Science.gov

Sample records for flow wide-area surveillance

  1. Traffic Flow Wide-Area Surveillance system

    SciTech Connect

    Allgood, G.O.; Ferrell, R.K.; Kercel, S.W.; Abston, R.A.

    1994-09-01

    Traffic management can be thought of as a stochastic queuing process where the serving time at one of its control points is dynamically linked to the global traffic pattern, which is, in turn, dynamically linked to the control point. For this closed-loop system to be effective, the traffic management system must sense and interpret a large spatial projection of data originating from multiple sensor suites. This concept is the basis for the development of a Traffic Flow Wide-Area Surveillance (TFWAS) system. This paper presents the results of a study by Oak Ridge National Laboratory to define the operational specifications and characteristics, to determine the constraints, and to examine the state of technology of a TFWAS system in terms of traffic management and control. In doing so, the functions and attributes of a TFWAS system are mapped into an operational structure consistent with the Intelligent Vehicle Highway System (IVHS) concept and the existing highway infrastructure. This mapping includes identifying candidate sensor suites and establishing criteria, requirements, and performance measures by which these systems can be graded in their ability and practicality to meet the operational requirements of a TFWAS system. In light of this, issues such as system integration, applicable technologies, impact on traffic management and control, and public acceptance are addressed.

  2. Traffic flow wide-area surveillance system definition

    SciTech Connect

    Allgood, G.O.; Ferrell, R.K.; Kercel, S.W.; Abston, R.A.; Carnal, C.L.; Moynihan, P.I.

    1994-11-01

    Traffic Flow Wide-Area Surveillance (TFWAS) is a system for assessing the state of traffic flow over a wide area for enhanced traffic control and improved traffic management and planning. The primary purpose of a TFWAS system is to provide a detailed traffic flow description and context description to sophisticated traffic management and control systems being developed or envisioned for the future. A successful TFWAS system must possess the attributes of safety, reconfigurability, reliability, and expandability. The primary safety premise of TFWAS is to ensure that no action or failure of the TFWAS system or its components can result in risk of injury to humans. A wide variety of communication techniques is available for use with TFWAS systems. These communication techniques can be broken down into two categories, landlines and wireless. Currently used and possible future traffic sensing technologies have been examined. Important criteria for selecting TFWAS sensors include sensor capabilities, costs, operational constraints, sensor compatibility with the infrastructure, and extent. TFWAS is a concept that can take advantage of the strengths of different traffic sensing technologies, can readily adapt to newly developed technologies, and can grow with the development of new traffic control strategies. By developing innovative algorithms that will take information from a variety of sensor types and develop descriptions of traffic flows over a wide area, a more comprehensive understanding of the traffic state can be provided to the control system to perform the most reasonable control actions over the entire wide area. The capability of characterizing the state of traffic over an entire region should revolutionize developments in traffic control strategies.

  3. Concept definition of traffic flow wide-area surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Allgood, G.O.; Ferrell, R.K.; Kercel, S.W.

    1994-07-01

    Traffic management can be thought of as a stochastic queuing process where the serving time at one of its control points is dynamically linked to the global traffic pattern, which is, in turn, dynamically linked to the control point. For this closed-loop system to be effective, the traffic management system must sense and interpret large spatial projections of data originating from multiple sensor suites. The intent of the Wide-Area Surveillance (WAS) Project is to build upon this concept and define the operational specifications and characteristics of a Traffic Flow Wide-Area Surveillance (TFWAS) system in terms of traffic management and control. In doing so, the functional capabilities of a TFWAS will be mapped onto an operational profile that is consistent with the Federal Highway Administration`s Intelligent Vehicle Highway System. This document provides the underlying foundation of this work by offering a concept definition for the TFWAS system. It concentrates on answering the question: ``What is the system?`` In doing so, the report develops a hierarchy of specialized definitions.

  4. Real Time Wide Area Radiation Surveillance System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biafore, M.

    2012-04-01

    We present the REWARD project, financed within the FP7 programme, theme SEC-2011.1.5-1 (Development of detection capabilities of difficult to detect radioactive sources and nuclear materials - Capability Project). Within this project, we propose a novel mobile system for real time, wide area radiation surveillance. The system is based on the integration of new miniaturized solid-state radiation sensors: a CdZnTe detector for gamma radiation and a high efficiency neutron detector based on novel silicon technologies. The sensing unit will include a wireless communication interface to send the data remotely to a monitoring base station which also uses a GPS system to calculate the position of the tag. The system will also incorporate middleware and high level software to provide web-service interfaces for the exchange of information, and that will offer top level functionalities as management of users, mobile tags and environment data and alarms, database storage and management and a web-based graphical user interface. Effort will be spent to ensure that the software is modular and re-usable across as many architectural levels as possible. Finally, an expert system will continuously analyze the information from the radiation sensor and correlate it with historical data from the tag location in order to generate an alarm when an abnormal situation is detected. The system will be useful for many different scenarios, including such lost radioactive sources and radioactive contamination. It will be possible to deploy in emergency units and in general in any type of mobile or static equipment. The sensing units will be highly portable thanks to their low size and low energy consumption. The complete system will be scalable in terms of complexity and cost and will offer very high precision on both the measurement and the location of the radiation. The modularity and flexibility of the system will allow for a realistic introduction to the market. Authorities may start with a

  5. Sensor fusion for wide-area surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szu, Harold H.; Garcia, Joseph P.

    1996-03-01

    The Gabor transform (GT) is applied to the super-resolution of noisy dot image on the infrared focal plane array (FPA) for the remote surveillance of aircraft or missiles. A unique solution of this kind of ill-posed problem is possible because we have incorporated the measured or a priori known size information of the engine/nozzle. Yet noise makes the super-resolution ill- conditioned. We surmount this difficulty by incorporating the GT into a modified Papoulis- Gerchberg iteration algorithm. This is possible because the GT is a local Fourier transform (FT), it matches the localized object signal (object size one unit) but mismatches the global nature of noise. In a practical case of a photon-limited signal having a signal to noise ratio as low as 1.3, our approach recognizes a simulated missile plume. We also show additional resolution can be gained if the radar backscattering from the nozzle and other scatterers is fused with the spatially resolved single image pixel.

  6. Large scale track analysis for wide area motion imagery surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Leeuwen, C. J.; van Huis, J. R.; Baan, J.

    2016-10-01

    Wide Area Motion Imagery (WAMI) enables image based surveillance of areas that can cover multiple square kilometers. Interpreting and analyzing information from such sources, becomes increasingly time consuming as more data is added from newly developed methods for information extraction. Captured from a moving Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), the high-resolution images allow detection and tracking of moving vehicles, but this is a highly challenging task. By using a chain of computer vision detectors and machine learning techniques, we are capable of producing high quality track information of more than 40 thousand vehicles per five minutes. When faced with such a vast number of vehicular tracks, it is useful for analysts to be able to quickly query information based on region of interest, color, maneuvers or other high-level types of information, to gain insight and find relevant activities in the flood of information. In this paper we propose a set of tools, combined in a graphical user interface, which allows data analysts to survey vehicles in a large observed area. In order to retrieve (parts of) images from the high-resolution data, we developed a multi-scale tile-based video file format that allows to quickly obtain only a part, or a sub-sampling of the original high resolution image. By storing tiles of a still image according to a predefined order, we can quickly retrieve a particular region of the image at any relevant scale, by skipping to the correct frames and reconstructing the image. Location based queries allow a user to select tracks around a particular region of interest such as landmark, building or street. By using an integrated search engine, users can quickly select tracks that are in the vicinity of locations of interest. Another time-reducing method when searching for a particular vehicle, is to filter on color or color intensity. Automatic maneuver detection adds information to the tracks that can be used to find vehicles based on their

  7. Large-Scale Compton Imaging for Wide-Area Surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Lange, D J; Manini, H A; Wright, D M

    2006-03-01

    We study the performance of a large-scale Compton imaging detector placed in a low-flying aircraft, used to search wide areas for rad/nuc threat sources. In this paper we investigate the performance potential of equipping aerial platforms with gamma-ray detectors that have photon sensitivity up to a few MeV. We simulate the detector performance, and present receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves for a benchmark scenario using a {sup 137}Cs source. The analysis uses a realistic environmental background energy spectrum and includes air attenuation.

  8. Utilizing wide area maritime domain awareness (MDA) data to cue a remote surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isenor, Anthony W.; Cross, Richard; Webb, Sean; Lapinski, Anna-Liesa S.

    2013-10-01

    Defence Research and Development Canada - Atlantic (DRDC Atlantic) is currently involved in research on the topic of northern Maritime Domain Awareness (MDA). One project, entitled Situational Information for Enabling Development of Northern Awareness (SEDNA), includes research on the exploitation of MDA data in northern areas. One aspect of this research is to utilize wide area MDA data to provide awareness to an unattended, land-based system. Wide area MDA is attained through the use of space-based AIS (SAIS) data, a data feed used by the Canadian Department of National Defence and supplied by the commercial provider exactEarth Ltd. The land-based surveillance system used is the remote northern system constructed within the DRDC Northern Watch Technology Demonstration Project. Northern Watch is a multi-year project intended to show state-of-the-art, unattended, surveillance capabilities in the Canadian north. The link between the SAIS and Northern Watch is provided by a research infrastructure that consists of an assembly of data sources, users, applications, and product management techniques that collectively support research in areas such as information management and MDA data exploitation. High-level descriptions of the systems are provided along with elaboration on the alerting algorithm, the notifications that would be sent to the Northern Watch southern command site, and the resulting actions that could be taken by the Northern Watch surveillance system.

  9. Multi-modal target detection for autonomous wide area search and surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breckon, Toby P.; Gaszczak, Anna; Han, Jiwan; Eichner, Marcin L.; Barnes, Stuart E.

    2013-10-01

    Generalised wide are search and surveillance is a common-place tasking for multi-sensory equipped autonomous systems. Here we present on a key supporting topic to this task - the automatic interpretation, fusion and detected target reporting from multi-modal sensor information received from multiple autonomous platforms deployed for wide-area environment search. We detail the realization of a real-time methodology for the automated detection of people and vehicles using combined visible-band (EO), thermal-band (IR) and radar sensing from a deployed network of multiple autonomous platforms (ground and aerial). This facilities real-time target detection, reported with varying levels of confidence, using information from both multiple sensors and multiple sensor platforms to provide environment-wide situational awareness. A range of automatic classification approaches are proposed, driven by underlying machine learning techniques, that facilitate the automatic detection of either target type with cross-modal target confirmation. Extended results are presented that show both the detection of people and vehicles under varying conditions in both isolated rural and cluttered urban environments with minimal false positive detection. Performance evaluation is presented at an episodic level with individual classifiers optimized for maximal each object of interest (vehicle/person) detection over a given search path/pattern of the environment, across all sensors and modalities, rather than on a per sensor sample basis. Episodic target detection, evaluated over a number of wide-area environment search and reporting tasks, generally exceeds 90%+ for the targets considered here.

  10. 48 CFR 252.232-7006 - Wide Area WorkFlow Payment Instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... request or receiving report available for creation in Wide Area WorkFlow (WAWF). Local processing office... process vendor payment requests and receiving reports, as authorized by DFARS 252.232-7003, Electronic Submission of Payment Requests and Receiving Reports. (c) WAWF access. To access WAWF, the Contractor...

  11. Wide area coverage radar imaging satellite for earth applications. [surveillance and mapping of ice on Great Lakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, G. H.; Ramler, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    A preliminary study was made of a radar imaging satellite for earth applications. A side-looking synthetic-aperture radar was considered and the feasibility of obtaining a wide area coverage to reduce the time required to image a given area was investigated. Two basic approaches were examined; low altitude sun-synchronous orbits using a multibeam/multifrequency radar system and equatorial orbits up to near-synchronous altitude using a single beam system. Surveillance and mapping of ice on the Great Lakes was used as a typical application to focus the study effort.

  12. Intensity and resolution enhancement of local regions for object detection and tracking in wide area surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krieger, Evan; Asari, Vijayan K.; Arigela, Saibabu; Aspiras, Theus

    2015-05-01

    Object tracking in wide area motion imagery is a complex problem that consists of object detection and target tracking over time. This challenge can be solved by human analysts who naturally have the ability to keep track of an object in a scene. A computer vision solution for object tracking has the potential to be a much faster and efficient solution. However, a computer vision solution faces certain challenges that do not affect a human analyst. To overcome these challenges, a tracking process is proposed that is inspired by the known advantages of a human analyst. First, the focus of a human analyst is emulated by doing processing only the local object search area. Second, it is proposed that an intensity enhancement process should be done on the local area to allow features to be detected in poor lighting conditions. This simulates the ability of the human eye to discern objects in complex lighting conditions. Third, it is proposed that the spatial resolution of the local search area is increased to extract better features and provide more accurate feature matching. A quantitative evaluation is performed to show tracking improvement using the proposed method. The three databases, each grayscale sequences that were obtained from aircrafts, used for these evaluations include the Columbus Large Image Format database, the Large Area Image Recorder database, and the Sussex database.

  13. Object Occlusion Detection Using Automatic Camera Calibration for a Wide-Area Video Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jaehoon; Yoon, Inhye; Paik, Joonki

    2016-06-25

    This paper presents an object occlusion detection algorithm using object depth information that is estimated by automatic camera calibration. The object occlusion problem is a major factor to degrade the performance of object tracking and recognition. To detect an object occlusion, the proposed algorithm consists of three steps: (i) automatic camera calibration using both moving objects and a background structure; (ii) object depth estimation; and (iii) detection of occluded regions. The proposed algorithm estimates the depth of the object without extra sensors but with a generic red, green and blue (RGB) camera. As a result, the proposed algorithm can be applied to improve the performance of object tracking and object recognition algorithms for video surveillance systems.

  14. Exploiting Data-Flow for Fault-Tolerance in a Wide-Area Parallel System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources...gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information . Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any...Exploiting Data-Flow for Fault-Tolerance in a Wide-Area Parallel System ’ Anh Nguyen-Tuong, Andrew S. Grimshaw and Mark Hyett University of Virginia

  15. Real time wide area radiation surveillance system (REWARD) based on 3d silicon and (CD,ZN)Te for neutron and gamma-ray detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Disch, C.

    2014-09-01

    Mobile surveillance systems are used to find lost radioactive sources and possible nuclear threats in urban areas. The REWARD collaboration [1] aims to develop such a complete radiation monitoring system that can be installed in mobile or stationary setups across a wide area. The scenarios include nuclear terrorism threats, lost radioactive sources, radioactive contamination and nuclear accidents. This paper will show the performance capabilities of the REWARD system in different scnarios. The results include both Monte Carlo simulations as well as neutron and gamma-ray detection performances in terms of efficiency and nuclide identification. The outcomes of several radiation mapping survey with the entire REWARD system will also be presented.

  16. Wide area continuous offender monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshen, J.; Drake, G.; Spencer, D.

    1996-11-01

    The corrections system in the U.S. is supervising over five million offenders. This number is rising fast and so are the direct and indirect costs to society. To improve supervision and reduce the cost of parole and probation, first generation home arrest systems were introduced in 1987. While these systems proved to be helpful to the corrections system, their scope is rather limited because they only cover an offender at a single location and provide only a partial time coverage. To correct the limitations of first-generation systems, second-generation wide area continuous electronic offender monitoring systems, designed to monitor the offender at all times and locations, are now on the drawing board. These systems use radio frequency location technology to track the position of offenders. The challenge for this technology is the development of reliable personal locator devices that are small, lightweight, with long operational battery life, and indoors/outdoors accuracy of 100 meters or less. At the center of a second-generation system is a database that specifies the offender`s home, workplace, commute, and time the offender should be found in each. The database could also define areas from which the offender is excluded. To test compliance, the system would compare the observed coordinates of the offender with the stored location for a given time interval. Database logfiles will also enable law enforcement to determine if a monitored offender was present at a crime scene and thus include or exclude the offender as a potential suspect.

  17. Towards a real-time wide area motion imagery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, R. I.; Foulkes, S. B.

    2015-10-01

    It is becoming increasingly important in both the defence and security domains to conduct persistent wide area surveillance (PWAS) of large populations of targets. Wide Area Motion Imagery (WAMI) is a key technique for achieving this wide area surveillance. The recent development of multi-million pixel sensors has provided sensors with wide field of view replete with sufficient resolution for detection and tracking of objects of interest to be achieved across these extended areas of interest. WAMI sensors simultaneously provide high spatial and temporal resolutions, giving extreme pixel counts over large geographical areas. The high temporal resolution is required to enable effective tracking of targets. The provision of wide area coverage with high frame rates generates data deluge issues; these are especially profound if the sensor is mounted on an airborne platform, with finite data-link bandwidth and processing power that is constrained by size, weight and power (SWAP) limitations. These issues manifest themselves either as bottlenecks in the transmission of the imagery off-board or as latency in the time taken to analyse the data due to limited computational processing power.

  18. Evolution of Embedded Processing for Wide Area Surveillance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    An example of an AirWASP configuration is illustrated in Figure 4. Using 12 compute nodes of AFRL’s Condor supercom- puter (4 nodes are shown in...Integration, Development and results of the 500 teraflop heterogeneous cluster ( Condor ). Presented at the HPC User Forum Meeting, San Diego, CA, Sept

  19. Vehicle Detection in Wide Area Aerial Surveillance using Temporal Context

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    and these vehicles will cover a continuous region of the road, we propose a novel Temporal Context(TC) method, which can capture the road information...collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number 1. REPORT DATE JUL 2013 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00...car, the boundary of the front windshield and the shadow as features and integrated these features in the structure of the Bayesian network. Also

  20. Wireless Wide Area Networks for School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nair, Prakash

    This paper considers a basic question that many schools districts face in attempting to develop affordable, expandable district-wide computer networks that are resistant to obsolescence: Should these wide area networks (WANs) employ wireless technology, stick to venerable hard-wired solutions, or combine both. This publication explores the…

  1. Wide area restoration following biological contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lynn; Hibbard, Wilthea; Edwards, Donna; Franco, David; Fruetel, Julie; Tucker, Mark; Einfeld, Wayne; Knowlton, Robert; Brown, Gary; Brockmann, John; Greenwalt, Robert; Miles, Robin; Raber, Ellen; Carlsen, Tina; Krauter, Paula; Dillon, Michael; MacQueen, Don; Intrepido, Tony; Hoppes, Bill; Wilson, Wendy; Mancieri, Sav

    2008-04-01

    Current understanding of how to restore a wide area that has been contaminated following a large biological attack is limited. The Department of Homeland Security and Department of Defense are executing a four-year collaborative program named the Interagency Biological Restoration Demonstration (IBRD) program. This program is aimed at developing technologies, methods, plans and policies necessary to restore a wide area, including military installations and critical infrastructures, in the event of a large outdoor aerosol release of anthrax. The IBRD program partner pilot city is the Seattle Urban Area to include Fort Lewis, WA and McChord Air Force Base. A front-end systems analysis was conducted as part of IBRD, to: 1) assess existing technologies and processes for wide area restoration; from this, 2) develop an "as-is" decision framework for wide area restoration; and 3) identify and prioritize capability gaps. Qualitative assessments and quantitative analyses, including sensitivity, timeline and case study analyses, were conducted to evaluate existing processes and rank capability gaps. This paper describes the approach and results from this front-end systems analysis.

  2. Surveillance of hemodialysis vascular access with ultrasound vector flow imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Andreas H.; Olesen, Jacob B.; Hansen, Kristoffer L.; Rix, Marianne; Jensen, Jørgen A.; Nielsen, Michael B.

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was prospectively to monitor the volume flow in patients with arteriovenous fistula (AVF) with the angle independent ultrasound technique Vector Flow Imaging (VFI). Volume flow values were compared with Ultrasound dilution technique (UDT). Hemodialysis patients need a well-functioning vascular access with as few complications as possible and preferred vascular access is an AVF. Dysfunction due to stenosis is a common complication, and regular monitoring of volume flow is recommended to preserve AVF patency. UDT is considered the gold standard for volume flow surveillance, but VFI has proven to be more precise, when performing single repeated instantaneous measurements. Three patients with AVF were monitored with UDT and VFI monthly for five months. A commercial ultrasound scanner with a 9 MHz linear array transducer with integrated VFI was used to obtain data. UDT values were obtained with Transonic HD03 Flow-QC Hemodialysis Monitor. Three independent measurements at each scan session were obtained with UDT and VFI each month. Average deviation of volume flow between UDT and VFI was 25.7 % (Cl: 16.7% to 34.7%) (p= 0.73). The standard deviation for all patients, calculated from the mean variance of each individual scan sessions, was 199.8 ml/min for UDT and 47.6 ml/min for VFI (p = 0.002). VFI volume flow values were not significantly different from the corresponding estimates obtained using UDT, and VFI measurements were more precise than UDT. The study indicates that VFI can be used for surveillance of volume flow.

  3. Why Do Grafts Clot Despite Access Blood Flow Surveillance?

    SciTech Connect

    Arbabzadeh, Massoud; Mepani, Bhupendra; Murray, Brian M.

    2002-12-15

    Purpose: To look in more detail at those grafts that clot despite access blood flow (ABF) surveillance and the outcome of radiological thrombectomy in those grafts. Methods: Retrospective review was carried out of all polytetrafluoroethylene grafts that clotted from September 1, 1998 to October 30, 2000. During this period, each graft had ABF measured monthly and was referred for prophylactic angioplasty if flow fell below 600 ml/min or by 25%. Results: Thirty-one of 62 monitored grafts clotted (0.44 episodes per patient per month). Five were surgically thrombectomized and 19 were radiologically thrombectomized. The last available ABF prior to graft thrombosis averaged 804 {+-} 108 ml/min and ranged from 215 to 2497 ml/min.Nine of the 23 grafts failed to trigger either of the ABF criteria prior to initial thrombosis. All but one of the 17 grafts throbolysedradiologically showed evidence of significant (>50%) venous stenoses,though additional lesions were found in nine. Thrombolysis was successful in 14 grafts, with ABF rising from 693 {+-} 96 to 941 {+-} 135 ml/min (p <0.05). Six additional grafts reclotted and were lost (6-month graft survival 37%). Conclusion: (1) A significant proportion (40%)of graft thromboses that occur despite ABF surveillance occur in grafts with preserved ABF (>600 ml/min); (2) over 70% can be successfully thrombectomized /angioplastied with about 35% long-term (6 months)survival.

  4. Wide-area continuous offender monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshen, Joseph; Drake, George; Spencer, Debra D.

    1997-02-01

    The corrections system in the U.S. is supervising over five million offenders. This number is rising fast and so are the direct and indirect costs to society. To improve supervision and reduce the cost of parole and probation, first generation home arrest systems were introduced in 1987. While these systems proved to be helpful to the corrections system, their scope is rather limited because they only cover an offender at a single location and provide only a partial time coverage. To correct the limitations of first- generation systems, second-generation wide area continuous electronic offender monitoring systems, designed to monitor the offender at all times and locations, are now on the drawing board. These systems use radio frequency location technology to track the position of offenders. The challenge for this technology is the development of reliable personal locator devices that are small, lightweight, with long operational battery life, and indoors/outdoors accuracy of 100 meters or less. At the center of a second-generation system is a database that specifies the offender's home, workplace, commute, and time the offender should be found in each. The database could also define areas from which the offender is excluded. To test compliance, the system would compare the observed coordinates of the offender with the stored location for a given time interval. Database logfiles will also enable law enforcement to determine if a monitored offender was present at a crime scene and thus include or exclude the offender as a potential suspect.

  5. Wide Area Security Region Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Lu, Shuai; Guo, Xinxin; Gronquist, James; Du, Pengwei; Nguyen, Tony B.; Burns, J. W.

    2010-03-31

    This report develops innovative and efficient methodologies and practical procedures to determine the wide-area security region of a power system, which take into consideration all types of system constraints including thermal, voltage, voltage stability, transient and potentially oscillatory stability limits in the system. The approach expands the idea of transmission system nomograms to a multidimensional case, involving multiple system limits and parameters such as transmission path constraints, zonal generation or load, etc., considered concurrently. The security region boundary is represented using its piecewise approximation with the help of linear inequalities (so called hyperplanes) in a multi-dimensional space, consisting of system parameters that are critical for security analyses. The goal of this approximation is to find a minimum set of hyperplanes that describe the boundary with a given accuracy. Methodologies are also developed to use the security hyperplanes, pre-calculated offline, to determine system security margins in real-time system operations, to identify weak elements in the system, and to calculate key contributing factors and sensitivities to determine the best system controls in real time and to assist in developing remedial actions and transmission system enhancements offline . A prototype program that automates the simulation procedures used to build the set of security hyperplanes has also been developed. The program makes it convenient to update the set of security hyperplanes necessitated by changes in system configurations. A prototype operational tool that uses the security hyperplanes to assess security margins and to calculate optimal control directions in real time has been built to demonstrate the project success. Numerical simulations have been conducted using the full-size Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) system model, and they clearly demonstrated the feasibility and the effectiveness of the developed

  6. 47 CFR 54.518 - Support for wide area networks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... area networks. To the extent that states, schools, or libraries build or purchase a wide area network to provide telecommunications services, the cost of such wide area networks shall not be eligible for... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Support for wide area networks. 54.518...

  7. Scaling Sap Flow Results Over Wide Areas Using High-Resolution Aerial Multispectral Digital Imaging, Leaf Area Index (LAI) and MODIS Satellite Imagery in Saltcedar Stands on the Lower Colorado River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, R.; Neale, C.; Nagler, P. L.; Glenn, E. P.

    2008-12-01

    Heat-balance sap flow sensors provide direct estimates of water movement through plant stems and can be used to accurately measure leaf-level transpiration (EL) and stomatal conductance (GS) over time scales ranging from 20-minutes to a month or longer in natural stands of plants. However, their use is limited to relatively small branches on shrubs or trees, as the gauged stem section needs to be uniformly heated by the heating coil to produce valid measurements. This presents a scaling problem in applying the results to whole plants, stands of plants, and larger landscape areas. We used high-resolution aerial multispectral digital imaging with green, red and NIR bands as a bridge between ground measurements of EL and GS, and MODIS satellite imagery of a flood plain on the Lower Colorado River dominated by saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima). Saltcedar is considered to be a high-water-use plant, and saltcedar removal programs have been proposed to salvage water. Hence, knowledge of actual saltcedar ET rates is needed on western U.S. rivers. Scaling EL and GS to large landscape units requires knowledge of leaf area index (LAI) over large areas. We used a LAI model developed for riparian habitats on Bosque del Apache, New Mexico, to estimate LAI at our study site on the Colorado River. We compared the model estimates to ground measurements of LAI, determined with a Li-Cor LAI-2000 Plant Canopy Analyzer calibrated by leaf harvesting to determine Specific Leaf Area (SLA) (m2 leaf area per g dry weight leaves) of the different species on the floodplain. LAI could be adequately predicted from NDVI from aerial multispectral imagery and could be cross-calibrated with MODIS NDVI and EVI. Hence, we were able to project point measurements of sap flow and LAI over multiple years and over large areas of floodplain using aerial multispectral imagery as a bridge between ground and satellite data. The methods are applicable to riparian corridors throughout the western U.S.

  8. Emerging standards suite for wide-area ISR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maenner, Paul F.

    2012-06-01

    The last decade has seen the emergence of Wide Area ISR systems such as Gorgon Stare and ARGUS. Wide Area ISR sensor systems have many times the pixel count of a high definition Full Motion Video (FMV) sensor. Besides the effect of data overload, the scale of Wide Area systems has exposed a need for scale sensitive standards. Presented here is a survey of the current state of Wide Area system standards in the areas of data / file format, archive query interface, streaming, and live sensor control. Areas of standardization success and areas for further improvement are identified.

  9. Technical Report for the Demonstration of Wide Area ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in collaboration with the Department of Homeland Security conducted the “Wide-Area Urban Radiological Contaminant, Mitigation, and Cleanup Technology Demonstration” in Columbus, Ohio on June 22-25, 2015. Five wide-area radiological decontamination technologies (including strippable coatings, gels, and chemical foam technologies) were demonstrated on an urban building.

  10. 47 CFR 54.518 - Support for wide area networks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for Schools and Libraries § 54.518 Support for wide area networks. To the extent that schools, libraries or consortia that include an eligible school or library build or purchase a wide area network to provide telecommunications services, the cost of...

  11. 47 CFR 54.518 - Support for wide area networks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for Schools and Libraries § 54.518 Support for wide area networks. To the extent that schools, libraries or consortia that include an eligible school or library build or purchase a wide area network to provide telecommunications services, the cost of...

  12. Wide Area Thermal Processing of Light Emitting Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Duty, Chad E; Joshi, Pooran C; Jellison Jr, Gerald Earle; Angelini, Joseph Attilio; Sabau, Adrian S

    2011-10-01

    Laboratory laser materials synthesis of wide bandgap materials has been successfully used to create white light emitting materials (LEMs). This technology development has progressed to the exploration on design and construction of apparatus for wide area doping and phase transformation of wide bandgap material substrates. The objective of this proposal is to develop concepts for wide area doping and phase transformation based on AppliCote Associates, LLC laser technology and ORNL high density pulsed plasma arc technology.

  13. Designing application software in wide area network settings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Makpangou, Mesaac; Birman, Ken

    1990-01-01

    Progress in methodologies for developing robust local area network software has not been matched by similar results for wide area settings. The design of application software spanning multiple local area environments is examined. For important classes of applications, simple design techniques are presented that yield fault tolerant wide area programs. An implementation of these techniques as a set of tools for use within the ISIS system is described.

  14. Robust background subtraction for automated detection and tracking of targets in wide area motion imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, Phil; Maskell, Simon; Payne, Oliver; Richardson, Sean; Scarff, Larry

    2012-10-01

    Performing persistent surveillance of large populations of targets is increasingly important in both the defence and security domains. In response to this, Wide Area Motion Imagery (WAMI) sensors with Wide FoVs are growing in popularity. Such WAMI sensors simultaneously provide high spatial and temporal resolutions, giving extreme pixel counts over large geographical areas. The ensuing data rates are such that either very bandwidth data links are required (e.g. for human interpretation) or close-to-sensor automation is required to down-select salient information. For the latter case, we use an iterative quad-tree optical-flow algorithm to efficiently estimate the parameters of a perspective deformation of the background. We then use a robust estimator to simultaneously detect foreground pixels and infer the parameters of each background pixel in the current image. The resulting detections are referenced to the coordinates of the first frame and passed to a multi-target tracker. The multi-target tracker uses a Kalman filter per target and a Global Nearest Neighbour approach to multi-target data association, thereby including statistical models for missed detections and false alarms. We use spatial data structures to ensure that the tracker can scale to analysing thousands of targets. We demonstrate that real-time processing (on modest hardware) is feasible on an unclassified WAMI infra-red dataset consisting of 4096 by 4096 pixels at 1Hz simulating data taken from a Wide FoV sensor on a UAV. With low latency and despite intermittent obscuration and false alarms, we demonstrate persistent tracking of all but one (low-contrast) vehicular target, with no false tracks.

  15. High quality videoconferencing system for wide area IP networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Ruibiao; Kuhns, Fred; Cox, Jerome R., Jr.; Horn, Craig

    2002-12-01

    High quality video conferencing is an efficient tool for interactive scientific collaboration in the research community, especially for researchers separated by substantial distance. With the wide deployment of broadband wide area IP networks such as the Internet2, there is an increasing demand for improved remote collaboration with these networks. In order to make the high quality video-conferencing toolkits for local high-speed networks available over wide area IP networks, issues that are usually insignificant on local area networks must be considered. To this end, we have developed called Adaptation Layer Translator (ALX) in order to address these issues and solve the problems associated with real-time video and audio transmission over wide area IP networks. A conference control protocol is developed to coordinate the participants in an ALX-based conference. The ALX is also designed to be able to adapt to heterogeneous network environments at different deployment sites.

  16. Automated recognition challenges for wide-area motion imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priddy, Kevin L.; Uppenkamp, Daniel A.

    2012-05-01

    Automated pattern recognition has been around for several decades. Generally we have been successful at tackling a large variety of technical problems. This paper presents the challenges inherent in wide area motion imagery, which is problematic to the normal pattern recognition process and associated pattern recognition systems. This paper describes persistent wide area motion imagery, its role as a manifold for overlaying episodic sensors of various modalities to present a better view of activity to an analyst. An underlying framework, SPADE, is introduced and a layered sensing viewer, Pursuer, is also presented to demonstrate the utility of creating a unified view of the sensing world to an analyst.

  17. Wide Area Persistent Scatterer Interferometry: Algorithms and Examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Nico; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, Fernando; Parizzi, Alessandro; Liebhart, Werner

    2012-01-01

    The persistent scatterer interferometry (PSI) is a well established monitoring technique for urban areas. It has been updated in order to process wide areas with the accepted characteristics in precision and resolution. Of course, the covered processing area now includes rural areas with a low persistent scatterer (PS) density. In order to bridge forested areas and water bodies, low quality and more distant PSs need to be included into the reference network. The development of the wide area product (WAP) succeeded to cope with the resulting difficulties resulting in spatial error propagation. In this paper, the developed WAP system is described and a processing example is presented.

  18. Combined Arms Maneuver, Wide Area Security, and Dynamic Capabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-21

    Wide Area Security, and Dynamic Capabilities FORMAT: Strategy Research Project DATE: 21 March 2012 WORD COUNT: 9,800 PAGES: 42 KEY TERMS...Terrain ( MOUT ). The unit commander, taking into consideration the training center location, determined which operations would occur during the

  19. Creating a Wide Area Network in the Developing World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannata, Arleen

    1991-01-01

    Describes issues an organization must consider when preparing for the creation and installation of an international wide area network (WAN) to help link developing countries. Hardware and software needs are considered; the use of commercial vendors is discussed; a needs assessment is described; and technical and cultural difficulties are…

  20. Wide-Area Persistent Energy-Efficient Maritime Sensing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    Arduino-based node that can modulate radar backscatter with data received from a sensor using a low-power Arduino Nano processor . Figure 5 shows a...telemetry of multichannel data from sensors distributed over a wide area. The endurance and coverage area of current maritime sensing methods are...eliminating the need for RF electronics or navigational hardware at the sensors and instead uses a stand-off radar for sensor localization and data

  1. Economic Impacts of a Wide Area Release of Anthrax

    SciTech Connect

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Olson, Jarrod; Stein, Steven L.; Lesperance, Ann M.

    2009-05-29

    This analysis explores economic impacts that might result from a wide-area release of anthrax. The intent is not to provide a quantitative analysis of such a disaster, but to: 1. Define the general categories of economic impacts that the region should be concerned about; and, 2. Explore what types of private sector businesses or industries, if any, may have the greatest impact on speeding the economic recovery of the region.

  2. Wide-area traffic: The failure of Poisson modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Paxson, V.; Floyd, S.

    1994-08-01

    Network arrivals are often modeled as Poisson processes for analytic simplicity, even though a number of traffic studies have shown that packet interarrivals are not exponentially distributed. The authors evaluate 21 wide-area traces, investigating a number of wide-area TCP arrival processes (session and connection arrivals, FTPDATA connection arrivals within FTP sessions, and TELNET packet arrivals) to determine the error introduced by modeling them using Poisson processes. The authors find that user-initiated TCP session arrivals, such as remote-login and file-transfer, are well-modeled as Poisson processes with fixed hourly rates, but that other connection arrivals deviate considerably from Poisson; that modeling TELNET packet interarrivals as exponential grievously underestimates the burstiness of TELNET traffic, but using the empirical Tcplib[DJCME92] interarrivals preserves burstiness over many time scales; and that FTPDATA connection arrivals within FTP sessions come bunched into ``connection bursts``, the largest of which are so large that they completely dominate FTPDATA traffic. Finally, they offer some preliminary results regarding how the findings relate to the possible self-similarity of wide-area traffic.

  3. Wide-area situation awareness in electric power grid

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.

    2010-04-28

    Two primary elements of the US energy policy are demand management and efficiency and renewable sources. Major objectives are clean energy transmission and integration, reliable energy transmission, and grid cyber security. Development of the Smart Grid seeks to achieve these goals by lowering energy costs for consumers, achieving energy independence and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The Smart Grid is expected to enable real time wide-area situation awareness (SA) for operators. Requirements for wide-area SA have been identified among interoperability standards proposed by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission and the National Institute of Standards and Technology to ensure smart-grid functionality. Wide-area SA and enhanced decision support and visualization tools are key elements in the transformation to the Smart Grid. This paper discusses human factors research to promote SA in the electric power grid and the Smart Grid. Topics that will be discussed include the role of human factors in meeting US energy policy goals, the impact and challenges for Smart Grid development, and cyber security challenges.

  4. Wide-area situation awareness in electric power grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greitzer, Frank L.

    2010-04-01

    Two primary elements of the US energy policy are demand management and efficiency and renewable sources. Major objectives are clean energy transmission and integration, reliable energy transmission, and grid cyber security. Development of the Smart Grid seeks to achieve these goals by lowering energy costs for consumers, achieving energy independence and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The Smart Grid is expected to enable real time wide-area situation awareness (SA) for operators. Requirements for wide-area SA have been identified among interoperability standards proposed by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission and the National Institute of Standards and Technology to ensure smart-grid functionality. Wide-area SA and enhanced decision support and visualization tools are key elements in the transformation to the Smart Grid. This paper discusses human factors research to promote SA in the electric power grid and the Smart Grid. Topics that will be discussed include the role of human factors in meeting US energy policy goals, the impact and challenges for Smart Grid development, and cyber security challenges.

  5. Overview of the I-way : wide area visual supercomputing.

    SciTech Connect

    DeFanti, T. A.; Foster, I.; Papka, M. E.; Stevens, R.; Kuhfuss, T.; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses the I-WAY project and provides an overview of the papers in this issue of IJSA. The I-WAY is an experimental environment for building distributed virtual reality applications and for exploring issues of distributed wide area resource management and scheduling. The goal of the I-WAY project is to enable researchers use multiple internetworked supercomputers and advanced visualization systems to conduct very large-scale computations. By connecting a dozen ATM testbeds, seventeen supercomputer centers, five virtual reality research sites, and over sixty applications groups, the I-WAY project has created an extremely diverse wide area environment for exploring advanced applications. This environment has provided a glimpse of the future for advanced scientific and engineering computing. 1 A Model for Distributed Collaborative Computing The I-WAY, or Information Wide Area Year, was a year-long effort to link existing national testbeds based on ATM (asynchronous transfer mode) to interconnect supercomputer centers, virtual reality (VR) research locations, and applications development sites. The I-WAY was successfully demonstrated at Supercomputing '95 and included over sixty distributed supercomputing applications that used a variety of supercomputing resources and VR display.

  6. High-Speed Optical Wide-Area Data-Communication Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monacos, Steve P.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed fiber-optic wide-area network (WAN) for digital communication balances input and output flows of data with its internal capacity by routing traffic via dynamically interconnected routing planes. Data transmitted optically through network by wavelength-division multiplexing in synchronous or asynchronous packets. WAN implemented with currently available technology. Network is multiple-ring cyclic shuffle exchange network ensuring traffic reaches its destination with minimum number of hops.

  7. Development of Autonomous Magnetometer Rotorcraft For Wide Area Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Mark D. McKay; Matthew O. Anderson

    2011-08-01

    Large areas across the United States and internationally are potentially contaminated with unexploded ordinance (UXO), with some ranges encompassing tens to hundreds of thousands of acres. Technologies are needed which will allow for cost effective wide area scanning with (1) near 100% coverage and (2) near 100% detection of subsurface ordnance or features indicative of subsurface ordnance. The current approach to wide area assessment is a multi-level one, in which medium - altitude fixed wing optical imaging is used for an initial site assessment. This assessment is followed with low altitude manned helicopter based magnetometry. Subsequent to this wide area assessment targeted surface investigations are performed using either towed geophysical sensor arrays or man portable sensors. In order to be an effective tool for small UXO detection, the sensing altitude for magnetic site investigations needs to be on the order of 1 to 3 meters. These altitude requirements mean that manned helicopter surveys will generally only be feasible in large, open and relatively flat terrains. While such surveys are effective in mapping large areas relatively fast there are substantial mobilization/demobilization, staffing and equipment costs associated with these surveys, resulting in costs of approximately $100-$150/acre. In addition, due to the low altitude there are substantial risks to pilots and equipment. Surface towed arrays provide highresolution maps but have other limitations, e.g. in their ability to navigate rough terrain effectively. Thus there is a need for other systems, which can be used for effective data collection. An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) magnetometer platform is an obvious alternative. The motivation behind such a system is that it reduces risk to operators, is lower in initial and Operational and Maintenance (O&M) costs (and can thus potentially be applied to smaller sites) and has the potential of being more effective in terms of detection and possibly

  8. Wide-area littoral discreet observation: success at the tactical edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth, Susan; Hughes, William; Ladas, Andrew

    2012-06-01

    In June 2011, the United States Army Research Laboratory (ARL) participated in Empire Challenge 2011 (EC-11). EC-11 was United States Joint Forces Command's (USJFCOM) annual live, joint and coalition intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) interoperability demonstration under the sponsorship of the Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence (USD/I). EC-11 consisted of a series of ISR interoperability events, using a combination of modeling & simulation, laboratory and live-fly events. Wide-area Littoral Discreet Observation (WALDO) was ARL's maritime/littoral capability. WALDO met a USD(I) directive that EC-11 have a maritime component and WALDO was the primary player in the maritime scenario conducted at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. The WALDO effort demonstrated the utility of a networked layered sensor array deployed in a maritime littoral environment, focusing on maritime surveillance targeting counter-drug, counter-piracy and suspect activity in a littoral or riverine environment. In addition to an embedded analytical capability, the sensor array and control infrastructure consisted of the Oriole acoustic sensor, iScout unattended ground sensor (UGS), OmniSense UGS, the Compact Radar and the Universal Distributed Management System (UDMS), which included the Proxy Skyraider, an optionally manned aircraft mounting both wide and narrow FOV EO/IR imaging sensors. The capability seeded a littoral area with riverine and unattended sensors in order to demonstrate the utility of a Wide Area Sensor (WAS) capability in a littoral environment focused on maritime surveillance activities. The sensors provided a cue for WAS placement/orbit. A narrow field of view sensor would be used to focus on more discreet activities within the WAS footprint. Additionally, the capability experimented with novel WAS orbits to determine if there are more optimal orbits for WAS collection in a littoral environment. The demonstration objectives for WALDO at EC-11 were

  9. Wide-area ATM networking for large-scale MPPs

    SciTech Connect

    Papadopoulos, P.M.; Geist, G.A. II

    1997-04-01

    This paper presents early experiences with using high-speed ATM interfaces to connect multiple Intel Paragons on both local and wide area networks. The testbed includes the 1024 and 512 node Paragons running the OSF operating system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the 1840 node Paragon running the Puma operating system at Sandia National Laboratories. The experimental OC-12 (622 Mbits/sec) interfaces are built by GigaNet and provide a proprietary API for sending AAL-5 encapsulated packets. PVM is used as the massaging infrastructure and significant modifications have been made to use the GigaNet API, operate in the Puma environment, and attain acceptable performance over local networks. These modifications are described along with a discussion of roadblocks to networking MPPs with high-performance interfaces. Our early prototype utilizes approximately 25 percent of an OC-12 circuit and 80 percent of an OC-3 circuit in send plus acknowledgment ping-pong tests.

  10. Wide-area monitoring to detect undeclared nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Wogman, N.

    1994-09-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is committed to strengthening and streamlining the overall effectiveness of the IAEA safeguards system. The IAEA is investigating the use of environmental monitoring techniques to strengthen its capability to detect undeclared nuclear activities. The IAEA`s Program 93+2 Initiative has been established to develop, test, and assess strengthening techniques and measures. Some of the techniques have been validated and are being implemented during routine safeguards inspections. The effectiveness of other techniques is being studied as a part of extensive field trials conducted at nuclear facilities of various Member States during 1993 and 1994. Proposals based on the results of these investigations and recommendations for new safeguards activities are expected to be presented to the March 1995 Board of Governors Meeting. The techniques in use or under study during IAEA field trials address various types of environmental monitoring applications as outlined under Program 93+2`s Task 3, Environmental Monitoring Techniques for Safeguards Applications, namely, the use of short-range monitoring during inspections and visits to investigate sites of possible undeclared activities. With the exception of wide-area water sampling in Iraq, the use of long-range monitoring, in the absence of any indication of undeclared nuclear activities, remains largely unexamined by the IAEA. The efficacy of long-range monitoring depends on the availability of mobile signature isotopes or compounds and on the ability to distinguish the nuclear signatures from background signals and attributing them to a source. The scope of this paper is to provide technical information to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on possible wide-area survey techniques for the detection of undeclared nuclear activities. The primary focus is the detection of effluents from reprocessing activities.

  11. Ground Testing of Prototype Hardware and Processing Algorithms for a Wide Area Space Surveillance System (WASSS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    Observatory ( MRO ) using the prototype WASSS camera, which has a 4×60 field-of-view , < 0.05 resolution, a 2.8 cm 2 aperture, and the ability to view...pixels, depending on the location within the field-of-view. Figure 4 compares the resolution during a night sky measurement at MRO with one...Degradation of resolution of star imagery for the MRO field test (right) compared to imagery from October 2012 (left). 3. MRO FIELD TEST A series of

  12. Development of autonomous magnetometer rotorcraft for wide area assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Roelof Versteeg; Matt Anderson; Les Beard; Eric Corban; Darryl Curley; Jeff Gamey; Ross Johnson; Dwight Junkin; Mark McKay; Jared Salzmann; Mikhail Tchernychev; Suraj Unnikrishnan; Scott Vinson

    2010-04-01

    Large areas across the United States are potentially contaminated with UXO, with some ranges encompassing tens to hundreds of thousands of acres. Technologies are needed which will allow for cost effective wide area scanning with 1) near 100 % coverage and 2) near 100 % detection of subsurface ordnance or features indicative of subsurface ordnance. The current approach to wide area assessment is a multi-level one, in which medium - altitude fixed wing optical imaging is used for an initial site assessment. This assessment is followed with low altitude manned helicopter based magnetometry. Subsequent to this wide area assessment targeted surface investigations are performed using either towed geophysical sensor arrays or man portable sensors. In order to be an effective tool for small UXO detection, the sensing altitude for magnetic site investigations needs to be on the order of 1 – 3 meters. These altitude requirements mean that manned helicopter surveys will generally only be feasible in large, open and relatively flat terrains. While such surveys are effective in mapping large areas relatively fast there are substantial mobilization/demobilization, staffing and equipment costs associated with these surveys (resulting in costs of approximately $100-$150/acre). In addition, due to the low altitude there are substantial risks to pilots and equipment. Surface towed arrays provide high resolution maps but have other limitations, e.g. in their ability to navigate rough terrain effectively. There is thus a need for other systems which can be used for effective data collection. An UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) magnetometer platform is an obvious alternative. The motivation behind such a system is that it reduces risk to operators, is lower in initial and Operational and Maintenance (O&M) costs (and can thus potentially be applied to smaller sites) and has the potential of being more effective in terms of detection and possibly characterization (through the use of

  13. Robust Real-Time Wide-Area Differential GPS Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yunck, Thomas P. (Inventor); Bertiger, William I. (Inventor); Lichten, Stephen M. (Inventor); Mannucci, Anthony J. (Inventor); Muellerschoen, Ronald J. (Inventor); Wu, Sien-Chong (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a method and a device for providing superior differential GPS positioning data. The system includes a group of GPS receiving ground stations covering a wide area of the Earth's surface. Unlike other differential GPS systems wherein the known position of each ground station is used to geometrically compute an ephemeris for each GPS satellite. the present system utilizes real-time computation of satellite orbits based on GPS data received from fixed ground stations through a Kalman-type filter/smoother whose output adjusts a real-time orbital model. ne orbital model produces and outputs orbital corrections allowing satellite ephemerides to be known with considerable greater accuracy than from die GPS system broadcasts. The modeled orbits are propagated ahead in time and differenced with actual pseudorange data to compute clock offsets at rapid intervals to compensate for SA clock dither. The orbital and dock calculations are based on dual frequency GPS data which allow computation of estimated signal delay at each ionospheric point. These delay data are used in real-time to construct and update an ionospheric shell map of total electron content which is output as part of the orbital correction data. thereby allowing single frequency users to estimate ionospheric delay with an accuracy approaching that of dual frequency users.

  14. Development of wide area environment accelerator operation and diagnostics method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchiyama, Akito; Furukawa, Kazuro

    2015-08-01

    Remote operation and diagnostic systems for particle accelerators have been developed for beam operation and maintenance in various situations. Even though fully remote experiments are not necessary, the remote diagnosis and maintenance of the accelerator is required. Considering remote-operation operator interfaces (OPIs), the use of standard protocols such as the hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) is advantageous, because system-dependent protocols are unnecessary between the remote client and the on-site server. Here, we have developed a client system based on WebSocket, which is a new protocol provided by the Internet Engineering Task Force for Web-based systems, as a next-generation Web-based OPI using the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System Channel Access protocol. As a result of this implementation, WebSocket-based client systems have become available for remote operation. Also, as regards practical application, the remote operation of an accelerator via a wide area network (WAN) faces a number of challenges, e.g., the accelerator has both experimental device and radiation generator characteristics. Any error in remote control system operation could result in an immediate breakdown. Therefore, we propose the implementation of an operator intervention system for remote accelerator diagnostics and support that can obviate any differences between the local control room and remote locations. Here, remote-operation Web-based OPIs, which resolve security issues, are developed.

  15. Highball: A high speed, reserved-access, wide area network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mills, David L.; Boncelet, Charles G.; Elias, John G.; Schragger, Paul A.; Jackson, Alden W.

    1990-01-01

    A network architecture called Highball and a preliminary design for a prototype, wide-area data network designed to operate at speeds of 1 Gbps and beyond are described. It is intended for applications requiring high speed burst transmissions where some latency between requesting a transmission and granting the request can be anticipated and tolerated. Examples include real-time video and disk-disk transfers, national filestore access, remote sensing, and similar applications. The network nodes include an intelligent crossbar switch, but have no buffering capabilities; thus, data must be queued at the end nodes. There are no restrictions on the network topology, link speeds, or end-end protocols. The end system, nodes, and links can operate at any speed up to the limits imposed by the physical facilities. An overview of an initial design approach is presented and is intended as a benchmark upon which a detailed design can be developed. It describes the network architecture and proposed access protocols, as well as functional descriptions of the hardware and software components that could be used in a prototype implementation. It concludes with a discussion of additional issues to be resolved in continuing stages of this project.

  16. Wide area augmentation of the Global Positioning System

    SciTech Connect

    Enge, P.; Walter, T.; Pullen, S.; Kee, C.; Chao, Y.C.; Tsai, Y.J.

