Experiments with different load material and shape were carried out on the "QiangGuang-I" facility. For Al wire arrays, X-ray yields measured by the two techniques were largely consistent. However, for insulating coating W wire arrays, X-ray yields taken from bolometer changed with load parameters while data from scintillant detection system hardly changed. Simulation and analysis draw conclusions as follows: (1) Scintillant detection system is much more sensitive to X-ray photons with low energy and its spectral response is wider than the resistive bolometer. Thus, results from the former method are always larger than the latter. (2) The responses of the two systems are both flat to Al plasma radiation. Thus, their results are consistent for Al wire array loads. (3) Radiation form planar W wire arrays is mainly composed of sub-keV soft X-ray. X-ray yields measured by the bolometer is supposed to be accurate because of the nickel foil can absorb almost all the soft X-ray. (4) By contrast, using planar W wire arrays, data from scintillant detection system hardly change with load parameters. A possible explanation is that while the distance between wires increases, plasma temperature at stagnation reduces and spectra moves toward the soft X-ray region. Scintillator is much more sensitive to the soft X-ray below 200 eV. Thus, although the total X-ray yield reduces with large diameter load, signal from the scintillant detection system is almost the same. (5) Both Techniques affected by electron beams produced by the loads.

  16. Starting buoyant plumes and vortex ring pinch-off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pottebaum, Tait; Gharib, Mory

    2003-11-01

    The vortex ring formation process of a starting buoyant plume was studied experimentally. Buoyant plumes were produced using a heating element at the base of a water tank. The velocity and temperature fields in the flow were measured using digital particle image thermometry and velocimetry (DPITV), allowing the density and vorticity fields to be determined. The vortex ring initially grew, with additional circulation being supplied by the trailing plume. At later times, the vortex ring became disconnected from the trailing plume. This is analogous to the pinch-off of a vortex ring produced by a piston-cylinder apparatus reported by Gharib et al (1998 JFM 360: 121-140). The existence of a pinch-off process for starting buoyant plumes has many implications for environmental flows. Of particular interest is the effect of vortex ring pinch-off on the dispersal of particulates and contaminants in intermittent or sudden convection events.

  17. Hydrodynamic stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drazin, P. G.; Reid, W. H.

    The book is written from the point of view intrinsic to fluid mechanics and applied mathematics. The analytical aspects of the theory are emphasized. However, it has also been tried, wherever possible, to relate the theory to experimental and numerical results. Mechanisms of instability are considered along with fundamental concepts of hydrodynamic stability, the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, and the break-up of a liquid jet in air. Aspects of thermal instability are investigated, taking into account the equations of motion, the stability problem, general stability characteristics, particular stability characteristics, the cells, and experimental results. The inviscid theory and the viscous theory are examined in connection with a study of parallel shear flows. Centrifugal instability is discussed along with uniform asymptotic approximations, and problems of nonlinear stability. Attention is also given to baroclinic instability, the instability of the pinch, the development of linear instability in time and space, and the instability of unsteady flows.

  18. Turbulence, transport, and zonal flows in the Madison symmetric torus reversed-field pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Z. R.; Pueschel, M. J.; Terry, P. W.; Hauff, T.

    2017-12-01

    The robustness and the effect of zonal flows in trapped electron mode (TEM) turbulence and Ion Temperature Gradient (ITG) turbulence in the reversed-field pinch (RFP) are investigated from numerical solutions of the gyrokinetic equations with and without magnetic external perturbations introduced to model tearing modes. For simulations without external magnetic field perturbations, zonal flows produce a much larger reduction of transport for the density-gradient-driven TEM turbulence than they do for the ITG turbulence. Zonal flows are studied in detail to understand the nature of their strong excitation in the RFP and to gain insight into the key differences between the TEM- and ITG-driven regimes. The zonal flow residuals are significantly larger in the RFP than in tokamak geometry due to the low safety factor. Collisionality is seen to play a significant role in the TEM zonal flow regulation through the different responses of the linear growth rate and the size of the Dimits shift to collisionality, while affecting the ITG only minimally. A secondary instability analysis reveals that the TEM turbulence drives zonal flows at a rate that is twice that of the ITG turbulence. In addition to interfering with zonal flows, the magnetic perturbations are found to obviate an energy scaling relation for fast particles.

  19. Diagnostics of deuterium gas-puff z-pinch experiments on the GIT-12 generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cikhardt, J.; Klir, D.; Rezac, K.; Kubes, P.; Kravarik, J.; Batobolotova, B.; Sila, O.; Turek, K.; Shishlov, A.; Labetsky, A.; Kokshenev, V.; Chedizov, R.; Ratakhin, N.; Varlachev, V.; Garapatsky, A.; Dudkin, G.; Padalko, V.; GIT-12 Team

    2014-10-01

    Z-pinch experiments with a deuterium gas-puff and an outer plasma shell generated by plasma guns were carried out on the GIT-12 generator at the IHCE in Tomsk. Using this novel configuration of the load, the neutron yields from the DD reaction were significantly increased from 2×1011 up to 3×1012 neutrons per shot at the current level of about 3 MA. In addition to recent experiments, the threshold activation detectors were used in order to get the information about the energy spectrum of the generated neutrons. The copper, indium, and lead samples were irradiated by the pulse of the neutrons generated during the experimental shot. The decay radiation of the products from the reactions 63Cu(n,2n)62Cu, 115In(n, γ) 116 mIn and 206Pb (n,3n)204mPb was observed using gamma spectrometer. According to the used neutron ToF scintillation detectors, the energy of neutrons reaches up to 20 MeV. The work was supported by the MSMT of the Czech Republic research Programs No. ME090871, No. LG13029, by the GACR Grant No. P205/12/0454, Grant CRA IAEA No. 17088 and RFBR research Project No. 13-08-00479-a.

  20. General process improvements through pinch technology

    SciTech Connect

    Linnhoff, B.; Polley, G.T.; Sahdev, V.

    1988-06-01

    Over the last ten years pinch technology has emerged as somewhat of a ''maverick'' development in the process design and energy conservation scene. Running contrary to general trends by taking the computer out of the loop and putting the engineer back in control, it has been questioned by some and welcomed by others. Regardless of persuasion, however, critics and advocates alike have largely failed to notice that pinch technology is more than an energy conservation tool. This is probably because soon after the advent of pinch technology in the 1970s, the process design scene became dominated by the oil crisis.more » Energy savings became the primary task of process designers and, therefore, the primary focus of the technology. Application during this period typically demonstrated energy cost savings in the range of 20 to 50 percent and payback periods of one year or less. Only recently have the other benefits of the technology reemerged. While it is true that pinch technology is essentially a heat-flow-based technique it is also true that it can be used to address a very diverse range of objectives.« less

  1. Development And Characterization Of A Liner-On-Target Injector For Staged Z-Pinch Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenzuela, J. C.; Conti, F.; Krasheninnikov, I.; Narkis, J.; Beg, F.; Wessel, F. J.; Rahman, H. U.

    2016-10-01

    We present the design and optimization of a liner-on-target injector for Staged Z-pinch experiments. The injector is composed of an annular high atomic number (e.g. Ar, Kr) gas-puff and an on-axis plasma gun that delivers the ionized deuterium target. The liner nozzle injector has been carefully studied using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations to produce a highly collimated 1 cm radius gas profile that satisfies the theoretical requirement for best performance on the 1 MA Zebra current driver. The CFD simulations produce density profiles as a function of the nozzle shape and gas. These profiles are initialized in the MHD MACH2 code to find the optimal liner density for a stable, uniform implosion. We use a simple Snowplow model to study the plasma sheath acceleration in a coaxial plasma gun to help us properly design the target injector. We have performed line-integrated density measurements using a CW He-Ne laser to characterize the liner gas and the plasma gun density as a function of time. The measurements are compared with models and calculations and benchmarked accordingly. Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy, DE-AR0000569.

  2. Sheared E×B flow and plasma turbulence viscosity in a Reversed Field Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vianello, N.; Antoni, V.; Spada, E.; Spolaore, M.; Serianni, G.; Regnoli, G.; Zuin, M.; Cavazzana, R.; Bergsåker, H.; Cecconello, M.; Drake, J. R.

    2004-11-01

    The relationship between electromagnetic turbulence and sheared plasma flow in Reversed Field Pinch configuration is addressed. The momentum balance equation for a compressible plasma is considered and the terms involved are measured in the outer region of Extrap-T2R RFP device. It results that electrostatic fluctuations determine the plasma flow through the electrostatic component of Reynolds Stress tensor. This term involves spatial and temporal scales comparable to those of MHD activity. The derived experimental perpendicular viscosity is consistent with anomalous diffusion, the latter being discussed in terms of electrostatic turbulence background and coherent structures emerging from fluctuations. The results indicate a dynamical interplay between turbulence, anomalous transport and mean E×B profiles. The momentum balance has been studied also in non-stationary condition during the application of Pulsed Poloidal Current Drive, which is known to reduce the amplitude of MHD modes.

  3. X-ray power and yield measurements at the refurbished Z machine

    DOE PAGES

    Jones, M. C.; Ampleford, D. J.; Cuneo, M. E.; ...

    2014-08-04

    Advancements have been made in the diagnostic techniques to measure accurately the total radiated x-ray yield and power from z-pinch loads at the Z Machine with high accuracy. The Z-accelerator is capable of outputting 2MJ and 330 TW of x-ray yield and power, and accurately measuring these quantities is imperative. We will describe work over the past several years which include the development of new diagnostics, improvements to existing diagnostics, and implementation of automated data analysis routines. A set of experiments were conducted on the Z machine where the load and machine configuration were held constant. During this shot series,more » it was observed that total z-pinch x-ray emission power determined from the two common techniques for inferring the x-ray power, Kimfol filtered x-ray diode diagnostic and the Total Power and Energy diagnostic gave 450 TW and 327 TW respectively. Our analysis shows the latter to be the more accurate interpretation. More broadly, the comparison demonstrates the necessity to consider spectral response and field of view when inferring xray powers from z-pinch sources.« less

  4. The Effect of Uniform Background Flow on Vortex Ring Formation and Pinch-off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, Paul S.; Dabiri, John O.; Gharib, Morteza

    2002-11-01

    Experimental investigations of vortex ring formation are extended to include the effects of a uniform background flow, in a manner relevant to the locomotion of aquatic animals utilizing jet propulsion. Gharib et. al. [J. Fluid Mech. 360, 121 (1998)] generated vortex rings using a piston/cylinder apparatus with relatively large discharge times to demonstrate that the vortex ring at the leading edge of the jet attains its maximum circulation at a piston stroke-to-diameter ratio L/D of 4. This "formation number" is robust over a range of piston motions and cylinder boundary conditions, and can be explained in terms of the Kelvin-Benjamin variational principle. To determine the effect of background flow on formation number and pinch-off of the leading vortex ring, uniform co-flow is established in a large annulus surrounding the vortex generator. The ratio of co-flow velocity to piston velocity is varied between 0 and 1. In addition, the co-flow is initiated at times both before and after the start of vortex ring formation. We present results for stroke ratios L/D = 2 and L/D = 8, in order to discern effects of the co-flow on the leading vortex ring in isolation and in the presence of a trailing jet.

  5. Effects of flows on viscous and resistive MHD stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Einaudi, Giorgio

    1986-01-01

    In many solar applications the viscosity appears to be more important than resistivity. In order to discuss the instabilities in solar conditions, an idealized configuration is considered in which the plasma is flowing in the z-direction along the magnetic field B sub 0 with a velocity V sub 0. As far as the velocity is concerned two different velocity profiles, with different hydrodynmaic stability properties are discussed. The results are summarized.

  6. Spectroscopic Study of Neon Z-Pinch Plasma for Sodium-Neon Photopumping Experiments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-06

    enhancement of the 11-A radiation from the n=4 level of neon when the sodium pump was present. For the 25-GV pump power, theoretical calculations predict...when the neon plasma is photopumped. Extensive theoretical analysis has been devoted to establishing the appropriate conditions for these plasmas. 5 ,44...producing thermonuclear neutrons. 63-65 Extensive theoretical modeling of the stability of these plasmas has guided this work.66 An imploding-liner Z

  7. Two dynamin-like proteins stabilize FtsZ rings during Streptomyces sporulation.

    PubMed

    Schlimpert, Susan; Wasserstrom, Sebastian; Chandra, Govind; Bibb, Maureen J; Findlay, Kim C; Flärdh, Klas; Buttner, Mark J

    2017-07-25

    During sporulation, the filamentous bacteria Streptomyces undergo a massive cell division event in which the synthesis of ladders of sporulation septa convert multigenomic hyphae into chains of unigenomic spores. This process requires cytokinetic Z-rings formed by the bacterial tubulin homolog FtsZ, and the stabilization of the newly formed Z-rings is crucial for completion of septum synthesis. Here we show that two dynamin-like proteins, DynA and DynB, play critical roles in this process. Dynamins are a family of large, multidomain GTPases involved in key cellular processes in eukaryotes, including vesicle trafficking and organelle division. Many bacterial genomes encode dynamin-like proteins, but the biological function of these proteins has remained largely enigmatic. Using a cell biological approach, we show that the two Streptomyces dynamins specifically localize to sporulation septa in an FtsZ-dependent manner. Moreover, dynamin mutants have a cell division defect due to the decreased stability of sporulation-specific Z-rings, as demonstrated by kymographs derived from time-lapse images of FtsZ ladder formation. This defect causes the premature disassembly of individual Z-rings, leading to the frequent abortion of septum synthesis, which in turn results in the production of long spore-like compartments with multiple chromosomes. Two-hybrid analysis revealed that the dynamins are part of the cell division machinery and that they mediate their effects on Z-ring stability during developmentally controlled cell division via a network of protein-protein interactions involving DynA, DynB, FtsZ, SepF, SepF2, and the FtsZ-positioning protein SsgB.

  8. X-ray Spectropolarimetry of Z-pinch Plasmas with a Single-Crystal Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Matt; Haque, Showera; Neill, Paul; Pereira, Nino; Presura, Radu

    2017-10-01

    When directed beams of energetic electrons exist in a plasma the resulting x-rays emitted by the plasma can be partially polarized. This makes plasma x-ray polarization spectroscopy, spectropolarimetry, useful for revealing information about the anisotropy of the electron velocity distribution. X-ray spectropolarimetry has indeed been used for this in both space and laboratory plasmas. X-ray polarization measurements are typically performed employing two crystals, both at a 45° Bragg angle. A single-crystal spectropolarimeter can replace two crystal schemes by utilizing two matching sets of internal planes for polarization-splitting. The polarization-splitting planes diffract the incident x-rays into two directions that are perpendicular to each other and the incident beam as well, so the two sets of diffracted x-rays are linearly polarized perpendicularly to each other. An X-cut quartz crystal with surface along the [11-20] planes and a paired set of [10-10] planes in polarization-splitting orientation is now being used on aluminum z-pinches at the University of Nevada, Reno. Past x-ray polarization measurements have been reserved for point-like sources. Recently a slotted collimating aperture has been used to maintain the required geometry for polarization-splitting enabling the spectropolarimetry of extended sources. The design of a single-crystal x-ray spectropolarimeter and experimental results will be presented. Work was supported by U.S. DOE, NNSA Grant DE-NA0001834 and cooperative agreement DE-FC52-06NA27616.

  9. Pinched flow coupled shear-modulated inertial microfluidics for high-throughput rare blood cell separation.

    PubMed

    Bhagat, Ali Asgar S; Hou, Han Wei; Li, Leon D; Lim, Chwee Teck; Han, Jongyoon

    2011-06-07

    Blood is a highly complex bio-fluid with cellular components making up >40% of the total volume, thus making its analysis challenging and time-consuming. In this work, we introduce a high-throughput size-based separation method for processing diluted blood using inertial microfluidics. The technique takes advantage of the preferential cell focusing in high aspect-ratio microchannels coupled with pinched flow dynamics for isolating low abundance cells from blood. As an application of the developed technique, we demonstrate the isolation of cancer cells (circulating tumor cells (CTCs)) spiked in blood by exploiting the difference in size between CTCs and hematologic cells. The microchannel dimensions and processing parameters were optimized to enable high throughput and high resolution separation, comparable to existing CTC isolation technologies. Results from experiments conducted with MCF-7 cells spiked into whole blood indicate >80% cell recovery with an impressive 3.25 × 10(5) fold enrichment over red blood cells (RBCs) and 1.2 × 10(4) fold enrichment over peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL). In spite of a 20× sample dilution, the fast operating flow rate allows the processing of ∼10(8) cells min(-1) through a single microfluidic device. The device design can be easily customized for isolating other rare cells from blood including peripheral blood leukocytes and fetal nucleated red blood cells by simply varying the 'pinching' width. The advantage of simple label-free separation, combined with the ability to retrieve viable cells post enrichment and minimal sample pre-processing presents numerous applications for use in clinical diagnosis and conducting fundamental studies.

  10. Neutron production in deuterium gas-puff z-pinch with outer plasma shell at current of 3 MA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cikhardt, J.; Klir, D.; Rezac, K.; Cikhardtova, B.; Kravarik, J.; Kubes, P.; Sila, O.; Shishlov, A. V.; Cherdizov, R. K.; Frusov, F. I.; Kokshenev, V. A.; Kurmaev, N. E.; Labetsky, A. Yu.; Ratakhin, N. A.; Dudkin, G. N.; Garapatsky, A. A.; Padalko, V. N.; Varlachev, V. A.; Turek, K.; Krasa, J.

    2015-11-01

    Z-pinch experiments at the current of about 3 MA were carried out on the GIT-12 generator. The outer plasma shell of deuterium gas-puff was generated by the system of 48 plasma guns. This configuration exhibits a high efficiency of the production of DD fusion neutrons with the yield of above 1012 neutrons produced in a single shot with the duration of about 20 ns. The maximum energy of the neutrons produced in this pulse exceeded 30 MeV. The neutron radiation was measured using scintillation TOF detectors, CR-39 nuclear track detectors, bubble detectors BD-PND and BDS-10000 and by several types of nuclear activation detectors. These diagnostic tools were used to measure the anisotropy of neutron fluence and neutron energy spectra. It allows us to estimate the total number of DD neutrons, the contribution of other nuclear reactions, the amount of scattered neutrons, and other parameters of neutron production. This work was supported by the MSMT grants LH13283, LD14089.

  11. New compact hohlraum configuration research at the 1.7 MA Z-pinch generator

    SciTech Connect

    Kantsyrev, V. L., E-mail: victor@unr.edu; Shrestha, I. K.; Esaulov, A. A.

    A new compact Z-pinch x-ray hohlraum design with parallel-driven x-ray sources was experimentally demonstrated in a full configuration with a central target and tailored shine shields (to provide a symmetric temperature distribution on the target) at the 1.7 MA Zebra generator. This presentation reports on the joint success of two independent lines of research. One of these was the development of new sources – planar wire arrays (PWAs). PWAs turned out to be a prolific radiator. Another success was the drastic improvement in energy efficiency of pulsed-power systems, such as the Load Current Multiplier (LCM). The Zebra/LCM generator almost doubledmore » the plasma load current to 1.7 MA. The two above-mentioned innovative approaches were used in combination to produce a new compact hohlraum design for ICF, as jointly proposed by SNL and UNR. Good agreement between simulated and measured radiation temperature of the central target is shown. Experimental comparison of PWAs with planar foil liners (PFL) - another viable alternative to wire array loads at multi-MA generators show promising data. Results of research at the University of Nevada Reno allowed for the study of hohlraum coupling physics at University-scale generators. The advantages of new hohlraum design applications for multi-MA facilities with W or Au double PWAs or PFL x-ray sources are discussed.« less

  12. X-ray Power Increase from Symmetrized Wire-Array z-Pinch Implosions on Saturn.*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanford, T. W. L.; Allshouse, G. O.; Marder, B. M.; Nash, T. J.; Mock, R. C.; Douglas, M. R.; Spielman, R. B.; Seaman, J. F.; McGurn, J. S.; Jobe, D.; Gilliland, T. L.; Vargas, M.; Struve, K. W.; Stygar, W. A.; Hammer, J. H.; Degroot, J. S.; Eddleman, J. L.; Peterson, D. L.; Whitney, K. G.; Thornhill, J. W.; Pulsifer, P. E.; Apruzese, J. P.; Mosher, D.; Maron, Y.

    1996-11-01

    A systematic experimental study of annular aluminum wire z-pinches on the Saturn accelerator at Sandia National Laboratories shows that, for the first time, many of the measured spatial characteristics and x-ray powers can be correlated to 1D and 2D, radiation-magneto-hydrodynamic code (RMHC) simulations when large numbers of wires are used. Calculations show that the implosion begins to transition from that of individual wire plasmas to that of a continuous plasma shell when the circumferential gap between wires in the array is reduced below 1.4 +1.3/-0.7 mm. This calculated gap coincides with the measured transition of 1.4±0.4 mm between the observed regimes of slow and rapid improvement in power output with decreasing gap. In the plasma-shell regime, x-ray power has been more than tripled over that generated in the wire-plasma regime. In the full paper, measured characteristics in the plasma-shell regime are compared with 2D, 1- and 20-mm axial length simulations of the implosion using a multi-photon-group Lagrangian RMHC^1 and a three-temperature Eulerian RMHC,^2 respectively. ^1J.H. Hammer, et al., Phys. Plasmas 3, 2063 (1996). ^2D.L. Peterson, et al., Phys. Plasmas 3, 368 (1996). Work supported by U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  13. Use of microsecond current prepulse for dramatic improvements of wire array Z-pinch implosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calamy, H.; Lassalle, F.; Loyen, A.; Zucchini, F.; Chittenden, J. P.; Hamann, F.; Maury, P.; Georges, A.; Bedoch, J. P.; Morell, A.

    2008-01-01

    The Sphinx machine [F. Lassalle et al., "Status on the SPHINX machine based on the 1microsecond LTD technology"] based on microsecond linear transformer driver (LTD) technology is used to implode an aluminium wire array with an outer diameter up to 140mm and maximum current from 3.5to5MA. 700to800ns implosion Z-pinch experiments are performed on this driver essentially with aluminium. Best results obtained before the improvement described in this paper were 1-3TW radial total power, 100-300kJ total yield, and 20-30kJ energy above 1keV. An auxiliary generator was added to the Sphinx machine in order to allow a multi microsecond current to be injected through the wire array load before the start of the main current. Amplitude and duration of this current prepulse are adjustable, with maxima ˜10kA and 50μs. This prepulse dramatically changes the ablation phase leading to an improvement of the axial homogeneity of both the implosion and the final radiating column. Total power was multiplied by a factor of 6, total yield by a factor of 2.5 with a reproducible behavior. This paper presents experimental results, magnetohydrodynamic simulations, and analysis of the effect of such a long current prepulse.

  14. Variation of high-power aluminum-wire array Z-pinch dynamics with wire number, load mass, and array radius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanford, T. W. L.; Mock, R. C.; Marder, B. M.; Nash, T. J.; Spielman, R. B.; Peterson, D. L.; Roderick, N. F.; Hammer, J. H.; De Groot, J. S.; Mosher, D.; Whitney, K. G.; Apruzese, J. P.

    1997-05-01

    A systematic study of annular aluminum-wire z-pinches on the Saturn accelerator shows that the quality of the implosion, (as measured by the radial convergence, the radiated energy, pulse width, and power), increases with wire number. Radiation magnetohydrodynamic (RMHC) xy simulations suggest that the implosion transitions from that of individual wire plasmas to that of a continuous plasma shell when the interwire spacing is reduced below ˜1.4 mm. In this "plasma-shell regime," many of the global radiation and plasma characteristics are in agreement with those simulated by 2D-RMHC rz simulations. In this regime, measured changes in the radiation pulse width with variations in load mass and array radius are consistent with the simulations and are explained by the development of 2D fluid motion in the rz plane. Associated variations in the K-shell yield are qualitatively explained by simple radiation-scaling models.

  15. flowVS: channel-specific variance stabilization in flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Azad, Ariful; Rajwa, Bartek; Pothen, Alex

    2016-07-28

    Comparing phenotypes of heterogeneous cell populations from multiple biological conditions is at the heart of scientific discovery based on flow cytometry (FC). When the biological signal is measured by the average expression of a biomarker, standard statistical methods require that variance be approximately stabilized in populations to be compared. Since the mean and variance of a cell population are often correlated in fluorescence-based FC measurements, a preprocessing step is needed to stabilize the within-population variances. We present a variance-stabilization algorithm, called flowVS, that removes the mean-variance correlations from cell populations identified in each fluorescence channel. flowVS transforms each channel from all samples of a data set by the inverse hyperbolic sine (asinh) transformation. For each channel, the parameters of the transformation are optimally selected by Bartlett's likelihood-ratio test so that the populations attain homogeneous variances. The optimum parameters are then used to transform the corresponding channels in every sample. flowVS is therefore an explicit variance-stabilization method that stabilizes within-population variances in each channel by evaluating the homoskedasticity of clusters with a likelihood-ratio test. With two publicly available datasets, we show that flowVS removes the mean-variance dependence from raw FC data and makes the within-population variance relatively homogeneous. We demonstrate that alternative transformation techniques such as flowTrans, flowScape, logicle, and FCSTrans might not stabilize variance. Besides flow cytometry, flowVS can also be applied to stabilize variance in microarray data. With a publicly available data set we demonstrate that flowVS performs as well as the VSN software, a state-of-the-art approach developed for microarrays. The homogeneity of variance in cell populations across FC samples is desirable when extracting features uniformly and comparing cell populations with

  16. Using 1D theory to understand 3D stagnation of a wire-array Z pinch in the absence of radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Edmund

    2015-11-01

    Many high-energy-density systems implode towards the axis of symmetry, where it collides on itself, forming a hot plasma. However, experiments show these imploding plasmas develop three-dimensional (3D) structures. As a result, the plasma cannot completely dissipate its kinetic energy at stagnation, instead retaining significant 3D flow. A useful tool for understanding the effects of this residual flow is 3D simulation, but the amount and complexity of information can be daunting. To address this problem, we explore the connection between 3D simulation and one-dimensional (1D) theory. Such a connection, if it exists, is mutually beneficial: 1D theory can provide a clear picture of the underlying dynamics of 3D stagnation. On the other hand, deviations between theory and simulation suggest how 1D theory must be modified to account for 3D effects. In this work, we focus on a 3D, magnetohydrodynamic simulation of a compact wire-array Z pinch. To provide a simpler background against which to test our ideas, we artificially turn off radiation during the stagnation phase. Examination of the initial accumulation of mass on axis reveals oblique collision between jets, shock accretion, and vortex formation. Despite evidence for shock-dominated stagnation, a 1D shockless stagnation solution is more appropriate for describing the global dynamics, in that it reproduces the increase of on-axis density with time. However, the 1D solution must be modified to account for 3D effects: the flows suggest enhanced thermal transport as well as centrifugal force. Upon reaching peak compression, the stagnation transitions to a second phase, in which the high-pressure core on axis expands outward into the remaining imploding plasma. During this phase, a 1D shock solution describes the growth of the shock accretion region, as well as the decrease of on-axis density with time. However, the effect of 3D flows is still present: the on-axis temperature does not cool during expansion, which

  17. Electrostatic stability of electron-positron plasmas in dipole geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishchenko, Alexey; Plunk, Gabriel G.; Helander, Per

    2018-04-01

    The electrostatic stability of electron-positron plasmas is investigated in the point-dipole and Z-pinch limits of dipole geometry. The kinetic dispersion relation for sub-bounce-frequency instabilities is derived and solved. For the zero-Debye-length case, the stability diagram is found to exhibit singular behaviour. However, when the Debye length is non-zero, a fluid mode appears, which resolves the observed singularity, and also demonstrates that both the temperature and density gradients can drive instability. It is concluded that a finite Debye length is necessary to determine the stability boundaries in parameter space. Landau damping is investigated at scales sufficiently smaller than the Debye length, where instability is absent.

  18. MHD Stability of Axisymmetric Plasmas In Closed Line Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simakov, Andrei N.; Catto, Peter J.; Ramos, Jesus J.; Hastie, R. J.

    2003-04-01

    The stability of axisymmetric plasmas confined by closed poloidal magnetic field lines is considered. The results are relevant to plasmas in the dipolar fields of stars and planets, as well as the Levitated Dipole Experiment, multipoles, Z pinches and field reversed configurations. The ideal MHD energy principle is employed to study stability of pressure driven Alfvén modes. A point dipole is considered in detail to demonstrate that equilibria exist, which are MHD stable for arbitrary beta. Effects of sound waves and plasma resistivity are investigated next for point dipole equilibria by means of resistive MHD theory.

  19. Plasma diagnostics for x-ray driven foils at Z

    SciTech Connect

    Heeter, R F; Bailey, J E; Cuneo, M E

    We report the development of techniques to diagnose plasmas produced by X-ray photoionization of thin foils placed near the Z-pinch on the Sandia Z Machine. The development of 100+ TW X-ray sources enables access to novel plasma regimes, such as the photoionization equilibrium. To diagnose these plasmas one must simultaneously characterize both the foil and the driving pinch. The desired photoionized plasma equilibrium is only reached transiently for a 2-ns window, placing stringent requirements on diagnostic synchronization. We have adapted existing Sandia diagnostics and fielded an additional gated 3-crystal Johann spectrometer with dual lines of sight to meet these requirements.more » We present sample data from experiments in which 1 cm, 180 eV tungsten pinches photoionized foils composed of 200{angstrom} Fe and 300{angstrom} NaF co-mixed and sandwiched between 1000{angstrom} layers of Lexan (CHO), and discuss the application of this work to benchmarking astrophysical models.« less

  20. Plasma diagnostics for x-ray driven foils at Z

    SciTech Connect

    Heeter, R. F.; Bailey, J. E.; Cuneo, M. E.

    We report the development of techniques to diagnose plasmas produced by x-ray photoionization of thin foils placed near the Z-pinch on the Sandia Z Machine. The development of 100+ TW x-ray sources enables access to novel plasma regimes, such as the photoionization equilibrium. To diagnose these plasmas one must simultaneously characterize both the foil and the driving pinch. The desired photoionized plasma equilibrium is only reached transiently for a 2-ns window, placing stringent requirements on diagnostic synchronization. We have adapted existing Sandia diagnostics and fielded an additional gated three-crystal Johann spectrometer with dual lines of sight to meet these requirements.more » We present sample data from experiments using 1-cm, 180-eV tungsten pinches to photoionize foils made of 200 Aa Fe and 300 Aa NaF co-mixed and sandwiched between 1000 Aa layers of Lexan (C16H14O3), and discuss the application of this work to benchmarking astrophysical models.« less

  1. Functional sensibility assessment. Part I: develop a reliable apparatus to assess momentary pinch force control.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Haw-Yen; Hsu, Hsiu-Yun; Kuo, Li-Chieh; Chang, Jer-Hao; Su, Fong-Chin

    2009-08-01

    A precise magnitude and timing control of pinch performance is based on accurate feed-forward and feedback control mechanisms. Ratio of peak pinch force and maximum load force during a functional performance is a sensitive parameter to reflect the ability to scale pinch force output according to actual loads. A pinch apparatus was constructed to detect momentary pinch force modulation of 20 subjects with normal hand sensation. The results indicated high intra-class correlation coefficient and small coefficient of variation of the detected force ratio among three repeated tests, which represented that the stability test of the measured response confirmed the feasibility of this apparatus. The force ratio for a 480 g object with a steel surface ranged between 1.77 and 1.98. Normal subjects were able to scale and contribute pinch force precisely to a pinch-holding-up test. This study may provide clinicians a reliable apparatus and method to analyze the recovery of functional sensibility in patients with nerve injuries. Copyright 2009 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Plasma-based EUV light source

    DOEpatents

    Shumlak, Uri; Golingo, Raymond; Nelson, Brian A.

    2010-11-02

    Various mechanisms are provided relating to plasma-based light source that may be used for lithography as well as other applications. For example, a device is disclosed for producing extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light based on a sheared plasma flow. The device can produce a plasma pinch that can last several orders of magnitude longer than what is typically sustained in a Z-pinch, thus enabling the device to provide more power output than what has been hitherto predicted in theory or attained in practice. Such power output may be used in a lithography system for manufacturing integrated circuits, enabling the use of EUV wavelengths on the order of about 13.5 nm. Lastly, the process of manufacturing such a plasma pinch is discussed, where the process includes providing a sheared flow of plasma in order to stabilize it for long periods of time.

  3. Pin-Ching Maness | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    Pin-Ching Maness Photo of Pin-Ching Maness Pin-Ching Maness Group Research Manager III-Molecular University, 1974 Professional Experience Principal Group Manager, Photobiology Group, National Renewable in Rubrivivax gelatinosus," PLOS ONE (2014) Illustration of a model of carbon monoxide and

  4. Structural basis for stabilization of Z-DNA by cobalt hexaammine and magnesium cations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gessner, R. V.; Quigley, G. J.; Wang, A. H.; van der Marel, G. A.; van Boom, J. H.; Rich, A.

    1985-01-01

    In the equilibrium between B-DNA and Z-DNA in poly(dC-dG), the [Co(NH3)6]3+ ion stabilizes the Z form 4 orders of magnitude more effectively than the Mg2+ ion. The structural basis of this difference is revealed in Z-DNA crystal structures of d(CpGpCpGpCpG) stabilized by either Na+/Mg2+ or Na+/Mg2+ plus [Co(NH3)6]3+. The crystals diffract X-rays to high resolution, and the structures were refined at 1.25 A. The [Co(NH3)6]3+ ion forms five hydrogen bonds onto the surface of Z-DNA, bonding to a guanine O6 and N7 as well as to a phosphate group in the ZII conformation. The Mg2+ ion binds through its hydration shell with up to three hydrogen bonds to guanine N7 and O6. Higher charge, specific fitting of more hydrogen bonds, and a more stable complex all contribute to the great effectiveness of [Co(NH3)6]3+ in stabilizing Z-DNA.

  5. Comparison of grip and pinch strength in young women with and without hyperkyphosis: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Yoosefinejad, Amin Kordi; Ghaffarinejad, Farahnaz; Hemati, Mahbubeh; Jamshidi, Narges

    2018-05-21

    Hyperkyphosis is a common postural defect with high prevalence in the 20 to 50 year old population. It appears to compromise proximal scapular stability. Grip and pinch strength are used to evaluate general upper extremity function. The aim of this study was to compare pinch and grip strength between young women with and without hyperkyphosis. Thirty young women (18-40 years old) with hyperkyphosis and 30 healthy women matched for age and body mass index participated in the study. Hyperkyphosis was confirmed by measuring the kyphosis angle with a flexible ruler. Grip strength was measured with the Waisa method and a dynamometer. Pinch strength was assessed with a pinch meter. Grip (P= 0.03) and pinch strength (P= 0.04) were significantly lower in women with hyperkyphosis compared to the control group. Kyphosis angle correlated weakly with grip (r= 0.26) and pinch strength (r= 0.23). Hyperkyphotic posture has led to decreased grip and pinch strength compared to people without hyperkyphosis.

  6. Separation of cancer cells from white blood cells by pinched flow fractionation.

    PubMed

    Pødenphant, Marie; Ashley, Neil; Koprowska, Kamila; Mir, Kalim U; Zalkovskij, Maksim; Bilenberg, Brian; Bodmer, Walter; Kristensen, Anders; Marie, Rodolphe

    2015-12-21

    In this paper, the microfluidic size-separation technique pinched flow fractionation (PFF) is used to separate cancer cells from white blood cells (WBCs). The cells are separated at efficiencies above 90% for both cell types. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are found in the blood of cancer patients and can form new tumors. CTCs are rare cells in blood, but they are important for the understanding of metastasis. There is therefore a high interest in developing a method for the enrichment of CTCs from blood samples, which also enables further analysis of the separated cells. The separation is challenged by the size overlap between cancer cells and the 10(6) times more abundant WBCs. The size overlap prevents high efficiency separation, however we demonstrate that cell deformability can be exploited in PFF devices to gain higher efficiencies than expected from the size distribution of the cells.

  7. Optimization of K-shell emission in aluminum z-pinch implosions: Theory versus experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, K. G.; Thornhill, J. W.; Giuliani, J. L.; Davis, J.; Miles, L. A.; Nolting, E. E.; Kenyon, V. L.; Speicer, W. A.; Draper, J. A.; Parsons, C. R.; Dang, P.; Spielman, R. B.; Nash, T. J.; McGurn, J. S.; Ruggles, L. E.; Deeney, C.; Prasad, R. R.; Warren, L.

    1994-09-01

    Two sets of z-pinch experiments were recently completed at the Saturn and Phoenix facilities of Sandia National Laboratories and the Naval Surface Warfare Center, respectively, using aluminum wire arrays of different wire and array diameters. Measurements of the total x-ray yield from the K shell of aluminum were made. In this paper, a comparison of these measurements is made to both theoretical predictions and to a similar set of earlier measurements that were made at the Double Eagle facility of Physics International Company. These three sets of yield measurements have points of agreement with predicted yields and with each other, but they also show points of mutual disagreement, whose significance is discussed. The data are analyzed using a slightly revised version of a previously published K-shell yield scaling law, and they support the existence of a reasonably well defined region in (load mass)-(implosion velocity) space in which plasma kinetic energy is efficiently converted into K-shell x rays. Furthermore, a correlation is observed between the inferred conversion efficiencies and the times in which the implosions occur relative to the times when each generator's short-circuit current reaches its peak value. Finally, unlike the Double Eagle experiments, the largest measured yields in the new experiments were observed to occur at the upper velocity boundary of the efficient emission region. Moreover, the observed yields are in fairly good quantitative agreement with an earlier scaling law prediction of the maximum K-shell x-ray yield from aluminum as a function of load mass assuming kinetic energy conversion alone.

  8. Evaluation of Turner relaxed state as a model of long-lived ion-trapping structures in plasma focus and Z-pinches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auluck, S. K. H.

    2011-03-01

    Relatively long-lived spheroidal structures coincident with the neutron emission phase have been observed in frozen deuterium fiber Z-pinch and some plasma focus devices. Existence of energetic ion-trapping mechanism in plasma focus has also been inferred from experimental data. It has been conjectured that these are related phenomena. This paper applies Turner's theory [L. Turner, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 14, 849 (1986)] of relaxation of a Hall magnetofluid to construct a model of these structures and ion-trapping mechanism. Turner's solution modified for a finite-length plasma is used to obtain expressions for the magnetic field, velocity, and equilibrium pressure fields and is shown to represent an entity which is simultaneously a fluid vortex, a force-free magnetic field, a confined finite-pressure plasma, a charged object, and a trapped energetic ion beam. Characteristic features expected from diagnostic experiments are evaluated and shown to resemble experimental observations.

  9. Parallel Operation of Multiple Closely Spaced Small Aspect Ratio Rod Pinches

    DOE PAGES

    Harper-Slaboszewicz, Victor J.; Leckbee, Joshua; Bennett, Nichelle; ...

    2014-12-10

    A series of simulations and experiments to resolve questions about the operation of arrays of closely spaced small aspect ratio rod pinches has been performed. Design and post-shot analysis of the experimental results are supported by 3D particle-in-cell simulations. Both simulations and experiments support these conclusions. Penetration of current to the interior of the array appears to be efficient, as the current on the center rods is essentially equal to the current on the outer rods. Current loss in the feed due to the formation of magnetic nulls was avoided in these experiments by design of the feed surface ofmore » the cathode and control of the gap to keep the electric fields on the cathode below the emission threshold. Some asymmetry in the electron flow to the rod was observed, but the flow appeared to symmetrize as it reached the end of the rod. Interaction between the rod pinches can be controlled to allow the stable and consistent operation of arrays of rod pinches.« less

  10. Pinch-off dynamics, extensional viscosity and relaxation time of dilute and ultradilute aqueous polymer solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biagioli, Madeleine; Dinic, Jelena; Jimenez, Leidy Nallely; Sharma, Vivek

    Free surface flows and drop formation processes present in printing, jetting, spraying, and coating involve the development of columnar necks that undergo spontaneous surface-tension driven instability, thinning, and pinch-off. Stream-wise velocity gradients that arise within the thinning neck create and extensional flow field, which induces micro-structural changes within complex fluids that contribute elastic stresses, changing the thinning and pinch-off dynamics. In this contribution, we use dripping-onto-substrate (DoS) extensional rheometry technique for visualization and analysis of the pinch-off dynamics of dilute and ultra-dilute aqueous polyethylene oxide (PEO) solutions. Using a range of molecular weights, we study the effect of both elasticity and finite extensibility. Both effective relaxation time and the transient extensional viscosity are found to be strongly concentration-dependent even for highly dilute solutions.

  11. Simulation of K-α Emission from Highly Charged Cu ions for Pinches on ZR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, A.; Giuliani, J. L.; Clark, R. W.; Ouart, N. D.; Jones, B.; Ampleford, D. J.

    2012-10-01

    Recent spectral data of Cu shots Z1975 and Z2122 from Sandia's ZR machine are believed to show strong K-α emissions. As these K-α lines provide good diagnostics, a detailed spectral model will be developed to investigate these line emissions for analyzing the data. In a Z pinch plasma, K-α emission can occur due to e-beams, hot electrons at the tail of a Maxwellian and also pumping from hot photons emitted near the axis. K-α emission that originates from collisional processes involving hot electrons in the final phase of the pinching plasmas are associated with radiationless electron capture, inner-shell electron collisional excitation and ionization. K-α lines from various ionization stages of various materials such as Fe, Cr, Ni, and Mn were also observed in the ZR data. Contributions from ions with strong K-α transitions will be included for this study which is a preliminary attempt to investigate Cu K-α lines due to hot electrons and photons. Photo-pumped K-α emission from an outer shell is spatially distinguishable from that produced by e-beam on axis.

  12. A study of the methods for the production and confinement of high energy plasmas. [injection of dense plasma into long magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, D. Y.; Wang, P.

    1972-01-01

    The injection of dense plasmas into a B sub z long magnetic field from both ends of the field coil was investigated. Deflagration plasma guns and continuous flow Z-pinch are discussed along with the possibility of a continuous flow Z-pinch fusion reactor. The injection experiments are described with emphasis on the synchronization of the two plasma deflagration guns, the collision of the two plasma beams, and the determination of plasma density.

  13. Stabilization and tracking control of X-Z inverted pendulum with sliding-mode control.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia-Jun

    2012-11-01

    X-Z inverted pendulum is a new kind of inverted pendulum which can move with the combination of the vertical and horizontal forces. Through a new transformation, the X-Z inverted pendulum is decomposed into three simple models. Based on the simple models, sliding-mode control is applied to stabilization and tracking control of the inverted pendulum. The performance of the sliding mode control is compared with that of the PID control. Simulation results show that the design scheme of sliding-mode control is effective for the stabilization and tracking control of the X-Z inverted pendulum. Copyright © 2012 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Pinching Solutions of Slender Cylindrical Jets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA 23681.2This research was supported in part by Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Cientifico y Tecnologico (FONDE...concentrate on inviscid irrotational flows of liquid jets. A review article has been written by Bogy [2]. Of relevance is also the work of Chandrasekhar...equations become elliptic and allow the possibility of admissible pinching solutions described in this article . It is interesting to find that for jets

  15. A Pressure-Based Analysis of Vortex Ring Pinch-Off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlueter, Kristy; Braun, Noah; Dabiri, John

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the development of vortex rings over a range of maximum stroke ratios, and analyzed vorticity and pressure data for clues to the physical mechanisms underlying vortex pinch-off. An impulsive piston velocity profile and Reynolds number of 3000 were used for all cases. The formation number was consistently found to be 3.6 +/-0.3. A recently developed algorithm was used to generate pressure fields by integrating the pressure gradient along several paths through the velocity field and taking the median to get explicit values for pressure. The formation time at the occurrence of a local maximum in the pressure between the vortex ring and the lip of the nozzle, known as the trailing pressure maximum, was found to occur concurrently with the formation number for each case, within the error associated with the temporal resolution of the data. This suggests that the trailing pressure maximum is an indicator of vortex ring pinch-off. This is consistent with the results of Lawson and Dawson (2014), who found that the appearance of the trailing pressure maximum was coincident with the formation number. This pressure based approach to determining vortex ring pinch-off will be applied to a biological flow to examine the efficiency of such a flow. This research was partially supported by the Department of Defense (DoD) through the National Defense Science & Engineering Graduate Fellowship (NDSEG) Program.