    1996-08-01

    The Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) is being deployed by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to augment the Global Positioning System (GPS). The WAAS will aid GPS with the following three services. First, it will broadcast spread-spectrum ranging signals from communication satellites. The airborne WAAS receiver will add these new ranging signals to the GPS constellation of measurements. By so doing, the augmented position fix will be less sensitive to the failure of individual system components, thus improving time availability and continuity of service. Second, the WAAS will use a nationwide ground network to monitor the health of all satellites over the airspace and flag situations which threaten flight safety. This data will be modulated on to the WAAS ranging signals and broadcast to the users, thereby guaranteeing the integrity of the airborne position fix. Third, the WAAS will use the ground network to develop corrections for the errors which currently limit the accuracy of unaugmented GPS. This data will also be included on the WAAS broadcast and will improve position accuracy from approximately 100 m to 8 m. When complete, the augmented system will provide an accurate position fix from satellites to an unlimited number of aircraft across the nation. It will be the primary navigation system for aircraft in oceanic routes, enroute over domestic airspace, in crowded metropolitan airspaces, and on airport approach.

  17. Regular Topologies for Gigabit Wide-Area Networks. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shacham, Nachum; Denny, Barbara A.; Lee, Diane S.; Khan, Irfan H.; Lee, Danny Y. C.; McKenney, Paul

    1994-01-01

    In general terms, this project aimed at the analysis and design of techniques for very high-speed networking. The formal objectives of the project were to: (1) Identify switch and network technologies for wide-area networks that interconnect a large number of users and can provide individual data paths at gigabit/s rates; (2) Quantitatively evaluate and compare existing and proposed architectures and protocols, identify their strength and growth potentials, and ascertain the compatibility of competing technologies; and (3) Propose new approaches to existing architectures and protocols, and identify opportunities for research to overcome deficiencies and enhance performance. The project was organized into two parts: 1. The design, analysis, and specification of techniques and protocols for very-high-speed network environments. In this part, SRI has focused on several key high-speed networking areas, including Forward Error Control (FEC) for high-speed networks in which data distortion is the result of packet loss, and the distribution of broadband, real-time traffic in multiple user sessions. 2. Congestion Avoidance Testbed Experiment (CATE). This part of the project was done within the framework of the DARTnet experimental T1 national network. The aim of the work was to advance the state of the art in benchmarking DARTnet's performance and traffic control by developing support tools for network experimentation, by designing benchmarks that allow various algorithms to be meaningfully compared, and by investigating new queueing techniques that better satisfy the needs of best-effort and reserved-resource traffic. This document is the final technical report describing the results obtained by SRI under this project. The report consists of three volumes: Volume 1 contains a technical description of the network techniques developed by SRI in the areas of FEC and multicast of real-time traffic. Volume 2 describes the work performed under CATE. Volume 3 contains the source

  18. The surveillant assemblage.

    PubMed

    Haggerty, K D; Ericson, R V

    2000-12-01

    George Orwell's 'Big Brother' and Michel Foucault's 'panopticon' have dominated discussion of contemporary developments in surveillance. While such metaphors draw our attention to important attributes of surveillance, they also miss some recent dynamics in its operation. The work of Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari is used to analyse the convergence of once discrete surveillance systems. The resultant 'surveillant assemblage' operates by abstracting human bodies from their territorial settings, and separating them into a series of discrete flows. These flows are then reassembled in different locations as discrete and virtual 'data doubles'. The surveillant assemblage transforms the purposes of surveillance and the hierarchies of surveillance, as well as the institution of privacy.

  19. Wide-Area Situational Awareness of Power Grids with Limited Phasor Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Ning; Huang, Zhenyu; Nieplocha, Jarek; Nguyen, Tony B.

    2006-09-30

    Lack of situational awareness has been identified as one of root causes for the August 14, 2003 Northeast Blackout in North America. To improve situational awareness, the Department of Energy (DOE) launched several projects to deploy Wide Area Measurement Systems (WAMS) in different interconnections. Compared to the tens of thousands of buses, the number of Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) is quite limited and not enough to achieve the observability for the whole interconnections. To utilize the limited number of PMU measurements to improve situational awareness, this paper proposes to combine PMU measurement data and power flow equations to form a hybrid power flow model. Technically, a model which combines the concept of observable islands and modeling of power flow conditions, is proposed. The model is called a Hybrid Power Flow Model as it has both PMU measurements and simulation assumptions, which describes prior knowledge available about whole power systems. By solving the hybrid power flow equations, the proposed method can be used to derive power system states to improve the situational awareness of a power grid.

  20. Association Analysis of System Failure in Wide Area Backup Protection System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yagang; Sun, Yi

    2015-12-01

    Wide area backup protection algorithm based on fault component identification is the heart of the whole wide area backup protection system, its validity and reliability is a problem which needs to be first considered in the engineering practice applications of wide area backup protection system. Wide are backup protection algorithm mainly use two kinds of wide area information to realize protection criterion, one is electrical quantity information, such as voltage, current, etc. Another one is protection action and circuit breaker information. The wide area backup protection algorithm based on electrical quantity information is mainly utilizing the significant change of electrical quantity to search fault component, and the primary means include current differential method of wide area multi-measuring points, the comparison method of calculation and measurement, the multiple statistics method. In this paper, a novel and effective association analysis of system failure in wide area backup protection system will be discussed carefully, and the analytical results are successful and reliable.

  1. A Novel Wide-Area Backup Protection Based on Fault Component Current Distribution and Improved Evidence Theory

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhe; Kong, Xiangping; Yin, Xianggen; Yang, Zengli; Wang, Lijun

    2014-01-01

    In order to solve the problems of the existing wide-area backup protection (WABP) algorithms, the paper proposes a novel WABP algorithm based on the distribution characteristics of fault component current and improved Dempster/Shafer (D-S) evidence theory. When a fault occurs, slave substations transmit to master station the amplitudes of fault component currents of transmission lines which are the closest to fault element. Then master substation identifies suspicious faulty lines according to the distribution characteristics of fault component current. After that, the master substation will identify the actual faulty line with improved D-S evidence theory based on the action states of traditional protections and direction components of these suspicious faulty lines. The simulation examples based on IEEE 10-generator-39-bus system show that the proposed WABP algorithm has an excellent performance. The algorithm has low requirement of sampling synchronization, small wide-area communication flow, and high fault tolerance. PMID:25050399

  2. Summary of the 2012 Wide Area Recovery and Resiliency Program (WARRP) Waste Management Workshop

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Workshop advanced the planning of federal, state and local officials in the area of waste management following a chemical, biological or radiological wide-area incident in the Denver, Colorado urban area.

  3. Architectural Support for Extensibility and Autonomy in Wide-Area Distributed Object Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-03

    12 June 3, 1998 Keywords: Distributed computing , wide-area, distributed objects, metasystems, middleware, site autonomy. Abstract The Legion system...generation network parallel computing systems, such as PVM [14] and MPI [21], and in modern transparent distributed computing systems, such as the...patching existing parallel and distributed computing services together to render them interoperable and usable in a wide-area environment do not outweigh

  4. Innovation on Energy Power Technology (15)Great Advances in Power System Stabilizing Technology triggered by the Wide-area Outage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egawa, Masanao

    On July 23, 1987, a very hot day, the largest wide-area power outage occurred in Kanto-Area, Japan. The cause was a voltage collapse on the bulk power network of Tokyo Electric Power Company, due to the abnormal rate of demand rising following resume after lunch break. Aggressive studies on voltage collapse throughout industry and university have led to great advances in power system stability. This essay describes the detail record of the outage, the applied countermeasures, and the inside story when the multiple voltage solutions of power flow on actual power system were found out for the first time.

  5. Robust Vehicle Detection under Various Environments to Realize Road Traffic Flow Surveillance Using an Infrared Thermal Camera

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Yoichiro; Misumi, Masato; Nakamiya, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    To realize road traffic flow surveillance under various environments which contain poor visibility conditions, we have already proposed two vehicle detection methods using thermal images taken with an infrared thermal camera. The first method uses pattern recognition for the windshields and their surroundings to detect vehicles. However, the first method decreases the vehicle detection accuracy in winter season. To maintain high vehicle detection accuracy in all seasons, we developed the second method. The second method uses tires' thermal energy reflection areas on a road as the detection targets. The second method did not achieve high detection accuracy for vehicles on left-hand and right-hand lanes except for two center-lanes. Therefore, we have developed a new method based on the second method to increase the vehicle detection accuracy. This paper proposes the new method and shows that the detection accuracy for vehicles on all lanes is 92.1%. Therefore, by combining the first method and the new method, high vehicle detection accuracies are maintained under various environments, and road traffic flow surveillance can be realized. PMID:25763384

  6. 48 CFR 252.232-7006 - Wide Area WorkFlow Payment Instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... submission. Document submissions may be via Web entry, Electronic Data Interchange, or File Transfer Protocol... to the entitlement system. (b) Electronic invoicing. The WAWF system is the method to electronically process vendor payment requests and receiving reports, as authorized by DFARS 252.232-7003,...

  7. 48 CFR 252.232-7006 - Wide Area WorkFlow Payment Instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... submission. Document submissions may be via Web entry, Electronic Data Interchange, or File Transfer Protocol... to the entitlement system. (b) Electronic invoicing. The WAWF system is the method to electronically process vendor payment requests and receiving reports, as authorized by DFARS 252.232-7003,...

  8. Confabulation Based Real-time Anomaly Detection for Wide-area Surveillance Using Heterogeneous High Performance Computing Architecture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    using a set of features extracted from a Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) input stream and performed likelihood-ratio testing on a set of key...Implementation. ............................................................................ 22 3.6.3 In- memory Knowledge Bases...13. Thread Pool for CPU Multi-threading .................................................................... 22 Figure 14. In- memory Knowledge Base

  9. Mine detection performance in different soil conditions using data from an ultrawideband wide-area surveillance radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Lam H.; Kappra, Karl A.; Wong, David C.; Ressler, Marc A.; Sichina, Jeffrey

    1999-08-01

    The US Army Research Laboratory (ARL), as part of customer and mission-funded applied research programs, has been evaluating the use of low-frequency, ultra-wideband imaging radar to detect fields of buried mines. An instrumentation- grade measurement system has been designed and implemented by ARL. Four data collection campaigns in support of ground- penetrating radar objectives have led to the establishment of a significant and unique database of radar imagery. We are using these data to develop mine-detection algorithms that can aid an operator in separating mines from background clutter. This paper reviews recent findings and result from ARL's modeling, phenomenology, and algorithm development efforts. At SPIE '98, we reported on the performance of a physics-based mine-detection algorithm using data collected at Yuma Proving Ground (YPG) in January 1996. Subsequent measurements were made using the ARL BoomSAR at YPG in October 1997, January 1998, and June 1998. Most of the mines from the January 1996 experiment were still in place during the 1997/1998 experiments. Additional mines and unexploded ordnance were added to the YPG test after the January 1996 experiment. This paper discusses the difference in soil conditions from these data collections and the impact that may have on a mine's radar cross section (RCS) and detection performance. Detection results for M20 mines under different soil conditions will be shown. The detection algorithm invokes phenomenologically sound feature that exploit the expected mine RCS, texture, frequency dependent scattering, and model-based image correlation. Performance assessments, in terms of receiver operating characteristics, detail the detection capabilities at various false alarm rates. Finally, new imagery will be presented that shows the positive contrast of low metal content above dielectric background.

  10. Multiple Kernel Learning for Vehicle Detection in Wide Area Motion Imagery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    Multiple Kernel Learning for Vehicle Detection in Wide Area Motion Imagery Pengpeng Liang1 Gregory Teodoro1 Haibin Ling1 Erik Blasch2 Genshe Chen3 Li...temple.edu, erik.blasch@gmail.com, genshe.chen@ieee.org Abstract—Vehicle detection in wide area motion imagery (WAMI) is an important problem in computer...the small number of pixels on target objects, and the low frame rate of the WAMI data, vehicle detection is much more challenging than the task in

  11. Wide Area Recovery and Resiliency Program (WARRP) Interim Clearance Strategy for Environments Contaminated with Cesium-137

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    Wide Area Recovery & Resiliency Program (WARRP) Interim Clearance Strategy for Environments Contaminated with Cesium -137 July...and Resiliency Program (WARRP) Interim Clearance Strategy for Environments Contaminated with Cesium -137 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...speedy recovery. 15. SUBJECT TERMS WARRP, Cesium -137, Clearance Strategy, Remediation 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT

  12. Benefits and Challenges of Distributing Multimedia over Local and Wide Area Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eager, William

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the use of multimedia for communication, information, and training in large organizations through local area networks and wide area networks. New applications for multimedia are reviewed; network design considerations are discussed; requirements for multimedia software are described; and system security is considered. (LRW)

  13. Mass-producible and wireless wide-area networks of electronic noses: problems and solutions.

    PubMed

    Bos, A

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on the development of a wide-area network of wireless electronic noses and the solutions found to the problems encountered, both of a technical nature and the management involved when employing large amounts of field units. Examples of field test results are given, to illustrate the abilities of such a system.

  14. Wide Area Assessment (WAA) for Marine Munitions and Explosives of Concern

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    Underwater Archaeological Resources. The special use permit for the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study at various locations at Martha’s Vineyard...approaches for conducting wide area assessment (WAA) of sites potentially containing underwater MEC. The WAA demonstration was performed at the South...3.0  PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES....................................................................................... 3-1  3.1  DETECTION OF UNDERWATER

  15. Library Applications of a Wide Area Network: Promoting JANET to UK Academic Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacColl, John A.

    1990-01-01

    Describes Project Jupiter, which was developed to promote the United Kingdom's Joint Academic Network (JANET) to its member libraries. Library uses of JANET are described, including online catalogs, commercial services, and electronic mail; the convergence of local area networks (LANs) and wide area networks (WANs) is discussed; and future…

  16. Wide Area Recovery and Resilency Program (WARRP). Video - Aggressive Air Sampling for B. anthracis Spores

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-14

    34Systematic Evaluation of Aggressive Air Sampling for Bacillus anthracis Spores", in which aggressive air sampling, used for asbestos fiber detection, was...Sep 2012 Final 01 Feb 2011 - 01 Sep 2012 Wide Area Recovery and Resiliency Program (WARRP) Video - Aggressive Air Sampling for B. anthracis Spores

  17. Designing for Wide-Area Situation Awareness in Future Power Grid Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Fiona F.

    Power grid operation uncertainty and complexity continue to increase with the rise of electricity market deregulation, renewable generation, and interconnectedness between multiple jurisdictions. Human operators need appropriate wide-area visualizations to help them monitor system status to ensure reliable operation of the interconnected power grid. We observed transmission operations at a control centre, conducted critical incident interviews, and led focus group sessions with operators. The results informed a Work Domain Analysis of power grid operations, which in turn informed an Ecological Interface Design concept for wide-area monitoring. I validated design concepts through tabletop discussions and a usability evaluation with operators, earning a mean System Usability Scale score of 77 out of 90. The design concepts aim to support an operator's complete and accurate understanding of the power grid state, which operators increasingly require due to the critical nature of power grid infrastructure and growing sources of system uncertainty.

  18. Application of rich feature descriptors to small target detection in wide-area persistent ISR systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Christopher W.; Edelberg, Jason A.; Wilson, Michael L.; Novak, Kyle

    2014-06-01

    One of the desired capabilities for wide-area persistent ISR systems is to reliably locate and subsequently track the movement of targets within the field of view. Current wide-area persistent ISR systems are characterized by large pixel overall counts and very large fields of view. This leads to a large ground sample distance with few pixels-on-target. Locating targets under these constraints is extremely difficult due to the fact that the targets present very little detailed structure. In this paper we will present the application of rich image feature descriptors combined with advanced statistical target detection methodologies to the airborne ISR problem. We will demonstrate that these algorithms can reliably locate targets in the scene without relying on the target's motion to form a detection. This is useful in ISR application where it is desirable to be able to continuously track a target through stops and maneuvers.

  19. MAP Fault Localization Based on Wide Area Synchronous Phasor Measurement Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yagang; Wang, Zengping

    2015-02-01

    In the research of complicated electrical engineering, the emergence of phasor measurement units (PMU) is a landmark event. The establishment and application of wide area measurement system (WAMS) in power system has made widespread and profound influence on the safe and stable operation of complicated power system. In this paper, taking full advantage of wide area synchronous phasor measurement information provided by PMUs, we have carried out precise fault localization based on the principles of maximum posteriori probability (MAP). Large numbers of simulation experiments have confirmed that the results of MAP fault localization are accurate and reliable. Even if there are interferences from white Gaussian stochastic noise, the results from MAP classification are also identical to the actual real situation.

  20. Wide-area Gigabit networking: Los Alamos HIPPI-SONET Gateway

    SciTech Connect

    St. John, W.B.; DuBois, D.H.

    1995-05-01

    This paper describes a HIPPI-SONET Gateway which has been designed by members of the Computer Network Engineering Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The Gateway has been used in the CASA Gigabit Testbed at Caltech, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and the San Diego Supercomputer Center to provide communications between the sites. This paper will also make some qualitative statements as to lessons learned during the deployment and maintenance of this wide area network. We report record throughput for transmission of data across a wide area network. We have sustained data rates using the TCP/IP protocol of 550 Mbits/second and the rate of 792 Mbits/second for raw HIPPI data transfer over the 2,000 kilometers from the San Diego Supercomputer Center to the Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  1. Orthographic Perspective Mappings for Consistent Wide-Area Motion Feature Maps from Multiple Cameras.

    PubMed

    O'Gorman, Lawrence; Yang, Guang

    2016-04-15

    Spatiotemporal activity maps have been used to visualize where activity occurs over time, and are often displayed as pseudo-color heat maps. Our multi-dimensional activity map includes the following motion features: density, direction, bi-direction, velocity, and dwell. The primary contribution of this paper is to describe a set of mappings that will transform activity maps captured from cameras of different perspectives to ones from a single orthographic perspective. The purpose of this is to be able to view and compare multiple activity maps from different cameras views over a wide area with consistently comparable data. A second contribution is that most mappings are based upon statistically learned camera perspectives, to minimize manual camera calibration. We demonstrate mapping results with multiple video datasets and describe applications for visualization and wide-area spatial probability estimation.

  2. MSAT wide-area fleet management: End-user requirements and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedersen, Allister

    1995-01-01

    MSAT (Mobile SATellite) Services will become a reality in North America in 1995. MSAT will provide wide-area voice, data and fax services to land, marine and aeronautical mobile users anywhere in North America including 200 nautical miles off the coasts and into the Arctic waters. MSAT will also convey GPS position information from mobiles to dispatch centers. One broad application of MSAT is Wide Area Fleet Management (WAFM). This paper defines WAFM, outlines end-user requirements and identifies potential applications of MSAT WAFM. The paper draws from information obtained in several preMSAT WAFM field trials in land, marine and aeronautical mobile environments. The paper concludes with an outline of the potential benefits of MSAT WAFM.

  3. Use of the WECC WAMS in Wide Area Probing Tests for Validation of System Performance & Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Hauer, John F.; Mittelstadt, William; Martin, Kenneth E.; Burns, J. W.; Lee, Harry; Pierre, John W.; Trudnowski, Daniel

    2009-02-01

    During 2005 and 2006 the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) performed three major tests of western system dynamics. These tests used a Wide Area Measurement System (WAMS) based primarily on Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) to determine response to events including the insertion of the 1400-MW Chief Joseph braking resistor, probing signals, and ambient events. Test security was reinforced through real-time analysis of wide area effects, and high-quality data provided dynamic profiles for interarea modes across the entire western interconnection. The tests established that low-level optimized pseudo-random ±20-MW probing with the Pacific DC Intertie (PDCI) roughly doubles the apparent noise that is natural to the power system, providing sharp dynamic information with negligible interference to system operations. Such probing is an effective alternative to use of the 1400-MW Chief Joseph dynamic brake, and it is under consideration as a standard means for assessing dynamic security.

  4. Identification of Barriers to Munitions Detection Technology Transfer: Unexploded Ordnance Wide Area Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    Noblis Technical Report Identification of Barriers to Munitions Detection Technology Transfer Unexploded Ordnance Wide Area Assessment...September 2008 Jon Horin Robert S. Wassmann Customer: SERDP/ESTCP Contract No.: FA8903-04-D-8715 Noblis Dept. No.: H300 Project No... Noblis ,3150 Fairview Park Drive South,Falls Church,VA,22042-4504 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND

  5. High Density Lidar and Orthophotography in UXO Wide Area Assessment (Rev 1)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    Dr. Jeffrey Marqusee, ESTCP Program Director, and Dr. Anne Andrews, Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) Program Manager , as well as Dr. Herb Nelson of the...Naval Research Lab, the project manager for the Wide Area Assessment Pilot Program, for their support and guidance to URS for this project. We would...remediation, and range management Item Limitations MEC detection Neither lidar nor orthophotography can directly detect small dimension shell casings or

  6. Online design of an echo state network based wide area monitor for a multimachine power system.

    PubMed

    Venayagamoorthy, Ganesh K

    2007-04-01

    With deregulation and growth of the power industry, many power system elements such as generators, transmission lines, are driven to operate near their maximum capacity, especially those serving heavy load centres. Wide Area Controllers (WACs) using wide area or global signals can provide remote auxiliary control signals to local controllers such as automatic voltage regulators, power system stabilizers, etc. to damp out system oscillations. However, since the power system is highly nonlinear with fast changing dynamics, it is a challenging problem to design an online system monitor/estimator, which can provide dynamic intra-area and inter-area information such speed deviations of generators to an adaptive WAC continuously. This paper presents a new kind of recurrent neural networks, called the Echo State Network (ESN), for the online design of a Wide Area Monitor (WAM) for a multimachine power system. A single ESN is used to predict the speed deviations of four generators in two different areas. The performance of this ESN WAM is evaluated for small and large disturbances on the power system. Results for an ESN based WAM and a Time-Delayed Neural Network (TDNN)-based WAM are presented and compared. The advantages of the ESN WAM are that it learns the dynamics of the power system in a shorter training time with a higher accuracy and with considerably fewer weights to be adapted compared to the design-based on a TDNN.

  7. The Wide-area Energy Management System Phase 2 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Ning; Makarov, Yuri V.; Weimar, Mark R.

    2010-08-31

    The higher penetration of intermittent generation resources (including wind and solar generation) in the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and California Independent System Operator (CAISO) balancing authorities (BAs) raises issue of requiring expensive additional fast grid balancing services in response to additional intermittency and fast up and down power ramps in the electric supply system. The overall goal of the wide-area energy management system (WAEMS) project is to develop the principles, algorithms, market integration rules, a functional design, and a technical specification for an energy storage system to help cope with unexpected rapid changes in renewable generation power output. The resulting system will store excess energy, control dispatchable load and distributed generation, and utilize inter-area exchange of the excess energy between the California ISO and Bonneville Power Administration control areas. A further goal is to provide a cost-benefit analysis and develop a business model for an investment-based practical deployment of such a system. There are two tasks in Phase 2 of the WAEMS project: the flywheel field tests and the battery evaluation. Two final reports, the Wide-area Energy Management System Phase 2 Flywheel Field Tests Final Report and the Wide-area Energy Storage and Management System Battery Storage Evaluation, were written to summarize the results of the two tasks.

  8. Structure-symptom relationship with wide-area ultrasound scanning of knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Podlipská, Jana; Koski, Juhani M.; Kaukinen, Päivi; Haapea, Marianne; Tervonen, Osmo; Arokoski, Jari P.; Saarakkala, Simo

    2017-01-01

    The aetiology of knee pain in osteoarthritis (OA) is heterogeneous and its relationship with structural changes and function is unclear. Our goal was to determine the prevalence of wide-area scanned ultrasound-defined knee OA structural features and their association with pain and functional impairment in 79 symptomatic and 63 asymptomatic subjects. All subjects underwent ultrasound knee wide-area scanning and the severity of articular cartilage degeneration, the presence and size of osteophytes, and meniscal extrusion were evaluated. Subjects filled in a self-administrated questionnaire on present knee pain, and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) on clinical symptoms and function over the past week. Cartilage changes were the most prevalent followed by lateral meniscal extrusion, osteophytes and medial meniscal extrusion. The global femoral cartilage grade associated strongly with pain and the WOMAC index. Site-specifically, early medial cartilage changes and thinning in sulcus and lateral site were associated with symptoms. The presence of femoral lateral osteophytes was also associated with both outcomes. Using the novel wide-area ultrasound scanning technique, we were able to confirm the negative impact of femoral cartilage OA changes on clinical symptoms. Presence, not necessarily size, of lateral femoral osteophytes was also associated with increased pain and disability. PMID:28295049

  9. DISTANT EARLY WARNING SYSTEM for Tsunamis - A wide-area and multi-hazard approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammitzsch, Martin; Lendholt, Matthias; Wächter, Joachim

    2010-05-01

    system and to extend the CCUI with hazard specific functionality. The presentation covers the DEWS project, the system architecture and the CCUI in conjunction with details of information logistics. The DEWS Wide Area Centre connecting national centres to allow the international communication and warning exchange is presented also. REFERENCES: [1] DEWS, www.dews-online.org [2] OGC, www.opengeospatial.org [3] SWE, www.opengeospatial.org/projects/groups/sensorweb [4] Eclipse RCP, www.eclipse.org/home/categories/rcp.php [5] uDig, udig.refractions.net [6] WMS, www.opengeospatial.org/standards/wms [7] WFS, www.opengeospatial.org/standards/wfs [8] WPS, www.opengeospatial.org/standards/wps [9] OASIS, www.oasis-open.org [10] CAP, www.oasis-open.org/specs/#capv1.1 [11] EDXL-DE, www.oasis-open.org/specs/#edxlde-v1.0 [12] SOAP, www.w3.org/TR/soap [13] GITEWS (German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System) is a project of the German Federal Government to aid the recon¬struction of the tsunami-prone Indian Ocean region, www.gitews.org [14] The Tsunami Service Bus is the GITEWS sensor system integration platform offering standardised services for the detection and monitoring of tsunamis

  10. Integration of the White Sands Complex into a Wide Area Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boucher, Phillip Larry; Horan, Sheila, B.

    1996-01-01

    The NASA White Sands Complex (WSC) satellite communications facility consists of two main ground stations, an auxiliary ground station, a technical support facility, and a power plant building located on White Sands Missile Range. When constructed, terrestrial communication access to these facilities was limited to copper telephone circuits. There was no local or wide area communications network capability. This project incorporated a baseband local area network (LAN) topology at WSC and connected it to NASA's wide area network using the Program Support Communications Network-Internet (PSCN-I). A campus-style LAN is configured in conformance with the International Standards Organization (ISO) Open Systems Interconnect (ISO) model. Ethernet provides the physical and data link layers. Transmission Control Protocol and Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) are used for the network and transport layers. The session, presentation, and application layers employ commercial software packages. Copper-based Ethernet collision domains are constructed in each of the primary facilities and these are interconnected by routers over optical fiber links. The network and each of its collision domains are shown to meet IEEE technical configuration guidelines. The optical fiber links are analyzed for the optical power budget and bandwidth allocation and are found to provide sufficient margin for this application. Personal computers and work stations attached to the LAN communicate with and apply a wide variety of local and remote administrative software tools. The Internet connection provides wide area network (WAN) electronic access to other NASA centers and the world wide web (WWW). The WSC network reduces and simplifies the administrative workload while providing enhanced and advanced inter-communications capabilities among White Sands Complex departments and with other NASA centers.

  11. Emerging Technologies and Techniques for Wide Area Radiological Survey and Remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, M.; Zhao, P.

    2016-03-24

    Technologies to survey and decontaminate wide-area contamination and process the subsequent radioactive waste have been developed and implemented following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant release and the breach of a radiological source resulting in contamination in Goiania, Brazil. These civilian examples of radioactive material releases provided some of the first examples of urban radiological remediation. Many emerging technologies have recently been developed and demonstrated in Japan following the release of radioactive cesium isotopes (Cs-134 and Cs-137) from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in 2011. Information on technologies reported by several Japanese government agencies, such as the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), the Ministry of the Environment (MOE) and the National Institute for Environmental Science (NIES), together with academic institutions and industry are summarized and compared to recently developed, deployed and available technologies in the United States. The technologies and techniques presented in this report may be deployed in response to a wide area contamination event in the United States. In some cases, additional research and testing is needed to adequately validate the technology effectiveness over wide areas. Survey techniques can be deployed on the ground or from the air, allowing a range of coverage rates and sensitivities. Survey technologies also include those useful in measuring decontamination progress and mapping contamination. Decontamination technologies and techniques range from non-destructive (e.g., high pressure washing) and minimally destructive (plowing), to fully destructive (surface removal or demolition). Waste minimization techniques can greatly impact the long-term environmental consequences and cost following remediation efforts. Recommendations on technical improvements to address technology gaps are presented together with observations on remediation in Japan.

  12. ONT High Gain Initiative WRAP (Wide Area Rapid Acoustic Prediction) computational performance section

    SciTech Connect

    McGraw, J.R.; Hedstrom, G.; De Groot, T.

    1990-10-02

    LLNL received a contract during March 1990 to perform three tasks for ONT. This letter report covers Task I which concerned a supercomputing effort in a program termed the High Gain Initiative, which is an anti-submarine (ASW) project that requires substantial computational and signal processing expertise. The core of the computational aspects at the present time is a code called WRAP (Wide Area Rapid Acoustic Prediction). LLNL's objective was to study the WRAP model and determine the feasibility and limits of its optimization. At the present time, the WRAP code runs on a single processor VAX computer.

  13. Probing hot-electron effects in wide area plasmonic surfaces using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ayas, Sencer; Cupallari, Andi; Dana, Aykutlu

    2014-12-01

    Plasmon enhanced hot carrier formation in metallic nanostructures increasingly attracts attention due to potential applications in photodetection, photocatalysis, and solar energy conversion. Here, hot-electron effects in nanoscale metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structures are investigated using a non-contact X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy based technique using continuous wave X-ray and laser excitations. The effects are observed through shifts of the binding energy of the top metal layer upon excitation with lasers of 445, 532, and 650 nm wavelength. The shifts are polarization dependent for plasmonic MIM grating structures fabricated by electron beam lithography. Wide area plasmonic MIM surfaces fabricated using a lithography free route by the dewetting of evaporated Ag on HfO{sub 2} exhibit polarization independent optical absorption and surface photovoltage. Using a simple model and making several assumptions about the magnitude of the photoemission current, the responsivity and external quantum efficiency of wide area plasmonic MIM surfaces are estimated as 500 nA/W and 11 × 10{sup −6} for 445 nm illumination.

  14. A framework for activity detection in wide-area motion imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, Reid B; Ruggiero, Christy E; Morrison, Jack D

    2009-01-01

    Wide-area persistent imaging systems are becoming increasingly cost effective and now large areas of the earth can be imaged at relatively high frame rates (1-2 fps). The efficient exploitation of the large geo-spatial-temporal datasets produced by these systems poses significant technical challenges for image and video analysis and data mining. In recent years there has been significant progress made on stabilization, moving object detection and tracking and automated systems now generate hundreds to thousands of vehicle tracks from raw data, with little human intervention. However, the tracking performance at this scale, is unreliable and average track length is much smaller than the average vehicle route. This is a limiting factor for applications which depend heavily on track identity, i.e. tracking vehicles from their points of origin to their final destination. In this paper we propose and investigate a framework for wide-area motion imagery (W AMI) exploitation that minimizes the dependence on track identity. In its current form this framework takes noisy, incomplete moving object detection tracks as input, and produces a small set of activities (e.g. multi-vehicle meetings) as output. The framework can be used to focus and direct human users and additional computation, and suggests a path towards high-level content extraction by learning from the human-in-the-loop.

  15. Wide-area scanner for high-speed atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hiroki; Uchihashi, Takayuki; Kobashi, Toshihide; Shibata, Mikihiro; Nishiyama, Jun; Yasuda, Ryohei; Ando, Toshio

    2013-05-01

    High-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM) has recently been established. The dynamic processes and structural dynamics of protein molecules in action have been successfully visualized using HS-AFM. However, its maximum scan ranges in the X- and Y-directions have been limited to ~1 μm and ~4 μm, respectively, making it infeasible to observe the dynamics of much larger samples, including live cells. Here, we develop a wide-area scanner with a maximum XY scan range of ~46 × 46 μm(2) by magnifying the displacements of stack piezoelectric actuators using a leverage mechanism. Mechanical vibrations produced by fast displacement of the X-scanner are suppressed by a combination of feed-forward inverse compensation and the use of triangular scan signals with rounded vertices. As a result, the scan speed in the X-direction reaches 6.3 mm/s even for a scan size as large as ~40 μm. The nonlinearity of the X- and Y-piezoelectric actuators' displacements that arises from their hysteresis is eliminated by polynomial-approximation-based open-loop control. The interference between the X- and Y-scanners is also eliminated by the same technique. The usefulness of this wide-area scanner is demonstrated by video imaging of dynamic processes in live bacterial and eukaryotic cells.

  16. Wide area detection system: Conceptual design study. [using television and microelectronic technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilbert, E. E.; Carl, C.; Goss, W.; Hansen, G. R.; Olsasky, M. J.; Johnston, A. R.

    1978-01-01

    An integrated sensor for traffic surveillance on mainline sections of urban freeways is described. Applicable imaging and processor technology is surveyed and the functional requirements for the sensors and the conceptual design of the breadboard sensors are given. Parameters measured by the sensors include lane density, speed, and volume. The freeway image is also used for incident diagnosis.

  17. High-speed wide area, data intensive computing: A Ten Year Retrospective

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, William E.

    1998-05-01

    Modern scientific computing involves organizing, moving, visualizing, and analyzing massive amounts of data from around the world, as well as employing large-scale computation. The distributed systems that solve large-scale problems will always involve aggregating and scheduling many resources. Data must be located and staged, cache and network capacity must be available at the same time as computing capacity, etc. Every aspect of such a system is dynamic: locating and scheduling resources, adapting running application systems to availability and congestion in the middleware and infrastructure, responding to human interaction, etc. The technologies, the middleware services, and the architectures that are used to build useful high-speed, wide area distributed systems, constitute the field of data intensive computing. This paper explores some of the history and future directions of that field.

  18. Wide-area Power System Oscillation Damping using Model Predictive Control Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Tarek Hassan; Abdel-Rahim, Abdel-Moamen Mohammed; Hassan, Ahmed Abd-Eltawwab; Hiyama, Takashi

    This paper presents a new approach to deal with the problem of robust tuning of power system stabilizer (PSS) and automatic voltage regulator (AVR) in multi-machine power systems. The proposed method is based on a model predictive control (MPC) technique, for improvement stability of the wide-area power system with multiple generators and distribution systems including dispersed generations. The proposed method provides better damping of power system oscillations under small and large disturbances even with the inclusion of local PSSs. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated through a two areas, four machines power system. A performance comparison between the proposed controller and some of other controllers is carried out confirming the superiority of the proposed technique. It has also been observed that the proposed algorithm can be successfully applied to larger multiarea power systems and do not suffer with computational difficulties. The proposed algorithm carried out using MATLAB/SIMULINK software package.

  19. The Study on the Communication Network of Wide Area Measurement System in Electricity Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaorong, Cheng; Ying, Wang; Yangdan, Ni

    Wide area measurement system(WAMS) is a fundamental part of security defense in Smart Grid, and the communication system of WAMS is an important part of Electric power communication network. For a large regional network is concerned, the real-time data which is transferred in the communication network of WAMS will affect the safe operation of the power grid directly. Therefore, WAMS raised higher requirements for real-time, reliability and security to its communication network. In this paper, the architecture of WASM communication network was studied according to the seven layers model of the open systems interconnection(OSI), and the network architecture was researched from all levels. We explored the media of WAMS communication network, the network communication protocol and network technology. Finally, the delay of the network were analyzed.

  20. Secure wide area network access to CMS analysis data using the Lustre filesystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourilkov, D.; Avery, P.; Cheng, M.; Fu, Y.; Kim, B.; Palencia, J.; Budden, R.; Benninger, K.; Rodriquez, J. L.; Dilascio, J.; Dykstra, D.; Seenu, N.

    2012-12-01

    This paper reports the design and implementation of a secure, wide area network (WAN), distributed filesystem by the ExTENCI project (Extending Science Through Enhanced National CyberInfrastructure), based on the Lustre filesystem. The system is used for remote access to analysis data from the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), and from the Lattice Quantum ChromoDynamics (LQCD) project. Security is provided by Kerberos authentication and authorization with additional fine grained control based on Lustre ACLs (Access Control List) and quotas. We investigate the impact of using various Kerberos security flavors on the I/O rates of CMS applications on client nodes reading and writing data to the Lustre filesystem, and on LQCD benchmarks. The clients can be real or virtual nodes. We are investigating additional options for user authentication based on user certificates.

  1. Experiences in teleradiology using a combination of ATM and ISDN wide-area networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichelberg, Marco; Cordonnier, Emmanuel; Piqueras, Joachim; Hewett, Andrew J.; Jensch, Peter F.

    1996-05-01

    The current developments in the health care sector facilitate the deployment of telemedical applications which promise to decrease costs and improve treatment quality. The regular use of telemedicine as a means of exchanging knowledge and patient information over long distance requires a natural integration of human communication with all available information sources like imaging modalities and patient data. ATM and ISDN are network technologies which allow the transmission of both digital data and real-time information like video and speech and therefore recommend themselves for telemedical applications. In the future a heterogeneous infrastructure with ATM, ISDN and other network technologies can be expected, increasing the importance of `connectivity' among the network services. This contribution describes an application scenario for teleradiology using a combination of ATM and ISDN wide area networks and experiences with the experimental use of such a system.

  2. Midterm Stability Evaluation of Wide-area Power System by using Synchronized Phasor Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ota, Yutaka; Ukai, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Koichi; Fujita, Hideki

    In recent years, the PMU (Phasor Measurement Unit) receives a great deal of attention as a synchronized measurement system of power systems. Synchronized phasor angles obtained by the PMU provide the effective information for evaluating the stability of a bulk power system. The aspect of instability phenomena during midterm tends to be more complicated, and the stability analysis using the synchronized phasor measurements is significant in order to keep a complicated power system stable. This paper proposes a midterm stability evaluation method of the wide-area power system by using the synchronized phasor measurements. By clustering and aggregating the power system to some coherent groups, the step-out is effectively predicted on the basis of the two-machine equivalent power system model. The midterm stability of a longitudinal power system model of Japanese 60Hz systems constructed by the PSA, which is a hybrid-type power system simulator, is practically evaluated using the proposed method.

  3. The High Performance and Wide Area Analysis and Mining of Scientific & Engineering Data

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, R.

    2002-12-01

    This final report summarizes our accomplishments and findings and includes recent publications occurring in the final period of this award. One of our research goals was to develop algorithms and services for remote data analysis and distributed data mining which scaled from the commodity internet to high performance networks. When we began the project there was no effective mechanisms to achieve high end to end performance for data intensive applications over wide area, high bandwidth networks. For this reason, we developed algorithms and services for Layers 2,3, and 4 in the simple data web application stack below. We describe our research accomplishments for each of these layers in turn: Layer 4--Data Web Applications; Layer 3--Data Web Services; Layer 2--Network Protocol Services; Layer 1--IP.

  4. Evaluation of replacement protocols and modifications to TCP to enhance ASC Wide Area Network performance.

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, Randy L. Jr.

    2004-09-01

    Historically, TCP/IP has been the protocol suite used to transfer data throughout the Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) community. However, TCP was developed many years ago for an environment very different from the ASC Wide Area Network (WAN) of today. There have been numerous publications that hint of better performance if modifications were made to the TCP algorithms or a different protocol was used to transfer data across a high bandwidth, high delay WAN. Since Sandia National Laboratories wants to maximize the ASC WAN performance to support the Thor's Hammer supercomputer, there is strong interest in evaluating modifications to the TCP protocol and in evaluating alternatives to TCP, such as SCTP, to determine if they provide improved performance. Therefore, the goal of this project is to test, evaluate, compare, and report protocol technologies that enhance the performance of the ASC WAN.

  5. Sensor-Aware Recognition and Tracking for Wide-Area Augmented Reality on Mobile Phones

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jing; Cao, Ruochen; Wang, Yongtian

    2015-01-01

    Wide-area registration in outdoor environments on mobile phones is a challenging task in mobile augmented reality fields. We present a sensor-aware large-scale outdoor augmented reality system for recognition and tracking on mobile phones. GPS and gravity information is used to improve the VLAD performance for recognition. A kind of sensor-aware VLAD algorithm, which is self-adaptive to different scale scenes, is utilized to recognize complex scenes. Considering vision-based registration algorithms are too fragile and tend to drift, data coming from inertial sensors and vision are fused together by an extended Kalman filter (EKF) to achieve considerable improvements in tracking stability and robustness. Experimental results show that our method greatly enhances the recognition rate and eliminates the tracking jitters. PMID:26690439

  6. Sensor-Aware Recognition and Tracking for Wide-Area Augmented Reality on Mobile Phones.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Cao, Ruochen; Wang, Yongtian

    2015-12-10

    Wide-area registration in outdoor environments on mobile phones is a challenging task in mobile augmented reality fields. We present a sensor-aware large-scale outdoor augmented reality system for recognition and tracking on mobile phones. GPS and gravity information is used to improve the VLAD performance for recognition. A kind of sensor-aware VLAD algorithm, which is self-adaptive to different scale scenes, is utilized to recognize complex scenes. Considering vision-based registration algorithms are too fragile and tend to drift, data coming from inertial sensors and vision are fused together by an extended Kalman filter (EKF) to achieve considerable improvements in tracking stability and robustness. Experimental results show that our method greatly enhances the recognition rate and eliminates the tracking jitters.

  7. KOLAM: a cross-platform architecture for scalable visualization and tracking in wide-area imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, Joshua; Haridas, Anoop; Seetharaman, Guna; Rao, Raghuveer M.; Palaniappan, Kannappan

    2013-05-01

    KOLAM is an open, cross-platform, interoperable, scalable and extensible framework supporting a novel multi- scale spatiotemporal dual-cache data structure for big data visualization and visual analytics. This paper focuses on the use of KOLAM for target tracking in high-resolution, high throughput wide format video also known as wide-area motion imagery (WAMI). It was originally developed for the interactive visualization of extremely large geospatial imagery of high spatial and spectral resolution. KOLAM is platform, operating system and (graphics) hardware independent, and supports embedded datasets scalable from hundreds of gigabytes to feasibly petabytes in size on clusters, workstations, desktops and mobile computers. In addition to rapid roam, zoom and hyper- jump spatial operations, a large number of simultaneously viewable embedded pyramid layers (also referred to as multiscale or sparse imagery), interactive colormap and histogram enhancement, spherical projection and terrain maps are supported. The KOLAM software architecture was extended to support airborne wide-area motion imagery by organizing spatiotemporal tiles in very large format video frames using a temporal cache of tiled pyramid cached data structures. The current version supports WAMI animation, fast intelligent inspection, trajectory visualization and target tracking (digital tagging); the latter by interfacing with external automatic tracking software. One of the critical needs for working with WAMI is a supervised tracking and visualization tool that allows analysts to digitally tag multiple targets, quickly review and correct tracking results and apply geospatial visual analytic tools on the generated trajectories. One-click manual tracking combined with multiple automated tracking algorithms are available to assist the analyst and increase human effectiveness.

  8. A Wide Area of Air Pollutant Impact Downwind of a Freeway during Pre-Sunrise Hours.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shishan; Fruin, Scott; Kozawa, Kathleen; Mara, Steve; Paulson, Suzanne E; Winer, Arthur M

    2009-05-01

    We have observed a wide area of air pollutant impact downwind of a freeway during pre-sunrise hours in both winter and summer seasons. In contrast, previous studies have shown much sharper air pollutant gradients downwind of freeways, with levels above background concentrations extending only 300 m downwind of roadways during the day and up to 500 m at night. In this study, real-time air pollutant concentrations were measured along a 3 600 m transect normal to an elevated freeway 1-2 hours before sunrise using an electric vehicle mobile platform equipped with fast-response instruments. In winter pre-sunrise hours, the peak ultrafine particle (UFP) concentration (~95 000 cm(-3)) occurred immediately downwind of the freeway. However, downwind UFP concentrations as high as ~ 40 000 cm(-3) extended at least 1 200 m from the freeway, and did not reach background levels (~15 000 cm(-3)) until a distance of about 2 600 m. UFP concentrations were also elevated over background levels up to 600 m upwind of the freeway. Other pollutants, such as NO and particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, exhibited similar long-distance downwind concentration gradients. In contrast, air pollutant concentrations measured on the same route after sunrise, in the morning and afternoon, exhibited the typical daytime downwind decrease to background levels within ~300 m as found in earlier studies. Although pre-sunrise traffic volumes on the freeway were much lower than daytime congestion peaks, downwind UFP concentrations were significantly higher during pre-sunrise hours than during the daytime; UFP and NO concentrations were also strongly correlated with traffic counts on the freeway. We associate these elevated pre-sunrise concentrations over a wide area with a nocturnal surface temperature inversion, low wind speeds, and high relative humidity. Observation of a wide air pollutant impact area downwind of a major roadway prior to sunrise has important exposure assessment implications

  9. Efficient feature extraction from wide-area motion imagery by MapReduce in Hadoop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Erkang; Ma, Liya; Blaisse, Adam; Blasch, Erik; Sheaff, Carolyn; Chen, Genshe; Wu, Jie; Ling, Haibin

    2014-06-01

    Wide-Area Motion Imagery (WAMI) feature extraction is important for applications such as target tracking, traffic management and accident discovery. With the increasing amount of WAMI collections and feature extraction from the data, a scalable framework is needed to handle the large amount of information. Cloud computing is one of the approaches recently applied in large scale or big data. In this paper, MapReduce in Hadoop is investigated for large scale feature extraction tasks for WAMI. Specifically, a large dataset of WAMI images is divided into several splits. Each split has a small subset of WAMI images. The feature extractions of WAMI images in each split are distributed to slave nodes in the Hadoop system. Feature extraction of each image is performed individually in the assigned slave node. Finally, the feature extraction results are sent to the Hadoop File System (HDFS) to aggregate the feature information over the collected imagery. Experiments of feature extraction with and without MapReduce are conducted to illustrate the effectiveness of our proposed Cloud-Enabled WAMI Exploitation (CAWE) approach.

  10. THE WIDE-AREA ENERGY STORAGE AND MANAGEMENT SYSTEM PHASE II Final Report - Flywheel Field Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Ning; Makarov, Yuri V.; Weimar, Mark R.; Rudolph, Frank; Murthy, Shashikala; Arseneaux, Jim; Loutan, Clyde; Chowdhury, S.

    2010-08-31

    This research was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operated for the U.S. department of Energy (DOE) by Battelle Memorial Institute for Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), California Institute for Energy and Environment (CIEE) and California Energy Commission (CEC). A wide-area energy management system (WAEMS) is a centralized control system that operates energy storage devices (ESDs) located in different places to provide energy and ancillary services that can be shared among balancing authorities (BAs). The goal of this research is to conduct flywheel field tests, investigate the technical characteristics and economics of combined hydro-flywheel regulation services that can be shared between Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and California Independent System Operator (CAISO) controlled areas. This report is the second interim technical report for Phase II of the WAEMS project. This report presents: 1) the methodology of sharing regulation service between balancing authorities, 2) the algorithm to allocate the regulation signal between the flywheel and hydro power plant to minimize the wear-and-tear of the hydro power plants, 3) field results of the hydro-flywheel regulation service (conducted by the Beacon Power), and 4) the performance metrics and economic analysis of the combined hydro-flywheel regulation service.

  11. Automatic Registration of Wide Area Motion Imagery to Vector Road Maps by Exploiting Vehicle Detections.

    PubMed

    Elliethy, Ahmed; Sharma, Gaurav

    2016-11-01

    To enrich large-scale visual analytics applications enabled by aerial wide area motion imagery (WAMI), we propose a novel methodology for accurately registering a geo-referenced vector roadmap to WAMI by using the locations of detected vehicles and determining a parametric transform that aligns these locations with the network of roads in the roadmap. Specifically, the problem is formulated in a probabilistic framework, explicitly allowing for spurious detections that do not correspond to on-road vehicles. The registration is estimated via the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm as the planar homography that minimizes the sum of weighted squared distances between the homography-mapped detection locations and the corresponding closest point on the road network, where the weights are estimated posterior probabilities of detections being on-road vehicles. The weighted distance minimization is efficiently performed using the distance transform with the Levenberg-Marquardt nonlinear least-squares minimization procedure, and the fraction of spurious detections is estimated within the EM framework. The proposed method effectively sidesteps the challenges of feature correspondence estimation, applies directly to different imaging modalities, is robust to spurious detections, and is also more appropriate than feature matching for a planar homography. Results over three WAMI data sets captured by both visual and infrared sensors indicate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology: both visual comparison and numerical metrics for the registration accuracy are significantly better for the proposed method as compared with the existing alternatives.

  12. An Alternative Wearable Tracking System Based on a Low-Power Wide-Area Network

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Garcia, Raul; Gil, Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    This work presents an alternative wearable tracking system based on a low-power wide area network. A complete GPS receiver was integrated with a textile substrate, and the latitude and longitude coordinates were sent to the cloud by means of the SIM-less SIGFOX network. To send the coordinates over SIGFOX protocol, a specific codification algorithm was used and a customized UHF antenna on jeans fabric was designed, simulated and tested. Moreover, to guarantee the compliance to international regulations for human body exposure to electromagnetic radiation, the electromagnetic specific absorption rate of this antenna was analyzed. A specific remote server was developed to decode the latitude and longitude coordinates. Once the coordinates have been decoded, the remote server sends this information to the open source data viewer SENTILO to show the location of the sensor node in a map. The functionality of this system has been demonstrated experimentally. The results guarantee the utility and wearability of the proposed tracking system for the development of sensor nodes and point out that it can be a low cost alternative to other commercial products based on GSM networks. PMID:28335424

  13. Wide-area ratios of evapotranspiration to precipitation in monsoon-dependent semiarid vegetation communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glenn, Edward P.; Scott, Russell L.; Nguyen, Uyen; Nagler, Pamela L.

    2015-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) and the ratio of ET to precipitation (PPT) are important factors in the water budget of semiarid rangelands and are in part determined by the dominant plant communities. Our goal was to see if landscape changes such as tree or shrub encroachment and replacement of native grasses by invasive grasses impacted ET and ET/PPT and therefore watershed hydrology in this biome. We determined ET and ET/PPT for shrublands, grasslands and mesquite savannas in southern Arizona at five moisture flux towers and determined the environmental factors controlling ET in each plant community. We then scaled ET over areas of 4–36 km2, representing homogeneous patches of each plant community, using the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) from MODIS sensors on the Terra satellite. Over wide areas, estimated ET/PPT projected from MODIS EVI ranged from 0.71 for a sparsely-vegetated shrub site to 1.00 for grasslands and mesquite savannas. The results did not support hypotheses that encroachment of mesquites into grasslands or that replacement of native grasses with introduced Eragrostis lehmanniana (lehmann lovegrass) have increased rangeland ET.

  14. A Unified Model for BDS Wide Area and Local Area Augmentation Positioning Based on Raw Observations.

    PubMed

    Tu, Rui; Zhang, Rui; Lu, Cuixian; Zhang, Pengfei; Liu, Jinhai; Lu, Xiaochun

    2017-03-03

    In this study, a unified model for BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) wide area and local area augmentation positioning based on raw observations has been proposed. Applying this model, both the Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) and Precise Point Positioning (PPP) service can be realized by performing different corrections at the user end. This algorithm was assessed and validated with the BDS data collected at four regional stations from Day of Year (DOY) 080 to 083 of 2016. When the users are located within the local reference network, the fast and high precision RTK service can be achieved using the regional observation corrections, revealing a convergence time of about several seconds and a precision of about 2-3 cm. For the users out of the regional reference network, the global broadcast State-Space Represented (SSR) corrections can be utilized to realize the global PPP service which shows a convergence time of about 25 min for achieving an accuracy of 10 cm. With this unified model, it can not only integrate the Network RTK (NRTK) and PPP into a seamless positioning service, but also recover the ionosphere Vertical Total Electronic Content (VTEC) and Differential Code Bias (DCB) values that are useful for the ionosphere monitoring and modeling.

  15. The wide area retrievals of temperature in life space from multi-data set fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, D. Y.

    2014-05-01

    Heat wave is one of the phenomena stemmed from abnormal climate caused by climate change. This phenomenon which occurs strongly and frequently worldwide has been threatening the heath-vulnerable classes in the urban and suburb area. To reduce the damage from the heat wave, the current research attempts to perform data assimilation between highresolution images and ground observation data based on middle infra-red satellite imagery. We use an integrated approach involving compilation of both spatial and non-spatial data from government agencies and institutions, application of spatial and temporal analyses using remote sensing data. The near real-time temperature retrievals of selected areas are performed and analyzed using thermal data from COMS, Landsat, and in-situ data. And, the computational complexity and storage were discussed. Seven major land-use categories (Built-up, Road, Agriculture (green house, paddy fields, and dry fields), Field of construction work, Vegetation (forests), Wasteland and Water bodies) frequently are used in Korea. The four land-uses were selected as the most strongly areas affected by heat waves according to the survey of National Emergency Management Agency. In the future, we will estimate the precise wide area temperature of life space and promote the application of the heat/health watch/warning system.

  16. A Unified Model for BDS Wide Area and Local Area Augmentation Positioning Based on Raw Observations

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Rui; Zhang, Rui; Lu, Cuixian; Zhang, Pengfei; Liu, Jinhai; Lu, Xiaochun

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a unified model for BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) wide area and local area augmentation positioning based on raw observations has been proposed. Applying this model, both the Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) and Precise Point Positioning (PPP) service can be realized by performing different corrections at the user end. This algorithm was assessed and validated with the BDS data collected at four regional stations from Day of Year (DOY) 080 to 083 of 2016. When the users are located within the local reference network, the fast and high precision RTK service can be achieved using the regional observation corrections, revealing a convergence time of about several seconds and a precision of about 2–3 cm. For the users out of the regional reference network, the global broadcast State-Space Represented (SSR) corrections can be utilized to realize the global PPP service which shows a convergence time of about 25 min for achieving an accuracy of 10 cm. With this unified model, it can not only integrate the Network RTK (NRTK) and PPP into a seamless positioning service, but also recover the ionosphere Vertical Total Electronic Content (VTEC) and Differential Code Bias (DCB) values that are useful for the ionosphere monitoring and modeling. PMID:28273814

  17. HUBNET: Wide Area Network utilization of Local Area Network medical reference and communication resources.

    PubMed Central

    Loonsk, J. W.; Schweigel, J. E.; Carr, D.

    1994-01-01

    The State University of New York at Buffalo School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences and its associated teaching sites have developed and partially implemented a regional Wide Area Network (WAN) in Buffalo and Western New York. The school wishes to use this WAN to deliver reference and communication resources to students, residents and faculty. The richest pool of easy to use reference and communication resources are PC software programs that are intended for individual workstations or at best, client-server, Local Area Network (LAN) implementation. HUBNET (Hospitals and University at Buffalo Library Resource Network), a project of the School of Medicine and the Library Consortium of Health Institutions in Buffalo offers integrated presentation of many such LAN resources over this regional WAN. The system crosses many institutional boundaries and reaches physically remote sites in a complex mix of information systems environments with few issues related to performance. The system design provides a level of ease of use that has brought many new users into active computer use while addressing integration into diverse information systems settings and networking environments. PMID:7949959

  18. The Wide-Area X-ray Survey in the Legacy Stripe 82 Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaMassa, S.; Urry, M.; Cappelluti, N.; Comastri, A.; Glikman, E.; Richards, G.; B"ohringer, H.

    2016-06-01

    We are carrying out a wide-area X-ray survey in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82 field to uncover how luminous, obscured AGN evolve over cosmic time and the role they play in galaxy evolution. Stripe 82 is a legacy field with a high level of spectroscopic completeness and rich multi-wavelength coverage from the ultraviolet to far-infrared, including Spitzer and Herschel imaging. Our Stripe 82X survey currently reaches 31 deg^{2}, with ˜6200 X-ray point sources detected at ≥5σ level. I will review the characteristics of this survey, on-going programs to target obscured AGN candidates, and how we can use the lessons learned from the synergistic multi-wavelength coverage to develop strategic plans for future surveys and missions. Finally, I will comment on how extending the Stripe 82X survey area to 100 deg^{2} will provide unprecedented insight into the high-L (Lx > 10^{45} erg/s), high-z (z > 2) AGN population.

  19. Transient stability enhancement of modern power grid using predictive Wide-Area Monitoring and Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousefian, Reza

    This dissertation presents a real-time Wide-Area Control (WAC) designed based on artificial intelligence for large scale modern power systems transient stability enhancement. The WAC using the measurements available from Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) at generator buses, monitors the global oscillations in the system and optimally augments the local excitation system of the synchronous generators. The complexity of the power system stability problem along with uncertainties and nonlinearities makes the conventional modeling non-practical or inaccurate. In this work Reinforcement Learning (RL) algorithm on the benchmark of Neural Networks (NNs) is used to map the nonlinearities of the system in real-time. This method different from both the centralized and the decentralized control schemes, employs a number of semi-autonomous agents to collaborate with each other to perform optimal control theory well-suited for WAC applications. Also, to handle the delays in Wide-Area Monitoring (WAM) and adapt the RL toward the robust control design, Temporal Difference (TD) is proposed as a solver for RL problem or optimal cost function. However, the main drawback of such WAC design is that it is challenging to determine if an offline trained network is valid to assess the stability of the power system once the system is evolved to a different operating state or network topology. In order to address the generality issue of NNs, a value priority scheme is proposed in this work to design a hybrid linear and nonlinear controllers. The algorithm so-called supervised RL is based on mixture of experts, where it is initialized by linear controller and as the performance and identification of the RL controller improves in real-time switches to the other controller. This work also focuses on transient stability and develops Lyapunov energy functions for synchronous generators to monitor the stability stress of the system. Using such energies as a cost function guarantees the convergence

  20. Fully Polarimetric Passive W-band Millimeter Wave Imager for Wide Area Search

    SciTech Connect

    Tedeschi, Jonathan R.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Sheen, David M.; Kelly, James F.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2013-09-27

    We describe the design and phenomenology imaging results of a fully polarimetric W-band millimeter wave (MMW) radiometer developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for wide-area search. Operating from 92 - 94 GHz, the W-band radiometer employs a Dicke switching heterodyne design isolating the horizontal and vertical mm-wave components with 40 dB of polarization isolation. Design results are presented for both infinite conjugate off-axis parabolic and finite conjugate off-axis elliptical fore-optics using optical ray tracing and diffraction calculations. The received linear polarizations are down-converted to a microwave frequency band and recombined in a phase-shifting network to produce all six orthogonal polarization states of light simultaneously, which are used to calculate the Stokes parameters for display and analysis. The resulting system performance produces a heterodyne receiver noise equivalent delta temperature (NEDT) of less than 150m Kelvin. The radiometer provides novel imaging capability by producing all four of the Stokes parameters of light, which are used to create imagery based on the polarization states associated with unique scattering geometries and their interaction with the down welling MMW energy. The polarization states can be exploited in such a way that man-made objects can be located and highlighted in a cluttered scene using methods such as image comparison, color encoding of Stokes parameters, multivariate image analysis, and image fusion with visible and infrared imagery. We also present initial results using a differential imaging approach used to highlight polarization features and reduce common-mode noise. Persistent monitoring of a scene using the polarimetric passive mm-wave technique shows great promise for anomaly detection caused by human activity.

  1. Vehicle tracking in wide area motion imagery from an airborne platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Eekeren, Adam W. M.; van Huis, Jasper R.; Eendebak, Pieter T.; Baan, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Airborne platforms, such as UAV's, with Wide Area Motion Imagery (WAMI) sensors can cover multiple square kilometers and produce large amounts of video data. Analyzing all data for information need purposes becomes increasingly labor-intensive for an image analyst. Furthermore, the capacity of the datalink in operational areas may be inadequate to transfer all data to the ground station. Automatic detection and tracking of people and vehicles enables to send only the most relevant footage to the ground station and assists the image analysts in effective data searches. In this paper, we propose a method for detecting and tracking vehicles in high-resolution WAMI images from a moving airborne platform. For the vehicle detection we use a cascaded set of classifiers, using an Adaboost training algorithm on Haar features. This detector works on individual images and therefore does not depend on image motion stabilization. For the vehicle tracking we use a local template matching algorithm. This approach has two advantages. In the first place, it does not depend on image motion stabilization and it counters the inaccuracy of the GPS data that is embedded in the video data. In the second place, it can find matches when the vehicle detector would miss a certain detection. This results in long tracks even when the imagery is of low frame-rate. In order to minimize false detections, we also integrate height information from a 3D reconstruction that is created from the same images. By using the locations of buildings and roads, we are able to filter out false detections and increase the performance of the tracker. In this paper we show that the vehicle tracks can also be used to detect more complex events, such as traffic jams and fast moving vehicles. This enables the image analyst to do a faster and more effective search of the data.

  2. Protocol and Topology Issues for Wide-Area Satellite Interconnection of Terrestrial Optical LANs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parraga, N.

    2002-01-01

    Apart from broadcasting, the satellite business is targeting niche markets. Wide area interconnection is considered as one of these niche markets, since it addresses operators and business LANs (B2B, business to business) in remote areas where terrestrial infrastructure is not available. These LANs - if high-speed - are typically based on optical networks such as SONET. One of the advantages of SONET is its architecture flexibility and capacity to transport all kind of applications including multimedia with a range of different transmission rates. The applications can be carried by different protocols among which the Internet Protocol (IP) or the Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) are the most prominent ones. Thus, the question arises how these protocols can be interconnected via the satellite segment. The paper addresses several solutions for interworking with different protocols. For this investigation we distinguish first of all between the topology and the switching technology of the satellites. In case of a star network with transparent satellite, the satellite protocol consists of physical layer and data layer which can be directly interconnected with layer 2 interworking function to their terrestrial counterparts in the SONET backbone. For regenerative satellites the situation is more complex: here we need to distinguish the types of transport protocols being used in the terrestrial and satellite segment. Whereas IP, ATM, MPEG dominate in the terrestrial networks, satellite systems usually do not follow these standards. Some might employ minor additions (for instance, satellite specific packet headers), some might be completely proprietary. In general, interworking must be done for the data plane on top of layer 2 (data link layer), whereas for the signaling plane the interworking is on top of layer 3. In the paper we will discuss the protocol stacks for ATM, IP, and MPEG with a regenerative satellite system. As an example we will use the EuroSkyWay satellite

  3. A Statewide Private Microwave Wide Area Network for Real-time Natural Hazard Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, M. C.; Kent, G.; Smith, K. D.; Plank, G.; Slater, D.; Torrisi, J.; Presser, R.; Straley, K.

    2013-12-01

    The Nevada Seismological Laboratory (NSL) at the University of Nevada, Reno, operates the Nevada Seismic Network, a collection of ground motion instruments installed throughout Nevada and California, for the purposes of detecting, locating, and notifying the public of earthquakes in the state. To perform these tasks effectively, NSL has designed and built a statewide wireless microwave wide-area network (WAN) in order to receive ground motion data in near real-time. This network consists of radio access points, backhauls, and backbone communication sites transmitting time-series, images, and datalogger diagnostics to our data center servers in Reno. This privately managed communication network greatly reduces the dependence on third-party infrastructure (e.g. commercial cellular networks), and is vital for emergency management response and system uptime. Any individual seismograph or data collection device is networked through a wireless point-to-multipoint connection to a remote access point (AP) using a low-cost radio/routerboard combination. Additional point-to-point connections from AP's to radio backhauls and/or mountaintop backbone sites allow the Data Center in Reno to communicate with and receive data directly from each datalogger. Dataloggers, radios, and routers can be configured using tablets on-site, or via desktop computers at the Data Center. Redundant mountaintop links can be added to the network and facilitate the re-routing of data (similar to a meshed network) in the event of a faulty, failing, or noisy communication site. All routers, radios, and servers, including those at the Data Center, have redundant power and can operate independently in the event of a grid power or public Internet outage. A managed server room at the Data Center processes earthquake data for notifications and acts as a data source for remote users. Consisting of about 500 hosts, and spanning hundreds of miles, this WAN provides network operators access to each router and

  4. Estimating wide-area evapotranspiration at multiple scales using optical vegetation index methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagler, P. L.; Glenn, E.; Jarchow, C.; Barreto-munoz, A.; Didan, K.; Nouri, H.; Anderson, S.; Doody, T.

    2015-12-01

    We provide three examples of remotely sensed evapotranspiration (ET) from our research using optical methods at different spatial scales and applied to (i) urban landscapes, (ii) riparian vegetation in Mexico in response to river flows, and (iii) riparian vegetation in Australia in response to different flood frequencies. In the first example, we will compare ground methods for estimating ET by horticultural plants with scaled estimates of ET using both WV2 NDVI imagery and MODIS EVI which were used to determine water requirements of urban gardens in Adelaide, South Australia. In the second example, we will present the impacts of a 2014 environmental flow, released to the Colorado River delta in Mexico, on vegetation greenness and estimated ET using Landsat and MODIS data. Lastly, we will show the results for scaling sap flow transpiration of Red Gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) and associated vegetation along the Murrumbidgee River (a tributary of the River Murray) to MODIS-based estimates of evapotranspiration in the wider riparian reaches along the river. These three applications range in spatial scales from a few hectares for urban gardens, to several thousand hectares for the riparian ecosystem in Mexico, to a regional scale of a hundred thousand hectares for the Red Gum forest in Australia. Remote sensing methods can produce accurate estimates of ET across wide temporal and spatial scales, limited mainly by the accuracy of the ground methods by which they are calibrated and validated.

  5. Wide-Area Soil Moisture Estimation Using the Propagation of Lightning Generated Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Signals 1977

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land surface moisture measurements are central to our understanding of the earth’s water system, and are needed to produce accurate model-based weather/climate predictions. Currently, there exists no in-situ network capable of estimating wide-area soil moisture. In this paper, we explore an alterna...

  6. 77 FR 38731 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Updates to Wide Area WorkFlow (DFARS Case 2011...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... of Significant Changes Changes to the proposed rule to clarify language were made at 232.7002 Policy... requests and receiving reports and clarify language and to clarify instructions for completion of clause... incorporated into the final rule. Comment: A respondent observed that language is confusing to the reader,...

  7. 76 FR 71928 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Updates to Wide Area WorkFlow (DFARS Case 2011...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ... of Document Submission. Document submissions may be via web entry, Electronic Data Interchange, or... using the TRICARE Encounter Data System (TEDS) as the electronic format; or (4) Payment is made via the... and receiving reports in electronic format. DATES: Comments on the proposed rule should be...

  8. Wide Area Assessment Demonstration of LiDAR and Orthophotography at Borrego Maneuver Area, Phase II Innovative Multi-Sensor Airborne Wide Area Assessment of UXO Sites, Version 2.0

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-03

    analysis products. Interpolation of LiDAR digital terrain models ( DTMs ) into DEM rasters was accomplished using Python scripting and the ArcGIS...creation: Triangulation results were loaded into ortho-processing software, along with a LiDAR -derived DTM and aerial photography. Aerial photographs...Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) Final Wide Area Assessment Demonstration of LiDAR and Orthophotography at

  9. Intelligent Data Fusion for Wide-Area Assessment of UXO Contamination. SERDP Project MM-1510. 2006 Annual Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-20

    Program GDAL Geospatial Data Abstraction Library GeoTIFF Geostationary Earth Orbit Tagged Image File Format GIS Geographic Information System GPR ...17 Figure 4 Pueblo Precision Bombing Range #2 wide-area survey site within Packer’s Gap 1:24,000 USGS topographical map (7 ½ Minute...induction (EMI), total field magnetometry (TFM), and ground penetrating radar ( GPR ).* These UXO sensors have been deployed on ground-based

  10. A simple model for wide area hydraulic modelling in data sparse areas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, J.; Schumann, G.; Bates, P.

    2012-04-01

    The simulation of wave propagation, level and discharge in large rivers systems at continental or global scales, for applications ranging from regional flood risk assessment to climate change impacts, requires computationally efficient hydraulic models that can be applied to locations where limited or no ground based data are available. Many existing global or large scale river routing schemes use kinematic or simpler wave models, which although computationally efficient, are unable to simulate backwatering and floodplain interactions that are key controllers of wave propagation in many large rivers. Diffusive wave models are often suggested as a more physically based alternative, however the lack of inertia in the scheme leads to long simulation times due to the very low slopes in large rivers. We present a Cartesian grid two-dimensional hydraulic model with a parameterised sub-grid scale representation of the 1D channel network that can be build entirely from remotely sensed data. For both channel and floodplain flows the model simulates a simplified shallow water wave (diffusion and inertia) using an explicit finite difference scheme, which was chosen because of its computational efficiency relative to both explicit diffusive and full shallow water wave models. The model was applied to an 800 km reach of the River Niger that includes the complex waterways and lakes of the Niger Inland Delta in Mali. This site has the advantage of having no or low vegetation cover and hence SRTM represents (close to) bare earth floodplain elevations. Floodplain elevation was defined at 1 km resolution from SRTM data to reduce pixel-to-pixel noise, while the widths of main rivers and floodplain channels were estimated from Landsat imagery. The channel bed was defined as a depth from the adjacent floodplain from hydraulic geometry principles using a power law relationship between channel width and depth. This was first approximated from empirical data from a range of other sites

  11. Extended Result Reading Window in Lateral Flow Tests Detecting Exposure to Onchocerca volvulus: A New Technology to Improve Epidemiological Surveillance Tools

    PubMed Central

    Golden, Allison; Steel, Cathy; Yokobe, Lindsay; Jackson, Emily; Barney, Rebecca; Kubofcik, Joseph; Peck, Roger; Unnasch, Thomas R.; Nutman, Thomas B.; de los Santos, Tala; Domingo, Gonzalo J.

    2013-01-01

    Onchocerciasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by infection with the parasite Onchocerca volvulus (Ov). An estimated 180 million people are at risk for Ov infection, and 37 million people are infected, mostly in Africa. A lateral flow-based assay to detect human IgG4 antibodies to the Ov-specific antigen Ov-16 was developed as a rapid tool to detect exposure to Ov. The test, when performed on 449 sera specimens from patients with microfiladermia and Ov-negative patients, has a sensitivity of 89.1% (95% confidence interval: 86.2%–92.0%), and specificity of 97% (95% confidence interval: 95.4%–98.6%). Because the intended use of the test is for surveillance, it is highly desirable to have a stable, long-lasting result. An extended read window is thus desirable for a high-volume, busy workflow and facilitates post-surveillance quality assurance. The main restriction on achieving an extended read window for this assay was the erythrocyte lysis that can alter the signal-to-noise ratio, especially in those with low IgG4 levels (weak positives). We describe a test housing that incorporates a user-independent feature driven by assay fluid and an expanding wick that detaches the blood separation membrane from the nitrocellulose used in the assay, but before hemolysis occurs. We demonstrated material functionality at extreme operational conditions (37°C, 80% relative humidity) and a read window of a minimum of 70 days. The fluid-driven assay device performs equally as well with whole blood as with plasma, as demonstrated with 100 spiked clinical specimens (with a correlation coefficient of 0.96). We show a novel, inexpensive, and simple approach to actuating the detachment of the blood separation membrane from the nitrocellulose test with no impact on the performance characteristics of the test. PMID:23935960

  12. Surveillance of Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Coleen A.; Bertrand, Jacquelyn; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the autism surveillance activities of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. It considers why surveillance to track prevalence of autistic disorders is needed, how such surveillance is conducted, and the special challenges of autism surveillance. (DB)

  13. Air surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  14. Powered low cost autonomous attack system: cooperative, autonomous, wide-area-search munitions with capability to serve as non-traditional ISR assets in a network-centric environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, James C.; O'Neal, J. K.; Brown, Robert A.; Keeler, Joseph E.

    2005-05-01

    The Powered Low Cost Autonomous Attack System (PLOCAAS) is an Air Force Research Laboratory Munitions Directorate Advanced Technology Demonstration program. The PLOCAAS objective is to demonstrate a suite of technologies in an affordable miniature munition to autonomously search, detect, identify, track, attack and destroy ground mobile targets of military interest. PLOCAAS incorporates a solid state LADAR seeker and Autonomous Target Acquisition (ATA) algorithms, miniature turbojet engine, multi-mode warhead, and an integrated INS/GPS into a 36" high lift-to-drag airframe. Together, these technologies provide standoff beyond terminal defenses, wide area search capability, and high probability of target report with low false target attack rate with high load-outs. Four LADAR seeker captive flight tests provided the sequestered data for robust Air Force ATA algorithm performance assessment and non-sequestered data for algorithm development. PLOCAAS has had three successful free-flight tests in which the LADAR seeker and ATA algorithms have detected, acquired, identified, tracked, and engaged ground mobile targets. In addition to summarizing program activities to date, this paper will present requirements and capabilities to be demonstrated in the next phase of PLOCAAS development. This phase"s objective is to demonstrate the military utility of a two-way data-link. The data-link allows Operator-In-The-Loop monitoring and control of miniature, cooperative, wide-area-search munitions and enables them to serve as non-traditional Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) assets in a network-centric environment.

  15. Evaluation of a long-endurance-surveillance remotely-piloted vehicle with and without laminar flow control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turriziani, R. V.; Lovell, W. A.; Price, J. E.; Quartero, C. B.; Washburn, S. F.

    1979-01-01

    Two aircraft were evaluated, using a derated TF34-GE-100 turbofan engine one with laminar flow control (LFC) and one without. The mission of the remotely piloted vehicles (RPV) is one of high-altitude loiter at maximum endurance. With the LFC system maximum mission time increased by 6.7 percent, L/D in the loiter phase improved 14.2 percent, and the minimum parasite drag of the wing was reduced by 65 percent resulting in a 37 percent reduction for the total airplane. Except for the minimum parasite drag of the wing, the preceding benefits include the offsetting effects of weight increase, suction power requirements, and drag of the wing-mounted suction pods. In a supplementary study using a scaled-down, rather than derated, version of the engine, on the LFC configuration, a 17.6 percent increase in mission time over the airplane without LFC and an incremental time increase of 10.2 percent over the LFC airplane with derated engine were attained. This improvement was due principally to reductions in both weight and drag of the scaled engine.

  16. Wide area scanning system and carbon microbeams at the external microbeam facility of the INFN LABEC laboratory in Florence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuntini, L.; Massi, M.; Calusi, S.; Castelli, L.; Carraresi, L.; Fedi, M. E.; Gelli, N.; Liccioli, L.; Mandò, P. A.; Mazzinghi, A.; Palla, L.; Romano, F. P.; Ruberto, C.; Taccetti, F.

    2015-04-01

    Recently, developments have been made to the external scanning microbeam of INFN-LABEC laboratory in Florence. A new system for mechanical sample scanning was implemented. This system allows us to acquire large maps (up to 20 × 20 cm2), of great interest in the Cultural Heritage field. In parallel, the possibility of using carbon microbeams for experiments, such as, for example, ion beam modification of materials and MeV Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, has been investigated. As a test application, Particle Induced X-ray Emission with carbon microbeams has been performed on a lapis lazuli stone. First results for both wide area imaging and external carbon microbeams are briefly reported.

  17. Cyber-physical security of Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control in a smart grid environment

    PubMed Central

    Ashok, Aditya; Hahn, Adam; Govindarasu, Manimaran

    2013-01-01

    Smart grid initiatives will produce a grid that is increasingly dependent on its cyber infrastructure in order to support the numerous power applications necessary to provide improved grid monitoring and control capabilities. However, recent findings documented in government reports and other literature, indicate the growing threat of cyber-based attacks in numbers and sophistication targeting the nation’s electric grid and other critical infrastructures. Specifically, this paper discusses cyber-physical security of Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control (WAMPAC) from a coordinated cyber attack perspective and introduces a game-theoretic approach to address the issue. Finally, the paper briefly describes how cyber-physical testbeds can be used to evaluate the security research and perform realistic attack-defense studies for smart grid type environments. PMID:25685516

  18. Cyber-physical security of Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control in a smart grid environment.

    PubMed

    Ashok, Aditya; Hahn, Adam; Govindarasu, Manimaran

    2014-07-01

    Smart grid initiatives will produce a grid that is increasingly dependent on its cyber infrastructure in order to support the numerous power applications necessary to provide improved grid monitoring and control capabilities. However, recent findings documented in government reports and other literature, indicate the growing threat of cyber-based attacks in numbers and sophistication targeting the nation's electric grid and other critical infrastructures. Specifically, this paper discusses cyber-physical security of Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control (WAMPAC) from a coordinated cyber attack perspective and introduces a game-theoretic approach to address the issue. Finally, the paper briefly describes how cyber-physical testbeds can be used to evaluate the security research and perform realistic attack-defense studies for smart grid type environments.

  19. Sandia`s network for Supercomputer `96: Linking supercomputers in a wide area Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) network

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, T.J.; Martinez, L.G.; Vahle, M.O.

    1997-04-01

    The advanced networking department at Sandia National Laboratories has used the annual Supercomputing conference sponsored by the IEEE and ACM for the past several years as a forum to demonstrate and focus communication and networking developments. At Supercomputing 96, for the first time, Sandia National Laboratories, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory combined their Supercomputing 96 activities within a single research booth under the ASO banner. Sandia provided the network design and coordinated the networking activities within the booth. At Supercomputing 96, Sandia elected: to demonstrate wide area network connected Massively Parallel Processors, to demonstrate the functionality and capability of Sandia`s new edge architecture, to demonstrate inter-continental collaboration tools, and to demonstrate ATM video capabilities. This paper documents those accomplishments, discusses the details of their implementation, and describes how these demonstrations support Sandia`s overall strategies in ATM networking.

  20. Turbo-FSK, a physical layer for low-power wide-area networks: Analysis and optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Yoann; Doré, Jean-Baptiste; Ros, Laurent; Berg, Vincent

    2017-02-01

    As the Internet-of-Things is becoming a reality, the need for a new Low-Power Wide-Area (LPWA) network emerged in the last few years. Numerous low-cost devices will be connected, and this requires an optimization of the link budget: the physical layer needs to be designed highly energy efficient. The combination of M-ary orthogonal Frequency-Shift-Keying (M-FSK) modulation and coding in the same process has been shown to be a promising candidate when associated with an iterative receiver (turbo principle). In this work, we study this new digital transmission scheme, called Turbo-FSK. An EXtrinsic Information Transfer (EXIT) chart analysis is realized. The influence of the packet length is investigated, and the scheme is shown to stay energy efficiency even with short packet sizes. Comparison with LPWA current technologies is performed, showing the potential of this technology. xml:lang="fr"

  1. A GIS-assisted approach to wide-area wind resource assessment and site selection for the state of Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Brower, M.C.; Hurley, P.; Simon, R.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the methodology and results of a wide-area wind resource assessment and site selection in Colorado. This was the first phase in a three-part assessment and monitoring program conducted for the State of Colorado Office of Energy Conservation and several collaborating utilities. The objective of this phase was to identify up to 20 candidate sites for evaluation and possible long-term monitoring. This was accomplished using a geographic information system (GIS), which takes into account such factors as topography, existing wind resource data, locations of transmission lines, land cover, and land use. The resulting list of sites recommended for evaluation in Phase 2 of the study includes locations throughout Colorado, but most are in the eastern plains. The GIS wind siting model may be modified and updated in the future as additional information becomes available. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Design of wide-area time-delay supplementary controller for interconnected Network based on Hamilton function method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hailati, G.; Hu, Z. H.

    2016-08-01

    The transient stability of interconnected network with supplementary time-delay controller for generator excitations and static var compensator (SVC) has been investigated in this paper. Firstly, a delay-dependent stability criterion based on Hamilton function method is derived, and the criterion is in term of matrix inequalities. Secondly, a nonlinear time-delay Hamilton function model of interconnected network with SVCs is constructed. Thirdly, the wide-area time-delay supplementary controller (WATSC) for the interconnected network is designed and converted into the form of Hamiltonian system. The delay-dependent stability of the closed-loop power system is analysed. The gains of the WATSC are determined by using the theoretical analysis results. It is effective for the designed WATSC installed in the 16- machine, 68-bus power system for damping the inter-area modes. Then simulation results show that the method of the controller is effective.

  3. A Real-Time High Performance Computation Architecture for Multiple Moving Target Tracking Based on Wide-Area Motion Imagery via Cloud and Graphic Processing Units.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kui; Wei, Sixiao; Chen, Zhijiang; Jia, Bin; Chen, Genshe; Ling, Haibin; Sheaff, Carolyn; Blasch, Erik

    2017-02-12

    This paper presents the first attempt at combining Cloud with Graphic Processing Units (GPUs) in a complementary manner within the framework of a real-time high performance computation architecture for the application of detecting and tracking multiple moving targets based on Wide Area Motion Imagery (WAMI). More specifically, the GPU and Cloud Moving Target Tracking (GC-MTT) system applied a front-end web based server to perform the interaction with Hadoop and highly parallelized computation functions based on the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA©). The introduced multiple moving target detection and tracking method can be extended to other applications such as pedestrian tracking, group tracking, and Patterns of Life (PoL) analysis. The cloud and GPUs based computing provides an efficient real-time target recognition and tracking approach as compared to methods when the work flow is applied using only central processing units (CPUs). The simultaneous tracking and recognition results demonstrate that a GC-MTT based approach provides drastically improved tracking with low frame rates over realistic conditions.

  4. A Real-Time High Performance Computation Architecture for Multiple Moving Target Tracking Based on Wide-Area Motion Imagery via Cloud and Graphic Processing Units

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kui; Wei, Sixiao; Chen, Zhijiang; Jia, Bin; Chen, Genshe; Ling, Haibin; Sheaff, Carolyn; Blasch, Erik

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the first attempt at combining Cloud with Graphic Processing Units (GPUs) in a complementary manner within the framework of a real-time high performance computation architecture for the application of detecting and tracking multiple moving targets based on Wide Area Motion Imagery (WAMI). More specifically, the GPU and Cloud Moving Target Tracking (GC-MTT) system applied a front-end web based server to perform the interaction with Hadoop and highly parallelized computation functions based on the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA©). The introduced multiple moving target detection and tracking method can be extended to other applications such as pedestrian tracking, group tracking, and Patterns of Life (PoL) analysis. The cloud and GPUs based computing provides an efficient real-time target recognition and tracking approach as compared to methods when the work flow is applied using only central processing units (CPUs). The simultaneous tracking and recognition results demonstrate that a GC-MTT based approach provides drastically improved tracking with low frame rates over realistic conditions. PMID:28208684

  5. PSI Wide Area Product (WAP) for measuring Ground Surface Displacements at regional level for multi-hazards studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duro, Javier; Iglesias, Rubén; Blanco, Pablo; Albiol, David; Koudogbo, Fifamè

    2015-04-01

    The Wide Area Product (WAP) is a new interferometric product developed to provide measurement over large regions. Persistent Scatterers Interferometry (PSI) has largely proved their robust and precise performance in measuring ground surface deformation in different application domains. In this context, however, the accurate displacement estimation over large-scale areas (more than 10.000 km2) characterized by low magnitude motion gradients (3-5 mm/year), such as the ones induced by inter-seismic or Earth tidal effects, still remains an open issue. The main reason for that is the inclusion of low quality and more distant persistent scatterers in order to bridge low-quality areas, such as water bodies, crop areas and forested regions. This fact yields to spatial propagation errors on PSI integration process, poor estimation and compensation of the Atmospheric Phase Screen (APS) and the difficult to face residual long-wavelength phase patterns originated by orbit state vectors inaccuracies. Research work for generating a Wide Area Product of ground motion in preparation for the Sentinel-1 mission has been conducted in the last stages of Terrafirma as well as in other research programs. These developments propose technological updates for keeping the precision over large scale PSI analysis. Some of the updates are based on the use of external information, like meteorological models, and the employment of GNSS data for an improved calibration of large measurements. Usually, covering wide regions implies the processing over areas with a land use which is chiefly focused on livestock, horticulture, urbanization and forest. This represents an important challenge for providing continuous InSAR measurements and the application of advanced phase filtering strategies to enhance the coherence. The advanced PSI processing has been performed out over several areas, allowing a large scale analysis of tectonic patterns, and motion caused by multi-hazards as volcanic, landslide and

  6. GREATS: GOODS Re-ionization Era wide-Area Treasury: emission lines, SFRs, and stellar masses at z > 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labbe, Ivo

    2015-08-01

    Joint HST/WFC3 and Spitzer/IRAC observations are a powerful probe of the build up of galaxies in the early universe z > 4. A particularly surprising result in recent years has been the discovery of ubiquitous strong nebular emission lines in bright 4 < z < 8 galaxies. It is well understood that these strongly affect fundamental estimates, such as stellar mass. But apart from being a nuisance they also carry valuable information and allow us to study the SFR distribution and dust attenuation, while improving photometric redshifts and constraining ionisation properties. With IRAC programs over the Hubble Frontier Fields beginning to explore the ultra faint end L << L*, I will introduce GREATS: GOODS Re-ionization Era wide-Area Treasury from Spitzer, the 730 hour cycle-11 exploration ultradeep Spitzer/IRAC program over GOODS-North and GOODS-South to characterise the properties of normal L* galaxies at z > 7. Combined with techniques to select ultra bright high-z galaxies using IRAC over the widest fields, we are now for the first time in a position to constrain both the bright, medium, and faint end of the mass function at z > 7.

  7. Single-Network Wide-Area Persistent Scatterer Interferometry: Algorithms with Application to Sentinel-1 InSAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goel, K.; Shau, R.; Adam, N.

    2015-12-01

    Advanced InSAR techniques, for example, Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI), allow long term deformation time series analysis with millimeter accuracy. ESA's Sentinel-1 SAR mission employs the TOPS mode as the standard mode for acquiring InSAR data. It provides a continuous and large coverage at conventional resolution. The idea is to have a wide-area PSI for mapping countries and continents. Although PSI has been successfully demonstrated and validated in the past for various applications, there are some limitations for processing a large-scale dataset. First, PSI is most effective in urban areas which have a large number of stable scatterers. For large-scale PSI, even non-urban areas need to be processed; and this requires robust algorithms for scatterer selection, network construction and inversion, and atmospheric phase removal. Second, the computational load can be very high, due to which, the processing is usually divided into overlapping blocks and merged later. This can however lead to spatial error propagation. This paper presents algorithms which have been developed for a robust PSI reference network estimation, while mitigating error propagation. Instead of dividing the scene into overlapping blocks, a single network (i.e. arcs connecting the scatterers) is created for the full scene. The relative deformation and residual DEM are estimated for the arcs using the LAMBDA estimator. The relative measurements of the network are finally integrated via least-squares inversion. Here, the sparsity of the system of linear equations is exploited to deal with big data (e.g. 10,000,000 arcs for 500,000 scatterers is a typical configuration for Sentinel-1). A QR or LU parallelizable solver is used for fast inversion. Also, variances of the estimates are calculated using a selected parallel inversion method based on LDL decomposition. Demonstration of the algorithms for large-scale deformation monitoring is provided using available Sentinel-1 data for Germany.

  8. Long-term and wide-area subsidence pattern from time series of Envisat Asar Data in Konya Basin, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustun, Aydin

    2016-04-01

    Konya Basin as a sub-part of Konya Closed Basin is dominated by the Neogene and Quaternary sediments that are largely fluvial and lacustrine characteristic. The wide plains cultivated over the last 10000 years are the remnants of the Pluvial lake basin during wet and humid climate environment after the last glacial period. With the form of isolated depression-block, the geomorphological landscape has been mainly driven by the neotectonic activity of striking normal fault systems of the region. Konya that has doubled in size over the last two and half decades is both expanding into the agricultural areas and increasing its building expansion in the city center. The level observations recorded at the monitoring stations indicate that groundwater resources have been exploited permanently or seasonally in some parts where water demand exceeds supply. In this study, a long-term and wide area subsidence pattern in Konya Basin has been analyzed by stacking the deformation interferograms for time series. The study area that covers approximately 7500 km squared was investigated through a large number of the raw images of Asar sensor onboard Envisat from December 2002 to October 2010. Almost a hundred SAR scenes imaged over three tracks in both ascending and descending modes have been used to create a set of 127 differential interferograms using GMTSAR processing system. A continuous deformation map on the basinwide scale has been produced by combining the stacked interferograms. The average contour map shows that the DInSAR detected line of sight subsidence (or uplift) rates vary between 0.6 and -3.3 cm/yr throughout 8 years. The subsidence pattern significantly is correlated with the land and groundwater use within the basin and it states that the anthropogenic effect is much greater than the identified geological and hydrogeological processes.

  9. PIGC™ - A low cost fugitive emissions and methane detection system using advanced gas filter correlation techniques for local and wide area monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachance, R. L.; Gordley, L. L.; Marshall, B. T.; Fisher, J.; Paxton, G.; Gubeli, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Currently there is no efficient and affordable way to monitor gas releases over small to large areas. We have demonstrated the ability to accurately measure key greenhouse and pollutant gasses with low cost solar observations using the breakthrough sensor technology called the "Pupil Imaging Gas Correlation", PIGC™, which provides size and complexity reduction while providing exceptional resolution and coverage for various gas sensing applications. It is a practical implementation of the well-known Gas Filter Correlation Radiometry (GFCR) technique used for the HALOE and MOPITT satellite instruments that were flown on successful NASA missions in the early 2000s. This strong space heritage brings performance and reliability to the ground instrument design. A methane (CH4) abundance sensitivity of 0.5% or better of ambient column with uncooled microbolometers has been demonstrated with 1 second direct solar observations. These under $10 k sensors can be deployed in precisely balanced autonomous grids to monitor the flow of chosen gasses, and infer their source locations. Measureable gases include CH4, 13CO2, N2O, NO, NH3, CO, H2S, HCN, HCl, HF, HDO and others. A single instrument operates in a dual operation mode, at no additional cost, for continuous (real-time 24/7) local area perimeter monitoring for the detection of leaks for safety & security needs, looking at an artificial light source (for example a simple 60 W light bulb placed 100 m away), while simultaneously allowing solar observation for quasi-continuous wide area total atmospheric column scanning (3-D) for environmental monitoring (fixed and mobile configurations). The second mode of operation continuously quantifies the concentration and flux of specific gases over different ground locations, determined the amount of targeted gas being released from the area or getting into the area from outside locations, allowing better tracking of plumes and identification of sources. This paper reviews the

  10. Wide-area estimates of stand structure and water use of tamarix spp. on the lower colorado river: Implications for restoration and water management projects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nagler, P.L.; Glenn, E.P.; Didan, K.; Osterberg, J.; Jordan, F.; Cunningham, J.

    2008-01-01

    Tamarix spp. removal has been proposed to salvage water and allow native vegetation to recolonize western U.S. riparian corridors. We conducted wide-area studies on the Lower Colorado River to answer some of the scientific questions about Tamarix water use and the consequences of removal, combining ground surveys with remote sensing methods. Tamarix stands had moderate rates of evapotranspiration (ET), based on remote sensing estimates, averaging 1.1 m/yr, similar to rates determined for other locations on the river and other rivers. Leaf area index values were also moderate, and stands were relatively open, with areas of bare soil interspersed within stands. At three Tamarix sites in the Cibola National Wildlife Refuge, groundwater salinity at the site nearest to the river (200 m) was relatively low (circa 2,250 mg/L) and was within 3 m of the surface. However, 750 and 1,500 m from the river, the groundwater salinity was 5,000-10,000 mg/L due to removal of water by the Tamarix stands. Despite the high groundwater salinity, the sites away from the river did not have saline surface soils. Only 1% of the mean annual river flow is lost to Tamarix ET on the Lower Colorado River in the United States, and the opportunities for water salvage through Tamarix removal are constrained by its modest ET rates. A possible alternative to Tamarix removal is to intersperse native plants among the stands to improve the habitat value of the riparian zone. ?? 2008 Society for Ecological Restoration International.

  11. Influenza surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, M.; Assaad, F. A.; Delon, P. J.

    1978-01-01

    The main objectives of influenza surveillance are: to measure the impact of the disease by collection and analysis of epidemiological information on morbidity and mortality, and to anticipate future epidemics and pandemics by the collection and analysis of influenza viruses. The World Health Organization's influenza programme is based on the collaboration of 98 national influenza centres in 70 countries and the 2 WHO Collaborating Centres in Atlanta and London. Epidemiological information may be based on morbidity figures derived from a variety of sources such as returns from physicians or hospitals; mortality statistics or new claims for sickness benefit; school or industrial absenteeism, etc. The laboratory aspects of influenza epidemiology are certainly more uniformly covered than the statistical aspects. Since the advent of the A/Hong Kong/1/68 (H3N2) influenza virus A subtype there have been a number of variants with antigenic ”drift” but only three succeeded in causing widespread epidemics: A/England/42/72, A/Port Chalmers/1/73, and A/Victoria/3/75. In 1972, the influenza B virus also showed some antigenic ”drift”, the new variants being characterized by B/Hong Kong/5/72. Whenever a new variant appears, the degree of protection afforded to the population by the available vaccine is assessed. In the light of these data, WHO publishes annually in the Weekly epidemiological record recommendations formulated by the WHO Collaborating Centres on vaccine composition. PMID:78771

  12. Spectroscopic follow-up of 70-μm sources in Spitzer Wide-area Infrared Extragalactic Legacy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, H.; Clements, D. L.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Vaccari, M.

    2011-08-01

    We present spectroscopic follow-up observations of 70-μm selected galaxies from the Spitzer Wide-area InfraRed Extragalactic Survey XMM-LSS and Lockman Hole fields. We have measured spectroscopic redshifts for 293 new sources down to a 70 μm flux limit of 9 mJy and r < 22 mag. The redshift distribution peaks at z ˜ 0.3 and has a high redshift tail out to z = 3.5. We perform emission line diagnostics for 91 sources where [O III], Hβ, [N II], Hα and [S II] emission lines are available to determine their power source. We find in our sample 13 quasi-stellar objects, one type 2 Seyfert galaxy, 33 star-forming galaxies, 30 composite galaxies, five LINERs and 21 ambiguous galaxies. We fit single temperature dust spectral energy distributions (SEDs) to 81 70-μm sources with 160-μm photometry to estimate dust temperatures and masses. Assuming the dust emissivity factor (β) as 1.5, we determine dust temperatures in the range ˜20-60 K and dust masses with a range of 106-109 M⊙. Plotting these objects in the luminosity-temperature diagram suggests that these objects have lower dust temperatures than local IR luminous galaxies. The Herschel Space Observatory will be crucial in understanding the nature of these sources and to accurately determine the shape of the Rayleigh-Jeans tail of the dust SED. We then model SEDs from optical to far-IR (FIR) for each source using a set of galaxy and quasar templates in the optical and near-IR and with a set of dust emission templates [cirrus, M82 starburst, Arp 220 starburst and active galactic nucleus (AGN) dust torus] in the mid-IR to FIR. The numbers of objects fitted with each dust template are 57 Arp 220, 127 M82, nine cirrus, one AGN dust torus, 70 M82 and cirrus, 26 M82 and AGN dust torus, and three Arp 220 and AGN dust torus. We determine the total IR luminosity (LIR) in range 108-1015 L⊙ by integrating the SED models from 8 to 1000 μm.

  13. A methodology for near real-time change detection between Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and wide area satellite images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fytsilis, Anastasios L.; Prokos, Anthony; Koutroumbas, Konstantinos D.; Michail, Dimitrios; Kontoes, Charalambos C.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper a novel integrated hybrid methodology for unsupervised change detection between Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and satellite images, which can be utilized in various fields like security applications (e.g. border surveillance) and damage assessment, is proposed. This is a challenging problem mainly due to the difference in geographic coverage and the spatial resolution of the two images, as well as to the acquisition modes which lead to misregistration errors. The methodology consists of the following steps: (a) pre-processing, where the part of the satellite image that corresponds to the UAV image is determined and the UAV image is ortho-rectified using information provided by a Digital Terrain Model, (b) the detection of potential changes, which is based exclusively on intensity and image gradient information, (c) the generation of the region map, where homogeneous regions are produced by the previous potential changes via a seeded region growing algorithm and placed on the region map, and (d) the evaluation of the above regions, in order to characterize them as true changes or not. The methodology has been applied on demanding real datasets with very encouraging results. Finally, its robustness to the misregistration errors is assessed via extensive experimentation.

  14. A STUDY ON EMERGENCYWATER DELIVERY IN WIDE-AREA EARTHQUAKE DISASTER - A CASE STUDY OF THE GREAT EAST JAPAN EARTHQUAKE DISASTER -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnishi, Yoji; Kuwata, Yasuko

    The Great East Japan earthquake disaster caused water outage to 2. 25 million customers in all the eastern part of Japan. It was so-called "wide-area earthquake disaster". Japanwater supply authorities have improved disaster assistant system after the lessons learned from the Kobe earthquake. This study focuses on the emergency response capacity on water delivery in such a wide-area earthquake disaster reviewing the activity in assisting and assisted municipalities during the latest earthquake. The total of 355 water trucks dispatched is thought to be the maximum from the availablemunicipalities. It is turned out that the objective amount of 3 litters per person by the water delivery cannot be reached in the wide-area earthquake disaster.

  15. General Medical Surveillance Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background on the General Medical Surveillance Program at LeRC is presented. The purpose of the General Medical Surveillance Program at LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the program are discussed.

  16. Kestrel: force protection and Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) persistent surveillance on aerostats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luber, David R.; Marion, John E.; Fields, David

    2012-05-01

    Logos Technologies has developed and fielded the Kestrel system, an aerostat-based, wide area persistent surveillance system dedicated to force protection and ISR mission execution operating over forward operating bases. Its development included novel imaging and stabilization capability for day/night operations on military aerostat systems. The Kestrel system's contribution is a substantial enhancement to aerostat-based, force protection systems which to date have relied on narrow field of view ball gimbal sensors to identify targets of interest. This inefficient mechanism to conduct wide area field of view surveillance is greatly enhanced by Kestrel's ability to maintain a constant motion imagery stare of the entire forward operating base (FOB) area. The Kestrel airborne sensor enables 360° coverage out to extended ranges which covers a city sized area at moderate resolution, while cueing a narrow field of view sensor to provide high resolution imagery of targets of interest. The ground station exploitation system enables operators to autonomously monitor multiple regions of interest in real time, and allows for backtracking through the recorded imagery, while continuing to monitor ongoing activity. Backtracking capability allows operators to detect threat networks, their CONOPS, and locations of interest. Kestrel's unique advancement has already been utilized successfully in OEF operations.

  17. [Measurement of flow in the Cordis-Hakin type ventricular shunt valve, used in the surveillance of hydrocephalic patients with shunts. An experimental study (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Orgogozo, J M; Castel, J P; Cohadon, F; Ducassou, D

    1975-01-01

    Using isotopes, Benabib et al. were able, in 1970 and following the work of Descuns et al., to evaluate the function of a ventricular shunt system be measuring the flow passing through it. The experimental study carried out confirmed the applicability of the method described by Benabib et al. to the Cordis-Hakim valve after substitution of the 131I used by those authors by 99mTc O4. Measurement of flow is valid only if true flow lies between 0.085 ml/mn and 1.7 ml/mn. Although with flow rates of less than 0.07 ml/mn the values obtained are overestimates, the distinction between no flow and slight flow remains definite.

  18. Enhanced Chemical Incident Response Plan (ECIRP). Appendix F, remediation analysis with Decision Support Tools (DSTs) for wide-area chemical hazards.

    SciTech Connect

    Hassig, Nancy L.; Pulsipher, Brent A.; Foltz, Greg W.; Hoette, Trisha Marie

    2011-07-01

    The Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) commissioned an assessment of the Consequence Management (CM) plans in place on military bases for response to a chemical attack. The effectiveness of the CM plans for recovering from chemical incidents was modeled using a multiple Decision Support Tools (DSTs). First, a scenario was developed based on an aerial dispersion of a chemical agent over a wide-area of land. The extent of contamination was modeled with the Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability (HPAC) tool. Subsequently, the Analyzer for Wide Area Restoration Effectiveness (AWARE) tool was used to estimate the cost and time demands for remediation based on input of contamination maps, sampling and decontamination resources, strategies, rates and costs. The sampling strategies incorporated in the calculation were designed using the Visual Sample Plan (VSP) tool. Based on a gaps assessment and the DST remediation analysis, an Enhanced Chemical Incident Response Plan (ECIRP) was developed.

  19. Demonstration of a Novel Synchrophasor-based Situational Awareness System: Wide Area Power System Visualization, On-line Event Replay and Early Warning of Grid Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Rosso, A.

    2012-12-31

    Since the large North Eastern power system blackout on August 14, 2003, U.S. electric utilities have spent lot of effort on preventing power system cascading outages. Two of the main causes of the August 14, 2003 blackout were inadequate situational awareness and inadequate operator training In addition to the enhancements of the infrastructure of the interconnected power systems, more research and development of advanced power system applications are required for improving the wide-area security monitoring, operation and planning in order to prevent large- scale cascading outages of interconnected power systems. It is critically important for improving the wide-area situation awareness of the operators or operational engineers and regional reliability coordinators of large interconnected systems. With the installation of large number of phasor measurement units (PMU) and the related communication infrastructure, it will be possible to improve the operators’ situation awareness and to quickly identify the sequence of events during a large system disturbance for the post-event analysis using the real-time or historical synchrophasor data. The purpose of this project was to develop and demonstrate a novel synchrophasor-based comprehensive situational awareness system for control centers of power transmission systems. The developed system named WASA (Wide Area Situation Awareness) is intended to improve situational awareness at control centers of the power system operators and regional reliability coordinators. It consists of following main software modules: • Wide-area visualizations of real-time frequency, voltage, and phase angle measurements and their contour displays for security monitoring. • Online detection and location of a major event (location, time, size, and type, such as generator or line outage). • Near-real-time event replay (in seconds) after a major event occurs. • Early warning of potential wide-area stability problems. The system has been

  20. GEIS Surveillance Network Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    identification. Malaria Journal 2013, 12:113 Enterics: Enteric pathogen surveillance in a case- control study of acute diarrhoea in the town of...comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS...areas in which work is performed include respiratory illness surveillance (particularly influenza), acute febrile illness surveillance, malaria

  1. Surveillance as cultural practice.

    PubMed

    Monahan, Torin

    2011-01-01

    This special section of The Sociological Quarterly explores research on “surveillance as cultural practice,” which indicates an orientation to surveillance that views it as embedded within, brought about by, and generative of social practices in specific cultural contexts. Such an approach is more likely to include elements of popular culture, media, art, and narrative; it is also more likely to try to comprehend people's engagement with surveillance on their own terms, stressing the production of emic over etic forms of knowledge. This introduction sketches some key developments in this area and discusses their implications for the field of “surveillance studies” as a whole.