  16. Pinched flow fractionation of microbubbles for ultrasound contrast agent enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versluis, Michel; Kok, Maarten; Segers, Tim

    2014-11-01

    An ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) suspension contains a wide size distribution of encapsulated microbubbles (typically 1-10 μm in diameter) that resonate to the driving ultrasound field by the intrinsic relationship between bubble size and ultrasound frequency. Medical transducers, however, operate in a narrow frequency range, which severely limits the number of bubbles that contribute to the echo signal. Thus, the sensitivity can be improved by narrowing down the size distribution of the bubble suspension. Here, we present a novel, low-cost, lab-on-a-chip method for the sorting of contrast microbubbles by size, based on a microfluidic separation technique known as pinched flow fractionation (PFF). We show by experimental and numerical investigation that the inclusion of particle rotation is essential for an accurate physical description of the sorting behavior of the larger bubbles. Successful sorting of a bubble suspension with a narrow size distribution (3.0 +/- 0.6 μm) has been achieved with a PFF microdevice. This sorting technique can be easily parallelized, and may lead to a significant improvement in the sensitivity of contrast-enhanced medical ultrasound. This work is supported by NanoNextNL, a micro and nanotechnology consortium of the Government of the Netherlands and 130 partners.

  17. Advanced stability analysis for laminar flow control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orszag, S. A.

    1981-01-01

    Five classes of problems are addressed: (1) the extension of the SALLY stability analysis code to the full eighth order compressible stability equations for three dimensional boundary layer; (2) a comparison of methods for prediction of transition using SALLY for incompressible flows; (3) a study of instability and transition in rotating disk flows in which the effects of Coriolis forces and streamline curvature are included; (4) a new linear three dimensional instability mechanism that predicts Reynolds numbers for transition to turbulence in planar shear flows in good agreement with experiment; and (5) a study of the stability of finite amplitude disturbances in axisymmetric pipe flow showing the stability of this flow to all nonlinear axisymmetric disturbances.

  18. Existence of a return direction for plasma escaping from a pinched column in a plasma focus discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Kubes, P.; Cikhardt, J.; Klir, D.

    2015-05-15

    The use of multi-frame interferometry used on the PF-1000 device with the deuterium filling showed the existence of a return motion of the top of several lobules of the pinched column formed at the pinched plasma column. This phenomenon was observed in the presence of an over-optimal mass in front of the anode, which depressed the intensity of the implosion and the smooth surface of the pinched plasma column. The observed evolution was explored through the use of closed poloidal currents transmitted outside the pinched plasma. This interpretation complements the scenario of the closed currents flowing within the structures insidemore » the pinched column, which has been published recently on the basis of observations from interferometry, neutron, and magnetic probe diagnostics on this device.« less

  19. CUSP-PINCH DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Baker, W.R.; Watteau, J.P.H.

    1962-06-01

    An ion-electron plasma heating device of the pinch tube class is designed with novel means for counteracting the instabilities of an ordinary linear pinch discharge. A plasma-forming discharge is created between two spacedapart coaxial electiodes through a gas such as deuterium. A pair of spaced coaxial magnetic field coils encircle the discharge and carry opposing currents so that a magnetic field having a cuspate configuration is created around the plasma, the field being formed after the plasma has been established but before significant instability arises. Thus, containment time is increased and intensified heating is obtained. In addition to the pinch compression heating additional heating is obtained by high-frequency magnetic field modulation. (AEC)

  20. Single cell kinase signaling assay using pinched flow coupled droplet microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Ramji, Ramesh; Wang, Ming; Bhagat, Ali Asgar S; Tan Shao Weng, Daniel; Thakor, Nitish V; Teck Lim, Chwee; Chen, Chia-Hung

    2014-05-01

    Droplet-based microfluidics has shown potential in high throughput single cell assays by encapsulating individual cells in water-in-oil emulsions. Ordering cells in a micro-channel is necessary to encapsulate individual cells into droplets further enhancing the assay efficiency. This is typically limited due to the difficulty of preparing high-density cell solutions and maintaining them without cell aggregation in long channels (>5 cm). In this study, we developed a short pinched flow channel (5 mm) to separate cell aggregates and to form a uniform cell distribution in a droplet-generating platform that encapsulated single cells with >55% encapsulation efficiency beating Poisson encapsulation statistics. Using this platform and commercially available Sox substrates (8-hydroxy-5-(N,N-dimethylsulfonamido)-2-methylquinoline), we have demonstrated a high throughput dynamic single cell signaling assay to measure the activity of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) in lung cancer cells triggered by cell surface ligand binding. The phosphorylation of the substrates resulted in fluorescent emission, showing a sigmoidal increase over a 12 h period. The result exhibited a heterogeneous signaling rate in individual cells and showed various levels of drug resistance when treated with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, gefitinib.

  1. B-DNA to Z-DNA structural transitions in the SV40 enhancer: stabilization of Z-DNA in negatively supercoiled DNA minicircles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruskin, E. A.; Rich, A.

    1993-01-01

    During replication and transcription, the SV40 control region is subjected to significant levels of DNA unwinding. There are three, alternating purine-pyrimidine tracts within this region that can adopt the Z-DNA conformation in response to negative superhelix density: a single copy of ACACACAT and two copies of ATGCATGC. Since the control region is essential for both efficient transcription and replication, B-DNA to Z-DNA transitions in these vital sequence tracts may have significant biological consequences. We have synthesized DNA minicircles to detect B-DNA to Z-DNA transitions in the SV40 enhancer, and to determine the negative superhelix density required to stabilize the Z-DNA. A variety of DNA sequences, including the entire SV40 enhancer and the two segments of the enhancer with alternating purine-pyrimidine tracts, were incorporated into topologically relaxed minicircles. Negative supercoils were generated, and the resulting topoisomers were resolved by electrophoresis. Using an anti-Z-DNA Fab and an electrophoretic mobility shift assay, Z-DNA was detected in the enhancer-containing minicircles at a superhelix density of -0.05. Fab saturation binding experiments demonstrated that three, independent Z-DNA tracts were stabilized in the supercoiled minicircles. Two other minicircles, each with one of the two alternating purine-pyrimidine tracts, also contained single Z-DNA sites. These results confirm the identities of the Z-DNA-forming sequences within the control region. Moreover, the B-DNA to Z-DNA transitions were detected at superhelix densities observed during normal replication and transcription processes in the SV40 life cycle.

  2. Experimental research of neutron yield and spectrum from deuterium gas-puff z-pinch on the GIT-12 generator at current above 2 MA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherdizov, R. K.; Fursov, F. I.; Kokshenev, V. A.; Kurmaev, N. E.; Labetsky, A. Yu; Ratakhin, N. A.; Shishlov, A. V.; Cikhardt, J.; Cikhardtova, B.; Klir, D.; Kravarik, J.; Kubes, P.; Rezac, K.; Dudkin, G. N.; Garapatsky, A. A.; Padalko, V. N.; Varlachev, V. A.

    2017-05-01

    The Z-pinch experiments with deuterium gas-puff surrounded by an outer plasma shell were carried out on the GIT-12 generator (Tomsk, Russia) at currents of 2 MA. The plasma shell consisting of hydrogen and carbon ions was formed by 48 plasma guns. The deuterium gas-puff was created by a fast electromagnetic valve. This configuration provides an efficient mode of the neutron production in DD reaction, and the neutron yield reaches a value above 1012 neutrons per shot. Neutron diagnostics included scintillation TOF detectors for determination of the neutron energy spectrum, bubble detectors BD-PND, a silver activation detector, and several activation samples for determination of the neutron yield analysed by a Sodium Iodide (NaI) and a high-purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors. Using this neutron diagnostic complex, we measured the total neutron yield and amount of high-energy neutrons.

  3. Oblique Impact Ejecta Flow Fields: An Application of Maxwells Z Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L. B.; Schultz, P. H.; Heineck, J. T.

    2001-01-01

    Oblique impact flow fields show an evolution from asymmetric to symmetric ejecta flow. This evolution can be put into the simple analytical description of the evolving flow field origin using the Maxwell Z Model. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  4. Toroidal momentum pinch velocity due to the coriolis drift effect on small scale instabilities in a toroidal plasma.

    PubMed

    Peeters, A G; Angioni, C; Strintzi, D

    2007-06-29

    In this Letter, the influence of the "Coriolis drift" on small scale instabilities in toroidal plasmas is shown to generate a toroidal momentum pinch velocity. Such a pinch results because the Coriolis drift generates a coupling between the density and temperature perturbations on the one hand and the perturbed parallel flow velocity on the other. A simple fluid model is used to highlight the physics mechanism and gyro-kinetic calculations are performed to accurately assess the magnitude of the pinch. The derived pinch velocity leads to a radial gradient of the toroidal velocity profile even in the absence of a torque on the plasma and is predicted to generate a peaking of the toroidal velocity profile similar to the peaking of the density profile. Finally, the pinch also affects the interpretation of current experiments.

  5. An investigation of transient pressures and plasma properties in a pinched plasma column. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stover, E. K.; York, T. M.

    1971-01-01

    The transient pinched plasma column generated in a linear Z-pinch was studied experimentally and analytically. The plasma column was investigated experimentally with several plasma diagnostics; they were: a rapid response pressure transducer, a magnetic field probe, a voltage probe, and discharge luminosity. Axial pressure profiles on the discharge chamber axis were used to identify three characteristic regions of plasma column behavior: (1) strong axial pressure asymmetry noted early in plasma column lifetime, (2) followed by plasma heating in which there is a rapid rise in static pressure, and (3) a slight decrease static pressure before plasma column breakup. Plasma column lifetime was approximately 5 microseconds. The axial pressure asymmetry was attributed to nonsimultaneous pinching of the imploding current sheet along the discharge chamber axis. The rapid heating could be attributed in part to viscous effects introduced by radial gradients in the axial streaming velocity.

  6. Drop formation, pinch-off dynamics and liquid transfer of simple and complex fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinic, Jelena; Sharma, Vivek

    Liquid transfer and drop formation processes underlying jetting, spraying, coating, and printing - inkjet, screen, roller-coating, gravure, nanoimprint hot embossing, 3D - often involve formation of unstable columnar necks. Capillary-driven thinning of such necks and their pinchoff dynamics are determined by a complex interplay of inertial, viscous and capillary stresses for simple, Newtonian fluids. Micro-structural changes in response to extensional flow field that arises within the thinning neck give rise to additional viscoelastic stresses in complex, non- Newtonian fluids. Using FLOW-3D, we simulate flows realized in prototypical geometries (dripping and liquid bridge stretched between two parallel plates) used for studying pinch-off dynamics and influence of microstructure and viscoelasticity. In contrast with often-used 1D or 2D models, FLOW-3D allows a robust evaluation of the magnitude of the underlying stresses and extensional flow field (both uniformity and magnitude). We find that the simulated radius evolution profiles match the pinch-off dynamics that are experimentally-observed and theoretically-predicted for model Newtonian fluids and complex fluids.

  7. The integrin effector PINCH regulates JNK activity and epithelial migration in concert with Ras suppressor 1

    PubMed Central

    Kadrmas, Julie L.; Smith, Mark A.; Clark, Kathleen A.; Pronovost, Stephen M.; Muster, Nemone; Yates, John R.; Beckerle, Mary C.

    2004-01-01

    Cell adhesion and migration are dynamic processes requiring the coordinated action of multiple signaling pathways, but the mechanisms underlying signal integration have remained elusive. Drosophila embryonic dorsal closure (DC) requires both integrin function and c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling for opposed epithelial sheets to migrate, meet, and suture. Here, we show that PINCH, a protein required for integrin-dependent cell adhesion and actin–membrane anchorage, is present at the leading edge of these migrating epithelia and is required for DC. By analysis of native protein complexes, we identify RSU-1, a regulator of Ras signaling in mammalian cells, as a novel PINCH binding partner that contributes to PINCH stability. Mutation of the gene encoding RSU-1 results in wing blistering in Drosophila, demonstrating its role in integrin-dependent cell adhesion. Genetic interaction analyses reveal that both PINCH and RSU-1 antagonize JNK signaling during DC. Our results suggest that PINCH and RSU-1 contribute to the integration of JNK and integrin functions during Drosophila development. PMID:15596544

  8. Characterization of laser-cut copper foil X-pinches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, G. W.; Valenzuela, J. C.; Hansen, S. B.; Wei, M. S.; Reed, C. T.; Forsman, A. C.; Beg, F. N.

    2016-10-01

    Quantitative data analyses of laser-cut Cu foil X-pinch experiments on the 150 ns quarter-period, ˜250 kA GenASIS driver are presented. Three different foil designs are tested to determine the effects of initial structure on pinch outcome. Foil X-pinch data are also presented alongside the results from wire X-pinches with comparable mass. The X-ray flux and temporal profile of the emission from foil X-pinches differed significantly from that of wire X-pinches, with all emission from the foil X-pinches confined to a ˜3 ns period as opposed to the delayed, long-lasting electron beam emission common in wire X-pinches. Spectroscopic data show K-shell as well as significant L-shell emission from both foil and wire X-pinches. Fits to synthetic spectra using the SCRAM code suggest that pinching foil X's produced a ˜1 keV, ne ≥ 1023 cm-3 plasma. The spectral data combined with the improved reliability of the source timing, flux, and location indicate that foil X-pinches generate a reproducible, K-shell point-projection radiography source that can be easily modified and tailored to suit backlighting needs across a variety of applications.

  9. Linear stability of compressible Taylor-Couette flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, Kai-Hsiung; Chow, Chuen-Yen

    1992-01-01

    A temporal stability analysis of compressible Taylor-Couette flow is presented. The viscous flow studied in this paper is contained between two concentric cylinders of infinite length, which are rotating with different angular velocities and are kept at different surface temperatures. The effects of differential rotation and temperature difference on the stability of Taylor-Couette flow are contrasted for a range of Mach numbers ranging from incompressible to Mach 3.0. The relative motion of the cylinders dramatically affects the characteristics of the Couette flow at the onset of instability. The flow is stabilized or destabilized depending upon the temperature ratio and speeds of the two cylinders. Independent of Mach number and temperature ratio, increasing Reynolds number generally promotes a destabilizing effect, indicating the inviscid nature of the Taylor-Couette flow.

  10. Implosion dynamics of a megampere wire-array Z-pinch with an inner low-density foam shell at the Angara-5-1 facility

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksandrov, V. V.; Bolkhovitinov, E. A.; Volkov, G. S., E-mail: volkov@triniti.ru

    The implosion dynamics of a pinch with a highly inhomogeneous initial axial distribution of the load mass was studied experimentally. A cascade array consisting of a double nested tungsten wire array and a coaxial inner cylindrical shell located symmetrically with respect to the high-voltage electrodes was used as a load of the Angara-5-1 high-current generator. The cylindrical foam shell was half as long as the cathode− anode gap, and its diameter was equal to the diameter of the inner wire array. It is shown experimentally that two stages are typical of the implosion dynamics of such a load: the formationmore » of two separate pinches formed as a result of implosion of the wire array near the cathode and anode and the subsequent implosion of the central part of the load containing the cylindrical foam shell. The conditions are determined at which the implosion of the central part of the pinch with the foam cylinder is preceded by intense irradiation of the foam with the soft X-ray (SXR) emission generated by the near-electrode pinches and converting it into the plasma state. Using such a load, which models the main elements of the scheme of a dynamic hohlraum for inertial confinement fusion, it is possible to increase the efficiency of interaction between the outer accelerated plasma sheath and the inner foam shell by preionizing the foam with the SXR emission of the near-electrode pinches.« less

  11. Conceptualization of preferential flow for hillslope stability assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukemilks, Karlis; Wagner, Jean-Frank; Saks, Tomas; Brunner, Philip

    2018-03-01

    This study uses two approaches to conceptualize preferential flow with the goal to investigate their influence on hillslope stability. Synthetic three-dimensional hydrogeological models using dual-permeability and discrete-fracture conceptualization were subsequently integrated into slope stability simulations. The slope stability simulations reveal significant differences in slope stability depending on the preferential flow conceptualization applied, despite similar small-scale hydrogeological responses of the system. This can be explained by a local-scale increase of pore-water pressures observed in the scenario with discrete fractures. The study illustrates the critical importance of correctly conceptualizing preferential flow for slope stability simulations. It further demonstrates that the combination of the latest generation of physically based hydrogeological models with slope stability simulations allows for improvement to current modeling approaches through more complex consideration of preferential flow paths.

  12. Toroidal Momentum Pinch Velocity due to the Coriolis Drift Effect on Small Scale Instabilities in a Toroidal Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Peeters, A. G.; Angioni, C.; Strintzi, D.

    In this Letter, the influence of the ''Coriolis drift'' on small scale instabilities in toroidal plasmas is shown to generate a toroidal momentum pinch velocity. Such a pinch results because the Coriolis drift generates a coupling between the density and temperature perturbations on the one hand and the perturbed parallel flow velocity on the other. A simple fluid model is used to highlight the physics mechanism and gyro-kinetic calculations are performed to accurately assess the magnitude of the pinch. The derived pinch velocity leads to a radial gradient of the toroidal velocity profile even in the absence of a torquemore » on the plasma and is predicted to generate a peaking of the toroidal velocity profile similar to the peaking of the density profile. Finally, the pinch also affects the interpretation of current experiment000.« less

  13. Ride-along data LOS 130, 170 & LO330 shots z3139, 3140 and 3141

    SciTech Connect

    Loisel, Guillaume Pascal

    Each instrument records the x-ray emission from the Z-pinch dynamic hohlraum (ZPDH); LOS 130 TIXTLs instruments record the absorption of the pinch backlighter through an expanding NaF/Mg foil; LOS 170 MLM instruments record monochromatic images at 276 and 528 eV energies near and before ZPDH stagnation time; LOS 330 TREX 6A & B: recoded time resolved absorption spectra from a radiatively heated Ne gas.

  14. An investigation of transient pressure and plasma properties in a pinched plasma column. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stover, E. K.; York, T. M.

    1971-01-01

    The transient pinched plasma column generated in a linear Z-pinch was studied experimentally and analytically. The plasma column was investigated experimentally with the following plasma diagnostics: a special rapid response pressure transducer, a magnetic field probe, a voltage probe and discharge luminosity. Axial pressure profiles on the discharge chamber axis were used to identify three characteristic regions of plasma column behavior; they were in temporal sequence: strong axial pressure asymmetry noted early in plasma column lifetime followed by plasma heating in which there is a rapid rise in static pressure and a slight decrease static pressure before plasma column breakup. Plasma column lifetime was approximately 5 microseconds. The axial pressure asymmetry was attributed to nonsimultaneous pinching of the imploding current sheet along the discharge chamber axis. The rapid heating is attributed in part to viscous effects introduced by radial gradients in the axial streaming velocity. Turbulent heating arising from discharge current excitation of the ion acoustic wave instability is also considered a possible heating mechanism.

  15. Optimization of a rod pinch diode radiography source at 2.3 MV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menge, P. R.; Johnson, D. L.; Maenchen, J. E.; Rovang, D. C.; Oliver, B. V.; Rose, D. V.; Welch, D. R.

    2003-08-01

    Rod pinch diodes have shown considerable capability as high-brightness flash x-ray sources for penetrating dynamic radiography. The rod pinch diode uses a small diameter (0.4-2 mm) anode rod extended through a cathode aperture. When properly configured, the electron beam born off of the aperture edge can self-insulate and pinch onto the tip of the rod creating an intense, small x-ray source. Sandia's SABRE accelerator (2.3 MV, 40 Ω, 70 ns) has been utilized to optimize the source experimentally by maximizing the figure of merit (dose/spot diameter2) and minimizing the diode impedance droop. Many diode parameters have been examined including rod diameter, rod length, rod material, cathode aperture diameter, cathode thickness, power flow gap, vacuum quality, and severity of rod-cathode misalignment. The configuration producing the greatest figure of merit uses a 0.5 mm diameter gold rod, a 6 mm rod extension beyond the cathode aperture (diameter=8 mm), and a 10 cm power flow gap to produce up to 3.5 rad (filtered dose) at 1 m from a 0.85 mm x-ray on-axis spot (1.02 mm at 3° off axis). The resultant survey of parameter space has elucidated several physics issues that are discussed.

  16. Effects of smartphone overuse on hand function, pinch strength, and the median nerve.

    PubMed

    İnal, Esra Erkol; Demİrcİ, kadİr; Çetİntürk, Azİze; Akgönül, Mehmet; Savaş, Serpİl

    2015-08-01

    In this study we investigated the flexor pollicis longus (FPL) tendon and median nerve in smartphone users by ultrasonography to assess the effects of smartphone addiction on the clinical and functional status of the hands. One hundred two students were divided into 3 groups: non-users, and high or low smartphone users. Smartphone Addiction Scale (SAS) scores and grip and pinch strengths were recorded. Pain in thumb movement and rest and hand function were evaluated on the visual analog scale (VAS) and the Duruöz Hand Index (DHI), respectively. The cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of the median nerve and the FPL tendon were calculated bilaterally using ultrasonography. Significantly higher median nerve CSAs were observed in the dominant hands of the high smartphone users than in the non-dominant hands (P<0.001). SAS scores correlated with VAS pain for movement and rest, DHI scores, and pinch strength (P<0.05; r=0.345, 0.272, 0.245, and 0.281, respectively). Smartphone overuse enlarges the median nerve, causes pain in the thumb, and decreases pinch strength and hand functions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Stabilization of flow past a rounded cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samtaney, Ravi; Zhang, Wei

    2016-11-01

    We perform global linear stability analysis on low-Re flow past a rounded cylinder. The cylinder corners are rounded with a radius R, normalized as R+ = R / D where D is the cylinder diameter, and its effect on the flow stability characteristics is investigated. We compute the critical Reynolds number (Recr) for the onset of first instability, and quantify the perturbation growth rate for the super-critical flows. It is found that the flow can be stabilized by partially rounding the cylinder. Compared with the square and circular cylinders, the partially rounded cylinder has a higher Recr , attaining a maximum at around R+ = 0 . 30 , and the perturbation growth rate of the super-critical flows is reduced for Re <= 100 . We perform sensitivity analysis to explore the source of the stabilization. The growth rate sensitivity to base flow modification has two different spatial structures: the growth rate is sensitive to the wake backflow in a large region for square-like cylinders (R+ -> 0 . 00), while only the near-wake backflow is crucial for circular-like cylinders (R+ -> 0 . 50). The stability analysis results are also verified with those of the direct simulations and very good agreement is achieved. Supported by the KAUST Office of Competitive Research Funds under Award No. URF/1/1394-01. The supercomputer Shaheen at KAUST was utilized for the simulations.

  18. Treadmilling of a prokaryotic tubulin-like protein, TubZ, required for plasmid stability in Bacillus thuringiensis

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Rachel A.; Cusumano, Christina; Fujioka, Akina; Lim-Fong, Grace; Patterson, Paula; Pogliano, Joe

    2007-01-01

    Prokaryotes rely on a distant tubulin homolog, FtsZ, for assembling the cytokinetic ring essential for cell division, but are otherwise generally thought to lack tubulin-like polymers that participate in processes such as DNA segregation. Here we characterize a protein (TubZ) from the Bacillus thuringiensis virulence plasmid pBtoxis, which is a member of the tubulin/FtsZ GTPase superfamily but is only distantly related to both FtsZ and tubulin. TubZ assembles dynamic, linear polymers that exhibit directional polymerization with plus and minus ends, movement by treadmilling, and a critical concentration for assembly. A point mutation (D269A) that alters a highly conserved catalytic residue within the T7 loop completely eliminates treadmilling and allows the formation of stable polymers at a much lower protein concentration than the wild-type protein. When expressed in trans, TubZ(D269A) coassembles with wild-type TubZ and significantly reduces the stability of pBtoxis, demonstrating a direct correlation between TubZ dynamics and plasmid maintenance. The tubZ gene is in an operon with tubR, which encodes a putative DNA-binding protein that regulates TubZ levels. Our results suggest that TubZ is representative of a novel class of prokaryotic cytoskeletal proteins important for plasmid stability that diverged long ago from the ancient tubulin/FtsZ ancestor. PMID:17510284

  19. Studies on dispersive stabilization of porous media flows

    SciTech Connect

    Daripa, Prabir, E-mail: prabir.daripa@math.tamu.edu; Gin, Craig

    Motivated by a need to improve the performance of chemical enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes, we investigate dispersive effects on the linear stability of three-layer porous media flow models of EOR for two different types of interfaces: permeable and impermeable interfaces. Results presented are relevant for the design of smarter interfaces in the available parameter space of capillary number, Peclet number, longitudinal and transverse dispersion, and the viscous profile of the middle layer. The stabilization capacity of each of these two interfaces is explored numerically and conditions for complete dispersive stabilization are identified for each of these two types ofmore » interfaces. Key results obtained are (i) three-layer porous media flows with permeable interfaces can be almost completely stabilized by diffusion if the optimal viscous profile is chosen, (ii) flows with impermeable interfaces can also be almost completely stabilized for short time, but become more unstable at later times because diffusion flattens out the basic viscous profile, (iii) diffusion stabilizes short waves more than long waves which leads to a “turning point” Peclet number at which short and long waves have the same growth rate, and (iv) mechanical dispersion further stabilizes flows with permeable interfaces but in some cases has a destabilizing effect for flows with impermeable interfaces, which is a surprising result. These results are then used to give a comparison of the two types of interfaces. It is found that for most values of the flow parameters, permeable interfaces suppress flow instability more than impermeable interfaces.« less

  20. Pinch-off Scaling Law of Soap Bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, John; Ryu, Sangjin

    2014-11-01

    Three common interfacial phenomena that occur daily are liquid drops in gas, gas bubbles in liquid and thin-film bubbles. One aspect that has been studied for these phenomena is the formation or pinch-off of the drop/bubble from the liquid/gas threads. In contrast to the formation of liquid drops in gas and gas bubbles in liquid, thin-film bubble pinch-off has not been well documented. Having thin-film interfaces may alter the pinch-off process due to the limiting factor of the film thickness. We observed the pinch-off of one common thin-film bubble, soap bubbles, in order to characterize its pinch-off behavior. We achieved this by constructing an experimental model replicating the process of a human producing soap bubbles. Using high-speed videography and image processing, we determined that the minimal neck radius scaled with the time left till pinch-off, and that the scaling law exponent was 2/3, similar to that of liquid drops in gas.

  1. Stability of stagnation via an expanding accretion shock wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velikovich, A. L.; Murakami, M.; Taylor, B. D.; Giuliani, J. L.; Zalesak, S. T.; Iwamoto, Y.

    2016-05-01

    Stagnation of a cold plasma streaming to the center or axis of symmetry via an expanding accretion shock wave is ubiquitous in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and high-energy-density plasma physics, the examples ranging from plasma flows in x-ray-generating Z pinches [Maron et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 035001 (2013)] to the experiments in support of the recently suggested concept of impact ignition in ICF [Azechi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 235002 (2009); Murakami et al., Nucl. Fusion 54, 054007 (2014)]. Some experimental evidence indicates that stagnation via an expanding shock wave is stable, but its stability has never been studied theoretically. We present such analysis for the stagnation that does not involve a rarefaction wave behind the expanding shock front and is described by the classic ideal-gas Noh solution in spherical and cylindrical geometry. In either case, the stagnated flow has been demonstrated to be stable, initial perturbations exhibiting a power-law, oscillatory or monotonic, decay with time for all the eigenmodes. This conclusion has been supported by our simulations done both on a Cartesian grid and on a curvilinear grid in spherical coordinates. Dispersion equation determining the eigenvalues of the problem and explicit formulas for the eigenfunction profiles corresponding to these eigenvalues are presented, making it possible to use the theory for hydrocode verification in two and three dimensions.

  2. Stability of stagnation via an expanding accretion shock wave

    SciTech Connect

    Velikovich, A. L.; Giuliani, J. L.; Murakami, M.

    Stagnation of a cold plasma streaming to the center or axis of symmetry via an expanding accretion shock wave is ubiquitous in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and high-energy-density plasma physics, the examples ranging from plasma flows in x-ray-generating Z pinches [Maron et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 035001 (2013)] to the experiments in support of the recently suggested concept of impact ignition in ICF [Azechi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 235002 (2009); Murakami et al., Nucl. Fusion 54, 054007 (2014)]. Some experimental evidence indicates that stagnation via an expanding shock wave is stable, but its stability has never beenmore » studied theoretically. We present such analysis for the stagnation that does not involve a rarefaction wave behind the expanding shock front and is described by the classic ideal-gas Noh solution in spherical and cylindrical geometry. In either case, the stagnated flow has been demonstrated to be stable, initial perturbations exhibiting a power-law, oscillatory or monotonic, decay with time for all the eigenmodes. This conclusion has been supported by our simulations done both on a Cartesian grid and on a curvilinear grid in spherical coordinates. Dispersion equation determining the eigenvalues of the problem and explicit formulas for the eigenfunction profiles corresponding to these eigenvalues are presented, making it possible to use the theory for hydrocode verification in two and three dimensions.« less

  3. In-Situ Anode Heating and Its Effects on Atomic Constituents in the A-K Gap in Self-Magnetic Pinch (SMP) Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Sean; Renk, Timothy; Johnston, Mark; Mazarakis, Mike; Patel, Sonal

    2015-11-01

    The RITS-6 inductive voltage adder (IVA) accelerator (3.5-8.5 MeV) at Sandia National Laboratories produces high-power (TW) focused electron beams (<3mm diameter) for flash x-ray radiography applications. The Self-Magnetic Pinch (SMP) diode utilizes a hollowed metal cathode to produce a pinched focus onto a high-Z metal anode converter. There is not a clear understanding as to the effects various contaminants such as C, CO, H, H2O, HmCn, O2, and N2, on the anode surface or in the bulk may have on impedance dynamics, beam stability, beam spot size, and reproducibility. Heating pure Ta anodes with and without a thin Al coating have been investigated using temperatures ranging from 400 °C to 1000 °C. Initial experiments indicate a significant reduction in H and C as seen in high-speed spectral analysis of plasmas at the converter and a reduction in the back-streaming proton current. Experiments are ongoing, and latest results will be reported. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  4. Stability analysis of shallow wake flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolyshkin, A. A.; Ghidaoui, M. S.

    2003-11-01

    Experimentally observed periodic structures in shallow (i.e. bounded) wake flows are believed to appear as a result of hydrodynamic instability. Previously published studies used linear stability analysis under the rigid-lid assumption to investigate the onset of instability of wakes in shallow water flows. The objectives of this paper are: (i) to provide a preliminary assessment of the accuracy of the rigid-lid assumption; (ii) to investigate the influence of the shape of the base flow profile on the stability characteristics; (iii) to formulate the weakly nonlinear stability problem for shallow wake flows and show that the evolution of the instability is governed by the Ginzburg Landau equation; and (iv) to establish the connection between weakly nonlinear analysis and the observed flow patterns in shallow wake flows which are reported in the literature. It is found that the relative error in determining the critical value of the shallow wake stability parameter induced by the rigid-lid assumption is below 10% for the practical range of Froude number. In addition, it is shown that the shape of the velocity profile has a large influence on the stability characteristics of shallow wakes. Starting from the rigid-lid shallow-water equations and using the method of multiple scales, an amplitude evolution equation for the most unstable mode is derived. The resulting equation has complex coefficients and is of Ginzburg Landau type. An example calculation of the complex coefficients of the Ginzburg Landau equation confirms the existence of a finite equilibrium amplitude, where the unstable mode evolves with time into a limit-cycle oscillation. This is consistent with flow patterns observed by Ingram & Chu (1987), Chen & Jirka (1995), Balachandar et al. (1999), and Balachandar & Tachie (2001). Reasonable agreement is found between the saturation amplitude obtained from the Ginzburg Landau equation under some simplifying assumptions and the numerical data of Grubi

  5. Global stability of plane Couette flow beyond the energy stability limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuentes, Federico; Goluskin, David

    2017-11-01

    This talk will present computations verifying that the laminar state of plane Couette flow is nonlinearly stable to all perturbations. The Reynolds numbers up to which this globally stability is verified are larger than those at which stability can be proven by the energy method, which is the typical method for demonstrating nonlinear stability of a fluid flow. This improvement is achieved by constructing Lyapunov functions that are more general than the energy. These functions are not restricted to being quadratic, and they are allowed to depend explicitly on the spectrum of the velocity field in the eigenbasis of the energy stability operator. The optimal choice of such a Lyapunov function is a convex optimization problem, and it can be constructed with computer assistance by solving a semidefinite program. This general method will be described in a companion talk by David Goluskin; the present talk focuses on its application to plane Couette flow.

  6. Pinching solutions of slender cylindrical jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papageorgiou, Demetrios T.; Orellana, Oscar

    1993-01-01

    Simplified equations for slender jets are derived for a circular jet of one fluid flowing into an ambient second fluid, the flow being confined in a circular tank. Inviscid flows are studied which include both surface tension effects and Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. For slender jets a coupled nonlinear system of equations is found for the jet shape and the axial velocity jump across it. The equations can break down after a finite time and similarity solutions are constructed, and studied analytically and numerically. The break-ups found pertain to the jet pinching after a finite time, without violation of the slender jet ansatz. The system is conservative and admissible singular solutions are those which conserve the total energy, mass, and momentum. Such solutions are constructed analytically and numerically, and in the case of vortex sheets with no surface tension certain solutions are given in closed form.

  7. Multi-scale characterization of an upcurrent turbiditic pinch-out

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daghdevirenian, L. J. P.; Migeon, S.; Rubino, J. L., Sr.; Raisson, F.

    2017-12-01

    Continental margins with a steep topographic profile between their continental shelf and the basin exhibit a sudden slope break at the base of their continental slope. This slope break favors strong erosion or a by-pass and a fast accumulation of sediments on the base of the continental slope due to the hydraulic jump phenomena. Such a process is responsible for the construction of thick accumulations of limited extension and generally disconnected from the feeding tributaries. These accumulations usually onlap against the continental slope but their modality of pinch out is still questioned and it is the subject of this work. The Tabernas basin is located in South East of Spain, in the continuity of the Sorbas basin. Recent field works allowed identifying a "sedimentary" onlap associated with a small-scale sandy turbidite system that we discovered near the so-called El Buho area. The superb quality of the outcrops revealed, the presence of three successive onlap structures consisting in each case of a direct contact between fluvial conglomerates / marines conglomerates / marine marls / turbidite sands. Reconstruction of paleo-current direction gives a flow direction around N00, from north to south, suggesting the outcrops are cutting the pinch out of the sandy system in a longitudinal direction. A longitudinal and vertical transition of facies can be thus observed from marines' conglomerates to turbidite sands, respectively over distances of 500 m and 70 m. The complete evolution of facies along the pinch out consists of thick conglomerates in the proximal part to sandy turbidite channels then lobes in the distal part. The three successive onlap structures are located inside the channelize part of the system, just above a slope break structure. The basal units of the pinch out consist of an alternation of conglomerates and sandy bed, while the overlying units exhibits more sandy dominated beds. In order to reconstruct the architecture of the pinch out and to

  8. Analysis of pinching in deterministic particle separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risbud, Sumedh; Luo, Mingxiang; Frechette, Joelle; Drazer, German

    2011-11-01

    We investigate the problem of spherical particles vertically settling parallel to Y-axis (under gravity), through a pinching gap created by an obstacle (spherical or cylindrical, center at the origin) and a wall (normal to X axis), to uncover the physics governing microfluidic separation techniques such as deterministic lateral displacement and pinched flow fractionation: (1) theoretically, by linearly superimposing the resistances offered by the wall and the obstacle separately, (2) computationally, using the lattice Boltzmann method for particulate systems and (3) experimentally, by conducting macroscopic experiments. Both, theory and simulations, show that for a given initial separation between the particle centre and the Y-axis, presence of a wall pushes the particles closer to the obstacle, than its absence. Experimentally, this is expected to result in an early onset of the short-range repulsive forces caused by solid-solid contact. We indeed observe such an early onset, which we quantify by measuring the asymmetry in the trajectories of the spherical particles around the obstacle. This work is partially supported by the National Science Foundation Grant Nos. CBET- 0731032, CMMI-0748094, and CBET-0954840.

  9. Stability and sensitivity of ABR flow control protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Wie K.; Kim, Yuseok; Chiussi, Fabio; Toh, Chai-Keong

    1998-10-01

    This tutorial paper surveys the important issues in stability and sensitivity analysis of ABR flow control of ATM networks. THe stability and sensitivity issues are formulated in a systematic framework. Four main cause of instability in ABR flow control are identified: unstable control laws, temporal variations of available bandwidth with delayed feedback control, misbehaving components, and interactions between higher layer protocols and ABR flow control. Popular rate-based ABR flow control protocols are evaluated. Stability and sensitivity is shown to be the fundamental issues when the network has dynamically-varying bandwidth. Simulation result confirming the theoretical studies are provided. Open research problems are discussed.

  10. Pinch current limitation effect in plasma focus

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.; Saw, S. H.; INTI International University College, 71800 Nilai

    The Lee model couples the electrical circuit with plasma focus dynamics, thermodynamics, and radiation. It is used to design and simulate experiments. A beam-target mechanism is incorporated, resulting in realistic neutron yield scaling with pinch current and increasing its versatility for investigating all Mather-type machines. Recent runs indicate a previously unsuspected 'pinch current limitation' effect. The pinch current does not increase beyond a certain value however low the static inductance is reduced to. The results indicate that decreasing the present static inductance of the PF1000 machine will neither increase the pinch current nor the neutron yield, contrary to expectations.

  11. Structure of the Z Ring-associated Protein, ZapD, Bound to the C-terminal Domain of the Tubulin-like Protein, FtsZ, Suggests Mechanism of Z Ring Stabilization through FtsZ Cross-linking.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Maria A; Huang, Kuo-Hsiang; Zeng, Wenjie; Janakiraman, Anuradha

    2017-03-03

    Cell division in most bacteria is mediated by the tubulin-like FtsZ protein, which polymerizes in a GTP-dependent manner to form the cytokinetic Z ring. A diverse repertoire of FtsZ-binding proteins affects FtsZ localization and polymerization to ensure correct Z ring formation. Many of these proteins bind the C-terminal domain (CTD) of FtsZ, which serves as a hub for FtsZ regulation. FtsZ ring-associated proteins, ZapA-D (Zaps), are important FtsZ regulatory proteins that stabilize FtsZ assembly and enhance Z ring formation by increasing lateral assembly of FtsZ protofilaments, which then form the Z ring. There are no structures of a Zap protein bound to FtsZ; therefore, how these proteins affect FtsZ polymerization has been unclear. Recent data showed ZapD binds specifically to the FtsZ CTD. Thus, to obtain insight into the ZapD-CTD interaction and how it may mediate FtsZ protofilament assembly, we determined the Escherichia coli ZapD-FtsZ CTD structure to 2.67 Å resolution. The structure shows that the CTD docks within a hydrophobic cleft in the ZapD helical domain and adopts an unusual structure composed of two turns of helix separated by a proline kink. FtsZ CTD residue Phe-377 inserts into the ZapD pocket, anchoring the CTD in place and permitting hydrophobic contacts between FtsZ residues Ile-374, Pro-375, and Leu-378 with ZapD residues Leu-74, Trp-77, Leu-91, and Leu-174. The structural findings were supported by mutagenesis coupled with biochemical and in vivo studies. The combined data suggest that ZapD acts as a molecular cross-linking reagent between FtsZ protofilaments to enhance FtsZ assembly. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Stability limits of unsteady open capillary channel flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grah, Aleksander; Haake, Dennis; Rosendahl, Uwe; Klatte, J.?Rg; Dreyer, Michael E.

    This paper is concerned with steady and unsteady flow rate limitations in open capillary channels under low-gravity conditions. Capillary channels are widely used in Space technology for liquid transportation and positioning, e.g. in fuel tanks and life support systems. The channel observed in this work consists of two parallel plates bounded by free liquid surfaces along the open sides. The capillary forces of the free surfaces prevent leaking of the liquid and gas ingestion into the flow.In the case of steady stable flow the capillary pressure balances the differential pressure between the liquid and the surrounding constant-pressure gas phase. Increasing the flow rate in small steps causes a decrease of the liquid pressure. A maximum steady flow rate is achieved when the flow rate exceeds a certain limit leading to a collapse of the free surfaces due to the choking effect. In the case of unsteady flow additional dynamic effects take place due to flow rate transition and liquid acceleration. The maximum flow rate is smaller than in the case of steady flow. On the other hand, the choking effect does not necessarily cause surface collapse and stable temporarily choked flow is possible under certain circumstances.To determine the limiting volumetric flow rate and stable flow dynamic properties, a new stability theory for both steady and unsteady flow is introduced. Subcritical and supercritical (choked) flow regimes are defined. Stability criteria are formulated for each flow type. The steady (subcritical) criterion corresponds to the speed index defined by the limiting longitudinal small-amplitude wave speed, similar to the Mach number. The unsteady (supercritical) criterion for choked flow is defined by a new characteristic number, the dynamic index. It is based on pressure balances and reaches unity at the stability limit.The unsteady model based on the Bernoulli equation and the mass balance equation is solved numerically for perfectly wetting incompressible

  13. On the Evolution From Micrometer-Scale Inhomogeneity to Global Overheated Structure During the Intense Joule Heating of a z-Pinch Rod

    DOE PAGES

    Awe, T. J.; Yu, E. P.; Yates, K. C.; ...

    2017-02-21

    Ultrafast optical microscopy of metal z-pinch rods pulsed with megaampere current is contributing new data and critical insight into what provides the fundamental seed for the magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instability. A two-frame near infrared/visible intensified-charge-coupled device gated imager with 2-ns temporal resolution and 3-μm spatial resolution captured emissions from the nonuniformly Joule heated surfaces of ultrasmooth aluminum (Al) rods. Nonuniform surface emissions are consistently first observed from discrete, 10-μm scale, subelectronvolt spots. Aluminum 6061 alloy, with micrometer-scale nonmetallic resistive inclusions, forms several times more spots than 99.999% pure Al 5N; 5-10 ns later, azimuthally stretched elliptical spots and distinct strata (40-100more » μm wide by 10 μm tall) are observed on Al 6061, but not on Al 5N. In such overheat strata, aligned parallel to the magnetic field, we find that they are highly effective seeds for MRT instability growth. Our data give credence to the hypothesis that early nonuniform Joule heating, such as the electrothermal instability, may provide the dominant seed for MRT.« less

  14. Investigation on the pinch point position in heat exchangers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Lisheng; Shi, Weixiu

    2016-06-01

    The pinch point is important for analyzing heat transfer in thermodynamic cycles. With the aim to reveal the importance of determining the accurate pinch point, the research on the pinch point position is carried out by theoretical method. The results show that the pinch point position depends on the parameters of the heat transfer fluids and the major fluid properties. In most cases, the pinch point locates at the bubble point for the evaporator and the dew point for the condenser. However, the pinch point shifts to the supercooled liquid state in the near critical conditions for the evaporator. Similarly, it shifts to the superheated vapor state with the condensing temperature approaching the critical temperature for the condenser. It even can shift to the working fluid entrance of the evaporator or the supercritical heater when the heat source fluid temperature is very high compared with the absorbing heat temperature. A wrong position for the pinch point may generate serious mistake. In brief, the pinch point should be founded by the iterative method in all conditions rather than taking for granted.

  15. Rapid and Efficient Conversion of All-E-astaxanthin to 9Z- and 13Z-Isomers and Assessment of Their Stability and Antioxidant Activities.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cheng; Zhang, Lianfu; Zhang, Hua; Sun, Qingrui; Liu, Ronghua; Li, Jing; Wu, Leiyan; Tsao, Rong

    2017-02-01

    An optimized isomerization method was developed by heating all-E-astaxanthin in ethyl acetate (70 °C) with I-TiO 2 catalyst, yielding 22.7% and 16.9% of 9Z- and 13Z-astaxanthin, respectively, in 2 h, with 92-95% purity after semipreparative HPLC purification. 13Z-Astaxanthin had higher antioxidant activity than all-E- and 9Z-astaxanthins in oxygen radical absorbing capacity assay for lipophilic compounds, photochemiluminescence, and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assays, and 9Z-astaxanthin was higher in DPPH radical-scavenging activity assay and lower in CAA assay. All isomers were relatively stable between pH 2.0 and 11.6, except 13Z- and 9Z-astaxanthins at pH 2.0, suggesting they may be converted after passing the gastric phase in vivo. Metal ions did not significantly (p < 0.05) affect the stability. Results of the current study provides a means for further study into the mechanisms related to in vivo transformation and bioavailability of Z-astaxanthins, and their application in the development of functional foods and nutraceutical products.

  16. Stability of Thin Liquid Sheet Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McConley, Marc W.; Chubb, Donald L.; McMaster, Matthew S.; Afjeh, Abdollah A.

    1997-01-01

    A two-dimensional, linear stability analysis of a thin nonplanar liquid sheet flow in vacuum is carried out. A sheet flow created by a narrow slit of W and tau attains a nonplanar cross section as a consequence of cylinders forming on the sheet edge under the influence of surface tension forces. The region where these edge cylinders join the sheet is one of high curvature, and this is found to be the location where instability is most likely to occur. The sheet flow is found to be unstable, but with low growth rates for symmetric wave disturbances and high growth rates for antisymmetric disturbances. By combining the symmetric and antisymmetric disturbance modes, a wide range of stability characteristics is obtained. The product of unstable growth rate and flow time is proportional to the width-to-thickness ratio of the sift generating the sheet Three-dimensional effects can alter these results, particularly when the sheet length-to-width ratio is not much greater than unity.

  17. Pinch aperture proprioception: reliability and feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Yahya, Abdalghani; von Behren, Timothy; Levine, Shira; dos Santos, Marcio

    2018-01-01

    [Purpose] To establish the reliability and feasibility of a novel pinch aperture device to measure proprioceptive joint position sense. [Subjects and Methods] Reliability of the pinch aperture device was assessed in 21 healthy subjects. Following familiarization with a 15° target position of the index finger and thumb, subjects performed 5 trials in which they attempted to actively reproduce the target position without visual feedback. This procedure was repeated at a testing session on a separate date, and the between-session intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated. In addition, extensor tendon vibration was applied to 19 healthy subjects, and paired t-tests were conducted to compare performance under vibration and no-vibration conditions. Pinch aperture proprioception was also assessed in two individuals with known diabetic neuropathy. [Results] The pinch aperture device demonstrated excellent reliability in healthy subjects (ICC 0.88, 95% confidence interval 0.70–0.95). Tendon vibration disrupted pinch aperture proprioception, causing subjects to undershoot the target position (18.1 ± 2.6° vs. 14.8° ± 0.76, p<0.001). This tendency to undershoot the target position was also noted in individuals with diabetic neuropathy. [Conclusion] This study describes a reliable, feasible, and functional means of measuring finger proprioception. Further research should investigate the assessment and implications of pinch aperture proprioception in neurological and orthopedic populations. PMID:29765192

  18. Stability of compressible Taylor-Couette flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, Kai-Hsiung; Chow, Chuen-Yen

    1991-01-01

    Compressible stability equations are solved using the spectral collocation method in an attempt to study the effects of temperature difference and compressibility on the stability of Taylor-Couette flow. It is found that the Chebyshev collocation spectral method yields highly accurate results using fewer grid points for solving stability problems. Comparisons are made between the result obtained by assuming small Mach number with a uniform temperature distribution and that based on fully incompressible analysis.

  19. Characterization of neutron emission from mega-ampere deuterium gas puff Z-pinch at microsecond implosion times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klir, D.; Shishlov, A. V.; Kokshenev, V. A.; Kubes, P.; Labetsky, A. Yu; Rezac, K.; Cikhardt, J.; Fursov, F. I.; Kovalchuk, B. M.; Kravarik, J.; Kurmaev, N. E.; Ratakhin, N. A.; Sila, O.; Stodulka, J.

    2013-08-01

    Experiments with deuterium (D2) triple shell gas puffs were carried out on the GIT-12 generator at a 3 MA current level and microsecond implosion times. The outer, middle and inner nozzle diameters were 160 mm, 80 mm and 30 mm, respectively. The influence of the mass of deuterium shells on neutron emission times, neutron yields and neutron energy spectra was studied. The injected linear mass of deuterium varied between 50 and 255 µg cm-1. Gas puffs imploded onto the axis before the peak of generator current at 700-1100 ns. Most of the neutrons were emitted during the second neutron pulse after the development of instabilities. Despite higher currents, heavier gas puffs produced lower neutron yields. Optimal mass and a short time delay between the valve opening and the generator triggering were more important than the better coincidence of stagnation with peak current. The peak neutron yield from D(d, n)3He reactions reached 3 × 1011 at 2.8 MA current, 90 µg cm-1 injected linear mass and 37 mm anode-cathode gap. In the case of lower mass shots, a large number of 10 MeV neutrons were produced either by secondary DT reactions or by DD reactions of deuterons with energies above 7 MeV. The average neutron yield ratio Y>10 MeV/Y2.5 MeV reached (6 ± 3) × 10-4. Such a result can be explained by a power law distribution for deuterons as \\rmd N_d/\\rmd E_d\\propto E_d^{-3} . The optimization of a D2 gas puff Z-pinch and similarities to a plasma focus and its drive parameter are described.

  20. Fluctuations, Electron Transport, and Flow Shear in 2D Axial, Azimuthal (z-θ) Hybrid Hall Thruster Simulations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Eduardo; Gascon, Nicolas; Knoll, Aaron; Scharfe, Michelle; Cappelli, Mark

    2007-11-01

    Motivated by the inability of radial-axial (r-z) simulations to properly treat cross-field electron transport in Hall thrusters, a novel 2D z-θ model has been implemented. In common with many r-z descriptions, the simulation is hybrid in nature and assumes quasi-neutrality. Unlike r-z models, electron transport is not enhanced with an ad-hoc mobility coefficient; instead it is given by collisional or ``classical'' terms as well as ``anomalous'' contributions associated with azimuthal electric field fluctuations. Results indicate that anomalous transport dominates classical transport for most of the channel and near field, except in a strong electron flow shear region near the channel exit. The correlation between flow shear, fluctuation behavior, and electron transport will be examined, along with experimental data from the Stanford Hall Thruster. Our findings make a strong link to the turbulent transport suppression mechanism by flow shear seen in fusion devices. The scheme for combining the r-z and z-θ descriptions into an upcoming 3D hybrid model will be presented.

  1. Stability of half-metallic behavior with lattice variation for Fe2MnZ (Z = Si, Ge, Sn) Heusler alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Vivek Kumar; Lakshmi, N.; Jain, Rakesh

    2018-05-01

    The electronic structure and magnetic properties with variation of lattice constant for Fe2MnZ (Z = Si, Ge, Sn) Heusler alloys have been studied. Optimized lattice constant are found to be 5.59, 5.69, 6.00 Å for Z= Si, Ge and Sn respectively. Total magnetic moments of the alloys are ˜3 µB as predicted by the Slater Pauling rule and is maintained over a wide range of lattice variation for all three alloys. Half metallic ferromagnetic nature with 100% spin polarization is observed for Fe2MnSi for a lattice range from 5.40-5.70 Å. Fe2MnGe and Fe2MnSn show ferromagnetic and metallic natures with more than 90% spin polarization over a wide range of lattice constant. Due to the stability of half metallic character of these alloys with respect to variation in the lattice parameters, they are promising robust materials suitable for spintronics device applications.

  2. The Antibacterial Cell Division Inhibitor PC190723 Is an FtsZ Polymer-stabilizing Agent That Induces Filament Assembly and Condensation*

    PubMed Central

    Andreu, José M.; Schaffner-Barbero, Claudia; Huecas, Sonia; Alonso, Dulce; Lopez-Rodriguez, María L.; Ruiz-Avila, Laura B.; Núñez-Ramírez, Rafael; Llorca, Oscar; Martín-Galiano, Antonio J.

    2010-01-01

    Cell division protein FtsZ can form single-stranded filaments with a cooperative behavior by self-switching assembly. Subsequent condensation and bending of FtsZ filaments are important for the formation and constriction of the cytokinetic ring. PC190723 is an effective bactericidal cell division inhibitor that targets FtsZ in the pathogen Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis and does not affect Escherichia coli cells, which apparently binds to a zone equivalent to the binding site of the antitumor drug taxol in tubulin (Haydon, D. J., Stokes, N. R., Ure, R., Galbraith, G., Bennett, J. M., Brown, D. R., Baker, P. J., Barynin, V. V., Rice, D. W., Sedelnikova, S. E., Heal, J. R., Sheridan, J. M., Aiwale, S. T., Chauhan, P. K., Srivastava, A., Taneja, A., Collins, I., Errington, J., and Czaplewski, L. G. (2008) Science 312, 1673–1675). We have found that the benzamide derivative PC190723 is an FtsZ polymer-stabilizing agent. PC190723 induced nucleated assembly of Bs-FtsZ into single-stranded coiled protofilaments and polymorphic condensates, including bundles, coils, and toroids, whose formation could be modulated with different solution conditions. Under conditions for reversible assembly of Bs-FtsZ, PC190723 binding reduced the GTPase activity and induced the formation of straight bundles and ribbons, which was also observed with Sa-FtsZ but not with nonsusceptible Ec-FtsZ. The fragment 2,6-difluoro-3-methoxybenzamide also induced Bs-FtsZ bundling. We propose that polymer stabilization by PC190723 suppresses in vivo FtsZ polymer dynamics and bacterial division. The biochemical action of PC190723 on FtsZ parallels that of the microtubule-stabilizing agent taxol on the eukaryotic structural homologue tubulin. Both taxol and PC190723 stabilize polymers against disassembly by preferential binding to each assembled protein. It is yet to be investigated whether both ligands target structurally related assembly switches. PMID:20212044

  3. Stability of Fluvial and Gravity-flow Antidunes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedele, J. J.; Hoyal, D. C. J. D.; Demko, T. M.

    2017-12-01

    Antidunes develop as a consequence of interface (free surface) deformation and sediment transport feedback in supercritical flows. Fluvial (open-channel flow) antidunes have been studied extensively in the laboratory and the field, and recognized in ancient sedimentary deposits. Experiments on gravity flow (turbidity and density currents) antidunes indicate that they are more stable and long-lived than their fluvial counterpart but the mechanism controlling this stability is poorly understood. Sea floor bathymetric and subsurface data suggest that large-scale, antidune-like sediment waves are extremely common in deep-water, found in a wide range of settings and sediment characteristics. While most of these large features have been interpreted as cyclic steps, the term has been most likely overused due to the lack of recognition criteria and basic understanding on the differences between antidunes and cyclic steps formed under gravity flows. In principle, cyclic steps should be more common in confined or channel-lobe transition settings where flows tend to be more energetic or focused, while antidunes should prevail in regions of less confinement, under sheet-like or expanding flows. Using published, fluvial stable-antidune data, we show that the simplified 1D, mechanical-energy based analysis of flow over a localized fixed obstacle (Long, 1954; Baines, 1995; Kubo and Yokokawa, 2001) is inaccurate for representing flow over antidunes and their stability. Instead, a more detailed analysis of a flow along a long-wavelength (in relation to flow thickness) wavy bed that also considers the interactions between flow and sediment transport is used to infer conditions of antidune stability and the breaking of surface waves. In particular, the position of the surface wave crest in relation to the bedform crest, along with the role of average flow velocity, surface velocity, and surface wave celerity appear relevant in determining antidune instability. The analysis is

  4. Stability investigations of airfoil flow by global analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morzynski, Marek; Thiele, Frank

    1992-01-01

    As the result of global, non-parallel flow stability analysis the single value of the disturbance growth-rate and respective frequency is obtained. This complex value characterizes the stability of the whole flow configuration and is not referred to any particular flow pattern. The global analysis assures that all the flow elements (wake, boundary and shear layer) are taken into account. The physical phenomena connected with the wake instability are properly reproduced by the global analysis. This enhances the investigations of instability of any 2-D flows, including ones in which the boundary layer instability effects are known to be of dominating importance. Assuming fully 2-D disturbance form, the global linear stability problem is formulated. The system of partial differential equations is solved for the eigenvalues and eigenvectors. The equations, written in the pure stream function formulation, are discretized via FDM using a curvilinear coordinate system. The complex eigenvalues and corresponding eigenvectors are evaluated by an iterative method. The investigations performed for various Reynolds numbers emphasize that the wake instability develops into the Karman vortex street. This phenomenon is shown to be connected with the first mode obtained from the non-parallel flow stability analysis. The higher modes are reflecting different physical phenomena as for example Tollmien-Schlichting waves, originating in the boundary layer and having the tendency to emerge as instabilities for the growing Reynolds number. The investigations are carried out for a circular cylinder, oblong ellipsis and airfoil. It is shown that the onset of the wake instability, the waves in the boundary layer, the shear layer instability are different solutions of the same eigenvalue problem, formulated using the non-parallel theory. The analysis offers large potential possibilities as the generalization of methods used till now for the stability analysis.

  5. flowVS: channel-specific variance stabilization in flow cytometry

    SciTech Connect

    Azad, Ariful; Rajwa, Bartek; Pothen, Alex

    Comparing phenotypes of heterogeneous cell populations from multiple biological conditions is at the heart of scientific discovery based on flow cytometry (FC). When the biological signal is measured by the average expression of a biomarker, standard statistical methods require that variance be approximately stabilized in populations to be compared. Since the mean and variance of a cell population are often correlated in fluorescence-based FC measurements, a preprocessing step is needed to stabilize the within-population variances.

  6. flowVS: channel-specific variance stabilization in flow cytometry

    DOE PAGES

    Azad, Ariful; Rajwa, Bartek; Pothen, Alex

    2016-07-28

    Comparing phenotypes of heterogeneous cell populations from multiple biological conditions is at the heart of scientific discovery based on flow cytometry (FC). When the biological signal is measured by the average expression of a biomarker, standard statistical methods require that variance be approximately stabilized in populations to be compared. Since the mean and variance of a cell population are often correlated in fluorescence-based FC measurements, a preprocessing step is needed to stabilize the within-population variances.

  7. Linking natural microstructures with numerical modeling of pinch-and-swell structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Max; Berger, Alfons; Herwegh, Marco; Regenauer-Lieb, Klaus

    2016-04-01

    For a variety of geological problems, the change from homogeneous to localized deformation and the establishment of steady-state conditions are equally important. Here, we show that pinch-and-swell structures are ideal candidates for the study of the switch in deformation style and mechanism during ductile creep. We present an interdisciplinary approach to the onset of pinch-and-swell structures and to the flow conditions during pre- to post-localization stages in ductile rocks. For this reason, naturally boudinaged calcite veins, embedded in a calc-mylonite, and their microfabrics were investigated quantitatively. Remnants of slightly deformed calcite hosts build up the swells, showing twinning and minor dislocation glide as crystal plastic deformation mechanisms which are accompanied by subgrain rotation recrystallization (SGR). Towards the pinches, we find a gradient of severe grain size reduction through progressive SGR, developing a characteristic dislocation creep crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO). Along this gradient, the finest recrystallized calcite grains appear randomly oriented, expressed by a "smearing-out" of the CPO and missing systematics of misorientation angles in the most extended areas. We interpret this microstructure as a switch from dislocation dominated creep to grain boundary sliding processes. Further, we show that the onset of boudinage is independent on both the original orientation and grain size of calcite hosts. We implemented these microstructural observations into a layered elasto-visco-plastic finite element framework, tracing variations in grain size (Peters et al., 2015). We base the microstructural evolution on thermo-mechanical-chemical principles and end-member flow laws (Herwegh et al., 2014). The simulated pinch-and-swell structures indicate that low strain rates in the swells favor dislocation creep, whereas accelerated rates provoke continuous grain size reduction allowing strain accommodation by diffusion creep

  8. Matching an Inductive Accumulator and a System of Acceleration of a Liner with Limitation of the Breaking Voltage,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    In this work calculations are made of the efficiencies of acceleration of a liner from an inductive accumulator in the mode theta-pinch and Z-pinch...to the speed of the liner . Estimations have been made of the necessary power at the moment of switching the current on the basis of considerations of...the stability of the pinch effect of the liner . The level of energies necessary for the creation of a thermonuclear reactor on the basis of theta

  9. Viscoelastic stability in a single-screw channel flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agbessi, Y.; Bu, L. X.; Béreaux, Y.; Charmeau, J.-Y.

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we perform a linear stability analysis on pressure and drag flows of an Upper Convected Maxwell viscoelastic fluid. We use the well-recognised method of expanding the disturbances in Chebyschev polynomials and solve the resulting generalized eigenvalues problem with a collocation spectra method. Both the level of elasticity and the back-pressure vary. In a second stage, recent analytic solutions of viscoelastic fluid flows in slowly varying sections [1] are used to extend this stability analysis to flows in a compression or in a diverging section of a single screw channel, for example a wave mixing screw.

  10. Stability of the line preserving flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figura, Przemysław

    2017-11-01

    We examine the equations that are used to describe flows which preserve field lines. We study what happens if we introduce perturbations to the governing equations. The stability of the line preserving flows in the case of the magneto-fluids permeated by magnetic fields is strictly connected to the non-null magnetic reconnection processes. In most of our study we use the Euler potential representation of the external magnetic field. We provide general expressions for the perturbations of the Euler potentials that describe the magnetic field. Similarly, we provide expressions for the case of steady flow as well as we obtain certain conditions required for the stability of the flow. In addition, for steady flows we formulate conditions under which the perturbations of the external field are negligible and the field may be described by its initial unperturbed form. Then we consider the flow equation that transforms quantities from the laboratory coordinate system to the related external field coordinate system. We introduce perturbations to the equation and obtain its simplified versions for the case of a steady flow. For a given system, use of this method allows us to simplify the considerations provided that some part of the system may be described as a perturbation. Next, to study regions favourable for the magnetic reconnection to occur we introduce a deviation vector to the basic line preserving flows condition equation. We provide expressions of the vector for some simplifying cases. This method allows us to examine if given perturbations either stabilise the system or induce magnetic reconnection. To illustrate some of our results we study two examples, namely a simple laboratory plasma flow and a simple planetary magnetosphere model.

  11. Stability investigations of relaxing molecular gas flows. Results and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigor'ev, Yurii N.; Ershov, Igor V.

    2017-10-01

    This article presents results of systematic investigations of a dissipative effect which manifests itself as the growth of hydrodynamic stability and suppression of turbulence in relaxing molecular gas flows. The effect can be a new way for control stability and laminar turbulent transition in aerodynamic flows. The consideration of suppression of inviscid acoustic waves in 2D shear flows is presented. Nonlinear evolution of large-scale vortices and Kelvin — Helmholtz waves in relaxing shear flows are studied. Critical Reynolds numbers in supersonic Couette flows are calculated analytically and numerically within the framework of both classical linear and nonlinear energy hydrodynamic stability theories. The calculations clearly show that the relaxation process can appreciably delay the laminar-turbulent transition. The aim of this article is to show the new dissipative effect, which can be used for flow control and laminarization.

  12. Formation of a pinched electron beam and an intense x-ray source in radial foil rod-pinch diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Sorokin, S. A.

    2016-04-15

    Low-impedance rod-pinch diode experiments were performed on the MIG generator at Institute of High Current Electronics using an aluminum foil placed between concentric electrodes of a rod-pinch diode. The J × B force accelerates the foil plasma in the axial and radial directions. After the foil plasma is pushed beyond the tip of the rod, a vacuum gap and a pinched electron beam form. The anode and cathode plasmas expansion and the following plasmas sweeping up by the J × B force can result in repetitive gap formations and closures, which are evident in the several successive intense x-ray pulses. A 0.7-mm-size point-like x-raymore » source was realized using a 1-mm-diameter tungsten rod, tapered to a point over the last 10 mm. The results of experiments show that the foil-shorted rod-pinch diode configuration has the potential to form low-impedance diodes, to shorten x-ray pulse duration and to realize submillimeter spot-size x-ray sources.« less

  13. Fragmentation mechanisms of confined co-flowing capillary threads revealed by active flow focusing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert de Saint Vincent, Matthieu; Delville, Jean-Pierre

    2016-08-01

    The control over stationary liquid thread fragmentation in confined co-flows is a key issue for the processing and transport of fluids in (micro-)ducts. Confinement indeed strongly enhances the stability of capillary threads, and also induces steric and hydrodynamic feedback effects on diphasic flows. We investigate the thread-to-droplet transition within the confined environment of a microchannel by using optocapillarity, i.e., interface stresses driven by light, as a wall-free constriction to locally flow focus stable threads in a tunable way, pinch them, and force their fragmentation. Above some flow-dependent onset in optical forcing, we observe a dynamic transition alternating between continuous (thread) and fragmented (droplets) states and show a surprisingly gradual thread-to-droplet transition when increasing the amplitude of the thread constriction. This transition is interpreted as an evolution from a convective to an absolute instability. Depending on the forcing amplitude, we then identify and characterize several stable fragmented regimes of single and multiple droplet periodicity (up to period-8). These droplet regimes build a robust flow-independent bifurcation diagram that eventually closes up, due to the flow confinement, to a monodisperse droplet size, independent of the forcing and close to the most unstable mode expected from the Rayleigh-Plateau instability. This fixed monodispersity can be circumvented by temporally modulating the optocapillary coupling, as we show that fragmentation can then occur either by triggering again the Rayleigh-Plateau instability when the largest excitable wavelength is larger than that of the most unstable mode, or as a pure consequence of a sufficiently strong optocapillary pinching. When properly adjusted, this modulation allows us to avoid the transient reforming and multidisperse regimes, and thereby to reversibly produce stable monodisperse droplet trains of controlled size. By actuating local flow focusing in

  14. Current halo structures in high-current plasma experiments: θ-pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matveev, Yu. V.

    2007-03-01

    Experimental data elucidating mechanisms for halo formation in θ-pinch discharges are presented and discussed. The experiments were performed with different gases (H2, D2, He, and Ar) in a theta-pinch device with a porcelain vacuum chamber and an excitation coil 15 cm in diameter and 30 cm in length. The stored energy, the current in the excitation coil, and the current half-period were W = 10 kJ, I = 400 kA, and T/2 = 14 μs, respectively. It is found that the plasma rings (halos) surrounding the pinch core arise as a result of coaxial pinch stratification due to both the excitation of closed currents (inductons) inside the pinch and the radial convergence of the plasma current sheaths produced after the explosion of T-layers formed near the wall in the initial stage of the discharge. It is concluded that halo structures observed in pinches, tokamaks, and other high-current devices used in controlled fusion research have the same nature.

  15. Contribution of flexor pollicis longus to pinch strength: an in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Goetz, Thomas J; Costa, Joseph A; Slobogean, Gerard; Patel, Satyam; Mulpuri, Kishore; Travlos, Andrew

    2012-11-01

    To estimate the contribution of the flexor pollicis longus (FPL) to key pinch strength. Secondary outcomes include tip pinch, 3-point chuck pinch, and grip strength. Eleven healthy volunteers consented to participate in the study. We recorded baseline measures for key, 3-point chuck, and tip pinch and for grip strength. In order to control for instability of the interphalangeal (IP) joint after FPL paralysis, pinch measurements were repeated after immobilizing the thumb IP joint. Measures were repeated after subjects underwent electromyography-guided lidocaine blockade of the FPL muscle. Nerve conduction studies and clinical examinations were used to confirm FPL blockade and to rule out median nerve blockade. Paired t-tests were used to compare pre- and postblock means for both unsplinted and splinted measures. The difference in means was used to estimate the contribution of FPL to pinch strength. All 3 types of pinch strength showed a significant decrease between pre- and postblock measurements. The relative contribution of FPL for each pinch type was 56%, 44%, and 43% for key, chuck, and tip pinch, respectively. Mean grip strength did not decrease significantly. Splinting of the IP joint had no significant effect on pinch measurements. FPL paralysis resulted in a statistically significant decrease in pinch strength. IP joint immobilization to simulate IP joint fusion did not affect results. Reconstruction after acute or chronic loss of FPL function should be considered when restoration of pinch strength is important. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Stability of miscible core?annular flows with viscosity stratification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvam, B.; Merk, S.; Govindarajan, Rama; Meiburg, E.

    The linear stability of variable viscosity, miscible core-annular flows is investigated. Consistent with pipe flow of a single fluid, the flow is stable at any Reynolds number when the magnitude of the viscosity ratio is less than a critical value. This is in contrast to the immiscible case without interfacial tension, which is unstable at any viscosity ratio. Beyond the critical value of the viscosity ratio, the flow can be unstable even when the more viscous fluid is in the core. This is in contrast to plane channel flows with finite interface thickness, which are always stabilized relative to single fluid flow when the less viscous fluid is in contact with the wall. If the more viscous fluid occupies the core, the axisymmetric mode usually dominates over the corkscrew mode. It is demonstrated that, for a less viscous core, the corkscrew mode is inviscidly unstable, whereas the axisymmetric mode is unstable for small Reynolds numbers at high Schmidt numbers. For the parameters under consideration, the switchover occurs at an intermediate Schmidt number of about 500. The occurrence of inviscid instability for the corkscrew mode is shown to be consistent with the Rayleigh criterion for pipe flows. In some parameter ranges, the miscible flow is seen to be more unstable than its immiscible counterpart, and the physical reasons for this behaviour are discussed.A detailed parametric study shows that increasing the interface thickness has a uniformly stabilizing effect. The flow is least stable when the interface between the two fluids is located at approximately 0.6 times the tube radius. Unlike for channel flow, there is no sudden change in the stability with radial location of the interface. The instability originates mainly in the less viscous fluid, close to the interface.

  17. On the stability analysis of sharply stratified shear flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churilov, Semyon

    2018-05-01

    When the stability of a sharply stratified shear flow is studied, the density profile is usually taken stepwise and a weak stratification between pycnoclines is neglected. As a consequence, in the instability domain of the flow two-sided neutral curves appear such that the waves corresponding to them are neutrally stable, whereas the neighboring waves on either side of the curve are unstable, in contrast with the classical result of Miles (J Fluid Mech 16:209-227, 1963) who proved that in stratified flows unstable oscillations can be only on one side of the neutral curve. In the paper, the contradiction is resolved and changes in the flow stability pattern under transition from a model stepwise to a continuous density profile are analyzed. On this basis, a simple self-consistent algorithm is proposed for studying the stability of sharply stratified shear flows with a continuous density variation and an arbitrary monotonic velocity profile without inflection points. Because our calculations and the algorithm are both based on the method of stability analysis (Churilov J Fluid Mech 539:25-55, 2005; ibid, 617, 301-326, 2008), which differs essentially from usually used, the paper starts with a brief review of the method and results obtained with it.

  18. A specific role for the ZipA protein in cell division: stabilization of the FtsZ protein.

    PubMed

    Pazos, Manuel; Natale, Paolo; Vicente, Miguel

    2013-02-01

    In Escherichia coli, the cell division protein FtsZ is anchored to the cytoplasmic membrane by the action of the bitopic membrane protein ZipA and the cytoplasmic protein FtsA. Although the presence of both ZipA and FtsA is strictly indispensable for cell division, an FtsA gain-of-function mutant FtsA* (R286W) can bypass the ZipA requirement for cell division. This observation casts doubts on the role of ZipA and its need for cell division. Maxicells are nucleoid-free bacterial cells used as a whole cell in vitro system to probe protein-protein interactions without the need of protein purification. We show that ZipA protects FtsZ from the ClpXP-directed degradation observed in E. coli maxicells and that ZipA-stabilized FtsZ forms membrane-attached spiral-like structures in the bacterial cytoplasm. The overproduction of the FtsZ-binding ZipA domain is sufficient to protect FtsZ from degradation, whereas other C-terminal ZipA partial deletions lacking it are not. Individual overproduction of the proto-ring component FtsA or its gain-of-function mutant FtsA* does not result in FtsZ protection. Overproduction of FtsA or FtsA* together with ZipA does not interfere with the FtsZ protection. Moreover, neither FtsA nor FtsA* protects FtsZ when overproduced together with ZipA mutants lacking the FZB domain. We propose that ZipA protects FtsZ from degradation by ClpP by making the FtsZ site of interaction unavailable to the ClpX moiety of the ClpXP protease. This role cannot be replaced by either FtsA or FtsA*, suggesting a unique function for ZipA in proto-ring stability.

  19. Capillary Thinning and Pinch-off Dynamics and Printability of Polyelectrolyte Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Vivek; Jimenez, Leidy N.; Dinic, Jelena; Parsi, Nikila

    Biological macromolecules like proteins, DNA and polysaccharides, and many industrial polymers, are classified together as polyelectrolytes for in solution, the repeat units in their backbone are decorated with disassociated, charge-bearing ionic groups, surrounded by counter-ions. In diverse applications like inkjet printing, sprayable cosmetics and insecticides, paints and coatings that involve formation of fluid columns or sheets that undergo progressive thinning and pinch-off into drops, the dominant flow within the necking filament is extensional in nature. The extensional rheology response of the charged macromolecular solutions is not as well understood as that of their uncharged counterparts. Here focus on the characterization of capillary thinning and pinch-off dynamics, extensional rheology and printability of two model systems: sodium (polystyrene sulfonate) and poly(acrylic acid) by using dripping-onto-substrate (DoS) rheometry technique. Both the measured extensional relaxation times and the extensional viscosity values show salt- and polymer concentration-dependent behavior that is not expected or anticipated from the typical shear rheology response.

  20. Stabilization of hydrodynamic flows by small viscosity variations.

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Rama; L'vov, Victor S; Procaccia, Itamar; Sameen, A

    2003-02-01

    Motivated by the large effect of turbulent drag reduction by minute concentrations of polymers, we study the effects of a weakly space-dependent viscosity on the stability of hydrodynamic flows. In a recent paper [Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 174501, (2001)], we exposed the crucial role played by a localized region where the energy of fluctuations is produced by interactions with the mean flow (the "critical layer"). We showed that a layer of a weakly space-dependent viscosity placed near the critical layer can have a very large stabilizing effect on hydrodynamic fluctuations, retarding significantly the onset of turbulence. In this paper we extend these observations in two directions: first we show that the strong stabilization of the primary instability is also obtained when the viscosity profile is realistic (inferred from simulations of turbulent flows with a small concentration of polymers). Second, we analyze the secondary instability (around the time-dependent primary instability) and find similar strong stabilization. Since the secondary instability develops around a time-dependent solution and is three dimensional, this brings us closer to the turbulent case. We reiterate that the large effect is not due to a modified dissipation (as is assumed in some theories of drag reduction), but due to reduced energy intake from the mean flow to the fluctuations. We propose that similar physics act in turbulent drag reduction.

  1. Scaling in two-fluid pinch-off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pommer, Chris; Suryo, Ronald; Subramani, Hariprasad; Harris, Michael; Basaran, Osman

    2009-11-01

    Two-fluid pinch-off is encountered when drops or bubbles of one fluid are ejected from a nozzle into another fluid or when a compound jet breaks. While the breakup of a drop in a passive environment and that of a passive bubble in a liquid are well understood, the physics of pinch-off when both the inner and outer fluids are dynamically active is inadequately understood. In this talk, the breakup of a compound jet whose core and shell are both incompressible Newtonian fluids is analyzed computationally by a method of lines ALE algorithm which uses finite elements with elliptic mesh generation for spatial discretization and adaptive finite differences for time integration. Pinch-off dynamics are investigated well beyond the limit of experiments set by the wavelength of visible light and that of various algorithms used in the literature. Simulations show that the minimum neck radius r initially scales with time τ before breakup as &αcirc; where α varies over a certain range. However, depending on the values of the governing dimensionless groups, this initial scaling regime may be transitory and, closer to pinch-off, the dynamics may transition to a final asymptotic regime for which r ˜&βcirc;, where β!=α.

  2. A non-LTE analysis of high energy density Kr plasmas on Z and NIF

    DOE PAGES

    Dasgupta, A.; Clark, R. W.; Ouart, N.; ...

    2016-10-20

    We report that multi-keV X-ray radiation sources have a wide range of applications, from biomedical studies and research on thermonuclear fusion to materials science and astrophysics. The refurbished Z pulsed power machine at the Sandia National Laboratories produces intense multi-keV X-rays from argon Z-pinches, but for a krypton Z-pinch, the yield decreases much faster with atomic number Z A than similar sources on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. To investigate whether fundamental energy deposition differences between pulsed power and lasers could account for the yield differences, we consider the Kr plasma on themore » two machines. The analysis assumes the plasma not in local thermodynamic equilibrium, with a detailed coupling between the hydrodynamics, the radiation field, and the ionization physics. While for the plasma parameters of interest the details of krypton’s M-shell are not crucial, both the L-shell and the K-shell must be modeled in reasonable detail, including the state-specific dielectronic recombination processes that significantly affect Kr’s ionization balance and the resulting X-ray spectrum. We present a detailed description of the atomic model, provide synthetic K- and L-shell spectra, and compare these with the available experimental data from the Z-machine and from NIF to show that the K-shell yield behavior versus Z A is indeed related to the energy input characteristics. In conclusion, this work aims at understanding the probable causes that might explain the differences in the X-ray conversion efficiencies of several radiation sources on Z and« less

  3. A non-LTE analysis of high energy density Kr plasmas on Z and NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Dasgupta, A.; Clark, R. W.; Ouart, N.

    We report that multi-keV X-ray radiation sources have a wide range of applications, from biomedical studies and research on thermonuclear fusion to materials science and astrophysics. The refurbished Z pulsed power machine at the Sandia National Laboratories produces intense multi-keV X-rays from argon Z-pinches, but for a krypton Z-pinch, the yield decreases much faster with atomic number Z A than similar sources on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. To investigate whether fundamental energy deposition differences between pulsed power and lasers could account for the yield differences, we consider the Kr plasma on themore » two machines. The analysis assumes the plasma not in local thermodynamic equilibrium, with a detailed coupling between the hydrodynamics, the radiation field, and the ionization physics. While for the plasma parameters of interest the details of krypton’s M-shell are not crucial, both the L-shell and the K-shell must be modeled in reasonable detail, including the state-specific dielectronic recombination processes that significantly affect Kr’s ionization balance and the resulting X-ray spectrum. We present a detailed description of the atomic model, provide synthetic K- and L-shell spectra, and compare these with the available experimental data from the Z-machine and from NIF to show that the K-shell yield behavior versus Z A is indeed related to the energy input characteristics. In conclusion, this work aims at understanding the probable causes that might explain the differences in the X-ray conversion efficiencies of several radiation sources on Z and« less

  4. Dense plasma focus production in a hypocycloidal pinch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. H.; Mcfarland, D. R.; Hohl, F.

    1975-01-01

    A type of high-power pinch apparatus consisting of disk electrodes was developed, and diagnostic measurements to study its mechanism of dense plasma production were made. The collapse fronts of the current sheets are well organized, and dense plasma focuses are produced on the axis with radial stability in excess of 5 microns. A plasma density greater than 10 to the 18th power/cubic cm was determined with Stark broadening and CO2 laser absorption. A plasma temperature of approximately 1 keV was measured with differential transmission of soft X-rays through thin foils. Essentially complete absorption of a high-energy CO2 laser beam was observed. The advantages of this apparatus over the coaxial plasma focus are in (1) the plasma volume, (2) the stability, (3) the containment time, (4) the easy access to additional heating by laser or electron beams, and (5) the possibility of scaling up to a multiple array for high-power operation.

  5. A survey of the role of thermodynamic stability in viscous flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, W. C.; Smith, C. A.; Karamcheti, K.

    1991-01-01

    The stability of near-equilibrium states has been studied as a branch of the general field of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. By treating steady viscous flow as an open thermodynamic system, nonequilibrium principles such as the condition of minimum entropy-production rate for steady, near-equilibrium processes can be used to generate flow distributions from variational analyses. Examples considered in this paper are steady heat conduction, channel flow, and unconstrained three-dimensional flow. The entropy-production-rate condition has also been used for hydrodynamic stability criteria, and calculations of the stability of a laminar wall jet support this interpretation.

  6. On the linear stability of compressible plane Couette flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duck, Peter W.; Erlebacher, Gordon; Hussaini, M. Yousuff

    1991-01-01

    The linear stability of compressible plane Couette flow is investigated. The correct and proper basic velocity and temperature distributions are perturbed by a small amplitude normal mode disturbance. The full small amplitude disturbance equations are solved numerically at finite Reynolds numbers, and the inviscid limit of these equations is then investigated in some detail. It is found that instability can occur, although the stability characteristics of the flow are quite different from unbounded flows. The effects of viscosity are also calculated, asymptotically, and shown to have a stabilizing role in all the cases investigated. Exceptional regimes to the problem occur when the wavespeed of the disturbances approaches the velocity of either of the walls, and these regimes are also analyzed in some detail. Finally, the effect of imposing radiation-type boundary conditions on the upper (moving) wall (in place of impermeability) is investigated, and shown to yield results common to both bounded and unbounded flows.

  7. Atomic kinetics of a neon photoionized plasma experiment at Z

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayes, D. C.; Mancini, R. C.; Schoenfeld, R. P.; Bailey, J. E.; Loisel, G. P.; Rochau, G. A.; ZAPP Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    We discuss an experimental effort to study the atomic kinetics in neon photoionized plasmas via K-shell line absorption spectroscopy. The experiment employs the intense x-ray flux emitted at the collapse of a Z-pinch to heat and backlight a photoionized plasma contained within a cm-scale gas cell placed at various distances from the Z-pinch and filled with neon gas pressures in the range from 3.5 to 120 Torr. The experimental platform affords an order of magnitude range in the ionization parameter characterizing the photoionized plasma from about 5 to 80 erg*cm/s. Thus, the experiment allows for the study of trends in ionization distribution as a function of the ionization parameter. An x-ray crystal spectrometer capable of collecting both time-integrated and time-gated data is used to collect absorption spectra. The spectra show line absorption by several ionization stages of neon, including Be-, Li-, He-, and H-like ions. Analysis of these spectra yields ion areal-densities and charge state distributions, which can be compared with results from atomic kinetics codes. In addition, the electron temperature is extracted from level population ratios of nearby energy levels in Li- and Be-like ions, which can be used to test heating models of photoionized plasmas. This work was sponsored in part by DOE Office of Science Grant DE-SC0014451, and the Z Facility Fundamental Science Program of SNL.

  8. Flame stabilizer for stagnation flow reactor

    DOEpatents

    Hahn, David W.; Edwards, Christopher F.

    1999-01-01

    A method of stabilizing a strained flame in a stagnation flow reactor. By causing a highly strained flame to be divided into a large number of equal size segments it is possible to stablize a highly strained flame that is on the verge of extinction, thereby providing for higher film growth rates. The flame stabilizer is an annular ring mounted coaxially and coplanar with the substrate upon which the film is growing and having a number of vertical pillars mounted on the top surface, thereby increasing the number of azimuthal nodes into which the flame is divided and preserving an axisymmetric structure necessary for stability.

  9. Experimental Investigation of Combustion Stabilization in Supersonic Flow Using Free Recirculation Zones

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-08-01

    NUMBERS Experimental Investigation of Combustion Stabilization in Supersonic Flow Using Free F6170896W0291 Recirculation Zones 6. AUTHOR(S) Dr...stabilization in supersonic flow using free recirculation zones Special contract (SPC-96-4043) with Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFMC), USA, EOARD...of three quarterly reports and presents experimental results on self-ignition and combustion stabilization in supersonic flow using free

  10. DFT investigations on mechanical stability, electronic structure and magnetism in Co2TaZ (Z = Al, Ga, In) heusler alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandy, Shakeel Ahmad; Gupta, Dinesh C.

    2017-12-01

    Ferromagnetic Heusler compounds have vast and imminent applications for novel devices, smart materials thanks to density functional theory (DFT) based simulations, which have scored out a new approach to study these materials. We forecast the structural stability of Co2TaZ alloys on the basis of total energy calculations and mechanical stability criteria. The elastic constants, robust spin-polarized ferromagnetism and electron densities in these half-metallic alloys are also discussed. The observed structural aspects calculated to predict the stability and equilibrium lattice parameters agree well with the experimental results. The elastic parameters like elastic constants, bulk, Young’s and shear moduli, poison’s and Pugh ratios, melting temperatures, etc have been put together to establish their mechanical properties. The elaborated electronic band structures along with indirect band gaps and spin polarization favour the application of these materials in spintronics and memory device technology.

  11. The electro-thermal stability of tantalum relative to aluminum and titanium in cylindrical liner ablation experiments at 550 kA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, Adam M.; Campbell, Paul C.; Yager-Elorriaga, David A.; Cochrane, Kyle R.; Mattsson, Thomas R.; Jordan, Nicholas M.; McBride, Ryan D.; Lau, Y. Y.; Gilgenbach, Ronald M.

    2018-03-01

    Presented are the results from the liner ablation experiments conducted at 550 kA on the Michigan Accelerator for Inductive Z-Pinch Experiments. These experiments were performed to evaluate a hypothesis that the electrothermal instability (ETI) is responsible for the seeding of magnetohydrodynamic instabilities and that the cumulative growth of ETI is primarily dependent on the material-specific ratio of critical temperature to melting temperature. This ratio is lower in refractory metals (e.g., tantalum) than in non-refractory metals (e.g., aluminum or titanium). The experimental observations presented herein reveal that the plasma-vacuum interface is remarkably stable in tantalum liner ablations. This stability is particularly evident when contrasted with the observations from aluminum and titanium experiments. These results are important to various programs in pulsed-power-driven plasma physics that depend on liner implosion stability. Examples include the magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF) program and the cylindrical dynamic material properties program at Sandia National Laboratories, where liner experiments are conducted on the 27-MA Z facility.

  12. Stability of a non-orthogonal stagnation flow to three dimensional disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lasseigne, D. G.; Jackson, T. L.

    1991-01-01

    A similarity solution for a low Mach number nonorthogonal flow impinging on a hot or cold plate is presented. For the constant density case, it is known that the stagnation point shifts in the direction of the incoming flow and that this shift increases as the angle of attack decreases. When the effects of density variations are included, a critical plate temperature exists; above this temperature the stagnation point shifts away from the incoming stream as the angle is decreased. This flow field is believed to have application to the reattachment zone of certain separated flows or to a lifting body at a high angle of attack. Finally, the stability of this nonorthogonal flow to self similar, 3-D disturbances is examined. Stability properties of the flow are given as a function of the parameters of this study; ratio of the plate temperature to that of the outer potential flow and angle of attack. In particular, it is shown that the angle of attack can be scaled out by a suitable definition of an equivalent wavenumber and temporal growth rate, and the stability problem for the nonorthogonal case is identical to the stability problem for the orthogonal case.

  13. Axisymmetric bubble pinch-off at high Reynolds numbers.

    PubMed

    Gordillo, J M; Sevilla, A; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, J; Martínez-Bazán, C

    2005-11-04

    Analytical considerations and potential-flow numerical simulations of the pinch-off of bubbles at high Reynolds numbers reveal that the bubble minimum radius, rn, decreases as tau proportional to r2n sqrt[1lnr2n], where tau is the time to break up, when the local shape of the bubble near the singularity is symmetric. However, if the gas convective terms in the momentum equation become of the order of those of the liquid, the bubble shape is no longer symmetric and the evolution of the neck changes to a rn proportional to tau1/3 power law. These findings are verified experimentally.

  14. X-Pinch And Its Applications In X-ray Radiograph

    SciTech Connect

    Zou Xiaobing; Wang Xinxin; Liu Rui

    2009-07-07

    An X-pinch device and the related diagnostics of x-ray emission from X-pinch were briefly described. The time-resolved x-ray measurements with photoconducting diodes show that the x-ray pulse usually consists of two subnanosecond peaks with a time interval of about 0.5 ns. Being consistent with these two peaks of the x-ray pulse, two point x-ray sources of size ranging from 100 mum to 5 mum and depending on cut-off x-ray photon energy were usually observed on the pinhole pictures. The x-pinch was used as x-ray source for backlighting of the electrical explosion of single wire and the evolution of X-pinch, andmore » for phase-contrast imaging of soft biological objects such as a small shrimp and a mosquito.« less

  15. A cooling flow cluster at redshift Z = 0.2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolter, Anna; Schild, R.; Gioia, I. M.; Maccacaro, T.; Morris, S. L.; Nesci, R.; Perola, G. C.

    The cluster of galaxies 1E0839.9 + 2938, discovered in X-ray observations by Nesci et al. (1988), is characterized on the basis of VLA 6-cm radio observations, Whipple Observatory CCD photometry, and spectroscopic observations obtained with the Multiple Mirror Telescope and the 88-inch University of Hawaii Telescope at Mauna Kea. The data are presented in tables, maps, and sample images and spectra and briefly characterized. The bright X-ray object is identified with a cluster at redshift z = 0.195; its central galaxy has radio emission of 1.1 x 10 exp 24 W/Hz as well as strong optical line emission which is not restricted to its nucleus. It is concluded that 1E0839.9 + 2938 is a cooling-flow cluster similar to 3C295 (found at z = 0.461 by Henry et al., 1986). The need for space observations (by Rosat or the AXAF) to determine the object's X-ray luminosity distribution is indicated.

  16. A cooling flow cluster at redshift z = 0.2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolter, Anna; Schild, R.; Gioia, I. M.; Maccacaro, T.; Morris, S. L.; Nesci, R.; Perola, G. C.