  2. Asbestos Surveillance Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background on asbestos is presented including the different types and the important medical distinctions between those different types. The four diseases associated with asbestos exposure are discussed: mesothelioma, lung cancer, asbestosis, and benign pleural disorders. The purpose of the LeRC Asbestos Surveillance Program is outlined, and the specifics of the Medical Surveillance Program for Asbestos Monitoring at LeRC are discussed.

  3. Mercury Surveillance Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background on mercury exposure is presented including forms, sources, permissible exposure limits, and physiological effects. The purpose of the Mercury Surveillance Program at LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the Medical Surveillance Program for Mercury Exposure at LeRC are discussed.

  4. Arsenic surveillance program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background information about arsenic is presented including forms, common sources, and clinical symptoms of arsenic exposure. The purpose of the Arsenic Surveillance Program and LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the Medical Surveillance Program for Arsenic Exposure at LeRC are discussed.

  5. Lead Surveillance Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background on lead exposure is presented including forms of lead, sources, hematologic effects, neurologic effects, endocrine effects, renal effects, and reproductive and developmental effects. The purpose of the Lead Surveillance Program at LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the Medical Surveillance Program for Lead Exposure at LeRC are discussed.

  6. Soil and vegetation surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    Soil sampling and analysis evaluates long-term contamination trends and monitors environmental radionuclide inventories. This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the soil and vegetation surveillance programs which were conducted during 1994. Vegetation surveillance is conducted offsite to monitor atmospheric deposition of radioactive materials in areas not under cultivation and onsite at locations adjacent to potential sources of radioactivity.

  7. Wide-Area Chemical Sensor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    2014www.ll.mit.edu The detection and localization of gas releases such as methane from leaking natural gas pipelines or nitrogen oxides from failing electrical...reference gas cells, such as methane buffered by nitro- gen, and a low-concentration gas cell that contains the target species to calibrate the...self-referencing technique employed by WACS is particularly suited to detecting chemical agents composed of primarily small molecules— methane , various

  8. The design of delay-dependent wide-area DOFC with prescribed degree of stability α for damping inter-area low-frequency oscillations in power system.

    PubMed

    Sun, Miaoping; Nian, Xiaohong; Dai, Liqiong; Guo, Hua

    2017-03-24

    In this paper, the delay-dependent wide-area dynamic output feedback controller (DOFC) with prescribed degree of stability is proposed for interconnected power system to damp inter-area low-frequency oscillations. Here, the prescribed degree of stability α is used to maintain all the poles on the left of s=-α in the s-plane. Firstly, residue approach is adopted to select input-output control signals and the schur balanced truncation model reduction method is utilized to obtain the reduced power system model. Secondly, based on Lyapunov stability theory and transformation operation in complex plane, the sufficient condition of asymptotic stability for closed-loop power system with prescribed degree of stability α is derived. Then, a novel method based on linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) is presented to obtain the parameters of DOFC and calculate delay margin of the closed-loop system considering the prescribed degree of stability α. Finally, case studies are carried out on the two-area four-machine system, which is controlled by classical wide-area power system stabilizer (WAPSS) in reported reference and our proposed DOFC respectively. The effectiveness and advantages of the proposed method are verified by the simulation results under different operating conditions.

  9. Robust Behavior Recognition in Intelligent Surveillance Environments

    PubMed Central

    Batchuluun, Ganbayar; Kim, Yeong Gon; Kim, Jong Hyun; Hong, Hyung Gil; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2016-01-01

    Intelligent surveillance systems have been studied by many researchers. These systems should be operated in both daytime and nighttime, but objects are invisible in images captured by visible light camera during the night. Therefore, near infrared (NIR) cameras, thermal cameras (based on medium-wavelength infrared (MWIR), and long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) light) have been considered for usage during the nighttime as an alternative. Due to the usage during both daytime and nighttime, and the limitation of requiring an additional NIR illuminator (which should illuminate a wide area over a great distance) for NIR cameras during the nighttime, a dual system of visible light and thermal cameras is used in our research, and we propose a new behavior recognition in intelligent surveillance environments. Twelve datasets were compiled by collecting data in various environments, and they were used to obtain experimental results. The recognition accuracy of our method was found to be 97.6%, thereby confirming the ability of our method to outperform previous methods. PMID:27376288

  10. Robust Behavior Recognition in Intelligent Surveillance Environments.

    PubMed

    Batchuluun, Ganbayar; Kim, Yeong Gon; Kim, Jong Hyun; Hong, Hyung Gil; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2016-06-30

    Intelligent surveillance systems have been studied by many researchers. These systems should be operated in both daytime and nighttime, but objects are invisible in images captured by visible light camera during the night. Therefore, near infrared (NIR) cameras, thermal cameras (based on medium-wavelength infrared (MWIR), and long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) light) have been considered for usage during the nighttime as an alternative. Due to the usage during both daytime and nighttime, and the limitation of requiring an additional NIR illuminator (which should illuminate a wide area over a great distance) for NIR cameras during the nighttime, a dual system of visible light and thermal cameras is used in our research, and we propose a new behavior recognition in intelligent surveillance environments. Twelve datasets were compiled by collecting data in various environments, and they were used to obtain experimental results. The recognition accuracy of our method was found to be 97.6%, thereby confirming the ability of our method to outperform previous methods.

  11. IMPROVING WATERBORNE DISEASE SURVEILLANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Public health surveillance has played a key role in controlling the spread of communicable disease and identifying the need for specific publich health practices, such as the filteration and chlorination of drinking water supplies. However, the characteristics of waterborne ou...

  12. Radio spectrum surveillance station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hersey, D. R.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents a general and functional description of a low-cost surveillance station designed as the first phase of NASA's program to develop a radio spectrum surveillance capability for deep space stations for identifying radio frequency interference sources. The station described has identified several particular interferences and is yielding spectral signature data which, after cataloging, will serve as a library for rapid identification of frequently observed interference. Findings from the use of the station are discussed.

  13. MARGINAL EXPENSE OIL WELL WIRELESS SURVEILLANCE MEOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Mason M. Medizade; John R. Ridgely; Donald G. Nelson

    2004-11-01

    A marginal expense oil well wireless surveillance system to monitor system performance and production from rod-pumped wells in real time from wells operated by Vaquero Energy in the Edison Field, Main Area of Kern County in California has been successfully designed and field tested. The surveillance system includes a proprietary flow sensor, a programmable transmitting unit, a base receiver and receiving antenna, and a base station computer equipped with software to interpret the data. First, the system design is presented. Second, field data obtained from three wells is shown. Results of the study show that an effective, cost competitive, real-time wireless surveillance system can be introduced to oil fields across the United States and the world.

  14. Surveillance Metrics Sensitivity Study

    SciTech Connect

    Bierbaum, R; Hamada, M; Robertson, A

    2011-11-01

    In September of 2009, a Tri-Lab team was formed to develop a set of metrics relating to the NNSA nuclear weapon surveillance program. The purpose of the metrics was to develop a more quantitative and/or qualitative metric(s) describing the results of realized or non-realized surveillance activities on our confidence in reporting reliability and assessing the stockpile. As a part of this effort, a statistical sub-team investigated various techniques and developed a complementary set of statistical metrics that could serve as a foundation for characterizing aspects of meeting the surveillance program objectives. The metrics are a combination of tolerance limit calculations and power calculations, intending to answer level-of-confidence type questions with respect to the ability to detect certain undesirable behaviors (catastrophic defects, margin insufficiency defects, and deviations from a model). Note that the metrics are not intended to gauge product performance but instead the adequacy of surveillance. This report gives a short description of four metrics types that were explored and the results of a sensitivity study conducted to investigate their behavior for various inputs. The results of the sensitivity study can be used to set the risk parameters that specify the level of stockpile problem that the surveillance program should be addressing.

  15. Surveillance metrics sensitivity study.

    SciTech Connect

    Hamada, Michael S.; Bierbaum, Rene Lynn; Robertson, Alix A.

    2011-09-01

    In September of 2009, a Tri-Lab team was formed to develop a set of metrics relating to the NNSA nuclear weapon surveillance program. The purpose of the metrics was to develop a more quantitative and/or qualitative metric(s) describing the results of realized or non-realized surveillance activities on our confidence in reporting reliability and assessing the stockpile. As a part of this effort, a statistical sub-team investigated various techniques and developed a complementary set of statistical metrics that could serve as a foundation for characterizing aspects of meeting the surveillance program objectives. The metrics are a combination of tolerance limit calculations and power calculations, intending to answer level-of-confidence type questions with respect to the ability to detect certain undesirable behaviors (catastrophic defects, margin insufficiency defects, and deviations from a model). Note that the metrics are not intended to gauge product performance but instead the adequacy of surveillance. This report gives a short description of four metrics types that were explored and the results of a sensitivity study conducted to investigate their behavior for various inputs. The results of the sensitivity study can be used to set the risk parameters that specify the level of stockpile problem that the surveillance program should be addressing.

  16. On R-W1 as A Diagnostic to Discover Obscured Active Galactic Nuclei in Wide-area X-Ray Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaMassa, Stephanie M.; Civano, Francesca; Brusa, Marcella; Stern, Daniel; Glikman, Eilat; Gallagher, Sarah; Urry, C. Meg; Cales, Sabrina; Cappelluti, Nico; Cardamone, Carolin; Comastri, Andrea; Farrah, Duncan; Greene, Jenny E.; Komossa, S.; Merloni, Andrea; Mroczkowski, Tony; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Richards, Gordon; Salvato, Mara; Schawinski, Kevin; Treister, Ezequiel

    2016-02-01

    Capitalizing on the all-sky coverage of WISE and the 35% and 50% sky coverage from Sloan Digital Sky Survey and Pan-STARRS, respectively, we explore the efficacy of mR (optical) - {m}3.4μ {{m}} (mid-infrared), hereafter R-W1, as a color diagnostic to identify obscured supermassive black hole accretion in wide-area X-ray surveys. We use the ˜16.5 deg2 Stripe 82 X-ray survey data as a test bed to compare R-W1 with R - K, an oft-used obscured active galactic nucleus (AGN) selection criterion, and examine where different classes of objects lie in this parameter space. Most stars follow a well-defined path in R - K versus R-W1 space. We demonstrate that optically normal galaxies hosting X-ray AGNs at redshifts 0.5\\lt z\\lt 1 can be recovered with an R-W1\\gt 4 color cut, while they typically are not selected as AGNs based on their W1-W2 colors. Additionally, different observed X-ray luminosity bins favor different regions in R-W1 parameter space: moderate-luminosity AGNs (1043 erg {{{s}}}-1\\lt {L}0.5-10{keV}\\lt {10}44 erg s-1) tend to have red colors, while the highest-luminosity AGNs ({L}0.5-10{keV}\\gt {10}45 erg s-1) have bluer colors; higher spectroscopic completeness of the Stripe 82X sample is needed to determine whether this is a selection effect or an intrinsic property. Finally, we parameterize X-ray obscuration of Stripe 82X AGNs by calculating their hardness ratios (HRs) and find no clear trends between HR and optical reddening. Our results will help inform best-effort practices in following up obscured AGN candidates in current and future wide-area, shallow X-ray surveys, including the all-sky eROSITA mission.

  17. [Worker's Health Surveillance

    PubMed

    Machado

    1997-01-01

    This paper is part of a broader discussion on the need for more in-depth study of workers' health surveillance practices, which are most often developed empirically, without well-defined theoretical or technical foundations. The paper presents a concept of surveillance in workers' health as a fulcrum for actions in the relationship between the work process and health. It emphasizes the exposure-based perspective involved in the epidemiological approach. Risk situations and effects are placed in spatial and technological context. The model provides an interdisciplinary approach with a technological, social, and epidemiological basis in a three-dimensional structure. A matrix for planning actions in workers' health surveillance is also presented, focusing on the connections between effects, risks, territory, and activities.

  18. Wide-Area Energy Storage and Management system to Balance Intermittent Resources in the Bonneville Power Administration and California ISO Control Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Yang, Bo; DeSteese, John G.; Lu, Shuai; Miller, Carl H.; Nyeng, Preben; Ma, Jian; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Vishwanathan, Vilanyur V.

    2008-06-30

    The entire project addresses the issue of mitigating additional intermittency and fast ramps that occur at higher penetration of intermittent resources, including wind genera-tion, in the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the California Independent Sys-tem Operator (California ISO) control areas. The proposed Wide Area Energy Storage and Management System (WAEMS) will address the additional regulation requirement through the energy exchange between the participating control areas and through the use of energy storage and other generation resources. For the BPA and California ISO control centers, the new regulation service will look no different comparing with the traditional regulation resources. The proposed project will benefit the regulation service in these service areas, regardless of the actual degree of penetration of the intermittent resources in the regions. The project develops principles, algorithms, market integration rules, functional de-sign and technical specifications for the WAEMS system. The project is sponsored by BPA and supported in kind by California ISO, Beacon Power Corporation, and the Cali-fornia Energy Commission (CEC).

  19. Distributed Large Data-Object Environments: End-to-End Performance Analysis of High Speed Distributed Storage Systems in Wide Area ATM Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, William; Tierney, Brian; Lee, Jason; Hoo, Gary; Thompson, Mary

    1996-01-01

    We have developed and deployed a distributed-parallel storage system (DPSS) in several high speed asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) wide area networks (WAN) testbeds to support several different types of data-intensive applications. Architecturally, the DPSS is a network striped disk array, but is fairly unique in that its implementation allows applications complete freedom to determine optimal data layout, replication and/or coding redundancy strategy, security policy, and dynamic reconfiguration. In conjunction with the DPSS, we have developed a 'top-to-bottom, end-to-end' performance monitoring and analysis methodology that has allowed us to characterize all aspects of the DPSS operating in high speed ATM networks. In particular, we have run a variety of performance monitoring experiments involving the DPSS in the MAGIC testbed, which is a large scale, high speed, ATM network and we describe our experience using the monitoring methodology to identify and correct problems that limit the performance of high speed distributed applications. Finally, the DPSS is part of an overall architecture for using high speed, WAN's for enabling the routine, location independent use of large data-objects. Since this is part of the motivation for a distributed storage system, we describe this architecture.

  20. Measurement of air dose rates over a wide area around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant through a series of car-borne surveys.

    PubMed

    Andoh, Masaki; Nakahara, Yukio; Tsuda, Shuichi; Yoshida, Tadayoshi; Matsuda, Norihiro; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Mikami, Satoshi; Kinouchi, Nobuyuki; Sato, Tetsuro; Tanigaki, Minoru; Takamiya, Koichi; Sato, Nobuhiro; Okumura, Ryo; Uchihori, Yukio; Saito, Kimiaki

    2015-01-01

    A series of car-borne surveys using the Kyoto University RAdiation MApping (KURAMA) and KURAMA-II survey systems has been conducted over a wide area in eastern Japan since June 2011 to evaluate the distribution of air dose rates around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant and to evaluate the time-dependent trend of decrease in air dose rates. An automated data processing system for the KURAMA-II system was established, which enabled rapid analysis of large amounts of data obtained using about 100 KURAMA-II units. The initial data used for evaluating the migration status of radioactive cesium were obtained in the first survey, followed by other car-borne surveys conducted over more extensive and wider measurement ranges. By comparing the measured air dose rates obtained in each survey (until December 2012), the decreasing trend of air dose rates measured through car-borne surveys was found to be more pronounced than those expected on the basis of the physical decay of radioactive cesium and of the air dose rates measured using NaI (Tl) survey meters in the areas surrounding the roadways. In addition, it was found that the extent of decrease in air dose rates depended on land use, wherein it decreased faster for land used as building sites than for forested areas.

  1. Diagnostics and surveillance methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Detection and diagnosis of influenza A virus (IAV) infection in animals requires a laboratory test since disease from IAV presents no pathognomonic signs. Diagnosis and surveillance of animal influenza focuses on the detection of virus or type specific antibodies. Whether one targets the virus or ...

  2. Sensing Surveillance & Navigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-07

    Fully Adaptive Radar” Sensor Processing including MIMO Sensing for Object Identification: Analysis and Synthesis of Invariants Integrated...Operators are overwhelmed by massive volumes of high dimensional multi-sensor data • Challenges -Efficiently process data to extract inherent...Sensing & Surveillance Systems • Develop toolkit for matrix treatment of MIMO radar wave-forms • Multiple-Input/Multiple-Output • enable performance

  3. Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    category of “other.” The “other” cat - egory included cancers of unspecified sites or unknown behavior (n=56), myeloma and malignant plasma cell...the completeness and accuracy of case finding. In turn, the criteria used to detect and cat - egorize cases for surveillance purposes (e.g., as

  4. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1996-02-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1996 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project.

  5. Wide-Area Energy Storage and Management System to Balance Intermittent Resources in the Bonneville Power Administration and California ISO Control Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Yang, Bo; DeSteese, John G.; Nyeng, Preben; Miller, Carl H.; Ma, Jian; Lu, Shuai; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; McManus, Bart; Pease, John; Loutan, Clyde; RosenBlum, Grant R.

    2009-11-30

    The project described in the paper addresses the issue of mitigating additional intermittency and fast ramps that will occur at higher penetration levels of intermittent resources, including wind generation resources, in the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the California Independent System Operator (CAISO) areas. The proposed Wide Area Energy Management System (WAEMS) addresses these additional balancing requirements through energy exchange between the participating control areas and through the use of energy stor-age and other generation resources. For the BPA and CAISO control centers, the new regulation service will look no different comparing with the traditional balancing services. The work conducted developed principles, algorithms, mar-ket integration rules, functional de-sign and technical specifica-tions for the WAEMS system. Main results obtained in the project are as follow: •Most suitable energy storage technologies for the pro-posed application include flywheel energy storage devices (ESD), pumped or conventional hydro power plants, and so-dium sulfur or nickel cadmium batteries. •A preferred WAEMS architecture was selected as an ag-gregate of a flywheel ESD and a pumped storage (or a con-ventional hydro plant). The aggregate to be integrated with BPA/CAISO automatic generation control systems. •An optimization control algorithm has been developed. It provides an excellent regulation signal following capability, helps to maintain a desired state of charge on the ESD, pre-vent violations, and keep the hydro (pumped storage) power output close to the most efficient operating point. •It has been shown that the WAEMS service could help to reduce the regulation requirement in BPA and CAISO con-trol areas by about 30% compared to a traditional regulation service with the same total regulation capacity.

  6. Surface-water surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Saldi, K.A.; Dirkes, R.L.; Blanton, M.L.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the Surface water on and near the Hanford Site is monitored to determine the potential effects of Hanford operations. Surface water at Hanford includes the Columbia River, riverbank springs, ponds located on the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site. Columbia River sediments are also included in this discussion. Tables 5.3.1 and 5.3.2 summarize the sampling locations, sample types, sampling frequencies, and sample analyses included in surface-water surveillance activities during 1994. Sample locations are also identified in Figure 5.3.1. This section describes the surveillance effort and summarizes the results for these aquatic environments. Detailed analytical results are reported by Bisping (1995).

  7. Ocean surveillance satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, D.

    Soviet and U.S. programs involving satellites for surveillance of ships and submarines are discussed, considering differences in approaches. The Soviet program began with the Cosmos 198 in 1967 and the latest, the Cosmos 1400 series, 15 m long and weighing 5 tons, carry radar for monitoring ships and a nuclear reactor for a power supply. Other Soviet spacecraft carrying passive microwave sensors and ion drives powered by solar panels have recently been detonated in orbit for unknown reasons. It has also been observed that the Soviet satellites are controlled in pairs, with sequential orbital changes for one following the other, and both satellites then overflying the same points. In contrast, U.S. surveillance satellites have been placed in higher orbits, thus placing greater demands on the capabilities of the on-board radar and camera systems. Project White Cloud and the Clipper Bow program are described, noting the continued operation of the White Cloud spacecraft, which are equipped to intercept radio signals from surface ships. Currently, the integrated tactical surveillance system program has completed its study and a decision is expected soon.

  8. Active surveillance for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Romero-Otero, Javier; García-Gómez, Borja; Duarte-Ojeda, José M; Rodríguez-Antolín, Alfredo; Vilaseca, Antoni; Carlsson, Sigrid V; Touijer, Karim A

    2016-03-01

    It is worth distinguishing between the two strategies of expectant management for prostate cancer. Watchful waiting entails administering non-curative androgen deprivation therapy to patients on development of symptomatic progression, whereas active surveillance entails delivering curative treatment on signs of disease progression. The objectives of the two management strategies and the patients enrolled in either are different: (i) to review the role of active surveillance as a management strategy for patients with low-risk prostate cancer; and (ii) review the benefits and pitfalls of active surveillance. We carried out a systematic review of active surveillance for prostate cancer in the literature using the National Center for Biotechnology Information's electronic database, PubMed. We carried out a search in English using the terms: active surveillance, prostate cancer, watchful waiting and conservative management. Selected studies were required to have a comprehensive description of the demographic and disease characteristics of the patients at the time of diagnosis, inclusion criteria for surveillance, and a protocol for the patients' follow up. Review articles were included, but not multiple papers from the same datasets. Active surveillance appears to reduce overtreatment in patients with low-risk prostate cancer without compromising cancer-specific survival at 10 years. Therefore, active surveillance is an option for select patients who want to avoid the side-effects inherent to the different types of immediate treatment. However, inclusion criteria for active surveillance and the most appropriate method of monitoring patients on active surveillance have not yet been standardized.

  9. BioSense/SR-BioSpectra demonstrations of wide area/early warning for bioaerosol threats: program description and early test and evaluation results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simard, Jean-Robert; Buteau, Sylvie; Lahaie, Pierre; Mathieu, Pierre; Roy, Gilles; Nadeau, Denis; McFee, John; Ho, Jim; Rowsell, Susan; Ho, Nicolas; Babin, François; Cantin, Daniel; Healey, Dave; Robinson, Jennifer; Wood, Scott; Hsu, Jack

    2011-11-01

    Threats associated with bioaerosol weapons have been around for several decades and have been mostly associated with terrorist activities or rogue nations. Up to the turn of the millennium, defence concepts against such menaces relied mainly on point or in-situ detection technologies. Over the last 10 years, significant efforts have been deployed by multiple countries to supplement the limited spatial coverage of a network of one or more point bio-detectors using lidar technology. The addition of such technology makes it possible to detect within seconds suspect aerosol clouds over area of several tens of square kilometers and track their trajectories. These additional capabilities are paramount in directing presumptive ID missions, mapping hazardous areas, establishing efficient counter-measures and supporting subsequent forensic investigations. In order to develop such capabilities, Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC) and the Chemical, Biological, Radiological-Nuclear, and Explosives Research and Technology Initiative (CRTI) have supported two major demonstrations based on spectrally resolved Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) lidar: BioSense, aimed at defence military missions in wide open spaces, and SR-BioSpectra, aimed at surveillance of enclosed or semienclosed wide spaces common to defence and public security missions. This article first reviews briefly the modeling behind these demonstration concepts. Second, the lidar-adapted and the benchtop bioaerosol LIF chambers (BSL1), developed to challenge the constructed detection systems and to accelerate the population of the library of spectral LIF properties of bioaerosols and interferents of interest, will be described. Next, the most recent test and evaluation (T&E) results obtained with SR-BioSpectra and BioSense are reported. Finally, a brief discussion stating the way ahead for a complete defence suite is provided.

  10. Wide-area estimates of evapotranspiration by red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) and associated vegetation in the Murray-Darling River Basin, Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nagler, Pamela L.; Doody, Tanya M.; Glenn, Edward P.; Jarchow, Christopher J; Barreto-Munoz, Armando; Didan, Kamel

    2016-01-01

    Floodplain red gum forests (Eucalyptus camaldulensis plus associated grasses, reeds and sedges) are sites of high biodiversity in otherwise arid regions of southeastern Australia. They depend on periodic floods from rivers, but dams and diversions have reduced flood frequencies and volumes, leading to deterioration of trees and associated biota. There is a need to determine their water requirements so environmental flows can be administered to maintain or restore the forests. Their water requirements include the frequency and extent of overbank flooding, which recharges the floodplain soils with water, as well as the actual amount of water consumed in evapotranspiration (ET). We estimated the flooding requirements and ET for a 38 134 ha area of red gum forest fed by the Murrumbidgee River in Yanga National Park, New South Wales. ET was estimated by three methods: sap flux sensors placed in individual trees; a remote sensing method based on the Enhanced Vegetation Index from MODIS satellite imagery and a water balance method based on differences between river flows into and out of the forest. The methods gave comparable estimates yet covered different spatial and temporal scales. We estimated flood frequency and volume requirements by comparing Normalized Difference Vegetation Index values from Landsat images with flood history from 1995 to 2014, which included both wet periods and dry periods. ET during wet years is about 50% of potential ET but is much less in dry years because of the trees' ability to control stomatal conductance. Based on our analyses plus other studies, red gum trees at this location require environmental flows of 2000 GL yr−1 every other year, with peak flows of 20 000 ML d−1, to produce flooding sufficient to keep them in good condition. However, only about 120–200 GL yr−1 of river water is consumed in ET, with the remainder flowing out of the forest where it enters the Murray River system.

  11. Coastal Surveillance Baseline Model Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-27

    reconnaissance (ISR) model for coastal surveillance. The model needs to be developed in the System Toolkit (STK) software package version 10.0 (or...reconnaissance (ISR) model for coastal surveillance. The model needs to be developed in the System Toolkit (STK) software package version 10.0 (or...Catalogue STK System Toolkit TA Technical Authority DRDC CORA Task #185 Coastal Surveillance Baseline Model Development 27 February 2015 F-1 5758-001

  12. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Samples are routinely collected and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, ground water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project.

  13. Bacteriological Surveillance of Drinking Water

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-10-15

    bacteriological surveillance and evaluation of drinking water quality. A separate information paper will address microbiological contaminants of a nonbacterial nature (e.g., Cryptosporidium, Giardia lamblia , and viruses).

  14. Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program

    Cancer.gov

    The Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program started in 1966 and conducted epidemiologic research to quantify the potential adverse effects of prescription drugs, utilizing in-hospital monitoring.

  15. Wallops Ship Surveillance System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Donna C.

    2011-01-01

    Approved as a Wallops control center backup system, the Wallops Ship Surveillance Software is a day-of-launch risk analysis tool for spaceport activities. The system calculates impact probabilities and displays ship locations relative to boundary lines. It enables rapid analysis of possible flight paths to preclude the need to cancel launches and allow execution of launches in a timely manner. Its design is based on low-cost, large-customer- base elements including personal computers, the Windows operating system, C/C++ object-oriented software, and network interfaces. In conformance with the NASA software safety standard, the system is designed to ensure that it does not falsely report a safe-for-launch condition. To improve the current ship surveillance method, the system is designed to prevent delay of launch under a safe-for-launch condition. A single workstation is designated the controller of the official ship information and the official risk analysis. Copies of this information are shared with other networked workstations. The program design is divided into five subsystems areas: 1. Communication Link -- threads that control the networking of workstations; 2. Contact List -- a thread that controls a list of protected item (ocean vessel) information; 3. Hazard List -- threads that control a list of hazardous item (debris) information and associated risk calculation information; 4. Display -- threads that control operator inputs and screen display outputs; and 5. Archive -- a thread that controls archive file read and write access. Currently, most of the hazard list thread and parts of other threads are being reused as part of a new ship surveillance system, under the SureTrak project.

  16. GSFC Supplier Surveillance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Topics covered include: Develop Program/Project Quality Assurance Surveillance Plans The work activities performed by the developer and/or his suppliers are subject to evaluation and audit by government-designated representatives. CSO supports project by selecting on-site supplier representative s by one of several methods: (1) a Defense Contract Management Agency (DCMA) person via a Letter Of Delegation (LOD), (2) an independent assurance contractor (IAC) via a contract Audits, Assessments, and Assurance (A3) Contract Code 300 Mission Assurance Support Contract (MASC)

  17. Bodygraphic Injury Surveillance System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuboi, Toshiki; Kitamura, Koji; Nishida, Yoshihumi; Motomura, Yoichi; Takano, Tachio; Yamanaka, Tatsuhiro; Mizoguchi, Hiroshi

    This paper proposes a new technology,``a bodygraphic injury surveillance system (BISS)'' that not only accumulates accident situation data but also represents injury data based on a human body coordinate system in a standardized and multilayered way. Standardized and multilayered representation of injury enables accumulation, retrieval, sharing, statistical analysis, and modeling causalities of injury across different fields such as medicine, engineering, and industry. To confirm the effectiveness of the developed system, the authors collected 3,685 children's injury data in cooperation with a hospital. As new analyses based on the developed BISS, this paper shows bodygraphically statistical analysis and childhood injury modeling using the developed BISS and Bayesian network technology.

  18. Sonoma Persistent Surveillance System

    SciTech Connect

    Pennington, D M

    2006-03-24

    Sonoma offers the first cost-effective, broad-area, high-resolution, real-time motion imagery system for surveillance applications. Sonoma is unique in its ability to provide continuous, real-time video imagery of an area the size of a small city with resolutions sufficient to track 8,000 moving objects in the field of view. At higher resolutions and over smaller areas, Sonoma can even track the movement of individual people. The visual impact of the data available from Sonoma is already causing a paradigm shift in the architecture and operation of other surveillance systems. Sonoma is expected to cost just one-tenth the price of comparably sized sensor systems. Cameras mounted on an airborne platform constantly monitor an area, feeding data to the ground for real-time analysis. Sonoma was designed to provide real-time data for actionable intelligence in situations such as monitoring traffic, special events, border security, and harbors. If a Sonoma system had been available in the aftermath of the Katrina and Rita hurricanes, emergency responders would have had real-time information on roads, water levels, and traffic conditions, perhaps saving many lives.

  19. [Epidemiologic Surveillance on Measles, Rubella and Congenital Rubella Syndrome. Spain].

    PubMed

    Masa Calles, Josefa; López Perea, Noemí; Torres de Mier, Maria de Viarce

    2015-01-01

    To achieve the goal of eliminating measles and rubella two key strategies have been defined: sustain very low level of population susceptibility and strengthen surveillance system by rigorous case investigation and rapid control measures implementation. Surveillance of measles, rubella and CRS are included into the Spanish Surveillance System (RENAVE); surveillance is mandatory, passive, nationwide and case-based with laboratory information integrated. Information flows from sub national to national level (National Centre for Epidemiology) and then, to the WHO-Europe through ECDC. In the final phase of elimination, good surveillance and documented evidences are keys. Information on epidemiology of measles, rubella and CRS cases and outbreaks, pattern of importation, genotypes circulating and performance of measles and rubella surveillance are required at national and international level. Also all investigated and discarded measles or rubella cases should be reported. Currently the system faces some challenges gathering needed information for documenting the elimination. As long as the disease incidence declines, increases difficulties in identifying clinical measles and rubella because of non-specific prodromal signs and atypical cases. Differential diagnosis for fever and rash including measles and rubella should be performed in all clinical settings. Three clinical specimens must be collected to confirm or discard cases and to allow the virus characterization in order to know the pattern of importation of measles and rubella.

  20. The surveillance error grid.

    PubMed

    Klonoff, David C; Lias, Courtney; Vigersky, Robert; Clarke, William; Parkes, Joan Lee; Sacks, David B; Kirkman, M Sue; Kovatchev, Boris

    2014-07-01

    Currently used error grids for assessing clinical accuracy of blood glucose monitors are based on out-of-date medical practices. Error grids have not been widely embraced by regulatory agencies for clearance of monitors, but this type of tool could be useful for surveillance of the performance of cleared products. Diabetes Technology Society together with representatives from the Food and Drug Administration, the American Diabetes Association, the Endocrine Society, and the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation, and representatives of academia, industry, and government, have developed a new error grid, called the surveillance error grid (SEG) as a tool to assess the degree of clinical risk from inaccurate blood glucose (BG) monitors. A total of 206 diabetes clinicians were surveyed about the clinical risk of errors of measured BG levels by a monitor. The impact of such errors on 4 patient scenarios was surveyed. Each monitor/reference data pair was scored and color-coded on a graph per its average risk rating. Using modeled data representative of the accuracy of contemporary meters, the relationships between clinical risk and monitor error were calculated for the Clarke error grid (CEG), Parkes error grid (PEG), and SEG. SEG action boundaries were consistent across scenarios, regardless of whether the patient was type 1 or type 2 or using insulin or not. No significant differences were noted between responses of adult/pediatric or 4 types of clinicians. Although small specific differences in risk boundaries between US and non-US clinicians were noted, the panel felt they did not justify separate grids for these 2 types of clinicians. The data points of the SEG were classified in 15 zones according to their assigned level of risk, which allowed for comparisons with the classic CEG and PEG. Modeled glucose monitor data with realistic self-monitoring of blood glucose errors derived from meter testing experiments plotted on the SEG when compared to

  1. Smart sensing surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Charles; Chu, Kai-Dee; O'Looney, James; Blake, Michael; Rutar, Colleen

    2010-04-01

    Unattended ground sensor (UGS) networks have been widely used in remote battlefield and other tactical applications over the last few decades due to the advances of the digital signal processing. The UGS network can be applied in a variety of areas including border surveillance, special force operations, perimeter and building protection, target acquisition, situational awareness, and force protection. In this paper, a highly-distributed, fault-tolerant, and energyefficient Smart Sensing Surveillance System (S4) is presented to efficiently provide 24/7 and all weather security operation in a situation management environment. The S4 is composed of a number of distributed nodes to collect, process, and disseminate heterogeneous sensor data. Nearly all S4 nodes have passive sensors to provide rapid omnidirectional detection. In addition, Pan- Tilt- Zoom- (PTZ) Electro-Optics EO/IR cameras are integrated to selected nodes to track the objects and capture associated imagery. These S4 camera-connected nodes will provide applicable advanced on-board digital image processing capabilities to detect and track the specific objects. The imaging detection operations include unattended object detection, human feature and behavior detection, and configurable alert triggers, etc. In the S4, all the nodes are connected with a robust, reconfigurable, LPI/LPD (Low Probability of Intercept/ Low Probability of Detect) wireless mesh network using Ultra-wide band (UWB) RF technology, which can provide an ad-hoc, secure mesh network and capability to relay network information, communicate and pass situational awareness and messages. The S4 utilizes a Service Oriented Architecture such that remote applications can interact with the S4 network and use the specific presentation methods. The S4 capabilities and technologies have great potential for both military and civilian applications, enabling highly effective security support tools for improving surveillance activities in densely crowded

  2. Smart sensing surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Charles; Chu, Kai-Dee; O'Looney, James; Blake, Michael; Rutar, Colleen

    2010-04-01

    An effective public safety sensor system for heavily-populated applications requires sophisticated and geographically-distributed infrastructures, centralized supervision, and deployment of large-scale security and surveillance networks. Artificial intelligence in sensor systems is a critical design to raise awareness levels, improve the performance of the system and adapt to a changing scenario and environment. In this paper, a highly-distributed, fault-tolerant, and energy-efficient Smart Sensing Surveillance System (S4) is presented to efficiently provide a 24/7 and all weather security operation in crowded environments or restricted areas. Technically, the S4 consists of a number of distributed sensor nodes integrated with specific passive sensors to rapidly collect, process, and disseminate heterogeneous sensor data from near omni-directions. These distributed sensor nodes can cooperatively work to send immediate security information when new objects appear. When the new objects are detected, the S4 will smartly select the available node with a Pan- Tilt- Zoom- (PTZ) Electro-Optics EO/IR camera to track the objects and capture associated imagery. The S4 provides applicable advanced on-board digital image processing capabilities to detect and track the specific objects. The imaging detection operations include unattended object detection, human feature and behavior detection, and configurable alert triggers, etc. Other imaging processes can be updated to meet specific requirements and operations. In the S4, all the sensor nodes are connected with a robust, reconfigurable, LPI/LPD (Low Probability of Intercept/ Low Probability of Detect) wireless mesh network using Ultra-wide band (UWB) RF technology. This UWB RF technology can provide an ad-hoc, secure mesh network and capability to relay network information, communicate and pass situational awareness and messages. The Service Oriented Architecture of S4 enables remote applications to interact with the S4

  3. [Proposal to establish an environmental contaminants surveillance system in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Huertas, Jancy Andrea

    2015-08-01

    Environmental pollution is a growing problem that negatively impacts health with social and economic high costs. In this sense, coordinated surveillance of conditions, risks, exposures and health effects related to pollution is a useful tool to guide decision-making processes. The objective of this essay was to describe a surveillance system for environmental contaminants in Colombia and its design background. Using the technical guidelines proposed by the Pan American Health Organization, a literature review was conducted to identify the key elements to be included in such surveillance system and to establish which of these elements were already present in the Colombian context. Moreover, these findings were compared with successful experiences in Latin America. The surveillance system includes five components: Epidemiological, environmental and biological surveillance, clinical monitoring and recommendations to guide policies or interventions. The key factors for a successful surveillance system are: interdisciplinary and inter-sector work, clear definition of functions, activities, data sources and information flow. The implementation of the system will be efficient if the structures and tools existing in each country are taken into account. The most important stakeholders are inter-sector public health and environmental commissions and government institutions working in research and surveillance issues related to health, sanitation, environment, drugs and food regulation and control. In conclusion, Colombia has the technical resources and a normative framework to design and implement the surveillance system. However, stakeholders´ coordination is essential to ensure the efficacy of the system so it may guide the implementation of cost-effective actions in environmental health.

  4. Surveillance Through Concrete Walls

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    des radars à courte impulsion et très large bande de fréquence (UWB SP) pour effectuer de la surveillance à travers des murs de ciments . Cette étude...meilleures qualités quand on y inclut le délai de l’onde électromagnétique due au mur de ciments . L’impact de différent paramètre radars ou de traitement...à l’intérieur d’un édifice en ciment . Les murs de ciments ont trois impacts sur les images radars. Les images des cibles sont de- focussées et

  5. Drug approval and surveillance.

    PubMed

    Potts, M

    1980-01-01

    This article argues that current regulations governing the licensing of drugs, particularly in the U.S., need to be changed and replaced by a system of provisional or conditional licensing and increased postmarketing surveillance of drug use. In terms of research and development of new forms of contraception, this proposal would have great impact. It is believed that the U.S./Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requirements--animal experiments and Phase 1 and 2 clinical trials--not only put an unacceptable financial burden on any institution attempting to develop new contraceptives, but do not demonstrably contribute to the reduction of risks. The author questions whether even if oral contraceptives introduced prior to new U.S./FDA regulations had been subject to these current regulations that convincing evidence would have been found to alert anyone to the now-known rare adverse effects, such as risk of thromboembolism. It is pointed out that these sorts of rare risks were uncovered by continuous screening processes which are not now a part of the FDA drug regulation requirements. The author also questions the politics of "conpulsory safety," such as might be legislated for regulated car safety belt use. Citing a partnership already established between government and private industry in high-risk/low cost ventures in the aerospace industry, the author sees no reason why such a relationship could not evolve in the pharmaceutical industry. In Britain, proposals have been made to establish a fund to compensate patients adversely affected by drugs which pharmaceutical companies would reimburse if proved negligent; such a fund may work in the U.S. under new regulations which stress postmarketing surveillance.

  6. Acute Diarrheal Syndromic Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Kam, H.J.; Choi, S.; Cho, J.P.; Min, Y.G.; Park, R.W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective In an effort to identify and characterize the environmental factors that affect the number of patients with acute diarrheal (AD) syndrome, we developed and tested two regional surveillance models including holiday and weather information in addition to visitor records, at emergency medical facilities in the Seoul metropolitan area of Korea. Methods With 1,328,686 emergency department visitor records from the National Emergency Department Information system (NEDIS) and the holiday and weather information, two seasonal ARIMA models were constructed: (1) The simple model (only with total patient number), (2) the environmental factor-added model. The stationary R-squared was utilized as an in-sample model goodness-of-fit statistic for the constructed models, and the cumulative mean of the Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) was used to measure post-sample forecast accuracy over the next 1 month. Results The (1,0,1)(0,1,1)7 ARIMA model resulted in an adequate model fit for the daily number of AD patient visits over 12 months for both cases. Among various features, the total number of patient visits was selected as a commonly influential independent variable. Additionally, for the environmental factor-added model, holidays and daily precipitation were selected as features that statistically significantly affected model fitting. Stationary R-squared values were changed in a range of 0.651-0.828 (simple), and 0.805-0.844 (environmental factor-added) with p<0.05. In terms of prediction, the MAPE values changed within 0.090-0.120 and 0.089-0.114, respectively. Conclusion The environmental factor-added model yielded better MAPE values. Holiday and weather information appear to be crucial for the construction of an accurate syndromic surveillance model for AD, in addition to the visitor and assessment records. PMID:23616829

  7. Review of Australia's polio surveillance.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Beverley J; Durrheim, David N

    2013-06-30

    With eradication almost within reach, the importance of detecting every poliomyelitis case has taken on additional significance. The selected surveillance strategy must be effective and efficient. A review of polio surveillance in Australia was conducted to consider whether current strategies were optimal. Document review and semi-structured key informant interviews were used to conduct the review. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed. The review was an iterative process with feedback on the findings sought from interviewees. Since Western Pacific Regional polio-elimination status was certified, one imported adult case was detected in 2007 in Australia, with no evidence of further transmission, and no Australian paediatric cases identified. Respondents reported that: it was not possible to prevent importations; paediatric cases were more likely to be identified than adult cases; and there may be a low level of suspicion among clinicians. Case detection and outbreak mitigation were considered key reasons to undertake polio surveillance. While Australia has not achieved one of the key World Health Organization (WHO) surveillance targets, this did not compromise Australias polio-free status. Identified issues with polio surveillance were the potential for an importation with high attendant investigation and containment costs, low stool sample collection rates, and the opportunity to improve safeguards around the importation and laboratory storage of biological samples containing poliovirus. The review found strong support for ongoing polio surveillance, particularly to detect imported cases and to demonstrate commitment to maintaining a polio-free region. Existing polio surveillance strategies were considered appropriate for Australia.

  8. Surveillance of Anal Canal Cancers.

    PubMed

    Adams, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Anal squamous cell cancer is most frequently a locoregional disease that is amenable to curative therapy in a majority of fit patients. Complete response rates after chemoradiotherapy (CRT) are good, with up to 75% of patients with no evidence of relapse on surveillance. Relapse is most frequently locoregional and is often amendable to salvage surgery with curative intent. Effective surveillance attempts to improve outcomes by identifying recurrent or persistent disease early, managing both acute and late toxicities, and offering reassurance to patients. This article explores the rationale and evidence for surveillance programs after definitive CRT.

  9. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Evaluation FAQs Additional Evaluation Resources Health & Academics Anti-Bullying Policies and Enumeration: An Infobrief for Local Education ... Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six types of health-risk behaviors that contribute to the ...

  10. Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Mulford, Roberta Nancy

    2016-09-29

    This lecture discusses stockpile stewardship efforts and the role surveillance plays in the process. Performance of the RTGs is described, and the question of the absence of anticipated He is addressed.

  11. Surface Environmental Surveillance Procedures Manual

    SciTech Connect

    RW Hanf; TM Poston

    2000-09-20

    Environmental surveillance data are used in assessing the impact of current and past site operations on human health and the environment, demonstrating compliance with applicable local, state, and federal environmental regulations, and verifying the adequacy of containment and effluent controls. SESP sampling schedules are reviewed, revised, and published each calendar year in the Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule. Environmental samples are collected by SESP staff in accordance with the approved sample collection procedures documented in this manual.

  12. Occupational Surveillance for Spaceflight Exposures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarver, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the importance of longterm occupational health surveillance of astronauts after exposure to the possible hazards of spaceflight. Because there is not much information about long term effects of spaceflight on human health, it is important to identify some of the possible results of exposure to the many possible factors that can influence longterm health impacts. This surveillance also allows for NASA to meet the obligation to care for the astronauts for their lifetime.

  13. Military Occupational Health Surveillance Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-06-01

    Responses were received from 37 HSC medical treatment facilities (100%) regarding their occupational health surveillance programs. The occupational ...personnel determined to be potentially exposed to occupational or job- related hazards, medical surveillance programs are limited, if available at all. An...exposed to occupational or job-related hazards would require more adequate staffing to provide the services. Identification of personnel at risk could be

  14. Thermal surveillance of volcanoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, J. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A systematic aircraft program to monitor changes in the thermal emission from volcanoes of the Cascade Range has been initiated and is being carried out in conjunction with ERTS-1 thermal surveillance experiments. Night overflights by aircraft equipped with thermal infrared scanners sensitive to terrestrial emission in the 4-5.5 and 8-14 micron bands are currently being carried out at intervals of a few months. Preliminary results confirm that Mount Rainier, Mount Baker, Mount Saint Helens, Mount Shasta, and the Lassen area continue to be thermally active, although with the exception of Lassen which erupted between 1914 and 1917, and Mount Saint Helens which had a series of eruptions between 1831 and 1834, there has been no recent eruptive activity. Excellent quality infrared images recorded over Mount Rainier, as recently as April, 1972, show similar thermal patterns to those reported in 1964-1966. Infrared images of Mount Baker recorded in November 1970 and again in April 1972 revealed a distinct array of anomalies 1000 feet below the crater rim and associated with fumaroles or structures permitting convective heat transfer to the surface.

  15. Video sensor architecture for surveillance applications.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Jordi; Benet, Ginés; Simó, José E

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a flexible hardware and software architecture for a smart video sensor. This sensor has been applied in a video surveillance application where some of these video sensors are deployed, constituting the sensory nodes of a distributed surveillance system. In this system, a video sensor node processes images locally in order to extract objects of interest, and classify them. The sensor node reports the processing results to other nodes in the cloud (a user or higher level software) in the form of an XML description. The hardware architecture of each sensor node has been developed using two DSP processors and an FPGA that controls, in a flexible way, the interconnection among processors and the image data flow. The developed node software is based on pluggable components and runs on a provided execution run-time. Some basic and application-specific software components have been developed, in particular: acquisition, segmentation, labeling, tracking, classification and feature extraction. Preliminary results demonstrate that the system can achieve up to 7.5 frames per second in the worst case, and the true positive rates in the classification of objects are better than 80%.

  16. Wide Area Search and Engagement Simulation Validation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    69 Appendix A: MultiUAV Target Discovery Time Subroutines.........................................70 Appendix B ...MultiUAV confusion matrix subroutine is shown in Appendix B . ROC Curve Modification An additional modification made to the MultiUAV was to...TargetDiscoveryTimes %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% return 71 Appendix B : MultiUAV Classify Targets

  17. Wide Area Wind Field Monitoring Status & Results

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Marchant; Jed Simmons

    2011-09-30

    Volume-scanning elastic has been investigated as a means to derive 3D dynamic wind fields for characterization and monitoring of wind energy sites. An eye-safe volume-scanning lidar system was adapted for volume imaging of aerosol concentrations out to a range of 300m. Reformatting of the lidar data as dynamic volume images was successfully demonstrated. A practical method for deriving 3D wind fields from dynamic volume imagery was identified and demonstrated. However, the natural phenomenology was found to provide insufficient aerosol features for reliable wind sensing. The results of this study may be applicable to wind field measurement using injected aerosol tracers.

  18. Advanced space system for geostationary orbit surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimenko, N. N.; Nazarov, A. E.

    2016-12-01

    The structure and orbital configuration of the advanced space system for geostationary orbit surveillance, as well as possible approaches to the development of the satellite bus and payload for the geostationary orbit surveillance, are considered.

  19. Regional Disease Surveillance Meeting - Final Paper

    SciTech Connect

    Lesperance, Ann M.; Mahy, Heidi A.

    2006-08-08

    On June 1, 2006, public health officials working in surveillance, epidemiological modeling, and information technology communities from the Seattle/Tacoma area and State of Washington met with members of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to discuss the current state of disease surveillance and gaps and needs to improve the current systems. The meeting also included a discussion of PNNL initiatives that might be appropriate to enhance disease surveillance and the current tools being used for disease surveillance. Participants broke out into two groups to identify critical gaps and needs for improving a surveillance system, and discuss the requirements for developing improved surveillance. Each group developed a list of key priorities summarizing the requirements for improved surveillance. The objective of this meeting was to work towards the development of an improved disease surveillance system.

  20. Western equine encephalitis surveillance in Utah.

    PubMed

    Wagstaff, K H; Dickson, S L; Bailey, A

    1986-06-01

    The history of WEE surveillance in Utah is reviewed, beginning with the 1933 outbreak involving 3,958 horses. The step by step formation of the Utah Mosquito Abatement Associations surveillance program from 1957 to the present is discussed. Results of an enlarged sentinel chicken flock surveillance program in Utah during 1983 (3 sero-conversions in September), 1984 and 1985 (no sero-conversion) show the lack of WEE activity in the surveillance area.

  1. Nutrition Surveillance. Annual Summary 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control (DHHS/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

    This report summarizes information, including selected indices of nutritional status, as reported from 28 states and the District of Columbia to the Nutritional Status Surveillance System. This system has two components, one addressing nutritional status among high-risk pediatric populations, and the other addressing nutritional status among…

  2. Video surveillance with speckle imaging

    DOEpatents

    Carrano, Carmen J.; Brase, James M.

    2007-07-17

    A surveillance system looks through the atmosphere along a horizontal or slant path. Turbulence along the path causes blurring. The blurring is corrected by speckle processing short exposure images recorded with a camera. The exposures are short enough to effectively freeze the atmospheric turbulence. Speckle processing is used to recover a better quality image of the scene.

  3. Instrumental Surveillance of Water Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, J. A.; And Others

    The role analytical instrumentation performs in the surveillance and control of the quality of water resources is reviewed. Commonly performed analyses may range from simple tests for physical parameters to more highly sophisticated radiological or spectrophotometric methods. This publication explores many of these types of water quality analyses…

  4. Air-traffic surveillance systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdoran, P. F.

    1979-01-01

    Passive ground-based radio-interferometry systems (RILS) monitor local air traffic by determining aircraft position in planes defined by surveillance area. Similar RILS arrangements are used to determine aircraft positions in three dimensions when combined with azimuth and range information obtained by radar. Information helps determine three-dimensional aircraft position without expensive encoding altimeters.

  5. Smart sensing surveillance video system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Charles; Szu, Harold

    2016-05-01

    An intelligent video surveillance system is able to detect and identify abnormal and alarming situations by analyzing object movement. The Smart Sensing Surveillance Video (S3V) System is proposed to minimize video processing and transmission, thus allowing a fixed number of cameras to be connected on the system, and making it suitable for its applications in remote battlefield, tactical, and civilian applications including border surveillance, special force operations, airfield protection, perimeter and building protection, and etc. The S3V System would be more effective if equipped with visual understanding capabilities to detect, analyze, and recognize objects, track motions, and predict intentions. In addition, alarm detection is performed on the basis of parameters of the moving objects and their trajectories, and is performed using semantic reasoning and ontologies. The S3V System capabilities and technologies have great potential for both military and civilian applications, enabling highly effective security support tools for improving surveillance activities in densely crowded environments. It would be directly applicable to solutions for emergency response personnel, law enforcement, and other homeland security missions, as well as in applications requiring the interoperation of sensor networks with handheld or body-worn interface devices.