    1990-01-01

    The cluster of galaxies 1E0839.9 + 2938, discovered in X-ray observations by Nesci et al. (1988), is characterized on the basis of VLA 6-cm radio observations, Whipple Observatory CCD photometry, and spectroscopic observations obtained with the Multiple Mirror Telescope and the 88-inch University of Hawaii Telescope at Mauna Kea. The data are presented in tables, maps, and sample images and spectra and briefly characterized. The bright X-ray object is identified with a cluster at redshift z = 0.195; its central galaxy has radio emission of 1.1 x 10 exp 24 W/Hz as well as strong optical line emission which is not restricted to its nucleus. It is concluded that 1E0839.9 + 2938 is a cooling-flow cluster similar to 3C295 (found at z = 0.461 by Henry et al., 1986). The need for space observations (by Rosat or the AXAF) to determine the object's X-ray luminosity distribution is indicated.

  17. A non-LTE analysis of high energy density Kr plasmas on Z and NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, A.; Clark, R. W.; Ouart, N.; Giuliani, J.; Velikovich, A.; Ampleford, D. J.; Hansen, S. B.; Jennings, C.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Jones, B.; Flanagan, T. M.; Bell, K. S.; Apruzese, J. P.; Fournier, K. B.; Scott, H. A.; May, M. J.; Barrios, M. A.; Colvin, J. D.; Kemp, G. E.

    2016-10-01

    Multi-keV X-ray radiation sources have a wide range of applications, from biomedical studies and research on thermonuclear fusion to materials science and astrophysics. The refurbished Z pulsed power machine at the Sandia National Laboratories produces intense multi-keV X-rays from argon Z-pinches, but for a krypton Z-pinch, the yield decreases much faster with atomic number ZA than similar sources on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. To investigate whether fundamental energy deposition differences between pulsed power and lasers could account for the yield differences, we consider the Kr plasma on the two machines. The analysis assumes the plasma not in local thermodynamic equilibrium, with a detailed coupling between the hydrodynamics, the radiation field, and the ionization physics. While for the plasma parameters of interest the details of krypton's M-shell are not crucial, both the L-shell and the K-shell must be modeled in reasonable detail, including the state-specific dielectronic recombination processes that significantly affect Kr's ionization balance and the resulting X-ray spectrum. We present a detailed description of the atomic model, provide synthetic K- and L-shell spectra, and compare these with the available experimental data from the Z-machine and from NIF to show that the K-shell yield behavior versus ZA is indeed related to the energy input characteristics. This work aims at understanding the probable causes that might explain the differences in the X-ray conversion efficiencies of several radiation sources on Z and NIF.

  18. SciTech Connect

    Stygar, W.A.; Spielman, R.B.; Allshouse, G.O.

    The 36-module Z accelerator was designed to drive z-pinch loads for weapon-physics and inertial-confinement-fusion experiments, and to serve as a testing facility for pulsed-power research required to develop higher-current drivers. The authors have designed and tested a 10-nH 1.5-m-radius vacuum section for the Z accelerator. The vacuum section consists of four vacuum flares, four conical 1.3-m-radius magnetically-insulated transmission lines, a 7.6-cm-radius 12-post double-post-hole convolute which connects the four outer MITLs in parallel, and a 5-cm-long inner MITL which connects the output of the convolute to a z-pinch load. IVORY and ELECTRO calculations were performed to minimize the inductance of themore » vacuum flares with the constraint that there be no significant electron emission from the insulator-stack grading rings. Iterative TLCODE calculations were performed to minimize the inductance of the outer MITLs with the constraint that the MITL electron-flow-current fraction be {le} 7% at peak current. The TLCODE simulations assume a 2.5 cm/{micro}s MITL-cathode-plasma expansion velocity. The design limits the electron dose to the outer-MITL anodes to 50 J/g to prevent the formation of an anode plasma. The TLCODE results were confirmed by SCREAMER, TRIFL, TWOQUICK, IVORY, and LASNEX simulations. For the TLCODE, SCREAMER, and TRIFL calculations, the authors assume that after magnetic insulation is established, the electron-flow current launched in the outer MITLs is lost at the convolute. This assumption has been validated by 3-D QUICKSILVER simulations for load impedances {le} 0.36 ohms. LASNEX calculations suggest that ohmic resistance of the pinch and conduction-current-induced energy loss to the MITL electrodes can be neglected in Z power-flow modeling that is accurate to first order. To date, the Z vacuum section has been tested on 100 shots. They have demonstrated they can deliver a 100-ns rise-time 20-MA current pulse to the baseline z-pinch load.« less

  19. Effect of transcranial magnetic stimulation on force of finger pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odagaki, Masato; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Hiwaki, Osamu

    2009-04-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is used to explore many aspects of brain function, and to treat neurological disorders. Cortical motor neuronal activation by TMS over the primary motor cortex (M1) produces efferent signals that pass through the corticospinal tracts. Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) are observed in muscles innervated by the stimulated motor cortex. TMS can cause a silent period (SP) following MEP in voluntary electromyography (EMG). The present study examined the effects of TMS eliciting MEP and SP on the force of pinching using two fingers. Subjects pinched a wooden block with the thumb and index finger. TMS was applied to M1 during the pinch task. EMG of first dorsal interosseous muscles and pinch forces were measured. Force output increased after the TMS, and then oscillated. The results indicated that the motor control system to keep isotonic forces of the muscles participated in the finger pinch was disrupted by the TMS.

  20. Tuning of Thermal Stability in Layered Li(Ni x Mn y Co z )O 2

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Jiaxin; Liu, Tongchao; Hu, Zongxiang

    2016-09-19

    Understanding and further designing new layered Li(Ni xMn yCo z)O 2 (NMC) (x + y + z = 1) materials with optimized thermal stability is important to rechargeable Li batteries (LIBs) for electrical vehicles (EV). Using ab initio calculations combined with experiments, we clarified how the thermal stability of NMC materials can be tuned by the most unstable oxygen, which is determined by the local coordination structure unit (LCSU) of oxygen (TM(Ni, Mn, Co) 3-O-Li 3-x'): each O atom bonds with three transition metals (TM) from the TM-layer and three to zero Li from fully discharged to charged states frommore » the Li-layer. Under this model, how the lithium content, valence states of Ni, contents of Ni, Mn, and Co, and Ni/Li disorder to tune the thermal stability of NMC materials by affecting the sites, content, and the release temperature of the most unstable oxygen is proposed. The synergistic effect between Li vacancies and raised valence state of Ni during delithiation process can aggravate instability of oxygen, and oxygen coordinated with more nickel (especially with high valence state) in LSCU becomes more unstable at a fixed delithiation state. The Ni/Li mixing would decrease the thermal stability of the “NiMn” group NMC materials but benefit the thermal stability of “Ni-rich” group, because the Ni in the Li layer would form 180° Ni-O-Ni super exchange chains in “Ni-rich” NMC materials. Mn and Co doping can tune the initial valence state of Ni, local coordination environment of oxygen, and the Ni/Li disorder, thus to tune the thermal stability directly.« less

  1. Turbulent equipartition pinch of toroidal momentum in spherical torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahm, T. S.; Lee, J.; Wang, W. X.; Diamond, P. H.; Choi, G. J.; Na, D. H.; Na, Y. S.; Chung, K. J.; Hwang, Y. S.

    2014-12-01

    We present a new analytic expression for turbulent equipartition (TEP) pinch of toroidal angular momentum originating from magnetic field inhomogeneity of spherical torus (ST) plasmas. Starting from a conservative modern nonlinear gyrokinetic equation (Hahm et al 1988 Phys. Fluids 31 2670), we derive an expression for pinch to momentum diffusivity ratio without using a usual tokamak approximation of B ∝ 1/R which has been previously employed for TEP momentum pinch derivation in tokamaks (Hahm et al 2007 Phys. Plasmas 14 072302). Our new formula is evaluated for model equilibria of National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX) (Ono et al 2001 Nucl. Fusion 41 1435) and Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus (VEST) (Chung et al 2013 Plasma Sci. Technol. 15 244) plasmas. Our result predicts stronger inward pinch for both cases, as compared to the prediction based on the tokamak formula.

  2. Beam heated linear theta-pinch device for producing hot plasmas

    DOEpatents

    Bohachevsky, Ihor O.

    1981-01-01

    A device for producing hot plasmas comprising a single turn theta-pinch coil, a fast discharge capacitor bank connected to the coil, a fuel element disposed along the center axis of the coil, a predetermined gas disposed within the theta-pinch coil, and a high power photon, electron or ion beam generator concentrically aligned to the theta-pinch coil. Discharge of the capacitor bank generates a cylindrical plasma sheath within the theta-pinch coil which heats the outer layer of the fuel element to form a fuel element plasma layer. The beam deposits energy in either the cylindrical plasma sheath or the fuel element plasma layer to assist the implosion of the fuel element to produce a hot plasma.

  3. A Highly Conserved Leucine in Mammarenavirus Matrix Z Protein Is Required for Z Interaction with the Virus L Polymerase and Z Stability in Cells Harboring an Active Viral Ribonucleoprotein.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Masaharu; de la Torre, Juan C

    2018-06-01

    Mammarenaviruses cause chronic infections in their natural rodent hosts. Infected rodents shed infectious virus into excreta. Humans are infected through mucosal exposure to aerosols or direct contact of abraded skin with fomites, resulting in a wide range of manifestations from asymptomatic or mild febrile illness to severe life-threatening hemorrhagic fever. The mammarenavirus matrix Z protein has been shown to be a main driving force of virus budding and to act as a negative regulator of viral RNA synthesis. To gain a better understanding of how the Z protein exerts its several different functions, we investigated the interaction between Z and viral polymerase L protein using the prototypic mammarenavirus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). We found that in the presence of an active viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP), the Z protein translocated from nonionic detergent-resistant, membrane-rich structures to a subcellular compartment with a different membrane composition susceptible to disruption by nonionic detergents. Alanine (A) substitution of a highly conserved leucine (L) at position 72 in LCMV Z protein abrogated Z-L interaction. The L72A mutation did not affect the stability or budding activity of Z when expressed alone, but in the presence of an active vRNP, mutation L72A promoted rapid degradation of Z via a proteasome- and lysosome-independent pathway. Accordingly, L72A mutation in the Z protein resulted in nonviable LCMV. Our findings have uncovered novel aspects of the dynamics of the Z protein for which a highly conserved L residue was strictly required. IMPORTANCE Several mammarenaviruses, chiefly Lassa virus (LASV), cause hemorrhagic fever disease in humans and pose important public health concerns in their regions of endemicity. Moreover, mounting evidence indicates that the worldwide-distributed, prototypic mammarenavirus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), is a neglected human pathogen of clinical significance. The mammarenavirus

  4. Nonlinear dynamics near the stability margin in rotating pipe flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Z.; Leibovich, S.

    1991-01-01

    The nonlinear evolution of marginally unstable wave packets in rotating pipe flow is studied. These flows depend on two control parameters, which may be taken to be the axial Reynolds number R and a Rossby number, q. Marginal stability is realized on a curve in the (R, q)-plane, and the entire marginal stability boundary is explored. As the flow passes through any point on the marginal stability curve, it undergoes a supercritical Hopf bifurcation and the steady base flow is replaced by a traveling wave. The envelope of the wave system is governed by a complex Ginzburg-Landau equation. The Ginzburg-Landau equation admits Stokes waves, which correspond to standing modulations of the linear traveling wavetrain, as well as traveling wave modulations of the linear wavetrain. Bands of wavenumbers are identified in which the nonlinear modulated waves are subject to a sideband instability.

  5. Boundary layers and global stability of laboratory quasi-Keplerian flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edlund, E. M.; Ji, H.

    2013-11-01

    Studies in the HTX device at PPPL, a modified Taylor-Couette experiment, have demonstrated a robust stability of astrophysically relevant, quasi-Keplerian flows. Independent rings on the axial boundary can be used to fine tune the rotation profile, allowing ideal Couette rotation to be achieved over nearly the entire radial gap. Fluctuation levels in these flows are observed to be at nearly the noise floor of the laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) diagnostic, in agreement with prior studies under similar conditions. Deviations from optimal operating parameters illustrate the importance of centrifugally unstable boundary layers in Taylor-Couette devices of the classical configuration where the axial boundaries rotate with the outer cylinder. The global stability of nearly ideal-Couette flows, with implications for astrophysical systems, will be discussed in light of the global stability of these flows with respect to externally applied perturbations of large magnitude.

  6. Production of dense plasmas in a hypocycloidal pinch apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. H.; Mcfarland, D. R.; Hohl, F.

    1977-01-01

    A high-power pinch apparatus consisting of disk electrodes was developed, and diagnostic measurements to study its mechanism of dense plasma production have been made. The collapse fronts of the current sheets are well organized, and dense plasma foci are produced on the axis with radial stability in excess of 5 microsec. A plasma density greater than 10 to the 18th power per cu cm is determined with Stark broadening and CO2 laser absorption. Essentially complete absorption of a high-energy CO2 laser beam has been observed. A plasma temperature of approximately 1 keV is measured with differential transmission of soft X-rays through thin foils. The advantages of this apparatus over the coaxial plasma focus are improvements in (1) plasma volume, (2) stability, (3) containment time, (4) access to additional heating by laser or electron beams, and (5) the possibility of scaling up to a multiple array for high-power operation.

  7. Hydrodynamic Stability Analysis on Sheared Stratified Flow in a Convective Flow Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yuan; Lin, Wenxian; Armfiled, Steven; Kirkpatrick, Michael; He, Yinghe; Fluid Dynamics Research Group, James Cook University Team; Fluid Dynamics Research Group, University of Sydney Team

    2014-11-01

    A hydrodynamic stability analysis on the convective sheared boundary layer (SCBL) flow, where a sheared stratified flow and a thermally convective flow coexist, is carried out in this study. The linear unstable stratifications representing the convective flow are included in the TaylorGoldstein equations as an unstable factor Jb. A new unstable region corresponding to the convective instability, which is not present in pure sheared stratified flows, is found with the analysis. It is also found that the boundaries of the convective instability regions expand with increasing Jb and interact with the sheared stratified instability region. More results will be presented at the conference

  8. What can asymmetry tell us? Investigation of asymmetric versus symmetric pinch and swell structures in nature and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Robyn; Piazolo, Sandra; Daczko, Nathan

    2015-04-01

    Pinch and swell structures occur from microscopic to landscape scales where a more competent layer in a weaker matrix is deformed by pure shear, often in rifting environments. The Anita Shear Zone (ASZ) in Fiordland, New Zealand has an example of landscape scale (1 km width) asymmetric pinch and swell structures developed in ultramafic rocks. Field work suggests that the asymmetry is a result of variations in the surrounding 'matrix' flow properties as the ultramafic band is surrounded to the east by an orthogneiss (Milford Orthogneiss) and to the west by a paragneiss (Thurso Paragneiss). In addition, there is a narrow and a much wider shear zone between the ultramafics and the orthogneiss and paragneiss, respectively. Detailed EBSD analysis of samples from a traverse across the pinch and swell structure indicate the ultramafics in the shear zone on the orthogneiss side have larger grain size than the ultramafics in the shear zone on the paragneiss side. Ultramafic samples from the highly strained paragneiss and orthogneiss shear zones show dislocation creep behaviour, and, on the paragneiss side, also significant deformation by grain boundary sliding. To test if asymmetry of pinch and swell structures can be used to derive the rheological properties of not only the pinch and swell lithologies, but also of the matrix, numerical simulations were performed. Numerical modelling of pure shear (extension) was undertaken with (I) initially three layers and then (II) five layers by adding soft high strain zones on both sides of the rheological hard layer. The matrix was given first symmetric, then asymmetric viscosity. Matrix viscosity was found to impact the formation of pinch and swell structures with the weaker layer causing increased tortuosity of the competent layer edge due to increased local differential stress. Results highlight that local, rheologically soft layers and the relative viscosity of matrix both impact significantly the shape and symmetry of developing

  9. Depletion zones and crystallography on pinched spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jingyuan; Xing, Xiangjun; Yao, Zhenwei

    2018-03-01

    Understanding the interplay between ordered structures and substrate curvature is an interesting problem with versatile applications, including functionalization of charged supramolecular surfaces and modern microfluidic technologies. In this work, we investigate the two-dimensional packing structures of charged particles confined on a pinched sphere. By continuously pinching the sphere, we observe cleavage of elongated scars into pleats, proliferation of disclinations, and subsequently, emergence of a depletion zone at the negatively curved waist that is completely void of particles. We systematically study the geometrics and energetics of the depletion zone, and reveal its physical origin as a finite size effect, due to the interplay between Coulomb repulsion and concave geometry of the pinched sphere. These results further our understanding of crystallography on curved surfaces, and have implications in design and manipulation of charged, deformable interfaces in various applications.

  10. Method for plasma formation for extreme ultraviolet lithography-theta pinch

    DOEpatents

    Hassanein, Ahmed [Naperville, IL; Konkashbaev, Isak [Bolingbrook, IL; Rice, Bryan [Hillsboro, OR

    2007-02-20

    A device and method for generating extremely short-wave ultraviolet electromagnetic wave, utilizing a theta pinch plasma generator to produce electromagnetic radiation in the range of 10 to 20 nm. The device comprises an axially aligned open-ended pinch chamber defining a plasma zone adapted to contain a plasma generating gas within the plasma zone; a means for generating a magnetic field radially outward of the open-ended pinch chamber to produce a discharge plasma from the plasma generating gas, thereby producing a electromagnetic wave in the extreme ultraviolet range; a collecting means in optical communication with the pinch chamber to collect the electromagnetic radiation; and focusing means in optical communication with the collecting means to concentrate the electromagnetic radiation.

  11. Stability results for multi-layer radial Hele-Shaw and porous media flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gin, Craig; Daripa, Prabir

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by stability problems arising in the context of chemical enhanced oil recovery, we perform linear stability analysis of Hele-Shaw and porous media flows in radial geometry involving an arbitrary number of immiscible fluids. Key stability results obtained and their relevance to the stabilization of fingering instability are discussed. Some of the key results, among many others, are (i) absolute upper bounds on the growth rate in terms of the problem data; (ii) validation of these upper bound results against exact computation for the case of three-layer flows; (iii) stability enhancing injection policies; (iv) asymptotic limits that reduce these radial flow results to similar results for rectilinear flows; and (v) the stabilizing effect of curvature of the interfaces. Multi-layer radial flows have been found to have the following additional distinguishing features in comparison to rectilinear flows: (i) very long waves, some of which can be physically meaningful, are stable; and (ii) eigenvalues can be complex for some waves depending on the problem data, implying that the dispersion curves for one or more waves can contact each other. Similar to the rectilinear case, these results can be useful in providing insight into the interfacial instability transfer mechanism as the problem data are varied. Moreover, these can be useful in devising smart injection policies as well as controlling the complexity of the long-term dynamics when drops of various immiscible fluids intersperse among each other. As an application of the upper bound results, we provide stabilization criteria and design an almost stable multi-layer system by adding many layers of fluid with small positive jumps in viscosity in the direction of the basic flow.

  12. Compact and lightweight support platform with electromagnetic disturbance elimination for interferometer on reversed field pinch Keda Torus eXperiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Wenzhe; Yuan, Peng; Zheng, Jian; Ding, Weixing; Li, Hong; Lan, Tao; Liu, Adi; Liu, Wandong; Xie, Jinlin

    2016-11-01

    A compact and lightweight support platform has been used as a holder for the interferometer system on the Keda Torus eXperiment (KTX), which is a reversed field pinch device. The vibration caused by the interaction between the time-varying magnetic field and the induced current driven in the metal optical components has been measured and, following comparison with the mechanical vibration of the KTX device and the refraction effect of the ambient turbulent air flow, has been identified as the primary vibration source in this case. To eliminate this electromagnetic disturbance, nonmetallic epoxy resin has been selected as the material for the support platform and the commercially available metal optical mounts are replaced. Following these optimization steps and mechanical reinforcements, the stability of the interferometer platform has improved significantly. The phase shift caused by the vibration has been reduced to the level of background noise.

  13. X-pinch dynamics: Neck formation and implosion

    SciTech Connect

    Oreshkin, V. I.; National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Ave., Tomsk 634050; Chaikovsky, S. A.

    2014-10-15

    We propose a model that describes the neck formation and implosion in an X-pinch. The process is simulated to go in two stages. The first stage is neck formation. This stage begins with an electrical explosion of the wires forming the X-pinch, and at the end of the stage, a micropinch (neck) is formed in the region where the wires are crossed. The second stage is neck implosion. The implosion is accompanied by outflow of matter from the neck region, resulting in the formation of a “hot spot”. Analytical estimates obtained in the study under consideration indicate that these stagesmore » are approximately equal in duration. Having analyzed the neck implosion dynamics, we have verified a scaling which makes it possible to explain the observed dependences of the time of occurrence of an x-ray pulse on the X-pinch current and mass.« less

  14. Isolating LacZ-expressing cells from mouse inner ear tissues using flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Jan, Taha A; Chai, Renjie; Sayyid, Zahra N; Cheng, Alan G

    2011-12-23

    Isolation of specific cell types allows one to analyze rare cell populations such as stem/progenitor cells. Such an approach to studying inner ear tissues presents a unique challenge because of the paucity of cells of interest and few transgenic reporter mouse models. Here, we describe a protocol using fluorescence-conjugated probes to selectively label LacZ-positive cells from the neonatal cochleae. The most common underlying pathology of sensorineural hearing loss is the irreversible damage and loss of cochlear sensory hair cells, which are required to transduce sound waves to neural impulses. Recent evidence suggests that the murine auditory and vestibular organs harbor stem/progenitor cells that may have regenerative potential. These findings warrant further investigation, including identifying specific cell types with stem/progenitor cell characteristics. The Wnt signaling pathway has been demonstrated to play a critical role in maintaining stem/progenitor cell populations in several organ systems. We have recently identified Wnt-responsive Axin2-expressing cells in the neonatal cochlea, but their function is largely unknown. To better understand the behavior of these Wnt-responsive cells in vitro, we have developed a method of isolating Axin2-expressing cells from cochleae of Axin2-LacZ reporter mice. Using flow cytometry to isolate Axin2-LacZ positive cells from the neonatal cochleae, we could in turn execute a variety of experiments on live cells to interrogate their behavior as stem/progenitor cells. Here, we describe in detail the steps for the microdissection of neonatal cochlea, dissociation of these tissues, labeling of the LacZ-positive cells using a fluorogenic substrate, and cell sorting. Techniques for dissociating cochleae into single cells and isolating cochlear cells via flow cytometry have been described. We have made modifications to these techniques to establish a novel protocol to isolate LacZ-expressing cells from the neonatal cochlea.

  15. On The Stability Of Model Flows For Chemical Vapour Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Robert

    2016-11-01

    The flow in a chemical vapour deposition (CVD) reactor is assessed. The reactor is modelled as a flow over an infinite-radius rotating disk, where the mean flow and convective instability of the disk boundary layer are measured. Temperature-dependent viscosity and enforced axial flow are used to model the steep temperature gradients present in CVD reactors and the pumping of the gas towards the disk, respectively. Increasing the temperature-dependence parameter of the fluid viscosity (ɛ) results in an overall narrowing of the fluid boundary layer. Increasing the axial flow strength parameter (Ts) accelerates the fluid both radially and axially, while also narrowing the thermal boundary layer. It is seen that when both effects are imposed, the effects of axial flow generally dominate those of the viscosity temperature dependence. A local stability analysis is performed and the linearized stability equations are solved using a Galerkin projection in terms of Chebyshev polynomials. The neutral stability curves are then plotted for a range of ɛ and Ts values. Preliminary results suggest that increasing Ts has a stabilising effect on both type I and type II stationary instabilities, while small increases in ɛ results in a significant reduction to the critical Reynolds number.

  16. Pinch technique and the Batalin-Vilkovisky formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binosi, Daniele; Papavassiliou, Joannis

    2002-07-01

    In this paper we take the first step towards a nondiagrammatic formulation of the pinch technique. In particular we proceed into a systematic identification of the parts of the one-loop and two-loop Feynman diagrams that are exchanged during the pinching process in terms of unphysical ghost Green's functions; the latter appear in the standard Slavnov-Taylor identity satisfied by the tree-level and one-loop three-gluon vertex. This identification allows for the consistent generalization of the intrinsic pinch technique to two loops, through the collective treatment of entire sets of diagrams, instead of the laborious algebraic manipulation of individual graphs, and sets up the stage for the generalization of the method to all orders. We show that the task of comparing the effective Green's functions obtained by the pinch technique with those computed in the background field method Feynman gauge is significantly facilitated when employing the powerful quantization framework of Batalin and Vilkovisky. This formalism allows for the derivation of a set of useful nonlinear identities, which express the background field method Green's functions in terms of the conventional (quantum) ones and auxiliary Green's functions involving the background source and the gluonic antifield; these latter Green's functions are subsequently related by means of a Schwinger-Dyson type of equation to the ghost Green's functions appearing in the aforementioned Slavnov-Taylor identity.

  17. Boundary-Layer Stability Analysis of the Mean Flows Obtained Using Unstructured Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liao, Wei; Malik, Mujeeb R.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Li, Fei; Nielsen, Eric J.; Buning, Pieter G.; Chang, Chau-Lyan; Choudhari, Meelan M.

    2012-01-01

    Boundary-layer stability analyses of mean flows extracted from unstructured-grid Navier- Stokes solutions have been performed. A procedure has been developed to extract mean flow profiles from the FUN3D unstructured-grid solutions. Extensive code-to-code validations have been performed by comparing the extracted mean ows as well as the corresponding stability characteristics to the predictions based on structured-grid solutions. Comparisons are made on a range of problems from a simple at plate to a full aircraft configuration-a modified Gulfstream-III with a natural laminar flow glove. The future aim of the project is to extend the adjoint-based design capability in FUN3D to include natural laminar flow and laminar flow control by integrating it with boundary-layer stability analysis codes, such as LASTRAC.

  18. Interaction of infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus ORF119L with PINCH leads to dominant-negative inhibition of integrin-linked kinase and cardiovascular defects in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ji-Min; He, Bai-Liang; Yang, Lu-Yun; Guo, Chang-Jun; Weng, Shao-Ping; Li, Shengwen Calvin; He, Jian-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) is the type species of the Megalocytivirus genus, Iridoviridae family, causing a severe systemic disease with high mortality in mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi) in China and Southeast Asia. At present, the pathogenesis of ISKNV infection is still not fully understood. Based on a genome-wide bioinformatics analysis of ISKNV-encoded proteins, we found that ISKNV open reading frame 119L (ORF119L) is predicted to encode a three-ankyrin-repeat (3ANK)-domain-containing protein, which shows high similarity to the dominant negative form of integrin-linked kinase (ILK); i.e., viral ORF119L lacks the ILK kinase domain. Thus, we speculated that viral ORF119L might affect the host ILK complex. Here, we demonstrated that viral ORF119L directly interacts with particularly interesting Cys-His-rich protein (PINCH) and affects the host ILK-PINCH interaction in vitro in fathead minnow (FHM) cells. In vivo ORF119L overexpression in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos resulted in myocardial dysfunctions with disintegration of the sarcomeric Z disk. Importantly, ORF119L overexpression in zebrafish highly resembles the phenotype of endogenous ILK inhibition, either by overexpressing a dominant negative form of ILK or by injecting an ILK antisense morpholino oligonucleotide. Intriguingly, ISKNV-infected mandarin fish develop disorganized sarcomeric Z disks in cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, phosphorylation of AKT, a downstream effector of ILK, was remarkably decreased in ORF119L-overexpressing zebrafish embryos. With these results, we show that ISKNV ORF119L acts as a domain-negative inhibitor of the host ILK, providing a novel mechanism for the megalocytivirus pathogenesis. Our work is the first to show the role of a dominant negative inhibitor of the host ILK from ISKNV (an iridovirus). Mechanistically, the viral ORF119L directly binds to the host PINCH, attenuates the host PINCH-ILK interaction, and thus impairs ILK signaling. Intriguingly

  19. Age-Related and Sex-Related Differences in Hand and Pinch Grip Strength in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puh, Urska

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to quantify age-related changes in hand grip strength and three types of pinch grip strength (key pinch, tip pinch, and palmar pinch) among male and female participants. The study included 199 healthy participants (100 females, 99 males) aged 20-79 years, who were divided into four age groups. The Baseline Hydraulic…

  20. Hybrid X-pinch Experiments on a MA Linear Transformer Driver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, S. G.; Yager-Elorriaga, D. A.; Steiner, A. M.; Gilgenbach, R. M.; Jordan, N. M.; Chalenski, D. A.; Lau, Y. Y.

    2013-10-01

    X-pinch experiments have been conducted on the Linear Transformer Driver (LTD) at the University of Michigan. The x-pinch consists of a single wire separated by conical electrodes between two current return plates. The LTD was charged to +/-70 kV resulting in approximately 0.5 MA passing through a 35 μm Al wire. Multiple, short x-ray bursts were detected over the 400 ns current pulse. Ultimately the x-pinch will be located in parallel with a planar foil in order to backlight the Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability. A smaller 100 kA driver is also in development and may be used to independently energize the x-pinch. The x-pinch chamber has been constructed and the results of these experiments will be presented. This work was supported by DoE award number DE-SC0002590, NSF grant number PHY 0903340, and US DoE through Sandia National Labs award numbers 240985 and 76822 to the U of Michigan. S.G Patel and A.M Steiner are supported by NPSC funded by Sandia National Labs. D.A. Yager-Elorriaga is supported by an NSF fellowship under grant number DGE 1256260.

  1. Atomic kinetics of a neon photoionized plasma experiment at Z

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayes, Daniel C.; Mancini, Roberto; Bailey, James E.; Loisel, Guillaume; Rochau, Gregory; ZAPP Collaboration

    2018-06-01

    We discuss an experimental effort to study the atomic kinetics in astrophysically relevant photoionized plasmas via K-shell line absorption spectroscopy. The experiment employs the intense x-ray flux emitted at the collapse of a Z-pinch to heat and backlight a photoionized plasma contained within a cm-scale gas cell placed at a variable distance from the Z-pinch and filled with neon gas pressures in the range from 3.5 to 30 Torr. The experimental platform affords an order of magnitude range in the ionization parameter characterizing the photoionized plasma at the peak of the x-ray drive from about 5 to 80 erg*cm/s. Thus, the experiment allows for the study of trends in ionization distribution as a function of the ionization parameter. An x-ray crystal spectrometer capable of time-integrated and/or time-gated configurations is used to collect absorption spectra. The spectra show line absorption by several ionization stages of neon, including Be-, Li-, He-, and H-like ions. Analysis of these spectra yields ion areal densities and charge state distributions, which can be compared with simulation results from atomic kinetics codes. In addition, the electron temperature is extracted from level population ratios of nearby energy levels in Li- and Be-like ions, which can be used to test heating models of photoionized plasmas.

  2. Two-fluid and finite Larmor radius effects on helicity evolution in a plasma pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Sauppe, J. P., E-mail: jpsauppe@gmail.com; Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53706; Sovinec, C. R., E-mail: csovinec@wisc.edu

    2016-03-15

    The evolution of magnetic energy, helicity, and hybrid helicity during nonlinear relaxation of a driven-damped plasma pinch is compared in visco-resistive magnetohydrodynamics and two-fluid models with and without the ion gyroviscous stress tensor. Magnetic energy and helicity are supplied via a boundary electric field which initially balances the resistive dissipation, and the plasma undergoes multiple relaxation events during the nonlinear evolution. The magnetic helicity is well conserved relative to the magnetic energy over each event, which is short compared with the global resistive diffusion time. The magnetic energy decreases by roughly 1.5% of its initial value over a relaxation event,more » while the magnetic helicity changes by at most 0.2% of the initial value. The hybrid helicity is dominated by magnetic helicity in low-β pinch conditions and is also well conserved. Differences of less than 1% between magnetic helicity and hybrid helicity are observed with two-fluid modeling and result from cross helicity evolution. The cross helicity is found to change appreciably due to the first-order finite Larmor radius effects which have not been included in contemporary relaxation theories. The plasma current evolves towards the flat parallel current state predicted by Taylor relaxation theory but does not achieve it. Plasma flow develops significant structure for two-fluid models, and the flow perpendicular to the magnetic field is much more substantial than the flow along it.« less

  3. Microstructural stability of wrought, laser and electron beam glazed NARloy-Z alloy at elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J.; Jerman, G.; Bhat, B.; Poorman, R.

    1993-01-01

    Microstructure of wrought, laser, and electron-beam glazed NARloy-Z(Cu-3 wt.% Ag-0.5 wt.% Zr) was investigated for thermal stability at elevated temperatures (539 to 760 C (1,100 to 1,400 F)) up to 94 h. Optical and scanning electron microscopy and electron probe microanalysis were employed for studying microstructural evolution and kinetics of precipitation. Grain boundary precipitation and precipitate free zones (PFZ's) were observed in the wrought alloy after exposing to temperatures above 605 C (1,120 F). The fine-grained microstructure observed in the laser and electron-beam glazed NARloy-Z was much more stable at elevated temperatures. Microstructural changes correlated well with hardness measurements.

  4. Quasi-linear gyrokinetic predictions of the Coriolis momentum pinch in NSTX

    DOE Data Explorer

    Guttenfelder, W. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Kaye, S. M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Ren, Y. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Solomon, W. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Bell, R. E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Candy, J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Gerhardt, S. P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); LeBlanc, B. P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Yuh, H. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents quasi-linear gyrokinetic predictions of the Coriolis momentum pinch for low aspect-ratio NSTX H-modes where previous experimental measurements were focused. Local, linear calculations predict that in the region of interest (just outside the mid-radius) of these relatively high-beta plasmas, profiles are most unstable to microtearing modes that are only effective in transporting electron energy. However, sub-dominant electromagnetic and electrostatic ballooning modes are also unstable, which are effective at transporting energy, particles and momentum. The quasi-linear prediction of transport from these weaker ballooning modes, assuming they contribute transport in addition to that from microtearing modes in a nonlinear turbulent state, leads to a very small or outward convection of momentum, inconsistent with the experimentally measured inward pinch, and opposite to predictions in conventional aspect ratio tokamaks. Additional predictions of a low beta L-mode plasma, unstable to more traditional electrostatic ion temperature gradient-trapped electron mode instability, show that the Coriolis pinch is inward but remains relatively weak and insensitive to many parameter variations. The weak or outward pinch predicted in NSTX plasmas appears to be at least partially correlated to changes in the parallel mode structure that occur at finite beta and low aspect ratio, as discussed in previous theories. The only conditions identified where a stronger inward pinch is predicted occur either in the purely electrostatic limit or if the aspect ratio is increased. As the Coriolis pinch cannot explain the measured momentum pinch, additional theoretical momentum transport mechanisms are discussed that may be potentially important.

  5. The membrane-stabilizing action of zinc carnosine (Z-103) in stress-induced gastric ulceration in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, C.H.; Luk, C.T.; Ogle, C.W.

    1991-01-01

    Zinc compounds have been shown to antagonize various types of gastric ulceration in rats. Zinc carnosine (Z-103), a newly developed agent was, therefore, examined for its antiulcer effect in stress-induced ulceration and also its membrane stabilizing action in rat stomachs. Cold-restraint stress induced severe hemorrhagic lesions together with increased mast cell degranulation and {beta}-glucuronidase release in the gastric glandular mucosa. A-103 pretreatment with a single oral dose reversed these actions in a dose-dependent manner. When the compound was incubated in concentrations of 10{sup {minus}7}, 10{sup {minus}6}, 10{sup {minus}5} or 10{sup {minus}4} M, with isolated hepatic lysosomes, it significantly reduced themore » spontaneous release of {beta}-glucuronidase in the medium. The present study not only demonstrates the antiulcer effect of Z-103 but also indicates that the protective action is likely to be mediated by its membrane-stabilizing action on mast cells and lysosomes in the gastric glandular mucosa.« less

  6. Bubble pinch-off and scaling during liquid drop impact on liquid pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Bahni; Biswas, Gautam; Sharma, Ashutosh

    2012-08-01

    Simulations are performed to show entrapment of air bubble accompanied by high speed upward and downward water jets when a water drop impacts a pool of water surface. A new bubble entrapment zone characterised by small bubble pinch-off and long thick jet is found. Depending on the bubble and jet behaviour, the bubble entrapment zone is subdivided into three sub-regimes. The entrapped bubble size and jet height depends on the crater shape and its maximum depth. During the bubble formation, bubble neck develops an almost singular shape as it pinches off. The final pinch-off shape and the power law governing the pinching, rneck ∝ A(t0 - t)αvaries with the Weber number. Weber dependence of the function describing the radius of the bubble during the pinch-off only affects the coefficient A and not the power exponent α.

  7. Study of Plasma Flow Modes in Imploding Nested Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrofanov, K. N.; Aleksandrov, V. V.; Gritsuk, A. N.; Branitsky, A. V.; Frolov, I. N.; Grabovski, E. V.; Sasorov, P. V.; Ol'khovskaya, O. G.; Zaitsev, V. I.

    2018-02-01

    Results from experimental studies of implosion of nested wire and fiber arrays at currents of up to 4 MA at the Angara-5-1 facility are presented. Depending on the ratio between the radii of the inner and outer arrays, different modes of the plasma flow in the space between the inner and outer arrays were implemented: the sub-Alfvénic ( V r < V A ) and super-Alfvénic ( V r > V A ) modes and a mode with the formation of the transition shock wave (SW) region between the cascades. By varying the material of the outer array (tungsten wires or kapron fibers), it is shown that the plasma flow mode between the inner and outer arrays depends on the ratio between the plasma production rates ṁ in / ṁ out in the inner and outer arrays. The obtained experimental results are compared with the results of one-dimensional MHD simulation of the plasma flow between the arrays. Stable implosion of the inner array plasma was observed in experiments with combined nested arrays consisting of a fiber outer array and a tungsten inner array. The growth rates of magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instability in the inner array plasma at different numbers of fibers in the outer array and different ratios between the radii of the inner and outer arrays are compared. Suppression of MRT instability during the implosion of the inner array plasma results in the formation of a stable compact Z-pinch and generation of a soft X-ray pulse. A possible scenario of interaction between the plasmas of the inner and outer arrays is offered. The stability of the inner array plasma in the stage of final compression depends on the character of interaction of plasma jets from the outer array with the magnetic field of the inner array.

  8. Precessing rotating flows with additional shear: stability analysis.

    PubMed

    Salhi, A; Cambon, C

    2009-03-01

    We consider unbounded precessing rotating flows in which vertical or horizontal shear is induced by the interaction between the solid-body rotation (with angular velocity Omega(0)) and the additional "precessing" Coriolis force (with angular velocity -epsilonOmega(0)), normal to it. A "weak" shear flow, with rate 2epsilon of the same order of the Poincaré "small" ratio epsilon , is needed for balancing the gyroscopic torque, so that the whole flow satisfies Euler's equations in the precessing frame (the so-called admissibility conditions). The base flow case with vertical shear (its cross-gradient direction is aligned with the main angular velocity) corresponds to Mahalov's [Phys. Fluids A 5, 891 (1993)] precessing infinite cylinder base flow (ignoring boundary conditions), while the base flow case with horizontal shear (its cross-gradient direction is normal to both main and precessing angular velocities) corresponds to the unbounded precessing rotating shear flow considered by Kerswell [Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn. 72, 107 (1993)]. We show that both these base flows satisfy the admissibility conditions and can support disturbances in terms of advected Fourier modes. Because the admissibility conditions cannot select one case with respect to the other, a more physical derivation is sought: Both flows are deduced from Poincaré's [Bull. Astron. 27, 321 (1910)] basic state of a precessing spheroidal container, in the limit of small epsilon . A Rapid distortion theory (RDT) type of stability analysis is then performed for the previously mentioned disturbances, for both base flows. The stability analysis of the Kerswell base flow, using Floquet's theory, is recovered, and its counterpart for the Mahalov base flow is presented. Typical growth rates are found to be the same for both flows at very small epsilon , but significant differences are obtained regarding growth rates and widths of instability bands, if larger epsilon values, up to 0.2, are considered. Finally

  9. Hydrostatic calculations of axisymmetric flow and its stability for the AGCE model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, T. L.; Gall, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    Baroclinic waves in the atmospherics general circulation experiment (AGCE) apparatus by the use of numerical hydrostatic primitive equation models were determined. The calculation is accomplished by using an axisymmetric primitive equation model to compute, for a given set of experimental parameters, a steady state axisymmetric flow and then testing this axisymmetric flow for stability using a linear primitive equation model. Some axisymmetric flows are presented together with preliminary stability calculations.

  10. The stabilizing effect of compressibility in turbulent shear flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarkar, S.

    1994-01-01

    Direct numerical simulation of turbulent homogeneous shear flow is performed in order to clarify compressibility effects on the turbulence growth in the flow. The two Mach numbers relevant to homogeneous shear flow are the turbulent Mach number M(t) and the gradient Mach number M(g). Two series of simulations are performed where the initial values of M(g) and M(t) are increased separately. The growth rate of turbulent kinetic energy is observed to decrease in both series of simulations. This 'stabilizing' effect of compressibility on the turbulent energy growth rate is observed to be substantially larger in the DNS series where the initial value of M(g) is changed. A systematic companion of the different DNS cues shows that the compressibility effect of reduced turbulent energy growth rate is primarily due to the reduced level of turbulence production and not due to explicit dilatational effects. The reduced turbulence production is not a mean density effect since the mean density remains constant in compressible homogeneous shear flow. The stabilizing effect of compressibility on the turbulence growth is observed to increase with the gradient Mach number M(g) in the homogeneous shear flow DNS. Estimates of M(g) for the mixing and the boundary layer are obtained. These estimates show that the parameter M(g) becomes much larger in the high-speed mixing layer relative to the high-speed boundary layer even though the mean flow Mach numbers are the same in the two flows. Therefore, the inhibition of turbulent energy production and consequent 'stabilizing' effect of compressibility on the turbulence (over and above that due to the mean density variation) is expected to be larger in the mixing layer relative to the boundary layer in agreement with experimental observations.

  11. Acute and repeated activation of male sexual behavior by tail pinch: opioid and dopaminergic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Leyton, M; Stewart, J

    1996-07-01

    We studied the effect of tail pinch on male sexual behavior and its neurochemical basis. Male rats were gonadectomized and maintained on low doses of testosterone propionate (20.0 micrograms/day). Tail pinch significantly increased the percentage of males that mounted, intromitted, and ejaculated within a 30-min test, and these increases were attenuated by both pimozide (1.0 mg/kg, i.p.) and by naloxone (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg/kg, s.c.). Moreover, tail pinch in the presence of an estrous female led to significantly increased female-directed behavior 48 h later during a test without tail pinch. Repeated tail pinch tests led to progressively more sexual activity, and the development of this behavioral sensitization was prevented by naloxone. These findings suggest that tail pinch increases the salience of the incentive characteristics of the female. Furthermore, during subsequent tests, with or without tail pinch, the increased salience of the female remains, as measured by the continued increases in sexual activity. These acute and sensitized behavioral increases might result from tail pinch-induced activation of the midbrain dopamine system via an opioid mechanism; either preventing tail pinch-induced dopamine activation (by an opioid antagonist) or blocking the effects of dopamine activation (by a dopamine antagonist) attenuated the long-term facilitation of sexual behavior seen after pairing the female with tail pinch.

  12. Plasma Density Effects on Toroidal Flow Stabilization of Edge Localized Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Shikui; Zhu, Ping; Banerjee, Debabrata

    2016-10-01

    Recent EAST experiments have demonstrated mitigation and suppression of edge localized modes (ELMs) with toroidal rotation flow in higher collisionality regime, suggesting potential roles of plasma density. In this work, the effects of plasma density on the toroidal flow stabilization of the high- n edge localized modes have been extensively studied in linear calculations for a circular-shaped limiter H-mode tokamak, using the initial-value extended MHD code NIMROD. In the single MHD model, toroidal flow has a weak stabilizing effects on the high- n modes. Such a stabilization, however, can be significantly enhanced with the increase in plasma density. Furthermore, our calculations show that the enhanced stabilization of high- n modes from toroidal flow with higher edge plasma density persists in the 2-fluid MHD model. These findings may explain the ELM mitigation and suppression by toroidal rotation in higher collisionality regime due to the enhancement of plasma density obtained in EAST experiment. Supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Program of China under Grant Nos. 2014GB124002 and 2015GB101004, the 100 Talent Program and the President International Fellowship Initiative of Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  13. Reynolds and Maxwell stress measurements in the reversed field pinch experiment Extrap-T2R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vianello, N.; Antoni, V.; Spada, E.; Spolaore, M.; Serianni, G.; Cavazzana, R.; Bergsåker, H.; Cecconello, M.; Drake, J. R.

    2005-08-01

    The complete Reynolds stress (RS) has been measured in the edge region of the Extrap-T2R reversed field pinch experiment. The RS exhibits a strong gradient in the region where a high E × B shear takes place. Experimental results show this gradient to be almost entirely due to the electrostatic contribution. This has been interpreted as experimental evidence of flow generation via turbulence mechanism. The scales involved in flow generation are deduced from the frequency decomposition of RS tensor. They are found related to magnetohydrodynamic activity but are different with respect to the scales responsible for turbulent transport.