  6. Privacy-protecting video surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickramasuriya, Jehan; Alhazzazi, Mohanned; Datt, Mahesh; Mehrotra, Sharad; Venkatasubramanian, Nalini

    2005-02-01

    Forms of surveillance are very quickly becoming an integral part of crime control policy, crisis management, social control theory and community consciousness. In turn, it has been used as a simple and effective solution to many of these problems. However, privacy-related concerns have been expressed over the development and deployment of this technology. Used properly, video cameras help expose wrongdoing but typically come at the cost of privacy to those not involved in any maleficent activity. This work describes the design and implementation of a real-time, privacy-protecting video surveillance infrastructure that fuses additional sensor information (e.g. Radio-frequency Identification) with video streams and an access control framework in order to make decisions about how and when to display the individuals under surveillance. This video surveillance system is a particular instance of a more general paradigm of privacy-protecting data collection. In this paper we describe in detail the video processing techniques used in order to achieve real-time tracking of users in pervasive spaces while utilizing the additional sensor data provided by various instrumented sensors. In particular, we discuss background modeling techniques, object tracking and implementation techniques that pertain to the overall development of this system.

  7. 40 CFR 52.12 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.12 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS General Provisions § 52.12 Source surveillance. (a) Each subpart identifies the plan provisions for source surveillance which are disapproved, and sets forth...

  8. Student Resistance to the Surveillance Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hope, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The growth of surveillance in UK schools in recent years has resulted in the development of what can be labelled as the surveillance curriculum. Operating through the overt and hidden curricula, contemporary surveillance practices and technologies not only engage students in a discourse of control, but also increasingly socialise them into a…

  9. 28 CFR 550.41 - Urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Urine surveillance. 550.41 Section 550.41... Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.41 Urine surveillance. A program of urine testing for drug use shall be established in contract CTCs. (a)...

  10. 28 CFR 550.41 - Urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Urine surveillance. 550.41 Section 550.41... Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.41 Urine surveillance. A program of urine testing for drug use shall be established in contract CTCs. (a)...

  11. 28 CFR 550.41 - Urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Urine surveillance. 550.41 Section 550.41... Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.41 Urine surveillance. A program of urine testing for drug use shall be established in contract CTCs. (a)...

  12. 28 CFR 550.41 - Urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Urine surveillance. 550.41 Section 550.41... Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.41 Urine surveillance. A program of urine testing for drug use shall be established in contract CTCs. (a)...

  13. 28 CFR 550.41 - Urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Urine surveillance. 550.41 Section 550.41... Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.41 Urine surveillance. A program of urine testing for drug use shall be established in contract CTCs. (a)...

  14. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1995-02-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control, and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling .events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site. Sampling is indicated as annual, semi-annual, quarterly, or monthly in the sampling schedule. Some samples are collected and analyzed as part of ground-water monitoring and characterization programs at Hanford (e.g. Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), or Operational). The number of samples planned by other programs are identified in the sampling schedule by a number in the analysis column and a project designation in the Cosample column. Well sampling events may be merged to avoid redundancy in cases where sampling is planned by both-environmental surveillance and another program.

  15. Bat rabies surveillance in Finland

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In 1985, a bat researcher in Finland died of rabies encephalitis caused by European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2), but an epidemiological study in 1986 did not reveal EBLV-infected bats. In 2009, an EBLV-2-positive Daubenton’s bat was detected. The EBLV-2 isolate from the human case in 1985 and the isolate from the bat in 2009 were genetically closely related. In order to assess the prevalence of EBLVs in Finnish bat populations and to gain a better understanding of the public health risk that EBLV-infected bats pose, a targeted active surveillance project was initiated. Results Altogether, 1156 bats of seven species were examined for lyssaviruses in Finland during a 28–year period (1985–2012), 898 in active surveillance and 258 in passive surveillance, with only one positive finding of EBLV-2 in a Daubenton’s bat in 2009. In 2010–2011, saliva samples from 774 bats of seven species were analyzed for EBLV viral RNA, and sera from 423 bats were analyzed for the presence of bat lyssavirus antibodies. Antibodies were detected in Daubenton’s bats in samples collected from two locations in 2010 and from one location in 2011. All seropositive locations are in close proximity to the place where the EBLV-2 positive Daubenton’s bat was found in 2009. In active surveillance, no EBLV viral RNA was detected. Conclusions These data suggest that EBLV-2 may circulate in Finland, even though the seroprevalence is low. Our results indicate that passive surveillance of dead or sick bats is a relevant means examine the occurrence of lyssavirus infection, but the number of bats submitted for laboratory analysis should be higher in order to obtain reliable information on the lyssavirus situation in the country. PMID:24011337

  16. Audits and surveillance: A functional quality surveillance system

    SciTech Connect

    Smart, R.J.; Duda, J.E.

    1987-03-01

    The implementation of a quality surveillance program can be painless and productive. The system described in this report has been in use at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) for more than a year and effectively fills the void between audits and inspections. Recognized benefits of this system include: minimum administrative overhead; excellent management overview; ease of implementing trending efforts; audit supplement; fully computerization; lower cost than traditional methods; early problem detection, adaptability to other projects and facilities.

  17. Mining Surveillance and Maintenance Dollars

    SciTech Connect

    MARTINEZ, R.

    2000-02-01

    Accelerating site cleanup to reduce facility risks to the workers, the public and the environment during a time of declining federal budgets represents a significant technical and economic challenge to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Operations Offices and their respective contractors. A significant portion of a facility's recurring annual expenses are associated with routine, long-term surveillance and maintenance (S&M) activities. However, ongoing S&M activities do nothing to reduce risks and basically spend money that could be reallocated towards facility deactivation. This paper discusses the background around DOE efforts to reduce surveillance and maintenance costs, one approach used to perform cost reviews, lessons learned from field implementation and what assistance is available to assist DOE sites in performing these evaluations.

  18. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L E

    1992-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Ground-Water Monitoring Project. Samples for radiological analyses include Air-Particulate Filter, gases and vapor; Water/Columbia River, Onsite Pond, Spring, Irrigation, and Drinking; Foodstuffs/Animal Products including Whole Milk, Poultry and Eggs, and Beef; Foodstuffs/Produce including Leafy Vegetables, Vegetables, and Fruit; Foodstuffs/Farm Products including Wine, Wheat and Alfalfa; Wildlife; Soil; Vegetation; and Sediment. Direct Radiation Measurements include Terrestrial Locations, Columbia River Shoreline Locations, and Onsite Roadway, Railway and Aerial, Radiation Surveys.

  19. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1997-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)(a) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1997 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. In addition, Section 3.0, Biota, also reflects a rotating collection schedule identifying the year a specific sample is scheduled for collection. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. The sampling methods will be the same as those described in the Environmental Monitoring Plan, US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, DOE/RL91-50, Rev. 1, US Department of Energy, Richland, Washington.

  20. Congenital anomalies surveillance in Canada.

    PubMed

    Lowry, R Brian

    2008-01-01

    Congenital anomalies (CA) are present in approximately 3% of all newborn babies and account for about 12% of paediatric hospital admissions. They represent an important public health problem. Surveillance is especially important so that preventive measures such as folic acid fortification can be properly assessed without resorting to a series of ad hoc studies. Canada's surveillance of CAs is weak, with only Alberta and British Columbia having established sytems. Most provinces have perinatal systems but their CA data are incomplete and they do not capture terminations of pregnancy. The same is true of the Public Health Agency of Canada's system. A new system, the Fetal Alert Network, has been proposed for Ontario, which represents a start but will require additional sources of ascertainment if it is to be a truly population-based system for Ontario.

  1. The Sharper Image for Surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Hazi, A

    2006-01-13

    A technique adapted by Livermore scientists to take the twinkle out of stars is now being used to improve the resolution of long-range surveillance systems trained on earthbound objects. The speckle-imaging technique involves taking tens to hundreds of pictures with short-exposure times and reconstructing a single, sharp image using image-processing software. The technique drew the interest of Livermore engineer Carmen Carrano. She developed a prototype remote-surveillance system that can produce a detailed image of a face from a couple of kilometers away. The system also helps identify vehicles tens of kilometers away and improves the viewing of large structures more than 60 kilometers away.

  2. Surveillance of Space in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newsam, G.

    Australia's geography and technology base got it off to a flying start in the early days of surveillance of space, starting with CSIRO's first radio telescope in the 1940's and climaxing in NASA's establishment of station 43 in the Deep Space Network at Tidbinbilla in 1965. But Britain's exit from space and the subsequent closure of the Woomera launch range and associated space tracking facilities in the early 1970's saw the start of a long draw-down of capability. Programs such as CSIRO's radio astronomy telescopes, Electro-Optic Systems' adoption of laser technology for satellite laser ranging and tracking system, and the exploration of the use of technology developed in Australia's over-the-horizon-radar program for surveillance of space, kept some interest in the problem alive, but there has been no serious national investment in the area for the last thirty years. Recently, however, increased awareness of the vulnerability of space systems and the need to include potential opponents' space capabilities in operations planning has led to a revival of interest in space situational awareness within the Australian Defence Organisation. While firm commitments to new systems must wait on the next Defence White Paper due out at the end of 2007 and the policy directions it formally endorses, discussions have already started with the US on participating in the Space Surveillance Network (SSN) and developing a comprehensive space situational awareness capability. In support of these initiatives the Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) is drawing up an inventory of relevant Australian capabilities, technologies and activities: the paper will describe the findings of this inventory, and in particular local technologies and systems that might be deployed in Australia to contribute to the SSN. In the optical regime the available options are rather limited; they centre primarily on the satellite laser ranging technology developed by Electro-Optic Systems and

  3. Multisensor/multimission surveillance aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jobe, John T.

    1994-10-01

    The realignment of international powers, and the formation of new nations has resulted in increasing worldwide concern over border security, an expanding refugee problem, protection of fishery and mineral areas, and smuggling of all types. The focus on military services, to protect or defend against these threats of vital, national interest, is shifting to other government agencies and even commercial contractors to apply innovative and cost effective solutions. Previously, airborne surveillance and reconnaissance platforms have been large, mission dedicated military aircraft. The time has arrived for a smaller, more efficient, and more effective airborne capability. This paper briefly outlines a system of systems approach that smaller nations can afford to incorporate in their budgets, while greatly expanding their surveillance capability. The characteristics of specific cameras and sensors are purposely not addressed, so the emphasis can be placed on the integration of multiple sensors and capabilities.

  4. Minuteman 3, stage 3 surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, R.; Porter, L. C., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The program effort during this reporting period consisted of laboratory testing of both the Morton Thiokol, Inc./ASPC Minuteman 3 Third Stage Surveillance components and material samples. In addition, bondline aging testing and analysis using samples from previously dissected motors were accomplished. In support of the program, all flight and static tests, for both First and Third Stage Minuteman motors, were reviewed and tabulated for incorporation into reliability and motor historical records.

  5. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1994-02-01

    This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring the onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. The Hanford Environmental Health Foundation is responsible for monitoring the nonradiological parameters as defined in the National Drinking Water Standards while PNL conducts the radiological monitoring of the onsite drinking water. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize the expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site.

  6. Mobile Surveillance and Monitoring Robots

    SciTech Connect

    Kimberly, Howard R.; Shipers, Larry R.

    1999-07-14

    Long-term nuclear material storage will require in-vault data verification, sensor testing, error and alarm response, inventory, and maintenance operations. System concept development efforts for a comprehensive nuclear material management system have identified the use of a small flexible mobile automation platform to perform these surveillance and maintenance operations. In order to have near-term wide-range application in the Complex, a mobile surveillance system must be small, flexible, and adaptable enough to allow retrofit into existing special nuclear material facilities. The objective of the Mobile Surveillance and Monitoring Robot project is to satisfy these needs by development of a human scale mobile robot to monitor the state of health, physical security and safety of items in storage and process; recognize and respond to alarms, threats, and off-normal operating conditions; and perform material handling and maintenance operations. The system will integrate a tool kit of onboard sensors and monitors, maintenance equipment and capability, and SNL developed non-lethal threat response technology with the intelligence to identify threats and develop and implement first response strategies for abnormal signals and alarm conditions. System versatility will be enhanced by incorporating a robot arm, vision and force sensing, robust obstacle avoidance, and appropriate monitoring and sensing equipment.

  7. Electronic integrated disease surveillance system and pathogen asset control system.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Tom G; Burdakov, Aleksey V; Oukharov, Andrey O; Zhilokov, Azamat K

    2012-06-20

    Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System (EIDSS) has been used to strengthen and support monitoring and prevention of dangerous diseases within One Health concept by integrating veterinary and human surveillance, passive and active approaches, case-based records including disease-specific clinical data based on standardised case definitions and aggregated data, laboratory data including sample tracking linked to each case and event with test results and epidemiological investigations. Information was collected and shared in secure way by different means: through the distributed nodes which are continuously synchronised amongst each other, through the web service, through the handheld devices. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System provided near real time information flow that has been then disseminated to the appropriate organisations in a timely manner. It has been used for comprehensive analysis and visualisation capabilities including real time mapping of case events as these unfold enhancing decision making. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System facilitated countries to comply with the IHR 2005 requirements through a data transfer module reporting diseases electronically to the World Health Organisation (WHO) data center as well as establish authorised data exchange with other electronic system using Open Architecture approach. Pathogen Asset Control System (PACS) has been used for accounting, management and control of biological agent stocks. Information on samples and strains of any kind throughout their entire lifecycle has been tracked in a comprehensive and flexible solution PACS.Both systems have been used in a combination and individually. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System and PACS are currently deployed in the Republics of Kazakhstan, Georgia and Azerbaijan as a part of the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program (CBEP) sponsored by the US Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA).

  8. HIV surveillance in complex emergencies.

    PubMed

    Salama, P; Dondero, T J

    2001-04-01

    Many studies have shown a positive association between both migration and temporary expatriation and HIV risk. This association is likely to be similar or even more pronounced for forced migrants. In general, HIV transmission in host-migrant or host-forced-migrant interactions depends on the maturity of the HIV epidemic in both the host and the migrant population, the relative seroprevalence of HIV in the host and the migrant population, the prevalence of other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) that may facilitate transmission, and the level of sexual interaction between the two communities. Complex emergencies are the major cause of mass population movement today. In complex emergencies, additional factors such as sexual interaction between forced-migrant populations and the military; sexual violence; increasing commercial sex work; psychological trauma; and disruption of preventive and curative health services may increase the risk for HIV transmission. Despite recent success in preventing HIV infection in stable populations in selected developing countries, internally displaced persons and refugees (or forced migrants) have not been systematically included in HIV surveillance systems, nor consequently in prevention activities. Standard surveillance systems that rely on functioning health services may not provide useful data in many complex emergency settings. Secondary sources can provide some information in these settings. Little attempt has been made, however, to develop innovative HIV surveillance systems in countries affected by complex emergencies. Consequently, data on the HIV epidemic in these countries are scarce and HIV prevention programs are either not implemented or interventions are not effectively targeted. Second generation surveillance methods such as cross-sectional, population-based surveys can provide rapid information on HIV, STIs, and sexual behavior. The risks for stigmatization and breaches of confidentiality must be recognized

  9. Online Nonparametric Bayesian Activity Mining and Analysis From Surveillance Video.

    PubMed

    Bastani, Vahid; Marcenaro, Lucio; Regazzoni, Carlo S

    2016-05-01

    A method for online incremental mining of activity patterns from the surveillance video stream is presented in this paper. The framework consists of a learning block in which Dirichlet process mixture model is employed for the incremental clustering of trajectories. Stochastic trajectory pattern models are formed using the Gaussian process regression of the corresponding flow functions. Moreover, a sequential Monte Carlo method based on Rao-Blackwellized particle filter is proposed for tracking and online classification as well as the detection of abnormality during the observation of an object. Experimental results on real surveillance video data are provided to show the performance of the proposed algorithm in different tasks of trajectory clustering, classification, and abnormality detection.

  10. A radar-enabled collaborative sensor network integrating COTS technology for surveillance and tracking.

    PubMed

    Kozma, Robert; Wang, Lan; Iftekharuddin, Khan; McCracken, Ernest; Khan, Muhammad; Islam, Khandakar; Bhurtel, Sushil R; Demirer, R Murat

    2012-01-01

    The feasibility of using Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) sensor nodes is studied in a distributed network, aiming at dynamic surveillance and tracking of ground targets. Data acquisition by low-cost (<$50 US) miniature low-power radar through a wireless mote is described. We demonstrate the detection, ranging and velocity estimation, classification and tracking capabilities of the mini-radar, and compare results to simulations and manual measurements. Furthermore, we supplement the radar output with other sensor modalities, such as acoustic and vibration sensors. This method provides innovative solutions for detecting, identifying, and tracking vehicles and dismounts over a wide area in noisy conditions. This study presents a step towards distributed intelligent decision support and demonstrates effectiveness of small cheap sensors, which can complement advanced technologies in certain real-life scenarios.

  11. A Radar-Enabled Collaborative Sensor Network Integrating COTS Technology for Surveillance and Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Kozma, Robert; Wang, Lan; Iftekharuddin, Khan; McCracken, Ernest; Khan, Muhammad; Islam, Khandakar; Bhurtel, Sushil R.; Demirer, R. Murat

    2012-01-01

    The feasibility of using Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) sensor nodes is studied in a distributed network, aiming at dynamic surveillance and tracking of ground targets. Data acquisition by low-cost (<$50 US) miniature low-power radar through a wireless mote is described. We demonstrate the detection, ranging and velocity estimation, classification and tracking capabilities of the mini-radar, and compare results to simulations and manual measurements. Furthermore, we supplement the radar output with other sensor modalities, such as acoustic and vibration sensors. This method provides innovative solutions for detecting, identifying, and tracking vehicles and dismounts over a wide area in noisy conditions. This study presents a step towards distributed intelligent decision support and demonstrates effectiveness of small cheap sensors, which can complement advanced technologies in certain real-life scenarios. PMID:22438713

  12. Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit annual report, 2013.

    PubMed

    Deverell, Marie; Zurynski, Yvonne A; Elliott, Elizabeth J

    2014-12-31

    This report provides an update on the surveillance conducted by the Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit (APSU) during the period January to December 2013. The APSU facilitates national active surveillance of uncommon diseases of childhood including selected communicable diseases. This report includes data on the following conditions: acute flaccid paralysis (AFP), congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV), congenital rubella, perinatal exposure to HIV and paediatric HIV infection, neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV), congenital varicella, neonatal varicella, severe complications of varicella and juvenile onset recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (JoRRP). Surveillance of severe complications of influenza was undertaken during the influenza season (July to September 2013).

  13. 48 CFR 42.1104 - Surveillance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... use of any reliable contractor production control or data management systems. (d) In performing... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Production Surveillance and Reporting...

  14. 48 CFR 42.1104 - Surveillance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... use of any reliable contractor production control or data management systems. (d) In performing... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Production Surveillance and Reporting...

  15. 48 CFR 42.1104 - Surveillance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... use of any reliable contractor production control or data management systems. (d) In performing... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Production Surveillance and Reporting...

  16. 48 CFR 42.1104 - Surveillance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... use of any reliable contractor production control or data management systems. (d) In performing... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Production Surveillance and Reporting...

  17. 48 CFR 42.1104 - Surveillance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... use of any reliable contractor production control or data management systems. (d) In performing... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Production Surveillance and Reporting...

  18. Measles surveillance in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yung-Hsuan J.; Andrews, Ross M.; Lambert, Stephen B.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Many countries are implementing measles elimination strategies. In Australia, the State of Victoria has conducted enhanced measles surveillance since 1997 using case interviews and home-based specimen collection for laboratory confirmation. We attempted to identify features of notified cases that would better target surveillance resources. METHODS: We retrospectively classified notifications received from 1998 to 2003 as having been received in an epidemic (one or more laboratory-confirmed cases) or an interepidemic period (no laboratory-confirmed cases). We labelled the first case notified in any epidemic period that was not laboratory-confirmed at the time of notification as a "sentinel case". To maximize detection of sentinel cases while minimizing the follow-up of eventually discarded notifications, we generated algorithms using sentinel cases and interepidemic notifications. FINDINGS: We identified 10 sentinel cases with 422 interepidemic notifications from 1281 Victorian notifications. Sentinel cases were more likely to report fever at rash onset (odds ratio (OR) 15.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) CI: 2.1-688.9), cough (OR 10.4, 95% CI: 1.4-456.7), conjunctivitis (OR 7.9, 95% CI: 1.8-39.1), or year of birth between 1968 and 1981 (OR 31.8, 95% CI: 6.7-162.3). Prospective application of an algorithm consisting of fever at rash onset or born between 1968 and 1981 in the review period would have detected all sentinel cases and avoided the need for enhanced follow-up of 162 of the 422 eventually discarded notifications. CONCLUSION: Elimination strategies should be refined to suit regional and local priorities. The prospective application of an algorithm in Victoria is likely to reduce enhanced measles surveillance resource use in interepidemic periods, while still detecting early cases during measles outbreaks. PMID:16501727

  19. LANL surveillance requirements management and surveillance requirements from NA-12 tasking memo

    SciTech Connect

    Hills, Charles R

    2011-01-25

    Surveillance briefing to NNSA to support a tasking memo from NA-12 on Surveillance requirements. This talk presents the process for developing surveillance requirements, discusses the LANL requirements that were issued as part of that tasking memo, and presents recommendations on Component Evaluation and Planning Committee activities for FY11.

  20. Rocky Flats beryllium health surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Stange, A.W.; Furman, F.J.; Hilmas, D.E.

    1996-10-01

    The Rocky Flats Beryllium Health Surveillance Program (BHSP), initiated in June 1991, was designed to provide medical surveillance for current and former employees exposed to beryllium. The BHSP identifies individuals who have developed beryllium sensitivity using the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT). A detailed medical evaluation to determine the prevalence of chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is offered to individuals identified as beryllium sensitized or to those who have chest X-ray changes suggestive of CBD. The BHSP has identified 27 cases of CBD and another 74 cases of beryllium sensitization out of 4268 individuals tested. The distribution of BeLPT values for normal, sensitized, and CBD-identified individuals is described. Based on the information collected during the first 3 1/3 years of the BHSP, the BeLPT is the most effective means for the early identification of beryllium-sensitized individuals and to identify individuals who may have CBD. The need for BeLPT retesting is demonstrated through the identification of beryllium sensitization in individuals who previously tested normal. Posterior/anterior chest X-rays were not effective in the identification of CBD. 12 refs., 8 tabs.

  1. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Ground-Water Monitoring Project. The routine sampling plan for the SESP has been revised this year to reflect changing site operations and priorities. Some sampling previously performed at least annually has been reduced in frequency, and some new sampling to be performed at a less than annual frequency has been added. Therefore, the SESP schedule reflects sampling to be conducted in calendar year 1991 as well as future years. The ground-water sampling schedule is for 1991. This schedule is subject to modification during the year in response to changes in Site operation, program requirements, and the nature of the observed results. Operational limitations such as weather, mechanical failures, sample availability, etc., may also require schedule modifications. Changes will be documented in the respective project files, but this plan will not be reissued. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford evirons.

  2. Surveillance for emerging respiratory viruses.

    PubMed

    Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Zumla, Alimuddin; Gautret, Philippe; Gray, Gregory C; Hui, David S; Al-Rabeeah, Abdullah A; Memish, Ziad A

    2014-10-01

    Several new viral respiratory tract infectious diseases with epidemic potential that threaten global health security have emerged in the past 15 years. In 2003, WHO issued a worldwide alert for an unknown emerging illness, later named severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). The disease caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV) rapidly spread worldwide, causing more than 8000 cases and 800 deaths in more than 30 countries with a substantial economic impact. Since then, we have witnessed the emergence of several other viral respiratory pathogens including influenza viruses (avian influenza H5N1, H7N9, and H10N8; variant influenza A H3N2 virus), human adenovirus-14, and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). In response, various surveillance systems have been developed to monitor the emergence of respiratory-tract infections. These include systems based on identification of syndromes, web-based systems, systems that gather health data from health facilities (such as emergency departments and family doctors), and systems that rely on self-reporting by patients. More effective national, regional, and international surveillance systems are required to enable rapid identification of emerging respiratory epidemics, diseases with epidemic potential, their specific microbial cause, origin, mode of acquisition, and transmission dynamics.

  3. Video surveillance using JPEG 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufaux, Frederic; Ebrahimi, Touradj

    2004-11-01

    This paper describes a video surveillance system which is composed of three key components, smart cameras, a server, and clients, connected through IP-networks in wired or wireless configurations. The system has been designed so as to protect the privacy of people under surveillance. Smart cameras are based on JPEG 2000 compression where an analysis module allows for events detection and regions of interest identification. The resulting regions of interest can then be encoded with better quality and scrambled. Compressed video streams are scrambled and signed for the purpose of privacy and data integrity verification using JPSEC compliant methods. The same bitstream may also be protected for robustness to transmission errors based on JPWL compliant methods. The server receives, stores, manages and transmits the video sequences on wired and wireless channels to a variety of clients and users with different device capabilities, channel characteristics and preferences. Use of seamless scalable coding of video sequences prevents any need for transcoding operations at any point in the system.

  4. Battlefield Optical Surveillance System (BOSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ireland, Robert J.

    1997-02-01

    The battlefield optical surveillance system (BOSS) was developed for DARPA by the U.S. Air Force's Phillips Laboratory. BOSS is a HMMWV mounted laser surveillance and deterrence system. It is intended to be used to detect and to deter potentially hostile individuals, snipers and groups of agitators. The BOSS integrates the following: (1) a thermal camera (8-12 micrometer FLIR), that detects and cues to possible targets, (2) a 45 watt, 808 nm (near IR), air- cooled laser which provides covert illumination and designation for a day/night camera to acquire said target and attain a high-resolution image using night vision equipment, and (3) a 1 watt, 532 nm (green) laser that overtly illuminates and designates the target. It also has significant deterring effects both physiological and psychological on individuals and crowds. BOSS offers the potential capability to detect snipers before the first shot is fired. Detection of optical augmentations and the thermal characteristics of a sniper allows for this early detection. The integration of BOSS with acoustic sniper detection systems are being explored.

  5. Cyber surveillance for flood disasters.

    PubMed

    Lo, Shi-Wei; Wu, Jyh-Horng; Lin, Fang-Pang; Hsu, Ching-Han

    2015-01-22

    Regional heavy rainfall is usually caused by the influence of extreme weather conditions. Instant heavy rainfall often results in the flooding of rivers and the neighboring low-lying areas, which is responsible for a large number of casualties and considerable property loss. The existing precipitation forecast systems mostly focus on the analysis and forecast of large-scale areas but do not provide precise instant automatic monitoring and alert feedback for individual river areas and sections. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an easy method to automatically monitor the flood object of a specific area, based on the currently widely used remote cyber surveillance systems and image processing methods, in order to obtain instant flooding and waterlogging event feedback. The intrusion detection mode of these surveillance systems is used in this study, wherein a flood is considered a possible invasion object. Through the detection and verification of flood objects, automatic flood risk-level monitoring of specific individual river segments, as well as the automatic urban inundation detection, has become possible. The proposed method can better meet the practical needs of disaster prevention than the method of large-area forecasting. It also has several other advantages, such as flexibility in location selection, no requirement of a standard water-level ruler, and a relatively large field of view, when compared with the traditional water-level measurements using video screens. The results can offer prompt reference for appropriate disaster warning actions in small areas, making them more accurate and effective.

  6. Cyber Surveillance for Flood Disasters

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Shi-Wei; Wu, Jyh-Horng; Lin, Fang-Pang; Hsu, Ching-Han

    2015-01-01

    Regional heavy rainfall is usually caused by the influence of extreme weather conditions. Instant heavy rainfall often results in the flooding of rivers and the neighboring low-lying areas, which is responsible for a large number of casualties and considerable property loss. The existing precipitation forecast systems mostly focus on the analysis and forecast of large-scale areas but do not provide precise instant automatic monitoring and alert feedback for individual river areas and sections. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an easy method to automatically monitor the flood object of a specific area, based on the currently widely used remote cyber surveillance systems and image processing methods, in order to obtain instant flooding and waterlogging event feedback. The intrusion detection mode of these surveillance systems is used in this study, wherein a flood is considered a possible invasion object. Through the detection and verification of flood objects, automatic flood risk-level monitoring of specific individual river segments, as well as the automatic urban inundation detection, has become possible. The proposed method can better meet the practical needs of disaster prevention than the method of large-area forecasting. It also has several other advantages, such as flexibility in location selection, no requirement of a standard water-level ruler, and a relatively large field of view, when compared with the traditional water-level measurements using video screens. The results can offer prompt reference for appropriate disaster warning actions in small areas, making them more accurate and effective. PMID:25621609

  7. Surveillance, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Outcome of Liver Cancer in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kudo, Masatoshi

    2015-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common type of cancer and the third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. HCC is most common in Asia, but its prevalence is rapidly increasing in Western countries; consequently, HCC is a global medical issue that urgently needs to be addressed. Japan is the only developed country that has experienced both hepatitis B-related and hepatitis C-related HCC and has a long history of innovation when it comes to new diagnostic and therapeutic modalities, such as computed tomography angiography, anatomical resection, ablation, and transarterial chemoembolization. Among these innovations, a nationwide surveillance program was well established by the 1980s, and such a long-term national program does not exist anywhere else in the world. Summary More than 60% of the initially detected HCCs in Japan are Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage 0 or A, which can undergo curative therapies such as resection, ablation, or transplantation. The recent 5-year survival rate of HCC patients in Japan was 43% and the median survival time was 50 months. In addition, both incidence and mortality rates are drastically declining as a result of the successful surveillance program, careful diagnostic flow, and extensive repeated treatments. Key Message Japan's successful model in the surveillance, diagnosis, and treatment of HCC should be adopted as widely as possible to improve the survival of HCC patients worldwide. PMID:26020028

  8. Expert system for surveillance and diagnosis of breach fuel elements

    DOEpatents

    Gross, K.C.

    1988-01-21

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for surveillance and diagnosis of breached fuel elements in a nuclear reactor. A delayed neutron monitoring system provides output signals indicating the delayed neutron activity and age and the equivalent recoil area of a breached fuel element. Sensors are used to provide outputs indicating the status of each component of the delayed neutron monitoring system. Detectors also generate output signals indicating the reactor power level and the primary coolant flow rate of the reactor. The outputs from the detectors and sensors are interfaced with an artificial intelligence-based knowledge system which implements predetermined logic and generates output signals indicating the operability of the reactor. 2 figs.

  9. Expert system for surveillance and diagnosis of breach fuel elements

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenny C.

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for surveillance and diagnosis of breached fuel elements in a nuclear reactor. A delayed neutron monitoring system provides output signals indicating the delayed neutron activity and age and the equivalent recoil areas of a breached fuel element. Sensors are used to provide outputs indicating the status of each component of the delayed neutron monitoring system. Detectors also generate output signals indicating the reactor power level and the primary coolant flow rate of the reactor. The outputs from the detectors and sensors are interfaced with an artificial intelligence-based knowledge system which implements predetermined logic and generates output signals indicating the operability of the reactor.

  10. 40 CFR 52.234 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.234 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.234 Source surveillance. (a) Except in... emission data by sources. (1) Amador County APCD. (2) Bay Area AQMD. (3) Calaveras County APCD. (4)...

  11. 40 CFR 52.2075 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.2075 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Rhode Island § 52.2075 Source surveillance... authority to require owners or operators of stationary sources to maintain records of, and...

  12. 40 CFR 52.2075 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.2075 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Rhode Island § 52.2075 Source surveillance... authority to require owners or operators of stationary sources to maintain records of, and...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1479 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.1479 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Nevada § 52.1479 Source surveillance. (a) The... adequate legally enforceable procedures for requiring owners or operators of stationary sources to...

  14. 40 CFR 52.2684 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.2684 Section 52.2684 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Guam § 52.2684 Source surveillance. (a)...

  15. 40 CFR 52.794 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.794 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.794 Source surveillance. (a) The... County sources specifically listed in Table 2 of 325 IAC 6-1-10.2 (§ 52.770(c)(57)); for pushing...

  16. 40 CFR 52.479 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.479 Section 52.479 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS District of Columbia § 52.479 Source surveillance. (a)...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1479 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.1479 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Nevada § 52.1479 Source surveillance. (a) The... adequate legally enforceable procedures for requiring owners or operators of stationary sources to...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1077 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.1077 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maryland § 52.1077 Source surveillance. (a... procedures for stationary sources to be periodically tested....

  19. 40 CFR 52.794 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.794 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.794 Source surveillance. (a) The... County sources specifically listed in Table 2 of 325 IAC 6-1-10.2 (§ 52.770(c)(57)); for pushing...

  20. 40 CFR 52.130 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.130 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Arizona § 52.130 Source surveillance. (a) The... procedures for requiring sources in the Northern Arizona, Mohave-Yuma, Central Arizona, and Southeast...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1077 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.1077 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maryland § 52.1077 Source surveillance. (a... procedures for stationary sources to be periodically tested....

  2. 40 CFR 52.479 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.479 Section 52.479 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS District of Columbia § 52.479 Source surveillance. (a)...

  3. 40 CFR 52.2684 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.2684 Section 52.2684 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Guam § 52.2684 Source surveillance. (a)...

  4. Citizen Science and Wildlife Disease Surveillance.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Becki; Petrovan, Silviu O; Cunningham, Andrew A

    2015-12-01

    Achieving effective wildlife disease surveillance is challenging. The incorporation of citizen science (CS) in wildlife health surveillance can be beneficial, particularly where resources are limited and cost-effectiveness is paramount. Reports of wildlife morbidity and mortality from the public facilitate large-scale surveillance, both in time and space, which would otherwise be financially infeasible, and raise awareness of incidents occurring on privately owned land. CS wildlife disease surveillance schemes benefit scientists, the participating public and wildlife alike. CS has been employed for targeted, scanning and syndromic surveillance of wildlife disease. Whilst opportunistic surveillance is most common, systematic observations enable the standardisation of observer effort and, combined with wildlife population monitoring schemes, can allow evaluation of disease impacts at the population level. Near-universal access to digital media has revolutionised reporting modalities and facilitated rapid and economical means of sharing feedback with participants. Here we review CS schemes for wildlife disease surveillance and highlight their scope, benefits, logistical considerations, financial implications and potential limitations. The need to adopt a collaborative and multidisciplinary approach to wildlife health surveillance is increasingly recognised and the general public can make a significant contribution through CS.

  5. 40 CFR 52.12 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS General Provisions § 52.12 Source surveillance. (a) Each subpart identifies the plan provisions for source surveillance which are disapproved, and sets forth the... procedures for testing, inspection, investigation, or detection, but detailed critiques of such portions...

  6. 48 CFR 242.1104 - Surveillance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... production surveillance is required, shall— (A) Conduct a periodic risk assessment of the contractor to... risk assessment shall consider information provided by the contractor and the contracting officer; (B) Develop a production surveillance plan based on the risk level determined during a risk assessment;...

  7. 48 CFR 242.1104 - Surveillance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... production surveillance is required, shall— (A) Conduct a periodic risk assessment of the contractor to... risk assessment shall consider information provided by the contractor and the contracting officer; (B) Develop a production surveillance plan based on the risk level determined during a risk assessment;...

  8. 48 CFR 242.1104 - Surveillance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... production surveillance is required, shall— (A) Conduct a periodic risk assessment of the contractor to... risk assessment shall consider information provided by the contractor and the contracting officer; (B) Develop a production surveillance plan based on the risk level determined during a risk assessment;...

  9. 48 CFR 242.1104 - Surveillance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... production surveillance is required, shall— (A) Conduct a periodic risk assessment of the contractor to... risk assessment shall consider information provided by the contractor and the contracting officer; (B) Develop a production surveillance plan based on the risk level determined during a risk assessment;...

  10. 48 CFR 242.1104 - Surveillance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... production surveillance is required, shall— (A) Conduct a periodic risk assessment of the contractor to... risk assessment shall consider information provided by the contractor and the contracting officer; (B) Develop a production surveillance plan based on the risk level determined during a risk assessment;...

  11. Video Surveillance: All Eyes Turn to IP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raths, David

    2011-01-01

    Many university officials recognize the need to upgrade their older analog video surveillance systems. In a 2010 survey by "Campus Safety" magazine, half of university respondents expressed dissatisfaction with the quality and coverage of their current video surveillance systems. Among the limitations of analog closed-circuit television…

  12. Syndromic Surveillance: Adapting Innovations to Developing Settings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    Potential Utility in Developing Countries Syndromic surveillance offers a useful adjunct to diagnosis- based surveillance of emerging infections in...influenza-like illness caused by multiple epidemic-prone tropical infections, could indicate outbreaks requiring laboratory- based investigation and...countries. Computer- based automation of routine data analysis is helpful because, with multiple reporting units and reportable events, the number of

  13. 17 CFR 38.604 - Financial surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Financial surveillance. 38.604... MARKETS Financial Integrity of Transactions § 38.604 Financial surveillance. A designated contract market must monitor members' compliance with the designated contract market's minimum financial standards...

  14. Design Strategies for Efficient Arbovirus Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Scarpino, Samuel V.; Meyers, Lauren Ancel

    2017-01-01

    As public health agencies struggle to track and contain emerging arbovirus threats, timely and efficient surveillance is more critical than ever. Using historical dengue data from Puerto Rico, we developed methods for streamlining and designing novel arbovirus surveillance systems with or without historical disease data. PMID:28322711

  15. 40 CFR 52.1479 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.1479 Section 52.1479 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Nevada § 52.1479 Source surveillance. (a)...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1479 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.1479 Section 52.1479 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Nevada § 52.1479 Source surveillance. (a)...

  17. [Computerized surveillance of communicable diseases as a part of public health surveillance].

    PubMed

    Cavaljuga, S

    1999-01-01

    Conducting surveillance of communicable diseases and/or public health surveillance in general, in developing countries such is B&H has some common specific things-health care system is an integral part of organized government services thus, fewer impediments to implementing any part of a surveillance system are recorded. Limited health care providers and laboratories reduce the number of data source and can facilitate quality assurance. An ideal surveillance system is discussed in this paper (what kind of surveillance system an epidemiologist would like to have in future), as well as barriers to the ideal surveillance system and technology of the future. Some elements of computerised public health surveillance system and surveillance of communicable diseases, particularly, are given (e.g. hardware, software, data entry, editing the data, analysis of data, ...) Computerising a surveillance system will results in increasing speed of processing providing graphic capability, enhancing analytic capabilities, improving quality of data of reports and improving quantity of data. The most important step in beginning to conduct computerising a surveillance system is identifying the public health objective such is, for example, surveillance of communicable diseases.

  18. Microbiological Food Safety Surveillance in China.

    PubMed

    Pei, Xiaoyan; Li, Ning; Guo, Yunchang; Liu, Xiumei; Yan, Lin; Li, Ying; Yang, Shuran; Hu, Jing; Zhu, Jianghui; Yang, Dajin

    2015-08-28

    Microbiological food safety surveillance is a system that collects data regarding food contamination by foodborne pathogens, parasites, viruses, and other harmful microbiological factors. It helps to understand the spectrum of food safety, timely detect food safety hazards, and provide relevant data for food safety supervision, risk assessment, and standards-setting. The study discusses the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China, and introduces the policies and history of the national microbiological surveillance system. In addition, the function and duties of different organizations and institutions are provided in this work, as well as the generation and content of the surveillance plan, quality control, database, and achievement of the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China.

  19. Improved Global Capacity for Influenza Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Outin-Blenman, Sajata; Moen, Ann C.

    2016-01-01

    During 2004–2009, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) partnered with 39 national governments to strengthen global influenza surveillance. Using World Health Organization data and program evaluation indicators collected by CDC in 2013, we retrospectively evaluated progress made 4–9 years after the start of influenza surveillance capacity strengthening in the countries. Our results showed substantial increases in laboratory and sentinel surveillance capacities, which are essential for knowing which influenza strains circulate globally, detecting emergence of novel influenza, identifying viruses for vaccine selection, and determining the epidemiology of respiratory illness. Twenty-eight of 35 countries responding to a 2013 questionnaire indicated that they have leveraged routine influenza surveillance platforms to detect other pathogens. This additional surveillance illustrates increased health-system strengthening. Furthermore, 34 countries reported an increased ability to use data in decision making; data-driven decisions are critical for improving local prevention and control of influenza around the world. PMID:27192395

  20. Digital Dashboard Design Using Multiple Data Streams for Disease Surveillance With Influenza Surveillance as an Example

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Calvin KY; Ip, Dennis KM; Cowling, Benjamin J; Ho, Lai Ming; Leung, Gabriel M

    2011-01-01

    Background Great strides have been made exploring and exploiting new and different sources of disease surveillance data and developing robust statistical methods for analyzing the collected data. However, there has been less research in the area of dissemination. Proper dissemination of surveillance data can facilitate the end user's taking of appropriate actions, thus maximizing the utility of effort taken from upstream of the surveillance-to-action loop. Objective The aims of the study were to develop a generic framework for a digital dashboard incorporating features of efficient dashboard design and to demonstrate this framework by specific application to influenza surveillance in Hong Kong. Methods Based on the merits of the national websites and principles of efficient dashboard design, we designed an automated influenza surveillance digital dashboard as a demonstration of efficient dissemination of surveillance data. We developed the system to synthesize and display multiple sources of influenza surveillance data streams in the dashboard. Different algorithms can be implemented in the dashboard for incorporating all surveillance data streams to describe the overall influenza activity. Results We designed and implemented an influenza surveillance dashboard that utilized self-explanatory figures to display multiple surveillance data streams in panels. Indicators for individual data streams as well as for overall influenza activity were summarized in the main page, which can be read at a glance. Data retrieval function was also incorporated to allow data sharing in standard format. Conclusions The influenza surveillance dashboard serves as a template to illustrate the efficient synthesization and dissemination of multiple-source surveillance data, which may also be applied to other diseases. Surveillance data from multiple sources can be disseminated efficiently using a dashboard design that facilitates the translation of surveillance information to public

  1. Ebola Surveillance - Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Lucy A; Schafer, Ilana J; Nolen, Leisha D; Gorina, Yelena; Redd, John T; Lo, Terrence; Ervin, Elizabeth; Henao, Olga; Dahl, Benjamin A; Morgan, Oliver; Hersey, Sara; Knust, Barbara

    2016-07-08

    Developing a surveillance system during a public health emergency is always challenging but is especially so in countries with limited public health infrastructure. Surveillance for Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in the West African countries heavily affected by Ebola (Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone) faced numerous impediments, including insufficient numbers of trained staff, community reticence to report cases and contacts, limited information technology resources, limited telephone and Internet service, and overwhelming numbers of infected persons. Through the work of CDC and numerous partners, including the countries' ministries of health, the World Health Organization, and other government and nongovernment organizations, functional Ebola surveillance was established and maintained in these countries. CDC staff were heavily involved in implementing case-based surveillance systems, sustaining case surveillance and contact tracing, and interpreting surveillance data. In addition to helping the ministries of health and other partners understand and manage the epidemic, CDC's activities strengthened epidemiologic and data management capacity to improve routine surveillance in the countries affected, even after the Ebola epidemic ended, and enhanced local capacity to respond quickly to future public health emergencies. However, the many obstacles overcome during development of these Ebola surveillance systems highlight the need to have strong public health, surveillance, and information technology infrastructure in place before a public health emergency occurs. Intense, long-term focus on strengthening public health surveillance systems in developing countries, as described in the Global Health Security Agenda, is needed.The activities summarized in this report would not have been possible without collaboration with many U.S and international partners (http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/outbreaks/2014-west-africa/partners.html).

  2. A Radiation-Triggered Surveillance System for UF6 Cylinder Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, Michael M.; Myjak, Mitchell J.

    2016-09-23

    This report provides background information and representative scenarios for testing a prototype radiation-triggered surveillance system at an operating facility that handles uranium hexafluoride (UF6) cylinders. The safeguards objective is to trigger cameras using radiation, or radiation and motion, rather than motion alone, to reduce significantly the number of image files generated by a motion-triggered system. The authors recommend the use of radiation-triggered surveillance at all facilities where cylinder paths are heavily traversed by personnel. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has begun using surveillance cameras in the feed and withdrawal areas of gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs). The cameras generate imagery using elapsed time or motion, but this creates problems in areas occupied 24/7 by personnel. Either motion-or-interval-based triggering generates thousands of review files over the course of a month. Since inspectors must review the files to verify operator material-flow-declarations, a plethora of files significantly extends the review process. The primary advantage of radiation-triggered surveillance is the opportunity to obtain full-time cylinder throughput verification versus what presently amounts to part-time verification. Cost savings should be substantial, as the IAEA presently uses frequent unannounced inspections to verify cylinder-throughput declarations. The use of radiation-triggered surveillance allows the IAEA to implement less frequent unannounced inspections for the purpose of flow verification, but its principal advantage is significantly shorter and more effective inspector video reviews.

  3. Space surveillance satellite catalog maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Phoebe A.

    1990-04-01

    The United States Space Command (USSPACECOM) is a Unified Command of the Department of Defense with headquarters at Peterson Air Force Base, Colorado Springs, Co. One of the responsibilities of USSPACECOM is to detect, track, identify, and maintain a catalog of all manmade objects in earth orbit. This satellite catalog is the most important tool for space surveillance. The purpose of this paper is threefold. First, to identify why the command does the job of satellite catalog maintenance. Second, to describe what the satellite catalog is and how it is maintained. Third, and finally, to identify the questions that must be addressed if this command is to track small space object debris. This paper's underlying rationale is to describe our catalog maintenance services so that the members of our community can use them with assurance.

  4. Crop Surveillance Demonstration Using a Near-Daily MODIS Derived Vegetation Index Time Series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKellip, Rodney; Ryan, Robert E.; Blonski, Slawomir; Prados, Don

    2005-01-01

    Effective response to crop disease outbreaks requires rapid identification and diagnosis of an event. A near-daily vegetation index product, such as a Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), at moderate spatial resolution may serve as a good method for monitoring quick-acting diseases. NASA s Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument flown on the Terra and Aqua satellites has the temporal, spatial, and spectral properties to make it an excellent coarse-resolution data source for rapid, comprehensive surveillance of agricultural areas. A proof-of-concept wide area crop surveillance system using daily MODIS imagery was developed and tested on a set of San Joaquin cotton fields over a growing season. This area was chosen in part because excellent ground truth data were readily available. Preliminary results indicate that, at least in the southwestern part of the United States, near-daily NDVI products can be generated that show the natural variations in the crops as well as specific crop practices. Various filtering methods were evaluated and compared with standard MOD13 NDVI MODIS products. We observed that specific chemical applications that produce defoliation, which would have been missed using the standard 16-day product, were easily detectable with the filtered daily NDVI products.

  5. Respiratory disease surveillance in Hungary

    SciTech Connect

    Agocs, M.M.; Rudnai, P.; Etzel, R.A. )

    1992-08-28

    In October 1989, the Hungarian National Institute of Hygiene initiated the Children's Acute Respiratory Morbidity (CHARM) Surveillance System to assess the association between nine reportable respiratory diseases and air pollution. The weekly number of physician-diagnosed, reportable respiratory diseases among four age groups of children (less than 1, 1-2, 3-5, and 6-14 years) was tabulated for Sopron, a city with 60,000 residents. We calculated the proportion of diseases occurring during weeks with low, moderate, and high sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations. The weekly averages of the 24-hour median SO2 concentrations were divided into thirds at less than or equal to 17.6, greater than 17.6 to less than or equal to 26.3, and greater than 26.3 micrograms/m3 (range: 0.9-79.6 micrograms/m3), and the NO2 concentrations at less than or equal to 29.8, greater than 29.8 to less than or equal to 44.1, and greater than 44.1 micrograms/m3 (range: 4.2-90.1 micrograms/m3). During 1990, 11,474 respiratory disease cases occurred among the 4,020 children less than 15 years of age living in Sopron and monitored by the CHARM system. The two most frequently reported disease categories were rhinitis/tonsillitis/pharyngitis (71.5%) and acute bronchitis (8.5%). Sixty-seven percent of pneumonia cases occurred when SO2 concentrations were highest. We found no association between levels of NO2 and respiratory diseases. The CHARM Surveillance System may characterize more fully which groups of children develop particular respiratory diseases following exposure to air pollution.

  6. Standardized rendering from IR surveillance motion imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokoski, F. J.

    2014-06-01

    Government agencies, including defense and law enforcement, increasingly make use of video from surveillance systems and camera phones owned by non-government entities.Making advanced and standardized motion imaging technology available to private and commercial users at cost-effective prices would benefit all parties. In particular, incorporating thermal infrared into commercial surveillance systems offers substantial benefits beyond night vision capability. Face rendering is a process to facilitate exploitation of thermal infrared surveillance imagery from the general area of a crime scene, to assist investigations with and without cooperating eyewitnesses. Face rendering automatically generates greyscale representations similar to police artist sketches for faces in surveillance imagery collected from proximate locations and times to a crime under investigation. Near-realtime generation of face renderings can provide law enforcement with an investigation tool to assess witness memory and credibility, and integrate reports from multiple eyewitnesses, Renderings can be quickly disseminated through social media to warn of a person who may pose an immediate threat, and to solicit the public's help in identifying possible suspects and witnesses. Renderings are pose-standardized so as to not divulge the presence and location of eyewitnesses and surveillance cameras. Incorporation of thermal infrared imaging into commercial surveillance systems will significantly improve system performance, and reduce manual review times, at an incremental cost that will continue to decrease. Benefits to criminal justice would include improved reliability of eyewitness testimony and improved accuracy of distinguishing among minority groups in eyewitness and surveillance identifications.

  7. Modernization of existing VVER-1000 surveillance programs

    SciTech Connect

    Kochkin, V.; Erak, D.; Makhotin, D.

    2011-07-01

    According to generally accepted world practice, evaluation of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) material behavior during operation is carried out using tests of surveillance specimens. The main objective of the surveillance program consists in insurance of safe RPV operation during the design lifetime and lifetime-extension period. At present, the approaches of pressure vessels residual life validation based on the test results of their surveillance specimens have been developed and introduced in Russia and are under consideration in other countries where vodo-vodyanoi energetichesky reactors- (VVER-) 1000 are in operation. In this case, it is necessary to ensure leading irradiation of surveillance specimens (as compared to the pressure vessel wall) and to provide uniformly irradiated specimen groups for mechanical testing. Standard surveillance program of VVER-1000 has several significant shortcomings and does not meet these requirements. Taking into account program of lifetime extension of VVER-1000 operating in Russia, it is necessary to carry out upgrading of the VVER-1000 surveillance program. This paper studies the conditions of a surveillance specimen's irradiation and upgrading of existing sets to provide monitoring and prognosis of RPV material properties for extension of the reactor's lifetime up to 60 years or more. (authors)

  8. [Surveillance and prevention of influenza in Belgium].

    PubMed

    Yane, F

    2001-09-01

    Influenza is a major public health problem. The national influenza surveillance system is based on the collaboration of sentinel general practitioners who collect nose and throat swabs from their patients and report the percentage of consultations which concern influenza-like illness or acute respiratory infections. During the influenza season, a report is published each week on the website http://www.lph.fgov.be/epidemio. Belgium participates in the European Influenza Surveillance Scheme and the global Influenza surveillance system of the W.H.O.

  9. Optimizing the response to surveillance alerts in automated surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    Izadi, Masoumeh; Buckeridge, David L

    2011-02-28

    Although much research effort has been directed toward refining algorithms for disease outbreak alerting, considerably less attention has been given to the response to alerts generated from statistical detection algorithms. Given the inherent inaccuracy in alerting, it is imperative to develop methods that help public health personnel identify optimal policies in response to alerts. This study evaluates the application of dynamic decision making models to the problem of responding to outbreak detection methods, using anthrax surveillance as an example. Adaptive optimization through approximate dynamic programming is used to generate a policy for decision making following outbreak detection. We investigate the degree to which the model can tolerate noise theoretically, in order to keep near optimal behavior. We also evaluate the policy from our model empirically and compare it with current approaches in routine public health practice for investigating alerts. Timeliness of outbreak confirmation and total costs associated with the decisions made are used as performance measures. Using our approach, on average, 80 per cent of outbreaks were confirmed prior to the fifth day of post-attack with considerably less cost compared to response strategies currently in use. Experimental results are also provided to illustrate the robustness of the adaptive optimization approach and to show the realization of the derived error bounds in practice.

  10. Sustaining surveillance: Evaluating syndromic surveillance in the Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Paterson, Beverley J.; Kool, Jacob L.; Durrheim, David N.; Pavlin, Boris

    2012-01-01

    Prior to the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, the Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs) had agreed to develop a standardised, simple syndromic surveillance system to ensure compliance with International Health Regulations requirements (rapid outbreak detection, information sharing and response to outbreaks). In October 2010, the new system was introduced and over the next 12 months implemented in 20 of 22 PICTs. An evaluation was conducted to identify strengths and weaknesses of the system, ease of use and possible points for improvement. An in-country quantitative and qualitative evaluation in five PICTs identified that the most important determinants of the system's success were: simplicity of the system; support from all levels of government; clearly defined roles and responsibilities; feedback to those who collect the data; harmonisation of case definitions; integration of data collection tools into existing health information systems; and availability of clinical and epidemiological advice from external agencies such as the World Health Organization and the Secretariat of the Pacific Community. Regional reporting of alerts, outbreaks and outbreak updates has dramatically increased since implementation of the system. This syndromic system will assist PICTs to detect future influenza pandemics and other emerging infectious diseases and to rapidly contain outbreaks in the Pacific. PMID:22817479

  11. Distributed communications resource management for tracking and surveillance networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, Edwin K. P.; Brewington, Brian

    2005-09-01

    We present a market-like method for distributed communications resource management in the context of networked tracking and surveillance systems. This method divides communication resources according to the expected utility provided by information of particular types. By formulating the problem as an optimization of the joint utility of information flow rates, the dual of the problem can be understood to provide a price for particular routes. Distributed rate control can be accomplished using primal-dual iteration in combination with communication of these route prices. We extend the previous work on the subject in a few important ways. First, we consider utility functions that are jointly-dependent on flow rates, to properly account for geometric synergy that can occur in sensor fusion problems. Second, we do not require that the rate-update algorithms have explicit knowledge of utility functions. Instead, our update algorithms involve transmitting marginal utility values. We present simulation results to demonstrate the effectiveness of the technique.

  12. The U.S.-Mexico Border Infectious Disease Surveillance Project: Establishing Binational Border Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Waterman, Stephen; Lucas, Carlos Alvarez; Falcon, Veronica Carrion; Morales, Pablo Kuri; Lopez, Luis Anaya; Peter, Chris; Gutiérrez, Alejandro Escobar; Gonzalez, Ernesto Ramirez; Flisser, Ana; Bryan, Ralph; Valle, Enrique Navarro; Rodriguez, Alfonso; Hernandez, Gerardo Alvarez; Rosales, Cecilia; Ortiz, Javier Arias; Landen, Michael; Vilchis, Hugo; Rawlings, Julie; Leal, Francisco Lopez; Ortega, Luis; Flagg, Elaine; Conyer, Roberto Tapia; Cetron, Martin

    2003-01-01

    In 1997, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Mexican Secretariat of Health, and border health officials began the development of the Border Infectious Disease Surveillance (BIDS) project, a surveillance system for infectious diseases along the U.S.-Mexico border. During a 3-year period, a binational team implemented an active, sentinel surveillance system for hepatitis and febrile exanthems at 13 clinical sites. The network developed surveillance protocols, trained nine surveillance coordinators, established serologic testing at four Mexican border laboratories, and created agreements for data sharing and notification of selected diseases and outbreaks. BIDS facilitated investigations of dengue fever in Texas-Tamaulipas and measles in California–Baja California. BIDS demonstrates that a binational effort with local, state, and federal participation can create a regional surveillance system that crosses an international border. Reducing administrative, infrastructure, and political barriers to cross-border public health collaboration will enhance the effectiveness of disease prevention projects such as BIDS. PMID:12533288

  13. Cyber-Surveillance: A Case Study in Policy and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Richard S. Y.

    2010-01-01

    The dissertation examines the historical development of surveillance, electronic surveillance, and cyber-surveillance from colonial times in the United States to the present. It presents the surveillance laws, technologies and policies as a balance between national security and privacy. To examine more recent developments, the dissertation…

  14. Radiation surveillance using an unmanned aerial vehicle.

    PubMed

    Pöllänen, Roy; Toivonen, Harri; Peräjärvi, Kari; Karhunen, Tero; Ilander, Tarja; Lehtinen, Jukka; Rintala, Kimmo; Katajainen, Tuure; Niemelä, Jarkko; Juusela, Marko

    2009-02-01

    Radiation surveillance equipment was mounted in a small unmanned aerial vehicle. The equipment consists of a commercial CsI detector for count rate measurement and a specially designed sampling unit for airborne radioactive particles. Field and flight tests were performed for the CsI detector in the area where (137)Cs fallout from the Chernobyl accident is 23-45 kBq m(-2). A 3-GBq (137)Cs point source could be detected at the altitude of 50 m using a flight speed of 70 km h(-1) and data acquisition interval of 1s. Respective response for (192)Ir point source is 1 GBq. During the flight, the detector reacts fast to ambient external dose rate rise of 0.1 microSv h(-1), which gives for the activity concentration of (131)I less than 1 kB qm(-3). Operation of the sampler equipped with different type of filters was investigated using wind-tunnel experiments and field tests with the aid of radon progeny. Air flow rate through the sampler is 0.2-0.7 m(3)h(-1) at a flight speed of 70 km h(-1) depending on the filter type in question. The tests showed that the sampler is able to collect airborne radioactive particles. Minimum detectable concentration for transuranium nuclides, such as (239)Pu, is of the order of 0.2 Bq m(-3) or less when alpha spectrometry with no radiochemical sample processing is used for activity determination immediately after the flight. When a gamma-ray spectrometer is used, minimum detectable concentrations for several fission products such as (137)Cs and (131)I are of the order of 1 Bq m(-3).

  15. Reporting and Surveillance for Norovirus Outbreaks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Norovirus Infection, National Institutes of Health NoroCORE Food Virology Reporting and Surveillance for Norovirus Recommend on Facebook ... Norovirus Infection, National Institutes of Health NoroCORE Food Virology File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  16. Evaluation of historical dry well surveillance logs

    SciTech Connect

    Price, R.K.

    1996-09-09

    Several dry well surveillance logs from 1975 through 1995 for the SX Tank Farm have been examined to identify potential subsurface zones of radioactive contaminant migration. Several dynamic conditions of the gamma-ray emitting radioactive contaminant shave been identified.

  17. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, Lynn E.

    2000-01-27

    This document contains the CY2000 schedules for the routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. Each section includes sampling locations, sample types, and analyses to be performed.

  18. Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program

    Cancer.gov

    A premier source for cancer statistics in the US. We collect incidence, prevalence and survival data and publish reports on these and cancer mortality. For those interested in cancer statistics and surveillance methods.

  19. 40 CFR 52.234 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.234 Source surveillance. (a) Except in... stationary source in the State of California, except for those APCD's specified in paragraph (a) of...

  20. 40 CFR 52.234 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.234 Source surveillance. (a) Except in... stationary source in the State of California, except for those APCD's specified in paragraph (a) of...

  1. Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis - United States, 2014

    MedlinePlus

    ... Historical reported cases and estimates Quick Links to Hepatitis … A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Programs Resource Center Viral Hepatitis Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis – United States, 2014 Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ...

  2. Medical Surveillance Requirements For Nonionizing Radiation Workers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hathaway, James A.

    1980-10-01

    The potential value of medical surveillance examinations for laser workers and other workers potentially exposed to high intensity optical radiation is evaluated. A review of the known adverse biological effects leads to the conclusion that most effects are related to acute and subacute exposures which do not lend themselves to effective medical surveillance. In addition, surveys of thousands of laser workers conducted since 1965 demonstrated that routine periodic medical surveillance has been unnecessary and/or impractical using currently available ophthalmic screening methods. Examination techniques to detect early changes in cataract formation or retinal degeneration (two potential chronic effects of optical radiation) are not sufficiently reliable or specific to be of value as routine screening tests. Epidemiologic studies of large worker groups are suggested to evaluate the potential for these chronic conditions to develop as the result of job exposure; however, specific recommendations for routine medical surveillance are limited to preplacement and termination examinations with appropriate evaluation of individuals following acute injury.

  3. Investigation of prototype volcano-surveillance network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, J. P. (Principal Investigator); Ward, P. L.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The equipment installed in the volcano surveillance network continues to work quite reliably and earthquakes are being recorded at all sites. A summary of platform receptions per day has been prepared.

  4. Enhanced surveillance program FY1998 accomplishments

    SciTech Connect

    Kass, J

    1998-10-01

    This report highlights the accomplishments of the Enhanced Surveillance Program (ESP), the highest-priority research and development effort in stockpile management today. This is volume one of eleven, the unclassified summary of selected program highlights. These highlights fall into the following focus areas: pits, high explosives, organics, dynamics, diagnostics, systems, secondaries, materials-aging models, non-nuclear components, and routine surveillance testing system upgrades. Principal investigators from around the DOE complex contributed to this report.

  5. Stereographic Projection in the Joint Surveillance System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-09-01

    Dlvision Joint Surveillance Sjya h-og oI’c Jaint Surveillance SY4 Prog Ofc FOR TH~ OOAD~ JILYSELL If. WOESME, GS -14 Deputy Syritem Progran Director...937 1.875 650 1200 .9852 1,485 2.969 430 120 .9998 .021 .042 410 240 .9993 .072 .145 390 360 .9985 .154 .308 370 480 . 9973 .266 .533 330 720 .9942 .581

  6. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, Lynn E.

    2002-01-16

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs. The document contains the CY 2002 schedules for the routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project.

  7. Strategy for Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    goals. In short, intent balances the ends, ways, and means of ISR operations and facilitates leaders’ efforts to integrate intelligence and... Intelligence , Surveillance, and Reconnaissance 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK...Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Air University Air FOrCe reseArCH institUe strategy for intelligence , surveillance, and reconnaissance

  8. U.S. space surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.

    1993-08-01

    The United States operates a diverse set of more than two dozen radar and optical facilities around the world to monitor near-Earth space. The mission of the Space Surveillance Network (SSN) to detect, track, catalog, and identify all man-made objects in space pertains not only to routine space operations but also to special event processing, e.g., satellite breakups. The SSN provides both the Government and the civilian space communities with a wide variety of services and products, including comprehensive historical records on more than 22,000 objects and current, high fidelity orbital parameters on approximately 7,000 satellites now in Earth orbit. Although upgrades to both sensors and processing techniques continue to increase the sensitivity and capacity of the SSN, modifications to the operational procedures at existing facilities and the employment of special, non-network sensors can provide additional insight concerning the magnitude of the Earth satellite population which lies below the normal network reporting level.

  9. Optical signal processing of video surveillance for recognizing and measurement location railway infrastructure elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diyazitdinov, Rinat R.; Vasin, Nikolay N.

    2016-03-01

    Processing of optical signals, which are received from CCD sensors of video cameras, allows to extend the functionality of video surveillance systems. Traditional video surveillance systems are used for saving, transmitting and preprocessing of the video content from the controlled objects. Video signal processing by analytics systems allows to get more information about object's location and movement, the flow of technological processes and to measure other parameters. For example, the signal processing of video surveillance systems, installed on carriage-laboratories, are used for getting information about certain parameters of the railways. Two algorithms for video processing, allowing recognition of pedestrian crossings of the railways, as well as location measurement of the so-called "Anchor Marks" used to control the mechanical stresses of continuous welded rail track are described in this article. The algorithms are based on the principle of determining the region of interest (ROI), and then the analysis of the fragments inside this ROI.

  10. The Cost of Surveillance After Urethroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Zaid, Uwais B.; Hawkins, Mitchel; Wilson, Leslie; Ting, Jie; Harris, Catherine; Alwaal, Amjad; Zhao, Lee C.; Morey, Allen F.; Breyer, Benjamin N.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine variability in urethral stricture surveillance. Urethral strictures impact quality of life and exact a large economic burden. Although urethroplasty is the gold standard for durable treatment, strictures recur in 8–18%. There are no universally accepted guidelines for post-urethroplasty surveillance. We performed a literature search to evaluate variability in surveillance protocols, analyzed costs, and reviewed performance of each commonly employed modality. Methods Medline search was performed using the keywords: “urethroplasty,” “urethral stricture,” “stricture recurrence” to ascertain commonly used surveillance strategies for stricture recurrence. We included English language manuscripts from the past 10 years with at least 10 patients, and age greater than 18. Cost data was calculated based on standard 2013 Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services physician’s fees. Results Surveillance methods included retrograde urethrogram/voiding cystourethrogram (RUG/VCUG), cystourethroscopy, urethral ultrasound, AUA-Symptom Score, and post void residual (PVR) and urine flowmetry (UF) measurement. Most protocols call for a RUG/VCUG at time of catheter removal. Following this, UF/PVR, cystoscopy, urine culture, or a combination of UF and AUA-SS were performed at variable intervals. The first year follow-up cost of anterior urethral surgery ranged from $205 to $1,784. For posterior urethral surgery, follow-up cost for the first year ranged from $404 to $961. Conclusions Practice variability for surveillance of urethral stricture recurrence after urethroplasty leads to significant differences in cost. PMID:25819624

  11. Behavioral surveillance: current perspectives, and its role in catalyzing action.

    PubMed

    Brown, Tim

    2003-02-01

    In the age of 2nd generation surveillance, behavioral surveillance systems form one of the central components of national HIV monitoring systems. Different approaches to behavioral monitoring and the comparative role of behavioral surveillance are discussed, followed by an exploration of some of the practical issues that arise in the implementation of behavioral surveillance systems. This article concludes by stressing the importance of ensuring that the results of behavioral surveillance work are translated into actions that improve the national response to HIV.

  12. Economics of zoonoses surveillance in a 'One Health' context: an assessment of Campylobacter surveillance in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Babo Martins, S; Rushton, J; Stärk, K D C

    2017-01-23

    Cross-sectorial surveillance and general collaboration between the animal and the public health sectors are increasingly recognized as needed to better manage the impacts of zoonoses. From 2009, the Swiss established a Campylobacter mitigation system that includes human and poultry surveillance data-sharing within a multi-sectorial platform, in a 'One Health' approach. The objective of this study was to explore the economics of this cross-sectorial approach, including surveillance and triggered interventions. Costs and benefits of the One Health and of the uni-sectorial approach to Campylobacter surveillance were identified using an economic assessment framework developed earlier. Cost information of surveillance activities and interventions was gathered and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) associated with the disease estimated for 2008 and 2013. In the first 5 years of this One Health approach to Campylobacter mitigation, surveillance contributed with information mainly used to perform risk assessments, monitor trends and shape research efforts on Campylobacter. There was an increase in costs associated with the mitigation activities following integration, due mainly to the allocation of additional resources to research and implementation of poultry surveillance. The overall burden of campylobacteriosis increased by 3·4-8·8% to 1751-2852 DALYs in 2013. In the timing of the analysis, added value associated with this cross-sectorial approach to surveillance of Campylobacter in the country was likely generated through non-measurable benefits such as intellectual capital and social capital.

  13. A review of zoonotic disease surveillance supported by the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center.

    PubMed

    Burke, R L; Kronmann, K C; Daniels, C C; Meyers, M; Byarugaba, D K; Dueger, E; Klein, T A; Evans, B P; Vest, K G

    2012-05-01

    The Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center (AFHSC), Division of Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System conducts disease surveillance through a global network of US Department of Defense research laboratories and partnerships with foreign ministries of agriculture, health and livestock development in over 90 countries worldwide. In 2010, AFHSC supported zoonosis survey efforts were organized into four main categories: (i) development of field assays for animal disease surveillance during deployments and in resource limited environments, (ii) determining zoonotic disease prevalence in high-contact species which may serve as important reservoirs of diseases and sources of transmission, (iii) surveillance in high-risk human populations which are more likely to become exposed and subsequently infected with zoonotic pathogens and (iv) surveillance at the human-animal interface examining zoonotic disease prevalence and transmission within and between human and animal populations. These efforts have aided in the detection, identification and quantification of the burden of zoonotic diseases such as anthrax, brucellosis, Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever, dengue fever, Hantaan virus, influenza, Lassa fever, leptospirosis, melioidosis, Q fever, Rift Valley fever, sandfly fever Sicilian virus, sandfly fever Naples virus, tuberculosis and West Nile virus, which are of military and public health importance. Future zoonotic surveillance efforts will seek to develop local capacity for zoonotic surveillance focusing on high risk populations at the human-animal interface.

  14. An integrated national mortality surveillance system for death registration and mortality surveillance, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shiwei; Wu, Xiaoling; Lopez, Alan D; Wang, Lijun; Cai, Yue; Page, Andrew; Yin, Peng; Liu, Yunning; Li, Yichong; Liu, Jiangmei; You, Jinling; Zhou, Maigeng

    2016-01-01

    In China, sample-based mortality surveillance systems, such as the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention's disease surveillance points system and the Ministry of Health's vital registration system, have been used for decades to provide nationally representative data on health status for health-care decision-making and performance evaluation. However, neither system provided representative mortality and cause-of-death data at the provincial level to inform regional health service needs and policy priorities. Moreover, the systems overlapped to a considerable extent, thereby entailing a duplication of effort. In 2013, the Chinese Government combined these two systems into an integrated national mortality surveillance system to provide a provincially representative picture of total and cause-specific mortality and to accelerate the development of a comprehensive vital registration and mortality surveillance system for the whole country. This new system increased the surveillance population from 6 to 24% of the Chinese population. The number of surveillance points, each of which covered a district or county, increased from 161 to 605. To ensure representativeness at the provincial level, the 605 surveillance points were selected to cover China's 31 provinces using an iterative method involving multistage stratification that took into account the sociodemographic characteristics of the population. This paper describes the development and operation of the new national mortality surveillance system, which is expected to yield representative provincial estimates of mortality in China for the first time.

  15. Weighing in on Surveillance: Perception of the Impact of Surveillance on Female Ballet Dancers' Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dryburgh, Anne; Fortin, Sylvie

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate professional ballet dancers' perceptions of the impact of surveillance on their psychological and physical health. The theoretical framework was inspired by Foucault's writing, particularly his concepts of surveillance, power, discipline and docile bodies. Fifteen professional ballet dancers…

  16. Using poison center data for postdisaster surveillance.

    PubMed

    Wolkin, Amy; Schnall, Amy H; Law, Royal; Schier, Joshua

    2014-10-01

    The role of public health surveillance in disaster response continues to expand as timely, accurate information is needed to mitigate the impact of disasters. Health surveillance after a disaster involves the rapid assessment of the distribution and determinants of disaster-related deaths, illnesses, and injuries in the affected population. Public health disaster surveillance is one mechanism that can provide information to identify health problems faced by the affected population, establish priorities for decision makers, and target interventions to meet specific needs. Public health surveillance traditionally relies on a wide variety of data sources and methods. Poison center (PC) data can serve as data sources of chemical exposures and poisonings during a disaster. In the US, a system of 57 regional PCs serves the entire population. Poison centers respond to poison-related questions from the public, health care professionals, and public health agencies. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) uses PC data during disasters for surveillance of disaster-related toxic exposures and associated illnesses to enhance situational awareness during disaster response and recovery. Poison center data can also be leveraged during a disaster by local and state public health to supplement existing surveillance systems. Augmenting traditional surveillance data (ie, emergency room visits and death records) with other data sources, such as PCs, allows for better characterization of disaster-related morbidity and mortality. Poison center data can be used during a disaster to detect outbreaks, monitor trends, track particular exposures, and characterize the epidemiology of the event. This timely and accurate information can be used to inform public health decision making during a disaster and mitigate future disaster-related morbidity and mortality.

  17. Using Poison Center Data for Postdisaster Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Wolkin, Amy; Schnall, Amy H.; Law, Royal; Schier, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    The role of public health surveillance in disaster response continues to expand as timely, accurate information is needed to mitigate the impact of disasters. Health surveillance after a disaster involves the rapid assessment of the distribution and determinants of disaster-related deaths, illnesses, and injuries in the affected population. Public health disaster surveillance is one mechanism that can provide information to identify health problems faced by the affected population, establish priorities for decision makers, and target interventions to meet specific needs. Public health surveillance traditionally relies on a wide variety of data sources and methods. Poison center (PC) data can serve as data sources of chemical exposures and poisonings during a disaster. In the US, a system of 57 regional PCs serves the entire population. Poison centers respond to poison-related questions from the public, health care professionals, and public health agencies. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) uses PC data during disasters for surveillance of disaster-related toxic exposures and associated illnesses to enhance situational awareness during disaster response and recovery. Poison center data can also be leveraged during a disaster by local and state public health to supplement existing surveillance systems. Augmenting traditional surveillance data (ie, emergency room visits and death records) with other data sources, such as PCs, allows for better characterization of disaster-related morbidity and mortality. Poison center data can be used during a disaster to detect outbreaks, monitor trends, track particular exposures, and characterize the epidemiology of the event. This timely and accurate information can be used to inform public health decision making during a disaster and mitigate future disaster-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:25205009

  18. Integrating animal health and foodborne disease surveillance.

    PubMed

    Berman, E M; Shimshony, A

    2013-08-01

    The control of foodborne diseases from an animal source has become an important part of public health policy. Since the agents that cause these diseases originate in animals, Veterinary Services, as well as Public Health Services, must be involved in their control. Control programmes should be established either through cooperation between the two Services or by the consolidation of all those involved into a single food control agency. Surveillance is an important part of these control programmes. The following questions must be addressed when planning an effective surveillance programme. What is the relative incidence, morbidity, mortality and economic cost of the foodborne disease in humans? Is the animal population the exclusive or a significant source of the human foodborne infection? What kind of surveillance is needed to identify the disease-causing agent in the animal population? Are we interested in identifying all cases of a disease in order to eradicate it or is our aim to reduce its incidence in the animal population? Do we have the ability to control the disease in the animal population? What disease detection tests are available? What are the sensitivity, specificity and cost of these diagnostic tests? Finally, does the country, region or agency involved have the legal, financial and educational resources to carry out this surveillance and follow it up with appropriate action? After these questions have been resolved,the veterinary and public health sectors must jointly decide if surveillance and control are feasible. If so, they can then begin to develop an appropriate programme.

  19. Novel findings in colorectal polyp surveillance.

    PubMed

    Carballal, Sabela

    2016-09-01

    Colorectal adenomas and serrated polyps are the best characterised premalignant lesions involved in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). Therefore, the identification and removal of these lesions, as well as post-polypectomy surveillance of affected patients, are key goals in the field of CRC prevention. Current post-polypectomy surveillance strategies differ among the various scientific societies and have several limitations that hamper their application in clinical practice. First, current surveillance intervals are based only on polyp characteristics, excluding other potential clinical conditions, such as diabetes or metabolic syndrome. Second, serrated polyps and adenomas are considered separately, but there is no recommendation in cases of the simultaneous occurrence of both types of lesion. Third, the incorporation of endoscopic technologies implies an increase in polyp detection, whose clinical impact is controversial and directly affects the number of scheduled colonoscopies with an indication of surveillance. Some of the studies presented at the AGA (American Gastroenterological Association) meeting aimed to provide new evidence on the follow-up of colorectal polyps, with a view to optimising the applicability and suitability of current surveillance strategies.

  20. Veterinary surveillance laboratories: developing the training program.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Staci L; McCline, Katasha T; Hanfelt, Margery M

    2010-01-01

    The increased need and demand for onsite, frequent, rapid, and portable food and bottled water testing for indicators of microbiological and chemical agents led to the deployment of 2 laboratory veterinary equipment sets. A Surveillance Food Laboratory Program (SFLP) was developed to allow Veterinary Corps commanders to establish targeted testing programs to enhance food safety and wholesomeness, along with faster responses to food defense, suspected foodborne illness, and food/water risk assessment missions. To support the deployment of the veterinary equipment sets and the SFLP, 2 new functional courses were developed by the Department of Veterinary Science. The Surveillance Food Laboratory Technician Course teaches essential technical skills that include sample processing, assay methodologies, results review, and interpretation of results produced by these laboratories. The Surveillance Food Laboratory Manager Course, developed for designated managers of the laboratories and laboratory programs, teaches the skills critical to ensuring proper surveillance laboratory oversight, testing, evaluation of results, risk communication, and response to presumptive positive results produced by the laboratories. Together, the courses allowed for the successful deployment of the unique veterinary equipment sets, resulting in development of fully operational surveillance laboratories in support of food protection missions in every major theater of operations.

  1. Project Surveillance and Maintenance Plan. [UMTRA Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-01

    The Project Surveillance and Maintenance Plan (PSMP) describes the procedures that will be used by the US Department of Energy (DOE), or other agency as designated by the President to verify that inactive uranium tailings disposal facilities remain in compliance with licensing requirements and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards for remedial actions. The PSMP will be used as a guide for the development of individual Site Surveillance and Maintenance Plans (part of a license application) for each of the UMTRA Project sites. The PSMP is not intended to provide minimum requirements but rather to provide guidance in the selection of surveillance measures. For example, the plan acknowledges that ground-water monitoring may or may not be required and provides the (guidance) to make this decision. The Site Surveillance and Maintenance Plans (SSMPs) will form the basis for the licensing of the long-term surveillance and maintenance of each UMTRA Project site by the NRC. Therefore, the PSMP is a key milestone in the licensing process of all UMTRA Project sites. The Project Licensing Plan (DOE, 1984a) describes the licensing process. 11 refs., 22 figs., 8 tabs.

  2. Proceedings of the 11th Space Surveillance Workshop, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, R. W.; Sridharan, R.

    1993-04-01

    This report of Proceedings of the 1993 Space Surveillance Workshop includes the following topics: the Maui space surveillance site infrared calibration sources; infrared detection of geosynchronous objects at AMOS; LWIR observations of geosynchronous satellites; LAGEOS-2 launch support navigation at JPL; space surveillance network sensor contribution analysis; NMD-GBR: new X-band sensors at sites in CONUS and USAKA for space surveillance; recent improvements at ALTAIR; enhancements to the ALCOR imaging radar; fiber optic phase control of the like Kickapoo NAVSPASUR transmitter; coherent data recording and signal processing capabilities at Ascension FPQ-15 radar for space surveillance applications; forecasting trans-ionospheric effects to improve space surveillance.

  3. Infectious diseases: Surveillance, genetic modification and simulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koh, H. L.; Teh, S.Y.; De Angelis, D. L.; Jiang, J.

    2011-01-01

    Infectious diseases such as influenza and dengue have the potential of becoming a worldwide pandemic that may exert immense pressures on existing medical infrastructures. Careful surveillance of these diseases, supported by consistent model simulations, provides a means for tracking the disease evolution. The integrated surveillance and simulation program is essential in devising effective early warning systems and in implementing efficient emergency preparedness and control measures. This paper presents a summary of simulation analysis on influenza A (H1N1) 2009 in Malaysia. This simulation analysis provides insightful lessons regarding how disease surveillance and simulation should be performed in the future. This paper briefly discusses the controversy over the experimental field release of genetically modified (GM) Aedes aegypti mosquito in Malaysia. Model simulations indicate that the proposed release of GM mosquitoes is neither a viable nor a sustainable control strategy. ?? 2011 WIT Press.

  4. Enhanced Video Surveillance (EVS) with speckle imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Carrano, C J

    2004-01-13

    Enhanced Video Surveillance (EVS) with Speckle Imaging is a high-resolution imaging system that substantially improves resolution and contrast in images acquired over long distances. This technology will increase image resolution up to an order of magnitude or greater for video surveillance systems. The system's hardware components are all commercially available and consist of a telescope or large-aperture lens assembly, a high-performance digital camera, and a personal computer. The system's software, developed at LLNL, extends standard speckle-image-processing methods (used in the astronomical community) to solve the atmospheric blurring problem associated with imaging over medium to long distances (hundreds of meters to tens of kilometers) through horizontal or slant-path turbulence. This novel imaging technology will not only enhance national security but also will benefit law enforcement, security contractors, and any private or public entity that uses video surveillance to protect their assets.

  5. Surveillance dosimetry of operating power plants

    SciTech Connect

    McElroy, W.N.; Davis, A.I.; Gold, R.

    1981-10-16

    The main focus of the research efforts presently underway is the LWR power reactor surveillance program in which metallurgical test specimens of the reactor PV and dosimetry sensors are placed in three or more surveillance capsules at or near the reactor PV inner wall. They are then irradiated in a temperature and neutron flux-spectrum environment as similar as possible to the PV itself for periods of about 1.5 to 15 effective full-power years (EFPY), with removal of the last capsule at a fluence corresponding to the 30- to 40-year plant end-of-life (EOL) fluence. Because the neutron flux level at the surveillance position is greater than at the vessel, the test is accelerated wit respect to the vessel exposure, allowing early assessment of EOL conditions.

  6. System for surveillance of spectral signals

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W.; Criss-Puszkiewicz, Cynthia; Wilks, Alan D.

    2006-02-14

    A method and system for monitoring at least one of a system, a process and a data source. A method and system have been developed for carrying out surveillance, testing and modification of an ongoing process or other source of data, such as a spectroscopic examination. A signal from the system under surveillance is collected and compared with a reference signal, a frequency domain transformation carried out for the system signal and reference signal, a frequency domain difference function established. The process is then repeated until a full range of data is accumulated over the time domain and a Sequential Probability Ratio Test ("SPRT") methodology applied to determine a three-dimensional surface plot characteristic of the operating state of the system under surveillance.

  7. System For Surveillance Of Spectral Signals

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan; Criss-Puszkiewicz, Cynthia; Wilks, Alan D.

    2003-04-22

    A method and system for monitoring at least one of a system, a process and a data source. A method and system have been developed for carrying out surveillance, testing and modification of an ongoing process or other source of data, such as a spectroscopic examination. A signal from the system under surveillance is collected and compared with a reference signal, a frequency domain transformation carried out for the system signal and reference signal, a frequency domain difference function established. The process is then repeated until a full range of data is accumulated over the time domain and a Sequential Probability Ratio Test methodology applied to determine a three-dimensional surface plot characteristic of the operating state of the system under surveillance.

  8. System for surveillance of spectral signals

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W.; Criss-Puszkiewicz, Cynthia; Wilks, Alan D.

    2001-01-01

    A method and system for monitoring at least one of a system, a process and a data source. A method and system have been developed for carrying out surveillance, testing and modification of an ongoing process or other source of data, such as a spectroscopic examination. A signal from the system under surveillance is collected and compared with a reference signal, a frequency domain transformation carried out for the system signal and reference signal, a frequency domain difference function established. The process is then repeated until a full range of data is accumulated over the time domain and a SPRT sequential probability ratio test methodology applied to determine a three-dimensional surface plot characteristic of the operating state of the system under surveillance.

  9. System For Surveillance Of Spectral Signals

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W.; Criss-Puszkiewicz, Cynthia; Wilks, Alan D.

    2004-10-12

    A method and system for monitoring at least one of a system, a process and a data source. A method and system have been developed for carrying out surveillance, testing and modification of an ongoing process or other source of data, such as a spectroscopic examination. A signal from the system under surveillance is collected and compared with a reference signal, a frequency domain transformation carried out for the system signal and reference signal, a frequency domain difference function established. The process is then repeated until a full range of data is accumulated over the time domain and a Sequential Probability Ratio Test ("SPRT") methodology applied to determine a three-dimensional surface plot characteristic of the operating state of the system under surveillance.

  10. [Recommendations for the surveillance of Aedes aegypti].

    PubMed

    Barrera, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    Diseases caused by arboviruses transmitted by Aedes aegypti, such as dengue, chikungunya and Zika, continue to rise in annual incidence and geographic expansion. A key limitation for achieving control of A. aegypti has been the lack of effective tools for monitoring its population, and thus determine what control measures actually work. Surveillance of A. aegypti has been based mainly on immature indexes, but they bear little relation to the number of mosquito females, which are the ones capable of transmitting the viruses. The recent development of sampling techniques for adults of this vector species promises to facilitate surveillance and control activities. In this review, we present the various monitoring techniques for this mosquito, along with a discussion of their usefulness, and recommendations for improved entomological surveillance.

  11. [Flaccid paralysis surveillance in the Latium Region].

    PubMed

    Patti, A M; Santi, A L; Ciapetti, C; Fiore, L; Novello, F; Vellucci, L; De Stefano, F; Fara, G M

    2000-01-01

    The goal of World Health Organization is to reach the global eradication of poliomyelitis during the first decade of the third millennium. To achieve the certification of the eradication of the disease the main strategy is the Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) surveillance. In Italy the active AFP surveillance was performed at national level since 1997. In the Latium region the active surveillance was performed since January 1997 by the laboratory of virology of Institute of Hygiene G Sanarelli which established a regional hospital network. During the years of survey 7 cases were found in 1997 (0.87/100,000), 4 in 1998 (0.5/100,000), 2 in 1999 (0.25/100,000) and 2 in 2000. No wild polioviruses were detected.

  12. Improvements to Technical Specifications surveillance requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Lobel, R.; Tjader, T.R.

    1992-12-01

    In August 1983 an NRC task group was formed to investigate problems with surveillance testing required by Technical Specifications, and to recommend approaches to effect improvements. NUREG-1024 ( Technical Specifications-Enhancing Safety Impact'') resulted, and it contained recommendations to review the basis for test frequencies; to ensure that the tests promote safety and do not degrade equipment; and to review surveillance tests so that they do not unnecessarily burden personnel. The Technical Specifications Improvement Program (TSIP) was established in December 1984 to provide the framework for rewriting and improving the Technical Specifications. As an element of the TSIP, all Technical Specifications surveillance requirements were comprehensively examined as recommended in NUREG-1024. The results of that effort are presented in this report. The study found that while some testing at power is essential to verify equipment and system operability, safety can be improved, equipment degradation decreased, and unnecessary personnel burden relaxed by reducing the amount of testing at power.

  13. New horizons in post-marketing surveillance.

    PubMed

    Waller, P; Wood, S

    1993-01-01

    Post-marketing surveillance is the process of monitoring and evaluating the safety of marketed medicines using a variety of methods. However, many doctors believe that post-marketing surveillance has a more limited meaning, ie an observational study of a new medicine sponsored by a pharmaceutical company. Although such studies were performed extensively in the United Kingdom during the 1980s, few have been published. Their purpose was to study large populations of users in ordinary practice with the aim of identifying hazards that had been missed, because clinical trials were too small, too short or did not always reflect real life. To some extent these studies have now fallen into disrepute, both on scientific grounds and because they have often been thought to be a thinly-disguised promotional exercise. The purpose of this article is to examine some of the previous problems with post-marketing surveillance and to propose new directions for the future.

  14. Enhancing Disease Surveillance Event Communication Among Jurisdictions.

    PubMed

    Tabernero, Nathaniel R; Loschen, Wayne A; Jorgensen, Joel; Suereth, Joshua; Coberly, Jacqueline S; Holtry, Rekha S; Sikes, Marvin L; Babin, Steven M; Lewis, Sheryl L Happel

    2009-01-01

    Automated disease surveillance systems are becoming widely used by the public health community. However, communication among non-collocated and widely dispersed users still needs improvement. A web-based software tool for enhancing user communications was completely integrated into an existing automated disease surveillance system and was tested during two simulated exercises and operational use involving multiple jurisdictions. Evaluation of this tool was conducted by user meetings, anonymous surveys, and web logs. Public health officials found this tool to be useful, and the tool has been modified further to incorporate features suggested by user responses. Features of the automated disease surveillance system, such as alerts and time series plots, can be specifically referenced by user comments. The user may also indicate the alert response being considered by adding a color indicator to their comment. The web-based event communication tool described in this article provides a common ground for collaboration and communication among public health officials at different locations.

  15. Creating a global dialogue on infectious disease surveillance: connecting organizations for regional disease surveillance (CORDS).

    PubMed

    Gresham, Louise S; Smolinski, Mark S; Suphanchaimat, Rapeepong; Kimball, Ann Marie; Wibulpolprasert, Suwit

    2013-01-01

    Connecting Organizations for Regional Disease Surveillance (CORDS) is an international non-governmental organization focused on information exchange between disease surveillance networks in different areas of the world. By linking regional disease surveillance networks, CORDS builds a trust-based social fabric of experts who share best practices, surveillance tools and strategies, training courses, and innovations. CORDS exemplifies the shifting patterns of international collaboration needed to prevent, detect, and counter all types of biological dangers - not just naturally occurring infectious diseases, but also terrorist threats. Representing a network-of-networks approach, the mission of CORDS is to link regional disease surveillance networks to improve global capacity to respond to infectious diseases. CORDS is an informal governance cooperative with six founding regional disease surveillance networks, with plans to expand; it works in complement and cooperatively with the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), and the Food and Animal Organization of the United Nations (FAO). As described in detail elsewhere in this special issue of Emerging Health Threats, each regional network is an alliance of a small number of neighboring countries working across national borders to tackle emerging infectious diseases that require unified regional efforts. Here we describe the history, culture and commitment of CORDS; and the novel and necessary role that CORDS serves in the existing international infectious disease surveillance framework.

  16. Creating a Global Dialogue on Infectious Disease Surveillance: Connecting Organizations for Regional Disease Surveillance (CORDS)

    PubMed Central

    Gresham, Louise S.; Smolinski, Mark S.; Suphanchaimat, Rapeepong; Kimball, Ann Marie; Wibulpolprasert, Suwit

    2013-01-01

    Connecting Organizations for Regional Disease Surveillance (CORDS) is an international non-governmental organization focused on information exchange between disease surveillance networks in different areas of the world. By linking regional disease surveillance networks, CORDS builds a trust-based social fabric of experts who share best practices, surveillance tools and strategies, training courses, and innovations. CORDS exemplifies the shifting patterns of international collaboration needed to prevent, detect, and counter all types of biological dangers – not just naturally occurring infectious diseases, but also terrorist threats. Representing a network-of-networks approach, the mission of CORDS is to link regional disease surveillance networks to improve global capacity to respond to infectious diseases. CORDS is an informal governance cooperative with six founding regional disease surveillance networks, with plans to expand; it works in complement and cooperatively with the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), and the Food and Animal Organization of the United Nations (FAO). As described in detail elsewhere in this special issue of Emerging Health Threats, each regional network is an alliance of a small number of neighboring countries working across national borders to tackle emerging infectious diseases that require unified regional efforts. Here we describe the history, culture and commitment of CORDS; and the novel and necessary role that CORDS serves in the existing international infectious disease surveillance framework. PMID:23362412

  17. Which surveillance systems were operational after Typhoon Haiyan?

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Eireen; Pacho, Agnes; Galvan, Maria Adona; Corpuz, Aura

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Effective disease surveillance is vital for a successful disaster response. This study assessed the functionality of the three disease surveillance systems used post-Haiyan: Philippine Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (PIDSR), Event-based Surveillance and Response (ESR) and Surveillance in Post Extreme Emergencies and Disasters (SPEED). Methods A survey of 45 government health officers from affected areas was conducted in March 2014. The survey documented when each of the systems was operational and included questions that ranked the functionality of the three surveillance systems and whether they complemented each other. Results Two of 11 (18%) surveillance units had an operational SPEED system pre-event. PIDSR and ESR remained operational in five of 11 (45%) surveillance units without interruption of reporting. Ten surveillance units (91%) rated PIDSR as functional post-Typhoon; eight (72.7%) considered ESR functional. SPEED was rated as functional by three (27%) surveillance units. Seven of 11 (63.6%) surveillance units rated the three systems as being complementary to each other. Discussion In most of the areas affected by Typhoon Haiyan, the routine surveillance systems (PIDSR and ESR) were not disrupted; although, in Leyte it took seven weeks for these to be operational. Although SPEED is recommended for activation within 48 hours after a disaster, this did not occur in most of the surveyed areas. Most of the surveillance units rated PIDSR, ESR and SPEED to be complementary to each other. PMID:26767139

  18. Conceptual evaluation of population health surveillance programs: method and example.

    PubMed

    El Allaki, Farouk; Bigras-Poulin, Michel; Ravel, André

    2013-03-01

    Veterinary and public health surveillance programs can be evaluated to assess and improve the planning, implementation and effectiveness of these programs. Guidelines, protocols and methods have been developed for such evaluation. In general, they focus on a limited set of attributes (e.g., sensitivity and simplicity), that are assessed quantitatively whenever possible, otherwise qualitatively. Despite efforts at standardization, replication by different evaluators is difficult, making evaluation outcomes open to interpretation. This ultimately limits the usefulness of surveillance evaluations. At the same time, the growing demand to prove freedom from disease or pathogen, and the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Agreement and the International Health Regulations require stronger surveillance programs. We developed a method for evaluating veterinary and public health surveillance programs that is detailed, structured, transparent and based on surveillance concepts that are part of all types of surveillance programs. The proposed conceptual evaluation method comprises four steps: (1) text analysis, (2) extraction of the surveillance conceptual model, (3) comparison of the extracted surveillance conceptual model to a theoretical standard, and (4) validation interview with a surveillance program designer. This conceptual evaluation method was applied in 2005 to C-EnterNet, a new Canadian zoonotic disease surveillance program that encompasses laboratory based surveillance of enteric diseases in humans and active surveillance of the pathogens in food, water, and livestock. The theoretical standard used for evaluating C-EnterNet was a relevant existing structure called the "Population Health Surveillance Theory". Five out of 152 surveillance concepts were absent in the design of C-EnterNet. However, all of the surveillance concept relationships found in C-EnterNet were valid. The proposed method can be used to improve the design and documentation of surveillance programs. It

  19. An emergency response UAV Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Pedro A; Geckle, William J; Barton, Jeffrey D; Samsundar, John; Gao, Tia; Brown, Myron Z; Martin, Sean R

    2006-01-01

    A system using Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs), equipped for real time telemetry of video imagery, sensor support data, and GPS/INS navigation, is being developed to provide situational awareness (SA) to the central command of mass casualty incident response. UAVs provide an inexpensive and safe means of acquiring video surveillance in chaotic disaster scenes, while being durable and non-intrusive. The system provides autonomous surveillance of defined perimeters, video tracking and active following of targets of interest, and real time cueing to other imaging UAVs.

  20. Reaction kinetic analysis of reactor surveillance data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshiie, T.; Kinomura, A.; Nagai, Y.

    2017-02-01

    In the reactor pressure vessel surveillance data of a European-type pressurized water reactor (low-Cu steel), it was found that the concentration of matrix defects was very high, and a large number of precipitates existed. In this study, defect structure evolution obtained from surveillance data was simulated by reaction kinetic analysis using 15 rate equations. The saturation of precipitation and the growth of loops were simulated, but it was not possible to explain the increase in DBTT on the basis of the defect structures. The sub-grain boundary segregation of solutes was discussed for the origin of the DBTT increase.

  1. Avian influenza surveillance of wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slota, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The President's National Strategy for Pandemic Influenza directs federal agencies to expand the surveillance of United States domestic livestock and wildlife to ensure early warning of hightly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in the U.S. The immediate concern is a potential introduction of HPAI H5N1 virus into the U.S. The presidential directive resulted in the U.S. Interagency Strategic Plan for Early Detection of H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Wild Migratory Birds (referred to as the Wild Bird Surveillance Plan or the Plan).

  2. [Post-licensing surveillance of vaccines].

    PubMed

    Launay, Odile; Petitprez, Karine; Lorrot, Mathie

    2005-01-01

    Pharmacoepidemiological studies are essential in the post-licensing surveillance of vaccines in order to evaluate the potential benefits and risks of vaccines used in common practice. Surveillance is required to detect rare or unanticipated vaccine adverse events and to ensure confidence in vaccination. Epidemiological studies provide data on the long-term protection conferred by vaccination, and the incidence and associated mortality of, and population susceptibility to, diseases preventable by vaccine. These studies also allow verification of the compatibility between strains contained in the vaccine as well as circulating strains.

  3. Self tuning system for industrial surveillance

    DOEpatents

    Stephan, Wegerich W; Jarman, Kristin K.; Gross, Kenneth C.

    2000-01-01

    A method and system for automatically establishing operational parameters of a statistical surveillance system. The method and system performs a frequency domain transition on time dependent data, a first Fourier composite is formed, serial correlation is removed, a series of Gaussian whiteness tests are performed along with an autocorrelation test, Fourier coefficients are stored and a second Fourier composite is formed. Pseudorandom noise is added, a Monte Carlo simulation is performed to establish SPRT missed alarm probabilities and tested with a synthesized signal. A false alarm test is then emperically evaluated and if less than a desired target value, then SPRT probabilities are used for performing surveillance.

  4. Learning from state surveillance of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Longjohn, Matt; Sheon, Amy R; Card-Higginson, Paula; Nader, Philip R; Mason, Maryann

    2010-01-01

    Data on childhood obesity collected by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention helped reveal the nation's epidemic of overweight and obese children. But more information is needed. Collecting body mass index (BMI)-the widely accepted measurement of childhood weight status-at the state and local levels can be instrumental in identifying and tracking obesity trends, designing interventions to help overweight children, and guiding broader policy solutions. Approximately thirty states have enacted or proposed BMI surveillance laws and regulations. Arkansas stands out as the state with the highest-quality surveillance data. Innovative strategies being pursued in a number of other states should be explored for broader dissemination.

  5. Advances in surveillance of periodontitis: the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention periodontal disease surveillance project.

    PubMed

    Eke, Paul I; Thornton-Evans, Gina; Dye, Bruce; Genco, Robert

    2012-11-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has as one of its strategic goals to support and improve surveillance of periodontal disease. In 2003, the CDC initiated the CDC Periodontal Disease Surveillance Project in collaboration with the American Academy of Periodontology to address population-based surveillance of periodontal disease at the local, state, and national levels. This initiative has made significant advancements toward the goal of improved surveillance, including developing valid self-reported measures that can be obtained from interview-based surveys to predict prevalence of periodontitis in populations. This will allow surveillance of periodontitis at the state and local levels and in countries where clinical resources for surveillance are scarce. This work has produced standard case definitions for surveillance of periodontitis that are now widely recognized and applied in population studies and research. At the national level, this initiative has evaluated the validity of previous clinical examination protocols and tested new protocols on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), recommending and supporting funding for the gold-standard full-mouth periodontal examination in NHANES 2009 to 2012. These examinations will generate accurate estimates of the prevalence of periodontitis in the US adult population and provide a superior dataset for surveillance and research. Also, this data will be used to generate the necessary coefficients for our self-report questions for use in subsets of the total US population. The impact of these findings on population-based surveillance of periodontitis and future directions of the project are discussed along with plans for dissemination and translation efforts for broader public health use.

  6. Plutonium Surveillance Destructive Examination Requirements at Savannah River National Laboratory for K-Area Interim Surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Stefek, T. M.

    2005-09-29

    The DOE 3013 storage standard requires nested, welded 300 series stainless steel containers to store plutonium-bearing materials for up to 50 years. Packaged contents include stabilized plutonium-bearing residues that contain chloride salts and a low (< 0.5 weight %) water content. The DOE 3013 STD requires surveillance of the packages over the 50 year lifetime. These surveillance requirements have been further defined by the Integrated Surveillance Program to include both non-destructive examination (NDE) and destructive examination (DE) of the 3013 container. The DE portion of surveillance involves examining the 3013 nested containers, analyzing the head space gas, and evaluating the plutonium oxide chemistry. At SRS, the stored 3013 containers will undergo preparation for the DE surveillance activities in facilities located in K-Area. The actual DE surveillance will be performed in SRNL. This report provides preliminary functional requirements for the destructive examination (DE) of plutonium-bearing oxide materials and containers in support of K-Area Interim Surveillance (KIS). The KIS project will install interim facilities to prepare the samples for analysis in SRNL. This document covers the requirements for the interim period beginning in 2007, and lasting until the Container Storage and Surveillance Capability (CSSC) project provides the permanent facilities in K-Area to perform sampling and repackaging operations associated with the 3013 container storage and surveillance program. Initial requirements for the CSSC project have been previously defined in WSRC-TR-2004-00584 ''Plutonium Surveillance Destructive Examination Requirements at Savannah River National Laboratory''. As part of the Plutonium Surveillance Program of 3013 Containers at the Savannah River Site (SRS), the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) will receive the emptied 3013 container components, plutonium oxide samples and headspace gas samples from K-Area. The DE program scope

  7. 40 CFR 49.10284 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.10284 Section 49.10284 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... Source surveillance....

  8. 40 CFR 49.9984 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.9984 Section 49.9984 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE... Source surveillance....

  9. 40 CFR 49.10704 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.10704 Section 49.10704 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... Source surveillance....

  10. 40 CFR 49.10494 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.10494 Section 49.10494 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... Source surveillance....

  11. 40 CFR 49.10674 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.10674 Section 49.10674 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... Source surveillance....

  12. Arthropod surveillance programs: Basic components, strategies, and analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effective entomological surveillance planning stresses a careful consideration of methodology, trapping technologies, and analysis techniques. Herein, the basic principles and technological components of arthropod surveillance plans are described, as promoted in the symposium “Advancements in arthro...

  13. Stenosis surveillance of hemodialysis grafts by duplex ultrasound reduces hospitalizations and cost of care.

    PubMed

    Dossabhoy, Neville R; Ram, Sunanda J; Nassar, Raja; Work, Jack; Eason, J Mark; Paulson, William D

    2005-01-01

    Most recent randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have found that hemodialysis graft surveillance combined with preemptive correction of stenosis does not prolong graft survival. Nevertheless, such programs may be justified if they reduce other adverse outcomes or decrease the cost of care. This study tested this hypothesis by applying a secondary analysis to our original RCT. This study of 101 patients evaluated correction of stenosis based upon blood flow (Q) and stenosis surveillance. Patients were randomly assigned to control, flow, or stenosis groups, and were followed for up to 28 months. Q was measured monthly by ultrasound dilution; stenosis was measured quarterly by duplex ultrasound. Stenosis of 50% was corrected by percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) after referral for angiography. Referral criteria were: control group, clinical criteria; flow group, Q < 600 ml/min or clinical criteria; stenosis group, stenosis > 50% or clinical criteria. We compared access-related hospitalizations and cost of care, and use of central venous dialysis catheters (CVCs), among the three groups. Hospitalization rates were higher in the control and flow groups than in the stenosis group (0.50, 0.57, 0.18/patient-year, respectively [p < 0.01]), and hospitalization costs were lowest in the stenosis group (p = 0.026). The stenosis group had a trend toward lowest CVC rates (0.44, 0.32, 0.20/patient-year, respectively [p = 0.20]). The costs of care were higher in the control and flow groups than in the stenosis group (dollar 3727, dollar 4839, dollar 3306/patient-year, respectively [p = 0.015]). The costs of stenosis (dollar 142/patient-year) and Q (dollar 279/patient-year) measurements were minimal compared to the total cost of access-related care. In conclusion, stenosis surveillance by duplex ultrasound combined with preemptive correction yielded reduced hospitalization rates and costs, reduced total cost of access-related care, and a trend of reduced CVC rates. In

  14. 10 CFR 34.51 - Surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Radiation Safety Requirements § 34.51 Surveillance. During each radiographic operation... where all entryways are locked and the requirements of § 34.33 are met....