  14. Nonlinear ideal magnetohydrodynamics instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Pfirsch, D.; Sudan, R.N.

    1993-07-01

    Explosive phenomena such as internal disruptions in toroidal discharges and solar flares are difficult to explain in terms of linear instabilities. A plasma approaching a linear stability limit can, however, become nonlinearly and explosively unstable, with noninfinitesimal perturbations even before the marginal state is reached. For such investigations, a nonlinear extension of the usual MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) energy principle is helpful. (This was obtained by Merkel and Schlueter, Sitzungsberichted. Bayer. Akad. Wiss., Munich, 1976, No. 7, for Cartesian coordinate systems.) A coordinate system independent Eulerian formulation for the Lagrangian allowing for equilibria with flow and with built-in conservation laws for mass,more » magnetic flux, and entropy is developed in this paper which is similar to Newcomb's Lagrangian method of 1962 [Nucl. Fusion, Suppl., Pt. II, 452 (1962)]. For static equilibria nonlinear stability is completely determined by the potential energy. For a potential energy which contains second- and [ital n]th order or some more general contributions only, it is shown in full generality that linearly unstable and marginally stable systems are explosively unstable even for infinitesimal perturbations; linearly absolutely stable systems require finite initial perturbations. For equilibria with Abelian symmetries symmetry breaking initial perturbations are needed, which should be observed in numerical simulations. Nonlinear stability is proved for two simple examples, [ital m]=0 perturbations of a Bennet Z-pinch and [ital z]-independent perturbations of a [theta] pinch. The algebra for treating these cases reduces considerably if symmetries are taken into account from the outset, as suggested by M. N. Rosenbluth (private communication, 1992).« less

  15. Nonlinear ideal magnetohydrodynamics instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfirsch, D.; Sudan, R. N.

    1993-07-01

    Explosive phenomena such as internal disruptions in toroidal discharges and solar flares are difficult to explain in terms of linear instabilities. A plasma approaching a linear stability limit can, however, become nonlinearly and explosively unstable, with noninfinitesimal perturbations even before the marginal state is reached. For such investigations, a nonlinear extension of the usual MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) energy principle is helpful. (This was obtained by Merkel and Schlüter, Sitzungsberichted. Bayer. Akad. Wiss., Munich, 1976, No. 7, for Cartesian coordinate systems.) A coordinate system independent Eulerian formulation for the Lagrangian allowing for equilibria with flow and with built-in conservation laws for mass, magnetic flux, and entropy is developed in this paper which is similar to Newcomb's Lagrangian method of 1962 [Nucl. Fusion, Suppl., Pt. II, 452 (1962)]. For static equilibria nonlinear stability is completely determined by the potential energy. For a potential energy which contains second- and nth order or some more general contributions only, it is shown in full generality that linearly unstable and marginally stable systems are explosively unstable even for infinitesimal perturbations; linearly absolutely stable systems require finite initial perturbations. For equilibria with Abelian symmetries symmetry breaking initial perturbations are needed, which should be observed in numerical simulations. Nonlinear stability is proved for two simple examples, m=0 perturbations of a Bennet Z-pinch and z-independent perturbations of a θ pinch. The algebra for treating these cases reduces considerably if symmetries are taken into account from the outset, as suggested by M. N. Rosenbluth (private communication, 1992).

  16. On the impact of atmospheric thermal stability on the characteristics of nocturnal downslope flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Z. J.; Garratt, J. R.; Segal, M.; Pielke, R. A.

    1990-04-01

    The impacts of background (or ambient) and local atmospheric thermal stabilities, and slope steepness, on nighttime thermally induced downslope flow in meso-β domains (i.e., 20 200 km horizontal extent) have been investigated using analytical and numerical model approaches. Good agreement between the analytical and numerical evaluations was found. It was concluded that: (i) as anticipated, the intensity of the downslope flow increases with increased slope steepness, although the depth of the downslope flow was found to be insensitive to slope steepness in the studied situations; (ii) the intensity of the downslope flow is generally independent of background atmospheric thermal stability; (iii) for given integrated nighttime cooling across the nocturnal boundary layer (NBL), Q s the local atmospheric thermal stability exerts a strong influence on downslope flow behavior: the downslope flow intensity increases when local atmospheric thermal stability increases; and (iv) the downslope flow intensity is proportional to Q s 1/2.

  17. Radiation characteristics of Al wire arrays on Z*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coverdale, C. A.; Ampleford, D. J.; Jones, B.; Cuneo, M. E.; Hansen, S.; Jennings, C. A.; Moore, N.; Jones, S. C.; Deeney, C.

    2011-10-01

    Analysis of mixed material nested wire array experiments at Z have shown that the inner wire array dominates the hottest regions of the stagnated z pinch. In those experiments, substantial free-bound continuum radiation was observed when Al was fielded on the inner wire array. Experiments with Al (5% Mg) on both wire arrays have also been fielded, with variations in the free-bound continuum observed. These variations appear to be tied to the initial mass and diameter of the wire array. The results presented here will investigate the trends in the measured emission (Al and Mg K-shell and free-bound continuum) and will compare the measured output to more recent Al wire array experimental results on the refurbished Z accelerator. *Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. +current address: NNSA/DOE Headquarters, Washington D.C.

  18. Axial plasma jet characterization on a microsecond x-pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaar, G. S.; Appartaim, R. K.

    2018-06-01

    The jets produced on a microsecond x-pinch (quarter period T1/4 ˜ 1 μs, dI/dt ˜ 0.35 kA/ns) have been studied through light-field schlieren imaging and optical framing photographs across 4 different materials: Al, Ti, Mo, and W. The axial velocity of the jets was measured and exhibited no dependence on atomic number (Z) of the wire material. There may be a dependence on another factor(s), namely, the current rise rate. The average axial jet velocity across all four materials was measured to be 2.9 ± 0.5 × 106 cm/s. The average jet diameter and the average radial jet expansion rate displayed inverse relationships with Z, which may be attributed to radiative cooling and inertia. Asymmetry between the anode and cathode jet behavior was observed and is thought to be caused by electron beam activity. The mean divergence angle of the jet was found to vary with wire material and correlated inversely with the thermal conductivity of the cold wire. Optical images indicated a two-layer structure in Al jets which may be caused by standing shocks and resemble phenomena observed in astrophysical jet formation and collimation. Kinks in the jets have also been observed which may be caused by m = 1 MHD instability modes or by the interaction of the jet with the electrode plasma.

  19. Recent developments in linear theta-pinch research: experiment and theory

    SciTech Connect

    McKenna, K.F.; Bartsch, R.R.; Commisso, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    High energy plasmas offusion interest can be generated in linear theta pinches. However, end losses present a fundamental limitation on the plasma containment time. This paper discusses recent progress in end-loss and end-stoppering experiments and in the theoretical understanding of linear theta-pinch physics.

  20. Determination of plasma pinch time and effective current radius of double planar wire array implosions from current measurements on a 1-MA linear transformer driver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, Adam M.; Yager-Elorriaga, David A.; Patel, Sonal G.; Jordan, Nicholas M.; Gilgenbach, Ronald M.; Safronova, Alla S.; Kantsyrev, Victor L.; Shlyaptseva, Veronica V.; Shrestha, Ishor; Schmidt-Petersen, Maximillian T.

    2016-10-01

    Implosions of planar wire arrays were performed on the Michigan Accelerator for Inductive Z-pinch Experiments, a linear transformer driver (LTD) at the University of Michigan. These experiments were characterized by lower than expected peak currents and significantly longer risetimes compared to studies performed on higher impedance machines. A circuit analysis showed that the load inductance has a significant impact on the current output due to the comparatively low impedance of the driver; the long risetimes were also attributed to high variability in LTD switch closing times. A circuit model accounting for these effects was employed to measure changes in load inductance as a function of time to determine plasma pinch timing and calculate a minimum effective current-carrying radius. These calculations showed good agreement with available shadowgraphy and x-ray diode measurements.

  1. The inviscid stability of supersonic flow past axisymmetric bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duck, Peter W.

    1990-01-01

    The supersonic flow past a sharp cone is studied. The associated boundary layer flow (i.e., the velocity and temperature field) is computed. The inviscid linear temporal stability of axisymmetric boundary layers in general is considered, and in particular, a so-called 'triply generalized' inflection condition for 'subsonic' nonaxisymmetric neutral modes is presented. Preliminary numerical results for the stability of the cone boundary layer are presented for a freestream Mach number of 3.8. In particular, a new inviscid mode of instability is seen to occur in certain regimes, and this is shown to be related to a viscous mode found by Duck and Hall (1988).

  2. Effect of thermal treatment and light irradiation on the stability of lycopene with high Z-isomers content.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kazuya; Honda, Masaki; Takemura, Ryota; Fukaya, Tetsuya; Wahyudiono; Kanda, Hideki; Goto, Motonobu

    2018-06-01

    The stability of lycopene with high Z-isomers content during thermal treatment and light irradiation was investigated. Purified (all-E)-lycopene was thermally isomerized to the Z-isomers in dichloromethane (CH 2 Cl 2 ) at 50 °C for 24 h. The total content of the Z-isomers of lycopene reached 56.1%. Then, the mixture of lycopene isomers was stored in the dark at 4, 25, and 40 °C for 30 days, and under light irradiation using a fluorescent light at 4 °C for 336 h. The degradation rate of lycopene during thermal treatment rose with increasing temperature and the activation energy for decomposition of the mixture of lycopene isomers was calculated to be 71.0 kJ mol -1 . The degradation rate of lycopene isomers was almost the same under thermal treatment. On the other hand, during light irradiation, isomerization was promoted rather than decomposition, i.e. (9Z)- and (13Z)-lycopene converted to the (all-E)-isomer. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Stability of magnetohydrodynamic Dean Flow as applied to centrifugally confined plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Hassam, A.B.

    1999-10-01

    Dean Flow is the azimuthal flow of fluid between static concentric cylinders. In a magnetized plasma, there may also be radial stratification of the pressure. The ideal magnetohydrodynamic stability of such a flow in the presence of a strong axial magnetic field and an added radial gravitational force is examined. It is shown that both the Kelvin{endash}Helmholtz instability and pressure-gradient-driven interchanges can be stabilized if the flow is driven by a unidirectional external force and if the plasma annulus is sufficiently thin (large aspect ratio). These results find application in schemes using centrifugal confinement of plasma for fusion. {copyright} {italmore » 1999 American Institute of Physics.}« less

  4. "Marginal pinching" in soap films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aradian, A.; Raphaël, E.; de Gennes, P.-G.

    2001-09-01

    We discuss the behaviour of a thin soap film facing a frame element: the pressure in the Plateau border around the frame is lower than the film pressure, and the film thins out over a certain distance λ(t), due to the formation of a well-localized pinched region of thickness h(t) and extension w(t). We construct a hydrodynamic theory for this thinning process, assuming a constant surface tension: Marangoni effects are probably important only at late stages, where instabilities set in. We find λ(t) ~ t1/4, and for the pinch dimensions, h(t) ~ t-1/2 and w(t) ~ t-1/4. These results may play a useful role for the discussion of later instabilities leading to a global film thinning and drainage, as first discussed by K. Mysels under the name "marginal regeneration".

  5. Schlieren Cinematography of Current Driven Plasma Jet Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loebner, Keith; Underwood, Thomas; Cappelli, Mark

    2016-10-01

    Schlieren cinematography of a pulsed plasma deflagration jet is presented and analyzed. An ultra-high frame rate CMOS camera coupled to a Z-type laser Schlieren apparatus is used to obtain flow-field refractometry data for the continuous flow Z-pinch formed within the plasma deflagration jet. The 10 MHz frame rate for 256 consecutive frames provides high temporal resolution, enabling turbulent fluctuations and plasma instabilities to be visualized over the course of a single pulse (20 μs). The Schlieren signal is radiometrically calibrated to obtain a two dimensional mapping of the refraction angle of the axisymmetric pinch plasma, and this mapping is then Abel inverted to derive the plasma density distribution as a function radius, axial coordinate, and time. Analyses of previously unknown discharge characteristics and comparisons with prior work are discussed.

  6. Feasibility of 4D flow MR imaging of the brain with either Cartesian y-z radial sampling or k-t SENSE: comparison with 4D Flow MR imaging using SENSE.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Tetsuro; Amano, Yasuo; Takagi, Ryo; Matsumura, Yoshio; Murai, Yasuo; Kumita, Shinichiro

    2014-01-01

    A drawback of time-resolved 3-dimensional phase contrast magnetic resonance (4D Flow MR) imaging is its lengthy scan time for clinical application in the brain. We assessed the feasibility for flow measurement and visualization of 4D Flow MR imaging using Cartesian y-z radial sampling and that using k-t sensitivity encoding (k-t SENSE) by comparison with the standard scan using SENSE. Sixteen volunteers underwent 3 types of 4D Flow MR imaging of the brain using a 3.0-tesla scanner. As the standard scan, 4D Flow MR imaging with SENSE was performed first and then followed by 2 types of acceleration scan-with Cartesian y-z radial sampling and with k-t SENSE. We measured peak systolic velocity (PSV) and blood flow volume (BFV) in 9 arteries, and the percentage of particles arriving from the emitter plane at the target plane in 3 arteries, visually graded image quality in 9 arteries, and compared these quantitative and visual data between the standard scan and each acceleration scan. 4D Flow MR imaging examinations were completed in all but one volunteer, who did not undergo the last examination because of headache. Each acceleration scan reduced scan time by 50% compared with the standard scan. The k-t SENSE imaging underestimated PSV and BFV (P < 0.05). There were significant correlations for PSV and BFV between the standard scan and each acceleration scan (P < 0.01). The percentage of particles reaching the target plane did not differ between the standard scan and each acceleration scan. For visual assessment, y-z radial sampling deteriorated the image quality of the 3 arteries. Cartesian y-z radial sampling is feasible for measuring flow, and k-t SENSE offers sufficient flow visualization; both allow acquisition of 4D Flow MR imaging with shorter scan time.

  7. Study of a non-equilibrium plasma pinch with application for microwave generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Agry, Ahmad Farouk

    The Non-Equilibrium Plasma Pinch (NEPP), also known as the Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) is well known as a source of energetic ions, relativistic electrons and neutrons as well as electromagnetic radiation extending from the infrared to X-ray. In this dissertation, the operation of a 15 kJ, Mather type, NEPP machine is studied in detail. A large number of experiments are carried out to tune the machine parameters for best performance using helium and hydrogen as filling gases. The NEPP machine is modified to be able to extract the copious number of electrons generated at the pinch. A hollow anode with small hole at the flat end, and a mock magnetron without biasing magnetic field are built. The electrons generated at the pinch are very difficult to capture, therefore a novel device is built to capture and transport the electrons from the pinch to the magnetron. The novel cup-rod-needle device successfully serves the purpose to capture and transport electrons to monitor the pinch current. Further, the device has the potential to field emit charges from its needle end acting as a pulsed electron source for other devices such as the magnetron. Diagnostics tools are designed, modeled, built, calibrated, and implemented in the machine to measure the pinch dynamics. A novel, UNLV patented electromagnetic dot sensors are successfully calibrated, and implemented in the machine. A new calibration technique is developed and test stands designed and built to measure the dot's ability to track the impetus signal over its dynamic range starting and ending in the noise region. The patented EM-dot sensor shows superior performance over traditional electromagnetic sensors, such as Rogowski coils. On the other hand, the cup-rod structure, when grounded on the rod side, serves as a diagnostic tool to monitor the pinch current by sampling the actual current, a quantity that has been always very challenging to measure without perturbing the pinch. To the best of our knowledge, this method

  8. Assembly of an FtsZ Mutant Deficient in GTPase Activity Has Implications for FtsZ Assembly and the Role of the Z Ring in Cell Division

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Amit; Saez, Cristian; Lutkenhaus, Joe

    2001-01-01

    FtsZ, the ancestral homologue of eukaryotic tubulins, assembles into the Z ring, which is required for cytokinesis in prokaryotic cells. Both FtsZ and tubulin have a GTPase activity associated with polymerization. Interestingly, the ftsZ2 mutant is viable, although the FtsZ2 mutant protein has dramatically reduced GTPase activity due to a glycine-for-aspartic acid substitution within the synergy loop. In this study, we have examined the properties of FtsZ2 and found that the reduced GTPase activity is not enhanced by DEAE-dextran-induced assembly, indicating it has a defective catalytic site. In the absence of DEAE-dextran, FtsZ2 fails to assemble unless supplemented with wild-type FtsZ. FtsZ has to be at or above the critical concentration for copolymerization to occur, indicating that FtsZ is nucleating the copolymers. The copolymers formed are relatively stable and appear to be stabilized by a GTP-cap. These results indicate that FtsZ2 cannot nucleate assembly in vitro, although it must in vivo. Furthermore, the stability of FtsZ-FtsZ2 copolymers argues that FtsZ2 polymers would be stable, suggesting that stable FtsZ polymers are able to support cell division. PMID:11717278

  9. The Evolution of Oblique Impact Flow Fields Using Maxwell's Z Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L. B.; Schultz, P. H.; Heineck, J. T.

    2003-01-01

    Oblique impacts are the norm rather than the exception for impact craters on planetary surfaces. This work focuses on the excavation of experimental oblique impact craters using the NASA Ames Vertical Gun Range (AVGR). Three-dimensional particle image velocimetry (3D PIV) is used to obtain quantitative data on ejection positions, three dimensional velocities and angles. These data are then used to constrain Maxwell's Z Model and follow the subsurface evolution of the excavation-stage flow-field center during oblique impacts.

  10. The Pulsed Fission-Fusion (PUFF) Concept for Deep Space Exploration and Terrestrial Power Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Robert; Cassibry, Jason; Schillo, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    This team is exploring a modified Z-pinch geometry as a propulsion system, imploding a liner of liquid lithium onto a pellet containing both fission and fusion fuel. The plasma resulting from the fission and fusion burn expands against a magnetic nozzle, for propulsion, or a magnetic confinement system, for terrestrial power generation. There is considerable synergy in the concept; the lithium acts as a temporary virtual cathode, and adds reaction mass for propulsion. Further, the lithium acts as a radiation shield against generated neutrons and gamma rays. Finally, the density profile of the column can be tailored using the lithium sheath. Recent theoretical and experimental developments (e.g. tailored density profile in the fuel injection, shear stabilization, and magnetic shear stabilization) have had great success in mitigating instabilities that have plagued previous fusion efforts. This paper will review the work in evaluating the pellet sizes and z-pinch conditions for optimal PuFF propulsion. Trades of pellet size and composition with z-pinch power levels and conditions for the tamper and lithium implosion are evaluated. Current models, both theoretical and computational, show that a z-pinch can ignite a small (1 cm radius) fission-fusion target with significant yield. Comparison is made between pure fission and boosted fission targets. Performance is shown for crewed spacecraft for high speed Mars round trip missions and near interstellar robotic missions. The PuFF concept also offers a solution for terrestrial power production. PuFF can, with recycling of the effluent, achieve near 100% burnup of fission fuel, providing a very attractive power source with minimal waste. The small size of PuFF relative to today's plants enables a more distributed power network and less exposure to natural or man-made disruptions.

  11. Gas Bubble Pinch-off in Viscous and Inviscid Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taborek, P.

    2005-11-01

    We have used high-speed video to analyze pinch-off of nitrogen gas bubbles in fluids with a wide range of viscosity. If the external fluid is highly viscous (ηext>100 cP), the radius is proportional to the time before break, τ, and decreases smoothly to zero. If the external fluid has low viscosity (ηext<10 cP), the neck radius scales as &1/2circ; until an instability develops in the gas bubble which causes the neck to rupture and tear apart. Finally, if the viscosity of the external fluid is in an intermediate range, an elongated thread is formed which breaks apart into micron-sized bubbles. 100,000 frame-per-second videos will be presented which illustrate each of these flow regimes.

  12. Electron density and plasma dynamics of a spherical theta pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teske, C.; Liu, Y.; Blaes, S.; Jacoby, J.

    2012-03-01

    A spherical theta pinch for plasma stripper applications has been developed and investigated regarding the electron density and the plasma confinement during the pinching sequence. The setup consists of a 6 μH induction coil surrounding a 4000 ml spherical discharge vessel and a capacitor bank with interchangeable capacitors leading to an overall capacitance of 34 μF and 50 μF, respectively. A thyristor switch is used for driving the resonant circuit. Pulsed coil currents reached values of up to 26 kA with maximum induction of 500 mT. Typical gas pressures were 0.7 Pa up to 120 Pa with ArH2 (2.8% H2)-gas as a discharge medium. Stark broadening measurements of the Hβ emission line were carried out in order to evaluate the electron density of the discharge. In accordance with the density measurements, the transfer efficiency was estimated and a scaling law between electron density and discharge energy was established for the current setup. The densities reached values of up to 8 × 1022 m-3 for an energy of 1.6 kJ transferred into the plasma. Further, the pinching of the discharge plasma was documented and the different stages of the pinching process were analyzed. The experimental evidence suggests that concerning the recent setup of the spherical theta pinch, a linear scaling law between the transferred energy and the achievable plasma density can be applied for various applications like plasma strippers and pulsed ion sources.

  13. Stability of surface plastic flow in large strain deformation of metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanathan, Koushik; Udapa, Anirduh; Sagapuram, Dinakar; Mann, James; Chandrasekar, Srinivasan

    We examine large-strain unconstrained simple shear deformation in metals using a model two-dimensional cutting system and high-speed in situ imaging. The nature of the deformation mode is shown to be a function of the initial microstructure state of the metal and the deformation geometry. For annealed metals, which exhibit large ductility and strain hardening capacity, the commonly assumed laminar flow mode is inherently unstable. Instead, the imposed shear is accommodated by a highly rotational flow-sinuous flow-with vortex-like components and large-amplitude folding on the mesoscale. Sinuous flow is triggered by a plastic instability on the material surface ahead of the primary region of shear. On the other hand, when the material is extensively strain-hardened prior to shear, laminar flow again becomes unstable giving way to shear banding. The existence of these flow modes is established by stability analysis of laminar flow. The role of the initial microstructure state in determining the change in stability from laminar to sinuous / shear-banded flows in metals is elucidated. The implications for cutting, forming and wear processes for metals, and to surface plasticity phenomena such as mechanochemical Rehbinder effects are discussed.

  14. The Evolution of Oblique Impact Flow Fields Using Maxwell's Z Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L. B.; Schultz, P. H.; Heineck, J. T.

    2003-01-01

    Oblique impacts are the norm rather than the exception for impact craters on planetary surfaces. This work focuses on the excavation of experimental oblique impact craters using the NASA Ames Vertical Gun Range (AVGR). Three-dimensional particle image velocimetry (3D PIV) is used to obtain quantitative data on ejection positions, three-dimensional velocities and angles. These data are then used to test the applicability and limitations of Maxwell's Z Model in representing the subsurface evolution of the excavation-stage flow-field center during vertical and oblique impacts.

  15. Strength training improves the tri-digit finger-pinch force control of older adults.

    PubMed

    Keogh, Justin W; Morrison, Steve; Barrett, Rod

    2007-08-01

    To investigate the effect of unilateral upper-limb strength training on the finger-pinch force control of older men. Pretest and post-test 6-week intervention study. Exercise science research laboratory. Eleven neurologically fit older men (age range, 70-80y). The strength training group (n=7) trained twice a week for 6 weeks, performing dumbbell bicep curls, wrist flexions, and wrists extensions, while the control group subjects (n=4) maintained their normal activities. Changes in force variability, targeting error, peak power frequency, proportional power, sample entropy, digit force sharing, and coupling relations were assessed during a series of finger-pinch tasks. These tasks involved maintaining a constant or sinusoidal force output at 20% and 40% of each subject's maximum voluntary contraction. All participants performed the finger-pinch tasks with both the preferred and nonpreferred limbs. Analysis of covariance for between-group change scores indicated that the strength training group (trained limb) experienced significantly greater reductions in finger-pinch force variability and targeting error, as well as significantly greater increases in finger-pinch force, sample entropy, bicep curl, and wrist flexion strength than did the control group. A nonspecific upper-limb strength-training program may improve the finger-pinch force control of older men.

  16. Simulation of confined magnetohydrodynamic flows with Dirichlet boundary conditions using a pseudo-spectral method with volume penalization

    SciTech Connect

    Morales, Jorge A.; Leroy, Matthieu; Bos, Wouter J.T.

    A volume penalization approach to simulate magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows in confined domains is presented. Here the incompressible visco-resistive MHD equations are solved using parallel pseudo-spectral solvers in Cartesian geometries. The volume penalization technique is an immersed boundary method which is characterized by a high flexibility for the geometry of the considered flow. In the present case, it allows to use other than periodic boundary conditions in a Fourier pseudo-spectral approach. The numerical method is validated and its convergence is assessed for two- and three-dimensional hydrodynamic (HD) and MHD flows, by comparing the numerical results with results from literature and analyticalmore » solutions. The test cases considered are two-dimensional Taylor–Couette flow, the z-pinch configuration, three dimensional Orszag–Tang flow, Ohmic-decay in a periodic cylinder, three-dimensional Taylor–Couette flow with and without axial magnetic field and three-dimensional Hartmann-instabilities in a cylinder with an imposed helical magnetic field. Finally, we present a magnetohydrodynamic flow simulation in toroidal geometry with non-symmetric cross section and imposing a helical magnetic field to illustrate the potential of the method.« less

  17. Anomalous transport theory for the reversed field pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Terry, P.W.; Hegna, C.C; Sovinec, C.R.

    1996-09-01

    Physically motivated transport models with predictive capabilities and significance beyond the reversed field pinch (RFP) are presented. It is shown that the ambipolar constrained electron heat loss observed in MST can be quantitatively modeled by taking account of the clumping in parallel streaming electrons and the resultant self-consistent interaction with collective modes; that the discrete dynamo process is a relaxation oscillation whose dependence on the tearing instability and profile relaxation physics leads to amplitude and period scaling predictions consistent with experiment; that the Lundquist number scaling in relaxed plasmas driven by magnetic turbulence has a weak S{sup {minus}1/4} scaling; andmore » that radial E{times}B shear flow can lead to large reductions in the edge particle flux with little change in the heat flux, as observed in the RFP and tokamak. 24 refs.« less

  18. Normative Measurements of Grip and Pinch Strengths of 21st Century Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Jin Hee; Kim, Jin Soo; Lee, Dong Chul; Ki, Sae Hwi; Yang, Jae Won; Jeon, Man Kyung; Lee, Sang Myung

    2013-01-01

    Background Measuring grip and pinch strength is an important part of hand injury evaluation. Currently, there are no standardized values of normal grip and pinch strength among the Korean population, and lack of such data prevents objective evaluation of post-surgical recovery in strength. This study was designed to establish the normal values of grip and pinch strength among the healthy Korean population and to identify any dependent variables affecting grip and pinch strength. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out. The inclusion criterion was being a healthy Korean person without a previous history of hand trauma. The grip strength was measured using a Jamar dynamometer. Pulp and key pinch strength were measured with a hydraulic pinch gauge. Intra-individual and inter-individual variations in these variables were analyzed in a standardized statistical manner. Results There were a total of 336 healthy participants between 13 and 77 years of age. As would be expected in any given population, the mean grip and pinch strength was greater in the right hand than the left. Male participants (137) showed mean strengths greater than female participants (199) when adjusted for age. Among the male participants, anthropometric variables correlated positively with grip strength, but no such correlations were identifiable in female participants in a statistically significant way. Conclusions Objective measurements of hand strength are an important component of hand injury evaluation, and population-specific normative data are essential for clinical and research purposes. This study reports updated normative hand strengths of the South Korean population in the 21st century. PMID:23362480

  19. Investigating the effect of adding an on-axis jet to Ar gas puff Z pinches on Z.

    DOE PAGES

    Harvey-Thompson, Adam James; Jennings, Christopher Ashley; Jones, Brent M.; ...

    2016-10-20

    Double-shell Ar gas puff implosions driven by 16.5±0.5 MA on the Z generator at Sandia National Laboratories are very effective emitters of Ar K-shell radiation (photon energy >3 keV), producing yields of 330 ± 9% kJ (B. Jones et al., Phys. Plasmas, 22, 020706, 2015). In addition, previous simulations and experiments have reported dramatic increases in K-shell yields when adding an on-axis jet to double shell gas puffs for some configurations.

  20. On the linear stability of blood flow through model capillary networks.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jeffrey M

    2014-12-01

    Under the approximation that blood behaves as a continuum, a numerical implementation is presented to analyze the linear stability of capillary blood flow through model tree and honeycomb networks that are based on the microvascular structures of biological tissues. The tree network is comprised of a cascade of diverging bifurcations, in which a parent vessel bifurcates into two descendent vessels, while the honeycomb network also contains converging bifurcations, in which two parent vessels merge into one descendent vessel. At diverging bifurcations, a cell partitioning law is required to account for the nonuniform distribution of red blood cells as a function of the flow rate of blood into each descendent vessel. A linearization of the governing equations produces a system of delay differential equations involving the discharge hematocrit entering each network vessel and leads to a nonlinear eigenvalue problem. All eigenvalues in a specified region of the complex plane are captured using a transformation based on contour integrals to construct a linear eigenvalue problem with identical eigenvalues, which are then determined using a standard QR algorithm. The predicted value of the dimensionless exponent in the cell partitioning law at the instability threshold corresponds to a supercritical Hopf bifurcation in numerical simulations of the equations governing unsteady blood flow. Excellent agreement is found between the predictions of the linear stability analysis and nonlinear simulations. The relaxation of the assumption of plug flow made in previous stability analyses typically has a small, quantitative effect on the stability results that depends on the specific network structure. This implementation of the stability analysis can be applied to large networks with arbitrary structure provided only that the connectivity among the network segments is known.

  1. Mode switching and linear stability analysis of resonant acoustic flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panickar, Praveen

    Resonant acoustic flows occur in a wide variety of practical, aerospace-related applications and are a rich source of complex flow-physics. The primary concern associated with these types of flows is the high-amplitude fluctuating pressures associated with the resonant tones that could lead to sonic fatigue failure of sensitive components in the vicinity of such flows. However, before attempting to devise methods to suppress the resonant tones, it is imperative to understand the physics governing these flows in the hope that such an understanding will lead to more robust and effective suppression techniques. To this end, an in-depth study of various resonant acoustic flows was undertaken in this thesis, the main aim being to bring about a better understanding of such flows by revealing physically relevant information. Starting with the resonant acoustic mechanism in underexpanded jets from two-dimensional nozzles, it was shown that, for a variety of flow situations (geometries, shock-cell structures and orientations) in such jets, the nonlinear interaction density acted as a faithful precursor to a, hitherto unpredictable, spanwise instability mode switch. Following this, a study of the occurrence of, previously undocumented and theoretically unexpected, helical instabilities in subsonic impinging jets was undertaken. Using metrics from linear stability analysis, it was shown that the presence of the helical modes was justified. The results from this study on impinging jets are directly applicable to modern Stationary Take-Off and Vertical Landing (STOVL) aircraft that have twin, closely spaced exhausts. Finally, a novel technique that yielded dramatic suppression of resonant acoustic tones using high frequency excitation, in subsonic flows over open cavities, was investigated. Linear stability calculations of the experimentally measured baseline and excited velocity profiles showed that the instability of the high frequency excitation corresponded to a spatially

  2. Linear stability analysis of laminar flow near a stagnation point in the slip flow regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essaghir, E.; Oubarra, A.; Lahjomri, J.

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the present contribution is to analyze the effect of slip parameter on the stability of a laminar incompressible flow near a stagnation point in the slip flow regime. The analysis is based on the traditional normal mode approach and assumes parallel flow approximation. The Orr-Sommerfeld equation that governs the infinitesimal disturbance of stream function imposed to the steady main flow, which is an exact solution of the Navier-Stokes equation satisfying slip boundary conditions, is obtained by using the powerful spectral Chebyshev collocation method. The results of the effect of slip parameter K on the hydrodynamic characteristics of the base flow, namely the velocity profile, the shear stress profile, the boundary layer, displacement and momentum thicknesses are illustrated and discussed. The numerical data for these characteristics, as well as those of the eigenvalues and the corresponding wave numbers recover the results of the special case of no-slip boundary conditions. They are found to be in good agreement with previous numerical calculations. The effects of slip parameter on the neutral curves of stability, for two-dimensional disturbances in the Reynolds-wave number plane, are then obtained for the first time in the slip flow regime for stagnation point flow. Furthermore, the evolution of the critical Reynolds number against the slip parameter is established. The results show that the critical Reynolds number for instability is significantly increased with the slip parameter and the flow turn out to be more stable when the effect of rarefaction becomes important.

  3. Design of a Modular Test Loop for Study of Two-Phase Flow and Heat Transfer in Low and High Accelerations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-01

    probably cannot afford to have such a large pressure drop (orifice or throttling valve ) in the loop to stabilize the flow. For a given flow rate, the...rate was set by a calibrated valve and the water flow rate was set by the pump speed. The loop was not equipped with flowmeters and it was assumed that...Configuration. 3-28 jCk z < [D - a~ - Z Li-c I Li CL- a ow L~j Z 4) ,,l C0 0 Q.(-C - CL Li Ln LJ r o~C:) Z CC Ck LLj ZJ LOL Li Ln ( 3-2 ~ Tf1 FFFFF ~< L~iK

  4. Self-pinched transport for ion-driven inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, D.R.; Olson, C.L.

    Efficient transport of intense ion beams is necessary for ion-driven inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The self-pinched transport scheme involves the focusing of an ion beam to a radius of about 1 cm or less. At this radius, using the beam`s self-magnetic field for confinement, the ion beam propagates through the reactor chamber to an ICF target. A promising regime for self-pinched transport involves the injection of a high current beam into an initially neutral gas at about 200 mTorr less. A simple equilibrium theory of a beam with a temporally pinching radial envelope predicts that large confining magnetic fields aremore » possible with net currents of more than 50% of the beam current. The magnitude of these fields is strongly dependent on the rate of ionization of the given ion species. The authors have simulated ion-beam propagation, using the hybrid code IPROP, which self-consistently calculates the gas breakdown and electromagnetic fields. In agreement, with the theory, a propagation window of 20-200 mTorr of argon is calculated for a 50 kA, 5 MeV proton beam similar to the parameters of the SABRE accelerator at Sandia National Laboratories. The authors present simulations of the focusing and propagation of the SABRE beam, with the purpose of designing a self-pinch experiment.« less

  5. Study of the Stability of Compressible Couette Flow.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard, Jeffrey John

    This study is concerned with a two-dimensional disturbance of plane Couette flow. All reviewed analyses of the basic problem have led to the conclusion that the flow is unconditionally stable. All of the literature assumed the fluid was incompressible. The assumption that a fluid is incompressible neglects solutions to the problem. The motivation of the analysis presented herein is a hypothesis that some of the acoustic disturbances in the fluid, usually neglected, may interact with the mean vorticity to produce more sound. This hypothesis was discussed by Vaidya (1988). The fluid considered herein has been a viscous, heat-conducting, ideal gas. For the cases investigated in this study, most solutions exhibited stability. There were found, however, solutions at somewhat unrealistically high Mach numbers which exhibited unstable nature. Further, it was found that for even low Mach number flows, the sound solution was the least stable solution. It is thought that the interaction between the sound perturbation and the mean flow has fed energy to the disturbance from the mean flow. Enough energy was transferred to balance some of the viscous dissipation. At low Mach numbers, for the investigated cases, not enough energy was transferred to tip the flow to instability. The established theory has been challenged. All previous analysis of the basic infinitesimal perturbation problem has suggested unconditional stability. This work has shown some unstable regimes. This keeps the hope alive that analysis may one day explain the experimental evidence (which is at much lower Mach numbers). The future work should concentrate on the sound solution for this problem. It has been shown to be the least stable, though it is usually neglected. An attempt should be made to investigate the possibility of reducing the lowest Mach number for instability. Suggestions for this have been provided in Chapter 4.

  6. Flow-induced conformational changes in gelatin structure and colloidal stabilization.

    PubMed

    Akbulut, Mustafa; Reddy, Naveen K; Bechtloff, Bernd; Koltzenburg, Sebastian; Vermant, Jan; Prud'homme, Robert K

    2008-09-02

    Flow can change the rate at which solutes adsorb on surfaces by changing mass transfer to the surface, but moreover, flow can induce changes in the conformation of macromolecules in solution by providing sufficient stresses to perturb the segmental distribution function. However, there are few studies where the effect of flow on macromolecules has been shown to alter the structure of macromolecules adsorbed on surfaces. We have studied how the local energy dissipation alters the adsorption of gelatin onto polystyrene nanoparticles ( r = 85 nm). The change in the nature of the adsorbed layer is manifest in the change in the ability of the nanoparticles to resist aggregation. Circular dichroism spectroscopy was used to assess conformational changes in gelatin, and dynamic light scattering was used to assess the colloid stability. Experiments were conducted in a vortex jet mixer where energy density and mixing times have been quantified; mixing of the gelatin and unstable nanoparticles occurs on the order of milliseconds. The adsorption of the gelatin provides steric stabilization to the nanoparticles. We found that the stability of the gelatin-adsorbed nanoparticles increased with increasing mixing velocities: when the mixing velocities were changed from 0.9 to 550 m/s, the radius of the nanoclusters (aggregates) formed 12 h after the mixing decreased from 2620 to 600 nm. Increasing temperature also gave rise to similar trends in the stability behavior with increasing temperature, leading to increasing colloid stability. Linear flow birefringence studies also suggested that the velocity fields in the mixer are sufficiently strong to produce conformational changes in the gelatin. These results suggest that the energy dissipation produced by mixing can activate conformational changes in gelatin to alter its adsorption on the surfaces of nanoparticles. Understanding how such conformational changes in gelatin can be driven by local fluid mechanics and how these changes

  7. Impact of grain size evolution on necking and pinch-and-swell formation in calcite layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmalholz, Stefan Markus; Duretz, Thibault

    2017-04-01

    The formation of necking zones and the associated formation of pinch-and-swell structure is one form of strain localization in extending, competent layers. Natural pinch-and-swell structure in centimetre-thick calcite layers typically shows a reduction of grain size from swell towards pinch. However, the impact of grain size evolution on necking and pinch-and-swell formation is incompletely understood. We perform zero-dimensional (0D) and 2D thermo-mechanical numerical simulations to quantify the impact of grain size evolution on necking for extension rates between 10-12s^-1and10^-14 s-1 and temperatures around 350°C. For a combination of diffusion and dislocation creep we calculate grain size evolution according to the paleowattmeter (grain size is proportional to mechanical work rate) or the paleopiezometer (grain size is proportional to stress). Numerical results fit two observations: (i) grain size reduction from swells towards pinches, and (ii) dislocation creep dominated deformation in swells and significant contribution of diffusion creep in pinches. Modelled grain size in pinches (10 to 60 μm) and swells (70 to 800 μm) is close to observed grain size in pinches (15 to 27 μm) and in swells (250 to 1500 μm). Grain size evolution has only a minor impact on necking suggesting that grain size evolution is a consequence, and not the cause of necking. Viscous shear heating and grain size evolution had a negligible thermal impact in the simulations.

  8. Flow of two immiscible fluids in a periodically constricted tube: Transitions to stratified, segmented, churn, spray, or segregated flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraggedakis, D.; Kouris, Ch.; Dimakopoulos, Y.; Tsamopoulos, J.

    2015-08-01

    We study the flow of two immiscible, Newtonian fluids in a periodically constricted tube driven by a constant pressure gradient. Our volume-of-fluid algorithm is used to solve the governing equations. First, the code is validated by comparing its predictions to previously reported results for stratified and pulsing flow. Then, it is used to capture accurately all the significant topological changes that take place. Initially, the fluids have a core-annular arrangement, which is found to either remain the same or change to a different arrangement depending on the fluid properties, the pressure driving the flow, or the flow geometry. The flow-patterns that appear are the core-annular, segmented, churn, spray, and segregated flow. The predicted scalings near pinching of the core fluid concur with similarity predictions and earlier numerical results [I. Cohen et al., "Two fluid drop snap-off problem: Experiments and theory," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1147-1150 (1999)]. Flow-pattern maps are constructed in terms of the Reynolds and Weber numbers. Our result provides deeper insights into the mechanism of the pattern transitions and is in agreement with previous studies on core-annular flow [Ch. Kouris and J. Tsamopoulos, "Core-annular flow in a periodically constricted circular tube, I. Steady state, linear stability and energy analysis," J. Fluid Mech. 432, 31-68 (2001) and Ch. Kouris et al., "Comparison of spectral and finite element methods applied to the study of interfacial instabilities of the core-annular flow in an undulating tube," Int. J. Numer. Methods Fluids 39(1), 41-73 (2002)], segmented flow [E. Lac and J. D. Sherwood, "Motion of a drop along the centreline of a capillary in a pressure-driven flow," J. Fluid Mech. 640, 27-54 (2009)], and churn flow [R. Y. Bai et al., "Lubricated pipelining—Stability of core annular-flow. 5. Experiments and comparison with theory," J. Fluid Mech. 240, 97-132 (1992)].

  9. On stability and turbulence of fluid flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heisenberg, Werner

    1951-01-01

    This investigation is divided into two parts, the treatment of the stability problem of fluid flows on the one hand, and that of the turbulent motion on the other. The first part summarizes all previous investigations under a unified point of view, that is, sets up as generally as possible the conditions under which a profile possesses unstable or stable characteristics, and indicates the methods for solution of the stability equation for any arbitrary velocity profile and for calculation of the critical Reynolds number for unstable profiles. In the second part, under certain greatly idealizing assumptions, differential equations for the turbulent motions are derived and from them qualitative information about several properties of the turbulent velocity distribution is obtained.

  10. The stability of a flexible cantilever in viscous channel flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cisonni, Julien; Lucey, Anthony D.; Elliott, Novak S. J.; Heil, Matthias

    2017-05-01

    Most studies of the flow-induced flutter instability of a flexible cantilever have assumed inviscid flow because of the high flow speeds and the large scale of the structures encountered in the wide range of applications of this fluid-structure interaction (FSI) system. However, for instance, in the fields of energy harvesting and biomechanics, low flow speeds and small- and micro-scale systems can give relatively low Reynolds numbers so that fluid viscosity needs to be explicitly accounted for to provide reliable predictions of channel-immersed-cantilever stability. In this study, we employ a numerical model coupling the Navier-Stokes equations and a one-dimensional elastic beam model. We conduct a parametric investigation to determine the conditions leading to flutter instability of a slender flexible cantilever immersed in two-dimensional viscous channel flow for Reynolds numbers lower than 1000. The large set of numerical simulations carried out allows predictions of the influence of decreasing Reynolds numbers and of the cantilever confinement on the single-mode neutral stability of the FSI system and on the pre- and post-critical cantilever motion. This model's predictions are also compared to those of a FSI model containing a two-dimensional solid model in order to assess, primarily, the effect of the cantilever slenderness in the simulations. Results show that an increasing contribution of viscosity to the hydrodynamic forces significantly alters the instability boundaries. In general, a decrease in Reynolds number is predicted to produce a stabilisation of the FSI system, which is more pronounced for high fluid-to-solid mass ratios. For particular fluid-to-solid mass ratios, viscous effects can lower the critical velocity and lead to a change in the first unstable structural mode. However, at constant Reynolds number, the effects of viscosity on the system stability are diminished by the confinement of the cantilever, which strengthens the importance of

  11. Toggle mechanism for pinching metal tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengard, E. O. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A toggle mechanism pinches a metal tube and maintains the tube in a pinched condition, without fracturing. The toggle mechanism includes a plunger translatable along a longitudinal axis, as well as a pair of links pivoted about a common axis extending through an end of the plunger. One of the links also pivots about a fixed axis. A free end of the other link carries a push link which the other link translates at right angles to the plunger longitudinal axis. First and second sides of the tube bear against a first stop block and are engaged by the push link when a compression spring, attached to the plunger, is suddenly released to irreversibly drive the plunger along its longitudinal axis so the pivot point of the two links is driven to an over travel position.

  12. Stability of hypersonic boundary-layer flows with chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Helen L.; Stuckert, Gregory K.; Haynes, Timothy S.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of nonequilibrium chemistry and three dimensionality on the stability characteristics of hypersonic flows are discussed. In two-dimensional (2-D) and axisymmetric flows, the inclusion of chemistry causes a shift of the second mode of Mack to lower frequencies. This is found to be due to the increase in size of the region of relative supersonic flow because of the lower speeds of sound in the relatively cooler boundary layers. Although this shift in frequency is present in both the equilibrium and nonequilibrium air results, the equilibrium approximation predicts modes which are not observed in the nonequilibrium calculations (for the flight conditions considered). These modes are superpositions of incoming and outgoing unstable disturbances which travel supersonically relative to the boundary-layer edge velocity. Such solutions are possible because of the finite shock stand-off distance. Their corresponding wall-normal profiles exhibit an oscillatory behavior in the inviscid region between the boundary-layer edge and the bow shock. For the examination of three-dimensional (3-D) effects, a rotating cone is used as a model of a swept wing. An increase of stagnation temperature is found to be only slightly stabilizing. The correlation of transition location (N = 9) with parameters describing the crossflow profile is discussed. Transition location does not correlate with the traditional crossflow Reynolds number. A new parameter that appears to correlate for boundary-layer flow was found. A verification with experiments on a yawed cone is provided.

  13. Staged Z-pinch for the production of high-flux neutrons and net energy

    SciTech Connect

    Wessel, Frank J.; Rahman, Hafiz Ur; Rostoker, Norman

    A fusible target is embedded in a high Z liner, ohmically heated and then shock wave heated by implosion of an enveloping high Z liner. The target is adiabatically heated by compression, fusibly ignited and charged-particle heated as it is being ignited. A shock front forms as the liner implodes which shock front detaches from the more slowly moving liner, collides with the outer surface of the target, accelerates inward, rapidly heating the target, adiabatically compressing the target and liner and amplifying the current to converge the liner mass toward a central axis thereby compressing the target to a fusionmore » condition when it begins to ignite and produce charged particles. The charged particles are trapped in a large magnetic field surrounding the target. The energy of the charged particles is deposited into the target to further heat the target to produce an energy gain.« less

  14. The inviscid stability of supersonic flow past a sharp cone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duck, Peter W.; Shaw, Stephen J.

    1990-01-01

    The laminar boundary layer which forms on a sharp cone in a supersonic freestream, where lateral curvature plays a key role in the physics of the problem is considered. This flow is then analyzed from the point of view of linear, temporal, inviscid stability. The basic, non-axisymmetric disturbance equations are derived for general flows of this class, and a so called triply generalized inflexion condition is found for the existence of subsonic neutral modes of instability. This condition is analogous to the well-known generalized inflexion condition found in planar flows, although in the present case the condition depends on both axial and aximuthal wavenumbers. Extensive numerical results are presented for the stability problem at a freestream Mach number of 3.8, for a range of streamwise locations. These results reveal that a new mode of instability may occur, peculiar to flows of this type involving curvature. Additionally, asymptotic analyses valid close to the tip of the cone, far downstream of the cone are presented, and these give a partial (asymptotic) description of this additional mode of instability.

  15. Conformity of modified O-ring test and maximal pinch strength for cross tape application direction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Hoon; Choi, Hyun-Su

    2018-06-01

    Although cross tape has recently been used by clinicians for various musculoskeletal conditions, scientific studies on the direction of cross tape application are lacking. The present study aimed to investigate whether the direction of cross tape application affected the outcomes of the modified O-ring test and maximal pinch strength using a pinch gauge and the conformity between these 2 tests when cross tape was applied to the forearm muscles of individuals with no upper extremity pain and no restriction of joint range of motion.This study used a single-blinding crossover design. The subjects comprised 39 adults (16 men and 23 women). Cross tape was applied to the dominant hand so that the 4 rows were at an angle of 45° to the right or left of the direction of the flexor digitorum superficialis muscle fibers, and then the subjects underwent a modified O-ring test and a test of maximal pinch strength using a pinch gauge. Both tests were performed in both directions, and the order of the directions and tests was randomized. SPSS 18.0 was used for statistical analysis. Cohen's kappa coefficient was used to analyze the conformity of the results from the 2 tests. The statistical significance level was P < .05. A positive response in the modified O-ring test and maximal pinch strength were both affected by cross tape direction. The modified O-ring test and maximal pinch strength using pinch gauge results were in agreement (P < .00), and the kappa coefficient was significant at 1.00. The direction of cross tape application that produced a positive response in the modified O-ring test also produced greater maximal pinch strength. Thus, we propose that when applying cross tape to muscles, the direction of the 4 lines of the cross tape should be 45° relative to the direction of the muscle fibers, toward the side that produces a positive response in the modified O-ring test or produces the greatest maximal pinch strength using a pinch gauge.

  16. The design and implementation of a windowing interface pinch force measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Tze-Yee; Chen, Yuanu-Joan; Chung, Chin-Teng; Hsiao, Ming-Heng

    2010-02-01

    This paper presents a novel windowing interface pinch force measurement system that is basically based on an USB (Universal Series Bus) microcontroller which mainly processes the sensing data from the force sensing resistance sensors mounted on five digits. It possesses several friendly functions, such as the value and curve trace of the applied force by a hand injured patient displayed in real time on a monitoring screen, consequently, not only the physician can easily evaluate the effect of hand injury rehabilitation, but also the patients get more progressive during the hand physical therapy by interacting with the screen of pinch force measurement. In order to facilitate the pinch force measurement system and make it friendly, the detail hardware design and software programming flowchart are described in this paper. Through a series of carefully and detailed experimental tests, first of all, the relationship between the applying force and the FSR sensors are measured and verified. Later, the different type of pinch force measurements are verified by the oscilloscope and compared with the corresponding values and waveform traces in the window interface display panel to obtain the consistency. Finally, a windowing interface pinch force measurement system based on the USB microcontroller is implemented and demonstrated. The experimental results show the verification and feasibility of the designed system.

  17. Stability of a Premixed Flame in Stagnation-Point Flow Against General Disturbance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    Tien and Matalon 1990; Dixon-Lewis 1991) aimed at understanding the structure and burning characteristics of laminar flames. Results of these studies...upstream, the flow field is the classical stagnation-point flow characterized by the strain rate e. The flame, which separates the burned products from the...fresh unburned mixture, is considered thin and is therefore represented by the surface O(x,y,z,t) - 0, where * > 0 is the burned gas region. The flame

  18. Pinch-force-magnification mechanism of low degree of freedom EMG prosthetic hand for children.

    PubMed

    Ye, Hesong; Sakoda, Shintaro; Jiang, Yinlai; Morishita, Soichiro; Yokoi, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    EMG prosthetic hands are being extensively studied for the disabled who need them not only for cosmesis but also for the functions to help them with basic daily activities. However, most EMG prosthetic hands are developed for adults. Since the early use of prosthetic hands is important for the children to accept and adapt to them, we are developing low degrees of freedom (DoF) prosthetic hand that is suitable for children. Due to the limited size of a child's hand, the servo motor which drives the MP joint are small-sized and low-power. Hence, a pinch-force-magnification mechanism is required to improve the pinch force of the EMG prosthetic hand. In this paper we designed a wire-driven mechanism which can magnify pinch force by increasing the length of the MP joint's moment arm. Pinch force measurement experiment validated that the pinch force of the prosthetic hand with the mechanism is more than twice of that of the hand with direct drive.

  19. Non Lyapunov stability of a constant spatially developing 2-D gas flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balint, Agneta M.; Balint, Stefan; Tanasie, Loredana

    2017-01-01

    Different types of stabilities (global, local) and instabilities (global absolute, local convective) of the constant spatially developing 2-D gas flow are analyzed in a particular phase space of continuously differentiable functions, endowed with the usual algebraic operations and the topology generated by the uniform convergence on the plane. For this purpose the Euler equations linearized at the constant flow are used. The Lyapunov stability analysis was presented in [1] and this paper is a continuation of [1].

  20. Simulation of the radiation from the hot spot of an X-pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oreshkin, V. I.; Artyomov, A. P.; Chaikovsky, S. A.; Oreshkin, E. V.; Rousskikh, A. G.

    2017-01-01

    The results of X-pinch experiments performed using a small-sized pulse generator are analyzed. The generator, capable of producing a 200-kA, 180-ns current, was loaded with an X-pinch made of four 35-μm-diameter aluminum wires. The analysis consists of a one-dimensional radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulation of the formation of a hot spot in an X-pinch, taking into account the outflow of material from the neck region. The radiation loss and the ion species composition of the pinch plasma are calculated based on a stationary collisional-radiative model, including balance equations for the populations of individual levels. With this model, good agreement between simulation predictions and experimental data has been achieved: the experimental and the calculated radiation power and pulse duration differ by no more than twofold. It has been shown that the x-ray pulse is formed in the radiative collapse region, near its boundary.

  1. Generalized Stability Analysis of Capillary Flow in Slender V-Grooves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Nicholas; Troian, Sandra

    2017-11-01

    Spontaneous capillary flow, an especially rapid process in slender open microchannels resembling V-grooves, is of significant importance to many applications requiring passive robust flow control. Many types of biomedical devices for point-of-care use in developing countries are being designed around this principle. Important fundamental work by Romero and Yost (1996) and Weislogel (1996) elucidated the behavior of Newtonian films in slender V-grooves driven to flow by the streamwise change in capillary pressure due to the change in radius of curvature of the circular arc describing the interface of wetting or non-wetting fluids. Self-similar solutions describing Washburn type dynamics were found but other solutions are possible. Here we extend the Romero and Yost model to include a variety of inlet and outlet boundary conditions and examine the transient growth and generalized stability of perturbations to steady state and self-similar flows. Although most cases examined for wetting fluids exhibit robust stability against small perturbations, some exceptions reveal unstable flow. In total, these results support decades of experimental work which has found this method of flow control to be especially reliable, robust and self-healing. The authors gratefully acknowledge financial support from the 2016 NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory President's and Director's Fund as well as a 2017 NASA Space Technology Research Fellowship.

  2. A gas-puff-driven theta pinch for plasma-surface interaction studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Soonwook; Kesler, Leigh; Yun, Hyun-Ho; Curreli, Davide; Andruczyk, Daniel; Ruzic, David

    2012-10-01

    DEVeX is a theta pinch device used to investigate fusion-related material interaction such as vapor shielding and ICRF antenna interactions with plasma-pulses in a laboratory setting. The simulator is required to produce high heat-flux plasma enough to induce temperature gradient high enough to study extreme conditions happened in a plasma fusion reactor. In order to achieve it, DEVeX is reconfigured to be combined with gas puff system as gas puffing may reduce heat flux loss resulting from collisions with neutral. A gas puff system as well as a conical gas nozzle is manufactured and several diagnostics including hot wire anemometer and fast ionization gauge are carried out to quantitatively estimate the supersonic flow of gas. Energy deposited on the target for gas puffing and static-filled conditions is measured with thermocouples and its application to TELS, an innovative concept utilizing a thermoelectric-driven liquid metal flow for plasma facing component, is discussed.

  3. Controlling bridging and pinching with pixel-based mask for inverse lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobelkov, Sergey; Tritchkov, Alexander; Han, JiWan

    2016-03-01

    Inverse Lithography Technology (ILT) has become a viable computational lithography candidate in recent years as it can produce mask output that results in process latitude and CD control in the fab that is hard to match with conventional OPC/SRAF insertion approaches. An approach to solving the inverse lithography problem as a nonlinear, constrained minimization problem over a domain mask pixels was suggested in the paper by Y. Granik "Fast pixel-based mask optimization for inverse lithography" in 2006. The present paper extends this method to satisfy bridging and pinching constraints imposed on print contours. Namely, there are suggested objective functions expressing penalty for constraints violations, and their minimization with gradient descent methods is considered. This approach has been tested with an ILT-based Local Printability Enhancement (LPTM) tool in an automated flow to eliminate hotspots that can be present on the full chip after conventional SRAF placement/OPC and has been applied in 14nm, 10nm node production, single and multiple-patterning flows.

  4. Equilibrium and stability of flow-dominated Plasmas in the Big Red Ball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siller, Robert; Flanagan, Kenneth; Peterson, Ethan; Milhone, Jason; Mirnov, Vladimir; Forest, Cary

    2017-10-01

    The equilibrium and linear stability of flow-dominated plasmas are studied numerically using a spectral techniques to model MRI and dynamo experiments in the Big Red Ball device. The equilibrium code solves for steady-state magnetic fields and plasma flows subject to boundary conditions in a spherical domain. It has been benchmarked with NIMROD (non-ideal MHD with rotation - open discussion), Two different flow scenarios are studied. The first scenario creates a differentially rotating toroidal flow that is peaked at the center. This is done to explore the onset of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in a spherical geometry. The second scenario creates a counter-rotating von Karman-like flow in the presence of a weak magnetic field. This is done to explore the plasma dynamo instability in the limit of a weak applied field. Both scenarios are numerically modeled as axisymmetric flow to create a steady-state equilibrium solution, the stability and normal modes are studied in the lowest toroidal mode number. The details of the observed flow, and the structure of the fastest growing modes will be shown. DoE, NSF.

  5. Magnetic pinch compression of silica glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bless, S. J.

    1974-01-01

    SiO2 glass has been irreversibly densified by pressures up to 250 kbar produced in a magnetic pinch apparatus. The threshold for significant densification was about 60 kbar. The recovered densities agree better with published shock wave results than with static results.

  6. Nonlinear Slewing Spacecraft Control Based on Exergy, Power Flow, and Static and Dynamic Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinett, Rush D.; Wilson, David G.

    2009-10-01

    This paper presents a new nonlinear control methodology for slewing spacecraft, which provides both necessary and sufficient conditions for stability by identifying the stability boundaries, rigid body modes, and limit cycles. Conservative Hamiltonian system concepts, which are equivalent to static stability of airplanes, are used to find and deal with the static stability boundaries: rigid body modes. The application of exergy and entropy thermodynamic concepts to the work-rate principle provides a natural partitioning through the second law of thermodynamics of power flows into exergy generator, dissipator, and storage for Hamiltonian systems that is employed to find the dynamic stability boundaries: limit cycles. This partitioning process enables the control system designer to directly evaluate and enhance the stability and performance of the system by balancing the power flowing into versus the power dissipated within the system subject to the Hamiltonian surface (power storage). Relationships are developed between exergy, power flow, static and dynamic stability, and Lyapunov analysis. The methodology is demonstrated with two illustrative examples: (1) a nonlinear oscillator with sinusoidal damping and (2) a multi-input-multi-output three-axis slewing spacecraft that employs proportional-integral-derivative tracking control with numerical simulation results.

  7. Self-Pinched Transport Theory for the SABRE Ion Diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Dale R.; Olson, Craig L.; Hanson, David L.

    1997-05-01

    In anticipation of a 90 kA 4 MV SABRE ion diode experiment, we have been examining self-pinch transport of ions for application to ion-driven inertial confinement fusion. The Li^+3 beam will exit the diode with a 30-40 mradian divergence and a shallow focusing angle of 75 mradians. The beam is annular with an 4.6-cm inner radius and a 6.8-cm outer radius. Self-pinch theory and simulation predict that large residual currents are possible in 2-20 mtorr argon gas. The simulations suggest that ≈ 50 kA of Li particle current is necessary to contain the beam's transverse momentum. Some non-ideal effects include large beam divergence, large focusing angle and beam annularity. To address these problems, we have been studying the benefits of beam conditioning in the focus region between the diode and the self pinch region after the beam has reached a small radius. We have found some benefit from including a passive conical structure and a low-pressure gas. A significant lens effect can be attained using only the beam fields in vacuum or a low pressure gas. In this configuration, a large focusing force, that keeps the ions off an inner cone and outer wall as the beam converges, has been calculated using the numerical simulation code uc(iprop.) Results from integrated simulation of the condition cell and self-pinch region look encouraging.

  8. Effect of Crc and Hfq proteins on the transcription, processing, and stability of the Pseudomonas putida CrcZ sRNA

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Arranz, Sofía; Sánchez-Hevia, Dione; Rojo, Fernando; Moreno, Renata

    2016-01-01

    In Pseudomonas putida, the Hfq and Crc proteins regulate the expression of many genes in response to nutritional and environmental cues, by binding to mRNAs that bear specific target motifs and inhibiting their translation. The effect of these two proteins is antagonized by the CrcZ and CrcY small RNAs (sRNAs), the levels of which vary greatly according to growth conditions. The crcZ and crcY genes are transcribed from promoters PcrcZ and PcrcY, respectively, a process that relies on the CbrB transcriptional activator and the RpoN σ factor. Here we show that crcZ can also be transcribed from the promoter of the immediate upstream gene, cbrB, a weak constitutive promoter. The cbrB-crcZ transcript was processed to render a sRNA very similar in size to the CrcZ produced from promoter PcrcZ. The processed sRNA, termed CrcZ*, was able to antagonize Hfq/Crc because, when provided in trans, it relieved the deregulated Hfq/Crc-dependent hyperrepressing phenotype of a ΔcrcZΔcrcY strain. CrcZ* may help in attaining basal levels of CrcZ/CrcZ* that are sufficient to protect the cell from an excessive Hfq/Crc-dependent repression. Since a functional sRNA can be produced from PcrcZ, an inducible strong promoter, or by cleavage of the cbrB-crcZ mRNA, crcZ can be considered a 3′-untranslated region of the cbrB-crcZ mRNA. In the absence of Hfq, the processed form of CrcZ was not observed. In addition, we show that Crc and Hfq increase CrcZ stability, which supports the idea that these proteins can form a complex with CrcZ and protect it from degradation by RNases. PMID:27777366

  9. Synthesis, Characterization, and Application of High Surface Area, Mesoporous, Stabilized Anatase TiO2 Catalyst Supports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Rebecca Elizabeth

    Vortex rings constitute the main structure in the wakes of a wide class of swimming and flying animals, as well as in cardiac flows and in the jets generated by some moss and fungi. However, there is a physical limit, determined by an energy maximization principle called the Kelvin-Benjamin principle, to the size that axisymmetric vortex rings can achieve. The existence of this limit is known to lead to the separation of a growing vortex ring from the shear layer feeding it, a process known as `vortex pinch-off', and characterized by the dimensionless vortex formation number. The goal of this thesis is to improve our understanding of vortex pinch-off as it relates to biological propulsion, and to provide future researchers with tools to assist in identifying and predicting pinch-off in biological flows. To this end, we introduce a method for identifying pinch-off in starting jets using the Lagrangian coherent structures in the flow, and apply this criterion to an experimentally-generated starting jet. Since most naturally-occurring vortex rings are not circular, we extend the definition of the vortex formation number to include non-axisymmetric vortex rings, and find that the formation number for moderately non-axisymmetric vortices is similar to that of circular vortex rings. This suggests that naturally-occurring vortex rings may be modeled as axisymmetric vortex rings. Therefore, we consider the perturbation response of the Norbury family of axisymmetric vortex rings. This family is chosen to model vortex rings of increasing thickness and circulation, and their response to prolate shape perturbations is simulated using contour dynamics. Finally, the response of more realistic models for vortex rings, constructed from experimental data using nested contours, to perturbations which resemble those encountered by forming vortices more closely, is simulated using contour dynamics. In both families of models, a change in response analogous to pinch-off is found as

  10. The formation of reverse shocks in magnetized high energy density supersonic plasma flows

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, S. V., E-mail: s.lebedev@imperial.ac.uk, E-mail: l.suttle10@imperial.ac.uk; Suttle, L.; Swadling, G. F.

    A new experimental platform was developed, based on the use of supersonic plasma flow from the ablation stage of an inverse wire array z-pinch, for studies of shocks in magnetized high energy density physics plasmas in a well-defined and diagnosable 1-D interaction geometry. The mechanism of flow generation ensures that the plasma flow (Re{sub M} ∼ 50, M{sub S} ∼ 5, M{sub A} ∼ 8, V{sub flow} ≈ 100 km/s) has a frozen-in magnetic field at a level sufficient to affect shocks formed by its interaction with obstacles. It is found that in addition to the expected accumulation of stagnated plasma in a thin layer at the surface ofmore » a planar obstacle, the presence of the magnetic field leads to the formation of an additional detached density jump in the upstream plasma, at a distance of ∼c/ω{sub pi} from the obstacle. Analysis of the data obtained with Thomson scattering, interferometry, and local magnetic probes suggests that the sub-shock develops due to the pile-up of the magnetic flux advected by the plasma flow.« less

  11. Effects of geometry and fluid elasticity during polymeric droplet pinch-off in microfluidic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinhaus, Ben; Shen, Amy; Sureshkumar, Radhakrishna

    2006-11-01

    We investigate the effects of fluid elasticity and channel geometry on polymeric droplet pinch-off by performing systematic experiments using viscoelastic polymer solutions which possess practically shear rate-independent viscosity (Boger fluids). Four different geometric sizes (width and depth are scaled up proportionally at the ratio of 0.5, 1, 2, 20) are used to study the effect of the length scale, which in turn influences the ratio of elastic to viscous forces as well as the Rayleigh time scale associated with the interfacial instability of a cylindrical column of liquid. We observe a power law relationship between the dimensionless (scaled with respect to the Rayleigh time scale) capillary pinch-off time, T, and the elasticity number, E, defined as the ratio of the fluid relaxation time to the time scale of viscous diffusion. In general, T increases dramatically with increasing E. The inhibition of ``bead-on-a-string'' formation is observed for flows with effective Deborah number, De, defined as the ratio of the fluid relaxation time to the Rayleigh time scale becomes greater than 10. For sufficiently large values of De, the Rayleigh instability may be modified substantially by fluid elasticity.

  12. Comparative study of millennials' (age 20-34 years) grip and lateral pinch with the norms.

    PubMed

    Fain, Elizabeth; Weatherford, Cara

    Cross-sectional research design. Clinical practice continues to use normative data for grip and pinch measurements that were established in 1985. There is no updated norms despite different hand usage patterns in today's society. Measuring and comparing grip and pinch strengths with normative data is a valid method to determine hand function. This research was implemented to compare the grip and pinch measurements obtained from healthy millennials to the established norms and to describe hand usage patterns for millennials. Grip and lateral pinch measurements were obtained from a sample of 237 healthy millennials (ages 20-34 years). Strength scores were statistically lower that older normative data in all millennial grip strengths, with the exception of the women in the age group of 30-34 years. Specifically, this statistically significant trend was observed in all male grip strengths, as well as in women in the age group of 20-24 years (bilateral grip) and 25-29 years (right grip). However, the lateral pinch data reflected was similar to the older norms with variances of 0.5-1 kg. Current data reflect statistically significant differences from the norms for all male grip measurements, as well as for women in the age group of 20-24 years (bilateral grip) and 25-29 years (right grip). No statistical significance was observed in the independent-sample t tests for the lateral pinch in men of all age groups. Statistical significance was noted for lateral pinch for female age groups for the left hand (20-24 years) and for bilateral lateral pinches (30-34 years). IV. Copyright © 2016 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Functional sensibility assessment. Part II: Effects of sensory improvement on precise pinch force modulation after transverse carpal tunnel release.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hsiu-Yun; Kuo, Li-Chieh; Chiu, Haw-Yen; Jou, I-Ming; Su, Fong-Chin

    2009-11-01

    Patients with median nerve compression at the carpal tunnel often have poor sensory afferents. Without adequate sensory modulation control, these patients frequently exhibit clumsy performance and excessive force output in the affected hand. We analyzed precision grip function after the sensory recovery of patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) who underwent carpal tunnel release (CTR). Thirteen CTS patients were evaluated using a custom-designed pinch device and conventional sensory tools before and after CTR to measure sensibility, maximum pinch strength, and anticipated pinch force adjustments to movement-induced load fluctuations in a pinch-holding-up activity. Based on these tests, five force-related parameters and sensory measurements were used to determine improvements in pinch performance after sensory recovery. The force ratio between the exerted pinch force and maximum load force of the lifting object was used to determine pinch force coordination and to prove that CTR enabled precision motor output. The magnitude of peak pinch force indicated an economic force output during manipulations following CTR. The peak pinch force, force ratio, and percentage of maximum pinch force also demonstrated a moderate correlation with the Semmes-Weinstein test. Analysis of these tests revealed that improved sensory function helped restore patients' performance in precise pinch force control evaluations. These results suggest that sensory information plays an important role in adjusting balanced force output in dexterous manipulation. (c) 2009 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Current scaling of radiated power for 40-mm diameter single wire arrays on Z

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nash, T. J.; Cuneo, M. E.; Spielman, R. B.; Chandler, G. A.; Leeper, R. J.; Seaman, J. F.; McGurn, J.; Lazier, S.; Torres, J.; Jobe, D.; Gilliland, T.; Nielsen, D.; Hawn, R.; Bailey, J. E.; Lake, P.; Carlson, A. L.; Seamen, H.; Moore, T.; Smelser, R.; Pyle, J.; Wagoner, T. C.; LePell, P. D.; Deeney, C.; Douglas, M. R.; McDaniel, D.; Struve, K.; Mazarakis, M.; Stygar, W. A.

    2004-11-01

    In order to estimate the radiated power that can be expected from the next-generation Z-pinch driver such as ZR at 28 MA, current-scaling experiments have been conducted on the 20 MA driver Z. We report on the current scaling of single 40 mm diameter tungsten 240 wire arrays with a fixed 110 ns implosion time. The wire diameter is decreased in proportion to the load current. Reducing the charge voltage on the Marx banks reduces the load current. On one shot, firing only three of the four levels of the Z machine further reduced the load current. The radiated energy scaled as the current squared as expected but the radiated power scaled as the current to the 3.52±0.42 power due to increased x-ray pulse width at lower current. As the current is reduced, the rise time of the x-ray pulse increases and at the lowest current value of 10.4 MA, a shoulder appears on the leading edge of the x-ray pulse. In order to determine the nature of the plasma producing the leading edge of the x-ray pulse at low currents further shots were taken with an on-axis aperture to view on-axis precursor plasma. This aperture appeared to perturb the pinch in a favorable manner such that with the aperture in place there was no leading edge to the x-ray pulses at lower currents and the radiated power scaled as the current squared ±0.75. For a full-current shot we will present x-ray images that show precursor plasma emitting on-axis 77 ns before the main x-ray burst.

  15. Application of pinch-and-swell structure rheology gauge to determine rock paleo-rheological parameters in Taili, western Liaoning, NE China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhengquan; Zeng, Zuoxun; Wu, Linbo; Xu, Shaopeng; Yang, Shuang; Chen, Deli; Wang, Jianxiu

    2017-05-01

    New results, in combination with previously published ones, reveal that when the Stress Exponent of the Competent layer (SEC) ranges from 1 to 10 (1 < n < 10), Pinch-and-Swell structure Rheology Gauge (PSRG) can only be available under the condition that the Viscosity ratio between the Competent layer and its corresponding Matrix layer (VCM) is larger than 10. Therefore, we made the attempt to calculate the viscosity ratio of pinch-and-swell structure of competent layer to the related matrix and stress exponent. Based on this knowledge, we applied this gauge to calculate SECs and VCMs of eight types of pinch-and-swell structures, which are widely developed in the Taili area of the west Liaoning Province in China. Statistical analysis of the SEC resulted in intervals of four types of competent layers, that is, Medium-scale Granitic coarse-to-pegmatitic Veins, Small-scale Augen Granite aplite Veins, Small-scale Granite aplite Veins, and Small-scale Augen Quartz-K-feldspar veins, with intervals of [3.50, 4.63], [2.64, 4.29], [2.70, 3.51], and [2.50, 3.36] respectively. The preferred intervals of VCM of the five types of pinch-and-swell structures, Small-scale Augen Granite aplite Veins + Fine-grained Biotite-Hornblende-plagioclase Gneiss, Medium-scale Granitic coarse-to-pegmatitic Veins + Fine-grained Biotite-Hornblende-plagioclase Gneiss, Small-scale Augen Granite aplite Veins + medium-to-fine-grained granitic gneiss, Medium-scale Granitic coarse-to-pegmatitic Veins + medium-to-fine-grained granitic gneiss, and Small-scale Augen Granite aplite Veins + fine-grained biotite-plagioclase gneiss, are [19.98, 62.51], [15.90, 61.17], [26.72, 93.27], [22.21, 107.26], and [76.33, 309.39] respectively. The similarities between these calculated SEC statistical preferred intervals and the physical experimental results verify the validity of the PSRG. The competent layers of the pinch-and-swell structures were presented in this study as power-law flow with SEC values that

  16. A monolithic mass tracking formulation for bubbles in incompressible flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aanjaneya, Mridul; Patkar, Saket; Fedkiw, Ronald

    2013-08-01

    We devise a novel method for treating bubbles in incompressible flow that relies on the conservative advection of bubble mass and an associated equation of state in order to determine pressure boundary conditions inside each bubble. We show that executing this algorithm in a traditional manner leads to stability issues similar to those seen for partitioned methods for solid-fluid coupling. Therefore, we reformulate the problem monolithically. This is accomplished by first proposing a new fully monolithic approach to coupling incompressible flow to fully nonlinear compressible flow including the effects of shocks and rarefactions, and then subsequently making a number of simplifying assumptions on the air flow removing not only the nonlinearities but also the spatial variations of both the density and the pressure. The resulting algorithm is quite robust, has been shown to converge to known solutions for test problems, and has been shown to be quite effective on more realistic problems including those with multiple bubbles, merging and pinching, etc. Notably, this approach departs from a standard two-phase incompressible flow model where the air flow preserves its volume despite potentially large forces and pressure differentials in the surrounding incompressible fluid that should change its volume. Our bubbles readily change volume according to an isothermal equation of state.

  17. Sum-of-squares of polynomials approach to nonlinear stability of fluid flows: an example of application

    PubMed Central

    Tutty, O.

    2015-01-01

    With the goal of providing the first example of application of a recently proposed method, thus demonstrating its ability to give results in principle, global stability of a version of the rotating Couette flow is examined. The flow depends on the Reynolds number and a parameter characterizing the magnitude of the Coriolis force. By converting the original Navier–Stokes equations to a finite-dimensional uncertain dynamical system using a partial Galerkin expansion, high-degree polynomial Lyapunov functionals were found by sum-of-squares of polynomials optimization. It is demonstrated that the proposed method allows obtaining the exact global stability limit for this flow in a range of values of the parameter characterizing the Coriolis force. Outside this range a lower bound for the global stability limit was obtained, which is still better than the energy stability limit. In the course of the study, several results meaningful in the context of the method used were also obtained. Overall, the results obtained demonstrate the applicability of the recently proposed approach to global stability of the fluid flows. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first case in which global stability of a fluid flow has been proved by a generic method for the value of a Reynolds number greater than that which could be achieved with the energy stability approach. PMID:26730219

  18. Quasi-linear gyrokinetic predictions of the Coriolis momentum pinch in National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Guttenfelder, W.; Kaye, S. M.; Ren, Y.

    This paper presents quasi-linear gyrokinetic predictions of the Coriolis momentum pinch for low aspect-ratio National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) H-modes where previous experimental measurements were focused. Local, linear calculations predict that in the region of interest (just outside the mid-radius) of these relatively high-beta plasmas, profiles are most unstable to microtearing modes that are only effective in transporting electron energy. However, sub-dominant electromagnetic and electrostaticballooning modes are also unstable, which are effective at transporting energy, particles, and momentum. The quasi-linear prediction of transport from these weaker ballooning modes, assuming they contribute transport in addition to that from microtearing modes inmore » a nonlinear turbulent state, leads to a very small or outward convection of momentum, inconsistent with the experimentally measured inward pinch, and opposite to predictions in conventional aspect ratio tokamaks. Additional predictions of a low beta L-mode plasma, unstable to more traditional electrostatic ion temperature gradient-trapped electron mode instability, show that the Coriolis pinch is inward but remains relatively weak and insensitive to many parameter variations. The weak or outward pinch predicted in NSTX plasmas appears to be at least partially correlated to changes in the parallel mode structure that occur at a finite beta and low aspect ratio, as discussed in previous theories. The only conditions identified where a stronger inward pinch is predicted occur either in the purely electrostatic limit or if the aspect ratio is increased. Lastly, as the Coriolis pinch cannot explain the measured momentum pinch, additional theoretical momentum transport mechanisms are discussed that may be potentially important.« less

  19. Quasi-linear gyrokinetic predictions of the Coriolis momentum pinch in National Spherical Torus Experiment

    DOE PAGES

    Guttenfelder, W.; Kaye, S. M.; Ren, Y.; ...

    2016-05-11

    This paper presents quasi-linear gyrokinetic predictions of the Coriolis momentum pinch for low aspect-ratio National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) H-modes where previous experimental measurements were focused. Local, linear calculations predict that in the region of interest (just outside the mid-radius) of these relatively high-beta plasmas, profiles are most unstable to microtearing modes that are only effective in transporting electron energy. However, sub-dominant electromagnetic and electrostaticballooning modes are also unstable, which are effective at transporting energy, particles, and momentum. The quasi-linear prediction of transport from these weaker ballooning modes, assuming they contribute transport in addition to that from microtearing modes inmore » a nonlinear turbulent state, leads to a very small or outward convection of momentum, inconsistent with the experimentally measured inward pinch, and opposite to predictions in conventional aspect ratio tokamaks. Additional predictions of a low beta L-mode plasma, unstable to more traditional electrostatic ion temperature gradient-trapped electron mode instability, show that the Coriolis pinch is inward but remains relatively weak and insensitive to many parameter variations. The weak or outward pinch predicted in NSTX plasmas appears to be at least partially correlated to changes in the parallel mode structure that occur at a finite beta and low aspect ratio, as discussed in previous theories. The only conditions identified where a stronger inward pinch is predicted occur either in the purely electrostatic limit or if the aspect ratio is increased. Lastly, as the Coriolis pinch cannot explain the measured momentum pinch, additional theoretical momentum transport mechanisms are discussed that may be potentially important.« less

  20. Design and experimental research on a self-magnetic pinch diode under MV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pengfei, ZHANG; Yang, HU; Jiang, SUN; Yan, SONG; Jianfeng, SUN; Zhiming, YAO; Peitian, CONG; Mengtong, QIU; Aici, QIU

    2018-01-01

    A self-magnetic pinch diode (SMPD) integrating an anode foil-reinforced electron beam pinch focus and a small high-dose x-ray spot output was designed and optimized. An x-ray focal spot measuring system was developed in accordance with the principle of pinhole imaging. The designed SMPD and the corresponding measuring system were tested under ∼MV, with 1.75 × 2 mm2 oval x-ray spots (AWE defined) and forward directed dose 1.6 rad at 1 m. Results confirmed that the anode foil can significantly strengthen the electron beam pinch focus, and the focal spot measuring system can collect clear focal spot images. This finding indicated that the principle and method are feasible.

  1. The influence of the self-consistent mode structure on the Coriolis pinch effect

    SciTech Connect

    Peeters, A. G.; Camenen, Y.; Casson, F. J.

    This paper discusses the effect of the mode structure on the Coriolis pinch effect [A. G. Peeters, C. Angioni, and D. Strintzi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 265003 (2007)]. It is shown that the Coriolis drift effect can be compensated for by a finite parallel wave vector, resulting in a reduced momentum pinch velocity. Gyrokinetic simulations in full toroidal geometry reveal that parallel dynamics effectively removes the Coriolis pinch for the case of adiabatic electrons, while the compensation due to the parallel dynamics is incomplete for the case of kinetic electrons, resulting in a finite pinch velocity. The finite flux inmore » the case of kinetic electrons is interpreted to be related to the electron trapping, which prevents a strong asymmetry in the electrostatic potential with respect to the low field side position. The physics picture developed here leads to the discovery and explanation of two unexpected effects: First the pinch velocity scales with the trapped particle fraction (root of the inverse aspect ratio), and second there is no strong collisionality dependence. The latter is related to the role of the trapped electrons, which retain some symmetry in the eigenmode, but play no role in the perturbed parallel velocity.« less

  2. Discharge stabilization studies of CO laser gas mixtures in quasi-steady supersonic flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, G.; Smith, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the applicability of a double discharge stabilization scheme in conditions appropriate for high energy CO lasers in supersonic flows. A Ludwieg tube impulse flow facility and a ballasted capacitor bank provided essentially steady flow and discharge conditions (d.c.) for times longer than ten electrode length-flow transit times. Steady, arc-free, volume discharges were produced in a Mach 3 test cavity using an auxiliary discharge to stabilize the main discharge in N2 and He/CO mixture. A signigicant result is the lack of observed plasma E/N changes in response to auxiliary discharge current changes. Also, where glow discharges were obtained, the energy loading achieved was very much less than the threshold level required for laser operation.

  3. Robust flow stability: Theory, computations and experiments in near wall turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobba, Kumar Manoj

    Helmholtz established the field of hydrodynamic stability with his pioneering work in 1868. From then on, hydrodynamic stability became an important tool in understanding various fundamental fluid flow phenomena in engineering (mechanical, aeronautics, chemical, materials, civil, etc.) and science (astrophysics, geophysics, biophysics, etc.), and turbulence in particular. However, there are many discrepancies between classical hydrodynamic stability theory and experiments. In this thesis, the limitations of traditional hydrodynamic stability theory are shown and a framework for robust flow stability theory is formulated. A host of new techniques like gramians, singular values, operator norms, etc. are introduced to understand the role of various kinds of uncertainty. An interesting feature of this framework is the close interplay between theory and computations. It is shown that a subset of Navier-Stokes equations are globally, non-nonlinearly stable for all Reynolds number. Yet, invoking this new theory, it is shown that these equations produce structures (vortices and streaks) as seen in the experiments. The experiments are done in zero pressure gradient transiting boundary layer on a flat plate in free surface tunnel. Digital particle image velocimetry, and MEMS based laser Doppler velocimeter and shear stress sensors have been used to make quantitative measurements of the flow. Various theoretical and computational predictions are in excellent agreement with the experimental data. A closely related topic of modeling, simulation and complexity reduction of large mechanics problems with multiple spatial and temporal scales is also studied. A nice method that rigorously quantifies the important scales and automatically gives models of the problem to various levels of accuracy is introduced. Computations done using spectral methods are presented.

  4. Effect of Crc and Hfq proteins on the transcription, processing, and stability of the Pseudomonas putida CrcZ sRNA.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Arranz, Sofía; Sánchez-Hevia, Dione; Rojo, Fernando; Moreno, Renata

    2016-12-01

    In Pseudomonas putida, the Hfq and Crc proteins regulate the expression of many genes in response to nutritional and environmental cues, by binding to mRNAs that bear specific target motifs and inhibiting their translation. The effect of these two proteins is antagonized by the CrcZ and CrcY small RNAs (sRNAs), the levels of which vary greatly according to growth conditions. The crcZ and crcY genes are transcribed from promoters PcrcZ and PcrcY, respectively, a process that relies on the CbrB transcriptional activator and the RpoN σ factor. Here we show that crcZ can also be transcribed from the promoter of the immediate upstream gene, cbrB, a weak constitutive promoter. The cbrB-crcZ transcript was processed to render a sRNA very similar in size to the CrcZ produced from promoter PcrcZ The processed sRNA, termed CrcZ*, was able to antagonize Hfq/Crc because, when provided in trans, it relieved the deregulated Hfq/Crc-dependent hyperrepressing phenotype of a ΔcrcZΔcrcY strain. CrcZ* may help in attaining basal levels of CrcZ/CrcZ* that are sufficient to protect the cell from an excessive Hfq/Crc-dependent repression. Since a functional sRNA can be produced from PcrcZ, an inducible strong promoter, or by cleavage of the cbrB-crcZ mRNA, crcZ can be considered a 3'-untranslated region of the cbrB-crcZ mRNA. In the absence of Hfq, the processed form of CrcZ was not observed. In addition, we show that Crc and Hfq increase CrcZ stability, which supports the idea that these proteins can form a complex with CrcZ and protect it from degradation by RNases. © 2016 Hernández-Arranz et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  5. Quantification of hand function by power grip and pinch strength force measurements in ulnar nerve lesion simulated by ulnar nerve block.

    PubMed

    Wachter, Nikolaus Johannes; Mentzel, Martin; Krischak, Gert D; Gülke, Joachim

    2017-06-24

    In the assessment of hand and upper limb function, grip strength is of the major importance. The measurement by dynamometers has been established. In this study, the effect of a simulated ulnar nerve lesion on different grip force measurements was evaluated. In 25 healthy volunteers, grip force measurement was done by the JAMAR dynamometer (Fabrication Enterprises Inc, Irvington, NY) for power grip and by a pinch strength dynamometer for tip pinch strength, tripod grip, and key pinch strength. A within-subject research design was used in this prospective study. Each subject served as the control by preinjection measurements of grip and pinch strength. Subsequent measurements after ulnar nerve block were used to examine within-subject change. In power grip, there was a significant reduction of maximum grip force of 26.9% with ulnar nerve block compared with grip force without block (P < .0001). Larger reductions in pinch strength were observed with block: 57.5% in tip pinch strength (P < .0001), 61.0% in tripod grip (P < .0001), and 58.3% in key pinch strength (P < .0001). The effect of the distal ulnar nerve block on grip and pinch force could be confirmed. However, the assessment of other dimensions of hand strength as tip pinch, tripod pinch and key pinch had more relevance in demonstrating hand strength changes resulting from an distal ulnar nerve lesion. The measurement of tip pinch, tripod grip and key pinch can improve the follow-up in hand rehabilitation. II. Copyright © 2017 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Responses of dorsal spinal cord blood flow to noxious mechanical stimulation of the skin in anesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Toda, Hiroko; Maruyama, Hitoshi; Budgell, Brian; Kurosawa, Mieko

    2008-08-01

    In urethane-anesthetized, artificially ventilated rats, alterations in dorsal spinal cord blood flow (SCBF) at the L4-6 level were measured with laser Doppler flowmetry in response to noxious mechanical cutaneous stimulation (pinching) of either a forepaw or a hindpaw. The stimulation was delivered ipsilaterally or contralaterally to the site of blood flow measurement. Pinching of the forepaw or the hindpaw on either side increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) to the same degree. However, the SCBF response to pinching of the ipsilateral hindpaw was significantly greater than that to other stimulations. These responses were not influenced by denervation of the baroreceptors. The responses of SCBF to pinching of the ipsilateral hindpaw persisted both after treatment with phenoxybenzamine and after spinalization at the C1-2 level, whereas the responses to pinching at other sites disappeared. The responses of MAP to stimulation at all four sites became negligible after treatment with phenoxybenzamine and after spinalization at the C1-2 level. These results indicate that noxious mechanical stimulation of the skin produces increases in SCBF via two mechanisms: one is via an elevation of systemic arterial pressure; the other is via a localized spinal mechanism evoked by ipsilateral, segmental inputs.

  7. Film stability in a vertical rotating tube with a core-gas flow.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarma, G. S. R.; Lu, P. C.; Ostrach, S.

    1971-01-01

    The linear hydrodynamic stability of a thin-liquid layer flowing along the inside wall of a vertical tube rotating about its axis in the presence of a core-gas flow is examined. The stability problem is formulated under the conditions that the liquid film is thin, the density and viscosity ratios of gas to liquid are small and the relative (axial) pressure gradient in the gas is of the same order as gravity. The resulting eigenvalue problem is first solved by a perturbation method appropriate to axisymmetric long-wave disturbances. The damped nature (to within the thin-film and other approximations made) of the nonaxisymmetric and short-wave disturbances is noted. In view of the limitations on a truncated perturbation solution when the disturbance wavenumber is not small, an initial value method using digital computer is presented. Stability characteristics of neutral, growing, and damped modes are presented showing the influences of rotation, surface tension, and the core-gas flow. Energy balance in a neutral mode is also illustrated.

  8. Recommendations for the evaluation of specimen stability for flow cytometric testing during drug development.

    PubMed

    Brown, Lynette; Green, Cherie L; Jones, Nicholas; Stewart, Jennifer J; Fraser, Stephanie; Howell, Kathy; Xu, Yuanxin; Hill, Carla G; Wiwi, Christopher A; White, Wendy I; O'Brien, Peter J; Litwin, Virginia

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this manuscript is to present an approach for evaluating specimen stability for flow cytometric methods used during drug development. While this approach specifically addresses stability assessment for assays to be used in clinical trials with centralized testing facilities, the concepts can be applied to any stability assessment for flow cytometric methods. The proposed approach is implemented during assay development and optimization, and includes suggestions for designing a stability assessment plan, data evaluation and acceptance criteria. Given that no single solution will be applicable in all scenarios, this manuscript offers the reader a roadmap for stability assessment and is intended to guide the investigator during both the method development phase and in the experimental design of the validation plan. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Development and simulation study of a new inverse-pinch high Coulomb transfer switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sang H.