  15. 10 CFR 34.51 - Surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Radiation Safety Requirements § 34.51 Surveillance. During each radiographic operation... where all entryways are locked and the requirements of § 34.33 are met....

  16. 10 CFR 34.51 - Surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Radiation Safety Requirements § 34.51 Surveillance. During each radiographic operation... where all entryways are locked and the requirements of § 34.33 are met....

  17. 10 CFR 34.51 - Surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Radiation Safety Requirements § 34.51 Surveillance. During each radiographic operation... where all entryways are locked and the requirements of § 34.33 are met....

  18. 10 CFR 34.51 - Surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Radiation Safety Requirements § 34.51 Surveillance. During each radiographic operation... where all entryways are locked and the requirements of § 34.33 are met....

  19. Remote, wireless stakeout surveillance for law enforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Mike; Klein, Allen; Smith, Stan; Jones, John Paul

    2005-05-01

    Inflation combined with the added burden of homeland security requirements, is increasing pressure on local law enforcement budgets and manpower resources. The problem is: how can law enforcement agencies fulfill all of their requirements? How can they respond to these requirements, including homeland security, with limited manpower? Civil Rights considerations also place constraints on law enforcement. One possible solution is the Remote Law Enforcement Surveillance System (RLESS) concept. RLESS makes more efficient use of existing manpower while avoiding infringement on civil liberties. RLESS provides the capability for unattended stakeout and surveillance. Many stakeout or surveillance operations are conducted by vice, homicide, organized crime or other task forces. Lasting from days to weeks. Many large drug stings last months involving many persons of interest. A single surveillance mission usually involves a minimum of two persons X 3 shifts per day conducting active observation, equating to 48 man-hours per day. Their tasks include watching, listening, and documenting with photography. Recent military developments have included new technologies and techniques that enable remote unattended observation of areas or points of interest. This capability is now available to support law enforcement stakeouts, thereby significantly minimizes the stresses on manpower.

  20. Governmental Surveillance of Three Progressive Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Murry R.; Singleton, H. Wells

    Governmental interference with academic freedom is illustrated by F.B.I. surveillance of and unauthorized distribution of information about progressive educators John Dewey, George Counts, and Harold Rugg. These three educators attracted the attention of governmental agencies and special interest groups during the 1930s and 1940s because they…

  1. 40 CFR 52.2030 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.2030 Section 52.2030 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Pennsylvania § 52.2030 Source...

  2. 40 CFR 52.2030 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.2030 Section 52.2030 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Pennsylvania § 52.2030 Source...

  3. Screening for and surveillance of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Compare, Debora; Rocco, Alba; Nardone, Gerardo

    2014-10-14

    Although the prevalence of gastric cancer (GC) progressively decreased during the last decades, due to improved dietary habit, introduction of food refrigeration and recovered socio-economic level, it still accounts for 10% of the total cancer-related deaths. The best strategy to reduce the mortality for GC is to schedule appropriate screening and surveillance programs, that rises many relevant concerns taking into account its worldwide variability, natural history, diagnostic tools, therapeutic strategies, and cost-effectiveness. Intestinal-type, the most frequent GC histotype, develops through a multistep process triggered by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and progressing from gastritis to atrophy, intestinal metaplasia (IM), and dysplasia. However, the majority of patients infected with H. pylori and carrying premalignant lesions do not develop GC. Therefore, it remains unclear who should be screened, when the screening should be started and how the screening should be performed. It seems reasonable that screening programs should target the general population in eastern countries, at high prevalence of GC and the high-risk subjects in western countries, at low prevalence of GC. As far as concern surveillance, currently, we are lacking of standardized international recommendations and many features have to be defined regarding the optimal diagnostic approach, the patients at higher risk, the best timing and the cost-effectiveness. Anyway, patients with corpus atrophic gastritis, extensive incomplete IM and dysplasia should enter a surveillance program. At present, screening and surveillance programs need further studies to draw worldwide reliable recommendations and evaluate the impact on mortality for GC.

  4. A Modular, Reconfigurable Surveillance UAV Architecture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Una Società Galileo Avionica A Modular, Reconfigurable Surveillance UAV Architecture METEOR, Finmeccanica Group Zona Industriale di Soleschiano Via...ES) METEOR, Finmeccanica Group Zona Industriale di Soleschiano Via Mario Stoppani 21 34077 Ronchi dei Legionari (GO) ITALY 8. PERFORMING

  5. Priorities for antibiotic resistance surveillance in Europe.

    PubMed

    Fluit, A C; van der Bruggen, J T; Aarestrup, F M; Verhoef, J; Jansen, W T M

    2006-05-01

    Antibiotic resistance is an increasing global problem. Surveillance studies are needed to monitor resistance development, to guide local empirical therapy, and to implement timely and adequate countermeasures. To achieve this, surveillance studies must have standardised methodologies, be longitudinal, and cover a sufficiently large and representative population. However, many fall short of these requirements that define good surveillance studies. Moreover, current efforts are dispersed among many, mostly small, initiatives with different objectives. These studies must be tailored to the various reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, such as hospitalised patients, nursing homes, the community, animals and food. Two studies that could serve as examples of tailored programmes are the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (EARSS), which collects resistance data during the diagnosis of hospitalised patients, and the DANMAP programme, which collects data in the veterinary sector. As already noted by the WHO, genetic studies that include both the typing of isolates and the characterisation of resistance determinants are necessary to understand fully the spread and development of antibiotic resistance.

  6. Integrated Air Surveillance Concept of Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    information, intelligence, weather data, and other situational awareness-related information. 4.2.4 Shared Services Automated processing of sensor and...other surveillance information will occur through shared services , accessible through an enterprise network infrastructure, that provide for collecting...also be provided, such as information discovery and translation. The IS architecture effort will identify specific shared services . Shared

  7. Space Surveillance: United States, Russia, and China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidelmann, P. K.

    2012-06-01

    With the launch of Sputnik, the United States and Russia began the process of tracking artificial satellites. This led to developments for observations, orbit determination, and catalog maintenance. The two countries followed somewhat different approaches to the same problem based on the available hardware and theoretical developments. As more sophisticated hardware and theories have been developed, progress has been made. However, new problems have developed because of debris, collision possibilities, and reentering objects. In addition, the range of spacecraft has increased to include geosynchronous orbits. In more recent times the European Space Agency (ESA) and China have become involved in various aspects of Space Surveillance. In 1994, the first meeting between United States and Russian experts in the field of space surveillance was held. Since then, seven more US Russia Space Surveillance Workshops have been held, with the addition of participants from ESA. Terry Alfriend has been the US Technical Chairman for many of these workshops. In 2009 a US China Space Surveillance Technical Interchange was held in Shanghai, China, and Terry was the US Technical Chairman.

  8. Monitoring and Surveillance of Hemodialysis Access.

    PubMed

    Koirala, Nischal; Anvari, Evamaria; McLennan, Gordon

    2016-03-01

    Access surveillance using invasive or noninvasive methods with an objective to improve access patency and decrease hospital admissions for access dysfunction in dialysis population has been promoted, but its success to predict incipient thrombosis and subsequent access failure is a controversial topic. Some studies have shown improvement in access outcomes, while others have failed to demonstrate an ideal method to diagnose access problems. Furthermore, the use of endovascular interventions such as percutaneous transluminal angioplasty to timely correct access problem might itself be a promoter of neointimal hyperplasia and restenosis during balloon angioplasty. There are significant costs and efforts associated with routine dialysis surveillance; therefore, it is necessary to understand whether such programs will help improve access-related problems and guarantee adequate dialysis care. It is generally agreed upon that despite the lack of guaranteed success of surveillance, such strategies have helped improve dialysis management, resulted in decreased costs and hospitalizations, and represented clinically relevant indications of failure prior to planning any radiological or surgical intervention. In this study, the authors review monitoring and surveillance measures in place, and their associated merits and limitations to detect stenosis and prevent incidences of vascular access thrombosis.

  9. Tracking Vehicles in traffic Surveillance Video

    SciTech Connect

    Maire, M; Kamath, C

    2005-08-12

    We present a system for detecting and tracking vehicles in surveillance video. Our algorithm uses a simple motion model to determine salient regions in a sequence of video frames. Similar regions are associated between frames and clustered to yield coherent final tracks. The entire process is automatic and uses computation time that scales according to the size of the input video sequence.

  10. Delphi Technique Used in Laser Incident Surveillance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    incidents, some recommendations will be made in how this useful tool can be part of a surveillance program primarily based on Air Force Occupational ... Safety and Health Standard (AFOSH) Standard 48-139. Future studies are needed toward promoting the use of this tool but a better system for reporting

  11. Community-Operated Environmental Surveillance Program

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the environmental surveillance activities with which citizens living near the Hanford Site have been participating. Local teachers have been managing and operating three special radiological air sampling stations located in Richland, Basin City, and Franklin County, Washington. Other expansion efforts of this program are also described.

  12. Marginal Expense Oil Well Wireless Surveillance (MEOWWS)

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Donald G.

    2002-03-11

    The objective of this study was to identify and field test a new, low cost, wireless oil well surveillance system. A variety of suppliers and technologies were considered. One supplier and system was chosen that was low cost, new to the oil field, and successfully field tested.

  13. Surveillance and Conformity in Competitive Youth Swimming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    Underpinned by a Foucauldian analysis of sporting practices, this paper identifies the disciplinary mechanism of surveillance at work in competitive youth swimming. It highlights the ways in which swimmers and their coaches are subject to and apply this mechanism to produce embodied conformity to normative behaviour and obedient, docile bodies.…

  14. European recommendations for antimicrobial resistance surveillance.

    PubMed

    Cornaglia, G; Hryniewicz, W; Jarlier, V; Kahlmeter, G; Mittermayer, H; Stratchounski, L; Baquero, F

    2004-04-01

    The problem of antimicrobial resistance surveillance in Europe has been debated extensively in many excellent documents issued by national committees that often assume the value of national guidelines. However, a comprehensive document addressing the whole matter from a European perspective, as well as reviewing its present status and drafting future perspectives, has been lacking. The present recommendations have been produced by the ESCMID Study Group for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (ESGARS) through a consensus process involving all members of the Study Group. The recommendations focus on the detection of bacterial resistance and its reporting to clinicians, public health officers and a wider-and ever-increasing-audience. The leading concept is that the basis for resistance monitoring is microbiological diagnostics. The prerequisites for resistance monitoring are findings of adequate quality and quantity, which have been recorded properly and evaluated correctly. Different types of surveillance studies should fulfil different requirements with regard to data collection and reporting, the expected use of data, and the prerequisites for networking such activities. To generate relevant indicators, bacterial resistance data should be reported using adequate denominators and stratification. Reporting of antimicrobial resistance data is necessary for selection of empirical therapy at the local level, for assessing the scale of the resistance problem at the local, national or international levels, for monitoring changes in resistance rates, and for detecting the emergence and spread of new resistances types. Any type of surveillance study should conclude, where appropriate, with a proposal for intervention based on the data obtained.

  15. Timeliness of Malaria Surveillance System in Iran

    PubMed Central

    AKBARI, Hossein; MAJDZADEH, Reza; RAHIMI FOROUSHANI, Abbas; RAEISI, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Background: We aimed to evaluate the timeliness of reporting of malaria surveillance system and understanding the existing problems. Methods: The timeliness of malaria surveillance system of Iran was evaluated in four provinces of Iran including Sistan & Baluchistan, Hormozgan, Kerman (as provinces with local malaria transmission) and Khuzestan (without local malaria transmission). In this descriptive-analytic cross-sectional study two levels of Primary Health Care service providers including first level (Health Houses) and second level (Urban or Rural Health care units) were evaluated with regard to reporting of malaria surveillance system. Results: Forms number 1 (87% reported within one day) and number 2 (reporting median: 2 days) are reported from first level to second level, and forms number 4 (median: 4 days), number 3 (median: 6 days), number 7 (median: 9 days), number 5 (median: 11 days) and number 6 (median: 19 days) are reported from second level to the third level respectively in a shorter time. Independent variables such as distance, local malaria transmission level, and case finding type, are the factors affecting the reporting delay. Conclusion: Reporting in the first level compared to the second level is done with lower delay. In the areas where there is a deadline set for reporting, reporting is done more timely. Whatever number of malaria cases is decreased, sensitivity and subsequently timeliness reduced. It is recommended that the studies of timeliness be done with sensitivity and usefulness analysis of surveillance system. PMID:23515191

  16. 48 CFR 37.604 - Quality assurance surveillance plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Quality assurance... assurance surveillance plans. Requirements for quality assurance and quality assurance surveillance plans are in Subpart 46.4. The Government may either prepare the quality assurance surveillance plan...

  17. State-level Zoonotic Disease Surveillance in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Scotch, Matthew; Rabinowitz, Peter; Brandt, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    Summary Most emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic, yet recent commissions have highlighted deficiencies in their surveillance. We conducted a survey to understand the needs of state agencies for zoonotic disease surveillance. The findings will hopefully support the development of biomedical informatics applications that can link animal and human data for surveillance. PMID:21824354

  18. The Surveillance of Teachers and the Simulation of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Damien

    2017-01-01

    Just as surveillance in general has become more sophisticated, penetrative and ubiquitous, so has the surveillance of teachers. Enacted through an assemblage of strategies such as learning walks, parental networks, student voice and management information systems, the surveillance of teachers has proliferated as a means of managing the risks of…

  19. 14 CFR 121.373 - Continuing analysis and surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Continuing analysis and surveillance. 121... Alterations § 121.373 Continuing analysis and surveillance. (a) Each certificate holder shall establish and maintain a system for the continuing analysis and surveillance of the performance and effectiveness of...

  20. 14 CFR 135.431 - Continuing analysis and surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Continuing analysis and surveillance. 135... Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, and Alterations § 135.431 Continuing analysis and surveillance. (a) Each certificate holder shall establish and maintain a system for the continuing analysis and surveillance of...

  1. 28 CFR 550.42 - Procedures for urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Procedures for urine surveillance. 550.42... DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.42 Procedures for urine surveillance. (a) Contractor authorized personnel of the same sex as...

  2. 28 CFR 550.42 - Procedures for urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Procedures for urine surveillance. 550.42... DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.42 Procedures for urine surveillance. (a) Contractor authorized personnel of the same sex as...

  3. 28 CFR 550.42 - Procedures for urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures for urine surveillance. 550.42... DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.42 Procedures for urine surveillance. (a) Contractor authorized personnel of the same sex as...

  4. 28 CFR 550.42 - Procedures for urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Procedures for urine surveillance. 550.42... DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.42 Procedures for urine surveillance. (a) Contractor authorized personnel of the same sex as...

  5. 28 CFR 550.42 - Procedures for urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Procedures for urine surveillance. 550.42... DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.42 Procedures for urine surveillance. (a) Contractor authorized personnel of the same sex as...

  6. Surveillance of Suicidal Behavior, January through December 2014

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    Army Public Health Center (Provisional) Public Health Report Surveillance of Suicidal Behavior January through December 2014 PHR No. S...Surveillance Portfolio Behavioral and Social Health Outcomes Program Surveillance of Suicidal Behavior is published by the Behavioral and Social...9 5.5 Behavioral Health Indicators

  7. Comparison between active and passive surveillance within the network of epidemiological surveillance of animal diseases in Chad.

    PubMed

    Ouagal, Mahamat; Hendrikx, Pascal; Saegerman, Claude; Berkvens, Dirk

    2010-11-01

    A comparative study between passive and active surveillance based on herd visits (villages) was conducted over a period of 24 months. It included 106 surveillance stations of the animal disease epidemiological surveillance network in Chad distributed randomly into 52 stations of active surveillance and 54 stations of passive surveillance. Nine diseases of various vaccination and expected prevalence status were monitored. The active surveillance stations carried out four herd visits monthly to look for the diseases under surveillance and organised four farmers awareness-raising meetings to stimulate them to make disease notifications. The passive surveillance stations held each month four farmer awareness-raising meetings. The suspicions recorded by the stations were consigned to a suspicion form specific to each disease, indicating whether a call from the farmer, a visit to the herd or a awareness-raising meeting was the source. The results showed that, irrespective of surveillance type, all diseases under surveillance, except the rare diseases (Rinderpest and Rift Valley Fever) were reported by the surveillance agents. However, suspicions recorded following farmer calls are significantly more important than suspicions carried out during herd visits or meetings. Nevertheless, a considerable number of suspicions is recorded during awareness-raising meetings. Finally approximately 83% of the herd visits realised by the active surveillance stations showed negative results (no suspicion identified). Passive surveillance stimulated by awareness-raising meetings appears to be better adapted to Chads conditions and less expensive for the surveillance of existing diseases. However, for the rare diseases, other methods of specific active surveillance (such as for example sentinel herds) remain important to complete passive surveillance.

  8. Economic Analysis of Classical Swine Fever Surveillance in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Guo, X; Claassen, G D H; Oude Lansink, A G J M; Loeffen, W; Saatkamp, H W

    2016-06-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious pig disease that causes economic losses and impaired animal welfare. Improving the surveillance system for CSF can help to ensure early detection of the virus, thereby providing a better initial situation for controlling the disease. Economic analysis is required to compare the benefits of improved surveillance with the costs of implementing a more intensive system. This study presents a comprehensive economic analysis of CSF surveillance in the Netherlands, taking into account the specialized structure of Dutch pig production, differences in virulence of CSF strains and a complete list of possible surveillance activities. The starting point of the analysis is the current Dutch surveillance system (i.e. the default surveillance-setup scenario), including the surveillance activities 'daily clinical observation by the farmer', 'veterinarian inspection after a call', 'routine veterinarian inspection', 'pathology in AHS', 'PCR on tonsil in AHS', 'PCR on grouped animals in CVI' and 'confirmatory PCR by NVWA'. Alternative surveillance-setup scenarios were proposed by adding 'routine serology in slaughterhouses', 'routine serology on sow farms' and 'PCR on rendered animals'. The costs and benefits for applying the alternative surveillance-setup scenarios were evaluated by comparing the annual mitigated economic losses because of intensified CSF surveillance with the annual additional surveillance costs. The results of the cost-effectiveness analysis show that the alternative surveillance-setup scenarios with 'PCR on rendered animals' are effective for the moderately virulent CSF strain, whereas the scenarios with 'routine serology in slaughterhouses' or 'routine serology on sow farms' are effective for the low virulent strain. Moreover, the current CSF surveillance system in the Netherlands is cost-effective for both moderately virulent and low virulent CSF strains. The results of the cost-benefit analysis for the

  9. A coded aperture compressive imaging array and its visual detection and tracking algorithms for surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Wang, Yongtian; Wu, Hanxiao

    2012-10-29

    In this paper, we propose an application of a compressive imaging system to the problem of wide-area video surveillance systems. A parallel coded aperture compressive imaging system is proposed to reduce the needed high resolution coded mask requirements and facilitate the storage of the projection matrix. Random Gaussian, Toeplitz and binary phase coded masks are utilized to obtain the compressive sensing images. The corresponding motion targets detection and tracking algorithms directly using the compressive sampling images are developed. A mixture of Gaussian distribution is applied in the compressive image space to model the background image and for foreground detection. For each motion target in the compressive sampling domain, a compressive feature dictionary spanned by target templates and noises templates is sparsely represented. An l(1) optimization algorithm is used to solve the sparse coefficient of templates. Experimental results demonstrate that low dimensional compressed imaging representation is sufficient to determine spatial motion targets. Compared with the random Gaussian and Toeplitz phase mask, motion detection algorithms using a random binary phase mask can yield better detection results. However using random Gaussian and Toeplitz phase mask can achieve high resolution reconstructed image. Our tracking algorithm can achieve a real time speed that is up to 10 times faster than that of the l(1) tracker without any optimization.

  10. Selection of 3013 Containers for Field Surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Peppers, Elizabeth Kelly, James McClard, Gary Friday, Theodore Venetz, and Jerry Stakebade

    2007-01-01

    This report revises and combines three earlier reports dealing with the binning, statistical sampling, and sample selection of 3013 containers for field surveillance. It includes changes to the binning specification resulting from completion of the Savannah River Site packaging campaign and new information from the shelf-life program and field surveillance activities. The revised bin assignments result in changes to the random sample specification. These changes are necessary to meet the statistical requirements of the surveillance program. This report will be reviewed regularly and revised as needed. Section 1 of this report summarizes the results of an extensive effort to assign all of the current and projected 3013 containers in the Department of Energy (DOE) inventory to one of three bins (Innocuous, Pressure and Corrosion, or Pressure) based on potential failure mechanisms. Grouping containers into bins provides a framework to make a statistical selection of individual containers from the entire population for destructive and nondestructive field surveillance. The binning process consisted of three main steps. First, the packaged containers were binned using information in the Integrated Surveillance Program database and a decision tree. The second task was to assign those containers that could not be binned using the decision tree to a specific bin using container-by-container engineering review. The final task was to evaluate containers not yet packaged and assign them to bins using process knowledge. The technical basis for the decisions made during the binning process is included in Section 1. A composite decision tree and a summary table show all of the containers projected to be in the DOE inventory at the conclusion of packaging at all sites. Decision trees that provide an overview of the binning process and logic are included for each site. Section 2 of this report describes the approach to the statistical selection of containers for surveillance and

  11. High-Speed Research Surveillance Symbology Assessment Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Norman, R. Michael

    2000-01-01

    Ten pilots flew multiple approach and departure scenarios in a simulation experiment of the High-Speed Civil Transport to evaluate the utility of different airborne surveillance display concepts. The primary eXternal Visibility System (XVS) display and the Navigation Display (ND) were used to present tactical and strategic surveillance information, respectively, to the pilot. Three sensors, the Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System, radar, and the Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast system, were modeled for this simulation and the sensors surveillance information was presented in two different symbology sets to the pilot. One surveillance symbology set used unique symbol shapes to differentiate among the sensors, while the other set used common symbol shapes for the sensors. Surveillance information in the form of escape guidance from threatening traffic was also presented to the pilots. The surveillance information (sensors and escape guidance) was either presented head-up on the primary XVS display and head-down on the ND or head-down on the ND only. Both objective and subjective results demonstrated that the display concepts having surveillance information presented head-up and head-down have surveillance performance benefits over those concepts having surveillance information displayed head-down only. No significant symbology set differences were found for surveillance task performance.

  12. Public health surveillance: historical origins, methods and evaluation.

    PubMed Central

    Declich, S.; Carter, A. O.

    1994-01-01

    In the last three decades, disease surveillance has grown into a complete discipline, quite distinct from epidemiology. This expansion into a separate scientific area within public health has not been accompanied by parallel growth in the literature about its principles and methods. The development of the fundamental concepts of surveillance systems provides a basis on which to build a better understanding of the subject. In addition, the concepts have practical value as they can be used in designing new systems as well as understanding or evaluating currently operating systems. This article reviews the principles of surveillance, beginning with a historical survey of the roots and evolution of surveillance, and discusses the goals of public health surveillance. Methods for data collection, data analysis, interpretation, and dissemination are presented, together with proposed procedures for evaluating and improving a surveillance system. Finally, some points to be considered in establishing a new surveillance system are presented. PMID:8205649

  13. The Pakistan National Emergency Department Surveillance Study (Pak-NEDS): Introducing a pilot surveillance

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence-based decision making is essential for appropriate prioritization and service provision by healthcare systems. Despite higher demands, data needs for this practice are not met in many cases in low- and middle-income countries because of underdeveloped sources, among other reasons. Emergency departments (EDs) provide an important channel for such information because of their strategic position within healthcare systems. This paper describes the design and pilot test of a national ED based surveillance system suitable for the Pakistani context. Methods The Pakistan National Emergency Department Surveillance Study (Pak-NEDS) was pilot tested in the emergency departments of seven major tertiary healthcare centres across the country. The Aga Khan University, Karachi, served as the coordinating centre. Key stakeholders and experts from all study institutes were involved in outlining data needs, development of the study questionnaire, and identification of appropriate surveillance mechanisms such as methods for data collection, monitoring, and quality assurance procedures. The surveillance system was operational between November 2010 and March 2011. Active surveillance was done 24 hours a day by data collectors hired and trained specifically for the study. All patients presenting to the study EDs were eligible participants. Over 270,000 cases were registered in the surveillance system over a period of four months. Coverage levels in the final month ranged from 91-100% and were highest in centres with the least volume of patients. Overall the coverage for the four months was 79% and crude operational costs were less than $0.20 per patient. Conclusions Pak-NEDS is the first multi-centre ED based surveillance system successfully piloted in a sample of major EDs having some of the highest patient volumes in Pakistan. Despite the challenges identified, our pilot shows that the system is flexible and scalable, and could potentially be adapted for many other

  14. Participatory Online Surveillance as a Supplementary Tool to Sentinel Doctors for Influenza-Like Illness Surveillance in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Bella, Antonino; Rizzo, Caterina

    2017-01-01

    The monitoring of seasonal influenza yearly epidemics remains one of the main activity of national syndromic surveillance systems. The development of internet-based surveillance tools has brought an innovative approach to seasonal influenza surveillance by directly involving self-selected volunteers among the general population reporting their health status on a weekly basis throughout the flu season. In this paper, we explore how Influweb, an internet-based monitoring system for influenza surveillance, deployed in Italy since 2008 has performed during three years from 2012 to 2015 in comparison with data collected during the same period by the Italian sentinel doctors surveillance system. PMID:28076411

  15. Comparison of active and passive surveillance for cerebrovascular disease: The Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) Project.

    PubMed

    Piriyawat, Paisith; Smajsová, Miriam; Smith, Melinda A; Pallegar, Sanjay; Al-Wabil, Areej; Garcia, Nelda M; Risser, Jan M; Moyé, Lemuel A; Morgenstern, Lewis B

    2002-12-01

    To provide a scientific rationale for choosing an optimal stroke surveillance method, the authors compared active surveillance with passive surveillance. The methods involved ascertaining cerebrovascular events that occurred in Nueces County, Texas, during calendar year 2000. Active methods utilized screening of hospital and emergency department logs and routine visiting of hospital wards and out-of-hospital sources. Passive means relied on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9), discharge codes for case ascertainment. Cases were validated by fellowship-trained stroke neurologists on the basis of published criteria. The results showed that, of the 6,236 events identified through both active and passive surveillance, 802 were validated to be cerebrovascular events. When passive surveillance alone was used, 209 (26.1%) cases were missed, including 73 (9.1%) cases involving hospital admission and 136 (17.0%) out-of-hospital strokes. Through active surveillance alone, 57 (7.1%) cases were missed. The positive predictive value of active surveillance was 12.2%. Among the 2,099 patients admitted to a hospital, passive surveillance using ICD-9 codes missed 73 cases of cerebrovascular disease and mistakenly included 222 noncases. There were 57 admitted hospital cases missed by active surveillance, including 13 not recognized because of human error. This study provided a quantitative means of assessing the utility of active and passive surveillance for cerebrovascular disease. More uniform surveillance methods would allow comparisons across studies and communities.

  16. Tumor-Associated Glycans and Immune Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Monzavi-Karbassi, Behjatolah; Pashov, Anastas; Kieber-Emmons, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Changes in cell surface glycosylation are a hallmark of the transition from normal to inflamed and neoplastic tissue. Tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens (TACAs) challenge our understanding of immune tolerance, while functioning as immune targets that bridge innate immune surveillance and adaptive antitumor immunity in clinical applications. T-cells, being a part of the adaptive immune response, are the most popular component of the immune system considered for targeting tumor cells. However, for TACAs, T-cells take a back seat to antibodies and natural killer cells as first-line innate defense mechanisms. Here, we briefly highlight the rationale associated with the relative importance of the immune surveillance machinery that might be applicable for developing therapeutics. PMID:26343966

  17. Use of death certificates for mesothelioma surveillance.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, L K; Martin, T R; Kligler, B

    1992-01-01

    Data from the Massachusetts Cancer Registry and death certificates were linked for mesothelioma cases reported to the registry from 1982 through 1987 to determine the extent to which the cause of death information that is given on the death certificate is useful in identifying mesothelioma cases for disease surveillance. Only 12 percent of all persons reported with mesothelioma who had died were detected using underlying cause of death codes for cancers of the peritoneum and pleura, which are commonly used to identify mesothelioma cases. The rate increased to 83 percent when death certificates were reviewed manually for any mention of mesothelioma. Surveillance using only the coded cause of death data currently available will result in a large underascertainment of mesothelioma cases. PMID:1641448

  18. Systems pharmacology augments drug safety surveillance.

    PubMed

    Lorberbaum, T; Nasir, M; Keiser, M J; Vilar, S; Hripcsak, G; Tatonetti, N P

    2015-02-01

    Small molecule drugs are the foundation of modern medical practice, yet their use is limited by the onset of unexpected and severe adverse events (AEs). Regulatory agencies rely on postmarketing surveillance to monitor safety once drugs are approved for clinical use. Despite advances in pharmacovigilance methods that address issues of confounding bias, clinical data of AEs are inherently noisy. Systems pharmacology-the integration of systems biology and chemical genomics-can illuminate drug mechanisms of action. We hypothesize that these data can improve drug safety surveillance by highlighting drugs with a mechanistic connection to the target phenotype (enriching true positives) and filtering those that do not (depleting false positives). We present an algorithm, the modular assembly of drug safety subnetworks (MADSS), to combine systems pharmacology and pharmacovigilance data and significantly improve drug safety monitoring for four clinically relevant adverse drug reactions.

  19. Getting the Bigger Picture With Digital Surveillance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Through a Space Act Agreement, Diebold, Inc., acquired the exclusive rights to Glenn Research Center's patented video observation technology, originally designed to accelerate video image analysis for various ongoing and future space applications. Diebold implemented the technology into its AccuTrack digital, color video recorder, a state-of- the-art surveillance product that uses motion detection for around-the- clock monitoring. AccuTrack captures digitally signed images and transaction data in real-time. This process replaces the onerous tasks involved in operating a VCR-based surveillance system, and subsequently eliminates the need for central viewing and tape archiving locations altogether. AccuTrack can monitor an entire bank facility, including four automated teller machines, multiple teller lines, and new account areas, all from one central location.

  20. Guidance for UMTRA project surveillance and maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    1986-01-01

    The Guidance for UMTRA Project Surveillance and Maintenance describes the procedures that will be used to verify that Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal sites continue to function as designed. The approach of this guidance document is to identify surveillance requirements and maintenance procedures that will be used to comply with NRC license requirements. This document addresses five primary activities: Definition and characterization of final site conditions. Site inspections; Ground-water monitoring; Aerial photography; and Custodial maintenance and contingency repair. Final site conditions will be defined and characterized prior to the completion of remedial actions at a site. As-built drawings will be compiled, a final topographic survey will be performed, a vicinity map will be prepared, and ground and aerial photographs will be taken. Survey monuments, site markers, and signs will be established as will a network of monitoring wells.

  1. Advanced neutron source materials surveillance program

    SciTech Connect

    Heavilin, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) will be composed of several different materials, one of which is 6061-T6 aluminum. Among other components, the reflector vessel and the core pressure boundary tube (CPBT), are to be made of 6061-T6 aluminum. These components will be subjected to high thermal neutron fluences and will require a surveillance program to monitor the strength and fracture toughness of the 6061-T6 aluminum over their lifetimes. The purpose of this paper is to explain the steps that were taken in the summer of 1994 toward developing the surveillance program. The first goal was to decide upon standard specimens to use in the fracture toughness and tensile testing. Second, facilities had to be chosen for specimens representing the CPBT and the reflector vessel base, weld, and heat-affected-zone (HAZ) metals. Third, a timetable had to be defined to determine when to remove the specimens for testing.

  2. Occupational injury surveillance among electric utility employees.

    PubMed

    Kelsh, Michael A; Lu, Elizabeth T; Ramachandran, Karuna; Jesser, Christine; Fordyce, Tiffani; Yager, Janice W

    2004-09-01

    Currently, there are only limited injury surveillance data for the electric utility workforce. To address this gap, an Occupational Health Surveillance Database for electric power utilities was established for epidemiologic monitoring and intervention program evaluation. Injury rates varied across utility occupations, such as, managers, line workers, and meter readers, ranging from 0.18 to 9.63 per 100 employee-years based on more than 500,000 employee-years of observation. Compared with male workers, the risk of injury among female workers was lower overall, although their risk was higher in nonoffice occupations than their male counterparts. Across the period 2000 to 2002, three of four companies that experienced decreases in workforce size also experienced noticeable increases in injury rates. Our results suggest that benchmarking and prevention efforts should be directed at specific occupational groups and specific injury types.

  3. Tensile properties of irradiated surveillance coupons

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, F.H.; Blackburn, L.D.

    1994-06-01

    Tensile testing of austenitic steel and superalloy samples irradiated in the HMO 13 assembly was performed in support of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) Surveillance Program. Postirradiation yield stress, ultimate tensile stress, uniform elongation, total elongation, and reduction in area of 304 stainless steel (SS), 308 SS weld, 316 SS, A286, In718, and In718 weld were determined. Results showed the strength of austenitic steels increased while the ductility decreased as a result of irradiation. Low irradiation exposure produced little property change in In718. Overall, the tensile properties of HMO 13 surveillance coupons showed a lower magnitude of irradiation-induced property change than was expected based on earlier studies. Results from these tests gave no indications of unexpectedly severe irradiation damage to FFTF components.

  4. Low-Cost Instant Surveillance System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokoski, Francine J.

    1983-06-01

    A low-cost, battery-operated surveillance system was developed for use in international nuclear safeguards. The resulting system utilizes components of the commercial Polavision instant movie system to provide single-frame color or black/white images which are automatically developed and displayed by a portable Polavision Player whenever it is desired to stop and view the film. The system is designed for long-term unattended use, triggered by a timer or other input signal. To provide positive assurance of continuing operation, a self-diagnostic module was designed to detect the most common failure modes and transmit real-time status data to a remote location. The resulting system provides a low-cost surveillance capability which may be useful in various law enforcement applications.

  5. A New Molecular Surveillance System for Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Kishor; Pandey, Basu Dev; Mallik, Arun Kumar; Acharya, Jyoti; Kato, Kentaro; Kaneko, Osamu; Ferreira, Pedro Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Presently, global efforts are being made to control and eradicate the deadliest tropical diseases through the improvement of adequate interventions. A critical point for programs to succeed is the prompt and accurate diagnosis in endemic regions. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are being massively deployed and used to improve diagnosis in tropical countries. In the present report, we evaluated the hypothesis of, after use for diagnosis, the reuse of the Leishmania RDT kit as a DNA source, which can be used downstream as a molecular surveillance and/or quality control tool. As a proof of principle, a polymerase chain reaction-based method was used to detect Leishmania spp. minicircle kinetoplast DNA from leishmaniasis RDT kits. Our results show that Leishmania spp. DNA can be extracted from used RDTs and may constitute an important, reliable, and affordable tool to assist in future leishmaniasis molecular surveillance methods. PMID:24752687

  6. Tracking Theory for Airborne Surveillance Radars

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-01

    01803 _______________ _i- CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12. REPORT DATE Naval Air System Command 13. NUMBER OF PAGES Wshntn DC 2036...Department of the Navy -Trr FRE _[LEASL, Naval Air System Command DSY ;0, Ui;UrALT£D Washington, D.C. 20360 Contract Number N00019-81-C-0182 SFor...snapshot" of detected target positions once per scan. In typical air - borne surveillance radars, each azimuth is revisited once per scan, but in a

  7. [Nutcracker syndrome managed by simple surveillance].

    PubMed

    El Harrech, Youness; Jira, Hassan; Chafiki, Jaouad; Ghadouane, Mohamed; Ameur, Ahmed; Abbar, Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Nutcracker syndrome is caused by compression of the left renal vein between the aorta and the superior mesenteric artery where it passes in the fork formed at the bifurcation of these arteries. The phenomenon results in left renal venous hypertension. The syndrome is manifested by left flank and abdominal pain, with or without unilateral haematuria. The nutcracker syndrome has been treated in various ways. We report one case of the syndrome and discuss the place of surveillance in its management.

  8. Multi-Camera Persistent Surveillance Test Bed

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    interest (ROI). An asset is any capability that aids or enhances the ability of a combat unit to perform its mission, including humans , software, and...and out of the box while still retaining its weather resistance and portability needed to be designed. The box required four connections: AC power in...system. The surveillance system also makes use of a preexisting video server application known as MCVideoAgent. MCVideoAgent is a portable C

  9. Disease Surveillance on Complex Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Jose L.; Srinivasan, Ravi; Brownstein, John S.; Galvani, Alison P.; Meyers, Lauren Ancel

    2016-01-01

    As infectious disease surveillance systems expand to include digital, crowd-sourced, and social network data, public health agencies are gaining unprecedented access to high-resolution data and have an opportunity to selectively monitor informative individuals. Contact networks, which are the webs of interaction through which diseases spread, determine whether and when individuals become infected, and thus who might serve as early and accurate surveillance sensors. Here, we evaluate three strategies for selecting sensors—sampling the most connected, random, and friends of random individuals—in three complex social networks—a simple scale-free network, an empirical Venezuelan college student network, and an empirical Montreal wireless hotspot usage network. Across five different surveillance goals—early and accurate detection of epidemic emergence and peak, and general situational awareness—we find that the optimal choice of sensors depends on the public health goal, the underlying network and the reproduction number of the disease (R0). For diseases with a low R0, the most connected individuals provide the earliest and most accurate information about both the onset and peak of an outbreak. However, identifying network hubs is often impractical, and they can be misleading if monitored for general situational awareness, if the underlying network has significant community structure, or if R0 is high or unknown. Taking a theoretical approach, we also derive the optimal surveillance system for early outbreak detection but find that real-world identification of such sensors would be nearly impossible. By contrast, the friends-of-random strategy offers a more practical and robust alternative. It can be readily implemented without prior knowledge of the network, and by identifying sensors with higher than average, but not the highest, epidemiological risk, it provides reasonably early and accurate information. PMID:27415615

  10. Seismic Surveillance. Nuclear Test Ban Verification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-26

    the two methods. The seismic results together with local geology information strongly imply that the north- eastern part of the NORESS siting area is...Co GL-TR-90-0062 N Seismic Surveillance - Nuclear Test Ban Verification N Eystein S. Husebye Bent 0. Ruud S University of Oslo Department of Geology ...Aval" ! .- Dist I University of Oslo ’ ! Department of Geology ___ P.O. Box 1047, Blindern N-0316 Oslo 3 Norway iii TABLE OF CONTENTS I Summary 2 Novel

  11. Surveillance of industrial processes with correlated parameters

    DOEpatents

    White, Andrew M.; Gross, Kenny C.; Kubic, William L.; Wigeland, Roald A.

    1996-01-01

    A system and method for surveillance of an industrial process. The system and method includes a plurality of sensors monitoring industrial process parameters, devices to convert the sensed data to computer compatible information and a computer which executes computer software directed to analyzing the sensor data to discern statistically reliable alarm conditions. The computer software is executed to remove serial correlation information and then calculate Mahalanobis distribution data to carry out a probability ratio test to determine alarm conditions.

  12. Surveillance of industrial processes with correlated parameters

    DOEpatents

    White, A.M.; Gross, K.C.; Kubic, W.L.; Wigeland, R.A.

    1996-12-17

    A system and method for surveillance of an industrial process are disclosed. The system and method includes a plurality of sensors monitoring industrial process parameters, devices to convert the sensed data to computer compatible information and a computer which executes computer software directed to analyzing the sensor data to discern statistically reliable alarm conditions. The computer software is executed to remove serial correlation information and then calculate Mahalanobis distribution data to carry out a probability ratio test to determine alarm conditions. 10 figs.

  13. Automated video surveillance with unattended ground sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moellman, Dennis E.

    1997-07-01

    Video sensors represent one facet of the unattended ground sensors family used to support military operations. This paper provides technical details on a modular, automated video surveillance (AVS) system concept that provides a 4D modeling and segmentation capability. This capability, combining 3D imaging and embedded information processing, enables the AVS to reliably detect and roughly classify objects and activities with a high probable certainty and minimal false alarms. The beneficial result is an elimination of the need for human monitoring and reduction in data transmission requirements by several orders of magnitude. This modular, forward observer AVS sensor package is comprised of integrated CMOS arrays and lenses (one for monoscopic view and two rigidly fixed for stereo), image processing, communication, GPS chips, and battery. This smart sensor is inexpensive, miniature, self-contained, and man-packable. Real-time video processing onboard the sensor provides: analysis and automatic target recognition algorithms enabling robust moving object detection; tracking and delimitation; and target characterization based on motion, size, form factor, texture, and specific identifying characteristics of objects. Automation of video screening tasks provides the benefits of visual surveillance without the associated burden or distraction from the mission. Because of its size and simplicity the AVS requires minimal man-in-the-field set up and lends itself to clandestine deployment.. In the future it may be possible to reliably and cost effectively air deploy the AVS. Each method offers great benefits as unmanned forward observers and sophisticated `tripwires' for battlefield awareness. While well suited for military reconnaissance, surveillance, and target acquisition missions for peacetime and/or wartime applications, the AVS also lends itself to other clandestine applications such as drug interdiction surveillance, monitoring, and tip off.

  14. An Enhanced Synthetic Environment for Maritime Surveillance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    Surveillance Nacer Abdellaoui Defence R&D Canada – Ottawa Paul Hubbard Defence R&D Canada – Ottawa Paul Duncan Greenley & Associates...or during the whole lifecycle of the project. The contractor, Greenley & Associates Inc., [8] defines itself as a consulting service provider that...and emergency management. In a multi project environment, like that employed by Greenley & Associates, where personnel are shared across a number of

  15. Mathematical model of tumor-immune surveillance.

    PubMed

    Mahasa, Khaphetsi Joseph; Ouifki, Rachid; Eladdadi, Amina; Pillis, Lisette de

    2016-09-07

    We present a novel mathematical model involving various immune cell populations and tumor cell populations. The model describes how tumor cells evolve and survive the brief encounter with the immune system mediated by natural killer (NK) cells and the activated CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). The model is composed of ordinary differential equations describing the interactions between these important immune lymphocytes and various tumor cell populations. Based on up-to-date knowledge of immune evasion and rational considerations, the model is designed to illustrate how tumors evade both arms of host immunity (i.e. innate and adaptive immunity). The model predicts that (a) an influx of an external source of NK cells might play a crucial role in enhancing NK-cell immune surveillance; (b) the host immune system alone is not fully effective against progression of tumor cells; (c) the development of immunoresistance by tumor cells is inevitable in tumor immune surveillance. Our model also supports the importance of infiltrating NK cells in tumor immune surveillance, which can be enhanced by NK cell-based immunotherapeutic approaches.

  16. Towards effective emerging infectious disease surveillance.

    PubMed

    Ear, Sophal

    2014-01-01

    In this plenary talk given at the annual meeting of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences at Texas Tech University last October, Professor Sophal Ear, then of the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, discussed his research on the political economy of emerging infectious disease (EID) surveillance programs. His talk reviews lessons learned for U.S. military medical research laboratories collaborating with developing countries and is comprised of three case studies: Cambodia (U.S. Naval Area Medical Research Unit 2 or NAMRU-2), Indonesia (also NAMRU-2 in the context of H5N1 or Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza), (1) and Mexico (that country's handling of A/H1N1 or Swine Flu in 2009). (2) Professor Ear's research provides policymakers with tools for improving the effectiveness of new or existing EID surveillance programs. His work also offers host countries the opportunity to incorporate ideas, provide opinions, and debate the management of political and economic constraints facing their programs. In this analysis, constraints are found for each case study and general recommendations are given for improving global emerging infectious disease surveillance across political, economic, and cultural dimensions.

  17. Mapping AIS coverage for trusted surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapinski, Anna-Liesa S.; Isenor, Anthony W.

    2010-10-01

    Automatic Identification System (AIS) is an unattended vessel reporting system developed for collision avoidance. Shipboard AIS equipment automatically broadcasts vessel positional data at regular intervals. The real-time position and identity data from a vessel is received by other vessels in the area thereby assisting with local navigation. As well, AIS broadcasts are beneficial to those concerned with coastal and harbour security. Land-based AIS receiving stations can also collect the AIS broadcasts. However, reception at the land station is dependent upon the ship's position relative to the receiving station. For AIS to be used as a trusted surveillance system, the characteristics of the AIS coverage area in the vicinity of the station (or stations) should be understood. This paper presents some results of a method being investigated at DRDC Atlantic, Canada) to map the AIS coverage characteristics of a dynamic AIS reception network. The method is shown to clearly distinguish AIS reception edges from those edges caused by vessel traffic patterns. The method can also be used to identify temporal changes in the coverage area, an important characteristic for local maritime security surveillance activities. Future research using the coverage estimate technique is also proposed to support surveillance activities.

  18. A composite CBRN surveillance and testing service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemeyer, Debra M.

    2004-08-01

    The terrorist threat coupled with a global military mission necessitates quick and accurate identification of environmental hazards, and CBRN early warning. The Air Force Institute for Operational Health (AFIOH) provides fundamental support to protect personnel from and mitigate the effects of untoward hazards exposures. Sustaining healthy communities since 1955, the organizational charter is to enhance warfighter mission effectiveness, protect health, improve readiness and reduce costs, assess and manage risks to human heath and safety, operational performance and the environment. The AFIOH Surveillance Directorate provides forward deployed and reach-back surveillance, agent identification, and environ-mental regulatory compliance testing. Three unique laboratories process and analyze over two million environmental samples and clinical specimens per year, providing analytical chemistry, radiological assessment, and infectious disease testing, in addition to supporting Air Force and Department of Defense (DoD) clinical reference laboratory and force health protection testing. Each laboratory has an applied or investigational testing section where new technologies and techniques are evaluated, and expert consultative support to assist in technology assessments and test analyses. The Epidemiology Surveillance Laboratory and Analytical Chemistry Laboratory are critical assets of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Laboratory Response Network. Deployable assets provide direct support to the Combatant Commander and include the Air Force Radiological Assessment Team, and the Biological Augmentation Team. A diverse directorate, the synergistic CBRN response capabilities are a commander"s force protection tool, critical to maintaining combat power.

  19. State-based surveillance for selected hemoglobinopathies

    PubMed Central

    Hulihan, Mary M.; Feuchtbaum, Lisa; Jordan, Lanetta; Kirby, Russell S.; Snyder, Angela; Young, William; Greene, Yvonne; Telfair, Joseph; Wang, Ying; Cramer, William; Werner, Ellen M.; Kenney, Kristy; Creary, Melissa; Grant, Althea M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The lack of an ongoing surveillance system for hemoglobinopathies in the United States impedes the ability of public health organizations to identify individuals with these conditions, monitor their health-care utilization and clinical outcomes, and understand the effect these conditions have on the health-care system. This article describes the results of a pilot program that supported the development of the infrastructure and data collection methods for a state-based surveillance system for selected hemoglobinopathies. Methods The system was designed to identify and gather information on all people living with a hemoglobinopathy diagnosis (sickle cell diseases or thalassemias) in the participating states during 2004–2008. Novel, three-level case definitions were developed, and multiple data sets were used to collect information. Results In total, 31,144 individuals who had a hemoglobinopathy diagnosis during the study period were identified in California; 39,633 in Florida; 20,815 in Georgia; 12,680 in Michigan; 34,853 in New York, and 8,696 in North Carolina. Conclusion This approach provides a possible model for the development of state-based hemoglobinopathy surveillance systems. PMID:24991875

  20. The Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health Newsletter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Lesley

    2011-01-01

    The June 2010 LSAH newsletter introduced the change from the Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health research study to the new Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health program (An Overview of the New Occupational Surveillance Program for the Astronaut Corps). Instead of performing research-focused retrospective analyses of astronaut medical data compared to a JSC civil servant control population, the new program is focused on prevention of disease and prospective identification and mitigation of health risks in each astronaut due to individual exposure history and the unique occupational exposures experienced by the astronaut corps. The new LSAH program has 5 primary goals: (1) Provide a comprehensive medical exam for each LSAH participant; (2) Conduct occupational surveillance; (3) Improve communication, data accessibility, integrity and storage; (4) Support operational and healthcare analyses; and (5) Support NASA research objectives. This article will focus primarily on the first goal, the comprehensive medical exam. Future newsletters will outline in detail the plans and processes for addressing the remaining program goals.

  1. [The Surveillance in Health Basic: perspectives to reach the Surveillance in Health].

    PubMed

    Faria, Liliam Saldanha; Bertolozzi, Maria Rita

    2010-09-01

    The Surveillance in Health is constituted as an Assistance Model with potential to reorganize the working processes. This study was developed to identify and analyze surveillance practices in the Primary Health Care field, in a region of São Paulo City-Brazil. Interviews were performed with 14 individual, from February to April 2006: health workers and administrators who had been operating in the Epidemiologic Surveillance area of health basic units. The speeches were analyzed based on the social theory of the health-disease process and by the materialistic interpretation of the labor process. It was verified that their work was fragmented. The precariousness of the working structure, the lack of professional qualification and of management-political support, besides the lack of participation from the population were all identified as barriers that limit health surveillance practices. It was concluded that, in a local level, there is a potential to change the organization of the working process in health and meet the health needs of the population through a Health Surveillance Model.

  2. Groundwater surveillance plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Forstrom, J.M.; Smith, E.D.; Winters, S.L.; Haase, C.S.; King, H.L.; McMaster, W.M.

    1994-07-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 requires the preparation of environmental monitoring plans and implementation of environmental monitoring programs for all DOE facilities. The order identifies two distinct components of environmental monitoring, namely effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. In general, effluent monitoring has the objectives of characterizing contaminants and demonstrating compliance with applicable standards and permit requirements, whereas environmental surveillance has the broader objective of monitoring the effects of DOE activities on on- and off-site environmental and natural resources. The purpose of this document is to support the Environmental Monitoring Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) by describing the groundwater component of the environmental surveillance program for the DOE facilities on the ORR. The distinctions between groundwater effluent monitoring and groundwater surveillance have been defined in the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Groundwater Surveillance Strategy. As defined in the strategy, a groundwater surveillance program consists of two parts, plant perimeter surveillance and off-site water well surveillance. This document identifies the sampling locations, parameters, and monitoring frequencies for both of these activities on and around the ORR and describes the rationale for the program design. The program was developed to meet the objectives of DOE Order 5400.1 and related requirements in DOE Order 5400.5 and to conform with DOE guidance on environmental surveillance and the Energy Systems Groundwater Surveillance Strategy.