    1989-01-01

    The inverse-pinch plasma switch was studied using a computer simulation code. The code was based on a 2-D, 2-temperature magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model. The application of this code was limited to the disk-type inverse-pinch plasma switch. The results of the computer analysis appear to be in agreement with the experimental results when the same parameters are used. An inverse-pinch plasma switch for closing has been designed and tested for high-power switching requirements. An azimuthally uniform initiation of breakdown is a key factor in achieving an inverse-pinch current path in the switch. Thus, various types of triggers, such as trigger pins, wire-brush, ring trigger, and hypocycloidal-pinch (HCP) devices have been tested for uniform breakdown. Recently, triggering was achieved by injection of a plasma-ring (plasma puff) that is produced separately with hypocycloidal-pinch electrodes placed under the cathode of the main gap. The current paths at switch closing, initiated by the injection of a plasma-ring from the HCP trigger are azimuthally uniform, and the local current density is significantly reduced, so that damage to the electrodes and the insulator surfaces is minimized. The test results indicate that electron bombardment on the electrodes and the insulator surfaces is minimized. The test results indicate that electron bombardment on the electrodes is four orders of magnitude less than that of a spark-gap switch for the same switching power. Indeed, a few thousand shots with peak current exceeding a mega-ampere and with hold-off voltage up to 20 kV have been conducted without showing measurable damage to the electrodes and insulators.

  10. Hydrogen peroxide stabilization in one-dimensional flow columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Jeremy T.; Ahmad, Mushtaque; Teel, Amy L.; Watts, Richard J.

    2011-09-01

    Rapid hydrogen peroxide decomposition is the primary limitation of catalyzed H 2O 2 propagations in situ chemical oxidation (CHP ISCO) remediation of the subsurface. Two stabilizers of hydrogen peroxide, citrate and phytate, were investigated for their effectiveness in one-dimensional columns of iron oxide-coated and manganese oxide-coated sand. Hydrogen peroxide (5%) with and without 25 mM citrate or phytate was applied to the columns and samples were collected at 8 ports spaced 13 cm apart. Citrate was not an effective stabilizer for hydrogen peroxide in iron-coated sand; however, phytate was highly effective, increasing hydrogen peroxide residuals two orders of magnitude over unstabilized hydrogen peroxide. Both citrate and phytate were effective stabilizers for manganese-coated sand, increasing hydrogen peroxide residuals by four-fold over unstabilized hydrogen peroxide. Phytate and citrate did not degrade and were not retarded in the sand columns; furthermore, the addition of the stabilizers increased column flow rates relative to unstabilized columns. These results demonstrate that citrate and phytate are effective stabilizers of hydrogen peroxide under the dynamic conditions of one-dimensional columns, and suggest that citrate and phytate can be added to hydrogen peroxide before injection to the subsurface as an effective means for increasing the radius of influence of CHP ISCO.

  11. Status On Multi-microsecond Prepulse Technique On Sphinx Machine Going From Nested To Single Wire Array For 800 ns Implosion Time Z-pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maury, P.; Calamy, H.; Grunenwald, J.; Lassalle, F.; Zucchini, F.; Loyen, A.; Georges, A.; Morell, A.; Bedoch, J. P.

    2009-01-01

    The Sphinx machine[1] is a 6 MA, 1 μS driver based on the LTD technology, used for Z-pinch experiments. Important improvements of Sphinx radiation output were recently obtained using a multi-microsecond current prepulse[2]. Total power per unit of length is multiplied by a factor of 6 and FWHM divided by a factor of 2.5. Early breakdown of the wires during the prepulse phase dramatically changes the ablation phase leading to an improvement of axial homogeneity of both the implosion and the final radiating column. As a consequence, the cathode bubble observed on classical shots is definitively removed. The implosion is then centered and zippering effect is reduced, leading to simultaneous x-ray emission of the whole length. A great reproducibility is obtained. Nested arrays were used before to mitigate the Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities during the implosion phase. Further experiments with pre-pulse technique are described here were inner array was removed. The goal of these experiments was to see if long prepulse could give stable enough implosion with single array and at the same time increase the η parameter by reducing the mass of the load. Experimental results of single wire array loads of typical dimension 5 cm in height with implosion time between 700 and 900 ns and diameter varying between 80 and 140 mm are given. Parameters of the loads were varying in term of radius and number of wires. Comparisons with nested wire array loads are done and trends are proposed. Characteristics of both the implosion and the final radiating column are shown. 2D MHD numerical simulations of single wire array become easier as there is no interaction between outer and inner array anymore. A systematic study was done using injection mass model to benchmark simulation with experiments.

  12. Stability and dynamical properties of material flow systems on random networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anand, K.; Galla, T.

    2009-04-01

    The theory of complex networks and of disordered systems is used to study the stability and dynamical properties of a simple model of material flow networks defined on random graphs. In particular we address instabilities that are characteristic of flow networks in economic, ecological and biological systems. Based on results from random matrix theory, we work out the phase diagram of such systems defined on extensively connected random graphs, and study in detail how the choice of control policies and the network structure affects stability. We also present results for more complex topologies of the underlying graph, focussing on finitely connected Erdös-Réyni graphs, Small-World Networks and Barabási-Albert scale-free networks. Results indicate that variability of input-output matrix elements, and random structures of the underlying graph tend to make the system less stable, while fast price dynamics or strong responsiveness to stock accumulation promote stability.

  13. Stability Analysis of Flow Induced by the Traveling Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazuruk, Konstantin

    2003-01-01

    Re-circulating flow in molten metal columns can be conveniently induced by the axisymmetric traveling magnetic field. A number of applications can benefit from this technique, such as mixing under microgravity environment, or.crysta1 growth from metallic melts. For small magnetic field excitations, the flow is laminar and stationary. As the imposed field increases, a more complex flow will set up in the cylindrical column. Conditions for stable laminar flow are of importance for practical applications. In this work, a linear stability analysis is performed in order to determine the onset of the bifurcation in the system. Here the analysis is restricted to the axisymmetric modes and the low-frequency regime.

  14. Stability Analysis of Flow Induced by the Traveling Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazuruk, Konstantin

    2003-01-01

    Re-circulating flow in molten metal columns can be conveniently induced by the axisymmetric traveling magnetic field. A number of applications can benefit from this technique, such as mixing under microgravity environment, or crysta1 growth from metallic melts. For small magnetic field excitations, the flow is laminar and stationary. As the imposed field increases, a more complex flow will set up in the cylindrical column. Conditions for stable laminar flow are of importance for practical applications. In this work, a linear stability analysis is performed in order to determine the onset of the bifurcation in the system. Here the analysis is restricted to the axisymmetric modes and the low-frequency regime.

  15. On the linear stability of sheared and magnetized jets without current sheets - relativistic case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jinho; Balsara, Dinshaw S.; Lyutikov, Maxim; Komissarov, Serguei S.

    2018-03-01

    In our prior series of papers, we studied the non-relativistic and relativistic linear stability analysis of magnetized jets that do not have current sheets. In this paper, we extend our analysis to relativistic jets with a velocity shear and a similar current sheet free structure. The jets that we study are realistic because we include a velocity shear, a current sheet free magnetic structure, a relativistic velocity and a realistic thermal pressure so as to achieve overall pressure balance in the unperturbed jet. In order to parametrize the velocity shear, we apply a parabolic profile to the jets' 4-velocity. We find that the velocity shear significantly improves the stability of relativistic magnetized jets. This fact is completely consistent with our prior stability analysis of non-relativistic, sheared jets. The velocity shear mainly plays a role in stabilizing the short wavelength unstable modes for the pinch as well as the kink instability modes. In addition, it also stabilizes the long wavelength fundamental pinch instability mode. We also visualize the pressure fluctuations of each unstable mode to provide a better physical understanding of the enhanced stabilization by the velocity shear. Our overall conclusion is that combining velocity shear with a strong and realistic magnetic field makes relativistic jets even more stable.

  16. Study on interfacial stability and internal flow of a droplet levitated by ultrasonic wave.

    PubMed

    Abe, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Yuji; Hyuga, Daisuke; Awazu, Shigeru; Aoki, Kazuyoshi

    2009-04-01

    For a microgravity environment, new and high-quality material is expected to be manufactured. However, the effect of surface instability and the internal flow become significant when the droplet becomes large. Elucidation of internal flow and surface instability on a levitated droplet is required for the quality improvement of new material manufacturing in a microgravity environment. The objectives of this study are to clarify the interfacial stability and internal flow of a levitated droplet. Surface instability and internal flow are investigated with a large droplet levitated by the ultrasonic acoustic standing wave. The experiment with a large droplet is conducted both under normal gravity and microgravity environments. In the experiment, at first, the characteristics of the levitated droplet are investigated; that is, the relationships among the levitated droplet diameter, the droplet aspect ratio, the displacement of the antinode of the standing wave, and the sound pressure are experimentally measured. As a result, it is clarified that the levitated droplet tends to be located at an optimal position with an optimal shape and diameter. Second, the border condition between the stable and the unstable levitation of the droplet is evaluated by using the existing stability theory. The experimental results qualitatively agree with the theory. It is suggested that the stability of the droplet can be evaluated with the stability theory. Finally, multidimensional visual measurement is conducted to investigate the internal flow structure in a levitated droplet. It is suggested that complex flow with the vortex is generated in the levitated droplet. Moreover, the effect of physical properties of the test fluid on the internal flow structure of the levitated droplet is investigated. As a result, the internal flow structure of the levitated droplet is affected by the surface tension and viscosity.

  17. Larger sized wire arrays on 1.5 MA Z-pinch generator

    SciTech Connect

    Safronova, A. S., E-mail: alla@unr.edu; Kantsyrev, V. L., E-mail: alla@unr.edu; Weller, M. E., E-mail: alla@unr.edu

    Experiments on the UNR Zebra generator with Load Current Multiplier (LCM) allow for implosions of larger sized wire array loads than at standard current of 1 MA. Advantages of larger sized planar wire array implosions include enhanced energy coupling to plasmas, better diagnostic access to observable plasma regions, and more complex geometries of the wire loads. The experiments with larger sized wire arrays were performed on 1.5 MA Zebra with LCM (the anode-cathode gap was 1 cm, which is half the gap used in the standard mode). In particular, larger sized multi-planar wire arrays had two outer wire planes frommore » mid-atomic-number wires to create a global magnetic field (gmf) and plasma flow between them. A modified central plane with a few Al wires at the edges was put in the middle between outer planes to influence gmf and to create Al plasma flow in the perpendicular direction (to the outer arrays plasma flow). Such modified plane has different number of empty slots: it was increased from 6 up to 10, hence increasing the gap inside the middle plane from 4.9 to 7.7 mm, respectively. Such load configuration allows for more independent study of the flows of L-shell mid-atomic-number plasma (between the outer planes) and K-shell Al plasma (which first fills the gap between the edge wires along the middle plane) and their radiation in space and time. We demonstrate that such configuration produces higher linear radiation yield and electron temperatures as well as advantages of better diagnostics access to observable plasma regions and how the load geometry (size of the gap in the middle plane) influences K-shell Al radiation. In particular, K-shell Al radiation was delayed compared to L-shell mid-atomic-number radiation when the gap in the middle plane was large enough (when the number of empty slots was increased up to ten)« less

  18. Structural Evolution and Atom Clustering in β-SiAlON: β-Si 6–z Al z O z N 8–z

    SciTech Connect

    Cozzan, Clayton; Griffith, Kent J.; Laurita, Geneva

    2017-02-06

    SiAlON ceramics, solid solutions based on the Si 3N 4 structure, are important, lightweight structural materials with intrinsically high strength, high hardness, and high thermal and chemical stability. Described by the chemical formula β-Si 6–zAl zO zN 8–z, from a compositional viewpoint, these materials can be regarded as solid solutions between Si 3N 4 and Al 3O 3N. A key aspect of the structural evolution with increasing Al and O (z in the formula) is to understand how these elements are distributed on the β-Si 3N 4 framework. The average and local structural evolution of highly phase-pure samples of β-Simore » 6–zAl zO zN 8–z with z = 0.050, 0.075, and 0.125 are studied here, using a combination of X-ray diffraction, NMR studies, and density functional theory calculations. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction establishes sample purity and indicates subtle changes in the average structure with increasing Al content in these compounds. Solid-state magic-angle-spinning 27Al NMR experiments, coupled with detailed ab initio calculations of NMR spectra of Al in different AlO qN 4–q tetrahedra (0 ≤ q ≤ 4), reveal a tendency of Al and O to cluster in these materials. Independently, the calculations suggest an energetic preference for Al–O bond formation, instead of a random distribution, in the β-SiAlON system.« less

  19. Stability of spanwise-modulated flows behind backward-facing steps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boiko, A. V.; Dovgal, A. V.; Sorokin, A. M.

    2017-10-01

    An overview and synthesis of researches on development of local vortical disturbances in laminar separated flows downstream of backward-facing steps, in which the velocity field depends essentially on two variables are given. Peculiarities of transition to turbulence in such spatially inhomogeneous separated zones are discussed. The experimental data are supplemented by the linear stability characteristics of model velocity profiles of the separated flow computed using both the classical local formulation and the nonlocal approach based on the Floquet theory for partial differential equations with periodic coefficients. The results clarify the response of the local separated flows to their modulation with stationary geometrical and temperature inhomogeneities. The results can be useful for the development of new methods of laminar separation control.

  20. The inviscid stability of supersonic flow past heated or cooled axisymmetric bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Stephen J.; Duck, Peter W.

    1992-01-01

    The inviscid, linear, nonaxisymmetric, temporal stability of the boundary layer associated with the supersonic flow past axisymmetric bodies (with particular emphasis on long thin, straight circular cylinders), subject to heated or cooled wall conditions is investigated. The eigenvalue problem is computed in some detail for a particular Mach number or 3.8, revealing that the effect of curvature and the choice of wall conditions both have a significant effect on the stability of the flow. Both the asymptotic, large azimuthal wavenumber solution and the asymptotic, far downstream solution are obtained for the stability analysis and compared with numerical results. Additionally, asymptotic analyses valid for large radii of curvature with cooled/heated wall conditions are presented. In general, important differences were found to exist between the wall temperature conditions imposed and the adiabatic wall conditions considered previously.

  1. The inviscid stability of supersonic flow past heated or cooled axisymmetric bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Stephen J.; Duck, Peter W.

    1990-01-01

    The inviscid, linear, nonaxisymmetric, temporal stability of the boundary layer associated with the supersonic flow past axisymmetric bodies (with particular emphasis on long thin, straight circular cylinders), subject to heated or cooled wall conditions is investigated. The eigenvalue problem is computed in some detail for a particular Mach number or 3.8, revealing that the effect of curvature and the choice of wall conditions both have a significant effect on the stability of the flow. Both the asymptotic, large azimuthal wavenumber solution and the asymptotic, far downstream solution are obtained for the stability analysis and compared with numerical results. Additionally, asymptotic analyses valid for large radii of curvature with cooled/heated wall conditions, are presented. In general, important differences were found to exist between the wall temperature conditions imposed and the adiabatic wall conditions considered previously.

  2. Stability of Brillouin flow in the presence of slow-wave structure

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, D. H.; Lau, Y. Y.; Greening, G.

    2016-09-15

    Including a slow-wave structure (SWS) on the anode in the conventional, planar, and inverted magnetron, we systematically study the linear stability of Brillouin flow, which is the prevalent flow in crossed-field devices. The analytic treatment is fully relativistic and fully electromagnetic, and it incorporates the equilibrium density profile, flow profile, and electric field and magnetic field profiles in the linear stability analysis. Using parameters similar to the University of Michigan's recirculating planar magnetron, the numerical data show that the resonant interaction of the vacuum circuit mode and the corresponding smooth-bore diocotron-like mode is the dominant cause for instability. This resonantmore » interaction is far more important than the intrinsic negative (positive) mass property of electrons in the inverted (conventional) magnetron geometry. It is absent in either the smooth-bore magnetron or under the electrostatic assumption, one or both of which was almost always adopted in prior analytical formulation. This resonant interaction severely restricts the wavenumber for instability to the narrow range in which the cold tube frequency of the SWS is within a few percent of the corresponding smooth bore diocotron-like mode in the Brillouin flow.« less

  3. Canonical fluid thermodynamics. [variational principles of stability for compressible adiabatic flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, L. A.

    1974-01-01

    The space-time integral of the thermodynamic pressure plays in a certain sense the role of the thermodynamic potential for compressible adiabatic flow. The stability criterion can be converted into a variational minimum principle by requiring the molar free-enthalpy and temperature to be generalized velocities. In the fluid context, the definition of proper-time differentiation involves the fluid velocity expressed in terms of three particle identity parameters. The pressure function is then converted into a functional which is the Lagrangian density of the variational principle. Being also a minimum principle, the variational principle provides a means for comparing the relative stability of different flows. For boundary conditions with a high degree of symmetry, as in the case of a uniformly expanding spherical gas box, the most stable flow is a rectilinear flow for which the world-trajectory of each particle is a straight line. Since the behavior of the interior of a freely expanding cosmic cloud may be expected to be similar to that of the fluid in the spherical box of gas, this suggests that the cosmic principle is a consequence of the laws of thermodynamics, rather than just an ad hoc postulate.

  4. Damping Rates of Energetic Particle Modes and Stability With Changing Equilibrium Conditions in the MST Reversed-Field Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sears, S. H.; Almagri, A. F.; Anderson, J. K.; Bonofiglo, P. J.; Capecchi, W.; Kim, J.

    2016-10-01

    The damping of Alfvenic waves is an important process, with implications varying from anomalous ion heating in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas to the stability of fusion alpha-driven modes in a burning plasma. With a 1 MW NBI on the MST, a controllable set of energetic particle modes (EPMs) and Alfvenic eigenmodes can be excited. We investigate the damping of these modes as a function of both magnetic and flow shear. Typical EPM damping rates are -104 s-1 in standard RFP discharges. Magnetic shear in the region of large energetic ion density is -2 cm-1 and can be increased up to -2.5 cm-1 by varying the boundary field. Continuum mode damping rates can be reduced up to 50%. New experiments use a bias probe to control the rotation profile. Accelerating the edge plasma relative to the rapidly rotating NBI-driven core decreases the flow shear, while decelerating the edge plasma increases the flow shear in the region of strong energetic ion population. Mode damping rates measured as a function of the local flow shear are compared to ideal MHD predictions. Work supported by US DOE.

  5. Stability of Brillouin flow in planar, conventional, and inverted magnetrons

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, D. H.; Lau, Y. Y.; Greening, G.

    2015-08-15

    The Brillouin flow is the prevalent flow in crossed-field devices. We systematically study its stability in the conventional, planar, and inverted magnetron geometry. To investigate the intrinsic negative mass effect in Brillouin flow, we consider electrostatic modes in a nonrelativistic, smooth bore magnetron. We found that the Brillouin flow in the inverted magnetron is more unstable than that in a planar magnetron, which in turn is more unstable than that in the conventional magnetron. Thus, oscillations in the inverted magnetron may startup faster than the conventional magnetron. This result is consistent with simulations, and with the negative mass property inmore » the inverted magnetron configuration. Inclusion of relativistic effects and electromagnetic effects does not qualitatively change these conclusions.« less

  6. The Pinch Pot Technique and Raku.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demery, Marie

    Since the 16th century, the small Japanese raku tea bowl has reflected the merged cultural influences of art, religion, and other countries on the art of Japanese pottery. Artistically, the bowl is a combination of ceramics (pinching) and sculpture (carving). The dictates of the Zen Buddhist tea masters determine its sculptural process and steps,…

  7. Twin tubular pinch effect in curving confined flows

    PubMed Central

    Clime, Liviu; Morton, Keith J.; Hoa, Xuyen D.; Veres, Teodor

    2015-01-01

    Colloidal suspensions of buoyancy neutral particles flowing in circular pipes focus into narrow distributions near the wall due to lateral migration effects associated with fluid inertia. In curving flows, these distributions are altered by Dean currents and the interplay between Reynolds and Dean numbers is used to predict equilibrium positions. Here, we propose a new description of inertial lateral migration in curving flows that expands current understanding of both focusing dynamics and equilibrium distributions. We find that at low Reynolds numbers, the ratio δ between lateral inertial migration and Dean forces scales simply with the particle radius, coil curvature and pipe radius as . A critical value δc = 0.148 of this parameter is identified along with two related inertial focusing mechanisms. In the regime below δc, coined subcritical, Dean forces generate permanently circulating, twinned annuli, each with intricate equilibrium particle distributions including eyes and trailing arms. At δ > δc (supercritical regime) inertial lateral migration forces are dominant and particles focus to a single stable equilibrium position. PMID:25927878

  8. The inviscid axisymmetric stability of the supersonic flow along a circular cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duck, Peter W.

    1990-01-01

    The supersonic flow past a thin straight circular cylinder is investigated. The associated boundary-layer flow (i.e. the velocity and temperature field) is computed; the asymptotic, far downstream solution is obtained, and compared with the full numerical results. The inviscid, linear, axisymmetric (temporal) stability of this boundary layer is also studied. A so-called 'doubly generalized' inflexion condition is derived, which is a condition for the existence of so-called 'subsonic' neutral modes. The eigenvalue problem (for the complex wavespeed) is computed for two free-stream Mach numbers (2.8 and 3.8), and this reveals that curvature has a profound effect on the stability of the flow. The first unstable inviscid mode is seen to disappear rapidly as curvature is introduced, while the second (and generally the most important) mode suffers a substantially reduced amplification rate.

  9. The inviscid axisymmetric stability of the supersonic flow along a circular cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duck, Peter W.

    1989-01-01

    The supersonic flow past a thin straight circular cylinder is investigated. The associated boundary layer flow (i.e., the velocity and temperature field) is computed; the asymptotic, far downstream solution is obtained, and compared with the full numerical results. The inviscid, linear, axisymmetric (temporal) stability of this boundary layer is also studied. A so called doubly generalized inflexion condition is derived, which is a condition for the existence of so called subsonic neutral modes. The eigenvalue problem (for the complex wavespeed) is computed for two freestream Mach numbers (2.8 and 3.8), and this reveals that curvature has a profound effect on the stability of the flow. The first unstable inviscid mode is seen to rapidly disappear as curvature is introduced, while the second (and generally the most important) mode suffers a substantially reduced amplification rate.

  10. Hydrogen peroxide stabilization in one-dimensional flow columns.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Jeremy T; Ahmad, Mushtaque; Teel, Amy L; Watts, Richard J

    2011-09-25

    Rapid hydrogen peroxide decomposition is the primary limitation of catalyzed H(2)O(2) propagations in situ chemical oxidation (CHP ISCO) remediation of the subsurface. Two stabilizers of hydrogen peroxide, citrate and phytate, were investigated for their effectiveness in one-dimensional columns of iron oxide-coated and manganese oxide-coated sand. Hydrogen peroxide (5%) with and without 25 mM citrate or phytate was applied to the columns and samples were collected at 8 ports spaced 13 cm apart. Citrate was not an effective stabilizer for hydrogen peroxide in iron-coated sand; however, phytate was highly effective, increasing hydrogen peroxide residuals two orders of magnitude over unstabilized hydrogen peroxide. Both citrate and phytate were effective stabilizers for manganese-coated sand, increasing hydrogen peroxide residuals by four-fold over unstabilized hydrogen peroxide. Phytate and citrate did not degrade and were not retarded in the sand columns; furthermore, the addition of the stabilizers increased column flow rates relative to unstabilized columns. These results demonstrate that citrate and phytate are effective stabilizers of hydrogen peroxide under the dynamic conditions of one-dimensional columns, and suggest that citrate and phytate can be added to hydrogen peroxide before injection to the subsurface as an effective means for increasing the radius of influence of CHP ISCO. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. A general method to determine the stability of compressible flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guenther, R. A.; Chang, I. D.

    1982-01-01

    Several problems were studied using two completely different approaches. The initial method was to use the standard linearized perturbation theory by finding the value of the individual small disturbance quantities based on the equations of motion. These were serially eliminated from the equations of motion to derive a single equation that governs the stability of fluid dynamic system. These equations could not be reduced unless the steady state variable depends only on one coordinate. The stability equation based on one dependent variable was found and was examined to determine the stability of a compressible swirling jet. The second method applied a Lagrangian approach to the problem. Since the equations developed were based on different assumptions, the condition of stability was compared only for the Rayleigh problem of a swirling flow, both examples reduce to the Rayleigh criterion. This technique allows including the viscous shear terms which is not possible in the first method. The same problem was then examined to see what effect shear has on stability.

  12. The Influence of Plant Root Systems on Subsurface Flow: Implications for Slope Stability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although research has explained how plant roots mechanically stabilize soils, in this article we explore how root systems create networks of preferential flow and thus influence water pressures in soils to trigger landslides. Root systems may alter subsurface flow: Hydrological m...

  13. Influence analysis of fluctuation parameters on flow stability based on uncertainty method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Tao; Fan, Shangchun; Wang, Chi; Shi, Huichao

    2018-05-01

    The relationship between flow fluctuation and pressure in a flow facility is studied theoretically and experimentally in this paper, and a method for measuring the flow fluctuation is proposed. According to the synchronicity of pressure and flow fluctuation, the amplitude of the flow fluctuation is calculated using the pressure measured in the flow facility and measurement of the flow fluctuation in a wide range of frequency is realized. Based on the method proposed, uncertainty analysis is used to evaluate the influences of different parameters on the flow fluctuation by the help of a sample-based stochastic model established and the parameters that have great influence are found, which can be a reference for the optimization design and the stability improvement of the flow facility.

  14. The stability of a trailing-line vortex in compressible flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stott, Jillian A. K.; Duck, Peter W.

    1992-01-01

    We consider the inviscid stability of the Batchelor (1964) vortex in a compressible flow. The problem is tackled numerically and also asymptotically, in the limit of large (aximuthal and streamwise) wavenumbers, together with large Mach numbers. The nature of the solution passes through different regimes as the Mach number increases, relative to the wavenumbers. At very high wavenumbers and Mach numbers, the mode which is present in the incompressible case ceases to be unstable, while new 'center mode' forms, whose stability characteristics, are determined primarily by conditions close to the vortex axis. We find that generally the flow becomes less unstable as the Mach number increases, and that the regime of instability appears generally confined to disturbances in a direction counter to the direction of the rotation of the swirl of the vortex. Throughout the paper, comparison is made between our numerical results and results obtained from the various asymptotic theories.

  15. Numerical studies of transverse curvature effects on transonic flow stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macaraeg, M. G.; Daudpota, Q. I.

    1992-01-01

    A numerical study of transverse curvature effects on compressible flow temporal stability for transonic to low supersonic Mach numbers is presented for axisymmetric modes. The mean flows studied include a similar boundary-layer profile and a nonsimilar axisymmetric boundary-layer solution. The effect of neglecting curvature in the mean flow produces only small quantitative changes in the disturbance growth rate. For transonic Mach numbers (1-1.4) and aerodynamically relevant Reynolds numbers (5000-10,000 based on displacement thickness), the maximum growth rate is found to increase with curvature - the maximum occurring at a nondimensional radius (based on displacement thickness) between 30 and 100.

  16. On the effect of boundary layer growth on the stability of compressible flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Hady, N. M.

    1981-01-01

    The method of multiple scales is used to describe a formally correct method based on the nonparallel linear stability theory, that examines the two and three dimensional stability of compressible boundary layer flows. The method is applied to the supersonic flat plate layer at Mach number 4.5. The theoretical growth rates are in good agreement with experimental results. The method is also applied to the infinite-span swept wing transonic boundary layer with suction to evaluate the effect of the nonparallel flow on the development of crossflow disturbances.

  17. Plasma-gun-assisted field-reversed configuration formation in a conical θ-pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, T. E.; Intrator, T. P.; Smith, R. J.

    2015-04-01

    Injection of plasma via an annular array of coaxial plasma guns during the pre-ionization phase of field-reversed configuration (FRC) formation is shown to catalyze the bulk ionization of a neutral gas prefill in the presence of a strong axial magnetic field and change the character of outward flux flow during field-reversal from a convective process to a much slower resistive diffusion process. This approach has been found to significantly improve FRC formation in a conical θ-pinch, resulting in a ˜350% increase in trapped flux at typical operating conditions, an expansion of accessible formation parameter space to lower densities and higher temperatures, and a reduction or elimination of several deleterious effects associated with the pre-ionization phase.

  18. Plasma-gun-assisted field-reversed configuration formation in a conical θ-pinch

    DOE PAGES

    Weber, T. E.; Intrator, T. P.; Smith, R. J.

    2015-04-29

    We show through injection of plasma via an annular array of coaxial plasma guns, during the pre-ionization phase of field-reversed configuration (FRC) formation how to catalyze the bulk ionization of a neutral gas prefill in the presence of a strong axial magnetic field and change the character of outward flux flow during field-reversal from a convective process to a much slower resistive diffusion process. Our approach has been found to significantly improve FRC formation in a conical θ-pinch, resulting in a ~350% increase in trapped flux at typical operating conditions, an expansion of accessible formation parameter space to lower densitiesmore » and higher temperatures, and a reduction or elimination of several deleterious effects associated with the pre-ionization phase.« less

  19. Plasma-gun-assisted field-reversed configuration formation in a conical θ-pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, T. E., E-mail: tweber@lanl.gov; Intrator, T. P.; Smith, R. J.

    2015-04-15

    Injection of plasma via an annular array of coaxial plasma guns during the pre-ionization phase of field-reversed configuration (FRC) formation is shown to catalyze the bulk ionization of a neutral gas prefill in the presence of a strong axial magnetic field and change the character of outward flux flow during field-reversal from a convective process to a much slower resistive diffusion process. This approach has been found to significantly improve FRC formation in a conical θ-pinch, resulting in a ∼350% increase in trapped flux at typical operating conditions, an expansion of accessible formation parameter space to lower densities and highermore » temperatures, and a reduction or elimination of several deleterious effects associated with the pre-ionization phase.« less

  20. Curved-flow, rolling-flow, and oscillatory pure-yawing wind-tunnel test methods for determination of dynamic stability derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, J. R.; Grafton, S. B.; Lutze, F. H.

    1981-01-01

    Dynamic stability derivatives are evaluated on the basis of rolling-flow, curved-flow and snaking tests. Attention is given to the hardware associated with curved-flow, rolling-flow and oscillatory pure-yawing wind-tunnel tests. It is found that the snaking technique, when combined with linear- and forced-oscillation methods, yields an important method for evaluating beta derivatives for current configurations at high angles of attack. Since the rolling flow model is fixed during testing, forced oscillations may be imparted to the model, permitting the measurement of damping and cross-derivatives. These results, when coupled with basic rolling-flow or rotary-balance data, yield a highly accurate mathematical model for studies of incipient spin and spin entry.

  1. A spin-liquid with pinch-line singularities on the pyrochlore lattice.

    PubMed

    Benton, Owen; Jaubert, L D C; Yan, Han; Shannon, Nic

    2016-05-26

    The mathematics of gauge theories lies behind many of the most profound advances in physics in the past 200 years, from Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism to Einstein's theory of general relativity. More recently it has become clear that gauge theories also emerge in condensed matter, a prime example being the spin-ice materials which host an emergent electromagnetic gauge field. In spin-ice, the underlying gauge structure is revealed by the presence of pinch-point singularities in neutron-scattering measurements. Here we report the discovery of a spin-liquid where the low-temperature physics is naturally described by the fluctuations of a tensor field with a continuous gauge freedom. This gauge structure underpins an unusual form of spin correlations, giving rise to pinch-line singularities: line-like analogues of the pinch points observed in spin-ice. Remarkably, these features may already have been observed in the pyrochlore material Tb2Ti2O7.

  2. A spin-liquid with pinch-line singularities on the pyrochlore lattice

    PubMed Central

    Benton, Owen; Jaubert, L.D.C.; Yan, Han; Shannon, Nic

    2016-01-01

    The mathematics of gauge theories lies behind many of the most profound advances in physics in the past 200 years, from Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism to Einstein's theory of general relativity. More recently it has become clear that gauge theories also emerge in condensed matter, a prime example being the spin-ice materials which host an emergent electromagnetic gauge field. In spin-ice, the underlying gauge structure is revealed by the presence of pinch-point singularities in neutron-scattering measurements. Here we report the discovery of a spin-liquid where the low-temperature physics is naturally described by the fluctuations of a tensor field with a continuous gauge freedom. This gauge structure underpins an unusual form of spin correlations, giving rise to pinch-line singularities: line-like analogues of the pinch points observed in spin-ice. Remarkably, these features may already have been observed in the pyrochlore material Tb2Ti2O7. PMID:27225400

  3. Relationship between grip, pinch strengths and anthropometric variables, types of pitch throwing among Japanese high school baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Tajika, Tsuyoshi; Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Shitara, Hitoshi; Ichinose, Tsuyoshi; Shimoyama, Daisuke; Okura, Chisa; Kanazawa, Saeko; Nagai, Ayako; Takagishi, Kenji

    2015-03-01

    Grip and pinch strength are crucially important attributes and standard parameters related to the functional integrity of the hand. It seems significant to investigate normative data for grip and pinch strength of baseball players to evaluate their performance and condition. Nevertheless, few reports have explained the association between grip and pinch strength and anthropometric variables and types of pitch throwing for baseball pitchers. The aim of this study was to measure and evaluate clinical normative data for grip and tip, key, palmar pinch strength and to assess the relationship between these data and anthropometric variables and types of pitch throwing among Japanese high-school baseball pitchers. One hundred-thirty three healthy high school baseball pitchers were examined and had completed a self-administered questionnaire including items related to age, hand dominance, throwing ratio of type of pitch. A digital dynamometer was used to measure grip strength and a pinch gauge to measure tip, key and palmer pinch in both dominant and nondominant side. Body composition was measured by the multi frequency segmental body composition analyzer. Grip strength and tip and palmer pinch strength in dominant side were statistically greater than them in nondominant side (P < 0.05). There were significant associations between grip strength and height (r = 0.33, P < 0.001), body mass (r = 0.50, P < 0.001), BMI (r = 0.37, P < 0.001), muscle mass of upper extremity (r = 0.56, P < 0.001), fat free mass (r = 0.57, P < 0.001), fat mass (r = 0.22, P < 0.05) in dominant side. A stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that fat free mass and tip, palmer, key pinch strength were predictors of grip strength in dominant side. No statistical significant correlations were found between the throwing ratio of types of pitches thrown and grip strength and tip, key, palmar pinch strength. Our result provides normative values and evidences for grip and pinch strengths in high

  4. An Novel Continuation Power Flow Method Based on Line Voltage Stability Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jianfang; He, Yuqing; He, Hongbin; Jiang, Zhuohan

    2018-01-01

    An novel continuation power flow method based on line voltage stability index is proposed in this paper. Line voltage stability index is used to determine the selection of parameterized lines, and constantly updated with the change of load parameterized lines. The calculation stages of the continuation power flow decided by the angle changes of the prediction of development trend equation direction vector are proposed in this paper. And, an adaptive step length control strategy is used to calculate the next prediction direction and value according to different calculation stages. The proposed method is applied clear physical concept, and the high computing speed, also considering the local characteristics of voltage instability which can reflect the weak nodes and weak area in a power system. Due to more fully to calculate the PV curves, the proposed method has certain advantages on analysing the voltage stability margin to large-scale power grid.

  5. Stability analysis of wall driven nanofluid flow through a tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, M. Mainul; Khan, M. A. H.

    2017-06-01

    Wall driven incompressible viscous fluid flow with nanoparticles through a tube is considered where two different nanofluids (Cu-water, SiO2-water) are used separately. Flow becomes gradually unstable due to movement of wall and existence of nanoparticles. However, Reynolds number, volume fraction and density ratio are responsible for flow instability. The mathematical model of the problem is constructed and solved by means of series solution method. Special type Hermite-Padé approximation method is used to improve the series solution. The critical point for Reynolds number, volume fraction and density ratio are determined and described using approximation technique and bifurcation diagram for both nanofluids. Moreover, Interaction between these three numbers and their effect on velocity profile are discussed. To indicate the nanofluid which is more effective for flow stability is our major concerned.

  6. Active Flow Control and Global Stability Analysis of Separated Flow Over a NACA 0012 Airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munday, Phillip M.

    definition of the coefficient of momentum, which successfully characterizes suppression of separation and lift enhancement. The effect of angular momentum is incorporated into the modified coefficient of momentum by introducing a characteristic swirling jet velocity based on the non-dimensional swirl number. With the modified coefficient of momentum, this single value is able to categorize controlled flows into separated, transitional, and attached flows. With inadequate control input (separated flow regime), lift decreased compared to the baseline flow. Increasing the modified coefficient of momentum, flow transitions from separated to attached and accordingly results in improved aerodynamic forces. Modifying the spanwise spacing, it is shown that the minimum modified coefficient of momentum input required to begin transitioning the flow is dependent on actuator spacing. The growth (or decay) of perturbations can facilitate or inhibit the influence of flow control inputs. Biglobal stability analysis is considered to further analyze the behavior of control inputs on separated flow over a symmetric airfoil. Assuming a spanwise periodic waveform for the perturbations, the eigenvalues and eigenvectors about a base flow are solved to understand the influence of spanwise variation on the development of the flow. Two algorithms are developed and validated to solve for the eigenvalues of the flow: an algebraic eigenvalue solver (matrix based) and a time-stepping algorithm. The matrix based approach is formulated without ever storing the matrices, creating a computationally memory efficient algorithm. Increasing the Reynolds number to Re = 23,000 over a NACA 0012 airfoil, the time-stepper method is implemented due to rising computational cost of the matrix-based method. Stability analysis about the time-averaged flow is performed for spanwise wavenumbers of beta = 1/c, 10pi/ c and 20pi/c, which the latter two wavenumbers are representative of the spanwise spacing between the

  7. On Stability of Plane and Cylindrical Poiseuille Flows of Nanofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudyak, V. Ya.; Bord, E. G.

    2017-11-01

    Stability of plane and cylindrical Poiseuille flows of nanofluids to comparatively small perturbations is studied. Ethylene glycol-based nanofluids with silicon dioxide particles are considered. The volume fraction of nanoparticles is varied from 0 to 10%, and the particle size is varied from 10 to 210 nm. Neutral stability curves are constructed, and the most unstable modes of disturbances are found. It is demonstrated that nanofluids are less stable than base fluids; the presence of particles leads to additional destabilization of the flow. The greater the volume fraction of nanoparticles and the smaller the particle size, the greater the degree of this additional destabilization. In this case, the critical Reynolds number significantly decreases, and the spectrum of unstable disturbances becomes different; in particular, even for the volume fraction of particles equal to 5%, the wave length of the most unstable disturbances of the nanofluid with particles approximately 20 nm in size decreases almost by a factor of 4.

  8. Laboratory Study of MHD Effects on Stability of Free-surface Liquid Metal Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burin, M. J.; Ji, H.; McMurtry, K.; Peterson, L.; Giannakis, D.; Rosner, R.; Fischer, P.

    2006-10-01

    The dynamics of free-surface MHD shear flows is potentially important to both astrophysics (e.g. in the mixing of dense plasma accreted upon neutron star surfaces) and fusion reactors (e.g. in liquid metal ‘first walls’). To date however few relevant experiments exist. In order to study the fundamental physics of such flows, a small-scale laboratory experiment is being built using a liquid gallium alloy flowing in an open- channel geometry. The flow dimensions are nominally 10cm wide, 1cm deep, and 70cm long under an imposed magnetic field up to 7kG, leading to maximum Hartman number of 2000 and maximum Reynolds number of 4x10^5. Two basic physics issues will ultimately be addressed: (1) How do MHD effects modify the stability of the free surface? For example, is the flow more stable (through the suppression of cross-field motions), or less stable (through the introduction of new boundary layers)? We also investigate whether internal shear layers and imposed electric currents can control the surface stability. (2) How do MHD effects modify free-surface convection driven by a vertical and/or horizontal temperature gradient? We discuss aspects of both of these issues, along with detailed descriptions of the experimental device. Pertinent theoretical stability analyses and initial hydrodynamic results are presented in companion posters. This work is supported by DoE under contract #DE-AC02-76-CH03073.

  9. Stability and sensitivity analysis of hypersonic flow past a blunt cone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, Joseph W.; Cook, David; Brock, Joseph M.; Candler, Graham V.

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the effects of nosetip bluntness and low-level distributed roughness on instabilities leading to transition on a 7 degree half-angle blunt cone at Mach 10. To study the sensitivity of boundary layer instabilities to bluntness and roughness, we numerically extract Jacobian matrices directly from the unstructured hypersonic flow solver US3D. These matrices govern the dynamics of small perturbations about otherwise laminar base flows. We consider the frequency response of the resulting linearized dynamical system between different input and output locations along the cone, including close to the nosetip. Using adjoints, our method faithfully captures effects of complex geometry such as strong curvature and roughness that lead to flow acceleration and localized heating in this region. These effects violate the assumption of a slowly-varying base flow that underpins traditional linear stability analyses. We compare our results, which do not rely upon this assumption, to experimental measurements of a Mach 10 blunt cone taken at the AEDC Hypervelocity Ballistic Range G facility. In particular, we assess whether effects of complex geometry can explain discrepancies previously noted between traditional stability analysis and observations. This work is supported by the Office of Naval Research through Grant Number N00014-17-1-2496.

  10. Stability Results for Idealized Shear Flows on a Rectangular Periodic Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dullin, Holger R.; Worthington, Joachim

    2018-06-01

    We present a new linearly stable solution of the Euler fluid flow on a torus. On a two-dimensional rectangular periodic domain [0,2π )× [0,2π / κ ) for κ \\in R^+, the Euler equations admit a family of stationary solutions given by the vorticity profiles Ω ^*(x)= Γ cos (p_1x_1+ κ p_2x_2). We show linear stability for such flows when p_2=0 and κ ≥ |p_1| (equivalently p_1=0 and κ {|p_2|}≤ {1}). The classical result due to Arnold is that for p_1 = 1, p_2 = 0 and κ ≥ 1 the stationary flow is nonlinearly stable via the energy-Casimir method. We show that for κ ≥ |p_1| ≥ 2, p_2 = 0 the flow is linearly stable, but one cannot expect a similar nonlinear stability result. Finally we prove nonlinear instability for all steady states satisfying p_1^2+κ ^2{p_2^2}>{3(κ ^2+1)}/4(7-4√{3)}. The modification and application of a structure-preserving Hamiltonian truncation is discussed for the anisotropic case κ ≠ 1. This leads to an explicit Lie-Poisson integrator for the approximate system, which is used to illustrate our analytical results.

  11. Improved optical flow motion estimation for digital image stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Lijun; Xu, Zhiyong; Zhang, Xuyao

    2015-11-01

    Optical flow is the instantaneous motion vector at each pixel in the image frame at a time instant. The gradient-based approach for optical flow computation can't work well when the video motion is too large. To alleviate such problem, we incorporate this algorithm into a pyramid multi-resolution coarse-to-fine search strategy. Using pyramid strategy to obtain multi-resolution images; Using iterative relationship from the highest level to the lowest level to obtain inter-frames' affine parameters; Subsequence frames compensate back to the first frame to obtain stabilized sequence. The experiment results demonstrate that the promoted method has good performance in global motion estimation.

  12. Pinch-off syndrome: transection of implantable central venous access device.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Takuya; Nagata, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Ken; Kano, Nobuyasu

    2012-11-30

    As the population of people with cancer increases so does the number of patients who take chemotherapy. Majority of them are administered parentally continuously. Implantable central venous catheter device is a good choice for those patients; however, severe complication would occur concerning the devices. Pinch-off syndrome is one of the most severe complications. The authors report a severe case of pinch-off syndrome. The patient with the implantable central venous device could not take chemotherapy because the device occluded. Further examination revealed the transection of the catheter. The transected fragment of the catheter in the heart was successfully removed by using a loop snare placed through the right femoral vein.

  13. Controlled injection using a channel pinch in a plasma-channel-guided laser wakefield accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiaqi; Zhang, Zhijun; Liu, Jiansheng; Li, Wentao; Wang, Wentao; Yu, Changhai; Qi, Rong; Qin, Zhiyong; Fang, Ming; Wu, Ying; Feng, Ke; Ke, Lintong; Wang, Cheng; Li, Ruxin

    2018-06-01

    Plasma-channel-guided laser plasma accelerators make it possible to drive high-brilliance compact radiation sources and have high-energy physics applications. Achieving tunable internal injection of the electron beam (e beam) inside the plasma channel, which realizes a tunable radiation source, is a challenging method to extend such applications. In this paper, we propose the use of a channel pinch, which is designed as an initial reduction followed by an expansion of the channel radius along the plasma channel, to achieve internal controlled off-axis e beam injection in a channel-guided laser plasma accelerator. The off-axis injection is triggered by bubble deformation in the expansion region. The dynamics of the plasma wake is explored, and the trapping threshold is found to be reduced radially in the channel pinch. Simulation results show that the channel pinch not only triggers injection process localized at the pinch but also modulates the parameters of the e beam by adjusting its density profile, which can additionally accommodate a tunable radiation source via betatron oscillation.

  14. How Artificial Should the Treatment of a Plasma's Viscosity Be?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, K. G.; Velikovich, A. L.; Thornhill, J. W.; Davis, J.