  3. Detecting polio through surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP).

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Jagdish; Ram, Madhav; Durrani, Sunita; Wenger, Jay

    2005-12-01

    Accurate surveillance for polio is essential for eradication. Surveillance systems for polio has been developed under the guidance of the global polio eradication initiative. Surveillance of cases of acute flaccid paralysis among children less than 15 years of age is a key component for a well functioning polio surveillance system. The surveillance system works through a network of surveillance medical officers, the responsibility of them lies in assisting the health services departments of all states and maintaining a network of acute flaccid paralysis reporting sites and rapidly investigating the cases. Surveillance activities begin when a child comes in contact with a healthcare provider who in turn informs the officer in charge of acute flaccid paralysis surveillance. The goal of the polio network laboratories is to provide accurate and timely results of wild poliovirus detection in stool samples of cases of acute flaccid paralysis. Strong linkages have been established between the acute flaccid paralysis surveillance system and the laboratory network. Laboratories complete poliovirus isolation and if poliovirus is isolated, these are submitted for intratypic differentiations. Acute flaccid paralysis surveillance in India has demonstrated that the eradication activities implemented in India led to dramatic reduction and restriction in the number of cases and geographic spread of poliovirus transmission.

  4. Surveillance and diagnostics of the beam mode vibrations of the Ringhals PWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, C. M.; Pazsit, I.; Nylen, H.

    2012-07-01

    Surveillance of core barrel vibrations has been performed in the Swedish Ringhals PWRs for several years. This surveillance is focused mainly on the pendular motion of the core barrel, which is known as the beam mode. The monitoring of the beam mode has suggested that its amplitude increases along the cycle and decreases after refuelling. In the last 5 years several measurements have been taken in order to understand this behaviour. Besides, a non-linear fitting procedure has been implemented in order to better distinguish the different components of vibration. By using this fitting procedure, two modes of vibration have been identified in the frequency range of the beam mode. Several results coming from the trend analysis performed during these years indicate that one of the modes is due to the core barrel motion itself and the other is due to the individual flow induced vibrations of the fuel elements. In this work, the latest results of this monitoring are presented. (authors)

  5. Surveillance of vaccine safety: comparison of parental reports with routine surveillance and a clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Netterlid, Eva; Månsson, Marie Edwinson; Håkansson, Anders

    2009-03-23

    One way to maintain confidence in vaccination programmes is to improve monitoring of immunisation safety. We studied active parental reporting of adverse events after a booster dose of diphtheria-tetanus toxoid (DT). 7193 children received the vaccine. Questionnaires were submitted by 84.2% of the parents, who reported reactions for 9.2% of the children. Four percent of events were classified as moderate/severe by interviews. Relative risk of redness and swelling reported was 0.24 (95% CI, 0.13-0.42) compared to a clinical trial, while it was 71.0 (44-114) compared to passive surveillance. Active surveillance by parental reports is a useful complement to passive surveillance of childhood immunisations to generate hypotheses for evaluation in controlled studies.

  6. The Added-Value of Using Participatory Approaches to Assess the Acceptability of Surveillance Systems: The Case of Bovine Tuberculosis in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    Calba, Clémentine; Goutard, Flavie Luce; Vanholme, Luc; Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas; Hendrikx, Pascal; Saegerman, Claude

    2016-01-01

    Context and Objective Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) surveillance in Belgium is essential to maintain the officially free status and to preserve animal and public health. An evaluation of the system is thus needed to ascertain the surveillance provides a precise description of the current situation in the country. The evaluation should assess stakeholders’ perceptions and expectations about the system due to the fact that the acceptability has an influence on the levels of sensitivity and timeliness of the surveillance system. The objective of the study was to assess the acceptability of the bTB surveillance in Belgium, using participatory tools and the OASIS flash tool (‘analysis tool for surveillance systems’). Methods For the participatory process, focus group discussions and individual interviews were implemented with representatives involved with the system, both from cattle and wildlife part of the surveillance. Three main tools were used: (i) relational diagrams associated with smileys, (ii) flow diagrams associated with proportional piling, and (iii) impact diagrams associated with proportional piling. A total of six criteria were assessed, among which five were scored on a scale from -1 to +1. For the OASIS flash tool, one full day meeting with representatives from stakeholders involved with the surveillance was organised. A total of 19 criteria linked to acceptability were scored on a scale from 0 to 3. Results and Conclusion Both methods highlighted a medium acceptability of the bTB surveillance. The main elements having a negative influence were the consequences of official notification of a bTB suspect case in a farm, the low remuneration paid to private veterinarians for execution of intradermal tuberculin tests and the practical difficulties about the containment of the animals. Based on the two evaluation processes, relevant recommendations to improve the surveillance were made. Based on the comparison between the two evaluation processes, the

  7. Using genomics for surveillance of veterinary infectious agents.

    PubMed

    Mathijs, E; Vandenbussche, F; Van Borm, S

    2016-04-01

    Factors such as globalisation, climate change and agricultural intensification can increase the risk of microbial emergence. As a result, there is a growing need for flexible laboratory-based surveillance tools to rapidly identify, characterise and monitor global (re-)emerging diseases. Although many tools are available, novel sequencing technologies have launched a new era in pathogen surveillance. Here, the authors review the potential applications of high-throughput genomic technologies for the surveillance of veterinary pathogens. They focus on the two types of surveillance that will benefit most from these new tools: hazard-specific surveillance (pathogen identification and typing) and early-warning surveillance (pathogen discovery). The paper reviews how the resulting sequencing data can be used to improve diagnosis and concludes by highlighting the major challenges that hinder the routine use of this technology in the veterinary field.

  8. Surveillance for Occupational Respiratory Diseases in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Antao, Vinicius C.; Pinheiro, Germania A.

    2015-01-01

    The burden of chronic diseases, including occupational respiratory diseases (ORDs), is increasing worldwide. Nevertheless, epidemiological data on these conditions are scarce in most countries. Therefore, it is important to conduct surveillance to monitor ORDs, particularly in developing countries, where the working population is especially vulnerable and the health system infrastructure is usually weak. This article provides a general framework for the implementation of ORD surveillance in developing countries. The main objectives of surveillance are to describe incidence and prevalence of ORDs, as well as to identify sentinel events and new associations between occupational exposures and health outcomes. Diseases with high morbidity and mortality and those in which early diagnosis with standardized tests are available are especially suitable for surveillance activities. Simple strategies, preferably using existing resources and technology, are the best option for surveillance in developing countries. This article offers examples of specific surveillance systems that are in place in Brazil, China, Cuba, India, and South Africa. PMID:26024351

  9. Surveillance of sexually transmitted infections in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Hughes, G; Paine, T; Thomas, D

    2001-05-01

    Surveillance of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in England and Wales has, in the past, relied principally on aggregated statistical data submitted by all genitourinary medicine clinics to the Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, supplemented by various laboratory reporting systems. Although these systems provide comparatively robust surveillance data, they do not provide sufficient information on risk factors to target STI control and prevention programmes appropriately. Over recent years, substantial rises in STIs, the emergence of numerous outbreaks of STIs, and changes in gonococcal resistance patterns have necessitated the introduction of more sophisticated surveillance mechanisms. This article describes current STI surveillance systems in England and Wales, including new systems that have recently been introduced or are currently being developed to meet the need for enhanced STI surveillance data.

  10. Surveillance for occupational respiratory diseases in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Antao, Vinicius C; Pinheiro, Germania A

    2015-06-01

    The burden of chronic diseases, including occupational respiratory diseases (ORDs), is increasing worldwide. Nevertheless, epidemiological data on these conditions are scarce in most countries. Therefore, it is important to conduct surveillance to monitor ORDs, particularly in developing countries, where the working population is especially vulnerable and the health system infrastructure is usually weak. This article provides a general framework for the implementation of ORD surveillance in developing countries. The main objectives of surveillance are to describe incidence and prevalence of ORDs, as well as to identify sentinel events and new associations between occupational exposures and health outcomes. Diseases with high morbidity and mortality and those in which early diagnosis with standardized tests are available are especially suitable for surveillance activities. Simple strategies, preferably using existing resources and technology, are the best option for surveillance in developing countries. This article offers examples of specific surveillance systems that are in place in Brazil, China, Cuba, India, and South Africa.

  11. Internet-based surveillance systems for monitoring emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Milinovich, Gabriel J; Williams, Gail M; Clements, Archie C A; Hu, Wenbiao

    2014-02-01

    Emerging infectious diseases present a complex challenge to public health officials and governments; these challenges have been compounded by rapidly shifting patterns of human behaviour and globalisation. The increase in emerging infectious diseases has led to calls for new technologies and approaches for detection, tracking, reporting, and response. Internet-based surveillance systems offer a novel and developing means of monitoring conditions of public health concern, including emerging infectious diseases. We review studies that have exploited internet use and search trends to monitor two such diseases: influenza and dengue. Internet-based surveillance systems have good congruence with traditional surveillance approaches. Additionally, internet-based approaches are logistically and economically appealing. However, they do not have the capacity to replace traditional surveillance systems; they should not be viewed as an alternative, but rather an extension. Future research should focus on using data generated through internet-based surveillance and response systems to bolster the capacity of traditional surveillance systems for emerging infectious diseases.

  12. Surveillance of wild birds for avian influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Hoye, Bethany J; Munster, Vincent J; Nishiura, Hiroshi; Klaassen, Marcel; Fouchier, Ron A M

    2010-12-01

    Recent demand for increased understanding of avian influenza virus in its natural hosts, together with the development of high-throughput diagnostics, has heralded a new era in wildlife disease surveillance. However, survey design, sampling, and interpretation in the context of host populations still present major challenges. We critically reviewed current surveillance to distill a series of considerations pertinent to avian influenza virus surveillance in wild birds, including consideration of what, when, where, and how many to sample in the context of survey objectives. Recognizing that wildlife disease surveillance is logistically and financially constrained, we discuss pragmatic alternatives for achieving probability-based sampling schemes that capture this host-pathogen system. We recommend hypothesis-driven surveillance through standardized, local surveys that are, in turn, strategically compiled over broad geographic areas. Rethinking the use of existing surveillance infrastructure can thereby greatly enhance our global understanding of avian influenza and other zoonotic diseases.

  13. Wide Area Recovery and Resiliency Program (WARRP) Integrated Program Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    the respiratory system, damaging mucous membranes and causing pulmonary edema . Severe mustard gas burns (i.e., where more than 50% of the victim’s...economic resilience and recovery challenges and develop innovative recommendations and strategies to accelerate economic recovery.  Develop/refine...Objectives Better understand the economic resilience and recovery challenges and develop innovative recommendations and strategies to accelerate

  14. Communications Performance of an Undersea Acoustic Wide-Area Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    Seaweb technology . PEO IWS sponsored the Seaweb 2004 experiment analyzed in my thesis. The SSC San Diego Fellowship Program sponsored my research...layer protocol requiring the undersea vehicle to initiate all communications. As Seaweb advances technologically , the ability to maintain network-layer...racom buoys used in the Seaweb 2004 experiment incorporate FreeWave radio technology as well as Iridium satellite communication technology . The

  15. Wide-Area Thermal Processing of Light-Emitting Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Duty, C.; Quick, N.

    2011-09-30

    Silicon carbide based materials and devices have been successfully exploited for diverse electronic applications. However, they have not achieved the same success as Si technologies due to higher material cost and higher processing temperatures required for device development. Traditionally, SiC is not considered for optoelectronic applications because it has an indirect bandgap. However, AppliCote Associates, LLC has developed a laser-based doping process which enables light emission in SiC through the creation of embedded p-n junctions. AppliCote laser irradiation of silicon carbide allows two different interaction mechanisms: (1) Laser conversion or induced phase transformation which creates carbon rich regions that have conductive properties. These conductive regions are required for interconnection to the light emitting semiconducting region. (2) Laser doping which injects external dopant atoms into the substrate that introduces deep level transition states that emit light when electrically excited. The current collaboration with AppliCote has focused on the evaluation of ORNL's unique Pulse Thermal Processing (PTP) technique as a replacement for laser processing. Compared to laser processing, Pulse Thermal Processing can deliver similar energy intensities (20-50 kW/cm2) over a much larger area (up to 1,000 cm2) at a lower cost and much higher throughput. The main findings of our investigation; which are significant for the realization of SiC based optoelectronic devices, are as follows: (1) The PTP technique is effective in low thermal budget activation of dopants in SiC similar to the laser technique. The surface electrical conductivity of the SiC samples improved by about three orders of magnitude as a result of PTP processing which is significant for charge injection in the devices; (2) The surface composition of the SiC film can be modified by the PTP technique to create a carbon-rich surface (increased local C:Si ratio from 1:1 to 2.9:1). This is significant as higher thermal and electrical conductivities of the surface layer are critical for a successful development of integrated optoelectronic devices; and (3) PTP provides low thermal budget dopant activation with a controlled depth profile, which can be exploited for high performance device development with selective patterning of the substrate. This project has successfully demonstrated that a low thermal budget annealing technique, such as PTP, is critical to defining the path for low cost electronic devices integrated on glass or polymeric substrates. This project is complimentary to the goals of the Solid State Lighting Program within DOE. It involves new manufacturing techniques for light emitting materials that are potentially much lower cost and energy efficient than existing products. Significant opportunity exists for further exploration of AppliCote's material and device technology in combination with ORNL's PTP technique, modeling, and characterization capabilities.

  16. Wide-Area Traffic Management for Cloud Services

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    located near end users . We design a set of mechanisms to solve a joint content placement and request routing problem under this architecture, achieving...last-mile CDN servers (e.g., nano data centers) located near end users . We design a set of mechanisms to solve a joint content placement and request... real 30-day BitTorrent trace. . . . . . . 82 4.1 DONAR uses distributed mapping nodes for replica selection. Its algorithms can maintain a weighted

  17. Multi-Gigabit Fiber Optic Wide Area Network Development.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-01

    is also important. Coding schemes where the average power level can deviate over time periods comparable to the time constant of the ac -coupling in...7x887878 z 3 65 X 65 6 65 4 4 778X778 C5 1 222 X222 : 6 4 43 4 4X 4 4 ś 12 11 I iX I S3334333X C. Next Node Routing Table Figure 6.4: Perfect Shuffle...21-34, Nov./Dec. 1987. [6 11 J. R. Sauer, "Multi- Gb /s Optoelectronic Interconnection System," printed by Center for Optoelectronic Computing Systems

  18. ESTCP Pilot Project Wide Area Assessment for Munitions Response

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    and open , gradual slopes, and valleys between steep hills. Vegetation varies from sparse shrubs and trees to dense, continuous groves. The site...technologies that locate areas intentionally used for military activities such as impact areas, target areas, or other “ concentrations ” such as open ...number cannot be used to define an anomaly density that constitutes ‘ concentrated ,’ as the contrast between the site background anomaly density and the

  19. A fault detection service for wide area distributed computations.

    SciTech Connect

    Stelling, P.

    1998-06-09

    The potential for faults in distributed computing systems is a significant complicating factor for application developers. While a variety of techniques exist for detecting and correcting faults, the implementation of these techniques in a particular context can be difficult. Hence, we propose a fault detection service designed to be incorporated, in a modular fashion, into distributed computing systems, tools, or applications. This service uses well-known techniques based on unreliable fault detectors to detect and report component failure, while allowing the user to tradeoff timeliness of reporting against false positive rates. We describe the architecture of this service, report on experimental results that quantify its cost and accuracy, and describe its use in two applications, monitoring the status of system components of the GUSTO computational grid testbed and as part of the NetSolve network-enabled numerical solver.

  20. LHCNet: Wide Area Networking and Collaborative Systems for HEP

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, H.B,

    2007-08-20

    This proposal presents the status and progress in 2006-7, and the technical and financial plans for 2008-2010 for the US LHCNet transatlantic network supporting U.S. participation in the LHC physics program. US LHCNet provides transatlantic connections of the Tier1 computing facilities at Fermilab and Brookhaven with the Tier0 and Tier1 facilities at CERN as well as Tier1s elsewhere in Europe and Asia. Together with ESnet, Internet2, the GEANT pan-European network, and NSF’s UltraLight project, US LHCNet also supports connections between the Tier2 centers (where most of the analysis of the data will take place, starting this year) and the Tier1s as needed.See report

  1. Nonpainful wide-area compression inhibits experimental pain.

    PubMed

    Honigman, Liat; Bar-Bachar, Ofrit; Yarnitsky, David; Sprecher, Elliot; Granovsky, Yelena

    2016-09-01

    Compression therapy, a well-recognized treatment for lymphoedema and venous disorders, pressurizes limbs and generates massive non-noxious afferent sensory barrages. The aim of this study was to study whether such afferent activity has an analgesic effect when applied on the lower limbs, hypothesizing that larger compression areas will induce stronger analgesic effects, and whether this effect correlates with conditioned pain modulation (CPM). Thirty young healthy subjects received painful heat and pressure stimuli (47°C for 30 seconds, forearm; 300 kPa for 15 seconds, wrist) before and during 3 compression protocols of either SMALL (up to ankles), MEDIUM (up to knees), or LARGE (up to hips) compression areas. Conditioned pain modulation (heat pain conditioned by noxious cold water) was tested before and after each compression protocol. The LARGE protocol induced more analgesia for heat than the SMALL protocol (P < 0.001). The analgesic effect interacted with gender (P = 0.015). The LARGE protocol was more efficient for females, whereas the MEDIUM protocol was more efficient for males. Pressure pain was reduced by all protocols (P < 0.001) with no differences between protocols and no gender effect. Conditioned pain modulation was more efficient than the compression-induced analgesia. For the LARGE protocol, precompression CPM efficiency positively correlated with compression-induced analgesia. Large body area compression exerts an area-dependent analgesic effect on experimental pain stimuli. The observed correlation with pain inhibition in response to robust non-noxious sensory stimulation may suggest that compression therapy shares similar mechanisms with inhibitory pain modulation assessed through CPM.

  2. Cellular telephone-based wide-area radiation detection network

    DOEpatents

    Craig, William W.; Labov, Simon E.

    2009-06-09

    A network of radiation detection instruments, each having a small solid state radiation sensor module integrated into a cellular phone for providing radiation detection data and analysis directly to a user. The sensor module includes a solid-state crystal bonded to an ASIC readout providing a low cost, low power, light weight compact instrument to detect and measure radiation energies in the local ambient radiation field. In particular, the photon energy, time of event, and location of the detection instrument at the time of detection is recorded for real time transmission to a central data collection/analysis system. The collected data from the entire network of radiation detection instruments are combined by intelligent correlation/analysis algorithms which map the background radiation and detect, identify and track radiation anomalies in the region.

  3. Wide-area, real-time monitoring and visualization system

    DOEpatents

    Budhraja, Vikram S.; Dyer, James D.; Martinez Morales, Carlos A.

    2013-03-19

    A real-time performance monitoring system for monitoring an electric power grid. The electric power grid has a plurality of grid portions, each grid portion corresponding to one of a plurality of control areas. The real-time performance monitoring system includes a monitor computer for monitoring at least one of reliability metrics, generation metrics, transmission metrics, suppliers metrics, grid infrastructure security metrics, and markets metrics for the electric power grid. The data for metrics being monitored by the monitor computer are stored in a data base, and a visualization of the metrics is displayed on at least one display computer having a monitor. The at least one display computer in one said control area enables an operator to monitor the grid portion corresponding to a different said control area.

  4. Wide-area, real-time monitoring and visualization system

    DOEpatents

    Budhraja, Vikram S [Los Angeles, CA; Dyer, James D [La Mirada, CA; Martinez Morales, Carlos A [Upland, CA

    2011-11-15

    A real-time performance monitoring system for monitoring an electric power grid. The electric power grid has a plurality of grid portions, each grid portion corresponding to one of a plurality of control areas. The real-time performance monitoring system includes a monitor computer for monitoring at least one of reliability metrics, generation metrics, transmission metrics, suppliers metrics, grid infrastructure security metrics, and markets metrics for the electric power grid. The data for metrics being monitored by the monitor computer are stored in a data base, and a visualization of the metrics is displayed on at least one display computer having a monitor. The at least one display computer in one said control area enables an operator to monitor the grid portion corresponding to a different said control area.

  5. Wide Area Network Monitoring System for HEP Experiments at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoriev, M.

    2004-11-23

    Large, distributed High Energy Physics (HEP) collaborations, such as D0, CDF and US-CMS, depend on stable and robust network paths between major world research centres. The evolving emphasis on data and compute Grids increases the reliance on network performance. Fermilab's experimental groups and network support personnel identified a critical need for WAN monitoring to ensure the quality and efficient utilization of such network paths. This has led to the development of the Network Monitoring system we will present in this paper. The system evolved from the IEPM-BW project, started at SLAC three years ago. At Fermilab this system has developed into a fully functional infrastructure with bi-directional active network probes and path characterizations. It is based on the Iperf achievable throughput tool, Ping and Synack to test ICMP/TCP connectivity. It uses Pipechar and Traceroute to test, compare and report hop-by-hop network path characterization. It also measures real file transfer performance by BBFTP and GridFTP. The Monitoring system has an extensive web-interface and all the data is available through standalone SOAP web services or by a MonaLISA client. Also in this paper we will present a case study of network path asymmetry and abnormal performance between FNAL and SDSC, which was discovered and resolved by utilizing the Network Monitoring system.

  6. Wide area network monitoring system for HEP experiments at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoriev, Maxim; Cottrell, Les; Logg, Connie; /SLAC

    2004-12-01

    Large, distributed High Energy Physics (HEP) collaborations, such as D0, CDF and US-CMS, depend on stable and robust network paths between major world research centers. The evolving emphasis on data and compute Grids increases the reliance on network performance. Fermilab's experimental groups and network support personnel identified a critical need for WAN monitoring to ensure the quality and efficient utilization of such network paths. This has led to the development of the Network Monitoring system we will present in this paper. The system evolved from the IEPM-BW project, started at SLAC three years ago. At Fermilab this system has developed into a fully functional infrastructure with bi-directional active network probes and path characterizations. It is based on the Iperf achievable throughput tool, Ping and Synack to test ICMP/TCP connectivity. It uses Pipechar and Traceroute to test, compare and report hop-by-hop network path characterization. It also measures real file transfer performance by BBFTP and GridFTP. The Monitoring system has an extensive web-interface and all the data is available through standalone SOAP web services or by a MonaLISA client. Also in this paper we will present a case study of network path asymmetry and abnormal performance between FNAL and SDSC, which was discovered and resolved by utilizing the Network Monitoring system.

  7. Using Mosix for Wide-Area Compuational Resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maddox, Brian G.

    2004-01-01

    One of the problems with using traditional Beowulf-type distributed processing clusters is that they require an investment in dedicated computer resources. These resources are usually needed in addition to pre-existing ones such as desktop computers and file servers. Mosix is a series of modifications to the Linux kernel that creates a virtual computer, featuring automatic load balancing by migrating processes from heavily loaded nodes to less used ones. An extension of the Beowulf concept is to run a Mosixenabled Linux kernel on a large number of computer resources in an organization. This configuration would provide a very large amount of computational resources based on pre-existing equipment. The advantage of this method is that it provides much more processing power than a traditional Beowulf cluster without the added costs of dedicating resources.

  8. Nonpainful wide-area compression inhibits experimental pain

    PubMed Central

    Honigman, Liat; Bar-Bachar, Ofrit; Yarnitsky, David; Sprecher, Elliot; Granovsky, Yelena

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Compression therapy, a well-recognized treatment for lymphoedema and venous disorders, pressurizes limbs and generates massive non-noxious afferent sensory barrages. The aim of this study was to study whether such afferent activity has an analgesic effect when applied on the lower limbs, hypothesizing that larger compression areas will induce stronger analgesic effects, and whether this effect correlates with conditioned pain modulation (CPM). Thirty young healthy subjects received painful heat and pressure stimuli (47°C for 30 seconds, forearm; 300 kPa for 15 seconds, wrist) before and during 3 compression protocols of either SMALL (up to ankles), MEDIUM (up to knees), or LARGE (up to hips) compression areas. Conditioned pain modulation (heat pain conditioned by noxious cold water) was tested before and after each compression protocol. The LARGE protocol induced more analgesia for heat than the SMALL protocol (P < 0.001). The analgesic effect interacted with gender (P = 0.015). The LARGE protocol was more efficient for females, whereas the MEDIUM protocol was more efficient for males. Pressure pain was reduced by all protocols (P < 0.001) with no differences between protocols and no gender effect. Conditioned pain modulation was more efficient than the compression-induced analgesia. For the LARGE protocol, precompression CPM efficiency positively correlated with compression-induced analgesia. Large body area compression exerts an area-dependent analgesic effect on experimental pain stimuli. The observed correlation with pain inhibition in response to robust non-noxious sensory stimulation may suggest that compression therapy shares similar mechanisms with inhibitory pain modulation assessed through CPM. PMID:27152691

  9. [Operative guidelines for the shoe industry: health surveillance].

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Massimo; Vignola, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Medical surveillance of workers exposed to occupational risk factors means secondary prevention and entails medical activities which are related to the assessed risk. In particular, the chief risk factors evaluated in the footwear industry frequently imply medical surveillance of exposed workers. These risk factors include organic solvents and chemicals, leather dust, noise, repetitive movements and upper limb overload, vibrations, manual lifting action and video display terminal operation. We consider some operative standardized and validated protocols for medical surveillance of these industry employees.

  10. Automatic Mosaicking of 360 degree Panorama in Video Surveillance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    Automatic Mosaicking of 360° Panorama in Video Surveillance by Sean Ho and Philip David ARL-TR-4670 December 2008...Automatic Mosaicking of 360° Panorama in Video Surveillance Sean Ho and Philip David Computational and Information Sciences Directorate...2007 to September 2008 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Automatic Mosaicking of 360° Panorama in Video Surveillance 5c

  11. Postmarketing surveillance of adverse drug reactions: problems and solutions.

    PubMed Central

    Lortie, F M

    1986-01-01

    The surveillance of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) is an unqualified must. However, the optimal means of surveillance is still unclear. Although anecdotal reports are the backbone of an ADR surveillance system, they are not enough. The pharmaceutical industry, academics and regulatory agencies need to expand their efforts in monitoring ADRs. The author discusses the various techniques for counting and evaluating adverse reactions and suggests ways in which the system could be improved. PMID:3719483

  12. Environmental and ground-water surveillance at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Dirkes, R.L.; Luttrell, S.P.

    1995-06-01

    Environmental and ground-water surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding region is conducted to demonstrate compliance with environmental regulations, confirm adherence to DOE environmental protection policies, support DOE environmental management decisions, and provide information to the public. Environmental surveillance encompasses sampling and analyzing for potential radiological and nonradiological chemical contaminants on and off the Hanford Site. Emphasis is placed on surveillance of exposure pathways and chemical constituents that pose the greatest risk to human health and the environment.

  13. 2003 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Nevada Test Site. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  14. Using Environmental DNA for Invasive Species Surveillance and Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Mahon, Andrew R; Jerde, Christopher L

    2016-01-01

    The method employed for environmental DNA (eDNA) surveillance for detection and monitoring of rare species in aquatic systems has evolved dramatically since its first large-scale applications. Both active (targeted) and passive (total diversity) surveillance methods provide helpful information for management groups, but each has a suite of techniques that necessitate proper equipment training and use. The protocols described in this chapter represent some of the latest iterations in eDNA surveillance being applied in aquatic and marine systems.

  15. The Past, Present, and Future of Public Health Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Bernard C. K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the past, present, and future of public health surveillance—the ongoing systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of health data for the planning, implementation, and evaluation of public health action. Public health surveillance dates back to the first recorded epidemic in 3180 B.C. in Egypt. Hippocrates (460 B.C.–370 B.C.) coined the terms endemic and epidemic, John Graunt (1620–1674) introduced systematic data analysis, Samuel Pepys (1633–1703) started epidemic field investigation, William Farr (1807–1883) founded the modern concept of surveillance, John Snow (1813–1858) linked data to intervention, and Alexander Langmuir (1910–1993) gave the first comprehensive definition of surveillance. Current theories, principles, and practice of public health surveillance are summarized. A number of surveillance dichotomies, such as epidemiologic surveillance versus public health surveillance, are described. Some future scenarios are presented, while current activities that can affect the future are summarized: exploring new frontiers; enhancing computer technology; improving epidemic investigations; improving data collection, analysis, dissemination, and use; building on lessons from the past; building capacity; enhancing global surveillance. It is concluded that learning from the past, reflecting on the present, and planning for the future can further enhance public health surveillance. PMID:24278752

  16. Medical product safety surveillance: how many databases to use?

    PubMed

    Maro, Judith C; Brown, Jeffrey S; Kulldorff, Martin

    2013-09-01

    Large linked database networks, like the US Food and Drug Administration's Sentinel System, are being built for medical product surveillance. One use of these networks is for "near real-time" sequential database surveillance of prespecified medical product-adverse event pairs, which may result in a "safety signal" when a statistical excess risk is detected. Sequential database surveillance requires the investigator to manage surveillance in both information time (ie, how sample size accrues) and calendar time. Calendar time is important because people external to the surveillance population may be affected by the speed with which a safety signal is detected or ruled out. Optimal design and analysis aspects of sequential database surveillance are not well developed, but are gaining in importance as observational database networks grow. Using information time concepts, we show how to calculate sample sizes when performing sequential database surveillance, illustrating the relationships between statistical power, the time to detect a signal, and the maximum sample size for various true effect sizes. Then, using a vaccine example, we demonstrate a four-step planning process that allows investigators to translate information time into calendar time. Given the calendar time for surveillance, the process focuses on choosing observational database configurations consistent with the investigator's preferences for timeliness and statistical power. Although the planning process emphasizes sample size considerations, the influence of secondary database attributes such as delay times, measurement error, and cost are also discussed. Appropriate planning allows the most efficient use of public health dollars dedicated to medical product surveillance efforts.

  17. CDC Periodontal Disease Surveillance Project: background, objectives, and progress report.

    PubMed

    Eke, Paul I; Genco, Robert J

    2007-07-01

    This supplement contains papers presented at the 2006 International Association of Dental Research (IADR) symposium entitled "Development of Self-Reported Measures for Population-Based Surveillance of Periodontitis." These papers highlight activities of an independent periodontal disease surveillance workgroup convened by the Division of Oral Health (DOH), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in collaboration with the American Academy of Periodontology, to examine the feasibility of using self-reported measures for population-based surveillance of periodontal disease in the United States. This workgroup was convened in 2003 as part of a CDC periodontal disease surveillance project.

  18. Role of surveillance in prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Panda, Dipanjan

    2014-08-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is a common malignancy and one of the important public health problems in India. The surveillance of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an established approach to detect early cancers in patients with defined risks. However, there are still controversies and issues to be addressed regarding the optimal surveillance methods and interval. The current level of awareness among physicians in India about surveillance is low and the need and most cost effective surveillance strategy in developing country like ours is unclear. This article has tried to discuss these issues in their appropriate perspective. To address this complicated issue, a multicenter randomized prospective study however may be required.

  19. The dimensions of nursing surveillance: a concept analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Lesly; Vincent, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Aim This paper is a report of an analysis of the concept of nursing surveillance. Background Nursing surveillance, a primary function of acute care nurses, is critical to patient safety and outcomes. Although it has been associated with patient outcomes and organizational context of care, little knowledge has been generated about the conceptual and operational process of surveillance. Data sources A search using the CINAHL, Medline and PubMed databases was used to compile an international data set of 18 papers and 4 book chapters published from 1985 to 2009. Review methods Rodger’s evolutionary concept analysis techniques were used to analyse surveillance in a systems framework. This method focused the search to nursing surveillance (as opposed to other medical uses of the term) and used a theoretical framework to guide the analysis. Results The examination of the literature clarifies the multifaceted nature of nursing surveillance in the acute care setting. Surveillance involves purposeful and ongoing acquisition, interpretation and synthesis of patient data for clinical decision- making. Behavioural activities and multiple cognitive processes are used in surveillance in order for the nurse to make decisions for patient safety and health maintenance. A systems approach to the analysis also demonstrates how organizational characteristics and contextual factors influence the process in the acute care environment. Conclusion This conceptual analysis describes the nature of the surveillance process and clarifies the concept for effective communication and future use in health services research. PMID:21129007

  20. Existing public health surveillance systems for mental health in China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Xiao, Shuiyuan

    2015-01-01

    Mental health is a challenging public health issue worldwide and surveillance is crucial for it. However, mental health surveillance has not been developed until recently in certain developed countries; many other countries, especially developing countries, have poor or even no health information systems. This paper presents surveillance related to mental health in China, a developing country with a large population of patients with mental disorders. Detailed information of seven relevant surveillance systems is introduced respectively. From the perspective of utilization, problems including accessibility, comprehensiveness and data quality are discussed. Suggestions for future development are proposed.

  1. [Enhanced surveillance for US presidential visit to Japan].

    PubMed

    Ohkusa, Yasushi; Sugawara, Tamie; Masuda, Kazutaka; Nadaoka, Youko; Kamiya, Nobuyuki; Taniguchi, Kiyosu; Okabe, Nobuhiko

    2010-11-01

    US President Barack Obama's November 13-14, 2009 visit to Japan gave us an opportunity to enhanced routine syndrome surveillance upgrade countermeasure against bioterrorism attacks and other emergencies. We conducted analysis using suspected case surveillance based on the Infection Control Law, surveillance for ambulance transfer by the local Tokyo government, and prescription surveillance by the National Institute of Infectious Diseases. Thanks to regularly conducted prior surveillance, we enhanced the routine by closer monitoring and sharing information, conducting postvisit surveillance for two weeks until November 30. Information as of 07:00 from the Prescription Survey and a 17:00 ambulance transfer survey were submitted to and evaluated National Institute of Infectious Diseases and Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Public Health. The fact that we conducted enhanced surveillance easily without prior preparation indicates that we may be able to cut the cost and time of syndrome surveillance negotiation and preparation. Such enhanced surveillance is highly feasible and we expect to do so similarly cooporating flexibly with local and central governments.

  2. The impact of nursing surveillance on failure to rescue.

    PubMed

    Shever, Leah L

    2011-01-01

    Greater amounts of nursing surveillance is thought to decrease failure to rescue but studies to date have used nurse staffing levels as a proxy for nursing surveillance. The purpose of this nursing effectiveness study was to examine the unique treatment effect of nursing surveillance on failure to rescue. Data were abstracted from 9 electronic clinical data repositories including the nursing documentation system that used the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) to record nursing care. Nursing surveillance was quantified as "high use" when the subjects received it an average of 12 times per day or more. Propensity scores were used to match subjects who had received high-dose nursing surveillance with subjects who received low-dose nursing surveillance (average of less than 12 times a day). The results indicate that when nursing surveillance is performed an average of 12 times a day or greater, there is a significant (p = .0058) decrease in the odds of experiencing failure to rescue (odds ratio [OR] = 0.52) compared to when surveillance was delivered an average of less than 12 times a day. Additional unique variables included in this study are robust levels of nurse staffing based on hourly data, medical treatments, pharmaceutical treatments, and nursing treatments. The use of propensity scores helped determine the unique contribution of nursing surveillance on failure to rescue in this observational study.

  3. Rotavirus epidemiology: the Asian Rotavirus Surveillance Network.

    PubMed

    Nelson, E A S; Bresee, J S; Parashar, U D; Widdowson, M-A; Glass, R I

    2008-06-19

    Availability of new rotavirus vaccines has highlighted the need to collect local disease and economic burden data to aid decision makers at global, regional and country level. The World Health Organization and the GAVI Alliance recommended that generic protocols be used and that regional surveillance networks be established to collect these data, thereby helping to fast-track the introduction of these new vaccines into developing countries. Nine countries and regions participated in the first phase of the Asian Rotavirus Surveillance Network (ARSN), which collected data over a 2-year period during 2001-2003. Overall 45% of diarrhoea admissions in the region were positive for rotavirus, which was higher than had been anticipated. Significant rotavirus strain diversity was noted during the surveillance period. Data collection for a second phase of the ARSN commenced in 2004 and included a greater proportion of poorer countries that would in future be eligible for funding support for rotavirus immunization from GAVI. Limited economic evaluations in Asia have demonstrated the potential for new rotavirus vaccines to be cost-effective but more local analyses are required. Despite the ARSN's comprehensive data from a mix of developed and developing countries, Asia has lagged the Americas in terms of the introduction of rotavirus vaccines into National Immunization Programmes (NIPs). Lack on rotavirus vaccine efficacy data in Asia, particularly in poorer populations, will have contributed to this delay. Thus ensuring that all global regions are simultaneously involved in the evaluation of new vaccines from the beginning and also encouraging more regional collaborations of Ministry of Health representatives could help to accelerate the introduction of new vaccines into NIPs.

  4. Real-time holographic surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Collins, H.D.; McMakin, D.L.; Hall, T.E.; Gribble, R.P.

    1995-10-03

    A holographic surveillance system is disclosed including means for generating electromagnetic waves; means for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; means for receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; means for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and means for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The means for processing the electrical signals includes means for converting analog signals to digital signals followed by a computer means to apply a backward wave algorithm. 21 figs.

  5. Real-time holographic surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Collins, H. Dale; McMakin, Douglas L.; Hall, Thomas E.; Gribble, R. Parks

    1995-01-01

    A holographic surveillance system including means for generating electromagnetic waves; means for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; means for receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; means for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and means for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The means for processing the electrical signals includes means for converting analog signals to digital signals followed by a computer means to apply a backward wave algorithm.

  6. Real-time wideband holographic surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Sheen, D.M.; Collins, H.D.; Hall, T.E.; McMakin, D.L.; Gribble, R.P.; Severtsen, R.H.; Prince, J.M.; Reid, L.D.

    1996-09-17

    A wideband holographic surveillance system including a transceiver for generating a plurality of electromagnetic waves; antenna for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; the transceiver also receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; a computer for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and a display for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The computer has instructions to apply a three dimensional backward wave algorithm. 28 figs.

  7. Real-time wideband holographic surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Sheen, David M.; Collins, H. Dale; Hall, Thomas E.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Gribble, R. Parks; Severtsen, Ronald H.; Prince, James M.; Reid, Larry D.

    1996-01-01

    A wideband holographic surveillance system including a transceiver for generating a plurality of electromagnetic waves; antenna for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; the transceiver also receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; a computer for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and a display for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The computer has instructions to apply a three dimensional backward wave algorithm.

  8. Future trends in compact TV surveillance systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gaertner, K.; Heaysman, B.; Vodrazka, P.

    1985-01-01

    Up to now the IAEA's Safeguards Surveillance Program has been based upon 8 mm film camera systems. As this type of equipment availability is controlled by the needs of the amateur market, the Agency is forced to follow the changing world trend in replacing film with video. The eventual substitution of film with video systems should be influenced by two design approaches, namely integrated systems, resembling physically the present film cameras, and/or remote camera-control unit systems. This paper describes experiments being carried out on both types by some Member States as well as the Agency's activities in this field.

  9. Influenza surveillance in Singapore: 1972-86

    PubMed Central

    Doraisingham, S.; Goh, K. T.; Ling, A. E.; Yu, M.

    1988-01-01

    Prospective laboratory surveillance of influenza viruses has been carried out since 1973 in Singapore. The results indicate that antigenic shift variants caused epidemics at various times of the year over this period, whereas drift variants were associated with a regular increase in incidence during the second and fourth calendar quarters. Outbreaks due to influenza A virus occurred every year and to influenza B virus at intervals of 16-24 months. Between outbreaks, viruses belonging to either of the two types could be detected during most months, and certain variants appeared several months before the outbreaks they subsequently caused. The factors that contribute to the seasonal pattern are at present unknown. PMID:3260142

  10. Continuous Swarm Surveillance via Distributed Priority Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howden, David

    With recent and ongoing improvements to unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) endurance and availability, they are in a unique position to provide long term surveillance in risky environments. This paper presents a swarm intelligence algorithm for executing an exhaustive and persistent search of a non-trivial area of interest using a decentralized UAV swarm without long range communication. The algorithm allows for an environment containing arbitrary arrangements of no-fly zones, non-uniform levels of priority and dynamic priority changes in response to target acquisition or external commands. Performance is quantitatively analysed via comparative simulation with another leading algorithm of its class.

  11. Ontology for Vector Surveillance and Management

    PubMed Central

    LOZANO-FUENTES, SAUL; BANDYOPADHYAY, ARITRA; COWELL, LINDSAY G.; GOLDFAIN, ALBERT; EISEN, LARS

    2013-01-01

    Ontologies, which are made up by standardized and defined controlled vocabulary terms and their interrelationships, are comprehensive and readily searchable repositories for knowledge in a given domain. The Open Biomedical Ontologies (OBO) Foundry was initiated in 2001 with the aims of becoming an “umbrella” for life-science ontologies and promoting the use of ontology development best practices. A software application (OBO-Edit; *.obo file format) was developed to facilitate ontology development and editing. The OBO Foundry now comprises over 100 ontologies and candidate ontologies, including the NCBI organismal classification ontology (NCBITaxon), the Mosquito Insecticide Resistance Ontology (MIRO), the Infectious Disease Ontology (IDO), the IDOMAL malaria ontology, and ontologies for mosquito gross anatomy and tick gross anatomy. We previously developed a disease data management system for dengue and malaria control programs, which incorporated a set of information trees built upon ontological principles, including a “term tree” to promote the use of standardized terms. In the course of doing so, we realized that there were substantial gaps in existing ontologies with regards to concepts, processes, and, especially, physical entities (e.g., vector species, pathogen species, and vector surveillance and management equipment) in the domain of surveillance and management of vectors and vector-borne pathogens. We therefore produced an ontology for vector surveillance and management, focusing on arthropod vectors and vector-borne pathogens with relevance to humans or domestic animals, and with special emphasis on content to support operational activities through inclusion in databases, data management systems, or decision support systems. The Vector Surveillance and Management Ontology (VSMO) includes >2,200 unique terms, of which the vast majority (>80%) were newly generated during the development of this ontology. One core feature of the VSMO is the linkage

  12. Neural network based system for equipment surveillance

    DOEpatents

    Vilim, R.B.; Gross, K.C.; Wegerich, S.W.

    1998-04-28

    A method and system are disclosed for performing surveillance of transient signals of an industrial device to ascertain the operating state. The method and system involves the steps of reading into a memory training data, determining neural network weighting values until achieving target outputs close to the neural network output. If the target outputs are inadequate, wavelet parameters are determined to yield neural network outputs close to the desired set of target outputs and then providing signals characteristic of an industrial process and comparing the neural network output to the industrial process signals to evaluate the operating state of the industrial process. 33 figs.

  13. Neural network based system for equipment surveillance

    DOEpatents

    Vilim, Richard B.; Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W.

    1998-01-01

    A method and system for performing surveillance of transient signals of an industrial device to ascertain the operating state. The method and system involves the steps of reading into a memory training data, determining neural network weighting values until achieving target outputs close to the neural network output. If the target outputs are inadequate, wavelet parameters are determined to yield neural network outputs close to the desired set of target outputs and then providing signals characteristic of an industrial process and comparing the neural network output to the industrial process signals to evaluate the operating state of the industrial process.

  14. Ontology for vector surveillance and management.

    PubMed

    Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Bandyopadhyay, Aritra; Cowell, Lindsay G; Goldfain, Albert; Eisen, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Ontologies, which are made up by standardized and defined controlled vocabulary terms and their interrelationships, are comprehensive and readily searchable repositories for knowledge in a given domain. The Open Biomedical Ontologies (OBO) Foundry was initiated in 2001 with the aims of becoming an "umbrella" for life-science ontologies and promoting the use of ontology development best practices. A software application (OBO-Edit; *.obo file format) was developed to facilitate ontology development and editing. The OBO Foundry now comprises over 100 ontologies and candidate ontologies, including the NCBI organismal classification ontology (NCBITaxon), the Mosquito Insecticide Resistance Ontology (MIRO), the Infectious Disease Ontology (IDO), the IDOMAL malaria ontology, and ontologies for mosquito gross anatomy and tick gross anatomy. We previously developed a disease data management system for dengue and malaria control programs, which incorporated a set of information trees built upon ontological principles, including a "term tree" to promote the use of standardized terms. In the course of doing so, we realized that there were substantial gaps in existing ontologies with regards to concepts, processes, and, especially, physical entities (e.g., vector species, pathogen species, and vector surveillance and management equipment) in the domain of surveillance and management of vectors and vector-borne pathogens. We therefore produced an ontology for vector surveillance and management, focusing on arthropod vectors and vector-borne pathogens with relevance to humans or domestic animals, and with special emphasis on content to support operational activities through inclusion in databases, data management systems, or decision support systems. The Vector Surveillance and Management Ontology (VSMO) includes >2,200 unique terms, of which the vast majority (>80%) were newly generated during the development of this ontology. One core feature of the VSMO is the linkage, through

  15. The Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center: Global Emerging Infections Surveillance & Response System, FY 2010

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    with its expansive network of renown international researchers, continues to strive for surveillance products of benefit for force health protection...to DOD and US Army requirements and delivers life saving products including knowledge, technology, and medical materiel that sustain the combat...deployed veterinary personnel to screen for highly pathogenic avian influenza in animals by validating the National Veterinary Service Laboratory avian

  16. Underestimation of access flow by ultrasound dilution flow measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bos, Clemens; Smits, Johannes H. M.; Zijlstra, Jan J.; Blankestijn, Peter J.; Bakker, Chris J. G.; Viergever, Max A.

    2002-02-01

    For hemodialysis access surveillance, flow measurements are increasingly considered important because they identify accesses at risk of thrombosis. Usually these flow measurements are performed with the ultrasound dilution technique. In a previous patient study it was observed that the resulting flow values were systematically low as compared to magnetic resonance flow measurements, but a satisfactory explanation was lacking. In the present study, we will demonstrate by hemodynamic calculations and in vitro experiments that this discrepancy can be explained by a temporary reduction of the access flow rate, caused by the reversed needle configuration during ultrasound dilution flow measurements. In this configuration, blood is injected retrogressively at one needle and flow between the needles is increased, causing an increased dissipation of energy. The proposed explanation is subsequently confirmed in a patient with a loop graft, by measuring the blood velocity by Doppler ultrasound as a function of reversed dialyzer flow rate. Apart from the ultrasound dilution technique, these findings are applicable to other recently proposed methods for measuring access flow that employ the reversed needle configuration.

  17. Twitter Influenza Surveillance: Quantifying Seasonal Misdiagnosis Patterns and their Impact on Surveillance Estimates

    PubMed Central

    Mowery, Jared

    2016-01-01

    Background Influenza (flu) surveillance using Twitter data can potentially save lives and increase efficiency by providing governments and healthcare organizations with greater situational awareness. However, research is needed to determine the impact of Twitter users’ misdiagnoses on surveillance estimates. Objective This study establishes the importance of Twitter users’ misdiagnoses by showing that Twitter flu surveillance in the United States failed during the 2011-2012 flu season, estimates the extent of misdiagnoses, and tests several methods for reducing the adverse effects of misdiagnoses. Methods Metrics representing flu prevalence, seasonal misdiagnosis patterns, diagnosis uncertainty, flu symptoms, and noise were produced using Twitter data in conjunction with OpenSextant for geo-inferencing, and a maximum entropy classifier for identifying tweets related to illness. These metrics were tested for correlations with World Health Organization (WHO) positive specimen counts of flu from 2011 to 2014. Results Twitter flu surveillance erroneously indicated a typical flu season during 2011-2012, even though the flu season peaked three months late, and erroneously indicated plateaus of flu tweets before the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 flu seasons. Enhancements based on estimates of misdiagnoses removed the erroneous plateaus and increased the Pearson correlation coefficients by .04 and .23, but failed to correct the 2011-2012 flu season estimate. A rough estimate indicates that approximately 40% of flu tweets reflected misdiagnoses. Conclusions Further research into factors affecting Twitter users’ misdiagnoses, in conjunction with data from additional atypical flu seasons, is needed to enable Twitter flu surveillance systems to produce reliable estimates during atypical flu seasons. PMID:28210419

  18. Optical fiber Bragg gratings for tunnel surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nellen, Philipp M.; Frank, Andreas; Broennimann, Rolf; Sennhauser, Urs J.

    2000-06-01

    We report on application tests of novel sensor elements for long term surveillance of tunnels. The sensors are made of glass fiber reinforced polymers (GFRP) with embedded optical fiber Bragg gratings. The tests were made in a tunnel near Sargans in Switzerland and we will present strain and temperature data of more than one year of operation of the sensor elements. Two sensor types were tested. First, GFRP rockbolts with a diameter of 22 mm were produced. They have a load-bearing function as anchors for tunnel or mine roofs and in addition measure distributed strain fields and temperature with embedded optical fiber Bragg grating arrays. Rockbolts are key elements during construction and operation of tunnels. Data about strain inside the rockbolts can support decision about precautions to be taken and reveal information about the long term movement of the rock. Second, thin and flexible GFRP wires of 3 mm in diameter were found to be robust and versatile sensors not only for tunnel surveillance but for many civil engineering applications where they can be attached or embedded (e.g., in concrete). The fabrication of both sensor types and solutions for the connection of the embedded fiber sensors to a fiber cable will be presented. Moreover, laboratory and tunnel data of functionality and long term stability tests will be discussed and compared.

  19. Australian Gonococcal Surveillance Programme annual report, 2010.

    PubMed

    2011-09-01

    The Australian Gonococcal Surveillance Programme monitors antibiotic susceptibility testing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolated in all states and territories. In 2010 the in vitro susceptibility of 3,997 isolates of gonococci from public and private sector sources was determined by standardised methods. Varying antibiotic susceptibility patterns were again reported across jurisdictions and regions. Resistance to the penicillins nationally was 29% and, with the exception of the Northern Territory, ranged from 22% in Queensland to 42% in Victoria. Quinolone resistance, most at high minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) levels, was 35% nationally (excepting the Northern Territory), ranging from 28% in Queensland to 44% in Victoria. Decreased susceptibility to ceftriaxone (MIC 0.06 mg/L or more), was found nationally in 4.8% of isolates. There has not been an isolate of N. gonorrhoeae with an MIC value greater than 0.125 mg/L reported in Australia. Nationally, all isolates remained sensitive to spectinomycin. Azithromycin surveillance was performed in New South Wales, Queensland, Western Australia, the Northern Territory and South Australia, and resistance was found in low numbers of gonococci with MIC values up to 16 mg/L. In larger urban centres the ratio of male to female cases was high, and rectal and pharyngeal isolates were common in men. In other centres, and in rural Australia, the male to female ratio of cases was lower, and most isolates were from the genital tract.

  20. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule

    SciTech Connect

    LE Bisping

    1999-02-12

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5400.1, ''General Environmental protection Program,'' and DOE Order 5400.5, ''Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment.'' The sampling methods are described in the Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, DOE/RL-91-50, Rev.2, U.S. Department of Energy, Richland, Washington. This document contains the CY1999 schedules for the routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. Each section includes the sampling location, sample type, and analyses to be performed on the sample. In some cases, samples are scheduled on a rotating basis and may not be collected in 1999 in which case the anticipated year for collection is provided. In addition, a map is included for each media showing approximate sampling locations.