    1999-11-01

    Electron viscosity dominates over ion viscosity and is important in describing the generation of shock fronts in highly ionizable plasmas. The sizes of shock front jumps in electron and ion temperature are determined from the magnitudes of the heat flow vector and pressure tensor, which, in turn, acquire non-negligible nonlinear contributions from the temperature and density gradients when these gradients are large. Thus, a consistent treatment of steep gradient formation in plasmas must come from investigations that include the effects of these nonlinear contributions to heat and momentum transport. Coefficients for each of five nonlinear contributions to the pressure tensor for an (r,z) Z-pinch geometry are presented and discussed in this talk. Hydrodynamic code calculations generally are not designed to provide a testbed for directly evaluating the kinetic energy dissipation that occurs at shock fronts; therefore, the strength of these nonlinear pressure tensor terms will be estimated by post-processing a Z-pinch hydrodynamics calculation and a steady-state planar shock wave calculation.

  15. Stability theory applications to laminar-flow control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malik, Mujeeb R.

    1987-01-01

    In order to design Laminar Flow Control (LFC) configurations, reliable methods are needed for boundary-layer transition predictions. Among the available methods, there are correlations based upon R sub e, shape factors, Goertler number and crossflow Reynolds number. The most advanced transition prediction method is based upon linear stability theory in the form of the e sup N method which has proven to be successful in predicting transition in two- and three-dimensional boundary layers. When transition occurs in a low disturbance environment, the e sup N method provides a viable design tool for transition prediction and LFC in both 2-D and 3-D subsonic/supersonic flows. This is true for transition dominated by either TS, crossflow, or Goertler instability. If Goertler/TS or crossflow/TS interaction is present, the e sup N will fail to predict transition. However, there is no evidence of such interaction at low amplitudes of Goertler and crossflow vortices.

  16. A titanium hydride gun for plasma injection into the T2-reversed field pinch device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronin, A. V.; Hellblom, K. G.

    1999-02-01

    A study of a plasma gun (modified Bostic type) with titanium hydride electrodes has been carried out. The total number of released hydrogen atoms was in the range 1016-1018 and the maximum plasma flow velocity was 2.5×105 m s-1. The ion density near the gun edge reached 1.8×1020 m-3 and the electron temperature was around 40 eV as estimated from probe measurements. No species other than hydrogen or titanium were seen in the plasma line radiation. The plasma injector was successfully used for gas pre-ionization in the Extrap T2 reversed-field pinch device (ohmic heating toroidal experiment (OHTE)).

  17. Characteristics of plasma-puff trigger for a inverse-pinch plasma switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Eun H.; Venable, Demetrius D.; Han, Kwang S.; Lee, Ja H.

    1993-01-01

    The plasma-puff triggering mechanism based on a hypocycloidal pinch geometry was investigated to determine the optimal operating conditions for the azimuthally uniform surface flashover which initiates plasma-puff under wide ranges of fill gas pressure of Ar, He and N2. The optimal fill-gas pressure range for the azimuthally uniform plasma-puff was about 120 mTorr less than or equal to P(sub op) less than or equal to 450 Torr for He and N2. For Argon 120 mTorr is less than or equal to P(sub op) is less than or equal to 5 Torr. The inverse-pinch switch was triggered with the plasma-puff and the switching capability under various electrical parameters and working gas pressures of Ar, He and N2 was determined. The azimuthally uniform switching discharges were dependent on the type of fill gas and its fill pressure. A new concept of plasma-focus driven plasma-puff will be discussed in comparison with the current hypocycloidal-pinch plasma-puff triggering.

  18. Stability of viscosity stratified flows down an incline: Role of miscibility and wall slip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Sukhendu; Usha, R.

    2016-10-01

    The effects of wall velocity slip on the linear stability of a gravity-driven miscible two-fluid flow down an incline are examined. The fluids have the matched density but different viscosity. A smooth viscosity stratification is achieved due to the presence of a thin mixed layer between the fluids. The results show that the presence of slip exhibits a promise for stabilizing the miscible flow system by raising the critical Reynolds number at the onset and decreasing the bandwidth of unstable wave numbers beyond the threshold of the dominant instability. This is different from its role in the case of a single fluid down a slippery substrate where slip destabilizes the flow system at the onset. Though the stability properties are analogous to the same flow system down a rigid substrate, slip is shown to delay the surface mode instability for any viscosity contrast. It has a damping/promoting effect on the overlap modes (which exist due to the overlap of critical layer of dominant disturbance with the mixed layer) when the mixed layer is away/close from/to the slippery inclined wall. The trend of slip effect is influenced by the location of the mixed layer, the location of more viscous fluid, and the mass diffusivity of the two fluids. The stabilizing characteristics of slip can be favourably used to suppress the non-linear breakdown which may happen due to the coexistence of the unstable modes in a flow over a substrate with no slip. The results of the present study suggest that it is desirable to design a slippery surface with appropriate slip sensitivity in order to meet a particular need for a specific application.

  19. Stability limits of superhydrophobic longitudinal microgrooves in high Reynolds number turbulent flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastegari, Amirreza; Akhavan, Rayhaneh

    2017-11-01

    The stability of the liquid/gas interfaces on SuperHydrophobic (SH) Longitudinal MicroGrooves (LMGs) in high Reynolds number turbulent flows of practical interest is investigated by analytical extrapolation of DNS results in turbulent channel flow at Reτ0 222 and 442 with SH LMGs at protrusion angle of θ = -30o . Given that the magnitude of pressure fluctuations in turbulent channel flow scales as prms+ √{ ln(Reτ) } , it is found that the stability limits of SH LMGs diminishes by factors of 4 when the Reynolds number of the base flow increases from Reτ0 200 of DNS to Reτ0 105 -106 of practical applications. For SH LMGs operating at Weber numbers of We+0 ≡ μuτ0 / σ 3 ×10-3 - 1.5 ×10-2 , corresponding to friction velocities of uτ0 0.2 - 1 m/s, this limits the size of stable LMGs to g+0 5 - 30 at Reτ0 105 and g+0 4 - 20 at Reτ0 106 , and the maximum drag reductions to DRmax 20 - 30 % at Reτ0 105 and DRmax 10 - 20 % at Reτ0 106 .

  20. Stability of flow of a thermoviscoelastic fluid between rotating coaxial circular cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghandour, N. N.; Narasimhan, M. N. L.

    1976-01-01

    The stability problem of thermoviscoelastic fluid flow between rotating coaxial cylinders is investigated using nonlinear thermoviscoelastic constitutive equations due to Eringen and Koh. The velocity field is found to be identical with that of the classical viscous case and the case of the viscoelastic fluid, but the temperature and pressure fields are found to be different. By imposing some physically reasonable mechanical and geometrical restrictions on the flow, and by a suitable mathematical analysis, the problem is reduced to a characteristic value problem. The resulting problem is solved and stability criteria are obtained in terms of critical Taylor numbers. In general, it is found that thermoviscoelastic fluids are more stable than classical viscous fluids and viscoinelastic fluids under similar conditions.

  1. Failure analysis of pinch-torsion tests as a thermal runaway risk evaluation method of Li-ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Yuzhi; Li, Tianlei; Ren, Fei; Gao, Yanfei; Wang, Hsin

    2014-11-01

    Recently a pinch-torsion test is developed for safety testing of Li-ion batteries. It has been demonstrated that this test can generate small internal short-circuit spots in the separator in a controllable and repeatable manner. In the current research, the failure mechanism is examined by numerical simulations and comparisons to experimental observations. Finite element models are developed to evaluate the deformation of the separators under both pure pinch and pinch-torsion loading conditions. It is discovered that the addition of the torsion component significantly increased the maximum first principal strain, which is believed to induce the internal short circuit. In addition, the applied load in the pinch-torsion test is significantly less than in the pure pinch test, thus dramatically improving the applicability of this method to ultra-thick batteries which otherwise require heavy load in excess of machine capability. It is further found that the separator failure is achieved in the early stage of torsion (within a few degree of rotation). Effect of coefficient of friction on the maximum first principal strain is also examined.

  2. Intrinsic Flow Behavior During Improved Confinement in MST Reversed-field Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, E.; Craig, D.; Schott, B.; Boguski, J.; Xing, Z. A.; Nornberg, M. D.; Anderson, J. K.

    2017-10-01

    We used active charge exchange recombination spectroscopy to measure impurity ion flow velocity in high-current plasmas during periods of improved confinement. Velocity measurements througout the core reveal that ion flow parallel to the magnetic field is dominant compared to the perpendicular flow. The poloidal flow profile reverses at r/a = 0.6, and the flow near the core is larger on outboard positions compared to the inboard positions. A strong shear in the toroidal flow develops near the axis as PPCD proceeds. In the past, the mode velocity has been used to infer the toroidal flow based on the `no-slip' assumption that the mode and local plasma co-rotate. We tested this assumption with direct measurements near the m = 1, n = 6 resonant surface. Inboard flow measurements are consistent with the no-slip condition and exhibit a time dependence where the flow decreases together with the n = 6 mode velocity. The outboard flow is consistent in magnitude with the no-slip condition but the variations in time and across shots do not correlate well with the n = 6 mode velocity. Possible reasons why the inboard and outboard flow exhibit different behavior are discussed. This work has been supported by the US DOE and the Wheaton College summer research program.

  3. Free Surface Flows and Extensional Rheology of Polymer Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinic, Jelena; Jimenez, Leidy Nallely; Biagioli, Madeleine; Estrada, Alexandro; Sharma, Vivek

    Free-surface flows - jetting, spraying, atomization during fuel injection, roller-coating, gravure printing, several microfluidic drop/particle formation techniques, and screen-printing - all involve the formation of axisymmetric fluid elements that spontaneously break into droplets by a surface-tension-driven instability. The growth of the capillary-driven instability and pinch-off dynamics are dictated by a complex interplay of inertial, viscous and capillary stresses for simple fluids. Additional contributions by elasticity, extensibility and extensional viscosity play a role for complex fluids. We show that visualization and analysis of capillary-driven thinning and pinch-off dynamics of the columnar neck in an asymmetric liquid bridge created by dripping-onto-substrate (DoS) can be used for characterizing the extensional rheology of complex fluids. Using a wide variety of complex fluids, we show the measurement of the extensional relaxation time, extensional viscosity, power-law index and shear viscosity. Lastly, we elucidate how polymer composition, flexibility, and molecular weight determine the thinning and pinch-off dynamics of polymeric complex fluids.

  4. Nonlinear travelling waves in rotating Hagen–Poiseuille flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pier, Benoît; Govindarajan, Rama

    2018-03-01

    The dynamics of viscous flow through a rotating pipe is considered. Small-amplitude stability characteristics are obtained by linearizing the Navier–Stokes equations around the base flow and solving the resulting eigenvalue problems. For linearly unstable configurations, the dynamics leads to fully developed finite-amplitude perturbations that are computed by direct numerical simulations of the complete Navier–Stokes equations. By systematically investigating all linearly unstable combinations of streamwise wave number k and azimuthal mode number m, for streamwise Reynolds numbers {{Re}}z ≤slant 500 and rotational Reynolds numbers {{Re}}{{Ω }} ≤slant 500, the complete range of nonlinear travelling waves is obtained and the associated flow fields are characterized.

  5. Resistive wall modes in the EXTRAP T2R reversed-field pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunsell, P. R.; Malmberg, J.-A.; Yadikin, D.; Cecconello, M.

    2003-10-01

    Resistive wall modes (RWM) in the reversed field pinch are studied and a detailed comparison of experimental growth rates and linear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory is made. RWM growth rates are experimentally measured in the thin shell device EXTRAP T2R [P. R. Brunsell et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 43, 1 (2001)]. Linear MHD calculations of RWM growth rates are based on experimental equilibria. Experimental and linear MHD RWM growth rate dependency on the equilibrium profiles is investigated experimentally by varying the pinch parameter Θ=Bθ(a)/ in the range Θ=1.5-1.8. Quantitative agreement between experimental and linear MHD growth rates is seen. The dominating RWMs are the internal on-axis modes (having the same helicity as the central equilibrium field). At high Θ, external nonresonant modes are also observed. For internal modes experimental growth rates decrease with Θ while for external modes, growth rates increase with Θ. The effect of RWMs on the reversed-field pinch plasma performance is discussed.

  6. Theta-Pinch Thruster for Piloted Deep Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaPointe, Mike R.; Reddy, Dhanireddy (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A new high-power propulsion concept that combines a rapidly pulsed theta-pinch discharge with upstream particle reflection by a magnetic mirror was evaluated under a Phase 1 grant awarded through the NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts. Analytic and numerical models were developed to predict the performance of a theta-pinch thruster operated over a wide range of initial gas pressures and discharge periods. The models indicate that a 1 m radius, 10 m long thruster operated with hydrogen propellant could provide impulse-bits ranging from 1 N-s to 330 N-s with specific impulse values of 7,500 s to 2,500 s, respectively. A pulsed magnetic field strength of 2 T is required to compress and heat the preionized hydrogen over a 10(exp -3) second discharge period, with about 60% of the heated plasma exiting the chamber each period to produce thrust. The unoptimized thruster efficiency is low, peaking at approximately 16% for an initial hydrogen chamber pressure of 100 Torr. The specific impulse and impulse-bit at this operating condition are 3,500 s and 90 N-s, respectively, and the required discharge energy is approximately 9x10(exp 6) J. For a pulse repetition rate of 10 Hz, the engine would produce an average thrust of 900 N at 3,500 s specific impulse. Combined with the electrodeless nature of the device, these performance parameters indicate that theta-pinch thrusters could provide unique, long-life propulsion systems for piloted deep space mission applications.

  7. The Effect of Symmetry on the Hydrodynamic Stability of and Bifurcation from Planar Shear Flows

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    Effect of Symmetry on the Hydrodynamic Stability of ant Bifurcation from Planar Shear Flows AFOSR-88-0196 6. AUTHOR(S) 61102F 2304/A4 Thomas J. Bridges 7...December 1990 The Effect of Symmetry on the Hydrodynamic Stability of and Bifurcation from Planar Shear Flows TIIhOMAS J. BIUDGES MATl EM ATIc(AL...spatial stabili’.y into the nonlinear regime and a theory for spa- tial Hopf bifurcation , spatial Floquet theory, wavelength doubling and spatially quasi

  8. Flow behavior characteristics of ice cream mix made with buffalo milk and various stabilizers.

    PubMed

    Minhas, Kuldip S; Sidhu, Jiwan S; Mudahar, Gurmail S; Singh, A K

    2002-01-01

    Ice cream made with buffalo milk, using optimum levels of various stabilizers of plant origin, was evaluated for its flow behavior characteristics, with the objective of producing an acceptable quality product. The minimum variation in the viscosity of mix was observed at three rates of shear (348.88, 523.33 and 1046.66 S(-1)) for all ice cream mixes. The flow behavior index (n) of all the mixes having optimum levels of various stabilizers was observed to be less than 1; indicating their pseudoplastic nature. Consistency coefficient (m) of sodium alginate was found to be 1.19; highest among all the stabilizers, followed by gelatin (1.17), karaya (1.08), guar gum (0.75), acacia gum (0.70), ghatti gum (0.36), and the control (0.29). The consistency coefficient (m) signifies the apparent viscosity of the pseudoplastic fluid. The viscosity of the mixes having various stabilizers (optimum levels) was found to be in descending order: Sodium alginate, gelatin, karaya, guar gum, acacia, ghatti and control.

  9. Impact of finite rate chemistry on the hydrodynamic stability of shear flows in turbulent lean premixed combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagan, Yuval; Ghoniem, Ahmed

    2017-11-01

    Recent experimental observations show that the dynamic response of a reactive flow is strongly impacted by the fuel chemistry. In order to gain insight into some of the underlying mechanisms we formulate a new linear stability model that incorporates the impact of finite rate chemistry on the hydrodynamic stability of shear flows. Contrary to previous studies which typically assume that the velocity field is independent of the kinetic rates, the velocity field in our study is coupled with the temperature field. Using this formulation, we reproduce previous results, e.g., most unstable global modes, obtained for non-reacting shear flow. Moreover, we show that these modes are significantly altered in frequency and gain by the presence of a reaction region within the shear layer. This qualitatively agrees with results of our recent experimental and numerical studies, which show that the flame surface location relative to the shear layer influences the stability characteristics in combustion tunnels. This study suggests a physical explanation for the observed impact of finite rate chemistry on shear flow stability.

  10. The stability of stratified spatially periodic shear flows at low Péclet number

    SciTech Connect

    Garaud, Pascale, E-mail: pgaraud@ucsc.edu; Gallet, Basile; Bischoff, Tobias

    2015-08-15

    This work addresses the question of the stability of stratified, spatially periodic shear flows at low Péclet number but high Reynolds number. This little-studied limit is motivated by astrophysical systems, where the Prandtl number is often very small. Furthermore, it can be studied using a reduced set of “low-Péclet-number equations” proposed by Lignières [“The small-Péclet-number approximation in stellar radiative zones,” Astron. Astrophys. 348, 933–939 (1999)]. Through a linear stability analysis, we first determine the conditions for instability to infinitesimal perturbations. We formally extend Squire’s theorem to the low-Péclet-number equations, which shows that the first unstable mode is always two-dimensional. Wemore » then perform an energy stability analysis of the low-Péclet-number equations and prove that for a given value of the Reynolds number, above a critical strength of the stratification, any smooth periodic shear flow is stable to perturbations of arbitrary amplitude. In that parameter regime, the flow can only be laminar and turbulent mixing does not take place. Finding that the conditions for linear and energy stability are different, we thus identify a region in parameter space where finite-amplitude instabilities could exist. Using direct numerical simulations, we indeed find that the system is subject to such finite-amplitude instabilities. We determine numerically how far into the linearly stable region of parameter space turbulence can be sustained.« less

  11. Moderately reverberant learning ultrasonic pinch panel.

    PubMed

    Nikolovski, Jean-Pierre

    2013-10-01

    Tactile sensing is widely used in human-computer interfaces. However, mechanical integration of touch technologies is often perceived as difficult by engineers because it often limits the freedom of style or form factor requested by designers. Recent work in active ultrasonic touch technologies has made it possible to transform thin glass plates, metallic sheets, or plastic shells into interactive surfaces. The method is based on a learning process of touch-induced, amplitude-disturbed diffraction patterns. This paper proposes, first, an evolution in the design with multiple dipole transducers that improves touch sensitivity or maximum panel size by a factor of ten, and improves robustness and usability in moderately reverberant panels, and second, defines a set of acoustic variables in the signal processing for the evaluation of sensitivity and radiating features. For proof of concept purposes, the design and process are applied to 3.2- and 6-mm-thick glass plates with variable damping conditions. Transducers are bonded to only one short side of the rectangular substrates. Measurements show that the highly sensitive free lateral sides are perfectly adapted for pinch-touch and pinch-slide interactions. The advantage of relative versus absolute touch disturbance measurement is discussed, together with tolerance to abutting contaminants.

  12. Stability analysis for capillary channel flow: 1d and 3d computations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grah, Aleksander; Klatte, Jörg; Dreyer, Michael E.

    The subject of the presentation are numerical studies on capillary channel flow, based on results of the sounding rocket TEXUS experiments. The flow through a capillary channel is established by a gear pump at the outlet. The channel, consists of two parallel glass plates with a width of 25 mm, a gap of 10 mm and a length of 12 mm. The meniscus of a compensation tube maintains a constant system pressure. Steady and dynamic pressure effects in the system force the surfaces to bend inwards. A maximum flow rate is achieved when the free surface collapses and gas ingestion occurs at the outlet. This critical flow rate depends on the channel geometry, the flow regime and the liquid properties. The aim of the experiments is the determination of the free surface shape and to find the maximum flow rate. In order to study the unsteady liquid loop behavior, a dimensionless one-dimensional model and a corresponding three-dimensional model were developed. The one-dimensional model is based on the unsteady Bernoulli equation, the unsteady continuity equation and geometrical conditions for the surface curvature and the flow cross-section. The experimental and evaluated contour data show good agreement for a sequence of transient flow rate perturbations. In the case of steady flow at maximum flow rate, when the "choking" effect occurs, the surfaces collapse and cause gas ingestion into the channel. This effect is related to the Speed Index. At the critical flow rate the Speed Index reaches the value 1, in analogy to the Mach Number. Unsteady choking does not necessarily cause surface collapse. We show, that temporarily Speed Index values exceeding One may be achieved for a perfectly stable supercritical dynamic flow. As a supercritical criterion for the dynamic free surface stability we define a Dynamic Index considering the local capillary pressure and the convective pressure, which is a function of the local velocity. The Dynamic Index is below One for stable flow while D = 1

  13. Stabilization of Taylor-Couette flow due to time-periodic outer cylinder oscillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, B. T.; Mcfadden, G. B.; Coriell, S. R.

    1990-01-01

    The linear stability of circular Couette flow between concentric infinite cylinders is considered for the case when the inner cylinder is rotated at a constant angular velocity and the outer cylinder is driven sinusoidally in time with zero mean rotation. This configuration was studied experimentally by Walsh and Donnelly. The critical Reynolds numbers calculated from linear stability theory agree well with the experimental values, except at large modulation amplitudes and small frequencies. The theoretical values are obtained using Floquet theory implemented in two distinct approaches: a truncated Fourier series representation in time, and a fundamental solution matrix based on a Chebyshev pseudospectral representation in space. For large amplitude, low frequency modulation, the linear eigenfunctions are temporally complex, consisting of a quiescent region followed by rapid change in the perturbed flow velocities.

  14. Particle pinch with fully noninductive lower hybrid current drive in Tore Supra.

    PubMed

    Hoang, G T; Bourdelle, C; Pégourié, B; Schunke, B; Artaud, J F; Bucalossi, J; Clairet, F; Fenzi-Bonizec, C; Garbet, X; Gil, C; Guirlet, R; Imbeaux, F; Lasalle, J; Loarer, T; Lowry, C; Travère, J M; Tsitrone, E

    2003-04-18

    Recently, plasmas exceeding 4 min have been obtained with lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) in Tore Supra. These LHCD plasmas extend for over 80 times the resistive current diffusion time with zero loop voltage. Under such unique conditions the neoclassical particle pinch driven by the toroidal electric field vanishes. Nevertheless, the density profile remains peaked for more than 4 min. For the first time, the existence of an inward particle pinch in steady-state plasma without toroidal electric field, much larger than the value predicted by the collisional neoclassical theory, is experimentally demonstrated.

  15. Stability of parallel electroosmotic flow subject to an axial modulated electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, Vinod; Homsy, George

    2001-11-01

    The stability of parallel electroosmotic flow in a micro-channel subjected to an AC electric field is studied. A spatially uniform time harmonic electric field is applied along the length of a two-dimensional micro-channel containing a dilute electrolytic solution, resulting in a time periodic parallel flow. The top and bottom walls of the channel are maintained at constant potential. The base state ion concentrations and double layer potential are determined using the Poisson-Boltzmann equation in the Debye-Hückel approximation. Experiments by other workers (Santiago et. al., unpublished) have shown that such a system can exhibit instabilities that take the form of mixing motion occurring in the bulk flow outside the double layer. It is shown that such instabilities can potentially result from the coupling of disturbances in the ion concentrations or electric potential to the base state velocity or ion concentrations, respectively. The stability boundary of the system is determined using Floquet theory and its dependence on the modulation frequency and amplitude of the axial electric field is studied.

  16. Failure analysis of pinch-torsion tests as a thermal runaway risk evaluation method of Li-Ion Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Yuzhi; Li, Dr. Tianlei; Ren, Prof. Fei

    2014-01-01

    Recently a pinch-torsion test is developed for safety testing of Li-ion batteries (Ren et al., J. Power Source, 2013). It has been demonstrated that this test can generate small internal short-circuit spots in the separator in a controllable and repeatable manner. In the current research, the failure mechanism is examined by numerical simulations and comparisons to experimental observations. Finite element models are developed to evaluate the deformation of the separators under both pure pinch and pinch-torsion loading conditions. It is discovered that the addition of the torsion component significantly increased the maximum principal strain, which is believed to induce themore » internal short circuit. In addition, the applied load in the pinch-torsion test is significantly less than in the pure pinch test, thus dramatically improving the applicability of this method to ultra-thick batteries which otherwise require heavy load in excess of machine capability. It is further found that the separator failure is achieved in the early stage of torsion (within a few degree of rotation). Effect of coefficient of friction on the maximum principal strain is also examined.« less

  17. Msc1 acts through histone H2A.Z to promote chromosome stability in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Shakil; Dul, Barbara; Qiu, Xinxing; Walworth, Nancy C

    2007-11-01

    As a central component of the DNA damage checkpoint pathway, the conserved protein kinase Chk1 mediates cell cycle progression when DNA damage is generated. Msc1 was identified as a multicopy suppressor capable of facilitating survival in response to DNA damage of cells mutant for chk1. We demonstrate that loss of msc1 function results in an increased rate of chromosome loss and that an msc1 null allele exhibits genetic interactions with mutants in key kinetochore components. Multicopy expression of msc1 robustly suppresses a temperature-sensitive mutant (cnp1-1) in the centromere-specific histone H3 variant CENP-A, and localization of CENP-A to the centromere is compromised in msc1 null cells. We present several lines of evidence to suggest that Msc1 carries out its function through the histone H2A variant H2A.Z, encoded by pht1 in fission yeast. Like an msc1 mutant, a pht1 mutant also exhibits chromosome instability and genetic interactions with kinetochore mutants. Suppression of cnp1-1 by multicopy msc1 requires pht1. Likewise, suppression of the DNA damage sensitivity of a chk1 mutant by multicopy msc1 also requires pht1. We present the first genetic evidence that histone H2A.Z may participate in centromere function in fission yeast and propose that Msc1 acts through H2A.Z to promote chromosome stability and cell survival following DNA damage.

  18. Msc1 Acts Through Histone H2A.Z to Promote Chromosome Stability in Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Shakil; Dul, Barbara; Qiu, Xinxing; Walworth, Nancy C.

    2007-01-01

    As a central component of the DNA damage checkpoint pathway, the conserved protein kinase Chk1 mediates cell cycle progression when DNA damage is generated. Msc1 was identified as a multicopy suppressor capable of facilitating survival in response to DNA damage of cells mutant for chk1. We demonstrate that loss of msc1 function results in an increased rate of chromosome loss and that an msc1 null allele exhibits genetic interactions with mutants in key kinetochore components. Multicopy expression of msc1 robustly suppresses a temperature-sensitive mutant (cnp1-1) in the centromere-specific histone H3 variant CENP-A, and localization of CENP-A to the centromere is compromised in msc1 null cells. We present several lines of evidence to suggest that Msc1 carries out its function through the histone H2A variant H2A.Z, encoded by pht1 in fission yeast. Like an msc1 mutant, a pht1 mutant also exhibits chromosome instability and genetic interactions with kinetochore mutants. Suppression of cnp1-1 by multicopy msc1 requires pht1. Likewise, suppression of the DNA damage sensitivity of a chk1 mutant by multicopy msc1 also requires pht1. We present the first genetic evidence that histone H2A.Z may participate in centromere function in fission yeast and propose that Msc1 acts through H2A.Z to promote chromosome stability and cell survival following DNA damage. PMID:17947424

  19. Stability assessment and operating parameter optimization on experimental results in very small plasma focus, using sensitivity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafari, Hossein; Habibi, Morteza

    2018-04-01

    Regarding the importance of stability in small-scale plasma focus devices for producing the repeatable and strength pinching, a sensitivity analysis approach has been used for applicability in design parameters optimization of an actually very low energy device (84 nF, 48 nH, 8-9.5 kV, ∼2.7-3.7 J). To optimize the devices functional specification, four different coaxial electrode configurations have been studied, scanning an argon gas pressure range from 0.6 to 1.5 mbar via the charging voltage variation study from 8.3 to 9.3 kV. The strength and efficient pinching was observed for the tapered anode configuration, over an expanded operating pressure range of 0.6 to 1.5 mbar. The analysis results showed that the most sensitive of the pinch voltage was associated with 0.88 ± 0.8mbar argon gas pressure and 8.3-8.5 kV charging voltage, respectively, as the optimum operating parameters. From the viewpoint of stability assessment of the device, it was observed that the least variation in stable operation of the device was for a charging voltage range of 8.3 to 8.7 kV in an operating pressure range from 0.6 to 1.1 mbar.

  20. The stability of two-phase flow over a swept-wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coward, Adrian; Hall, Philip

    1994-01-01

    We use numerical and asymptotic techniques to study the stability of a two-phase air/water flow above a flat porous plate. This flow is a model of the boundary layer which forms on a yawed cylinder and can be used as a useful approximation to the air flow over swept wings during heavy rainfall. We show that the interface between the water and air layers can significantly destabilize the flow, leading to traveling wave disturbances which move along the attachment line. This instability occurs for lower Reynolds numbers than in the case of the absence of a water layer. We also investigate the instability of inviscid stationary modes. We calculate the effective wavenumber and orientation of the stationary disturbance when the fluids have identical physical properties. Using perturbation methods we obtain corrections due to a small stratification in viscosity, thus quantifying the interfacial effects. Our analytical results are in agreement with the numerical solution which we obtain for arbitrary fluid properties.

  1. Advanced feedback control methods in EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadikin, D.; Brunsell, P. R.; Paccagnella, R.

    2006-07-01

    Previous experiments in the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch device have shown the possibility of suppression of multiple resistive wall modes (RWM). A feedback system has been installed in EXTRAP T2R having 100% coverage of the toroidal surface by the active coil array. Predictions based on theory and the previous experimental results show that the number of active coils should be sufficient for independent stabilization of all unstable RWMs in the EXTRAP T2R. Experiments using different feedback schemes are performed, comparing the intelligent shell, the fake rotating shell, and the mode control with complex feedback gains. Stabilization of all unstable RWMs throughout the discharge duration of td≈10τw is seen using the intelligent shell feedback scheme. Mode rotation and the control of selected Fourier harmonics is obtained simultaneously using the mode control scheme with complex gains. Different sensor signals are studied. A feedback system with toroidal magnetic field sensors could have an advantage of lower feedback gain needed for the RWM suppression compared to the system with radial magnetic field sensors. In this study, RWM suppression is demonstrated, using also the toroidal field component as a sensor signal in the feedback system.

  2. Improved radical stability of viologen anolytes in aqueous organic redox flow batteries.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bo; Tang, Yijie; Luo, Jian; Grove, Grant; Guo, Yisong; Liu, T Leo

    2018-05-09

    A high voltage (1.38 V) total organic aqueous redox flow battery is reported using 1,1'-bis[3-(trimethylammonio)propyl]-4,4'-bipyridinium tetrachloride ((NPr)2V) as an anolyte and 4-trimethylammonium-TEMPO chloride (NMe-TEMPO) as a catholyte. The exceptional radical stability of [(NPr)2V]+˙ enabled the flow battery in achieving 97.48% capacity retention for 500 cycles and a power density of 128.2 mW cm-2.

  3. Oxygen Mass Flow Rate Generated for Monitoring Hydrogen Peroxide Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, H. Richard

    2002-01-01

    Recent interest in propellants with non-toxic reaction products has led to a resurgence of interest in hydrogen peroxide for various propellant applications. Because peroxide is sensitive to contaminants, material interactions, stability and storage issues, monitoring decomposition rates is important. Stennis Space Center (SSC) uses thermocouples to monitor bulk fluid temperature (heat evolution) to determine reaction rates. Unfortunately, large temperature rises are required to offset the heat lost into the surrounding fluid. Also, tank penetration to accomodate a thermocouple can entail modification of a tank or line and act as a source of contamination. The paper evaluates a method for monitoring oxygen evolution as a means to determine peroxide stability. Oxygen generation is not only directly related to peroxide decomposition, but occurs immediately. Measuring peroxide temperature to monitor peroxide stability has significant limitations. The bulk decomposition of 1% / week in a large volume tank can produce in excess of 30 cc / min. This oxygen flow rate corresponds to an equivalent temperature rise of approximately 14 millidegrees C, which is difficult to measure reliably. Thus, if heat transfer were included, there would be no temperature rise. Temperature changes from the surrounding environment and heat lost to the peroxide will also mask potential problems. The use of oxygen flow measurements provides an ultra sensitive technique for monitoring reaction events and will provide an earlier indication of an abnormal decomposition when compared to measuring temperature rise.

  4. Numerical simulation of stability and stability control of high speed compressible rotating couette flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biringen, Sedat; Hatay, Ferhat F.

    1993-01-01

    The nonlinear temporal evolution of disturbances in compressible flow between infinitely long, concentric cylinders is investigated through direct numerical simulations of the full, three-dimensional Navier-Stokes and energy equations. Counter-rotating cylinders separated by wide gaps are considered with supersonic velocities of the inner cylinder. Initially, the primary disturbance grows exponentially in accordance with linear stability theory. As the disturbances evolve, higher harmonics and subharmonics are generated in a cascading order eventually reaching a saturation state. Subsequent highly nonlinear stages of the evolution are governed by the interaction of the disturbance modes, particularly the axial subharmonics. Nonlinear evolution of the disturbance field is characterized by the formation of high-shear layers extending from the inner cylinder towards the center of the gap in the form of jets similar to the ejection events in transitional and turbulent wall-bounded shear flows.

  5. A Test of Maxwell's Z Model Using Inverse Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L. B.; Schultz, P. H.; Heineck, T.

    2003-01-01

    In modeling impact craters a small region of energy and momentum deposition, commonly called a "point source", is often assumed. This assumption implies that an impact is the same as an explosion at some depth below the surface. Maxwell's Z Model, an empirical point-source model derived from explosion cratering, has previously been compared with numerical impact craters with vertical incidence angles, leading to two main inferences. First, the flowfield center of the Z Model must be placed below the target surface in order to replicate numerical impact craters. Second, for vertical impacts, the flow-field center cannot be stationary if the value of Z is held constant; rather, the flow-field center migrates downward as the crater grows. The work presented here evaluates the utility of the Z Model for reproducing both vertical and oblique experimental impact data obtained at the NASA Ames Vertical Gun Range (AVGR). Specifically, ejection angle data obtained through Three-Dimensional Particle Image Velocimetry (3D PIV) are used to constrain the parameters of Maxwell's Z Model, including the value of Z and the depth and position of the flow-field center via inverse modeling.

  6. Improvements in the EQ-10 electrodeless Z-pinch EUV source for metrology applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horne, Stephen F.; Gustafson, Deborah; Partlow, Matthew J.; Besen, Matthew M.; Smith, Donald K.; Blackborow, Paul A.

    2011-04-01

    Now that EUV lithography systems are beginning to ship into the fabs for next generation chips it is more critical that the EUV infrastructure developments are keeping pace. Energetiq Technology has been shipping the EQ-10 Electrodeless Z-pinch™ light source since 2005. The source is currently being used for metrology, mask inspection, and resist development. These applications require especially stable performance in both power and source size. Over the last 5 years Energetiq has made many source modifications which have included better thermal management as well as high pulse rate operation6. Recently we have further increased the system power handling and electrical pulse reproducibility. The impact of these modifications on source performance will be reported.

  7. Experimental investigation of the effect of insulator sleeve length on the time to pinch and multipinch formation in the plasma focus facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momenei, M.; Khodabakhshei, Z.; Panahi, N.; Mohammadi, M. A.

    2017-03-01

    The length of insulator sleeve is varied to investigate its effect on the pinch formation in the plasma focus facility. In this paper, the effect of insulator length on the time to pinch at various pressures and working voltages in the 1.15 kJ Mather type plasma focus is investigated. The results show that with 4.5 cm insulator length the time to pinch at all pressures is minimum. Other results also confirm that with increasing of pressure the time to pinch is increased. Moreover, with increasing working voltage the time to pinch is decreased. Pictures, captured using a digital single lens reflex (DSLR) Canon EOS 7D system, show that multipinch phenomenon is formed.

  8. Stabilization and discontinuity-capturing parameters for space-time flow computations with finite element and isogeometric discretizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takizawa, Kenji; Tezduyar, Tayfun E.; Otoguro, Yuto

    2018-04-01

    Stabilized methods, which have been very common in flow computations for many years, typically involve stabilization parameters, and discontinuity-capturing (DC) parameters if the method is supplemented with a DC term. Various well-performing stabilization and DC parameters have been introduced for stabilized space-time (ST) computational methods in the context of the advection-diffusion equation and the Navier-Stokes equations of incompressible and compressible flows. These parameters were all originally intended for finite element discretization but quite often used also for isogeometric discretization. The stabilization and DC parameters we present here for ST computations are in the context of the advection-diffusion equation and the Navier-Stokes equations of incompressible flows, target isogeometric discretization, and are also applicable to finite element discretization. The parameters are based on a direction-dependent element length expression. The expression is outcome of an easy to understand derivation. The key components of the derivation are mapping the direction vector from the physical ST element to the parent ST element, accounting for the discretization spacing along each of the parametric coordinates, and mapping what we have in the parent element back to the physical element. The test computations we present for pure-advection cases show that the parameters proposed result in good solution profiles.

  9. Asymptotic theory of neutral stability of the Couette flow of a vibrationally excited gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigor'ev, Yu. N.; Ershov, I. V.

    2017-01-01

    An asymptotic theory of the neutral stability curve for a supersonic plane Couette flow of a vibrationally excited gas is developed. The initial mathematical model consists of equations of two-temperature viscous gas dynamics, which are used to derive a spectral problem for a linear system of eighth-order ordinary differential equations within the framework of the classical linear stability theory. Unified transformations of the system for all shear flows are performed in accordance with the classical Lin scheme. The problem is reduced to an algebraic secular equation with separation into the "inviscid" and "viscous" parts, which is solved numerically. It is shown that the thus-calculated neutral stability curves agree well with the previously obtained results of the direct numerical solution of the original spectral problem. In particular, the critical Reynolds number increases with excitation enhancement, and the neutral stability curve is shifted toward the domain of higher wave numbers. This is also confirmed by means of solving an asymptotic equation for the critical Reynolds number at the Mach number M ≤ 4.

  10. FLUT - A program for aeroelastic stability analysis. [of aircraft structures in subsonic flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, E. H.

    1977-01-01

    A computer program (FLUT) that can be used to evaluate the aeroelastic stability of aircraft structures in subsonic flow is described. The algorithm synthesizes data from a structural vibration analysis with an unsteady aerodynamics analysis and then performs a complex eigenvalue analysis to assess the system stability. The theoretical basis of the program is discussed with special emphasis placed on some innovative techniques which improve the efficiency of the analysis. User information needed to efficiently and successfully utilize the program is provided. In addition to identifying the required input, the flow of the program execution and some possible sources of difficulty are included. The use of the program is demonstrated with a listing of the input and output for a simple example.

  11. Linear and nonlinear stability criteria for compressible MHD flows in a gravitational field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moawad, S. M.; Moawad

    2013-10-01

    The equilibrium and stability properties of ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) of compressible flow in a gravitational field with a translational symmetry are investigated. Variational principles for the steady-state equations are formulated. The MHD equilibrium equations are obtained as critical points of a conserved Lyapunov functional. This functional consists of the sum of the total energy, the mass, the circulation along field lines (cross helicity), the momentum, and the magnetic helicity. In the unperturbed case, the equilibrium states satisfy a nonlinear second-order partial differential equation (PDE) associated with hydrodynamic Bernoulli law. The PDE can be an elliptic or a parabolic equation depending on increasing the poloidal flow speed. Linear and nonlinear Lyapunov stability conditions under translational symmetric perturbations are established for the equilibrium states.

  12. A numerical study of neutral-plasma interaction in magnetically confined plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taheri, S.; Shumlak, U.; King, J. R.

    2017-10-01

    Interactions between plasma and neutral species can have a large effect on the dynamic behavior of magnetically confined plasma devices, such as the edge region of tokamaks and the plasma formation of Z-pinches. The presence of neutrals can affect the stability of the pinch and change the dynamics of the pinch collapse, and they can lead to deposition of high energy particles on the first wall. However, plasma-neutral interactions can also have beneficial effects such as quenching the disruptions in tokamaks. In this research a reacting plasma-neutral model, which combines a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) plasma model with a gas dynamic neutral fluid model, is used to study the interaction between plasma and neutral gas. Incorporating this model into NIMROD allows the study of electron-impact ionization, radiative recombination, and resonant charge-exchange in plasma-neutral systems. An accelerated plasma moving through a neutral gas background is modeled in both a parallel plate and a coaxial electrode configuration to explore the effect of neutral gas in pinch-like devices. This work is supported by a Grant from US DOE.

  13. Andreas Acrivos Dissertation Prize Lecture: Stability of inviscid flows from bifurcation diagrams exploiting a variational argument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luzzatto-Fegiz, Paolo

    2011-11-01

    Steady fluid solutions play a special role in the dynamics of a flow: stable states may be realized in practice, while unstable ones may act as attractors. Unfortunately, determining stability is often a process far more laborious than finding steady states; indeed, even for simple vortex or wave flows, stability properties have often been the subject of debate. We consider here a stability idea originating with Lord Kelvin (1876), which involves using the second variation of the energy, δ2 E , to establish bounds on a perturbation. However, for numerically obtained flows, computing δ2 E explicitly is often not feasible. To circumvent this issue, Saffman & Szeto (1980) proposed an argument linking changes in δ2 E to turning points in a bifurcation diagram, for families of steady flows. Later work has shown that this argument is unreliable; the two key issues are associated with the absence of a formal turning-point theory, and with the inability to detect bifurcations (Dritschel 1995, and references therein). In this work, we build on ideas from bifurcation theory, and link turning points in a velocity-impulse diagram to changes in δ2 E ; in addition, this diagram delivers the direction of the change of δ2 E , thereby providing information as to whether stability is gained or lost. To detect hidden solution branches, we introduce to these fluid problems concepts from imperfection theory. The resulting approach, involving ``imperfect velocity-impulse'' diagrams, leads us to new and surprising results for a wide range of fundamental vortex and wave flows; we mention here the calculation of the first steady vortices without any symmetry, and the uncovering of the complete solution structure for vortex pairs. In addition, we find precise agreement with available results from linear stability analysis. Doctoral work advised by C.H.K. Williamson at Cornell University.

  14. Stability of the electroosmotic flow of a two-layer electrolyte-dielectric system with external pressure gradient⋆.

    PubMed

    Gorbacheva, E V; Ganchenko, G S; Demekhin, E A

    2018-03-27

    The stability of the electroosmotic flow of electrolyte-dielectric viscous liquids under the influence of the DC and AC electric fields along with the external pressure gradient is studied theoretically. Liquids are bounded by two infinite parallel plates. The lower wall bordering the electrolyte is assumed to be a charged surface, and the upper wall is electrically isolated. The charge at the lower boundary is assumed to be immobile, while the surface charge at the free surface is assumed to be mobile. In this paper, we study the micro- and nanosized liquid layers. The mathematical model is described by a nonlinear system of the Nernst-Planck-Poisson-Stokes partial differential equations with the appropriate boundary conditions on the solid surface, the electrolyte/dielectric interface, and on the upper wall. The pressure gradient is highly important for the stability of the flow. For the DC case, the external pressure could either stabilize and destabilize the flow depending on the relative directions of the electroosmotic flow and the pressure-driven flow. For the AC case, the dependence on the value of the external pressure is not monotonous for different wave numbers of perturbations, but, as a rule, the external pressure destabilizes the flow. As the frequency of the electric field increases, the one-dimensional solution of the problem becomes stable.

  15. Predicting the stability of a compressible periodic parallel jet flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, Jeffrey H.

    1996-01-01

    It is known that mixing enhancement in compressible free shear layer flows with high convective Mach numbers is difficult. One design strategy to get around this is to use multiple nozzles. Extrapolating this design concept in a one dimensional manner, one arrives at an array of parallel rectangular nozzles where the smaller dimension is omega and the longer dimension, b, is taken to be infinite. In this paper, the feasibility of predicting the stability of this type of compressible periodic parallel jet flow is discussed. The problem is treated using Floquet-Bloch theory. Numerical solutions to this eigenvalue problem are presented. For the case presented, the interjet spacing, s, was selected so that s/omega =2.23. Typical plots of the eigenvalue and stability curves are presented. Results obtained for a range of convective Mach numbers from 3 to 5 show growth rates omega(sub i)=kc(sub i)/2 range from 0.25 to 0.29. These results indicate that coherent two-dimensional structures can occur without difficulty in multiple parallel periodic jet nozzles and that shear layer mixing should occur with this type of nozzle design.

  16. Evaluation of Particle Pinch and Diffusion Coefficients in the Edge Pedestal of DIII-D H-mode Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stacey, W. M.; Groebner, R. J.

    2009-11-01

    Momentum balance requires that the radial particle flux satisfy a pinch-diffusion relationship. The pinch can be evaluated in terms of measurable quantities (rotation velocities, Er, etc.) by